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Focus 1996

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Array Vol. 7, No. 2
Fall 1996
Rabab Ward has big hopes and big ideas as she becomes new
Director of CICSR for a three-year term.
■ Rabab Ward, the new Director of
CICSR, says she is full of enthusiasm
and has "big hopes and big ideas" for
the organization. She plans to raise
CICSR's profile and increase interaction with industry, and judging by her
track record, she will achieve what she
sets out to do.
Born in Lebanon, she graduated from
high school with the highest marks in
her country. At the time, she was
refused admission into the engineering
program at the American University of
Beirut because they did not then
accept women into the program.
Not deterred, Ward studied electrical
engineering in Egypt, and returned to
Lebanon to become the first female
member of the Lebanese Professional
Engineering Society.
■ Alternative health
page 2
■ The nature of reasoning page 3
■ Animation tools
page 4
■ Practical solutions
■ Pulp & paper
page 6
u Industry support
page 8
u Calendar
page 8
Ward has brought the same practical
determination to her research career.
Her work has led to improved imaging
techniques for detection of breast
cancer, and for improved video and
cable television picture quality. She
started working on signal processing
in 1984 refining images collected via
telescope. Her work has a common
theme: to distinguish pure information
from the noise that surrounds it.
Throughout her research career,
Ward has developed strong ties with
industry. For example, Canadian
Cable Labs, a research fund supported
by Roger Cablesystems, has supported
her work on improving cable television picture quality. Ward has developed a way to monitor image quality
without interrupting transmission. This
is a major breakthrough for cable
television operators, which currently
have to shut down transmission to
monitor image quality at various
locations. A major U.S. company is
now incorporating Ward's ideas into
instruments that will be sold throughout North America.
Ward plans to continue her research
in conjunction with her work at
CICSR. She has been appointed as
CICSR Director for a three-year term,
replacing James Varah, who led
CICSR from its inception in 1987.
Rabab Ward, the new Director of CICSR,
plans to raise CICSR's profile & continue
to increase interaction with industry.
Ward says she plans to take CICSR
' forward from the strong foundations
built by Varah over the past ten years.
"It was his continued leadership and
vision that made CICSR a success."
She credits Varah with making the
... continued on page 7 Delivering Alternative Health Information
Joseph Tan is designing and developing the electronic information infrastructure for the
newly-formed Tzu Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.
■Joseph Tan, an associate member of
CICSR and member of the UBC
Faculty of Medicine, is a health
informatics expert who is currently
spending his sabbatical leave overseeing the design and development of an
organization-wide information system
infrastructure for the newly-formed
Tzu Chi Institute for Complementary
and Alternative Medicine (TCICAM).
The newly-founded organization has
raised more than $6 million; about
$50,000 of this is supporting Tan's
investigation of how to link electronic
information resources effectively and
efficiently in the area of complementary and alternative medicine.
According to Tan, there is a surge of
interest in self-help and alternative
medicine, and the number of practitioners claiming ability to deliver
these services is proliferating. "Consumers have a real need for more
organized information. I'm working
on developing a way to deliver the
information so they understand how to
go about extracting what is appropriate," says Tan. The information
system will include electronic
databases, multimedia applications
and relevant web sites. According to
Tan, "A lot of work is needed to
structure and deliver appropriate
information in the appropriate form."
Tan was chosen for this task because
of his high profile in health information systems. He is well-known for his
book, Health Management Information Systems, which was published in
1995 both as a comprehensive text for
a graduate course in health information systems and as a comprehensive
guide to health practitioners working
in the area. He is currently editing a
new book called Health Decision
Support Systems, which is scheduled
for release in 1997.
Another research interest for Tan is
graphical interface design, especially
as it relates to health informatics.
Joseph Tan and Yan Feng Wu, Visiting Assistant Professor from Shanghai Medical
University at UBC's Centre for Health Studies and Policy Research.
Beginning with his Ph.D. dissertation,
completed at UBC in Management
Information Systems, Tan has focused
on applications of graphics-based
presentation and information technology in health education and practice.
"I have been actively involved in
formulating and testing a theory on
human processing of graphical information for different types of tasks,"
says Tan. "A major effort is the
generation of a sound task taxonomy
for guiding business and health
graphics design."
Tan says that there are growing
concerns over the lag in application of
graphics and health information
technology to support health education, managerial and clinical decision
making. He is interested in designing a
technologically-advanced curriculum
for educating health professionals in
information systems and management
concepts. A particular area of interest
is the evaluation of computer-based
instructional approaches to teaching
health-related courses. To further this
interest, Tan serves on the standing
committee on Distributed Learning
and Information Technology at UBC,
and is part of the BCIT Computer
Mediated Communication project.
In his work, Tan focuses on applying
the latest information technologies to
health informatics. For example, he is
looking at how to apply GIS,
groupware and neural network concepts in the design of health decision
support and expert systems.
Tan believes much of his research
has potential use outside of the area of
medicine as well. He views CICSR as
"a great vehicle for us to collaborate
on ideas and associate with people
who can help us promote our work to
a different audience." For example, he
is interested in the idea of distributed
learning, and in delivering on-line
courses throughout UBC and possibly
beyond. ■ Understanding
the Nature of
David Poole draws on decisionmaking theories from a range of
sources that include logic-based
reasoning from philosophy and
artificial intelligence, decision
theory from economics, and plain
old common sense.
■ Understanding the nature of reasoning is the goal of CICSR and Computer Science Department member David
Poole. In his work, he is drawing on
decision-making theories from a range
of sources that includes logic-based
reasoning from philosophy and
artificial intelligence, decision theory
from economics, and plain old common sense. He would like to combine
the foundations of decision theory and
logic to come up with a better, more
all-inclusive theory better suited to
practical reasoning tasks.
Poole's recent work has been focused
on probabilistic reasoning and assumption-based logical reasoning, and
on combining the two. He has been
developing theory, conducting empirical studies building efficient implementations, and developing methodologies for various applications.
"Logic provides a normative reasoning paradigm that lets us relate the
symbols that computers use to the
world we are interested in. Logic tells
us the consequences of our assumptions. Different behavior can be
characterised by who chooses the
assumptions: where nature chooses the
assumptions we have a logic-based
characterisation of recognition/
diagnosis incorporating probabilistic
models such as Bayesian networks,"
according to Poole. "Much of the
current work on default reasoning can
be seen as reasoning where an adversary chooses the assumptions. Where
an agent chooses the assumptions, we
have a characterisation of design and
planning. Combining these into a
David Poole's focus of research is on expanding and improving current decision-making
systems by combining different reasoning theories.
coherent framework that will look
something like a logic based decision/
game theory is a medium-term goal of
my research."
One of the first areas where these
new types of decision-making systems
are being applied is in medical diagnostics. According to Poole, the
medical community was initially very
suspicious of artificial intelligence,
"but many of them have since been
convinced that these systems are like a
better calculator, a tool to help them
do their job." Medical diagnostic
systems are becoming more common,
the most successful of which are based
on so-called "Bayesian networks." For
example, a U.S. company is now
selling a Bayesian network-based
system which provides diagnoses for
each organ of the body. "At UBC we
are extending the Bayesian network
model to use richer languages and to
exploit the representations for computational gain to get even more expressive and efficient systems," says
Other potential applications of
advanced decision-making systems
include strategic decision making in
companies, on-line diagnosis and
repair of systems, multimedia
presentation, and robotics—"anywhere
we need to make decisions and don't
have perfect information." Poole notes
that "the uncertainty and artificial
intelligence community is very
interdisciplinary. There is a lot of
cross fertilization of ideas."
Poole's focus is on expanding and
improving current decision-making
systems by combining different
theories. "We can make better decisions, if we have better models that
are open to critique and can be
understood by the people who are
responsible for the decisions," says
Poole. "I started working in logic and
assumption-based reasoning, and
decided if we want to make better
decisions we need probabilities and
utilities, but that doesn't mean we
have to give up the expressiveness of
logic. If we push this to its logical
conclusion, we have a logic-based
decision/game theory model where
different agents make assumptions,
and the logic tells us the consequences
of the assumptions."
Poole says there is a lot of excitement in the field right now from
various directions. "People in the field
of neural networks are finding
probabilistic models such as Bayesian
networks provide an understanding of
how they work. People in business are
using influence diagrams to reach
similar goals. I got to the same point
by adding probabilities to logic.There
are a lot of things going on in the field
that seem to be converging. Where it
goes from here is anybody's guess." ■ Forsey Develops Better Software for Animators
Dave Forsey's 3-D modelling tools for animation software, which simplify image editing, are
attracting attention in the film business.
■ The 3-D animation software developed by Department of Computer
Science member Dave Forsey is
beginning to attract the attention of
commercial animators. A team of
animators working for the Los Angeles-based company Dreamworks is
currently producing an entirely
computer-generated movie (Shrek),
and they have hired Forsey to integrate his 3-D modelling tools with
their animation software.
Forsey said it has been his intention
all along to integrate his editing tools
with mainstream animation software,
but to date his work has remained in
the research lab, CICSR's GraFiC
(Graphics & Film in Computing) Lab.
However, the tools Forsey has developed offer distinct advantages over
existing technology, and the outside
world is beginning to discover this via
his World Wide Web site.
The web site that attracted the
attention of the Dreamworks crew
features FaceMaker, an editing tool
which, as the name suggests, facilitates the animation of faces. What is
unique about Forsey's software, which
he calls Dragon, is that it uses hierarchical B-splines as opposed to traditional B-splines in the construction of
3-D surfaces.
The practical advantages of this
innovation is that Dragon allows for
the creation of local surface detail plus
the ability to change the overall shape
of the 3-D surface without having to
re-edit or re-animate. In other words,
when an animator decides to change,
for example, the shape of the eyes of a
figure, all the changed features will
follow the animation sequence automatically, without the need to  change
each point in each animation frame.
This can save animators a lot of time
and effort.
Another advantage Forsey's editing
tool offers is considerable storage
savings. According to Forsey, a
hierarchical B-spline could use ten
percent or less of the space required to
represent the surface as a traditional
B-spline or Bezier surface.
The Dreamworks team are also using
another part of Forsey's research that
will allow the animators to take
digitized information and convert it to
hierarchical splines. They are hoping
to incorporate the software into the
digitizing process to convert sculptures into hierarchical splines and then
use the core software from Dragon as
a basis for facial animation software.
Forsey believes that the Dreamworks
contract will lead to other commercial
projects. In the case of Dreamworks,
the timing was perfect because the
project is in its early stages and is in
the process of tooling up to do animation. "They don't have a history of
working with specific software, and
they're looking for new and better
ways to do computer animation," says
The $120,000 contract started in July
and Forsey expects it to take about
three months to complete. Graduate
students Jean-Luc Duprat and Gene
Lee are working on the project with
"The software is a research tool, so
there's a fair bit of effort to get it
integrated," says Forsey. But it can be
added on to any system that has plug-
in capabilities, and Forsey would like
to see it integrated into more systems
in the future.
"I would like to see my software
being used by animators to enable
them to work faster and be more
expressive — that has always been my
goal," says Forsey. Computer animation is a fast-growing area, and Forsey
expects business opportunities to
increase. In fact, he said if there was
an opportunity to take the software
and develop it into a company, he
would like to do it. ■
Dave Forsey's animation editing toolkit, called Dragon, can save animators time and
effort when changing elements in an animation sequence. Engineering Solutions for Industry
The focus of Bill Dunford's work is practical, affordable solutions to industrial problems.
* Bill Dunford of the Department of
Electrical Engineering believes that
engineering projects should, as a
matter of course, be directly applicable to industry. His career strongly
reflects this belief, as all of his work,
from his Ph.D. onward, has had direct
application to industrial problems.
Dunford's Ph.D. involved the
application of microprocessors to real
time power converter control. He has
since designed controllers, based on
similar software, for various motorized applications, including a mining
locomotive and an electric wheelchair.
According to Dunford, the purpose of
the software was not high-performance
control as such, but to make the most
out of the available hardware.
Dunford is passing along his industrial focus to his graduate students.
One former M.Sc. student is now
working on the drives for the various
versions of the Ballard fuel cell-
powered bus. Currently, two of the
Ph.D. students he supervises are
working with local power supply
companies, Statpower Technologies
and Xantrex Technology on
switchmode converter applications.
Both students are receiving scholarships
through the Science Council of B.C.'s
GREAT program aimed at supporting
students working with local industry.
In the past year, Dunford has
completed two research contracts with
industry. For B.C. Hydro, he and his
research team designed and constructed a photovoltaic-powered water
circulation system for aerating lakes
during the winter, allowing fish to
survive. The system incorporates a
microcontroller-based AC drive using
a submersible induction motor.
According to Dunford, "An interesting
feature of this system is that it incorporates system monitoring, allowing
three months of data to be downloaded
in the field to a laptop computer."
The other major project Dunford has
been working on is the development of
the "Battery Doctor" for Canadian
Cable Labs, a fund established in 1990
by Rogers Cablesystems to support
Bill Dunford believes that research should lead to practical, applicable solutions.
cable TV-related research in universities and in industry. The initial
contract was for the design of a battery
management system for use in the
Rogers cable network. That work has
been completed, and a new contract
has been awarded to allow for extensive laboratory tests and field trials.
The Battery Doctor's main purpose
is to extend the life of the batteries
Rogers uses as back-up power at
various points along the cable system
to keep the amplifiers operating during
a power outage. Rogers spends over
$1 million per year replacing these
batteries, so extending their life would
save the company a lot of money.
Three 12-volt lead-acid batteries are
stored in grey boxes along the cable
line, and the batteries are connected in
a series string. According to Dunford,
"Lead-acid batteries work best if kept
fully-charged, but in a series string,
significant differences can develop
between the charges of individual
batteries. The resulting mix of overcharged and undercharged batteries
has a reduced capacity and shorter life."
The Battery Doctor, which would be
added to every grey box, makes the
batteries appear to be connected in
parallel. It automatically monitors the
three batteries, redistributing the
energy between them so they are
evenly and fully charged. At the same
time, the device can give information
on the state of the batteries. According
to Dunford, the next phase will be to
see if the device can be used to predict
the life of the batteries based on this
Dunford says the Battery Doctor has
commercial potential, not only in the
cable industry, but in many other
applications. "One major potential
market could be in electric cars, where
the Battery Doctor would be installed
in the vehicle, constantly optimizing
the charge distribution between the
batteries and alerting the user to any
systemic battery problems."
In fact, any battery-powered application could benefit from a system
like the Battery Doctor, says Dunford.
"There are currently commercial
products on the market that perform
■ the same functions, but they are very
expensive compared to ours." The
product is one of many examples from
Dunford's career of how he uses his
engineering skills to come up with
practical, affordable solutions for
industry—which is what he believes
engineering is all about." Improving Pulp and Paper Processes
Michael Davies & Guy Dumont are bringing leading edge process
control technologies to improve the quality of pulp and paper.
Michael Davies & Guy Dumont head the Paper Machine Group at the UBC Pulp & Paper Centre.
■ Making paper involves incredibly
complex processes, and there is
increasing demand in the industry for
quality and control. The UBC Pulp
and Paper Centre, a joint initiative
between UBC and Paprican (which
represents industry) focuses on
research to improve pulp and paper
processes. Two CICSR members,
Michael Davies and Guy Dumont,
both electrical engineers, head the
Paper Machine Group at the Centre.
The other lead member of the Paper
Machine Group is Ezra Kwok, a
chemical engineer. The make-up of
the team reflects the interdisciplinary
nature of the Centre, which includes
specialists in chemical, civil, metals
and materials, electrical, and mechanical engineering, as well as microbiology and immunology.
One research area in which Dumont
and Davies are involved is process
loop monitoring and data compression. Canada is leading the way in the
development of these techniques,
which are aimed at automatically
detecting degradation of performance
in control systems.
According to Dumont, who holds the
senior Paprican/NSERC Chair of
Process Control, "A pulp and paper
plant may have over 2,000 control
loops and one control engineer. All of
the control loops perform an important
function." His research team is
working on technologies to detect
misbehavior in control loops and
identify possible sources of the
problem. This is made more difficult
by the fact that a lot of the loops
interact with each other. In fact, a
company can spend years trying to
find the source of long term oscillations.
Davies points out that the performance of control systems tends to
deteriorate with time. He is working
on techniques to make initial tuning
easier, and to enable the system to
automatically detect and correct
deviations from the desired performance. According to Davies, this higher
level of control is being demanded by
industry, which is facing increased
competition, a need to produce a
greater range of products, and an
overall growing emphasis on quality.
At the same time, it is important to
use recycled materials and minimize
new fibre content.
He and his research team are incorporating leading edge technologies
and theories, including digital image
processing and wavelets, to improve
the existing processes. "Vast amounts
of accurate operating data are readily
available to gather and process," says
Davies. "We can now do things that
were impossible in the past, but the
large quantities of data also bring with
them processing and storage issues."
Members of the Paper Machine
Group are involved in several more
research projects aimed at improving
process control systems for paper
making machines.  The group's recent
research projects have included
development of estimation algorithms
for the accurate determination of
machine direction (MD) and cross
machine (CD) profile variations in
basis weight and moisture from
scanned data; identification and
control of paper machine wet end
chemistry (with Ph.D. student Roger
Shirt); and modelling of the paper
machine sheet forming process (with
Ph.D. student Jahan Ghofraniha).
According to Dumont, much of the
work his group does is a direct result
of questions and problems raised by
industry. "A lot of our students go out
to mills. Since we have no pilot
facility, our testbed is reality."
Dumont also plays a key role in the
Wood Pulp Network in the Networks
of Centres of Excellence program. A
fairly large component of the network
is in process control, a program
involving six universities, and led
from UBC by Dumont. One aspect of
this research which Dumont is overseeing is control of thermomechanical
pulp plants and paper machines.
According to Dumont, the business
of making pulp and paper is becoming
increasingly sophisticated. "Ten years
ago, mills were not hiring Ph.D.
students, but times have changed." His
last five Ph.D. students have all been
hired by industry. "Mills now need
highly sophisticated staff or they can't
compete." This is good news for Pulp
and Paper Centre researchers, who are
being faced with increasingly demanding and interesting problems from
industry to work on. ■ PASSING NOTES
De Silva wins award
■CICSR Member Clarence de Silva
was recently named the recipient of
the 1996 "Meritorious Achievement
Award" from the Association of
Professional Engineers and Geo-
scientists of B.C. De Silva, a Professor
of Mechanical Engineering and holder
of the NSERC Chair of Industrial
Automation, was given this award in
recognition of the value of his overall
technical contributions, according to
the President of the Association, Linda
In addition to his research contributions, including some 200 technical
papers and 12 books, de Silva has led
industrial development projects such
as "A Continuously Variable Gear
Transmission," "An Automated
Machine for Fish Cutting," "An
Automated System for Grading Herring
Roe," and "A Machine for Marking
Live Fish." The award will be presented on October 19th, at the annual
general meeting in Prince George. »
CICSR announces new members
■Two new researchers have joined the
CICSR ranks. Both Hua Jin and
Faouzi Kossentini are new members
of the Department of Electrical
Engineering. Jin's research interests
are in control of solid state power
conversion involving various aspects
of solid state technologies, control
techniques and digital control implementation using microprocessors and
digital signal processing (DSP).
Kossentini is interested in signal
coding, DSP and information theory.
He was recently a research scientist at
Nichols Research Corporation Inc.,
where he developed DSP and compression algorithms that can be
successfully used to enhance data
downlink and distribution for the
Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative and for commercial remote
sensing. ■
Introducing Linda Sewell
■You may have noticed a new face in
the CICSR office. CICSR is pleased to
announce that Linda Sewell is now
working part-time for CICSR. She will
be coordinating the CICSR Distinguished Lecture Series and the production of publications, as well as
managing CICSR web pages.
Sewell has a long history working at
UBC. She first worked for the university in 1971, then did some post-
secondary studies, before returning as
a staff member in 1981. She has been
working for UBC ever since. ■
CICSR/CS Reading Room
open to all
•The CICSR/CS Reading Room is a
resource available to all Computer
Science and CICSR faculty, graduate
students and staff. Hours are from 9:30
am to 5 pm Monday through Thursday, and 1:30 to 5:00 pm Fridays.
The facility provides a current core
collection of technical reports, journals, conference proceedings, books,
manuals, theses and graduate course
readings. There is also access for
electronic resources through the
Reading Room home page at http://
To register to use the Reading Room,
or for an orientation, drop by, or
Librarian Deborah Wilson
at  rdngroom@cs.ubc.ca
or assistant April Nagy at
nagy@cs.ubc.ca., or call 822-2017. ■
Rabab Ward: New Director for CICSR
continued from page 1
new CICSR building a priority for
UBC, and with providing the infrastructure in the three CICSR departments to allow for the appointment of
many distinguished researchers that
otherwise would not be working at
UBC. CICSR has brought many
eminent researchers to UBC through
its Distinguished Lecture Series, and
through support of world-class research at home.
Over the years, CICSR has provided
the seed money that has helped many
unique projects get started. In many
cases, industry has taken over support
for these projects because they
provide potential solutions to real-
world problems. An increasing
proportion of CICSR's $9 million in
external research funding support
comes directly from industry.
Ward's vision for CICSR is to
continue its development as a world-
class research centre focused on the
needs of industry. She envisions a
centre that is well-known not only
locally, but also worldwide. She
would like to make CICSR a place
where industry and researchers can
interact to solve problems.
Ward says industry interaction is
important to her because it provides a
way for UBC researchers to have a
positive impact on the economy. She
plans to put her considerable personal
power into making this happen. "I
want to be an active and approachable
director," says Ward. "I want to make
people aware of CICSR's potential." ■ Industry
Support for
CICSR on the
■ Since the inception of CICSR, the
proportion of industry-funded research
being conducted by members has been
steadily increasing. Last year, CICSR
members attracted almost $9 million
in external funding, much of it from
local industry.
According to new CICSR Director
Rabab Ward, one of her goals for
CICSR is to further strengthen ties
with industry, and to see continued
growth in support from industry for
applied research. She would also like
to acknowledge the companies that are
currently supporting CICSR research,
or have done so in the past.
The following is a list of some of the
companies which provided significant
support to CICSR researchers in 1995.
In addition to the companies, NSERC
has funded a considerable amount of
industry-related research conducted by
CICSR members through industrial
research chairs, equipment grants and
research grants. Other major sources
of external funding include the B.C.
Advanced Systems Institute, Science
Council of B.C. and Networks of
Centres of Excellence.
PMC Sierra-Hussein Alnuweiri
General Motors Research-Uri Ascher
Pthalo Systems-Kellogg Booth
Weyerhauser-Michael Davies, Guy
Garfield Weston Foundation-
Clarence de Silva
Eddy/Bailey Controls, Paprican-
Guy Dumont
Statpower, Canadian Cable Labs,
B.C. Hydro-William Dunford
Tristar Industries, DOMTAR Corp.,
FERIC, Forming Technology Inc.,
Weatherhaven Industries-Mohamed
Defence Research Establishment
Suffield-Mabo Ito
Distinguished Lecture
Series 1996-97
Working Together: Hybrid
Dynamical Systems
CICSR DLS for 1996-97
The UBC Centre for Integrated
Computer Systems Research (CICSR)
is hosting its eighth annual Distinguished Lecture Series, bringing in
academic and industrial leaders to
speak about their research at the
forefront of their respective fields.
This year's theme is Working Together: Hybrid Dynamical Systems.
Six distinguished scientists from
around the world discuss their innovative computer systems research.
September 19, 1996
Dr. Norman Murray
Canadian Institute for Theoretical
Astrophysics (CITA), University of
October 17, 1996
Dr. Liz Bradley
Department of Computer Science,
University of Colorado
November 14, 1996
Dr. Roger Brockett
Division of Applied Sciences,
Harvard University
January 16,1997
Dr. Amir Pnueli
Department of Mathematics
Weizmann Institute of Science
Rehovot, Israel
February 13, 1997
Dr. Edward J. Haug
Center for Computer-Aided Design,
University of Iowa
March 13, 1997
Dr. Andy Witkin
Computer Science Department,
Carnegie Mellon University
B.C. Hydro, Carmanah Research
Ltd. -Nicolas Jaeger
Electronic Arts Canada-Maria Klawe
FERIC, Orvitek Inc-Peter Lawrence
Motorola-Victor Leung
International Submarine Engineering-Alan Mackworth
OSIWARE-Gerald Neufeld
Weyerhauser, Pratt & Whitney-
Martha Salcudean
Canadian Space Agency-Tim Salcudean
Ward Lab Inc., Rogers Cable Lab,
Sierra Systems Inc.-Rabab Ward
Amoco Canada-Matthew Yedlin
Cimprovisor High Tech Industries-
Ian Yellowley ■
The UBC Centre for Integrated Computer
Systems Research (CICSR) is an interdepartmental research organization made up of
computer-related research faculty members in
the Departments of Computer Science, Electrical
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.
Currently there are more than 60 CICSR
researchers who direct over 200 graduate
students and collaborate with dozens of
industrial firms in areas such as robotics,
artificial intelligence, communications, VLSI
design and industrial automation.
CICSR FOCUS, is published twice a year.
EDITOR: Leslie Ellis
Office: 289-2366 Main Mall,
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
Tel: (604) 822-6894, fax: (604) 822-9013
Contact: Linda Sewell


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