UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The Graduate Chronicle 1944-03

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 HI fl RC W, 1944
Due to War conditions, and by courtesy of the Alumni Association of the
University of British Columbia, the field of present and post-war engineering problems previously covered by THE BLUEPRINT, will henceforward be incorporated in THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE. This Publication will circulate to and have the support of both the Alumni Association   and   the British   Columbia   Engineering Society.
M.M. and Bar, B.A., LL.B.  (Dalhousie), LL.M., Harvard,
LL.D. (Mount Allison and New Brunswick), K.C, F.R.S.C. SUMNER DESIGN STEERING ENGINE
Used on Corvettes, Minesweepers and Cargo Ships
For Mill, Mine
Marine Work
Canadian Sumner Iron Works Ltd.
3 5 50 East Broadway Vancouver, B. C.
UP-GRADING lumber with GLUE
There's Profit in Your Scrap Vile
Those planks vou were going to relegate to the scrap-pile because they
were too short—scarf joint them into merchantable lumber. Edge-
joint your narrow boards  into marketable wide ones!
LAUCKS WATERPROOF GLUES can make tight, water-proof joints
that prove stronger than wood itself.
If interested in up-grading lumber, in getting profits from your scrap
pile—call in Laucks Glue Engineers and let's get working on the
I. F. LAUCKS ltd
Scarf   Jointing   with   Laux.
Edge   Jointing   with   Laux *me-r*.-
* i#1&*
V    H>
'-i 'is
IN the Battle of Production your equipment has been subjected to gruelling
punishment and one of today's urgent steps in preparing for PEACE and the
tasks of RECONSTRUCTION ... is a complete and searching survey of all your
Tools of Production.
You may need some entirely NEW machines adapted to new POST-WAR
products. Or new models as straight replacements of war-worn machinery.
Fairbanks-Morse Diesel Engines will bring sweeping savings and new efficiency to many new users in the Post-War era. In our files is a wealth of data
on their lower operating costs and greater dependability. It is information of
great interest to executives concerned with Post-Wair planning.
While the wartime Battle of Production still rages, priorities will continue
in force to varying degrees. Placing orders for needed equipment NOW, however,
may enable you to beat the gun in the Post-War race for old and new markets.
New and improved models in
the Tools of Production will be
available    as    soon    as    war
restrictions are lifted. Inquiries invited:
Fairbanks • Morse
When you install a DE WALT you get a
complete woodworking shop in one machine
USE A DE WALT for . .
ANGLE DADOING                   PLOUGHING                   RABBETING
ROUTING                BORING
Also  Metal  Cutting Machines  for wet  or  dry  cutting,  with  abrasive  wheel or  metal  cutting  saw  blade.
Write   for   descriptive   circulars   from   Dominion   of   Canada   representatives:
Future - Thinking
Neither sea water, sewage
or swamp water can affect
This Asphalt coated product has all the qualities
of standard corrugated pipe — great strength,
ease of handling and installing—plus extra years
of service, built into this pipe by a full bituminous coating firmly bonded to the base metal.
Asbestos Bonded Coated Pipe is manufactured in our Granville Island plant. It will pay you well to
keep it in mind for post-war projects, even though you may not be able to get it for immediate construction on non-priority  jobs.
The Canada Ingot Iron Company Limited
Granville Island — VANCOUVER — Phone MArine 4927
Published by the Alumni Association of
the University of British Columbia
MARCH, 1944
Editor: Darrell T. Braidwood, M.A., Barrister at Law
Associate Editor: A. D. Creer, M.E.I.C., M.Inst.C.E.
Business Manager: W. E. G. Macdonald
By S. G. BLAYLOCK, b.sc, m.k.i.m., m.inst.m.m.,
By DONALD A. C. McGILL, b.a.
Minister of Public Works.
By W. SUTCLIFFE, m.i.e.e.
RELIGION AND LIFE              26
Editorial Office: Bminess office.
Alumni Assn. Office,
16-555  Howe Street
Brock Bldg.,
University of B. C. Vancouver, B. C.
Published at Vancouver, British Columbia.
MARCH, 1944
solve your power
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• No counter shafts, bevel gears or friction drives
needed. The unit is complete in itself and installed  by  merely  bolting  down.
• Maintenance time and cost reduced to a minimum   through   elimination   of  shafts,   belts,   etc.
• Lower  initial   cost.
• There's a Sterling SLO-SPEED for every application.
for  further  information,
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Machinery Co. Ltd.
806 Beach Avenue Vancouver, B. C.
PAcific 5461 Progressive Winches and Windlasses
Ready for Shipments to Our Merchant Fleet
For every
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6x6 Steam Anchor Windlasses for Canadian and
British Minesweepers.
8x9'4 Steam Anchor
Windlasses for Sinffle-
screw Corvettes.
9x10 Steam Anchor Windlasses for Frigates.
7k 10 Steam Carg-o Winches
for Merchant Marine.
10%xl2 steam Heavy
Duty Carg-o Winches
for Merchant Marine.
360 WEST FIRST AVENUE        -        VANCOUVER, B. C.
The Progressive Engineering Works Limited is a local company, owned and operated by Vancouver citizens.
Sizes:   Vz" to  12"
•   High Insulating Efficiency.
•   Light Weight.
•   Not Affected by Moisture.
•   Easy to Apply.
f.DREXELco. ltd!
Telephone  HAstings   5241-2
\What Drex Sells Excels
We Inspect, Test and
analyze all articles of
We design mixes for
Quality Concrete.
Mill Inspection.
Steel, Cast Iron,
Treated Timber, etc.
Complete mill tests on
Inspecting  and  Testing
.  .  . What of the Future
An Address delivered to Rossland Junior Board of
Trade at Rossland, B.C., by
B.SC,   M.E.I.M.,  M.INST.M.M.,   HON.   MEM.   A.I.M.E.
Chairman and President,
The  Consolidated Mining  and Smelting  Company
of Canada, Limited
Mr. Chairman, members of the Rossland Junior Board of
Trade, employees of The Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company, ladies and gentlemen within range of my voice
who may be listening to the radio tonight.
I wish to thank the Rossland Junior Board of Trade for
their invitation to talk to them tonight. I also wish to
express my sincere appreciation to them for affording me this
opportunity, through the facilities of radio station CJAT, to
talk to so many of our employees and residents of the many
communities of the immediate area. The inability to keep
personal contact with our large and increasing force is one
of the penalties of our extraordinary growth.
There are many things I wish to discuss with all of you
and I must ask your indulgence if my remarks may seem a
little lengthy. My first desire is to build up in your minds
the same respect and love for our Company that I have, and
the same pride in its achievements. These could only have
been brought about in one way and that is by all of us giving
of our best. I am inordinately proud of these achievements
and most resentful when anyone tries to belittle them.
Together, with the financial assistance of the shareholders,
and with the backing of a patient, far-sighted and courageous
Board of Directors, we have built up an industry which is
recognized as tops the world over. We have attained this
reputation not only through the growth of our industry but
also by having kept it in the highest category of sound
finance. We are given credit as being bold operators willing
to undertake grave risks where these risks appear to have some
justification, and for the resource, brains and courage to carry
these undertakings through until they become successful enterprises.
I wish to give you a brief outline of our industrial
The Trail plant was conceived and initiated by Mr. F.
A. Heinze in 1895 to smelt the gold-copper ores of the Rossland mines. Heinze sold out to the Canadian Pacific Railway
in 1898 after difficulties with the Rossland miners culminating
in the decision of the directors of the Le Roi mine to build
the spielter at Northport, Wash. The C.P.R. was perhaps
more interested in the railway charters owned by Heinze than
in the smelter. However, it decided to give the smelter a
chance and placed Mr. W. H. Aldridge in charge. The
smelter was operated as the Canadian Smelting Works, i
straight subsidiary of the C.P.R., until 1906.
Its life was precarious. Its supply of ore depended on
the whims of the shippers. A lead smelter was added in 1900
and a lead refinery in 1902. We never knew when we would
have sufficient ore to run the plant.    The various Rossland
mines were over-capitalized and over-staffed to such an extent that they were unprofitable. In 1906 Mr. Aldridge
succeeded in getting the Centre Star, the War Eagle, the St.
Eugene and the Richmond Eureka mines to join the smelter
to form the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Company—the
shareholders of each to receive their proportionate number of
shares in the new company. This gave the C.P.R. somewhat
less than a one-third interest in the undertaking.
Conditions improved with the cutting down of the overhead of four operations into one. Furthermore, under the
new set-up, the mines and smelter could be conducted to
much better advantage. Nevertheless the entire operation
was run on an extremely close margin. In 1912 the LeRoi
Mining Company was purchased by the CM. & S. Company.
Some idea of the difficulties of this early operation can
be gathered from the fact that although over $100,000,000
worth of metal was recovered from the Rossland ore, less
than $2,000,000 in profits were made. Most of this was
made by the C. M. & S. Co., which put back approximately
three-quarters of a million dollars looking for more ore before
quitting. By 1909 the St. Eugene mine at Moyie, B.C., was
practically worked out and no lead ore tonnage was in sight
to take its place.
We examined the Sullivan mine at Kimberley, a property
which had become more or less abandoned in East Kootenay.
We realized that this property offered a metallurgical problem
rather than a mining problem, and that it would probably
take millions of dollars in research to solve it. Undaunted,
the C. M. & S. Co. took a lease and bond on the property and
set to work. It was at this stage that Sir Edward Beatty and
the C.P.R. came to our assistance and helped to secure the
money which had to flow like water. Development gave
encouragement from the start, but millions and millions of
dollars had to be provided.
The electrolytic zinc process had to be and was developed
(the first in the world). The successful selective flotation of
lead, zinc and iron sulphides had to be and was worked out
(also the first in the world). With the selective flotation and
the electrolytic zinc processes developed there could be no
further question regarding the worth of the Sullivan mine.
Concentrators, power plants and zinc plants were built and
our energies were eventually directed towards the recovery of
sulphur, some 300 tons of which were being wasted daily.
This problem was also solved at Trail, and again we had
developed the first successful process of its kind. By 1929 it
was decided to enter the chemical and fertilizer field with this
sulphur as a base. Millions more dollars were spent and Trail
became, potentially, one of the big chemical plants of the
MARCH, 1944 Experience in World War I taught us the value of being
self-contained as far as possible. Consequently shops and
foundry were brought up to a high state of efficiency with
the result that, at the threat of World War II, we were able
to volunteer to the Dominion Government to build and
operate plans for war purposes, and to supply large tonnages
of ammonia (the most important chemical in the manufacture
of explosives) while new British, American and Canadian
plants were being constructed and brought into operation. We
loaned an ammonia expert to the United Kingdom to complete
an ammonia plant which was under construction for them by
the Germans when the war broke out. We built several large
and expensive chemical plants for the United Kingdom and
Dominion Governments and operated them, on completion,
with our own trained staffs without making any charge for
our services or processes. We trained scores of men in the
manufacture of these chemicals so that they could operate
other plants for the Canadian and American governments.
In addition, we supplied many technically trained men to the
Government—in fact 23 in one day. Many of the plants
built and staffed by our company are among the most efficient
in operation today. The new plants with which we were
identified were put into operation in almost every case within
the estimated time.
In mechanical fields the story is similar, though, of
course, on a much smaller scale. Soon after war broke out,
we offered our shop facilities to the Government. In the
early days of the war, apparently due to our location, we were
more or less overlooked. In due course, however, the Government sent some experts to Trail and it was suggested and we
were asked if we could build marine engines. I asked our
mechanics if they were prepared to do so and found them not
only willing but anxious. We received an order for six of
these engines. I am proud to say the last of them left the
shops six weeks ahead of time. If, during this construction
work, your husband or sweetheart did not show up until late
at night, and perhaps when he did get home was tired and
cross—and told you he was working at the plant—he probably
was. I know of a few husbands who put in a very large proportion of their own time voluntarily on this work, though
many of them could not get paid for overtime. Those men
deserve the fullest credit and respect. I am sure that everyone who had a finger in this job swelled with just pride as
he saw the last of these engines, with their magnificent finish
and the C. M. & S. Company name plate on their sides, roll
out on their long journey to eastern ports where they were to
go into war craft. I know I did. We later received congratulations from the Admiralty and were told that these
engines were among the very best they had received.
The shops did many other very important things, including the casting of the big steel speed rings for the Brilliant
Power plant when we could not get them made in time in
the United States, or Canada.
Other war jobs included the development of a process to
make powdered magnesium, the result of which was that we
were able to sell to the Government for less than one-half
the price they were paying for an inferior product.
The capacity of our lead and zinc plants was increased.
The main part of our output was sold to the United Kingdom
at prices less than any five-year average in the history of these
metals. These prices are resulting in a saving to the United
Kingdom of $22,000,000 a year as compared with what they
would have had to pay for the same metal in the United
States, if this metal could have been supplied from that source.
I think most of you realize now that this metal could not
have been obtained in the United States at any price, as
America was also short and bought a great deal of metal
from us.
Our Company located and equipped a mercury mine
shortly after the outbreak of war. Today this property alone
could supply the Empire's needs. As Spain and Italy were
two big factors in mercury production before the war, you
can judge the importance of that. We also discovered and
equipped a tungsten mine as a war measure. A tin recovery
process was developed and installed at Kimberley and several
hundred tons of high quality tin have been added to the
Allies' meagre supply.
The C. M. & S. Company has not only developed an
industry outstanding in industrial achievement but it has
established a friendship between the management and the
workmen which, I believe, is its greatest accomplishment.
This has been done as a result of the earnest co-operation of
both men and management and I am sure has been a large
contributing factor in the development of this fine Company.
Our workmen enjoy a standard of living which, in many
ways, cannot be equaled anywhere in Canada. Our wages
are unquestionably the highest paid in any similar industry in
this Dominion. On top of that we have a free pension system,
free insurance, excellent medical and hospital services, an
excellent housing scheme which enables a man to buy a home
for its rental cost, probably the greatest job security in existence, and many perquisites of great value—always accompanied by the fact that each and every employee is considered
a human being and an integral part of the organization.
Turning now to national service in the Navy, Army and
the Air Force, we also have a great source of pride and satisfaction in that well over 2,000 of our fellow employees are
serving their country in His Majesty's Forces.
This, my good friends, is our heritage. Do you not feel
a glow of justifiable pride in having contributed to the building up of this great Company? As for myself, I feel not
only pride but a sense of humility on realizing how much this
success is due to others. In the foregoing recitation, I have
not mentioned that wonderful corps of engineers, executives and staff to whose efforts most of these developments
are due. I don't believe there is such an aggregation anywhere else in the world and, while they are unique in ability,
they are even more so in their good fellowship and human
qualities. In fact "loyalty" is the only word with which I
can express my appreciation of the whole organization. 1
wish to make this public recognition of it and to thank you
all for it.
Now, I want to pass on to you some other thoughts.
For years I have been obsessed by two desires: The first
has been the desire to make The C. M. & S. Company of Canada Limited the finest company on earth. I believe you will
agree that this has been accomplished. The other has been to
leave an industrial relations set-up behind me when I go that
would be absolutely sound, fair and fool-proof. Had the war
not overtaken us, that also would have been accomplished.
We planned to establish a straight profit-sharing scheme based
on the men receiving a fair cost-of-living wage as a first
charge on the Company's earnings, the cost of living of capital to be a second charge, the balance to be distributed and
to be paid proportionately to the men and the shareholders on
a fair basis. You would then have been full partners in the
enterprise and your endeavours would have been fully reflected in your pay check. By the time I had this figured out
and had the authority to inaugurate it, the war had arrived
and war metal bonuses shot up to a point where the men
would have had to take a temporary cut in wages. It was
therefore decided to postpone making the change until such
a time as it would result in an increase rather than a decrease
in wages. I still have hopes that we may be able to make this
change before I am through. As I shall be 65 next month, we
shall have to hurry.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE I know that this type of agreement does not appeal to the
International unions, but I still hope to get it established. If
we do I can't foresee anything that might create any real
trouble. Perhaps this scheme might not fit into an operation
which was having trouble to make both ends meet, but I feel
that, in a prosperous company, the men should share in the
prosperity. Perhaps this is unorthodox; however, I have never
been orthodox and I cannot discern any possible objection to
such a scheme either from the point of view of the men or of
the shareholders. It might make the organizers' road a little
harder. I must be honest and admit that that is one of the
least of my worries!
In listing our achievements, I omitted to mention the
research work in industrial hygiene done by the Company
which has practically abolished any fear of lead poisoning.
We had passed through a period of 20 months without a single
lead case and have had only one case in the last two years.
This work is outstanding. Other research work is continuing.
Contrary to statements you have heard, this Company
has always assisted in efforts to enact good Workmen's Compensation legislation. As late as a year ago it paid the wages
and expenses of your representatives to go to the Coast in this
connection. One look at the personnel of that delegation
would certainly give the lie to statements that we sent Company "yes" men with instructions what they were to do.
For years I felt that my duties ended with overseeing our
Company's operations and our industrial relations. Recently,
watching the encroachment of taxation on Company earnings, and seeing the statements defaming the Consolidated
Company and all its works by union organizers, I have become
doubtful. I am now convinced that it is my duty to show
our men the dangers of our employees being torn by dissension,
and the pitfalls if the Government should decide to nationalize
We have already seen signs that certain departments of
the Government feel, if they leave a china nest-egg in the nest,
industry will keep on producing the eggs and never know the
difference. I would respectfully say that as long as our Country needs our war effort she will get it 100 percent and the
Government in power will get our support. But I would
advise those in authority not to count on industry's inabiltiy
to see the china nest-egg. I think industry generally sees it
a long way off.
The greatest present danger I see to our organization is
that the politicians may decide to nationalize industries in
Canada. I don't care what the party in power called itself,
in my opinion such action would not have to go very far
before it completely wrecked our country. There are some
who point to certain war projects, operated by industry for
the Government, as proof that nationalization is possible and
laudable. These include the nest-egg type of operations which
will not work except in a national emergency.
This old world will not work satisfactorily without the
profit incentive. I think it is safe to say that there is not a
man in 100,000 who will do his best unless there is something
tangible for the extra effort. The same principle applies to
companies. The "pinks" and "reds" call to high heaven in
righteous indignation at the high salaries paid certain industrial leaders. Undoubtedly I am one of the damned. Yet
companies rarely pay higher salaries than they know other
companies would be only too willing to pay to get their men.
I doubt if there is a really high-salaried man in Canadian
industry who has not frequently been offered more money to
take another job. The difference between efficient management and inefficient is often far greater than the difference
between profit and loss. The difference between the value of
the Sullivan mine, before its research problems were worked
out, and after, is more than 100 times greater than all the
salaries paid to all the men who had a part in solving the
metallurgical  problem.     Do  you   think,  then,   that   any  of
these men was overpaid?
So much for the high salaried man. The case of the
average men is much more important. Even a horse must
know there is hay in the offing if he is to be kept working.
Any farmer knows a horse must have hay and he also knows
that he won't work his best without oats.
In my opinion, state ownership is foreordained to inefficient operation. We certainly have enough examples to prove
it. Every advocate of state ownership and every aspirant for
public office offering the bait of state ownership says: "Yes,
but those people were not efficient, or not properlyr qualified
to control or manage such work." Shades of Ramsay MacDonald!    Look at the men who are talking today!
I know that we are largely to blame for the "pink"
shades in our schools, our universities and even our churches.
We are slowly starving the staffs of these institutions to
death. If we wish our youth to get sane teaching, guidance
and instruction, we should pay the teachers a decent living
wage in order that they shall not see the world through
smudged glasses. It is hard to expect a man to feel fair and
just towards a world which treats him so unfairly. When a
college professor sees a labourer in a war industry drawing a
far bigger wage than he gets, or a comparatively untrained
man drawing several times his salary as a contractor or operator, you can hardly blame him for seeing "red," and believing
that the whole system is wrong, and that, if he could only
succeed in upsetting the present system, he would find himself
on top. What puzzles me is how he thinks he could stay
there. I believe the first real storm would blow him overboard!
To be more precise I will mention an individual who has
aired his views rather conspicuously. This man happens to be
an executive of the C.C.F. but his views would be just as
dangerous if held by a leading Liberal or Conservative. I
think there are many guilty of just as "screwy" thinking in
each of the parties. The man to whom I want to refer is
Frank Scott, co-author of "Make This Your Canada."
Scott states that industry failed the country when the
war started. Think of that statement after what I have told
you about our industry tonight. There are many other industries not far behind us. I have been astonished at what Canadian industry has accomplished. Scott goes on to say that
the Government had to steal C.C.F. thunder, so to speak, and
create new state industries. He is not content with that
charge, serious or comic, according to your viewpoint, but he
goes on to accuse the Government of turning these new industries over to the established industries to operate instead of
operating them itself, or perhaps turning them over to men
like himself. Does he think that men can be taught to construct and operate these intricate plants overnight?
Again, he states that the shareholders of the C.P.R. do
not own the railway, and proceeds to prove it by citing the
fact that a shareholders of the C.P.R. cannot ride its trains
without paying his fare or have a suite in the Royal York
at no charge. He advocates taking over the C.P.R. forthwith,
and its subsidiaries (that's us) also. He doesn't say whether
we, when as citizens and taxpayers we own the C.P.R., will be
permitted to ride free. My personal taxes are fairly high but
I pay for any trips I make on the Canadian National Railway.
Mr. Scott is going to pick approximately $5,000,000,000
per year—apparently out of thin air or by operation of a
printing press—to run the country. Remember, when there
are no profits there can be no taxes! He is going to turn the
wheels of industry when he thinks it desirable, whether it pays
or not, and is not neglecting greatly extended social service
legislation. He is going to cut the taxes on all receiving less
than $3,000 a year (this group now pays almost $500,000,000
taxes per year).
MARCH, 1944 His book is full of equally crazy statements. I only
mention them to show you the half-baked stuff that some of
our would-be reformers are advocating today.
Now I want to get you thinking for yourself. I make
the statement that we definitely cannot run Canada on a state
ownership basis without a drastic cut in wages and standard
of living. Please try and follow me for the next few minutes
and I think you will then do some thinking for yourselves,
and if you do, I am sure you will fight for the retention of
free enterprise and the profit incentive just as hard as I—
probably much harder, for I am near the end of my active
career and therefore not as much concerned personally as
you younger people.
First of all, keep right in front of your eyes Fact One:
That Canada must export a very large part of her production
to live—"The Consolidated, B. C. and the prairies probably
Second: These exports must be sold on foreign markets.
Third: Canada has at least the second highest standard
of living and wage scales in the world.
If you average the whole population of the United
States, it might even be the highest.
Fourth: To date the United States has kept Canadian
export under pretty close control by tariff restrictions.
Fifth: To sell our products we must be able to produce
at the price at which the purchaser will buy.
Sixth: The above has been demonstrated time and again.
Our wheat pool could not force the sale of wheat to Europe
at high prices. It merely made Europe put back its ears and
refuse to buy our wheat, forcing our price down to 50c a
Seventh: To sell we must produce cheaply. To produce
cheaply at a high wage scale we must keep high production
On the basis of these seven facts I think you will readily
conclude that we must be stimulated by the necessity for
maximum production by the most efficient and economical
methods if our nation is to retain its place. We must always
be careful that we maintain our high standard of living and
that the measure of security for which we all strive shall be
something more than rationed poverty. I contend that to
retain high efficiency and to maintain and improve our standard of living we must avoid Government operation or socialization of enterprise.
If our efficiency goes down, our costs will go up. Our
present margin of profit is under 6%. A very slight drop in
efficiency would wipe that out. I would expect that the drop
would be many times 6%. Remember a drop of 3 3 1/3% in
efficiency would increase costs 50%.
Within the last month I talked to the president of a very
large American company. He had been on a business exploration trip to South America. He had visited many factories—
one a razor blade factory in Brazil—an excellent plant run
under an American foreman and native labour. The foreman
told him his labour was fully equal to American; wages were
from 6c to 12c an hour. The same wages were paid in the
enormous meat packing plants. He could see great difficulty
in trying to export to those countries.
The inefficiency of Government operation in Canada was
clearly shown in the Duff Commission report on the railway
situation. Nine years after the inauguration of Government
ownership the cost of branch lines on the National railway
had risen to $51,000 per mile, while the same cost on the
C.P.R. had dropped to $30,000—a differential of 70%. With
regard to hotels, the C.P.R. had $7,000,000 profit, while the
National railway had lost $2,000,000, yet the men of the
National were anxious to do the best they could and were far
from incompetents!
During the last war England nationalized her coal mines.
The output per man dropped 30%. When these mines were
returned to the owners the output was increased 70%. In fairness it must be said that in this case the result was of course
mixed up with wartime work and therefore could not be
argued as normal.
Our Government, then, would have to subsidize our industry. To do so they would have to print money. The
European countries which tried it found it wouldn't work—
they hadn't enough zeros in Germany to print a $10 bill.
Experiments in the "isms" to date have wound up with reduced standards of living and wages, followed by unrest or
even revolution, followed in turn by dictatorships and deferred promises of future advantages to come, such as the
people's automobile for the German. In almost every case the
ordinary populace have been reduced to vassals cowed by military police.
It is not a bit of use saying "This is Canada. It can't
happen here." One would have thought the same of the
happy Italian population, of the French peoples with all their
culture, and of the Germans who seemed to embody the spirit
of practicabiltiy and industry.
It is perhaps too soon to understand the Russian experiment, but this we know: They are making a remarkable fight;
they have put up with inconceivable standards of living to
provide for their war machine. I understand that even before
Lenin died they had returned to differential wage scales and
that they are now inviting free enterprise to operate again in
I do not want to convey the idea that I think we have
attained perfection or that we have not lots wrong with our
Governments or our industrial system. I do want, however,
to caution against scrapping our present system, which after
all has given us a sure and rapid advance in our standard of
living in the last forty years, and in this I know whereof I
speak. I started work in Trail 45 years ago on August 1st
next at $2.00 a day—11-hour day shift, 13-hour night shift.
Then we had no autos, no trucks, no cranes. Horses, mules
and humans were our only motive power. We had no picture
shows, no radio. We had one phone circuit in the plant and
not even a phonograph in town. It is perhaps well to ponder
these things, for much of the world still lags behind that.
Unquestionably let us try to improve, but let us start from
where we are now and not take the chance of losing what we
have, and our freedom with it.
You will want to know as much as I can tell you of our
plans for the future. Our Company is working in conjunction with others in the Province to do research work with a
view to providing additional employment after the war and
also to protect free enterprise.
Probably you are more concerned with The Consolidated
Company's own plans in the immediate post-war period. Unless we are taken over by the state, we believe we can take
care of all our men now in His Majesty's service when they
return, placing them as nearly as possible where they would
have been had they remained at home. At present our gold
mines are all shut down. We have many men at work who
are, or should be, superannuated and some boys under age as
well as married women whose husbands have jobs. We therefore do not anticipate much trouble in finding sufficient work
to take care of our force especially as we have quite a lot of
outside work we can do, such as housing, etc., to help the
employment situation when that happy day arrives.
We fully realize our responsibility in this but I object
strenuously to the statement that industry must be responsible for all employment. Over 60% of industry's profits are
taken for direct taxes, company and individual. This was far
from the situation when the last war started.    I submit that
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE the Government must share this responsibility if it continues
this high rate of taxation.
In the United Kingdom, where we probably have the
strongest and best posted labor party in the world, they have
repeatedly turned down socialization of industry and voted to
retain free enterprise.
Stephen Leacock says Socialism would only work in
Heaven, where they don't need it, or Hell, where they have it
This does not mean that there is never a case for nationalization. There is. But it does mean that the decision should
not be taken without careful consideration of the merits of
the case. And if public management is to be at all successful,
it must be provided with its own system of incentives. Without an appropriate system of rewards for enterprise and penalties for failure, public management would almost certainly
have disappointing results. In no country has this need been
as fully realized as in Russia. I would ask you, then, to study
this whole question with your eyes and ears open, and make
your own decision, realizing the importance of that decision.
If any of you wish to ask any questions, I will answer
them if I can, to the best of my ability. You should discuss
these questions with your fellows, not in the heat of argument but in the full seriousness the occasion requires. We
are all in the same boat and if the country is set back the
nation will go back, not just the few. The road back to
recovery in Italy, France and Germany seems to be almost
hopeless.   It might be the same here.
Why it is that, although we have the highest standard of
living we have ever had, with our Trail employees receiving
an average of over $600 a year more than in 1939, with our
knowledge that Canada has equalled and surpassed anything
anyone hoped for in her war effort, with the certain knowledge that the time of war has turned in our favor, we are
not a satisfied and happy people? This I can answer easily.
We have listened ourselves into a defeatist attitude. We have
listened to a lot of propaganda issued by the apostles of gloom.
We have undoubtedly listened to some of this stuff from fifth
columnists and, unfortunately, some of it from others who
are merely biased, discouraged and thwarted men who, instead
of looking themselves over to discover the source of failure,
•find it so much more comfortable to lay the blame on anything and everything and everyone else except themselves.
They would even destroy their country rather than admit
their failure. Don't forget that, wittingly or unwittingly,
discord can only bring advantage to Hitler. Many have let
these things destroy their faith in God, their country, their
leaders, their industries, their fellows and even themselves.
Our remedy is simple. Snap out of our lethargy. Weigh
the things that are good on the same scales as the things that
are bad. Refuse to lie or listen to lies. Get back our faith in
God. We will soon see that our country is magnificent. In
spite of the many mistakes that have been made we will see
that, by and large, our Governments have been successful,
our industries and workmen have been superb, and, most important of all, we will regain complete faith in ourselves.
This can all be done overnight and the sun of contentment
and happiness will shine through any smoke screen our enemies
can manufacture.
In the readjustment period we will have to face many
difficulties, but if we face them as a united nation we can and
will work them out. I cannot think of Canada and failure at
the same time. While we will have difficulties and lots of
them, I have faith that, if we keep our heads, we will see as
much advance in the next ten years as in any ten years in history.
May I conclude by quoting the introductory" paragraph
of an article by Rotarian T. A. Warren, C.B.E., in "Rotary
Service," the official organ of Rotary in the British Isles.  Mr.
Warren is an eminent educationalist of 40 years standing and
I earnestly commend his thought to you:
"Our optimists believe that one short march beyond Berlin will bring us Utopia; that milk and honey will then flow
from some mysterious planning or from Acts of Parliament.
I rejoice in my own belief that they are wrong. I seek security
and the precious freedoms for my fellows all across the world;
and will strive and struggle for them. But we were created
to live by effort, and I believe the valley of ease emerges at
national decadence.    History abundantly backs me in this."
Edison's Dream
February 11 commemorated the 97th birthday of Thomas
A. Edison, one of the greatest of Americans and the supreme
inventive genius of the industrial age. The staggering list of
his inventions compels us to realize the extent of his contribution to the United States and to the world, not merely in
our own days, but for all time to come. Already he has,
through the disciplined activity of his ideas, produced billions
of dollars of new wealth.
Much more important than the new material wealth
which his inventions have brought forth are the new paths
in the pursuit of humman happiness indicated by them. He
sought the secrets of nature and devised the means to exploit
these secrets in order that they might be applied for the betterment of man. What seemed even more important than
genius was his extraordinary capacity for unflagging hard
work, which led him to "scorn delights and live laborious
days." He refused to accept at any time the idea of defeat
and regarded the failure of an experiment as merely an incitement to further effort. He believed with the poet that "we
fall to rise, are baffled to fight better."
His life and example give us courage to make a better
world, to turn our increasing control over nature away from
the works of destruction into the labor of creation, away from
ugliness into the development of beauty. We learn the secrets
of swiftness, power, and light, utilizing unseen forces hitherto
hostile and deadly, to make life not merely safer and easier
but also more complete.   That was his imaginative dream.
Excerpt from Edison broadcast, February  11,  1944, by Charles Seymour, President, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Vancouver, Canada
office of the president March 9, 1944.
Bruce A. Robinson, Esq.,
President, Alumni Association,
The University of British Columbia,
1106 Homer Street
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Mr. Robinson:
The Board of Governors at the meeting on January 31st
appointed Norman Archibald MacRae MacKenzie, M.M. and
Bar, B.A., LL.B. (Dalhousie), LL.M. (Harvard), LL.D.
(Mount Allison and New Brunswick), K.C, F.R.S.C, as
President of the University of British Columbia to succeed
President L. S. Klinck as from July 1st, 1944.
Yours very truly,
Bruce A.  Robinson, B.A., B.A.Sc. '36
First Vice-President
G. E.  (Ted) Baynes, B.A.Sc. '32
Records Secretary
Miss Margaret Morrison, B.A.  '27
Members at Large
Campbell Duncan, B.A. '27
R. D. J. Guy. B.A. '31, Barrister-at-law
Wm. Thomson, B.A. '28
Chairman. Publications Committee
Darren T. Braidwood, M.A. '40,
r>2"> Seymour Street
Vancouver. B. C.
Second Vice-President
Miss Mary Fallis, B.A. '32
Miss Pat Kenmuir, B.A. '39
997 Dunsmuir Street
Assistant Secretary
Miss Mary Mulvin, B.S.A. '43
Mrs.  Shirley Gross, B.A. '42
Students' Council Offices,
University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B. C.
Third Vice-President
J.  C.  Berry,  B.S.A.  '27,  M.S.A.  '37,
Ph.D., '39   (Iowa State)
P. R. Brissenden, B.A. '31,
Graduating- Class
W. R.  Smith, B.A.Sc. '43
Alma Mater Society
Dick Bibbs, '45
Social Service Alumni Club
Miss Margaret Johnson,  B.A. '29
Officers — Members of Council — Board of Examiners
President ....H. C. Anderson,  M.E.I.C.,  B.C.L.S.—Civil
Vice-President..P. M. Knapp, B.S.F., M.S.F., Mem.C.S.F.E.—Forest
Past President W. H. Hill, B.S.A., M.S.A.—Chemical
C.  B.  Alexander, B.Sc. in C.E.,  M.E.I.C, Civil
T.  H.  Crosby, B.A.Sc,  Mem.A.I.E.E., Electrical
F. A. Forward, B.A.Sc, M.C.I.M., Mem.A.I.M.E., Metallurgical
A.   Lighthall,  B.Sc,  B.C.L.S.,  Civil
G. C. Lipsey, B.A.Sc, M.C.I.M., Mem.A.I.M.E., Mining
A. IT. Robertson, Mechanical
W.   O.   C.   Scott,  M.A.Sc,  M.E.I.C,   Mem.A.S.M.E.,   Mechanical
L.  B.   Stacey,  B.A.Sc,  Mem.A.I.E.E., Electrical
A.   D.  Creer,   M.E.I.C,   M.lnst.C.E.
Vancouver Island—P. B. Freeland (Chairman), E. Davis, F. D.
Mulholland, H. E. Stevens, J. F. "Walker.
Central B. C.—C. Varcoe   (Chairman), W. Ramsay.
Northern B. C.—J. J. little (Chairman), F. N. Good, W. L. Stamford.
Eastern B. C.—-E. Smith (Chairman), H. D. Dawson, H. S. Fowler,
F. S. Peters, A. C Ridgers, W. J. Tindale, R. Pollard (Hon.
Okanag-an-Similkameen—A. G. Pearson (Chairman), A. S. Duck-
ett, W. R. Lindsay.
H. J. MacLeod, M.A., M.Sc. Ph.D.,
M.E.I.C, Mem.A.I.E.E.
Chemical Branch:
\V.  F.  Seyer,  B.A., M.Sc, Ph.D.
G.  S.  Eldridge, B.Sc, M.C.I.M.
Civil Branch:
F.  A. Wilkin, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S.
Randolph M. Martin
John  Davidson, B.C.L.S.
Electrical Branch:
H   J.   MacLeod.   M.A.,  M.Sc,  Ph.D.,
M.E.I.C, Mem.A.I.E.E.
R. A.  Story, B.A.Sc.
J.   H.   Steede,   B.A.Sc,  Assoc.A.I.E.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
C.  A.  K.  Cornwall,  M.Sc.
H.   Ritchie,  R.M.C
Members of the Board
Forest Branch:
P. L. Lyford, B.S.A., Mem.C.S.F.E.
M. W. Gormely, B.A.Sc, Mem.C.S.F.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
H. H. Baxter,  Mem.C.S.F.E.
F.  D.  Mulholland,  Mem.C.S.F.E.,
Mechanical Branch:
W.  O.  Richmond, B.A.Sc,   M.S..
H.   P.  Archibald,  B.A.Sc,  M.E.I.C,
W.  N.  Kelly,  M.E.I.C.
H.  M.   Mcllroy,  M.Sc.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
Bernard Dunell,  A.C.G.I.,
F. W. Vernon. B.Sc.Eng.. Wh.Sch.,    •
A.M.I.Mech.E., A.F.R.A.S.
H. B. Muckleston, R.M.C,
Mining Branch:
T.  B. Freeland,  M.C.I.M.
R. J.  Spry,  B.A.Sc,  M.C.I.M.,
M. Y. Williams, B.Sc, Ph.D.,  F.G.S.A.,
F.R.S.C, M.C.I.M.
C. O. Swanson, M.A.Sc, Ph.D.,
M.C.I.M.,  Mem.A.I.M.E.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
J. M.  Turnbull, B.A.Sc, M.C.I.M.
M. M. O'Brien, B.Sc, M.C.I.M.,
Structural Branch:
A. Pearson, B.Sc, Assoc.M.Inst.CE.
P. B.  Stroyan. B.A.Sc, M.E.I.C.
R. A. McLachlan,  S.B.
With reference in an advisory capacity to
C.  T.   Hamilton,  B.A.Sc,  M.E.I.C.,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
J.  R. Grant, B.Sc, M.E.I.C,
U. B. C.
Editor's Note: In February the Board of Governors announced the appointment of Dr. Norman
Mackenzie as next President of the University of
British Columbia. The Graduate Chronicle wishes
to extent its congratulations to Dr. Mackenzie and
we trust that he will have every success in his new
post. In order that all graduates may obtain a
clearer picture of our new President, we are printing
herewith, by permission, an editorial appearing in the
Vancouver Sun on February 12th, 1944.
Dr. Norman Archibald MacKenzie, K.C, has been chosen
new president of the University of British Columbia. He is
a well-known Maritimer, bred in the hardy blue-nosed community of our Atlantic seaboard. He is also a well-rounded
Canadian with a broad understanding of the whole Dominion
and its people. With all his qualifications as an educationalist
he will bring to our university, above all, a sense of Canada
and a fine, vigorous Canadianism.
The Sun recently presented to its readers an advice to
appoint Dr. George Weir to the office of president of our
university on the ground that he had added to his splendid
academic qualifications a special experience useful in the field
of student post-war rehabilitation. But the news from
Fredericton yesterday is that the Selection Committee has
decided in favor of a younger man, one to whom U.B.C. will
be completely virgin territory.
For Dr. MacKenzie it may be said that he does not in the
least belong to the old-fashioned or sheltered tradition of
pedagogy. He has had the advantage of a world-wide experience. Just out of school, he went to the last war in the
ranks and, like his Scottish forebears, was a lusty fighting
man. On his return to Canada he completed his education,
made himself one of the leading constitutional lawyers of the
nation. There followed the years of his apprenticeship as a
college professor, and finally the University of New Brunswick had the good sense to make him its principal. In the
idyllic town of Fredericton he has led in developing the university into one of the outstanding of the smaller educational
institutions of Eastern Canada.
He was much more to the Maritimes than a university
man. He quickly became the guide, philosopher and friend
of leaders of every kind. Not only students but teachers,
politicians and businessmen sought his counsel and were not
disappointed. It is said that he fitted completely into the life
of the Maritimes, a lean, hard life for most of their people, a
life born out of the tradition of the U. E. Loyalists, out of
long toil in the forests and on the stern fishing coast.
Dr. MacKenzie was never a party politician. With all
parties and all groups he was at home and no one seems to
know to this day how he votes. This proper political Catholicism in a man of his responsibilities did not prevent him
becoming one of Canada's keenest students of public affairs,
which he can discuss with equal facility among the statesmen of Ottawa and on the rail fences of New Brunswick.
To him the vision of Canada as a nation, the vision of
tis history, its resources and its mighty future come with
peculiar clarity, which he is able to interpret in words clear
to the ordinary man. It is this quality which should make
him in his new post, a powerful force not only for the good
of British Columbia but for the country as a whole.
A home-spun man, with no vestige of "side" about him,
a human sort with a fine understanding of people, of industry,
of agriculture and all the varied aspects of our Canadian life,
he will take our university to the people and, we do not hesitate to predict, will make its value known as it has never
been in British Columbia before.
Dr. MacKenzie will be giving up an important post and
cherished surroundings to come to Vancouver, and he is coming because he sees in Vancouver a great metropolis of the
future, in British Columbia one of the most populous and
important parts of Canada. Here is one of the greatest posts
of responsibility within this province's gifts, for U.B.C. is
relatively a baby—a very lusty one—ready to take advantage
of a vast growth that is certain to ensue. Dr. MacKenzie
will have big problems with which to deal. Not only to "sell"
the idea of more and better education throughout the province, but to consider enlargement of the whole field of effort
within the university. Establishment of medical and law
schools are on the possible list, not to mention health training
and pharmacy. The new president will have a great opportunity here.
MARCH, 1944
11 f    SttJi on Kttxm fbttrfitt   t
Editor's Note: Herewith are printed the latest
available reports on those graduates who have become casualties in the present war. The Chronicle
wishes to stress the fact that these reports are largely
from unconfirmed sources and we are anxious to
hear any further word that any of our readers may
have about those listed here.
BOMBARDIER JAMES CHARTERS, R.C.A., has been reported killed at Dieppe.
on active service in January, 1944.
WILLIAM JOHN BOYCE, Pilot Officer, R.C.A.F., who was
reported missing in July last, was killed overseas and
buried at Munchen-Gladback, Germany, according to
International Red Cross information. Following his
graduation in Mechanical Engineering from the University of British Columbia in 1938, he was employed by
the Riverside Iron Works, Calgary, and the Canadian
Car & Foundry Company, Fort William, until his enlistment in 1941.    He was twenty-seven.
LIEUT. WILLIAM FRASER McLELLAND, of the Saskatchewan Regt., was killed in action in Sicily in 1943.
Lieut. McLellan received his B.Comm. in 1940 and was
the President of the Graduation Class in that yaer.
P.O. JOHN GORDON McRAE, R.C.A.F., of Agassiz, was
killed in action in October, 1943.
NARD of the Seaforth Highlanders was killed in action
in Italy on January 31st, 1944. He was a former member of the Players' Club and received his B.A. in October,
PTE. FRANK BRADNER BEATON of the Seaforths was
killed in action in Italy on Jan. 31, 1944.
Centre, was killed in action in air operations Jan. 15,
F.O. JOHN HUDSON BENTON, R.C.A.F., B.A.Sc. '3 8 in
Forest Engineering, has been reported killed in action in
July, 1943.
overseas, March 13, 1943.
U.S. Air Forces, was killed in a training accident at
Chico, California, in December,  1943.
was killed in Italy in January, 1944. Lieut. Robinson
was from Kamloops and received his B.A. in October,
MAJOR THOMAS CULLEN BROWN VANCE of the Seaforths, B.A. '36, was killed in Italy in January, 1944.
Highlanders, was killed in Italy in December, 1943.
Lieut. Wilson received his B.A. in 1941 and was a member of Delta Upsilon.
who was officially reported missing and presumed killed
by enemy action on January 7th last, was the only son
of Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Dunell, North Vancouver.
Educated at the North Star Public, North Vancouver High School and the University of British Columbia, he graduated on May 14th with second class honours in Mechanical Engineering. With two of his classmates he left for Halifax on the night of their graduation day to take a three months' course on H.M.C.S.
On the train journey the party of young engineers
was augmented by the addition of other university graduates so that on arrival at Halifax it consisted of some
seventy volunteer engineers. At the end of the summer
Eric and about forty others left for England on loan to
the Royal Navy and was commissioned to a frigate,
H.M.S. Tweed.
The sinking of this ship has now been officially announced by the Admiralty, and while most of the officers
and many of the ratings were saved, Eric was not
amongst the fortunate ones.
FLT. SGT. DAVID LACHLAN BAIN, R.C.A.F., was presumed dead after a raid over Berlin in March of 1943.
was presumed dead in September 1943.
dead in February, 1944.
dead, February, 1944.
P.O. JAMES JOSEPH McCARRY, R.C.A.F., missing since
June, 1943, and presumed dead February, 1944.
R.C.A.F., was killed in a flying accident at Dunnville,
Ontario, on January 17th. He was twenty-three years
old and joined the Air Force while still a student in
engineering at the University.
R.C.A.F., missing February, 1944, after a plane collision
over the Gulf of Mexico.
R.C.A.F., B.S.A. '38, missing on active service, February,
in Geological Engineering, reported missing Feb.,  1944.
F.O. MERVYN DAVIS, R.C.A.F., missing after air operations, Feb., 1944.
F.O. WILLIAM REID GLEN, R.C.A.F., missing on active
service, Feb., 1944.
GUNN, R.N., M.C., CM., reported missing after Hong
Kong, April, 1943, reported a prisoner of war and in
January, 1944, reported working in Bowen Hospital,
Hong Kong.
R.C.A.F., B.A. '36, B.Comm. '37, missing after air operations overseas, February, 1944.
F.O. ALEXANDER GRAY ORR, R.C.A.F., was reported
missing in India in December, 1943.
LIEUT. ERNEST ROY PELLANT of the Seaforths, B.A.
'40, missing in action, February, 1944.
P.O. HUGH ROSS WILSON, R.C.A.F., missing in air operations over Berlin, February, 1944.
MARCH, 1944
DR. A. W. H. DONALDSON, Vancouver's first Rhodes
Scholar, 1904, in Germany.
WM. DONALD GUNN, in Hong Kong.
GEORGE JOSEPH KANE, B.A. '36, Prisoner of War.
HAROLD C. POOLE, B.S.A. '40, in Malaya.
RICHARD WALLACE, presumed Prisoner of War.
LESLIE WARD, interned in Eire.
STANLEY WESTON, B.S.A. '39, presumed Prisoner of War
in Camp Borneo.
Many graduates have been reported wounded in action.
Among these are the following:
in Italy. Lieut. Bonner was a former member of the
Students' Council and a member of Delta Upsilon.
LIEUT. JOHN ALLAN BOURNE, Seaforths, B.A. '34, in
CAPT. W. HALL, R.C.E., Forest Engineering '32, awarded
the Military Cross for service with the Imperial Army
in the Mediterranean area.
LIEUT. DAVID ALAN HARPER, B.Comm. '42, in Italy.
LIEUT. DAVID MILTON OWEN of the Seaforths, B.A.
'34. Lieut. Owen was a former Students' Councillor
and active in Alumni work.
t     QDbituama     f
JOHN FRANKLIN COATS—B.Sc, Michigan Agricultural
College, died in Vancouver on December 29th, 1943, at
the age of sixty-seven. He was well-known among mining men and carried on a consulting practice until
shortly before his death. Among the companies with
which he was connected were the Granby Consolidated
and the Georgia River Gold Mines.
M.C.E.S.A., M.A.S.T.M., passed away at the North Vancouver General Hospital on February 19th after an illness of more than a year. A member of the Committee
which drew up the "Model Act" for the Engineering
Profession in Montreal in 1919, he was appointed to the
Provisional Council of the Association of Professional
Engineers in B.C. in 1920. He became President in 1922.
Mr. Foreman was well-known as an athlete and
scholar at McGill and graduated at the head of his class
in 1903. From 1917 to 1920 he was Chief Engineer of
the Provincial Department of Public Works. For some
years he was British Columbia Manager of the Portland
Cement Company but of later years was in private business.
SIDNEY ELMER WILSON—B.A.Sc, British Columbia; Jr.
M.C.I.M., died on December 4th, 1943, in Vancouver as
the result of an attack of pneumonia. Mr. Wilson, a
graduate in Mining Engineering, was one of the original
stakers of the Yalakon gold strike in 1941. Since then
he had been employed by the Bralorne Mines. He was
thirty years of age.
Nova Scotia, in December, 1877, died in Vancouver on
January 17th. He carried on a consulting practice and
had been connected with many well-known mines in
Eastern and Western Canada.
City Airman Awarded Distinguished flying Cross
Air Force headquarters announced award of Distinguished
Flying Crosses to two R.C.A.F. officers serving overseas, one
of whom fought against the Japs in December, 1941, when
the losing battle for Singapore was waged.
The other officer decorated participated in the daring
attack against the German pocket battleship Prinz Eugen off
Norway in May, 1942, and is credited with a successful attack
against the warship despite heavy defences around it.
D.F.C.'s were awarded Fit. Lt. R. Bonnar of Ottawa and
Fit. Lt. R. V. Manning of 4623 West 10th Ave., Vancouver.
Fit. Lt. Manning's citation: "Fit. Lt. Manning has taken
part in several torpedo bomber attacks with good results. In
April, 1942, he participated in an attack on an enemy convoy
in the Skagerak and in May, 1942, he was pilot of one of a
formation of aircraft which penetrated the heavy defences
around the Prinz Eugen off Norway and made a successful
attack on the cruiser.
Editor's Note:  On February   16-18  a confer-
/^ cnce of Western Canadian University Students was
held at Edmonton. The subject of the Conference
was the University and Post-War Education. The
University of British Columbia sent four delegates:
Rosemary Stewart, Harold Parratt, Jack Hethering-
_ ton and Donald McGill.    Mr. McGill, the writer of
"\$ this article, has recently left the armed services and
is now doing post-graduate work on the campus.
An inter-university conference at Edmonton last month
disclosed that higher education in Canada is a lot more satisfactory than most people ordinarily believe. Composed of
student delegates from the four western universities, the conference disclosed, also, that students themselves are tolerably
well-equipped to discuss the more technical aspects of education. The implications of these two facts are, indeed, huge,
and merit some attention.
The three-day conference was conducted on the traditional seminar system. At four main seminars, four prominent Alberta educationalists each presented a leading address,
then presided over the ensuing discussion. President Robert
Newton of the University of Alberta pointed out postwar
careers open to graduates. Dean of Agriculture R. D. Sinclair, a delegate to the Hot Springs Food Conference, discussed Canadian agriculture and world planning. The Alberta
minister of Education, Solon Low, spoke on future trends in
elementary education, while Dr. S. Hillerud of the Extension
Department described the university's proper relationship to
the community.
Politics headed Dr. Newton's list of careers, but the conference did not, in its across-the-table discussions, at least,
unqualifiedly endorse politics as an occupation. Several delegates stated that university education was much better fitted
to training men and women to the civil service, and maintained that politics, by virtue of its organization and temperament, must be satisfied with the hit-or-miss process by
which it selects its personnel and leadership. At the same
time, the president made an appeal which the conference could
hardly reconcile with its anti-politics sentiment.
"We must not," said Dr. Newton, "sell our democratic
birthright for a mess of bureaucracy."
However, delegates felt that university graduates could
contribute to the overthrow of bureaucracy by concentrating
their best efforts on their various professions and vocations.
Individualism would thereby have a better chance of surviving than if everyone became tangled in political controversy.
The addresses of Mr. Low and Dr. Hillerud were exact
opposites as far as educational trends are concerned. Mr. Low
showed how the school system was tending to more practical
training and placing less and less emphasis on university entrance qualifications. Dr. Hillerud, on the other hand, showed
how the university, by virtue of its theoretical approach, was
being hard put to defend its position in the community. He
was satisfied with the adequacy of present courses taught, but
said the job of "selling" the university point of view to the
public was at times overwhelming, and part of the difficulty
he ascribed to the graduate's hazy notion of the university's
The delegates- discussion clarified this conflict between
elementary and higher education. The courses offered in the
schools, some believed, did not prepare the the student sufficiently for university work. Compulsory Latin and Greek
and classical education were required as a background for
economics, history, English, philosophy and even the sciences.
In fact, the conference voted unanimously for a recommendation that "humanistic social studies," a course recently adopted
by the University of Toronto and dealing with the history
and nature of ideas, be a requirement for all students, no matter what they were specializing in. The delegates' general conclusion was that a stiffening of university entrance, closer
relationship between school and university courses and a more
intelligent choice by the student of his courses would help
prepare a graduate who knew the deeper meaning of his
advanced education.
Dean Sinclair's address was that of a man who believed in
(and had witnessed) goodwill at international conferences.
He believed, also, the universities were the source of men of
goodwill, and so justified their expense. Like the president,
he warned against bureaucracy and compulsion, and called
upon universities to send men and women forth who would
fight back the tide which is fast engulfing individual enterprise. With regard to agriculture, he said the study of
nutrition, of food distribution and of world marketing depended on the universities.
Out of the conference has sprung the idea of the
Dominion Conference of University Students, a permanent
organization to replace the new defunct National Federation
of Canadian University Students (N.F.C.U.S.). Instead of
being just another federation, the Dominion Conference will
devote most of its efforts to discussing, from the student
point of view, the techniques and trends of education. This
recent gathering at Edmonton was a distinct surprise in that
respect, and the U.B.C. delegates feel it should be continued
on such a basis. Perhaps the conference topic—"The Uni -
versities in the Postwar Period"—was not fully settled, but
the university and its significance emerged as a real, living
institution—from a purely youthful point of view. Almost
unwittingly, the delegates ran across educational truths their
professors have long been trying to impress upon them.
MARCH, 1944
15 some PROBLEms of GOVERnmEm
I was very delighted to be invited to such a gathering,
representing as it does the cream of the Professions of British
Columbia. I use the word "Cream," gentlemen, because you
are the "Builders" in every sense of the word. No matter
what particular type of engineering you follow, you just naturally "Construct" and anyone who undertakes a task of that
kind in a young and undeveloped country, such as this Province is, automatically fills a very important place in the community.
Let me say at once, that since 1924 I have had contact
in one way and another with Municipal Engineers and Provincial Government Engineers, and never at any time have I
had more pleasure in my business dealings than with members
of your Profession. It may be that those of your members
whom I have been connected with have often felt sorry for
me at my lack of knowledge "Engineerwise" and so have
given me an extra kindly helping hand—be that as it may,
those associated with me have been kindness itself.
Mr. President, I feel that I can talk frankly to such a
body as you, representing as you do a highly technical branch
of society, and I hope that in the few words I shall say to you
that you will not feel that I have talked politics—because that
is not my intention, although it is sometimes very difficult to
keep entirely away from it. But perchance it would not be a
bad idea for you to be very interested in them.
I think it is an excellent thing that you gather together
each year in annual convention—not only to discuss problems
of great interest to your profession but that you may mingle
socially together. Even in your work the different types of
engineering that are necessary and required in various parts of
the Province, must give you a wide range of topics to discuss.
Last Fall we gathered all our Engineers together on the
Coast for a general chat, and I am sure much good developed
from it. We had hoped to make that an annual gathering
but conditions this year have precluded that, but we will fill
in again next year.
I do not think that anyone will question the fact that
the future of British Columbia—no matter in what direction
you look—will depend tremendously on what "outlook" you
gentlemen have for the future and how you apply your energies to it.
Look where you will at some point or the other, an
Engineer's services, brain and talents must sooner or later be
employed—not only in your case is it just a matter of employment—the public looks to you for leadership—you have
a responsbiility to them as well as to your clients. This is
particularly so when you are in a Municipal or Government
Service. In those cases not only is it necessary to do a good
engineering job, but you many times have to educate the
public to it because they, like any of us who are laymen, are
sometimes quite ignorant of the reasons for your actions.
Now I want to tell you a few of the problems that face
the Government, because from some of them, at least, I think
you will see the vista of a great amount of future work that
has to be done—and in which some of you are bound to
become interested either in your private practice or Municipal
Every Government today is giving much thought to
after-war problems. Provincially they transcend everything
as we are not running the war. It has been the duty of our
Public Works Department to Consider well where we stand in
that regard—especially with reference to roads. Roads to us
as a Province fill two needs:
Minister of Public Works.
(1) The economic development of the Province itself
as far as its industrial life is concerned—in other
words, its internal economy. No success in the
Province without that—business first.
(2) The Tourist traffic
We do not, of course, begin to measure up as far as roads
are concerned, with our neighbors to the South. We have no
reason to be ashamed of that when we recognize our vast territory and lack of population—only 850,000, just about enough
for one good-sized city—but we propose now to try and
adjust that condition in the future.
The Government has proposed a very ambitious road
program, a program that in its entirety may cost $210,-
000,000, and while that sum seems to be very large, particularly when you view it in the light of the present Provincial
debt, it nevertheless must be considered in the realm of the
circumstances that prevailed during the last depression. In
that period the Federal Government, and the Province, between them, spent $75,000,000 for relief, or doles, or whatever you like to call it, and have, just about as near as I can
express it, nothing whatever to show for it. So that, may I
say, that from my viewpoint I would rather spend a hundred
million dollars, even if it had to be all based on the credit of
the Province, and have some really first class road system to
show for it, than spend another $75,000,000 and be in the
hopeless situation we were in at the close of the last depression. The plan itself is predicated on a seven year operation,
which would employ roughly 9000 men continually at a minimum of about $1,800 per year, depending naturally on the
class and type of work that they perform.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE When you realize that today we have about 23,000 miles
of road in the Province, 7,000 of them considered main highways, with only 1,500 miles of hard topped, and in addition
5,293 bridges, which if placed end to end would cover a distance of 62 miles, you gather some idea of the magnitude of
the problem.
It should also be understood that we propose to construct
a type of road first class in every respect, if not better than
those in the adjoining State of Washington, at least to a standard that when you travel from Washington to British Columbia you would not know that you had moved from one State
to another Province other than the fact that you had passed
Customs and Immigration officials.
When the work is under way its ramifications will automatically be tremendous on the economic life of the Province. The expenditure of that vast sum of money will filter
into the free enterprises of the Province—cement factories,
asphalt factories and even back into the woods for timber.
We cannot, of course, compare the cost of construction
in British Columbia with that in any other part of Canada
because of the fact that most of our roads flow east and west
over north-south mountain ranges where the cost of construction is extremely high compared with that of flat prairie lands,
and the bridging of rivers and streams and ferrying over lakes,
adds to the other high costs.
We propose to have a Southern Trans-provincial Highway that will feed all the southern populated section of the
Province; a completed Trans-Canada Highway that will lead
through to the prairie provinces; a Northern Trans-Provincial
Highway, the heaviest construction of which, from Prince
Rupert to Kitwanga, has now just about become completed
as a war measure by the Federal Government. They have
built a very excellent road along, or shall I say into, the
Skeena River, because that is what it actually means in some
places, and while the road is not as wide as we would like to
have it, it nevertheless has opened up an outlet for the people
of Prince Rupert eastward, that they would not have secured
for many years under peace time circumstances.
We want also to modernize the historic Cariboo Road, as
far as Prince George, and then we have the new problem now
of opening up a link from Prince George into the Peace River
country. That particular problem I want to speak to you
about in a few moments. We will also modernize the Island
Highway on Vancouver Island, which, as a matter of fact, is
the centre of the tourist attraction in the Province.
In order that we may be ready to do our part we are
actually now undertaking surveys along some of the main
highways which we know will be definitely settled as to the
future routes, and getting them surveyed out so that the
moment the necessity arises for us to put men to work, subject to other conditions being provided for, we will be ready
to do so.
Now I mentioned the size of the program, and also that
it was beyond the financial resources of the Province to undertake itself; that brings me to the point that it should be definitely understood the program is predicated on the Federal
Government assuming a very large portion of the undertaking.
It should do that because it is distinctly a rehabilitation program, and where rehabilitation means that we are going to
take care of not only our returned men, but men who have
been working in war industries as a direct result of the
war. The war itself is a National problem, and rehabilitation
also comes under that category, and that is why I say very
definitely the Federal Government must assume its responsibilities from the money end of the program, leaving ourselves
to undertake the actual construction work. As a matter of
fact it will be easier for the Federal Government to finance
problems of that kind across Canada than it would be for
war purposes, because we are constructing assets for future
use and not making machines to destroy and at the same time
the Federal Government gasoline tax of 3c per gallon can be
capitalized and that amount would be able to take care of a
very large loan for the purpose.
Then think, gentlemen, what a program of that sort will
do for this Province on our second "Need"—the Tourist
Traffic. I think there is no doubt that after the war once
this continent again settles down to peacetime pursuits, there
will be a continuous flood of tourist energy that will revolutionize travel as we knew it before the war, but that will
depend on how we are ready to receive them.
In the plans that I have just outlined to you, special
provision has been made for just such a traffic condition.
There are ten entrances into the United States between Vancouver and the Crow's Nest: Blaine, Huntingdon, Aldergrove,
Osoyoos, Midway, Cascade, Paterson, Nelway, Kingsgate,
Roads to Parks—Strathcona, Tweedsmuir, Garibaldi,
Wells Gray and Hamber.
You know it is queer how often people dealing with
the same problem for a long time think differently. I give
you an opinion expressed a couple of weeks ago at a convention of the Canadian Good Roads in Calgary—one of the
delegates from Nova Scotia expressed the view that the saturation point had been reached in the use of gasoline—I think
just the opposite. I think the sale of gasoline is predicated on
the price of cars—that the price of cars depends on mass production—that mass production depends almost entirely on
employment which will give the masses of the people the
ability to purchase them, and the question of full employment
—as far as Canada is concerned—certainly British Columbia
—depends on our ability to sell our products in foreign markets.    I will speak of that later.
As far as the Tourist Traffic is concerned, it has been
recognized that in the ordinary course of recent peacetime
years, it has been worth 20 millions a year to British Columbia,
and any business that is worth that is really of great moment.
Now, Mr. President, what of some other matters.
Where is British Columbia going? What of the future?
Let us recognize this, we have got to deal with our own problem in our own way—with courage and foresight.
I am not one of those who think we are going to have a
new world just for the asking. We heard that sort of nonsense during the last war. We are going to have what we ourselves provide by our own initiative, enterprise and intelligence, and nothing more. Now it should not be thought by
that that I am one of those you hear so frequently now use
the expression: "We can always find money for war, why not
for peace." There is not so much logic in that argument,
gentlemen, as there seems to be at first blush. You could not
have done during the last depression what has been done in
the war period, for two reasons:
(1) The general public would not stand in peace times the
rate of taxation imposed in war. They stand it now—in
some cases willingly—because they are faced with one of
two alternatives—survival or death.
(2) Even if the people would have agreed to war taxation in
peace time you could not have raised the money because
there was no business making any money to tax. So you
see you have an entirely different set of circumstances.
Last depression, even under Socialism we could not have
sold our natural resources in world markets, and without such
activity you cannot make profits. And it is only from profits
that taxes can be collected.
And when we are considering such suggestions you should
keep in mind also that we are today only paying 46% of the
cost of the war from taxation—the remaining 54% is being
borrowed  from you  and me.    Now it  does  not  take much
MARCH, 1944
17 financial reasoning to understand that even if we could follow
the war pattern in peace it could not go on indefinitely or we
would have a debit structure that our economy could not
possibly carry and out of that would come inflation and all
the shattering results that follow.
We have got to deal with immigration to fill that great
Northland—850,000 people cannot keep that from the rest
of the world unless we use it ourselves. That then brings us
to the future problem of population for British Columbia.
You know, gentlemen, the day is passed when 850,000 people
can think that they will be allowed indefinitely to hold that
great empire north of the Canadian National line to themselves. If we are not prepared to populate it others will—
that is part of the reason, of course, for the present conflict.
Millions of people in Europe cramped into small spaces without room to breathe freely.
Now I mentioned a few moments ago that I would refer
to the Peace River again with reference to roads. We have
naturally, not only for the economy of the country, but in
order to see that our own people are able to mix with their
fellow British Columbians without going outside the Province,
to provide this Peace River area with a road system. During
the last Summer we have made three surveys into that territory, and while we have not analyzed them yet, they were
done for the express purpose of finding a route that is the
most satisfactory economic route to reach that great hinterland. When I say economic route, it must be understood that
it is not just a question of population here or there: what we
have got to do is to follow the route that will tap the greatest
amount of natural resources in the process.
Then we proposed to have a land policy that will be
something really worth while. You have already heard of
the Government declaration placing one million acres of land
at the disposal of British Columbia's returned men. After the
last war a similar action was taken, but then it was seemingly
done at random and certainly many men were put on land
that would produce nothing and in some cases full of rocks.
This time, I would like you to realize, in the million acres
allocated for the purpose, there are going to be none that
have not had soil surveys made of them, and all the other
economic factors that are necessary to insure that the men
can, if they are farmers, make a success of it. Already 5,000
British Columbia soldiers have expressed a desire to go back
to farms. As I say, this will be done in conjunction with
the Federal Land Act of 1942, and the conditions of that
Act preclude any man being given the advantages of the
Statute unless he was a farmer before the war, or he is willing
to be trained to be a farmer by the Federal Government before
assuming the benefits of this Statute, so that there should not
be any great percentage of failures in the plan.
We must deal with our timber industry. Let us at once
realize that lumbering is one of our major undertakings, not
only from the viewpoint of Provincial revenue, but from the
labor viewpoint as well. This industry has for years provided
British Columbia with a great business. It has been allowed
to run along "at will" so to speak, tearing out the natural
resources without—until the last very few years—any consideration at all to the problem of replacement. Hundreds of
thousands of acres have been denuded and there they stand a
monument to our stupidity. As a matter of fact, in the
South coast region, including Vancouver Island, the most productive forest land in the Province, we have over one million
acres of logged over land not reproducing satisfactorily due
to fire or former poor logging methods—or both. To this we
are adding at the rate of upwards of 25,000 acres per year.
For the last few years we have been re-foresting to a limited
extent—some 19,000 acres have been planted. At present we
have an annual capacity—that is, young trees for planting—
of  11,000 acres.    This we hope to double by  1946, which
should by then—if the cut does not increase beyond its present rate—replace what is cut. We are going to deal with that
problem at once by a complete investigation of all the angles
and then take appropriate action.
And so, Mr. President, you will see that all these things,
plus a great development in mining, rural electrification and
the development of power, all mean that engineers, cither
directly or indirectly, must become involved in the great after
the war development, so that whether you like it or not you
are of necessity as a body, and individually, likely to be great
factors in our future development.
So, Mr. President I think the most of us will agree that
problems before the war were great, during the conflict they
have been greater still, but I am convinced that after the war
ceases the problems of the past and the present will fade into
insignificance when we realize what the future holds for us,
and that somewhat directs my thoughts, naturally, to the
future and its responsibilities. I think we can class them
under the four heads:
(1) Are we going to be equal to the task? I do not think for
a moment that anyone sitting in this gathering would
question our ability to be equal to any task. A virile
Canadian people, to a very large extent, certainly as far
as British Columbia is concerned, of British stock, are to
my mind equal to any task that may be submitted.
(2) Have we the ability to solve the problems? There can
be no doubt about that, Mr. President. No doubt about
that even as far as America or Canada is concerned, when
we realize the progress that the American people have
made in the last 100 years, realizing how they worked
from the east to the west, developing and pioneering as
they went, until today they have a great nation spreading from the Atlantic to the Pacific, is enough surely to
make us believe that we have the ability to solve problems. If we feel inclined to look at more modern history
then we have but to look at Canada at war. What a
stupendous task ten million Canadians have undertaken
with such profound success in the great world emergency.
(3) Have we the means? When I say that I do not mean in
terms of cash, I mean in terms of resources—land, timber, mines, fish and power: no doubt about that in anybody's mind surely. The Lord has been particularly good
to this Province in its natural resources.
(4) Finally, under the fourth heading—Have we the courage? I mean the courage to develop the latent wealth
all around us. There need be no doubt about that,
backed as we have been during the last two decades with
the tremendous scientific development that has taken
place. Modernization of the motor car, development of
the aeroplane, radio and electric power—all those things
combined with the brains of men and women make it
perfectly obvious that we can never be still and that
we are bound to progress. But despite that, Mr. Chairman, there is one problem that I think you will agree
will cause all thinking men and women a good deal of
concern, as far as Britsih Columbia is concerned. I want
to refer, if I may, to a historic event that took place some
months ago, brought about distinctly because of the war
—the meeting of the world's two leading men, Price
Minister Churchill and President Roosevelt, meeting on
the broad spaces of the Atlantic, one representing the old
world and the other the new, and setting up for humanity
a new charter, to be known as the "Atlantic Charter."
No one, I think, will doubt the honesty of purpose of
the men who formulated it, no one will question the
fine theory that set it up, and the great ideal it is supposed to embody, but I am wondering as a lay man just
how it will work. I go further than that and I say, will
it work, at least as far as this Province is concerned?
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE It is presumed to open the resources of all the world to
everyone in the world. Let us look at that from our viewpoint—you may call that selfish; all right, if that is so then
selfish we must be, because we must recognize our own situation first. Here on one side of the Pacific Ocean sit millions
of people with the lowest standard of living in the world,
with the cheapest standard of labor in the world: India, China,
Japan. On the other side of the Pacific you have a very limited population but represented by the highest standard of
living in the world—the United States and Canada—and it is
being suggested by this new theory and new ideal that we are
to have a free world, with no tariffs, no cartels and an open
world business.
Now I ask you what will that do for British Columbia?
Never forgetting a country, like an individual, can only become prosperous through its own efforts, I say to you, gentlemen, that we have got to recognize the fact that British
Columbia cannot survive in its present state under that kind
of world conditions. It is quite useless for us to say in a
period of optimism that Europe with its reconstruction will
require all the goods that Canada can send it.
Prior to the war 90% of British Columbia products had
to find a market outside of the confines of British Columbia,
and all that I want to point out to you is that not only our
prosperity, but our very life in this Province, depends on our
success with our export trade. History records over a long
period show that employment rises and falls with the rise and
fall of export trade. Only a few days ago we had a concrete
case when the Federal Minister of Agriculture warned the
people of Canada that Britain was prepared to take 900 million
pounds'of bacon during the next few years, and indicated
that after that possibly they would want no more. That,
gentlemen, is brought about because by that time, if the war
is over, Denmark will want to export bacon again and if
Britain expects to sell her manufactured goods to Denmark
she must automatically buy Denmark bacon, and when she
does buy Danish bacon the market of 900 million pounds that
we now have will automatically cease and Canada's loss will
be just that, all of which indicates and shows to you how very
serious the problem is.
I had a talk last week with one of the senior officials of
the Bank of Canada. We discussed the national income and
he pointed out to me that today it was about ten billion dollars a year, and I asked him how he proposed to keep it that
way after the war, to which, of course, he had no solution
other than world trade. I give it to you as my view that if
Canada could have a national income of seven and one-half
billion dollars we would have a period of prosperity the like
of which we had never seen before, but I have very grave
doubts as to whether that can become an accomplished fact.
I will worry you with but one further item so that I can
indicate to you quite clearly the point I have in mind. Let
us look at our timber industry, which for many years now
has enjoyed a preference in the British market, enjoyed that
by the Ottawa agreement of the Bennett regime, as we enjoy
it also in the markets of our other Dominions. Even if my
argument of the Atlantic Charter is worth nothing, then I
say to you that the British Empire today, in association with
the Russians, fighting for world freedom, could never allow
B. C. to go on as the exclusive supplier of the British market
for timber under this preference. Russia has far more timber
than has Canada, her standard of living is vastly lower than
ours, and geographically she is much nearer to the markets of
Great Britain than we are. Doesn't it, gentlemen, answer itself
You could, if you wish, go on and discuss the future
of British Columbia gold, fish and minerals, but the same
argument holds everywhere.
British Columbia's credit stands better than that of any
other part of the Dominion.
Our geographical situation—bordering as it does on the
shores of the Pacific—is superb from the viewpoint of trade
with an "Awakened Asia" after the war.
Our natural resources—plus contented labor—through
the application of Capital in its broadest sense, will produce
all the new wealth that is necessary to give us that standard
of prosperity that we all'seek.
I hope, Mr. President, that I have not spoken in a pessimistic vein, but as I said at the outset I was talking to a highly
intelligent body of people and you would not mind if I placed
before you what I think to be the facts.
I think we have got to keep our feet on the ground and
sense in our heads. I think we have got to realize that the
magnitude of the problems staggers the imagination and we
must, therefore,, be prepared to deal with them. We cannot
stand still as we would be static. We must progress—you
must improve or you inevitably go back; and so I say to you,
gentlemen, to every one of you who has a stake in the community and are vitally interested, let us each do our part and
think well and act wisely together.
Alumni - Student
One of the most promising signs in Alumni work of
recent years has been the increasingly cordial relations established between the Alumni Association and the undergraduate
body. The Executive of the Association has done everything
in its power to make the students on the campus aware of
the work being done by the Association. To this end the
Executive has worked closely with the Students' Council,
official organ of University student government. A member
of the Alumni Executive has been present whenever possible
at the regular Monday evening meetings of the Students'
Council and in turn a member of the Council has sat in on
the semi-monthly meetings of the Executive. This interlocking of the two executive bodies has helped greatly in the
furthering of matters of mutual interest. This year's president of the Students' Council, Mr. Robert White, has showed
great interest in Alumni work and the incoming president,
Mr. Richard Bibbs, has already become well acquainted with
the Alumni Executive.
The Alumni Association itself has set up a special committee to foster relations with the students. This committee
consists of Miss Mary Mulvin, William Smith, and Darrell
Braidwood. The Committee has already met with the president of the Graduating Class and has made an interim report
on its findings. The Committee has particularly recommended
that the incoming freshmen classes should be made thoroughly
aware of the work of the Association in all its aspects. In
this way the student can become interested in the Association
for a considerable period before he becomes eligible for actual
The Alumni Association's greatest field for new membership is, in the graduating classes of future years. On the
other hand, much of the welfare of those future graduating
classes of the University depends on the' present activities of
the Alumni group. A working team spirit is of advantage to
all concerned.
MARCH, 1944 Champion & White Ltd.
1075 Main Street Vancouver, B. C.
W.  F.  KENT
1695 West 5th Avenue
Vancouver, B. C.
S. 6. ZquipmetU Ca. £td.
Head  Office
SSI Howe Street
Vancovuer, B.C.
Granville  Island
306   Industrial   St.
Engineering news and Rotes
Major J. B. COWELL has been appointed Regional
Director for the Pacific for the National Selective Service.
Until recently he was administration controller for the Inspection Board of the United Kingdom and Canada.
The B. C. Mining Association have chosen Dr. HOWARD T. JAMES as their President for 1944. Messrs. H. P.
WILSON and C. P. BROWNING were named Vice-Presidents.
Taking up civilian work again are the following: Major
Recent overseas casualty reports list Capt. WM. HALL,
R.C.E., of Victoria, as wounded.
Mr. S. G. BLAYLOCK, President and Managing Director, C. M. & S. Company, Trail, was recently honoured by
the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgy when he
was presented with a certificate of honorary membership. The
presentation took place in New York and the citation read
"in recognition of his eminent standing as a metallurgist,
engineer and administrator of mining and metallurgical enterprise."
The following have been appointed to the Executive
Committee of the Municipal & Public Works Division of the
B. C. Engineering Society: E. S. JONES, Chairman; D. J.
McGUGAN, Secretary; C E. Cooper; Major J. C. JOHNSTONE; A. S. G. MUSGRAVE and E. W. RICHARDSON.
Mr. J. W. SOUTHIN is returning to British Columbia
to take up the position of General Manager of the Vivian
At the recent annual meeting of the Engineering Institute of Canada, the following members of the B. C. Association were among the newly-elected officers—Mr. J. M.
FLEMING, elected Vice-President for Ontario, and Mr. A. S.
G. MUSGRAVE, councillor representing the Victoria Branch'
Major-General H. F. G. LETSON, Adjutant-General of
the Canadian Army, was this month awarded the United
States Legion of Merit medal in recognition of "exceptional
meritorious conduct" in the organization and operation of
the board dealing with the transfer of U. S. citizens from
the Canadian to American armed forces in 1942.
The following members were honoured in the King's
New Year's Honours List this year: Major-General H. F. G.
LETSON, C.B.E.; Commander A. F. PEERS, O.B.E.; Lieuc-
Col. G. P. STIRRETT, O.B.E.; and Major G. S. ANDREWS,
George Gorton
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I HE GRADUATE CHRONICLE The Wartime Bureau of Technical Personel
monthly Bulletin
The number of enquiries received during January was the
largest since November, 1942. The needs were widely distributed over the various fields of production and services
listed in some detail in last month's bulletin. As usual, some
of the requirements were of an urgent nature, including several in connection with war equipment contracts. This confirms the opinion expressed on various occasions in recent
weeks that curtailment of production in some specific plant
or plants cannot be used as an indication of a possible surplus,
or rather a less acute overall shortage, of technical personnel.
While the completion of some of the major phases of the
country's war construction programme has resulted in an
easing of the situation where civil engineers are concerned,
there is still no evidence that the demand for mechanical and
electrical engineers can be fully met. The Bureau has therefore to concentrate on meeting the more critical needs with
the limited numbers that are, or that become, available from
time to time. This necessitates a close scrutiny of relative
priorities and every effort is made to supplement the general
priority information available to the department with specific
knowledge of the urgency of various demands.
In the field of science, as distinct from engineering, the
same situation applies, although the demands come generally
rather from governmental and research agencies than from
industrial organizations. For example, there never has been,
nor is there now, an adequate supply of physicists in sight to
meet the definite needs recorded with the Bureau. The result
is that the greatest care must be exercised in an endeavour to
direct any available person in this category to the place where
the need is most critical.
During January, representatives of the Bureau, with officers from the three Services, completed the first leg of a tour
of Canadian universities, visiting the four western provinces.
At the end of the month, the same selection boards left for
the maritime provinces. The selection machinery functioned
smoothly and much was accomplished, both in the way of
finding suitable candidates for technical appointments in the
forces and also in making useful contacts with staff and
students to clarify the position of the latter under manpower
Returns began to come in from prospective employers of
undergraduates for the summer vacation and a start was made
on the tabulation of openings for circulation to the universities and to the appropriate Employment and Selective Service
In accordance with the provisions of clause 305 (1) of
P.C 246 (1943), National Selective Service Civilian Regulations, an advertisement was placed in all Canadian daily newspapers instructing prospective employers to register their
needs for graduates of the class of 1944, in engineering and
science, before February 15, 1944. The response to date indicates that there is a continuing demand from employers
whose activities carry high labour priority.
Last September, a rough survey of technical personnel
registered with the Bureau was begun with the object of ascertaining the number of those registered and classified as technical persons and of securing an estimate of the numbers of
those trained and experienced in the various branches of pure
and applied science. The survey itself has now been completed and the total of technical person* registered is approximately 31,000.
An Outsider's Opinion
At the November meeting of the Council of the Institute of the Civil Service of Canada the following letter was
read to the meeting by Chairman Eric Temple, of the Architects' Group.
The letter is an excellent example of the reaction of professional and technical men in private practice to present-day
offers of employment in the Government service.
The letter follows:
New Waterford, N.S.,
Feb. 25th,  1943.
Dear Mr. Whitford:
You wired me some time ago asking if I would accept a
position as Assistant Architect for Federal Government work
in the Province of Nova Scotia, with an initial salary of $185
per month, and travelling expenses, all subject to the usual
Civil Service deductions. As I was quite busy at the time, and
as the offer was far from attractive, you will recall that I
turned it down flatly, and that I promised to write you a
letter explaining my reasons for so doing. Here, belatedly, is
my letter.
In the first place the qualifications you demand, or the
Civil Service demands, are exacting and stringent, as they
should be, and are really equal in all essential respects to those
of a fully qualified Architect, capable of carrying on a private
practice, consisting of making complete working drawings,
details, specifications, and supervising the work through all its
stages to its completion.    I have these qualifications.
To obtain these qualifications, I have had to (1) take a
five-year course in Architecture at McGill University, 1919-
1924, costing approximately $5,000, (2) two years office experience at New York, 1924-26, (3) four months' travel and
study in Europe, approximate cost $2,200, (4) four years'
office experience in Montreal, (5) private practice in Cape
Breton stores, schools, hospitals, etc., eight yaers.
Yet after spending all these years in attaining the qualifications you require, I am offered a salary less than is being
paid to an ordinary carpenter working on defence projects in
Cape Breton. This does not make sense to me, neither does it
seem just or fair.
Until the Civil Service offers qualified Architects $3,000
a year minimum salary, they will not attract the type of men
that should be employed on Government work. If given a
salary such as stated above, you would get men of the type
you need, capable and willing to devote their full time and
energy to this important branch of the Civil Service. With
the present set-up you certainly never will.
With kindest regards,
Yours, etc.,
(Sgd.) A. N. MacLeod.
From The Institute fournal—January, 1944.
Serving With#the firmed forces
D. K. BANNERMAN, Sub-Lieut., R.C.N.V.R.
A. S. DRUMMOND, Lieut., R.C.A.
G. G. FYKE, R.C.E.
I. B. KAY, 2/Lieut., R.C.O.C.
A. D. KING, R.C.A.
M. H. MACKENZIE, Sub-Lieut., R.C.N.V.R.
K. E. PATRICK, Flying Officer, R.C.A.F.
R. E. POTTER, Flying Officer,, R.C.A.F.
I. M. SMELLIE, Sub-Lieut.  (E.), R.C.N.V.R.
We regret to announce that Flying Officer R. G. Crosby was
reported missing on February 14th.
MARCH, 1944
FOR many years the Alumni Association has hoped to establish its publication on a permanent and regular basis in order that the best interests
of the Association may be served. With this issue that hope has become a
reality. From now on the Chronicle will be published each month. It is
hoped that the Association will grow in strength and in power through this
new effort.
However, to continue regular publication the Chronicle needs a large
subscription list. This issue is being sent to all life and paid-up annual
members in order to offer you all the opportunity of subscription to your
Chronicle. Beginning with the April issue the Chronicle will be sent only
to those who have paid their subscription fee. Already we have received
a goodly number of subscriptions but we must have a great many more.
This is your magazine—if it is to be a success at all you must support it.
Now is the time. Elsewhere in this issue you will find a subscription
blank. If it is your intention to support your Association, send in your
application today.
N this issue we welcome a section devoted to the interests of the Professional Engineers of B.C.   Each year over a third of the graduates of
our university are  Engineers.    Accordingly  the Chronicle  is pleased  to
devote a section of its publication to this large group.   We know that all
of our graduates will be interested in the material presented.
OR a considerable time it has been obvious that at least some of the major assets of the University are
not being used to the full from the student point of view. We refer in this instance particularly to the
Brock Memorial Building, a building designed for and built by the students. When the building was formally opened during the 1939-40 session, it was felt that at long last the University had acquired a permanent centre for activities of a social and cultural nature. However, reality has fallen far short of the great
expectations held at that time. Few, if any, of the major student functions in recent years have been held
in the building.    Student organizations are still largely using downtown facilities for their social activities.
From the point of view of both sentiment and expense this situation should be remedies. From an
alumni point of view there is much to be criticized. Graduates can go to downtown places of entertainment
as they see fit but when they go to a university function, it is a real thrill for them to return to the campus.    From this standpoint alone, serious consideration should be given to a fuller use of the Brock.
It is perhaps not out of order to discuss this situation in wartime, for social functions do go on to a
certain extent and it is with these we are concerned.
The reason for lack of use of the Brock appears to be two-fold. First, there is an objection by many to
the type of dance floor in the building. It may well be true that the floor is not of the best, but it could
readily be made so. A spring-type of floor would be a great asset in the building and it could be installed
at a moderate cost. It is possible that the Administration has funds available for optional use and surely
some of these funds could be put to no better use than in helping to centralize student activity on the
The second, and far more serious, obstacle to the use of the building is the attitude adopted by the
Administration authorities towards use of the building by the students. When the structure was completed
by the students it was turned over to the Administration to operate as a part of the University. Ever since
that time student use of the building has been hampered by red-tape and impossible restriction. The Administration has failed completely to take the view that the building was designed to be widely and freely used
by students.
During this last year the dining room facilities have been suspended. In the case of major parties, permission has been unwarrantedly refused to use the Kitchen. The result is that parties have not been held
to any extent on the campus.
It is to be noted that the building and dining room facilities have been available on occasion for faculty-sponsored events. Surely this is not the situation contemplated by the students who paid for the
Every major structural addition to the University in the past fifteen years has been largely paid for by
students' funds. The Gymnasium, the Stadium, the Brock, and the Armouries are all gifts of the student
body of part thereof to the University. The students and the graduates are proud of those contributions
but they expect fair treatment from the authorities to whom those gifts are entrusted. Surely now is the
time for the Administration to adopt a policy of "giving the University back to the students" in so far as a
fair and reasonable use of the facilities is concerned
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE "The Blueprint" has been unable to meet the conditions laid down by the Wartime Prices and Trade
Board as interpreted by that body, so the British Columbia Engineering Society has joined forces with the
Alumni Association of the U.B.C. in an endeavor to provide for their members and the public in general,
news, information and ideas of interest to them and also a medium through which these ideas may be spread
and criticized.
If ever there was a time in the world's history when scientific thinking should be applied to our social
and economic problems, it is now. We should open our minds and be prepared to examine and discuss every
problem in the light of the new conditions of the age of super production which we are entering.
The age old battle of mankind against scarcity has been definitely won—man's desire to consume is as
yet unsatisfied and the solution of a relatively easy problem of equating consumption with production, of
designing some mechanism which will enable all of us to enjoy the fruits of our combined efforts, will bring
to us a standard of living beyond the wildest dreams of the Utopians.
One method, the formation of pressure groups for the particular benefit of the component members, is
failing dismally. In small units it cuts down production and leads to strikes and lock-outs. In large units
it is a basic cause of war.
In the industrial field progress has been made in profit-sharing between the "Capital" and "Labour"
groups (and we direct your attention to an address on another page by the President of the Consolidated
Mining & Smelting Company). In the national field it might be that the solution is that the first claim on
national production is an adequate supply of food, clothing and shelter for every man, woman and child.
There is no question of the nation's ability to do this without reducing the standard of living of any citizen. What is lacking in our economic set-up is a proper mechanism—and the design of a mechanism falls
within the province of the Engineer.
WO questions which are frequently asked by members of the Association are:
(1 )  What do I get out of the Association?
(2)   Why the necessity of the British Columbia Engineering Society?
Replying to the first query, as to material benefits, a member has the satisfaction of knowing that his
character, qualifications and experience have been studied by a representative elected body strengthened by
four Governmnt-nominated members, of his own professional brethren, and that his standing in these respects
is up to that fixed by them as a minimum and that they can say of him that he is a "Professional Engineer."
He has also the knowledge that both he and the general public are protected against the activity of the
unqualified and inexperienced man who used to flourish here. It should also be some satisfaction to him to
know that this system of registration, of which British Columbia was one of the earliest pioneers, has been
adopted by nearly every State in the United States and that his certificate of registration is recognized all
over the North American continent.
Another reply to this query might be that he gets out of the Association just as much as he puts into
it, and his attention might be drawn to a remark made by a prominent American educationalist, which
applies not only to professions—"Anyone who sees in his own occupation merely a means of earning money
degrades it, but he that sees in it a service to mankind ennobles both his labour and himself."
As regards the second query as to the necessity of the British Columbia Engineering Society, it is answered in an excerpt from the address of the President, Mr. H. C. Anderson, given at the Annual Meeting
in December last:—
"Our position as Engineers in the Province has steadily, even though slowly, improved from year to
year under the guidance of your elected representatives. I feel that our Act still requires some further
amendments to make our position more secure and this will be given consideration. While the duties
of your Council are primarily concerned with and are confined to—and I would like to draw your attention to that clause "CONFINED TO"—the administration of the 'Engineering Profession Act,' I think
more attention should be given to improving the status of the Engineer than has been done in the past.
Criticism has been voiced at times at the inactivity of the Council along certain lines without, I feel,
realization of the limited scope of the Council under the Act. This year your Council saw fit to organize the British Columbia Engineering Society, with a view to providing us with an opportunity and an
outlet to express our opinions and present our viewpoint in ways and in quarters which our present
organization does not permit. This is not a new departure among registration bodies. The doctors
and lawyers, who have a Registration Act similar to ours, have found it necessary and beneficial in the
advancement and promotion of their professions to have a parallel organization similar to our Engineering Society."
MARCH, 1944 23 Civil Responsibility of the Engineer
of the English Electric Co., Ltd.
(Abstracts from a recent address to the Scottish Centre of the Institution of Electrical Engineers.)
What is an engineer? The term was first applied to persons employed in the construction of engines of destruction,
or on work for military purposes. In the middle of the 18th
century a new class of engineer arose, principally engaged in
the building of roads, bridges, aqueducts and canals, for
purely civil purposes; they soon became known as "civil engineers" as distinct from the military class.
Later, in 1828, The Institution of Civil Engineers came
into existence, and their charter describes civil engineering as
"the art of directing the great sources of power in Nature for
the use and convenience of man, as the means of production
and of traffic in states both for external and internal trade,
as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts,
canals, river navigation and docks, for internal intercourse
and exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours,
moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in
the construction and adaptation of machinery, and in the
draining of cities and towns."
Assuming these objects to be stated in the order of
descending importance, it will not have escaped notice that
the term "machinery" occurs almost at the end, in company
with drains; this is unflattering in a way, unless it is remembered that when the Charter was framed the possible developments of mechanical engineering were undreamt of. But it
was soon to emerge from its lowly state and rise from obscurity to vie with the civil engineering; it received a status in
1847, when The Institute of Mechanical Engineers was formed
to mark the advent of the mechanical age.
Lastly came electrical engineering, and the founding of
the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1871.
Charged with the responsibilities as laid down in their
Charters, the three leading engineering Institutions insist on
qualifying tests before admission to their respective bodies.
No person can be accepted into the chartered class of engineers
unless he is fully qualified by training and experience.
This is rightly so if we, as engineers, are to assume equal
status with our brothers in other professions, such as law,
medicine and accountancy. Surely the contributions to human
progress, and the benefits conferred on the community by
engineering, are not less than those of the professions just
mentioned; and, if that criterion be accepted, who can logically deny to the engineer a position in the front rank of all
professional callings?
It is true that science and engineering may be prostituted
to base purposes, and in this connection mechanical warfare
has given the cynic many opportunities for caustic criticism.
But to reproach the engineer because the worthy products of
his skill are misapplied is unwarranted; beneficent aims can
be perverted to evil ends.
As good often results from evil, I am encouraged to hope
that out of the present conflict and welter a new conception
of man's obligations to his fellow-men will arise; the furnace
of war will surely remove the dross from our coarse natures
and leave the purer metal behind.
Is the engineer in his corporate capacity taking an adequate part in the conduct of public affairs?    Would not the
community benefit if he adopted a less detached attitude to
the social and economic problems of our age?
The implied charge of being too self-centred in his profession is partly true.
Some may think it odd that the engineer, with his logic,
his analytical mind, and his refusal to accept any compromise
between truth and error, should not apply his faculties to the
study and solution of the many problems commonly regarded
as being outside the orbit of his own profession.
The principal attributes of the engineering mind are
powers to observe, to analyse, to deduce, to correlate, to
devise, to apply and to plan ahead, and it is pertinent to ask
whether these are not the basic faculties required by those
who are called upon to plan and direct our national policy.
If this is agreed, should the engineer express his views and
suggest new methods of approach to the solution of national
issues, on lines not unlike those followed by himself when
dealing with engineering problems?
In the Presidential Address delivered to the International
Engineering Congress at Glasgow in 193 8, Viscount Weir
"I think it will be admitted that there is an engineer's
type of mind, and that his method of thought has certain
characteristics arising from the nature of the problems he has
to deal with, and the immediate results which follow from
any failure of his to deal satisfactorily with them.
"I venture to suggest that this type of mind and method
of thought might be applied with advantage to the treatment
and solution of some of the major world issues today. Even
world statesmanship itself might learn that there are other
ways of approach to the solution of its problems than the
traditional lines of political thought.
"In many ways our hope for the future must be in a
closer approach between the statesman, the scientist and the
engineer. To some extent the latter must increasingly have
regard to political considerations, inasmuch as the statesman
has to deal with those intangibles, the conduct and reactions
of mankind."
Coming from one who is not only a trained and experienced engineer, but who also has had a long association with
statesmen and the inner councils of government, the suggestions call for serious thought.
The late Prof. Miles Walker—a distinguished engineer,
scientist and teacher of electrical engineering—had much to
say on the subject of the engineer's type of mind; by him it
was regarded as essentially logical in its outlook, and therefore
properly qualified to undertake the analysis and solution of
many social and economic problems.
In his Presidential Address before the Engineering Section of the British Association at York in 1.932, he stated: "It
is not only in connection with engineering and scientific
matters that the engineer can help to improve the lot of mankind; it is in connection with all economic and social matters.
. . . The kind of mental training required to find the right
solution of a difficult economic problem is exactly the same
kind of training required to tackle engineering problems."
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Prof. Miles Walker suggested that a small self-supporting
state or colony be placed under the control of a body composed of scientists, engineers and economists, who, unhampered by considerations of political expediency, could be expected to direct affairs by the use of logical methods. In his
opinion the success of such an experiment could be demonstrated in a few years, with results so convincing that the
new and logical system of State government would eventually
receive universal acceptance.
At the time, these views were considered revolutionary;
by some people it was thought that by so departing from the
orthodox lines of thought, and presuming so much for the
engineering mind, he had transgressed the canons of decency.
Yet I venture to suggest that, if re-examined in the light of
the changed world conditions of today, his views and proposals
might not seem so outre, because they appear to embody some
of the principles now accepted as fundamental to a successful
post-war reconstruction.
It must not be supposed I hold the opinion that the
average engineer is endowed with greater wisdom than the
average politician, and that, if given control over national
affairs, he might achieve better results. I find it difficult to
believe that he would, for the reason that the whole of his
scientific training has taught him to avoid sentiment and to
disregard prejudice in the analysis and solution of his own
problems; apart from the relatively few who are familiar with
the human aspects of the problems associated with the management of large bodies of workers, the engineer has been
primarily concerned with the treatment and behaviour of lifeless matter, and his outlook has tended to become narrow and
How, then, could he reasonably be expected to show a
spirit of kindly toleration to the frailties of mankind, and to
judge and solve the many human problems involved in the
direction of public affairs? A council of scientists and engineers planning and directing national policy might, in theory,
claim a high functional efficiency, but in practice I think it
would fail, because in its deliberations and decisions no sympathy could be shown to man's shortcomings, nor could any
recognition be given to his natural ambitions unless they conformed to the requirements of a scientifically planned social
and economic Order.
Perhaps, as Lord Weir suggests, a solution might be found
in a closer approach between the scientist and engineer and
those in control of national policy. Each might learn, with
advantage, something from the other's methods of dealing
with difficult problems. Maybe the time is ripe for the coming of a new school of thought, to expound a doctrine for the
guidance of those who would attempt to solve our national
problems in a manner whereby human susceptibilities, and
the promptings of the scientist and engineer, are alike respected.—From The Overseas Engineer, September, 1943.
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MARCH,  1944
Summarizing the Series'of Discussions
Held at the U. B. C.  in January, 1944
During the week of January 15 th a very remarkable
series of discussions on "Religion and Life" was held at the
University of British Columbia. I shall first give a brief
account of the background of these discussions, and then I
shall summarize some of the fundamental points that emerged.
Several months ago, a general committee was set up at
the University comprising presidents of all the major student
organizations, representative professors from all faculties, and
a number of Vancouver ministers. This Committee, in cooperation with the Canadian Section, World Council of
Churches, brought to Vancouver and the University four outstanding leaders of religious thought from Canada and the
United Sttaes:
(1) Chancellor G. P. Gilmour of McMaster University;
(2) Dr. Leslie G. Kilborn, Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, West China Union University;
(3) Dr. William P. Remington, Bishop of Eastern Oregon; and
(4) Miss Gertrude Rutherford, Principal of the United
Church Training School for Women Leaders, Toronto.
The discussions began at the University with an overflow
mass meeting of students and faculty in the auditorium
Monday, noon, January 17th. The four visiting speakers discussed the general theme of the whole conference, Religion
and Life. I should like to be able to present a detailed account
of these four extraordinarily interesting addresses, but the
limits of my space force me to concentrate on a point which
was advanced in different ways by all four speakers. Today
there are two conceptions of religion current in the world:
(1) Religion is the opiate of the people; (2) religion is power
—from it one derives the necessary dynamic to transform the
individual and revolutionize society. Which is correct? Is
religion a sedative which makes one satisfied with his environment or a narcotic producing insensitivity to all that goes on
around one? Or is religion a source of power which enables
men to break the chains of slavery, intellectually and physically? Both statements are true. Each of us has our religion
—the faith by which we live, and which controls our lives.
Some of us place the centre of control in the self—the Ego.
Everything that we do is done to preserve that Ego. Such a
person never takes a chance with revolution—that might
endanger his own self. After the revolution has been completed or its success assured he might climb on the bandwagon,
but he never starts it. Some form of religion that we consider to be fairly advanced have really this purpose in view.
On the other hand there is another type of religion which
may be called objective instead of subjective or egocentric.
Jesus has given us an ultimate account of objective religion
in his paradox that a man who sets out to preserve his life
inevitably loses it, while the man who does not think of himself but lives by something greater than himself is the man
who gains life. The Self is abolished as the centre of life and
replaced by something far greater. We may call it Truth, or
Goodness, or the Will of God. In the forgetting of Self, and
the pursuit of universal truth one finds life, and in that way
religion and life are inseparable. Our religion determines
what our life shall be—whether we shall find life or lose it.
The mass meeting in the University auditorium was followed by three Round Table discussions held in the main
lounge of the Brock Memorial Building on Monday, Tuesday,
and Wednesday evenings, January 17th, 18th, 19th, and by
noon hour meetings on Tuesday and Wednesday. All of these
meetings were extremely well attended, and student interest
in the discussions, aroused so auspiciously at the first meeting,
continued at a high pitch until the very last.
The discussion on Monday night, sponsored by the Fraternities and Sororities of the University, was devoted to the
theme Why Christianity? and was of the nature of a symposium on Comparative Religions. Miss Rutherford gave an
account of Buddhism, Dean Kilborn of the indigenous religions
of China—Confucianism and Taoism, Chancellor Gilmour of
Mohammedanism, Rabbi E. M. Levy (of the Jewish Community in Vancouver) of Judaism, and Bishop Remington of
It was maintained in these discussions that a religion may
be judged by what it has done in society. The religions of
China and India, as well as Mohammedanism, encourage complete fatalism or submission, or formalism and rationalism.
None of the great religions of the world except Christianity
has provided the dynamic so essential to social change. Even
the Golden Rule is stated in negative form in Confuciaism.
In discussing Judaism, Rabbi Levy said that he regarded religion as revealed psychology. He maintained that the Jewish
Ceremonial fulfils a definite purpose—and that it is not good
to profess religion without outward ceremonial.
On Tuesday, Miss Rutherford discussed Religion and
Social Reform in Canada. She referred to the bulletins on
social problems issued on behalf of co-operative protestant
bodies in America, and pointed out that no area of social
problems is not studied by that group. There is need in
Canada for a Canadian Council of Churches to do similar
work. She maintained that the Christian Church cannot
avoid becoming involved in social reform, and church people
should be urged to participate. Dmeocracy has no assurance
of well-being for the body politic unless every citizen assumes
responsibility for intelligent action. She referred specifically
to a number of social problems in Canada as follows: the need
for health; the need for honorable work; a sense of justice;
freedom of conscience and worship; the opportunity for personal development, for the acquisition of knowledge and
skills; a sense of leisure and the decent use of it; and immigration and population. Miss Rutherford emphasized the uniqueness of Christianity in its emphasis on the brotherhood of
man,  the indestructibility of individual human worth.
On Wednesday noon Bishop Remington discussed Religion
and Internationalism. Internationalism may be achieved
through a unification of the Christian elements in the world.
He stated that the six Pillars of Peace are:
(1) Political collaboration between the United Nations;
of world'wide import;
(2) Collaboration   on  economic   and   financial   matters
of world-wide import;
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE (3) Adaptations of the world's treaty structure to
changing conditions.
(4) Ultimate autonomy for all nations and for subject
(5) Control of armaments;
(6) The establishment of the principle of the rights of
people everywhere to establish intellectual and religious liberty.
In the experience of many students, Dr. Kilborn's discussion of Science and Religion on Tuesday night was the highlight of the series. Dr. Kilborn undertook to answer the
question: Do I find that my science and my religion are incompatible, or do they lie in fields of thought so far apart
that they are not related, or are they complementary to each
other, or, in order words, can we apply scientific methods to
religion and find that it works?
The fundamental aspects of science may be discussed
under (1) the scientific spirit, (2) the nature of scientific
truth. The scientific spirit includes three basic attitudes: (a)
the critical attitude—nothing is accepted without the closest
scrutiny and the examination of all alternatives. This is different from the pre-scientific attitude, which accepts truth
according to the authority of the person who proclaims it;
(b) The second characteristic of the scientific spirit is its
honesty. A scientist must correctly report what he observes,
even though it may cause consternation, or may not even be
consistent with what he has previously stated; (c) the third
characteristic of the scientific spirit is objectivity. A scientist is critical not only of other statements and discoveries
but also of his own. Thus, the aim and ambition of scientific
life must be centered outside oneself.
The second great phase of the scientific era is scientific
truth. This has two components—facts and theories. Facts
are merely records of observation, always changing as our
observation improves. As facts change, the theories related
to them change. Scientific truth is not absolute, fixed, immutable, but progressive, ever changing with new facts.
In developing further the theme of Science and Religion,
Dr. Kilborn said that he would consider the teachings of Jesus
in the light of the scientific outlook. Did Jesus appeal to
authority to convince people of what he said? Jesus was not
ready to accept as true what someone had said just because
he was a recognized authority. He teaches that authority
does not make for truth or falsity. Truth needs no authority
beyond its own nature.
Regarding honesty, it is clear that Jesus asserted that yes
meant yes, and no meant no. His objectivity is also obvious.
The opposite of objectivity is subjectivity, or a centre on the
Self which Jesus opposed. The decision to subdue the Ego
and follow the higher is the characteristic which distinguishes
the followers of Jesus from others. He dedicated His life to
the search for truth, called by the name of the Will of God.
Dr. Kilborn finds no difference between the two .
Thus there is only one question for either a scientist or a
Christian, not "shall I accept this principle if it is true?" but
"am I certain that this is the truth, that this is God's Will?"
The common ideal of Science and Christianity is: What is the
truth, what is God's Will? Jesus did not consider truth to
be static, unchanging. On the contrary, he said he was correcting and adding to ancient truths, and expected His followers to continue.
Dr. Kilborn stated that there is no proof of the existence
of God from a strictly scientific point of view. In science,
we make a hypothesis, and if it works, we accept it as a general principle or law of nature. Is the assumption that God
exists a useful, workable hypothesis? We look about us and
see evidence everywhere of design and moral significance in
the universe, and intelligence working itself out. These
phenomena, Dr. Kilborn said, force him to accept the existence
of God as scientific truth.
At the conclusion of Dr. Kilborn's address, Dr. M. Y.
Williams, Head of the Department of Geology and Geography,
and Dr. A. H. Hutchinson, Head of the Department of
Biology and Botany, gave brief addresses on the relationship
between science and religoin. On Wednesday night, Dr. R.
H. Clark, Head of the Department of Chemistry, argued very
brilliantly from biochemical formula to the supposition that
human beings are immortal.
The final discussion of the series, The Fundamental Elements of Christianity, was held on Wednesday evening, January 19th. All four visiting speakers summed up their personal experience of Christianity in the development of their
lives. In these addresses, reference was made to the highly
symbolical character of the language of religion. All of the
speakers pointed out that for them ultimate reality can only
be very inadequately expressed in words.
These discussions on Religion and Life have made a very
important contribution to the intellectual and religious life of
the University of British Columbia. Many students have
stated to the writer that they have already become an unforgettable part of their university careers. During the weeks
following the discussions, the students have held several meetings with a view to organizing groups for post-conference
study of the findings. The Alma Mater Society has sponsored
the editing and mimeographing of the Proceedings, of which
five hundred copies have been made available for distribution.
In conclusion, I should like to thank all those who
assijted me, as Chairman of the General Committee, in planning and carrying through the University Discussion on
Religion and Life.
John G. Bennett, President
A. Gordon Bennett, Vice-President
E. M. Reid, Secretary-Treasurer
Co. u«*wi
Offices at
Calgary, Alta.,
Edmonton, Alta.
MARCH, 1944
27 Is the Engineer Overridden ?
By a Special Correspondent
That progress has been delayed through engineers being
overridden by salesmen and publicity experts is the view taken
by Mr. Donald H. Smith in a contribution to the fournal of
the Institute of Automobile Engineers. Although Mr. Smith's
remarks are made in relation to automobiles, the general subject is one of close interest to all engineers concerned with the
design and making of branded products.
In the years just preceding the war, Mr. Smith writes,
automobile progress slowed down appreciably so far as basic
principles were concerned. Between 193 5 and 1940 true
development almost ceased. A constantly changing and increasingly ostentatious external appearance, supported by varying powers of salesmanship, disguised the true state of affairs
from all but the most discerning of the lay public. It was in
that aspect of development that the engineer apparently failed
in his obligations to society.
In its development stages the modern automobile was
primarily the creative product of the engineer-designer. In
its later stages it became the "production" of the industrialist
and the machine tool expert. The engineer-designer became
of decreasing importance in the hierarchy.
The salesman, the publicity expert, the production eng -
neer, the assembly specialist, all appeared to be of greater
importance, more or less in that order. That which the
engineer-designer knew to be sound could be, and often was,
overridden by one or all of the others.
So far had the cult of the non-essential gone that it is
credibly stated that certain motor-cars were "designed" bv
artists with an eye to feminine demand and fashion and that
thereafter the engineer had to instal the essential components
to the chassis to fit the creation.
The engineer is worthy of better than that, Mr. Smith
writes. He may argue that it is not in his province to dictate
the final form of what is, after all, something of a composite
effort. He may say that, given a general plan or an external
drawing, he is doing his job properly by filling in the mechanical details as efficiently as the imposed limitations will allow.
That is a terribly easy way of justifying one's existence
and it was the acceptance of a framework of external appearance and non-essentials as a rule of life that was symptomatic
of the time leading up to the present world upheaval. Acceptance of a major mechanical modification, or the toleration of
some feature detrimental to overall efficiency, in order to
include or retain some non-essential detail of appearance or
publicity value exemplified that mental process now known
as "appeasement."
The stressing of the importance of external appearance
beyond almost everything else, the acceptance of that insist-
ance and the mechanical limitations it imposed, and the willingness of the buying public to be guided by fashion and by
unsound technical appeals jointly tended to lower the status
of the designing engineer to the rank of draughtsman.
In regard to service, Mr. Smith said there were instances
where the replacement charge for minor but inaccessible
faults was well below the cost of the damage and in such
cases was no doubt subsidised by the makers from the publicity
or sales-promotion appropriation. The plain fact was that
even if the public will stand for most things it will not stand
for everything, so, as the real labour cost of these particular
jobs resulted from faulty design, or at any rate from design
to facilitate production, the real charge simply could not be
The whole question of makers' service is a thorny one.
The service manager should be an engineer and certainly not
a salesman.
In one of his novels Sinclair Lewis has a very cutting
jibe at the whole idea of "service." He makes a small town
manufacturer define service as "something you give with a
thing so that the thing needn't be as good as it would have
to be if you didn't give the service with it." Making a thing
too good and too reliable, he argued, did not enable you to
keep in touch with the customer, and the opportunity of
selling something else was lost.
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To Think and Talk
For some obscure reason the professional engineering
societies have followed an idea that our societies in their meetings, reports and publications should not express their views
on the political management of public affairs or on other controversial matters.
Too many engineers forget they rate in the intelligentsia
and that their analyses and opinions of public affairs would
be a distinct service to the general public, the planners, the
legislators, and public officials.
To express opinions for or against governmental policies
and operations, whether local, state, or national, does not mean
you have detracted from our professional ideals. There is
nothing in the ethics of the profession which says that you
as an engineer cease to be an engineer because you publicly
disagree with the policies and actions of any political administration in power.
It is a constitutional right of every citizen to argue the
portents of proposed legislation and the management of public
affairs, and just because a person joins an engineering society
it should not be deemed he has relinquished that right. To
argue, does not mean the society becomes a political organization. Rather it becomes a sounding board for the mature
opinions of engineers which may be of inestimable value to
the public.
Unquestionably the technological professions appreciably
determine the trends of mankind in its forward march towards
universal civilization. Laws are made to govern these trends,
and so far, our profession has had very little to do with the
formulation of laws and policies for the promotion and management of these trends.
This lack of effort to assist in guiding governmental policies which affect and control the lives of our people is a really
serious reflection on the technological professions, and their
members fail in their duty as real Americans if they persist
in adhering to such a policy.
The American Association of Engineers in its publication,
the Professional Engineer, has clearly and boldly analyzed
U. S. Senate Bill 702 (The Kilgore Bill). The analysis plainly
shows that the alleged purpose of the bill "to mobilize the
scientific and technical resource of the Nation" would. be
inimical to the best interests of the people and the profession.
Enlightened and practical criticism of the bill as drafted
will cause necessary revisions and amendments to the end that
a final bill, if enacted into law, may serve a real useful purpose. Without the criticism of the engineering profession the
bill might have been passed in its original form and become a
detriment to technological progress.
The legal and medical professions take prompt action
when pertinent legislation is introduced in State legislatures or
the national Congress which they believe is not for the best
interest of the public.
Public opinion as expressed in the news has been insistent
that legislation be passed to control labor unions in their private and public relations.   The principles of sound labor legis
lation have been approved in engineering circles for many
years, and the expressions of engineers, in some small part,
may have assisted in the recent enactment of measures to
accomplish this worthwhile purpose.
Some years ago when many little piggies were killed and
marginal farm crops were ploughed under, most engineers
deplored the idea, and time has proved that they were right.
Presently some economists argue there is no reason why the
Federal debt (now at about 150 billion which is equal to the
assessed valuation of all taxable real property in the United
States, and which debt may reach 300 to 400 billions before
the war is over) should ever be paid if our national income is
on the increase from year to year. Being thinking people, it is
doubtful many engineers will subscribe to this idea, and therefore it is most important and a real obligation that the voice
of the engineer shall be heard on the formulation of national
financial policies.
The National Resources Planning Board has indicated its
full concurrence with its committee in regard to the necessity for a public aid system geared to a program for high
national income and full employment.
The program is fine and almost everyone will agree; but
then the Board states, "We have passed the state when financing the program need be more than a technical problem. If
we measure the physical and intellectual stature of our people
and our vast national resources, financial problems need be no
It can be inferred from this statement that the Administration's philosophy of deficit spending and subsidies shall be
adopted as a fixed plan for future Federal financing. The
point is worthy of serious consideration, as individuals, business concerns, cities, counties and states do not advocate, nor
live and prosper by such means.
Our opinions are highly regarded and respected by people
in all walks of life, and it is our bounden duty as a learned
nrofession to speak when the occasion demands, in order that
we may help preserve for all of our people a sound and equitable national economy.—From Professional Enghteer—June,
Letson & Burpee Ltd.
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MARCH, 1944
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Editor's Note: This is the first of a series of "personality"
articles on the various members of the Alumni Executive.
President of the Alumni Association
Catching strawberries in buckets seems a long way from
being general superintendent of the Empress Manufacturing
Co. plant here, but that is the enviable seven-year record of
Bruce A. Robinson, dynamic bundle of energy who is president of the Alumni Association.
Bruce, who is what is known as a "native son" of Vancouver, attended Lord Byng High School. His most striking
recollection of those days was the time they planted the Jubilee maple tree out in front. "It was so long ago they hadn't
even started the rogues' gallery there," he said, referring to
pictures of the graduating students.
To achieve his double degree in chemical engineering and
arts in 1936, Bruce worked summers in logging camps and
on surveys.
One summer he worked on a reforestation project at
Quatsino Sound, together with a graduate of the University
of Stockholm. What he remembers best about those summers
is the rain—and "how it rained!"
"It rained so hard and so long, that in order to sleep at
night we had to plug our ears with cotton, so that we couldn't
***■*                                                                                                                                 Representing
correct                                  *JUe cMoufUtati jdine
1272 Richards Street                                                  MArine 9826
Vancouver, B. C.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE hear it pounding down. "Even wearing tin pants wouldn't
help in that country," he remarked. "It was so damp all the
time we had to hang the bread over the stoves, along with
ourselves, so it wouldn't get mouldy . . . the bread, I mean."
Another summer he worked on a geological survey, and
for two months after he graduated he sold insurance—as a
"mouth feeder," he says.
Then he got a job with Empress, starting from "scratch,"
and a year or so later was transferred to the chemical department, where he set up his own laboratory and was in complete charge of all the equipment and routine. After two
years he was made plant superintendent, a position, which he
held until about a year ago, when he became general superintendent, responsible only to the manager.
His outside activities, besides working for the Alumni
Association, are skiing and photography.
"I ski so I can take pictures," he explained. "Pictorial
and landscape photography is my specialty, but I can handle
beautiful pin-up girls, too, if there happen to be any around.
Outside of the skiing and photography for relaxation," he
continued, "I pretty well stick to the old grind."
Bruce was Sciencemen's Undergraduate Society president
for a year, and also president of the grad classes of '36. This
is his second year as Alumni Association president. He was
also secretary of Convocation for two years.
He is a leader of the group which is trying to awaken
alumnis to realization of their responsibility to their Alma
Mater. The first step in this plan is the establishment of the
Graduate Chronicle on a new and regular basis.
"So far, the Alumni Association has been cruising along
in a social manner," he commented. "This is the time to do
something about it. Through the Chronicle, we can tie up all
the other activities, and draw them to the attention of
The traditional question, "To what do you attribute your
success, Mr. Robinson?" elicited the reply: "Good old U.B.C.
training, I guess. In those days, we didn't have any money,
and we really had to work for our education."
His favorite food, strangely enough, is jam, and that's a
fact, he says. There is no data on whether he started working
for Empress bedause he liked jam, or vice versa. "I don't
like peanut butter, though," he remarked, which is another
of the company's products  (plug!).
His favorite drink is mountain water, which he says is
one reason he climbs mountains.
And as to preference in music? "Symphony music, definitely, especially when contrasted with present day jazz."
He doesn't have any opinions short enough to fit into
this limited space on the debatable subject of whether or not
woman's place is in the home.
He prides himself on his kitchen prowess, too, his specialty
being home-made flapjacks—no commercial mixes for him,
either.    "I like them with jam, too," he says.
"What kind of girls do I prefer? Well, that would take
considerable time to explain. Let's just say I like them good-
natured, all-round girls, capable of mental gymnastics, and,
of course, artistically pleasing! The most important quality
I would require for a wife would be that she be able to put
up with me!" he laughed.
Bruce is 31 and single—what is commonly referred to as
an eligible bachelor. He admits he is often confused with
another Bruce Robinson, whose middle initial is L instead of
A, and who also is in the cannery business in New Westminster. This other Bruce, though, is raising a family, and has
nothing to do with bachelor Bruce, who is the hard-working
president of the Alumni Association.
*       C0RRESP0RDEI1CE       *
Vancouver, B.C., March 3, 1944.
Mrs. Shirley Gross,
Secretary-Treasurer, Alumni Association,
Brock Hall, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Mrs. Gross:
I have a copy of a letter sent to Mr. A. E. Lord, Secretary of the Board of Governors, University of British Columbia.
I agree wholeheartedly with the thoughts expressed in
your letter, and at the last meeting of the Board of Governors, a joint committee composed of members of the Board of
Governors and Senate was appointed to find ways and means
of rounding out the University of British Columbia.
It is my personal opinion that we need very badly a
Faculty of Medicine, a Department of Law, and an even
greater and more comprehensive effort in University Extension. We will need the help of every member of the Alumni
Association in every part of British Columbia, and I feel the
time is opportune for the Alumni Association to adopt an active and aggressive policy in this regard.
I feel sure that in the near future you will be hearing
from the Joint Committee.
Yours very truly,
Carbon and Alloy
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Parts and service right from the factory mean a
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During the course of a microscopical examination of a
piece of corroded mild-steel hot-water pipe which had been
in service for about three years it was observed that the material etched in alcoholic nitric acid showed a precipitate
within the grains, the amount of which varied in individual
grains and sometimes seemed to bear some relation to the
crystallographic planes. Much of the precipitate was very
fine, but some was in the form of needles resembling iron
nitride. Similar precipitates were observed in samples of mild-
steel and wrought-iron pipes which had been recovered from
a burnt building.
Investigation showed that these precipitates could be
removed by heating at 500—520 deg. C. and reprecipitated
by prolonged heating at 150—180 deg. C.
In a paper describing this investigation presented before
the Iron and Steel Institute, the author, Mr. T. H. Schofield,
M.Sc, states that compounds of elements present or likely to
be present in the materials which might be expected to give
such precipitation effects, as judged by the form of their
solubility curves in ferrite, are iron carbide, iron nitride and
possibly iron phosphide. The needle-like habit of the precipitate suggests that it might be iron nitride. If this is true,
whether precipitation occurs or not after low-temperature
heating appears to depend on the composition and/or the
initial condition of the material as well as on the nitrogen
content, since the steel GUF, containing 0.01 per cent, of
nitrogen, gives no precipitate after a period of heating in
which the wrought-iron tube C, containing 0.008 per cent, of
nitrogen, does so. In this connection it is noteworthy that
the materials showing the precipitate have also a high phosphorus content.
Dean, Day and Gregg, Koster and Epftein have noted
similar precipitation effects in iron and mild steel. The former workers observed that high-purity electrolytic iron normally showed no needles, but when melted in air or melted in
vacuum and treated wtih ammonia, needles appeard.
It is probable that the precipitate was not in the pipes
before service, but was produced by prolonging heating at
temperatures near 100 deg. C, and at this temperature the
precipitate is finer than that produced at 150—180 deg. C;
a sub-boundary precipitate observed in the wrought-iron specimen in addition to the needle form may be due to another
The work was carried out as part of the research programme of the National Physical Laboratory.—From The
Overseas Engineer—January, 1944.
317 W. Pender Street
Pacific 5932
Vancouver, B. C.
Athletics and Physical Education
Editor's Note: One of the most active Alumni
Committees has been that on Athletics and Physical
Education. Among its members have been Mary
Fallis, Rosemary Collins, Mackinnon Buck and Fred
Bolton. Recently there has been renewed agitation
for the establishment of a Department of Physical
Education on the campus. The Alumni Committee
has prepared a thorough report on the matter and
copies have been widely distributed among the Board
of Governors, Senate, the Legislature, and other interested groups. Miss Collins has written the following article to show some phases of the Committee's work.
For the past several months the Alumni Committee on
Athletics and Physical Education has been meeting to consider the question of the establishment of a full Department
of Physical Education at the University of B. C. This Committee, under the chairmanship of Miss Mary Fallis, has, in
compiling this report, carefully considered the needs of the
people of this Province, the student body of the University,
and the requirements of the teaching profession and educative
system of British Columbia.
It is recommended by the committee that a department
of Physical Education be established at the University for the
purpose of offering degree courses in physical education, and
to administer a program of physical training and sports for
the entire student body, men and women.
It is logical that a campaign of this nature should arise
at this time, when the public's attention is constantly being
drawn to reports and statements in press and magazine regarding the physical requirements of the militia and the civilian
war-worker. Physical examinations have shown that a large
percentage of our population is below good physical standards. These persons can neither work, fight, nor live to the
greatest degree of efficiency under this handicap.
It has been shown that a large number in this "rejected"
group can be raised to a higher standard of physical fitness
by proper physical and educational training. This is a job
that becomes a basic part of our provincial educational system,
so that all of our citizens, from all walks of life, and of every
age group, can participate in the business of living to their
maximum advantage.
Further, there is evidence that all the recreation centres,
activities, sports, and physical training programs of the Province must be, and soon will be, co-ordinated and expanded
for the purpose of more complete and efficient use by the
Leaders, directors, and teachers for this purpose must be
properly trained in order to satisfactorily handle those jobs in
the elementary, junior and senior high schools, and colleges,
of our educational system, in industrial plants of war and
peacetime manufacturing, and in the civic centres throughout
our municipal and rural communities. At the present time,
training in physical education, anatomy, physiology, etc., must
be sought outside of this province, Toronto being the closest
Canadian University  granting a Physical Education Degree.
The University of B. C, the provincial seat of learning,
maintained by the Province to service the higher educational
needs of this Province, is the logical institution to assume and
administer such a program of training physical education
directors and leaders. It should be the duty of the University
to take the lead and to evaluate and make provision for such
service to the community before that need becomes a public
For the duration of the war, and after the peace, such a
program will play an important part in rehabilitation of service men and women, as well as improving and maintaining
a high level of public health. An extensive program of recreational activities for civilians and demobilized service personrnel
would, briefly:
1. Maintain morale in the post-war period;
2. Probably reduce the cost of health insurance by becoming
part of a health maintenance program;
Improve social welfare of the community generally, and
of   young   people  paritcularly,   thus  helping   to  reduce
juvenile delinquency;
Keep the populace in good physical condition, with a
larger percentage readily available for military service;
By improving health and' maintaining a high standard
of living, such an extensive program would reduce absenteeism in industry and aid the war effort now; and it
will assist in the realization of our democratic ideals in
our country after the victory.
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British Columbia Company now a
Unit of fllonsanto Chemical Company
Believers in a post-war
industrial future of Western Canada won a new adherent recently when the
Monsanto Chemical Company of St. Louis, Missouri, announced completion of arrangements
whereby their interests are
merged with I. F. Laucks,
Ltd., of Vancouver.' The
transaction marks Mon-
santo's entry into the
West Coast industrial picture and gives this large
international chemical
company a dominant position in the fast-growing
British Columbia plywood
I. F. Laucks, Ltd., was
established just nine years ago by the present managing director, Irving C. Smith, and has experienced a steady growth and
expansion since. This growth has been based largely on the
company's leadership in research and its development of industrial glues. It was a pioneer in the production of soybean and
casein glues in Western Canada, and is at present the Dominion's largest manufacturer of synthetic resin glues used
largely in the manufacture of fir plywood. The company has
also developed a line of casein paints and wood preservatives.
The merger will be effected through an exchange of stock,
it was announced. No changes in the Laucks personnel are
contemplated and the Laucks operations will be. conducted as
a unit of the greater Monsanto operations.
"It is to be hoped that the spirit of co-operation which
has developed among the United Nations during the war will
lead to the removal of many of those difficulties in monetary
and commercial spheres which so much handicapped trade
between the two wars."—Mr. Ralph Assheton, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, Great Britain.
p.  D.  MURPHY
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The Science Mobilization Act S. 702, commonly known
as the Kilgore Bill, is now being considered by the Subcommittee on Technological Mobilization of the Senate Committee
on Military Affairs. The following summary of the features
of the bill has been prepared for the information of the Rochester Engineering Society and its affiliated organizations.
The stated purposes of the bill are largely laudable.
These purposes include the coordination of scientific and technical data and facilities, the guidance of governmental agencies in scientific matters, the development of comprehensive
national programs for the use of science and technology in
the national interest, the encouragement of scientific research, and the expansion of free enterprise by making available to smaller businesses the benefits of scientific advancement.
However, the vicious nature of the bill becomes apparent when
one considers the methods by which these purposes are to be
The bill would establish an Office of Scientific and Technical Mobilization which would include a National Scientific
and Technical Board of seven members, two of whom would
be scientists or technologists, and a National Scientific and
Technical Committee consisting of at least twenty-six members, five of whom would be scientists or technologists. This
Office would have the power to "formulate and promote projects and programs for the development and use of scientific and technical facilities and personnel and when necessary
to initiate and carry out such projects." The tremendous
scope of this authority is indicated by the fact that all "real
and personal property, tangible and intangible, all methods,
processes, techniques, designs, specifications, patents, inventions and scientific or technical information or knowledge used
or intended to be used for scientific or technical purposes" and
"all persons, excepting physicians and dentists, who have completed any course of study in any college or university in any
branch of science, or who have had six months' training or
employment in any scientific or technical vocation" would by
definition come under the jurisdiction and control of the
Office, whose rules and regulations would "have the force and
effect of law."
The Office would also have "the exclusive right to use
and license others to use any invention, discovery, or patent
resulting from research for which the United States or any
agency thereof has contributed in any way since the Declaration of National Emergency, and any invention, discovery, or
patent to any extent the property of the United States." In
administering the rules regarding patents, inventions, etc., the
Administrator of the Office would again be "authorized and
directed to prescribe appropriate rules and regulations" which
should "have the force and effect of law."
The Administrator would be "authorized to create or
organize a corporation or corporations as instrumentalities for
the more effective exercise and performance of his own powers
and duties or those of the Office."
The bill would authorize the appropriation of an initial
sum of $200,000,000 to be used by the Administrator at his
discretion to carry out the provisions and purposes of the Act.
It is evident that the bill would establish an all-powerful,
inefficient, tnonofxdistic bureacracy to control every scientific
and technical facility and all scientific and technical personnel
of the nation, both public and private, not only in time of
war, but also in time of peace.—From The Rochester Engineer—December, 1943.
Evans, Coleman & Evans Limited
Dealers in
pia iron
B. C. Representatives for Building- Products Limited Complete Line of Products
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Phene MArine 4454
MARCH, 1944
35 //
Chief Engineer, Canadian Sumner Iron Works Ltd.
The wartime shipbuilding program in Canada has brought
to most of us some degree of familiarity with ships and marine
equipment which we did not have before 1939. This country
had not, except for a brief period in the last war, been a shipbuilding nation. We have seen articles in the newspapers and
technical press on shipbuilding, and many Canadians have
actually been engaged in this industry or have been privileged
to see the finished units.
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However, little is seen, either installed aboard ship or in
print, of the most important machine among a vessel's auxiliary equipment. This unit is the ship's Steering Gear; little
seen because it is usually located in a closed compartment over
the rudder, and little known because it was a specialized
product seldom described.
Power for ship propulsion brought a need for power
steering and it was not long before hand-powered steering
gear was only used on small boats and as an emergency
auxiliary on larger vessels.
In order to more easily grasp the work that a ship's rudder is called upon to do and understand the forces acting on
it, we may consider the ship as being stationary and the water
moving past it. A rudder is then a plate held at different
angles across a moving stream of water.
Early experiments with the force exerted by a moving
stream of water on a flat plate were made in the Loire River
by the French Navy about 1873. Pressure exerted on the
plate, at right angles across the stream's flow, at a speed of 1
knot, was found to be about 3.2 pounds per square foot and
varied as the square of the speed.
However, a ship's rudder will never be at 90 degrees to
the flow but will vary from the centered or amidships position,
zero degrees, to the maximum operating angle called "Hard
Over," which is about 37 degrees either way.    It has been
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE found that moving a rudder beyond that angle tends to act
too much as a brake on the ship instead of just altering its
direction as desired.
Maximum pressure on the ship's rudder would be in the
hard over position or at an angle of 37 degrees to the ship's
center line. The force of the water stream, then, is not striking our plate at 90 degrees but is acting on angle which, at its
maximum, is about 37 degrees. Using the rudder area, then,
we must multiply by the sine of 37 degrees to give the normal
acting force at right angles to the rudder plate.
The rudder is hinged at its leading or forward edge and
the pressure due to stream flow is tending to rotate the rudder
about this line. However, the center of pressure is not at the
midpoint of a rectangular rudder, but on a line about % of
the width back from the leading edge or hinge. This is true
with the ship going ahead and without considering any rudder
Theoretical formula for maximum rudder torque is:
T = 0.787 A V2 W sine X
A = Rudder area in sq. ft. "immersed."
V = Slip stream velocity in feet per second
(speed plus 20%).
W = Rudder width in feet.
X — Maximum rudder angle in degrees.
T = Torque in foot pounds.
Coefficients of reduction give actual steady torque values.
Rudder shape and area is based on empirical data taking
into account the ship's lines, its length, and also the draught.
An idea of the power required for steering even vessels
of moderate speeds may be gained from the fact that the maximum rudder torque on a freighter of 9,300 tons capacity at
a speed of 10J/> knots may be 90,000 foot pounds.    That is,
on a quadrant arm of 5-foot radius a force of 18,000 pounds
would be required to hold the rudder in its hard over position
when steaming at 10^4 knots.    Time requirement is that the
steering gear should be capable of moving the rudder from
hard over one way to hard over the other way in 20 seconds;
this   is   demanded   in   order   that   the   ship   may   quickly   be
maneuvered.    A twin cylinder steam engine would be sized
on the basis of one cylinder exerting the torque required, since
the other may stop on dead center.
Early engines for applying power to the rudder were
located in the engine room and connected to the rudder by
long chains or rods. Introduction of the direct acting engine
by Wilson and Pirrie in 1888 brought a compact unit geared
to a quadrant mounted on the rudder post. Three main types
of Direct Connected Steering Gear are now built: (1) Steam,
(2) Hydraulic, (3) Electric.
M.E.I.C, MEM. A.I.E.E.
Consulting Engineer
675 West Hastings Street
Vancouver, B. C.
Special Representative
Dominion Engineering Company Limited
Montreal, Canada
Each type has its own advantages and disadvantages, but
in any type absolute reliability under all conditions is the vital
requirement, as not only may the ship be lost but the lives and
cargo too; moreover, another ship may be endangered. Gear
must also be self holding, that is, when rudder position is
reached the steering gear must be capable of holding it in that
position. The steering apparatus is composed of three distinct units: (1) the power unit, (2) the rudder connections,
and (3)  the control arrangements.
In cargo ships, similar to those being built in this country, a steam gear would be most suitable at this time taking
into consideration lower first cost signifying a moderate demand on skilled labour and critical materials.
A Steam Steering Gear for this job would consist of a
twin cylinder, single expansion, vertical engine with piston
valves having neither lap nor lead. The cylinder valves are
made without lap or lead so that the pistons, stopping anywhere in the stroke, would have full steam pressure exerted
again when the control valve is opened.
Speed and reversing is regulated by a piston-type control
valve, governing steam flow to the cylinders. This control
valve is operated from the ship's steering wheel on the bridge.
The control valve, which is built into the engine block between the engine valve chambers, can have only about Y^o"
of lap since there must be quick response on the rudder when
the helmsman moves the ship's steering wheel.
The engine has a worm cut integral with the crankshaft
which meshes with a large bronze worm gear. This worm
gear carries a heavy spur pinion which meshes with a toothed
rudder quadrant. Spring buffers are fitted between quadrant
and keyed tiller arm to cushion any shocks on the rudder.
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A novel arrangement is used on these engines, called a
hunting gear, to limit the rudder movement in accordance
with the amount the bridge steering wheel is turned. If it
were not for this gear, once the engine started it would keep
running until each time the rudder was moved way round
to the hard over position.
This hunting gear operates off the engine crankshaft, and
while the engine is running it gradually moves the control
valve back to center, thus shutting down the engine until
the valve is again opened by the helmsman.
A rudder brake is furnished along with the steering gear
to operate on a grooved brake quadrant bolted to the tiller
arm. This brake may be used to steady the rudder when
there is a heavy cross sea running, and also to hold the rudder
while emergency steering arrangements are made.
In the event of an engine breakdown, either due to damage or failure of steam supply, emergency steering can be
handled by emergency apparatus. The steam steering engine
is pulled back out of gear and cables are run from each side
of the rudder quadrant to the drums of an after-deck winch.
Connection from the Bridge Steering Wheel to the steering gear can be made by a long line of shafting and gears
winding its way down and aft from the bridge deck. This
system can be seen on many coastal passenger ships, often
running along the outside deck space suspended just under the
boat deck beams.
A more modern arrangement uses a medium called a
Telemotor System. This system uses a pair of rams and cylinders operated inside the Bridge Steering Stand by the wheel
and called the Transmitter, and a similar pair of rams and
cylinders called the Receiver, mounted on the steering engine
and geared to the engine control valve.
The two units are connected by a double line of copper
pipe running from bridge to engine and the whole filled with
a hydraulic fluid, either oil or a mixture of glycerine and
water. Movement then of the rams in the Bridge Steering
Stand is followed by a sympathetic movement of rams at the
steering engine, thus moving the control valve and turning
the rudder to the desired position.
In the event of a telemotor failure, steering control can
be transferred to a local control handwheel on the steering
engine which operates the control valve direct. Steering directions can be given from the bridge down to the engine by
means of telephone or voice pipe.
This article will give a fair outline of the mechanism
required to "Steer a Ship." Of course, many details have
been omitted for the sake of brevity. It is hoped, however,
that we have brought to those unacquainted with a Steering
Gear some knowledge of the design and construction required
to give a ship that ability to follow the Navigating Officer's
directions, whether it be steaming up the coast, docking, or
dodging a torpedo.
War affects education in obvious ways. It lays bare
practical deficiencies, multiplies intensive types of technical
training, introduces new personnel techniques, accelerates time
schedules, depletes teaching forces, scatters student bodies,
strips vested interests, and—as possible compensation for the
tribulations of the moment—awakens Utopian expectations of
the future. Some fine dreams may survive the postwar reaction, but many will die stillborn. Much will depend on the
length of the war. If men and women back from the services
crowd into the colleges soon, eager to complete the courses
left unfinished, it will strongly encourage a resumption of
the prewar programs. If their return is late and meager, substantial changes are more probable. Change is more probable
where work has been interrupted and personnel scattered; less
probable where continuity has existed in plan and organization.
Institutional independence, especially when associated with a
pioneering spirit, facilitates change, while solidarity among
similar institutions and with professional bodies tends to retard
it. In distinctly professional fields new experiences and attitudes engendered by war service, new areas of responsibility
taken over, and the prevailing state of depletion or overcrowding and of prosperity or its opposite, must also be
reckoned with.
The forces which will be at work in engineering and
allied fields of education at the war's ending may be estimated
as follows: The tide of returning students is likely to be
moderate, since so many have been enabled to continue under
the Army and Navy programs or through draft deferment.
It is more likely to be late than early, because of the slower
demobilization in the technical arms of the services. Widespread participation of engineering colleges in the Army and
Navy programs and in war research will hold to a minimum
the effects, of interruption and scattering so severely felt in
other areas. The war has revealed amazingly few deficiencies
in prewar engineering education, and these mostly on the intangible side. Change in educational habits in general has
been toward the familiar engineering models, with their heavy
time schedules, detailed work assignments, content emphasis,
mastery standards, and intimate supervision; in fact these
have been the models on which the Army and Navy have
built their college programs. These trends do not necessarily
establish the superiority of these habits and models, but they
do make revolutionary changes less probable.
The engineering professions have taken the war in their
stride, greatly expanding their activities by giving extra effort
and by making wider use of partially trained help, but without
significant change of attitude, scale of responsibility, or type
of organization. After being greatly undermanned in wartime, these professions may find themselves being undermined
at the coming of peace by the enormous number of men and
women who have received limited technical training in government-sponsored war training courses and have become
established in minor professional functions.
The forces and conditions just cited certainly do not
afford a stage setting for a postwar educational revolution.
Opportunity for change will be at hand and a receptive attitude created, but change is fairly certain to be orderly and
deliberate.   Furthermore, it will come mainly from  within.
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128 5 Homer Street
Vancouver, B. C.
MARCH, 1944 There is little indication of any pressure from the profession,
which is a body of vague boundaries and divided organization,
or from industry or from public authorities. The engineering
colleges, on the other hand, have a long-established solidarity
and a quite remarkable record of working out their policies
and problems together. The Engineers' Council for Professional Development, which provides the colleges with a useful
medium of consultation with the major professional bodies and
the public licensing authorities, has so far not operated as a
two-way channel of communication or of influence.
One may predict, therefore, that postwar changes in
engineering education will be by evolution along lines already
well indicated. Unless there is a radical regrouping of studies
between the secondary schools and higher institutions, engineering education will almost certainly continue as a self-
contained division of higher education, similar to agriculture
or commerce, spanning the entire undergraduate and postgraduate range of studies. It would thus continue its broadly
functional character, in contrast to the sharply segregated
professional disciplines of law, medicine, dentistry, and
theology. The professional body is a nucleus within the field
of engineering, but one separated by a vague boundary from
the great body of technical workers and of administrators of
industry. Differentiation between a distinctive professional
training and a more general training for industrial administration has been in process for a decade or more, and is likely
to be accelerated. So far, however, this differentiation has
operated chiefly through the addition of postgraduate studies
in advanced fields of science and technical speculation.
The tendency thus set in motion to reduce the undergraduate programs to a few generic groups consisting almost
wholly of mathematics, graphics, the physical sciences, and
their fundamental applications, together with a band of such
humanistic studies as English, history, and economics, topped
off with an introduction to basic methods of engineering application through the balancing of technical and economic
considerations, and to transfer practically all forms of higher
specailization to the graduate level, seems to hold the most
promise of future advancement. Such a plan is elastic; its
time demands are adaptable to individual aptitudes, interests,
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and needs; it would alleviate the traditional overcrowding of
schedules; it would afford wider scope for general education
throughout the undergraduate years; and it would encourage
the extension of education as a part-time activity during the
earlier years of active experience. Given some such guiding
policy, widely accepted, a moderate differentiation between
technical and management studies for undergraduates and a
wider separation at the graduate level would be easily possible. In the development of such a plan, it would be the
role of the colleges to initiate, of the professional bodies to
sanction, and of the licensing authorities to implement an
attainable advance from a four-year level of professional training to one of five years or in time even six, without sacrificing
or even disturbing other educational services to which the
colleges are committed. This appaers to be an eminently desirable and practically attainable postwar goal.
William E. Wickenden, D.Eng., is president of the Case
School of Applied Science, Cleveland, Ohio. He formerly
taught physics and electrical engineering at the University of
Wisconsin and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology; was
personnel manager of the Bell Telephone Laboratories and
assistant vice-president of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company; and directed an investigation of engineering
education sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation and the
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.
Amongst the awards of Lloyd's War Medal for bravery
at sea was one to Thomas Wilson Chapman, carpenter. The
ship, sailing alone, was torpedoed and sank. Carpenter Chapman was in charge of one of the boats which got away, and
it was largely due to his exceptional courage, leadership and
skill that the occupants were brought to safety after a voyage
of 22 days in very heavy weather. When food supplies were
getting short he caught a shark about 4 ft. 6 in. in length.
Using his hand as a bait, he coolly waited until the shark
approached, and catching it by the gills he threw it into the
boat and then killed it. He also found time to nurse a sick
man amongst all his other duties.—From The Overseas Engineer—January, 1944.
•   -
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Vancouver, B. C.
MARCH, 1944
41 Headquarters for
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MArine 4136-7
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Same Phone Number:
PAcific 6541
The Editor,
17 February,  1944.
The Graduate Chronicle,
University of B. C,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
Am enclosing my cheque for $2.00 to cover one year's subscription
to the Graduate Chronicle, I don't recollect just how far ahead I was
paid up to heretofore, but it at all, please just add this on.
Like you must be, I am looking ahead to bigger and better things
from the graduates hoping that you will have enough subscribers to
enlarge the Chronicle. More than anything I think the pages telling of
other alumni, their whereabouts, etc., are to be anticipated for an early
return. As a suggestion, I for one would like to see a few words each
issue telling of the happenings with the faculty back at U.B.C.—they
were pretty good friends as well as educators for my money.
Wishing you lots of success, I remain,
Yours most sincerely,
c/o Commander Service Squadron,
South Pacific Force,
Via Fleet P.O., San Francisco, Calif.
Lt.  (J.G.), U.S.N.R.
Yellowknife, N.W.T.,
February  9th,   1944.
Mr. P. R. Brissenden, Treasurer,
Alumni Association of U.B.C,
640 West Pender Street,
Vancouver, B.C.
Dear Mr. Brissenden:
The December issue of the Graduate Chronicle, the one with the
photograph of a seductive hula dancer on the cover, has finally reached
me after wandering from Copper Mountain, B.C., to Pamour, Ontario, to
South Porcupine, Ontario, to Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. Perhaps it would be a good idea if I enclosed sufficient money to cover the
cost of a Life Membership, one year's subscription to the Chronicle and
a change of address on your books. After all, it's almost two years since
I  left Copper Mountain.
I would like to express my approval of the editorial entitled "Now
Is the Time," and of the Executive's program as outlined under the
heading "Start Digging." In fact it was "Start Digging" that inspired
me to dig  to the extent  of a Life Membership.
Yours very truly,
February   21,   1944.
Officers' Mess,
No.  19 S.F.T.S.,
Vulcan, Alta.,
The Treasurer,
Alumni Association of U.B.C,
Vancouver, B.C.
Dear Sir:
I'm afraid 1 am one of the graduates who always intends to write
and to send in his dollar, but never seems to get around to it. However,
I happened to be re-reading the last Graduate Chronicle today, and decided
that if I wanted any more, I should send along my dollar immediately for
this year, so please find it enclosed.
If you care for a bit of news for your next issue, there are several
graduates and former students of U.B.C at this station. P/O Stewart, a
former member of the Pep Club, who graduated I believe in 1936 or
1937 and who went to Australia in 1938 and joined the Australian Air
Force, was stationed here for some time but is now at Flying Instructor's
School at Pearce.
F/O McKirdy of Vancouver, a former student, is a navigator instructor on the station.
P/O Sloat, a graduate of McMaster and former lecturer at U.B.C, is
a flying instructor here.
Mr. Jack Townsend, another U.B.C student, is a meteorological officer
on this station.
P/O Max Chapin, also a previous Pep Clubber, is an armament instructor here.
So we have quite a few of the University represented  here.
As for myself, I am a Commerce graduate of 1937, a Normal graduate of 1939, and at present I am meteorological officer for the Air Force
here at Vulcan.
Another one of our graduates, LAC H. Daunt, is at present a pilot
in training at this station, having completed his elementarv training at
Abbotsford, B.C.
I hope you don't mind this rambling on of a former U.B.C. member,
but I thought some member of the Association might be interested in my
information,  and  you   could,  if you would,  pass  it  on  to  them.    Thanks.
Yours sincerely,
ROGER N. CHESTER, B.Com., '3 9.
B.Com.,  '37.
"Fierce battles lie ahead of us on the way to victory, but
the more closely we collaborate the sooner we shall achieve
victory over the enemy."—Mr. Feodor Gusev, Soviet Ambassador.
Made  in   British   Columbia
2311-2315 Cambie Street
Vancuover, B. C.
FAir. 3 226
MArine 5364
MARCH. 1944
43 Woodworking machine features
When the first circular saw was placed in operation at
New Orleans in 1803, the workmen promptly destroyed it
because they feared the loss of their jobs. This action was not
unlike the treatment accorded numerous "fool" inventions
that have since created better standards of living. However,
the scarcity of skilled craftsmen in a growing nation soon
encouraged others to introduce badly-needed mechanical
equipment. Thus came the development of single purpose
woodworking machines, such as cutoff saws, rip saws, shapers,
tenonenrs, dado machines and others.
Today, industry has over 5,000 uses for wood. Among
the wide variety of articles utilizing wood, in one form or
another, are clothing, linoleum, plywood, paper, innumerable
molded wooden articles (ranging from art objects to kitchen-
ware), plastics and housing materials.
Such varied use of wood required the work of many different machines . . . since each unit at one time was designed and built for one purpose alone. This condition necessitated a large initial outlay of capital for machinery alone in
order to offer maximum service. Frequently, a woodworking
plant's requirements would change from one season to another. Certain products would require the constant use of
only one or two machines . . . while the others remained idle
and depreciated in value. In order to increase production,
such a plant was therefore forced to buy more machinery.
Consequently, there arose a great demand for equipment
that was as flexible as the cutting need. The perfection of
the versatile DeWalt machine is claimed to be the answer to
this need. The manufacturer states that one DeWalt will do
the work and earn the profits of many machines for it does
every operation as well as, or better than, any manually oper-
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ated, individual purpose machine. The DeWalt will make
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miter and bevel rip. With the addition of dado heads, shaper
cutters and other tools, it can be quickly converted into a
dado machine, shaper, tenoner rip saw, etc. The variety of
its operations is limited only by the ingenuity of the operator.
For the small operator, DeWalt means a distinct saving
in equipment necessary to render maximum service. For the
large operator, this modern equipment means an efficient single
purpose machine which, in an emergency or on demand, can
be quickly changed to another job. It is used wherever wood
is cut.
The versatility of this machine lies principally in the
fact that there are three 3 60° adjustments. The cantilever
arm rotates a full 3 60° horizontally around the column for
right- or left-hand mitering. The motor yoke swivels 3 60°
horizontally under its carriage while the motor rotates 360°
vertically within its yoke. And no matter how the cutting
tool is located, the DeWalt performs every operation flawlessly
at production speeds.
The arm slide rides on ball bearings so that the machine
may be adjusted to absolute accuracy and yet finger-tip pressure will control its movements through the material. This
machine, therefore, can take the place of five or six single-
purpose machines, being instantly adjusted for its different
operations with great saving in set-up time alone, and because
of this versatility, speed and accuracy, these machines soon
pay for themselves because they are seldom idle, and because
of their accomplishments, not only soon pay for themselves,
but return during their lifetime many times their original
cost to their owners.
These machines are all very sturdily constructed and last
for many years. DeWalt machines are built from ]/z H.P. to
15 H.P. single phase machines of 11/2, 2 and 3 H.P. which can
run on electric light current. Our 11/2 and 2 H.P. machines
are made in either portable or deluxe models, the latter being
the same machine mounted on steel table with steel legs and
wooden top. For building, shopwork, maintenance and construction these machines are unsurpassed.
In the construction and building of the Alaska Military
Highway, DeWalt Machines played an important part.
The United States Government, after most severe tests
with all manually-operated woodworking machinery available,
have bought more than ninety-eight hundred DeWalts, which
speaks for itself.
DeWalt Disher Corporation Limited, 402 Pender Street
West, Vancouver, B. C, are the Dominion of Canada Representatives for DeWatl Woodworking and DeWalt Metal-
cutting Machines.
Mrs. Shirley Gross,
Alumni Association of the University of British Columbia,
Brock Building,   University of B. C,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Madam:
Enclosed please find:
(a) My annual subscription fee of $2.00 to
(b) My annual subscription fee of $1.00 to
Please send my CHRONICLE to:
Name  -
Manufacturers of a Full Line of
Tested and Proved Paints for All Purposes
At the time this edger was built at
HEAPS plant—1918—it was the last
word in high production machinery—
and is still going strong. ->-
-<—Since that date HEAPS have progressively improved on design — the
modern HEAPS edger gives faster —
better — safer production than was
thought   possible   a   few  years   ago. hat shall
we do with
We are going to win this war. No one doubts
that. The road may be hard still, and long still,
but it can lead to only one goal. One of these
days we shall wake to find that the last shot has
been fired . .. the last war cloud has been swept
from the sky . . . Victory will be here, shining
like a sunrise. Victory, with all its possibilities—
all its opportunities and all its problems! Has
anyone thought what we shall do with it?
For Victory is not an end but a beginning.
It is a doorway through which millions of us
will come crowding eagerly into a new and
bright but uncertain world. Millions of us . . .
pressing back from our war jobs . . . men and
women from the fighting services, men and
women from the arms plants. Has anyone thought
what we shall do? Has anyone thought how our
enthusiasm and strength and goodwill shall be
turned to good account — for Peace?
Goodness knows there will be plenty that
will need doing. There will be tens of thousands
of new homes to be built in our cities and townships and hamlets and on our farms. There will
be equipment and furnishings needed to outfit
these homes. There will be thousands of miles
of new roads to lay down—thousands of miles
of old roads to improve and light. There will
be bridges to throw across our rivers and ravines
. . . railroads to modernize and electrify and
provide with new rolling stock ... a great programme of rural electrification to carry out —
to lighten the lives of farming folk. Factories,
offices, stores, will need new machines, new
elevators, new lighting installations. Recreational and entertainment centres will be required—new ball parks, theatres, sports arenas,
swimming pools. Enlarged universities, schools,
libraries, hospitals and civic centres—Canada
will need many such, and their planning, building,
equipment and operation can find employment
for tens of thousands of us.
We need not wonder what we can do with
Victory. But we should be wondering now,
how we shall do it! We should be wondering
what part we each can play in winning the
coming peace. Those of us who are home-makers
should be wondering what we shall do about
our post-war dwellings. Those of us who are
industrialists should be wondering what we
shall do about the modernization of our
plants. Those of us who market and merchandise,
should be wondering how we can better our
shops and stores and warehouses. Those of us
who have the gift for civic leadership should be
wondering about the housing needs, the cultural
and recreational needs of our communities.
For this country of ours is heading for peace.
And peace, make no mistake about it, will
demand just as mighty an all-out effort from
us as war. That is why, while there must not
be the slightest relaxation of our all-out efforts
to win the war — we must plan for the post-war
future and we must start planning todayj
Many governmental, municipal and indus-
trialrgroups already are active upon such planning. Many individuals are planning. But
more planning is needed; more is possible. For,
by planning today, we prepare ready-made
markets for the post-war tomorrow — markets
which will absorb our fullest productive effort
and thus create full and gainful employment
for everyone.
^Campbell fc Smith Ltd., Effectire Printing


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