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Indian education newsletter Mar 1, 1971

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Indian Education Resources Center
'' '-•   ■■   rn ■ :.-,.,,,., University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, B. C.   j        ...;
********************************************************************************
Volume One, Number Three        ,..-.,., March, 1971
A*******************************************,************************************
A study Ojf the Boarding Home Program*, selection of an Indian Director
for the Center, and problems of Indian counsellors highlighted? the second
conference of the B. C. Native. Indian Teachers Association, (BCNITA) held.at the
Center, January 29 and 30.  Twenty-seven members of the Association, from all
parts of B. C.,, were in attendance.■ Special guests were Rod Soonias, Director
of the Task Force, in Indian Education in Saskatchewan, and his secretary, Joanne
MacLeod.': ..    ...:,.)       "'      '..'■■•■ .       r-"-U-.\ >;\~r-
-■ ' - The Boarding Home Study,' ordered by the first conference of 1^he""BtNITA
last September, took up most of the conference.deliberations. The study is an
attempt to uncover more accurate information about the problems Indian students
face on the program, and to look at successful.Boarding Hemes to find put why
they are successful.  This is the first time that such a study has been done
primarily by native Indians. All interviews will be done by members of BCNITA,
an all-Indian organization. Conclusions and recommendations will also be made
by BCNITA members. A more detailed description of the study appears in a
separate article in this issue.
A great deal of interest centered around"the selection procedures for
the new Director of the Center. When it was first set up, the Center committed
itself to having an Indian Executive Director by July 1, 1971.  The meeting
decided to hold an open competition for the job, the competition, will close
March 31, 1971. An advertisement for the position appears later in this issue. - 2 -
The qualifications that the members decided were most important were
personality, experience and dedication. Personality requirements emphasized
the willingness and ability to work with Indian people. Experience in order
of priority included experience in Indian education, teaching experience,
academic and professional training, and experience in other fields related to
Indian education.  In addition the successful applicant must have an intimate
knowledge of the problems of Indian Education., and must have a high degree of
dedication to the future of native Indians. By a close vote it was also decided to restrict applications to B. C. Indians.
Problems faced by Indian counsellors, often called Home-School Coordinators, were considered.  It was decided to request support frop Indian
Affairs for a meeting of the Eome--School~-Co-ordinators and Indian Counsellors
in B. C. to plan a training course for Home-School-Co-ordinators, to develop
an ideal job description and to plan a program for promoting better use of
Home-School-Co-ordinators.
Some of the problems faced by the Fome-School-Co-ordinators were lack
of training for the job, insufficient knowledge of the public school system and
the Education Branch of Indian Affairs, misunderstanding by School Boards and
teachers of duties of Home-School-Co-ordinators workload and lack of job
security. Delegates also emphasized the Indian Counsellors and Home-School
Co-ordinators were extremely effective despite the problems they face.
Special guest Rod Soonias, described the Education Task Force which
he is heading in Saskatchewan. Five areas of Indian Education are receiving
special attention in the study, drop-outs; education-related legal rights;;
educational values held by Saskatchewan's Indian peoples educational institutions analysis, and a cost-benefit analysis of programs.
Native Indian student-teachers are now eligible for full membership
in BCNITA. This is a result of a motion which also set aside a seat on the
Center Council specifically for a representative of the student teachers. The
motion was passed unanimously.
Five more members of the Center Council were elected at the meeting
to bring the total to fifteen. The Center Council is the governing body for
the Center.  Its members are' Alvin McKay, Greenville, Chairman; Richard Atleo,
Ahousat; Flora Baker, Alert Bay Harvey Brooks, ITanairao; George Clutesi, Port
Alberni; Flora Dawson, Kingcome Inlet F-ert McKay, Aiyansh Joe Michel, Kamloops'
Shirley Ned, Comox-, Gordon Robinson, Terrace Joan Ryan, Prince Rupert* Robert
Sterling, Herritt; Angle Todd, Fort St. James Lorna Williams, } fount Currie.;
and George Wilson, Prince George.
A more detailed summary of the proceedings is available upon request
from the Center. - 3 -
Rep_c r_t_of_ The Board_ing__Home JStudy_
Introduction .^, r
At the first meeting of the B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association in
September 1970, the following motion was passed:
"That a committee of members be appointed to look into the
boarding home problems throughout B. C. and to recommend immediate action.'
Since that time Resources Center Staff, particularly Janice Mathias
and Alvin McKay, and the committee members (Richard Atleo, Bert McKay, Bob
Sterling, Angie Todd) have been gathering background information to develop
more specific objectives and information-gathering procedures for the study.
During the Center Council meeting in October and the BCNITA meeting in January,
the background information was discussed. The following is an explanation of
the results of the preliminary work.
Objejc t iyes_
The main objective is to find ways of improving the Boarding Home
Program. This is the first time that a group of Native Indian Teachers have
taken a co-ordinated look at the program.  It is hoped that the fresh approach
they bring T<rill result in a number of new ideas. The intention is to look at
those who have chosen not to be on the program, as well students who have.
After four months of gathering information the following specific
research question have been formulated:
1. To whom is the Boarding Home program available? To whom would
Indian people like it to be available?
2. In situations where the Boarding program is only one alternative,
why was it selected? Who makes such decisions?
3. What are the problems encountered by Boarding students, by boarding parents and by natural parents?
4. Are there common characteristics to successful Boarding relationships? Can these successful characteristics be developed in other
Boarding homes?
5. What are the alternatives to the Boarding program as presently
constituted? What is the economic feasibility and educational
potential for such alternatives?
6. Are there ways in which the Indian parents could be more involved
in the Boarding program?
7. Row can the effectiveness of the role of the Boarding program
Counsellors be improved?
8. Are there ways in which the B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association can assist in carrying out and improving the Boarding program? - 4 -
Method_
The method for collecting information related to each of the above
questions is presented below:
I.-  To whom is the Boarding Home program available? To whom would Indian people
like it to be available"    ,f
The following information is necessary to answer this question:
a) Information related to reasons for acceptance into the program obtained
from the Snider report, from.more.recent Indian Affairs Branch files
and policy statements and interviews with students.
b) Demographic information indicating where boarding home students come
from and where they are placed.
2. In situations where the Boarding program is only ope alternative, why was
it selected, or not selected? Who makes such decisions?
The. following information is. necessary to answer this.question;
a) Demographic [information obtained for question 1 will identify those .....
students who come from areas near a secondary school.
b) Students so identified will be sampled and interviewed by BCNITA
members trained in interviewing techniques.
c) Also a sample of students from these areas who are attending the local
r.'i high school will be interviewed by BCNITA members.,.
3. What are, the problems encountered by Boarding students, by Boarding parents
and by natural parents? ,.,..,
The following inform;;': ion is necessary to answer thjLs question:
a) Information already gathered in the Snider report and other sources.
b) : Interviews with a sample of, Boarding program counsellors..
c) Interviews with a sample of Boarding program students,and Boarding
program drop-outs.
d) Interviews with a sample of. parents of Boarding students.
e) Interviews with a sample of, Boarding parents. ..
f) Reports of meetings,of,.BofRdi,ng parents and meetings of Indian
parents, where.BCNITA-.members have been invited to attend.
4. Are there common characteristics to successful Boarding relationships?
Can these -.-successful, characteristics be developed in other Boarding
. homes?
The following information is necessary to answer this question:
a) A definition of 'successful•;'. •...:..
b) Interviews with a sample of students and Boarding parents who have
a successful Boarding relationship.
- *'.-.!'':©--):.; Interviews with Boarding program Counsellors.
5. What are the alternatives to the Boarding program as presently constituted? What is the economic feasibility and educational potential for such
.alternatives?
The following information is necessary to answer this question:
a) Interviews and correspondence with Indian Affairs Department Personnel
in B. C. and other parts of Canada. -5 -
b) Interviews and,jCorrespondence.with Indian individuals affd organizations
' „    in E. C.,, Canada'and the .-United States.
6. Are there ways in which the Indian parents could be more involved in the
Boarding program?
It is anticipated that a number of ways of increasing involvement of
Indian parents will be/suggested by BCNITA members and through other interviews and correspondence. These suggestions will be discussed with
Indian people and Indian Affairs Department Personnel. Financial feasibility as well as educational benefits will be considered.
7. How can the effectiveness of the role of the Boarding, program Counsellors
be improved?
The following information is necessary to ansx^er this question:
a) Interviews with Boarding program Counsellors and <:fher department
personnel.
b) Interviews with a sample of Indian students, their parents and
Boarding parents.' ,.)■«.;'
c) Correspondence and interviews with individuals and organizations in
Canada and the United States. ••'',
8. Are there ways in which the B.C.. Native Indian Teachers Association can
assist in carrying out and improving the Boarding program?
This question will be discussed by members of the BCNITA at the
conferences and by correspondence. After all other information has
been collected, the Boarding Study Committee will prepare a list .of
recommendations to be considered by the membership.
**
mnmr*
INDIAN EDUCATION AT SKEENA JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, TERRACE, B.C.
'■' : .      '      " .''!  It."  '■'■=-I',-    : I
• ,,.:;■ :-rf! by D. Cunningham, Principal b/.i.ri'W
What has been referred to as a project in Indian Education is simply
a sincere interest on the part of the staff of Skeena School to look realisticaslly
at some of the problems facing Indian children in the Public School system;  \,-'fo
children who come from the remote isolated Indian villages of Iskut Lake, Telegraph
Creek, Port Simpson, Kincolith, Greenville- Canyon City, New Aiyansh, Kitxraricool^
Kitwanga, Kispiox,' Kitseguelka and Kitimat x»7here they had lived the 14 or 15
years of their life, usually without having travelled beyond their immediate
fishing or hunting grounds.- These children come from villages of perhaps 200 -f,
people where they had attended Indian Day schools to Terrace, approximately • ;. •, •
12,000 people, x-There they!are usually boarded in non-Indian homes. They attend. ,
Skeena Junior Secondary school, a regular public school of 850 pupils. Obviously
these children are faced immediately xd.th a multitude of adjustment problems,
only one of which if to find a place in the public school. - 6 -
The Indian School Boarding Program was started in Terrace in September',
1969. Previously, pupils from the above villages were sent mostly to schools in
the Lower Mainland of B. Cor to Edmonton. Kox^ever, after several years of
marginal success with the boarding program, the Department of Indian Affairs
through pressure form the Nishga people primarily, decided to board the students
closer to home.
The staff at Skeena School were informed in the Spring of 1969 that 50
Indian Boarding students would be attending the school in September' thus x^e had
an opportunity to gather information about the students, their villages and
people, with a view toward mutual understanding in the hope that the Indian
students xjould be core successful at Skeena School.
Through the Anglican priest in Greenville, I was invited to the village
for a weekend where I met Alvin McKay, a Nishga Indian and Principal of the
Lakalzap Indian Day School in Greenville.
Mr. McKay became a close friend and invaluable advisor to myself and
the staff at Skeena School. / teacher exchange for one week was arranged between
Ux.  HcKay and *''r. Dave Walker, a Skeena teacher and self-made archaeologist cum
anthropologist.  In the school most of Mr. McKay's time was spent with the
counsellors, individual students ~ Indian or White, and groups of Indians or
Indians and Whites either by himself or in a team with the school counsellors.
Also he spent considerable time discussing problems of Indian education with
staff members and made a presentation complete xtfith slides depicting the life
and culture of bis people. Outside of school hours his time xras spent in T. V.
interviews, meeting various leaders in the community, and attending their meetings,
To summarize this exchange. the real value xras in having a native Indian educator
and leader to provide information and background about the culture of his people.
Mr. McKay felt, as did we, that a firm foundation could be established
if a mutual understanding of the two cultures could be developed.  From the outset we xrere determined to allow the Indian student to retain his identity while
at the same time gain a meaningful education in our school.
Since this initial contact with the Indians we have attempted to keep
in constant touch xrith the Mass villages and have participated in many of their
activities.  Some of the activities, relating to the Indian students who attend
Skeena School that we have participated in since the fall of 1969 include:
Assisted the Terrace Community Recreation Director in preparing a brief to the
First Citizens Fund for financial support for a Youth Activitie worker to coordinate the work of the various community activities as they pertain to Indian
students' The Boy's counsellor spent one day in the Nass valley meeting teachers
and talking to Grade Seven students at the Indian Day Schools at New Aiyansh
and Greenville  The boy's F. E. Instructor and his wife, the P. E. Instructor
at the Senior school, spent a Friday. Saturday and Sunday in Greenville and
organized a full weekend of activities for all age groups in the community-  A
teacher exchange for one x;eek in the fall of 1970 was arranged betx^een the Skeena
boy's counsellor and the Native Indian Vice-Principal and counsellor of Hazelton
Amalgamated School, ?'r. Gordon Held:  The Skeena School Band visited Greenville
and Aiyansh and were billeted in Indian homes in the spring of 1970. As xrell-as
playing concerts band members were taken on board some of the Indian fishing boats
xvhere they x;ere given a demonstration of gillnetting and fishing, the Nishga
Indians' chief means of livelihood. - / -
'■"
Space does not permit details of out many other activities out the following list will indicate some of-^hem: attended a traditional Indian We'ding Feast
in New Aiyansh uniting in marriage a boy frctu theiV&lley of the Nass and a girl
r.,rr/I from the.,Valley of the Skeena jipoke to the Council of Indian Chiefs and a number
of busines^-and professional groups in' Tarrice- oil "Problems of Education facing
Indian Children1', participated in a meeting with ;he Terrace Boarding Parents " -.;■
..Oif Indian Students; attended the Annual Nishga Tribal Conference; went on an   >t
exciting cea lion hunting expedition with the Indians from Greenville to the
mouth of the Nass River; visited Fishory Vp.y  on tha Nas3 River, the temporary   ;
living quarters during the oolichan processing period ona witr.23sed ''Grease"
processing and, sun-drying of ollichans: visited fish canrxeriao air.ng the mouth
of the Skeena River during the summer: attended the In-Service vo"kohop on Indian
Art, and..Culture of the Northwest Coast held at K,J'shaa tillage, Hazeltoi.; and
.jet .u? local, Terrace Indian C ever, ;Ben Bolton in the Art rcom for --a month to  q
.:. ,j. ■ outline the fundamtitals of Indian Art through demonstrations of actual carving ;
in yellow c •" -.r and birch.
Future plans include; a trip to New Aiyansh ar.d Greenville in late
February to bring the school or film to tha communities: institution of a one
week mini-course "Exploring Indians of the- Past!'; oh which regular school classes
will be programmed to spend one'dny each at the site'of the-ancient Indian
village at Kitselas Canyon on'the Skaoiif: River approximately .12 milos east of
Terrace; institute an elective"co'j?:ce for Crr. a 9 of-lO en Northwest Coast
Indian Art for September, 1971; consider of f a::ing" ther'Nishgs Language as either
tho .language,T requirement of an elective course'; the-ilEidi~.u Dance Groxxp numbering
some 50 members have accepted" 'Uii  invitation :o perfotm thair traditional Indian
Interpretative Tribal Dance iri the • ,-hool dnring an'-'evaning; /ortaation of an
Ind:!an Senate to Xvork x*ith the Cke.ir.a Studer.tr, Council: holding an :'Indian Day"
in the late Spring with Indian students host lag noi- -India; ic at the school for
an afternoon: a trip to Haida Village en the Queen Charlotte Islando; invit;' lg
Grade 7.students.from the Nass Valley for an Orientation Day at Skeena School;
and making representation to tho Department of Indie: Affnirr foiva Hems-School
Co-ordinator for Terrace.
K'S recognize the Indian studerrls *-j an ethnic gro :u. culturally very
diifereu. from us, but certainly rot r.n  inferior, Second ra.i citizen;:.  Je
hava bee-., very fortunate in having thu co-cperutiieu frcd". tho. NassidValiey and
the other areas out Indian siiu^ehts come fs~>zn.     Tt is only through getting to
knov? Indian people and sharing in their life that'one can fully appreciate them.
Another real value is that when the Indian people'fravo the opportunity to understand out system and feel a sincerity in what we are attempting to do, then and
only, then can va ask them to co-operate and cui jort o-- efforts.
:',:.oS.r-
Whatever success we mo; have had at Skeena School is attributable: Xo*a
positive attitude about. Indians rather than .tiny projects that we have undertaken.
The Indian students at his school for the mo3t part arc proud of their rich
cultural heritage'.. Some bewil*2red, apparently "backward and shy, self-conscious"
students,..,o£te$i played truant to' r.      .pc and generally- •-r.ai*estted..:hr stile feelings
toward students and teachers! Many of' the&e 3ame studeiftf.s '*t*u^'abv. taking their
place in the^. school and making i major contribution to^ itJls~t"t]<»r ;-that these students
andj teac'.ersf^arje at the point^ where chky were at tha erlff^F'Cfaado•'•¥  in the Indian
villages approximately one year a£o, Vi c?.u continue th^ti^'Wucattion. Furthermore,
with the leadership of these ci:ild?:f.ii iu Grndor 9 & 10, the length of the adjustment pericd for the Grade eight pupilo coming in next fall should be considerably
shorter. We have made some pi   ss!
■
•::■'{>'. A*;'.****** -8-
TWO NEW CURRICULUM AIDS
The Helping Hand, How Indian Canadians Helped
Alexander MacKenzie Reach the Pacific Ocean
This is a 50 page booklet describing the help given to Alexander MacKenzie
in his trip to the West Coast by land.  It consists maily of quotes from MacKenzie's
Journal, illustrations, cartoons, maps and exercises which continually bring out
MacKenzie's complete dependence on Indians, and how this has been omitted or misinterpreted in most accounts of the journey. The following is ani example of the contents of the booklet.
"When MacKenzie's party reached the junction of the Finlay and Parsnip
Rivers(see Fig. 12), and i-prtant question to answer again was: Which way shall we
paddle? What choices did Mackenzie have to help him decide?  Should he take what
looked like the easier and more promising Finlay River to the north, or the less inviting Parsnip River to the south? The entry in MacKenzie's diary for May 31 provides
the answers to the questions.
May 31, 1793 the old man, whom I have already mentioned
as having been frequently on war expeditions in this country, had
warned me not, on any account, to follow it, (the Finlay River),
as it was soon lost in various branches among the mountains, and
that there was no great river than ran in any direction near it;
but by following the latter, he said, we should arrive at a carrying place to another large river, that did not exceed a day's
march, where the inhabitants build houses, and live upon islands.
There x^as so much apparent truth in the old man's narrative that
I determined to be governed by it; for I did not entertain the
least doubt, if I could get into the other river, that I should
reach the ocean.
Taking the advice of several Indians, MacKenzie paddled up-stream along
the Parsnip until he approached its head waters.1'
....The map in Fig. 16 represents the Fraser River which MacKenzie reached
after being guided overland by the Indians from the Parsnip River. Again, the
Indians described some of the difficulties which he would face in trying to paddle
downstream to its mouth. Fig. 17 is a cartoon suggesting the information given to
MacKenzie about the main stream of the river.  The map in Fig. 18, drawn in 1858, is
another kind of "description" of a part of the river shown in the cartoon.
MacKenzie's diary tells us something about his meeting with the Indians
along the Fraser River, and about the help they gave him in planning the next part
of his journeys
June 21, 1793.  (Meeting with the Carriers) According to
their account, this river, whose course is very extensive, runs
towards the mid-day sun; and that at its mouth, as they had been
informed, white people were building houses. They represented
its current to be uniformly strong, and that in three places it
was altogether impassable, from the falls and rapid, which poured
along between perpendicular rocks that were much higher, and more rugged than any we* had yet seen, and xrould not admit of any passage over them.  But besides the dangers and difficulties of tha
navigation, they added, that we should have to encounter the;inhabitants of the country, who x^ere very numerous.  They also re-1"'
presented their immediate neighbours as a very malignant race x*ho
lived in large subterraneous recesses:  and when they were made
to,, understand that it was our design to proceed to the sea, they
dissuaded us from prosecuting our intention	
It is useful in grades 4 through 12, although it is most suitable for
junior high Social Studies classes.  The booklet contains many illustrations,
ancj. is printed on various colours of paper to heighten interest and readability.
--■•""■:     Z^ ]ie2j*i.n£. M3!!^ ^s available at cost (50c per copy) from the Indian
Education Resources Center.
**********    . .'O':-.-'
****** -.'/j:,'
■**•'.,, * ; -1-
Lad_ian_Met^s_and_E^kijno Leaders_ iu_Contjemj)orary. C_anada_
This book of biographies has been prepared to illustrate for classroom
purposes, some of the x-rell-knox-m Indian, Eskimo and Metis people of Canada.
In the past, most available materials have dealt"with the past and this
book is an effort to remedy the situation and provide schools across Canada with
material on contemporary Canadian Indian, Eskimo and Metis pedple. Included
in the book are fifteen pictures of native people representing different Walks
of life with a biography of each.
Copies of the book are available at $3.25 from the Indian and Northern
Curriculum Resources Center, University of Saskatchexran, Saskatoon.
***********
*******
***
We_Reco_mmend_for_Juyenile_ Readers °
,(These annotations are from Book Reviews for Juvenile Readers developed
by Anthropology 301 students during Summer Session, 1968.  Copies of the reviews
are available, free, from the Center).
Carter, Anthony, Somewhere Betx^een, Vancouver, Agency Press, 1966.
Nonfiction-  Coast Salish.
An artistic blending of colour photographs and commentary focuses on
the life and history of the Tsla-a-wat, Squamish, Bilgula, Kynoc and Kitistu
people of the B. C. coast area. - 10
The book included legends such as the Squamish story of the great flood
and historical events such as the dramatic story of Queen Wi-Nish-Shi-Bawn.
Comments on contemporary life are included. Anthony Carter's full page coloured
photographs are excellent.  His collection includes coastal scenes, the fishing
industry, portraits and works of art. The text and photographs are printed on
large "glossy white pages'. The different sizes of.type copp limeht: the pictures.
, Highly recommended for readers 10 years and up.      ,
Harris, Christie, Raven's'Cry, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1966.
Non-fiction:  Haidvij history and biography, 193 pp.; illus. by Bill Ried,
,.,      maps, geneOlogical chart of Haida Eagle Chiefs.
Christie Harris's words and Bill Reid's illustrations compliments one
another to produce one of the finest books available on the Westcoast Indian.
The book is a fictional history of the first contacts between the Haida's and
the Europeans.  Young readers may easily identify with many characters in the
book.  By concentrating on the Haida Eagle Chiefs of the Stastas Shongalth
Lineage they have told the history of the llaida from the first contact with the
white man to the present day: from the great Chief Edinsa down through the years
to Bill Reid himself.  Together they are able to introduce to the contemporary
reader a people of immense dignity and pride who have faced destruction at the
hands of the strangers they welcomed, and who have left us their only heritage:
art, that is 'so refined and highly evolved that..." critics"...can't believe
it emerged from an Indian culture..."
Bill Reid is a descendent of the last great Haida chief and an international recognized artist in his ox-m right. Mrs. Harris, a well known Canadian
author, received a Canada Council grant to do the research for this book. Wilson
Duff, the Curator of Anthropology and "the Provincial Museum of Victoria says of
the book:  i:The historical details are as accurate as they could possibly be.
The same applies to anthropological details of costume, etc. and the motivations
of the characters...!!
Highly recommended for grades 5 and; up; for readers of all ages, probably should be required reading for all B. C. teacher.
**********
******
**
Baker, Betty, Little Runner of the Long House, New York, Harper, 1962.
Little Runner of the LonghOuse is an 'I can read book'1 'that grade, two's
would enjoy reading for themselves. The book is also suitable for the,t.eacher
to read to Kindergarten and grade one pupils.
The Story centers around the longhouses of the Iroquois,- which are
filled, with busy people preparing for the New Year celebrations. Little Runner
wanted, to be like the bidet boys who Wore masks and went with-. the basket woman
to ask each family to'put something'in the big basket.  If,they did not ge£
something for the basket, then they would take something.. .Little,Runner ..was more - 11
interested in getting lots of maple sugar than he was in the Iroquois ceremony.
He tried hard to trick his mother into giving him some candy, but she was •:
difficult to fool.
The book is printed in large type with carefully chosen words for the
beginning reader. The illustrations by Arnold Lobel are large and realistic
in colours of read, black and brown.
Harris, Christie, Once Upon a Totem, New York, Atheneum, 1966.
148 pp., illus. John Frazer Mills.
Christie Harris has retold, in most beautiful language five tales related to her by Indians of the northern northwest coast of British Columbia.
'Fly Again, My Proud Eagle' encompasses almost the whole culture of the
Tsimshian people in operation before the coming of the white man. For example,
it reveals the clan system, the matrilineal kinship, puberty rights, the position
of slaves, the importance of wealth and rank, the oolaken run on the Nass, the
carving of totems, the potlatch, the necessity to revenge, and above all, the
great courage expected of and accepted by the nobility.
During a bitterly cold x-zinter, the Eagle clan of Kitsum-galum are
attacked and murdered by the Bear clan. Only the young Eagle princess and her
grandfather escape. Although the princess hears the voice of her younger sister,
she dare not go back to aid her for she, herself, must live to mother young Eagles,
who will some day revenge the slaughter of her clan. More than twenty years
pass before four brave young princes, with their sister, sail to their mother's
homeland to force atonement for the murder of the Eagle clan.
Other legends in the book show the Indians' strong belief in supernatural beings, such as 'The Giant Ogre' and 'The Wild Woman of the Woods'.
Black and white woodcuts by John Frazer Mills add a touch of mystery,
Highly recommended for graded 4 to 9; since many of the names are difficult to
pronounce, perhaps the legends should be read to the younger children. Students
in grades 5 and 6 might enjoy reading "The Wild Woman of the Woods" in play
form.
*************
*********
*****
* ^faecticn
INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER .-.£;, ^
~      .Gompetition Open to Status and Non^-Status Indians       .    .-. -.,
■The Executive IJirector is responsible to the B. C. Native Indian Teachers,
Association.-rHis duties shall consist of: -
1. Supervising development and distribution of Indian Education resource. •
material. .%i.h\
2. Developing communication between the many groups involved in Indian Education.
3. Assuming responsibility for inservice program development related to Indian
Education.
4. 'Preparing annual budget.
5',     'Mtnorizing expenditures and financial arrangements encompassed within the
annual budget."   ''
6. Conducting public speaking engagements and making major policy statements
for the Resources Center. '
7. Co-ordinating research projects related to Indian education.    >..
The Executive Director should:
1. have intimate knowledge of the problems of Indian education
2. be an experienced teacher.
3. have adequate academic training,
4. possess leadership qualities.
5. have ability to work and co-operate with Indian people.
6. have experience in other areas related to Indian education such as working
with Indian organisations.
7. have an overall view of Indian education in Canada but particularly in
British Columbia.
8. be a resident of B. G.
Salary:  Negotiable, commensurate with ability.
Tenure:  Full-time.
Selection will-be made by the British Columbia Native Indian Teachers Association.
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