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UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Alumni Chronicle Jun 30, 1968

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 ^^ ■ UBC ALUMNI ■ ■
UBC Finance: Too Little for Too Long
oo We've got one that isn't a credit card at all.
Bancardchek—the cash card.
Bank of Montreal
c?*<-- <5? £3***n~M^     !"
9     68
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Bancardcheks are guaranteed by
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itcostsyou nothing until you use it.
Want more information on
Drop in at your nearest branch or
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Bancardchek is a unique new international service, exclusive in Canada with
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Bank of Montreal
Canada's First Bank ^^| UBC ALUMNI ■ ■
VOLUME 22, NO. 2, SUMMER 1968
by Jim Stott
by Dr. John Porter
by Dr. F. Kenneth Hare
Frank C. Walden, BA'49, chairman
Stan Evans, BA'41, BEd'44, past chairman
Miss Kirsten Emmott, Sc 4
Dr. Joseph Katz, BA, MEd (Man.), PhD (Chicago)
Mrs. John McD Lecky, BA'38
Fred H. Moonen, BA'49
Douglas C. Peck, BCom'48, BA'49
Mrs. R. W. Wellwood, BA'51
an interview with Dean William Armstrong
Clive Cocking, BA'62
John Breukelman
Published quarterly by the Alumni Association of The
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Business and editorial offices: Cecil Green Park. 6251
N.W. Marine Dr.. U.B.C, Vancouver 8, B.C. Authorized
as second class mail by the Post Office Department,
Ottawa, and for payment of postage in cash. Postage
paid  at  Vancouver,  B.C.
The U.B.C. Alumni Chronicle is sent free of charge to
alumni donating to the annual giving programme and 3
Universities Capital Fund. Non-donors may receive the
magazine  by paying  a subscription  of $3.00 a  year.
Member American Alumni Council. UBC FINANCE:
A few years ago students expended vast
amounts of energy and ingenuity on the technical problem of putting the maximum number of
bodies into the mini-spaces of tiny cars and telephone booths. University administrators today —
faced with booming enrolments and bare-bones budgets — have a parallel problem: how to squeeze the
maximum number of students into the minimum
space without diluting the quality of education.
The space problem has reached the crisis level
at the University of B.C. where the administration
recently announced a new "get-tough" policy on
admissions as a means of staving off dilution of academic standards. Present admission regulations will
be enforced to the hilt in a bid to keep enrolment
this September down to about 20,000. So serious
is the situation that the imposition of higher admission standards was even considered—but rejected.
There have been serious delays in major construc
tion, library facilities are grossly inadequate, classes
are too large for effective teaching in some areas and
there is a chronic shortage of offices and research
The root cause of the crisis—which is likely to
grow worse instead of better—is the failure of the
provincial government to put up enough money to
meet the growing needs of higher education in B.C.
University administrators are unanimous that support has been inadequate but they are reluctant to
make any judgment on whether the provincial government could have done better when the other
demands on its purse are taken into consideration.
As one faculty dean pointed out, the priority of
provincial spending given to such varied demands
as hospitals, welfare, roads and higher education,
is a purely political decision in the final analysis.
Despite this, it is clearly demonstrable that Victoria
has failed to provide adequate financing for UBC TOO LITTLE FOR TOO LONG /by Jim Stott
either in terms of the needs of the university or by
comparison with the level of support given to universities by governments of the other provinces. Admittedly, the provincial government has earmarked an
increasingly significant portion of its budget to post-
secondary education over the past five years, but it
has not been enough to meet the needs of the universities.
Operating and capital grants have increased from
$13.6 million in 1962 to $33 million in 1967 or
from 3.34 per cent of expenditures to 7.85 per cent.
In the 1967-68 fiscal year, a total of $53 million
was allocated to the universities and the current
budget for 1968-69 contains an allotment of $65
million, an increase in capital and operating grants
for the three public universities.
A senior member of UBC's academic administration was asked if he felt the 22.6 per cent increase
in funds for universities was adequate. "The level
of support has been completely inadequate in the
past and the current increase must be judged in that
light," he said. "If you increased the standard of
living in India by 22 per cent, people would still be
starving because the starting point is so low."
Victoria's financial contributions to UBC have
been niggardly when judged in relation to the standard of support given by the governments of
Canada's other affluent provinces, Alberta and Ontario, to their universities. In the year 1967-68 for
example, the provincial, government's operating
grants to UBC fell far below the level the Point Grey
campus would have received if it had been located
in either Alberta or Ontario. A UBC study shows
that B.C.'s three public universities would have received $54,890,000 by Alberta grants standards and
$54,497,000 under the Ontario system. The actual
operating grant to the three universities was  $45
Artwork by John Breuketman million—almost $10 million less than they would
have received from the governments of Alberta or
The same study made a comparison between
provincial grants in 1967-68 to UBC and to the
University of Toronto, the university most comparable to UBC in size and complexity of program.
Toronto, under Ontario's formula financing system,
received a net provincial grant of $41,459,000 for
38,005 student units. UBC, with the equivalent of
34,000 Ontario student units, would receive a grant
of $37,094,000 by Ontario standards. The B.C.
government allotted it only $26,424,000.*
UBC also ranked at the bottom of the financial
list among Western Canadian universities in terms
of per student operating grants between 1963 and
1967. In 1966-67, the provincial government's per-
student operating grant to UBC was $843. Comparable grants to other universities for the same school
year were: University of Victoria, $1,227; Simon
Fraser University $1,787; University of Alberta,
$1,586; University of Calgary, $1,462; University
of Saskatchewan, $1,005 and University of Mani-
predictable source of capital funds for a major
portion of their capital construction needs over a
five year period. To this writer it seems almost as
financially sacrilegious as floating a national lottery
to finance medicare. In the five year period involving
the Tri-Universities Fund, the Provincial government
guaranteed capital allotments to the universities of
$40.7 millions. Presumably their capital needs in
the period were $40.7 million plus $28 million or
in the region of $69 million. If the provincial government had advanced a larger portion of this total
need—or met the capital requests of the universities
— the necessity for public solicitation could have
been eliminated or substantially minimized.
There will always be a place for the generosity
of the friends and patrons of the university but the
major cost of education is the responsibility of government. As the report on financing of higher
education published in 1965 by Vincent W. Bladen
and his colleagues put it: "In the opinion of the
great majority of people appearing before us the
bulk of this (financing), perhaps 70 to 80 per cent,
will have to come from government. Government
If UBC was an Ontario university it would have received
a $37 million grant in 1967-68 — the B.C. government
granted it only $26.4 million.
toba, $1,036.
In the 1963-67 period, UBC also held bottom
spot in revenue per student figures, combining provincial operating grants, federal grants and student
fees. The one exception to the pattern shown in
provincial operating grants—a small deviation—was
in 1964-65. In that year the University of Saskatchewan held the doubtful honor of receiving the
lowest provincial operating grant of $728 per student and UBC moved one step out of the cellar
at $732.
Another factor contributing to the fund shortage
at UBC, in the area of capital needs, has been the
failure of the Three Universities Capital Fund to
reach its goal. The fund campaign, believed to be
the largest private endeavour of its kind ever undertaken in Canada, set out to raise $28 million from
the public for B.C.'s three public universities. To
date, despite generous support from individuals and
industry, the fund is still $6 million short of its target
and far beyond its official closing date of July, 1966.
In retrospect, it seems strange that the universities
* While the Chronicle was going to press the provincial government announced a $31.1 million operating grant to UBC
for 1968-69. The grant represents a $4.7 million increase
(18 per cent) over the previous year's grant. Simon Fraser
received $13.5 million and the University of Victoria $8.2
million. UBC acting president Dean Walter Gage said the
university's grant was $3.1 million less than asked for and
would mean UBC would not he able to reduce the size of
classes or upgrade facilities and equipment as much as anticipated. But he said it was an equitable split under the
were prepared—or forced—to rely on such an un-
alone has the resources to meet the costs of the
dimensions contemplated."
One consequence of the shortfall in the Tri-Universities drive is that UBC still does not have a biological
sciences building extension and civil engineering complex which are urgently needed. Original cost estimates in 1963 for this construction came to $10.5
million. Current cost estimates for the same work
have now risen to approximately $20 million—a
high price to pay for the delay, even allowing for the
inflation which has effected all construction costs.
The general effect of capital starvation on UBC
is summed up in the recently-published President's
report for the 1966-67 fiscal year. In a reference to
graduate studies, Dean Ian McTaggart-Cowan says:
"It is difficult to generalize on strictures that are
already slowing down the growth of our graduate
school because they differ from one department to
the next. However, across the entire campus the
pressing shortage of accommodation for the academic and administrative functions of the university is
paramount. This is forcing restriction of enrolment
and requiring some faculty members and the students studying with them to make do with facilities
that are inadequate. The pressure of this influence
will increase with each year that it goes unrelieved
and will act to restrict the opportunities that the
university can offer to those of greatest ability and
thus deny the province the lasting benefits they
could bring it." In the general introductory remarks, Acting President Walter Gage says:
"The need for adequate operating grants is always
with us. Perhaps one of the most serious problems,
however, is the lack of adequate accommodation
for offices, seminars, laboratories, libraries, and residences. The lag is critical, is seriously hampering
efficiency, and will undoubtedly affect academic
Ian McTaggart-Cowan, dean of graduate studies,
is more colloquial but equally blunt. "We have been
living on a hamburger budget for so long it is high
time someone took us out and bought us a steak
dinner," he said in an interview. He said the faculty
of graduate studies has been under-budgeted for so
long that there is no built-in depreciation allowance
for replacement of research equipment and faculty
members give their own research allowances to support graduate students. "UBC needs replacement
capital as much as Simon Fraser University needs
starting capital. If you fall behind in the quality of
equipment, you fall behind in the pace of research,"
he said. "I have personal research funds of about
cation and a good one," he said. "Another category
of students (the less gifted) are not getting the help
they deserve at the present time. The situation in
the faculty of arts at present is unsatisfactory and
if we could work under better conditions we could
do a better job."
Dean Healy, however, believes the provincial government has done its financial best for higher
education in the face of many other demands on
the provincial coffers. "Any premier who sees fit
to allocate $74 million to public education is my
hero—but I wish it was $150 million," he said. "The
government has provided budgets of increasing
magnitude year after year and we are grateful for
what is on the way." Dean Healy said the provincial
government is well-informed on the budget proposals
of the university and its decisions are made in good
faith and on the basis of logic.
In the faculty of education, Dean Neville Scarfe
says provincial support to UBC over the past five
years has been inadequate and this has resulted in
a severe handicap to educational research and a lack
of such facilities as a gymnasium and library.
HANK    Pt    r?.-«",lS*_   -     B
UBC has the most under-stocked campus library in Canada
for its size — short one million volumes.
$25,000 a year and most of it goes to support
graduate student work. Other faculty members do
the same. The only reason the university is not on
the downgrade is because of the Herculean efforts
of the faculty."
McTaggart-Cowan said of 20 departments in the
faculty of arts, only three come anywhere dose to
providing the amount of space considered adequate
for each graduate student. He said the amount of
capital funds available are about half what he considers adequate to do the necessary job. "Our students are not getting a fair shake relative to other
provinces—they are not getting the opportunity to
compete and contribute and you can't redress this
quickly," he said.
Dean Dennis Healy of the Faculty of Arts reports
an acute shortage of office space and a crush of
students in the first and second years which may be
depriving some students of the maximum educational benefit. (Arts 1. a new experimental program,
has been launched within the faculty to stimulate
student involvement in the learning process and
offset the feeling of disorientation and non-involvement experienced by some students in large classes).
Dean Healy said it is difficult to generalize about the
effect of high student-teacher ratios because they
vary with such factors as the ability and interest of
the student and the talent and experience of the
lecturer. "Gifted students are at no disadvantage.
They hold their own when they go to graduate
schools elsewhere. These people are getting an edu-
Perhaps the most glaring example of inadequate
facilities at UBC—and one which affects all students
regardless of faculty—is the university library. The
library's book collection has been doubled in the past
five years—mainly as a result of generous gifts by
H. R. MacMillan—but it is barely meeting the needs
of students. A survey of Canadian university libraries
sponsored by the Association of Universities and
Colleges of Canada recently revealed that UBC has
the most under-stocked campus library in Canada
for its size. To bring it up to standards accepted at
major U.S. universities, the UBC library would have
to add about one million volumes—double its collection again—at a cost of about $10 million.
According to head librarian Basil Stuart-Stubbs
the university has been able over the past two years
to spend a healthy amount buying books—$1.5 million annually — because of Mr. MacMillan's $3
million gift. But this money is now gone and in the
coming year the library will have only $850,000 to
spend, which is inadequate for improving the collection. To compound the problem, the library also
urgently needs more space — 600,000 square feet
of it.
The Sedgewick Library for arts undergraduates
illustrates a plight that can only be termed pathetic.
It is short 63,000 volumes, seating capacity is 200
per cent less than it should be and because of a staff
shortage professional librarians are forced to do
clerical work instead of devoting their full-time to
the training and guidance of students. In the circu- lation department 22 full-time staff members work
in an area designed—by minimum standards—for
6.25 people and the desks and turnstiles were built
to serve one-third of the number of students now
using them.
Ture R. Erickson, head of the Sedgewick library,
offers the saddest commentary of all in a report to
Dean Healy. "The arts undergraduate views the
library not as the heart of the university, but as a
difficult hurdle in his five-and-a-half months race to
the completion of another five examinations," he
reports. "I am convinced that this university needs
a library designed and built for undergraduates. Each
day's delay in building that library is costing this
university dearly. Without that library, Maclean's
Magazine may well kick us out of the minor leagues
and into the cellar."
Inadequate library facilities, critical space shortage for research and faculty offices, large classes and
the threat of enrolment limitations: That is the situation now. What about the future?
Enrolment to hit 35,000
Enrolment at UBC in the 1963-64 term was 14,714
students, made up of 13,795 undergraduates and
919 graduate students. Estimates for the 1968-69
term—and the forecasts of the planners are usually
conservative—is an enrolment of 20,400. Enrolment
estimates for 1973 forecast 35,000 students at UBC
— double the current enrolment — provided the
inflow of students is not restricted by changes in
admission requirements.
Massive expenditures and increases in government
allocations will be required if UBC is to meet the
challenge of the future and fulfil the role enunciated
for it by a former president. Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie's statement of a decade ago still holds true:
"We must try to provide higher education for all
of our young people who have the capacity and the
desire for it, and indeed the future welfare of our
society depends on our willingness to do so."
These few words outline'a gargantuan task and
one which the provincial government indicates it
recognizes in the budget speech delivered on Feb.
9 of this year by Premier and Finance Minister
W. A. C. Bennett. "It is abundantly clear that, with
32 per cent of the total provincial budget being spent
on education (at all levels), the Social Credit government recognizes our young people as the province's most important resource. Investment in education is an investment in our future, and the product
of our schools and universities assures a continuation in the dynamic growth of the province."
UBC officialdom is prepared — for the public
record at least — to accept the assurances of the
provincial government at face value despite the obvious inadequacies of the past. But to a man they
would like to see a re-entry of the federal government into financing of higher education and a drastic
change in the present system of advising the provincial government on how operating funds should be
divided among the public universities. This function
is now performed by a seven-member advisory board
which counsels the minister of education on division
of grants.
"One of the big drawbacks at the moment is that
there is no adequate assessment of need of the total
system and no overall presentation of these needs to
the government prior to the distribution of the grant,"
says Bursar William White. "Capital grants should
also be dealt with by the advisory board. Finally,
the advisory board needs to have a continuing organization of full-time research staff."
Dean McTaggart-Cowan regards the present advisory board as a halfway measure that is almost
useless. "It has no authority at all and advises the
government on how to cut up a pie which it has no
part in cooking," he said. "The system would be
improved if such a board reviewed the budgets in
their initial stages and then submitted them to the
government untouched, along with an informed
analysis." Another senior administrator, who asked
not to be quoted by name, described the advisory
board in one word: "Useless."
The best hope for an improved era in university
financing, in the view of Bursar White, is the formula financing system proposed five years ago in
the Bladen Report and now adopted by the Ontario
government and the universities of that province.
Under the formula system, grants are apportioned
to each university on the basis of enrolment, with
weight factors to favor the needs of younger universities and those with a larger proportion of advanced
students in the expensive graduate and professional
schools. For example, a general arts student has a
weight of one and a doctoral candidate has a weight
of six. In a report, the committee of presidents of
the universities of Ontario said: "Formula financing
had the advantage of buttressing the independence
of the universities by ensuring a basic income to
each university without the close scrutiny of operating budgets necessarily involved in subjective review by the granting authority." White says formula
financing would offer many advantages to UBC
including the stable financial base for long-range
planning which does not now exist.
Public molds university policy
In his report for the 1962-63 term, former UBC
President John Macdonald summed up the situation
then—and now: "The decision about how much
of the public purse is to be devoted to education is
primarily a political decision . . . Good education
cannot be bought cheaply and requires more financial support than we have so far been willing to
The "we" he referred to was the people of B.C.,
the general public, who in the final analysis mold
the political decisions of the politicians. The bulk
of the B.C. residents have not yet accepted the fact
that a first-rate system of higher education is as vital
to the survival of a complex technological society
as power projects and highways. Until we accept this
fact and apply pressure at the ballot box, universities
will continue to suffer from inadequate financing and
will offer B.C.'s youth a rapidly declining quality
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r- FINE -.
to rr a towcm or acum •" The Class Bias
of Canadian Education
It is with some hesitation that one comes from
Eastern Canada to talk about the democratization
of education. If judgments are made in quantitative
terms British Columbia in general and Vancouver in
particular have superior educational systems to all
the other provinces. In school retention rates, in the
proportion of the higher age groups in school, and
in the educational level of its labor force British
Columbia does much better than the East. Moreover, there appears to be for these higher levels of
educational qualifications a corresponding subjective
counterpart or a cultural evaluation of education
which is also higher in British Columbia than in
other parts of the country.
From the recent career decisions project undertaken by the federal department of manpower we
can take a number of items which illustrate this
cultural evaluation. For example, in response to the
question, "Do you think you will leave school soon,
leave later, or stay until finishing?" put to samples
of high school students across the country, 81 per
cent in British Columbia said they would definitely
finish high school, compared to 67 per cent in Ontario and 61 per cent in Quebec. In response to the
question, "Among your friends in school, how many
are planning to finish high school?" 82 per cent in
British Columbia said all or most of them, compared to 74 per cent in Ontario and 60 per cent in
The career decisions project, when the analysis
is completed, will tell us more about the state of
education and its relationship to democracy on a
comparative provincial basis than any other source.
From the viewpoint of my own interests, I look
forward to much light being thrown on the relationship between social class position and educational
experience. Even in British Columbia where the educational system has the highest outputs and therefore appears to be the most democratized some
relationship between class and educational experience will be found. I do not have direct evidence
to support this although it has been well established
for Canada as a whole.
I want therefore to speak in more general terms
drawing on the range of comparative data concerning the transitions in educational systems as societies
become increasingly industrialized and as they try
to make plans for the post-industrial future. There
are two impelling factors at work. One is the need
for a more highly skilled and professionalized labour
force, and the other is the increasingly widespread
egalitarian values about educational opportunity.
Fortunately these two factors—the exigencies of the
post-industrial world and social values—are complementary rather than conflicting, although there would
still seem to be a body of opinion which holds, incorrectly I am sure, that inevitably more means less
' From an address Carleton University Sociologist Dr. John Porter gave
at UBC this spring. He is author of "The Vertical Mosaic".
10 Canada fails to produce enough trained manpower.
because there is a fixed pool of ability and so educational systems cannot be egalitarian.
The educational systems of all western industrial
societies are undergoing close examination at the
present time to see how they are coping with these
two factors. The evidence so far emerging is depressing. All these societies are failing to produce the range
of fully qualified manpower that they require and all
of them show a shocking waste of human resources
as judged by dropouts, and all show a persistent
inability to become democratic by eliminating the
class factor from educational experience. Moreover,
there is another serious deficiency in these systems
in that in general terms, they are not teaching the
right subjects sufficiently well and in sufficient quantity for the kind of society which is emerging. One
only has to consider "the swing from science" which
is now going on in the educational institutions of all
western societies to understand the seriousness from
the point of view of manpower. Moreover, all these
conditions which can be considered dysfunctional
to a post-modern industrialized society are most in
evidence in the United States which we always consider as having the most advanced and the most
democratic of educational institutions.
U.S. fails to educate the poor
But the U.S. system is failing to produce the highly
qualified manpower that the United States labour
force needs, and, at the same time, is experiencing
a retreat from democratization or at least a failure
to provide educational opportunities to its poor and
to its non-white population. As one critic of the U.S.
educational system said recently, "The good elementary and secondary schools that helped make American cities good places to live are now in the suburbs
where the middle classes and particularly the professional classes live." Every year the United States
imports scientific and professional workers—chemists, physicists, physicians, teachers, engineers —
because its own institutions do not produce enough
for its needs.
Canada still imports skilled labor
Canada is very much the same. The great industrial expansion which has followed the Second
World War would have been impossible without the
importation of large quantities of skilled and professional workers. Canada imported capital to make
its contemporary industrial system, but it also
imported the skills. In many respects it can be said
that industrialization was in Canada, but not of it.
It is not only that we were, as someone said, "one
generation off the farm." From the point of view
of the realization of our educational needs we were
very much still on the farm in the 1950's when over
half the male labour force had less than eight years
of schooling — totally inadequate standards for industrialization. Since that time school retention
rates have improved, our universities have expanded
11 greatly and there have been introduced in many
provinces new and more appropriate forms of non-
university post-secondary education. But no education minister can sit back. The labour force requirements are being constantly upgraded and more and
more young people must be trained and must acquire
the motivations for training to constantly improved
levels where disciplines become more exacting.
Canada still imports large quantities of trained
people. Our universities send recruiting teams to the
United Kingdom. Toronto next year is bringing a
plane load of teachers from Australia and staffs its
hospitals with nurses from Britain. One could go on
indefinitely to demonstrate these inadequacies. I
have indicated them briefly because to a great extent
they can be traced to the inequalities which I want
to deal with, and the solution lies in policies of further democratization. One might say that a system
is reaching a measure of efficiency when it is meeting
its labour force needs and when it is giving the appropriate kinds of education for the ranges of talent
that exist. If I appear to overemphasize the labour
force requirements, as opposed to the other purposes
of education, such as the development of personality
or the meaningful use of leisure, it is because I think
the labour force problem in all industrial societies
is serious and also because I believe there are no
incompatibilities in these various educational aims.
Inequalities are not all financial or economic although there is no doubt that economic conditions
continue to be substantial barriers. Other sources of
inequality, in addition to the financial, are those
arising from structural factors within educational
systems and processes themselves, and those arising
from cultural factors which are detrimental to high
educational aspirations. I would like to deal with
each of these sources of inequality. To some extent
it will be necessary to draw on evidence from outside Canada if only because research has gone much
farther and concern is much greater in other countries. Also, elsewhere there have been attempts to
develop coherent educational policies on the national
level and to view the question of the development of
human resources as a national goal. In Canada we
steadfastly maintain the fiction that education is not
a national problem and does not require national
Universities are middle-class preserves
First, let us look at inequalities which arise from
economic and financial considerations. The relationship between social class and educational experience
has been demonstrated for every major industrial
society. Usually the method is to show that the
higher the social class position of the family the
greater is the likelihood of young people staying in
the educational stream. Consequently the upper years
of the academic high school in North America, the
grammar school in the United Kingdom or the Lyccc
in France, and the universities everywhere, become
class biased institutions. I have tried to show in some
publications how this relationship applies in Canada.
One might simply cite 1961 census data. In families
where  the   male   wage  earner   earned   more  than
$7,000 a year, half the children 19 to 24 years old
were in school, but where the male wage earner's
income was less than $4000 less than one-eighth
were in school. In the last survey of university student income and expenditure in Canada in 1965 just
under half the students in the sample had fathers in
the top two categories of proprietors and managers
and professional occupations.
Family subsidies may be needed
Although Canada fits into the pattern of other
modern industrial societies in this respect it has done
much less than other countries about it. It is true
that costs attaching to secondary education are gradually being eliminated. The changes in Quebec have
been radical and the progressive elimination of text
book cost in Ontario have been helpful. But we still
lack any system of grants paid to parents to encourage them to keep their children in school. For many
lower class families children automatically go into
the labour force at the school leaving age. In some
countries it is recognized that some compensation
is necessary for the foregone family income when
older children stay in school. Moreover, as the educational content of occupations increases it may be
more necessary to consider family subsidization if we
are really serious about the problem of inequality.
It is, of course, at the tertiary level of educational
systems that the class character is most marked. As
far as costs to the student are concerned I suspect
Canada has one of the least democratic educational
systems to be found in advanced societies. In most
European countries this aspect of the problem has
been dealt with boldly by having an entirely free
system right up to the most specialized and prestigious institutions of higher learning. Moreover, grants
are paid to students for living and other expenses
associated with remaining in the educational stream.
In Canada, in the survey of student income and expenditure which I mentioned earlier, no more than
nine per cent of all student income came from fellowships, bursaries or grants, while 17 per cent came
from loans, 21 per cent from the parental family
and 25 per cent from summer savings. In Canada the
cost of post-secondary education continue to be abnormally high for an advanced industrial society.
Education cost is big factor
Education thus becomes a commodity valued differently at different social levels. Because of its cost,
the educational horizons of low income families are
near rather than far-off. Higher education is not a
realistic choice and thus there are repercussions back
into the lower levels of the system where children
become committed to particular educational streams
because they are viewed as less expensive or as a
reasonably quick route to the labour market. Even
at the university level, the relationship between the
degree programme selected, say education or arts
programmes as opposed to medicine or law, where
there are differentials in cost and the time involved,
and the class background of the students has been
12 shown in a number of surveys. Education has not
been democratized when the middle and upper classes are over-represented at the upper levels of the
system, and when there are significant class variations between those doing the cheaper degrees and
those doing the more expensive ones.
Loan plan creates debtor class
It is surely only a matter of time before these financial impediments are removed either by the abolition of fees or by an award system which makes
higher education a genuine possibility for the children of lower income families. We must have something better than, for example, the Canadian student
loan scheme which is perhaps one of the most inadequate elements of an educational policy yet seen.
It appears to be increasingly popular, not because
students like it, but because there is little else. Most
provinces are increasing the amounts of money
available for grants and bursaries, but the student
populations are increasing greatly, both in the university and in other tertiary institutions. Not only
does this, or any other loan scheme, create a class
of white collar debtors, but it has little or no appeal
to lower classes, who often are so much in debt in
any case simply to acquire the minimal cultural standards in, say housing and health, that more debts
for higher education would scarcely be considered.
Indebtedness for higher education can be a class
penalty, for the need to go into debt increases as
the family's resources are less or as the family mem
bers to be educated are more. Some students cannot
face up to such indebtedness and leave university,
but for the more able who do graduate I suspect
that the debts built up as an undergraduate become
a considerable impediment to going on to graduate
work. Thus by forcing good students out in this way
from the manpower point of view a loan scheme can
be regressive. However, an adequate grant or award
system for university students—however desirable—
may not be enough or even have the highest priority.
I am increasingly convinced of the need to subsidize
low income families to keep their children in school
at the secondary level.
U.K. education still class biased
When the financial barriers are removed at all
levels of the educational system the process of democratization has just begun. The most striking and
perhaps the most disappointing impression that we
get when looking at systems where financial barriers
have been removed, is that educational institutions
are still class biased. Tn the United Kingdom, for
example, the educational reforms which followed
the Second World War and which removed the costs
of grammar school and university education resulted
in greater lower class participation in these institutions, but they by no means achieved the degree of
representativeness that was their purpose.
It is important to know why they failed so that
we might look at our own society to see to what
extent we are making the same mistakes. I think
Chances are these girls won't get to university.
13 these mistakes could be grouped into the remaining
two categories of inequalities—those stemming from
structural factors and those stemming from cultural
factors. Let me deal first with the structural factors.
By structural I mean different types of schools,
streams, and programmes which are thought to cater
to different educational tastes and capacities. I would
also include, as structural, the governing and financing of educational institutions.
Pressure for reform is growing
Let us take as an important feature of most educational systems the differences in programmes and
streaming or tracking. In Europe, these have meant
systems of the early selection of the more able pupils
and the less able and their early commitment to
particular educational programmes which for the
most part take place in separate schools. Systems
of early selection always favour children from the
middle and upper classes. There are really no true
culture-free techniques of selection. Lower class children live in environments which are restrictive of
their intellectual development. Middle class children
are exposed at an earlier age and in greater intensity
to a range of cultural items which have become important in the measuring of intelligence and aptitudes. Their parents, moreover, have a better knowledge of the system and can prepare them for it.
Middle class parents can turn failure in being selected
into success by dealing with teachers and school administrators as social equals or superiors rather than
social inferiors which is very frequently the experience of the lower class parent. Some lower and
working class children are able to compete in this
selection system, but they tend to be the exceptionally able.
Once selection has taken place, there is a commitment to an educational stream which is practically irreversible. There is an accumulation of evidence that the system of selection for grammar
schools in England and the Lycee in France is both
inefficient, because the selection is not one based on
true ability, and undemocratic, because it places
working class children at a disadvantage. Consequently, the pressures for reform have been great;
those which are gradually being introduced involve
the postponement of choices until a later age (for example, the abandonment of the discredited "eleven
plus" in England), combined with cycles of orientation during which the child is exposed to a greater
range of subjects. Moreover, there is an abandonment of the selective school in favour of the comprehensive school. Although everyone concerned will
deny it, there is, in both Britain and France, a drift
toward the North American comprehensive high
school system.
Europe adopting North American model
If, in the present movement from elitism to egali-
tarianism in education in Europe the traditional systems are changing in the direction of the North
American model, what can North American systems
learn from watching the European changes and listening to the debates which they generate? I would
think there is much to be learned, particularly of
the kinds of problems which impede the construction of a thoroughly democratic system and how
research might throw light on them. I wonder if we
are aware of the selective processes we have in our
educational systems and how these might operate
differently for different social classes?
Low value put on education
I would suspect that, the financial problems set
aside, the class bias that we find in the universities
has its origins in the way in which pupils get put into
the different streams, and, in particular, the way in
which lower class children are under-represented in
the college preparatory courses. All these questions
have been thoroughly explored in other countries,
but in Canada there seems to be a reluctance to
admit social class as a relevant background variable
in any kind of social analysis.
I want to now consider the cultural factors which
make for inequalities in education. Foremost among
these is the evaluation which different classes place
on education. I have elsewhere suggested that Canadians generally place a low evaluation on education,
low, that is, for the kind of occupational structure
which Canada now has. The bundle of motives which
the middle class child acquires in the process of
being socialized to his culture includes the desire
to achieve and the desire to move up or at least
maintain a middle class position. It has often been
suggested that it is the middle class family that has
managed to transmit these motives to a sufficient
number of its young people to fill the occupational
roles of industrial societies up to a particular point
in the development of those societies. After all, it
takes some degree of determination to put up with
the irksomeness of learning and some degree of commitment to educational values. Our occupational
structures are evolving to the point, however, where
such attitudes and values must reach down into the
working class sub-culture where they are less wide-1
spread and less firmly held. Where, as in Canada,
ethnic and religious sub-cultures tend to reinforce
class sub-culture, differences in the evaluation of
education will be more marked.
Free education is not enough
Along with all the evidence about school and
university attendance and social class is the complementary evidence of how educational attitudes of
parents, and mobility and occupational aspirations
of children vary by social class. Educational policymakers have too readily assumed that it is sufficient
to provide educational plant free, or almost free, to
all takers and throughout the society all young people
and families will respond in the middle class fashion.
This does not happen, of course, and there are many
reasons why. It is wrong to assume that aspirations
to move up in the occupational system are strong in
the lower or working classes. Some studies indicate
that in the lower classes the search and desire for
security are more important than the desire to move
14 up, while education serves the need of the middle
class person to move up and is seen as being important for that reason, it tends not to be appreciated
in such a way by working class young people, nor is
it particularly seen as serving their prime need of
security. Working class parents in the main have low
levels of education themselves and, therefore, cannot
adequately transmit the appropriate values about
education to their children. Moreover, it is not easy
for children to set themselves on a route which will
take them out of the working class culture. Kinship
links are strong as are sentiments about neighbourhood and community. There are elements in the
working class culture which put a high evaluation
on the dignity of manual work. Working class political movements and labour organizations have emphasized the worthiness of the working class way
of life, and our major religions have endowed it
with a theme of the blessedness of poverty. The
working class sub-culture which has developed with
the growth of industrialization may have been appropriate in an earlier period, but seems out of date
in the more advanced industrial system at least as
far as it has a detrimental effect on educational
The democratization of education means that a
person's social class background is no longer a
relevant factor in the amount of education he receives or the kind of educational programme he
pursues. Undoubtedly, the removal of financial bar
riers is an important step in the process of democratization, but as I have tried to indicate, there are
substantial structural and cultural impediments that
remain. Policy-makers must decide how and to what
extent they are going to intrude into these cultural
areas where education is not highly valued. They
may prefer not to intrude at all for fear of violating
principles of freedom. We have seen something of
this dilemma when dealing with ethnic or cultural
groups who resist the education of their children.
The working class culture is not, of course, coherently or solidly against education. Rather, there is
simply a low evaluation of it. Often it is considered
that parents have a right to choose the amount and
kind of education for their children. That, at least,
is the position of the traditionalists and the conservatives in Europe in their efforts to protect the highly
selective systems that exist there. But education is
also a social right belonging to growing and maturing children and there may be grounds for policy
makers dealing much more vigorously than formerly
with all these factors standing in the way of the equal
distribution of these rights. When the discussion
shifts to the need for highly qualified manpower in
the advanced industrial society based on science and
technology, the arguments for overcoming cultural
resistance to educational values are equally strong.
As is often the case, the rights of individuals and
the needs of society are complementary rather than
inimical. D
Are You A Linear and Sequential Thinker?
A FELLOW named Luhan recently took to brooding about the flood
of printed matter that Gutenberg released upon the world and came
up with the conclusion that this has been the cause of a revolutionary
recasting of man's way of thinking. As a direct result of the universal
exposure to printed matter, in which words follow one another in a
more or less orderly way, most of the world's people now think in the
pattern of the written language. That is, we are linear and sequential
thinkers, for better or worse. Heady stuff, this, but nothing to worry
about. It just means that it pays everyone to become an expert linear
and sequential thinker so that he'll know what he's thinking and
talking about. A pleasant and convenient way to do this is to read
regularly a good newspaper, like The Sun and then practice thinking
sequentially about the news of the world.
15 A Reality
Ottawa has Ignored Long Enough
I have several times said strong things about
the federal government's recent withdrawal from
direct university grant-aiding. I was a long way off
when the decision was taken. It looked to me like a
bad case of ignoring reality to win short-term political gain.
The reality is that Canada's universities must be
national as well as provincial institutions. They do
a job for all Canadian society. The constitutional
provisions whereby education became the exclusive
concern of the province made good sense in 1867,
and it is still defensible, if we leave out the word
"exclusive". I am content to see Canada's school
systems provincially organized, especially since provincial education ministers have begun to consult
one another to equalize standards. I am equally
content to see the universities grouped into provincial systems for the purpose of planning and coordination. It is quite right that much of the cost
should be borne provincially, because the universities
serve regional concentrations of people, who have
a right to decide what scale of provision should be
made. The crux of the matter, however, is that
universities cannot stop at that point. The whole
nation (or nations, if you so choose) has needs too,
that arise from Canada's growing sophistication,
from her stature in world trade, and from her need
to be master in her own house. "Maitres chez nous"
ought not to be just the motto of the Quebecois.
In one part of the university job this national stake
is fully realized, and has been little challenged. Research is paid for by a variety of federally established
agencies, notably the National Research Council, the
Medical Research Council and the Canada Council.
I for one, would like to praise the scale and gener-
President of the University of B.C.
osity of this aid, which is crucial to the health of
the universities. The advancement of knowledge is
thus conceded to be important at the national level.
Dissemination of that knowledge, however, has to
be left to the provinces. Those who drafted the British North America Act visualized the dissemination
process as a purely local or regional affair touching
mainly the useful arts. It was also something that
affected the survival of French culture, mainly in
Quebec. They could hardly be expected to foresee
the explosive growth of knowledge that would come
from research, or the critical role that the academic
skills would have in modern central government.
Written constitutions usually contain these sleeper-
clauses that return to plague their victims in later
generations. In referring education wholly to provincial jurisdiction the Act satisfied 19th century conceptions of its role in public affairs. It also offered
a safeguard to those who wanted to protect regional
differences in the new federal state, above all the
French language and culture, and its associated
Catholic orthodoxy. What it failed to do, of course,
was to provide for the ever-growing Canada-wide
stake in the universities. For those fields that were
left to federal jurisdiction include several in which
higher education is crucial. This point was clearly
seen by the Massey Commission, and endorsed by
the federal government of the day that instituted
federal grants to universities. It has been lost sight
of in the recent years of tension between Ottawa and
the provincial capitals.
I think we should rejoice, in Point Grey, in being
partners in the development of British Columbia. We
have a clear-cut responsibility to the parents of
children now in the province's schools: it is to see
16 that all who can profit can enter UBC or another of
the province's universities (which are partners, not
rivals) when they are old enough. Equally we must
see that all the special skills and research needed
for the province's economic and social development
are cultivated on our campus. A university is a place
where teaching and research go hand-in-hand. Clearly, however, there will be some B.C. students who
wish to go elsewhere in Canada, just as students
from east of the Rockies will want to come to UBC.
Could anything more aptly work for national unity
and sense of purpose? And the province can draw
on the real achievements of all Canada's universities
just as UBC sends her higher graduates and her scientific publications far and wide. This free movement
of men and ideas is not always popular. When I did
my own doctorate in Montreal for example, I had
to pay double tuition fees because I was not born
in Quebec. What did that do for national unity?
There is also a compelling economic reason why
all Canadian universities are in some sense national.
There are many professional and graduate fields —
and a few undergraduate — where the cost of mounting courses is prohibitively high. Already, within
provinces, it has been admitted that coordination
between universities is necessary to avoid duplication
of effort. In Ontario, for example, the 14 provincially
assisted universities are to work together in the
creation of a provincial library for the university
system, since it is financially impossible to create 14
independent research libraries. These universities
now consult one another before instituting expensive
graduate or professional schools, so as to ensure that
opportunities are spread round the province, and
that good but expensive innovations are not diluted
by being tried out twice—at half the available resources. This kind of economy, this sort of rationalization is essential in all provincial university systems
as it most certainly is in B.C. But there is also a
national need of the same kind: there are many
things that might be done only once or twice in
Canada. To do them many times would reduce the
available resources below the critical point. Hence
the need for nation-wide thinking. Again we recognize the truth of this in making expensive research
installations, such as the $27 million TRIUMF cyclotron. The point is equally valid for the more exotic
kind of teaching facility.
Canada's universities have long recognized this
need, and have acted responsibly in trying to meet
it. The present-day Association of Universities and
Colleges of Canada (of which UBC's own Geoff
Andrew is Executive Director) is the descendent of
other bodies having a long history of national academic consultation. It was this body and its forbears
that had the duty of distributing the federal academic
grants, when they were still being made. The universities have thus recognized a need that federal politicians have been unwilling or unable to cope with
— and from which they have seemed recently to
retreat still further because of the constitutional
I believe that a national—that is, federal—stake
in higher education must be preserved, and that this
must go beyond research into the realm of teaching,
especially at the advanced level. I am well aware of
the constitutional difficulties, and am sympathetic
towards the special role of the Province of Quebec
in relation to French language and culture in the
university world. Nevertheless, it is extraordinary
that the central government of this country, which
insists on speaking for us overseas, and which to
other countries is the face we therefore present,
should not want an active voice in higher education.
And this means that part of the cost of the university
system of Canada should come directly out of the
federal exchequer. No one now listens to the voice
of a penniless prophet. To hand over part of the
federal tax intake to provincial finance and education ministers is to place on their shoulders the burden of a national responsibility. Now is the time to
put matters right, for the recent Ottawa conference
has set in motion constitutional reform that will
make or break Canada's central government. Is it
too much to ask that in this re-thinking the national
function of our universities should be recognized
more fully?
Perhaps I might spell out one or two places where
the federal stake seems clearest. First I would put
the problem of Canada's foreign students. All universities have them, and at some they make up over 10
per cent of the enrolment. McGill, for example,
which is sometimes made to feel alien in Quebec by
hostile commentators among the Francophones, has
about 15 per cent in most years. Montreal and Laval
have similarly attracted many students from the
French-speaking countries, and Montreal has pioneered in the world-wide organization of Francophone
universities to promote such exchanges. Nothing
could more benefit the great economic and social
upsurge of Quebec than to have this cosmopolitan
group in its midst. Yet one hears constant criticism
17 of the "waste" of provincial revenues that this represents.
Let me say at once that a university that has to
draw its students from a circumscribed group has a
hand tied behind its back. At UBC and everywhere
else in Canada, the young Canadian benefits greatly
from being educated side by side with people from
other countries. And our graduate schools need these
visitors very badly. The province that pays the cost
is therefore benefitting directly. Nevertheless, the
main beneficiary is the foreign student himself and
the country to which he returns—since 80 per cent
or so of the annual cost of his teaching is publicly
borne in this country, and all the capital cost. Hence
one can understand criticism of Canadian universities that take in such a large group from outside their
One can understand it, yet still reject it. We must
have these foreign students, on two grounds. First
of all, rather humiliatingly, we can't yet staff our own
universities and other institutions employing people
with doctorates. Our academic economy depends on
making masters and doctors out of immigrant graduate students, especially from the United Kingdom,
the U.S.A., the European countries, Australia and
New Zealand. It also depends on students from Hong
Kong, Singapore, India and Pakistan, who among
them provide a high fraction of all the demonstrators
needed for our undergraduate science laboratories.
I know of one university where, a few years ago,
two-thirds of the chemistry demonstrators were
Asians, by birth and citizenship! As long as our own
undergraduate faculties fail to provide enough Canadians to fill these needs, this dependence on foreign
help will stay with us.
Secondly, Canada, as an advanced nation, must
share in the overwhelming world problem of spreading university education to the emerging countries.
The immense gulf between ourselves and these
poorer peoples will not be narrowed by elaborate
technical aid programmes alone. We have to enable
them to train their own managers, technologists and
scholars. The best way to do this is for the federal
government—here is one place where they can act
constitutionally—deliberately to encourage the flow
of foreign students to Canada. Both the above needs
will be helped. The Commonwealth Scholarship
scheme, praiseworthy though it is, is too little. And
why should not the cost of doing this, both operational and capital, be borne directly?
The other point where I think that federal help
would be a marvellous aid to national development
is in facilitating the interprovincial movement of our
students. Something of this sort may well emerge
from the conference of education ministers. If the
federal government ever gets its courage back —
which in such matters it has lost — it ought to be
possible for federal funds to pay for some of the
extra cost of such exchanges. For example: why not
subsidies to make it easy, even attractive, for young
western Canadians to study for a year or two at
Laval or Montreal? The French universities of this
country are a marvellous cultural resource — and
ought to be a national resource of all Canadians. □
The weathervane indicates, though does
not govern, the direction of the winds.
Some day men may control the weather
as they search for further understanding
cf the unknown.
Through wise, personal planning,
Canada Life gives men some control
over the unknown by protecting them
from the economic hazards of death,
disability and old age.
Canada Life
18 Chancellor John Buchanan congratulates Dr. Kenneth Hare
Installation of a President
see overleaf
a single event transformed UBC's spring congregation from a routine, though colourful, annual
ceremony to one of historic significance for the university. It was the installation of a new president,
Dr. F. Kenneth Hare. On May 31, the final day of
the three-day ceremony, he took the oath of office
and was formally robed in the silver-embroidered,
black gown of the president.
Dr. Hare, 49, a British-born meteorologist and
geographer of international renown, has come to
UBC from the University of London, where he was
master of Birkbeck College. A Canadian citizen,
Dr. Hare obtained his doctorate from the University
of Montreal and is a former dean of arts and sciences
at McGill University. He succeeds Dr. John B. Macdonald who resigned last June as president.
Dr. Hare will be UBC's fifth president. In addition to Dr. Macdonald, he will follow in the footsteps
of Dr. Frank Wesbrook (1915-18), Dr. L. S. Klinck
(1918-44) and Dr. Norman MacKenzie (1944-62).
Following his installation, Dr. Hare performed his
first official act as president in giving an address to
the congregation. He spoke out strongly against
Canadian universities becoming parochial institutions. "We must recognize—and here I speak as
strongly as I know how—that part of the world is
hungry, ill-clothed and near despair," he said, "and
that for this it blames the West, whose prosperity
and abundance are an affront to them. We must help
to remove these inequalities by using our skills
directly. We must somehow find the resources, the
space and the manpower to increase the flood of
students from the developing nations to our doors,
and especially to our professional schools."
During the congregation, which ran from May 29
to May 31, the university conferred degrees on a
record 3,423 students. At the same time, it awarded
honorary degrees to eight distinguished persons.
On May 29, three honorary doctor of laws were
awarded. They went to Richard B. Wilson, chancellor of the University of Victoria; Dr. Adelaide
Sinclair, who retires this year as deputy director of
the United Nation's Children's Fund  (UNICEF);
Academic procession enters War Memorial Gymnasium
20 Above, smiles greet new-style grad
Below, Dean Blythe Eagles signs the register
and P. A. Woodward, a retired Vancouver merchant
and philanthropist whose gifts to UBC have aided
construction of the Health Sciences Centre. At the
same time, an honorary doctor of literature degree
was conferred on Dr. Hugh McLennan, one of Canada's leading novelists.
On May 30 honorary doctor of science degrees
were conferred on Dr. A. W. "Whit" Matthews,
former dean of pharmacy at UBC; Dr. Blythe Eagles,
former dean of agriculture at UBC; and Sir Charles
Wright, a member of the famous Scott expedition to
Antarctica and noted geophysicist. At the same time,
Dr. Walter Gropius, founder of the famous Bauhaus
School of architecture in Germany in the 1920's and
one of the great architectural educators of the 20th
century was honored with an honorary doctor of
laws degree. □
21 The Tragedy of
student activism is great, says dean of applied
science William Armstrong.
But Armstrong, deputy UBC president, said in
an interview the tragedy of protest on campus is that
it often dies out after students leave the university
"I've watched many students over the years, and
it seems they forget many of their ideals after graduation," Armstrong said.
"This is unfortunate. There is obviously a hard
core of protesters who are able to move many of
the students to action.
"But when they are removed from this stimulus,
the protest ethic doesn't stick.
"When they become members of the community,
they're as resistant to higher education taxes as the
older people in the community."
Armstrong said the only way for students to effect
real changes in the government of the university is
to exercise their voting privileges as a bloc.
He said the voting age should be lowered to 18
to give students a voice in government education
"The number of students, proportional to the
population are going up all the time," he said.
"If young people were seriously concerned about
social reform, they could change the whole pattern
of our social system within 10 years after they graduate.
"There's little evidence that they're doing this
at the present time, or that they're making any
attempt to.
"Activists must accept the fact that they can't
achieve true democracy in the government of their
affairs unless they apply democratic methods to
their efforts."
"It seems student leaders are interested only in
those institutions which provide a political platform."
Armstrong talked at length about the function of
a university in society.
Contrary to the views of some UBC administrators, Armstrong believes the university should be
an instrument of social reform, ferment, and dissent.
"There's nothing we need more in the world than
a generation of young people who are violently dedicated to social reform," he said. "But seeming shallowness of this protest is causing me some concern.
Students should continue to protest once they become
voters and have democratic power.
The university also has to be involved in the
society, and should be a leader of social change of
society. This is why there is so much criticism of the
progressive elements in the university by the community."
Armstrong maintained there are two distinct
groups of activists on campus: those who protest the
Vietnam war, civil rights and other international
issues; and those in favor of student power.
"The students who want control over the government of the university are much better organized,"
he said. "But I'm a little disappointed that all their
energies seem to be directed toward representations
on senate and the board of governors.
"Students are a part of the university long enough
to be effective in its government. In fact, there has
perhaps not been enough participation by students
in past years. Students should have been represented
on senate years ago.
"But the place where the real decisions are made
is in curriculum committees. Graduate students especially can make a concrete contribution there because
they've been through the courses recently.
"It seems student leaders are interested only in
those institutions which provide a good political
"I've watched many students over the years and
it seems they forget many of their ideals after graduation."
Armstrong also said he has little sympathy for
protest which is not constructive.
"As a technologist, I'm interested in being creative and constructive rather than anarchist," he said.
"I imagine this is where I'm most inflexible.
"I think most hippie protesting is an atonement
for the affluence of our society. I've no doubt that
many of the people we usually call hippies are very
sincere, but it seems their protest is often misdirected.
"People like this have existed in almost every
"We were iust as vocal as todav's students, although we didn't have such highly developed
methods of communication. But instead of influencing the society, I think we changed it ourselves after
we left university. I hope the present generation of
students can do this too."
Armstrong thinks students are more politically
mature than at any time in his 22-year career.
"They're also more sophisticated, as a result of
22 Student Protest
today's affluence and improved communication."
Nevertheless, Armstrong believes that apathy still
exists among students.
An example of this, he said, was the meeting held
recently between students and senators on the open
senate question.
"There were more senators than students," he
said. "Out of 18,000 students, there weren't more
than 50 at the meeting. At a science symposium I
attended recently there were only 60 students from
a total science registration of 3,400."
He said a serious problem in our society is the
academic gap between the humanities and the sciences.
"There is nothing we need more in the world than
a generation of young people who are violently dedicated to social reform."
"The great problem is that the study of social
science hasn't kept up with the advances in technology.
"This gap is particularly obvious and unfortunate
at the student level. I think the universities should
work first to dispel differences in this regard among
the faculty, for these certainly do exist."
Armstrong, as well as being dean of applied
science, is assistant to acting president Walter Gage.
He is deeply involved with the money and space
crises currently plaguing UBC.
"Neither operating nor capital grants are adequate
this year," he said. "Our position is steadily worsening—we're not even holding our own. We aren't the
only university in Canada with these problems. But
there's no question the universities in Ontario and
Alberta get more money per student than we do."
Asked what the reasons for this crisis are, he said
provincial government reluctance, skyrocketing construction costs, and increasing student registration
were the main ones.
"We have at present a biological sciences building
that hasn't even been started yet, because we didn't
budget enough in the last five-year plan to cover the
increase in costs."
Armstrong said the biological sciences building
was highest on the list of priorities for construction.
After that will come a new mechanical and civil
engineering building, already in working drawings.
"Beyond those three, priorities have not been
firmly established. We may have to revise our way
of thinking about construction, in the light of the
money crisis and rising costs. We may have to erect
buildings to be occupied by several departments or
"I wish I knew the answer to the problem of getting more money from the government. It's in a
serious debt situation, although they say they don't
borrow money directly.
"They also won't let us borrow any money for
capital construction. But the basic problem is that
large universities such as UBC grow away from their
local communities. We're no longer a University of
B.C., any more than the University of Toronto is
strictly a Toronto university. We have become national and international institutions.
"There is less interaction between the university
and the community. This is unfortunate but inevitable."
For this reason, Armstrong favors a system whereby the federal government has control over grants
to universities. Such a system now exists in Britain
and Australia, he said.
"This has been a serious error in our national
policy. It will take us a long time to recover from it.
"Creation of a national standard would also eliminate discrepancies in provincial educational systems,
although this isn't too much of a problem right now."
Armstrong said the university's public image is
probably not at fault.
"But I do think our new president (Kenneth
Hare) will be more successful, because of the very
fact that he is a new man. This is always the case
in the first year of a new man's tenure. I hope he will
be able to do more than we have."
Private contributions to the university also do not
alleviate the space crisis, Armstrong said.
"There is a strong reaction among businessmen
to giving money for capital construction. They're
happy to give money for scholarships, but they think
the high taxes they pay to the federal government
should pay for building construction.
Dean William Armstrong
was interviewed at length
this spring by
The Ubyssey. It is
reprinted with permission
23 "We get large donations from H. R. MacMillan
for library books, but not for library construction.
This is quite deliberate."
Although the federal government does give grants
to the provinces for education purposes, Armstrong
said there is no control over the distribution of the
money by the provinces.
"This is another reason for having a federal educational system. It also eliminates differences in the
attitudes of the provinces. In B.C., the population
is less sympathetic to education than say, Ontario's.
"In B.C., the people are less conscious of the
values of higher education. This is why many of our
graduates go to other parts of Canada to work."
Armstrong pointed out the question of whether
any government should have control over education
was a very pertinent one.
"In B.C., the people are less conscious of the
values of higher education. This is why many of our
graduates go to other parts of Canada to work."
"Nobody likes the ideas of the government controlling what the university teaches or what it does.
But you have to look at our responsibility to the
community. Sometimes the government has to intervene to avoid unnecessary duplication.
"This was done in Ontario, which has a committee to which the universities apply for grants.
It's interesting that this committee has brought the
universities together, and they are deciding on priorities such as establishment of schools and departments
before the proposals reach the government.
"Universities shouldn't put themselves in a position where the government is dictating to them. We
should establish better rapport between the universities in this province. They must get together and
present a logical case to the government.
"It's basically wrong that they should be competing for funds. This is what is happening now."
Asked about control of university affairs by business and professional men on the board of governors, Armstrong, secretary of the board, said it has
little power.
"The main function of the board is financial, and
these men are useful to us because of their experience in financial planning and their community
"They have no control over courses or academic
programming. It's true you can't institute academic
reform if you have no money, but that isn't the
board's fault either.
"I'd like to see one or two senior faculty members on the board, to improve direct contact between
faculty and the board. This is done at the present
by the acting president.
"But I wouldn't apply the same philosophy to
students. The board should be a compact group
which can make decisions easily, and I just don't
think students have any real contribution to make to
the board. They haven't the experience to participate
in financial decisions." □
On Easing
Nineteen years ago UBC launched its Institute
of Oceanography in one old army hut on West
Mall. It's still in that hut today. And the institute has
also crammed its research operations into five other
adjacent huts. So tightly packed in are the faculty
and students (even the crawl spaces are used) that,
as one academic administrator said, "it's like going
into a rabbit warren". Oceanography occupies one-
third the space it would normally be entitled to —
but there's no room elsewhere on campus and no
money in sight for new accommodation. Hardly a
dynamic picture of progress for a society which earns
a good slice of every dollar from fishing, is it?
Those six shabby, greenish-grey oceanography
huts mutely testify to the desperate financial plight
UBC is in today. But although the most dramatic,
oceanography is not the only witness. Virtually all of
UBC's 67 departments are experiencing the financial
squeeze through shortage of space and inability to
hire needed new faculty members. For that matter,
UBC itself is not alone—B.C.'s younger universities,
the University of Victoria and Simon Fraser are in
the same bind.
It is time that the taxpayers of this province in
general and UBC alumni in particular became more
actively concerned with the financial state of B.C.'s
major university. It must be patently obvious that
UBC has played the beggar's part long enough. For
53 years now the university has rattled its tin cup
outside government doors without experiencing any
great flashes of generosity. Admittedly, the basic
needs have been met, but little has been provided to
foster a measure of excellence. For physical evidence
of this one has only to recall that 224 huts are still
heavily used on campus for classrooms, offices, laboratories and residences—20-odd years after they
were brought to UBC to meet the needs of veterans
turned students.
The $5 million contributed by the provincial government to UBC for capital purposes in 1968-69
unfortunately will not alter the fundamental problem—though it represents a welcome $1 million increase. At least $4 million of it is committed to ongoing projects and the remainder certainly will not
build the urgently needed new biological sciences
extension (where oceanography would go) or the
new civil engineering building. They were to have
been built under the five-year plan ending in 1968-
69, but rising costs prevented the money from
stretching far enough. Now their estimated cost has
doubled to $20 million.
The problem is simply that enrolments and costs
have risen faster than the university's resources to
24 The Financial Squeeze
put up necessary buildings or hire new faculty. And,
unless an aroused citizenry demand improvements
in higher education financing, the problem could get
worse. So far UBC has no more money for new buildings after its present program is completed. That $5
million represents the end of the provincial government's stated commitment to provide capital money
to the universities. Yet UBC must find room (and
faculty) for an estimated 20,400 students this fall
— by 1974 the university expects 35,000 students.
It is easy to criticize the provincial government for
failing to provide enough money for higher education, but it is not the sole villain. The federal government is also culpable and has been let off the hook
too long. The state of the university today is a clear
indication that Ottawa's withdrawal from higher
education finance is, as former UBC president John
B. Macdonald said, "a tragic mistake".
Credit must be given to the provincial government
for the quite considerable increases it has made in
higher education grants in recent years—this year
they total a good $65 million. Nor should one lose
sight of the fact that the government allocates 32
per cent of its budget to all forms of education. Still,
there are grounds for serious questions when Alberta
found itself able to provide its universities $106 million in capital and operating grants — and that was
for 1966-67.
If the provincial government truly wants to
achieve the Dynamic Society (particularly before
Alberta does) then it will have to invest even more
money in higher education. This, in itself, however,
will not be enough. Reforms must be made in the
present system of allocating grants to ensure that
they are distributed equitably among the three universities, with full recognition of the higher cost of
graduate and professional training. In addition, the
universities must know how much money they will
receive over five-year periods in order that planning
might be improved.
But more important, that other villain, Ottawa,
must be made to recognize its responsibility to universities. The federal government's withdrawal from
direct participation in higher education finance in
the middle of controversy over constitutional issues
was an act of political cowardice which must be
reversed. Ottawa, as UBC president Dr. Kenneth
Hare has pointed out, does have a major stake in
higher education and should be giving extensive financial assistance.
What is at stake, in the final analysis, is nothing
less than the quality of Canadian society. And that
is too important to leave exclusively in the hands
of the provincial governments. It does make a differ
ence, for instance, to whether our society becomes
more democratic or class-ridden that sizeable numbers of young people cannot hope to attend university because of the high cost. It could get worse
rather than better if the financial bind forces tuition
fees higher. And it does make a difference that out
of the national manpower Canada apparently can
only produce about 600 PhD's annually when it
needs double that. How can a society become great if
it squanders the talents of its own people and continues to import trained professionals from abroad?
It is not enough for Ottawa to just try and sneak
in the back door by aiding university research as is
now being done. The federal government, with its
extensive resources, must enter boldly through the
front door by financially assisting teaching, particularly at the graduate and professional level. Without
the financial participation of the federal government
the future of Canadian universities looks grim
indeed. □
At Home
on the Campus
UBC-trained bacteriologists staff the
Dairyland laboratory; UBC's Faculty of
Agriculture has worked in close cooperation with Dairyland for many years.
Dairyland is proud of this long and
happy association with the University of
British Columbia.
A Division of the Fraser Valley
Milk Producers' Association.
25 Alumni News
Branch Speaking Tour
ubc alumni association launched something of a
verbal blitzkrieg at four B.C. centres recently. All
in one week speakers were holding forth at alumni-
arranged functions in Kamloops, Penticton, Campbell River and Port Alberni. It was all part of the
association's expanded  branches program.
Dr. John Chapman, acting head of geography at
UBC, kicked it off May 13 in Kamloops. He spoke
on the past and future of higher education at a
Rotary Club luncheon at noon and again in the
evening at an alumni dinner. Dr. Chapman spoke
again on the same topic two days later at a Rotary
luncheon in Penticton.
On the same day, May 15, Dr. Bill Gibson, UBC
professor of the history of medicine and science,
spoke at another Rotary luncheon in Campbell River
and an alumni dinner later. His topic was the significance of the new UBC health sciences centre. And
on May 16, UBC physics professor Dr. John Warren
addressed a Rotary luncheon and alumni dinner in
Port Alberni. He talked about the new TRIUMF
cyclotron project at UBC and what it means to
An ambitious project set for June 11 in Penticton,
however, has had to be cancelled. But the alumni
there are not the least bit sad about it. Penticton
alumni president David Miller and colleagues had
planned to hold a seminar on water pollution then
with experts from California and the National Research Council. It would have been a timely event
as nearby Skaha Lake has become increasingly
polluted by the dumping of sewage into its waters.
The city of Penticton, however, recently announced
that the practice would be stopped which obviated
the need for the seminar. The city's decision was
precisely what the alumni had sought.
New California Executive
The UBC Alumni Association's southern California branch has elected a new executive. New branch
president is Dr. Jack Lintott, BASc'53, professor of
business management at the University of Southern
California at Los Angeles. He will be backed up by
first vice-president Richard Massy of United Air
Lines in Los Angeles; second vice-president Lester
McLennan, BA'22, of Fullerton; and secretary-
treasurer Donald Garner, BCom'48, of United Air
Lines, Los Angeles. The executive will serve two
years beginning in May—the same term as the
executive of the alumni association.
Revolution in Records
there are now 45,000 recorded graduates of UBC
and every once in a while the alumni association
loses one of them. In fact, right now statistics show
that the association has lost 6,000 of them. Understand, it's not as though we've done anything improper. No, they've simply vanished, disappeared.
Quite beyond hope of contact by even the most
diligent postie.
Now, we admit it's quite possible we might have
misplaced one or two in our own files. But most of
them have simply vanished through neglecting to
inform the alumni association of new addresses when
they move. And UBC graduates are on the move —
say about once every three years, which is more
than the national average.
The association, however, is in the process of
redesigning its system of handling graduate records,
which are stored in a UBC computer. The aim is
to keep the records up to date more efficiently and
cut the cost of tracing graduates when necessary. As
part of this process, the association will be sending
out questionnaires in mid-June asking graduates for
such data as address, occupation, and extracurricular activities engaged in as students. The
operation is a vital one because the university has
the responsibility under law to keep the graduate
rolls up to date for convocation.
So if any of you "lost" graduates would like to
be found, please write the UBC Alumni Association,
6251 Northwest Marine Dr., Vancouver 8, B.C.
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26 New Alumni President
the new president of the UBC Alumni Association
has called on younger graduates to become more
involved in alumni programs. Stan Evans, BA'41,
BEd'44, issued the call in a statement declaring his
intention to continue the association's drive to
strengthen its action programs. Mr. Evans, who is
assistant general secretary of the B.C. Teachers'
Federation, was elected 1968-69 president at the
association's recent annual meeting.
He succeeds Mrs. John MacD. Lecky, BA'38, as
head of the association, which represents 45,000
UBC graduates. He will be backed up by a new
executive composed of David Helliwell, BA'57, first
vice-president; Dr. Walter Hardwick, MA'58, second
vice-president; Sholto Hebenton, BA'57, third vice-
president; and William Redpath, BCom'47, treasurer.
In his inaugural statement, Mr. Evans emphasized
that the role of the alumni association must continue
to be to serve the university by promoting its academic and economic well-being through liaison with
the graduates, the government, the public, the
faculty and students and potential students. Mr.
Evans declared that the association eagerly seeks
the involvement of younger graduates, particularly
for their initiative, enthusiasm and ideas.
"Unfortunately," he continued, "an alumnus traditionally can almost be counted on not to demonstrate an interest in the association until five years
after his graduation. The opposite should be the
situation. We have been actively endeavoring to
involve more younger alumni in the association's
affairs. Our board of management, for instance, includes as members graduates of the past four years.
"Last year, through the Young Alumni Club, a
number of social events were held which attracted
many of the younger alumni back to the campus.
One very popular feature was the informal Friday
afternoon sessions in which students, alumni and
faculty participated at Cecil Green Park. The sessions, held to acquaint the graduating class with
the alumni association, will continue in the coming
year and I invite graduating class students to attend.
"We intend to continue, and even increase, our
efforts to obtain the views of students on the issues
facing the association and the university. At present,
a representative of the graduating class and two
representatives of the student council sit as ex-officio
members of the alumni board of management. The
UBC Alumni Chronicle editorial committee also
has at least one student member. We intend to step
up this dialogue.
"An expanded alumni branches program and several on-campus activities will give alumni throughout the province the opportunity to become more
closely involved with the association and the university. I urge one and all to attend these functions,
which will include seminars on vital issues as well
as social events.
Stan Evans
"As alumni we will have the privilege of welcoming Dr. Hare to his new position as UBC president.
Our contacts with him indicate that he recognizes
the value to a university of an active alumni association. We can expect his full support for the programs
of the association.
"We have a qualified, dedicated staff under the
capable direction of the recently appointed director,
Jack Stathers, MA'58. In addition, we have experienced and interested alumni serving on the executive
committee and on the board of management. With
the active participation of alumni, 1968-69 can be
an outstanding year for the association. I invite each
alumni young and old to 'Get Involved' in the activities of the association." □
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Clive Cocking, BA'62, has been appointed to the
newly-created position of director of communications for the alumni association. In his new role,
Mr. Cocking, 29, will work to strengthen communications between the association and its membership,
the university, government and the general public.
He will continue to edit the Chronicle which he has
edited on a temporary basis over the past nine
months. In addition, he will prepare news releases,
newsletters, brochures and reports as required. Prior
to the appointment, Mr. Cocking served as a reporter for three years for the Vancouver Sun. In
addition to general reporting during that time, he
served as a business writer, education reporter and
most recently, The Sun's one-man University of B.C.
bureau. Mr. Cocking assumes his new position on
July 1.
Education Faculty
Study Launched
will be the beginnings of a revolution in teacher
training at the University of B.C. The dean of education has set up a seven-member committee of his
faculty to totally re-examine UBC's approach to
teacher education. And Scarfe himself is leaving
June 21 for a year-long nine country visit to study
new teacher training methods. He will visit Australia,
New Zealand, India, South Africa, Tanzania, Kenya,
Uganda, Turkey and England and send back information. "It's to be a complete revolution," Scarfe
said, announcing the study. "It's to be a complete
overhaul of the policy, program and outlook of the
Called the Commission on the Future of the
Faculty of Education, the group will investigate
faculty organization, teacher education courses, arrangements for student teaching, faculty teaching
loads, the effectiveness of the graduate and research
program and the faculty's relationship to other UBC
faculties and provincial organizations concerned
with teacher education. The commission, under the
chairmanship of associate professor of education,
Dr. George Tomkins, has been asked to report by
September, 1969. Other members are Prof. Sam
Black, vice-chairman; Dr. Eric McPherson, associate professor of education, and Dr. Le Roi Daniels,
Dr. Ernest Fiedler, Craig Gillespie and Miss Shirley
Nalevykin, all assistant professors of education.
COFFE chairman Tomkins said the commission
intends to solicit the widest possible range of considered opinion on the matter. The commission
particularly hopes alumni who received their training
in the faculty, whether still employed in education
or not, will make known their views. "The commission is interested in learning what alumni regard as
the most valuable and the least valuable aspects of
the training they received and, more importantly,
what they regard as the most likely requirements of
educating teachers for the future," said Tomkins.
Statements or briefs may be directed to Dr. George
Tomkins, Chairman, COFFE, Faculty of Education, University of B.C., Vancouver 8, B.C.
28 Spotlight
Mr. Justice Nathan Nemetz, BA '34
MAN,    HERE   COME    SIX   OF    THEM.    And
look out, they're all UBC grads. The
six alumni were among new appointments to the B.C. bench made public
recently. Heading the list was UBC
board of governors' chairman Mr. Justice
Nathan Nemetz, BA'34. A supreme court
judge since 1963, Mr. Justice Nemetz
has been elevated to the appeal court.
Judge W. Kirk Smith, LLB'49, of the
Vancouver county court has been elevated to the supreme court. Two new appointments to the supreme court were
Alan B. McFarlane, LLB'49, former
Liberal MLA for Oak Bay, and G. Gordon Rae, QC, BA'29. Two county court
vacancies have been filled by Ernest J.
C. Stewart, BA'32 and Edward E. Hick-
son, LLB'52.
'23 -'29
Harry Graham Fulton, BSA'23, has
retired after 35 years of service with the
Canada Department of Agriculture. As
entomologist in charge of the Chilliwack substation, his research was concentrated on the biology and control of
vegetable insects in the lower Fraser
Valley. Mr. Fulton is past chairman of
♦he Pacific Northwest Vegetable Insect
UBC's assistant registrar, Myrtle Kie-
vell, BA'24, who has attended every congregation for the last 23 years, will be
retiring on June 30th of this year. Miss
Kievell, who took part in the Great Trek
of '22, has seen a large part of the uni
versity's history in her 31 years on the
staff of the registrar's office. She plans
to devote her retirement to volunteer
Garrett Livingstone, BA'24, a B.C.
Rhodes scholar, recently visited Vancouver for the first time in many years.
On his way home to Colorado Springs
he stopped in Los Angeles where he met
Lester McLennan (BA'22) whom he had
last visited with in Philadelphia and New
York in 1927.
A ten year research program by Dr.
Robert H. Wright, BA'28, MSc'30, at
the B.C. Research Council has resulted
in the development of a machine able
to measure the insect repellancy of compounds. It will now be possible to create
more effective repellants — perhaps a
"mosquito-proofing" pill — using this
artificial host to discover the chemical
basis for the repellant effect.
Dr. Robert
BA '28, MSc '30
Another B.C. agriculturalist has also
retired. George Challenger, BSA'25, farm
services supervisor for the B.C. Hydro
and editor of Farm News, retired during March. While working for the B.C.
Electric Co. he also ran his own farm
where he tried out new irrigation ideas
and developed an award winning herd
of jersey cattle. He was a member of
the B.C. Milk Board from 1956 to 58
as well as being an active member of
many agricultural organizations.
New director of secondary instruction
in Vancouver is Norman Clark, BA'29,
MA'38, BEd'47. He has been a member
of the Vancouver School system for 37
years as both teacher and principal and
will be assisting and co-ordinating the
work of the secondary principals and
will supervise the application of school
board policy dealing with class room
Robert W. Keyserlingk, BA'29, LLD
(Ottawa), has been elected president of
the Canadian Association of the Order
of Malta. The Order, which was founded
in the 11th century in Jerusalem and is
now based in Rome, has many varied,
charitable activities in the 30 countries
in which it is active. For many years in
international newspaper work, Mr. Keyserlingk is now president of Palm Publishers Ltd. in Montreal.
The University has been represented
at recent university presidential inaugurations by three alumni: Lionel H. Laing,
BA'29, at the inauguration of President
Robben Fleming, University of Michigan; Charles D. Moodie, BSA'37, at the
inauguration of Dr. Glenn Terrell, President, Washington State University; and
David M. MacAulay, BSW'61, at the
installation of Chancellor J. - Louis
Levesque and M. - Adelard Savoie, Q.C,
President, University of Moncton.
'30 -'39 ~
Burnaby school principal, Thomas M.
Chalmers, BA'30, MA'42, has been
awarded the Fergusson Memorial Award,
the highest award made by the B.C.
Teachers' Federation. Mr. Chalmers has
been active in the field of curriculum
development and was president of the
BCTF in 1948.
A new appointment as special advisor
to the director of the animal pathology
division of the Department of Agriculture has been made for Dr. Wilson Henderson, BSA'32, MSA'41, DVM (U of T).
He has returned to Canada after twenty
years at American universities. At Purdue University he was professor of pathology in the school of veterinary medicine and science and head of the animal
disease diagonistic laboratory. He will
act as advisor to the director on research
and diagnostic services related to animal
and poultry diseases.
Deputy minister, marine, of the Department of Transport, Dr. Gordon W.
Stead, BA'34, LLD'45, recently addressed the Fellows of the Royal Commonwealth Society in Vancouver. His subject
was the Canadian Coast Guard and its
work in the North.
John F. Melvin, BASc'36, has been
appointed superintendent of refineries for
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Cominco Ltd. He joined the company in
1936 as an assayer and has held several
supervisory posts, the latest being as
superintendent of smelting at Trail, B.C.
Dr. John W. Hoadley, BASc'38,.MASc
'47, PhD (U of T), formerly regional
manager, eastern Canada for AMAX
Exploration Ltd., will fill the new post
of chief geologist, Canadian exploration
with the company. Before joining AMAX
in 1957 Dr. Hoadley was regional geologist with the Geological Survey of
B.C.'s first hydrometeorologist is John
B. Wright, BA'38, MA'40, MA (U of T).
Mr. Wright, who has been officer-in-
charge of the weather unit at Vancouver
airport since 1965, will be making intensive studies of the precipitation readings throughout the province.
A new mining engineering consulting
firm has been established in Vancouver
by Dr. William R. Bacon, BASc'39,
MASc'42, PhD (U of T) and John J.
Crowhurst, BASc'41. Both partners have
had extensive experience in the B.C.
mining industry. Both were previously
with Mastodon-Highland Bell Mines
Ltd. as exploration manager and vice-
president,  operations,  respectively.
Jack Davis,
BASc '39
A former Rhodes scholar of 1939,
Jack Davis, BASc'39, BA, MA (Oxon),
PhD (McGill), has been appointed minister without portfolio in Prime Minister
Trudeau's new cabinet. Mr. Davis, who
has been the member for Coast-Capilano
since 1962, was parliamentary secretary
to Prime Minister Pearson and later secretary to the Minister of Energy.
In London, England, Dr. William
Petrie, BA'40, MA, PhD (Harvard) has
been named chief of the Defence Research Board's staff. A physicist well-
known for his studies of the upper atmosphere, Dr. Petrie is a Fellow of the
Royal Society of Canada. Before joining the research board in 1952 he taught
at universities in B.C., Manitoba and
A transfer has made Alistair J. Drys-
dale, BA'41, area geologist with the new
uranium exploration group established
by the Atlantic Richfield Company. He
was formerly exploration geologist with
the company.
Simon Fraser University's new registrar is Harry M. Evans, BA'42, formerly
registrar of the provincial Department of
Education. He is a member of the B.C.
Academic Board for Higher Education
and chairman of the selection committee
for B.C. government bursaries and scholarships.
Robert K. Porter,
BCom '42
During the  spring  Robert K.  Porter,
BCom'42, president of the Lipton Tea
Co., attended the advanced management
program conducted by the Harvard University graduate school of business administration. He is one of the 160 business executives chosen to participate in
the course which prepares executives to
exercise full leadership responsibilities in
senior positions.
Alexander C. Cooper, BASc'44, has
been named chief engineer of the advisory board to the director of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.
Nicholas Reimer, BA'44, formerly
western district sales manager for Monsanto Canada, is now director of sales
for the plastic products and resins division of the company. Based in Montreal
he will be responsible for business planning and setting objectives for the division.
New United Nations representative in
Nigeria is Hugh Christie, BA'45, MSW
'52. For the past two years he has been
executive secretary of the Canadian University Service Overseas and has travelled
extensively in under-developed countries.
Previously, while warden of Oakalla
Prison he took a year's leave of absence
to accept a UN assignment as a technical advisor in Thailand.
Thomas G. Willis, BSA'45. MSA'47,
is going to be spending a lot of time
travelling in his new position as aid coordinator for the Canadian Department
of Agriculture. He will be co-ordinating
Canadian agricultural aid programs including feasibility studies, aid teams and
operational projects. He will also be
responsible for liaison between his department and the External Aid office,
for whom he will be evaluating requests
from abroad for agricultural aid.
The    new    Lord    Beaverbrook    High
School in Calgary has Leslie W. Roberts,
BA (U of Man), BEd'47, MA'48, as its
first principal. The comprehensive school,
which will have nearly 2,000 students
and staff, is the first built in Calgary for
which the principal was freed from his
normal duties to be able to act as a
consultant for the architects. Mr. Roberts
feels that this co-ordination has led to both cost savings and a better instruction area plan.
An authority on water resources research and planning Dr. E. Roy Tinney,
BASc'47, MSc (U of Wash), Phd (Minn),
has returned to Canada to a new appointment as chief of the planning division of
the Department of Energy, Mines and
Resources' policy and planning branch.
Dr. Tinney was head and professor of
civil engineering at the R. L. Albrook
Hydraulic Laboratory, at Pullman, Washington before he was appointed director
of the Washington State Water Research
Centre in 1964. As director he was
responsible for planning the Central
North American Water Project—a plan
to irrigate the great plains from northern
Canada to Mexico using the water from
the Arctic Ocean.
The origin and evolution of western
Canadian mountains is the subject of a
report given at the annual meeting of
the Canadian Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy. The new theory on the formation of mountains may prove to be
very valuable to the mining industry as
well as a contribution to the science of
geology. The twenty scientists who
worked on the report were headed by
Dr. John O. Wheeler, BASc'47, PhD
(Columbia), of the Geological Survey of
Dr. Ross H. Hall, BA'48, MA (U of
T), PhD (Cam), has been appointed professor and chairman of the department
of biochemistry at McMaster University,
Hamilton, Ontario.
Allan MacDonald Murray, BA'48, has
been appointed vice-president, finance,
of Cominco Ltd. and will become the
chief financial officer of the company.
He has held various positions in the
finance department since he joined the
company in 1953.
Former president of the Liberal Federation of Canada. Senator John L.
Nichol, BCom'48, is one of the many
UBC alumni involved with the June
general election. Senator Nichol is co-
chairman of the Liberal national campaign.
Maurice B. Powley, BASc'48, MASc
'53,   has   been   appointed   an   associate
professor in chemical engineering at the
University of Windsor. During the 15
years that he was employed in industry
he published several research papers and
was active in the Canadian Society for
Chemical Engineering of which he is
a member of the board of directors.
Prior to his new appointment he was
supervisor of chemical engineering for
Dupont of Canada Ltd.
Sen. John L.
BCom '48
Allan W. Blyth, BASc'49, has been
named director for the Ontario region
of the rural development branch of the
agricultural rehabilitation and development act administration branch of the
Department of Agriculture. The regional
ARDA office will be moved to Toronto
where it will be staffed with rural development specialists. Mr. Blyth will be
responsible for maintaining a close liaison between the provincial and federal
governments in the implementation of
the joint rural development program.
Walter H. Dow, BASc'49, has been
named a senior economic geologist in
the newly created mineral development
department of British American Oil Co.
He will remain in Calgary where he was
attached to the Calgary exploration zone
of B.A.
New assistant director of the economics division of the Alberta department of
agriculture is Knud Elgaard, BA'49. He
will also be in charge of their research
programs. Before joining the Alberta
department he spent 15 years with the
economics branch of the federal agriculture department.
Canada's airport planning is now in
the hands of Melvin G. Hagglund, BA
'49, MA (U of T). He has been appointed
chief of airport planning and research
for the Department of Transport. He
will be responsible for liaison with the
various branches of the aviation industry in the planning of new airports. He
was formerly a superintendent in the
department's metrological branch.
Arthur D. H. Henderson, BSA'49, has
been appointed chief of the import control section of the plant protection department of the Canadian agriculture
department. He has held several positions within the department, his latest
being special assistant to the director of
the plant protection division.
Former alumni association member-
at-large John D. Taggart, LLB'49, has
been appointed to the Vancouver Police
Commission for a four year term. Mr.
Taggart, who was made Queen's Counsel
in 1964, was president of the Vancouver
Bar Association last year and is provincial commissioner of the St. John's Ambulance Association.
George N. Worsley, BASc'50, John W.
Wedler,   BASc'59   and   Robert   Noble,
BASc'61, have recently been made principals of Willis, Cunliffe, Tait & Co. Ltd.
Mr. Worsley is manager of the community planning and traffic engineering
division, Mr. Wedler is assistant to the
senior partner in the Nanaimo office and
Mr. Noble is manager of the Terrace
William J. Connery, BASc'51, has
been appointed engineering manager for
B.C. Forest Products Ltd. He has held
several positions within the company and
was recently development manager for
the company's subsidiary Alexandra
Forest Industries Ltd.
New Secretary of the B.C. Law Society is Thomas Victor McCallum, BA
'51, LLB'52. After being called to the
bar in 1952 he joined Canadian General
Insurance Company as claims manager,
later moving to the Yorkshire Corporation in the same position.
A. E. Ames & Co.
A. E. Ames & Co.
Government of Canada Bonds
Toronto Stock Exchange
Provincial and Municipal
Montreal Stock Exchange
Bonds and Debentures
Canadian Stock Exchange
Corporation Securities
Vancouver Stock Exchange
E. AmeS & CO-
Midwest Stock Exchange -
Business Established 1889
Offices in principal Canadian Cities, New York,
London, Paris and Lausanne
31 Michael Hind-Smith, BA'51, has been
named vice-president of Foster Advertising Ltd. with responsibility for media
and broadcasting. He joined Foster in
1967 following a period as communications consultant with the Power Corporation of Canada. Mr. Hind-Smith was a
producer for both C.B.C. radio and TV,
in 1961 being named manager of CBLT
in Toronto. He later joined the CTV network as national program director, becoming vice-president, programming in
John W. Rithaler, BASc'51 has been
appointed logging manager of Whonnock
Lumber Company Ltd. He has had extensive experience in logging engineering with B.C. Forest Products Ltd. and
consulting   engineering  firms.
In Texas Dr. Edsel K. Darby, PhD'52,
has been promoted to senior scientist in
the exploration and production department of Gulf Research and Development
Co. He joined the company as a research
geophysist and was named section supervisor in 1964.
The Fisheries Research Board has appointed Dr. James E. Stewart, BSA'52,
MAS'54, PhD (U of Iowa), as assistant
director of the Halifax laboratory.
Director of transport policy and research branch of the Department of
Transport, Raymond R. Cope, BASc'53.
has been appointed a member of the
Canadian Transportation Commission.
Mr. Cope will organize and direct the development of facilities and research programs within the broad scope of Canadian transportation. He will be succeeded
as director by E. Lome Hewson, BA'48,
formerly general superintendent, transportation with the CNR's Atlantic
B.C. historians now have a new bibliography upon which to base their studies
of the years 1849-1899. Mrs. Gordon
Lowther, BA'53, BLS'65, (Barbara J.
Horsfield), examined over 55,000 books,
manuscripts and related material during
the two and half years she spent researching in the provincial archives, university and public libraries. The results
of this research have been published in
the first volume of the University of
Victoria's   Centennial    Bibliography   —
"Vancouver's Leading
Business College"
Secretarial    Stenographic
Accounting   Clerk Typist
Day and Night School
Enrol at any time
1490 West Broadway
Vancouver 9, B.C.
Mrs. A. S. Kancs, P.C.T., G.C.T.
"Laying The Foundations". The project
was financed by the university with additional grants from the Canada Council
and the Koerner Foundation.
Plans for a superport at Roberts Bank
south of Vancouver and export markets
for B.C. coal have been recent projects
of John Southworth, BA'53, MA (U of
Wash) as executive officer of the' B.C.
Energy Board. Before joining the board
in 1960 he had been a consultant to the
government during a royal commission
on the Great Slave Railway, and executive assistant to the president of Inland
Natural Gas Co. Ltd.
David James Bremner, BA'54 has been
appointed assistant to the general manager of Crown Zellerbach Canada Building Material's Interior operations in
Kelowna. He has been with the company
since graduation and has held several
senior industrial relations posts.
Traffic analysis, market and product
research and staff development will be
the responsibilities of Robert C. Gilmore,
BCom'54, in his new position as manager, traffic planning and research, for
Canadian Pacific Railways.
In Edmonton Dr. Charles M. Trigg,
BASc'54, PhD (McGill), and George N.
Woollett, BA'57, have established a geological consulting firm—Trigg, Woollett
& Associates Ltd. Both partners are
geologists with extensive experience in
the mining industry.
Calvin S. Brandley, BA (Brigham
Young), LLB'55, has been appointed as
representative for the Alberta Department of Youth in the Lethbridge area.
Mr. Brandley, who has worked with several youth groups in southern Alberta
was previously supervisor of special services with the Lethbridge office of Canada
Lawrence A. Hope, BSF'55, has been
named chief forester of the Bulkley Valley Pulp and Timber Ltd. and its associated companies. He will be located at
Burns Lake, B.C.
William Blair Little, BCom'55, a faculty member at the University of Western
Ontario, school of business administration, has been awarded his doctorate of
business administration from the Harvard graduate school.
Peter G. Silverman, BA (Sir George
William), MA'55, MSc (Lon. Sch. of
Econ.) has returned to Canada after
several years in Britain where he held
senior positions with a market research
organization and advertising agencies. He
has now joined Spitzer, Mills & Bates in
Toronto as research director.
Edward B. Jakeman, BASc'55 and
Ian McGregor Hyslop, BASc'59, are now
with the consulting engineering firm of
B. H. Levelton and Associates Ltd. in
Vancouver. Mr. Jakeman will be responsible for cathodic protection and coating
technology and Mr. Hyslop for metallurgical and mechanical investigations.
Allan G. Leinweber, BCom'55, BEd
(U of Alta), has been elected president
of the business education council of the
Alberta Teachers' Association for the
coming year. Mr. Leinweber has been
teaching high school in Stettler, Alberta
for the past five years.
Peter J. Peters, BCom'55 has recently
been named comptroller of Scott Paper
Ltd. Previously he was assistant comptroller with Scott. Following graduation
Mr. Peters spent eight years with Price,
Waterhouse & Co.
'56-'59 ~~
The Youth Resources Society of Vancouver has three alumni on its recently
nominated board of directors. Dr. H. E.
(Ted) McLean, MD'56, is second vice-
president, J. Allen Carr, LLB'51, BA'56,
is legal advisor and Kenneth P. Bogas,
BA'48, BSW'54 and Dr. McLean are
co-chairmen of the professional advisory
committee. The aim of the society is to
help emotionally disturbed teen-agers
through intensive psychiatric and psychological treatment in a group home
In the national office of the Progressive Conservative party Malcolm Wickson, LLB'56, BCom'65, has recently been
named national director. He has been
president of the B.C.  Progressive  Con-
Investment    —     Development Real Estate
562 Burrard St.
Phones 682-1474    Res. 736-0757
Write or Phone
Vancouver 8, B.C. 228-2282
whenever you need
Hard Back
Paper Back
32 servative Association for the past two
years. Executive Secretary will be
Eugene Rheaume, BSW'56, former member of parliament for the North West
Malcolm Wickson,
LLB '56, BCom '65
Ian W. French, BSP'57, PhD (U of T),
has been appointed senior biochemist in
the research and development division
of Smith, Kline & French at Senneville,
Quebec. He was formerly an assistant
professor in physiology at the University
of Ottawa.
Arthur Lome Leach, BSA'57, has
joined Dale Lithographing in Toronto
as manager of their marketing services.
He has had broad experience in advertising and public relations, as an account
supervisor and  director of information.
Frederick G. Rayer, BASc'57, has returned to Calgary after a year in Dallas,
Texas where he was staff geologist for
the Atlantic Richfield Company. He has
been named district geologist for the
company's southern Alberta - Saskatchewan district of its North American producing division.
W. Craig Clark, BASc'58, MASc'60,
has been named production superintendent at the North Vancouver plant of
Hooker Chemicals Ltd. He originally
joined Hooker Chemicals as plant engineer in 1963.
A new associate editor, James A. F.
Taylor, BA'58, has been appointed for
the magazine, United Church Observer.
For the last ten years he has been in
broadcasting with CJOR and CBUT-TV
in Vancouver and most recently as a
radio producer with the CBC in Prince
Rupert, B.C.
Fraser G. Wallace, BCom'58, MBA,
PhD (UCLA), has recently moved to
Los Angeles where he is vice-president,
operations of Transamerica Computer
Co., a subsidiary of the Transamerica
Corp. of the United States. He was formerly in New York with IBM as manager of their data resources and management information systems.
An experimental engineering course at
the University of Western Ontario has
attracted many students. One is Leslie
A. Hill, BASc'59. The course devotes
one-third of its program to law, medicine, political science, biology and geography. Mr. Hill who is attending the
school on leave of absence from the
consulting firm, Montreal Engineering,
feels that both universities and engineering schools would benefit from closer
contact with  industry.
Alexander L. Peel, BCom'59, MBA
(U of Calif) has been named chief economist, railway and highway division, of
the Department of Transport's policy
and research branch in Ottawa.
John B. Tomlinson, BCom'59, director of media and programming for
McCann-Erickson of Canada Ltd. has
been appointed a vice-president of the
company. He is an active member of
the media directors council and the
ICA/ACA joint broadcasting committee.
'60- '66
Edward J. Curtis, BA'60, has been
transferred to Vancouver as director of
sales for the Bayshore Inn. He joined
Western International Hotels in 1961
and was most recently director of sales
at the Calgary Inn.
Mrs. Dickson
(Pat Carney),
BA '60
The annual MacMillan Bloedel award
for business writing has been won by
Mrs. Gordon B. Dickson, BA'60, known
to 'Sun' readers as Pat Carney. She has
now won the $500 award four times.
This year her winning series of articles
was on the economy of Great Britain.
A plan to further understanding between the British and American people
has won a $5,000 award for Dr. Robin
Farquhar, BA'60, MA'64, PhD (U of
Chicago). The contest had over 1300
entries from which two winners were
chosen. It was organized by the Edward
L. Bernays Foundation, which was set
up in 1946 to advise governments, business and professional organizations on
international communication. Dr. Far-
quhar's program includes the establishment of an international commission on
Anglo-American relations, which would
make surveys and establish programs
based on the research findings.
Largest fabric store on Canada's West
Coast—direct imports of fashion fabrics from around the world and a
complete home furnishings department. Custom made drapes, bedspreads, slipcovers and re-upholstery.
Your Fashion Fabric Centre
2690 Granville St., Cor.   11th Ave.
(one store only)
Free Parking Phone 736-4565
Discount cards for Fashion Fabrics
available to U.B.C. students
You realize
a substantial
saving because
of our direct
from the
centres of
the world.
"Jewellers to all members of the family"
Downtown    •    Brentwood
Park Royal
SPAIN      GERMANY        FRANCE       'TALY
+S)lioe ^)tt
33 Glendon R. Stewart, BASc'61, has
been named executive assistant to the
deputy minister, marine, of the Department of Transport. He was district
marine agent for the department at
Prince Rupert before his new appointment.
Dean E. Feltham, BCom'62, LLB'65,
has recently joined Red Barn System
(Canada) Ltd. as senior vice-president,
and will be responsible for the company's
expansion and development program.
Red Barn is a national restaurant chain
which recently merged with Capital
Building Industries. Mr. Feltham, who
was the first winner of the Alumni
Award of Student Merit, was previously
senior analyst of the Ontario division of
British American Oil Co. Ltd.
Head of the finance department in the
Faculty of Commerce at the University
of Manitoba, Peter G. K. Pellat, BCom
'62, MBA (Berkeley), will return to Berkeley for the next eighteen months to
study for his doctorate in finance.
Wilson Baker, BSc'63, is president and
managing director and Brian Meredith,
BSc'64, senior analyst with a newly
established computer firm in Vancouver.
Tetrad Computer Applications Ltd.,
which is connected with a large computer in Richland, Washington offers a
consulting service on computer application in both scientific and commercial
Ruth E.
BHE '63
Ruth E. Berry, BHE'63, MSc (Penn
State), has recently been appointed assistant professor in the department of
home economics at the University of
Manitoba. She has been a teaching assistant there since September 1967.
Director of the youth representatives
branch of the Alberta Department of
Youth is Roland J. Kolbus, BPE'63. A
member of the B.C. Professional Recreation Society, he will direct the work of
the representatives developing local programs for youth throughout Alberta.
A National Research Council award
of $7,200 for post doctoral study has
been made to Isobel Margaret Stainer,
BSc'63, MSc'64. She is currently studying at the University of California, Berkeley and will later do research work
in Quebec.
Lawrence A. Redpath, B.Sc (McGill),
B.Arch'64, has recently returned from
Montreal where he worked for Affleck
Desbarats Dimakopoulas Lebensold on
on the national arts centre in Ottawa and
Place Bonaventure. He has now opened
his own architecture office in Vancouver.
Fraser B. Cooper, BA'65, studying for
his doctorate in political science at
Duke University has been awarded a
Woodrow Wilson dissertation fellowship. The recipients of these awards are
chosen on the basis of the best dissertation proposals from among the most
highly qualified candidates in each subject area.
Judith D.
BMus '65
Following her performance in the
semi-finals of the Metropolitan Opera
Auditions Judith D. Forst, BMus'65 (nee
Lumb) was awarded a contract for the
coming year. She and her husband Graham N. Forst, BA'62, will leave for New
York at the beginning of the summer,
where she will join the Metropolitan
Opera. Graham, who is on a doctoral
program at UBC will be teaching at an
eastern university next year.
Editor of Totem 65, G. Scott Mclntyre has recently been appointed manager of advertising and promotion, trade
division with McClelland & Stewart in
Toronto. He was formerly an account
executive with F. H. Hayhurst Advertising Agency in Vancouver.
John Barry Worsfold, BA (U of Alta),
BSW'65, MSW'67, has joined the Department of Youth in Alberta as a
consultant. He will study the youth
services and programs throughout the
province and will assist agencies in determining their most effective role in
relation to youth and the family.
Norma J. Scott, BHE'66, is the new
home service director of the Canada
Starch Company at their head office in
Montreal. She was previously with Woodwards in Vancouver as a consumer consultant.
mr. and MRS. ROBERT G. auld, BASc'59,
(Diane Bowman, BEd'59), a son, Jerry
William, February 7, 1968 in Calgary,
MR.   and   MRS.   LAWRENCE   J.   FOURNIER,
BCom'62, (Rose Marie Ettel, BSN'63)
a son, Mark Arthur, February 16,
1968 in Vancouver.
'66, a daughter, Valerie Leanne, March
22, 1968 in Montreal, Quebec.
mr. and mrs. larry w. hunt, (Miriam
Sheppard, BHEc'62), a son, James
David, January 14, 1968 in Sarnia,
mr. and MRS. PETER f. morse, BSc'63,
(Anita Blums, BA'63), a son, Philip
Andrew, October 23, 1967 in Montreal.
henderson-carruthers. John Edward
Henderson to Mary Ellen Carruthers,
BA'60, BSW'61, October 14, 1967 in
New Westminster, B.C.
snow-leblanc. Don Montague Snow,
BArch'62 to Linda Ruth LeBlanc,
March  16,  1968 in Calgary, Alberta.
wilson-harrison. Philip Henry Wilson to
Elouise R. Harrison, LLB'57, October
7, 1968, in Vancouver.
Robert James Craig, BA'36, BASc'36,
December 12, 1967 in Vancouver. Mr.
Craig, senior inspector, environmental
control, of the inspection branch of the
B.C. Department of Mines and Petroleum Resources, was recognized as one
of Canada's leading authorities on the
control of mining dust and of silicosis.
He had been a member of the engineering staff of Britannia Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd. and a silicosis inspector for
the Workman's Compensation Board before joining the provincial department in
1962. He is survived by his wife and
Lucille Marie Davis, BA'35, April 1,
1968, in Vancouver. Miss Davis had
been a counsellor at Delbrook High
School and is survived by her sister and
Henry Rex Retallack, BA'31, BEd'57,
March 1968, in Vancouver. A mathematics teacher for 31 years at Lord
Byng Secondary School in Vancouver,
Mr. Retallack was awarded the medal
of merit and the silver acorn by the
Boy Scouts of Canada for his service to
scouting. He is survived by an uncle and
Donalda Mae McCharles, BA'31, February 6, 1968, in Vancouver. She is survived by her brother J. Alestair McCharles, BA'28.
Norman Brooks, BASc'49, January 6,
1968, in Ottawa. Following graduation
Mr. Brooks joined the Department of
Public Works. He was on the staff of
the British Columbia district office until
1957 when he was transferred to Ottawa as head of the marine plant section.
Ernest D. O. Hill, BA'47. BSW'48,
MSW'51, March 4, 1968, in Vancouver.
Director of social planning for the
United Community Services of Vancouver and a well known social planning
authority, Mr. Hill had lectured at the
UBC School of Social Work and had
delivered papers at international conferences. He is survived by his wife
(Mary A. McLorg, BA'42, BSW'43), five
children, mother and sister.
Donald A. Livingston, BASc'44, March
29, 1968 in Vancouver. Mr. Livingston
joined ESCO Limited following his graduation. Since then he held various
executive positions, being appointed
executive vice-president in 1966. He is
survived by his wife (Edith Elizabeth
Harvey, BA'43), one son and two daughters.
34 Alumni Fund Report
more than 58 students will be attending university next year with the assistance of scholarships
provided by the UBC Alumni Association. They will
be sharing $32,300 in awards for academic achievement. The $350 Norman MacKenzie scholarships
awarded annually to 48 top students formed the
major part—$16,800—of this aid. The 10 Norman
MacKenzie American scholarships, each worth $500,
also played a big part.
The provision of scholarships is the largest single
project of the UBC Alumni Fund, to which alumni
contributions hit a high of $210,496 in 1967. The
fund is designed to provide services to students and
to aid student activities which are not supported in
other ways. As a new feature of the fund established
in recognition of the financial problems of new graduates, graduating students will not be asked to
donate until a year after they have graduated.
In addition to scholarships, another major area of
aid was the President's Fund which was allocated
$10,000 to assist special deserving projects at UBC.
Athletics were assisted with allocations totalling
$18,635. The library received $6,461, student union
building $1,000 and the Delta Gamma suite for blind
students in Brock Hall, $1,182. At the same time,
alumni reduced outstanding pledges to the Three
Universities Capital Fund by $48,209 and gave
$45,513 in other gifts directly to the university.
On another matter, an explanation is due to those
donors whose names were missing from the special
Alumni Fund supplement contained in the last
Chronicle. For many, the reason was simply that
deadlines play no favorites and naturally donations
continued after we went to press. For a good many
others, however, the problem lay in the fact that as
they are Three Universities Capital Fund contributors through payroll deduction the necessary information was not available prior to the deadline. Our
apologies to:
Laszlo Adamovick '62
Arnold J. Allan '49
D. C. Allen '53
Dr. N. H. Anderson '55
G. E. Apps '52
Dr. W. W. Armstrong '66
Dr. W. J. D. Arnold '55
Dr. Gerald Atkinson '64
W. H. Auld '41
Donald A. Baird '50
D. J. Ballantyne '54
Dr. R. W. Ball '25
James A. Banham '51
Thomas Bates '66
Dr. Desmond Beall '32
Kathleen E. Belander '60
Inglis F. Bell '51
William B. Bell '66
Dr. J. A. Berrettoni '37
Mrs. T. J. Bettendorf '64
D. W. Blackaller '34
Ruth M. Blair '48
John P. Blaney '65
Sadie M. Boyles '36
M. I. G. Bradwell '50
George M. Brake '59
F. L. Brewis '49
J. P. Briba '50
Dr. R. C. Brooke '66
D. M. Brousson '49
Margaret E. Brown '59
Norval H. Brown '46
Dr. Charles Brumwell '58
C. H. G. Bushell '42
A. H. Catdicott '47
C. G. Caple '66
Mrs. C. G. Caple '61
William H. Carey '60
Robert B. Chattey '52
Mrs. M. Chestnutt '67
Nicholas T. Chizak '51
Dr. William Chow '66
Lewis J. Clark '32
Dr. J. L. Colbert '38
Peter E. Coleman '64
David G. Cook '55
Mollie E. Cottingham '47
Sidney L. Couling '49
Dean Ian McTaggart-Cowan '32
Albert R. Cox '54
Kenneth D. Craig '60
John H. Craven '49
W. K. Cross '61
Thomas G. Cundill '50
L. A. Currie '30
D. C. Davidson '33
R. M. Davidson '63.
W. H. Davies '55
K. A. Dick '60
H. Disbrow '57
William G. Dixon '43
Geraldine Dobbin '51
Harry W. Dosso '67
Gladys V. Downes '40
Dr. J. G. Eales '63
Dr. A. J. Elliot '32
Dr. Milla A. Eskell '27
Mrs. W. S. Fisher '45
D. Ross Fitzpatrick '58
Dr. C. N. Forward '52
Clarence J. Frederickson '33
V. J. Freeman '41
Mrs. Harry W. B. Furniss '27
Joseph A. F. Gardner '42
Robert S. A. Glover '50
Mrs. R. S. A. Glover '51
Colin C. Gourlay '47
Kenneth Graham '33
K. R. Gray '30
V. H. Grigg '43
Andrew Guthrie '34
Edwin M. Hagmeier '55
Mrs. L. A. Hale '52
Halet F. Hallatt '58
S. L. Hardy '48
Harold P. Harms '60
E. L. Harrison '66
Fred L. Hartley '39
Mrs. Fred L. Hartley '40
Noll J. Hatch '43
F. C. Holland '56
L. A. Hope '55
Margaret A. Howarth '55
Charles H. Howatson '47
Sydney W. Hubble '58
Arthur R. Huntington '46
Leslie B. Janz '58
Wesley H. Janzen '50
D. G. Jessup '43
F. M. Johnston '53
William R. Johnston '52
Dr. J. S. Kerr '48
R. W. King '51
Dr. D. Kirkpatrick '47
Mrs. D. Kirkpatrick '47
A. L. Knutson '47
Dr. Leon J. Koerner *HA
Antal Kozak '61
Burton O. Kurth '45
L. H. Laing '29
A. A. Lake '46
Mrs. Sherwood Lett '58
Dr. Harry T. Logan 'HA
Norman L. Lowe '64
Robert J. Lyle '66
Mrs. H. G. MacCorkingdale '19
Dr. J. B. Macdonald *HA
Alan M. McGavin *HA
John McGechan '47
William H. Mclnnes *HA
R. M. Macintosh '59
J. R. MacKay '56
L. G. McKenzie '64
T. Douglas M. McKie '62
Cyrus H. McLean *HA
K. J. MacLeod '48
R. G. McMinn '57
Robert W. McQueen '57
Honorable R. W. Mayhew '55
Jean-Pierre Mentha '59
Richard L. Metzker '50
Mrs. Dorothy H. Miller '67
Peter P. Miller '60
Kyle R. Mitchell '66
R. R. Mitchell '59
Richard H. J. Monk '46
R. L. Montador '51
M. W. Mulligan '50
Phillip C. Nicolle '51
Roy A. Nodwell '56
Elizabeth Norcross '56
George H. C. Norman '24
Stanley M. Oberg '49
J. P. O'Brien '62
Dean V. J. Okulitch '31
T. G. Pagdin '63
Mrs. M. Parks '31
W. N. Patrick '48
Mrs. Wayne F. Pretty '59
Dr. Roland W. Radcliffe '49
Mrs. W. E. Ricker '45
K. J. Rosenberg '54
W. A. Rosene '49
Jean W. Roxburgh '55
R. H. Roy '51
Marilyn Russell '54
James E. Ryan '47
Stephen A. Ryce '59
Robert F. Scagel '48
C. D. Scarfe '61
Anthony D. Scott '47
Gordon R. Selman '63
J. E. Semple '48
Eric W. Seto '56
Dr. R. G. Sexsmith '61
Mrs. R. G. Sexsmith '64
James G. Sharpe '57
R. L. Shaw '64
Donald S. Smith '32
Peter L. Smith '53
Jan J. Solecki '61
Robert M. Stalker '50
Dr. A. L. Stevenson '22
K. N. Stewart '32
Ross Stewart '64
Dr. S. L. Stratton '57
Basil F. Stuart-Stubbs '52
Thomas M. Taylor '55
Gordon M. Tener '49
A. Thomson '47
Dr. C. A. Thomson '62
B. L. Turvey '58
George M. Volkoff '37
Mrs. G. R. Waines '51
Mrs. S. A. Wainwright '53
F. Waites '26
Mrs. F. Waites '32
David E. Wall '53
John H. Wallis '63
Ernest L. Watson '40
R. B. Wilson *HA
G. G. Woodward '30
Mrs. G. G. Woodward '43
•HA—Honorary Alumnus 5emmsr*
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