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Indian education newsletter Feb 1, 1972

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Array VOLUME 2 #6
FEBRUARY, 1972
INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER
UNIVERSITY OF B, C./ VANCOUVER. ANNOUNCEMENTS
An updated resources list of books, pamphlets etc., along
with a referral list of films regarding Indian background information, and
also a readability list is now in a booklet form which can be ordered.
Due to the number of pages involved, this resource booklet will be sent
out on request.
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Our Indian Education Newsletter is free, and so is sent on request. A number of copies are being returned — PLEASE let us have your
change of address.
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Our last issue for this school term will be during the first
week of June (a May/June issue), - again, PLEASE let us have your change
of address - August, September at latest for September issue of our IERC
Newsletter - if you wish to receive the newsletter.
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The B. C. Native Indian Teachers Association semi-annual
general Conference is being held at U.B.C. - April 3, 4, 5, 1972. Anyone, especially teachers who are out to visit our Center during that week
is welcome to observe.
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WHEN   STRANGERS   MEET
CHARLIE HOU
In the summer of 1969 John Thomas and George Clutesi were
invited by Professor Frank Hardwick of the UBC Department of Education to
discuss with Social Studies teachers the role played by Indians in B. C.'s
history. Their efforts were successful in inspiring a number of graduate
and undergraduate teachers to prepare teaching materials showing the place
of Indians in our history.
It was intended that as many of these studies as possible
would be published and distributed to interested teachers who do not have
the resources of the UBC library and Provincial Archives at their finger
tips. One study has already been published by the Indian Education Resources
Center and the Center for Continuing Education. The Helping Hand, based
on materials prepared by Sister Mary Paul Howlitt, deals with the help
which Interior Indians gave Alexander MacKenzie on his journey to the Pacific
Ocean in 1793.
A second study, based on materials prepared by Charles Hou, will
soon be published. The theme that runs throughout the study is aptly summarized by the title, When Strangers Meet. The first documents show what
happened when Europeans traded or lived in a region where a well developed
native culture was dominant, and later documents show what happened when
the same region dominated by a technologically advanced European culture.
It is hoped that by studying these documents students will become more
sensitive to the problems faced by minority groups in any society.
This study differs from The Helping Hand in several ways.  In
the first place, it deals with numerous events spread out over a much
longer periof of time. Secondly, a deliberate attempt was made to provide
a variety of source materials which an historian would consult before writing his history. Thirdly, the materials are often highly biased and controversial in nature so that students cannot accept everything that is said
or pictured in the materials, but must evaluate the evidence carefully
before drawing any conclusions. Finally, the study is meant not only to
show the role that Indians have played in our history but also to teach
the students the many critical thinking skills needed in order to evaluate
the mass of information directed at them by today's mass media.
Professor Hardwick is currently editing a study on the gold
rush and plans to expand the series to include the contributions of other
minority groups to the rich mosaic of Canadian history. The first study
in the expanded series will deal with the contributions of Ukrainians.
Adam Kozoak has been responsible for doing the necessary research.
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READINGS    IN   CHILD   DEVELOPMENT
ROGER C. BARKER
"SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN THE CLASSROOM"
PROGRESSIVE EDUCATION,19 (1942) p. 221-224
One of the studies by Lewin and Hoppe tried to answer the
question:  When does a person experience success and failure?
Method:  Adult subjects were given simple motor
and intellectual tasks. ie: hanging
as many rings upon a moving belt as
possible.  Subjects were observed
secretly then interviewed.
Hoppe's found success and failure were
unrelated to actual achievement of
individuals. He concluded that success
and failure were independent of actual
achievement but was determined by goals,
expectations and aspirations set by individuals at a particular time.
Study 2: Effects of success and failure on level
of aspiration. Hoppe found;
1) Subjects changed level of aspiration
if they met with success they set a
higher goal.  If they met with failure
they lowered their goal.
2) Thus, a person could protect himself
from continued failure or against
easy attainment by setting higher
goals.
If a child's aspirations are continually
set too high, above achievement, he may
be subjected to continual failure which
could have a disasterous effect on his
adjustment and happiness or, if a child
places his aspiration below achievement
it could result in a lack of ambition and
cynicism, which could be serious personally and socially.
Pressure from society has pushed many beyond ability. The
child who experiences failure has set aspirations above level of possible
achievement. Those in the upper end of achievement have set aspirations
below level of achievement and have thus experienced success. - 4 -
School pressures could put off balance the protective mechanism of level of aspiration. These pressures could arise from social
acceptability and require a child to conform to group standards.
School can become overwhelming for a middle-class child if
success is academic achievement.  A child who may be kind, courageous and
have certain mechanical abilities may fail in school until he can establish
himself with an organization which values his behaviour, non-academic
achievement.
Sears studied the* effects of chronic failure and success enforced by many schools.  She found the child which had experience in
continual success set their aspirations at a realistic level whereas the
child who met continual failure had set aspirations with little regard
to their achievement level.
To avoid off balancing a child's protective mechanism the
teacher needs to broaden the basis for evaluating pupils; allow pupils
maximum freedom in setting their own goals; reduce to a minimum the
prominence of the relative standing of pupils and to reduce dominance
of the teacher.
This can be avoided if democratic teaching procedures are
used, if interests of the child are followed, and group undertakings are
an important part of school activities.
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COMMENTS FROM INDIAN DAY SCHOOL PUPILS - GRADE 1 - 2 ON
BOOKS ON LOAN FROM IERC.
I liked the book.  I couldn't stop reading it. - Robin Tait.
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I like the story it is good.  I hope you don't give it back.
- Mary Davis.
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ENRICHMENT PROGRAM FOR NATIVE INDIAN CHILDREN
CRAIGFLOWER  ELEMENTARY  SCHOOL
OVERALL PLAN:
A. Objectives of the program.
B. The Program:
1. Role of various personnel involved in program.
2. Metholodology:
(a) Tutoring.
(b) Cultural Activities.
3. Pupil Materials.
4. Timetable and personnel involved in cultural
activities.
C. Evaluations.
D. Teacher References.
A. OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM
1. Develop a sense of pride in being an Indian.
2. Encourage local parents from reserve to be involved in the program.
3. Involve all Indian children in this program who are currently
attending Craigflower School.
4. Help the child to think positively through success at whatever
level he or she works.
5. Involve native Indians from the Adult Institute to act as tutors.
6. Give the pupils the opportunity to identify with adult Indians
who have had academic success.
7. Increase teachers' knowledge and awareness of Indian Culture.
8. Employ Indian teacher aide to help develop suitable materials
for this program.
B. THE PROGRAM
1.  Role of the various personnel involved:
(a)  The Principal
- overall co-ordination of program - 6 -
1.  (b)  The Learning Assistance Teacher
- screening through testing and observation to gain knowledge of child.
- help for both teacher and tutor both in diagnosing
academic problems and in remedial methods when such help
is required.
(c) The Classroom Teacher
- allow children to feel successful in class.
- provide direction for tutors in academic skills.
- provide materials.
- suggest methodology.
- set academic aims for individual children.
- guide and evaluate program with tutor.
(d) The Indian Tutors
- provide practice for skills or remedial work under
teacher's direction.
- allow children to feel more worthy as individuals
through individual time allotments.
- help children improve work habits.
- gain some knowledge of children's home background
and relate it to the teacher.
- encourage interest in Indian Culture.
- provide a list of concepts unknown to Indian
Children that we take for granted.
(e) The Parents from the Reserve
- provide a cultural background through such activities
as Carving, Indian Legends, Beading, Knitting and
Sewing.
(f) The Local Indian Teacher-Aide
- teach about things Indian.
- encourage interest in anything Indian - Build up a
library and resource center of things Indian; Legend,
books, filmstrips etc.
- take children on field trips to provide them with
experiences they might not otherwise have.  i.e.
Provincial Museum (Potlatch Program) Thunderbird
Park, Sealand, etc.
(g) The Special Counsellor
- liaison person between tutors and school and
Vocational Counsellor.
- hiring and paying of tutors.
- be familiar with children's homes and conditions
there. - 7 -
1. (h)  The Vocational Counsellor
- this person is a native Indian at the Adult Institute,
and makes the initial contact of students who wish to
act as tutors at Craigflower School. He also chairs
the special committee on the reserve, who supplies
the adults for the cultural activities in the school.
(i) The School Nurse
- keep in close contact with families on the reserve
and provide information to the staff that will enable them to deal more effectively with the child.
2. Methodology
(a) Tutoring
- tutors work with children on individual basis - in
classroom situation as much as possible.
- tutors come into classrooms to observe Indian students in class and small group situations - preferably during undirected activities in intermediate
grades.
- In primary grades tutors could work with group doing
seatwork to improve work habits.  (This group would
include any children needing help, not only Indian
children).
- Small group situations could be provided for those
who may have difficulty communicating.  Any discussions would be encouraged. This is particularly
important with intermediate children.
(b) Cultural Activities
(i)  In the School:  the following activities are
carried out by the parents who live on the
reserve:  carving, Indian legends, knitting
sewing and beading.
(ii)  Field Trips: during the fall term the students
visited the Provincial Museum twice to learn
more about the Coastal Indians, their social
life, dwellings and industries.  The Maritime
Museum was also visited.
(iii)  Future Field Trips: these will include Thunder-
bird Park, Sealand, taking part in a Potlatch,
Craigflower Manor, and Fort Rodd Hill.
3. Pupil Materials
The following have been purchased: Readers: Neepawa Series
beading materials, knives for carving, wood, knitting wool and needles,
magnetic number and letter boards. ANNOUNCING
INDIAN EDUCATION - EDUCATION 479
SUMMER SESSION/ 1972  3 UNITS CREDIT
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Instructional techniques for adapting teaching to the needs of Indian
students; method of enriching the curriculum by including the cultural
background of all students; the course will include some examination
of the anthroplogical, sociological and historical background of native
Indians with an emphasis on contemporary situations as these relate to
teaching.
Staff.    Instructor:    Dr. Art More, Faculty of Education; Indian Education
Resources Centre staff; native Indian Resource persons and guest Faculty
from other university departments.
Course Description:    Education 479 is a relatively new course,  designed
to aid teachers developing the ability to adapt education to the needs
of Indian students.    A basic assumption in the course is that, while
there are many similarities and differences between all individuals
children, a permanent educational programme often do not take into
account differences, mostly cultural and economic which many Indian
children share.
The course will be presented by many individuals including Indian
teachers and studentsj representatives of Indian organizations; representatives of other educational organizations: specialists in anthropology, sociology, psychology, language arts, Indian culture, Arts
and crafts; and by the course participants.
The content is divided into'two parts.    Part I emphasis background
knowledge and includes historical and contemporary backgrounds; attitudes toward education by Indian parents,  teachers, students and organizations : and policies of the provincial Department of Education,
Department of Indian Affairs and B.C.  Teachers.     Part II emphasizes
adapting teaching, using community resources, and dealing with potential problem areas.    Part II represents about two-thirds of the course.
Information    on registration    credit - students wishing 3 units of
credit for Education 479 must register as extrasessional students;
contact Registrar's Office,  228-2418 for registration cards and information.    Registration for Summer Session 1972 closes June 15.     Registration for Winter Session 1972-73 closes in mid-September.    Credit
fee $100.
Non-credit - a nunber of auditors will be accepted into the course;
please apply to Dr. More or Education - Extension (228-2181): do not
contact the Registrar's Office.    Non-credit fee $5.
Please write a letter to Dr. More, Faculty of Education, University of
B.C.  giving information on your present concerns in the area of Native
Indian Education including mention of background knowledge of B.C.
-Indians or active participation in Education of Indian Children.    Enrolment limited to 80 students. - 8
As the cultural activities are expanded more materials will be
required, such as cane for basket work, simple looms, wool for weaving,
and leather tools for leatherwork.
Timetable and Personnel -Involved in Activities
TUTORS
DAY
NAME
TIME
Monday
Miss Linda George
1:00 - 2:00
Tuesday
Miss Linda George
1:00 - 2:00
Wednesday
Mrs. Alice Dick
Mr. Tom Jack
1:00 - 2:00
1:00 - 3:00
Thursday
Mr. Tom Jack
1:00 - 3:00
ADULTS  FRO
M  THE  RESERV
E
DAY
NAME
ACTIVITY
TIME
Tuesday
Mr. Hillis
Mr. Williams
Carving
1:00 - 3:00
Wednesday
Mrs. George
Legends
2:00 - 3:00
Thursday
Mrs. Dick
Knitting & Sewing
2:00 - 3:00
Friday
Mrs. Morris
Miss Dyer
Beading
2:00 - 3:00
c.
EVALUATION
1. Tutors to be involved and present at parent-teacher interviews.
2. Tutors to give written report on her assessment of child concerned at report card time (to be considered by teacher when
planning and preparing reports.
3. Tutors to recommend areas of instruction in which child may be
lacking.
4. Recommend program be evaluated several times a year (possibly
at report time) so change can be made as required. - 9 -
C. 5.  Teachers to make written report of what each child has done during
the current year, and make recommendations for the following year.
6. Booklets of the written reports to be prepared and kept in the
office, and then given to the teachers concerned in the following
year in order to ensure continuity.
D. TEACHER REFERENCES
The following materials are in the school and have been found
useful in giving the teacher a background that enables him or her to
participate more effectively in the program.
1. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Coast Salish Tribe of Indians of
the Pacific North West.
2. BCTF Lesson Aids Service:  Indians of the Northwest Coast.
3. BCTF Lesson Aids Service: The Life of the Coast Salish Indians.
4. Government of B.C. Nootka, B.C. Heritage Series.
5. Government of B.C. Bella Coola, B.C. Heritage Series.
6. C.T. Curteis, Indian Education, The Indian Child's Background.
7. C. Galloway, et al., Orientation, Pre-school and Pre-kindergarten
Summer Program for Indian Children. Educational Research Institute
of British Columbia.
8. George Clutesi, Son of Raven, Son of Deer.
9. George Clutesi, Potlatch.
10. Anthony Carter, This is Haida.
11. H.P. Corser, Totem Lore of the Alaska Indians.
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RETURN ADDRESS FOR NEWSLETTER:
INDIAN EDUCATION RESOURCES CENTER
HUT 0-12/ UNIVERSITY OF B. C.
VANCOUVER 8/ B. C.

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