UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

Focus 2000

Item Metadata


JSON: focus-1.0115120.json
JSON-LD: focus-1.0115120-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): focus-1.0115120-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: focus-1.0115120-rdf.json
Turtle: focus-1.0115120-turtle.txt
N-Triples: focus-1.0115120-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: focus-1.0115120-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Revolutionizing How Power is Measured and Managed
The voltage measurement technology invented by Nick Jaeger
fuelled a merger with industry giant Honeywell.
Director of the Centre of Advanced Technology in Microelectronics, Nick Jaeger is interested in
broadly-based interdisciplinary work—and the resulting partnerships.
Today, when we flick on a light switch, zap
our coffee in the microwave, or power up
our computer, we take electric power for
granted. Most of the systems that monitor
and measure the power we use have been
around for half a century or more. However,
as the need for dependable power increases,
it is clearly time for a change.
Deregulation of the US power industry is
not only facilitating that change, it is
fuelling demand for the technology developed by Nick Jaeger and industry partner
NxtPhase Corp.
Integrated-optic sensor technology
CICSR member, professor of Electrical
and Computer Engineering, and ASI Fellow
Nick Jaeger has been working on integrated-
optic sensor technology for over a decade.
In collaboration with Dr. David Green of
Carmanah Research Ltd., and with the
financial support of the BC Advanced
Systems Institute (ASI), the Science Council
of BC, and the NRC, he developed a
technology capable of monitoring the
quality of insulation inside high-voltage
This successful project led to the creation
of UBC spin-off Carmanah Engineering,
aimed at marketing the technology. With
this project completed, they soon convinced
the power industry that equipment monitoring represented a fraction of the market for
optical technology relative to the need for
con tinued on page 2
Spring 2000 Vol. 11, No. 1
Director's Corner 2
Computing with DNA 3
Mechatronics 4
Modelling the Magnetic Earth 5
Advanced Communications 6
Passing Notes 7 From cutting fish with fuzzy logic to
computing with DNA, this issue of
FOCUS has a fascinating editorial line
up. First, we are pleased to announce
that Victor Leung has been appointed
the TELUS Mobility Research Chair as
part of an exciting new partnership
with TELUS and UBC. Victor's
research on wireless networks is
featured in this issue.
We also feature Clarence de Silva
who holds the position as NSERC
Research Chair in Industrial Automation. Funding from industry partners
such as BC Packers, BC Hydro, ASI,
and the Garfield Weston Foundation
has spawned some of Clarence's most
exciting research—such as his automated fish cutting technology.
CICSR is pleased to welcome Anne
Condon to our research team. Anne
comes to us from the University of
Wisconsin, where her work in computational complexity theory helped to
pioneer research on DNA computing.
We also look at Nick Jaeger's work
on power management systems that led
to the creation of NxtPhase Corp., an
exciting merger between former UBC
spin-off Carmanah Engineering and
industry giant Honeywell.
Uri Ascher and his collaborative
work in electromagnetic imaging, with
Doug Oldenburg of the department of
Ocean and Earth Sciences, demonstrates the importance of applied
mathematics to real-life problems.
Rabab Ward, CICSR Director
Jaeger: continued from page 1
power metering and management. As a
result, Carmanah Engineering in partnership with UBC developed an integrated-
optics based technology to measure voltage
on transmission lines.
A honey of a deal
Meanwhile, the Space and Aviation
Controls Division of industry giant
Honeywell had spent 10 years developing
fibre optic sensors that measure current.
However, the
market need was
...as we get better materials we can
for a product that
take advantage of what seems to be
could measure both
simpler and more logical technology.
voltage and
meter power as well as monitor and control
the flow of electricity.
The product has safety and environmental advantages as well. Most of the high-
voltage instrument transformers currently
installed in substations use oil and paper
insulation systems, which can be harmful to
the environment and, in the event of a
power failure, can explode. NxtPhase's
optics-based systems use a very simple and
safe insulation—dry air.
"Oil and paper
Carmanah Engineering was the company
with the best optical voltage measurement
technology. Talks between the two companies began in June 1998, and in November
1999, through a merger of Carmanah
Engineering and a spinout group from
Honeywell, NxtPhase Corp. was formed.
"Power is measured for all sorts of
reasons other than just metering for billing
purposes," says Jaeger. "For example, with
deregulation you get into issues of power
quality, and to determine the quality of
power you have to be able to measure it with
a high degree of accuracy over a wide
bandwidth. That's where our technology
really comes into its own."
Integrated Optics Pockels Cell technology
One of the keys to the company's success
is the Integrated Optics Pockels Cell
(IPOC) technology developed by Jaeger and
used in NxtPhase's Optical Voltage Transformer. It is based on the Pockels effect,
where the change in the refractive index of a
crystal is in direct proportion to the applied
electric field.  Coupled with the Optical
Current Transformer developed by
Honeywell, NxtPhase's combined voltage
and current transformers are smaller, lighter
and more flexible than those currently on
the market. A single unit can be used to
insulation was the
solution available
when the currently installed
power infrastructure was being developed," says Jaeger.
"However, as we get better materials we can
take advantage of what seems to be simpler
and more logical technology."
Mutual benefits
When asked about his ongoing involvement as scientific advisor with NxtPhase,
Jaeger likes to call himself "the university
guy." He says the benefits of this university-
industry partnership flow both ways. "We
have an outstanding relationship with
NxtPhase. Two of our NSERC scholars are
working on projects with them and they
provide tremendous opportunities for our
co-op and graduate students."
The company and university benefit in
other ways as well. For example, as a result
of their collaboration on optical voltage
sensors, NxtPhase and UBC were recently
presented with the Canadian Institute of
Energy's 1999 Energy Research and Development Award.
NxtPhase continues to be very involved
with research, Jaeger notes. "The company's
interest isn't limited to what we can do for
power utilities, but also what technologies
we can develop for the future."
Nick Jaeger can be reached at
nickj@mech.ubc.ca and at
(604) 822-5673.
FOCUS Computing Complex Problems with DNA
Anne Condon searches for more efficient ways to solve computational problems.
Computational complexity theory may not
be everyone's favourite dinner topic, but
with demands on computing resources
rapidly increasing, the research of theoreticians is more critical—and topical—than
ever. CICSR member Anne Condon finds
theoretical work fascinating because it
provides a unified view of phenomena that
intersect all applications of computing. The
existence of inherently difficult (so-called
NP-hard) problems is one such phenomenon that has motivated much of her work
and has recently led her to explore computations with DNA.
The hard problem of a flight path
One of the most well-documented NP-
hard problems is the Hamilton path
problem, or how to map out an airline flight
path between several cities so that each city
is visited only once, and the cost to the
airline is minimized. "With a problem like
the Hamilton path you have a number of
potential solutions, of which perhaps only
one is a true solution. The really onerous
task is how to weed through all the possibilities to find the one you want," says Condon.
"Unfortunately, no one knows of an
approach for solving this problem that
avoids an exponentially large computational
running time."
Using DNA to solve NP-hard problems
In 1994, theoretician Leonard Adelman
actually solved a small, seven-city version of
the problem using DNA. His astonishing
work captured Condon's interest. Adelman's
idea was to represent each possible solution
as a DNA strand. Representing information
at the molecular level could in principle
allow for huge numbers of strands—or
potential solutions—to be examined
"With DNA computing it is not the
running time that grows exponentially, but
the number of molecules used," Condon
notes. "Since we can only fit so many
molecules into a test tube, we still run into
the exponential barrier." In spite of this,
developing tools for manipulating and
retrieving information coded in vast quantities of DNA is an intriguing challenge. For
the past four years, Condon and associates
in the chemistry department at the University of Wisconsin have been developing
these tools. Their work has recently appeared in the journal Nature.
Condon came to UBC's Computer
Science department last August. While she
plans to continue with her research in DNA
computing, she says part of her decision to
move to Canada was the quality of research
and the opportunities available at UBC.
She is currently working with colleague
Alan Hu and graduate students Rita Sharma
and Marius Laza on the problem of automatically verifying shared memory protocols.
She also participates in Computer Science's
Bioinformatics reading group established by
Raymond Ng.
"I have been lucky to meet several
researchers in other departments on campus
through events at the Peter Wall Institute for
Advanced Studies." Condon also cites PIMS
(The Pacific Institute for the Mathematical
Sciences) and ASI (the Advanced Systems
Institute) as providing great opportunities to
make research connections.
Supporting women in science
Condon's position at UBC is partly
funded through the NSERC Research Chair
for Women in Science and Engineering. She
is co-chair of the Computing Research
Association's Committee on Women, a
North American organization that coordinates projects aimed at supporting women
in computing research. Condon works with
SWIFT (Supporting Women in InForm-
ation Technology) led by UBC's Dean of
Science Maria Klawe, and she recently
worked with members of the Women's
Studies department to design an introductory course aimed at drawing more women
to computer science.
Anne Condon can be reached at
condon@cs.ubc.ca or (604) 822-8175.
Spring 2000 Mechatronics—Engineering the Future
Clarence de Silva integrates mechanics, electronics and
intelligent control to increase industrial productivity.
Engineering systems that improve indus
trial productivity is an increasingly complicated challenge—one that involves integrating knowledge from many disciplines.
British Columbia's fish processing industry
provided the perfect opportunity for CICSR
member, professor of Mechanical Engineering, and ASI Fellow Clarence de Silva to put
his expertise to the test.
Cutting fish with fuzzy logic
As the NSERC Research Chair in
Industrial Automation, a position established in collaboration with BC Packers
Ltd., de Silva established the first—and
only—laboratory in Canada to develop an
automated system for fish cutting and
processing. The industrial prototype
developed by de Silva and his associates
produced clear-cut results. Plant testing with
thousands of salmon at BC Packers has
shown that the new machine can increase
cutting and fish recovery efficiency by five
percent over conventional methods, which
can waste over a pound of meat per fish.
Since each percent equals about $5 million
worth of fish, the cost recovery for the
industry is significant.
The machine uses a variety of sensors
such as CCD cameras, an ultrasound
scanner, and optical encoders to accurately
monitor the geometry and movement of a
fish. Advanced controllers reposition the
cutter for each fish in order to maximize
recovery. "Our system is a knowledge-based,
hierarchical system, which means it has
many levels of intelligence," says de Silva.
The knowledge base of the system
captures human experience and expertise as
a set of "fuzzy" rules that translates the
human decision-making process into system
software. Fuzzy logic is used in the higher
levels of the system to carry out process
monitoring, performance evaluation, quality
assessment, system tuning, and general
supervisory control.
Technology transfer
De Silva, colleague Elizabeth Croft, and
graduate student Iwan Kurnianto have also
developed a machine that automatically
grades herring roe. "For this product, quality
control is extremely important. You need to
maintain a grade which is repeatable and
predictable," says de Silva. While the
downturn in BC's fishing industry has
delayed the implementation of these
automated systems, the technology has been
successfully transferred to other industry
sectors. PRECIX Advanced Cutting Technologies are using the same controller
developed by de Silva and PhD student
Scott Gu for the robotic fish cutter to cut
plastic and apply glue in their router
machines. The forestry industry is using
another offshoot of the same technology for
wood-drying kilns.
Continuously variable transmission
Industrial automation is only one area of
de Silva's expertise. Another ingenious and
purely mechanical innovation is the Ivana
Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT).
Unlike the familiar stepped gear arrangement in cone and belt and hydraulic
systems, CVT uses conventional components with a minimum of moving parts to
increase the drive ratio in a constant curve.
It is ideal for low-budget applications, such
as bicycles. The Ivana CVT has recently
continued on page 8
FOCUS Modelling the Electromagnetic Earth
Uri Ascher is seeking faster solutions to the inverse electromagnetic problem.
Uri Ascher investigates computer methods
for solving complex mathematical models.
The computer science professor develops
reliable and more efficient ways for solving
the computational problems that arise in
such areas as robotics, mechanical systems
simulation, geophysics, and computational
fluid dynamics. The work is critical to
software development in those areas.
Imaging the earth's interior
Ascher's recent work on a 3-D geophysical data inversion project will have direct
application in geophysical surveying and
mineral exploration. Ascher is co-investigator of the IMAGE consortium, a university-
industry collaboration that is developing
state-of-the-art computer technology to
image the earth's interior using electromagnetic models and data. He is also a CICSR
member and Computer Science professor.
IMAGE stands for Inversion and
Modelling of Applied Geophysical Electromagnetic data. Electromagnetic data is
acquired during geophysical surveys and
helps scientists to determine the physical
properties hidden beneath a given area of
the earth's surface. The problem is known as
the 3-D inverse electromagnetic problem
and IMAGE is seeking more reliable and
faster ways of solving it.
One material property of special interest
is conductivity, as its distribution can
indicate the presence of valuable minerals. A
complex transformation is required, however, in order to deduce the conductivity
structure from electromagnetic observations.
This transformation, called forward
modelling, involves the repeated computer
solution of a system of partial differential
equations in 3-D, known as Maxwell's
Collaboration leads to results
The IMAGE project is a collaboration
between the Geophysical Inversion Facility,
headed by Doug Oldenburg, a professor in
UBC's department of Earth and Ocean
Sciences, and the Scientific Computing and
Visualization Group at CICSR. Spearheaded
by Eldad Haber, a postdoctoral fellow
jointly supervised by Ascher and Oldenburg,
and with the participation of Dhavide
Aruliah, a Computer Science PhD student,
the IMAGE team has worked out new
techniques for solving realistic instances of
the forward modelling as well as sparse
matrix techniques to rapidly compute the
inverse problem.
"What the companies are after is the
results of the data inversion," says Ascher.
"For instance, since metals often conduct
much better than earth, the results of the
data inversion may tell them where the
minerals are or aren't."
Oldenburg notes that the IMAGE
program can also be used to detect other
subsurface objects, such as unexploded
ordnance or contaminants. "Anything that
has an electrical conductivity contrast with
its host."
It is expected that the IMAGE project
will be sponsored by NSERC through their
Industry Partnerships program. The
consortium's ten sponsors include such
leading mineral resource companies as
Falconbridge, Placer Dome, Anglo American, INCO, and Cominco.
The sponsors will supply the data on
which the inversion codes will be tested, and
the codes will be made available to the
sponsors at the end of the three-year project.
Similarities span research fields
Ascher's work with IMAGE has similarities to problems he encounters in completely
different areas such as reality-based modelling and the simulation of physical systems
in virtual environments.
"I find it satisfying that computational
techniques from one area can be ported to
completely different areas," Ascher says.
"Methods used to model and simulate fluid
dynamics, for example, are similar to those
used to simulate electromagnetic fields.
In addition to his IMAGE work, Ascher
is also interested in writing general-purpose
mathematical software, investigating parallel
algorithms and optimization techniques,
and getting more specifically involved in
particular application areas.
His work on IMAGE, however, had a
different feel than his other research.
"This is a program that companies can
use for actual decision-making," says Ascher.
"It's something more directly applicable
than anything I've ever worked on before."
Uri Ascher can be reached at
(604) 822-4907 and ascher@cs.ubc.ca
Spring 2000 UBC-TELUS Alliance Supports Advanced Telecommunications
Victor Leung searches for seamless, wireless mobility.
The exponential growth of the Internet as
the global communications network of
choice has posed some unique problems,
particularly for mobile telecommunications.
Victor Leung, CICSR researcher and
professor in the Communications Group,
Department of Electrical and Computer
Engineering, was recently appointed the
TELUS Mobility Research Chair to try to
come up with workable solutions.
Leung is highly qualified for the task. He
has been a researcher and professor in the
field since 1987, and a project leader in the
Canadian Institute for Telecommunications
Research, a Network of Centres of Excellence. Prior to that, he gained six years of
industry experience in satellite communications systems with Microtel Pacific Research
Ltd. (later known as MPR Teltech Ltd.).
"MPR was the research and development
subsidiary of the former BC Tel before it
merged with TELUS, so I guess I am not
unknown to the TELUS family," he says.
In addition to their pledge of $500,000
for the Research Chair, TELUS will be
funding programs to support information
technology on campus, as well as specific
research projects in advanced communications technologies.
Packet-based wireless networks
"The biggest challenge is that the
industry is moving toward packet-based
network environments," says Leung.
Packet-based networks allow better management of data transmission and routing by
segmenting information into manageable
"chunks." The difficulty is that wireless
networks are traditionally non-packet-based.
In circuit-switched wireless networks a
channel is set up for each call. Since, in
most conversations, only one party speaks at
a time and over half of that time is spent
listening, using a channel full time for a
two-way conversation is very inefficient.
"Packetization allows a number of different
conversations from different parties to be
multiplexed over the same channel in order
to use the bandwidth more efficiently."
Packets can also facilitate video
conferencing, where a video encoder
generates the traffic at different bit rates
depending upon the amount of motion
observed in the video sequence. Packet-
based networks are better designed to
handle this fluctuation in data transmissions. However, when handling real-time
traffic, such as digitized voice and video, the
amount of delay the different packets can
experience is constrained.
Quality of service & mobility management
Just like a freeway at rush hour, network
traffic can become bottlenecked. Some types of
traffic have more stringent delay requirements.
Also the Internet—which is now used for
most network traffic—was originally
designed to offer "best-effort" service. This
has posed major quality-of-service (QoS)
problems, particularly when it is used for
premium services such as banking, private
corporate networking, or real-time services
such as voice or video. Different multimedia
applications have different QoS requirements and the difficulty is not just maintaining QoS, but managing the traffic
according to these various specifications
while maximizing the amount of traffic the
network can handle. This is where traffic
scheduling and shaping mechanisms come
in to play.  Motorola and NSERC have
provided funding for Leung and
continued on page 8
FOCUS CICSR Passing Notes
Christina Conati (CS)
is a new member of
CICSR and a new
appointment to the
Computer Science
department. She arrived
at UBC in October
direct from the University of Pittsburgh where she received her
PhD in August of 1999, and her MSc in
Intelligent Systems in 1996. Before that she
was a research programmer at Carnegie
Mellon University where she conducted
research on computational cognitive
modelling. Her research interests include
artificial intelligence, user modelling,
adaptive interfaces, intelligent educational
and help systems, reasoning under uncertainty, and cognitive theories of learning.
James Olson is a new
CICSR member and
assistant professor in the
department of Mechanical
Engineering. He is also a
member of the Advanced
Papermaking Initiative
(API), and a faculty
asssociate of Paprican. His research is
focussed on the application of physics and
fluid mechanics to problems associated with
the pulp and paper industry. His current
research projects include modelling turbulent fibre suspensions', advanced screening
simulation; and the development of a high-
efficiency, continuous laboratory
Gary Schajer is a
mechanical engineering
professor and new
CICSR member with
interests in advanced
processes for grading
lumber; dynamics and
stability of circular and
band saws; and computational methods for
residual stress analysis.
W. Kendal Bushe is a
new CICSR member
and assistant professor of
mechanical engineering
whose research interests
include combustion;
turbulence; numerical
simulation; computational fluid dynamics; IC engines; and
thermal power generation. His current
research is centred on the development of
techniques for the numerical simulation of
turbulent reacting flows.
Gregor Kiczales joined
a    the Computer Science
department and CICSR
in January 2000. He
comes to UBC after 15
years at the Xerox Palo
Alto Research Center,
where he was a Principal Scientist and
manager of the Software Design area. "My
belief is that programs that clearly express
the design structure they implement are
easier to maintain.... In pursuit of this goal,
most of my research has been in programming language design and implementation,
but I am also interested in programming
environments, design and coding styles, and
software engineering principles."
Frank Lam is a new
associate member of
CICSR. He is an
associate professor in
the Wood Science
department and his
research interests
include mechanics of
wood-based composites; structural behavior
of engineered wood products and systems
under static and dynamic loads; random
field-based structural analysis models to
account for the stochastic nature of the
material properties; and grading techniques
to improve structural reliability and product
CICSR is pleased to
welcome Peter S.
Sapaty, an ASI Visiting
Fellow from the
Ukraine. Peter is head
of the department of
Distributed Control,
Simulation, and Virtual Reality at the
Institute of Mathematical Machines and
Systems, National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine. His interests include models,
languages, technologies for cooperative
processing and control in open computer
networks, and collective behaviour of robots.
^^*1     i5fe*W    The new Master of
*<***^*MV^^y     Software Systems
(MSS) program is
off to a successful
start, with 25
students entering the first term in January.
Applications for January 2001 are already
pouring in. The program is designed for
students with science or engineering
backgrounds, other than computer science
and computer engineering. Please visit
www.cicsr.ubc.ca/mss/ for more information.
CICSR has submitted an infrastructure
funding proposal to the Canada Foundation
for Innovation (CFI) for $22 million to
establish a new multi-disciplinary research
facility, the Institute for Computing,
Information and Cognitive Systems
(ICICS). As CICSR evolves into ICICS, it
will include researchers from all disciplines
in the arts, humanities, sciences, medicine,
business, engineering, and the educational,
social, health, and behavioural sciences.
ICICS researchers will collaborate on
integrating the different aspects of human
experience into the broad application
context of interactive information environments. This concept becomes increasingly
pivotal as the information and communication technologies permeate deeper into every
aspect of human society. The CFI decision is
expected at the end of July.
Spring 2000 Clarence de Silva: continued from page 4
been issued a US patent and is being
promoted in Asia. (It is in Asia, de Silva
notes, where fuzzy logic was first embraced,
since the word "fuzzy" has more positive
philosophical connotations in the East than
it does in the West.)
Writing and practicing what he teaches
De Silva also continues to do research in
space robotics, conventional sensor technology and computer vision. He has authored
12 technical books, edited six volumes, and
written over 100 journal papers. He has
developed courses and written textbooks for
many research areas, including intelligent
control, control sensors and actuators,
process control, and dynamic systems
modelling. De Silva's most recent textbook
Vibration: Fundamentals and Practice was
Cameras (A, B above) are an integral part of the
automated fish processing system.
published by CRC Press last December.
Recognized as a leading expert in his field,
he is sought after to conduct professional
development courses around the world.
What would he still like to accomplish?
De Silva's dream is to establish a program in
mechatronics to teach the integration of
electronics, mechanics and intelligent
control in systems design and development.
He co-developed—and serves as advisor
for—a graduate program in mechatronics at
The National University of Singapore.
"As with the application of fuzzy logic in
industrial automation, researchers at UBC
are able to take a leadership role in the field
of mechatronics," states de Silva.
Considering where the industry is
headed, and the collaborative nature of his
work, mechatronics at UBC is a dream from
which industry, the university and its
students would certainly benefit.
Clarence de Silva can be reached at
desilva@mech.ubc.ca and at 822-6291.
Victor Leung: continued from page 6
co-investigator Hussein Alnuweiri to pursue
research in traffic control and QoS management for packet-switched mobile data
While the goal of public wireless networks is to provide multimedia services at a
much higher data rate than what is currently
available, one of the key issues remains
reliability. "If you consider that the traditional telephone networks were designed to
be very reliable, and various parts of the
wireless Internet weren't really designed that
way, there is still a lot to be done to make
the wireless Internet as reliable as the plain
old telephone networks."
Leung acknowledges the importance of
industry partners such as TELUS, Motorola
Canada Ltd., and Com Dev International,
as well as ASI and NSERC in funding his
research and providing opportunities for
students. Many of his graduate students are
working for PMC Sierra and other BC
As a professor and senior researcher,
Leung helps to set students on career paths
in both industry and academia. He is proud
that two of his PhD students have gone on
to teach at other universities. "One of my
Master's students, Jean-Francois Frigon,
won the Governor General's Gold Medal,"
Leung adds, remembering his days as a
student and gold medal winner at UBC. "I
did my undergraduate and graduate work at
UBC. In fact, I have spent most of my life
here," he laughs. Clearly, it is a life he
Victor Leung can be reached at
vleung@ieee.org or at (604) 822-6932.
■ ■■iiiinir
CICSR Centre for Integrated Computer Systems Research www.cicsr.ubc.ca
The UBC Centre for Integrated Computer Systems Research (CICSR) is an interdepartmental
research organization made up of computer-related research faculty members in the
departments of Computer Science, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Mechanical
Engineering. Currently, there are 80 CICSR faculty members who direct approximately 350
graduate students and collaborate with dozens of industrial firms in areas such as robotics,
artificial intelligence, communications, VLSI design, multimedia, and industrial automation.
Return Address:
CICSR, University of British Columbia
289-2366 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC.V6T 1Z4
Writer:   Mari-Lou Rowley,
Pro-Textual Communications
Design:   William Knight, wilyum creative
Photos:   Janis Franklin,
Biomedical Communications
Office:   University of British Columbia
289-2366 Main Mall
Vancouver, BC, Canada, V6T 1Z4
Tel:   (604)822-6894 Fax:(604)822-9013
E-mail:   cicsrinfo@cicsr.ubc.ca
Contact:  Linda Sewell, Publications Coordinator,
CICSR Office


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items