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Focus 1992

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Vol. 3, No. 2
Fall 1992
CICSR members lead the way in
integrated systems and the use of
CASE tools
■ Hardware and software design were
traditionally separate disciplines, but more
and more, the two are dovetailing. Within
CICSR, many members are finding that
software and hardware experts can learn
from each other to create innovative
solutions that are better for having input
from the other discipline.
Computer Science faculty members Carl
Seger and Jeff Joyce, for example, come
... continued on page 2
Commuter trains are one potential application of
the integrated systems research now being
performed by CICSR members.
Welcome Greenstreet
Hybrid from opposing
schools of verification
page 3
Computer zoo and more
page 4
CASE tools aid private
sector collaboration
Better marriage of
hardware and software
page 6
Self-testing chips
page 7
■ UBC's Center for Integrated Computer
Systems Research (CICSR) has now been in
operation for five years. As we enter our
sixth year of facilitating and promoting
collaborative interdisciplinary research in
the theory and application of information
technology, computer science and computer
engineering, the concept of integration
becomes increasingly important.
First, the organization: CICSR currently has
60 faculty members, drawn from the
departments of Computer Science, Electrical
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.
This number is double that of five years ago,
and indicates the degree of commitment of
UBC to research  in computer technology,
and to the natural integration of these
disciplines. Researchers in all three
departments now use common hardware
platforms, and common software systems, so
that they can share in the development and
use of applications software. These 60
I faculty members are currently supervising
over 200 graduate students, many of whom
are jointly supervised and thus provide links
among the disciplines.
Second, the facilities: construction of the
CICSR/CS Building, connected to the
McLeod (Electrical Engineering) Building is
scheduled for completion in the summer of
1993. This building, funded by the Province
of B.C., will greatly expand laboratory
facilities for ongoing and new CICSR and
computer science research. Space will also
be available for industrial research visitors.
Clearly, the proximity of Computer Science
to Engineering will allow for more integration in research.
Third, the focus of this newsletter and this
year's lecture series: the integration of
hardware, software and physical systems.
These integrated systems are becoming more
common:Vancouver's Skytrain for example,
or the new control systems for the Boeing
777 airplane. At the same time, these
systems are becoming more and more
complex, and issues such as design, testing,
performance, reliability and safety generate
many interesting research topics. This
newsletter profiles several instances of
ongoing research involving integrated
systems and gives some idea of the breadth
of activity in this area at UBC. ■
■ New UBC staff member Mark
Greenstreet will bring added expertise in
VLSI design and formal methods to the
department of computer science when he
joins the faculty this fall.
Prior to coming to UBC, Greenstreet will
be finishing off his Ph.D. thesis at
Princeton. His thesis looks at the timing
requirements for self-timed circuits. The
work has led to a new way of designing
signals which Greenstreet calls "a hybrid
between synchronous and self-timed
design methods."
At UBC, Greenstreet will continue to look
at formal ways to describe hardware
designs. His approach is to look at
hardware designs as concurrent programs,
and he is interested in pursuing the
approach further. He plans to develop:
better ways to specify and describe what
hardware does; a basis for constructing
formal proofs about the hardware; and a
way to bring this work into the world of
hardware testing after the hardware is
built. Greenstreet also plans to look at realtime systems where the timing of events
matters. Finally, he is interested in
determining how to reason about circuits
where their behaviour depends on analogue
aspects of the circuit. Greenstreet says
that, "a lot of assumptions made about
digital circuits tend to break down because
of the analogue aspects of the circuits,
especially for designs of high-performance
Greenstreet will bring his hardware
expertise to the Integrated Systems Design
Lab in the Department of Computer
Science. The ISD lab has a model train set
up as a testbed for safety-critical systems.
The team at UBC has been concentrating
on the software aspects of the system, but
Greenstreet plans to incorporate his
hardware expertise. He is considering
several ideas to further develop the testbed,
including a hardware interface between the
train and the system where he would use
his formal approach to develop clear
specifications of what a train controller
should do. "Then we would have a design
with a proof that it's correct," he said.
Greenstreet joins the UBC faculty November 1. Originally from Oak Harbor,
Washington, he is just completing a Ph.D.
in computer science at Princeton University. He holds a Bachelor of Electrical
Engineering from the California Institute of
Technology. Greenstreet has worked at
ESL Inc. in Sunnyvale, California where he
designed custom integrated circuits for
signal processing applications. He also
spent two years at the Computer Science
Department of Aarhus University in
Denmark as part of a newly-formed
research group using VLSI for parallel
processing. Greenstreet is a welcome
addition to UBC and to CICSR. ■
WORKING TOGETHER ... continued from cover
from two different schools of verification,
one hardware-based and the other
software-based. While the two schools
rarely, if ever, talk to each other, Joyce
and Seger are working on a hybrid of the
two methods which offers distinctive
advantages in the formal verification field.
Andre Ivanov of Electrical Engineering is
developing built-in-self-test systems for
chips, moving work that is usually done
today by software into the hardware
realm. Mabo Ito of Electrical Engineering
and Gerald Neufeld of Computer Science
are working together on another project
that implements on hardware what used to
be a software solution. Their collaboration
is resulting in improved high-speed
computer communications techniques.
A second theme of this issue, in keeping
with the subject of the upcoming CICSR
Distinguished Lecture Series, is CASE
tools. CICSR members are enthusiastic
users of modern software engineering
techniques. The Computer Science
Department has established a CASE Lab.
A research team in the department of
mechanical engineering is using CASE
tools in the development of a robotic
welding computer workstation. CASE
tools enable researchers on a development
team to more easily work together.
Integrated systems design and CASE tools
is not only the theme of this issue, but a
fitting theme for CICSR as well. Working
together, and combining in different
disciplines to develop new ideas or
methods superior to what individual
researchers can produce on their own is
what CICSR is all about. ■
Dr. James Varah, CICSR Director Hybrid from Opposing Schools
■ The increased integration of hardware
and software is a recurring theme among
CICSR members these days, and one of
the main driving forces behind the
Integrated Systems Design (ISD) group in
the Department of Computer Science.
According to computer science professor
Jeff Joyce, the ISD group is concerned not
only with better integration with hardware
and software systems, but also the
integration of computing systems with the
environment they're being used in, the
application of software techniques to
hardware design and vice versa.
"It's important not to put up artificial
barriers between the disciplines of
hardware and software design," said Joyce.
"A lot of lessons can be learned in both
For example, in hardware design, it's
common practice to produce detailed
specifications about what the system
should do and how it should behave,
before the actual design work is begun.
"We in software development have to
learn that lesson from hardware design,"
said Joyce.
On the other hand, a lot of software
practices can be useful to hardware
designers. For example, in Joyce's
research in formal verification, he uses
higher order logics and methods that are
grounded in the foundation of mathematics. This work is being initially applied to
software development, but Joyce is now
finding it is also applicable to hardware
design. "There is an opportunity there to
cross-fertilize," he said. "I see a great deal
of value in mathematical foundations."
An excellent example of this cross-
fertilization is happening within the
Computer Science Department. While
Joyce is discovering in hardware applications for his primarily software-based
work, his colleague Carl Seger is picking
up useful software techniques from Joyce.
Seger's main interest is the hardware side
of systems design: he looks at how to
design chips and verify they work using
symbolic simulation techniques. He has
developed a new methodology that
automates much of the tedious work
involved in verification. Joyce, on the
other hand, comes from the computer-
assisted theorem-proving school of
"Rarely, if ever, do the different schools of
verification talk to each other," said Seger.
"Rarely, if ever, do the different
schools of verification talk to
each other. But here, we not
only talk together, but are
actually working together to
build a hybrid system."
Jeff Joyce (left) and Carl Seger in the ISD lab.
"But here, we not only talk together, but
are actually working together to build a
hybrid system." Seger and Joyce are
combining their expertise to develop a
completely new verification method —
Joyce's software-based methods are used
for the top-level verification, where human
... continued on page 4
Members of the ISD Lab use a model train as a testbed for safety-critical systems. HYBRID ... continued from page 3
intelligence and input is needed to work in
conjunction with the verification tools.
Seger's methods look after the bottom-end
verification, automating tedious and
repetitive verification tasks.
Seger and Joyce are involved in two labs
at UBC to do with software engineering
and integrated systems design. The first is
called the CASE lab, and it provides a
resource centre for CASE methodologies
and tools. CICSR was instrumental in the
creation of this lab, according to Joyce.
Tools available include Cadre's Teamwork system and the i-Logix Statemate
Systems. (i-Logix co-founder Dr. David
Harel is the February, 1993 speaker at the
CICSR Distinguished Lecture Series.)
The CASE lab is focused on undergraduate students. Each year, more than 150
students are exposed to CASE tools at the
lab, which first opened in September
1991. There are now 12 lab sessions held
each week. More tools will be introduced
as they become available, said Joyce. "We
are enriching the lab as we go."
The other lab is the Integrated Systems
Design (ISD) lab, a research lab used
mainly by graduate and post-graduate
researchers. Research activities that are
undertaken at the lab include software
specifications, formal verification for both
hardware and software, VLSI design,
asynchronous circuit theory and programming languages. Joining Joyce and Seger
in the lab this fall is a new faculty
member, Mark Greenstreet (profiled in
this issue), one or two post-doctoral
students, and a number of graduate
The lab is now equipped with electronically-controlled model train set with 10
metres of track equipped with about 60
optical sensors that can be used to monitor
the path of trains. The trains themselves
have been equipped with electronics to
interpret signals sent electronically via the
track. This enables researchers to write
programs to control the speed of the
trains. One student has developed and
partially verified an algorithm for
detecting when two trains are in danger of
a collision, and a means of collision
Not just an elaborate excuse for these
researchers to play with a model train set,
the lab provides an excellent testbed for
safety-critical systems. And it's an area
that depends heavily on hardware and
software designers working closely
together. ■
Computer Zoo and More
Software Productivity Centre opens doors at new location
■ For those interested in exploring new
software engineering methods and tools, a
new Software Productivity Centre (SPC)
recently opened in Vancouver. The SPC's
mandate is to assist software developers to
improve their productivity, quality and
efficiency. One of the major goals of the
centre is to help local software firms
become more competitive in the global
industry. But the centre offers many things
of interest to academic researchers as well.
The SPC course series got off to a successful start with an intensive workshop in
software quality assurance and testing.
Other topics that will be covered include
software project management, C++,
software metrics, software testing, and
IEEE standards. The SPC also offers
members access to its library and "Computer Zoo," a collection of the most popular
workstations and various CASE tools.
Currently the "zoo" has an IBM RISC
System/6000 with CASE tools running
under AIX Windows, an HP 9000 and a
Sun SparcStation 2. CASE tools include
several AIX tools and IDE's Software
Through Pictures.
SPC managing director Wolfgang Strigel
recently attended a Montreal based
conference, CASE '92, which featured
world-leading experts in software engineering. Proceedings from the conference
are available in the SPC library, and as a
result of meetings at the conference,
Strigel says the SPC lab has about six more
CASE tools for its collection.
For members interested in exploring more
CASE tools or sourcing the right tool for a
particular project, SPC has a database of
more than 400 tools accessible through
key-word searches.
Another service SPC offers is Software
Engineering Institute (SEI) assessments.
SPC's two software engineers are currently
doing a pilot SEI assessment of Prism
Systems. They plan to use the pilot project
to make some modifications to the SEI
apporach to make it conducive to the needs
of local industry. Then SPC will offer the
assessment as a service.
Another exciting intitiative in the works is
a seminar by one of the "grandfathers of
CASE tools," Tony Wasserman. This
world-leading software engineering guru
met with Strigel at CASE '92 and expressed an interest in giving a seminar in
SPC holds regular member meetings and
roundtable discussions on topics of interest
to the software engineering community.
The first roundtable discussion was on
object-oriented design, and one of the
results is a special interest group for those
interested in the area.
The SPC now has more than 24 members.
University of B.C. Department of Computer Science is one of the early members,
along with CICSR, University of Victoria,
"One of the major goals of
the centre is to help local
software firms become more
competitive in the
global industry. But the
centre offers many things of
interest to academic
researchers as well."
BCIT ARCS Lab, B.C. Tel, Chancery
Software, Softwords, MacDonald
Dettwiler, Sierra Systems Consultants and
The SPC is located in the Yaletown area of
Vancouver at Suite 450, 1122 Mainland
Street. For more information, contact
Wolfgang Strigel at tel: (604) 662-8181. ■ 5
Private Sector Collaboration
CASE tools help bring robotic welding computer workstation
closer to commercialization
■ Few researchers in the province have the
expertise in robotics of Dale Cherchas of
the UBC Department of Mechanical
Engineering. In fact, some of his research
is being funded by a Richmond company
that is interested in the development of a
robotic welding computer workstation and
software for commercialization.
With funding from A&R Metals and the
Science Council of B.C., a research team
in the UBC Department of Mechanical
Engineering is developing Autoroboweld,
an advanced robotic welding workstation.
The product, designed for use with a low-
cost computer platform and CAD software,
will allow rapid and automatic path
planning and programming for welding
robots in an industrial robotic welding
work cell.
According to Michael Lookman, president
of A&R, which manufactures equipment
for heavy-duty trucks, his company bought
a robotic welding work cell about three
years ago. A&R was familiar with
manufacturing with computer-controlled
machining equipment and found programming of the robotic work cell difficult and
time-consuming by comparison. So they
called on UBC's expertise to develop a
better way. When the research is complete,
Lookman sees good commercial possibilities for the results, and his company is
licensed by UBC to market the resulting
"CASE tools allow everyone to have a common design reference
for the project. They make it easier to maintain the software
and produce new versions, and generally add a great deal of value
to the software development activity."
The Autoroboweld team (clockwise from
upper left: Dan Li, Dale Cherchas, Brian
Konesky, Ray Gosine, Kevin Driedger and
Farrokh Sassani.
But there is a lot of work to be done first.
The research team, which includes
professors Ray Gosine and Faro Sassani of
the Department of Mechanical Engineering, research engineer Brian Konesky and
students Dan Li and Kevin Driedger and
marketing and automation consultant
Gordon Wallace, has a number of problems to work on before its work can be put
to practical use on the factory floor.
Research areas include collision detection
(Konesky), path planning (Gosine, Li),
robot inverse kinematics (Cherchas,
Driedger), welding process planning
(Sassani, Driedger) and system engineering and integration (Konesky).
The team's goal is to produce a product
that can be used easily by factory workers,
but is also low-cost, said Cherchas. Users
of the product will include robotic manufacturers and suppliers, companies with
existing robot welders and system houses.
The work is being carried out at the
Computer-Aided Manufacturing and
Robotics Laboratory (CAMROL) of the
Department of Mechanical Engineering.
Cherchas is overseeing the overall design
of the product, and is making extensive use
of modern software engineering techniques
in the project. His team is using the C++
programming language under the guidance
of Konesky, and the CASE tool
TurboCASE by Structsoft for the Macintosh n. Cherchas says the tool is easy to
use and allows ideas to be rapidly and
clearly recorded and communicated among
members of the team. "It allows everyone
to have a common design reference for the
project," said Cherchas. "It will also be
much easier to maintain the software and
produce new versions, and adds a great
deal of value to the whole software
development activity."
Using the latest CASE tools and methods
allows for design consistency checks and
overall discipline. Cherchas says that
these modern software engineering
techniques allow researchers to take work
as close to the commercial product stage as
it's possible to do in a university lab
setting. That's good news for industrial
partners such as A&R Metals. Cherchas
and his team expect to have Autoroboweld
ready to commercialize by next year. ■ Better Marriage of Hardware
and Software Proposed
The line between hardware and software
is becoming increasingly blurred. Today,
hardware is often used to speed up what
used to be software job, and the software
required to run these new hardware-
intensive systems is new and different.
At the high-speed computer communication lab in the Department of Electrical
Engineering, Mabo Ito is leading a project
to integrate hardware and software
expertise to develop new high-speed
implementation protocols. This is a CICSR
project involving the member departments
of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science. Mabo Ito, from Electrical
Engineering, is most involved in the
hardware side of the project and Gerald
Neufeld from Computer Science is most
involved in the software side.
"We're working to define new architecture
for processing communications protocols,"
said Ito. The team is also developing
accelerators to speed up the processing of
protocols. Until this work is done, the
functionality of applications such as multimedia communications systems of the
future will be limited.
Currently, much of the protocol processing
in high-speed networks is done with
software. But current methods aren't fast
enough to handle all the information that
can travel along the new high-capacity
fibre-optic transmission lines.
"Today we can't, except in very limited
circumstances, take advantage of the
capacity of fibreoptics. The bandwidth can
handle higher data rates than the electron
ics at either end of the fibre can process,"
said Ito.
Two projects which graduate students are
working on in the high-speed communications lab are: a protocol decoding accelerator, a special-purpose computer which is
amenable to VLSI implementation; and a
Mabo Ito and Gerald Neufeld (front) in the
high-speed computer communications lab.
new processing algorithms that can make
use of the speed potential the hardware
offers. Dr. Gerald Neufeld is leading the
software team developing the new
algorithms. By early 1993, the team
expects to have its first working prototype
for test purposes.
MPR Teltech, a major telecommunications
research firm based in Burnaby, is
collaborating on the project. They are
providing their ATM switch which forms a
basis doe high-speed communications. If
all goes as planned, UBC will be one of
the first pilot sites for high-speed multimedia communications using MPR Teltech's
technology and the research results from
Ito's group. Multimedia communications
is one of the primary applications of the
high-speed communication networks Ito's
group is working on.
Various forms of mutimedia communications are available today that make it
possible to transmit voice, data and video
"Hardware by itself won't solve the problems that must be
overcome to develop highly-functional high-speed computer
communications networks. Software by itself won't solve
these problems either. For an effective solution, we need
a better marriage of the two."
special-purpose accelerator of ASN.l.
According to Ito, one of the major
bottlenecks in data communications is the
translation that needs to be done when data
is exchanged between computers that don't
talk the same language. "This can take
over 90 per cent of the time it takes to
process the data," said Ito. "It's an area
that needs a hardware solution; software
takes too long to do the job."
The project Ito is heading was started in
1989 and will be complete in 1994. Ito is
hoping the team will eventually achieve a
100-fold improvement over current
implementations, which use a single
computer and software. Ito's team plans to
use multiple computers, accelerators and
simultaneously. But according to Ito, the
functionality of these networks is currently
quite limited. "We hope, with our pilot
system, to provide a lot more interactive
control." The pilot multimedia network
will likely be put in place early in 1993,
with a small number of workstations.
The pilot network will be just one of the
results of better integration of software
and hardware expertise. Ito says, "Hardware by itself won't solve the problems
that must be overcome to develop highly-
functional high-speed computer communications networks. Software by itself won't
solve these problems either. For an
effective solution, we need a better
marriage of the two." ■ Chips that Test Themselves
■ Modem VLSI technology allows today's
chip designers and manufacturers to
integrate several million transistors on a
single, tiny chip. The technology makes
possible a whole host of electronic
products that we now use and take for
granted in our daily lives from automobiles
to computers.
However, according to UBC Professor of
Electrical Engineering Andre Ivanov, the
complexity that's possible on a chip is so
great now, it's beyond our ability to test
and verify. "It's one thing to have the
technology and capability to design
systems with millions of components, but
how do we know what we're fabricating is
doing what it's supposed to?" asks Ivanov.
There are two distinct fields of research to
determine the answer to this question. One
is design verification, which tests the
design theory before fabrication to
determine if it will produce the desired
result. The other area, which is Ivanov's
primary interest, is verification of the
fabricated product to determine whether or
not it works as intended. This is an
enormous task. Ivanov notes that even a
very simple circuit has such a high number
of possible circuit combinations, it's
impractical, even impossible, to verify
them all. Thorough verification of chip
with millions of transistors is out of the
question given the technology available
A solution to this problem is to keep
testability in mind from the design stage
onwards. Design for testability has
emerged in the past decade to help deal
with the increased complexity of the newer
chips. One way chips are made more
testable is called scan design, a technique
which involves designing in easy access to
the internal nodes of the circuits. Although
VLSI circuits have millions of lines and
circuits, without keeping design for
testability in mind, there are relatively few
access points, said Ivanov.
Industry is rapidly adopting design for
testability. Without it, testing of chips is
extremely expensive and complicated. The
problem with no design for testability,
according to Ivanov, is that if there
"The eventual result of
Ivanov's and other BIST (built-
in self-test) research will be
highly fault-tolerant and reliable computer systems that can
actually diagnose problems and
even fix themselves."
something wrong with the system, it isn't
immediately obvious upon testing whether
the fault is with the hardware, software or
the chip itself. It's far more cost-effective
to detect defects and correct them early.
He is working on a technique more
advanced than scan design that will make
it more practical for manufacturers to test
chips early in the production process.
Ivanov's focus is on built-in self test
(BIST), which enables circuits to test
themselves automatically. Chips with BIST
require more investment in hardware at the
outset, but once they're fabricated, a multi-
million dollar tester isn't required to see if
the resulting chip works. There are other
trade-offs as well: some possible performance degradation and more silicon area
required, but the overall cost savings can
be tremendous, said Ivanov.
"Once you start with BIST at the chip
level, you can build in a whole hierarchy
of self-testing from the chips to circuit
boards to self-testing for the entire
system." Ivanov's work concentrates on
self-test at the chip level. He is addressing
questions such as how to partition circuits,
and build test pattern generators and
response evaluators in an efficient way. He
feels that the popular scheme of applying
lots of pseudo-random patterns to a chip
could be improved upon. "If you apply a
million patterns, you have a million bits
coming out, which demands a lot of
memory and silicon area." He wants to be
able to compress the information in a
meaningful way, reducing the million bits
down to 16 or 32 while retaining the ability
to determine if the circuits are good or bad.
Andre Ivanov
To date, much of Ivanov's and others'
BIST research has been focused on digital
circuits, but there is a multi-billion dollar
ASIC market that uses mixed signal
circuits. Telecommunications applications,
for example, require both analogue and
digital circuits. Analogue testing is a much
more complex and fuzzy operation, but
Ivanov isn't daunted. "I'm interested in
coming up with BIST for mixed circuits. I
believe it's possible to do."
The eventual result of Ivanov's and other
BIST research will be highly fault-tolerant
and reliable computer systems that can
actually diagnose problems and even fix
themselves. Potential applications include
systems at remote site, hazardous areas
and in outer space. In the shorter term,
design for testability and BIST will help
reduce the cost of product development.
According to Ivanov up to half of new
product costs are testing costs, but he
believes those costs can be reduced
substantially, with improved quality at the
same time. ■ PASSING NOTES
UBC tops the country
in US patents awarded
■ Thanks in part to the work of CICSR
researchers, UBC was awarded more US
patents in 1991 than any other Canadian
university. ■
Fuzzy Logic workshop
held at UBC in July
■ Fuzzy Logic, a new technology that
gives computers human-like powers of
reasoning, was the topic of the second
B.C. Workshop on Intelligent Control
and Applications held at UBC in July.
"Fuzzy is a household expression in
Japan. It is used in TV commercials,"
said Clarence de Silva of the Department
of Mechanical Engineering.
De Silva said the potential for applications is endless. He believes Canadian
researchers should get on the bandwagon. Already the Japanese have filed
more than 100 patent applications based
on fuzzy logic. ■
Staff change at CICSR
■ Since the publication of the last
newsletter, the CICSR office reluctantly
said good-bye to Susan Perley who, as
secretary to the director, organized the
Distinguished Lecture Series, processes
CICSR candidate files, and handled many
aspects of the newsletter production.
We welcome Susan's replacement,
Margie de Vries, who has extensive
computer and secretarial experience and
has designed and edited several in-house
publications for Vancouver firms. ■
Six academic and industrial leaders
address the latest techniques for software
engineering and integrated systems design.
October 1, 1992
Using Software in Critical Real-Time
Dr. David Parnas
McMaster University
November 5, 1992
Computer-Aided Design of Electronic
Systems: the Playground of the Renaissance Man of the 1990s
Dr. Alberto Sangiovanni-Vincentelli
University of California at Berkeley
December 3, 1992
Formal Methods: Power for Professionals
Dr. Martyn Thomas
Praxis pic
January 14,1993
Software Engineering for Commercial
Software Products
Dr. Morven Gentleman
National Research Council
February 11, 1993
Computers are not Omnipotent
Dr. David Harel
The Weizmann Institute of Science
March 11, 1993
Software Safety
Dr. Nancy Leveson
University of Washington
CICSR is hosting its fifth annual Distinguished Lecture Series, bringing in
academic and industrial leaders from
around the world. This year's theme is
software engineering and integrated
systems design.
Six speakers, some from as far afield as
Israel and the UK, will discuss this
important topic. They will talk about the
current limitations of software systems,
how software engineering techniques help
overcome some of these problems, and
what the future holds for software and
systems design.
Join us for a Glimpse of the
Future of Software Development
Lectures are from 4:00 pm to 5:30 pm. Room 6,
Instructional Resources Centre, Woodward
Building, 2194 Health Sciences Mall. Lectures
are complimentary.
The UBC Centre for Integrated Computer
CICSR FOCUS, is published twice a year.
Systems Research (CICSR) is an interdepart
EDITOR:  Leslie Ellis
mental research organization made up of
DESIGN:  Rob Bishop
computer-related research faculty members in
Office: 2053 - 2324 Main Mall,
the Departments of Computer Science, Electrical
Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z4
Engineering and Mechanical Engineering.
Tel: (604) 822-6894, fax: (604) 822-9013
Currently there are more than 60 CICSR
Contact: Gale Ross
researchers which direct over 200 graduate
students and collaborate with dozens of
industrial firms in areas such as robotics,
artificial intelligence, communications, VLSI
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design and industrial automation.


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