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The Graduate Chronicle 1944-08

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 4£
<% Graduate
IIOGUST, 1944
CATERPILLAR"  DISTRIBUTORS  FOR  B.  C.
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Because of years of gruelling war service, much steam equipment
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE The
GRADUATE CHRONICLE
Published by the Alumni Association of
the University of British Columbia
AUGUST, 1944
Editor: Darrell T. Braidwood, M.A., Barrister at Law
Associate Editor: A. D. Creer, M.E.I.C, M.Inst.C.E.
Assistant Editors:
Dorothy Taylor, B.A.; Donald A. C. McGill, B.A.
Business Manager: W. E. G. Macdonald
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
OUT OF BOUNDS     5
TO THE YOUNG ENGINEER
—By Webster N. Jones       9
HIGH ALTITUDE FLIGHT
—By Fit. Lieut. W. C. Gibson   10
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLAN
ADOPTED BY DIRECTION BOARD  12
EDITOR'S PAGE   19
ENGINEERING EDUCATION AFTER THE WAR
—By N. W. Dougherty  25
INTERNATIONALISM IN EDUCATION
—By Leslie G. Kilborn  23
UP-COUNTRY MEETINGS  20
A PROFESSION  WITHOUT UNITY
By Herbert J. Gilkey   8
DISCUSSION  31
Editorial Office: „    . _-.
" Business Office:
Alumni Assn. Office,
Brock Bldg., U " 555 HoWE Street
University of B. C. Vancouver, B. C.
Published at Vancouver, British Columbia.
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE
L Out of Bounds
^^k^r     ^^^ by A. T. Ander:
1
Anderson, B.Ap.Sc. '40
-A Canadian Soldier hooks at Rome-
Editor's Nate: We print herewith an amusing
account of the experiences of one Canadian soldier
in Rome. This letter has been submitted to us by a
prominent graduate who informs us it was written
by a U.B.C. graduate now in Italy with an Engineering Detachment.
All that glistens isn't Rome—or so everyone's been
told. Very typical Canadiano. Rome is OUT OF
BOUNDS. You might just as well tell a Vancouverite
that he can't swim in the Pacific.
Four o'clock is awful early to go sightseeing, but arguments are avoided more easily.
The jewel of de Muss lies in an open valley with miles
of crops surrounding. No fences and few trees—similar to
interior B. C. minus the large mountains as background.
Of the legends one is true—all roads do lead to Rome.
As highways they rate with the best. As in all big cities
you come in by the railway yards with their slums. Once
again you say "another Wop town." Then suddenly you
cross a mythical but magical line. The streets widen and
are lined with trees. By "wide" is meant that Burrard
Street would be one-way for horse carts. Homes as we
know they are lacking. Gardens are great stretches of
grass are non-existent, everything is planted with flowers
and flowering shrubs with little paths wandering through
them. The trees resemble oaks and huge chestnuts—what
they are I no capete. Many streets have boulevards in the
center—Angus Drive west of Granville. The distinctive
trees are pines and cypress.
All the roads curve and twist about and it's necessary
to take your bearing from the sun when you can see it
through the trees.
As all people do you follow the crowds which leave
you stranded somewhere across the town. Usually just on
the outside, where of course we landed.
The outskirts of Rome are composed of modernistic
apartment blocks, especially in the newer areas, super deluxe in the early morning light.
With a scurry for maps and considerable argument we
suddenly find we're on the embankment of the famed
Tiber. The main reason for its belated discovery being the
width of the road across to the railing overlooking the
river. It was necessary to call for a volunteer to make
the journey to the railing to advise us what lay in the
gully below.
As a river it's a wash-out. It's about half the width
of the Thames at Waterloo Bridge, but similar otherwise
—brown and slow moving, completely corralled by man-
made embankments.
Across from us we noticed great marble statues—at
last ancient Rome! The area had statues alright, at least
a hundred great muscle men overlooking a cinder track,
modernistic buildings and fountains.    Alas, 'twas only one
AUGUST, 1944
of Mussolini's ideas of Roman culture. In the center is a
huge marble faced stadium, an exact replica of a typical
U.S. football stadium. Musso was all front, though, the
mass of the stadium is not good old concrete but hollow
brick work faced with marble. Modernistic, but shabbi-
ness was approaching fast.
The statues represent athletes in all types of games, and
in typical Eyte fashion they're all naked. Who it was supposed to enthuse is still debatable, though no one can say
that the women in this country didn't try hard to collect
Mussolini's extra bounty for babies.
One of the more intelligent members spots a great
church dome—St. Peter's—let's go. Pillars ahead, so we
make for them and emerge on a huge paved horseshoe
surrounded for the most part with four rows of marble
pillars. Across the acres of marble and granite stands
St. Peter's.    American soldiers are pouring in.
It's quite a joint—everything is marble, gold paint and
candlesticks. Everyone gawks. Italians pray at the small
altars unheeding the crowds of soldiers. The place would
hold a couple of good ice rinks with lots of room for hot
dog stands and left overs. At the far end the crowd is
congregating. Oops! We're out of place, they're handing
out the good books!
We saunter off. On one side is a scaffffold where a
lone Wop is chipping the marble. There is a crowd here
watching the construction and no wonder it took so many
years to build. These fellows are obviously not contracting. A final look—what a great place for a gold mine.
The atmosphere would probably discourage any highgrad-
ing thinking miners you might hire—-who knows. A joker
in blue breeches, blue frock, blue tarn and white starched
collar whizzes by—a papal guard? or what?
The Vatican, which stretches out behind St. Peter's, is
walled and formidable—be hard to get into even for a
Fuller brush man. Typically human across the piazza from
St. Peter's is a wooden fence with commercial posters.
Rome is just another city where a million people strive for
a living—all that glistens isn't Rome.
Now where? We wheel up the hillside into a park.
So this is Rome? Churches, churches and still more
churches. Where are the Seven Hills, the Colosseum, the
black stone? Out comes the army map which was never
meant for tourists such as we.
"Are you lost, gentlemen?" A very distinguished old
gentleman is bearing down upon us. "Well, yes, sir, we're
just babes in the woods of Rome." The old gent is efficient. "Where's your map?" "Ah, yes, you are"—he
quickly scans it—"here. "The Colosseum?" "Here."
"The Palace?" "Here." The old boy is amazing. He can
read the map far better than we. He looks at his watch.
He's in a hurry so we make a deal. We'll get him to his
appointment on time, wait ten minutes, and then he'll show
us Rome.    He introduces himself, General Demetrio Hel- brigf, Italian Aeronautical Engineer and Scientist. We're
honoured—a General showing a couple of Canadian lieutenants his own city. He directs us to his appointment.
As we pass he points out the sights. The Tomb of the
Blessed Angel with the city built on top. He tells us the
legend of the sheathed sword which at one time was flourished by the statue on top. It apparently took an angel to
get the sword in its scabbard. Down Rome's Fifth Avenue
with its fashionable hotels, through another park, then to
his appointment. A ten-minute wait. Nine minutes later
he reappears.    "I am on time, no?"    We're off.
First, Ancient Rome. We wheel through into the
center of town. Traffic stops us. On one side the immense marble monument to Victor Emmanuel II, founder
of modern Italy. It's gorgeous, magnificent, colossal; but
Italians don't eat well, the poor are so poor. Across the
piazzo is the balcony—da Musso's balcony—the loud speakers are still there. The last four windows, see?—those are
in Musso's pacing room—no, not waiting—pacing. This is
the center of Rome.   We have reached the end of all roads.
See up there? Corso Umberto. The Granville Street,
Market Street, Wilshire Boulevard and Main Street. Buildings old and new. None are high, four or five stories at
the most.    Theatres, fashionable shops and bars.
We stop behind the statue of Victor Emmanuel II.
From here we walk—Ancient Rome at last! We walk
down into the excavations, the odd dilapidated wooden
fence, a few phoney iron rails, the weeds grow, hard-
packed earth. Cambie Street grounds on a hot day with,
of course, some old chunks of stone lying around. This
is the Arch of So and So, this of Whos'it, the stone, the
black stone of Romulus and Remus, the foundation of
Rome.   It's over here.
A pitiful little bomb-proof shelter, no, we can't see it.
It's half full of water. One of us goes down the four steps
and looks under the sandbags and timber. A large black
stone in the gloom. So, that's it. And my feet are wet
for the rest of the day.
Yes, this is the Appian Way. Large greenish black volcanic rocks laid on the ground about 12 feet wide. A V-8
would break its axle in the first 100 yards. Marvellous,
isn't it? Stones laid on the ground. Thank God we're not
sappers in the Ancient Royal Rome Engineers.
Constantine had his palace here. Everything is in
brick, long thin wafer-like bricks. The General explained
the secret of longevity, thinner so they can be properly
baked. The garden—bushes, trees and plants—was made
by one of the Popes and sits on top of the palace ruins.
It's pleasant from here, you can see the acres of bricks,
marble and rubble which is the tourist attraction of Rome.
Where are the Seven Hills? They're there—true, the
ground hardly rises to them, they're not Canadian hills.
Oh, no, rubble, debris, and the mess that goes with civilization has filled the valleys. Thus the Hills are just another
myth of old.   Rome's had them, chum, she's had them.
Over there—see? The bell tower, and another over
there, see the coloured disks on them? Some people say
that we've ruined the world with billboards, this new, mad
twentieth century. See those coloured disks embedded in
the clock tower? They're soup plates to tell the bums of
old that here was an ancient flop house run by the kindly
church.
See under the floor? There's another floor leaving a
space of about 18 inches—a suitable place for poisoned
guests? No, no, Canada. That's the ancient hot air heating system. A fire in the basement and hot air circulates
under the floors, for two and three-story buildings—who
knows. Why has the brick and mortar lasted so long?
The mortar is a mixture of Portland cement, ancient name
unknown, and red volcanic ash instead of sand. Whoever
owned those volcanoes south of Rome must have been the
Henry Kaiser of old times.    Was it called Permanenta?
Then the General stops—let's rest. So he tells us of
Orville Wright and Wilbur. He watched them when they
flew a measured 100 meters. The take-off was by catapult
and their epoch flight took them over a flag-studded wire
stretched between two balloons, one of aviation's epoch
flights which they made. The old gentleman still has deep
admiration for his friend Orville. . . .
Have you ever been to Canada? Yes, for three hours
at Windsor, a side excursion during his visit in an International Congress in America in 1926.
Now it's the Colosseum. See, this is it. Here's where
gladiators fought of old. Over there—that's where the
royal box was. Yes, there are channels to the Tiber which
flooded the arena area. Good for aquacades and the like.
American soldiers patrol the inner area. No fear, lads, the
gladiators didn't belong to the blackshirts. Here is the
Pantheon, Piazzo Colonna. The ancient becomes boring
but the General has surprises. The oldest church in Rome.
We keep a book for anyone that can name it. The Church
of Clementine sits on top of it. We enter the new church
and a monk greets us, "Begorra, if it's not Canadians, and
how are you doing, lads?" An Irishman in Rome, truly a
city of wonders. . . . Here are Irish monks. They show
their church, then down the stairs. This is the old 6th
century. Who discovered it? Why, none other than
Father Malhony himself. They explain the ancient frescoes
to us. Is there nothing new? Under one of them is another fresco. The painter had his say even in the 6th century. It depicts the workmen who built the church. All
are grunting and groaning and giving advice. Off to the
side stands the foreman, with only one comment to make
in Italian—"Sons of bad women"—the general took us
aside, "Prostitutes," he means.
But the 6th century, that's not the first. Oh, no. So
down more steps into the temple of Mithias. Here is a
pagan temple where new converts were bathed in the blood
of a bullock. A religion too pagan to give Christianity any
competition.
Canada, you are now looking at 2100 years.
We ask a very foolish question—Why are all the old
buildings dug into the ground? Dug? Ah, no, 'tis the
rubble of ancient times that has covered them. Here it is
30 feet deep.
Finally, the Church of the Four Unkn6wn Saints, the
most restful place in Rome—a small courtyard garden
where no sound ever enters. The General rests again, he
must away. We climb the hill to his villa, past the finest
bit of Rome—the statue of Garibaldi, who made it all
possible.
With our adieus to the General in his library we move
on to modern Rome. The Imperial Palace, an ugly building in dirty orange, and dilapidation quickly on the way.
The main streets remind one of London, San Francisco and
Vancouver. They're all the same, pavement, buildings and
street cars. In the glare of noonday the modern Italy is
shabby, the modernistic buildings are poorly made; the
shutters don't work and weather is quickly taking its toll.
Mussolini was building for his own life, not for the future.
Theatres are few and ordinary. The restaurants, which
are practically out of food, are just restaurants. We've
seen it all before.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE As evening comes, it's time to go. We wave the girls
good-bye. They're all pretty in their summer frocks and
high heels—gorgeous figures and legs. They take quickly
to American warpaint. It's strange, though, you never
see a beautiful woman over 25 or 30. They blossom early
in Sunny Italy, but fade as quickly. San Francisco is still
my favorite leering town—but then I haven't seen Paris
or Vienna yet.
The drinks are typical Wop poison, Vermouth, Cognac,
Vino—no wonder men are useless here.
Back out of Rome through the fields of grain. Beautiful country, isn't it?    Or is it?
I've had Rome, but I wish they'd show a cowboy picture tonight!
The Wartime Bureau of Technical Personnel
monthly Bulletin
BULLETIN FOR JUNE, 1944
DEMAND FOR TECHNICAL PERSONNEL
A review of the position with regard to supply and
demand made at the end of June indicates there has been
little if any change in the situation which has been obtained over the past three years.
The number of openings for technical persons in essential undertakings still exceeds the number of persons available in certain branches of engineering and science the
supply continues to run well behind the demand. Considerable success was met with in filling the needs for newly
graduated technical persons in accordance with specific
inquiries for members of this year's class; but many of the
openings on record are such as to require persons with
more experience and such openings are still being filled only
with the greatest difficulty.
As evidence of the considerable diversity which characterizes the field in which technical persons are used, a table
is given below in which the permits actually issued during
the month of June are divided into certain broad classifications. It will be noted that the largest number of permits
are issued under the classification of education and research
activities. This is, of course, a seasonal development, as it
is customary for both the universities and other research
agencies to recruit the bulk of their sessional employees at
this time of year. A considerable number of permits issued
under this heading will take effect only in the Autumn
when the universities open and in the meantime the individuals involved have taken up other temporary employment.
Another classification which has seasonal aspects is that
of Dietetics as this is the time of year when new graduates
in Household Science secure assignments to hospitals or to
commercial organizations which require dietitians. Outside
of these two categories to wide distribution of activities
covered by new permits is typical of the Bureau's experience throughout the year.
Permits Issued in fune, 1944
Education and Research Activities   (Universities and
other agencies)   107
Engineering, Architectural, Municipal and Inspection
Service  59
Dominion Government Departments  52
Dietetics, hospital and commercial  50
Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals  49
General manufacturing not included elsewhere  48
Base metals, mines and basic iron and steel  36
Provincial Government Departments  30
Public utilities:  Transportation, phone, light, power
and gas   25
Pulp, Paper and other forest products  20
D. I. L.   19
Aircraft production . 16
Petroleum products  16
Food products  15
Electrical manufacturing   10
Rubber industry   7
Total   5 5 9
Experience regarding new demands for technical personnel resembles that in the broader fields of manpower
generally in that new programmes of production are constantly being developed even though recession in some lines
might suggest an easing of the manpower situation.
One such new programme which has involved technical
personnel to a marked degree is that dealing with the production of Penicillin. Outside of a very limited circle of
scientists, little was known of this particular preparation as
recently as a year ago. But within the past nine months it
has been necessary to recruit a large number of scientists
and other workers, first to iron out the many problems involved in production on a large scale and then to develop
the output to the point where a sufficiently large supply
would be constantly forthcoming. Beginning about September, 1943, various laboratories and pharmaceutical
houses began calling for necessary scientific staff, and demands are still coming in.
Dealing purely with overall numbers such new demands
might very readily have been offset by the curtailment in
the shell programme which began to be felt at about the
same time. However, before the penicillin needs were fully
met shell production was stepped up again, resulting in
the need for further search for persons with the scientific
training required. It should be emphasized that such situations have to be dealt with in the face of a steady drain of
technical persons to the Armed Forces, both in a technical
capacity and, to a limited extent, by enlistments for general duties in the three services.
In connection with the demands of the Armed Forces
for technical officers, the recent absorption of the various
groups from this year's graduating class has been followed
by the usual review of establishments and in the meantime
further demands are somewhat limited. But judging from
past experience there is no assurance that further demands
will not be forthcoming. Possible anticipated needs of the
Services are, therefore, kept in mind so that recommendations as to suitable candidates in all or any of the technical
branches can be submitted at short notice.
MONTHLY STATISTICS
During the month, 1656 interviews were granted by
the Bureau staff; 134 questionnaires were added to the files;
and 559 permits to employ technical personnel were issued.
FREEDOM
We hear a good deal about "Freedom" these days. Some
of us need reminding that Freedom is not a right—it is a
privilege, and like other privileges, demands certain standards of life and action. No man, or group of men, of
whatever class, is entitled to Freedom if he uses that privilege to despoil and exploit his fellows.
AUGUST,  1944 LETTERS
July 22nd, 1944.
Registrar,
Association of Professional Engineers of B.C.,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B.C.
Dear Sir:
Please find enclosed the questionnaire which I received
recently. I have filled out the form as you requested and
regret the delay in returning it to you.
I would like to add a further note to this letter as I
feel that as it is, the questionnaire does not reflect my views
on this subject. From my own personal observations while
employed in the United States and Canada, I have long
felt that the Society of Professional Engineers in British
Columbia as it is, had the best set-up both for engineers and
engineering of any similar organization with which I came
into contact. As matters stood, recognition by the Society
meant something professionally. For this reason, as well
as the hope of returning to British Columbia permanently
some time in the future, I maintained my membership in
the Society.
I believe that as organized in British Columbia the
engineers have an agency for any collective bargaining
through the medium of the Society. The fact that some
engineers are employers makes little difference because ultimately their views would have to be considered. Might I
point out as well that to differentiate between persons
having authority to employ or discharge employees and
others will not be a very simple matter. Such a situation
is not always clear. About the only difference is in the
degree of such authority and to make any division would
be an extremely controversial matter in many cases.
In closing may I thank you for sending me your questionnaire.
Yours very truly,
RENE J. TEMOIN (E.I.T.).
The Editor,
Graduate Chronicle of U.B.C,
Vancouver, B.C.
Dear Sir:
The March issue of the Graduate Chronicle reached me
shortly before D-Day and as we were rather busy it got
thrown into my box with a lot of other stuff.
I was cleaning out the box yesterday and finally found
the a/m publication (as one gets used to writing in the
army).
Whenever one finds an unread magazine in the middle
of somebody's cowfield in Normandy he immediately reads
it before someone else reaches for it. So I read it from
cover to cover, wondering, when about halfway through:
"How do I get more of these?"
I found out. So, Mr. Editor, my three bucks are on
the way from my Vancouver account, and you can put
me on the mailing list right away.
Yes, all the articles were very interesting and thought-
provoking, especially those dealing with engineering subjects, and I'm looking forward to more like them.
And here are a few notes on some recent U.B.C. grads,
which you might be able to use in an empty corner in the
next issue:
Lt. P. H. Nasmyth (Mech. '42) is with 15 L.A.D.,
R.C.E.M.E., in Italy. He writes that he and Capt. Earl
Johnson (Mech. '42) have been seeing the sights of Rome,
Mt. Vesuvius, and Capri on a recent leave. Earl has 67
L.A.D., R.C.E.M.E.
P.O. Chas. Nash, R.C.A.F., of VO.C. and Mech. '42
is training in Canada and expects an heir soon. Brother
F.O. "Sandy" Nash runs a Radar station in England.
Lt. Fraser Jamieson (Elec. '42) does Radar work with
the Fleet Air Arm.
Those are all I have for now—perhaps I can pass on
more to you later.
To end on a personal note, I'm a Mech. '42 grad and
adjutant of this Workshop, which, by the way, was the
first Canadian workshop to land in France. We've been
here since June 7, working every day, and looking forward
to V-Day.
Wishing you and the Alumni Association every success.
Sincerely,
LT. H. M. CURRAN.
F/O. Louis B. Monasch,
Officer Commanding,
No. 5 Detachment,
R.C.A.F.,
Queensport, N.S.
Dear Mr. Editor:
Louis and I wanted to send you our congratulations on
your editorship of the Graduate Chronicle and here they
are.
The June issue just arrived and of course since my
husband graduated in Elec. Eng. he is quite interested in
everything pertaining to science and both of us have to
read up on what has happened to whom and where.
Right now (that is for the summer months) Victor
and I are enjoying a holiday and whenever Louis is finished work we have a grand time going rowing in the
Stemmer. By the way, I guess I should explain—Victor
is our one-year-old son.
We're staying in a fishing village and have eaten enough
fish to last a lifteimer—lobsters, mackerel, haddock and cod
so far.
Sincerely,
IRENE (Eedy) and LOUIS MONASCH,
B.A.Sc. '40.
2nd Cdn. Armed Bde. W/S,
R.C.E.M.E.,
C.A.O.S., B.L.A.
France, 28 July, 1944.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE ^o tL YOUNG ENGINEER ...
i/*
By WEBSTER N. JONES
Director, College of Engineering,
Carnegie Institute of Technology.
^  (Excerpt from address to the graduates of Carnegie Institute j
of Technology—June, 1944)
You may feel today that you have reached the top—
that never again will you have to overcome assignments
as difficult as the ones you had in college. If so, let me
disillusion your. You have not begun to work in the manner I would have you! The learning process, whether you
realize it or not, has been made easy for you. Your courses
have been well planned to present a skillfully executed
summary of engineering knowledge in your field. Your
educational program has been directed by remote control.
After today, however, you will be on your own. The
journey ahead is so hazardous, so filled with problems, that
you will often be dizzy!
Don't ever let me hear that a single one of you has
drifted into the wilful, perverse, and self-satisfied frame
of mind of the engineering graduate whose thoughts run
something like this: "At last, I've finished college! The
sooner I forget this place the better! I'm going to take
the first job that comes my way with short hours, long
vacations, and a big salary, whether it's in engineering or
not. I'm through with studying, so if I do go into engineering, I don't want to get mixed up with research. I'm
not going to spend my money on joining a professional
society, either.    I'm all right just as I am.
Gentlemen, remember that you are now a part of the
engineering profession. You must uphold its standards and
its code of ethics. You must keep abreast of new developments in science and technology and of their impact on
the social order. . . .
Choose your postwar employment carefully. When
you are seeking work, don't be deceived by an offer demanding an immediate reply. Take time to consider, even
if a large salary is involved. Good experience means more
than money in the early stage of your career. If the concern you choose has policies to which you cannot subscribe,
such as limited technical opportunities or poor advancement, don't be afraid to look for another job. You must be
enthusiastic about your company.
Once you have made your choice, be as honest with
your employer as you would be with your best friend. Give
him the maximum of which you are capable. You are
now aware of the mistakes you made in college. Profit by
them. If you don't progress as fast as you think you
should," look at youself with a critical eye. Are you ser-
ing to the best of your ability? Are you working to
capacity? If the situations were reversed and you were the
employer, would you hire yourself? Learn to work hard,
to prepare, and to wait and watch for your opportunity.
Don't become discouraged when someone less efficient than
yourself marries the boss's daughter and is made vice-president of the company. The respect of your employer and
of your associates can only be won by honest effort. This
will take years of application and study. We want you to
be good mentally, clean physically, and exemplary morally.
Your integrity, both inside and outside your profession, is
important to you as individuals, to society in general, and
to engineering. Your successes, unless they are achieved
honestly, will not bring honor to you or to Carnegie.
As soon as the war is over, the dearth of highly trained
technical men will be one of industry's biggest worries.
Even now, industrial research laboratories are greatly concerned about finding men with graduate training to carry
on their postwar research programs. A director of one of
our large Pittsburgh industries told me recently that he
will need at least one hundred Ph.D.'s and Sc.D.'s as soon
as the war is over. . . .
The greatest era in all history is approaching. I envy
you your place in it and your opportunity to put what you
have learned to the best use. At Carnegie, we feel that
engineering education rests on a combination of science,
humanities, and social relationships rather than on the
routine techniques of particular occupations or industries.
Our objective is to produce educated men who will be competent engineers and scientists as well as individuals fitted
to enter a more complex social order—and we are able
today, better than ever before, to appreciate just how complex it is. You are competent to apply the engineering
method and to present the results of engineering studies;
you have been trained to realize the value and the need of
enlightened thought along social and economic lines; you
are prepared to meet the problems of the next decades,
which may be far more difficult than the problems of today
or of yetserday.
My own generation has raised a mountain of scientific
knowledge by technical advances in the electrical, mechanical, metallurgical, chemical, transportation, communica-
tion,and construction industries. It remains for you to
translate technical progress more completely into terms of
widespread employment and better living. No professional
men have a greater vantage point in this respect.
I cannot resist calling attention to the fact that the
engineer should contribute more to better government.
For the past hundred and fifty years, our legislation has
been left mainly in the hands of lawyers and politicians.
We have not yet reached Utopia! I am not pointing my
finger at the lawyer and the politician; I am really condemning the engineering educator for giving his students a
false philosophy. Engineers have been taught to be concerned with improvement of machines, increased yields,
appearance of products, and invention of new machines;
little or no attention has been given to improvement of
culture, continuous employment, balanced world production, elimination of economic strife—one of the greatest
causes of war—and better government. Science and engineering have neglected art, religion, and culture, and have
'not taken sufficient interest in producing a technical civilization where peace, happiness and progress can reign. The
opportunity is yours!—From "The Rochester Engineer,"
August, 1944.
AUGUST,  1944 High 111 II mlr Flight
Editor's Note: In our July issue we published an article on
high altitude flight by Fit. Lieut. Gibson. The author has now
been posted ta Vancouver and has submitted a second article in
this series. This material is used with the permission of the
R.C.A.F.
By FLT. LIEUT. W. C. GIBSON, B.A., '33.
DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS
Synonyms: Caisson disease, divers' "bends" and
aeroembolism.
Soon after the English physician Halley invented the
compressed air diving bell and diving helmet (about 1800),
adventurous spirits began to make underwater descents to
five fathoms or more. Two doctors were among the first
to try out the newly developed caissons, and to one of
them, Colladon, we owe the earliest description of the disease which we now know as "divers' bends" or Caisson
disease. Of his ascent from the floor of the sea he wrote:
"As we rose again our sensations were very different from
those we had experienced as we descended; it seemed . . .
that all our bones were on the point of separating." As we
shall see, this description could equally have been applied
to decompression sickness in high altitude aircraft more
than 100 years later.
The first explanation offered as to the cause of these
bone and joint pains in men working under compressed air,
Was masterly red herring! The French engineer Blavier
wrote in 1846: "Most of the workmen, although selected
from the robust and healthy, have frequently felt heaviness in the head or pains in the legs a few hours after
leaving the caisson. Only one of them experienced complete paralysis of arms and legs for 12 hours. The super-
intentions of the mine assured us that the effects felt, almost always coincided with some excess committed between
shifts."
However, this explanation was soon forgotten when the
ubiquitous Paul Bert turned his attention to the limb pains
and collapse associated with divers' ascents from great
depths. He showed that decompressing divers was safe
provided the men were brought up gradually, as for instance from 8 atmospheres' pressure to 4, and then after a
wait to 2, and finally back to one atmosphere. He also
showed that breathing oxygen during this decompression
would save divers from the torturing pains of the "bends,"
as well as from the sudden deaths too often resulting.
At the end of the First World War learned professors
were writing to aviation journals to combat the suggestions
of several untutored aviators, who held that if aircraft
flew high enough the occupants were likely to suffer from
the "bends." The wise men said that since one could decompress a diver from two atmospheres to one without
symptoms, as an aviator would go from one atmosphere to
zero barometric pressure without experiencing any symptoms whatever,—all of which meant that while aviators
were valiant men, they, like the late Billy Mitchell, must
be considered a little intoxicated with their own ideas.
How right the flyers were, and how wrong the professors, we know today, thanks to the work of Armstrong,
who, in 1934, found that if a man remained long enough
at altitudes of 30,000 to 35,000 feet (in aircraft or in a
low pressure chamber) he would experience the racking
pains known to divers. The pains might be so severe as to
cause the flyer to collapse. Splinting of a joint or paralysis
of a limb were other possibilities. In certain cases a choking feeling—a persistent substernal distress—was found to
be so incapacitating as to demand descent.
In the skin there are numerous signs and symptoms.
The earliest description of typical itching, known alike to
divers and high altitude aviators, was given by Alphonse
Gal, in 1872, an Italian medical student who spent some
time on a mother-ship for sponge divers off the Turkish
coast. The divers complained of "fleas" under their skin.
Today we see rashes and wheal formation on the skin of
some individuals at high altitudes.
In addition there are a few who suffer from visual field
changes after periods of an hour or more at 3 5,000 feet,
but these usually disappear, as do most decompression
symptoms, once the individual descends below 20,000 feet.
The physiological mechanism involved in decompression is briefly this: There is a certain amount of nitrogen in
simple physical solution in the blood and body tissues at all
times, due to the 15 lbs. per square inch pressure of the
atmosphere upon us. If the atmospheric pressure is reduced, some of this nitrogen will seek a way out of the
body in order that equilibrium may be maintained with
the nitrogen in the surrounding atmosphere. The chief
way in which this inert, dissolved gas may leave the body
is by the blood transporting it to the lungs, whence it is
blown off. This is, however, a very slow method, and if
aircraft ascent into a rarer atmosphere is rapid, some of the
dissolved nitrogen will not remain in simple solution but
will form bubbles, either in the blood' itself or more consistently in the fatty tissues. Fatty tissue has dissolved in
it about six times as much nitrogen as has muscles, or blood
or the watery tissuse of the body. Fat divers have long
been known to be most susceptible to "bends," and the
same relationship holds for decompression sickness in flyers.
Obviously, in regions where the blood supply is poor, nitrogen elemination via the blood will be limited. Tendons and
joints are therefore excellent sites for nitrogen bubble formation, and in practice the disabling symptoms of decompression sickness are referable to joints, in large measure.
The relief of the temporarily disabling and painful
symptoms of decompression sickness is best achieved by
10
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE merely descending to an altitude of 25,000 feet or less.
But in military aircraft this may be sheer suicide, if combined anti-aircraft fire and fighter interception are present.
Therefore the only real* hope lies in prevention, and this is
simple physiologically, though somewhat inconvenient in
practice.
The prevention of decompression sickness in aviators is
the same as that in divers, as proposed by Paul Bert in
1878, i.e., the prophylactic breathing of pure oxygen prior
to ascent. While even half an hour's prebreathing of oxygen gives considerable relief, one hour will protect even
susceptible men up to an altitude in the neighborhood of
40,000 feet. It would seem, therefore, that oxygen prebreathing one hour before ascent is the solution to most of
our decompression sickness problems.
However, with jet-propelled aircraft, altitudes of
50,000 feet are not beyond the limits of possibility, and
then oxygen prebreathing associated with rigorous selection
of men in decompression chambers may be essential. Pressurized cabins offer a solution only as long as they remain
unpunctured by enemy gunfire. Thereafter, they will need
bends-resistant aircrew in them, unless descent to 25,000
feet is contemplated.
HIGH ALTITUDE FROSTBITE
The earliest description of the combined effects of cold
and anoxia at altitude was given by Father Joseph de
Acosta in 1588, in reporting his journeys across the high
mountain passes of Peru. He wrote, in part: "In this place
there blows a little wind which is not too strong or violent.
But it is so penetrating that men fall dead of it almost
without feeling it, or maybe their fingers and toes are left
there; which may seem a fabulous tale, and yet it is a true
thing. I knew General Costilla . . . who had lost three or
four toes, which had fallen off when he passed through the
deserts of Chile, because they had been attacked and penetrated by this little wind, and when he happened to look
at them they were all dead and fell off of their own accord
without giving him any pain—just as a rotten apple falls
from the tree. Just two hundred years ago a group of
French scientists, who had gone to Peru to measure a degree
of the meridian, reported that though they were near the
equator, and at an altitude of 16,000 feet, "We sometimes
felt a very severe cold, when the thermometer indicated
only a moderate degree." They had some insight into the
patentiating effects of anoxia upon exposure to cold.
An anoxic man appears to lose heat very much as a
sleeping man, whose heat production falls 10-15% below
basal. In addition either anoxia or chilling will greatly
reduce peripheral circulation in the body, especially in the
hands and feet. Together they are a potent source of
danger.
While high altitude planes may record temperatures of
only 40 to 50 degrees below zero, the accompanying wind
produces the cooling effect of a very much lower temperature. In other words, protective clothing must be
developed to withstand temperature equivalents of minus
100 degrees Fahrenheit, if it is to serve our high altitude
flyers effectively. While those in the nose of the plane
may be sreved by cabin heaters, the tail gunnr, or any
gunner operating a turret, must have clothing which will
protect him from the continuous blast of air which roars
through his turret. His flying suit should be electrically
heated, since any other type would be too bulky for his
cramped quarters. His life depends upon his manoeuver-
ability in his turret, and yet the electric cable supplying
his suit must not become fouled by the turret-turning machinery. Nor may it cut across his oxygen hose or intercommunication wires. Thus, the heating of a tail gunner's environment is not a simple problem. The ideal tail
gunner's suit must not depend for warmth on its electric
wiring alone, however, since the electric plant of the aircraft is under a heavy drain already due to complex radio
equipment. Also, should a flyer have to bail out, over a
cold terrain, he would require a protective suit which was
not solely dependent for its warmth upon an electrical
supply, if he were to survive. Failure of electric power in
an aircraft due to lines being shot away is another reason
for providing more than purely electrically heated clothing.
Attention to detail is the secret of comfortable flying
clothing. The clothing must be dry before a flight, because
moist clothing is a heat conductor, rather than an insulator.
Several layers of loose-fitting wool garments are far superior to one solid half-flexible garment. In the matter of
gloves, the R.C.A.F. has developed a combination which is
giving excellent results. It consists of an inner rayon
glove, a middle woolen glove, and an outer flexible leather
gauntet with fingers semi-flexed.
For the feet, several layers of woollen socks are best,
inside a fleece-lined flying boot. Tight walking shoes are
not an asset inside flying boots. However, an airman must
have some serviceable walking shoe along in case he is
forced down over land.
In single motored and small two-motored planes cabin
heating is satisfactory up to an altitude of 30,000 feet.
It  is  the  large   aircraft  which  present  the  difficulties.     It
should be stated that no heating system is satisfactory
which is in constant danger of introducing carbon monoxide into the cabin. This gas is odorless, and at high
altitudes its dangerous effects are greatly increased.
The treatment of high altitude frostbite is as controversial a subject as the treatment of burns or immersion
foot. As some stations, frostbitten flyers are given 100%
oxygen at ground level before leaving their planes, and the
effects are said to be worthwhile. Obviously, since the
face and hands are chiefly affected, tannic acid is to be
avoided at all costs. Chemical peripheral dilators such as
amyl nitrite, nitroglycerin, alcohol and aspirin fail to raise
the temperature of the affffected parts. Patients who have
had their frost-botten members placed in a refrigerating
device have suffered fewer blisters but more pain than did
those who were allowed to expose their affected limbs to
air at room temperature.
A supersaturated solution of magnesium sulphate in
glycerin applied to the frostbitten part, carefully protected
by bandages, is one means of cutting down the hand infections which so often follow blistering, and so incapacitate
any member of aircrew.
ORDER-IN-COUNCIL P.C 1003
On August 15th a meeting was held in Ottawa of the
committee representing the Provincial Associations and the
Voluntary Societies, to study the replies received to the
questionnaire on P.C. 1003. The general opinion expressed
by those replying was that if collective bargaining were
necessary it should be done by engineers for engineers.
A resolution was passed requesting that the Government issue a new Order-in-Council, applying only to professional workers. A sub-committee was appointed to
draft a new order with the assistance of a legal adyiser.
AUGUST,  1944
II Classification and Compensation Plan
Adopted by Direction Board
Professional civil engineering positions were classified
and a compensation plan established by the Board of Direction at its meeting in Cleveland on July 18, 1944. In
presenting this classification and compensation plan, the
Committee on Salaries also recommended its publication
with provision for reprints.   The report as adopted follows:
Previous Classification and Compenstaion Plans
In February, 1939, Civil Engineering published, for
appraisal and discussion, a classification and compensation
plan for Civil Engineering positions, prepared by the Society's Committee on Salaries, which had been presented to
the Board of Direction at its January, 1939, meeting. In
succeeding weeks 24 Local Sections, with membership
totaling approximately 7,400, submitted reports, and in
addition written comments were received from numerous
individual members of the Society.
At the April, 1939, meeting of the Board, a special
committee of three members of the Board of Direction was
appointed to correlate the comments, suggestions, and criticisms received and to report back to the Board with recommendations. This classification and compensation plan was
adopted unanimously July 25,  1939.
At the January 16, 1940, meeting of the Board, the
Professional Grades I, II, and III were amended to lower
the experience requirements by two years.
On October 10, 1943, a report was submitted to the
Board, which, although approved by the Board, was returned to the Committee for clarification and enlargement.
Foreword
Professional civil engineering positions should be classified according to relative importance of duties to be performed and to the responsibilities incident thereto. In this
report, therefore, a general specification has been established for each classification and is intended to describe the
duties and requirements usually associated with the classification and the qualifications expected of the person properly to perform the work and to assume the responsibilities
specified.
These classifications should be used with judgment and
discretion as to application or adaptability to meet local
situations and sectional divergencies, which naturally exist
within a field that is national in extent. It is expected
that in applying this plan to organizations which do not
have employees in all of the nine classifications, due consideration will be given to the appropriate relationship of
the various positions which exist in such organizations and
the duties and responsibilities of such positions. When so
used, the following classification and compensation plan
will serve as an adequate guide to establish the basic organization requirements as well as the appropriate minimum
compensation.
Note that the grade numbers have each been increased
by one; that is, new Grade II corresponds approximately to
Grade I of the previous system; new Grade III to old
Grade II, etc. The new Grade I is thus the first grade in
a complete series for professionally minded engineers.
Classification and Compensation Plan for
Professional Civil Engineering Positions
Grade I ($1,980 to $2,460)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions, the
duties of which involve civil engineering work of minor
professional difficulty and little responsibility but which is
of the nature of training for advancement into the higher
professional grades. This engineer-in-training grade is designed to apply to those beginners in the profession who
are professionally minded and whose education or experience will have fitted them, after a suitable training period,
to undertake the duties and responsibilities of the higher
professional grades. " It is not inclusive of those positions
which, in their nature, generally will not lead to advancement into the higher professional grades.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing.
Note: Although a person without complete college education in engineering cannot meet the minimum requirements for Professional Grade I, he may, if professionally
minded, acquire during his employment with an engineering organization in work corresponding to this grade the
necessary training, experience, and self-improvement to
enable him to qualify for entrance to Grade II.
Compensation:
Starting Rate $165 a month—$1,980 a year
Full Rate $205 a month—$2,460 a year.
Grade II ($2,460 to $3,000)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions involving the performance of professional civil engineering duties
under some measure of supervision, and with the opportunity for the exercise of some independent judgement.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus one year's experience in progressive professional civil engineering work;
or (b) graduation from high school plus six years' technical engineering experience supplemented by additional self-
improvement carried out through study of technical engineering subjects designed for advancement to the higher
professional grades; or (c) an equivalent combination of
(a) and (b).
Compensation:
Starting Rate $205 a month—$2,460 a year
Full Rate $250 a month—$3,000 a year
Grade III ($3,000 to $3,600)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions involving the performance of professional civil engineering duties,
under general supervision, with limited latitude for independent actions and decisions; to perform engineering work
of intermediate professional difficulty and responsibility requiring the exercise of independent judgment.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least two
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
12
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE engineering work; or (b) graduation from high school
plus at least seven years' technical engineering experience
supplemented by additional self-improvement carried out
through study of technical engineering subjects designed
for advancement to the higher professional grades; or (c)
an equivalent combination of (a) and (b).
Compensation:
Starting Rate $250 a month—$3,000 a year.
Full Rate $300 a month—$3600 a year.
Grade IV ($3,600 to $4,200)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions involving the performance of professional civil engineering duties
under general supervision, and with considerable latitude
for independent unreviewed actions and decisions; to perform engineering work of substantial professional difficulty
and responsibility; to exercise independent judgement and,
in certain cases, to supervise the work of others.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least four
years' successful experience in progressive civil engineering
work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity for increased responsibilities, one year of which must have been
in responsible charge of work; or (b) graduation from
high school plus at least nine years' technical engineering
experience supplemented by additional self-improvement
carried out through study of technical engineering subjects designed for advancement to the higher professional
grades; or (c)  an equivalent combination of (a)  and (b).
Compensation:
Starting Rate $300 a month—$3,600 a year
Full Rate $350 a month—$4,200 a year
Grade V  ($4,200 to $5,160)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions involving the performance of professional civil engineering duties
under general supervision, and with wide latitude for indi-
pendent unreviewed actions and decisions; to have responsible charge of a subdivision of an engineering organization;
to perform difficult engineering work requiring technical
training, previous experience, recognized leadership, and
the exercise of independent judgment.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
{a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least six
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
engineering work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity
for increased responsibilities, two years of which must have
been in responsible charge of work; or (b) graduation from
high school plus at least eleven years' technical engineering
experience supplemented by additional self-improvement
carried out through study of technical engineering subjects
designed for advancement to the higher professional grades;
or (c) an equivalent combination of (a) and (b).
Compensation:
Starting Rate $3 50 a month—$4,200 a year
Full Rate $430 a month—$5,160 a year
Grade VI ($5,280 to.$6,480).
Definition and Duties: To include all positions involving the performance of professional civil engineering duties
under general supervision and with wide latitude for independent unreviewed actions and decisions; to have responsible charge of a division of an engineering organization;
to perform difficult professional engineering work requiring
technical training and previous experience; to exercise
independent judgment;  to be possessed of the quality of
leadership; to direct a staff on design or construction, or to
supervise an investigative survey or direct extensive studies
of projects.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
{a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least six
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
engineering work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity
for increased responsibilities, four years of which must have
been in responsible charge of work, including two years
which have demonstrated marked professional attainments;
or (b) graduation from high school plus at least eleven
years' technical engineering experience supplemented by
additional self-improvement carried out through study of
technical engineering subjects designed for advancement to
the higher professional grades; or (c) an equivalent combination of  (a)  and  (b).
Compensation:
Starting Rate $440 a month—$5,280 a year
Full Rate $540 a month—$6,480 a year.
Grade VII ($6,720 to $7,920)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions, the
duties of which involve civil engineering work without
general supervision and with wide latitude for independent,
unreviewed actions and decisions. The duties, knowledge,
and skill required for this grade include those covered by
Grade VI. They also cover responsibility for a division in
a large engineering organization and include duties requiring extensive successful experience in engineering work
with demonstrated aptitude and capacity for increased responsibilities in managerial and executive functions.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least six
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
engineering work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity
for increased responsibilities, at least four years of which
must have been in responsible charge, including two years
which have demonstrated marked professional attainments;
or (b) graduation from high school plus at least eleven
years' technical engineering experience supplemented by
additional self-improvement carried out through study of
technical engineering subjects designed for advancement
to the higher professional grades; or (c) an equivalent
combination of (a) and (b). The experience required for
this grade cannot be covered by the time limits specified
but depends rather on the extent, scope, and quality of
such experience.
Compensation:
Starting Rate $560 a month—$6,720 a year
Full Rate $660 a month—$7,920 a year
Grade VIII ($8,160 to $9,360)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions such
as the assistant: technical and administrative head of an
extensive engineering organization, or the technical and
administrative head of a smaller engineering organization^
It would include a position such as the Principal Assistant
to the Chief Engineer.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at 'least six
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
engineering work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity
for increased responsibilities, at least four years of which
must have been in responsible charge of work, including
two years  which  have  demonstrated  marked  professional
AUGUST, 1944
13 attainments; or (b) graduation from high school plus at
least eleven years technical engineering experience supplemented by additional self-improvement carried out through
study of technical engineering subjects designed for advancement to the higher professional grades; or (c) an
equivalent combination of (a) and (b). The experience
required of this grade cannot be covered by the time limits
specified but depends rather on the extent, scope, and
quality of such experience.
Compensation:
Starting Rate $680 a month—$8,160 a year
Full Rate $780 a month—$9,360 a year
Grade IX ($9,600 and up)
Definition and Duties: To include all positions such as
the technical and administrative head of an extensive engineering organization such as the Chief Engineer.
Minimum Requirements: Education and Experience.
(a) Graduation with a degree in engineering from an engineering school of recognized standing plus at least six
years' successful experience in progressive professional civil
engineering work with demonstrated aptitude and capacity
for increased responsibilities, at least four years of which
must have been in responsible charge of work including
two years which have demonstrated marked professional
attainments; or (b) graduation from high school plus at
least eleven years' technical engineering experience supplemented by additional self-improvement carried out through
study of technical engineering subjects designed for advancement to the higher professional grades; or (c) an
equivalent combination of («) and (b). The experience
required for this grade cannot be covered by the time limits
specified but depends rather on the extent, scope, and
quality of such experience. This grade requires the highest
order of engineering, executive, and administrative ability
and outstanding professional attainments.
Compensation:
$9,600 and up.
Proposed Annual Compensation for the
Nine Grades
Grade.  VIII
Grade      IX
8,160-  9,360
9,600-and up
680- 780    -
800-and up
Classification
Compensa
tion
Annual
Monthly
Grade
I
$l,980-$2,460
$165-$205
Grade
II
2,460-  3,000
205- 250
Grade
III
3,000-  3,600
250-  300
Grade
IV
3,600- 4,200
300-  350
Grade
V
4,200-  5,160
350- 430
Grade
VI
5,280-  6,480
440-  540
Grade
VII
6,720- 7,920
560-  660
Hours of Work
The Fair Labor Standards Act of 193 8 makes it a Federal law that time and one-half be paid to all non-exempt
employees for all time worked beyond 40 hours in any one
week. The law provides certain exemptions from the wage-
and-hour provisions, especially persons employed in a bona
fide "executive," "administrative," or "professional" capacity. Professional employees are exempt from the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
The correct professional atitude in the civil engineering
profession, as well as in the other professions, is that an
employee, unless the law provides otherwise, abides by the
hours established by the particular office in which he works
or job on which he is engaged. Similarly the correct professional attitude in the civil engineering profession, as well
as in the other professions, is that an employer is under
obligation to adjust equitably the hours and compensation
of those who work for him.
The Government has issued certain war emergency
directives which affect salaries, wages, and hours which
must be obeyed. They are too involved to be included in
a report of this kind. No attempt has been made in the
various grades or the requirements, duties, and compensations therefor to correlate them with these directives.
Vacations and Sick Leave
Provisions should be made for- appropriate sick leave
and annual vacation.   The length of time for vacation and
sick leave will vary with the .various services, offices, and
jobs and cannot be set up in this report.
Additional Allowances
In individual cases, depending on circumstances, an
allowance should be made for moving expenses when an
employee is transferred, and for other such extraordinary
expenses pertaining to his employment. Under special
conditions such as inaccessibility of location, nature of
climate, and other exceptional features of employment, the
maximum pay for any and all positions in the compensation plan is not to be limited to the stipulated rates.
College of Recognized Standing
A college or university of recognized standing is defined as one which is accredited by a national or regional
accrediting association such as the Association of American
Universities;  or the New England, Middle States," North
(Continued on page 34) :
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14
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE KILLED IN ACTION
F/O ROBERT ALFRED WILSON, R.C.A.F.—Attached
to the R.A.F. Coastal Command. B.Com. 1940.—Previously reported missing, now presumed dead.
LT. DUDLEY HUNTER WOOD, Seaforth Highlanders.
—Transferred to the Royal Scots Fusiliers upon arriving overseas. He was keenly interested in football as
player and coach.
MISSING IN ACTION
F/O A. L. ARNELL, R.C.A.F.—Went overseas in June,
1943.
LT. DOUGLAS S. PEDLOW—Went overseas in 1942 as
a reinforcement officer with the Canadian Scottish and
later transferred to the South Saskatchewan Regiment.
He was a well-known member in the University of
B.C. basketball team which won the championship in
1941. He is missing in action in Normandy. He was
in his third year pre-medical course when he enlisted
for active service.
P/O S. STODART, R.C.A.F.—He was on his second tour
of operations when reported missing.
F/O M. E. R. (ERNIE) MACFARLANE, R.C.A.F —
Missing after air operations overseas. He was bombardier on a Halifax in the Iroquois Squadron.
LT. DAVID KILLAM, D.S.C., R.C.N.V.R.—Reported
missing in action off the Normandy beachhead. He was
decorated for heroic action off Dunkerque when he
assisted in the evacuation of 1940, risking his life in
vain attempts to reach the fireswept beach. He had
been on dirty with motor-torpedo boats in the English
Channel since he returned to England early in 1943.
W/02 PHILIP SANSON GREENE, R.C.A.F.—Bombardier.   Reported missing on air operations overseas.
F/O DONALD WRIGHT ROBERTSON, R.C.A.F.—
Graduated with the second highest marks in navigation
to win his commission in March, 1943. He was the
youngest member of his class. He was a first-rate
rugby player at U.B.C. and was generally athletic.
F/O R. DOUGLAS TAYLOR, R.C.A.F.—Navigator
bombardier—Missing on air operations overseas. When
he graduated from navigation school in Winnipeg he
won the highest award in his class.
F/O ERIC W. BROWN, R.C.A.F.—Missing on air operations overseas. He was prominent in football, basketball and lacrosse.
P/O PHILLIP WALLACE, R.C.A.F.—Missing over Normandy. His twin brother is a German prisoner. The
twins are both fighter pilots flying Spitfires.
PRISONERS OF WAR
F/O WILLIAM A. WILSON, R.C.A.F.—Previously listed
as missing.
LT.  ERNEST R.  PELLANT—German  prisoner of war
since  the  Ortona  fighting  in  Italy.    B.A.   1940.    He
went overseas with the Seaforths but later transferred
to the Princess Pats.
F/L CHARLES MADDIN, R.C.A.F.—German prisoner of
war.   He went overseas in 1942.
F/O DUNCAN MacFAYDEN, R.C.A.F.—Missing since
May 24, now German prisoner.  B.Com. 1941.   Enlisted
during fifth year forestry.   He was president of the
Musical Society while at U.B.C.
WOUNDED
BRIGADIER-GENERAL SHERWOOD LETT, M.C.,
D.S.O.—Seriously wounded in Normandy but is now
improving. He was wounded during the Dieppe raid
in which he won his D.S.O. When he recovered, he
took the command of a Canadian infantry brigade. He
is a well-known lawyer and served on both the Senate
and Board of Governors at U.B.C.
LT. JAMES H. RUSSELL, with the Seaforth Highlanders
—Wounded when he went into France with the first
wave of invasion forces.
LT. R. C. SMITH, R.C.N.V.R.—Seriously wounded in the
chest and legs while serving as commander of a motor
torpedo boat in the English Channel. He has been
serving overseas since December, 1943. He enlisted in
October, 1939, serving first on the corvette H.M.C.S.
Kamloops, and later at Naval Service Headquarters in
Ottawa. While on H.M.C.S. St. Clare, sister ship of
the S^. Croix, he was involved in the action in which
the latter ship was sunk. He was a B.Com. graduate of
1939 with honors, and was captain of the English
rugby team, and a member of Students' Council.
LT. SANDY HAY, attached to the First Canadian Scottish. He was a keen basketball player and a member of
the "Thunderbird" championship team in 1941. He
was wounded on July 11 with the invasion forces in
France.
CAPT. ROBERT J. WALDIE—Went overseas in 1941
with the Fifth (Armored) Division. When at U.B.C.
he was regimental sergeant-major of the C.O.T.C. He
was wounded June 11 in Normandy.
COMMISSIONS, PROMOTIONS,
AWARDS, ETC.
Promotions to probationary sub-lieutenants from King's
College: D. G. WEBBER, J. H. FISH, J. A. McIN-
TYRE  (B.A., B.Com. 1936).
CAPT. J. C. WHITTLE—Went overseas with the Lord
Strathcona Horse. Won the Military Cross for action
in the Liri Valley in Italy on May 25, 1944. He saw
action in North Africa before participating in the
Italian campaign.
W/C A. J. ELLIOTT, R.C.A.F.—Promoted overseas from
S/L.—with the R.C.A.F. medical board.  B.A. 1932.
MAJOR A. W. BAGNALL—Serving with a Canadian
General Hospital unit in Italy. Received promotion
from Capt.    B.A. 1932.
CAPT. ROBERT W. BONNER, attached to the Seaforth
Highlanders of Canada. Promoted from Lt. He served
in the Sicilian and Italian campaigns.   B.Com. 1942.
S/L PETER VICKERS, R.C.A.F.—Promoted from F/L—
is on his third tour of operations. He was a well-known
golfer and member of Point Grey Golf Club.
W/C V. R. HILL, R.C.A.F.—Promoted from S/L. He
was Lt. of Engineers at the outbreak of the war, but
transferred to the R.C.A.F. with a technical commission.    B.A.Sc. 1936.
FLT. SGT. M. G. McGEER, R.C.A.F. Promoted from the
rank of sergeant air gunner. He is at present a German
prisoner of war.
F/L ROLAND M. NEWITT, R.C.A.F.—Awarded the
D.F.C. for consistent courage and determination on
numerous sorties. He recently flew his own bomber to
Canada and then went on leave.
AUGUST,  1944
15 fl Profession Without Unity
/* By HERBERT J. GILKEY,
Second Vice-President,
Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.
An Editorial essentially as published in "The Journal of Engineering Education," Volume 34, No. 7, Page 445 (March, 1944),
•Nsand reprinted by permission of the Journal and the Author
In these strenuous times the engineering profession is
confronted with a variety of complex problems many of
which can be neither side-stepped nor deferred; they will
be answered either by us or for us.
We talk of an engineering profession; of its relationship to a postwar world; of all manner of problems regarding it, but, after all, what is this profession? Who
and what is an engineer? The S.P.E.E. report on Aims
and Scope (Vol. XXX, No. 7, March, 1940, p. 558) probably went as far as it is possible to go at present when,
after outlining the great diversification and range of engineering activity, concluded that ". . . the engineering profession clearly cannot isolate itself from this complex of
men and functions as a well-defined caste, it may be said
to exist as a vaguely bounded nucleus within a much
larger enveloping group which we may call the engineering
fraternity."
While true, and therefore academically satisfying, this
statement gets us nowhere in our attempts to solve some
of the problems now being pressed upon us. Whether we
be members of a profession or a fraternity matters little;
we are members of an inarticulate group, one without a
common tongue. Doctors and lawyers are articulate; we
envy them, assuming that we need but do as they have
done to attain an equally satisfactory solution to our problem of professional self-expression. Such unwarranted assumptions on our part are at variance with the engineer's
alleged method of "looking his facts in the face." Professional groups such as those of law and medicine are relatively homogeneous, virtually every member of the entire
profession performing purely personal services at a common
level of professional stratification. There exist within such
a group few problems comparable to the employing engi
neer vs. the employee engineer; the designing and inspection engineer vs. the constructing and contracting engi-
eer; the salaried vs. the private-practice engineer. There is
no problem of professional vs. sub-professional services involving the promiscuous intermingling of recent graduates
on their way up and mature men who are permanently
established at a low engineering level. Probably most of
the complicating elements within an engineering group are
inherent and it is unlikely that engineering will ever be
able to achieve neat segregations comparable to the clean-
cut differences between doctors and related practioners such
as internes, nurses, attendants, medical technicians, nutritionists, ambulance drivers, pharmacists, druggists, chemists, bacteriologists and veterinarians. To be at all comparable in scope to engineering, medicine would have to
embrace everything from pre-conception to port-cremation, from the manufacture of drugs and instruments to
the performance of a tonsillectomy on a giraffe.
Aside from the great diversity within a Turricular engineering grotip there are very great differences in origins,
backgrounds, economic status, outlook and interests between such major curricular groups as A.I.E.E., A.S.M.E.,
and A.S.C.E. Moreover, the whole trend in engineering
appears to be toward the assumption of ever greater and
more complicating diversification; from the field of design
and construction the engineer is being urged and virtually forced into the fields of finance, management, economics and politics. Obviously then* the engineer's problems of professional unification are complicated ones.
The failure of engineering thus far to have attained a
reasonably satisfactory professional status is due much
more to the complexity of the problem than to a lack of
(Continued on page 24)
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE B.C. men in the Services
PTE. C. C. PACKENHAM has been awarded the Combat
Infantryman badge for exemplary conduct in combat
against the enemy on the American 5th Army front in
Italy. He joined the Merchant Marine after leaving
U.B.C. and served on the freighter Cattetat which was
sunk off England. He was the third American to enlist
in the U.S. Army in the European theatre, and saw
action in Tunisia and Italy.
LT. EVANN DAVIES, LT. J. G. JEFFRIES, LT. JERRY
CURTIN—All graduated from U.B.C. in 1942, and
are now serving in France with the Fort Garry Horse.
S/L F. D. SMITH, D.F.C, R.C.A.F.—Returned from
overseas for a month's leave. He is a hero of 23
bomber and 13 coastal operations. He is a Commerce
graduate of 1940 and was a well-known football
player while on the campus.
S/L R. V. MANNING, D.F.C, R.C.A.F.—Home for the
first time in three years. He has 500 hours to his
credit in Beauforts in Ceylon and the Middle East. Since
he left Canada, he has fought off Norway, in the Mediterranean area and in the Far East. He was also in
support of Brigadier Wingate at Burma. He graduated
from U.B.C. in Arts in 1937.
CAPT. RALPH BROWN—Arrived in Normandy the
second day of the invasion.   B.A. 1931.
LT. RICHARD M. COLCOMB, R.C.N.V.R., and CHAPLAIN DOUGLAS P. WATNEY, R.C.N., graduated
recently from special naval courses. Lt. Colcomb, who
recently completed a torpedo course at an East Coast
Royal Canadian navy centre, left U.B.C. to enlist in
July, 1942. He has had 15 months' sea service in convoy escort work. He visited England before the war
as a member of the Kitsilano Boys' Band. Chaplain
Watney graduated recently from a special officers course
at H.M.C.S. Cornwallis. He received his B.A. from
U.B.C. in 1925.
LT. JOSEPH M. ADAM, R.C.N.V.R.—Took part in the
rescuing of a motor torpedo boat, braving heavy shelling from enemy shore batteries in the English Channel
in order to take the craft in tow to a safe beaching
point.   He led one of the two motor torpedo boats.
LT. ALFRED FARROW and CAPT. IAN GRANT—
Both of Three Rivers Tank Regiment, an Eastern Canadian armored unit which rounded out its first year of
action in pursuit that turned into a hard-fought advance. Lt. Farrow received his B.S.A. in 1942.
LT. WILLIAM E. (TED) McBRIDE—Helped clear the
way for the invasion fleet. He was aboard a R.C.N.
minesweeper before D-Day. He graduated in Commerce in 1942 after which he joined the navy.
P/O JACK HARROWER, R.C.A.F.—Is a wireless operator air gunner, flying with a Vultee-Vengeance dive-
bomber squadron on the Arakon India-Burma front.
P/O R. G. McMYNN, R.C.A.F.—Flying instructor in
Canada.
S.M. E. H. "BILL" EWERT—Credited with knocking two
enemy tanks out of action while engaged in a terrific
tank battle with the enemy in Italy.
P/O DONALD A. WALKER, R.C.A.F.—Now serving
overseas. While at U.B.C. he was active in the Players' Club and on the Ubyssey.
MAJOR PHIL GRIFFIN, a member of the Black Watch
Royal Highlanders of Canada that was trapped on a
barren ridge just above May-Sur-Orne on July 25—
almost the whole regiment was wiped out. He took
command of the battalion after his two immediate
seniors were killed and sent back an order that no more
men must be brought forward. He got his B.A. in
1939.
LT. PAUL J. SYKES has been transferred to a 2nd Air
Force B-29 group in the U.S. Army Air Corps. He
has been navigation officer on flights over the Andes in
photographic surveys.
PTE. D. MUNRO MacKENZIE—Now serving in Britain.
He left U.B.C. in third year pre-medical.
CAPT. F. D. "DON" COLQUHOUN of the Seaforths.
He organized and supervised a system of Bren gun carriers to act as mobile stretchers throughout the day
when the Seaforths fought their Liri Valley battle of
May 23.
LT. JOHN D. CREIGHTON, R.C.N.V.R.—One of the
first group of Canadian naval officers to join the Canadian Fleet Air Arm, and is at present in England before going to Trinidad to continue his training. He
was awarded second prize for having the most officerlike qualities following at course at H.M.C.S. Kings
in December, 1943. He graduated from U.B.C. in
1943 with a double degree of B.A. and B.A.Sc. in forestry engineering.
LT. P. D. O'BRIAN, R.C.N.V.R.—Now on H.M.C.S.
Prince David overseas.  He received his B.A. in 1936.
F/O JACK L. ROSS, R.C.A.F.—On leave in Canada after
reconnaissance flying in a Liberator bomber in the Far
East for two and a half years.
GENERAL NEWS
KENNETH CAPLE—Appointed to the post of program
director for station CBR.    B.S.A. '26, M.S.A. '27.
B'nai B'rith Grand Lodge scholarships, granted to outstanding graduates in any of the three faculties at
U.B.C. for approved graduate work at U.B.C or any
other university, have been granted for another year.
The scholarships are the two Hillel Foundation scholarships of $125.00 each.
HAROLD P. JOHNS, M.A. '3 5, B.A. '25, has been appointed provincial director of education and vocational
guidance. Mr. Johns has been on the staff of Victoria
High School.
DR. HARRY CASSIDY, B.A. '23, now director of training for the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation
Administration, Washington, has been made director of
the School of Social Work at the University of Toronto. He taught at the University of North Carolina
and later at Rutgers University, and in 1929 was appointed assistant professor of social science at Toronto
University. From 1934-39 he was director of social
welfare for British Columbia, and for the last five
years has been chairman of the Department of Social
Welfare, University of California.
MAURY VAN VLIET, popular athletic instructor, has
been playing third base for the St. Regis team in the
Vancouver baseball loop this summer.
LIONEL STEVENSON, Arts '22, is now professor of
English and head of the Department of English in the
University of Southern California.
AUGUST, 1944
17 cZaitoxiaL ^ vi
L£(Mi
</-
WELCOME TO THE NEW PRESIDENT
Elsewhere in this issue will be found news of the arrival at the
University of the new President, Dr. MacKenzie. The Chronicle wishes
to add its words of welcome to the many that have been directed to the
new head of the Province's largest educational institution.
The University is most fortunate to have found a man of the calibre
of Dr. MacKenzie to guide it in the coming years. Dr. MacKenzie has a
great wealth of academic background in a variety of fields. His ability as
an administrative officer has been proved in his former University posts.
His experience in the realms of Canadian public life have given him opportunity to be on speaking terms with most of the great or near-great of this
country. Above all he is a man's man and a most approachable person.
He gives to each person who talks with him the feeling that that person's
opinion is of the utmost importance. He will undoubtedly meet freely
with any graduate who seeks to see him.
On the other hand, in many ways Dr. MacKenzie is fortunate to have
found the University of British Columbia. Here surely lies a perfect opportunity for a qualified man truly interested in the field of education. The
University is a young institution, scarcely out of its infancy. The true
University lies ahead and what it will be depends largely on the course of
action to be followed during Dr. MacKenzie's tenure of office. The basic
materials are here waiting for the hand of the craftsman. The new president may well be that master
craftsman who will lead the way.
THE CHANCELLORSHIP
The election of a new chancellor for the University is imminent and the time has arrived to consider
who might best fill that important role. The Chancellor is elected subject to the provisions of the University Act. Essentially this means that each graduate of the University has a vote and thus a voice in the
determination of the successful candidate. Ballot papers are sent to each graduate and these when signed
and returned decide the matter.
The selection of the proper man for the position is of the utmost importance. The Chancellorship may
well prove to be the University's most vital liaison with the public of the province. The proper man here
could well do much to make the University take its proper place in the community. Now is the time to
stop the University from being called, in the words of one of the Province's leading citizens, "that place
out on the hill" and to cause it to become a great public institution.
THE PROFESSOR QUESTION
There has been a great deal of criticism of the teaching staff of the University. One of the most frequent criticisms has been that the professors of the university are nothing more than "glorified high-school
teachers."   Unfortunately it would appear that there are a number of instances in which such is the case.
We hasten to add that this situation is by no means largely the fault of the staff itself but is to a great
extent a product of the system under which they work. There is scarcely a professor on the staff who is
not overworked with routine lectures. Further, there is much work to be done outside of the lectures,
such as the marking of papers. There are not many on the University's staff who are given much opportunity for personal research and enquiry. The latter are essential ingredients in the substance of any first
rate university.
We point out the extreme scarcity of high grade literary output from the University's employees. The
men simply do not have the time for this valuable field. Nor is time the whole story. Finances are woefully lacking too. Research cannot be carried on without money and yet without research there can be no
progress.
The University government might well consider this whole problem. It must be willing to pay to get
good men and it must be willing to subsidize those men in their efforts. Further, and as important as any
feature, it must be willing not only to allow its men to experiment but also to encourage them to do so.
THE ENGINEERS' VIEWPOINT . . .
Just how good the post-war world will be depends very largely on the number of intelligent people
who take an active interest in making it good. It must-be remembered, however, that activity without intelligence can do more harm than good.   -
Now is a good time for us to inform ourselves regarding issues that will be vital in the years to come.
Right thinking—constructional thinking—directional thinking—are what the World will need.   This is the
u
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE kind of thinking of which every engineer should be capable.    His training is such as to develop analytical
exactness, relative proportions and the avoidance of emotional influences.
Human society is composed of varied selfish interests. Self-interest in itself is a virtue IF it is practised in its proper relationship to society as a whole. It is the disproportions of self-interests that cause
most of the human explosions.
We believe that Trade Unions have justified their existence. They have fought for better working conditions. They have been the means of bringing into a more relative perspective Employer and Employee. In
some instances the unions are inclined to overstep their usefulness and offset again that equal balance for
which they have been striving. For instance, when unions use their power to dictate to the employer without rhyme or reason, then their usefulness ends. Real human progress will only be made as we apply our
knowledge and our intelligence to human relationships.
This applies equally to the employer in his approach to his employees' unions. There should be no
antagonism between the two. The self-interests of each is wrapped up in the other. Self-interest then
becomes inter-self-interest. Neither side can afford to cripple and injure the other. We suggest that far
from being enemies, they are naturally complementary one to the other. If we recognize this fact when we
see immediately that only in complete and harmonious co-operation can each succeed. Unfortunately, however, employers and employees have not, as yet, reached this stage in their relationships. There are still
suspicions. There are continual antagonisms, as witness the many strikes. There is a lack of confidence and
a mutual mistrust of one another's motives.
Here lies room for important work, intelligent work. It opens a field of endeavour for the engineer with
a scientific mind. The engineer should take keen interest in such things. He will be a better engineer for
such research.  His own interests are at stake in such issues.
In the gigantic war effort of the Dominion Government, the powers that be at Ottawa have recognized
the importance of frank discussions between employer and employee. Strikes and lock-outs are foolish and
wasteful and create antagonisms that smoulder indefinitely.
Trade Unions, for some years, have been conducting a hard fight for the right to bargain collectively.
It is decidedly a democratic procedure. It can be a way that would lead to understanding and co-operation.
On the surface, they won that fight in 1940. In June of that year, an Order-in-Council was passed at
Ottawa that contained the following clause—"that employees, through the officers of their trade unions or
through other representatives chosen by them, should be free to negotiate with employers or representatives of employers' associations, concerning rates of pay, hours of labor, and other working conditions, with
a view to the conclusion of a collective agreement."
So far, so good. Collective bargaining has been made legal. Should it be made compulsory? The
Unions are willing and anxious to introduce collective bargaining (but in many cases the employers have
refused). At present, labour is doing a lot of dictating. Labour demands that all employees belong to a
union. Labour believes that the Government should give preference in contracts to those firms who pay
union wages and who recognize collective agreements. The present static condition between employer and
employee tends to such dictating, and such dictating leads to further misunderstandings. We believe collective bargaining is a sound practice but should it be backed up with compulsion? What do you believe?
—that is the important thing. What do you know about it? What thought have you given to it? It is
what you think of such vital issues and what you do about it after you have come to some definite conclusion that will count in the post-war world.
This is to mention just one of the many live problems of our time. You cannot escape these problems.
You cannot escape the effect of decisions that are made in connection with them. That is why it is so
important that you take a lively interest in them.
In the days to come there will be no room for slovenly mentality. "As a man thinketh in his heart, so
is he." And as a community thinks, so is that community. We are learning today that the age-long fight
for freedom is never completely won. Any slackness on our part and some of that hard won liberty is taken
from us. There are basic rights upon which human society is based. We must be ever vigilant to preserve
those basic rights and to apply them to the kaleidoscopic changes of modern days.
After all, the most powerful weapon of our democratic system is Public Opinion. You and I can mould
public opinion. If that public opinion is based on actual knowledge, then it will be a power for good. We
should, therefore, zealously seek knowledge on subjects that affect our welfare. This is particularly so as
it relates to employe/ and employee.   We will always be in one class or the other.
Armed with knowledge; inspired with a sense of duty and tempered with a desire for fair play, we can do
much towards the building of a better world, but we must put time and effort into the job, not "leave it to
George." Is it not safe to say that if the intelligent people of the so-called civilized world had put as
much, time and thought into the study and improvement of national and human relationships as they put
into their amusements, the present war would never have taken place?
AUGUST,  1944
19 Frank Slide. Reading from left to right—F. A. Forward,
O. J. Wilkie, J. N. Finlayson, and H. C. Anderson.
In July the President and Registrar visited several of
the up-country centres, meetings being held at Kamloops,
Kimberley, Trail and Penticton. They started from Chilliwack on the morning of the 17th travelling via the Fraser
Canyon Road to Kamloops. From there they went to
Revelstoke, around the Big Bend Highway to Golden,
through Field, Banff, Windermere and Kimberley, to Cranbrook.
Mines in and around Fernie and Natal were visited as
well as the Sullivan Mine at Kimberley. From Cranbrook,
they travelled to Trail by way of Nelson and from there to
Rossland, Grand Forks and Penticton.
Apart from the meetings held, personal contact was
made with various members in the outlying districts.
Kamloops Meeting
The meeting was held in the Provincial Government
offices on, the evening of the 17th. Mr. C. Varcoe, Chairman of the District Advisory Committee, presided. He
introduced Mr. Anderson and referred to the honour to
the Public Works Branch of the Provincial Government
Service in Mr. Anderson's election to the Presidency of the
Association. He inquired as to the necessity for a university
. degree in Government employment and was informed by
the President that membership in the Association is the
standard qualification.
Mr. Anderson outlined the powers of the Association
under the Engineering Profession Act and explained the
necessity for the formation of the B. C. Engineering
Society. He reported the action taken by the Society in
connection with the salary classification of the City Engin-
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The President and Registrar of the Professional
Engineers' Association visit interior towns
and meet local engineers
eer of Victoria and also the revision of the Civil Service
classification of salary schedules in the Department of
Public Works. Mention was made of the publication of
"The Blueprint" and the difficulties experienced in obtain- ;
ing a supply of paper.
The action of the Dominion Council and the voluntary societies  in  connection  with  Order-in-Council P.C. ;
1003, was outlined.
Kimberley Meeting
The Kimberley meeting, held on Monday evening, July
24th, was the regular monthly meeting of the Kimberley
and Chapman Camp group of the Canadian Institute of
Mining and Metallurgy, and was open to all engineers.
Professor F. A. Forward, Vice-President of the C.I.M.,
was present and Mr. H. R. Banks acted as Chairman.
"/
1
%
1'
4
*&
!
44
J
I
•■V
Frank Slide.
Reading from left
to right—
F. A. Forward,
and
H. C. Anderson.
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20
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE MEETINGS
INTERESTING
MEETINGS HELD
Mr. Anderson was the first speaker and gave an outline
of the functions of the various Provincial Professional
Associations and the Dominion Council of Professional
Engineers.
He outlined the action of the B. C. Association in
connnection with the Collective Bargaining Order-in-
Council and stated that the general opinion of the membership is that engineers should be represented by engineers.
He pointed out that the Association, under the provisions
of the Engineering Profession Act, could not perform the
duties of a bargaining agent, but it could support the
formation of an independent agency.
He expressed the opinion that every engineer should
be a member of at least two societies, one, a technical
society representing his particular branch of engineering,
and the other, an association of professional engineers.
Silver Creek.
Reading from left
to right—
H. C. Anderson,
W. Ramsay and
A. J. Bowering.
ELECTRIC POWER EQUIPMENT
LIMITED
(F. J. BARTHOLOMEW, Pr««.)
1285 Homer Street
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POWER PLANT DESIGN
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Hope-Princeton  Rood.   Reading from  left  to right—
Watchman, J. N. Finlayson, H. C. Anderson, W. A.
Talbot, W. Ramsay and A. S. Dtickett.
Professor Forward outlined the policy of the Canadian
Institute of Mining and Metallurgy and spoke of the action
taken in connection with Order-in-Council P.C. 1003. It
was the general opinion of the Institute Council that
engineers should be excluded from the Order. He pointed
out that the Institute would not be in a position to act as
agent, should bargaining be necessary, as it would have to
be dealt with on a provincial basis.
He supported Mr. Anderson's statement that all engineers should belong to both technical and professional societies. He also mentioned the plans being made to form a
Canadian Engineers' Council which would be representative of all technical and professional engineering organizations.
Questions were asked by many of the members, which
were replied to by the visitors.
Trail Meeting
A dinner meeting took place in Trail on Tuesday evening, the 25 th, at the Crown Point Hotel. Mr. Ernest
Smith, Chairman of the Eastern District Adivsory Committee, was in the chair. There was over one hundred
present, with representatives from several West Kootenay
centres.
Mr. Anderson and Professor Forward addressed the
meeting along the lines of their talks at Kimberley. Dean
J. N. Finlayson of the University of B. C. who had accompanied the President and Registrar, was welcomed by
many former pupils.
(Continued on page 23)
A. C. R. Yuill
M.E.I.C, MEM. A.I.E.E.
Consulting Engineer
675 West Hastings Street
Vancouver, B. C.
HYDRAULIC - STEAM - DIESEL - ELECTRIC POWER
Special Representative
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AUGUST, 1944
21 INTERNATIONALISM
"\
By LESLIE G. KILBORN,
Dean of Medicine, West China University.
in EDUCATIOn
Universities may be used as tools of narrow nationalism,
fixing in the mind of youth the myth of racial superiority,
ideas of isolationism and antagonism to other nations, or
the delusion of world conquering mission. On the other
hand a university in which there is freedom of teaching
cannot but encourage internationalism. So much has been
contributed to the world's progress by members of every
race that appreciation of the development of any of the
sciences or of the history of the arms and the humanities
produces tolerance and perhaps admiration for members of
other races. Knowledge of history leads to humility rather
than to racial arrogance, for the informed student is conscious of the many ways in which progress in various
localities and with different racial groups has proceeded in
parallel lines. This is most evident in the prescientific
era, where numerous parallelisms can be traced between
say the medicine of the Greeks and of the Chinese or between the ethical teachings of Jesus and of Confucius.
Since the rise of science in Europe and America progress
has been so rapid that the material civilization of the West
has far outdistanced that of the East; hence westerners
frequently despise the races of the East, feeling that somehow the white races are superior. A knowledge of history
would make this assumption impossible for it would show
that the peoples of Asia are inherently as capable as those
of Europe, and that until very recently were actually more
advanced in material civilization and probably not in second place in philosophical thinking. The "accident" that
science developed first in the West has temporarily put the
western nations ahead in certain respects. But as soon as
the eastern races become fully cognizant of the "benefits"
of science they will certainly make at least as great a contribution towards its development, and possibly will know
better how to make it serve mankind.
Although a mere recognition of the past achievements
of other races leads to a measure of respect, good will may
still be lacking. Sometimes respect is accompanied by fear
and suspicion. It is unlikely that the current problems of
other countries will be sympathetically understood. An
intimate knowledge of and respect for Aristotle, Plato and
Socrates will produce admiration for the Greeks as think-
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ers, but it is a long way from that to an understanding of
the immediate problems that face Greece today. And that
understanding can best be obtained through a personal acquaintance with modern Greeks. A university to really
achieve its international function of creating understading
should make possible not only the study of the classical
aspects of a nation's civilization, but through personal contact with living representatives bring about sympathy with
various national groups in their efforts to solve their immediate problems. Such contact between individuals is likely
to produce mutual sympathy and understanding, and the
result will be seen in increased friendless and international
cooperation.
One experiment of this type has been in operation for
a number of years. Ever since the United States used her
share of the Boxer indemnity money to encourage Chinese
students to go to American universities for advanced work
large numbers of Chinese have gone annually to that country. Many have been assisted also by other foundations,
such as the Rockefeller Foundation, the Harvard-Yenching
Institute, etc. This stream of Chinese students to and
from the U.S.A. has now continued for over forty years,
and as a result there is in China a very large group of
"returned students" from that country. Many of these
now hold important positions in the government, in the
professions, in industry and in education. Practically all
are friendly to the United States, and many are so fervent
in their admiration as to have been called "missionaries of
the gospel of Americanism." The result has been that all
over China one meets with a feeling of friendliness for
Americans and a desire to cooperate with the United States.
Such a feeling has other indirect results too. Obviously a
student who has been trained to use American equipment
in a professional school in the U.S.A. will prefer that same
equipment when he later comes to install machinery in a
factory in China, and so American industries benefit and
trade expands.
Canada is just entering the international field in a large
way. In proportion to her population she is playing a very
large part in this war for she is producing more supplies
and enlisting more men and women than any other of the
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22
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE democratic powers except Great Britain. Having entered
•the international field she cannot well withdraw again to
a position of relative isolationalism unless she is ready to
face a great decline in her standard of living. She must
do everything possible to encourage friendship, understanding and sympathy between her nations and those of other
countries. She can gain nothing by fostering race prejudice; she can only lose. To increase such an international
outlook two steps should be taken by her universities—
the increased study of the cultures of other nations and
the actual bringing of advanced students from those nations to Canada to study in Canadian universities.
China, as the most populous nation in the world and
as one in vital relationship to Canada because of her proximity across the Pacific and across the Arctic, is one which
Canada should seek to know intimately. Many of her postwar needs might be supplied by Canada, and in exchange
she has much to offer us. She will need manufactured goods
and machinery, wheat, lumber and paper, all of which
Canada can supply. In return she can send in exchange
certain minerals, cotton, silk, tung oil, tea, crude drugs,
etc. A considerable trade may be developed provided a
basic good will exists between the peoples of the two countries. And that will exist in proportion to our mutual
recognition of each other's worth and sympathetic understanding of each other's problems.
In view of China's great need for adequately trained
leaders much might be done by assisting in the training of
these. For example, if a Canadian Foundation were
brought into existence with the dual purpose of (1) assisting some university in China to increase its undergraduate
educational work in one of the essential professions, such as
medicine, and (2) bringing each year to Canadian universities a number of Chinese students for advanced study in
those departments in which we excel, such as medicine,
dentistry, agriculture, forestry and engineering, much
might be done towards the creation of the good wil we
desire. Still more would be accomplished if at the same
time we invited the Chinese to provide the funds for (1)
the establishment and maintenance in a Canadian university
of a Department of Chinese which would enable young
Canadians to obtain a more adequate appreciation of
China's history and culture and of Chinese achievements
in literature, philosophy and art, and (2) provide for the
annual migration of a number of advanced Canadian students to the universities of China for the further study of
these same subjects.
Since Canadians have already made a notable contribution to medical education in China, particularly through
the College of Medicine and Dentistry of the West China
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since the University of British Columbia is the Canadian
university nearest to the Orient and since the Province of
British Columbia has a large Chinese population, it would
appear most suitable that a Department of Chinese should
be established here.
The results of such a plan would be cumulative and
far reaching, and might well become a model for the future
reorganization of higher education along international lines.
Various countries might discover that through the encouragement of the study of their cultures and scientific
achievements in other lands so much good will would result
that cooperation and progress would replace the present
system of antagonism and periodic warfare. Canada should
lead off in this new and reciprocal method by adopting
some such plan as the one here suggested.
UP-COUNTRY MEETINGS
(Continued from page 21)
Questions regarding technical qualifications necessary
for admission to the Association, were answered by the
Registrar. Mr. R. W. Diamond, Assistant General Manager, Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., also spoke
briefly.
Mr. Roy Pollard, who has been honorary secretary of
the Eastern District Committee for some years, was praised
for his work.
Penticton Meeting
The dinner meeting at Penticton was held at the In-
cola Hotel on the 28th. Mr. A. G. Pearson, Chairman of
the District Advisory Committee, was in charge of the
meeting.
Mr. Anderson spoke on the work of the Association. He
expressed regret that meetings were not held oftener in
the various parts of the Province, one of the reasons for
the lack of these meetings being the decrease in revenue
during the past few years owing to the waiving of fees
of Active Service Members.
The President referred to the lack of interest in the
annual elections and urged members to record their ballots.
He also pointed out that the Dominion and Provincial
Governments are not bound by the Engineering Profession
Act, but that the Provincial Government particularly, are
co-operating with the Association to the fullest possible
extent and that engineers joining the Department of Public
Works Service, must be members of the Association.
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A PROFESSION WITHOUT UNITY
(Continued from page 16)
well directed effort or a failure to recognize a need. Far
from being individualists and hermits, engineers are really
quite gregarious; they are probably greater "joiners' 'than
are either their legal or medical contemporaries. On the
whole, the engineer of today has a rather highly developed
professional self-consciousness but it is directed to the several founder and related societies not ont of which can
speak for the engineering fraternity. It is this fact that
leaves the "profession" a lamb at large without a spokesman in an era of organized groups (one might say wolves)
among which selfishness and piracy are rampant.
In spite of the fact that the ideals of a professional
group worthy of the name are directed exactly 180 degrees
away from those of the present day union in their outlook
and attitude toward the public welfare, the truth remains
that even now junior members of the engineering profession are being forced to unionize because otherwise they
have no legal voice. We of the engineering fraternity
have before us a choice between unification and unionization; for many of our constituency there is apparently no
other alternative. This is but one of the questions confronting us but it is certainly one that calls for the best
we have to offer toward a prompt solution; we supply an
answer or it will be supplied for us.
If we propose to continue to perform engineering functions under engineering auspices it is up to us to supplement the excellent professional organizations now functioning effectively within their several fields by the addition
of a non-restrictive overall framework, an umbrella, under
which all can function as a unit without any attempt,
however, to alter the individuality or freedom of action of
any professional group within its normal sphere of operation.
As pointed out by President Doherty in his letter of
September 28, 1943 (November issue of the Journal, p.
205), the E.C.P.D. constitutes the latest and to date the
most promising attempt to provide the type of overhead
organizaion required if professional unification is to be
achieved. This attempt can succeed only in so far as it
secures the recognition, acceptance and support of the engineering profession and it is there that the S.P.E.E. enters
the picture in a most altruistic role.
Working through the S.P.E.E. membership, the engineering teachers, the national professional organizations
have been able to augment the effectiveness of their activities greatly during the past twenty years by tapping the
interest and securing the support of the appropriate cur-
ricular groups of engineering students. By capitalizing on
past experiences and using essentially the same approach it
should easily be possible to extend the interest and loyalty
of upper-class engineering students to embrace not only
their respective curricular engineering groups, but to include an interest in and wholehearted support of the overall cover that must embrace the entire profession.
This assignment is tailor-made for the Sections and
Branches of the S.P.E.E. It is the local S.P.E.E. membership which can, if it will, inject overall engineering esprit
de corps into the members of the oncoming generation of
engineers.
It was with such matters in mind that a meeting under
the auspices of the Sections and Branches was scheduled
for the Cincinnati convention, June 22-25, and all members of the Society urged to give careful thought and study
to these problems with a view to making constructive contributions to the convention discussions.
24
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Implementing the Report of
Committee on engineering education
After the War
By N. W. DOUGHERTY
Dean of Engineering, the University of Tennessee.
Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Section,
Georgia School of Technology, April 29, 1944.
Engineers believe in making study of what they are
doing. Shortly after the last war we had the Mann report
published by the Garnegie Foundation. They had hardly
become dry before we started the investigation which
lasted from 1923 to 1929. Both reports deserve very careful study today because they show many of the things the
engineering colleges are doing now. There have been few
major changes since the report of 1930 was published.
In 1939 Dr. Jackson completed his study of Trends in
Engineering Education as gleaned from the reports of the
E.C.P.D. visitation committees. This report was an excellent contribution to our knowledge of the work of the •
engineering colleges. In 1940 the S.P.E.E. Committee on
Aims and Scope of Engineering Curricula made one of the
best statements of our problem to date. Now we have a
restatement of the 1940 report with some needed additions.
You have heard the report. It is my task to discuss the
implementation.
With the sign posts that have been erected along the
way of engineering education, few of us should go astray.
The Committee, however, asks us to increase our study of
the problem before us. Within the body of the report there
are stated many general principles. We need some one to
fill in the details of the problem. The general direction is
well known; now we must avoid the detours.
The present committee report indicates certain trends in
engineering education. A large number of students are
applying the engineering method to the management and
operation of industry. For twenty-five years this movement has been gaining headway as is shown by the number
of colleges which have established courses in industrial
engineering and a larger number which have added some
specialization in management in the standard curricula.
Over against the management trend has been a demand
for more scientific work on a creative level. As technology
has grown in subject matter, graduate work has increased
throughout the land. Industry is absorbing a larger number of graduates who have had advanced training in the
several  engineering  specialties.
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Educational Truisms
Before we discuss the Committee report, let us consider a few truisms in the learning process. A number of
years ago Henry Van Dyke made a statement that "memory is a capricious and arbitrary creature." This has been
known a number of years yet we undertake to give instruction as if a student will remember all he reads and
certainly all we say. We are much disturbed about the
overlap in course content which exists in many of our
programs. We should not be disturbed if the overlap presents subject matter from another point of view. Skills
and concepts one develops must be maintained through
reapplication and not be allowed to deteriorate through disuse. If we state an idea or a principle and never come
back to it with applications, that idea is lost to the memory of the student.
Mr.  Jessup writing in  the thirty-eighth  report  of  the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
says: "An active mind requires, and in reality seizes, its
own leeway in choosing what it will ignore and what it
will digest." Since minds and memories are made as they
are, it is folly to act as if all pearls are grasped and held in
a retentive memory. The following table will give a suggestion of what I mean and it may indicate methods of
teaching which we have overlooked.
Forgetting of a College Lecture Of College Study
Per Cent
Lapse of Time Remembered at
in Weeks That Time
0 (end of lecture) 75-80 90-100
1 35 45
2 30 38
3 25 36
4 23 35
5 20 From here on
6 18 25-35
7 17
8 16
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25 Then comes the examination at the end of twelve weeks
for the quarter or after sixteen weeks for the semester.
Unless some special device is used to emphasize the material, it may all be in the last 84 per cent for lectures and
if not repeated it may be in the forgotten 65 to 75 per
cent for assignments. If these results are approximately
true we should certainly take them into account when we
outline the course of study and when we undertake to
give subject matter in any field.
All through our lives we are guilty of spot learning.
This is due to our methods of study and to the way the
mind works. We will build a compartment for some kind
of knowledge which keeps it away from some other kind
of learning, and in the end we treasure as being true two
sets of facts which may be diametrically opposed to each
other. For example, the public debt is not a debt at all;
it is a device of taxation. After the war the public will be
restrained on its works program because of the Federal
debt. When we read one plausible authority we accept
the one point of view and when we read another we arrive
at a different point of view. If we seal up the ideas and
keep them apart for occasion, we will believe that both
can be true at the same time.
Spot learning allows a student to do manipulations in
calculus and not understand that he has learned a method
of solving problems in electricity, mechanics, hydraulics,
thermodynamics, or structures. Some of the trouble comes
from the concept that we are learning for learning's sake
and have no desire to dwell in the market place. Learning
is not learning unless it has some connection with the
science and art of living.
As a third educational fault we have the course credit
virus. Under our present mass production methods we
seem to need some kind of an account with the registrar,
but it cannot possibly show educational achievement. It
cannot take account of the variations in memory; it cannot distinguish between rote learning and understanding;
it connot measure the "Love of learning which rules the
world." Is it possible to place in the record the differences
in the knowledge of the truth? One student may take it
on the authority of the professor, one may believe because
it is of ancient origin, and another may believe because the
statements confronts to all his other knowledge of life and
action. He who has appropriated a principle as a part of
his working processes has become to that extent educated.
A mark with the registrar cannot detect real appropriation.
Out of the mark with the registrar comes most of the
cheating, the shallowness of learning, and the quick forgetting of course work. If it once gets on the record it
is there as credit toward graduation. Somehow it has become one of the sacred archives of the student's academic
progress. It somehow contains the blood, sweat and tears
of the student and professor. Committees on degrees and
deans of students think that by keeping good records of
this kind they have performed their educational function.
Students should take courses for two reasons. The first
to make study of a certain area of knowledge and second
to see how the mind of the professor works. If they get
no knowledge or fail to see the professor at work, they
have missed the boat, yet they may be able to get credit
with the registrar.
One of the greatest faults of present educational
methods is the failure of students to believe that learning
is worth while. We sing the motto but we do not believe
that love of learning has anything to do with ruling the
world. More often we hear: "Thank God, that is over."
We have even fallen into the fallacy that difficult courses
have more disciplinary value than other easier courses. Is
the learning process akin to tugging at heavy weights or is
it like walking in the garden in the cool of the evening?
Woodrow Wilson said that in the college the side-shows
had run away with the circus. In many cases just that is
true. The fraternity, the club, atheletics, courses given
between nine and twelve o'clock and no higher up than
• the second floor have diverted the attention of the student
from his education. Conversations are not of an academic
nature. In student and faculty gatherings the conversation does not turn to learning but to the games, the girls
(or boys), the show, etc. Here is opportunity for real
learning.
The preacher said in the Ecclesiastes: "The words of
the wise man are as goads." We are more willing to chase
the will-of-the-wisp than those who are wise among us.
As a matter of fact we have almost lost our ability to
distinguish the wise from the foolish.
How can we begin implementing the outline? First we
must recognize the limitations of memory and the use we
are making of the knowledge the student has gained. Instead of disparaging the instruction that has gone before
we should undertake to tie more instruction to a student's
previous experience. It may be that they cannot integrate, but they have a right to forget something. If we
apply our instruction with the idea that they have been
exposed to certain fields of knowledge, in their previous
study, and try to resuscitate their memory in these fields,
we will present new knowledge with a better chance of
success.
Scientific-Technological Stem
We should tie our technology to general principles
which are basic. A whole book on strength of materials
may expand a few general principles and a few definitions.
Then may be added a swarm of details.    If the student is
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26
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE! given the details without the over-all picture he is lost in
a maze of things he cannot understand.
Probably the greatest offender in this field is found in
the Department of Physics. We have examined a number
of texts where topics are listed by the hundreds. As a
matter of fact we know of a text which has 1,500 different
items presented to the student. No student can be expected to remember such infinite details.
Probably the greatest criticism of our instruction in
the scientific-technological stem is the presentation of great
masses of detail. From the very nature of the work some
detail is necessary but we should never lose sight of the
principles we are trying to present.
The Committee has aptly stated the objectives we
should try to attain, and our experience as teachers has
shown us how to accomplish the desired ends. We will not,
therefore, undertake to dwell upon this phase of the report.
HUMANISTIC-SOCIAL   STEM
Here we may prepare for discussion and for differences
of opinion. The reason is quite obvious. We have confused this stem of our instruction with culture, liberal
education, the fine arts, and general training. None of
these terms have been adequately defined. Somehow we
have hoped for a series of courses which will give us all the
training we need outside our technology. We have been
rather dogmatic about the technology but too often we
have been on unstable ground when we have talked about
general subjects.
The Committee has clarified the aims and objectives.
The outline is clear. We should not allow the outline to be
as a valley of dry bones which are exceedingly dry, but
rather, we should fill in the meat until the bones shall live.
A number of institutions have had experience in these
areas. They can tell us what they have been able to do;
they can also tell us what they have not been able to do.
My first suggestion then is to learn what Dr. Doherty has
done at Carnegie Tech., what has been done at California
Tech., and at the other colleges of engineering where experience has been accumulated. With a background of
their experience we can attack the problem with a little
less prejudice.
I am convinced that a series of course credits in history,
government, economics, sociology, and psychology is not
the answer. The Committee suggests a sequence of courses
designed to attain the objectives. Surely the last word has
not been said in these fields and we must take the books
now written as we find them without future change. We
cannot take a page or a chapter here and another there and
attain our objectives. It may be that new course materials
must be developed for our purposes.
My first approach to the problem was to get a meeting
of the professors giving formal courses in the subject matter areas. I then tried to state our problem and ask their
help in getting a solution. Some believed that a few added
hours of instruction in their fields would do the trick,
others saw that a joint program coordinated by the engineering representative or a committee from the whole
group might reach the desired goals.
We probably know what should be done in first year
English. Further instruction in language should probably
be studied by the joint committee. We have had years of
experience in the field of economics but we have not accomplished the objective set for ourselves in the subject.
This area should be studied along with additions to the
present program. It may take us several years to develop
usable subject matter, desirable sequences, and correct
emphasis.
The Committee suggests a minimum of one course of
say three hours each year throughout the four years. More
time may be needed as the program takes acceptable shape.
No one will be childish enough to believe that all the
needed instruction in these wide areas can be obtained in
the manner suggested. But out of the experience the student should develop a discriminating taste, a selective appetite, and a desire for more knowledge in the fields. As he
acquires educational stature, he will be able to fill in the
outline made by the Committee and begun by the coordinated program.
Unity of Program
This brings us to one of the first aims of our engineering instruction. We should state the over-all objective of
the program, then state the objectives of each course and
show how they fit into the over-all picture. Again and
again the over-all picture must be stated if the student
makes progress in the course. "It is only by the most
careful planning in which the strictest attention is given
to the adopted objectives and only such subject matters
and procedures are included in the curriculum as are essential to their attainment." This is using the words of the
Committee. I cannot over-emphasize the importance of
this activity.
A few years ago we undertook the statement of the
objectives of the courses in civil engineering. We prepared
an over-all statement and then tried to fit each engineering
subject to the general pattern. Our statement was not
complete, but it gave the staff a picture of what they
were trying to do. If the work is outlined and the instructor follows the outline the student will always be
able to determine the path along which he is traveling.
Again the Committee states: "Explicit objectives must be
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE formulated not only for the major portions of the curriculum but also for each of its subdivisions in terms of the
knowledge to be acquired and abilities to be achieved."
At first the outline may seem to be as dry bones, but as the
meat is filled in the outline will take life and have meaning
for the student.
Be sure that all instructors in the course are traveling
the same road. This can be accomplished by staff meetings,
by discussion of subject matter and methods of presentation, and by coordinated schedules. Much of the value of
the laboratory instruction is lost because it is not coordinated with lectures and recitations.
We must approach the task knowing that the art of
engineering practice cannot be conveyed in any single subject or even in a series of subjects. It is a long time job
which will require much effort on the part of the beginning engineer. If the instructor can start the young engineer along this path, he may ultimately acquire enough
knowledge to perform with requisite skill. The engineering method, the engineering attitude, and the engineering
approach must be constantly emphasized in order that the
student may become familiar with these qualities.
Creative Ability
We have just emphasized the method and approach and
we will add one other tool and that is research ability.
Some employers like to call it creative ability. Again and
again they ask our staff members to name those students
who have originality or those who can work under their
own steam and power. We should arrange at least a part
of our work to encourage research or independent work
ability. The Committee's report suggests that the problem
method is the best method available. They suggest that
beginning with the junior or the senior year the problem
method may be used. I would go back to the first year
and introduce the problem method. Let it apply to beginning Math., beginning Chemistry, and then follow through
each year of the whole program making sure that the
problems illustrate principles and give the student an opportunity to develop original solutions.
Much of the practice of the successful engineer is the
solution of engineering problems. They may be much
more elaborate than the elementary tasks given in class
but the technique and method of approach are the same.
As the student matures larger problems and more elaborate
. solutions will be required. I recommend that we revive
the old student thesis and see to it that each graduate does
some original work before he is given his degree. You may
say that this is over-emphasis of a special technique but
tomy way of thinking it is very difficult to divorce the
engineering method from the laboratory and the research
approach.
Good Teaching
The key to the whole problem, of course, is good instruction.    No progress can be made unless the staff is
interested in the growth of the student. Some way must
be found to cause the staff to act as a unit. We have
already suggested staff meetings. This may be extended
to larger groups who devote time to the actual problems of
instruction in the college. We have had very great success with meetings of the younger men on the staff who
have been willing to study methods of giving instruction
in the lecture room, recitation room, and the laboratory.
They have studied the standard procedures recommended
by our brethren in the College of Education. It seems to
me that we have been so prone to criticize the College of
Education that we have been unwilling to profit by the
techniques they develop. I would not spend four years in
college trying to learn how to teach, but I would spend
some time trying to learn the techniques discussed by
writers in education. Group meetings can be used to great
advantage for discussions of this kind.
In any active college of engineering there will be rivalry
for the student's time. This is desirable, but to hoard
students' time is unnecessary and pernicious. If the time
allowed to a subject is more than is needed to cover the
outline of that subject and the instructor is allowed to pad
the course, there is great waste of the student's time and
loss in the college's effort to produce the kind of product
we desire. In this connection I would suggest something
that is rarely undertaken in the engineering colleges—
staff visits to classes conducted by other members. We
have built up the educational taboo that the classroom is
the fortress of the individual instructor. When other persons visit we call it snooping. The opposite point of view
should prevail. Since all the instructors are trying to work
as a team they should welcome visits from other staff
members and they should appreciate constructive criticisms.
Nothing, of course, could be more damaging than destructive criticism.
With some trepidation I suggest a few things a teacher
should do.
Positively:
Consider students as individuals. The assembly line
and mass production are satisfactory to the manufacturer
of goods and materials but they have no place in education.
Even the lecturer must approach his task as if he were an
individual talking to individuals and not shooting at a
crowd. Students must be able to bring their problems to
the faculty and get sympathetic treatment, yes, more than
sympathetic treatment, they must be able to get educational advice which will direct them along their search for
knowledge.
To be a guide, and not a sign post only, the faculty
member must have traveled the path before the student.
It is hard to inspire to productive effort if the teacher has
not been a producer himself. By producer we do not
mean, necessarily, that the teacher must have written some
dry tomes to be required of students, but rather that the
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19 teacher has been over the ground, has studied the way, and
knows the short-cuts as well as the long way around.
Students naturally take to specialization. They can
understand how practical knowledge may be of benefit in
after years. It is a much more difficult task to.interest
them in general principles which may apply in the many
problems of life. It is easy to repeat Newton's first law,
but it may take a genius to follow all the implications of
it. If students realize that Newton developed the law
after much observation, they may begin to understand
that it is more than a rule; it is the beginning of understanding of mechanics.
Negatively:
The faculty should avoid incidental disservices. No
professor would bring a biting dog to class, yet one of his
neighbors may be guilty of keeping one. This is often
more than an incidental disservice—it may be a studied
plan to get even. Faculty should avoid sarcasm and biting
criticism. Students are not supposed to be as wise as professors or they would be the teachers and the professors
would be the students. Hunt down error wherever it
exists, but make the student be the discoverer rather than
the culprit who has strayed away and who resents correction.
Avoid losing the student in detailed solutions. Often
the report is so long and laborious that the student forgets
what he is trying to learn in his effort to produce words,
pages, and pictures. Never allow the student to miss the
point of exercise by getting lost in the manipulation.
Avoid great delays in returning corrected work for
student review. Oftentimes the student makes the same
mistake a number of times in succeeding exercises because
the instructor has failed to return graded papers until after
it is too late to profit by constructive criticism.
Avoid diverting the student's attention from the lesson
by forcing him to meet rules and regulations. A minimum
amount of rules and discipline are necessary, but don't lose
the student in the rules to the disadvantage of his learning. Size of lettering, width of margin, and outlines have
their place, but don't become slaves of these details. In
some exercises the student may improve on the model if he
is allowed to use his imagination. One of the greatest
stumbling blocks in the way of the student is to require
him to present material in a restricted form which does not
allow him any originality.
Students should be trying to learn and learning is best
accomplished in an atmosphere of freedom and enthusiasm.
How then shall we develop good teaching staffs? The
Committee's report suggests that great care be used after
the war in building staff back to pre-war strength. It is
possible that many competent instructors will be available
as soon as the war is over. For many years certain engineering educators have been talking about the things listed
in the Committee's report|
In any college or department the great burden of instruction falls upon the assistant professor. As a matter of
fact the assistant professor should be the best instructor on
the staff. He has had years of internship and he is not
too old to learn. If department heads will visit the classes
of their staff, they will find that the best instruction is
being given by men in the thirties and early forties. There
must be a place for the older staff members, but if they
believe they are good because they are old they are about
to fall by the wayside in this educational venture.
Let me close with a point of view which may assist in
determining what should be learned in college. It is obvious that no student can learn all that he needs to know,
and if he did he would forget it before the knowledge was
needed. He must therefore learn as much as he can and
in such a way that it will be the most beneficial to him.
Surely an engineer must be a student all his life. College then is but a four-year interlude between adolescence
and the beginning of his professional career. It is time
designed for study; no similar opportunity will ever come
again. If the student can be guided through the period
in such a way that he will get educational profit out of
his opportunity, he will be well fitted for the continuing
study made necessary as he approaches his chosen field of
activity.
The Committee has set the objectives of the program.
It has urged an emphasis on basic principles and on methods
and techniques; it has warned against specialization. Faculties must keep these objectives constantly before the students in such a convincing manner that they will believe
in them and try to achieve them.
From "The Journal of Engineering Education—
June, 1944.
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30
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE DISCUSSION
By GEORGE C. ERNST
May 5, 1944 (for publication in S.P.E.E. Journal)
The editorial by Professor Gilkey in the March issue of
the Journal raises two rather important questions. These
are presented below, accompanied by a brief discussion of
each.
1. Is the basic difference between engineering and the other
professions due to "performing purely personal services at
a common level of professional stratification," or is it due
to the attitude of each profession with respect to its
sphere of influence?"   .
I am no great admirer of certain features of the medical profession, but there is a certain practicalness in its
educational and professional policy that seems to keep the
profession's feet on the ground. The editorial, for example, points out that in order "to be at all comparable
in sjope to engineering, medicine would have to embrace
everything from pre-conception to post-cremation, from
the manufacture of drugs and instruments to the performance of a tonsillectomy on a giraffe." A member of a
medical group, concerned with education policies and viewing the formulation of these policies as we have done in
engineering, would say that the medical profession actually
did embrace the entire range of functions stated. If necessary, he would go on to point out that the medical profession with its background of ministering to human beings
was well qualified to include such related fields. Furthermore, he would add, why not include "intense, nurses,
attendants, medical technicians, nutritionists, ambulance
drivers, pharmacists, druggists, chemists, bacteriologists,
and veterinarians" within a much larger enveloping group
which could be called the medical fraternity? Obviously,
the medical profession, he would say, could not isolate itself
from such a complex of personnel and functions into a
well-defined caste. It could only exist as a vaguely bounded
nucleus within the large enveloping group. Furthermore,
he could foresee, with such a comprehensive inclusion of
functions, that the growth of the medical schools would
be phenomenal (with budgets and staff reluctantly tagging
behind, of course). Having tasted of these fruits, he
would be able to see that the broad and comprehensive
knowledge of human beings attained by the medical practitioners would qualify the medical profession for the fields
of management, economics, and finance. Medical schools
would then be confronted with intriguing problems concerning the reduction or omission of basic medical courses
in order to include "medical geopolitics—2 hrs., twice
weekly," or "global mediconomics—1 hr. lee, 3 hr. lab.,
weekly." An additional development, not obvious at first
but ignored later, would be that the broad and comprehensive knowledge of human beings, that was to prove so
valuable in the newer fields, would no longer be attained
by an individual specializing in the advanced work because
he no longer had time for the practical experience in the
field of medicine. The medical profession would then fail
to develop the qualities desired in their professional men.
All this, however, would raise the level of ability of the
medical practitioner, no doubt.
2. Are we being "virtually forced in the fields of finance,
management, economics, and politics" or are we permitting ourselves to be forced and rather enthusiastically
enjoying it?
If there has been any marked struggle, it has been well
disguised. We have never provided our groups, formed to
develop and guide basic policies, with specific regulatory
powers. It is difficult to see any marked advancement possible unless such groups are provided with "delegated
authority."
In closing I wish to add that it is not the intention of
this discussion to criticize the viewpoint or policy of the
editorial, but rather to point out a fallacy.
AUTHOR COMMENT
Professor Ernst brings out a number of stimulating,
thought-provoking aspects of this many faceted problem
and with some of them I find myself in rather close accord.
While, in spite of the graphic case made, I still contend, assertively, that the middle-of-the-road professional
ramification  of  engineering  greatly  exceed  in  scope,   va-
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31 riety and complexity anything possible in the field of medicine, I readily concede that we could conceivably have
simplified our organizational problem had we adopted years
ago some closely cropped definitional procedure akin to that
employed by the medical profession.
Be that as it may, I fail to see how any such restrictive
definition of Professional Engineer would now be possible
without a major operation equivalent to the extraction of
a heart or the amputation of a head. No matter whose
fault it may have been (and we might as well accept it
as our own), we are dealing with the "fraternity" rather
than the "profession" and are confronted by the necessity
of finding a common denominator for a larger unwieldy
and highly diversified group. If we propose to tackle this
problem as the engineer is supposed to tackle any problem,
we will accept the facts as we find them and build from
here on out. The trend seems clearly to be toward even
greater diversification of engineering functions rather than
less; it is now late for the clippers; a haircut appears to be
the only tonsorial unifying device at hand; an overall
cover capable of embracing the entire engineering body—
the fraternity.
In his quip-like reference to "medical geopolitics" and
to "global mediconomics" Professor Ernst shows himself to
be something of a curricular fundamentalist; one of those
rather out-of-date individuals, of which there are still a
few at large, who believe that an engineering curriculum
should consist largely of basic engineering work. I too
confess myself to be one of those queer personages; not
that there is opposition either to the knick-knacks of
attempted over-specialization in the undergraduate area on
the one hand, or to the cambric tea of the humanities on
the other, for they are admittedly non-toxic and devoid of
neither vitamins nor nutriment. The objection to these
curricular embellishments is not for what they are, but
rather for what they displace. In spite of much cultural
clamor, I still believe that a curriculum rich in sturdy basic
engineering content constitutes the best seed bed yet de-
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vised for the growth of professional culture and breadth of
interest and outlook as well as for the technical engineering proficiency prerequisite to solid progress; that the
ripened fruits of experience and maturity just aren't found
dangling from the boughs or the brows of college-bred saplings, regardless of curricular soil. As we dilute and dissipate engineering substance in attempting to teach culture,
judgment, maturity and life, out of books, I fear that we
are only substituting a wash drawing of yearnings for the
blueprint of an engineering career.
Returning to the central theme: The engineering fraternity is and will probably continue to be a sprawling
affair, one presenting a difficult, but I trust by no means
a hopeless, organizational problem. If we are to approach
the problem rationally, it must be studied from such different angles as will promote broad overall understanding. .
Professor Ernst's discussion constitutes a valid and valuable
contribution.—From "Professional Engineer," June,  1944.
Travellers
AUDREY McKIE—Here from Washington, D.C., where
she is working for the British Government.
JUNE WILLIAMS (B.A. '44)—In Ottawa on the staff of
the dependents' board of trustees.
RUTH COREY—Home after teaching for a year at Copper Mountain. She will continue her studies at Victoria, B.C.
MRS. PAUL CLEMENT (B.A. '34) has joined her husband (B.S.A. '3 6) in Kentville, N.S., where he is
instructing at Aldershot Advanced Training Centre.
SUB-LT. GRACE THOMPSON (S.B.), R.C.N.—Home
on two weeks' furlough before returning in late August to her station at Cornwallis, N.S.  (B.A. '38).
DR. MURIEL E. HIDY was a visitor in Vancouver in
July. B.A. '27—she is at present associate professor of
economics at Wheaton College, Norton, Mass.
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32
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE SOCIAL NEWS
Marriages
BETTY HARVEY (Arts '43) to 2nd LT. DONALD A.
LIVINGSTON (B.A.Sc. '44), at Brockville, Ont., on
August 5, 1944.
LEILAL-DOREEN RAY to CAPT. NOEL LYNN RICHARDSON, R.C.A.M.C—August 18, 1944.
MARGUERITE E. PEARDON to DONALD McKENZIE HANSON ('43)—July 6, 1944.
LONIA J. KENNEDY to SUB-LT. DONALD W. Mac-
LEAN (B.S.A. '43)—July, 1944, in the chapel of
H.M.C.S. Kings, Halifax.
MARION GILBERT, Yakima, Wash., to CLARENCE W.
J. MANN (B.A.Sc. '43, M.A.Sc. '44)—July 10 at the
Congregational Church, Yakima, Wash.
MARY FLOLRENCE DUNFIELD (B.A. '43) to WILLIAM MANSON MERCER  (B.A. '43).
MARY MINTA BULGIN (B.A. '42) to ERNEST KENNETH VERNON  ('42)—July, 1944.
HELEN LOUISE WRIGHT (B.A. '40) to LT. COMMANDER HERBERT E. McARTHUR, August 11,
1944.
BETTE FRASER DICKIE (B.A. '43) to LT. CHARLES
BRADFORD REYNOLDS, U.S. Army, in Augusta,
Georgia, on July 1, 1944.
JEAN KERR MacNAUGHTON (B.A. '3 3) to W/C
ALFRED JOHNSTON ELLIOTT, R.C.A.F. (B.A.
'32), June 27, 1944, at St. George's United Church,
Toronto.
VALERIE JEAN ADAMS, Wilmette, Illinois, to LT.
JOHN ALEXANDER McLAREN (B.A. '39) with
the R.C.A.M.C, July, 1944.
SUSAN MONA ELIZABETH ASSELSTINE to HAROLD THOS. FARGEY (B.A.Sc. '42), July 15, 1944.
LAURA MARY CHAMBERS, Windsor, Ont., to SGT.
E. A. LLOYD, R.C.A.F.—July 29, 1944, at Windsor,
Ont.
KATHLEEN   K.   PENISTON,   Hamilton,   Bermuda,   to
JOHN K. McINTOSH, R.C.N.V.R.—June 16, 1944,
at Bermuda.
PATRICIA   GRAHAM   BIBBS   (B.A.   '41)   to   L.A.C
RICHARD O. MASSY, R.C.A.F., July, 1944.
KATHLEEN BARRY BINGAY (B.A. '32) to ARNOLD
DAVIDSON DUNTON of Montreal, July, 1944.
SHIRLEY LEE PARNUM to CAPT. JOHN WARREN
PEARSON, R.C.O.F.  (B.Com. '40), July 7, 1944.
DOROTHY ISABEL GALLOWAY (B.A. '34) to DR.
ROBERT CARR HALL of Utica, N.Y., July, 1944.
DIETHERS LTD.
SAND and GRAVEL
TRUE MIX CONCRETE
BUILDERS' SUPPLY
COAL
GRANVILLE
MArine 6231 ISLAND
CANADA
PERMANENT
MORTGAGE
CORPORATION
British Columbia Branch:
432 Richards Street Vancouver, B. C.
JARVIS ELECTRIC CO.
524 HORNBY
VANCOUVER
TO THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE . . .
Our Congratulations and
Best Wishes
BELL & MITCHELL LTD.
541 WEST GEORGIA VANCOUVER, B.C.
O. B. ALLAN, Ltd.
JecveLLe
DIAMONDS
WATCHES
Granville and Pender Streets
Vancouver
SHEET MLfSIC and BOOKS
GRAMOPHONE RECORDS—STANDARD
and CLASSICAL
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS and
ACCESSORIES
Western Music Company Ltd.
570 Seymour Street Vancouver, B. C.
PAcific 9548
AUGUST, 1944
33 Compliments of
The Canada Permanent Trust Co.
432 Richards
Vancouver
OUR GOOD WISHES
TO THE ALUMNI
New York Fur Co. Ltd.
B. C.'s LARGEST EXCLUSIVE FURRIERS
GEORGIA AT HOWE VANCOUVER
38 YEARS OF SPECIALIZED
SERVICE TO THE MUNICIPAL FIELD
Manufacturers of Water Work Supplies
Fire Hydrants
Gate Valves
Air Valves
Check Valves
Sluice Gates
Wood Pipe Specials
Steel Pipe Specials
Cast Iron Pipe Specials
Corporation Cocks
Valve Boxes
Plain Service Boxes
TERMINAL CITY IRON
WORKS LIMITED
1929 to 1999 Franklin Street
HAstings 0131 Vancouver, B. C.
CLASSIFICATION AND COMPENSATION PLAN
(Continued from Page 14)
Central, Southern, or Northwest Association of Secondary
and Higher Schools; or one whose professional curriculum,
has been accredited by the Engineers' Council for Professional Development.
Professional Positions in Educational Institutions
The Committee recognizes that a classification and
compensation plan should include faculty positions in engineering departments of educational institutions. In order
to accomplish this, however, it is recommended that a
factual study be made of classifications and salaries of
teaching and research engineers in educational institutions.
Retirement System
This report does not include a discussion of a retirement system but the Committee recognizes that a sound
and adequate retirement system is very desirable and should
be, as far as possible, a part of any employment plan.
Exceptions
While the proposed compensation plan indicates what
may be looked upon as appropriate salaries to be paid, it is
to be recognized that the capabilities of, and the responsibilities placed upon, many engineers have no definite limitations. Civil engineers, especially those in permanent employment, are frequently called upon and are readily agreeable to working in conformity with the exigencies of a
situation. Their compensations, therefore, should be in
terms of annual salaries commensurate with the demands
made upon them by such exigencies.
It is requested that the membership at large send to
Society Headquarters any information or comments which
might be helpful to the Committee.
We RECOMMEND the adoption of this Classification
and Compensation Plan for Professional Civil Engineering
Positions as embodied in this report.
Committee on Salaries
T. E. Stanton, Chairman.
E. B. Black      Charles F. Goodrich
Charles S. Shaughnessy      Ernest J. Stocking.
—"Civil Engineering," August, 1944.
Compliments
BEGG MOTOR CO.
1062 West Georgia
Vancouver
(n)^L
S Prescription Pharmacy
\^y EXCLUSIVE PRESCRIPTION SERVICE
Telephone MArine 0945
224 Birks Building
718 Granville Street Vancouver, B. C
GEORGE REID
34
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Steam - Hydraulic
Steering Gear
Auxiliary Steering Column designed and manufactured by Canadian
Sumner Iron Works for
emergency Steering of Cargo ships and other vessels.
for Ships
Steam-Hydraulic type steering mechanism now being built
by Sumner Iron Works for both East and West Canadian Shipyards. The 3'/2 x 3'/2 Verticle Steam Engine is shown in foreground, operates continuously to drive a Hele-Shaw pump
controlled from the bridge by dual telemotors, for operating the
twin horizontal cylinders and dual rudders.
Orders for a number of "Pilot House" type Steering
Engines to be used in 105-foot Naval Tugs have been
placed with the Canadian Sumner Iron Works of Vancouver. These vessels are to be built by the Collingwood
Shipyards Ltd. of Ontario.
These Tugs will be for the British Ministry of War
Transport, who have appointed the British Corporation
Register of Shipping as Inspectors, and Certificates will be
issued, by them on this Gear. Deliveries will commence in
November.
The Engine is a 5 J/2" x 5l/z" Twin Cylinder Vertical
unit mounted on a rigid "A" frame stand and solepalte
with cut worm and spur gears driving a gypsy. The
Engine will be installed in the wheel house and connection
is made aft to the tiller by chains and rods.
Steam control for this gear is provided on the bridge by
means of a Steering Stand and there is also a local control.
wheel at the engine. Hand steering is accomplished by a
convenient clutch arrangement on the engine, so that a
large hand wheel may quickly be put in gear when the
steam power is connected.
This Pilot House type of Steering Gear is eminently
suited for Tugs and small coastal steamers, saving valuable
space below decks and being very accessible. It is expected
that there will be a good peacetime market for this class
of Steering Gear.
In addition the Sumner Iron Works are busy on a large
contract to supply Steam Hydraulic Steering Gears for
Transport Ferries to be used as landing craft by the Allies
in invasion campaigns. These vessels are being built on
both the Atlantic and Pacific, and are fitted with dual
rudders making it necessary for the Sumner craftsman to
accommodate their equipment for this purpose. Work is
proceeding at top speed to meet urgent delivery schedules.
Vancouver Construction Company Ltd.
ENGINEERS and GENERAL CONTRACTORS
MArine 7027
827-8-9 ROGERS BUILDING
VANCOUVER, B. C.
AUGUST,  1944
.35 Architects' and Civil Engineers'
Instruments and Supplies
Drawing Papers, Tracing Papers and Cloth
Slide Rules, Scales, T Squares
Steel Tapes
OFFICE STATIONERY
LOOSE LEAF SUPPLIES
FOUNTAIN PENS
TheCLRRKE & STUART CO. Limited
Stationers, Printers, Engravers
550 Seymour Street Vancouver, B. C.
^
BEST WISHES
TO THE FACULTY AND STUDENTS OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Compliments of
KER & KER LTD.
REAL ESTATE and INSURANCE
475 Howe Street PAcific 3241
EXPERTS
Today the specialist is the man of the hour—he builds
the tanks, the planes and the guns. Keeping pace with
the eye needs of this man is also a job for experts, for
upon his ability to see depends the fitness of these
machines of war. Here for the past 19 years such skilled
technicians have been rendering this service, that of
maintaining your see-ability through the medium of your
Eye Physician's Prescription . . . Remember . . .
PRESCRIPTION
OPTICAL
CO. LTD.
Established, 1924. 424 VANCOUVER BLOCK
Cyor tke  smartest
in Csur Q) tyles...
i mum ■■ -4w
PAcific 7654
653 HOWE STREET
EnGinccRinc
k NEWS AND NOTES'
Col. W. G. SWAN, District Engineer Officer, Pacific
Command, since 1941, is resuming his civilian practice.
Also returning to civilian work are Fit. Lts. W. V.
SMITHERINGALE, E. A. SCHMIDT, Lieut. D. C.
EVANS and Lieut. H. K. LEAR.
A. A. WILSON is now with the John Inglis Co. in
Toronto.
NEVILLE BEATON has resigned from Wartime Shipbuilding Limited with which Company he occupied the
position of Division Manager for the Quebec and Maritime
areas, and has joined the Marathon Paper Mills of Canada
Limited, Toronto, as assistant to the Vice-President. Mr.
Beaton was Resident Engineer with the Powell River Company, prior to joining Wartime Shipbuilding Ltd.
J. A. ROBINSON is now Assistant Chemist with the
Standard Oil Company at Whitehorse, Y. T.
Major-General H. F. G. LETSON, C.B.E., M.C., E.D.,
who has been Adjutant-General for the Canadian Army
for the past two and a half years, has been appointed Commander of the Canadian Army Staff at Washington. He
will also be Chairman of the Canadian Joint Staff there.
Mr. HUGH M. LEWIS, for many years Manager of
the Ocean Falls plant of Pacific Mills will become Manager of the Sorg Pulp Co. Ltd. at Port Mellon on October
1st. Since 1941 he has been general Manager of the Bur-
rard South Shipyard and was General Manager of Lapointe
Pier Yard during the outfitting of aircraft carriers there
last year.
The 16th Annual Construction Industries Golf Tournament will be held at the Point Grey Golf and Country
Club on Friday, September 15 th. The Challenge Cup will
be played for and it is hoped there will be a good turn-out
from the engineers so that they can claim the Cup again
this year. There will be numerous individual prizes as
well, so do not forget to send in your entry form.
*       COR RESPOnDEnCE       *
The Director, Alumni. Association-,
Graduate Chronicle,
Brock Building, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, British Columbia.
Dear Sir:
Let me express our thanks for the copy of the March,
1944, issue of Graduate Chronicle, which you so kindly sent
us a short time ago. We are very glad indeed to have this
issue and appreciate your kindness in sending it.
May we hope that our name has been placed upon your
complimentary mailing list to receive future issues of your
publication regularly as printed, beginning with the April,
1944, issue, and also to present to the Library all back issues,
so that our file may be complete for binding.
We shall be grateful for any assistance you can give the
Library.
Very truly yours,
FRANKLIN F. HOPPER,
Director,
New York Public Library.
By: E. G. Freehafer.
3fi
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE A Complete
National
Electrical Service
In war or in peace, a "National Electrical
Service" means a trained personnel, imbued with the spirit of service—supported
by the facilities and the organization to
deliver electrical goods where and when
required. Through its research department—its engineering and manufacturing
divisions—Northern Electric will again be
a leader in the peace-time production of
electrical supplies and household appliances
of all kinds.
Horfhertt Efccfrfc
company Limited
A "National Electrical Service
150 ROBSON STREET     VANCOUVER, B.C.
SPECIALTY
MACHINE
HOP
Specializing in Precision
Machine Work
Heat Treating
Small Parts
Parts Made
Industrial Repairs
•
Rear of
722 W. PENDER STREET
PAcific 2427
Vancouver, B. C.
MEN'S SUITS AND
TOPCOATS
LADIES' SUITS AND
COATS
BRflEMAR   SWEATERS   FROM
SCOTLAND
For Ladies and Gentlemen
Fashioned and loomed from the finest quality yarns
available in Great Britain.
905 WEST GEORGIA
YOUR INSPECTION INVITED
&OZCJ& ^txaitk JJ:d.
VANCOUVER, B. C.
Always the Finest in Quality THE MINUTE
HITLER
HOLLERS
PHOTOGRAPH COURTESY. VANCOUVER SUN
The minute Hitler hollers "uncle" will
your post-war plans be ready for immediate execution?
Post-war planning is more than the creation of ideas. It is the development of
those ideas to the point where they can
be put into tangible form immediately
the go-ahead signal is given.
Heaps Engineering (1940) Limited, designers and manufacturers of Marine,
Sawmill, Logging, Pulp and Paper, and
other industrial equipment,  has a com
plete staff of engineers ready to help you
develop equipment which will assist in
meeting post-war competition. If your
plans are at the point where you require
to know the cost of making some particular type of equipment—if you need
machinery to do some particular job—
write Heaps Engineering (1940) Limited
for full information.
Heaps Engineering (1940) Limited have
exclusive rights to manufacture and distribute Colby Cranes and Barlow Marine
Elevators in Canada.
JP^Campbell k Smith Ltd., Effective Printing

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