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Biblos Dec 1, 1968

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Array VOL. 5 NOo3. OF THE U.B.C LIBRARY STAFFNEWSLETTER  DECEMBER  1968 Welcome to:
Eunice Kerr
L.A.
1
Nancie Pink
L.A.
1
Eleanor Maze
L.A.
1 1 1
Rebecca Matthiessen
L.A.
1 1 1
Elizabeth Howatson
L.A.
1 1 1
Heather Paterson
L.A.
1
Zorka Srej ie
L.A.
1
Eli zabeth Le Clerc
L.A.
1
STAFF  CHANGES
Gov. Pubs.
Cataloguing
11
11
S.S.D.
Special Col 1,
Acqui s i tions
Ci rculation
Congratulations to:
Claire Reynolds     L.A. I  Gov. Pubs.  L.A. Ill Gov. Pubs.
Yen Yen Na L.A. I  Cataloguing L.A. II Cataloguing
Sad Farewel1 to;
Nancy Gustavson Librarian Cataloguing
Shannon Patterson Ref. Librarian Sedgewick
Johanna Schaeppi L.A. I Prebindery
Shirley Ablowitz L.A. I Woodward
Barbara Archer L.A. I Cataloguing
INDEX.
Staff Changes           2
Crane. Something Special in Libraries 3
Col lectors I tern 4
St. Wibby Reports 5
Seasonal Note from Keiko 6
Yes Virginia    Research by Pam 7
Party Announcement 8
Thoughts on  the future by Pat 9
Letters to Santa 11
Project 1969 13
Food for Thought by Martina 15
Backpage by Diana 20
ANNOUNCEMENT Biblos now has its own dictionary and from time to
time will be printing the gems therein.  They will bear the
signature Biblos Diet.
e.g.  RE-ORIENTATION (thought for December 30th) Getting used to
working again. CRANE:  SOMETHING SPECIAL IN LIBRARIES
If U.B.C. is beginning to be nationally known as a centre
for blind students, one of the chief reasons is certainly the
Charles Crane Memorial Library.  Housed in the north wing of
Brock Hall, it is the most comprehensive library for blind
students in Canada.  The aim of the Crane collection is twofold;
first, to provide equal library resources and study facilities for
the blind on campus; and second, to attract more blind students
from other countries to U.B.C.
Although the library was not officially opened until the
spring of 1968, its history really began three years earlier.
Charles Allen Crane, the first totally deaf and blind Canadian
to enter university, had spent a lifetime building up the
largest private Braille collection in the world.  After his
death in 1965 it was donated to U.B.C, which Crane had attended
in 1931-32.
For the next two years the books remained in temporary
storage, unsorted and unclassified.  In 1967, however, a team of
two students and a faculty member began the monumental task of
arranging and cataloguing the collection.  Because the Crane
Library is not directly connected with the U.B.C. library system,
much of the cataloguing had to be done by volunteers from the
Delta Gamma women's fraternity.  Delta Gamma also joined with
the P.A. Woodward Foundation in donating funds to help furnish
the three-room library.
Today the collection numbers roughly 3,700 volumes.  The
subjects covered range from philosophy, literature, and history
to botany and medicine, but the library is especially strong in
the Greek and Latin classics.  Because it operates outside the
U.B.C. library system, none of these books will be listed in the
Main Library's card catalogue.  Instead the collection has its own
catalogue and a unique one it is.  Each entry appears on two large
cards - the first having the information in large type, and the
second repeating the same entry in Braille.  Subject and title
files have already been completed, and work is still in progress
on an author index.
Materials in Braille and on tape which are not held in the
Crane Library can often be borrowed from other collections in
Canada and the U.S.  Major sources for interlibrary loans are
the C.N.I.B. National Library in Toronto, the Recordings for the
Blind Library in New York, and the Seattle Public Library's
Division for the Blind. The U.B.C. Library's own books and periodicals may, of
course, be borrowed by blind students too.  To help them use
this material, the Crane Library has set up a system of
volunteer readers who can be called on whenever necessary.
At present the library serves 18 blind or near-blind
students - the largest single group now attending university
in Canada.  By next fall their number will have risen by at
least 15.  In addition, the Crane collection is a major source
of material for blind students in Vancouver high schools and
other B.C. universities. Although it has been open for less
than a year, its reputation outside the province is growing
fast, and loan requests now come in from all across Canada.
Next month the library will gain another room:  Brock
Hall's old College Shop, which is to be used for book storage,
study space, and a staff working area.  This coming year
should also see the addition of many more Braille reference
works, and (hopefully) the start of a new tape library.  The
Crane Library has come a long way in a short time, and its
growth shows no signs of slowing down.
U.B.C. Library News, No. 4
Collectors I tern    Well we knew he was famous
but really!!	
World Poetry Society
etc.
Basi1 Stuart
Stuber Library
University of British Columbia
Vancouver 8, Canada ST. WIBBY REPORTS.
WOODWARD - People are preparing
to work with earplugs as the
crescendo of noise increases
owing to the start having been
made on the new extension.  From
an old hand who lived through
the Spring and Summer of 1964
in the Main Library.  Happy New
Year, it really will be worth it.
DISPLAY at Woodward.
Plains Indians Medicine.
ALL FUTURE HAPPINESS to Gerri
O'Neill that was, of Circulation, now Mrs. Minaker,
and to
Rosina Wan that was, of Special
Collections, now Mrs. Koo.
THE GALLERY
No further shows unti 1 late
January 1969.
CONGRATULATIONS to the originators of the Library Bookmarks
to be found in the "Front Office"
very commendable but pray who
was the model - any one we know.
PLANATERIUM.  Go see the Star of
Christmas Show for a holiday treat.
It is described as;- "A detective
story of how the scientists established the date of Christ's birth
and then looked into the sky to
see what would explain the star of
Bethlehem".
The show runs to January 5th.
Phone 736-4525 for reservations.
NO BIRTHS this
month though
one is imminent
SOCIAL NOTE
Bon Voyage to
our world travellers espec-/
ially to
Suzanne Dodson
already on the
high seas bound
for Fi j i .
To Eleanor Mercer who will
be Christmasing in the West
Indies and Jean Dutton who
will be winging to Hawaii.
Secretary anyone?.
LIBRARY ASSISTANTS ASSOC.
Wine and Cheese Party
January 3rd. Friday 8-12 p.m.
Cecil Green Park.  Tickets
are now on sale to all employees and their friends.
$1.50 per person including
everything (wine, food,
dancing, door prizes etc.)
Contact. Tannis Havelock RBC
Dorothy Sheppard Woodward
Joan Wenman      Fine Arts
Anne Gardner     Serials
John Johnson     Circulation
Joyce Harries    Circulation
Julia Lane      Cataloguing
Maria Horvath    Humanities
Bev. Richards    Periodicals
Janet Lenko     Sedgewick SPECIAL CHRISTMAS MESSAGE FROM ST. WIBBY.
YES there will be alcohol in the punch at my Christmas Party
but
PLEASE all those under 21 do refrain from partaking of the
"potent stuff".  Our leader, Basil, is personally responsible
to see that no one under age drinks the alcohol and I would
hate to see him eating his Christmas dinner compliments of
the local jail house.
I DO NOT intend to label every one, suffice is to say I know
who you are!!... Sorry it is the law, but the eats will be
great and the N.A. Punch superb - we hope.
SO MERRY CHRISTMAS TO ALL AND WE WILL MEET AGAIN IN THE NEW YEAR.
pardon me now while I join Wenceslas for our annual stagger
through the snows	
A seasonal note from Keiko in Circulation.
Christianity was first introduced into Japan in the middle
of the 16th Century by the Portugese and Spanish.  During the
Edo period (1615-1868) Christianity was prohibited because
of political reasons.  Therefore we don't have a long history
of Christianity in Japan and the majority of Japanese are
Buddhist.  However, we know what Christmas is and I believed in
Santa Claus until I was five.  There are those in their youth
who accept the western custom of Christmas such as exchanging
cards and gifts.  For the sake of small children trees are
often decorated.  Christmas is not a holiday in Japan, and if
you want turkey dinner you have to go out to a restaurant.  We
exchange gifts and have a big party at New Years, and always
have. £-t.UJjjVk*j toviliC?-you
Stati iJ^-u-ftq^ LETTERS  TO  SANTA
BIBLOS  has   intercepted  some Library mail   headed  for  the North
Role  and  thought   its   readers  might   be   interested  to  see what
requests are  being made  by  Divisions and  Branches,
Dear Santa.     We  the undersigned   request...^
CATALOGUING
Sixty-three  catalogue cabinets
A new building   for Technical   Services
A fresh-air machine  (if we don't get  2)
New  improved gremlins  to  replace  the
bad ones we have.
FRIDAYS  OFF  EACH  WEEK.
MATH   LIBRARY
Curtains  for  the  office  to match
the  carpets   (carpets yet!'.)
A non-tripping  coat   rack for  the  students.
Some master-file  card   storage  trays,
P.S.   Thank you  Santa  from   last year's
list we finally  have  a   real   live
electric clack!!
GOVERNMENT  PUBS.
Light
More  Staff
Oxygen
A   restroom  on   Floor 6.   or
Some   roller  skates.
INFORMATION &  ORIENTATION
A tape   recorder that plays "Have you   looked   inthe card
catalogue", .."No,   this   isn't  the Main Loan  Desk".. .".Don'
forget  to check the   location  file"....
Two pairs of   roller skates
The Authority  File
Computer print-outs with non-smudge   ink
Air-conditioning for Main Concourse
:-f>~J3
•.^ Dear Santa,
HUMANITIES
Lots of Indian necklaces from Hazelton.
Locks and door knobs on doors,
A permanent exhibit of Serena's graphics
Real windows that Really open and let in Real air
Note,  PLEASE Santa NO MORE PAMPHLETS,
l^^k? , BIBLIOGRAPHIC SEARCHING
Mistletoe (lots)
wall to wall carpet (see Math ed.)
a well stocked bar
"piped in" music
a better searchlight for
searchers.
o^>W
WOODWARD   LIBRARY
A cinnamon-bun  care  package   (1   per week)
ear  piugs  for all
6  cent   stamps
Pneumatic tube delivery from main library
A really big Christmas bonus (Cash? ed.)
RESERVE BOOK COLLECTION
Windows  PLEASE...
Fresh   air  (or air  conditioning)
Non-leak  light   fixtures
More  pleasant   students.
SOCIAL  WORK
BEER FOR THE FRIDGE
Water for the swimming pool
Unmarried mothers for the students
to practice with,  (what? ed.)
Sympathetic understanding of Social
Workers and their aims.
Sympathetic understanding of Library
Assistants and their aims - by students
Do you really want an air conditioner?  Our Biblos dictionary
defines it-AIR CONDITIONER...a device used to combat the
heating system on cold days, and cover-up confidential telephone
calIs. V
True Slower .rower is xnere xo De xeariieu
Up the stairs and around to the right
You'll see a most unbelievable sight
People on hand in a positive orgy
It's Puppetry with Shannon and Georgie.
First floor front a course you'll find
On taking a trip - not freak out mind
')  Land with Nancy - fly with Lynne
Parachute or aeroplynne
Sorry but you must admit
It scans and metres just to fit.
1
r /
Batiks by Robey - swimming by Hans
Surveys by Walter should gather some fans
Phys-ed - Mclnnes Figures by Robin
Programs peremtory - Geraldine Dobbin.
And down in the Morgue they're all rendezvouing
Lesson by Luther in the art of the brewing
Following that with item by Graham
On conference hazards, expenses and mayhem.
Round the jimmy homer down the apple and pears *
Language by Perc, and on foreign affairs
Our middle east expert Bill to expand
On nights in a Harem - of course second hand.
r~~7And up at the top Mac's holding a court
"'  On all things Korean and freedom of thought
And I know it's been whispered in several quarters
He might even know how to walk upon waters.
£So no need to panic if portals are closed.
These just a few of diversions proposed
Though humour now seems out of style
It really doesn't hurt to smile
*Tis Christmas, and my wish for you
Peace on earth — to students too!
Pat(the rat) LaVac.
*  Cockney  for  corner  and  stairs. In this hour of agitation
Of "sit in" pot and speculation
Looms the thought that someday soon
Might come a time, bout any noon.
When circumstances close the door
For hours or days or maybe more
And then the thought to me occurred
To waste such time would be absurd
•Cause look around and you will find
Such talent of the rarest kind
Herewith a list of multi choices
Our very own extension coises. -
If nature's field you would explore
Just follow the stair to the very top floor
Where stands our leader with glasses drawn
Watching the birds on the Library Lawn
Feathered that is - then on you go
To Bell and Mercer back below
Who will give you a line on the date and
Of any change in the Lions roar
Or was that back in Fifty four?
]W
And if this theme should disillusion
Try the one in contra-fusion.
Report to Mike for points decision
On how to revise the last revision.
There's Suzanne waiting with brush in hand
Then how about a session in pot?
We've got that too, so haste to the spot
Where Bert is waiting his secrets to share
And potting an orchid with exquisite care.
Way out fashions with kookie beat
Which somehow contrive to be wild yet neat
Where colour is rampant and hemlines short
Call at Fine Arts, Ev'lyn's there to report.
And if you are seeking financial exchange
We have just the course that falls in that range
Meet Nick and Rein from whom knowledge spills
On diapering, formulas, feedings and bills.
/,
Li .._U_.,4- 4-V,,
a*A 1?
FOR YOUR INFORMATION pam explains it all.
Saint Nicholas  December 6.
Yes Virginia, there is a Santa Claus
Saint Nicholas's origins are obscure, so obscure in fact
that no one knew he existed until several centuries after his
death in circa Dark Ages.  Apparently he suffered a great deal
and was perhaps even tortured to death in the mad pre-Christmas
rush of those far-off medieval Bay days.  Most of his body was
snatched from its grave in Constantinople and carried off in
glee by the ambitious and crafty citizens of Bari in Italy (a
depressed area) in search of a local industry.  With clever public
relations and a building fund they soon got a cathedral, fair,
pilgrimage, holy days, etc., in fact, the whole giant economy
s i zed package.
In those days, to be a really hip bishop or burgher, all you
had to do was wear your St. Nicholas button and your beads.  And
then, if you wanted a trip North, you could always go on a little
pilgrimage (not forgetting to fill in the expense account) to
visit his finger which rested in blissful reliquary splendour in
the chapel at Saint-Nicholas in N.E. France.
Such a saint of various parts was naturally assumed to have
various talents.  He is patron saint of Russia (remember Nikki
Khruschev?) and of those under Russian influence (Ho-Ho Chi Minh).
He protects children (from the war toys parents give them in his
name), scholars (in extremis with Christmas exams), merchants
(protects toy manufacturers from undue government control), sailors (from loneliness and sobriety on their Christmas shore leave).
And for some reason he is invoked by travellers against highway
robbers (motels, gas stations, Joe's cafe, ferry tolls, etc.)
Since his debut in Asia Minor he has regularly and exotically
reappeared: five times, infallibly, as a pope and once, schizo-
phrenically, as an anti-pope; twice, madly, as tsar of Russia;
once, despotically, as king of Montenegro; presently, as the jovial
twinkle-eyed ruler of Acquisitia (located on the seventh level of
this our happy home); and, permanently, as a small desolate Arctic
island off the Russian mainland.  And after all that he still has
the nerve to plague us every December.  Some people will do anything to attract attention.
(Facts misquoted from a casual interview with an aging and
forgetful Encyclopaedia Britannica.) ]3
PROJECT FOR 1969
We are printing the following two letters with no comment (we're
speechless) however, we
would welcome your comments and possibly
some of you would like
to write directly to Mr. Boyes with a
few suggestions of  your
own.
Letter to
Supt. of Traffic
Traffi c Div. Pol ice
475 Main Street
Vancouver
17th Oct. 1968
Dear Sir:
We, the undersign
ed, would respectfully draw your atten-
tion to the congestion
of West 8th Avenue between Sasamat and
Blanca.  This thoroughfare is very much used by people going
to U.B.C, and in addition, cars are being parked on both
sides of a through street all day.
It is our opinion
that these conditions will lead to a
very serious accident in the near future unless a solution can
be found.  (Possibly a
'No Parking' on 8th Avenue between
certain hours with the
installation of a traffic light at 8th
and Blanca).
Yours very truly,
M. Buckingham
F. Wong
J. Johnson
J. Steed
D. McKenzie
P. LaVac.
REPLY received from Cit
y Engineering Department
Cit
y Hal 1 453 W. 12th Ave.
Vancouver 10
Dear Miss Buckingham:
PARKING
- 8th Avenue WEST, BLANCA TO SASAMAT
This is in reply
to your letter dated October 17, 1968
forwarded to us by the
police for our consideration. 14
Although 8th Avenue is constantly used as a thoroughfare by
many university students, we should like to point out that it
is a residential street.  Many people conclude that since a
number of the cross streets on 8th Avenue have stop signs -
8th Avenue is a through street.
It should be noted that the stop signs governing the cross
streets at 8th Avenue were not installed to make it a through
street.  They were installed to prevent angle accidents since
8th Avenue carries a larger volume of traffic than some of the
other residential streets.
With respect to your suggestion concerning the installation of
a traffic control signal at 8th and Blanca, we wish to inform
you that such signals are generally installed at the intersection of two major streets with conflicting flows of heavy
traffic. As the name implies, they are control devices and
should not be considered to bring about a safe condition since
it can be shown that some types of accidents actually increase
with signal installation.
Also since we would prefer that 8th Avenue be maintained at its
present status as a residential street and since our future
plans along with those of the Province's call for a connection
between 4th Avenue and Chancellor Boulevard (preliminary construction is presently underway), it is undesirable to encourage
more traffic on 8th Avenue.
Thank you for your interest in this matter.
Yours truly
R.C. Boyes
Director, Traffic Division
A CLARIFICATION
To fill in the background with so many details that the
foreground goes underground.
BIBLOS Diet. 15
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
The earliest books printed made provision for both body and soul.
The first Bible appeared in 1455, the first cook-book 'De Honesta
Voluptate' was compiled by a Vatican Librarian 20 years later.  The
earliest known manuscript to compile recipes was written by a Roman,
Apicius, in the 1st. Century A.D,, influencing European cookery
until late in the 15th Century.
In 1390, King Richard ll's royal cooks combined to write 'The
Forme of Cury', (cury being the old English word for cooking), and
instructed the King's "salat" was to be 'waish clene, pike, pluk
small with thyne hande and myng hem wel with raw oile.  Lay on
vynegar and salt, and serve it forthe'.  One recipe commences
'take hares and hew hem to gobbets', another commands 'take conies
(rabbits) and smyte hem to pieces, seeth hem in grese .'.
From such beginnings as 'take chickens and ram hem together, serve
hem broken' emerged the equivalent of our chicken hash.  While
Richard's cooks smote and hewed their way through royal kitchens, a
less violent manuscript 'Le Viandier' was being written in Fronce,
pigeons were to be henceforth served 'roasted, with heads intact'.
During the Middle Ages the Christmas piece-de-resistance was a wild
boar's head, boiled.  An apple was
placed between the teeth, sprigs of
rosemary or bay leaves protruded
from the ears, tusks were gilded with
gold, and was served from a green-
garlanded platter with musicians
and singers announcing arrival.  In
England, Christmas became an
established season of feasting
during the reigr of Henry VIM, his
gargantuan appetite extending
unabated over the 12-day celebrations,
one chronicler, Philip Lindsay,
tersely noting that 'the King ate
enormously, stuffing meat into his 16
little mouth with his knife, meat and vegetables popping from
cheek to cheek, blew his nose in the napkin and spat into the
washing bowl'.  Henry's daughter Mary, imported temporarily a
tastefor Spanish cooking upon marrying King Philip of Spain,
his cooks, during their brief culinary custody, left one lasting
heritage - Spanish cake, later becoming known as sponge cake.
Dining became more refined on Elizabeth's ascension, she was a
moderate eater with a notoriously sweet tooth and bad teeth, it
was during her reign fruit was first used alone in a pie, though
her favorite 'dessert' was a 'plomb pudding'.
Germany's first printed cook-book appeared in 1485, the 100 year
old 'Le Viandier' was printed in 1490, in 1500 England printed a
Boke of Cokery for a Pryncis Hauseholde, and a Spanish chef
completed one in 1526. All books were intended for royal or noble
establishments, food was similarly cubed, minced, hashed or carved
at table to be eaten with fingers or spoons, forks did not appear
until approximately 1560 in Italy,
from where it gained slow acceptance,
for a considerable time it was thought
an affectation. A recipe from the
English book instructs how to'Make
Pyes that the Byrds May be alive in
them, and flie out when Pt is Cut Up.
From another pie 'Ye frogs would
leape up, and cause ye Ladyies to
Squeak and Hop About'.  (Please
apply to our Ed. for recipe).
Elizabethan Haufwiues were expected(
to labour over 'peacocks and swans
to be served in their plumage',
coveys of birds, shoals of eels, mix
plague cures, dry skins, spin, keep
accounts, boil sheeps heads, pickle
pigs feet. A later books of 1597
recognized hus-wifes were mortals
and offered a recipe for 'a brothe
for a weake Bodie' and another for
'a tart to Provoke Courage either in
Man or Woman', which contains 'the
braines of three or fower cocke
sparrowes' (again our Hon. Ed. can
supply curious gourmands). 17
Whisky was first made in Scotland during the l400's, but was not
widely distributed until a tax, to discourage drunkeness, was
imposed on ale.  In the Western Isles when a cargo of claret
arrived all work ceased in celebration until the supply was
exhausted, this led to further taxation and 'ane act agans drynking
of Wynes in the II lis'.  Whisky was discovered to have the same
prohibited effect and quickly became a daily dram.  Dr. Johnson,
on his gustatory journey of discovery through Scotland, breakfasted
for the first time on oatmeal porridge with whisky, called Athlone
Brose. Boswell noted how delighted the sage became.  Previously,
in London, compiling his dictionary, Dr. Johnson had defined oats
as 'a grain which in England is generally given to horses but in
Scotland supports the people'. Within one hundred years three new
beverages from three different continents arrived in Europe to
revolutionize breakfast, lunch and dinner.   'Tay' appeared in
Holland in the middle of the 17th Century from Russia; coffee,
originally from Abyssinia arrived in Arabia and thence into Turkey,
making its London debut about 1650.  Conquistadors found the
Mayans highly prizing a bean called cacao from which they made a
beverage called xoxo-atl, the Clergy denounced drinking of this as
being 'provocative of immorality',
consequently chocolate did not gain
acceptance for more than a hundred
years after its introduction in
Spai n.
Italians were considered the most
advanced cooks during the Renais-
ance, Germans were the heartiest
eaters and leading producers of
book-books, but by the 17th
Century French cooks became
unsurpassed in their cuisine, the
foundation of this change was
printed in 1651 by de la Varenne,
who had been taught his craft by
Florentine chefs of the two Medici
0_ueens of France.  Cardinal Richelieu extended his influence by
introducing table knives with
rounded ends, previous knives 18
with pointed ends were invariably used as toothpicks, a sight
he found revolting.  Whilst royalty and nobility dined on
innumerable elaborate courses, the over-taxed French peasants
subsisted on what they could, in evading salt tax they boiled
food in sea water, but were imprisoned for their economy if
detected.
Prior to 1700 women were considered incapable of writing and
were excluded from cooking for important households,  Samuel
Johnson's declared opinion that
'woman can spin very well, but
cannot write a book of cookery',
was disproven in his lifetime when
authoresses dominated the 18th
Century by penning 'instruction
to experienced Dames in the art
of adorning their tables with a
Splendid Frugality'.  One writer,
Hannah Glasse, asked her readers
indulgence 'if I have not wrote
in high polite style'; her
instruction for fish preparation
was explicit - 'rip open belly.
Gut it. Strip it and hack it'.
Another begins 'first boyle ye
cock and flea him'.  She was
responsible for Dr. Johnson's
original observation.  One male
author suffered the ignominy of
seeing his cook-book re-appearing
with a noti£e"That) ' i t had been Revised and Much improved by a
Gentlewoman'.
A German book printed the first potato recipe in 1581.  The German
word for potato derived from the Spanish conquistadors assumption
that the Inca's vegetable was a 'tartuffo' - a truffle, hence
kartoffel.  Starving French peasants, only as a last resort, eat
them, after the Revolution the scarcity of food forced pommes-do-
terre to become a staple item,  A gradening guide of 1597 published
in London reported that tomatoes 'doe be eaten in Spaine and those
hot Regions, are of a ranke and stynking savour, yeeld very little
nourishment and the same corrupt'.  Tomatoes were introduced into
Paris during the Revolution by men from Provencal cooking had
affinity to neighbouring Italy, who had, with reservation, acquired
the Aztec 'tomatl' seeds from Spain.  Parisians, upon seeing the 19
troops consuming with no adverse affect what had previously been
considered lethal, adopted tomatoes together with the marching
song 'Le Marseillaise'.  Marseillaise, in ancient times a Roman
province, retained a vestige of former days when strips of sweetened and spiced dough was shaped to resemble a ring-shaped coin
in honour of Mercury's emblem.  These cakes were fried and sold
on street-corners.  Seafarers brought the custom to Holland and
England, where they were known as dough-knots.  And so holes
forever remain in doughnuts.
One hundred years after its original publication in 1861, Mrs.
Beeton's book is still giving instruction, the first one to give
exact mej«urements, cooking times and number of servings yielded.
One live transplant from the obayan world which became accepted
without fear of moval consequence was the turkey, after 1520,
most Christmas festivities contained a roast turkey.  Early
pioneer Christmases featured local delicacies.
The artist Paul Kane recorded an Edmonton Christmas dinner of
1847 as consisting of 'a large dish of buffalo hump, a smoking
dish of boiled buffalo calf, also a dish of boiled moose nose,
buffalo tongue, beavers tails, also piles of potatoes, turnips
and bread. '
T.V. Dinner, anyone? 

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