UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

Davidsonia Sep 1, 1975

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Fall 1975 Cover:
Arbutus menziesii, the Pacific Madrone.
One of British Columbia's most attractive
but tenuously hardy species. The
cinnamon-red bark distinguishes this
plant as a fine ornamental.
Russula emetica, the Emetic Russula. A
common mushroom of coniferous forests
in the Lower Mainland which is of
doubtful value as an edible plant.
Fall 1975
Davidsonia is published quarterly by The Botanical Garden of The University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1W5. Annual subscription, six dollars.
Single numbers, one dollar and fifty cents. All editorial matters or information concerning
subscriptions should be addressed to The Director of The Botanical Garden.
A ckno wledgements
Pen and ink illustrations are by Mrs. Lesley Bohm. Photographic credits are as follows:
pages 33 and 34, photographs courtesy of The Province and Colin Price Photos; pages 35
and 36, photographs courtesy of Western News Photo; photograph opposite page 44 was
taken by Dr. Roy L. Taylor. The article on Arbutus menziesii was researched by Mrs. Sylvia
Taylor and Ms. Geraldine Guppy. Editorial and layout assistance was provided by Ms.
Geraldine Guppy and Mrs. Jean Marchant. Climatological summary was prepared by Mr.
Ken Wilson through cooperation with Mr. Don Pearce of the Department of Plant Sciences. Children's Vegetable Garden Program
In the spring of 1975, the UBC Botanical Garden initiated a trial one-year Children's Vegetable
Garden Program. Discussion was held with Vancouver School Board officials and in March schools
within a 5-mile radius of the Botanical Garden were circulated with basic information about the
The program was developed to augment the B.C. Provincial Government's Allotment Garden
Program. We felt there was a need to stimulate the development of a children's garden program in
the Vancouver lower mainland region to provide a logical feeder system for the development of a
horticultural awareness of young people. We did not envisage the program becoming a regular
activity of the University Botanical Garden, however, we did wish to have a, pilot program so we
could evaluate the type of educational resource requirements needed to provide instruction for
teachers to develop their own local garden programs.
Garden plots of 7 X 10 m were prepared by the Botanical Garden. Plots were separated by grass
walking strips. The final seed bed preparation was the responsibility of the student groups. A
selection of seeds was provided by the Botanical Garden.
The program began in early May with three schools participating — Kerrisdale Elementary,
Queen Mary Elementary and University Hill Secondary Schools. These schools were later joined
by the Prince of Wales Mini School, bringing the total to 62 students and six teachers. The teachers
were just as enthusiastic as their students.
Suzanne Fellenz, a student of University Hill Secondary School, weeding in the garden plot. 34
Lael Whitehead of University Hill Secondary School, busily attending her garden plot.
I visited the four schools several times to outline the program to the students. Lists of the various
vegetable seeds available from the Botanical Garden were passed out and discussed, and the children were encouraged to try some of the lesser known vegetables (e.g., kohlrabi, parsnips, artichokes
and kale) as well as the more familiar ones (potatoes, tomatoes, peas, beans, carrots, beets, cabbage,
corn, lettuce, radishes and others). For more variety, there were sunflower, ornamental gourd, and
popcorn seeds. We decided to have additional communal plots for watermelons and pumpkins,
since these plants require a great deal of space to grow. Seed depth and row distances were discussed, as were garden planting plans.
At the first garden site meeting, the plots were examined, and the use of the tools was demonstrated. Rock-picking and raking began, and the students were on their way. After several such
meetings, the plots were ready. The garden planting plans for each site was drawn up by the
individual school group. Great enthusiasm and excitement on the part of the students occurred
when the actual planting took place. At first, the students had difficulty in believing that such large
distances had to be left between the rows or between transplanted seedlings; however, as the summer
progressed and the vegetables grew and eventually reached maturity, they undoubtedly saw the
reasons why! And, to make use of that extra space, they learned to intercrop faster-maturing
vegetables between slower-growing ones. Some groups were very creative in their garden design.
There were beds and paths, as well as the more typical row-type plantings and trellis frames for
crops like beans and peas.
The garden groups had four to six people per plot, and at first, these large groupings presented
some problems when it came to deciding what vegetables to plant. However, when the students sat
down and worked as a team to arrive at their decisions, a valuable lesson was learned in cooperation.
All told, there were a total of 16 plots — ten belonging to the student team groups, one communal
watermelon patch, one communal pumpkin patch, three staff plots for demonstration and display,
and one Chinese vegetable plot to acquaint everyone with these unfamiliar vegetables. While school was in session, we met at the garden area for one to two hours, twice a week. When
summer vacation began, the students came out as often as they liked. Summer schedules involved
assignments within each garden group to ensure proper care and maintenance was attained for each
garden plot.
The gardens were quite prolific and the majority of vegetables grew very well. For the most part,
the students were very conscientious in caring for their plots and harvesting the vegetables. Even
some of the parents helped out from time to time!
Although we knew that certain vegetables requiring a great deal of hot, sunny weather probably
wouldn't grow well here, we planted some of these in any case. We were successful with eggplant,
butokra and watermelon were a definite failure. However, even this had educational value, teaching
the students the effect of weather and climate on the growth of certain vegetables.
Our Chinese vegetable plot was a most interesting one. The beans were unsuccessful, but the
flowering cabbage, kale, mustard, broccoli and spinach flourished, as did the onions, winter
radishes and coriander. Both early and late varieties were tried, and all were successful.
A Fall Fair, held the first Saturday in October, marked the official completion of the Vegetable
Garden program. Over 100 people were in attendance for the day's festivities, which included the
setting up and judging of various exhibits by senior Garden staff. A tour of the vegetable plots and
surrounding Botanical Garden areas was followed by refreshments — including a fresh-from-the-
garden corn roast — and the distribution of Botancial Garden T-shirts to all our young gardeners.
The Fair was a big success, and a good time was had by all.
Some of the Kerrisdale Elementary students working in their garden unit (left to right): Bruce Nerland, Stephen
Mitchell, Bruce Ledingham and Matthew Kokan. On the far right is Elaine Mascali, Botanical Garden staff member
who directed the school program. 36
The results of the Summer Garden Program can be easily seen in this photograph with a number of the students
and staff shown. Shown in the back row, (left to right) are: Chris Van Nus, Ruth Niblock, Grace Maclver, Betsy
George (teacher), Alan Kingsley. In the front, (left to right) are: Matthew Kokan, Ruth Leibek, Paul Conroy and
Elaine Mascali (UBC Botanical Garden).
A number of positive and negative aspects of the program became evident during the summer.
The size of the plots should probably be reduced along with a reduction in the number of students
per plot. This would provide for a better team effort without problems of work assignment becoming
unduly difficult. It is also clear from our experience that teachers need to be involved in a preprogram instructional series to help expedite the development of the program. The staff of the
Botanical Garden provided much needed assistance in planning and maintenance aspects of the
program. All in all the Children's Vegetable Garden Program was a most enjoyable learning
experience for the students, teachers and myself. We have all learned much which will help make
future programs more productive from both horticultural and educational points of view. Arbutus menziesii Pursh
Member of the Family Ericaceae
Natural Distribution
Arbutus menziesii occurs west of the Cascade Mountains from southwestern British Columbia
south to Baja, California. In British Columbia it is present on the Gulf Islands and on both sides of
the Georgia Strait, as for north as Seymour Narrows on the east coast of Vancouver Island (about
50°N) and Bute Inlet on the mainland. The species is restricted to a narrow belt extending about
eight km inland from the Strait, and is becoming rarer in the vicinity of Vancouver.
Arbutus menziesii is found in a wide variety of habitats from dry coastal areas to well-drained
wooded inland slopes. It occurs from sea level to about 1200 m in the southern part of its range,
and to about 300 m in British Columbia. The growth is on well-drained soils near sea level; it is
characteristically found on exposed rocky bluffs overlooking the sea. Though rarely found growing
in pure stands, owing to its intolerance of shade, it is one of the first species to occupy newly cleared
land throughout its range. In British Columbia it is usually associated with Douglas Fir and Garry
Oak. A suitable climate for growth is subhumid to humid (a warm-temperature rainy climate) with
dry summers, and with up to 1520 mm precipitation per year, mostly in winter (Krajina 1969).
A broadleaf evergreen tree, (3-)6-30(-35) m tall, with a DBH of 20-180 cm, and usually with a
short, crooked or leaning trunk which often divides into several twisting upright branches and a
broad irregularly rounded crown. On the best sites it forms a tall stately tree with straight trunk,
widely spreading branches and round-topped to narrow-oblong crown. On dry mountain slopes it
may be reduced to a small twisted shrub.
The roots are thick and hard and may sometimes spread over an extensive area, particularly in
wild specimens. It is probable that the roots have associated mycorrhizae.
The bark of limbs and twigs is reddish-brown, thin and freely exfoliating in thin flakes or strips
to expose the younger smooth, cinnamon-red bark beneath. The bark of larger trunks is dark reddish-
brown, 6-10 mm thick, becoming fissured into small scales that are shed annually.
The twigs are slender and glabrous (or sparsely downy on vigorous young plants), light red, pea-
green or orange at first, becoming bright reddish-brown in the first winter.
The wood is heavy, hard, fine-textured and close-grained, moderately strong but rather brittle.
The heartwood is light brown shaded with red, the sapwood thin and white or cream-colored and
frequently with a pinkish tinge.
Buds are terminal, obtuse, oval, 6.5 mm long and bright brown. Scales are numerous, imbricated,
broadly-ovate, apiculate, keeled on the back and slightly ciliate.
Leaves are persistent, alternate, (5-)7-15 cm long and 3-8 cm wide, smooth, shiny, thick and
leathery, and ovate or broadly ovate to elliptic. The leaf apex is obtuse or acutish, the base rounded
to cuneate. The surface of the leaves is glabrous or sparsely pubescent in young leaves; margins are
usually entire but occasionally serrate on vigorous young plants, slightly thickened and revolute.
37 38
FIGURE I. Arbutus menxiesii, A. Habit of shrub, 8. branchlet with mature fruit, C. branchlet showing com pound raceme of flowers,
D. cross section of flower al anthesis. The midrib is thick and pale, with veinlets conspicuous and reticulated. The petiole is 12-32 mm
long, stout, grooved, often slightly wing-margined toward apex, and lacking stipules. The leaves are
light green or often pink at first, becoming dark glossy green above and pale grey-green to almost
white and glaucous beneath, finally becoming orange and scarlet in the early summer of the second
year and falling gradually and irregularly during June-July. A second crop of smaller leaves is often
produced in late summer.
Plants flower from April to May in British Columbia, and March to May (or June) in other parts
of the range. The inflorescence is a large dense terminal compound raceme, 5-15 cm long and 5-15
cm broad, with rachis and pedicels pubescent or puberulent. It is bibracteate at the base, with
bracts ovate, acute, scarious, whitish and 4-6 mm long. The flowers are perfect, 6-8 mm long and
5-parted, with a waxy texture and a strong honey odor that is very attractive to bees. The calyx is
very small (about 1 mm long), dry, greenish, tardily deciduous and deeply five-lobed. The calyx
lobes are ovate, acute, thin and ciliate. The corolla is urceolate, 6-8 mm long, gamopetalous, white
to pinkish, and with a swollen tube much longer than the lobes; lobes five, rounded, spreading or
reflexed from a narrow opening, with ten semi-transparent glands in a circle at the base. The stamens
are ten, shorter than and borne on the corolla; the filaments are free, subulate, dilated and pilose
at base and the anthers are broad, and short, opening by two slit-like pores and with two short
reflexed curved horns. The style is columnar, 5 mm long and exserted, with a capitate, obscurely
five-lobed stigma. The ovary is superior, glabrous, glandular-roughened, 5- (4-) celled, and borne
on a hypogynous disc, free from the calyx. It contains numerous ovules.
The fruit is a berry 8-12 mm in diameter, depressed-globose to ovoid, orange to red, with a finely
granulate to tuberculate or rugose surface. The flesh is rather dry, thin and mealy, and surrounds a
hard stone. The fruit matures in September or October, and may remain attached most of the winter if not eaten by birds. The seeds are several to many, about 2.5 mm long, often apiculate, dark
brown, pilose, thick and bony, tightly pressed together, rounded on one margin and almost straight
on the other. Good seed crops appear to be produced regularly. 39
Seeds should be sown as soon as ripe on moist well-drained soil and covered about 6 mm deep.
Normally they are grown in plunged pots rather than flats to avoid a check in growth at planting
time. Staking is necessary at an early stage. Cuttings from half-ripened wood taken in fall are fairly
easy to root, although they take a long time and therefore the practice is usually confined to commercial nurseries. Named varieties have to be grafted on seedlings of Arbutus unedo. In all cases
the new stock should be planted out in permanent positions as soon as possible, when about 45 cm
In nature Arbutus menziesii sprouts freely from stumps, and this seems to be the major type of
reproduction, resulting in the development of small clumps of trees.
This tree is difficult to transplant, particularly from the wild.
Conditions for Cultivation
The tree grows rapidly once established, but is recommended in Canada only for extreme southwestern British Columbia (Zone 8b). Although there is evidence that the species is long-lived and
that trees with a DBH of 30-40 cm are 60-85 years old, there is relatively little knowledge of the age
of maturity or of the longevity of the trees. Arbutus menziesii can be exacting in its requirements
in gardens, preferring soils with a dry mor humus and rather low supplies of calcium and magnesium,
but it will do well in any well-drained peaty or loamy soil with a pH of 4.5-7.0. It should be grown
in a somewhat sheltered position where not exposed to dry winds. Once established it shows intermediate tolerance to shade, and is resistant to drought, high temperatures and to wet freezing conditions but not to solidly frozen ground. It needs infrequent but deep watering. Normally it requires
little pruning, apart from the removal of small inner branches as they die out from too much shade. It will regenerate freely if cut back quite hard, provided the plant is otherwise in good condition;
such cutting back may be necessary after storm or frost damage.
Landscape Value
Arbutus menziesii is one of the most beautiful native plants and highly prized as an ornamental
in many areas, although not fully appreciated in the Pacific Northwest. All parts of the tree are
attractive throughout the year, and it can be beautiful and distinguished in the right setting, although the constant dropping of leaves, fruit and bark rule it out for some uses (for example near
terraces or pools). If the tree is surrounded by drought-resistant shrubs the shedding may be hardly
Arbutus menziesii is resistant to Armillaria 'oak root fungus' and therefore is a good tree to grow
in areas with this infection. The fruits are attractive to birds.
Arbutus menziesii can be obtained from local nurseries, although in somewhat limited quantities.
Young trees are available in one-gallon or five-gallon containers.
There are no formally recognized varieties or cultivars of this species, and no known hybrids.
Other uses
Arbustus menziesii is too rare to be of commercial importance, but the wood is used locally for
fuel, as a good source of charcoal, and for small cabinet work and novelty items — the tendency to
warp and check limits its use for larger items. The strongly astringent bark contains up to 45%
tannin and is sometimes used in tanning leather, and it and the leaves also have astringent properties.
The fruit is unpalatable, and possibly inedible. The color is attractive, however, and bunches of the
berries are used as Christmas decorations. The Indian tribes of the Pacific Northwest made use of
Af\ various parts of the tree. Young branches were made into wooden spoons and gambling sticks; bark
extracts were used to stain paddles and fishhooks and to give a reddish-brown color to camas bulbs;
boiled bark was used to treat diabetes or cuts and wounds, and an infusion of bark, root and leaves
to treat a cold, sore throat or ulcerated stomach; fresh leaves were chewed and the juice swallowed
for a bad cold; and leaves were rubbed on rheumatic areas and on burns. One tribe in Washington
smoked the leaves.
Diseases and Problems of Cultivation
The constant dropping of leaves, bark and fruit can be a nuisance. A mature wild specimen may
suffer if the land is cleared and it is suddenly surrounded by a cultivated area which is fertilized and
watered throughout the summer. Trees may be damaged by severe storms and by a long and severe
cold spell; in the latter case, prune dead parts only after new growth has started.
Both wild and cultivated specimens seem to be quite resistant to insect damage, although several
species of caterpillars and woodborers commonly feed on Madrone. Similarly, several leaf diseases
and root or crown rots have been discovered but seem to be more unsightly than dangerous.
The generic name Arbutus is the ancient classical name for the Strawberry or Arbute tree, A.
unedo L., under which, according to Horace, "idle men delight to lie". The specific name menziesii
commemorates its discoverer Archibald Menzies (1754-1842), a Scottish physician and naturalist
who accompanied Captain Vancouver on his travels in the Pacific Northwest, and who collected
the tree in 1792 at Port Discovery, California. It was introduced into cultivation in the British Isles
in 1827 by David Douglas. It has been described as the "tree which sheds its bark instead of its
Bean, W. J. 1970. 8th ed. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in the British Isles. Volume 1. John Murray (Publishers) Ltd., London.
Collingwood, G. H. and W. D. Brush. 1955 ed. Knowing Your Trees. The American Forestry Association, Washington, D.C.
Hitchcock, C. L. et al. 1959. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 4. Ericaceae to Campanulaceae. University of
Washington Press, Seattle.
Hosie, R. C. 1969.7th ed. rev. The Native Trees of Canada. Canadian Forestry Service, Department of Fisheries and Forestry.
Queen's Printer, Ottawa.
Krajina, V J. 1969. Ecology of Forest Trees in British Columbia. Ecology of Western North America. 2(1): 1-147.
Lyons, C. P. 1965. Rev. ed. Trees, Shrubs and Flowers to Know in British Columbia. J. M. Dent & Sons (Canada) Ltd.,
Sherk, L. A. and A. R. Buckly. 1968. Ornamental Shrubs for Canada. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture.
Publication No. 1286. Queen's Printer, Ottawa.
Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. 1965. USDA Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 271.
Sudworth, G. B. 1908. Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope. Reprinted in 1967 by Dover Publications Inc., New York.
Szczawinski, A. F. 1962. The Heather Family (Ericaceae) of B.C. Handbook No. 19. Queen's Printer, Victoria, B.C.
Turner, N. J. and M. A. M. Bell. 1971. The Ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Econ. Bot. 25:
A view from West Point Grey near Tower Beach. Plant Info Gram Program
The Botanical Garden initiated a horticultural information service in 1973 and during 1975 more
than 3,000 enquiries were received and answered. Many enquiries are of a seasonal nature and a
Plant Info Gram is produced for circulation on those that are most common. Two such problems
relate to pests which attack lawns and ornamental conifers in the Vancouver area. The following
examples show the information content of these Plant Info Grams.
(Cypress Leaf Miner)
There is a serious build-up of a leaf miner on Chamaecyparis (cypress) ornamental conifers, mainly of the Lawson
varieties; Jumiperus (junipers) and Thuja (arborvitae) at the Coast. Visible damage is barely noticeable at first but
after a couple of years' infestation the trees, particularly the columnar types, look as if they have been blasted with a
The adult leaf miner moths are very small, about 3/8-inch across when the wings are spread. They emerge in late
June or early in July, lay their eggs within a few days and then die. The larvae, which are tiny caterpillars, enter the
scale leaves in new growth and mine into and eat the inside tissue of the leaves. They are inactive for a short period
during the winter. By the end of April the leaves and stems in many of the tips have died and turned brown and no
new growth is added in May. During May the larvae emerge from the scale leaves leaving a tiny exit hole to spin a
cocoon and go into the pupal stage in the dead twigs, remaining there until July.
To control this pest it is necessary to spray during two periods in the miner's life history. Starting in the last week
of April and again in the first week in July spray three times at 10-day intervals with diazinon* plus a spreader-sticker.**
Without a sticker your efforts will be wasted. Be sure to tell your neighbouts about the control of this pest to aid in
stamping it out in your district.***
If your trees are badly blasted it would be best to remove and burn them to prevent infestation of clean bushes.
It might also be a good idea to re-plant with flowering shrubs or to wait a year or two before re-planting Lawson
cypress varieties.
* B.C. Department of Agriculture recommends use of diazinon 12% emulsifiable concentrate at the rate of two
tablespoons per gallon.
** A spreader-sticker (surfactant) can be obtained from garden centres.
*** Times given are for Vancouver and Lower Fraser Valley. Victoria and lower Vancouver Island are two weeks
The Botanical Garden
The University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C., Canada   V6T 1W5
Info-phone: (604) 228-5906 PLANT INFO GRAM
The leatherjacket is the larval stage of the European Crane fly or Tipula paludosa. The adult flies are long-legged,
reddish-brown and are awkward and sluggish-moving when walking. The flies are about an inch long with a tapering
body and two narrow wings.
The flies emerge as adults in August and September for a relatively short period of time, during which they mate
and lay their eggs. The eggs hatch and develop immediately into gray worm-like larvae that feed on the roots of
grasses. The larvae are about 1.5 inches long when fully grown. Bad infestations can cause irregular and severe damage
resulting in brown patches of lawn. Damage is most severe during March, April and early May. When the pupae are
emerging to become adults, starlings often flock in great numbers to feed on the lawn. We have also experienced the
rolling up of turf by racoons in areas of bad infestations.
To check the degree of infestation, examine the turf at or just below the soil surface. If more than 20 larvae are
found per square foot, the turf should be treated. Application of the insecticide should be made once between the
1st of October and the end of May when the ground is not frozen.
Determine the area to be treated and measure out the proper amount of insecticide according to the rates given
below. It is best to mow and water the lawn one or two days prior to treatment. Distribute the solution evenly over
the treatment area, using a sprayer, hose proportioner or watering can. Do not water for at least a day after the
treatment. Keep children and pets off sprayed areas for 24 hours.
Sevin 50% wettable powder at 6 oz. per 1,000 sq. ft. of lawn
Diazinon 12.5% emulsifiable cone, at 10 oz. per 1,000 sq. ft. of lawn
It will take two 3-gallon sprayer applications to adequately cover 1,000 sq. ft. of lawn with a coarse spray, therefore you should add 3 oz. Sevin or 5 oz. of Diazinon to each of the two 3-gallon sprayers.
REMEMBER! Handle chemicals carefully and keep out of reach of children!
The Botanical Garden
The University of British Columbia
Vancouver, B.C., Canada   V6T 1W5
Info-phone: (604) 228-5906
Climatological Summary*
Data                                                           1975
Mean temperature
Highest temperature
Lowest temperature
7.8 °C
Grass minimum temperature
Total rainfall/No. days with rainfall
16.0 mm/5
114.6 mm/12
0.8 mm/1
Total snowfall/No. days with snowfall
Total hours bright sunshine/possible
Max. wind speed in km for 1 hour/direction
Mean kilometers of wind at 1 m
136.7 km
128.3 km
104.9 km
Mean kilometers of wind at 13 m
189.7 km
168.4 km
147.7 km
'Site: The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada
Position:lat. 49° 15'29"N; long. 123° 14'58"W. Elevation: 104.4m 44
Botanical Garden News and Notes
New Office and Education Centre — In July, the Botanical Garden moved to new offices, the former President's Residence at 6501 NW Marine Drive. The garage has been converted into a horticultural workshop for
use by the many extension programs offered by the Garden. The new office provides a much easier access for
the public to the Botanical Garden and its programs. Garden renovation of the grounds is providing demonstration units for class work and material for academic classes on the Campus.
Nitobe Memorial Garden — This garden component continues to be of great interest to the local community
and visitors alike, with nearly 100,000 visitors during 1975. Of special interest was the 10-day visit to the
University of Mr. Shigeru Nagai, Tea Master of the Urasenke School, Kyoto and his Assistant Mr. Kanji Ito.
Their visit was made possible through the generosity of the Japan Foundation, the Japanese Counsel General,
Vancouver Asian Arts Society, the UBC Department of Asian Studies and the Botanical Garden. Our Kyoto
visitors gave both public demonstrations and private tea ceremonies while at the University.
Summer Senior Citizens Program — The second year of this innovative program was part of our 1975 program.
David Tarrant, Educational Coodinator for the Garden, gave instruction to 150 students in Indoor and Balcony
Gardening and in Outdoor and Vegetable Gardening. Classes were held each afternoon over a 6-week period.
During the summer classes also visited a number of the Botanical Garden components.
Staff Activities — During May, the Botanical Garden hosted the Western Regional Meeting of the American
Association of Botanical Gardens and Arboreta. The meeting included both formal lecture and workshop
sessions as well as visitations to principal display gardens in the B.C. Lower Mainland.
The Botanical Garden continues to be active in a number of professional organizations: Roy L. Taylor,
Director, was elected for a two year term as President of the AABGA and participated as an author in the
Science Council of Canada's report on the status of support for Canadian biology; Ken Wilson served as
Chairman of the AABGA Committee to develop terms of reference for the last two steps in the proposed
North American Diploma in Horticulture; David Tarrant served on the AABGA editorial committee for the
Bulletin; Gordon Ramsdale attended the Western Regional Meeting of the International Plant Propagators
Society; A. James MacPhail was appointed co-chairman of the first Interim International Rock Garden Conference to be held in Seattle and Vancouver in 1976; Ken Wilson served on the Provincial Department of
Labour, Trade Advisory Committee for Horticulture that is responsible for establishment and supervision of
Gardener Apprenticeship Training Program.
A special program was initiated by Christopher J. Marchant on revegetation of the Point Grey Cliffs, this
program was funded by a special grant from the President's Office. During the summer Dr. Marchant visited
similar programs in Britain to evaluate successful techniques.
In November, David Tarrant became an author of the book entitled 'High-rise Horticulture' published by
Nunaga Publishing Co. Ltd., of Surrey, B.C.
During the early Spring the Botanical Garden presented Hi-rise Horticulture as a integral part of the
Vancouver Home Show. Margaret Coxon and David Tarrant gave demonstration lectures and the program
was well received. Garden staff participated in the development of the accompanying plant display.
Gordon Ramsdale, recent graduate of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, was appointed as Propagator
and Nursery Manager; Peter Wharton, forestry graduate of the University of North Wales and holder of the
City and Guild Certificate in Tree Surgery, was given responsibility for development and management of
Marine Drive Garden; Allan Rose, graduate of Vancouver Parks apprentice program was assigned to the B.C.
Native Garden development; Margaret Coxon, graduate of the University of Western Australia, Perth, and
the greenhouse training program of Capital Nurseries, Sacramento, became responsible for greenhouse management; Douglas Smythe, graduate of the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester, England, and Helmut
Koblischke, graduate of the Schwabisch Gmund Horticultural Trade School, West Germany, joined the
garden staff to participate in the development and maintenance of the new areas assigned to the Botanical
Garden that include Cecil Green Park, Graham House, the new Museum of Anthropology and the Botanical
Garden Office and Education Centre. Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieber & Zuccarini, is a rarely cultivated plant of the Thyme-
laeaceae or Daphne Family. The genus contains only two species, one deciduous, the other
evergreen. Edgeworthia papyrifera is a deciduous shrub that reaches a height of 2 to 3 m. It
is native to China, but now largely known from Japan where it is widely grown as a source
of fibers for the production of a high grade hand-made paper known as Nepal or Mitsumata
Paper. The paper is used for currency. The branches are harvested for the production of
fiber every other year.
The shrub flowers in Vancouver in March and the flowers, which are pale yellow and
have a sweet fragrance, are borne in globose clusters that are up to 5 cm in diameter. It is
an attractive spring plant, but because it is tenuously hardy, should be planted in a protected site. Our specimen is grown in a southeast facing courtyard of the Graham House
School of Social Work on the western extremity of the Point Grey peninsula. The Showy Milkweed, Asclepias speciosa,
one of our most interesting fall fruiting
perennials. The dried fruits are frequently
used as part of dried flower decorations.
Volume 6
Number 3 Fall 1975
Children's Vegetable Garden Program   33
Arbutus menziesii, Pacific Madrone   37
Plant Info Gram Program   42
Climatological Summary   43
Botanical Garden News and Notes   44


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