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The Graduate Chronicle Apr 30, 1944

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 BRITISH    COLUMBIA    INDUSTRIES
Plant Buildings of the Powell River Co. Ltd., Powell River SUMNER
*f
ff
STAYTITE
VALVES
FOR STEAM AND AIR
CYLINDERS
A. Renewable Alloy-iron Liner.
B. Rustless "Floating" Valve Plug.
C. Simple Choker Screw Controls.
D. Seal-tight Automotive Rings.
Designed and Manufactured by Sumner Engineers.    Full Details Upon Request.
Canadian Sumner Iron Works Ltd.
MACHINE DESIGNERS and MANUFACTURERS
3 5 50 East Broadway
Vancouver, B. C.
Laux.Glued Bridge
Erected over the Yahara River in Wisconsin, by the United
States Forest Products Laboratory, this practical demonstration shows the srtength of arches and graceful lines inherent
in the Laminated-with-Laux Glue construction.
"Your Glue Headquarters"
I. F. LAUCKS LTD.
VANCOUVER, CANADA
With which is associated The Monsanto Chemical Co. The GRADUATE CHRONICLE
Published by the Alumni Association of
the University of British Columbia
APRIL, 1944
Editor: Darrell T. Braidwood, M.A., Barrister at Law
Associate Editor: A. D. Creer, M.E.I.C, M.Inst.C.E.
Assistant Editors:
Dorothy Taylor, B.A.; Donald A. C. McGill, B.A.
Business Manager: W. E. G. Macdonald
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
RECOMMENDED!        3
INDUSTRIES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA     5
LOCAL WEATHER FORECASTING WITHOUT
INSTRUMENTS   ._.._      6
U. B. C. PEOPLE IN RADIO     8
THE ENGINEER AFTER GRADUATION  10
THE ROMANCE OF AIR CONDITIONING  16
THE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS* BANQUET  14
CORRESPONDENCE   15
EDITORIAL   18
NATIONAL PROBLEMS AND POST-WAR
RECONSTRUCTION   20
NEW PROFESSIONAL FACULTIES  23
THE PLAYERS' CLUB .'  30
Editorial Office: ^.^ op^
Alumni Assn. Office,
„ 16-555  Howe Street
Brock Bldg.,
University of B. C. Vancouver, B. C.
Published at Vancouver, British Columbia.
CHOStMM
CROSSMAN'S
Can Solve Your Power
Application Problem
with
STERLING
Slo-Speed Motors
• No power loss in transmission. Full rated
horsepower of the unit is transmitted to the
output shaft.
9 No counter shafts, bevel gears or friction
drives are needed. The unit is complete in
itself and installed by merely bolting down.
9 Maintenance time and cost reduced to a minimum through elimination of shafts, belts, etc.
9   Lower initial cost.
9 There's a Sterling Slo-Speed for every application.
MORE THAN A MOTOR . . .
A COMPLETE POWER UNIT
B. C. Distributors
MACHINERY CD.LTD.
SQG BEACH AVENUE   PACIFIC 5461
VANCOUVER B.C. ALUMNI ASSOCIATION
OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
President
Bruce A.  Robinson, B.A.,  B.A.Sc.  '36
Fixst Vice-President
G. K.   (Ted) Baynes, B.A.Sc. '32
Records Secretary
Miss Margaret Morrison, B.A. '27
Members at Large
Campbell Duncan, B.A. '27
R. D. J. Guy, B.A, '31, Barrister-at-law
Wm. Thomson, B.A. "28
Chairman Publications Committee
Darrell T.  Braidwood, M.A.  '40,
Barrister-at-law
525 Seymour Street
Vancouver, B. C.
Second Vice-President
Miss Mary Fallis, B.A. '32
Secretary
Miss Pat Kenmuir, B.A. '39
997 Dunsmuir Street
Assistant Secretary
Miss Mary Mulvin, B.S.A. '43
Secretary- Treasurer
Mrs.  Shirley Gross, B.A. '4 2
Students' Council Offices,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B. C.
Third Vice-President
J.   C.   Berry,   B.S.A.  '27,  M.S.A.  '37,
Ph.D., '39   (Iowa State)
Treasurer
P. R. Brissenden, B.A. '31,
Barrister-at-law
i Representatives
Graduating- Class
W. R.  Smith, B.A.Sc. '43
Alma Mater Society
Dick Bibbs, '45
Social Service Alumni Club
Miss Margaret Johnson,  B.A. '29
THE ASSSOCIATION OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS OF THE
PROVINCE OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Officers — Members of Council — Board of Examiners
1944 COUNCIL
President H. C. Anderson, M.E.I.C,  B.C.L.S.—Civil
Vlce-President-F. M. Knapp, B.S.F., M.S.F., Mem.C.S.F.E.—Forest
Past President W. H. Hill, B.S.A., M.S.A.—Chemical
MEMBERS OF COUNCIL:
G.  B. Alexander, B.Sc.  in C.E.,  M.E.I.C, Civil
T. H. Crosby, B.A.Sc,  Mem.A.I.E.E., Electrical
F. A. Forward, B.A.Sc., M.C.I.M., Mem.A.I.M.E.. Metallurgical
A.  Lighthall,  B.Sc,  B.C.L.S.,  Civil
G. C. Lipsey, B.A.Sc, M.C.I.M., Mem.A.I.M.E., Mining
A.  H.  Robertson, Mechanical
W.   O.   C   Scott,   M.A.Sc,   M.E.I.C,   Mem.A.S.M.E.,   Mechanical
L.  B.   Stacey,  B.A.Sc,  Mem.A.I.E.E.,  Electrical
REGISTRAR AND  SECRETARY-TREASURER:
A.   D.  Creer,   M.E.I.C,   M.lnst.CE.
DISTRICT ADVISORY COMMITTEES
Vancouver  Island—P.   B.  Freeland   (Chairman),   E.   Davis,  F.   D.
Mulholland, H. E. Stevens, J. F. Walker.
Central B. C.—C. Varcoe  (Chairman), W. Ramsay.
Northern B. C.—J. J. Little (Chairman), F. N. Good, W. L. Stamford.
Eastern B. C E. Smith (Chairman), H. D. Dawson. H. S. Fowler,
F.  S.  Peters, A. C.  Ridgers,  W.  J.  Tindale,   R.  Pollard   (Hon.
Sec).
Okanag-an-Similkameen—A.  G.  Pearson   (Chairman),  A.  S.  Duck-
ett, W. R. Lindsay.
BOARD OF EXAMINERS
Chairman
J. MacLeod, M.A., M.Sc, Ph.D.,
M.E.I.C, Mem.A.I.E.E.
Chemical Branch:
W. F. Seyer, B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D.
G.  S.  Eldridge, B.Sc, M.C.I.M.
Civil Branch:
F. A. Wilkin, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S.
Randolph  M.  Martin
John Davidson, B.C.L.S.
Electrical Branch:
H   J.   MacLeod,   M.A.,   M.Sc,  Ph.D.,
M.E.I.C, Mem.A.I.E.E.
R. A.  Story,  B.A.Sc.
J.  H.   Steede,  B.A-Sc,  Assoc.A.I.E.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
C.  A.  K.  Cornwall,  M.Sc.
H.  Ritchie,  R.M.C
Members of the Board
Forest Branch:
P. L. Lyford, B.S.A., Mem.C.S.F.E.
M.  W. Gormely, B.A.Sc, Mem.C.S.F.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
H. H. Baxter, Mem.C.S.F.E.
F.  D.  Mulholland,  Mem.C.S.F.E.,
Mem.E.F.A.
Mechanical Branch:
M.S.,
W.  O.  Richmond,  B.A.Sc,
Mem.A.S.M.E.
II.  P.  Archibald,  B.A.Sc,  M.E.I.C,
M.C.I.M.
W.  N.   Kelly,  M.E.I.C.
H.  M.  Mcllroy,   M.Sc.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
Bernard Dunell, A.C.G.I.,
Assoc. M.lnst.CE.
F. W. Vernon, B.Sc.Eng., Wh.Sch.,
A.M.I.Mech.E., A.F.R.A.S.
H. B. Mttckleston, R.M.C,
M.Am.Soc.CE.
Mining- Branch:
P. B. Freeland, M.C.I.M.
R.  J.   Spry,  B.A.Sc,  M.C.I.M.,
Mem.A.I.M.E.
M.  Y. Williams, B.Sc, Ph.D.,  F.G.S.A.,
F.R.S.C., M.C.I.M.
C. O. Swanson, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.,
M.C.I.M.,  Mem.A.I.M.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
J. M. Turnbull, B.A.Sc, M.C.I.M.
M. M. O'Brien, B.Sc, M.C.I.M.,
Mem.A.I.M.E.
Structural Branch:
A. Pearson, B.Sc, Assoc.M.Inst.CE.
P. B.  Stroyan, B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C.
R. A. McLachlan, S.B.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
C   T.   Hamilton,   B.A.Sc,   M.E.I.C,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
J. R. Grant, B.Sc, M.E.I.C,
M.Am.Soc.CE.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE y%
EcomniEtii
dzd .
Most of us have a good healthy curiosity about ourselves
and other people. We would really like to know, if the
knowledge were not too hard to come by, more about us and
them. It would be hard to find a man who did not feel that
he was something of a psychologist when it came to interpreting other people, and all of us if we see fit to do so can
hold forth at length in explanation of our own behavior.
Men have apparently always been interested in understanding
and controlling the behavior of others. Most men are still
dissatisfied with both their understanding and their ability to
control.
Most of us have probably had, when we turned to books
for an answer, much the same experience. Those books the
titles of which led us to believe they contained our answer
seemed to fall into one of two classes. In one class were the
books written to sell by men who knew how to make their
subject matter more popular even though their knowledge of
the subject matter might be slight. These books have been in
general a rather slap-happy conglomeration of rules-of-thumb,
anecdotes, shrewd observations, cases, and guesses. They usually have lacked the meaningfulness which is acquired as the
result of an integrated and systematic approach to the subject
matter. The other class of books has consisted of an earnest
attempt to condense the experimental background of psychology into a more or less readable introductory textbook.
These books have been influenced by the academic atmosphere and by the incompleteness of the experimental background. They usually portrayed a peculiarly static individual
with some well understood parts, some vaguely conceived, and
quite a few parts which were not there at all. There has been
until recently, then, no book which could be recommended
wholeheartedly to the layman as containing the type of
material presented in the way he wanted.
In recent years, a fusion of the experimental-Academic
with the clinical-medical background and experience has given
rise to a new way of thinking about human behavior. Out of
the theories and practice of the clinics and of the therapists
who help solve real-life problems, backed by an increasing
amount of experimental evidence, comes the rough shape of
a new system approach involving a dynamic concept of the
whole human being. This dynamic psychology is probably the
closest psychology has ever come to answering the layman's
common question which is in itself dynamic, "What makes
them tick?"
From this new way'of thinking—this dynamic approach
—have come in recent years three new books. These books deal
with real people living a real life. They examine real problems.
They present generalizations which are applicable to the living
stuff of existence. They seem to be what the layman has been
asking for. A book by Maslow and Mittleman2 is the first
good introductory text in dynamic psychology. It contains a
wealth of material simply presented. It was not, however,
designed for and does not exactly serve to fit the needs of the
average layman. It offers if anything too much material, and
places on the reader perhaps too great a responsibility for
integrating that material. It is, however, a treasure house for
the reader who is willing to dig a little, discard a little, in
order to get the gems which most precisely fit his specific
requirements.
"The Happy Family,"3 by Levy and Munroe, is a book
about growing up in a family. It is one of the sanest, most
realistic, and happiest events in psychological publishing.
Although written by two people with the richest of medical
(
By IRVING KNICKERBOCKER
Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
)
and psychological experience, it is so simply done as to make
the reader wonder if the authors could really be expert and
know what they are talking about.
The third book, Langer's "Psychology and Human Living,"4 is the first to go rather directly about the job of providing a relatively brief and simple answer for the layman
who asks, "What has psychology to offer that will help me to
a greater understanding of myself and others?"
Such a book as Langer's makes several rather definite demands upon the reader. It requires a thoughtfulness within
reason and an understanding not so much by the head as by
the heart. Therefore the reading of this book is apt to be
somewhat of an adventure.
Langer finds the setting for his book in a consideration of
the extent to which our beliefs are patterned by our culture
and by an examination of theories past and current which we
use uncritically for an explanation of human behavior. We
explain certain events in a man's life by saying that he has
been "lucky." We think of the "will" as coming into play at
certain periods in a person's existence. We explain certain
behaviors by saying "He's a chip off the old block." We
excuse a great deal by saying, "Well, it's just 'human nature'
and that's all there is to it." Such an examination of the
methods we use today for explaining human behavior serves as
an excellent background for a more systematic conception.
Langer devotes several chapters to a careful presentation
of the theory of motivation which seems to be rapidly gaining
acceptance among practicing psychologists and which should
prove equally practical for the layman. He then proceeds to
lay out for the reader in two chapters, "Growing Into a Social
Individual" and "The Integration of the Personality," the life
story in a sense of each one of us, a generalization of how we
get to be the way we are. Perhaps the most startling and also
most intriguing theme which runs through these chapters is
the psychologist's account of the development of conscience.
Most of us seem to take our conscience for granted. We know
we have it. It will probably scarcely surprise most readers
to find that conscience plays an immensely important role in
governing our behavior. They may, however, be considerably
astonished at the details of the account, and the immense complexity of the mechanisms through which conscience governs
their behavior.
Succeeding chapters deal with anxiety, insecurity, inferiority, and guilt. Though most of us have not experienced all
of these unpleasantnesses, all of us have experienced some of
them. To feel anxious, or insecure, or inferior, or guilty and
not to know why, is a not too uncommon experience. As we
read these chapters and get a greater insight into the reasons
for our worries and sleepless nights, our jitteriness, our inferior feelings, and our guilty periods, we cannot help but get
at the same time a feeling of considerable pride in being at
once such a highly complicated, tremendously rich, and in-
1 One of a series of reviews of current economic literature affecting
engineering, prepared by members of the department of economics and
social science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at the request of the
Management Division of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Opinions expressed are those of the reviewer.
2 "Principles of Abnormal Psychology," by A. H. Maslow and B.
Mittleman, Harper and Brothers, New York, N.Y., 1941.
3 "The Happy Family," by J. Levy and R. Munroe, Alfred A. Knopf,
New York, N.Y., 193 8.
4 "Psychology and Human Living," by Walter C. Langer, D. Apple-
ton-Century Co., Inc., New York, N.Y., 1943.
APRIL, 1944 volved being, who nevertheless, somehow, so simply manages
to get along.
All of us from time to time get into real-life situations,
a "jam" as it were, and spend anxious days looking for a solution which we cannot seem to find. In lieu of a solution most
of us at one time or another have tried to find an escape. The
chapter on "Escape" in this book is one of the more valuable
aids to an understanding of human behavior. Whether we escape by drinking or working like the very devil, whether we
escape by conforming exactly so as always to be right, or rebelling entirely so as to avoid the whole situation, an understanding of what we are doing seems to help.
Throughout the book, mechanism after mechanism which
we commonly use for dealing with our problems without ever
having realized that we used them is clearly described and
exemplified. An understanding of these mechanisms in ourselves, the recognition of them in others, is a real and practical
aid to comprehending just why people do the things they do.
Characteristic of the dynamic approach is the account of
what happens to the strong drive and urgent emotions which
at one time or another we have but don't like to look at and
tuck away somewhere and hope we can forget. They apparently come back and exert their influence despite our watchfulness. The way they come back and the way they evidence
themselves makes up one more of the fascinating chapters in
this book.
In the final chapter of this book, the author presents the
thesis that a greater understanding and control of human behavior is not merely something that some of us may acquire
because we are interested but is rather an obligation which we
must accept if our civilization is to survive.
"It is a horrible condemnation of our civilization that
technical knowledge has advanced to the point where its
achievements border on the miraculous, while our knowledge
of man has remained at almost a medieval level. Tremendous
bridges, skyscrapers, tunnels, steamships, airplanes, and what
not, are designed and built with the greatest precision . . . but
we can scarcely make a beginning at shaping the lives of the
individuals who are to use them. The inventions of our sciences
are being turned to the destruction of thousands and hundreds
of thousands of human beings who might have enjoyed them
to the advantage or everybody had they been given a better
opportunity."   (Langer, pp. 280-281.)
"To improve our own present forms of adjustment by
using every possible means at our disposal is, perhaps, our first
task but not our last. We are not the end-product of our
civilization or the world. Many generations will come after us.
They are our responsibility. Are we content to pass on, through
future identifications with ourselves, our personal shortcomings, our inadequate adaptations, our insecurities, our prejudices, hatreds, fears, guilts, and ignorance? Scarcely a single
one of us would wish to do so. Whatever our lives may be at
the moment, we all have a secret and implicit faith in the
capacity of man to make the world a better place in which to
live. We all hope that our children may be among those
who will inhabit it and that they will find a greater degree of
happiness than we ourselves have been able to find.
"But faith is not enough. We must do something to turn
that faith into reality. Most of our parents have made attempts in this direction. As we have seen, many of them have
missed their target. In the false belief that such things as
wealth, position, college educations, comforts, outer security,
and so on are the vehicles to happiness, they have slaved and
saved to provide them for us. We now know that these are
relatively unimportant. What really counts is the inner security obtained through an adequate integration of our fundamental needs into an able and social personality—a personality
built on love, tolerance, and understanding, able to utilize the
opportunities for the expression of its needs to the fullest."
(Langer, pp. 279-280.)
Demand for Technical Personnel
•!•
Demand for engineers and science graduates continues to
exceed the supply available for war industries and essential
civilian services, according to information released by the
Department of Labour's Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel.
In January and February of this year the Bureau received
more employers' enquiries for technically trained persons than
at any time since November, 1942. There are now five vacancies for every three available trained scientists, despite the fact
that practically all of the 31,050 such persons listed with the
Bureau are at present engaged in essential work. Most in
demand are mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineers, and
research chemists.
For many months the number of unfilled individual openings recorded with the Bureau has been in the neighborhood
of 550, but the number of trained men actually required may
run as high as twice this figure. This does not include the
steady intake of engineers and scientists for technical appointments in the armed services.
All three branches of the forces have high priority on the
services of scientific personnel, and to date the Bureau has had
no difficulty in keeping the forces supplied with engineers. A
large number of the 1944 engineering and science graduates
have already been spoken for by the Army, Navy, and Air
Force; those remaining at home will be taken into essential
civilian industries immediately after graduation—at least on
a temporary basis, or until they are needed for military duty.
Bureau officials state that many vital Canadian industries
have been handicapped during the past three years by a shortage of technical staff. Now, with equipment and services
beginning to show the strain of pressure brought on by the
war emergency, additional scientific personnel are required to
maintain peak production.
New needs, too, have developed over a wide range of
activity. For example, chemists and chemical engineers are
urgently needed in the production of rubber (both synthetic
and natural), petroleum products, textiles, pharmaceutical
supplies, pulp and paper, and many others—all of which are
directly connected with the war program.
Civil engineers head the list of technical personnel registered with the Bureau, while chemists, mechanical engineers,
and electrical engineers follow in that order. Also listed are
mining engineers, agricultural graduates, chemical engineers,
physicists and mathematicians, architects, and university graduates in science and engineering of all kinds.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE INDUSTRIES
of
Columbia
i
Each month the Graduate Chronicle will include in its editorial material a descriptive
story of the formation and growth of one industry identified with the industrial progress
of the Province.
Nl
J*
The Powell River Company
In 1910 the Brooks Scanlon Logging Co. was engaged in
logging operations in the neighbourhood of Stillwater and
being impressed with the potential value of Powell River as
a Paper Mill site started negotiations for leasing the property.
Thus a new industry for B. C. was born, under the banner of
the Powell River Company Limited.
Powell River, situated on the mainland, 80 miles north of
Vancouver, on the Malaspina Strait and sheltered by Vancouver Island, Texada Island and Harwood Island, is. ideally
situated for an industry calling for cheap power, and a year-
round open harbour suitable for deep sea shipping. The yearly
rainfall averages less than 3 5 inches.
Powell Lake, immediately behind the mill site, with its
watershed of 580 square miles, was a deciding factor for the
mill site being chosen. At the start of operations a dam at
the river mouth and within the Townsite area raised the lake
level to 170 feet above sea level, giving storage capacity for
the generation of some 25,000 horsepower, sufficient for a
250-ton capacity mill.
Early in 1912 two newsprint machines with their auxiliary
equipment were in operation and in May of that year the
first newsprint to be manufactured in British Columbia was
shipped from Powell River. The capacity of these two machines running at 650 feet per minute totalled 100 tons per
day.
By September, 1913, two additional paper machines were
installed, bringing the total production to what was then the
capacity of the water storage of the lake, that is, 250 tons
per day.
Following the first World War the demand for newsprint
increased steadily and because of the comparatively cheap
water power available in the locality and the proximity of
timber areas, the Powell River Company was in a very favourable position by further extension to reach a leading position
in the Western newsprint industry.
By 1927 the production of the plant was doubled by putting into operation two 234-inch Walmsley newsprint machines
(operating at 1150 ft. per min.) with all necessary auxiliary
equipment. To take care of this extra production the dam
on Powell River was heightened to 184 feet above sea level,
increasing the power capacity to 50,000 horsepower. Newsprint output had now reach nearly 500 tons per day.
In 1930 a further extension was made and new equipment
installed to allow of a seventh paper machine being installed.
This 226-inch machine operated at 1200 ft. per minute and
produced about 150 tons of newsprint per day.
To find the extra power for this additional production it
was decided to develop the watershed around the Gordon
Pasha Lake chain by building a dam on the Lois River about
15 miles south of Powell River and carrying the water by penstock to a power station located on the beach at Stillwater,
where an 18,000 KVA generator was installed. Current from
this station is delivered to Powell River at 66,000 volts where
it is stepped down to mill requirements.
By 1938 the output of newsprint had reached approximately 730 tons per day and a further extension was made
to process sulphite pulp made available by increased operating
efficiency.
From 1938 to 1942 this sulphite pulp branch of the operations was developed until at the present time about 125
tons of high grade unbleached sulphite sheet is turned out and
baled every day.
Besides the 70,000 HP of water power (of which over
40,000 HP goes to generation of electrcial power), the operations call for steam boiler capacity of 6000 HP. Thus the
production of newsprint required about 100 HP for every ton
of paper.
To produce this 730 tons of paper something like 500,000
board feet of wood passes through the sawmill per day.
The above is a bare outline of the story of the Powell
River Co. and its development from producing 20,000 tons
per year to about 250,000 tons of product per year, all within
a period of 30 years.
The company handles the logs from the timber limits,
produces the paper and delivers it practically to the doorstep
of the publishers through their own facilities, with a capital
investment of some $30,000,000 and the help of 1500 employees.
"<=H*fy SuiU Bxitid Cokm&a
>t
APRIL, 1944 Local
WEATHER
This Interesting Article by the Late
James Porter is Published by Request
Many engineers, especially those in the smaller towns of
the province, are in the habit of studying the weather indications as a guide in the laying out from day to day of the
work which is being carried on under their direction. But it
would be to the advantage of even those who spend their lives
in large cities to form the habit of watching the sky. It can
be a useful aid in maintaining their own mental efficiency
through the direct contact which it brings about with an
ever-changing field of nature. It will help them in a marked
degree to resist the blunting effect on their powers of observation of their artificial surroundings, whose sameness can be
depressing.
The object of the present memorandum is to offer some
suggestions towards increasing the interest of weather observation by making it more systematic. The endeavour to record
weather indications tersely but sufficiently is in itself a strong
inducement to keen and accurate observation. The attempt
to forecast the weather for 12 hours ahead in a variable
climate like ours has all the healthy excitement of a game in
which a man can hope to improve steadily by practice, though
a retentive memory and long residence in the same place are
essential for the highest degree of success.
The readiest way of forming the habit of watching the
sky to some purpose is to spend two or three minutes every
morning in observing and recording the indications, and four
or five minutes at night in recalling and recording the weather
during the day. Aeroplane pilots will of course need a regular training in meteorology, and learn to use the standard instruments and the daily weather reports and maps. That,
however, is a special duty which the ordinary engineer is not
called upon to perform.
The Mountains.—The mountains should be watched daily.
Most places in the province have the advantage of being
within sight of peaks approaching or exceeding 4000 feet.
The Hollyburn Ridge is useful to Vancouver observers, as it
stands well forward. Taking the height of the plateau as
2500 feet at the brow, it is not hard to estimate within 500
feet how far down its southern slope a cloud-bank extends,
and to observe its texture and duration. If it is soft and
persistent or creeping gradually downwards, we should expect
rain and wind. The bold peak of Crown Mountain is another
object which is well worth watching, as the formation of a
cloud-banner on its windward side is an early indication of
rain.
Wind Direction.—Wind direction need only be noted for
eight bearings. The streets will usually serve for reference
lines. The safest indicator of direction is the smoke from a
chimney, as houses deflect the wind lower down. Sluggishness in rising during a calm is not a good sign, as it shows
that the atmosphere is lacking in buoying power through the
fORECPSTinG
Without Instruments
presence of a large proportion of water-vapour, or that the
solid particles of soot are being loaded with condensed moisture. The directin of drift of the clouds overhead is worth
observing, though it will take a little time. It will often
give advance notice of a coming change.
Wind Force.—Wind force should also be noted. The accepted wind scale runs from 0 to 12; but a landscan can only
use about half the numbers. The most useful are: O, calm,
when smoke rises vertically; 1, light air, when chimney smoke
is just definitely slanted; 2, slight breeze, which moves the
leaves of trees perceptibly, and which can be felt on the face;
3, gentle breez,e which keep the leaves and smaller twigs of
trees in motion, and extends a flag of light material; fresh
breeze, when "white horses" begin to show on sea-arms and
lakes; 6, strong breeze, which sets the larger branches of trees
moving, and makes it hard to hold an umbrella; 7, high wind,
which sets whole trees swaying, and makes walking against it
difficult.
Amount of Cloud.—Amount of cloud can be quickly estimated with sufficient closeness, taking 0 for clear sky, and 10
for sky which is completely covered. It will be found very
interesting to make a study of cloud forms for their own sake
when we are in the open air, apart from the light which their
formation and disappearance can throw on the problems of
local forecasting. Those who wish to pursue the subject will
find a useful chapter in the reprint of "Visibility and Cloud"
from the "Instructions to Observers in the Meteorological
Service of Canada." A more detailed study will be found in
chapter 4 of "The Seaman's Handbook of Meteorology," published by H.M. Stationery Office, London. A pair of rather
dark pince-nez of plain smoked glass will be found desirable
by those who wish to make a study of cloud forms. Every
observer, however, should be able to recognize the common
forms. The feathery Cirrus is a high-level, fine-weather
cloud. The cirrus commonly develops before a change, into
a veil of interlacing threads which render the sun and moon
watery, and which frequently give rise to halos. This form is
known as a Cirro-Stratus. It generally precedes a rain-storm,
though this is not always the case in July and August, when
a cool and cloudy day is often the only result. There is no
mistaking the huge piled-up rounded masses of Cumulus,
which when pure is a fine-weather cloud.
Another fine-weather cloud is Cirro-Cumulus, which gives
rise to the "mackerel sky." It is made up of small more or
less rounded masses pretty closely arranged, and occupying a
large area. Nimbus or Rain-cloud shows a thick dark shapeless layer, with trailing fringes at the place from which rain
or snow is actually falling. Stratus is a low-level, structureless layer of cloud, which differs from fog merely by being up
in the air instead of resting on the ground. Pure stratus is
best ignored by the amateur observer in his record, as the
name is often misapplied. Thunder-heads are not always seen
to advantage near Vancouver. They have a dark base of
nimbus, and usually show a flat top, which has led to the use
of the term "anvil-cloud," the horn of the anvil appearing as
a soft wispy horizontal extension.    This extension is usually
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Dal
'■e
Morning Notes
Evening Notes
Mountain
tops, and
Weather
Weather
altitude
at
during
of lower
morning
Weather
previous
edge of
Visi
obser
during
night
cloud-bank
Wind
Cloud
bility
vations
day
2
Heavy dew
Clear
0
0
Clear
Sunshine
Fine all day
5
Hoar frost
Clear
1 W
5 Cirrus
Foggy
Sun w. cl.
Fine afternoon
11
Showers
Wisps 2400
3 SE
9 Cir-st
Clear
Drizzle
Rain all day
15
Heavy rain
Cloud 1500
2E
10 Nimbus
Misty
Raining
Fog till 11a.m.
the most reliable indication of an approaching thunderstorm
if the thunder is unheard.
Visibility.—Visibility should be recorded as clear, when
streets a couple of miles away can be easily seen; slightly hazy;
very hazy; smoky; misty; fog. Settled fine weather is usually
accompanied by more or less haze during the hotter hours of
the day. A pretty sure sign of rain is an overcast sky with a
clear atmosphere which imparts a steel-blue tint to distant
hillsiues.
General Weather Conditions.—General weather conditions
can be recorded as clear sunshine; sunshine with cloud; overcast; drizzling; showers, which may be light or heavy; steady
rain; snowing. Heavy dew and hoar frost should be noted
in the morning record. A note of the time of occurrence of
hail or a thunderstorm will be of use at times to an engineer
who has to supervise contracting work.
The record is most conveniently kept on a folio sheet of
good open-ruled foolscap, which will serve for nearly a month,
and which can present a complete spell of weather at once for
reference and comparison. The recognition of these spells is
a feature of all intelligent forecasting. Abercromby's book,
"Weather," is still worth careful study on the subject.
No observer should attempt a record so elaborate that he
cannot keep it us. It is the habit of observing and recording
regularly which is the essential thing—not the practice of
giving copious details fitfully. Specimen entries are given
below, such as can be made in two or three minutes. An occasional day will need a second line. The day of the month
should not be filled in until the morning notes are being entered. The foolscap folio will enable the observer to dispense
with the excessive abbreviations which had to be made below,
and to give more width for details in the evening record.
The original aim of the writer was to arrive at a set of
general conclusions for the Vancouver district, but his memory proved unequal to the task. It is quite a feasible one,
however, for a steady resident who has a good memory for
atmosphere effects.
Body to Speak for fill Engineers
Suggested by Dominion Council
"The formation of a body which could speak for all engineers in matters of common interest has been suggested on
numerous occasions," said W. P. Dobson, president of the
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers in presenting his
report to the annual meeting of the Ontario Association. "The
Dominion Council had therefore invited a group of voluntary
and professional bodies to a conference to discuss this subject.
This conference was held in Montreal on December 11. The
meeting resolved that the various bodies represented be asked
to consider as promptly as possible the setting up in Canada
of an organization constituted similar to the Engineers' Council for Professional Development in the United States, and
a committee was appointed at the meeting to prepare a draft
constitution for such a body.
"This committee is now engaged in the preparation of a
constitution which will in due course be sent out for the consideration of the Provincial Associations and Corporation, the
Dominion Council, and the several societies represented at the
meeting."
The above was one of the major activities undertaken
during 1943 by the Dominion Council on behalf of Canadian
engineers. Other important matters dealt with included the
salaries of the engineers in the government service by the
various provincial associations; collective bargaining; legislation affecting engineers; the status of engineers in the armed
services; admission of foreign engineers to practice in Canada;
uniform standards for admission to practice in the various
provinces; and engineering education.
Are Vou Using Vour Seal?
There has been a tremendous increase in the number of
Professional Engineers who sign their engineering drawings
and recommendations with their seal as a result of the President's letter of last year. The President requested that all
members should comply with the provision of the Engineer's
Act in reference to the seal not only because it is mandatory
upon us to do so but also because of its prestige value to both
the Association and the individual members. There are, however, a few members who are still sending out improperly
signed recommendations of an engineering nature.
The use of the seal is required by the law of this Province
so that the general public will have some method of identifying the engineer who has met the minimum standards of the
profession. Further, the seal indicates to the public that the
engineer is responsible to a governing body of his own profession, for his integrity and conduct.
Questions have been asked concerning the proper procedure to be followed by sales and application engineers when
presenting engineering recommendations including the designs
of others. In cases of this type, the actual designs of others
should, of course, carry the seal of the designing engineer.
However, if the application or sales engineer is performing a
co-ordinating function then the report or letter covering the
proposition should be signed by the engineer responsible for
the application.
Your whole-hearted support in this policy will be deeply
appreciated by your council and your fellow engineers.—The
Professional Engineer, April, 1944.
APRIL, 1944 Lrt   Jzeller  to   lie   (bdilor   (Al
out
Li. JS. C y^EotiU in cJ\adio
aBOUT lie
UTHOR    \
PAT KEATLEY
They say that a newspaperman has printer's
ink in his veins. Probably the radio man of today
has ether in his.
A journalist who's got some of each is Pat
Keatley (Arts '40), author of this article, who is
regional press representative in B. C. for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
He is the son of a U.B.C. graduate, the late
William M. Keatley, M.A., and is believed to be
the first of these "second-generation" students
to arrive on the campus.
Pat worked for the Vancouver Daily Province
as a reporter while he was attending Varsity. On
the campus he was in the Players' Club, Wick-
ham in "Pride and Prejudice" and the Ubyssey,
where he wrote his column "Fruit Salad."
His first newspaper assignment after graduation was just that. The Province city editor sent
him out to U.B.C. to cover a luncheon and his own
year's graduation ceremonies.
Pat smuggled his pencil and notebook under his
gown, and took clandestine notes of the baccalaureate address while sitting between black-robed
fellow students.   Then came the capping.
While Chancellor McKechnie reached out with
the mortarboard to touch Pat's head, there was
a flash from a press camera nearby. And when
he got back to the Province city room, reporters
were chuckling at something on the notice board.
The staff artist had painted out the cap to look
like a champagne bottle, and Pat's picture was
captioned "Out To Launch."
After training with the COTC he was accepted for Gordon Head officer training centre,
active army, but was turned down for his final
medical.
He joined the CBC a year ago to take charge
of the Press and Information department here.
You'll find him up on the First Mezzanine in the
Hotel, where he maintains day-to-day contact
with newspaper editors, including such former
U.B.C. students as Aubrey Roberts of the News-
Herald, Lloyd Turner of the Province, Hhnie
Koshevoy of the Sun, and Ken Drury of the Victoria Times.
by PAT KEATLEY
CBC Press Representative
Vancouver, B. C,
May 1, 1944.
Dear Mr. Editor:
When you asked me the other day to round up the names
of U.B.C. people in radio, I don't think either of us expected
the story would amount to more than a couple of paragraphs.
There's more than we thought.
First on a list like this should be the man whose name is
synonymous with the development of national radio here in
the west, Mr. Ira Dilworth, Regional Representative in B. C.
for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.
U.B.C. students remember Mr. Dilworth as one of the most
popular members of the department of English before he went
to the CBC in September 1938 to take the post of chief executive of the Corporation in this province. The first to hold
this post, he has promoted the development of Canadian talent
here, co-ordinated network expansion, and made this one of the
most active regions in originating programs to the nation-wide!
network.
There are a number of U.B.C. people in the regional offices
here.
Ken Caple (Ag. '25) is Director of School Broadcasts on
the CBC for the provincial Department of Education.
Ken was president of his senior year, and came back for
his M.S.A. in 1927. Grads will remember him in the spring
plays, and as a matter of fact he married a Players Clubber,
Bice Clegg, who's mentioned somewhere else in this issue in
connection with the Alumni Play.
I guess we all envy Ken Caple the opportunity he had
touring the United States on a Carnegie Grant four or five
years ago. He was asked to make a survey of educational
radio, and his survey took him through the two dozen important U.S. cities in that field, from New York to Los
Angeles. He returned to B. C. in 1940 to take charge of
school broadcasts and to establish educational radio as a regular institution here. The best illustration of the top-notch
work he is doing in pionering the field is the fact that the
B. C. system has been taken for the model on which school
broadcasting was set up in other western provinces, and that
it has now been adopted on a Dominion-wide scale.
The man in charge of the one of the most popular programs on the air in this province in another U.B.C. grad,
Fergus Mutrie (Ag. '26).
His "Farm Broadcast for British Columbia" at noon every
weekday has a large following in the country and in the cities
as well. Ferg was president of Aggie Undergrads in his senior
year, and he renewed his ties with the campus recently when
he was elected to the U.B.C. Senate.
He joined the CBC in September 1940, to inaugurate regional zroadcasts in this province. His work was recognized
just this month with the announcement that he has been asked
to go to CBC National Office in Toronto to become Assistant
Supervisor of Farm Broadcasts for the dominion.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE U.B.C. grads in the newspaper and sports world will be interested to hear that Dick Elson (Arts '37) is also in the CBC
regional offiecs in Vancouver, as senior editor of the newsroom.
He has the exacting responsibility of seeing that the 160,000
words pouring from teletypes are condensed into the eight
bulletins broadcast by the CBC in British Columbia.
Dick was sports editor of the Ubyssey and the Totem.
He missed his capping and gowning on account of being bitten
by the newspaper bug, went to California instead with the
Varsity English Rugby team, and reported the games for the
Vancouver Daily Province.
He was with the Canadian Press here before joining the
CBC as a charter member of the Corporation's National News
Service.
There was one grim New Year's Eve, Dick recalls, when
he passed up all the invitations to parties so as to be on hand
in the grey dawn on January 1, 1941 when the first news
bulletin went on the network.
You'll see plenty of U.B.C. people around Tuesday nights
at CBR when Vancouver Playhouse goes on the network at
8:30. Some of the Players Clubbers who take leading roles
are Bill Buckingham and wife Doris, Aileen Colcleugh, Nancy
Bruce, Lacey Fisher, and former spring play director Sam
Payne.
Incidently, Nancy Bruce is writing the scripts for the
new series of dramatic sketches about fashions, which Ada
McGeer is presenting on her Mirror For Women show every
Monday this month.
On the musical side is one of Western Canada's leading
young conductors, John Avison, who came back to the campus
in 1939 to train at nights with the CTOC. John has made
a real name for himself in national radio, and was recently
chosen to conduct the orchestra for a program originating
at CBR which went coast-to-coast on NBC. He was accepted
for Gordon Head in 1942, and served as an officer with the
1st Battalion Irish until he was recently discharged for medical
reasons.
DICK ELSON
KENNETH CAPLE
LIEUT. JOHN AVISON
Of the staff of five at the CBC Newsroom here, there is
another ex-U.B.C. man, Elmer McLellen of New Westminster, who was a student last year.
You can find a good number of U.B.C. people too around
studios here in the Hotel Vancouver.
Ada McGeer of the CBR production staff went to U.B.C.'s
predecessor, McGill College, before it moved from the old
building at Pender and Cambie to the Fairview Shacks. Two
of her classmates were Sydney and Cecil Scott, now with the
Daily Province. Mrs. McGeer is believed to be the first woman
producer on the air in this country. She joined the CBC in
1938, and can be heard on programs devoted to women's
interests on Mondays and Wednesdays at 3:15.
Also around the studios is ex-student Jimmy Gilmore,
now a broadcast operator on the engineering staff of CBR.
John goes in for more classical music, so he decided against
joining the Seaforths on account of those of the bagpipe music
unquote.
"So what happens when I get to the Irish" says John.
"They've got Irish pipers"
But it wasn't the pipes that made him leave the army.
John sustained a painful injury that necessitated his being
invalided home from Calgary. He has been discharged on medical grounds, and is now active again in radio. Listeners in
the four western provinces will find him conducting the
orchestra for the CBR Pops Concert on Thursday nights at
8:30.
Another former U.B.C. student in the musical side of radio
is Phyllis Dilworth, who is active both as a pianist and singer.
She can be heard on two Monday programs:  accompanying
APRIL, 1944 soprano Ann Watt at one o'clock, and with the CBC singers
at 9:30.
A member of the CBR staff on active service is Lieut.
Hugh M. Palmer, RCNVR, who left the announcing staff here
in 1941 to join the Navy. Hugh is a former president of the
Players Club, and was one of the best known figures on the
campus in the first part of the thirties, and thrilled many a
feminine heart in spring plays.
Some time ago a trim fighting ship of the Canadian Navy
came into port, one of the frigate type, with Hugh aboard
as executive officer, second senior officer   in charge.
Back in Vancouver from service with the radio branch of
Army public relations is Dorwin Baird, CJOR producer. His
wife is the former Verna McKenzie. Both were active with
the Ubyssey and the Radio Society on the campus in the late
thirties. Dorwin can be heard on a great number of CJOR
shows, particularly the newscasts.
Ex-U.B.C. students are putting their talents to work in
the continuity department of CKWX. Continuity editor is
Isobel Frost (Arts '41), and her staff includes Gwen Spargo,
former Victoria College student Hilda Brown, and Shirley
Kerr.
Shirley, by the way, has been heard in some of the CBC
Vancouver Playhouse productions too.
Another Victoria College alum at CKWX is Bill Reid.
Senior ex-U.B.C. man on the staff of course is former chief
announcer Laurie Irvine, who was on the campus in the early
thirties. Laurie was recently promoted to assistant production manager.
Back East, there are a few more U.B.C. people who are
making their mark in radio.
Former Players Clubber Odette Ainsworth has transferred
from CBR here to CBC headquarters in Ottawa.
Three Green Roomers who were on the campus in the early
forties are Lister Sinclair and his wife, the former Alice Mather,
and Arthur Hill. They all got their start in radio drama here
at CBR, and have since gone to Toronto. Art is in the RCAF
according to latest word. Lister and Alice are on a number of
the radio dramas back there. Lister's parts range from a character called the Crimson Hood, to a villainous U-Boat Captain
on the "Fighting Navy" show. He often apears on CBC's
"Stage 44" series on Sundays at 6:00 p.m. Pacific time.
Well, Mr. Editor, that's the list as well as I can make out
from all my grapevines. If I've missed the names of any other
U.B.C. people in radio, I'd certainly appreciate hearing from
Chronicle readers about it, and I'll write you another letter.
Meanwhile back to the dialy round,
Yours,
Pat.
Country Road Superintendents
to be Professional engineers
Every county road superintendent appointed in Ontario
hereafter must be a Professional Engineer, regisetred as a civil
engineer under the Professional Engineers' Act.
The Ontario Legislature has given final reading to Bill No.
27, an Act to amend the Highway Improvement Act. The
passing of this bill means that all new appointees to the position of County Road Superintendent must be members of
this Association and registered in the Civil Branch. During
the framing of the bill, officers of the Association held conferences and discussions with the Minister of Highways and
other officials in the department and received a sympathetic
consideration of their views at all times.
THE EflGinEER...
After Graduation
By GEORGE C. LIPSEY
»
In studying the records of early civilization we find one
of the first things man thought of after food, clothing and
shelter, was some kind of a code to regulate human conduct.
Apparently all peoples throughout the world decided that
"The Golden Rule" was the best basis for good human relationship, as it was the foundation of all religions. I recommend that in your future life you remember "The Golden
Rule" and think of the other fellow.
In a few weeks you will graduate and start out in competition with thousands of other young men from Universities,
to make your mark. Due to wartime conditions, your entry
into the business world may be delayed or you may have to
start in some other line of business than your chosen one.
You have reached the point in your lives where you have
been given the tools and are starting out on the job. To get
results, use your tools and keep them sharp—don't let them
rust through disuse. Think that over. You engineering graduates are not finished articles. You are only partly processed
material. With proper training and personal application you
can become a finished article. Fortunately you are plastic
and thus can be moulded into a finished article. Without
proper training, personal application and development you will
still remain what you are now.
You now ask me "How can we become a finished article?"
The first step after graduating is to get a job. You will notice
I did not say get a position or an appointment, but a job.
Get a job in the line for which you have been trained and
wish to follow. It may be that you will not be able to get a
job on the engineering staff; then take one in the shop, mine,
mill or factory. Remember that the best trained engineers of
today are those who have gone through the "Mill" as well as
the engineering departments. There is something to learn in
every department of an industrial organization. The man
who succeeds is the man who keeps learning more and more
of every angle in his profession.
Let us suppose you have a job and in the course of the
next twenty years you hope to become an expert engineer or
an executive in industry. Your success will depend on how
well you do your job, your relations with other people and
your personal improvement through study and development.
As soon as you start on your job remember that you are a
watched man. Industry is on the lookout for good men. From
the time you start working you are, as it were, under the
managerial microscope.
Learn all there is to know about your job. Learn all you
can from the men you work with. Do your job to the best
of your ability and be interested in it. Learn how to get your
ideas across to other men. For example, suppose you are helping another man and you think you can do the work in a
better way. Don't tell your partner that he should do the
job your way but ask him if he ever thought of doing it your
way. He might say "No, I haven't, but it might be worth a
try," or he may say "No, it can't be done that way." If his
reply is the latter, don't say anything more about it but keep
it in mind. I can assure you that if your idea is any good, a
week or so later your partner will tell you he has just had an
idea that he is going to try. At first you will be much surprised to find it is nothing but your idea. At this point you
will be tempted to say "I told you that last week." Don't
do it.    Instead say "That sounds like a really good idea."    If
10
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE the idea works, your partner will take the credit but don't let
that worry you because you have learned a very valuable
lesson. The lesson you will have learned is—how to get your
ideas across to another man. This method of getting ideas
across can be used successfully during all your life. Plant an
idea in a man's head and let him develop it as his own. If it
is successful, the man gets the credit and at the same time he
puts his whole effort into making the idea work. At the same
time you get the results, which is what you are interested in.
As you climb up the ladder learn each step well and then
prepare yourself for the next step. In other words, have your
hands on the next rung before you take your foot off the
lower rung. Don't spend all your time looking ahead to the
day when you will be manager and forget to learn properly
the job you are doing at the present time.
As you advance from job to job, grow with each job.
Don't try to be foreman when you are a superintendent.
Don't try to do the instrumentman's work when you are chief
engineer.
Keep interested in your job. If you lose interest in your
work you may as well quit and do something you like. Remember that doing a job which you like, with the kind of
people you like, is more important to your happiness than anything else.
Learn to make decisions. Don't be a fence sitter. Think
your problems out, then decide on what you are going to do
and do it. The man who will not make decisions because he
is afraid that he might make a mistake is lost in industry.
The man who doesn't make mistakes never gets very far. The
man who gets along is the one who learns from his mistakes
and doesn't make the same mistake twice.
Learn the value of a dollar. Learn what a dollar will do,
learn how hard it is to make a dollar. Get the dollar angle
into your thinking. Don't think in thousands when you
should be thinking in millions and don't think in millions
when you should be thinking in thousands—be practical. The
further up the ladder you climb the more important the dollar value becomes. Start thinking about it early in your
career.
You have now finished your routine course of study. Your
courses up to now have been decided on by your teachers and
professors. Your studies in the future will have to be decided
on by yourselves. Don't get the idea that you are through
studying. You will probably do more real studying from now
on than you have done in the past and it will have to be done
after working hours. Subscribe to the technical publications
—keep abreast of developments in your own line. Start in
early and build up a good reference file from articles published in the technical press. Buy good enginering text books
as they are published. Take a correspondence course in accountancy or management. Study a little on every important
subject. Learn to experiment and try out new ideas. Do
things in new ways. Visit other industrial plants and construction projects. You will pick up new ideas that will help
you in your own job. Practice writing reports and correspondence. Learn to be able to express your thoughts on
paper. Study and practice public speaking—learn to express
your ideas and think while on your feet.
I have given you some advice on what to do on the job
and what studies to follow to broaden yourselves through
training, but so far I have not mentioned your relations with
your fellow workers and associates, or in other words, your
relations with other people. This, I think, is the most important part of your development, for without a thorough understanding of people, all other training, study, and hard work,
will be of little use to you. As you go along in your work
you will meet many and all kinds of people—learn to know
the good in people and don't be astonished at their bad qualities—learn to like people—learn to know them—be fair in
your attitude toward them. You will probably start to work
with men who have not had the advantages you have had,
but don't get the idea that they cannot think or that they
haven't any ability. Be genuinely interested in them, make
friends of them, learn to understand their problems. Remember that a man goes up, not on or over his fellows, but with
their help.
Don't be backward about talking to the boss about your
own hopes, aims and ambitions. If you are in doubt about
something, ask the boss about it. He will be only too glad
to help you. Always remember that the boss is interested in
you and your work. He knows what problems you have and
he will help you over some rough spots that no one helped
him over. Be loyal to your bss. Do the things the way he
wants them done. Study his methods. You may be able to
see where the boss could improve his methods but don't rush
in and tell the boss he doesn't know how to do his job. Wait
until you are in his position and then try out your ideas.
Many of you will be going to small communities throughout the country. Learn how to get along in small communities, be interested in all the people, be friendly, be interested
in all the activities and don't be afraid to give some of yourself and your time to community interests.
Take an interest in the Public Life of the country. The
entire absence of engineers in the various legislative assemblies
of this Dominion is a well known fact. Why should this be
so? Who were and are the driving force behind the great
industrial developments?—The engineers. What did industry
do, when competition in manufacturing became keener—when
the grade of the mines became lower—when the need for
lighter metals became imperative—when it became necessary
to make substitutes for materials—when it was necessary to
build larger and bigger bridges—when it was necessary to
improve railroads—build larger dams—improve highways—
build more ships? Industry called in the engineers and turned
the job over to them. If governments would take a hint from
industry it might solve some of its most difficult problems.
You will ask what are the opportunities for the graduate
engineer. The opportunities are boundless. More and more
the executive positions in industry are being filled by engineers
and this will continue on an ever increasing scale providing
the engineers train themselves to be good executives as well
as good engineers.
Decide now what your goal is to be. In the next several
years be sure to get the proper training to enable you to reach
your goal. Remember that during this period your training is
the main object, not the financial rewards. If you are looking
for early financial rewards you are in the wrong line of business. The development of a good engineer is a long and
arduous process.
To sum up my remarks—cultivate an appetite for facts—
learn to make decisions—be fair in your attitude to your associates—learn to know and like people—and finally, even
though the road is tough, don't lose your sense of humor.
—Address to the 1944 Engineering Graduating Class.
Canada to Have electrical Corps
Defence headquarters at Ottawa recently announced
creation of a corps of electrical and mechanical engineers
within the Canadian Army, patterned after its counterpart in
the British Army, the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers.
The new corps is designed to concentrate in one unit the
responsibility for the repair and maintenance of every piece
of technical equipment used by the Army. It is already
functioning overseas.
APRIL, 1944
11 KILLED IN ACTION
P/O DOUGLAS A. THICKE, R.C.A.F.—Killed in action
March 18, 1944. Buried on March 23 at Harrogate Cemetery, Yorkshire.   Native of Ladysmith.
S/L HOWARD ELSEY, R.C.A.F.—Killed in flying operations over Grottaglie, Italy. With the B. C. Forestry
Service before enlistment. Attended the University of
Washington as well as U.B.C. Native of Oyster River,
B.C.
W/C KENNETH FRANKLYN MACDONALD, R.C.A.F.
—Kiled in action March 17. B.Com. 1937. Victoria is
his home.
F/S WILLIAM EDMUND BRIGGS, R.C.A.F.—Killed on
March 16, 1944, and buried on March 20 at Brookwood
Cemetery, Surrey, England. Affiliated with Phi Kappa
Sigma.
DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE
CUSHING, Earl Thompson, Lieut., Canadian Forestry Corps,
died at sea from illness incurred overseas, while returning
home on the hospital ship Lady Nelson. Lieut. Cushing
had been overseas since 1940.    He was thirty-six.
MISSING ON ACTIVE SERVICE
F/L DANIEL BRANCH QUAYLE, R.C.A.F.—Missing after
air operations on March 16, 1944. Was a navigator in a
Pathfinder squadron and had completed 30 operational
flights. B.A. 1937, M.A. 193 8. From Ladysmith, Vancouver Island.
WOl C. J. McCARVILL, R.C.A.F.—Missing after air operations off the coast of Holland. Enlisted in 1941, and
served in India and Africa.
F/S GORDON BESSETTE, R.C.A.F.—Missing after air operations over Germany.
F/O CAMERON MADDIN, R.C.A.F.—Missing after an air
raid over enemy territory.
PRISONERS OF WAR
F/O WILLIAM REID GLEN—Prisoner of War of Germany.
LIEUT. E. R. PELLANT, P.P.C.L.I.—German Prisoner of
War.    B.A. 1940.    From South Kootenay.
F/O MERVYN DAVIS, R.C.A.F.—German Prisoner of War.
WOUNDED
LT. JAMES OLDFIELD, B.S.A. 1941. With Westminster
Regt. (M.G.).   Wounded Feb. 7, 1944.
MEN SERVING OVERSEAS   •
SUB-LIEUT. CHARLES HENRY WILLS, R.C.N.V.R.—On
loan to the Royal Navy overseas. Law student at U.B.C.
prior to enlistment. Had second place in general standing
while training at H.M.C.S. Kings.
S/L. E. C. "BONEY" HAMBER, R.C.A.F.—Flight commander in the Moose Squadron—overseas.
LIEUT. H. M. INGLIS—In England as a reinforcement officer.
LIEUT. J. C. STINSON—In R.C.A.S.C. overseas.
LIEUT. WILFRED McKNIGHT, R.C.A.S.C—B.A. 1932.
Overseas. Was president of the University Golf Club for
two years and before enlisting was manager of the Centre
Gymnasium.
SUB-LIEUT. JAMES DUFF STUART, R.C.N.V.R.
seas on duty with the R.C.N.
Over-
F/L G. P. VICKERS, R.C.A.F.—Has over 40 operational sorties to his credit. Overseas. Is well known in golfing
circles.
SUB-LIEUT. CLIFFORD JACKSON HILL, R.C.N.V.R.—
On overseas duty with the R.C.N.
SUB.-LIEUT. C. ROY SWORDER, R.C.N.V.R.—On overseas duty with the R.C.N.
SUB-LIEUT. JOHN J. ANDERSON, R.C.N.V.R.—On overseas duty with the R.C.N.
SUB-LIEUT. JAMES ARTHUR FLYNN, R.C.N.V.R.—On
overseas duty with the R.C.N.
MAJOR P. A. F. GROSSMAN—In action in Italy. B.A.
1930. Received a Carnegie bursary for the Library School
at University of California.   From Chilliwack.
F/L DONALD F. MUNRO, R.C.A.F.—Promoted from Flying Officer. Instructing in an operational training centre
in South Africa. Has served in Egypt, Kenya and South
Africa. B.A. 193 8, with honors in French—May, 1939,
he was awarded the French Government Scholarship of
10,000 francs fro post-graduate work in Paris.
F/L HOWARD CLEVELAND, R.C.A.F.—Has been awarded the title "Aerial Train Buster." Serving with the
famed Canadian Mosquito Intruder Squadron, overseas.
NAVAL AVIATION CADET CHARLES G. OLDER-
SHAW—Completed Naval Flight Preparatory School at
Monmouth, Illinois, and was transferred to Athens from
the C.A.A. War Train Service School in Edmond, Okla.
Is now at the U.S. Navy Pre-Flight School at Athens, Ga.,
for advanced training.
t     (JhifatarigH     t
CHAMBERLAIN, Robert S., Electrical Enginneer, died suddenly at his home on April 8th. Born in Dartmouth,
Devonshire, England, in 1872, Mr. Chamberlain came to
Canada in 1889 and took his training with the Canadian
General Electric Company. After coming to Vancouver
he worked for several firms before starting his consulting
practice thirty-four years ago. He was particularly interested in stage lighting and had been associated with the
Capitol Theatre for some years.
12
B. C. MEN   IN THE SERVICES
LIEUT. FRANK J. E. TURNER, R.C.N.V.R.—Has transferred to H.M.C.S. Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, for further
training after serving on a minesweeper. B.A., B.Com.,
1939.
P/O PAUL H. GIFFORD, R.C.A.F.—Now overseas.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Ci/" ersonal-
V.
NEWS and NOTES-
^
Recent Naval Officer Graduates from King's included at
least eight former University men. All the men graduated as
Probationary Sub-Lieutenants and included: John W. Nicholls,
Ronald T. McBride, William Van Norman Inman, Elliott
Emerson, Donald E. T. Pearson, and Henry C. Sweatman.
Sub-Lieut. Francis Gordon, an electrical engineering graduate,
recently graduated from Cornwallis.
The University is again co-operating with the provincial
Emergency Farm Labor Service in conducting a farm labor
course at the U.B.C.
Many alumni have won decorations for gallantry in the
present war. Among those receiving the Distinguished Flying
Cross are: P.O. Mansfield Beach, F.O. W. W. Colledge (killed
in action), F.O. A. R. Haines, A.F.L. J. Hudson, W.O. F. H.
Mylrea, P.O. R. M. Newitt, F.L. E. L. Robinson (killed in
action).
A recent graduate of the University of Toronto Medical
School is Frederick Wells Brason, who was an honor graduate
of U.B.C. in the class of 1940.
Former members of the active services who have returned
to the campus have organized a University Returned Men's
Association. Don McGill, B.A. '41, is prominent in the
organization.
Members of the Ottawa Branch of the Alumni Association
have given a luncheon in honor of Dr. Norman Mackenzie,
president-elect of the University of B. C. Among others
invited were all the British Columbia members of parliament
and Senators.
The Vancouver Board of Trade honored the University
at its luncheon on April 19th. Dr. Klinck was the guest of
honor on this occasion. Hon. W. B. Farris, Chief Justice of
the Supreme Court of B. C, was the speaker of the day, and
gave a very fine tribute to the University and the work of
Dr. Klinck.
Lieut.-Col. F. H. Buck, M.C., is back in Vancouver after
four years as chaplain with the New Zealand forces in the
Middle East. Colonel Buck graduated from U.B.C. in 1920.
He was a chaplain in the last war with the 46th Saskatchewan
Battalion. In this war he has seen service in New Zealand,
England, Egypt, Tunisia, and Greece.
Sergeant Michael McGeer, previously reported missing
after air operations over enemy territory, is now reported prisoner-of-war in Germany. He is the son of G. G. McGeer,
former Mayor of Vancouver, and member of the House of
Commons, Ottawa.
Sergeant McGeer is an ex-member of the University, where
he was well-known in athletic circles.
Among those recently joining the Armed Services are:
F. J. GORDON, Sub-Lieut., R.C.N.V.R.; R. C. HAMMERS-
LEY, R.C.A.F.; P. W. NASMYTH, Lieut., R.C.O.C; E. H.
NORTON, Sub-Lieut.  (E.), R.C.N.V.R.
Mr. R. O. CUTLER, formerly with the Granby Mining
& Smelting Company at Allenby, is now with Heaps Engineering Company at New Westminster.
Mr. G. A. VISSAC is Engineer with the Department of
Munitions and Supply, Ottawa.
A recent R.C.A.F. casualty list includes Flying Officer
CHARLES C. CUNNINGHAM, seriously injured on active
service overseas. Flying Officer Cunningham joined the Air
Force while still a student at the University.
Good fortune smiled on Flying Officer GORDON
CROSBY, posted as missing in January. He has arrived back
at his station in England "safe and well" after having been
froced down in Northern France.
The annual meeting of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers will take place in the City of Quebec this
year on May 24th-27th. Representatives from each of the
Provincial Associations will be present.
Mr. R. W. KLINCK, Assistant Professor of Mechanical
Engineering at McGill, has returned to British Columbia for
the summer.
Five engineering graduates this year are following their
fathers' chosen profession and among those present at the
recent Association dinner to the class were Mr. F. J. BARTHOLOMEW and his son Ben, Mr. JAS. BEATON and
Stan, and Mr. C. BENTALL and Bob. Mr. ROBERT ROME,
whose son Alex, and Mr. H. F. TIEDJE, whose son John are
also graduating in engineering this year, were unable to attend
the dinner.
Any articles of general interest to our readers or personal
news items would be welcomed by the Editorial Staff.
PROMOTIONS, AWARDS, ETC.
SUB-LIEUT. J. R. CUNNINGHAM, R.C.N.V.R.—Promoted to Lieutenant. Now on convoy duty in the Atlantic.
P/O GORDON L. HERON, R.C.A.F.—Promoted to Flying
Officer. B.Com. 193 8 and well known in musical circles,
e.g. "Pooh-Bah" in the Theatre Under the Stars series at
Malkin Bowl.
F/L F. D. SMITH, R.C.A.F.—Promoted to Squadron Leader.
Holder of the D.F.C.
LIEUT. G. L. CURWEN, R.C.A.S.C. overseas. B.Com.
1942. Member of Beta Theat Pi. Recently promoted to
Captain.    From Chilliwack, B.C.
P/O ODIN SOSTAD, R.C.A.F. Promoted to Flying Officer.
B.A. 1928. Teacher at Templeton before enlistment in
May, 1942.
CAPT. F. R. S. ROBERTSON, P.P.C.L.I.—Winner of Military Cross. Went overseas in August, 1940. B.A. 1939,
with honors in Chemistry.
F/L R. V. MANNING, R.A.F. B.A. 1937. Awarded the
D.F.C. for his part in the daring attack against the German pocket battleship Prinz Eugen off Norway in May,
1942.
W/C D. C. S. "DON" McDONALD, R.C.A.F. Awarded
the D.F.C. Led a small formation of aircraft on a sortie
during which seven enemy aircraft were destroyed, two
of which were destroyed by W/C McDonald. B.A.,
B.Com. 1935. Active in English rugby and a member of
the Ubyssey staff.
F/O WALLY MAYERS (E. W.), R.C.A.F.—Won wings
from No. 19 S.F.T.S. at Vlcan, Alta. Graduated from
U.B.C, where he majored in arts and social science. B.C.
junoir tennis champion in 1925; member of the New
Westminster Adanac basketball team, Canadian champions
in 1929 and 1930, and a member of the Vancouver Maple
Leafs in 1939.
APRIL, 1944
13 LETTERS
Association of Professional Engineers.
of the Province of Ontario,
Dear Sir:
The Association of Professional Engineers, so far as I have
learned, submitted no brief on behalf of the Mining Engineers
before the recent Mining Commission under the chairmanship
of Mr. Norman C. Urquhart. A good deal that is open to
criticism in the mining industry could be overcome if the
shareholders of mining companies at their annual meetings
elected a consulting engineer who would be responsible to
report to the shareholders the same as the auditors. An appointment from the shareholders would place the consulting
engineer under no obligation to have his report flavored by
the directors, often to the detriment of the shareholders, and
he could at the annual meeting report directly to the shareholders as do the auditors. In a producing mine his report is
more vital to the shareholders than is the auditors' report.
The technical man, although nominally the servant of the
company, is under the heel of the directors, and he has no
means of appealing to the shareholders from the rulings of the
directors. The directors solely are responsible for the management of the company, and many boards of directors responsible for the administration of mini )g companies are composed wholly of non-technical men, frequently with no mining
experience whatsoever. No substantial expenditure should be
sanctioned without the advice of the company's technical
expert that the outlay is reasonably justified. On every board
there should be men capable of advising on one or other of
the many technical questions constantly arising.
As matters now stand, shareholders have really no voice in
appointing the men who are supposed to represent them.
Public companies come into practical existence in two ways:
One, by subscription privately by groups of financiers or
financial houses, the intention of the subscribers being to
make a market for the shares and to sell them by that means;
and two, by a public issue of the shares. Where the former
procedure is followed, there is no pretense of consulting the
shareholders' interests. The parties pulling the strings put
on the board whom they please, mostly relatives or dependents or friends. Capacity is not expected nor wanted. They
are where they are to do what they are told to do by their
benefactors. Any sign of independence would be punished by
ejectment. Occasionally unpleasants things have to be done.
The nominee director must either proceed or lose his position.
Sometimes one is found strong enough to assert his independence; the majority are swayed by pecuniary considerations.
A. C. R Yuill
M.E.I.C, MEM. A.I.E.E.
Consulting Engineer
675 West Hastings Street
Vancouver, B. C.
HYDRAULIC  -  STEAM  -  DIESEL  -  ELECTRIC POWER
Special Representative
Dominion Engineering Company Limited
Montreal, Canada
A different method is adopted in the case of shares being
offered for public subscription. A better type of man is
sought, but not in the direction of technical qualifications.
Decoys are wanted, men who will inspire the confidence of
investors by their social influence or by public services rendered.
Instances can be cited where ore reserves have been estimated at a total far beyond actuality, and where in consequence directors inexperienced in this aspect of the business
have been seriously misled and have adopted a policy that has
in the end proved to be unwarranted. Where the money of
investors is concerned and the reputation of a board as a
whole is involved, too much care cannot be exercised, and the
safeguard would be the addition of a mining engineer to the
board. Already the shareholders have to trust the technical
man without giving him any inducement to honesty for he
is hidden from them and only brought upon the stage to play
a part when it suits the directors. Can anyone who knows
the facts assert that the code of honor practised by the technical staff is not higher than that which pervades the board
room? Where the company is served by a consulting engineer all information in connection with the mine passes
through his hands, and is simplified and interpreted by him
for the benefit of the directors. Much of this information
vitally affects the value of the shares. It is much to the
credit of the profession and the mining engineer that rarely
is advantage taken of this information for the purpose of personal gain. Directors, however, have not the same scruples.
Indeed, to many of them the attraction of a seat on the board
is a chance afforded of obtaining information upon which to
base operations in the shares on the stock exchange.
A large proportion of the free and unfettered reports and
communications never reach the shareholders, but they do
reach other people who act upon them. One has only to go
into the offices of brokers in a large way of business to learn
the latest news from a group of mines. Of course, the officials know nothing. This is clearly a scandal. An aggravating
circumstance is when a member of a board is connected with
a stock exchange and makes a good income for his firm by
utilizing news secured through his official position. Members
of a stock exchange should not be directors of mining companies, and means ought to be devised to remedy this very
unsatisfactory state of affairs, and to put the proprietors, that
is, the shareholders, on an equality basis at least with outsiders,
if not with the directors, in the matter of obtaining information about their property. Why should not the shareholders
have the right to visit a mining company's office and inspect
the reports and information supplied by the technical staff to
the directors? It is unlikely that the privilege would be availed
of extensively because its mere existence would lead directors
promptly to announce all relevant and essential news. The
Articles of Association of a mining company should confer on
the shareholders the right to inspect reports and telegrams
from the mine, and stock exchange listings should refuse to
permit dealings in the shares of companies whose Articles do
not contain such a provision. Companies failing to comply
with stipulation would in the course of time come to be
regarded as of dubious character and would be shunned by the
investing public. Full publicity would be the mark of honest
administration.
In the foregoing I have quoted freely and almost verbatim
from the opening chapters of "Money and Mines" by Hugh
Marriott. It would appear to me that this is one of the outstanding wrongs that could be easily righted if the Professional Engineers took an interest in preparing a brief for submission before any new bill is brought down. The Prospectors' Association have taken many exceptions to the findings
of the Commission. It seems to me that every operating mining company should be compelled to appoint a duly qualified
H
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE man as consulting engineer or equivalent official. His position
would be strengthened and his power for good increased if he
were an ex-officio member of the board of directors. Perhaps
better still would be to make him independent of the directors
by investing him with similar statutory powers and protection
to those conferred by the Companies Act on auditors.
Corresponding powers on the part of the consulting engineer or similar officer would be an invaluable protection to
mining shareholders, preventing concealment or garbling of
facts that they ought to know and the public ought to know
in order that they should not be lured into buying shares at
a price above their worth. The engineer would be able to
place his views uncensored and unhampered by the directors
before the shareholders. Open discussion would thus be invited which would bring a new and keener interest in the
company's affairs, and a new independence and zest would be
given to the technical staff, and they would be encouraged
to speak out on matters on which no one could speak with
more knowledge than themselves, for they could meet improper pressure by the directors by an appeal to a statutory
officre capable of appreciating and understanding their work
and who would lay their case before the shareholders. Hole-
and-corner arrangements would have to go. A healthier tone,
a keener spirit would develop all around, and some of the
worst abuses that besmirch mining would be swept away.
I pass the foregoing on to you in the hope that the Mining
Branch may see fit to take some action that will benefit the
industry as well as raise the status of the engineers associated
with it.
Yours truly,
D. H. WRIGHT.
April 3, 1944.
Professional Engineer's Banquet
ENGINEERING GRADUATING CLASS, 1944
Once again another graduation has rolled by and once
again the Association of Professional Engineers have invited
the graduating engineers to a sumptuous spread as is their
custom. This year the banquet was held at the Hotel Georgia
at 7 o'clock on April 6th. It was a grand affair, complete with
all the trimmings, and was enthusiastically attended by everyone who could possibly be present.
In the lounge before the banquet cocktails were served.
They were excellent, too, in these days of rationing. Some of
the graduates are still wondering how it was done. I asked
the Association's secretary, but she just mumbled something
about how tough it was to keep a job these days.
Everyone enjoyed the excellent dinner of turkey and ice
cream accompanied by all the necessary accessories, including
cigars.
At the head table were Mr. H. C. Anderson, President;
Professor F. M. Knapp, Vice-President; Dean J. N. Finlayson;
Dr. H. J. MacLeod, Honorary President of the Class; R. A.
Davidson, President of the Class; T. D. Syme; Messrs. W. H.
Hill, G. C. Lipsey and T. H. Crosby—Members of Council;
and Mr. A. D. Creer, Registrar.
After "The King," while the younger members appeared
to assume a delicate shade of yellow-green to the accompaniment of furious blasts of cigar smoke, Mr. H. C. Anderson,
President of the Association and Chairman of the meeting,
introduced the speakers for the evening. Last of these was
Mr. G. C. Lipsey of Britannia Beach. Mr. Lipsey gave some
excellent advice and food for thought for the graduating
engineers.
Next on the agenda came the singing, led by Vaughan
Mosher with Paul Hookings at the piano. The meeting closed
with the singing of "God Save the King." Members representing the various branches of engineering stayed to answer
questions and talk to the graduates about their particular
problems.
By 10:30 the last stragglers had left and the banquet was
over for another year.
Alaska Pine Company
Limited
NEW WESTMINSTER, B. C.
SAWMILL
PLANERMILL
BOX FACTORY
Telephone: 2464-7
Telegrams: Alaskapine
Northern Construction
Company
&
J. W. Stewart Limited
Engineers and General
Contractors
736 GRANVILLE ST. VANCOUVER, B.C.
MArine 4535
APRIL, 1944
1} The Romance of — -^-ktttJCL
AIR CONDITIONING
I shall not bore you with the History of Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning, which dates back to the time of Nero when
slaves waved fans over shallow dishes of water to make ice,
nor shall I relate the history of some Refrigeration Company,
for I wish to draw attention to some of the problems and to
matters of human interest in the Refrigeration industry and in
some measure indicate the place which refrigeration holds in
the food industry.
The majority of people probably associate refrigeration
with the local meat market, the ice-making plant and the
skating rink; few realize that from the time they were old
enough to consume the good pasteurized grade "A" milk, until
their lifeless bodies, the "worn out fetter which the soul has
broken and thrown away," have been slipped into a refrigerated morgue, refrigeration and air conditioning play very
important parts in promoting our health and comfort under
modern living conditions.
Few realize that a very large proportion of the eggs annually consumed in Canada come to us from China, under the
protection of refrigeration; that the famous Canadian cheeses
which are sent all over the world are aged and stored in conditions which require accurate control of temperature and
humidity, thus necessitating refrigeration. We have become
so accustomed to eating apples and other perishable food ten
Babcock Equipment
is Serving Both Afloat and Ashore
Our over 85 years' experience and facilities unequalled in this country are producing Marine Boilers, Marine Engines,
Pumps, Compressors, etc., for corvettes,
minesweepers and cargo boats. Also for
the Canadian War Effort on land we are
supplying boilers and other equipment to
generate power for vital war production
industries. BABCOCK design and BABCOCK manufacturing standards ensure
efficiency and dependability.
BABCOCK - WILCOX   &
GOLDIE - McCULLOCH
GALT limited CANADA
Branch  Offices
Montreal       Toronto       Winnipeg       Vancouver
B. C. Representative
C. C. MOORE & CO., VANCOUVER
Recent Address Given by
J. HORACE SINCLAIR, Mem.A.S.R.E.,
District Manager, Canadian Ice Machine Co. Ltd.,
Vancouver, B.C.
months of the year, that we give little thought to the vast
warehouses and refrigerated storages which are necessary to
preserve these foods for us. Common products such as bread,
milk, butter, soft drinks and beer, are actually dependent on
refrigeration, either in their processing or manufacture, as
well as in their distribution.
In recent years, quick-frozen products have become more
popular. This process preserves fish, meat, poultry, vegetables
and fruit, by freezing them very quickly at very low temperatures, and it also preserves their delicious flavor for a
period' of 8 to 12 months.
Recently this process has been worked into small plants
operating as Refrigerated Locker Systems. These systems
allow the individual families to take their products to the
plant where they can be scientifically prepared, quick-frozen,
and put into their individual sanitary lockers. The lockers
stand in a room which is maintained at 0°F. and are rented at
a very nominal charge. This method of food storage and
merchandizing has become very popular throughout Canada
and United States.
Apart from the food industry, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning play a very important part in more than one hundred
industries. As the Refrigeration Engineer is faced with so
many problems which involve different types of applications
and uses, his work is one of the most fascinating of all occupations.
To quote from a famous research scientist, Colonel Crosby
Field: "There has for a number of years existed what might
be termed a 'no-man's' land between the refrigeration industry and the chemical engineer and scientist." However, this
gap is being closed rapidly.
I would like to call your attention to a few of the unusual
applications which we have been called upon to solve:
A manufacturer of golf balls came to us with the idea of
using a liquid centre—this liquid has the peculiarity of
shrinking when it is frozen, but it will not freeze until the
temperature is lowered to 70°F. below zero. When the perfect sphere of frozen liquid is wrapped and allowed to melt,
the liquid will expand and make a very fast and balanced
ball. More than likely many golfers reading this article are
getting that extra yardage with a liquid-centre ball.
I expect that most of you have heard of the large concrete power and irrigation dams which have been completed
or are now being constructed in the United States, Hoover
Dam, Boulder Dam, Marshall Ford Dam, Grand Coulee Dam;
they are all tremendous masses of concrete one thousand to
two thousand feet long, two to three hundred or more feet
high and eighty or more feet wide on the top. The setting of
concrete is a chemical process which generates heat and it is
necessary to install cooling pipes on 12-inch centres in order
16
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE to dissipate this heat. Lacking these, it has been estimated
that it would take nearly 90 years for the great masses of
concrete to set so that there would be no possibility of
failures.
In the past few months, we have all been interested in
aeroplanes—more aeroplanes which will fly to greater heights.
It is necessary to experiment on the design of these modern
fighting machines on the ground and not at 35,000 and
40,000 feet elevation, therefore, Refrigeration Engineers have
been called upon to duplicate the atmospheric conditions which
exist at these lofty elevations. We are required to maintain a
temperature as low as —67°F. in a vacuum of 25" of mercury, while one of the powerful engines is operating at full
capacity.
We are now installing in Canada, in a building already
completed, equipment which will maintain a constant inside
temperature of 0CF. in one particular room. That room opens
into a larger room which will be maintained at —35°F. In
the centre of this room, in a chamber just the size of the
cabin of a modern bomber, we have been required to duplicate the atmospheric conditions and changes experienced by a
bomber leaving the ground and ascending to 40,000 ft. elevation, or from 70CF. to —67°F., with atmospheric pressure
reduced to 25" of vacuum. This chamber will be used to
test instruments and to test our new Canadian aviators in
order to determine if they are physically and mentally capable
of withstanding these tremendous changes in atmospheric conditions.
From the heights we go to the depths, for when the
British Empire went off the gold standard, gold mining became very profitable. In the East Rand district of South
Africa, the mines went down as low as 6, 8, and 10,000 feet
below the surface. It was found that at these depths the
virgin rock temperature was 115° and the mines were soaking
wet. Not even the African Negro could work efficiently in
these conditions. It was necessary to put down tremendous
air conditioning plants to cool the workings of the mines in
order to get efficient production.
Some of you who have had an engineering education and
who have wrestled with calculus, felt that this was just a
mental exercise. We actually use calculus in our industry, as
it is necessary to calculate loads for conditions which have not
been experienced before or for which little data is available.
Try to solve this problem:
A shaft is 1000 ft. long, with virgin rock temperature of 115°F.  A certain amount of air is to be blown
down this shaft which is  15  ft. in diameter.    What
will be the temperature of the air at 150, 200, 500 and
1000 feet, in one week, one month, one year?
Calculations were made and curves were plotted.    The
high precision of these curves was actually proven by tests in
later years.
You may not think this is a serious matter, but before
this work was done, one mine blew cold air down a shaft for
two years and lowered the temperature only 3°.
You may be interested to learn that the largest refrigeration system in the world is not in the packing plants in
Chicago, St. Louis, or in Winnipeg, but in the Eastman Kodak
Company plant in Rochester, N.Y., where, in the manufacture of film, 18,000 tons of refrigeration per day is used or
the equivalent of the melting of 18,000 tons of ice in 24
hours. Other products are dependent upon refrigeration in
their manufacture; for example: rayon and Dupont's new
Nylon, which our wives and daughters are using for stockings
today. The aging of fine tobaccos, the manufacture of emery
wheels, of candy, and the operations of printing plants, all
depend upon controlled weather.
Although our industry has been very active for more than
60 years, it did not come conspicuously before the public until
10 or 12 years ago. The great increase in public interest is
due largely to the publicity given to "comfort cooling," or
what we term "The Romance of Air Conditioning." Air
Conditioning is nothing new, it is merely an accurate control
of temperature, humidity and air motion within the comfort
zone which is very accurately prescribed by our medical profession. However, the use of refrigeration equipment for
comfort cooling has developed very rapidly in the last few
years. In the southern portion of the United States, it has
become a necessity and is no longer a luxury. This line of
transformation is steadily moving north and I believe that I
am not overstating the facts by saying that air conditioning,
today, is one of the fastest growing industries in Canada.
Because of the tremendous volume of air conditioning,
prices of the equipment have been materially reduced until
today a small self-contained, complete air conditioning unit,
which will duplicate in your office or home the same atmospheric conditions which prevail in the Canadian lake and
mountain regions, can be bought for less than $300.00. Just
set the unit in front of the window, open it up, put in the
adjustable duct, close the window and plug it in. Turn the
switch and the mountain breezes start in your office. There
is no drain. There is no water connection. It is not a window
ventilator. It is not an experiment. These units have been
on the market for over eight years.
Perhaps one of the most striking applications of refrigeration was reported during a meeting of the American Medical
Association when Drs. Fay and Smith of Philadelphia described a "freezing" and hibernation treatment given to
patients in the advanced stages of cancer. Heretofore doctors have always thought that any drop in human temperature below 90° was a positive sign of death—in these experiments such temperatures, and even lower ones, brought no
unfavorable results. The growth of cancer cells was arrested,
the pain was reduced or eliminated. These and other experiments on the effect of cold on living organisms indicate an
interesting field for further research.
• HEATING
• VENTILATING and
• POWER PLANT
• ENGINEERS and
• CONTRACTORS
•
Leek <& Co.
LIMITED
ESTABLISHED   1898
1111-17 Homer Street Vancouver, B. C.
APRIL, 1944
17 \f~
THE    ED
V
WELCOME GRADUATES
Another graduating class has come and gone at the University. Classroom days are over for them now
but they are by no means leaving the University. They are merely passing from one phase of their university
career to another. Now they join with that ever-growing body of graduates from our youthful University.
The members of the Alumni- Association extend to all the new graduates the warmest of welcomes. We
trust that you will see fit to join with us and to aid us in our efforts towards improvement of the University.
The only way that the University can increase in strength is by receiving the full support of the citizens
of the province. The graduate body which becomes larger each year can exert a great influence in this province in favour of the University. That is one of the fundamental tasks o* all graduates, both new and old.
We may well be proud of our University.    Let's do something about it that we may be prouder still.
INVEST IN THE FUTURE
In recent months the newspapers have contained several items of great significance from a university
point of view. We refer to several large sums of money which have been given to the University by prominent and public-spirited individuals to help establish certain types of education on the campus. The most
recent of these appears to be a large gift made by a Vancouver man towards a faculty of pharmacy.
These are indeed good signs and it is high time they appeared. Tne University of British Columbia has
long been known as a state-supported institution and to a large extent that is true. What is not generally
realized, however, is that these students themselves provide over 50% of the financial support of the University. Indirectly, of course, since they and their families are all citizens of the province, they further contribute to the University by their contributions to provincial funds. The fact that the student must bear
such a large part of the cost of the University is one of the major reasons why great numbers of prospective students are prevented from attending.
Most other universities in this country, while they depend in varying degrees on state support, also
receive much of their support from private individuals in the form of donations, bursaries, and the like. It
is certainly true that our University is a young one and has not built up a large number of graduates. It
is also true that it will be a number of years before we get to the position where many of the province's
leading citizens are graduates of U.B.C. These facts in part account for the relatively small number of
endowments and bursaries at the University.
Nevertheless it would appear that it has never been the policyof the University Administration to foster, encourage, or actively seek financial support from those in the p-ovince who might best give it. True,
it will not due to commercialize the University, but there is a happy medium between doing that and merely
waiting for things to happen of their own accord. Prominent Eastern Canadian Universities, for example,
have been reported to have raised large sums of money by simply proving to wealthy companies and businesses that educational donations are quite permissible under presert income tax laws and that because
of the existing types of taxes these donations are not nearly as costly to the donors as they would formerly
have been. The application of a few simple principles of present day economics might well be of great
benefit to the University.
Let none fear that the obtaining of support from financial and business as well as private interests
will make the University subservient to those interests. This has by no means proven to be the case in other
Canadian universities where the policy has been properly handled.
18 THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE TOR'S    PAGE
This is not to discourage those generous citizens who have led the way in the support of the University. Nor is there anything but praise for those among the University graduates who have worked constantly
to obtain bursaries and other support for the University. Nor can we fail to realize that the obtaining of
financial support from the public cannot be obtained merely by a snap of the fingers.
Nevertheless there has been little apparent as to steps taken by the Administration towards a public
policy in this regard. There are many citizens and businesses in this province that derive great benefit
from the University, both directly and indirectly. If the proper approach were taken many of them would
come to realization that an investment in the University would be an investment in the future.
THE   ENGINEER'S   VIEWPOINT   .   .   .
LABOUR RELATIONS
Through the efforts of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers and the voluntary engineering societies the Wartime Labour Relations Board on April 14th, excluded engineers for a period of six
months from the new labour code PC. 1003, covering compulsory collective bargaining and arbitration. Mr.
Dobson, President of the Dominion Council, presented a brief giving the views of the Provincial Associations
and an effort is now being made to obtain the opinion of all engineers on the problem.
In the course of the next few days members of the Association of Professional Engineers will receive a
questionnaire on collective bargaining. While this legislation comes under the War Measures Act and is
only effective during war time, it is bound to leave its imprint on future labour legislation and should be
carefully studied by the Engineering Profession, who have close relations with both capital and labour and
appear in both the categories of employer and employee.
"Bargaining," "Co-operation," or whatever you call it, has apparently come to stay and it is a very distinct advance on the strike and lock-out method and is much more likely to bring to every man what he most
desires—Security.
Unionization in the past has brought security to the favoured few, often at the expense of the many,
and one of the things to be guarded against is the danger of capital and labour "getting together" in any
industry and making Mr. Ordinary Citizen pay through the nose for their particular product.
INCOME TAX
Talking about income tax, a Professional Engineer can deduct the fees paid to the Association only if
he is in private practice. The authorities refuse to recognize a salaried man's fee as a necessary expense.
Incidentally, if the fee is paid by the employer, as is often the case in the legal profession, the employee may
deduct it from HIS income as a necessary expense.
The postwar period, according to some authorities, is likely to be more dangerous to our cilivization
than the actual war. Many hundreds of well-meaning groups are getting out plans for spending money "to
relieve the situation."
It is most important that the organization for operating this giganitc "pump primer" should work
from the bottom up and not from the top down, and that there should be a very presentable portion of
authority AND responsibility left with an elected local group, and moreover, that any abuse of such authority
and responsibility should be reflected in taxes paid by the electors.
APRIL, 1944 1» nflTionflL
PROBLEfllS
an
d
Post-War
Reconstruction
by F. P. L. LANE
President, Canadian Manufacturers' Association
The following is the full text of the Address which
Mr. Lane delivered at a meeting of the Montreal Chapter of the Canadian Credit Institute on March 8. Taking as subject, "How can enough money be made available to enable manufacturers to provide the greatest
possible number of jobs after the war?" he developed
the thought that manufacturing should be permitted
to build up working capital out of profits in order to
offset inevitable losses.
Probably the most ardent desire of all peoples of the United
Nations is that hostilities be now brought to a victorious conclusion and that, concurrent therewith, we enter into a better
life than has hitherto been known. It is, I believe, quite noticeable that many of those who, only a short time ago, made
extravagant promises of a better post-war life, are now more
circumspect in their statements. I take this to be a good omen,
indicating that more people are at last beginning to think
for themselves and so refuse to be misled.
Certain it is that we all want a better life, and it is just
as certain that our desires will not be fulfilled unless each
and every one of us devotes every ounce of energy and thought
in order to bring about a better world to live in.
For the first three years of this war we people of the British Empire were pounded about in a series of retreat after
retreat, not because of inefficient military leadership (our leaders have proved themselves), of lack of courage and tenacity
of our fighting men (our men have proved themselves), or the
quantity of the materials with which they have had to fight
(the record speaks for itself), but due entirely to our own
complacency, wishful thinking, "it can never happen to us;
and in any event someone else is taking care of the problem."
We failed completely to realize that you and I and our
neighbour must take and maintain an active interest in national problems and, if all of this is not to happen again, each of
us must unselfishly devote his best efforts to one or more of the
problems he is best fitted to deal with, and then our collective
experience must be applied energetically toward achieving that
which is in our best national interests; and may I remind you
that energetic perseverence is essential to success.
Concurrent with our recent victories, we are prone to
conclude that the war is, in effect, ended, and so readily fall
back into the state of complacency that obsessed us prior to
the actual declaration of war, and which in a large measure
was the cause of our innumerable subsequent setbacks and in
all probability was the prime cause of the present war.
I do not suggest for a moment any letdown of the energy
and perseverance essential to an early and successful conclusion of this war; but, in addition thereto, you should keep
yourselves well informed on post-war problems so that, when
the time comes, your energy will be intelligently directed in
support of sound principles necessary to the achievement of
your aims, and so that your rightful heritage will not be
denied you in consequence of the more energetic activities of
those seeking to further their own selfish interests by misleading public opinion through innumerable plausible fallacies.
For example, it has been said that this war has proved that
unlimited Government expenditures have eliminated unemployment. So far, that is quite true, but keep in mind that is the
only point that has been proved; the question of the source
of Government revenue required to maintain such payments
or the probability and consequences of the Government's continuing to borrow and tax each year so large a proportion of
the national income, has been studiously avoided. The truth, of
course, that this cannot go on forever and, consequently, when
the Government can no longer raise the necessary funds, employment provided by such funds ceases to exist. Nevertheless,
it has been and will be argued again that this brief experience
of full employment is complete justification for the proposition that public ownership should replace private enterprise.
With a view to attaining a better understanding of the
subject, some time ago I attempted to summarize all of the
various factors which fall within the title of "Post-war Reconstruction." Needless to say, my efforts came to an abrupt
end when I realized that this conveniently brief and intriguing
title embraced the whole field of political economy—Agriculture, Industry, Trade, Finance, Education and Public Health,
both national and international. Upon brief reflection one
soon learns that a clear understanding of and a satisfactory
solution for any one of the multifarious problems included
in the title is complicated by the need of finding a satisfactory
solution for one or more complementary problems. In other
words, each problem appears to be inseparably related to another. The magnitude and compexity of Post-war Reconstruction staggers one's imagination, and will not be solved by
complacent wishful thinking or by legislation.
When I was informed that I would be permitted to address
this gathering tonight and was requested to speak on Postwar Reconstruction, my sympathy immediately rose for the
cook who anxiously asked the maid when she came back to
the kitchen what the family thought of her dinner, it being
the first she had served in the house. "Well, I didn't hear
a word about the food," said the girl who was also new in the
house, "but they prayed before they began to eat." And this
reminds me that a short time ago a number of those interested
in Post-war Reconstruction problems thought it advisable
to obtain the advice of an expert planner. When asked for
precise, brief and clear statement of how such a planner proceeds, he replied, "He plans for a wise conservation and utilization of all our resources, both human and natural, at all levels
of Government; such plans are very comprehensive, integrated,
interrelated, co-ordinated and unified; they have common
goals, in line with broad concepts and guiding principles,
based on a wise conservation and utilization of all our resources,
both human and natural, at all levels of—oh„ pardon me, that,
of course, is where I began."
20
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE With your permission I will approach my subject from a
somewhat different angle.
There is one phase of one of the problems of Post-war
Reconstruction which seems to be a particularly appropiate
subject for careful consideration by credit men, and, in order
to develop this point, it is necessary to sketch briefly a background. In so doing, I propose, with your permission, to correct some confusing thinking on certain principles, in the hope
that a better understanding will contribute to the solution of
some of the problems before us.
I believe it is generally recognized that the key to all our
problems is the elimination of mass unemployment. Consequently, the effectiveness of our Post-war Reconstruction
efforts will depend upon the measure of our success or failure
in eliminating mass unemployment.
The employment problem may be measured, in, part, by
the following:
In 1938 there were approximately 1,600,000 people employed in industry.
In 1943 there were approximately 2,500,000 people employed in industry, and approximately 800,000 people in our
armed forces.
The sum of those in industry and the armed forces
amounted to 3,300,000, which is more than twice as many
people as were employed in industry in 193 8. The term "industry,'.' as used by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, includes
manufacturing, logging, mining, and trade. On manufacturing alone 642,00 were employed in 1938 and in 1943 there
were  approximately   1,250,000   employed  in  manufacturing.
While it is true that many of those now in industry and
the armed forces will return to farms, others will remain in
the armed forces, some will return to domestic service, some
will resume their studies, and others will cease to work alto-
ether, there will remain a very substantial number of people
for whom employment must be provided.
The figures quoted are not intended to represent the exact
number of people that post-war industry must absorb; they
do, however, indicate to some degree the magnitude of the
employment problem confronting us.
Employment is, of course, dependent upon certain prerequisites . For example, the essential corollary to employment
is the sale of goods and services, and the essential corollary
to the purchase of goods and services is capital. Credit is not
capital but is the means of expanding the purchasing power
of capital., Where there is no capital there is no credit.
And so we establish the first point that capital in industry
is essential to employment.
I do not propose to deal with consumer purchasing power
because time does not permit and it is not necessary to the
development of my main point. In any event, if we eliminate
mass unemployment we then have consumer purchasing power.
No doubt many of those present at one time or another
have heard or read public statements to the effect that industry, and particularly manufacturing, is charged with the
responsibility of providing full employment in the post-war
period. Upon reflection, a fair inference to be drawn from such
a statement is that the speaker lacks practical knowledge of
fundamental industrial principles.
Manufacturing must and does plan and produce ahead
of demand and production provides employment; and it is
constantly searching for and creating demand. This is illustrated from several examples in the experience of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association. In 72 years of its history,
manufacturing and the resulting employment in Canada has
grown from a small beginning to the present proportions. In
1937 and 1938 the Association advocated "educational manufacturing for war purposes and made surveys of personnel,
plants, and equipment for the Canadian and British Govern
ments. In 1939 the Association organized a mission which
spent August and part of September of that year in the British Isles, conferring with Government representatives and
manufacturers. They asked for a return British Mission which,
by arrangment by the Canadian and British Governments,
arrived in Canada early in September, 1939. I need not comment on the war production of Canadian manufacturing establishments; the published official records speak for it. During
the present year a special committee of members of the Asso-
citaion, all experienced exporters, has been studying possibilities
for export trade after the war in co-operation with the Department of Trade and Commerce, and it is expected that beneficial results will come from its efforts. In addition, other
committees are studying domestic markets and the problems
arising in converting industry from war to peace production.
With no desire to labour the obvious, may I conclude this
point with the brief statement that manufacturing intends
and desires to produce more and more goods, and the volume
of goods that can be produced and distributed will be limited
only by conditions entirely beyond its control, which in turn,,
means that manufacturing will provide all of the employment
that it is permitted to provide.
And now to continue with my main point—"Sufficient
Industrial Capital to meet the needs of Post-war Reconstruction:" I submit this is a matter of concern to the country as
a whole by reason of its direct effect on employment, and it
is of particular interest to those controlling and directing
trade credits.
At this point permit me to mention a few principles,
which will enable me to shorten materially my remarks:
(1) With predetermined maximum profits, an increase
in volume of business adds to the stress and strain on capital
employed. Compensation by buying on longer terms or selling on shorter terms may afford relief to an individual; but,
in the final analysis, this is no remedy at all because the gain
to one is the loss to another. The squeeze on industry remains.
(2) An increased volume of business void of profit increases the loss hazard to capital employed.
(3) In a continuing business actual profits are not determined at the close of the fiscal year. At that time the profits
determined and taxed are those having regard to well-recognized accounting principles. The real profits cannot be ascertained until inventories are realized upon, and it frequently
happens that inventories do not bring the value at which they
were carried at the close of the preceding fiscal period.
(4) In normal times increased business is usually accompanied by increased profits, which are invariably capitalized,
in whole or in part, through the surplus or reserves, in order
to meet the requirements of such expansion; alternately, such
profits may be sufficient to tempt new capital to enter the
business.
(5) Having regard to season fluctuations, an annual balance sheet of a corporation does not necessarily reflect the cash
requirements of the corporation.
(6) Surplus or reserves does not mean cash in excess of
business requirements.
(7) Surplus and reserves are not funds held on deposit
in banks or invested in Government bonds.
(8) Surplus and reserves are invariably "ploughed back"
into the business and are represented by working capital and
fixed assets.
And so it is true that an increase in the volume of business
is usually accompanied by an increase in profits and, left to
itself, industry, experiencing such development, to use the vernacular, "plough such profits back into the business," or, in
APRIL, 1944
21 other words, it retains and, in effect, capitalizes such additional profits as may be required to meet business expansion,
including provision against the hazards of loss arising therefrom.
It is quite true that today many of those in industry are
experiencing a greater volume of business than ever before,
and that a large majority are doing much more business than
in  1938 or  1939.
Now, the important difference in business as conducted
today is that profits, commensurate with increased volume of
business, cannot be retained in industry because of profit
taxes. Not only are all profits in excess of the average earnings
of 1936 to 1939 inclusive expropriated by way of taxation,
but, over and above the rates then applicable, an additional
15 % of such average earnings is taken.
As indicating the trend of such taxation, you will find
that a summary statement of company profits, published by
the Bank of Canada, discloses that income and excess profit
taxes in 193 8 took 17J/2% of net profits before deducting
such taxes, and in 1942, 48%; the figure in 1943 is not available, but the proportion taken in taxes in 1943 will be much
greater than that taken in 1942 because the 100% excess
profits tax applied to only six months of 1942, while in 1943
it applied to the whole year.
Now, I am not complaining about the high rates of corporation taxes; industry is not complaining about them; in
fact, I have not heard any man complain about the high rates
of these taxes. We all know there is a war going on and that
we are all in it, and must make our contribution to its successful conclusion: for that reason we do not complain.
Taxation at current levels, however, should be devised
most carefully and if, for example, the tax structure is found
to be such that probably it will impair the working capital
of industry, then I submit it is quite right and proper that
careful consideration be given to the consequences so that
necessary measures may be taken in time to avert undesirable
results.
A few minutes ago I indicated the employment is dependent on capital and that manuafcturing will provide all
of the employment that it is permitted to provide. I have also
mentioned a tremendous increase in the volume of business
being done by manufacturing, and I note a somewhat comparable increase in inventory values of goods on hand and
in process. I make the point that such inventories constitute
a hazard to working capital, and the hazard increases with
mounting inventories, and that no practical provision for
inevitable inventory loss can be made within the present corporation tax structure; and I submit further that, unless this
condition is remedied in sufficient time, the working capital
of industry will be impaired and industry's ability to provide
employment will be reduced accordingly—all of which will be
due to conditions which are entirely beyond the control of
industry.
This brings me to the inventory reserve section of the
Excess Profits Tax Act, with which I shall deal very briefly.
The only good I can speak of this section is that it is an
admission (at least tacit) that inventory losses constitute a
proper charge against income for tax purposes. Against this
section of the Act I say, firstly, that it is inadequate to meet
the principle admitted by its inclusion in the Act. It is restrictive with respect to quantity, price, kind and time; it ex-
propiates profits beyond the applicable rates of taxation, and
the provisions relating to the period following that in which
the Act ceases to apply are impracticable to the point of
being unworkable. Lastly, those unfortunates confronted with
probable inventory losses and who are not subject to the maximum tax rate, i.e., 100%, can make no charge against the
taxable profits they earn to cover such inventory losses, even
though the latter taxpayers may be the class of industrialists
most in need of inventory reserves. Altogether, the provisions
in the Act relating to inventory reserves are a very sad experiment, and the fact that they may be sufficient to meet some
exceptional or isolated case does not justify their existence.
So far as I have been able to ascertain, no comparable provision is contained in any taxing statute in any other part of
British Empire or in the United States of America, although
other means of a practical kind are taken to meet such requirements. I should also add that, subject to nominal rates of
taxation, inventory losses are (taxwise) relatively unimportant. The importance of such losses increase with rising tax
rates, and when rates have reached the level of those now in
force in Canada, inventory losses become all-important.
With frozen profits, no adequate provision for inventory
losses, and the hazard to working capital rising with mounting
inventories, I submit the time has come to take stock of ability
of manufacturing to carry out that which is expected of it,
and at the same time to establish that what manufacturing
may do under war conditions is not necessarily a criterion
of what it can do in peacetime.
With this thought in mind, a short time ago I examined
the financial statement of a company reported on the financial
pages of one of our newspapers. I made no selection but took
the first financial report that came to my attention. The corn-
any in question is a private enterprise with current liabilities
running into millions of dollars, and, as I do not propose to
identify the company, for the purpose of this illustration I
have altered its figures to improve the relation of working
capital and surplus and the relation of inventories to current
liabilities. Subject to these alterations, which I repeat improve
the statement, all figures are related to current liabilities of
$1,000,000.
The position then is this: inventories amount to $700,000,
other current assets $400,000, making a total of $1,100,000,
from which we deduct current liabilities of $1,000,000 to
produce a working capital of $100,000, which is 10% of
current liabilities. Undistributed surplus, including the refundable portion of excess profits tax, amounts to  $40,000.
I make no mention of taxable income because what is
gone in taxes can afford no relief for inventory losses in subsequent tax periods.
Now, stop to consider the inventory hazard of this company, you will find that a loss of 6% in value will wipe out
all surplus, including the refundable portion of excess profits
tax, while a loss of 15% will wipe out all working capital.
It is quite apparent that the business in question is stretched
out to an extraordinary degree, but I should add that this
case does not reflect the usual trend of business in peacetime.
Nevertheless, here is a condition that exists today and one
that that will be found, no doubt in a lesser degree, in most
industries.
While the figures cited are not held out as indicating the
actual position of every corporation, the fact remains that
most companies are carrying larger inventory values and, by
reason of taxation, have not been able to increase their surplus
and reserves of their working capital commensurately with
increased inventories, and consequently, such companies have
increased the loss hazard to working capital. I believe it is
inevitable that many of them must take substantial inventory
losses.
And so, under the present tax structure, industry, not
being permitted to provide adequate reserves against inventory losses (which otherwise it would have done), must suffer
a loss to working capital, which, in turn, means it will provide
less employment. This loss of capital cannot be made good
by borrowing because the amount that may be borrowed is
measured by available capital.
22
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE This brings us to the proposition that, whereas our major
post-war problem will be the elimination of mass unemployment and it is inevitable that manufacturing will suffer losses
which will reduce its working capital and therefore its ability
to provide employment, it is right and proper, as well as being
in our best national interests, that manufacturing should be
permitted to make good such losses, out of profits earned by
It so that manufacturing, in turn, can provide the maximum
of employment.
As many of you know, very extensive alterations have
been made to plant and equipment in order to carry on production through the war years. Such changes are probably
most extensive in plants producing exclusively what may be
described as "war goods;" but the fact remains that changes
of a similar nature have been made to a lesser or greater degree
in other plants. These changes are due to a variety of reasons,
such as, alterations required to produce new products or different shapes or forms, and in many instances substitute materials are now being used which have necessitated such alterations.
It is not at all likely that all of these plants will be restored
to peacetime production within the period that the current
rates of profits are maintained and, as no charge is permitted
against income tax for purposes to provide for such restoration, it therefore follows that the cost for restoration must
operate to reduce the working capital of manufacturing in
the post-war period. The consequences of such reduced working capital are, of course, similar to those I have previously
mentioned.
Each day in every business a tremendous volume of detail
requires attention and recording, and many of our companies
employ clerical staffs running into hundreds of personnel who
devote the whole of their time to recording and assembling
such detail. As all people are fallible, it is inevitable that some
item of expense properly chargeable against the taxable profits
of a given period will not be taken up at the appropriate time.
This may be due to charges not being received in time to be
included with the closing of the accounts, and to losses that
have not been determined prior to such closing. Under the
present tax structure no charge is permitted against income
to provide for such contingencies, and the consequences of
the omission of such a provision are similar to those I have
already mentioned.
With nominal rates of taxation, these problems are not
material, but, when tax rates rise to current levels, they
attain foremost importance.
So long as production continues at present levels, inventory losses and the cost of reconverting manufacturing are
of no material consequence, but as soon as there is any substantial change in production, the problems mentioned become
important, and I would think that within a period of three
years of such change, the amount of inventory losses and cost
of restoration would be fully determined.
I do not suggest that manfacturing be recouped these
losses through Government subsidy, but I do submit that manufacturing should be allowed to make good such losses out of
the profits it has made. Consequently, the practical remedy
required is, in effect, to average profits and losses for, say three
consecutive years for the purpose of determining the tax payable upon income. This plan may be described in a number
of ways, but the principle remains the same. In effect, if an
industry has made profits in each of the preceding two years
and operate at a loss in the current year such industry should
be entitled to a refund of tax provided that such refund does
not exceed the amount of tax paid in the preceding two years;
and, whereas the highest bracket of the Excess Profits Tax
applies to earnings in excess of standard income, tax refund
should be made upon the amount by which the earnings fall
short of standard income—which, in principle, is similar to
a refund of taxation where a loss has occured.
Assume for a moment, that hostilities were to cease and
this proposed principle of taxation were to apply; if in the
succeding period—not exceeding three years—the industry
in question charged off against current income the cost of
restoring plant and equipment and the net income reflected
inventory losses, and it continued to earn not less than standard income, then, obviously, no tax refund could be claimed.
On the other hand, if such losses and charges resulted in an
income less than standard income and the company had paid
taxes in the maximum brackets in the two years preceding
the year of such loss, under such circumstances it would be
entitled to a refund of taxes paid in the highest brackets, the
amount depending upon the taxes paid in the preceding two
years in the highest tax bracket and the amount by which the
earnings for the year in question fall short of standard income.
In the case of a taxpayer who had never reached the maximum tax brackets, if he were to earn profits in the years succeeding the cessation of hostilities, obviously he would not
be entitled to a refund of tax. On the other hand, if such
taxpayer were to operate at a loss, taxes paid would be refunded
on the basis of average taxable income referred to above, but
the refund in no event would exceed the amount of taxes paid
in the preceding two years.
Those who are interested in pursuing this subject will
find that the principles I now propose are suported both in
Great Britain and the United States of America.
It is evident from the foregoing that capital is required
to provide necessary employment, and it is quite probable that
there will not be sufficient capital to meet all of our requirements; however, such capital as we have can be made to go
farther if supplimented by more credit; and so we come to the
responsibility of credit managers in our problem of Post-war
Reconstruction.
Now, I am going to suggest an abandonment of recognized principles in fixing credit terms. I know that too lenient terms may jeopardize the company you serve and so react
to the detriment of our national effort; but I do suggest, however, that, applying reasonable safeguards, you should endeavour to expand credits allowed, and this, in turn, will contribute toward the creation of additional employment. I
should also like to direct to your attention that further curtailment of credit will operate to the detriment of our national
interests in that it will prevent the creation of much-needed
employment.
This, of course, is not a problem requiring immediate action; in fact, such a change now would be in contravention
of the Government's policy in the direction of the war effort.
It is a problem that should be receiving your careful consideration so that you may be prepared to act immedately when it
is found that a labour surplus exists for which new employment should be created.
I have endeavoured this evening to place before you one
of the many problems confronting us in the post-war period.
Let me assure you there are many others, and many are more
complex than my submission to you tonight.
I should not like it to be thought that my remarks are
intended to be a condemnation of those now in public office
administering our affairs. If we can forget for a moment
party politics, then I think we must admit that, all things
considered, they have done a splendid job. My remarks tonight have been directed particularly toward taxation, and it
may be that these remarks would apply, at least indirectly,
to those charged with the responsibility of imposing and collecting taxes. Their duty during these times has been to collect
revenue and to collect all that they believe can be obtained
APRIL, 1944
2) properly: in this I think they have succeeded, and to date their
actions have done us no harm. My complaint is not with respect to the current results of such taxes but rather the ultimate consequences if no adequate change is made.
I hope that those who had the foresight which enabled
them to collect succesfully so much will be equally successful in putting into effect appropriate measures to correct those
faults in our tax structure that I have dealt with tonight, and
that such measures will be taken in adequate time.
In conclusion, I urge each and every one of you to take
and maintain a more active interest in national problems,
especially those falling within the caption of "Postwar Reconstruction."
Let us not revert again to the state of complacent wishful
thinking that led us to depend upon someone else to think
and act for us; that brought us war with all its loss of life
and happiness; and that encouraged us to follow false prophets
holding forth a life of ease and luxury with no pain or toil
and who, if we listen to them again, will lead us into a morass
of dissension, strife, discomfort and instability greater than
we have known in our lifetime. Such is not the means to the
end we all desire.
Keep always before you the fact good can only be achieved
by individual effort and hard work; that in Post-war Reconstruction there is more than enough work for honest men;
that a tremendous amount of work must be done if we are
to win the peace at home; and that we can and will succeed
if each and every one of us does his part in acquiring an
intelligent understanding of national issues and energetically
supports reliable leaders who are bound to implement proved
and honest measures that are clearly designed to better our
national welfare.
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OFFICE
The Alumni Association Office is in active operation at
the University in the Brock Memorial Building. Mrs. Shirley
Gross is in charge of the office and she would be very pleased
to hear from any alumni. We are particularly anxious to
receive letters of suggestion and criticism. This Association
can only prosper if the many graduates of the University will
take an active interest in the work being carried on by your
organization. By all means drop a line to Mrs. Gross or, if
you are on the campus, step into the Brock and see her. The
Association can be reached by telephone in Vancouver at
ALma 1231.
Dr. Sylvia
Thrupp
Receives
Guggenheim
fellowship
One of the University's most prominent graduates was
honoured recently by receipt of a John Simon Guggenheim
Memorial Foundation Fellowship for research in American
history and literature. This award is one of the most important in its field and is a high tribute to Dr. Thrupp's scholarship.
Dr. Thrupp graduated from the University in 1925, at
which time she led the history classes. She continued on at
U.B.C. to take her master's degree, again in the field of history. Later she did post-graduate work at the Institute of
Historical Research, an affiliate of the University of London.
The Social Science Research Council of the U.S.A., a
Rockefeller Trust project, awarded her a research fellowship
in 1933. Her next work was under the Carnegie Endowment
for International Peace and consisted of an intensive survey
of the American influence on Canadian arts and letters.
Of recent years Dr. Thrupp has been a member of the
faculty at U.B.C. in the Department of History. She has
always been a most popular lecturer and at the same time has
found occasion to continue research work in her chosen field.
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24
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE dVzw PROFESSIONAL FACULTIES
By JORDAN GUY, B.A.
The time has come and the moment is opportune for
establishment of additional professional faculties at the University.
During the war British Columbia has experience a remarkable expansion in industrial activity with the introduction in this Province of aircraft manufacture and shipbuilding,
to mention only two, which everyone seems to agree will be
maintained after the war as a permanent part of our Provincial economic fabric. With the prospect of a steel industry
not too remote, and with the development of additional hydroelectric power practically taken for granted, we can and
must anticipate a remarkable expension in this Province of all
forms of enterprise.
One result of this will be, of course, a substantial increase
in our population and in consequence a new demand and a
fresh opportunity for trained professional personnel.
At the moment those persons in this Province who desire
instruction in the fields of, say, law and medicine, of a kind
provided by other Canadian universities, are compelled to go
outside the Province for their professional education and at
some considerabl expense to themselves and to their families,
• this face of the fact that British Columbia is known to
be one of the more wealthy Provinces of the Dominion, and
well able to finance and maintain a university offering the
undergraduate competent instruction in two such obvious
spheres of professional activity.
We do not dispute the wisdom of the authorities in emphasizing the reasons for the priority accorded such departments as Agriculture and Pure and Applied Science. We are
fully aware of the character of our natural resources and of
the history of our early economic development which required
trained personnel for use in the scientific exploitation of our
mines, fisheries, fields and forests. But we do feel that the
policies laid down in the first instance, while valid when propounded, are too prone to be continued after the conditions
which gave them justification have changed and will continue
to change but at a significantly increased tempo.
We have in prospect after the war some form of national
health  insurance to be administered,  no doubt,  through  the
Provinces. A new perspective is about to be presented to those
of our young men and women who are contemplating the
profession of medicine as a career. British Columbia will have
to work out a policy with respect to its administration of a
health insurance scheme in accord with the peculiar conditions
which prevail in a Province possessing our topography, distribution of population, industrial concentration and diversified
natural resources. It should be obvious, therefore, that our
University must possess the facilities to provide proper up-to-
date medical training to take care of the need for skilled medical and nursing personnel which we know is going to arise
within the next few years. The establishment of a Faculty
of Medicine is imperative.
Why should it be necessary for those students who wish
to practice Law to go outside British Columbia to acquire
that theoretical foundation in the principles of the Common
Law which above all else give to our law its real meaning. In
the absence of a Faculty of Law at our University the majority of our students who desire to enter the profession and
who cannot afford to travel far afield to obtain the best instruction are compelled to accept the next best, which is far
from being an adequate substitute. - At the moment there is
no law school operating in the Province at all, the B. C. Law
Society having suspended the operation of the Vancouver Law
School for the duration. The danger to our Province in having to entrust the administration of law to inadequately
trained legal personnel should be obvious. We feel that the
establishment of a Faculty of Law should be given serious
consideration.
There are other fields for expansion which should be
explored by Senate, Board of Governors and the Department
of Education, as well as the revision of existing curricula in
some Faculties in line with present-day economic and cultural
trends. We have stressed the establishment of two new faculties on which we feel immediate action should be taken. Under
no circumstances must the policies governing the administration and growth of our University be allowed to lag far behind
the obvious social and technical requirements of the community. On the contrary, the University should anticipate
fundamental needs and trends and point the way.
LONGYEAR
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Longyear Blast Hole Diamond Drills.
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658 Hornby Street
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Vancouver, B. C.
APRIL, 1944
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1695 West 5th Avenue
Vancouver, B. C.
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ALumni
58L.
PeAAosialiti&l
By JANET WALKER, B.A.
Editor's Note: This is the second in a series of "personality"
articles on the various members of the Alumni Executive.
^*,v.„.
G. E. (TED) BAYNES
First Vice-President of the Alumni Executive.
Exploding the theory that shoemakers' wives go barefoot,
and doctors' wives die young, Ted Baynes, vice-president of
the Alumni Association, shows himself to be a real handy
man around the house, in spite of being a professional carpenter and industrial carpenter.
He also finds his carpentry training useful at his Cariboo
ranch, which is 20 miles from Ashcroft.
DREDGING . . .
HARBOR WORKS
CONTRACTORS TO
THE GOVERNMENT
British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co., Limited
W. G. McKENZIE
President
GENERAL CONTRACTORS
MArine 6451
540 HOWE STREET
VANCOUVER, B. C.
26
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE This ranching hobby of Ted's had its roots in the years
after he graduated as a civil engineer from U.B.C. in 1932.
Those were depression times, and he spent them surveying and
contracting in the Cariboo.
Once a hobby, this 2500-acre ranch of his is now a real
business, with 150 head of Hereford beef cattle, and some
purebred bulls.
The ranch is in the Bonaparte valley, and Maiden Creek
cuts "right across in front of the ranch house."
It is one of the oldest ranches in the interior. Ted estimates he spends about 20 per cent of his time there, and his
family usually spends the summer there.
Born in Vancouver, he attended Fairview school, and King
Edward High school. After two years there, he left to take
up carpentering, and took his matric at night school. He was
also a member of the carpenters' union.
After sessions as a truck driver, a worker in the Cariboo
Gold Quartz mine, surveyor in Northern B.C., and a contractor, he became a partner in the firm of Baynes & Horie
in Vancouver.
In 1940, he struck out on his own, under the name of
G. E. Baynes, industrial contractor.
"Sometimes we design and build factories, warehouses,
paving, and pipe work, and sometimes we just build them,"
he said, referring to his work.
At the university, he won his Big Block playing rugby in
the Big Four.
"Although I am a fraternity man," Ted comments, "I
don't believe in Greek letter organizations. Such groups
should be based on common athletic or club interests such as
the musical society, or outdoor clubs."
In the traditional "frosh draw" he drew the name of Jean
Cameron, Arts '32, and it proved the beginning of a college
romance.
They were married in 1934, and have three children,
Duncan, 7 (named after Ted's pal, Campbell Duncan, also a
famed alum, now teaching at Kitsilano High); Eleanor Ann,
4, and Margaret, 2.
Ted's other interests include the West Vancouver Town
Planning commission, of which he is a member.
Scoring the University of B. C. for catering to the
wealthier families and neglecting the poorer ones, Ted says
university education should be made available for everyone in
the Province.
"Student employment, housing accommodation—dormitories, or the present system of co-op houses—and more bursaries, are three of the university's prime needs," said Ted,
and he's spending a lot of his time working on those very
projects.
"In that way students from ranching and farming districts could attend, too," he said.
Ted's heart, although ostensibly all wrapped up in the
problems of building modern industrial plants, is really up in
the Cariboo hinterlands.
"I expect to retire to my ranch one of these days," he
hopes.
But the Alumni Association hopes he won't go too far
away. He's needed for the active interest he has in his Alma
Mater.
THE PLAYERS' CLUB ALUMNI OF THE
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
present
DISTANT POINT
By A. N. Afinogenev
Under the sponsorship of the B. C. Teachers' Federation.
LYRIC THEATRE
MAY 17, 18, 19, 20
Popular Matinee, May 20
Seats at Kelly's Prices: 75c, $1.00, $1.50
Manufacturers of
VALVES and FITTINGS
Brass, Iron and Steel
for
Corvettes, Frigates, Minesweepers,
and
Cargo Vessels
WEBB & GIFFORD LIMITED
222 Front Street
New Westminster, B. C.
Phone 1026
<&
0>
MArine 0751
HODGSON, KING & MARBLE
1401 MAIN STREET
VANCOUVER, B. C.
APRIL, 1944
27 dVzvj <zJ\£,cjl±tiatlon± of
PROKSSIOIML CDGinftRS
Registration as Professional Engineers entitled to practise
their profession in the Province, has been granted during 1944
to the following:—
Baker, Donald H— B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); Box 281, Sidney,
B.C.   Chemical.
Bartlett, E. L.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); Assistant Engineer, B.C.
Pulp & Paper Co., Port Alice, B.C.    Mechanical.
Brockington, H.—B.Sc. (Cardiff); Technical Adviser, Unemployment Insurance Commission, or 424 N. Ingleton Ave.,
Vancouver, B.C.   Mechanical.
Burgess, W. D.—B.Sc. (Alta.); M.C.I.M.; Mem.Am.Chem.
Soc; Assistant Superintendent, C. & F. Department, C. M.
& S. Co.. Ltd., Trail, B.C.    Chemical.
Chesser, A. M.—B.Sc. (Queen's); Assistant General Superintendent, C. & F. Department, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.   Chemical.
Clayton, G. E.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Mem.A.I.
M.E.; Box 3 51, Grand Forks, B.C.    Mining.
Colls, E. A. Geoffrey—M.C.I.M.; General Superintendent, C.
& F. Department, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C. Chemical.
Dirom, G. A.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Resident Engineer, Premier Gold Mining Co. Ltd., 909 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B.C.    Mining.
Private Exchange—MArine 4164-5-6
General
Construction Co., Ltd.
J. BOYD, President
ASPHALT AND CONCRETE PAVING
ROAD SPRAYING
DITCHING AND DYKING
PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTORS
GRANVILLE ISLAND
VANCOUVER, B.C.
Doyle, H.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Assistant Superintendent of Smoke Plants, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.    Chemical.
Elliott, P. M.—B.Sc. (N.S. Tech. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Assistant
Superintendent Outside Mills, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.    Metallurgical.
Fortier, F. A.—B.Sc. (McGill); M.C.I.M.; General Superintendent, Western Division, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.    Mining.
Gardiner, G. L.—B.A. (Dublin); Manager, Shellburn Refinery, Shell Oil Co. of B. C. Ltd., Box 69, Vancouver, B.C.
Chemical.
Giergerich, J. R.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Assistant
to General Superintendent, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Kimberley, B.C.    Mining.
Green, G. F.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.) ; Distribution Engineer,
B. C. Electric Railway Co. Ltd., Victoria, B.C.   Electrical.
Hannay, W. H.—Research Board, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.   Metallurgical.
Janes, J. N—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); B. C. Pulp & Paper Co.
Ltd., Port Alice, B.C.    Structural.
Miard, H. T.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.E.I.C; Senior Assistant Engineer, Department of Transport, Lethbridge, Alberta.    Civil.
McGonigle, F. A.—B.S. (Idaho); Mem.A.I.M.E.; Manager,
Kelowna Exploration Co. Ltd., Hedley, B.C.    Mining.
Mclntyre, P. F.—B.A.Sc. (Toronto); M.C.I.M.; Superintendent, Refining Department, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail,
B.C.    Metallurgical.
McKay, J. W.—Mechanical Designer, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd.,
Trail, B.C.    Structural.
McNaughton, R. R.—B.Sc. (McGill); M.C.I.M.; Chief
Metallurgist, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C. Metallurgical.
Potter, T. H.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); Field Engineer, Aluminum Co. of Canada Ltd., Arvida, Quebec.    Civil.
Ross, D. A. G.—Chief Draftsman & Designer, North Van
Ship Repairs, North Vancouver, B.C.    Mechanical.
"Schmidt, E. A.—B.A. Sc. (Brit. Col.); Royal Canadian Engineers.    Mining.
Snowball, A. F.—B.Sc. (Durham); C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Box
325, Rossland, B.C.    Metallurgical.
Teal, S. S.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.C.I.M.; Britannia Mining
& Smelting Co. Ltd., Britannia Beach, B.C.    Mining.
Trethewey, G. D.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); Jr.E.I.C; A.C.I.C;
Assoc.T.A.P.P.L; Assistant Plant Chemist, B. C. Pulp &
Paper Co. Ltd., Woodfibre, B.C.    Chemical.
Urquhart, A. M.—B.A.Sc. (Brit. Col.); Assistant Distribution Engineer, B. C. Electric Railway Co. Ltd., Victoria,
B.C.   Electrical.
Weldon, T. H.—M.Sc. (McGill); M.C.I.M.; Assistant Superintendent, Zinc Plant, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C.
Metallurgical.
Wetmore, D. S.—B.Sc. (McGill); Assistant Chief Metallurgist, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C.   Metallurgical.
Wollaston, F. O.—B.S. (Wash.); Assoc.A.I.E.E.; Superintendent, Transmission & Distribution, B. C. Electric Railway
Co. Ltd., Vancouver, B.C.    Electrical.
Wright, C. A. H.—B.Sc. (Brit. Col.); M.Sc. (McGill) ; Ph.D.
(London); M.C.I.M.; F.C.I.C; Mem.Am.Chem.Soc; Consulting Engineer, C. M. & S. Co. Ltd., Trail, B.C Chemical.
'On Active Service.
28
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE THE
UI1IVERSITV
1943-44
BOB WHITE,
President of the
Students' Council
Another wartime year has passed for the University, a
year of quiet but successful operation from the viewpoint of
the students. Fundamental throughout has been the emphasis
on the serious purposes of the war. The student body participated in many ways in the national effort. Realizing the
privilege that is theirs, the students sought to find ways to be
of assistance to their country.
The C.O.T.C. was more active than ever under Lt.-Col.
G. M. Shrum. The new armouries were in full operation all
year. For the first time the Navy had a unit in operation
under Lt. Commander Mcllroy. The Air Force Wing trained
under command of Squadron Leader J. Allan Harris.
The co-eds too were active with the Red Cross Corps
being established on the campus for the first time. Fifty girls
trained twice a week in such subjects as military precision.
Commandant Joyce Hallamore had Dr. Sylvia Thrupp as second in command. All women engaged in some form of compulsory war work, the majority finding employment in the
Red Cross groups making children's clothes, sweaters, and
bandages.
Socially the students held several affairs to raise funds for
war work. The War Aid Council held the Maple Leaf Dance
at the Brock in the fall. Later in the year a Hunk Henderson
Basketball Night was held by the International Student Service. In all the Council raised about $6000 during the year.
Thirteen hundred Red Cross waivers were signed and the Red
Cross Ball at the Commodore raised $2900, a thousand dollars
more than the previous year.
Social activities in general were well attended. A goodly
number of these were held in the Brock, although the closing
of the kitchen facilities there upset some plans for use of that
building. The Women's Undergraduate Society held a fashion
show in the fall and the Co-ed Dance, on the 29th of February, was a huge success. For the Homecoming graduates
the students staged a special Potlatch.
In athletics the year was a quiet one. An outstanding
U.B.C. triumph, however, occurred when the University sent
a team to the Western American Universities Cross Country
meet in Spokane and the B. C. boys took first, second, and
third places. No Canadian football was played, but soccer
was very active. At Homecoming the U.B.C. exponents of
the English game won the Rounsefell Cup.
The Pass System brought many attractions to the campus,
among them being Clement May, the R.C.A.F. Dance Orchestra, Elmore Philpott, Max Pirani, and Dyson Carter. The
Musical Society continued their Gilbert and Sullivan triumphs
with "Iolanthe" and the Players' Club did "Dover Road."
Both were financial successes. Club activity in general was
reduced but strong.
One of the most outstanding student endeavours in some
years was the Discussion on Religion and Life Conference held
at the Brock from January 15th to 19th. Four outstanding
personalities in the religious field were brought to the Campus.
These were Dr. George P. Gilmour, Chancellor of McMaster
University; Dr. Leslie G. Kilborn, of West China Union University; Dr. William P. Remington, Bishop of Eastern Oregon;
and Miss Gertrude Rutherford, Principal of the United Church
of Canada Training School for Women Leaders.
Prof. J. A. Irving acted as Chairman of the meeting. Between 600 and 800 persons attended each of the evening sessions and study groups were held during the day. The proceedings were mimeographed and widely distributed.
Two mock parliaments were held during the year. The
University sent a delegation of four to a conference of Western Canadian Universities in Edmonton. The Graduating
Class took a prominent part in the annual Cairn ceremony
when Barry Sleigh, President, presented a new plaque for the
cairn to commemorate the twenty-first anniversary of the
march from Fairview. Much work was done by the students
towards aiding in the establishment of a department of physical education on the campus.
(Continued on Page 34)
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APRIL, 1944
29 The Player's Club
By NORA GIBSON, B.A.
The Players' Club Alumni of the University of British
Columbia are hard at work at the moment with a major spring
production just ahead. This is the first public production in
two years. We have chosen a modern Russian play, "Distant
Point," bv the Soviet playwright, Afinogenev. It is to be
presented at the Lyric Theatre on May 17, 18. 19 and 20
under the sponsorship of the B. C. Teachers' Federation.
"Distant Point" is a play which offers many possibilities
for interesting characterization. It is a picture of Soviet
Russia just before the outbreak of the present war. Distant
Point is a tiny railway station on the Trans-Siberian Railway.
To it comes a General of the Special Far-Eastern Army whose
coach has broken down. His enforced stay has a profound
effect upon the lives of the simple people living ai: the station,
for his zest fol life and courageous philosophy give to each one
of them inspiration and a new vision. Laughter and gay songs
mingle with moments of tragedy to give a cross-section of
Soviet life.
This play is being produced by Dorothy Somerset, well
known throughout British Columbia for her work in the
theatre. She has produced many Players' Club successes on
the campus, among them being 'Caesar and Cleopatra,"
"Hedda Gabler" and "She Stoops to Conquer." Lacey Fisher,
this year's President of the Players' Club Alumni, has been the
moving spirit behind this venture, arranging for a sponsor,
and supervising the building of scenery as well as taking a
major part in the play. Others in the cast are: Bice Caple,
Mildred Caple, Elizabeth Jackson, Dick Harris, J. W. Shore,
Cyril Chave and Ted Speers of the Alumni. Jack Bowdery
and Sam Payne of the Vancouver Little Theatre and Johanne
Worsoe of Prince of Wales High School are guest players.
PHOTC    BY
ALFRED    KNIGHT
BICE CAPLE
PHOTO     BY    ALFRED
LACEY FISHER
"Distant Point" is being presented under the sponsorship
of the B. C. Teachers' Federation. The proceeds are to go
into a fund for the develpoment of Community Theatre in
British Columbia. This will be administered under the direction of the Alumni of the University of British Columbia and
the B. C. Teachers' Federation. An immediate Community
Theatre effort will be troop entertainment in British Columbia. As the U.B.C. Alumni have always been interested in
the past ir. helping the Players' Club Alumni in their efforts
at troop entertainment, we are sure they will turn out in force
to see this p!.ay and will tell their friends about it.
Last year, all the energies of the Club went towards performances for the troops. That highly entertaining comedy,
"The Man Who Came to Dinner," was presented more than
twenty times for the enjoyment of the Armed Forces. Performances were given in town at the John Goss Studio and
the cast abo toured to Army and Air Force camps on Vancouver Island and the Mainland. This winter we kept up our
troop ente-tainment and gave play-readings of one-act plays,
such as that thriller, "A Night at an Inn," at some of the
camps and recreation centres.
The Cub went into training in earnest in the Fall. Bice
Caple helped to organize the "Players' Workshop" for members
who wantul to develop their dramatic talent. Classes in mime
were given by Dorothy Somerset and classes in make-up by
Vivian Ramsay. Both were well attended and, as well as
learning a great deal, the members greatly enjoyed working
together ii these classes. The fruits of their labours were
displayed it a "Workshop Party" at the home of F. G. C.
Wood early in December. The mime class entertained with
some original mimes, other members read a one-act drama
and everyone joined in playing "Slogans," so that all had a
chance to act.
A play-reading group is also active in the Club. Informal
Sunday evening meetings have been held all winter at the
home of R. C. Harris, where plays such as "Blithe Spirit" and
"The Little Foxes" were read aloud. These meetings are still
continuing and any members of the Players' Club Alumni who
are interested will be very welcome. They will be notified of
the next play-reading if they will get in touch with Mrs. R.
C. Harris.
30
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Ilew President of the University
Editor's Note: The following extract is taken from
the April issue of "The Advocate," magazine of the
Vancouver Bar Association. Coming as it does from
the publication of one of the larger professional groups
in this area, it provides a most interesting example of
the reaction to Dr. MacKenzie's appointment.
The appointment of Norman Archibald MacRae MacKenzie, B.A., LL.B., LL.M., F.R.S.C, K.C, to the Presidency
of the University of British Columbia in succession to Dr.
Leonard S. Klinck, retired, is of more than passing interest to
the legal profession of this province.
A Bachelor of Arts and of Laws of Dalhousie University,
a Master of Laws of Harvard, Dr. MacKenzie went to Cambridge for post graduate studies. It was while studying in
England that he became fascinated with the possibilities of
service in the field of international relations, to the study of
which he brought a youthful and vigorous idealism.   Accord-
% $. factor
fflnnfitntcttmt (Jo. ^Stu.
E. R. TAYLOR, President
• ■ •
ROAD AND STREET PAVING
•      ■      •
71st AVENUE and HUDSON STREET
Phone LAngara 0411
VANCOUVER, B. C.
ingly, he accepted the post of legal adviser to the International
Labour Office at Geneva (one of the really useful creations of
the League of Nations) where he served from 1925 to 1927.
Although as an undergraduate at Dalhousie he was laying
the foundations for the profession of law, his service at
Geneva in large measure determined his career. Casting about
for one learned in the Law of Nations, the University of
Toronto called the young Canadian to its faculty and for
some years he was Professor of Public and International Law.
His outstanding success at Toronto made it inevitable that, in
common with so many other Maritimers, his role should be
cast in the realm of Higher Education. From Toronto, Dr.
MacKenzie was called to the Presidency of the University of
New Brunswick whence he comes to Vancouver.
Prominent in athletics and in every phase of student activity, "Larry" MacKenzie (for by this sobriquet he is known
to his intimates) from the beginning of his school days made
friends galore; his capacity to do so has never deserted him.
His warm-hearted humanity, however, has served only to
quicken a strong sense of justice which has made him eminently fitted to discharge his responsibilities as a University
head. He is a capable administrator and is possessed of a
business acumen which is perhaps not unrelated to his Highland ancestry. He served with distinction in the first World
War having been awarded the Military Medal and Bar and the
1915 Star.
One of His Majesty's Counsel, learned in the law, Dr.
MacKenzie has never lost interest in his first love. He has
contributed much to legal periodicals, mostly on phases of
International Law. His place on the editorial committee of
the University of Toronto Law Journal is evidence also of his
sustained interest in the whole field of Jurisprudence.
Champion & White Ltd.
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APRIL, 1944
31 The Wartime Bureau of Technical Personel
monthly Bulletin
University Science Students Regulations.
During March, the Navy and the Army, in co-operation
with the Bureau, completed selection of members of the graduating class of 1944 for training as technical officers, and
notification as to those selected was sent to the universities
concerned for transmission to the individual students.
The next step was to post in all universities and accredited
list of civilian employers with whom those students not selected for technical appointments might negotiate.
The number of students selected by the Armed Forces for
their immediate needs was approximately 400. The recorded
requirements of essential civilian activities were more than
sufficient to absorb remaining students.    But, of course, the
Headquarters for
HARDWOODS
FOR ALL PURPOSES
Stocks available at our Vancouver warehouses.
•
LUMBER
PANELS
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MArine 2564
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Vancouver, B. C.
actual placement of each individual in the most effective
capacity will involve a certain amount of active exploration
by both students and prospective employers. Technical persons are employed, in most cases, with the obect of eventually
filling key positions in tjhe planning and direction of the work
of numbers of other employees. It is therefore natural that
their engagement should be the subject of more consideration
than is necessary in the case of some other classes of labour.
In this connection, personal inetrviews are practically indispensable, and suitable opportunities have to be made either by
the student or the employer.
The third and final list of openings available for science
undergraduates for summer employment was prepared and
sent out to the universities and to the Employment Service
(for distribution to the local offices concerned). The total
number of such openings is now approximately 4,000.
Demand for Technical Personnel.
It would appear from watching routine Bureau operations
that there still remains a lack of understanding in various
quarters with respect to needs for technical personnel, and
with respect to the most effective solution of this problem.
In the first place, the Navy, Army and Air Force, in seeking
applicants for appointments in their technical branches, have
always been able to fill their needs from the large group of
technical persons constantly seeking acceptance for such
duties.
In considering the position of younger engineers and scientists at present in civilian employment, there is an inclination
to overlook the fact that the time required to train replacements includes not only the period necessary to become familiar with a particular plant or project involved, but also a
minimum of four years of university training. There is, of
course, a limit to the number of such people available in the
country, and at no time during this war has the available
supply even approached the current demand.
Another factor which affects this situation is the almost
complete absence of women from the field of engineering.
In recent years, the number of female graduates in all branches
of engineering, and in many branches of pure science, has
been practically negligible. In these fields, therefore, there is
no possibility of replacing any appreciable percentage of men
by women.
Most people have, at best, an incomplete realization of the
broad spheres of activity in which technical persons are normally used. While it is true that a substantial proportion are
engaged in direct war production activities, probably the majority are not employed in projects normally associated in the
minds of the public with the country's munitions programme.
About one-third of all our technical personnel are employed
by utilities (railways, power, communications, etc.) or by
other types of essential services having to do with such things
FAirmont 0327 - 0328
Al Aluminum Foundry, Ltd.
Manufacturers of
A 1 MAJOR SAWDUST BURNERS
^^22 AIRCRAFT AND INDUSTRIAL ALUMINUM CASTINGS
5 WEST SECOND AVENUE VANCOUVER, B. C.
'flfe
32
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE as public health. Another third are employed in basic activities which, while not necessarily fulfilling direct contracts for
munitions of war, nevertheless must be maintained. Activities under this heading include the whole field of agriculture,
forest products, mines, fisheries, etc.
Therefore, when decision is taken to decrease output in
one of the many programmes of direct war production, even
if the curtailment is drastic, the effect on the general ratio of
supply and demand for technical persons is not nearly so widespread as might be assumed from an incomplete knowledge of
all factors involved.
Liaison with the Armed Forces.
Mention was made in the Bureau's January, 1944, report
of the staff requirements of the new Directorate of Operational Research in the Army. Several candidates for appointments in this Directorate have now been selected—a number
of them as a result of references by the Bureau.
During this month, an inquiry was received from the
Navy for electrical engineers with industrial experience, of
which a number are required for immediate entry and others
are to be held in reserve for subsequent needs. A search of
the Bureau's records made possible the immediate reference of
some eighty prospects to the Navy and appointments for some
of these have already gone through.
These and other projects were additional to the work done
by Selection Boards which visited the universities and which
had to do almost entirely with graduates of the class of 1944.
However, advantage was taken of the presence of the Selection Boards to interview a considerable number of graduates
of previous years who could be conveniently reached at university centres.
SUMNER IRON WORKS DESIGNS
NEW VALVE
Loss of steam and air in the operation of engines, cylinders
and numerous operating devices in sawmill, shingle mills and
pulp mills has always been a worry to the mill operator, and
has naturally been of special interest to the Engineering Department of the Canadian Sumner Iron Works, whose machinery is installed and operating in so many mills in this
Province.
Realizing that loose fitting valve plugs and weak springs
in the operation of steam cylinders around the mill represent
loss of steam, slow operation of cylinders and low efficiency,
has resulted in the Sumner engineers designing a new type
cylinder valve which, after a series of practical tests, has
proved to stay tight after continuous operation and this new
valve recently introduced and now in operation in a number
of mills in the Province is known as the Sumner "Staytite"
Valve.
Among the features of this valve, illustrated elsewhere in
this magazine, are, first, a renewable liner; this liner, manufactured of special alloy cast iron and carefully machined to
accommodate the port openings, provides that if after years
of service adjustments are necessary, a new liner could be
supplied at a relatively low cost, instead of fitting an entirely
new valve. The second feature is that of a rust-resisting steel
valve plug, designed so it is allowed to float on the valve team
—a very desirable feature—recognized by Engineers using this
type of equipment. The third feature is the very simple
device for controlling the volume of steam admission to the
valve and, automatically, the speed of the piston which is variable by the fitting of choker screws. These adjust the speed
of the cylinder by simply moving the screws as required. The
fourth feature is a relatively new departure and that is, supplying a specially designed type of ring on the valve plug.
This is very similar to the automotive type and is so designed
to seal the pressure and this feature certainly does maintain
valve tightness.
These features comprised in this new Valve aggregately
gives it an efficiency of operation, plus the relative economy
in steam of air, which will certainly be recognized and appreciated by all who use such equipment.
Wallaces "Neman Limited
Head Office and Factory
TORONTO
Chlorine and Ammonia Control Apparatus
for
Water Sterilization
Sewage Disinfection
Swimming Pool Protection
Industrial Uses
British Columbia Representative:
SHANAHAN'S LIMITED
Vancouver
British Ropes Canadian Factory Ltd*
Index of Quality
GRANVILLE ISLAND
MANUFACTURERS OF
ALL DESCRIPTIONS OF WIRE ROPES
•
Plant Established in 1919.   Serves Leading B. C. Industries.
Phene MArine 4454
VANCOUVER, B. C.
APRIL, 1944
3) THE OniVERSITV, 1943-44
(Continued from Page 29)
This being the year of Dr. Klinck's retirement as President
of the University, the Students' Council sponsored a testimonial dinner to Dr. Klinck. Members of former Councils
were invited to the dinner and the President was presented
with a gold gavel symbolic of his honorary presidency of the
Council.
From the point of view of student government the year
was characterized by a great reduction in overhead. Under
leadership of President Bob White, the student officers took
over many of the technical aspects of university student business themselves and made substantial reductions in operating
costs. A successful attempt was made by Treasurer Don
Ross to make most functions pay for themselves. Council
Policy was directed towards building up a reserve for increased post-war activity. The stage equipment in particular
is now outmoded and will have to be replaced as soon as possible. The Council initiated a new scheme of general accident
insurance covering all students on the campus and thereby
fulfilled a long standing need at the University.    Publicity
P. D.  MURPHY
D. D.  CHISHOLM
,T. CONNORS DIAMOND DRILLING
COMPANY LIMITED
744 W. Hastings Street       -       Vancouver, B. C.
Diamond Drill Contractors
PAcific 5953
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AND
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PETTER DIESEL ENGINES
WHEAT ELECTRIC MINER'S LAMPS
A. G. ZquipmetU Ca. Jltd.
Head Office
351 Howe Street
Vancovuer, B.C.
Warebouiet
Granville Island
J 06   Industrial  St.
releases were largely controlled by Ubyssey representatives and
were directed into the most advantageous channels.
Students' Council for the year consisted of: President,
Bob White; Treasurer, Don Ross; Secretary, Helen Welch;
Women's Undergraduate Society, Phyllis Bishop; Women's
Athletics, Lois Reid; L.S.E., Murdo MacKenzie; Men's Undergraduate Society, Harry Curran; Men's Athletics, Harry
Franklin; Junior Member, Richard Bibbs.
From an Alumni point of view, the year was characterized
by most cordial relations between the Council and the Alumni
Executive. Members of each group were interchanged at
many meetings and the result was a very much better understanding of each other's problems. This co-operation would
appear to assure the future good feeling between the two
groups.
Cement Gun
Technician
Joins Local
firm
Mr. Ove Gotzsche has joined the staff of Keyes Construction as Cement Gun Technician and will be pleased to meet
Architects and Company Engineers interested in Cement
Gun construction work and give them the benefit of his
advice and experience.
Mr. Gotzsche was born in Sweden, and is a graduate mechanical engineer from a Denmark University.
After three years' experience in the United States as a mill
designer and maintenance engineer, he served with the U. S.
Army in the Great War. Subsequently he joined the Cement
Gun Co. of Allantown, Pa., in the capacity of sales engineer.
He was foreign representative for this Company in the Orient,
and later organized his own company with headquarters in
Tokio, Japan.
Contracts for Cement Gun work in Japan,, Korea and
Manchuria were cancelled because of unsettled political conditions, and Mr. Gotzsche joined the British forces and was
stationed in Burma until 1942.
KEYES CONSTRUCTION
GENERAL CONTRACTORS AND ENGINEERS
SPECIALIZING IN CEMENT GUN WORK OF ALL TYPES
TUNNEL DRIVING AND ROCK EXCAVATION OF ALL KINDS
Offices and Warehouses at 250-260 Industrial Avenue
Telephone MArine 4621 VANCOUVER, B. C.
J4
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE • Free Enterprise •
The Opportunity and Obligation to Compete
By JAMES H. McGRAW, Jr.
President, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc.
We can be prosperous beyond our dreams—all of us—
workers, farmers, and business men—but one of the prerequisites is the self-discipline of accepting competition for ourselves as well as others.
Free enterprise does not imply the freedom to use any or
all means to make a profit. It does not mean the right to
monopolize. It means the opportunity and obligation to
compete.
Competition requires independence of action, free access
to the market, and no large degree of control over the price
by any buyer or seller. In general, the larger the number of
sellers and the more easily buyers can shift from one seller to
another, the higher will be the degree of competition (and
vice versa for buyers).
But let us not get too academic or go off the deep end.
We cannot have perfect competition. We cannot subdivide
businesses and labor unions into tiny units to make a multitude of buyers and sellers in each market; we cannot reduce
our rich variety of products to a few rigidly standardized
items; we cannot educate people to judge quality precisely;
we cannot eliminate the costs of bridging space between buyers and sellers. On the other hand, have we gone as far as is
practical and desirable in these directions?
We cannot even have a system of highly "sensitive"
prices, that is, prices which fluctuate immediately in response
to every minor change in demand and supply. This would
occur in the dream world of competition-to-the-wth-degree.
It cannot occur in the real world, or even in the ideal world
of competition best suited to physical facts and human qualities. The economies of large-scale enterprise, the need for
adapting products to human wants, the costs of transportation and the costs of issuing and acquiring market information
put severe limits on price sensitivity.
Economists tell us that if prices were extremely sensitive,
business booms and depressions would be much less severe—
provided our stock of money remained fairly constant. But
with the somewhat limited degree of sensitivity which is practicable in the economy, price and wage changes cannot prevent severe declines in business activity.   We cannot count on
competition alone to cure depressions. We must look mainly
to other kinds of measures to prevent mass unemployment of
men and machines.
If we cannot have prices which fluctuate with every small
change in demand and supply conditions, we can work toward
—and achieve, if we really want it—a system in which prices
and wages are at least roughly responsive to long-run changes
in demand and supply, a system in which most markets are
not dominated by individual businesses, groups of businesses,
labor unions, or farm organizations, and in which prices are
maintained at levels consistent with free access to markets
and to jobs.
In any kind of an economic system there must be some
means of determining prices, wages, and profits, and of bringing labor and capital into employment in the industry and
place where they are most needed. There are two ways to do
this: by administrative fiat or by the impersonal processes
of the market. The first of these is typical of the totalitarian
state; it frequently involves destruction of individual freedom or fumbling mismanagement. During the war all of us
have had some experiencee with patronizing and paternalistic
treatment by the state; we have found out what it means
to be pushed around by bureaucrats; and we have discovered
that the political determination of prices, wages, and profits
leads to chaos when self-interest supersedes the fine fever of
patriotism—as it eventually does. I do not mean to imply
that we can do without controls over prices, production, and
distribution in time of war; but I do suggest that we can learn
something from their operation. Even with a united national
purpose these controls work badly when human abilities
are inadequate for the superhuman task, when personal or
departmental   jealousies   crop   up   among   officials,   and  when
Announcement
Precision Instrument Co.
are now located in their
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You are cordially invited
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Same Phone Number:
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C. P. FOSTER & COMPANY LTD.
DEPENDABLE DRAWING MATERIALS
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ENGINEERS' INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES
STEEL  TAPES CROSS  SECTION  PAPERS
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ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT
LIMITED
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128 5 Homer Street
Vancouver, B. C.
■
POWER PLANT DESIGN
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APRIL, 1944
35 pressure groups try to prey on the rest of the public. Every
day more Americans are beginning to understand why our
forefathers feared the caprice and tyranny of power.
The impersonal processes of the market in determining
prices and wages and in allocating productive resources will,
in normal times, save us from the fumbling of bureaucrats
and from the Babel of confusion, uncertainty and annoyance
produced by their regulations. But these market processes
will not save us from paying toll to those who monopolize
and restrict entry to markets or jobs.
If we want an economy in which we are free to try out
new ideas, develop new products, and introduce more efficient
methods of production, if we want an economy in which
there are great opportunities for men of imagination, inventiveness and energy, if we want an economy wide open to
progress, then we must have a free field and fair competition
for all comers—without collusion as to prices, markets, or
production. This is the only basis on which we have a right
to demand freedom from governmental regulation for ourselves and on which we can combat monopolistic tendencies
in other quarters.
Let us stand squarely for the principles of the anti-trust
laws and against all collusion and combination in restraint of
trade. Let us insist that the government review with a critical
eye every combination and consolidation which might restrict
competition. Let us face frankly the problems of economic
power arising out of price leadership and encourage every
honest effort to find means to deal with them. Let us not
shrink from questions as to whether some great aggregation
of plants are too large for efficiency, free entry into the industry, and a free price. While we resist the efforts of the Department of Justice to extend the anti-trust laws by farfetched and distorted interpretation, and while we fight every
attempt to use them as a tool of prosecution, let us cooperate
in sincere efforts to modernize these laws and extend them by
specific legislation to monopolistic practices they cannot now
reach. I do not have a simple formula for this, but I believe
we must try to find one.
R.H.SHEPHERD
NEW  INSTRUMENTS  AND  REPAIRS
SWITCHBOARD INSTRUMENTS
TEMPERATURE CONTROL INSTRUMENTS
MEGGERS WATT HOUR METERS, ETC.
TONG TEST INSTRUMENTS
MArine 93 51
1200 HOMER STREET VANCOUVER, B.C.
We can then better face the problem of the growing
monopoly in labor which is threatening to make the free
enterprise system unworkable. Today labor is going through
a stage of empire building reminiscent in some ways of a
similar stage in business three-quarters of a century ago. Witness the same buccaneering spirit, the same concentration on
selfish interests, and the same disregard for the public welfare.
Business leaders learned the hard way that the public will
eventually rise up against those who prey upon them. Will
our labor leaders be wiser? The right to collective bargaining
to protect the weak position of the individual employee is
one thing—but the grant of unlimited monopoly privilege to
combine into a private government which can dictate its own
terms to businesses, industries, communities, and even to the
government itself, and which can start a wage-spiral such as
to hinder the war effort and make full prosperity impossible
in time of peace is something quite different. We need to find
a middle way which will prevent employers from exploiting
employees but which does not sow the dragon's teeth. The
exercise of arbitrary power by labor threatens not only business, but also all workers outside the unions and all those
dependent on pensions and savings for their existence, and
ultimately, of course, the well being of union workers themselves.
The idea that the labor problem can be solved if great,
powerful organizations of employers will sit down with great,
powerful organizations of labor is a delusion. If our experience in the N.R.A. and in the war teaches us anything, it is
that the best that can be expected in the long run from
such a situation is an armed truce with intermittent civil war.
And every truce would be a monopolistic arrangement to take
advantage of those not members of the great organized
groups. Business and labor unions, whenever confronted with
postwar readjustments that are unfavorable to them will be
sorely tempted to protect their own special interests at the
expense of the public. There will be efforts on the part of
business, abetted by labor unions, to limit productive capacity,
to raise tariffs, to obtain subsidies, and to maintain prices at
artificially high levels. The unions will oppose labor saving
changes and will seek higher wages even in areas and industries
of surplus labor. Already demands are emerging for direct
joint action by business, labor and agriculture to solve the
transition problems of special concern to them. While these
groups should have every opportunity to register their own
self-interest, we cannot entrust our fate to decisions made by
pressure groups. If experience is any guide, such coalitions
will be almost certain to restrict opportunities for progress
and expansion, to exploit the public, and ultimately to injure
even the businesses, workers, and farmers included in them.
We cannot afford a postwar N.R.A. Resort to temporary
government regulation in the transition from war to peace
may, however, be necessary in cases of greit hardship.
We can be prosperous beyond our dreams—all of us—
workers, farmers, and business men—but one of the prerequisites is the self-discipline of accepting competition for ourselves as well as others.
COAST CONSTRUCTION CO.
LIMITED
—      ENGINEERS and GENERAL CONTRACTORS      —
STANDARD BANK BUILDING
VANCOUVER, B. C.
i
36
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE tssaE^KH
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MODEL "L" 8 H.P. POWER SAW
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At the time this edger was built at
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and is still going strong. ->-
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modern HEAPS edger gives faster —
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thought   possible   a   few   years   ago. In Time of War... Prepare for Peace
•lust how soon or how suddenly this war will
end is anyone's guess. Just how long or how
short the road to Victory will be no one can
foretell. But one thing is as sure as sunrise — we
cannot begin too early to plan for the post-war
world! Long before the ink is dry on the treaties
of peace, we must be ready to deal with problems of peace . . . for peace depends upon more
than paper. Peace depends upon human contentment. Peace depends upon every man and woman
being free to live fully and to live usefully.
Let us face up to it, now. There must be no
fruitless searching for employment in thiscountry
in the years that follow Victory. There must
be no wanton wastage of human material and
initiative. There must be a place in our national
scheme of things for every willing man and
woman. There must be work, worthy work and
gainful work, for every person who seeks it.
There must be. And there can be.
For look at the mighty possibilities of this
great country of ours. Look at the things that
need doing—and the means that lie at our hands
to do them. Look at the need for better homes—
for healthier homes, for lovelier homes . . . Look
at the need for worthier towns—for planned,
convenient towns, without ugliness, without
slums. Look at the need for railroad development
—for modernized rolling stock, for widespread
electrification. Look at the great bridges that
should be built—the cloverleafs that could make
road travel swifter and freer from danger. Look
how the benefits of electricity might be spread
to remote farms and hamlets . . .
And that isn't half the story. In every home,
in every factory and store and warehouse and
theatre there will be modernization and improvement to be made. New extension and refurnishing . . . new furniture . . . new equipment
. . . new machines . . . new elevators. In every
field of transportation there will be work to do
. . . new automobiles to be built . . . new trucks
and tractors . . . new street cars, new buses, new
planes. In every civic centre there will be the need
for new recreational and entertainment facilities ... new parks and arenas, new theatres, new
swimming pools. In every town and city finer
and worthier cultural centres and health centres
will be required ... enlarged universities, schools,
libraries, hospitals, laboratories and clinics.
There is no need to ask where post-war work
shall be found. But every one of us now should be
studying how this work shall be done. We should
be studying the changes and improvements we
mean to make in our homes . . . the re-planning
and expansion of our factories . .. the re-fitting
and remodelling of our stores and offices, of our
restaurants and theatres . . . the needs of our
communities — planning better housing, better
streets, better lighting, better civic centres and
cultural centres, better parks, better transportation, better hospitalization. While there must
not be the slightest relaxation of our all-out
efforts to win the war — we must plan and we
must start.planning now.
Many governmental, municipal and industrial
groups already are planning. Many individuals
are planning. But more planning is needed; more
is possible. Don't think this doesn't concern you.
It does. Whether you're a home-maker, a plant
operator, a farmer or a storekeeper or a civic
leader — start figuring for the future, and start
now! For by planning today, we prepare ready-
made markets for tomorrow—markets which will
absorb our fullest productive effort and thus
create full and gainful employment for everyone.
^Campbell & Smith Ltd., Effective Printing

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