Japanese Maps of the Tokugawa Era

Sangoku tsūran zusetsu Hayashi, Shihei, 1738-1793.


Cover attached; title from cover. The three countries referred to in the title are Ezo, Korea, and the Ryūkyū Islands. Hayashi compiled the work in 1785, and published it the following year; there is also a manuscript copy of this book. Since Hayashi's writing addressed the widespread interest of the government's policy toward the frontier problem, this book achieved the status of a textbook among the people. Hayashi's opposition to the visits of foreign ships caused the Shōgunate in l792 to confiscate his work, destroy the wood blocks, and confine the author, but manuscript copies continued to be circulated. Although Beans lists five maps as accompanying the book, they seem to have been issued separately, compiled from second-hand materials, emphasizing the nearness of the frontiers but not reflecting any improvement in their mapping. References: Boxer, p. 19; Nordenskiold, no. 137. Cited in: WSN; 97

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