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Focus 1991

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Array Vol. 2, No. 2
Fall 1991
CICSR team working
towards more intelligent
control systems for
industrial machinery
■ Not many of us have driven a Caterpillar
excavator or feller buncher for harvesting
trees. But if you sat in the cab of such a
machine, you'd probably be bewildered by
the controls. If you were confident enough
to try them out, you'd find they don't
always achieve the result you'd expect, and
you'd feel very awkward trying to accomplish even the most simple task.
... continued on page 2
The CICSR research team led by Dr. Peter
Lawrence (front) can test their research and
development on this excavator donated for the
project by Caterpillar, tiraduate student Jane
Mulligan and computer science professor Dr.
Alan Mackworth are among the researchers
involved in the research project.
CICSR: Promoting
collaborative research     page 2
Fishy business for
CICSR researcher page 4
Research promises
better t.v. picture page 5
Profile: B.C. Advanced
Systems Institute page 6
CICSR Calendar page 8 CICSR: Promoting collaborative research
■ The traditional university structure,
which divides subject areas into departments and faculties, is not conducive to the
development of initiatives that overlap
these units. CICSR was set up to bridge
these boundaries between the three UBC
departments (Computer Science, Electrical
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering)
in three faculties (Science, Applied
Science and Graduate Studies). CICSR is
also affiliated with other computer-related
campus units such as the Media and
Graphics Interdisciplinary Centre
(MAGIC) and the Management Information Systems (MIS) Division of the Faculty
of Commerce.
One of CICSR's principal goals is to foster
and facilitate collaborative research among
its faculty members, allied external
research organizations (SFU, UVic, NRC,
ASI, etc), and its external colleagues.
"A more cohesive framework ...
makes it easier to attract new
faculty members, graduate
students, industrial partners
and research funding."
With the advent of special funding through
the Fund for Excellence in Education
program of the B.C. government, CICSR
has been able to provide monetary incentives for collaborative research: funding
for technical and administrative support
staff, equipment funding (including a
workstation subsidy program), and the new
shared software initiative.
When the CICSR/CS building is completed
in late 1992, other incentives for collaborative research will be available, such as
shared laboratory space for finite-term,
externally-funded research projects. There
will also be space available for visiting
researchers from industry and government
research labs.
This shared, cooperative approach to
research in information technology has
many advantages: it provides a multi-level
integration of research programs across
traditional disciplines; it increases the
critical mass of people available for a
given project; it permits sharing of
equipment and infrastructure, thereby
lowering costs; and it provides a more
cohesive framework to view university
research, which makes it easier to attract
new faculty members, graduate students,
industrial partners and research funding.
CICSR intends to continue to expand its
liaison role, both internally and externally,
and welcomes advice and suggestions from
the research community. ■
Director's Statement
■ First, I would like to thank Peter
Lawrence for all the work he did as
Acting Director while I was away. Peter
has gone on to his reward: more time
for research !
For this issue of FOCUS, we thought it
was time to re-examine CICSR's roots
and focus on its objective of collaborative research in information technology.
We have provided several examples of
projects currently under way involving
faculty members and graduate students
from different departments, and
personnel from industrial research
firms. The intent is not only to make
people aware of these projects, but also
to inspire new projects that will lead to
results and products of lasting and
significant benefit.
SMART MACHINES  ... continued from cover
Part of your problem would undoubtedly
be inexperience, but even experienced
heavy machinery operators sometimes
have problems. A team of CICSR researchers at UBC, led by Dr. Peter Lawrence, is
working on developing more intelligent
controls for large machines, using computer vision, artificial intelligence and
According to Lawrence, the basic objective
of the project is to make the operator's life
easier and safer. For example, the intelligent machine will be able to detect when it
is about to tip over, or when the stress on
its limbs is excessive. Lawrence says the
machines produced as a result of his
team's research will increase productivity
of operators and, in the case of remotely-
operated machines, be less fatiguing and
much safer.
"Some operators are now four times as
productive as other, equally-experienced
operators," said Lawrence. "We hope to
even out their performance by making the
relationship between the visual space and
manipulator control directions the same."
But even when controls and the machine's
movements correspond, that doesn't solve
all the problems for an operator. In the
operation of an excavator, for example,
with its various joints, dragging the bucket
flat across the ground requires the operator
to perform a series of complex motions to
carry out what appears to be a simple task.
"The control positions are not always
obvious with respect to the task you're
trying to accomplish," said Lawrence.
"Eventually, we hope to pre-program
certain tasks. We'd like to let the operator
work out the strategy and let the machine
carry out the actual task."
But before a machine can perform
complex tasks simply by being told, it has
to be able to figure out the position of its
limbs, and of the objects it is working
with. CICSR researchers are working on
various aspects of this problem.
Dr. Farrokh Sassani of mechanical
engineering, for example, is working on
calibration and parameter identification of
existing machinery. The intelligent control
system will first be retrofitted to existing
machinery which has been in use for a
number of years, says Sassani. Before a
new control system can be used, the
researchers need to know precisely how
the machine responds.
Sassani is interested in developing a
hydraulic subsystem to control the
machines. He is exploring the possibility
of using neural networks in his work,
"because they have the ability to learn and
to extract unknown relationships. They can
recognize certain limits. For example, if a
machine is about to malfunction, a neural
network can figure that out in advance and
issue a warning."
... continued on page 3
Dr. James Varrih. CICSR Another advantage to neural networks, a
highly parallel approach to computing
somewhat analogous to the workings of the
human brain, is that they're fast. Since any
control system used on working machines
has to work in real time, speed is an
important consideration, said Sassani.
Dr. Alan Mackworth of computer science
is working with graduate student Jane
Mulligan on the machine vision portion of
the project. A remotely-operated
telerobotic machine needs a model of the
actual machine and where it is in the
environment. One of the first skills we
learn as babies is determining where our
arms are, observes Mackworth. "Hand-arm
co-ordination is critical in the development
of telerobotics."
There are various ways for a machine to
sense the position of its arm. Joint angle
sensors, for example, can be used, but they
are expensive, exposed to the elements and
need to be calibrated. Vision is a possible
method, though at this point it's not clear
how well it will work, said Mackworth.
"Redundancy of sensors is a good idea,
with co-ordination of information from a
variety of sources."
In Mackworth's current vision system, the
machine uses a straightforward computer
graphic model of its arm, does analysis by
synthesis and uses its own internal model
to match what it sees. Mackworth has used
fast parallel algorithms and standard
computer vision techniques such as edge
identification to accomplish the job at
video speed (30 times per second).
"The system can find the boom fairly
quickly, and then the stick and bucket [on
the excavator the research team was given
by Caterpillar to carry out its work]. It
currently takes three seconds to identify
This CICSR research team is working towards
development and application of more intelligent
machines and better control systems to operate
them. Researchers in this group include Dr.
Dale Cherchas; Dr. Chris Ma   and
Dr. Farrokh Sassani.
The research project is initially
aimed at developing more
intelligent controls for forest
industry machinery. But there
are many more potential applications of the various facets of
the project research. Many will
take advantage of the benefits
of telerobotics.
the arm using a rough initial guess where it
might be," said Mackworth. He is now
working on speeding up the system using
more parallel hardware, more information
to predict where the arm will be next time
you look at it, and by taking advantage of
new, faster computer architecture.
The evolution of the computer hardware
industry is a positive trend for the project.
Increasing amounts of speed and power are
being packed into smaller packages,
making it feasible to put a lot of sophisticated systems into a relatively confined
space like the cab of Caterpillar.
Dr. Dale Cherchas of mechanical engineering is working on robotic control for the
project. He is using adaptive control to
maintain smooth and accurate motion for
different weights and bucket positions.
Cherchas is also interested in the ability to
run the controller with no previous
knowledge of the mathematical model of
the machinery and its responses. He is
developing a scheme to allow the controller to determine for itself the form of the
mathematical response as well as detailed
parameters. By next summer, he hopes to
have combined the two abilities: a control
system that determines its model automatically and adapts to machine parameters as
they change.
Dr. Chris Ma of electrical engineering is
working on endpoint sensing for the
project, to enable the machine to sense
where the bucket, arm or other point of
interest is at any given time.
Ma is currently exploring several ideas to
determine the best method, including
flashing lights and photosensors, and radio
triangulation. "One of the goals is to
develop a system that is so robust it can
operate outdoors in fog, rain, and possibly
even fire," said Ma.
Once the machine control project is
complete, Lawrence hopes to see the
technology transferred to the forest
industry and the manufacturing industries,
preferably in B.C. Some of the research
projects may take longer than others to be
applied in the field, said Lawrence. "There
are several engineers in the department
whose role will be to implement the
technologies onboard the machines as they
become feasible."
Lawrence's own research in resolve-
motion control was the first technology to
reach this stage, and receive a number of
patents. Lawrence studied the human-
joystick relationship and showed how a
... continued on page 7 Fishy business for CICSR researcher
■ The Canadian fish processing industry is
important to the nation's economy, but is
not as efficient or competitive as it could
be. CICSR researcher Dr. Clarence de
Silva, professor of mechanical engineering
and an ASI fellow, heads the research team
working to change that.
De Silva holds the NSERC chair established to apply advanced technology to the
fish processing industry in Canada. B.C.
Packers is also funding the research and
providing data, materials and testing
facilities for the research team. Other
supporters include the B.C. Advanced
Systems Institute and Science Council of
Currently, fish is processed in one of two
ways: either by hand, or using outdated
machines nicknamed "iron butchers."
There are drawbacks to both. The manual
method requires skill and training, but the
job is tiring, repetitious and unpleasant.
The machine processing is inaccurate and
about five per cent of the fish is wasted.
De Silva said that just one per cent of
wastage accounts for $5 million. "By
improving recovery, there is a potential for
revenue increases of $25 million. The main
objective of the funding is to develop
better machines," he said. Current machines often remove some of the meat
when they remove the fish's heads.
De Silva's research team, which includes
Dr. Ray Gosine of mechanical engineering,
holder of the NSERC junior chair, is using
three different technologies in combination
to improve yield: vision, robotics and
intelligent control.
The vision system will use a camera and
computer to analyze the image of the fish
as it passes by on a conveyor belt. That
way, the fish won't be cut blindly as they
are using current methods. The problem to
overcome in vision is that the image
processing must be done very quickly —
two fish are processed per second.
That's where the intelligent control comes
in. De Silva has built up a knowledge base
of information about fish, so that given a
few key measurements, the control system
can quickly determine the best place to cut.
Sophisticated control is also used to
determine the position of the fish and the
cutting equipment.
Robotics do the actual work. De Silva is
developing special cutters that make V-
shaped incisions, minimizing wasted fish
meat. He is also working on more sophisticated cutters to reduce waste even further.
As well, robotics are used to hold the fish
in position for cutting.
The UBC mechanical engineering department has working prototypes for the vision
system and cutters. De Silva also plans to
develop a very complex cutter for filleting
and trimming fish.
One of the project engineers is now in the
planning stages of forming a company to
manufacture and market the improved fish
processing equipment. The equipment will
be available first to B.C. Packers, and then
will be sold across Canada. De Silva said
the products may eventually find their way
to export markets, but not for awhile — the
goal of the project is to make Canadian
fish processing more competitive.
De Silva expects his work to be ongoing,
long after the first machines are shipped
out. There will be incremental improvements as new technologies are made
available. As well, he is working on other
aspects of the fish processing industry,
including herring roe inspection and fish
tagging. ■
Dr. Clarence de Silva's lab is filled with
equipment to research applications of technology
in the fish processing industry. One system under
development is a vision system that uses a camera
and a computer to quickly analyze the image of a
fish as it passes by on a conveyor belt. Research promises better
television picture quality
■ When Rogers Cable sends out signals
from the Rogers Cantel Tower in Bumaby
to thousands of television sets in B.C., the
company has no idea what kind of picture
is being received at the other end. They
can monitor the signals being sent out, but
monitoring the signal received by the
customer has always been very difficult.
Rogers Cable has awarded CICSR
researcher Rabab Ward of electrical
engineering a three-year grant to tackle the
problem. Her goal is to develop a system
"We have to digitize the
[television] pictures, then filter
them to separate out the
impairments. Then we can
correct the problem.
We didn't know this was
possible before we started
our research."
that can detect the presence of picture
impairments, determine their nature and
inform the head-end which sends the signal
"One of the difficulties is that you can send
any picture over the cable network,"
explains Ward. "So how can the computer
tell if there is an impairment?"
Compounding the difficulty is the fact that
there are more than 25 different kinds of
impairments, including snow noise,
ghosting, beats (moving diagonal bars) and
co-channel interference.
Ward is first working with snow noise and
beats because they are among the most
common and annoying impairments. Beats
are usually caused by intermodulation
distortion which is created by over-driven
cable amplifiers. Snow noise is caused by a
weak signal, often due to poor weather,
faulty cable splices or thermal heat in the
Ward has examined several approaches to
the problem of determining the presence
CICSR researcher Rabab Ward of electrical
engineering, working with graduate students, is
conducting promising research on improving
picture signal quality for Rogers Cable.
and type of impairments viewers receive.
One approach is to send a known test
signal which can be subtracted from the
received image and determine if there is a
problem. "But using a test signal would
interfere with the broadcast signal," said
Ward. "The approach we have taken can
detect impairments irrespective of the
picture you send."
When a picture is transmitted over the
cable network, it is transmitted in one
dimension. At the receiving end it is
interlaced, filling up first the odd, then the
even lines to produce a two-dimensional
image. Ward has developed a way to take
any 2-D image and isolate the original
picture from its impairment.
Ward has found that all impairments
appear in the high frequency range, while
the original picture does not. However, she
qualifies this by stating this is true only for
the types of impairments she has worked
with so far. Even more promising, Ward
has been able to correct the pictures
customers receive, without even fixing the
cause of the problem.
"We have to digitize the pictures, then
filter them to separate out the impairments.
Then we can correct the problem," said
Ward. "We didn't know this was possible
before we started our research."
She adds that these results are very
preliminary. There is a lot more work to be
done before the results of Ward's research
will be implemented at Rogers Cable, but
her initial findings have lots of potential. ■ B.C. Advanced Systems Institute:
bringing universities and industry together
■ B.C. Advanced Systems Institute
programs manager Jeff Berryman said he
has met more people from various UBC
departments in his current job capacity
than during the 20 years he worked at the
ASI's promotes interaction between
university researchers and industry, offers
fellowships for advanced systems researchers, and funds research consortia and
According to Berryman, ASI's main
program for universities is the fellowship
program. Currently 24 ASI fellows receive
up to $70,000 per year. "The idea of the
money is to support industrial innovation
and interaction with colleagues, similar to
the goals of CICSR" said Berryman. "The
funding is often used for teaching relief,
support of research assistants and for
purchase of lab equipment. The fellowship
program has contributed materially to the
establishment of sustaining laboratories."
For example, CICSR member Ian
Yellowley used his ASI fellowship to help
establish an industrial robotics lab at UBC.
ASI has also helped to found Kinetic
Sciences Inc. a research company specializing in health sciences and computer
vision. President Guy Immega has subcontracted the research services of CICSR's
Dr. Peter Lawrence of electrical engineering and Dale Cherchas of mechanical
engineering. Contracts awarded to date
include a $900,000 contract to research
autonomous robotics for the space station
Freedom, and a $450,000 contract from the
Department of National Defence to
develop a simplified robotic hand.
"The company is a mediator of technology
transfer — a valuable and rare kind of
company," said Berryman. ASI provided
working capital under its product development fund, and provided ASI fellowships
to Lawrence and Cherchas for three years
"to enable them to develop their research
profile to the point where this could
One of ASI's goals is to help incorporate
new technologies into resource industries.
"The biggest challenge in
university-industry liaison is to
get the time scales reconciled.
Industry tends to have short
time lines, while universities'
are long and open-ended. The
more universities can put
together sustaining facilities,
the more compatibility there
will be."
Lawrence is lead researcher on a project to
put better controls into forestry machinery.
The project has received substantial
support, and is described in detail in this
newsletter. ASI also supports Dr. Clarence
de Silva's work with B.C. Packers, also
described in this issue of CICSR FOCUS.
"ASI is one step out of the university and
towards industry," said Berryman. "We
provide a comfort factor for both sides.
University and industry don't always speak
the same language."
Berryman said the biggest challenge in
university-industry liaison is to get the
time scales reconciled. Industry tends to
have short time lines, while universities'
time lines are often long and open-ended.
"The more universities can put together
sustaining facilities, the more compatibility there will be."
Berryman sees ASI's role as one of
inspiring research, though not directing it
in any heavy-handed way. "In the future,
we want to create opportunities by bringing
universities and industry into the same
room. If the people in the room have
common interests, some excellent ideas
can be traded back and forth."
ASI looks for input from its fellows on
how it should conduct its business and
facilitate technology transfer. The institute's goal is to increase the resources
ASI's Jeff Berryman
devoted to this kind of intellectual liaison
in the future. "We are always looking for
more ways to move technology into
industry," said Berryman.
One of the best ways to move technology
is to move people. ASI is working to
improve the calibre of graduate students in
B.C., and also to encourage them to stay
and work in the province, transferring their
knowledge to B.C. companies. As well,
ASI offers a visiting fellowship program
to encourage short working visits moving
researchers from universities to industry
and vice versa.
Berryman said ASI is now in a consolidation phase, and has been building its image
and refining its goals since executive
director Mike Volker came aboard in
1988. He expects ASI to be able to offer
more resources in the future towards
getting the good research ideas in universities practically implemented. ■ r
CICSR sponsors VLSI CAD course
■ Computer science graduates need to
recognize hardware as just another tool to
solve problems in computer science,
alongside various high level languages and
assembly codes, says Dr. Peter Robinson.
Robinson is assistant director of research
in the computer laboratory and the
University of Cambridge. He visited UBC
July 15-19 to teach a course on semi-
custom VLSI CAD. A four-day course, and
an intensive one-day workshop were held
during the week.
The one-day workshop, focusing on
educational programs at the undergraduate
and graduate level, covered the role of
VLSI education, support needed by
universities, employment opportunities, the
need for semi-custom VLSI CAD education to support research in other areas,
course outlines, instruction on system
design, and links with CASE technology.
The four-day course on semi-custom VLSI
CAD used the QuickChip logic design
system developed by Qudos Ltd.,
Cambridge, U.K.
Drs. J. Joyce and C. Seger from the department of computer science, and Drs. A. Ivanov and D. Camporese from the department
of electrical engineering were the course
organizers. They took on the job because
they felt that it was important for their
students to be exposed to. semi-custom VLSI
CAD. Dr. Joyce says that "the technology is
becoming incredibly important. They can be
made quicker and less expensively than full
custom design chips".
Joyce notes that a lot of universities hold
full-length custom chip design courses
where student design chips from scratch.
He feels semi-custom makes more sense in
many cases because few students end up
doing full custom design in their jobs. As
well, when they design a semi-custom chip
as part of a course, they are more likely to
produce something that's going to work.
Joyce's own research interests are in
formal verification of hardware and
software. He says that very few software
programs are known to be correct, though
errorless programming is critical in some
cases, such as in software controlling
aircraft or anti-lock braking systems.
Joyce commended CICSR for organizing
the course. CICSR provided funding and
organizational support, and facilitated
interaction between computer science,
electrical engineering and mechanical engineering faculty members. "It makes sense to
co-operate with other CICSR departments
because they have complementary expertise
in aspects of VLSI design and its applications," said Joyce.
He sees semi-custom VLSI design and
related technologies closing what has
traditionally been a big gap between
hardware and software. Says Joyce, "The
distinction is becoming blurred, and to
some extent, educational institutions
haven't kept up." ■
Dr. Jeff Joyce (back) of UBC computer science and Dr. P. Robinson of University of Cambridge,
oversaw students at the semi-custom VLSI CAD course sponsored by CICSR and held at UBC in July.
SMART MACHINES  ... continued from page 3
hydraulic system model can be employed
to close the loop in a hydraulic system.
Real Frenette, a hardware engineer in the
department of electrical engineering,
implemented the research onto the
Throughout the life of the project, many
industrial and government organizations
have provided support. Industrial collaborators include RSI Research, MacMillan
Bloedel Research, Caterpillar and Finning.
Other organizations that have contributed
to the project include the Canadian
Institute for Advanced Research, B.C.
Advanced Systems Institute, the federal
Networks of Centres of Excellence under
IRIS (Institute for Robotics and Intelligent
Systems), National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), and UBC
Industry Liaison Office.
While the project is initially aimed at
developing more intelligent controls for
forest industry machinery, there are many
more potential applications of the various
facets of the project research. Mackworth
noted that the three main advantages of
telerobotics are scale, safety and distance.
Distance advantages can be used in the
forest industry, where cable logging
methods often require machines to be
moved along the top of a ridge. Remote
operation saves an operator from having to
climb up and down the hill repeatedly. It's
also safer in a lot of cases. Safety is also a
consideration in telerobotics for mining,
bomb disposal, subsea tasks and work at
nuclear power stations. Telerobotics help a
human operator deal with large differences
in scale, from microsurgery to large-scale
construction. And once intelligent machines are developed and become more
advanced, we will find new uses for them
— they will likely change the way we do a
lot of things today. ■ Passing notes
| Two CICSR researchers
awarded ASI fellowships
■ Two CICSR researchers, Dr. Clarence
j  de Silva and Dr. Tim Salcudean, were
recently awarded fellowships from the
B.C. Advanced Systems Institute.
De Silva's fellowship will run until
December 31, 1994. His research
interests fall within the broad category of
control and process automation, and he
holds the NSERC chair to apply advanced technology to the fish processing
Salcudean's fellowship runs until June
30, 1996. His research goal is to devise
op'tjmization-based computer-aided
control system design methods and to
apply them to electromechanical devices,
with robotics and teleoperation applications in mind.
New ASI fellows Dr. Clarence de Silva (left)
and Dr. Tim Salcudean.
ASI GRAP tour a success
Through funding from the B.C. Advanced Systems  Institute Graduate
Assistance Program (GRAP), 38 potential UBC graduate students were given a
four-day tour of UBC and Vancouver.
Students visited various laboratories, met .
with faculty members and other graduate
students. The goal of GRAP is to
encourage top-quality graduate students
to attend B.C. universities.
Graphically Speaking
The Distinguished Lecture Series
For 1991-92
Six Academic and Industrial Leaders
Address the Future of Computer Graphics,
Visualization and the Man-Machine
October 10, 1991
Shared Workspaces: A Look at
Supporting Distributed Workgroups
Dr. Sara Bly
Researcher, Xerox Palo Alto Research
November 7, 1991
Unravelling the Physics and Chemistry
of Environmental Problems Using
Dr. Gregory J. McRae
Professor, Engineering and Public Policy
and Chemical Engineering, Carnegie
Mellon University
December 5, 1991
Electronic Books:
User-Controlled Animation in a
Hypermedia Framework
Dr. Andries van Dam
Professor of Computer Science,
Brown University
January 16, 1992
Technological Mindset
Dr. Marilyn Mantei
Associate Professor of Computer Science
and Management Information Science,
University of Toronto
February 13, 1992
Realistic Image Synthesis: Progress and
Dr. Donald P. Greenberg
Director, Program of Computer Graphics
and Professor of Computer Graphics,
Cornell University
March 12, 1992
Fluid Dynamics, Massively Parallel
Processors and Real-Time Flow
Dr. James A. Sethian
Professor of Mathematics, University of
California, Berkeley and Senior Scientist,
Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley
Join Us for a New Look
At How We Use Machines
This is CICSR's fourth Distinguished Lecture
Series. It provides an opportunity for those
interested in graphics to learn from the experience
and ideas of world-class researchers. Advance
registration is not required.
Lectures run from 1:00 p.m. to 2.30 p.m., Room 100, SCARFE Building. Lectures are complimentary.
CASE course scheduled       CICSR:
CICSR is co-sponsoring a course
September 27 entitled "Trends and
Directions in CASE." Cadre Technologies co-founder Read Fleming will speak
about computer-aided software engineering trends, and separate afternoon
sessions will be geared to managers and
developers interested in CASE.
Cadre Technologies of Bellevue,
Washington recently supplied several
tools for CICSR's shared software
initiative, including Teamwork. ■
The UBC Centre for Integrated Computer
Systems Research (CICSR) is an interdepartmental research organization made up of computer-
related research faculty members in the
Departments of Computer Science, Electrical
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.
Currently there are more than 60 CICSR
researchers which direct over 100 graduate
students and collaborate with dozens of industrial
firms in areas such as robotics, artificial
intelligence, communications, VLSI design and
industrial automation.
CISCR FOCUS, is published twice a year.
EDITOR:  Leslie Ellis
DESIGN:  Rob Bishop
Office: 2053 - 2324 Main Mall,
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
Tel: (604) 822-6894, fax: (604) 822-9013
Contact: Susan Perley


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