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Davidsonia Jun 1, 1970

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VOLUME 1        NUMBER 2
Summer 1970
A pen and ink wash by Mrs. Lesley Bohm of the Nitobe
Memorial Garden. This Garden forms an important part of the
Botanical Garden. Opened in May of 1960 the Garden
represents an outstanding example of traditional Japanese
landscape architecture. This number of "Davidsonia" features
the Nitobe Memorial Garden.
Summer 1970
Davidsonia is published quarterly by The Botanical Garden of The University of British
Columbia, Vancouver 8, British Columbia, Canada. Annual subscription, four dollars.
Single numbers, one dollar. All editorial matters or information concerning subscriptions
should be addressed to the Director of the Botanical Garden.
The pen and ink illustrations are by Mrs. Lesley Bohm. Dr. Norman A. M. MacKenzie,
President Emeritus, kindly contributed his personal recollections of Dr. Nitobe. Dr. John
W. Neill, Department of Plant Science, The University of British Columbia, and
Director of Landscaping for the University at the time of construction of the Nitobe
Memorial Garden, contributed the article on the history and development of the garden.
Dr. W. B. Schofield, recent author of a handbook on the Mosses of British Columbia and
member of the Botany Department at The University of British Columbia, has written
about the mosses in the garden. The poem found on page twenty is an original and unpublished work by a former student at the University, Mr. Rod Humeniuk. Mr. T.
Makihara prepared the Japanese calligraphy on the cover. The photographic credits are
as follows: page 11, Dr. John W. Neill, page 15, U.B.C. Extension Department, all other
photographs by Dr. Roy L. Taylor. Several other members of the Botanical Garden
staff have contributed to this special number, but no one has contributed more to
making the story of this garden a success than Mr. Tomomichi Sumi. Mr. Sumi has been
maintaining the garden with care since it was opened ten years ago. Dr. Inazo Nitobe 1862-1933
I w^flt to Geneva, Switzerland, in April 1925, as legal advisor to the International Labour
|e, I met Dr» Inazo Nitobe, a member of the House of Peers of Japan, who was the Under
jfetary General Of the League of Nations. I came to know Dr. Nitobe and Mrs. Nitobe, in a peril way,"1 because* of my friendship with Mrs. Nitobe's niece, Lydia Morris, a graduate of an
nerican University who was spending a year or two in Geneva with her aunt. Mrs. Nitobe was an
American citizen and a-Quaker; Dr. Nitobe, as far as I know, was also a Christian and a Quaker
rith a special interes  in an orderly and peaceful world and in the prevention of war. This to such
degreef that he became known as an "Apostle of Peace."
I was' a gue§&oiUtfle Nitobe's in their own home, on a number of occasions and have happy
gmoriespf the Christmas that I spent with them,
fter^. returned to Canada I became interested in, and an active member of, the Canadian
lute of International Affairs and the Institute of Pacific Relations. Dr. Nitobe, who had retired
|his wife to Japan, was interested in similar activities and organizations in his country and con-
his work for international co-operation and peace from that base. In 1931 we were both
|ates to the 3rd Biennial Conference of the Institute of Pacific Relations, which met in Hang-
and Shanghai, China. In 1933 he came to Canada to attend the 4th Biennial Conference of
istitute of Pacific Relations in Banff. This was a very important, interesting and exciting con-
Ice and many of the leading men and women of the countries of the Pacific attended it. Follow-
|his conference Dr. Nitobe remained in British Columbia working for better understanding
een Japanfand Canada and addressing public meetings in the interest of peace. In the course
lese activities'he became seriously ill and died in Vancouver on October 15th, 1933. All of his
ids and those devoted to the cause of peace were shocked and saddened by this tragedy,
recognition of his work and as a memorial to him, his friends in British Columbia and at the
University created a small Japanese garden and erected an appropriate memorial on the Campus of
University. This garden was located in the area west of the West Mall where students' residences
le "Gordon Shrum commons" were later constructed. During World War II, ignorant and stupid
|ans defaced the monument and the memorial garden. When I came to the University in 1944
id the plaque honouring Dr. Nitobe had been torn from its base and thrown into the bush
Id the garden.
Iter the War, friends of Dr. Nitobe and members of the Japanese community here, others of his
friers in Japan and the government of Japan agreed that a permanent memorial to him, to his
and to the cause in \^ich he was interested, should be erected on the Campus of U.B.C. To
Tend, a site was set aside, one of the most distinguished of the Japanese landscape gardeners and
itects with Japanese workmen were brought to the Campus from Japan and they laid out and
fipleted our^agangse garden. This is one of the most authentic Japanese gardens in North
AtBlprica and certainly one of the most attractive. I am delighted that the University with the cooperation of members of^he Japanese community and of students and staff from Japan in attendance at the University cojHuiJie to look after this garden so that it is a place of beauty and peace
ifi* an appropriate memorial to a great man who devoted his life to the cause of his fellow men
and the cause of peace.
9 Nitobe Memorial Garden—History
and Development
It has been said that a garden in Japan is a representation of the scenery of the country, though
it is essentially a Japanese representation. Although it is an interpretation of nature, it is not intended to be a realistic reproduction. The significance of this form of art is best understood by the
Japanese who by tradition have inherited an appreciation and enjoyment of nature as expressed not
only in the garden but also in their arts and many of their customs.
Was it possible, then, to have a successful Japanese Garden in Canada? This was the question
asked by members of a President's Committee formed in 1959 to plan for such a Garden at The
University of British Columbia. The committee consisted of interested Faculty members from various University departments, a representative of the Japanese-Canadian community, with Mr. Muneo
Tanabe, then Consul for Japan in Vancouver as an ex officio member. All agreed that the secret
of success was dependent on two principal factors: engaging a suitable landscape architect in Japan
lO to assure authenticity in design and secondly, but equal in importance, maintaining an academic
objective in the entire undertaking.
At this time a fund raising campaign was underway. The University assumed most of the cost of
the Garden, but some grants were received from The Canada Council and The Leon and Thea
Koerner Foundation. Contact was established with the Japan-Canada Society in Tokyo where over
$21,000 was collected for the project, with the understanding that this amount would be used
mainly for purchases of material in Japan for use in the Garden. Mr. Tanabe and Dr. George Ishi-
wara visited the various Japanese Canadian communities in B.C. and were successful in obtaining
over $7,000. This amount was spent on purchases of plant material, lanterns, etc., mostly in Japan.
Through the good offices of the Consul, who later was appointed Consul-General, the Government of Japan selected Professor Kannosuke Mori from
Chiba University to design the Garden. Mr. Mori arrived early in 1959 and was with the University until
after the official opening of the Garden in June, 1960.
The University was particularly fortunate in this
selection, for Professor Mori understood that he was
to design and create a "Japanese Japanese Garden in
Canada", not a "Canadian Japanese Garden". Having
spent a lifetime in the academic environment, he understood, too, the need to relate his creation to the University community.
The site was selected, a forested area in the north- —
west section of the campus, along Marine Drive. This
2.2 acre portion of the University was judged to be
safe for all time—no danger of intrusion by other
buildings and services. It also was conveniently related
to International House. 11
The design phase lasted approximately three months. During this time the Garden was planned
in detail. Professor Mori was then persuaded to stay on to supervise its construction. That this was
a wise decision became more evident as time went on. He personally directed the placement of each
rock and the planting of each tree and shrub.
Stones for the Garden were selected from various sections of the Lower Mainland: large and
small, colorful rocks from near Harrison Lake for the waterfall and stream, stones with character
from Britannia Beach for the Tea Garden and local boulders for the margin of the lake.
Professor Mori explained his stone work in a letter to the author written a few days before his
untimely death, after returning to Japan: "In the Japanese Garden at U.B.C. I was most interested
in arranging the rocks. I tried a bold treatment with such monotonous stones as used around the
lake, doing my best to arrange them with some freshness. I used my own method of arranging the
somewhat colorful stones at the waterfall and streams, hoping that people who see them will understand that some aspect of polychrome can be found in a Japanese Garden. In the Tea Garden I
used the river rocks which we brought down from Britannia Beach. They are too light and dry now,
but after the trees in this part of the Garden grow to some size, the rocks will improve in appearance. I will be delighted if the beauty of the Garden is understood gradually by the people who
see it."
Ten years of weathering and growth of plants in the Tea Garden have combined to enhance this
very fine stone arrangement (photograph on page 12). It is in the opinion of many Mr. Mori's
finest achievement.
During the early stages of construction the Garden took shape very quickly. The area of the lake
was cleared completely, but a good deal of the natural forest was retained. Excavation from the lake,
nearly one half acre in extent, was used to shape up the major "mountain" and the pleasant slopes
along the lake. In this operation the balance of nature was retained. No soil was removed from the 12
site and none was brought in. According to custom, one island was retained in the lake, later to be
connected with the mainland by a bridge.
Once the contouring was complete the bed of the lake was completely waterproofed, using bonded
sheets of asphalt felt. This seal proved to be inadequate, however, and the lake was later drained
so that the entire area could be treated with a seal coat. No trouble has since developed.
Fish have since been introduced into the lake. In 1962, 10,000 goldfish arrived by air from Tokyo,
and two years later 100 large, colorful carp were shipped over. These were purchased by the
Japan-Canada Society in Tokyo. Most of the goldfish became casualties to the birds, but the large
carp have survived, offering a colorful attraction to the visitors.
Water is constantly recirculated to the top of the "mountain", where it flows down the rock-lined
stream and over the waterfall. Movement of water is from east to west in the traditional manner,
excess water escaping through the iris garden to the west. Level of the water is controlled in the iris
garden, so that they can be flooded when in bloom, as is customary.
The iris garden was not permanendy planted until 1961. Arrangements were made with the Meiji
Shrine in Tokyo, during a visit to Japan by Dr. Ishiwara and the author, for a shipment of some of
their finest varieties. These are maturing nicely now and are at their best during the month of June.
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Tea garden
It is interesting to note that Professor Mori was quite content to use native British Columbia
plant materials and other plants that are customarily used in our landscape. His opinion was that our
forests are similar and we share with the Japanese people an appreciation of the broad leaved evergreen shrubs, azaleas and flowering cherries. Retaining some of the natural forest would help to give
immediate scale to the garden and an early sense of maturity. He realized, too, that our native
pines could be trained in the typical Japanese fashion, so there was no need to import them. Some
of the Japanese Maples and Flowering Cherries, most of the azaleas, and a variety of other shrubs
were brought over from Japan. Trees and shrubs from local sources included Douglas Fir, Hemlock, Vine Maple, Huckleberry, Salal, False Box, Oregon Grape, Labrador Tea, Kinnickinick collected from various sections of this area. Other plants were obtained from the University nurseries.
The first lantern to be placed and certainly the most impressive lantern in the Garden, was the
Nitobe Memorial Lantern. It had been located elsewhere on campus. It was moved to the new
location, in a setting of tall trees, a special point of focus and the reason for the name which was
given to the Garden.
Most of the other lanterns were from Japan. These include the "snow scene" lantern on the
island and two low, very old lanterns near the hand basins in the tea garden. Professor Mori agreed
that three of the lanterns offered to the Garden by Miss Florence Fyfe-Smith were acceptable and these were placed, one in the Tea Garden, the other two along the main paths of the Garden. They
are of the "Kasuga Shape" type, as is the lantern near the entrance to the Tea Garden. The lantern
at the south end of the lake is "Lemon Tree Shape".
These lanterns are architectural ornaments in the Garden. They have been selected to harmonize in scale and character with other features of the landscape, to symbolically light a pathway or,
again symbolically, to cast a beam of light across the water. They customarily are not lighted. The
"Snow Scene" lantern is said to best appreciated when covered with snow, as a fresh fall of snow
brings a special delight to the Japanese Garden.
A fine, old Seven Storey Pagoda was placed above the path along the north side of the Garden.
The Pagoda is Chinese in origin. Its use in the Japanese landscape can be traced back to the earliest
Japanese garden development.
While the lanterns and plants were being selected, construction continued and attention was
focussed on the bridges. The principal bridge is the gracefully arched "Earth Bridge". It was constructed in the traditional manner with bundles of faggots laid across a timber framework, then
covered with several inches of soil and fine gravel. It is supported by granite pillars. The bridge leading to the island is of the level "Wooden Bracket" type. Most interest, however, is aroused by the
"Yatsu-hashi" bridge, leading one through the iris garden in a leisurely zig-zag fashion. The simplest
bridge is that over the stream leading from the waterfall. It consists of two level granite slabs placed
side by side.
Paths were constructed, following Professor Mori's plan, to lead one through the garden, over
the bridges past many viewing points. The visitor to this type of "stroll garden" is encouraged to
follow the pathways in his own time, stopping to appreciate the vistas which open up before him as
he crosses a bridge or catches a glimpse of the Tea House across the water. Bamboo hoops, similar
to those used along the paths of the parks in Tokyo, serve as a polite remainder to the visitor that
he should stay on the path.
That the gardens of Tokyo, rather than the ancient temple gardens of Kyoto, served as the principal source of inspiration to Professor Mori is obvious from the extensive areas of lawn in the
Garden. All of the slopes leading up from the lake were seeded. The principal grass used was
13 Merion Bluegrass, thought to be similar in texture to Zoysia which is used in Tokyo, but not suitable for Vancouver conditions. This expanse of lawn helps to give scale to the Garden and provides
an attractive setting for the cherries and mounds of azaleas when they are in bloom.
A sense of enclosure of the entire Garden was considered by the designer to be of great importance. A hemlock hedge was established along the east side and laurels were planted inside the
fence which enclosed the whole Garden. Ten years' growth in this and other planting both inside and
outside the fence have helped immeasurably to take the visitor away from his world into a little bit
of Japan.
The fence leading from the entrance gates and around the Tea Garden, one of the features supplied by the Japan-Canada Society in Tokyo, is a "Nightingale Fence." It is constructed of irregular
twigs (possibly Ilex Integra) arranged vertically and held by horizontal cross-pieces of bamboo. At
the entrance the fence is all bamboo, arranged vertically and tied together. The gate itself is a traditional "Thatched Roof Gateway".
Materials for the Gateway and the Garden Arbour were shipped over from Japan. The Arbour,
overlooking the lake, is intended for resting after strolling and before entering the Tea Garden. Like
the Gateway, the Arbour is rustic in nature, fitting well into the landscape.
The final phase of construction consisted of erecting the Tea House and completing the Tea
The Tea House was completely prefabricated in Japan, knocked down and re-assembled on the
site. Two craftsmen were selected in Japan and sent over for this task. The structure was a contribution from the Society in Tokyo.
The House is a contemporary Tea Ceremony House, constructed according to traditional design as specified by the Landscape Architect. It is used only on special occasions for Tea Ceremony.
Although the entrance door is locked when not in use, the shoji, or sliding doors, are kept open
during the summer months so that visitors may see the inside detail.
\y\ The normal procedure for Tea Ceremony is that guests would stroll through the main Garden,
then enter the Tea Garden, going directiy into the Tea House, leaving their shoes at the entrance.
After some time in the main waiting room where they may look out into the Tea Garden, they
leave through the sliding doors, stepping into garden slippers, then along the stepping stone path
to a small waiting arbour. When summoned to Tea Ceremony by the hostess, they proceed along the
path, dipping their hands in the Water Basin (Tsukubai), then through the small sliding doorway
to the Tea Ceremony Room.
The Tea Garden—a complete garden within a garden—was designed with special emphasis on
scale. More attention was paid to detail in the placement of stones, shrubs and small trees, in the
skilful use of materials to create miniature vistas and in scaling down the taller elements by pruning.
Here there is real unity in design, the house and garden together symbolizing the true spirit of the
Tea Ceremony, peaceful contemplation with pleasant associations.
Great tribute was paid to Professor Mori at the official opening of the Nitobe Memorial Garden
in May 1960. Many distinguished guests from Japan joined with members of the University community to celebrate the occasion. There was a Tea Ceremony, conducted by Mrs. Hara, an outstanding authority on this art and a demonstration of Ikebana, Japanese Flower Arrangement, by
Mrs. Hiraga, who conducts a school of Ikebana in Tokyo. These two authentic events were arranged for the University by the Canada-Japan Society in Tokyo. The reception was held in International House.
In May, 1962 the University was honored by a visit from Dr. Iyemasa Tokugawa, President of
the Japan-Canada Society in Tokyo and Mrs. T. Toko, the Secretary. At this time an anniversary
celebration was held. The principal feature was the unveiling of a plaque near the entrance gate
recognizing the achievement of Professor Mori. It is worded in English and Japanese as follows:
"This Japanese Garden in Memory of Dr. Inazo Nitobe was designed by Professor Kanno-
suke Mori of Chiba University, a distinguished Japanese Landscape Architect, and was his
last creative achievement. The creation of the Garden was made possible by the help of the
Government and people of Japan and the Japanese Canadians of British Columbia." Ten years have passed since the Garden was officially opened. These have been important
formative years during which it has taken on a substantial degree of maturity. The University, encouraged by the academic members most concerned, has accepted the challenge to maintain the
Garden in the best Japanese tradition. Mr Roy Sumi, who is responsible for its maintenance, was
carefully tutored by Mr. Mori during his fifteen months with the University. He will impart to his
successors the knowledge of the special techniques necessary to retain its character.
The Nitobe Memorial Garden is an integral and very important part of The University Botanical
Garden. It is used by and serves as a source of inspiration for faculty and students in Asian
Studies, Fine Arts, Architecture, Landscape Architecture and other University Departments. It is a
favorite spot for relaxation and contemplation for countless students and staff members.
During the first year of operation the Garden had over 40,000 visitors from the general public.
In 1969 over 80,000 came to experience "a little bit of Japan" in Canada.
All who knew him regret that Professor Mori did not live to return to Canada to see how his
great creative achievement has developed, for it is truly a "Japanese Japanese Garden in Canada".
1. Acer circinatum
2. Acer palmatum
3. Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
4. Arundinaria japonica
5. Arundinaria veitchii
6. Athyrium filix-femina
7. Aucuba japonica
8. Berberis buxifolia 'nana'
9. Blechnum spicant
10. Chaenomeles lagenaria
11. Chamaecyparis pisifera
filifera aurea'
12. Cryptomeria japonica
13. Daphne cneorum
14. Elaeagnus pungens
15. Escallonia rubra
16. Euonymus alatus
17. Gaultheria shallon
18. Hypericum patulum 'hidcote'
19. Ilex crenata 'convexa'
20. Iris kaempferi
21. Kalmia latifolia
22. Ledum groenlandicum
23. Leucothoe catesbaei
24. Mahonia nervosa
25. Maianthemum dilatatum
26. Malus sp.
27. X Osmarea burkwoodii
28. Pachystima canbyi
29. Pachystima myrsinites
30. Phillyrea decora
31. Phyllostachys niger 'henonis'
32. Pieris japonica
33. Pinus contorta
34. Pinus mugo 'mughus'
35. Polystichum munitum
36. Prunus emarginata
37. Prunus laurocerasus
38. Prunus laurocerasus 'zabeliana'
39. Prunus lusitanica
40. Prunus serrulata cv
41. Pseudotsuga menziesii
42. Rhamnus purshiana
43. Rhododendron kaempferi
44. Rhododendron mucronatum
45. Rhododendron obtusum
46. Ribes sanguineum
47. Skimmia japonica
48. Spiraea x arguta
49. Spiraea x vanhouttei
50. Thuja plicata"
51. Tsuga heterophylla
52. Vaccinium parvifolium
53. Vaccinium vitis-idaea
54. Viburnum rhytidophyllum
55. Weigela japonica
Nitobe Memorial Lantern Mosses — Their Use in a Japanese Garden
The uses of mosses in traditional Japanese gardens enhances the atmosphere of tranquility within
a small space that one often encounters in nature deep in the mountain wilderness. In British
Columbia, as in Japan, mosses are a significant element of the natural vegetation. Mosses for the
garden are selected so that they not only enhance the beauty of the garden, but also with the view
that they will persist in that environment without excessive control.
In the Nitobe Memorial Garden, there are nearly forty different kinds of mosses. A very few of
these were intentionally planted, and some were introduced accidentally with the woody plants with
which they were associated in nature. In many cases they persist only near these shrubs and trees
while in other cases they have invaded favourable sites elsewhere in the garden.
The mosses intentionally planted in the garden are the "hair-cap" mosses, Polytrichum juniper-
inum (male plants shown in photograph) and P. commune, both are most successful. These two
"Hair-cap moss"
species form extensive carpets under the pines, extending out into the island and toward the small
waterfall. Others are the rock mosses (Rhacomitrium and Grimmia) and are found growing on the
boulders that have been carefully "Planted" in various areas in the garden. The "hair-cap" mosses
are transplanted in a similar manner used for a rooted plant. Sods of the moss, including several
inches of earth, are transplanted to scattered patches in the location that will ultimately be carpeted
by them. When these plants have established themselves they slowly invade adjacent terrain to form
a continuous turf. When the turfs become too large they can be clipped back, and the shoots will
form new denser turfs. Very little pruning has been done to the mosses in this garden.
A number of mosses have invaded the Garden, finding it an especially favourable site for growth.
These are encouraged to persist since they do not affect the growth of the other plants and supply
an attractive ground cover in shaded sites where many plants will not grow well. Thus, near the
teahouse there are extensive turfs of the pale green moss Pohlia annotina; along the path Dicranum
howellii has formed expanding mats and under the deep shade of the taller needle-leafed evergreens
Mnium glabrescens forms rich green carpets.
Near the margin of the ponds, especially among the rocks, there are many different mosses. The
free availability of moisture and favourable light conditions provides a suitable environment. These
supply a variation in colour from the lawns and shrubbery and also supply a site in which other
plants may grow. The Iris in Nitobe Garden
The Japanese iris are of the large flowering type in shades of blue, purple and white and can
usually be seen at their best during the second and third weeks of June.
Their cultural requirements are minimal, demanding only an ample supply of moisture during the
growing season and replanting every four years to ensure a yearly succession of large blooms. The
beds in the Garden are flooded just prior to flowering following a traditional Japanese cultural
practice, but this flooding procedure is not essential to the good growth and development of the
Replanting is best carried out immediately after flowering. This is accomplished by lifting the old
plants and transplanting the young rhizomes on the outside of the plant in small groups. As the
number of flowers per plant will be reduced in the year following transplantation, it is advisable to
divide a proportion of the plants each year to ensure a maximum display throughout the planting.
A balanced fertilizer is applied in the early spring and a second application is made immediately
after flowering when the flower stalks are removed. A top-dressing of well-rotted manure is applied
in November. This feeding program provides adequate nutrition for satisfactory growth.
In the late fall, the foliage is tied up and the beds are weeded and lightly cultivated. A covering
of leaves is put on the beds prior to winter to protect the plants from hard frosts.
The iris in the Nitobe Garden were obtained from the Meiji Shrine in Tokyo and consist of the
following Japanese varieties of Iris kaempferi Sieb.:
Gosechi No Mai
Izumi Gawa
Satsuki Bare
Sui Bizin
Mana Zuru
Tsurugino Mai
19 20
For each his own, a life he lives,
a life but full of trials and change,
a life of change!
A change of place, a change of time,
a change by having but a single new idea,
a change by feeling a new sensation,
a change by having a new horizon,
put forth to him by fate alone.
May he walk a different path,
step before a culture ancient.
Set amid the towering pines,
Rising like a cloud of friendship,
Above a sea of asphalt dark.
As he walked beneath the archway,
past .a stone with a story to tell,
how it was placed there by a man still known,
to a man long, long since gone.
Past a wall of pine, like soldiers,
dividing once but to the right.
Past a row of maples gentle,
seeking sunlight through branches,
of the many towering pines.
Beneath their feet the Gaultheria laughing.
I need not thee, I grow in shade or sun.
Round a corner in the path
standing noble like a tower,
a lantern, tall and stern and grey
built in memory to one who fate
has given but a better purpose
building bridges across an ocean
bridges of friendship and hope.
But in one dark stormy era
Vengeance, Vengeance, was the cry.
Now in sorrow, darkness present
broken window, broken light
Yet in majesty I do stand
For the thought, you cannot break.
I am omnipotent!
Past a hill yet torn by nature
to a stream, set nearer by
across a bridge of stone placed
one by one, like an idea—
that grows across a sea of ignorance,
past the water rushing by
singing songs of past glories
of the samurai.
Past a maple arching, spreading
with its coat so scarlet red,
to a bridge, like a stag leaping
across a lake where goldfish feeding,
past a row of cherries pure,
to a heaven.
Set among the clouds above
to a teahouse, silent, empty
now that samurai is but gone.
But nay—listen carefully to the music
Happy days are here again.
But in memory of a culture
and a friendship long and dear.
Fellow citizens come, do homage,
Homage, homage, true and dear
to the people who build bridges,
to the samurai who lies dead.
Arise—for you are dead in body only,
Arise—and spread the word
Keep the flame of bridges building
strong in all men's hearts
So yet another symbol may start burning
in the garden of the samurai.
Rod Humeniuk,
1968. Pruning Of Pines — Japanese Style
Needle bearing conifers form an important part of the Japanese Garden. Their care demands a
significant portion of the maintenance time devoted to the development of the garden. Of particular importance is the method of pruning of the pine trees.
Pines should be pruned in such a manner to show the form and structure of the trunk and
branches of the individual tree. Traditionally, two styles of pruning are used. The first method gives
a very clipped and formal appearance. This is achieved by removing the central or terminal growth
on each shoot. The second method, the "Tokyo style", provides a more natural and less formally
grown appearance (photograph illustrates this style of pruning). To achieve this form, the growth
is kept very open and only the current
and previous year's needles are allowed
to remain on the tree.
The pruning of the trees is initiated
as soon as the trees have been planted.
A complete branch on opposite sides
of the tree and at different levels on the
trunk may be removed to relieve the
uniformity of branching and help to
expose the basic structure of the tree.
The clustered growth on the ends of
the branches is then thinned out and
all side branches between this point
and the trunk are removed.
Thereafter, annual pruning is done
in May when the new growth or candles
are fully developed. Clusters of candles
are first thinned out to leave two or
three candles, then two thirds of the
growth on the remaining candles is
pinched out. All three year old needles
and any shoots which develop along the
branches are removed. In early August
any shoots which have grown out of
proportion to the balance of the tree
are cut back or may be removed if the
growth is being crowded on the branch.
21 Fall Color in the Garden
The two color periods in the Garden are during the spring months of April, May and June and
again in the fall months of September, October and November. It is in the fall that the most vivid
colors are seen. The three species of maples, Acer macrophyllum, Acer circinatum and Acer pal-
matum provide a great variety of colors. The cultivated cherries also add a splash of orange and
red. Two native species, the Red huckleberry, Vaccinium parvifolium and Bitter cherry, Prunus
emarginata give color to the deep green of the coniferous woods surrounding the garden.
The Fish
Perhaps the most frequent questions asked by people, particularly school children touring the
garden, concern the fish found in the main lake. The first fish put into the lake were a shipment of
some ten thousand goldfish in 1962. These fish were donated by the Japan-Canada Society of
Tokyo and were airlifted to the garden in February. Four varieties were included in the shipment:
Shubunkin, Comet, Wakin and Ryukin. It was not long before the Blue herons of the adjacent coastal
marine tidal flats found these fish and they were nearly all lost.
In April 1964, the Japan-Canada Society of Tokyo sent about 100 carp similar to those found
in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo. The carp were approximately 12 inches long. Most of these fish
have survived, but have not been reproducing in the last few years. A few carp from the Fraser
River were introduced several years ago.
The fish are not permitted access to the lower iris garden area by means of a screen at the outlet to the main lake. Lanterns in the Garden Botanical Garden News and Notes
Seed Exchange Program — The Botanical Garden Index Seminum for 1970 offers 755 species for exchange. Seeds for this year's program were all collected during the 1969 season. Some 476 institutions
received our 1968 Index Seminum and a total of 7,389 packets of seeds were distributed to 289 institutions
New Nursery — Clearing and initial land preparation have now been completed on a 5.25 acre site in the
south campus of the University for a new Botanical Garden nursery. The site will be the home of the
permanent planting of the Rhododendron species which have been accumulated at the University during
the past 20 years. Propagation and development of woody plant material will be carried out in the nursery
for the various components of the Botanical Garden. Care has been taken to retain a goodly number of
fine native tree specimens that will serve as protection for growing material. Native trees on the site include: Acer macrophyllum Pursh 'Big-leaf maple', Alnus rubra Bong. 'Red alder', Picea sitchensis (Bong.)
Carr. 'Sitka spruce', Prunus emarginata (Dougl.) Walpers var. mollis (Dougl.) Brewer 'Bitter cherry',
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco 'Douglas fir', Thuja plicata D. Don 'Western red cedar', Tsuga
heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent 'Western hemlock'.
Burnaby Rhododendron Show — The Botanical Garden participated in the annual Burnaby Rhododendron
Show held on the week-end of May 8-10. The exhibit featured Rhododendron species with labels indicating the species, taxonomic postion in the genus and their geographical origin. The display was awarded
The Vancouver Chapter of the American Rhododendron Society's Park and Tilford Cup for best special
display in the Show.
Miss Evelyn Jack — A 1970 Gold Medal Award Winner of the American Rhododendron Society — At
the annual meeting of the National Convention of the American Rhododendron Society held in Vancouver on May 16th, Miss Evelyn Jack, a member of the Botanical Garden Staff, received the highest
award of The American Rhododendron Society. The award was made for her outstanding contributions
to the propagation and development of Rhododendrons, particularly the propagation and distribution of
species in the joint program of the Rhododendron Species Foundation and The Botanical Garden of The
University of British Columbia.
Delegates to the convention had an opportunity to visit the species nursery and view the many collections of Rhododendrons which Miss Jack has successfully propagated and grown in the University nursery.
Members of the Botanical Garden are extremely pleased and proud to note the recognition given Miss
Jack by The American Rhododendron Society.
Nitobe Memorial Garden Council — In the fall of 1969, a council was established to maintain the continuity of development of the garden as conceived and designed by Professor Mori. The council meets
at least twice a year to review the progress of the garden. Present members of the council are: Dr. John
W. Neill, Associate Professor of Plant Sciences, U.B.C. (Chairman); Dr. Roy L. Taylor, Director of the
Botanical Garden (Secretary); Mr. Kenneth Wilson, Supervisor of Operations, Botanical Garden; Dr.
John F. Howes, Associate Professor Asian Studies, U.B.C; Mr. Donald M. Matsuba, Architect; and
Dr. George A. Ishiwara, Director of Canada-Japan Society of Vancouver.
Mean temperature
Highest temperature
Lowest temperature
Grass minimum temperature
Total rainfall/No. days with rainfall
Total snowfall/No. days with snowfall
Total hours bright sunshine/possible
Mean mileage of wind at 3'
Mean mileage of wind at 40'
*Site: The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada.
Position: lat. 49°15'29"N; long. 123°14'58"W. Elevation: 342.6'. Botanical Garden Staff
Dr. Roy L. Taylor
Supervisor of Operations
Mr. Kenneth Wilson
Research Scientist
Dr. Christopher J. Marchant
Research Assistant
Mrs. Sylvia Taylor
Secretary of the Office
Mrs. Morag L. Brown
Seed Exchange Program
Miss Evelyn Jack
Plant Accession System
Miss Margot van Santen
Senior Gardener
Mr. James O'Friel
Mr. Leonard Gibbs
Mr. Sam Oyama
Mr. Tomomichi Sumi
Mr. David Tarrant
The Opening of Nitobe Garden
On Tuesday, May 3rd, 1960, the Nitobe Memorial Garden was officially opened
at The University of British Columbia. The Chairman of the program was
Dr. Norman A. M. MacKenzie, President of The University of British Columbia.
Three people closely associated with the Garden spoke at the occasion
of the opening. Dr. John W. Neill, Director of Landscaping, Professor Kannosuke
Mori, Landscape Architect in charge of the project and Dr. George A. Ishiwara,
President of the Canadian Japanese Citizens' Association. The official opening
of the Garden was the responsibility of Mr. Muneo Tanabe, Consul for Japan.
Dr. Norman A. M. MacKenzie responded to Mr. Muneo Tanabe. Following the
ceremony of the official opening, three events took place at International
House. Guests were invited to tea and a demonstration of the tea ceremony by
Madame Soko Hara, Head of the Urasenke School of Tea Ceremony.
Madame Hoei Hiraga, Head of the Ogasawara School of Flower Arrangements,
illustrated some of the traditional methods of arranging flowers in Japan.
This summer in June 1970 we will commemorate the 10th anniversary of the
Nitobe Memorial Garden with an informal commemorative ceremony to be
held in International House. DAVIDSONIA
Volume 1        Number 2       Summer 1970
Dr. Inazo Nitobe 1862-1933 9
Nitobe Memorial Garden—History and Development 10
Map of Garden—Selected Plant List 16
Mosses—Their Use in a Japanese Garden 18
The Japanese Iris—Cultivation and Varieties 19
Change 20
Pruning of Pines—Japanese Style 21
Fall Color in the Garden 22
The Fish 22
Lanterns in the Garden 23
Botanical Garden News and Notes 24
Climatological Summary 24


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