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UBC Publications

Indian education newsletter Dec 1, 1973

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Array VOLUME 4 #4
DEC. 1373
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Indian Education Resources   Center
Room   106   ■■   Brock  Hall,   U.B.C.
Vancouver.  8,   B.   C. LANGUAGE & THE INDIAN SCHOOL CHILD:   THE MESSAGE OF SILENCE
BY MS. MARJORIE MITCHELL
ADDRESS TO THE B.C. NATIVE INDIAN TEACHERS' ASSOCIATION
Fall Conference - October 25/73 - Alert Bay, B.C.
What I would like to talk about with you today is the subject
of Indian children and language, and Indian children and silence.  I
am concerned with this topic because, in connection with my work for
the British Columbia Indian Cultural Project at Camosun College, I
have been reading rather widely about Indian education, and I have
observed some interesting things about how non-Indian educators
write about Indian school children.
In the first place, I have noticed that the writers tend
to refer to Indian education as "a problem" or "a tragedy" and that
they write about Indian children in the same way, as "problems,"
"drop-outs," "failures," "slow-1earners," or, more politely, as
"children with learning difficulties." On the other hand, I cannot
recall an article entitled, "The Pleasures of Teaching Indian Children," or "How Indian Children Succeed," nor even "The Promise of
Indian Education."
Of course, I haven't taught too many native children. But,
I have had considerable informal contact with them, outside of the
schools, and that contact has been rather delightful.  I have found
them, generally, gregarious, inquisitive, and very open, from preschoolers to teenagers.  As well, I have taught native adults, and
that has been one of the most rewarding and stimulating experiences
of my life. Undoubtedly, I have learned from these adult native
students far more than I have taught them. Yet, they are supposed
to be the unteachables, the casualties of our education system, the
"drop-outs."
My second observation about the articles these educators
write is that once they have identified the problem, they propose
a theory to explain why the problem exists. The theories get
pretty involved and complex, but usually they go something like
this:  the Indian student is a problem because of his poor home
environment; the Indian student is a failure because he has no
culture; the Indian child is betwfl^r two rorl'V.' be is culturally
deprived, culturally deficient, or socially disorgani ed.
One of the newer theories is that the Indian chile' is
unable to learn hec--u3e he is ron-*orbnl be cencot coteunlcate.
The child has a liu'~u/r-e deficiencv, in part, hecause he hns no
cttiture, in part, because his oarents can't talk either. The Indian
chilr" goes to school, ~nd  each vear his .->.M!ity to com-iunicate "ets
worse until, by Grade £ or "', h» is so deficient in language skills
that he gives up and drops out.
- 1 -
...  j  ... - 3 -
Thus,Ve have the image, created by educators, of the Indian
child who is a problem, the silent Indian child who cannot communicate,
whose parents cannot communicate, whose culture is dead.
After educators have identified the problem and explained
it, they go on to propose solutions.  I don't intend to .liscuss the
solutions. YbU know, as well as I do, that none of them has ever
worked. But all of the solutions have one thing in conmun:  they
require that the Indian child must change. He is the problem, and
he must be remade in a new image. His behaviour patterns must be
altered so that he will no longer be a problem to his teachers, to
the education system, to the taxpayer, to Canadian society.  Whatever the solution, it involves creating a new and less troublesome
Indian.
For the remainder of my time with you, I intend ; o concentrate on the implications of this theory that the Indian child is
non-verbal and suffers from that terrible disease labelled j»y two ^
University of Victoria educators as "Cumulative Language Deficit,"
In other words, the Indian child isn't learning because something
is wrong with him. What is wrong is that he is poor in verb il
skills, he cannot communicate effectively, he is linguistically
deficient.  Educators know that the Indian child is lacking ii
linguistic competence because he doesn't talk.  And most teacl ers
and educators seem to be convinced that children are not learning
if they are not talking.  Even when the child does talk, his English
is so deficient that no one can understand him.
First, I would like to suggest that this theory is pure,
unadulterated horse manure, just like all the stuff that teachers-
turned-educators have been shovelling at you since they, arrived '.n
this province over a century ago.  And, you know, you can cover
horse manure with fancy frosting, with a complicated theory that no
one understands, but if you step in it, it's horse manure, just the
s ame.
Secondly, and more seriously, I think that theories like
this one about cumulative language deficiency in Indian children
are based on three false assumptions, three myths that non-Indians
have come to believe about Indian people.
The first myth is that Indian people didn't have a proper
language before the European arrived.  They communicated, supposedly,
only with a series of animal-like grunts or with blood-curdling war
cries.  You can read about this myth in our textbooks, in novels,
Mickleson, Norma & C. Galloway, "Cumulative Language Deficit
Among Indian Children." Exceptional Children, November,
1969, pp. 187-90.
... - 4 - ... - 4r~
and even in newspapers and magazines.  Still common are stories about
how a renegade Indian, terrorizes a missionary or a group of settlers
and, when he gets caught by a courageous group of Mounties, utters
only a snarl, or says "Ugh," or something else not quite human.
Similarly, I was at a meeting a few years ago and was
introduced to a group of elementary school teachers.  Someone
mentioned that I had written a dictionary of the Songhees Indian
language, and one of the teachers looked at me, somewhat defiantly,
and said, "That's impossible!  Indians didn't have any language until
Columbus discovered them." When I assvired her that native people
on this continent did indeed have over five hundred fully developed
languages, with complex grammars and rich, colourful vocabularies,
and that these languages evolved thousands of years before Columbus
blundered into North America, she replied, "Well, I don't believe
it.  Back home where I teach, the Indians never say anything.  They
can't even speak English properly!"
The second false assumption is that when Indian people use
English, it is sub-standard, poor English.  Teachers complain that
the native Indian child uses faulty grammar, that his pronunciation
is terrible, that he has an inferior, limited vocabulary.  Educators
then latch onto these complaints and argue, "This is proof that
there is something wrong with Indian people.  They are linguistically
deficient." The native child comes to be regarded as a failure
because he lacks competency in English.  Furthermore, his English
gets worse with every year he spends in school; his language deficit
is cumulative, or progressive.
With new proof, teachers and educators can now blame the
child for being a failure every time he opens his mouth.  And,
every time he does open his mouth, the teacher either shows disapproval in her face, or she corrects him openly.  He is pronouncing that word wrong; his grammar is poor; he is unable to express
himself because of this contagious spread of verbal inadequacy.
Of course, I am aware, as you are, that there are many
teachers who are truly concerned about the Indian child's progress,
or lack of it, and that some of these teachers have done a great
deal to encourage native students.  But these teachers have been
trained, in our universities, by faculties of education that perpetuate myths about Indian people.  The teachers are taught by
educators, and they learn to approach "the problem of the Indian
child" with a set of expectations built upon inadequate or downright mistaken ideas about Indian people, Indian cultures, and
Indian languages.
The educators who teach teachers argue that because
his English is inadequate, the Indian child cannot read:  he cannot communicate effectively in oral or written form; he cannot - 5 -
learn anything that the teacher considers important to learn.  He .
doesn't speak the teacher's language or the King's English, or
any language, for that matter.  Just listen to the child and you
will hear all his faults, all his failures. Listen for proof of
his inadequacies so that you can point them out to him, tell him
what is wrong with him, correct him, uplift him, improve him,
raise him to your level.  Encourage the child to speak, insist that
he speak, and when he does, tell him his English is inferior. That
is how to teach the Indian child.
There is something puzzling going on here,  if that same
native child were French, or Hungarian, or even Scottish or British,
in background, rather than Indian, his so-called mistakes in speech
would be regarded as part of his delightful French or Hungarian
accent, or his Scottish brogue.  When his pronunciation or grammar
differed from standard English, the teacher would say, "Isn't that
interesting, isn't that charming? He is bilingual."
We worry a great deal about bilingualism in this country.
Canadians have spent millions of dollars studying French-English
bilingualism, but they don't even consider the possibility of
bilingualism for native peoples.  Everyone else may be bilingual;
Indian people are linguistically deficient.  What I am suggesting
is that the native Indian child and his uncommunicative parents
are, indeed, bilingual, even multilingual, that the English they
use is not substandard or deficient but is, rather, a separate,
honest-to-goodness dialect of English.  It isn't poor English —
it is different English — it is Indian English.
I am suggesting, further, that if this Indian dialect
of English were to be studied by some of the linguists and anthropologists perpetually found hanging around Indian reserves, it
would turn out to have its own pronunciation, its own grammar,
its own meaning system, its own internal logic.  Indian English
might then be seen as an equal to any other dialect of English,
as a dialect that developed out of the blend of the native
language background and the imposition of English, a blend
brought about by a century or more of contact and conflict between two cultures in which one dominated, exploited, and isolated
the other.  Indian English might come to be regarded as evidence,
not of the destruction or disintegration, but of the vigour of
modern Indian cultures that have adapted to the intrusive colonial
culture.  If English as it is spoken by Indian people were to be
considered as a full-fledged dialect, then it ought also to be
considered as an acceptable alternative to the King's English,
to the teacher's English, or to any other dialect of English.
If non-Indian teachers were compelled to learn the sound system,
grammar, and vocabulary of Indian English before they ventured into
a classroom with Indian children, they might begin to understand
and accept it, instead of dismissing it as wron^ everytime the
child opened his mouth. - 6 -
Then, when the Indian child used this Indian English, the
teacher could listen, really listen, to what the student was^saying,
and encourage him to go on saying it, or writing it.  Then, the
teacher's dialect of Eivglish__could be presented as, simply, an
alternative dialect thafc_the, Indian child might want to use in
certain situations.
The third false idea is that although Indian people may
have had languages before the European arrived, they were traditionally a non-verbal, silent people, and today, they are still
non-verbal, still silent.  One educator, for instance, says that
people who have had considerable contact with Indian homes have
found that Indian people do not verbalize.   The picture he paints
is one of the Indian family existing in stony silence, from the
birth of the youngest member to the death of the oldest.
One wonders who these people are who have had so much
contact will all these silent Indian families.  Did these people
arrive at the door, unannounced, and uninvited, and say, "We're
here to measure your verbal skills, so start talking.'"? It would
seem to me that there is nothing more likely to dampen conversation
than to have someone say, "Verbalize!" or "Talk!"
Like all myths, this one does have an element of truth
in it.  Indian people have mentioned to me that in the old days,
before the white man came, there were two languages — the language
of words and the language of silence.  Indian people knew about
verbal and non-verbal communication long before the university
educators wrote about it.
There was a time for talking — for having fun with
language, for plays on words and for puns, riddles, and jokes, for
storytelling, and for sharing experiences and ideas in that kind
of easy, everyday conversation that exists everywhere among family
and good friends.  Words were used, too, for political and
ceremonial occasions — for decision-making, for planning group
activities, and for potlatching.  Here on the Northwest Coast,
the use of language was raised to a fine art.  In nearly every
village, there were outstanding, well-known orators who were
hired by the chiefs to make speeches, to invite the chiefs of
other tribes to potlatches, to welcome the guests, and to narrate
the distribution of gifts.  These speakers could recount the
histories of individual families for generations into the past,
thereby demonstrating the rights of a chief and his descendants to
inherit and display ceremonial names, crests, masks, songs, dances
and other prerogatives.
2.
Tinney, R.E., "The Education of Indian Pupils — Special Needs.
Alberni School District (1964).
... - 7 - ... - 7 -
The times for silence were also part of Indian culture.
Indian people knew how to communicate without words, when words
were unnecessary or even dangerous. Non-verbal communication
was, simply, another kind of language that people who hunt and
fish learn to use very effectively.  Silence, too, was part of
Indian religion — the young man or woman who sought a mystical
experience sought it alone and in silence.
According to the old people, then, there was this balance,
in aboriginal times:  a kind of linguistic harmony that blended
communication with the original peoples' view of the social world,
the natural world, and the supernatural world — Man and Nature,
Speech and Silence.
And, I suspect that this balance exists today.  Indian
people talk in certain situations and are silent in others.
Indian children can talk your ear off if they think you are interested in them. Old people, too, enjoy talking about the past
— they enjoy it, and they do it well and easily, both in their
native tongue and in Indian English.  In addition, there are
still many prominent Indian speakers for funerals, potlatches,
and so forth, who can use, with equal power, their own Indian
language, Indian English, or the King's English.  Indian leaders
are emerging who use the medium of television, as well as public
appearances, to speak skillfully and eloquently on the issues
facing Indian people today.  Finally, yesterday, I listened
as you nailed to a cross with your words, a man from the Department ot Indian Affairs who said he didn't want to play god.  I
don't think he came off as a saviour.  Your challenging questions
were effective, straight forward, and clear, but they went unanswered.  He used many words, but he didn't say very much.  If
verbal competence were defined as the ability to convey information, who should have been labelled as incompetent in that exchange?
In summary, Indian people do talk — about things that
are meaningful to them, in situations that require words.  In
other situations, however, the native person may be silent. His
silence may be a sign that he is listening, it may reflect thought-
fulness, or it may be a way of saying "no," of defying those who
try to dominate him.  The Indian child may learn to use silence
as a weapon, as a way of protecting himself from the teacher. She
tries to reach him, verbally or non-verbally, and he retreats
inside himself where she cannot touch him.  But he certainly
reaches her — his non-verbal, silent message comes across to her
very clearly. His silence is unmistakeable, and to protect herself from his unspoken repudiation, she asks, "What is the matter
with that child?" rather than "What is the matter with me?" She
uses the child's silence as evidence of his failure, not hers.
... -8— ... - 8 -
Even if the native child does manage to speak, the teacher
won't be satisfied, because the student won't be speaking loudly
enough.  The teacher is convincedt   as many teachers and educators
seem to be, that if the child isn't talking at the top of his lungs,
he isn't learning, and he isn't communicating.
The Indian school child has been tested, examined, inter-*
viewed, and evaluated over and over again, to find out why he cannot
learn. There are probably hundreds of theories written up by educators trying to explain what, precisely, is the matter with the
Indian child and with his Indian parents. We have theories that
labelled him as spiritually deficient in the 1800's, mentally deficient by the 1920's, physically deficient in the 1930's, nutritionally deficient in the 1940's, culturally and socially deficient
in the 1960's. Moreover, these deficiencies, according to the
educators, the specialists, are cumulative—he is getting progressively more deficient all the time.
What amazes me is that the Indian child still exists
at all.  If we believe all these theories about him, he ought to
have faded away into nothing by now.  But instead, he grows up to
be deficient in just one more way — economically deficient.  Yet
as I look at you, the so-called deficient Indian.children of
yesterday, and as I listen to you, I wonder where the real
deficiency lies — with the Indian or with the non-Indian. Who
really is uneducated? Who really has failed? Who really Is
communicating?
It seems to me that all this talk about cumulative
deficiency is wishful thinking on the part of non-Indian educators. Non-Indian school teachers, in spite of all the theories,
have been unable to teach the Indian child what educators say
he ought to learn.  So, they explain their inability, their
failures, as being due to his deficiencies, his inadequacies.
The educators label him as deficient, in the hopes, unconscious
though those hopes may be, that he will disappear, that his
deficits will eventually bankrupt him, and that he will cease
to exist as a cultural, social, linguistic entity — as an
Indian individual.
And yet, notwithstanding all those deficiencies, you
have survived — physically, culturally, and linguistically.
You were much stronger that the white man thought you would be.
You have survived his diseases, endured his discrimination,
persisted under his laws.  You are now building a new, modern
Indian culture on the strength of your old heritage, you are
re-examining your traditional beliefs and ideas, reviving your
old languages, and using your own dialect of English very
effectively.  You have rejected assimilation, integration, and
education, in order to stay alive as Indian people.
... - 9 - ... 9 -
In closing, I would like to make one further comment.  If
and when you do take over control of your own educational destinies,
however that may be accomplished, you can begin to demand that non-
native teachers and principals and educators listen to you, really
listen. You can insist that teachers learn to understand at least
your dialect of English, perhaps even your native language. You
can insist that the teacher's dialect of English be taught as a
second language, as an alternative rather than a standard. But,
more than that, you can begin the real job that is ahead of you.
For it is not non-Indians who should be teaching Indians, but the
other way around.  It isn't native children who have learning
difficulties, who lack communication skills, Native children have
learned the real lessons in the educations system very well. They
have learned how to survive, by saying "no", without uttering a
sound.
On the contrary, the real faak of education lies in
educating the non-Indian. You see, the real reason that non-Indians
keep insisting that you are the failures, that you are the problem,
that you are uneducated and deficient, is because most of them
are afraid to stop telling you what is the matter with you.  They
are afraid to stop talking, for if they did, they might discover
that Indian people have something important to teach them.  They
might hear what the silent Indian child is trying to say.
Therefore, if you are to get on with the task of reversing the direction of education, non-Indians must physically,
actually, stop talking.  They must stop talking and just listen,
really listen, so that, at last, they can hear what it is you have
been trying to tell them for over a century. And the message you
have for non-Indians is, once and for all, the truth:  the truth
about them as teachers, as educators, as government officials,
as Canadian people; the truth about me, as a non-Indian Canadian;
the truth about the larger Canadian society.
Thank you for letting a non-native person speak with
you.
************ ************
*8*        *        ***
***************************
** * * **       "
*** * * ***
**   * *   **
******* *******
... - 11 - ... -  10 -
Dear Bob:
I thought you might want to include the fallowing in tkt
next Newsletter.
Gerry Williams is a third year English major at the
University ol Victoria.    He is  Irom the Spallumcheen Band in
Endenby.    Chiel Rosalind Leon ol tiie Spallumcheen Band asked
Gerry to give his impressions ol university Ufa far the benefat
ol the Indian students who attend the Study Group at Endenby.
Here is a copy ol the letter he wrote them:
- Janet P. Boston [Ms.)
************************
*** ***
* *
To the Study Group:
To begin with,  I won't pretend to know all there is
about university Ufa.    It certainly isn't all a holiday.    It's
hand fan me.    In high school I rarely did more than an hour or
two ol work a day outside the classroom.    In university the
hardest tiling I faced was the fact that education had ceased to
be a game.    University is not fax everyone; those who entex do
so because they xeally want to educate themselves beyond the
high school level.
The student at university must spend at least two hours
doing extra reading and research far every hour he spends in
class listening to the pro less or.    The farst year I wasn't prepared to study so much and I almost lolled.    Last year I managed
to get average grades.    This year I've fanally settled down and
have managed to get very high grades up to this point.    It was
a slow process and there was nothing easy about it.
All. tiiis leads up to my main point.    The most important
tiling you can do is to ask yoursell honestly; "Will I benefat.
faom university and do I really want to go?"
University proved to be the best move I ever made but
tliat doesn't mean that it will prove to be so far you.    That is
up to each ol you as individuals.    But this  I will say; it is
imperative that everyone get a grade twelve education.    I don't
say this because everyone else says it.    I hate to stress an old
cliche but it's the truth just faom personal experience; many ol
... -  12 - ... - 11 -
my falends on the reserve lolled to pass grade twelve and now have
jobs that axe low both in wages and in fature prospects.    I'm not
trying to say that mental labor is degrading; what I'm trying to
say is that fax most ol my Intends it wasn't even a molten ol choice;
tixey had to accept the jobs because they simply were not qualllied
■to do anything else.    It would be dilfanent il they wene qualllied
and chose to accept the jobs they had now.    I've worked in hay
faelds many times, stacking hay, but it was because I wanted to;
with my yeans ol education I could have accepted many less demanding jobs.    Without a grade twelve education it's getting handen
to fand a job you like, that's all thene is to it.
University U.fa isn't all studying.    One ol the main
advantages to it is the fact that you make more Irlends.    You
start, out knowing no one and you end up knowing many people.    It's
the other side ol the fance you see, a world totally removed
faom the reserve and even in some ways removed faom the middle
class city atmosphere.    Getting to know people at a university
may be just as important as learning where tlieix heads are at
regarding education.    To end,  I hope I wasn't too wordy or hard
to understand,  I certainly wasn't trying to sound educated
because I don't have all the answers.    II ever you axe in
Victoria, please come to MacLaurin 550  [on the faith faoor ol
MacLaurin) at the university and meet some Indians who are at
the Univexsity to talk with [there are 22 Indiaiis on the campus).
Sincerely,
Gexxy Williams, Third Year -
English Student.
***
*u*
*$*
*******£******«
BILL & ELSIE MORE BURSARY:  ONE bursary of approximately $350.00
will be awarded annually to an Indian student (status or non-status)
continuing beyond high school on an academic or vocational course.
The award is made possible by a fund established by the family and
friends of Reverend Bill More and his wife Elsie, as a tribute to
their memory.  Preference will be given to those intending to use
their training to serve the Indian people of British Columbia.
Financial administration is handled by the Vancouver Foundation.
Selection will be made by the British Columbia Native Indian
Teachers' Association. -  10 -
Dear Bob:
I thought you might want to include the fallowing in tkt
next News tetter.
GeJixy Williams is a third year English major at the
University ol Victoria.    He is  Irom the Spallumcheen Band in
Endenby.    Chiel Rosalind Leon ol tiie Spallumcheen Band asked
Genry to give his impressions ol university Ufa far the benefat
ol the Indian students who attend the Study Group at Endenby.
Hene is a copy ol the letter he wrote them:
- Janet P. Boston [Ms.)
************************
* *
***                                          ***
* *
To the Study Group:
To begin with, I won't pretend to know all there is
about university Ufa.    It certainty isn't all a holiday.    It's
hard far me.    In high school I rarely did more than an hour or
two ol work a day outside the classroom.    In university the
hardest tiling I faced was tiie fact that education had ceased to
be a game.    University .is not far everyone; those who enter do
so because they really want to educate themselves beyond the
high school level.
The student at university must spend at least two hours
doing extra reading and research far every hour he spends in
class listening to the pro lessor.    The faxst year I wasn't prepared to study so much and I almost lolled.    Last year I managed
to get average grades.    This year I've fanalty settled down and
have managed to get very high grades up to this point.    It was
a slow process and there was nothing easy about it.
All tiiis leads up to my main point.    The most important
thing you can do is to ask yoursell honestly; "Will I benefat.
faom university and do I really want to go?"
University proved to be the best move I ever rna.de but
that doesn't mean that it will prove to be so far you.    That is
up to each ol you as individuals.    But this I will say; it is
imperative that everyone get a grade twelve education.    I don't
say this because everyone else sojys it.    I hate to stress an old
cliche but it's the truth just faom personal experience; many ol
...  -  72 -  ... -li
my Intends on the nesenve lolled to pass grade twelve and now have
jobs that axe low both in wages and in lutuxe prospects.    I'm not
trying to say that mental labor is degrading; what I'm trying to
say is that far most ol my Iriends it wasn't even a matter ol choice;
they had to accept the jobs because they simply were not qualifaed
to do anything else.    It would be dllfaxent il they were qualllied
and chose to accept the jobs they had now.    I've worked in hay
lields many times, stacking hay, but it was because I wanted to;
with my years ol education I could have accepted many less demanding jobs.    Without a grade twelve education it's getting harder
to fand a job you like, that's all there is to it.
University Ufa isn't all studying.    One ol the main
advantages to it is the fact that you make more Iriends.    You
start out knowing no one and you end up knowing many people.    It's
the other side ol the lence you see, a world totally removed
faom the reserve and even in some ways removed Irom the middle
class city atmosphere.    Getting to know people at a university
may be just as important as learning where their heads axe at
regarding education.    To end,  I hope I wasn't too wordy or hard
to understand, I certainly wasn't trying to sound educated
because I don't have all the answers.    II ever you axe in
Victoria, please come to MacLaurin 550  [on the faith faoor ol
MacLaurin) at the university and meet some Indians who axe at
the University to talk with [there are 22 Indians on the campus).
Sincerely,
Genxy Williams, Third Year -
English Student.
***
*w*
*$*
*******&*******
*******&*******
BILL & ELSIE MORE BURSARY: ONE bursary of approximately $350.00
will be awarded annually to an Indian student (status or non-status)
continuing beyond high school on an academic or vocational course.
The award is made possible by a fund established by the family and
friends of Reverend Bill More and his wife Elsie, as a tribute to
their memory.  Preference will be given to those intending to use
their training to serve the Indian people of British Columbia.
Financial administration is handled by the Vancouver Foundation.
Selection will be made by the British Columbia Native Indian
Teachers' Association.
- 13 - ... - 12 -
The Award-wilJL-hfi-made on  the basis  of educational potential,
activaOUxi«>lJZ£menjt--in promoting the  cause of. Indian people,.leadership  potential,  and. financial need.
Applications in writing must be mailed to the Indian Education
Resources Center, Room 106 - Brock Hall, University--of British
Columbia, Vancouver 8, B. C. by, January 30, 1974.
****     *    ****
*    *   *
**********************
************
*******
NATIVE     YOUTH     PROGRAM
The Secretary of State is sponsoring a program to enable native
youth to undertake their own leadership development through
participation in conferences, seminars, and workshops.  This
money could possibly be utilized by school groups and for cultural
activities.  $45,000, of which little has already been spent, is
available for British Columbia through March, 1974.
GRANTS CRITERIA
Grants for native youth projects and activities are made on the
basis of the following criteria:
1. Participation in the projects must be open
to youth of native ancestry within the area
or region served by the project or activity
whether they are status Indian, non-status
Indian, Metis or Eskimo;
2. Assurance must be given that the project
planning involved both the status and nonstatus groups;
3. The funds are for projects and activities,
and not for the purpose of the establishment of permanent offices and staff etc...;
4. The Department is to be supplied with a
report on the project or activity; for
which funds have been provided.
Anyone with a specific project in mind should contact:
Ms. Lynn Foster, Secretary of State
1525 West 8th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C.
Phone:  732-4111
*************
***** _ 1A _
*****************        ••*   iH  • • • Unce agam Haven, wis »   -    t   j    u        g  m
•Agger, '"f A me g.ut "" They ail turned
"their heaJs ts> him  Raver;- oevJ
down ano tvhisggfed.
"lou ecuA come :.a1
AH began to crawl, out
oi tke ciam AieA Ac
each human being crav-ied
out they ail stood up one
hy eee. Sooo every A.ieeen
being stood he-side the clam she-: I
'T>.-,gfs
>.**'*'
OF All
l^:V^^ '. &+;s&v ~;yr~ r
I <.■•.:'. i.-U.
;T ?,J;C^  25
:;gO*;e?   "gi c? -  14 -
NEW;BOOKS     I fj     THE     CENTER
RATING SCALE:    *****  EXCELLENT, WOULD BF A GOOD ADDITION TO A
SCHOOL OR BAND LIBRARY.
****  VERY GOOD
***   OKAY
**    SO-SO
*     POOR.
- Dr. David Wyatt - L.R.
****RED HAWK'S ACCOUNT OF CUSTER'S LAST BATTLE.  Paul and Dorothy
Goble. 1969  59 pages. MacMillan Cp., $3.95 (Late
primary & secondary).
In this book the Goble's present the battle of little
bighorn through the eyes of a 15 year old Oglala Sioux bOy, Red
Hawk.  Although Red Hawk was not a real person, his story is
based on accounts of real Indian participants in the battle, and
tells the Indian story of what happened there.  The story is illustrated by the Gobies in color pictures of a style something like
Plains Indian Art of the 19th century, and they also provide
comments on Custer's plans and the course of the Battle.
****A BOY OF TACHF,'. Ann Blades.  1973 22 pages Tundra Books,
$5.95  (Primary) Tache' is a reserve of the Carrier
Indian Stuart-Trembleur Lake Band. Ann Blades taught
there in 1969.
A BOY OF TACHE' tells of Charlie's beaver hunting
trip with his grandparents Za and Virginia.  They ?o  inland into
the birch forests to their cabin, then camp out. Za gets sick,
Virginia cares for him, and Charlie must make the trip back for
help alone.  The story is simply told and simply illustrated with
Ann Blades's watercolors.  It just tells about what one family
on one reserve does today.  But in doing so it fulfills a need
felt by parents and children who are curious about how Indians
live today. More books like this showing undramatically what
life is like on different B.C. reserves (and in the city) are
definitely needed.
*****TQ LIVE ON THIS EARTH:  AMERICAN INDIAN EDUCATION.  Estelle
Fuchs and Robert S. Havighurst.  1973  390 pages.
Doubleday & Co., $4.35.
TO LIVE ON THIS EARTH is a summary of the data from
the U.S. government's National Study of American Indian Education. The study was begun because "a tremendous growth in
Indian school attendance since World War II, an increase in the
... —16 — ... - 16 -
numbers of Indian children attending public school rather than...
Indian Affairs Schools, and the growing interest in minority
groups generally during the 1960's had turned attention to the
need for a national review of the issues." These same things
have happened in Canada, and as a review of American Indian
Education as it is today and for comparison with the Canadian
situation this book is very valuable.
Chapters include "communities where Indians live, and
attend schools," "mental ability and mental development of
Indian children," "school achievement of Indian children and
youth," "schools and schooling as seen by Indian youth and
their parents," "the school curriculum," and "toward new approaches.
****TEACHER'S TALK:  VIEWS FROM INSIDE CITY SCHOOLS.  Estelle
Fuchs.  1969  216 pages  Doubleday 6 Co., $1.60.
During 1963-67, Estelle Fuchs had teachers in their
first semester of teaching at Nev; York City inner-city schools
record their experiences working with Ghetto Black, Puerto
Rican, and white primary school children. Teachers talk presents
segments of the journals along with Fuchs' analysis, using
anthropological concepts and methods, of specific situations.
A third grade class's bewilderment upon first seeing an
escalator, which their teacher thought a sign of their lack
of intelligence and inability to learn, is explained by Ms.
Fuchs using the idea of culture. This leads to a discussion of
"cultural deprivation".  Other situations are also explained in
anthropological terms. In some cases it seems to me that making
use of these terms might lead a person to over-simplify a complex situation, but other readers might disagree.  The journal
excerpts themselves, express the tensions of beginning teaching
in a setting somewhat foreign to the white teacher.
***FR0M CHILD TO ADULT:  STUDIES IN THE ANTHROPOLOGY OF EDUCATION.
Edited by John Middleton.  1970  355 pages  Natural
History Press, $4.35.
Fifteen papers written by anthropologists on education
in various societies around the world — Hopi, Papago, Burma,
New Guinea, Guatemala, Africa, etc.  Intended for use in a
college anthropology or education course.
***THE INDIAN AND THE WHITEMAN.  Edited by Wilcomb E. Washburn.
1964 480 pages  Doubleday & Co. $2.25.
A source book of documents - ranging from early accounts
of U.S. travellers and missionaries to recent U. S. government documents.
• ••"*"  A/ """••• - 17 -
**-**SQN OF OLD MAN HAT:  A NAVAHO AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  Recorded by
Walter Dyk.  1938  378 pages University of Nebraska
Press, $2.75.
***USING AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS IN.EDUCATION.  James S. Kinder
1965  199 pages Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., $4.95.
Pictures, graphics, tapes, movies, displays, television,
etc.
*'**THE SOCIOLOGY OF EDUCATION:  A sourcebook.  Edited by Robert
Bell & Holger R. Stud.  1968  399 pages, Dorsey Press
$5.90  A College Textbook.
****THE FIRE BRINGER.  Margaret Hodges.  1972  31 pages  Little,
Brown & Co., $5.50  An Illustrated Paiute (South
western U.S.)  Legend for primary grades.
* *
*************
* *
***********
***********
*        *
*** *********** ***
*******************
*** ***
Tk<& Newsletter is one ol the numerous services available
Irom tiie Indian Education Resources Centex, whose Basic Aim is to
Improve Educational Opportunities far Native Indians.
Fundamentally the Newsletter attempts to increase awareness ol problems and weaknesses in current Education relative to
Indian students, and to suggest positive activities that may counteract these negative infauences.    It serves as an on-going fa rum
far the transmission ol infanmation, opinions, ideas, and data
about the Education ol Indian People, botii in Educational Institutions and society in general.    It endeavours to correlate past
history, present situations, and luture goals.
II tiiexe is something you liave heard, seen or discussed
involving Indians in schools or society which leave you with
questions or a desire far more infanmation, write to us.    II
there is something in tiie farm ol a program or activity involving
Indians in Education or Society which you or your organization
has taken on and which appears to have success, please write us
a report.
...     ~     1 o    -     ... -18-
We encourage you to contribute to our Newsletter.    II you
write an article or tetter that would be usefal to .other people in   ■■
British Colwnbia, we will be glad to print it.
**********************
*** ***
THE INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER WILL BE CLOSED FROM DECEMBER.
21/73   WILL RE-OPEN JANUARY 3,   1974.
II you have a defanite need to use tiie Center during the holiday,
please make an appointment..
*** ***
***************************
RETURN ADDRESS:    Indian Education Resources Center
#106 - Brock Hall, U.B.C.
Vancouver 8, B. C.
1089900 _   n
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