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Focus 2004

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Staying in Control
► Design-Directed Learning
► Machine Control
► Survival Mechanisms
Professor of Mechanical
Engineering and ICICS member
Ian Yellowley has been working
in the areas of product
development and machine
control for over 30 years,
27 of them in academia.
FOCUS uncovers the secret to
his long and vibrant career.
Back in 1965, when fellow students were
tuning in, turning on and dropping out,
Ian Yellowley was working as a university
apprentice with Rolls Royce. At that
time, the field of numerical control was
burgeoning with innovations in digital
electronics and discrete logic. "There I
was, an eighteen-year-old student in the
middle of a very large manufacturing plant
watching these amazing automated
machines," he recalls. "I knew that this
was what I wanted to do with my life."
Yellowley's early years with Rolls
Royce, and as Industrial Engineering
Manager at Westinghouse, were pivotal to
his career. He considers the time he now
spends working with industry his 'safety
valve.' "Once a week I try to get out of the
university environment and look at real
problems," he says.
Continued on page 2
Spring 2004 Vol. 15, No. 1
Getting to the Math of the Problem 3
Wireless Communications 4-6
Keeping the Lights On 7
In a Flap Over Flying Robots 8
Opening the Door to Public Knowledge 9 ICICS
Director's Corner
In this issue of FOCUS, we introduce seven
recent ICICS members from the faculties
of Applied Science, Science and Education.
We also profile the successful career of one
of our more senior members. Ian Yellowley
joined Mechanical Engineering in 1988.
Since then, his work in product development and machine control has made a
major impact in industry and in teaching.
Several of our profiled members work
in wireless communications. Vikram
Krishnamurthy (ECE) designs and
analyses high-performance, self-learning
control algorithms for wireless and sensor
networks. Vincent Wong (ECE) works in
the emerging field of mobile ad hoc
networks and wireless mesh networks,
exploring the use of laptops, PDAs and
other mobile devices to help transmit data.
Also in Electrical and Computer
Engineering, Dave Michelson's research in
channel modelling simulates and predicts
how radio waves interact with different
John Willinsky, professor of Language
and Literacy Education, is developing new
electronic publishing models to increase
public access to academic research. Juri
Jatskevich (ECE) works in power electronics and simulation of electrical systems to
help ensure a stable power supply in
changing and demanding times. In
Computer Science, Chen Greif s research
in numerical linear algebra provides fast,
reliable solutions to a wide variety of
large-scale problems.
Last but certainly not least, Joseph
Yan (ECE) and his robotic dragonfly—
the flipside of our cover story in the last
issue of FOCUS—are creating a flap in the
area of micromechatronics. I hope you
enjoy reading about this exciting and
innovative work.
Rabab Ward, ICICS Director
►   Yellowley: Continued from page 1
Designing for Real-World Applications
The focus of Yellowley's work over
the past 12 years has been the design
of an innovative open architecture
control system that integrates
planning with both process and
motion control. The system, which
resulted in several patents, provides high-performance, low-cost
control architectures for use in
automated manufacturing systems.
"In the old days, typical
industrial control architectures
would require several micro
controllers, all connected to a bus or
network," notes Yellowley. "These
days, almost the entire architecture is
packed into a field programmable gate
array (FPGA)." Imagine an entire
machine control system the size of a box
of chocolates. In 2001, Yellowley formed
the UBC spin-off company Cameleon
Controls to write the firmware and
software needed for others to adopt the
control system. Major industry partners
include Exor/Ultimodule who use
the architecture in modular
electronics, and Teleflex Canada.
Current activity within Yellowley's
lab focuses on using the architecture
in the real-time process control of
complex metal cutting operations, and
the development of new methods to
allow the dynamic reconfiguration of
control systems. These go beyond the
normal "plug-and-play" to improve
safety and productivity in automated
manufacturing processes.
Developing Design-Directed Learning
Yellowley is trying to move his
philosophy of solving real-world problems
from the lab into the classroom—and
the curriculum. It is a hard sell, as design-
directed learning not only builds on the
problem-based learning approach, but
also adds a layer of technology between
the problem and the underlying science.
In addition, it forces the student to
define the real problem first.
Understanding the technology—
and having
the ambition to improve it—becomes
the motivation for learning basic science
and mathematics. In 2000, with a
one-time grant of more than $1 million
from NSERC, Yellowley and colleagues
from across the country founded the
Canadian Design Engineering Network
(CDEN/RCCI). He was the first chair
of the network and currently serves on
the steering committee. More recently,
Yellowley became the founding editor
of the network's new Journal of
Engineering Design Innovation.
"I have friends who have
stressful jobs, and I tell them
they need a sandbox to
play in. My lab is my sandbox.
A great proponent of doing as well
as thinking, Yellowley encourages his
students to be more "hands-on." His
advice for young researchers coming up
through the ranks? "Look outside. Look
sideways. Don't just follow the obvious
academic opportunities... that path is
well beaten and a little bare!"
Ian Yellowley can be contacted at
604.822.3528 or yellowley@mech.ubc.ca
FOCUS Getting to the Math of the Problem
Computer scientist Chen Greif works in numerical linear algebra and scientific computing to
find fast, reliable, and robust numerical solutions to large-scale linear problems.
► Numerical Linear Algebra
► Scientific Computing
► Constrained Optimization
Behind every complex problem is a
mathematical solution. When researchers
encounter such a problem in mathematics,
computer science, or engineering, the first
step to solving it is to model it, says ICICS
member Chen Greif. The next step is to
solve it numerically, using computers. This
is where his research comes in. "My work is
not so much about the description of the
application; it is more about the method of
solving problems," explains Greif, professor
in Computer Science.
For example, Greif helped to solve a
data outlier problem in functional MRI,
where failing to correct for patient motion
during a procedure can lead to false-positive
or false-negative results. The success of
motion correction depends on the accuracy
of the detection algorithm. "You need to
take into account the 'noise' in the data,
so that it will not dominate the solution,"
he says. "This presents a very challenging,
large-scale numerical problem, and solving
it accurately is crucial to being able to
successfully detect these motions."
Breaking the Computational Bottleneck
Constrained optimization problems,
another area related to Greif's work in
numerical linear algebra, arise in numerous
practical applications. "These can be
described simply as trying to minimize or
maximize an objective function, subject to
some constraints." He sites the example of
a financial advisor assessing risk. "In this
case, it is trying to maximize profits
subject to the constraint on risk."
Greif is a member of the Scientific
Computing and Visualization Laboratory,
and he is also very active in the Pacific
Institute for the Mathematical Sciences
(PIMS) at UBC. He notes that scientific
computing is the focus of PIMS activities
from 2003 to 2005. While the crux of his
work is to devise reliable algorithms and
analyze both the numerical properties of
large linear systems and the methods used
to solve them, he is also interested in the
continuous mathematical problems
from which linear systems arise, and in
many cases these are partial differential
equations. "Under almost any continuous
mathematical problem hides a linear system
that needs to be solved in an efficient
way," Greif says. "What I do is attack the
bottleneck by solving problems in the
underlying linear systems."
Chen Greif can be reached at
604.827.5185 or greif@cs.ubc.ca Making Wireless Systems More Reliable
Recent ICICS member Dave Michelson's work in propagation
and channel modelling is setting international standards.
► Radiowave Propagation
► Channel Modelling
► Next Generation Wireless
The infiltration of wireless technology
into homes, offices, and industry during
the past decade has been nothing short of
phenomenal. Dave Michelson, a professor
in Electrical and Computer Engineering, is
helping to improve the performance and
reliability of wireless systems through his
work in radiowave propagation and
channel modelling.
"We're using wireless technology in
situations that would have been unheard of
only a decade ago, yet we're increasingly
expecting them to perform as well as their
wired counterparts," says Michelson.
"The key to improving the performance
and reliability of wireless systems is to
thoroughly understand and characterize the
environment in which they operate. Only
then can appropriate solutions be devised."
Prior to joining UBC, Michelson spent
five years as a member of a joint AT&T
Wireless Services and AT&T Labs research
team charged with developing propagation
and channel models for fixed wireless and
next generation wireless systems. The
experience and expertise that he acquired
there are in high demand.
Among the many projects and collaborations that he currently has underway,
Michelson is developing propagation and
channel models that will help ORBCOMM
(Dulles, VA) improve the performance of
their land mobile satellite system in urban
and suburban environments. He is also
working with Nokia Mobile Phones
(Vancouver Product Creation Centre) to
develop more effective next generation
cell phones, and Inco (Sudbury, ON) to
more effectively deploy wireless LANs in
mining tunnels located almost
3 kilometres beneath the
earth's surface.
Closer to home, Michelson
is collaborating with Victor Leung.
Resve Saleh, and Robert Schober, fellow
ICICS members and colleagues in Electrical
and Computer Engineering on an NSERC-
funded three-year study concerning
Enabling Technologies for Wireless Personal
Area Networks. A member of the management committee that oversaw the planning
and deployment of the world's largest
campus wireless LAN—at UBC!—he is
currently working with UBC's IT Services
and Cisco Systems to model the factors that
affect wireless LAN performance in campus
and enterprise environments.
"Collecting propagation data can be
expensive and time-consuming, but it's only
half the task," says Michelson. "Reducing
the data to models useful in system design
and simulation is the essential and
perhaps most demanding step in
yielding the results that my colleagues
in both industry and academia need to
pursue their own work."
Michelson is also an active member
of the international wireless community.
He serves as Chair of the IEEE Vehicular
Technology Society's Technical Committee
on Propagation and Channel Modeling and
as an Associate Editor for propagation and
channel modelling for IEEE Transactions on
Vehicular Technology. He also participates in,
and has contributed to, several IEEE 802
working and study groups that develop
many of the internationally recognized
technical standards that wireless hardware
and software developers follow when
designing products.
Dave Michelson can be reached at
604.822.3544 or at davem@ece.ubc.ca.
' "The key to improving the
performance and reliability of
wireless systems is to thoroughly
understand and characterize the
environment in which they
FOCUS Self-Learning Control of Wireless Networks
Canada Research Chair in Signal Processing, Vikram Krishnamurthy designs and analyses
high-performance, self-learning control algorithms for complex wireless and sensor networks.
The task of controlling the performance
of a wireless communications network or
battlefield sensor network involves making
automated decisions, which, until recently,
were computationally too expensive. "Over
the past ten years, clever randomized
algorithms have been developed in the
mathematical and statistical communities
for solving these problems," says Vikram
Krisnamurthy, ICICS member and professor
in Electrical and Computer Engineering.
He devises and analyses statistical signal
processing and control algorithms to run
increasingly complex systems, such as cellular
wireless networks, radar systems, and
defence networks.
Algorithms that Use Assimilation
An interesting aspect of stochastic control
algorithms is their self-learning capability,
which is based on an "assimilation" approach.
Instead of previous "cursive" models of
learning, which require an understanding of
every detail of a system, the algorithms study
and then optimize output by strategically
tweaking input. Krishnamurthy likens the
randomized process to learning to drive a car.
"Most people don't know how an entire car
operates, yet we learn to drive by observing
its overall response to our actions."
Krishnamurthy's research focuses on
three main areas: mobile telecommunications, radio signal processing and neurobiology. With funding from NSERC, he and
fellow ICICS member Victor Leung, also
from Electrical and Computer Engineering,
are working on third generation (3-G) cross
layer optimization for wireless networks.
Traditional research in 3-G has been focused
on either designing better receivers or
optimizing the software to better handle
incoming data. In addition, wireless systems
involve different degrees of randomness,
since random data signals are corrupted by
noise. They are also prone to atmospheric
effects, interference from other users,
buildings, and stray reflections, which all
produce channel fading. "In wireless systems,
we are looking at joint optimization of the
physical hardware layer and the higher level
software layer, which increases the complexity
of the task significantly."
Smart Sensors on the Battlefield
Helping to automate the decision
process of a commander-in-chief in a
battlefield scenario is another aspect of
Krishnamurthy's research. In modern warfare,
several battleships, submarines, aircraft, and
satellite systems are continually scanning the
battlefield. Each is equipped with a range of
sensors, such as radar, sonar, and imagers to
compile a picture of the battlefield. "How
can an automated system analyse this huge
amount of data, extract the important
information, adapt to the situation at hand,
and respond in a fashion that is less
error-prone than a human being?" asks
Krishnamurthy. With funding from Defence
Research and Development Canada and
Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency
in the US, he is working to develop intelligent sensors that can screen and process data.
Ion Channel Modelling and Control
Understanding the mechanisms of
ion channels at the molecular level is a
fundamental problem in biology. A single ion
channel is a large protein molecule in a nerve
cell membrane. All electrical activities in the
nervous system, including communications
between cells and the influence of hormones
and drugs on cell function, are regulated by
membrane ion channels. In collaboration
with neurobiologists at the Australian
National University, Krishnamurthy currently
develops signal processing algorithms to
maximize the amount of information that can
be extracted from ion channel experiments.
Vikram Krishnamurthy can be contacted at
604.822.2653 or vikramk@ece.ubc.ca
"If you think of a wireless system as several people sharing a
common resource, how can you equitably allocate that resource—in real time?' Sharing Systems with Wireless Pirates?
Tomorrow's wireless networks will use personal devices such as laptops to springboard data
transmission and Internet access. Encouraging users to share their computing resources while
keeping wireless pirates at bay are two challenges for ICICS member Vincent Wong
When we think of wireless communication,
the ubiquitous cell phone comes to mind.
Vincent Wong, Electrical and Computer
Engineering professor, is working on mobile
networks that take the concept of wireless
communication to new dimensions. One
example is wireless personal area networks,
which allow short-range wireless transmission across multiple devices, such as
computers, printers, PDAs, and digital
cameras, using Bluetooth technology. Wong
also works on wireless sensor networks
for surveillance and military applications.
Perhaps the most intriguing and
ingenious aspect of Wong's work is Mobile
Ad Hoc NETworks (MANETs) and wireless
mesh networks, which allow notebook
computers, PDAs, and other mobile devices
to relay data traffic to each other. Wireless
users (or nodes) outside the transmission
range of the stationary gateway node
(i.e. an Internet access point) can continue
to communicate with the gateway via their
neighbours' notebooks using multi-hop
pathways. In effect, wireless mobile
computers become jumping off points
for the transmission of data.
Managing Wireless Mobile
Ad Hoc Networks
To complement the new mobile
ad hoc routing protocols being standardized
within the Internet Engineering Task Force
(IETF), Wong works on load balancing and
secure routing protocols for MANETs and
wireless mesh networks. Since users are
mobile, the routing paths between devices
change constantly. Control messages must
be sent to locate these "intermediate"
transmission nodes. Wong's work in
"load balancing" aims at reducing control
traffic, which can slow down the network,
while distributing data across multiple
access points. "If we can do this then we
will have more bandwidth for the data
traffic," he says.
Selling the Sharing of Mobile Resources
The concept of MANETs is
ingenious, but it is also susceptible to
very human shortcomings. Wong notes
that whenever users transmit or relay
packets for other users, they draw on
energy from their own device. What if a
user doesn't want to share computing
resources? While all users can opt in or
out of the network, MANETs will only
work if the majority of users participate.
"We will probably need to give some kind
of incentive to users so that they will be
willing to relay or accept packets for
others," admits Wong.
Foiling Wireless Pirates
And what about malicious users
who want to steal data or sabotage the
system just for the fun of it? Users can
attack the system—and other users—in
a number of ways. They can send back
messages saying they have the transmission
path, when they do not, in order to gain
access to information. They can change
the content of a message, or simply drop
it, which eventually plays havoc with the
system. They can also reduce the capacity
of the network by flooding it with
redundant control messages. Data security
is a hot area in general, says Wong.
Designing protocols to manage MANETs
and keep one step ahead of wireless
pirates is the work he relishes.
Vincent Wong can be contacted at
604.827.5135 or vincentw@ece.ubc.ca
Spring 2004 Keeping the Lights On
ICICS member, Juri Jatskevich's work in simulation of electrical systems will help to ensure
a stable power supply in unstable and demanding times.
"Now, different utilities are
breaking up into sub-companies
that have their own financial
goals. By pursuing these goals
they sometimes forget about
the physics behind these
' systems and that's when
blackouts happen."
Last summer's power blackout cut a swath      extreme temperatures due to global
across eastern North America, leaving
millions with the stark realization that we
can no longer take power for granted.
Increased demand by growing populations,
warming, an aging infrastructure, and a
changing relationship between service
providers are key problems. The goals of
power deregulation may be to increase
Power Deregulation
Power Electronic Systems
Independent Power
quality of service by increasing competition,
but in Ontario, California and Britain that
has not happened; service has been reduced
and power prices have escalated. Juri
Jatskevich, professor in Electrical and
Computer Engineering, is working in
power electronics to help "keep the lights
on" in deregulated environments.
Problems of Interconnectivity and Control
Before deregulation, power utilities
were all interconnected, which provided an
inherent compatibility and stability. That
no longer holds true. Systems are becoming
less robust because the interconnection
between utilities is no longer consistent.
Private companies can also install power
conditioning devices that control and limit
the power exchange agreed upon between
utilities. "Contracts are based on a fixed
number of megawatts—no more, no less,"
says Jatskevich. "And this limits the system's
natural ability to handle some disturbances."
One way to prevent escalating
blackouts is to design local, smart
controllers that would prevent some loads
from drawing more power than the system
could handle. Jatskevich is also working to
develop simulations to analyse these large
complex systems at a high level of detail,
and then distribute simulation models over
a large network of computers to get the
results faster. "In the future, we will have
to rely more on active control in power
utilities," he says.
Continued on back page
Spring 2004 In a Flap Over Flying Robots
ICICS member Joseph Yan is fascinated with the aerodynamics of insect flight.
His work on a robotic dragonfly is at the forefront of micromechatronics
and involves collaboration with mechanical engineers, biologists and physicists
► Biomimetic robots
► Micromechatronics
Micro-aerial vehicles
How do insects dart and hover, or stop
and start in mid-air? In the last issue of
FOCUS, we read about fellow ICICS
member John Maddens (ECE) work in
molecular actuators—artificial muscle
with the power to lift a robot into flight.
ICICS member Joseph Yan's work in
micromechatronics is the flip side of the
story. The Electrical and Computer
Engineering professor is delving into the
intricate aerodynamics of insect flight in
order to build a mechanical dragonfly based
on its biological forebear, with a 7.5 cm
wingspan, 300 mg mass and a target wing
beat frequency of 40 Hz, or 40 beats per
But why build a flying insect? Search
and rescue, hazardous environment
inspection, surveillance, power line
inspection, and personal robotics are all
potential applications. Prior to coming to
UBC, Yan worked with biomimetic and
micromechanical pioneer Ron Fearing at
U.C. Berkeley. "We discovered for these
micro-aerial vehicles that need to work in
more confined spaces, flapping wings seem
to be the way to go," says Yan. "There we
were using single crystal piezoelectric
actuators, which work well, but are very
expensive and have small ranges of motion,"
he notes. "The electroactive polymers John
is working on are cheap, easy to fabricate
and have larger ranges of motion."
Insect Aerodynamics
Mimicking the intricate mechanisms
of nature is always a daunting task. Insect
flight, known for its unsteady aerodynamics, is intriguing on several levels. First,
insects do not merely flap their wings. At
the beginning of a stroke, or wing beat, an
insect accelerates its wings at a high angle
of attack, usually 45 degrees or more. For
aircraft which rely on steady aerodynamics,
wing angles are typically less than 30
degrees as higher values would cause the
vehicle to stall.
"An insect doesn't experience this stall,
because before it gets to that effect, its wings
reverse direction," says Yan. In fact, at the
end of the stroke they also rotate their
wings very rapidly. "This motion results in
a rotational lift force analogous to the one
experienced by a curve ball," explains Yan.
Continued on back page
FOCUS Opening the Door to Public Knowledge
Recent ICICS member John Willinsky looks to new electronic publishing models to increase public
access to academic research.
► Public Access to Academic
► Academic Journal Management
► Online Publishing Systems
When John Willinsky talks about the
"serials crisis" in higher education, he is
not talking about a tempest in a librarian's
teapot. Increasing subscription rates have
forced universities everywhere to cancel
academic journal subscriptions. Libraries
everywhere, particularly in the developing
world, are suffering the consequences.
The Agricultural Sciences University in
Bangalore, for example, has cut journal
subscriptions by 40 percent, depriving
both faculty and students of access to the
latest research and thinking.
Willinsky, a professor of Language and
Literacy Education in the Faculty of
Education, witnessed the impact of the
serials crisis when he toured African and
Indian universities in the spring of 2003.
"Knowledge is critical to development,"
he emphasizes. "What I've seen in Africa
and India is that basic access to the research
literature in print has been decimated."
With a grant from the MacArthur
Foundation, Willinsky visited both
continents to take stock of the situation
and to promote a solution to the crisis—
the development of publishing models
that support free, public access to scholarly
journals and the knowledge they contain.
Public Knowledge Project
Willinsky leads the Public Knowledge
Project (PKP), a federally-funded initiative
that brings together computer and social
scientists to develop software tools that
will help spread academic research to a
wider audience.
The Open Journal System (OJS) is one
such tool. A free journal management and
publishing system, OJS automates several
publishing tasks. It offers online article
submission and tracking, peer reviewing,
comprehensive indexing, and issue creation
tools—and requires little or no technical
expertise to operate. (OJS may be
downloaded for free from the PKP
website at www.pkp.ubc.ca.)
"It gives small journals a viable option
for publishing an online journal," says
Willinsky, who is concerned that the
growing concentration of ownership of
academic journals is limiting the free
circulation of knowledge.
Continued on back page
Spring 2004 ►   Jatskevich: Continued from page 7
Independent Power Production
On the brighter side, a parallel goal
of deregulation is to encourage the
development of alternative, independent
power sources. With funding from ASI,
BC Hydro and Powertech Labs, Jatskevich
is working with fellow ICICS members and
department colleagues Jose Marti, Tak
Niimura, and William Dunford to develop
ways to connect independent power sources
into the grid. This is good
news for the environment,
and for people living in
remote areas, who are most
likely to see the highest price
hikes. Independent power
production increases efficiency
and also encourages local
development, particularly of green power
sources such as photovoltaic and wind
turbine technology. "Independent
producers would be able to use
whatever they need and sell excess
power back to the province," he
says. Whether this benefit will offset other risks is not yet understood.
Regardless, researchers like Jastskevich
will help make the transition to
deregulated power as smooth as possible.
Juri Jatskevich can be contacted at
604.827.5217 or jurij@ece.ubc.ca
Yan: Continued from page 8
Insects also manage to recapture some
of the kinetic energy from the wake of air
following their wings. In addition, the
momentum generated by vortices, or swirls
of air, contribute to an insect's amazing
manoeuvrability. Yan works with fellow
ICICS member Sheldon Green (ME) to
study these mechanisms on a slightly larger
scale. "We are exploring the use of two
pairs of wings." he notes. "Studies have
shown that you can increase the forces by as
much as 30 percent, even if the total wing
area is the same."
The Flight Crew
In addition to Madden and Green,
Yan's collaborators include UBC zoologist
Robert Blake, who specializes in biological
locomotion, and Professor Emeritus Boye
Ahlborn, whose interest is
in zoological physics. Along
with funding from NSERC and
the Institute of Robotic Intelligence (IRIS),
he credits a diverse team of researchers and
very motivated students for helping to get
the Dragonfly Project off the ground.
Joseph Yan can be reached at
604.827.5219 or josephy@ece.ubc.ca
►    Willinsky: Continued from page 9
Public Good on a Global Scale
With OJS, both journals and
readers win. Journals can
increase their readership with
online editions and readers
are granted free and open
access to knowledge—
"a public good on a
global scale" as the PKP website puts it.
Willinsky says that PKP can be seen as
part of a wider movement to "defend the
public sphere within the Internet,
ensuring that it serves the
democratic right to know."
"We thought the
Internet would promise free
knowledge for everyone.
That lasted 10 minutes," he says wryly.
"If PKP can influence corporations and
publishing models, that would be great."
Find the Public Knowledge Project website
at www.pkp.ubc.ca
John Willinsky can be reached at
604.822.3950 or atjohn.willinsky@ubc.ca.
•l»OI»OS» Institute for Computing, Information and Cognitive Systems www.icics.ubc.ca
UBC's Institute for Computing, Information and Cognitive Systems (ICICS) is an umbrella organization
that promotes collaboration between researchers from the faculties of Applied Science, Arts,
Commerce, Dentistry, Education, Forestry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Science. ICICS supports the
collaborative computer-oriented research of more than 125 faculty members and over 500 graduate
students in these faculties. ICICS researchers attract approximately $15 million in annual grants
and contracts. Their work will have a positive impact on us all in the future.
ICICS, University of British Columbia
289-2366 Mam Mall,
Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4
Editor:    Gale Ross, ICICS Administrative Assistant
Writers:    Mari-Louise Rowley,
Pro-Textual Communications;
William Knight, Wilyum Creative
Photos:    Janis Franklin, UBC Media Group
Design:    Jarret Kusick, Hitman Creative Media Inc.
Office:    University of British Columbia
289-2366 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4
Tel:    604.822.6894
Fax:    604.822.9013
E-mail:    info@icics.ubc.ca


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