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Illustrated historical atlas of the counties of Hastings and Prince Edward, Ont. Compiled, drawn and… 1878

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 .' v; ; -I ..
&\SS^^>^.       TOROffTO LlTH:G0. GORIjELi:
their selectioi
properly selec
3.  The-JDr
rounded storn
known as the Drift, or Dri
recent than that of the and
an enormous interval of til
tions being absent. It is i
of our Silurian (or Lower I
above the sea in which the
land for many ages, whilst
with the Secondary and T<
•th and
stones, drifted
n shoals and isl
iy the agency o
re brok
,n down, and th
It the i
lore northern de
lated si
rfaces of our li
e poliah
ed rock, when fl
I the fir
e lines which cr
tones and grave
lOSt ilh
ays a general n<
t of th
i country. Fini
e the sea ; and
re then
produced by th
f the Drift and
4. JHctx
at Deposits.—?}
nsh forms extensive swamps in many localities.    All three are of great use
in^ie manufacture of carriages, sleighs, and almost all our agricultural
f    We have three birches—the yellow, the black, and the white or canoe
birch.    The two former are much used in cabinet work, while the latter is
almost invaluable to the Indian on account of its bark, of which he makes
his canoe. ,    ,
Of our remaining trees, the principal are the beech, the bass-wood, the
hickory, the bitter-nut, the butter-nut. the balm of Gfle*d, the black
cherry and the red or soft maple, all of which are naed more or less for nse-
ful or ornamental purposes. In all we have forty species of forest trees
nearly all of which are used by our own mechanics for the manufacture of
every article, and by the farmer—for all our conveyances—for nearly all
our household furniture—in the building of our steamboats and sailing vessels, and in tho erection of our houses.
THE ROADS, <ftc.
No finer roads exist in Canada than those of Hastings County.    Indeed,
se are of very slight extent, and of local occur-
;<> causes now in action, or which have prevailed
it periods. So far as regards the County of
ew beds of "shell marl," arising from deposits
id up ponds and lakes. These consist of white
treous matter, filled with minute shells otcyctas,
ater genera of molluscs. A deposit of this kind
hove the west bank of the Moira at Belleville ;
enton ; and at other places. Another recent
areous tufa," deposited on twigs, moss, stones,
prings; but frequently, both shell marl aaM cal-
ed, and form but
. the
a ft-a
of the
time that '
There b
though it i
while alrao
of Hastii
1.    It is
of so mu
ten by Mr.  John
eh interest at this
oli has i
ot its peat beds,
; all -hi
ry marsh
beaver meadows!
is a real peat bog,
is surrounded by
tarsh below Belle-
the a
• marshes of our county,
;at bogs throughout North
m,  can tell by actual ex-
The productions of our fo
natural products. At the 1
Strobus), a tree which stands
uses. It has been and will I
the county. Next in value ii
we prize it as an article of fu
Were the wood of this treet
(Uaix Americana), ore abui
however, being confined a
North Riding. All three a
Another of onr forest in
great value in the arts, on a
cess this tannin, it is said, can De concen
If this should be so, it will be a greater s
ships than the manufacture of potash. T
be a surer road to fortune than a large in'
The white cedar (Thuja Ocddantolis}
«) and? tat
ijgftihe foi
hs—the hemlock (Abie*
t of its tanning propertfc
of the
>r various
nsis) is of
nail bulk,
tck town-
■ i n would
ly assuming on important
o years the Moira has been
which are exported to the
The balsam a
id blacl
uid in some
instances, attain
I'll.'van im
for barns and hoi
ses.    i
oth spec
eye of the most c
ivini,.r pro-
spect."   The"gi
an outward appfS
nal remedy
by tb.
it is the
nen, both as
" medicine
chest" of the bac
Bed cedar is 1
alitit's alon|
a and Ba
j> of Quinte.
Its wood is mam
dinto b
edstcads, w
mid to be
a terror to
bed-bugs,    Its v.
ood see
ms to b
i iudestrac
vhether 1
uried in the
ground or expos
: atmos
phcre it sh
elyany t
We have at
of oak, all
are usefu
le, whi
t by the lu
or expor
.as squared
timber, while the
tared m*
i staves, ore
re unable, thr
ed timber.
| and perhaps
t two" varieties. Tw
cd in large quant! tie!
makiog potash.    Th
ictoria, Cap. 14, 30th June, 1858, the following tan
stings road " were attached to the County of Haatin
■aday, Mayo,
n, Cashel.
dudes the to
nine thousand one hundred and twenty-nine acres, including water ana
roads, comprise the area of this agency. Nine hundred thousand acres of
this area are divided into farm lots of one hundred acres each. In 1868 tho
Commissioner of Crown Lands published an official map, and according to
it, the whole proportion which is suitable for purposes of agriculture is
about 40 per cent, of the . area.    The balance consists of rough,
iwnships.    The soil
oses of settlement the Govern:
■ed in each case one hundred s
ossesslon of the land allotted to him within one month,
f cultivation at least twelve acres of the land in the
-build a house, (at least 20 by23 feet,> and reside on
iditions of settlement are duly performed; after the
. hidi only, shall the settler have the right of obtaining
ed lot of land, which will be sold or given to another.
road having been opened by the Government, the settle]
>y live,)
it. The
eloss of
ashed.    It then become
een the logs plastered with
Ait dwelling, and warm as a
ed dis
that porti(
the pi
nd fully as
"There are, of course, in such a large extent of country as that referred
to, great varieties in the character and quality of land—some lots being
much, superior to others; but there is an abundance of the very best land
for farming purposes.
"Water for domestic use is everywhere [abundant; and there are,
throughput, numerous streams and falls of water, capable of being used for
"The. heavy-timbered land is almost always the best, and of it the
ashes of ttree acres—well taken care of, and covered from wet—will produce a barrel of potaah, worth from £3 to £7 currency. The capital required to manufacture potash is very small, and the process is very simple
the la
:ed lands, valuing
south, and has its southern termination on the northern boundary of Mndoe.
In 1792, Governor Simcoe issued a proclamation dividing Upper Canada
into nineteen counties, for purposes of representation. The counties formed
therebyare as follows, in the order named:—Glengarry, Stormont, Dundos,
Grenville, Leeds, Frontenac, Ontario, Addington, Lennox, Prince Edward,
Hastings, Northumberland, Durham, York, Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex,
and Kent.
The Proclamation, though very interesting to those belonging to the
respective localities to which the various sections refer, is too voluminous
to quote at length.    We glee below that section referring to the County of
'That the
''of Hastings
"most line of
i' lu
ing the metes and bounds of the vari
a to give to each its proper distributk
rid Bay of
■ counties, the
s fo'Tepresent
in the Assembly. Glengarry received two members ; some received one
each while in other cases two or more were pat together to elect a single
rcDreflontativ£ By this distribution, Hastings, Northumberland, and Lennox (except Adolphustown, which was put with Prince Edward County to
form aarfSectorftl Division), were comprised within a single division, with
tho privileKe of returning one member. In all. sixteen members were elected
by the nineteen counties to form tho first parliament of Upper Canada.
This proclamation was signed by William Jarvis, Private Secretary to
the Governor, and countersigned by the Governor affixing hisinitials "J.
In tho year 1839 Hastings wni
lie county since that date has mat
fery way, and few counties in the
'stematic progress.    We append li
a glance the splendid position w
separated from tne Midland - district.
. gigantic strides.    It has increased in
rell, Nc
ng, Beflftrilfer'Ji
villo ;
louItorjfcMTD., 4
S. ±
, 1st Deputy;
Hubert I
iding, Ro*
, West Ri
MfLLrotJJT.—Wm*R. AyUworth;-Warden.
Sidney,—Clement Armstrong, Reeve; Robert E. Gi
B. H. Vandervoort, 2nd Deputy.
Thurlow.—Harford Ashley, Reeve; Owen R. Weese, 1st Deputy;
James H. Peck, 2nd Deputy.
Tr end i sag a.—John White, M.P., Reeve; Donald Anderson, 1st Deputy ; Thos. Currio, 2nd Deputy,
Rawdon.—James Cook, Reeve ; Paul Kingston, Deputy,
Hunting HON.—Thomas Emo, Reeve ; Matthew Robinson, Deputy.     f
Hungerford.—Robt. Gordon, Reeve ; Patrick Murphy, Deputy.
Madoc,—Peter Vankleek, Reeve ; John Caskey, Deputy.
Marmora and Lake.'—Thomas P. Pierce, Reeve.
Elztvrr and Grlmsthorfe.— Hon. Billa Flint, Reeve.
Tudor, Wollaston, Limerick, and Cashbl.— Peter M. Gonter, Reeve.
Dukoasnon and Fabaday.—Dermot Kavanagh, Reeve.
Carlow and Mayo.—Wm. D. Parkhmst, Reeve.
Bangor and Wicklow.—Charles McDavitfc, Reeve.
Monteaole and Herschel.—John Fitzgerald, Reeve.
Trenton.—Chas. Francis, Reeve; Jno. N. Lee, Deputy.
Mill Point.—Wm. R. Aylsworth, Reeve.
Madoc Village.—Thomas Cross, Reeve.
Stirling.—Charles Craige, Reeve.
County .Officers.—Wm. R. Aylsworth, Warden; George Taylor,.
Sheriff; Hon. Geo. Sherwood, Judge of County and Surrogate Courts, and
Chairman Quarter Sessions ; Thos. A. Lazier, Junior Judge; Wm. H.
Ponton, Registrar; James Ponton, Deputy Registrar; Charles L Coleman, Clerk of the Peace and County Attorney; Anson G. Northrup, Clerk
County Court, Deputy Clerk of the Crown and Registrar Surrogate Coort.
Prof. James T. Bell, County Clerk; Thos. Wills, M.P.P., County Treasurer ; John Taylor, Deputy Sheriff; John Francis, County Surveyor;
Timothy Farnham, County Oravel Road Superintendent; E. W. Meyeis,
Gaoler ; John A. M. Gilbert, Turnkey.
uool Inspectors.—John Johnston, South Riding of Hastings;
n. Mackintosl
County Cor
, Burdett, Di
all, W. 1
, for BelleviUi
I. Po
Dr. Tr
Street Surveyor.—Richard Taylo?
Inspector of Weights asb Measures.—John P. McDonnell.
Inspectors of Licences.—Lewis A. Appleby, East Hastings; James
Ross, West Hastings ; Ed. Mbunsey, North Hastings.
Agricultural Societies.—There are three Agricultural Divisions in
the county, viz., North, East and West Ridings. These societies embrace
among their active members some of the most prominent names in the county.
Officers are elected every January, and consist of president, first and second
vice-presidents, directors, treasurer, secretary, and auditors.
Up to the 31st day of December, 1877, the pushing and enterprising City
of Belleville enjoyed the enviable notoriety of being one of the most vigorous
towns in nil Canada. On that date the lusty town became a city. Besides being
d busy place, it is one of the most beautiful spots in Canada.    It
rfect hive of industry.    Its people are noted far and wide
for the
entre of :i
r bile;
id the
ntly des
ii 1787,
for a
i India
a. 1
litte to
al grout
terprise and spirit." The city i
lerwith the hospitable charac
"-    for the tourist and
ycd a
if Th
Lot No
4,1st COD. (
this sito, i
> th
ot.    1!
t though se
united the
o the;
ned to
ir (listi
erm of n ni
found n citj
ittlcd first.
a pa
Ml advi
nly the City
u those days
s blocked off.
The town-
village lan-
t Ferguson
ttled on lot
ff, sr., and
ree months
to Sidney and Thurlc
of the river on lot No. 5. This is now oneof tl
new city. Capt John W. Meyers bought tli
Taylor, for one hundred dollars, and immedhu
mill. In 170-1 Meyers built the first brick hoi
For 80 years this architectural wonder stood ii
the hill. Asa Wallbridee builtone ofthn ,.■„■!.■'
1798 John Simps.
ut up i
rat tai
i northern
its old s
pposite the Hon. Lewis Wallbr:
ieross tho narrowest part of the
J Lady Bella,
serve, on lot
*blished, and
■ In 1818,
1836, no It
s put down
^ ■Viit'-': 'i COUNTY OF HASTINGS.
to be met B
i Clerk ; Robert Reid, Samuel T. Darling, as Commissi
as Collector; Henry Ketcheson.aa Assessor; James Ha,
itablo ; Robert Wilson, Merrell Streeter, Darnel Rosa,.
rson, Jc
hn Jlct'out
of High
son,John i
of 60
all hogs be free commoners
at all cattle be free comm
free commoners, from 1st
ommoners.   That fences I
McKay's In:
ith 141
d to fc
dper 1
i for 24 In
eeting held ii
short distan
I Clerk, Ant
S. 0. ,
of the township of Hralingdoi
il-ed.     Stoco  Lake,
the north by
.nth by Thudi
ind Coi
trk, etc.
urnbly with the
', and commands
ii known a
e of model
>f lumber
lip meeting of Hunting
id i—That Phillip Luke,
Scoutamatta, and Boyne creek,
lira Lake, better known as Hog Lake,
back country chain of fresh water lak
if the township and on the Moira rive
oyer 2,000 acres, and its waters contu
being annually c
rounded by imni
wild duck and o
>races an area of some-
y of fish indigenous to
a unusually large aud
.nibi-rs of the former
id New York markets.
mm Vlll.
rise from a small natural lake upon lot No. 12 in the 11th concession, and
traverses the township in a south-westerly direction ; a tributary of Kawdon
creek has its source iifion lot No. 4 in the 5th concession, connecting with
the main branch at a point upon lot No. S in the 4th coneesrion.
The Belleville and North Hastings railway runs through the township,
entering upon lot No. 1 in t he 2nd concession, end running in a north-easterly
direction through the township, crossing the narrows of Moira Lake, thence
to Madoc,    '11,.- road will be completed this fall.
The Huntingdon macadamized road runs through the whole length of tbe
township, commencing at the south-western extremity and crossing Moira at
the Narrows by an extensive and well-built bridge, and striking the northern
boundary at a point upon lot No. 12, which forms a part of the corporation
of the village of Madoc ' There are a number of other excellent roads in the
township ...fording every facility for travel, and by which any point in the
township can be reached with any description of vehicle.
The surface of the towuship is rolling, and in some places hilly, being
originally covered i> ith a heavy growth of hardwood timber, which, since tbe
advent of the pioneer settler, hits almost entirely disappeared. The soil is
similar to that of Hungerfoid on the east, and Rawdon on the west,—a clay
loam mixed with shale, the limestone formation occasionally assuming a degree
of prominence whichrenders it unlit for cultivation. With the exception ot
the localities where these geological specimens exist, the township is in an
advanced state of cultivation, as is attested by the many fields of heavy and
nearly matured grain to be met with on every hand. The people are apparently prosperous and happy, neat comfortable dwelling houses and well appointed outbuildings have superseded the log shanty and lean-to of the early
settlers, modern and luxurious furniture has replaced that of antiquated
design. Light traps and carriages, fee., have become a necessity, the ox
cart of the pioneer being of no use to the present generation. Costly fabrics,
gotten up in the latest and most approved fashion, are worn instead of the
"• :*BS: " " intingdon belong to
stores, of which the	
h'eas than those of a back count
the course of erection, and whe
an excellent gravel road conne.
l this work, would be a credit to any city,
inces, with tastefully laid out grounds; the
nicipality, Madoc will be the county town. The Belleville and |
itings, and the proposed route of the Toronto & Ottawa Railroads, ru
Dugfi the village, .the former of which wiU be completed this fall, and i
bt will add largely to its population and business. Madoc too has In
reverses; in 1873 a genenTcoufiagration took place, in which the princ
part of the village was destroyed. Solid brick blocks have taken tl
ee of the wooden ones burned, and theMadoc of to-day bids fair to becon
the development of the mineral wealth of Marmora, the township lyii
mediately to the north, affording a ready and available market for he
duce,  Rawdon suddenly became a populace and thriving township.
icadamized road which runs through the cen
principally travelled roads, are in good repai
.wnshin is easv of Tcccss.    The dwelling hou
ttd Mai
the fai
of a
c met with except in old and
of a substantial character, well
the inclement weather of our
dp is undulating and in some
jf the adjoining townships, is
to the dozen
educated ten
every child j
and if necei
id i
tal I'm
wnship of Hu:
The to'
of Ma.
> from Lord Madoc of Wales
pid, and commenced about t
south by Huntingdon, on the east by E
on the north by Tudor. Madoc, aside
for agricultural purposes and is in a pn
the numerous comfortable and home-lil
to be met with throughout the townshi
James O'Hara, Donald McKenzie, Thoi
Hazzard, Uriah Seymour, Louis Empei
>cks of Ma.
le little vi
tadily take)
A. F. Wood, Me
e old logschbol house of early days, with indifferent pedagogues,
sat, commodious, and conveniently situated buildings with?well
lers of to-day, with our excellent free school system, where
ay obtain a thorough knowledge of all the English branches,
try, can, through grammar schools,  acquire a good commer-
dso located 'at various points in the  township, comfortable
i worship, presided over V regularly ordained ministers of the
linister to the spiritual and religious wants of the inhabitants.
post offices, by which tbe people of Rawdon communicate with
■id through Her Majesty's mads, viz. :—
ritLAOE,—Mrs.  A. Judd, postmistress.
re, situated upon lot 22, in the 2nd concession,—Allen Wil-
liU fit
orsebs, situatec
ted upon lot 12
:, upon lot 13, i:
all watered by
i lot :
. the 6th concession,—D.
:ession,—A. McWilbams,
ion,—Peter "Welch, post-
rillage in the township of Madoc.
ion mine "is situated. There are several quartz
: to be working except, perhaps, at intervals ;
; place some years ago Eldorado's star seems to
t improved much either in point of population
rivers, creeks, and rivulets, which
pursue their tortuous course in a south-westerly direction through the
township, affording at different points excellent facilities for almost every
description of manufactures. Rawdon creek takes its rise in the township
of Huntingdon, and upon lot No. 1, in the 9th concession of Rawdon, traversing the township in a south-westerly direction, passing through the village of Stirling, and emptying itself into the river Trent, in the township
of Sidney.
ot No.
|    Its dimensions arc 8o'feet   I
it to the ridge, thespire isl!8
•with gabVry, 600, and when
of woiship to be found in the
ed at Modoc,
the thriving
7 other indi-
Squires" creek most effectually drains the !
of the township. It takes its rise upon lots
cession, and upon lot 13 in the 12th concessit
western extremity of tbe township,-in which <
taries at the sonth-
ows until it meets
' Northumberland.
Baw mills and che
Irive all the necessa
tiled Mud creek, ci
tains within its 1
mnls aboul
rocky but of goo,
1 quality.
r Moira
boundary of the
township, .
or,   affo
and upon which
rise within tbe li
■nils of till
and do,
doc.   TheHastii
id runs
the township, a
the f
■ superio
the products of
his farm u
Iii the ab»euc.
i of the tow
by tiic in 1873. v
■e can only
connected with tl
ei-ly Madoc, Tudi
>r and Elzi<
lited for
Madoc has electa
I her own
Midland District,
rural municiuiditi
a change
ics, and the
i- followin
ihn R  Kc
of tl
le foi
. ch-n
ion by p
by aU who have the pleasure of his
m the north by the township of
the south by Sidney, and ou the
-P. Ulin
-Joseph Bradshaw
-Henry Cook, James O'Hara, Mathew Herbeson ; Assessors
W.  H. Bristol; Clekk.—John McDonald; Collector. -
erection of a
I During December, 1850, a By-law was passed, orderin
town hull, which was built the following year, and since imrneu. rrom
1850 hii.I up to the present year, the following gentlemen have represented
the township in its several Councils,—Win." Blair, Daniel Thompson, Henry
Cook, Jeptua Bradshaw, John R. Ketcheson, A. F. Wood (Reeve for 22
- years), Wm. Tumalty,  Barnabis Vaukleck, Coirigan, W. Findlay,
Mark Rennings, J. McCov, J. N. Moore, E. D. O'Flynn, Thimas Allen,
D. C. Brown, John Dale, S.  Read, John Fassett, William Ward, Thomas
Cross, P. D 11 oss, Peter Vankleck, Coskeys,  Charles English, J. W.
Alh-n, Joshua Broad.   Peter Vaukleek is the present Reeve and John R.
Ketcheson, Clerk.
The population of tWownship is about 2,473, of which 1,323 are Methodists, 5t>l> Presbyterians, 324 Church of England, and 230 Roman Catholic.
Total assessed value, 1878, 9542,550. With increased capital and railroad
facilities, the mineral wealth of Mad...-, will be rapidly developed, a desideratum
anxiously looked for by the inhabitants, several of whom have invested large
sums of money io experimental work.
The village of Madoc, on the south boundary line, is now incorporated,
having assumed that position, January, 1878. The elective officers for the
present year are Thomas Cross, Reeve ; E. D. O'Flynn, Dr. Loomis, Dr.
Sutton, and S. D. Ross, Councillors. The population is about 1,000, and
promises to be, ere many years pass away, double that number. There are
live churches, viz:—Presbyterian, Church of England, Canada Methodist,
Episcopal Methodist, and Roman Catholic.   The new Presbyterian church,
I Depart,
back to
allied bj
families, who liv
who, oi
drew lots in the
wards settled. The %
the sod and the close
Vileyes afforded by BS
White,   i'ox,   Or
outh of W
ill, uid blacksmith's shop. Un lot No. 5, in the
tary of Rawdon creek, is a saw mill, and further
ro. 7, is situated another,- both in running order,
of raw material, only a local business is done at
'. Upon lots Nos. 8 and 9, in the 8th concession,
ires' creek, Mr. A. Kettdieson owns and carries on
No. 2, in the 18th concession, on the Moira, there
dass cheese factories located upon the many living
h abound throughout the township all of which
ist approved apparatus and mechanical appliances'to I
of tliis very important branch of agricultural in-
1 as follows:—Upon lots Nos. 14 and 17, in the
butary of the Trent, directly west of the village of '
•ners; upon lot No. 19, and a branch of Squires*
^_iMfU^_^e^^ry::w^ a large inanu-
lants of the U. E. Loyalis
eese, Weaver, Hubble, Bin.
Huffman, Deuike, Caverle
Horton, and Dafoe. The
ricuu and other origin, wl
rt, lot No. 13, in the
- thousands
b front of the township. The
to the village of Stirling. -A
, consisting of an open hand
mterpnsing citizens of Belle-
Batemau, Stiles, Haalett, Buskell, Livingstone, Thompson, F*
Haggerty, Orscr, Tompkins, Austin, Hurst, VollUik, OnCwat
Patterson, Scrimshow, Eastman,  McWUIiam,  McQoaig, £
Bedford, Jordison, Detlor,  G.irnsey,  Doak, Pinkie, Monto
Peterson, Shearman, Thrasher, Wellman, McQuinah, Wright
Bailey, McKeown, Ward and others of more recent date, all«.
their energies to the cultivation of their respective farms, ana, irom appeal
•ances, they have been well repaid for their industry.
The experience of the pioneers of Kawdon was similar in every respect 1
that of the early settlement of other townships, a detailed account of which wi
be found in other portions of this history. In 1839 the township, including tit
thriving village of, Stirling, now incorporated, only contained about 1,080 ii
habitants, whose wants were supplied by one grist and saw mill and two snia
stores in the vUlage : 84 horses, 103 oxen, and 234 cows, furnished the sin
total of the live   stock, (with perhaps the exception of a few hogs) of tl
The Belleville and North Hastings Ro
upon lot No. 1. in the 1st concession an
Huntingdon to Madoc
We have been unable to nrocnfe anv at.
' lei
res the Junction track
Jirougk the township of
_ship.    Mr. Joseph Hogle is the
and Mr. Philip Brown, treasurer.    The municipal coun
the Town Hall, a substantial and commodious brick b
the centre of the township, at Harold ~
store, blacksmith's shop,  &c,  alfordin
tiou of the ratepayers.
About the year 1820 a primitive grist mUl was erected upon I
creek, which formed the nucleus of the present flourishing village <
ling. The principal portion of the village is situated in the towns
Rawdon, to which it formerly belonged, until in incorporation in 1858.
the limits were extended to the sourh. —• - '
There is a tavern adjoining,
facility for the nccommoda-
p of Sidney.
•al ]
nded by a fine agricultural country, and, be
to Mj
■ put
from I
in thai
of this
now S]
called t
e is of English descent, his parents emigrating from the State of Massa-
insetts about the year 1800, preferring the then inhospitable wilds of Canada,
ader British rule, to the persecutions of the victorious rebels. The family
:st settled and commenced business at CannifTs Mills, on the Moira river,
id in the year 1S24 removed to lot No. 2, in the 6th concession of Thurlow.
i 1835 William Ashley erected at this point a shop, and commenced the
anufacturc of waggons, etc., which was undoubtedly the origin of the pre-
int flourishing village of Foxboro', for many years called Smithville. A
DBt office was established at an early date, Mr. Ashley being the first Post-
laster. On his retirement he left the carriage manufacturing, together with
s appliances, to his son Charles, who at present carries on the business.
[r. Ash lev owns two farms and a beautiful private residence, and by his
ded much to the development and improvement
killed wor]
>m all part
ed by the i
ehas attai
wn of William Ashley, and was born in the village
ent extensively engaged in the manufacture of car-
jded his father on his retirement, in the business.
i with all the modern appliances necessary to the
ription of first-class vehicles, and is run to its full
?ly the increased demand for its products. Mr.
usiness in every direction, and at present employs
. force often inadequate to fill the many orders that
country. His work gives unusual satisfaction, as
of business, and he justly merits the enviable reptt-
Tho Jose family came from Cornwall, England, to Canada, in the year
1859, and rented lots 1 and 2, in the 8th concession of the township of Thurlow, where they have resided ever since. They are engaged in farming and
raising thorough-bred Durham and grade stock, Leicester sheep, and Berkshire hogs, and have one of the finest herds to be found in the County of
Hastings. Their stock is known throughout the Province, for its general
superior excellence and purity of breed. They have at present in their
herd, two thoiongh-bred Durhams, with authenticated pedigrees, fine specimen of the Short-horn, while their Durham and grade cows are choice, excelling those of ordinary breeders. Their Leicester sheep are pure, and their
thoroughbred Berkshire hogs have done much towards improving the breeds,
throughout the townships, of this very useful and necessaiy animal. The Jose
brothers by industry and hard work nave gathered together a herd they may
feel justly proud of, and which is a credit to the municipality in which they
Gideon Spencer, the subject of this sketch, was born in the year 1838
upon lot No 2, in the 8th concession of Thurlow, which property was granted
by the Government, under proclamation, to his grandfather Corey Spencer,
a Dnited Empire Loyalist, who emigrated from Rhode Island during the Revolutionary War, and settled in the neighbourhood of East Lake, about the
year 1784. Mr. Spencer is an industrious and successful farmer, and has
served in several positions of public trust, discharging the many arduous
duties connected therewith in a manner alike satisfactory to the municipality and the ratepayers, and creditable to himself. He is a member of the
Society of Friends, and is highly respected by the community in which he
Col. William .Ketcheson was born in the town of Bedford, New York,
in the year 1772, and was. of English descent. He came to Adolphustown
from Nova Scotia, and married Nancy Roblin in the year 1800, removing to Sidney shortly afterwards, and locating and settling upon lot 26, in
tbe 5th concession, which he cleared. He reared a family of fifteen
children, nine sons and six daughters, ail of whom eventually became
united with the Church, and these all married and settled before death
entered the family. There were living at his death—which occurred March
15th, 1848—eighty-four graud-children, one hundred and thirty-seven great
grand-chddren, and five great, great grand-children. Total, two hundred
and forty-one descendants.
The ancestors of Col. William Ketcheson saw service in Lord Corn-
wallis' army during the Revolutionary war, and were engaged in the many
battles fought under that general. In the reign of George III. William
Ketcheson held the commission of Acting Ensign under Lieut. Sturgeon,
who commanded the Hastings Militia, and in 1809 received from Sir Francis
Gore a commission as Full Ensign, in 1812 a Lieutenancy, in 1815, under
Gen. Brock, he was commissioned Captain, and in 1832 Major from Sir
John Colborne's Government. Serving under Col. Thomas Coleman in
1834, during Sir Francis Bond Head's administration, he became joint
commissioner of the 11th division of the Court of Requests. In tbe first
year of Queen Victoria's reign he was honoured with a Colonelcy, a title
which he wore with honour until the day of his death. In 1839 he received
his Commission as a Justice of tbe Peace in the 2nd division of the Court
of Requests. In all of these positions he discharged their several duties,
with credit to himself and advantage to his country. Mr. Ketcheson and his
amiable wife were consistent members of the Canada Methodist Church,
having been converted at the first camp meeting ever held in Canada, at
Adolphustown. Of commanding presence, with a vigorous mind, his judgment was good—possessing quick perceptions, he was self-reliant. He
possessed the confidenceof his neighbours and of the community at large. As
a citizen he was loyal to the core, and a staunch supporter of the Govern-
- ment. Possessed of that modesty that ever commands respect, he never
forced himself upon the people as a claimant for public honours, though he
served the township in several capacities. He was ever governed by a conscientious regard for his word and bis obligations, possessing such a love
for his family and regard for his friends that he ever laboured for their
Elijah Ketcheson was born in Fredericksburg, iu the county of Lennox,
in the year 1795, and is a son of the late William Ketcheson, who came
from Yorkshire, England, and settled in Virginia. On the breaking out of
the rebellion he joined the British forces, and served until the close of the
war. The subject of this sketch (Elijah Ketcheson), while a trifle over
sixteen years of age, in the year 1812, in company with three brothers,
started lor Kingston and helped to build the fort. In 1819 he was united
in marriage to Minerva Ostram, long since deceased. During the rebellion
of 1837 he held a Captain's commission, and did service at the Trent, and
now holds the rank of Colonel. He receives a pension o'f $20 per year for
services rendered in the war of 1812, and is at present the oldest Magistrate
-in the County of Hastings. In his eighty-third year, with aU his-faculties
perfect, he has prospectively many years before bim yet of happy green
Old ago.
The Randew*atek. family originally (
Duchess county, New York, about the ;
period at what was then known as Hay B"
tling upon lots 28, 29, and E £ 30, in tin
of Sidney. Daniel Randewater; tbe pros
of whose residence appears e~
e, with other Loyalists, from
i- 1800, and tarried for a short
afterwards purchasing and set-
th concession of the township
owner of the property—a view
lely engaged in the dairy busi
ness, having one of the most productive stock farms in Hastings county.
He was elected to the Township Council during the years 1872-3, and is
regarded as one of the most energetic and progressive men of the period.
Moses Boabdhan is a descendant of New Eugland stock, lus father
coming from Boston, Mass., to Canada at an early period of our country's
history. He purchased the property—lot 27, in the 7th concession of Sidney—upon which he resides, during the year 1842, from George Fairman,
McCIntchie, a schoc
He came to Sidney i
and 30, in the 5th g
of the best wheat-grc
the original grantee of the Crown. Mr. Boardman has an improved farm of
300 acres, well stocked with choice fruit trees, with good substantial dwelling-
house, and well-appointed buildings. He enjoys the respect of the community, aud is looked upon as one of the leading men in the township of
The Massey family are of English descent. Mesrill Massey, grandfather
of the subject of this notice, was born in England, and emigrated to Massachusetts some time previous to the Revolutionary War. He drew
annually $80 pension for services rendered during those troublesome times.
After the close of the war, or about the beginning of the present century,
he came to Canada and settled in the township of Haldimaud, in the
county of Northumberland, where he lived to the good "age of ninety-eight
vears. Levi Massev was born in Haldimand, and married Miss A. E.
teacher of Scotch descent, from Huntington, Quebec,
i 1869, when he purchased the S. halfs of lots Nos. 29
n., where he now resides.    His farm is located in one
  0.jwing sections in the township of Sidney.    Mr.Massey
is an active and energetic farmer, and is looked upon as one of the prominent men of the township.
Samuel T. Wilmott is a Canadian by birth, from the township of
Clarke, in the county of Durham. He came to Sidney when about two
years of age, and resided with his grandfather the late Gideon Turner—a
U. E. Loyalist, for many years connected with township affairs, who owned
lot No. 29, in the 5th concession of Sidney. At the demise of his grandfather Mr. Wilmott inherited the homestead where he now resides. The
Wilmotts are of English descent and came from New Brunswick to Canada
about the year 1800, and were engaged in tho wars of that period. They
finally settled in the township of Clarke, where several descendants still
reside, amongst whom is Samuel Wilmott, Government Inspector of
Richard Davis, the subject of this biography, was born in Clinton,
Duchess County, N.Y., in the year 1795, and eame to Canada with his
father, who first settled in Fredericksburg, County of Lennox, in 1800.
During the following year he came to Sidney and purchased and cleared up
lot No. 34, on the front of the township, where he has resided ever since.
He has four children living—two sons and two daughters—and has always
foUowed the occupation ofa tiller of the soil. Duringthe rebellion of 1837
he held a Captain s commission in the Light Horse service, and was for a
while stationed at Toronto, and was appointed upon the Commission of the
Peace as a Magistrate by Sir George Cartier. He also helped to build the
fort at Kingston. He owns 180 acres of excellent land, and is a member of
the Canada Methodist Church, with which he has been consistent in all
relations of life ; and, at the ripe age of eighty-three, is still hale and
vigorous. Mr. Davis is of Welsh descent, his grandfather emigrating from
Wales, England, to the United States, previous to the revolution, and who
was killedby the rebels at the battle of White Plains while gallantly fighting for his country.
Col. Sheldon Hawley, whose portrait is represented in another part
of this work, sprang directly from U. E. Loyalist stock, who, after the
revolutionary period, leaving their home in Vermont, after sojourning en
route for a short time in Lower Canada, settled in the township of
Earnestown, sometimes designated 2nd town. Born in Earnestown in or
about the year 1795, he was educated and spent his early days there under
the pastoral supervision of the Rev. John Langhorae, the effects of whose
teachings lie showed to the latest years of his life. When but a youth he
did garrison duty as a volunteer at Kingston during the war of 1812. From
this period until 1817 he remained chiefly in Kingston, when he removed to
Trenton, then known as River Trent, where he engaged in mercantile and
lumbering pursuits, and in which he was conspicuously successful. He was
placed on the Commission of the Peace as a Magistrate; also a commission
for the improving of the navigation of the Trent, and the erection of the
large timber bridge across the same. He was commissioned a Colonel in
the Murray Battalion of the Northumberland Militia, and had command of
the military post at Trenton during the rebellion of -1837-8. The management of the commissariat was also entrusted to him. In connection with t he
Hon. and Right Rev. John Strachan, D.D., first Lord Bishop of Toronto, he
was co-founder of St. George's Church, Trenton, built in 1845, and manifested a strong interest in the same, pecuniarily and otherwise, until the
day of his death, which occurred on the 25th day of April, 1868,,in the 73rd
year of his age. Thus closed the loyal and energetic careec of one of the
earliest and most highly respected pioneers in the settlement of Trenton.
Adam Henry Meyers, late of Trenton, was the son of Col. Adam
Henry Meyers, of the same place, and Mary Hulloway, daughter of Elijah
Wallbridge, a U. E. Loyalist, and one of the. earliest settlers and most
influential citizens of Ameliasburg. Hit father, so widely and popularly
known as Colonel Meyers, was a British subject bora in the town of Hollen,
and Kingdom of Hanover, in 1780, when that part of Germany was an
appendix to the British Crown. He was a man of wealth and influence in
the land of his birth, having been highly educated, and brought with him
on his advent to Canada, in 1805, a large stock of goods, with which he set
up the first store at Belleville, where he located, and which was called after
him, Meyer's Creek—a name which it retained for many years. He only
remained in " Meyers' Creek" about three years, removing to Trenton in
1808, where he engaged in the same pursuits as he had previously followed
at " The Creek." During his short residence at the Creek he built a mill
and made other improvements, which formed the nucleus of the present
prosperous and beautiful city of BelleviUe. Being a man of enterprise as
well as of mean", he did not relax his energies on removal to the Trent, but
went to work building more mills, making roads, etc., etc, till the neighbourhood soon emerged for its primeval state to that of a civilized community. He was one of young Canada's most distinguished representative
men—in public life strong in his efforts to advance the general good ; in private, hospitable and charitable—letting not his right know what his left
was doing ; in all things honourable and above suspicion. He was promoted
successively from the ranks of the 1st Northumberland Militia to the positions of Ensign, Lieutenant, and Captain, aud finally to the Lieutenant-
Colonelcy of the 2nd Northumberland, which rank he held till he died, on
the 9 tli May, 1832, most deeply mourned.
His s<
Murray i;
Adam Henry Meyers,, who was born in the township of
812, had the advantage of a liberal education—partly in Mon-
irtly in New York—and studied law in the offices of the late
rkpatrick, Q.C., and afterwards with the Hon. Mr. Baldwin,
i colled to the Bar in 1834, he commenced the practice of law
hi tinned to practise there with enviable success till the
fly life Mr. Meyers took an active part in public and political
affairs. He was a staunch and honest Tory of the old school, and as such
exerted great influence in favour of John A. Macdbnald, the Conservative
leader, whose warm personal friend he was, as well as zealous political
ally. He unsuccessfully contested Northumberland in the Conservative
interest for the Assembly in 1842, against George M. Boswell, now Senior
Judge of the County Court of Northumberland and Durham. He was subsequently more successful, and represented that constituency in Parliament
for a number of years. To the many positions of public trust and confidence which he filled, was added that of Lieutenant-Colonel of the 5th
Northumberland Militia. He was a man of superior parts, whose influence
had been many years successfully exerted to the benefit of the Midland
District, and his memory will have a green spot in the hearts of the whole
Bay Quinte region for many a long day to come.
Charles Francis, Barrister and Attorney-at-Law, was born in the village of Trenton on the 22nd of February, 1837, and is of Irish extraction.
He matriculated before the Law Society^: Hilary term, on the 10th of
February, 1857, and entered immediately on his studies, and was called to
the Bar in Hilary term, on the 14th of March, 1862. He has since practised law at Trenton, and is at present the senior member of the popular
law firm of Francis &, Forbes. He was elected to represent his native village in the County Council of the County of Hastings in 1873, and is the
present representative of Trenton in that deliberative body, a position
which his intellectual capacities and educational attainments eminently
qualify him to fill with credit to himself and constituents. He is also an
active member of the Church of England. Mr. Francis has a lucrative
practice, and his fine talents and correct business habits have placed him
among the leading members of the Bar of Hastings County.
Selah Sable is one of the pioneer settlers in the rear of Sidney, and is
a descendant of a United Empire Loyalist family who came to Canada after
the close of the Revolutionary War. He ownsa well cultivated farm and a
beautiful residence, built of stone, the whole of which is surrounded by an
elaborately finished and rustic verandah, adding much to its appearance aud
comfort. The Sarle family are highly respected by the community in
which they reside, and throughout the township of Sidney.
J. O'Connor, the subject of this sketch, was born in the United States,
and is of Irish extraction. He ba3 by his industry acquired a valuable property and comfortable home, where he now resides, a view of which is
represented elsewhere in this work. Mr. O'Connor is held in high esteem
by his acquaintances, "and is regarded as one of the most successful and progressive young men iu the neighbourhood—an example well worthy of
emulation by the rising generation of the township of Sidney.
Baltis Rose is one of Sidney's representative men, and has for many
years held the position of Reeve of the Township, an office he fills with
ability, discharging the many duties connected therewith in a manner
entirely satisfactory to his constituents, as is attested by his repeated reelection. He possesses an excellent farm in a high state of cultivation, and &
comfortable and substantial dwelling house, with well appointed outbuildings. ' The Rose family are well and favourably known throughout the
township of Sidney, and were among its first settlers, and own a number of
farms of very fine land. Baltis Rose, the present Reeve, is a cultivated
and public spirited citizen, and is always prominently identified with any
movement or enterprise calculated to improve the condition of the people,
Thomas D. Appleby, J- P-, the father of the subject of this sketch,
was born in Duchess County, New York, in tbe year 1778, and came
to Canada in 1789 with a party of emigrants to Kingston. He shortly
afterwards located in Sophiasburgh, in Prince Edward Co., where he
married a daughter of Nathaniel Solmes, and settled down to the life of a
farmer, subsequently-removing to Tyendinaga, and was one of the pioneer
settlers of that township. He held for several years many positions of
public trust in the township. He was a Justice of the Peace, Commissioner
of the Court of Requests, Boundary Line Commissioner, &c, and died in
1865, in the 86th year of his age. Anna, his eldest and only living daughter,
married-Richard Lazier, in 1824, and is mother of Thomas Appleby Lazier,
Junior Judge of the Co. of Hastings ; of Samuel S. Lazier, Master in Chancery for the Counties of Hastings, Prince Edward, Lennox and Addington, ■
and of Richard L. Lazier, J. P. and Collector of Customs at the Port of.'
Nathaniel S. Appleby, the eldest and only living son of Thomas D.
Appleby, was born in tbe County of Prince Edward in the year 1820, and
came with his father to Tyendinaga in 1828, and was elected Reeve of the
township for twenty consecutive years, and was appointed a justice of the
peace in 1854, Census Commissioner for Hastings in 1861 and 1871 ; Warden
of the county for three years, and elected M.P.P. for East Hastings, in
1875. Mr. Appleby is at present largely engaged in milling and farming
and is the only active magistrate in that part of the county. The Appleby
family are originaBy from Westmoreland County, England, and came to the
United States previous to the Revolution. After the close of the war the
late Thos. D. Appleby emigrated to Canada with a number of other U. E.
Loyalists, in consequence of their firm attachment to British laws and ride
preferring the wild and ragged forests of Canada with laws and institutions
they loved, to the fair ami familiar homes on the banks of the Hudson and
Mohawk with a form of government they detested, and they have never
regretted the choice they have made. N- S. Appleby, M.P.P., is one of
the most prominent men in the history of this section, in every effort for the
improvement of its people or the advancement of its material interests; of
undoubted integrity aud unassuming manners, he is honored and respected
by a host of trh",A-
Riohard L. Lazier, Collector of Customs, was born in the village of
Shannonville, in Tyendinaga, andUs a son of the late Richard Lazier who
came from Prince Edward County to the Shannon in 1828, and was one of
the pioneer settlers of the townshiOTliis mother being a daughter of the
late Thos. D. Appleby, a U. E. Loyalist, also originally from Prince Edward
Co.. and an early Betcler in Tyendinaga. The Lazier and,Appleby families
after tbe close of the war of the Revolution, in order to escape the persecutions of the arrogant continentals and enjoy the freedom of British rule and
British institutions, came to Canada and settled in Prince EdwarT Co
their sons afterwards settling, as already stated, in Tyendinaga. The
Lazier family are of Dutch descent, their forefathers having originally come
"  ' '•""'■■■-  "*" the French border, at an early date.    Jacobus Lazier
from Flandei
1 to r
the great great grandfather of Richard L. Lazier, was born in Yonli .
York, in 1707, and died there in 1792.    His descerif
sideinthat vicinity until the breaking out of theBe,™^, „,■   1W,.-,
the family, as above mentioned, emigrated to Canada. Mr Lazior was an
pointed Collector of Customs at the Port of Shannonville in the Year 1871
a position he still retains. He is also engaged in the millin/ business'
owning the large flouring mills at Milltown. Mr. Lazier is highly esteemed
by all"who know him, and is distinguished for his many virtues and dumi
fied propriety of conduct. s
John White, M.P. for the East Riding of the County of Hastings is -
native of the County of Donegal, Ireland, and came to Canada when bur a
boy, in the year 1860, His first introduction to the people of Hastines waa
in the capacity of chore boy amongst the farmers of Thurlow with whom
he lived for some years.. He is an emineut example of the many self made
men of our times. Removing to Tyendinaga when still a youth with but a -
limited education, yet possessing an unflinching determination and indomit
able will, coupled with integrity and native tact, he soon attained teX W
H* P™,t,0n ™ .soo,ety md, PoKtfw- ■ He was elected Reeve of Tvendinasa
in 1869,, a position, with the exception of 1873-4. he has ever .LUZ
pied. In 1871 he was elected, in the Conservative interest! to the Do'
mimon Parliament j re-elected in 1872 and 1874, and at prZnt reuSsenS
this constituency m the House of Commons of the Dominion!£P White
has always been prominently identified with the Oram™ Q™3UXV" a • •
present Right Worthy Grand Master of Ontario ^WhS^^m^
subordinate positions in the same order. In addition to hi^manv Parif/
mentary and municipal duties Mr White in «.n«n™^ ; i ■ ^rU"""1" /-ariia-
ing. Se ha. .recti t„,^^ZTc^"£ ^To"itni^m
near h,» remdence, and another on lot 20 in tho 8th concernI of Tyen'. Xll.
the arte and sciences are as familiar as were the shield and javelin to the
ancient warriors for whose benefit those stone-ways were built; or the rude
stone tomahawk and Hint-pointed barb to the painted savage who traversed
from time immemorial the forest trails of the peninsula. And although its
inhabitants have yet no railway, they have a greater proportionate length of
excellent carriage roads, and a smaller proportionate length of pcor or indifferent ones, than any other territory of similar extent in the Dominion.
Governor Simcoe s celebrated military road, connecting the east and the
west, runs through almost its entire length. A full description of this,
commonly known as the Danforth Road, is elsewhere given.
To be brief,—a drive through the county, in any or all directions, is to be
delighted with it; not simply the excellent carriage roads and pleasantly
shaded avenues, but the comfortable homes, beautiful groves, romantic lakes,
well kept farms, fine schools, handsome churches, and general air of thrift
and prosperity, and of a refined and highly moral sentiment of the people
which pleases even the infidel, and fills with joy the christian traveller. In
short, we doubt—notwithstanding the comparative absence of manufactures,
and the entire want of such public works as generally go hand in band with
a community's wealth and greatness,—whether a section can be pointed to
within this broad Dominion, bounded by three oceans, embracing half a
continent, and stretching across two zones,—where an area containing an equal
population, or a population contained within an equal area, can lie found
possessing in a greater degree the elements of
■oil I
, Pr
And genuine rural felicity than	
Edward is pre-eminently an agricultural county ; and, compared in size and
population, there are among its inhabitants a greater number of comfortably
situated owners of the soil they till, than in any other section we have ever
visited. It is not claimed for it that its progress bos been as rapid as some
other parts of the country in population or wealth, but a perusal of official
statistics proves that hi educational advantages and acquirements—which is
the true foundation of a nation's greatness,—this county is second to none,
if not, indeed, the very first, in Ontario, the banner Province of the
Dominion. Figures to substantiate this assertion may be found in another
On all hands is the most convincing evidence of the existence of high
moral principles and a sense of religious duty on the part of the people.
The eye can at almost any time rest upon one or more church steeples. This
was almost the first great field of labour of the Methodists in Canada; and
these devoted servants of the Master were the first to find their way to the
log-cabins of the pioneers, and preach the everlasting truths of the Gospel
to the early inhabitants.
Being what might be termed an "aggressive" church, the Methodists have
let go no hold, but pushed their conquests further and further as pioneer settlements became thriving communities, and straggling hamlets grew into prosperous villages and busy towns. This religious denomination is now by far
the most numerous in tin- county, as welt as throughout the Bay Quinte
District, and have literally covered, the land with beautiful churches, while
the other Protestant denominations follow close behind. The Roman Catholics are not so numerous, though their comparative increase has been rapid
and satisfactory.
To sum up its material advantages in a very few words, we may truthfully
say that as to varied and delightful scenery, magnificent roads, pleasant drives,
interesting natural and historical landmarks, and an intelligent, refined, and
hospitable people, Prince Edward beyond question claims a foremost position ;
while in everything which tends to make a country prosperous, its people contented with their lot, and others contented with them, it occupies no second
!-historic race, possessed
i high degree otenlijht-
of many other portions
een brought out of chaos
But since
iheir til
ac mint li
ancient homes
and Inn
these latest ab
(if tile t.
north-west, ac
dition, legend,
others, wKo hr
and go.
igrephy c
they arc draw
nded  fi
om the
brought them
to the si
a certainty esti
iblish, 1:
nil will
is it matter of
it that the I ml
th whon:
North Americ
an conl
.incut, a
peopled, am ol
a date
rent rac<
they ? and whithe
dancholy interest it
nth cha
ribed by Columbu
o hav
< been
ism to
jeful, pleasant people,
ig naught of war-cry,
mts of cities, advanced
planted his foot upon the Prine
me of a company of French tradei
nit hern tribes
The former found the West Indies popub
ruled over by Caciques, enjoying exwtenc
stake, or crimson trophy. Cortex found tin
in the arts of civilization, builders of cam
tillers of the soil; and it is a question tin
themselves, the Mexican and Peruvian we:
time would havelemulated Eastern stages o
of intellect crushed out the rising nationn
upon the ruins.
-Undoubtedly the first white man whe
Edward peninsula was Samuel Chainplain,
who set out for the New World iu 1603, with the primary object of exploring
the St. Lawrence with a view to establishing a depot for the fur trade upon
- its banks.
At that time the territory south of the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario was
occupied by the Iroquois, so called by the French, though afterwards by the
English the " Five Nations," a confederacy of the Cayugas, Mohawks, Onon-
dagas, Oneidas, and Senocas, who were subsequently joined by the Tuscarowas,
whom they adopted, and were thenceforward and to this day known as the.
" Six Nations." This confederation, then and for many succeeding generations, formed the most powerful savage nation on tho American continent.
At the same time the country to the north of the waters named, was peopled
by the AJgonquins, Hurons, and Ottawas, so called by themselves, but by the
French mimed Northern Iroquois ; between whom and the Five Nations of the
south there were evidently common points of ancestry at no very remote
period, as well as an eternal enmity, which, but for the existence of the chain
of waters separating them, would have long since resulted in the extermination
of the one or the other.
Students of character have denominated these Iroquois the " Romans of
the western world," and—considered either from the extent of their conquests,
the wisdom and eloquence of their chiefs, their impatience of control, their
treatment of tbe vanquished, or their passion for war—the comparison is well
The advent of the French under Champlain afforded the Northern Iroquois
the opportunity of securing a most useful ally to make war upon their southern foes. Anxious to please them, and ambitious to spread the terror of the
French arms throughout the continent, he acceded to their demands; and
leaving part of his force at the present site of Quebec to build a fort, he accompanied the warriors of those tribes with the balance of his party, vid tho Sorol
River, to the lake whose name stUl recalls remembrances of its European discoverer. On its shores the Northern and Southern Iroquois fought a severe
battle, in which the former, through the aid of their white allies, were victorious, after which they returned to their homes north of the St. Lawrence.
Subsequently to this, Champlain erected a -fort and trading-post where
Montreal now stands, and from thence planned and executed many expeditions
in as many directions, partly of a commercial and partly of a military character. One of these was up the Ottawa River to the mouth of the Matawan,
thence up that stream towards its source, and across the portage separating its
head-waters from the head-waters of Lake Nipissing; thence through that
lake and down French River to the shore of Georgian Bay, which he followed
southward to the mouth of the Severn, up which he passed, avoiding its falls
and rapids ; thence through Lake Couchicning, the Narrows, and Lake Simcoe,
and up the Talbot River to the Balsam Lake portage; thence over that to
'Balsam Lake, and through the numerous chain of lakes and connecting rivers
past the sites of the present towns of Fenelon Falls, Bobcaygeon, Peterboro',
Keene, Campbellford, and down the Trent to the Bay Quinte, upon whose
waters he gazed in admiration,—the first of his race. His supposed course
from here was vid Picton Bay and across the East Lake portage. At all events*]
his party crossed Lake Ontario in their canoes to a point near Oswego, and
were severely beaten in that locality by the Five Nations, Champlain himself
escaping, twice wounded, across the lake with the remnant of his northern
allies, to find refuge for the winter of 1615-16on the Prince Edward peninsula.
It should be in this connection that Champlain ascended the Ottawa in the
first instance, to explore ; but subsequently turned south, as on a previous
occasion, as the ally of the Northern Iroquois against their southern enemy.
Thus was this French adventurer, at this, early day, aud in this peculiar
manner, the discoverer of the Bay Quinte and Lake Ontario, and the first of
his race who set foot upon the soil which divides the two.
Subsequently it was no donbt frequently traversedl by the French Jesuits
and fur-traders ; but it was not till 1783 that the first-permanent settlement
was made by Mr. Weese, on the north shore of Ameliasburg. That event, as
well as the successive settlements, in their regular order, in the other parts of
the county, are sufficiently detailed in the sketches of the several townships
themselves, together with the time and manner in which the same were numbered, named, and surveyed.    We will therefore proceed directly with its
Which may be said to have commenced with the proclamation of Governor
Simcoe, dated at Kingston, JulyTGth, 1792, which divided tbe Province of
Upper Canada into nineteen counties for electoral purposes. This division
comprised the counties of Glengarry, Stoimont, Duudas,. Grenville, Leeds,
Frontenac, Ontario, Aldington, Lennox, Prince Edward, Hastings, Northumberland, Durham, York, Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, and Kent, in the
order named. Ontario, as then constituted, consisted of the various islands
south of tbe mainland, and between Prince Edward and the foot of the lake.
The proclamation commenced with the usual preamble, setting forth the object
sought and tbe causes therefor; and contained in addition nineteen distinct
clauses, and was signed by William Jarvis, Governor's Secretary, and countersigned by the Governor with his initials only, " J. G. S." The great volume
ol the instrument precludes the advisability of a repetition inextenso, but we
"give the part referring to this county, as follows: —
" That the tenth of the said counties is to be hereafter called by the name
of the County of Prince Edward; which County is to be bounded on the south
by Lake Ontario ; on the west by the Carrying-place on the Isthmus of the
Presque Isle de Quinte ; on the north by the Bay of Quinte; and on the east,
from Point Pleasant to Point Traverse, by its several shores and bays, including the late townships of Marysburg, Sophiasbnrg, and Ameliasburg. The
said County of Prince Edward to comprehend all the islands in said Lake
Ontario and Bay of Quinte nearest to the said county, in the whole, or greater
part fronting the same."
The Proclamation also gave on approximate representation by population.
Glengarry had two members, a part of Lincoln returned two, and other parts
of it, grouped with counties on either side, returned one each. | A number of
counties returned one each; while in a number of cases two or more counties,
or parts of counties, were gronped together to send one member in conjunction.
The township of Adolphustown, in Lennox, was thus grouped' with Prince
Edward, the clause referring thereto being as follows:— .
"Thatthe County of Prince Edward, bounded as hereinbefore described,
together with the district of the late Towhship of Adolphus, in the County of
Lennox, shall together send one representative ; that is, the said County of
Prince Edward, together with the said district, late the township of Adolphus,
shall and may be represented together in the said House of Assembly, by one
The whole number provided for from the nineteen counties, was sixteen
members ; which number composed the Legislative Assembly of Upper
Canada for many years.
The first election held under this proclamation is fully noted in the sketch
of Hallowell, to which township the first elected representative belonged.
Besides Philip Dorland and Peter Van Alstine there mentioned, Frinee Edward
was early represented by Simeon Washbnrne, James Cottle, and James
Wilson. The latter served his county in that capacity for nearly a quarter of
a century, though not consecutively. -
The next political change to note in the history of the county, is the setting-off of Prince Edward as a separate district for the administration of
justice, by Act of Parliament, in 1831. Mr. Roblin then represented the
county in Parliament, and introduced the Bill which brought that much-
desired change into effect. Heretofore the people had been obliged to go to
Kingston for the transaction of all judicial business. Particulars of the
building of the jail and court-house for the new district, and the location
thereof, may be found underthe head of Picton.
Since that time Prince Edward has been a separate and independent district
for judicial purposes j for manyyears a separate constituency for representative
purposes in the Legislative Assembly ; and, since confederation, an electoral
division returning one member to the House of Commons.
Lt-Col; Walter Ross now represents tbe county in the Commons ; and
Lt,-Col. Gideon Striker is the present sitting member in the Ontario Legislature,
MUNICIPAL history.
The oldest county or district record now in existence, is the " Report of
ths Surveyor of Highways." The subject matter of the report is entered in
the connection indicated by its title, it is signed, " James Young, Surveyor
of Highways," and endorsed as follows : "Approved in Quarter Sessions, 9th
July, 1811. A. McLean, Clerk of the Peace.1' The contents are quite voluminous, and of no peculiar or general interest.
The earliest record of the deliberative proceedings of the governing body
of the district, are minutes of the first District Council meeting of 1842. The
following are extracts from the same:—
" Journal of the Municipal Council of Prince Edward District, February
8th, 1842.
"Court House, Picton. "-e^-ps^
" This day, at 2 o'clock, the Warden being present, the following members
presented themselves, and giving satisfactory evidence to the Warden of their
having taken the necessary oaths prescribed by law, took their seats m the
Council :Zi&
" For Hallowell—Benjamin Hubbs and David B. Stephenson, Esquires.
" For Marysburg—Henry Van Dusen and John Rose, Esquires.
" For Sophiasbnrg—Henry Dunning and John Howell, Esquires.
" For Ameliasbuig—William Dempsey and Owen Roblin, Esquires,
" For Hillier—James T. Lane and Arnoldi Dorland, Esquires.
" For Athol— Wilson Bentley, Esquire.
"Roger B. Congerwas appointed clerk, pro tern., by the Wflrdan.
"The Clerk theii read at the table the commission appointing John P.
Roblin, Esquire, Warden of the District."
A Select Committee was then moved-for and nominated, to "draft and
report rules for the guidance of tins Council at its several sittings," which
shows that this was the first meeting under the District Council system, which
was inaugurated by the Act of Paeliament of the previous year. These rides
number twenty-two, the last of which we quote :—
" 22. That should any case occur forwhich no special rule is made, reference shall be had to parliamentary proceedings, so far as such may apply."
Several matters of public interest were deliberated upon at that session,
among which was the "motion on the address to the Governor-Geneial."
This gave rise to a very animated discussion, and on tiiB third reading, the
yeas and nays being called, the vote stood seven lor and three against. The
address was on the occasion of the arrival in the country of a newly-appointed
Governor-General, and commenced thus :—
"To His Excellency the Right Honourable Sir Charles Bagot, Knight
Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, one of Her
Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, Governor-General of British North
America, and Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief in and over the Provinces
of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Island of Prince Edward,
and Vice-Admiral of the same," etc, etc.-
Since then there have been no municipal changes to note, beyond the
introduction of the elective system in choosing the warden ; and later in
electing the representatives to the County Councd by the popular vote of the
several townships, instead of from the five township councillors previously
chosen from the various wards.
The incumbents of the county municipal offices, for the year 1878, are
as below:
Warden—-Samuel N. Smith, Reeve of Sophiasburg.
Councillors--Josiah Benson, Deputy Reeve of Sophiasbnrg; T. W.
Flagler, Reeve of Wellington ; Benjamin A. Hubbs, Reeve of Athol; Henry
Hubbs, Deputy Reeve of Hallowell; Nelson Hudgins, Deputy Reeve of South
Marysburg; J. A. Johnson, Deputy Reeve of Ameliasburg; R. S. Jones,
Deputy Reeve of Hillier; J. H. Knox, Reeve of South Marysburg; Joseph
R. Nightengale, Reeve of Ameliasburg; J. Piatt Nash, M. D., Deputy
Reeve of Picton; Wm. P. Reynolds, Reeve of Picton; Lewis B. Stinson,
Reeve of HalloweU; Levi Williams, Reeve of North Marysburg; John
Young, Reeve of Hillier.
County Clerk—Robert Boyle.
County Treasurer—R, J. Chapman.
The principal business transacted at the June session of tbe County
Council this year (1878) was in connexion with the railroad agitation.
"To have a railroad, or not to have a railroad—thafs the question which
agitated the assembled wisdom of the county.
Briefiy stated, the history of the railway question is this:—For thirty
years past the subject has been agitated, and a number of years since a company was organized and chartered, which succeeded in obtaining a grant, by
way of bonus, from the county, of §80,000, on condition of its being built
within a certain time. Meantime, the commercial panic struck the country,
and the prosecution of all public works—the Prince Edward County Railway -^
included—was either suspended, or entirely abandoned. The time being
about to expire within which the company were to complete the work, in
order to receive the bonus^a-movement was inaugurated by tbe friends of
the enterprise, to have-tffJFtime extended. The opponents of the scheme
fought it persistently and consistently ; but it at last carried by a respectable
majority of the County Council; and the chances now look, to an outsider, as
if the people might soon have a railroad. As for themselves, they arc
dent of having cars running to Picton this -"" '
,__„- ,.._ —which is perhaps too
i view.    In any case they will have it eventually, and ought to
have had it long ago; while too much praise cannot be awarded to the
irnestly, and without rest, till the
have ha ^   w   ,     — -
promoters, who have worked long and t
result they nobly strove for seems assured.
The chief officers of the company are Lt-CoL Ross, M. P., President,
and S. P. Niles, of Hillier, Vice-President. That the enterprise may flourish
is the wish of all fab minded people.
MILITARY history.
Prince Edward was settled by a military race. A few were discharged
soldiers of the regulararmy. For the most part, however, they were not a
military people in the strictly-professional sense of the word; but their
military qualities were the result, as well as the adjunct, of that patriotism
which preferred the fatigues of tire campaign, the sufferings of the winter
bivouac, and the dangers of the battle field, to tbe abandonment of cherished
political principles, or the acceptance of those which" were hostile to their
sentiments as devoted subjects of their king, and loyal adherents to the
British Constitution and the laws of their fathers. In such a patriotism,
and. in such a loyalty, Prince Edward and Upper Canada had their origin.
Under such circumstances we are not surprised to learn that tbe war of
1812-13 found this noble county to the front with its best men—and probably more in proportion to population than many other localities whose
exposed position rendered them far less safe from invasion than itself, whose
only invasion wss fast of American prisoners of war, as they were marched
across the Carrying Place, or over the old Danforth military road, under
escort, on their way to Kingston and Quebec, from Detroit, Queenston, and
other places in the west, where the fortunes of war, aided by the superior
bravery of the Upper Canada militia, had placed them in our hands.
We do not consider the Rebellion of 87-'3S, or the action taken by our
ancestors on either side, as necessarily the true criterion of real patriotism,
or the reverse; for it is now universally admitted that the wrongs of the
"Patriots"—as they were called,by the Loyalists iu derision—were long
since arrived at a stage, under the misrule and tyranny of the Family Compact, when forbearance ceased to be a virtue; and moreover, we all know
that the very principles for the advocacy of which Lount and Matthews, and
many other good men, were ignominiously hung as traitors, are now the
.foundation and copestone of our political structure.
We are or those who believe in the truth and justice of that time-worn,
but not less honored proverb, that "The truly loyal subject will neither
"advise nor submit to arbitrary measures." And so, too, no doubt thought
many of our people here in those troublous times when brother was arrayed
against brother, and father against son—though the vast majority were in
favor of peaceful and constitutional means of obtaining redress—doubtful as
it is whether it could ever have been thus obtained—while very many went
for sustaining the Government at any and aE hazards; and we thus find
Prince Edward furnishing a large quota of men for the military service at
that time, some of the officers from this county (notably the Hon. Colonel
.Wilkins, of the Carrying Place) taking most prominent and honorable
positions, and performing most arduous and important services.
Some of the volunteer companies of 18l2-'18,   and later, of '37-'38, COUNTY OF PRINCE EDWARD.
remained in nominal existence till tbe "Trent" affair, which rooted the
military spirit of the nation; and nine splendid infantry commutes were
then filled, and being accepted by the government, were consolidated into
tbe famous 16th Regiment, of wliich Walter Ross, M.P., m appointed
Lt.-Col. to 1863. Other companies were also raised, but their services
decline*!—the crisis having pasted, bv the action of the American govern-
uietit in delivering up Mason and Slidell, the Confederate Ambassadors to
Great Britain and trance, whose capture by the "San Jacinto," American
in, in-of-war, under command of Captain Wukee, wu the original out* of
the excitement which for a, time threatened tbe peace of the Empire,
> The 16th Regiment—oa also a fine troop of cavalry—are now In the
best of condition, and have their head-quartets at Picton; and a more detailed
notice of them may be found in the historical nkateh df that place.
Prince Edward being pre-eminently an agricultural constituency, ite
resources lie ehietly iu its soil, and the products of the field. The chief
products of the various. - may be found described under their respec
tive beads. In regard to the amount of production, the distribution of the
chief stopics—notably barley and rye—is so scattered among the many storehouses which line tbe shores on all sides, that any accurate figures are not to
be arrived at, and on approximate estimate would be simply conjectural.
The principal depot, mid in fact the only considerable one in the comity,
for the collecting and distributing of some particular branches of farming
industry, is Picton ; sad under that head we nave given, ss fully as circumstances would admit, the average yearly results.
Official statistics, where obtainable, are the only true estimate of a country's material resources; and we give below some figures compiled from the
records in the County Clerk's office, which bear more particularly on the
Total number of acres in the County    239,241
Assessed value or Real Estate.    , $6,862,670
do. Personal Estate.      467,168
do. Taxable Income.  31,910
Number of Horses owned iu the County  8,371
do.       Cattle do. do. 14,409
do.       Sheep „....*.        12,746
do.       Swine. , 8,971
Total number of Ratepayers  5,218
Total Population           18,938
Amount of Taxes collected hut year.        28,343
Received from government on account of administration
of Justice ,%V ,   1,114 83
Expended on account of same,.  4,684 00
Financially, tbe county, whether taken as a whole, or as separate minor
municipalities. is in a most prosperous state. The only liabilities of the
county are the 960,000 grant to the Prince Edward Railway. Picton is the
only minor municipality having any debt; while some of the townships
have very considerable sums invested in the " School Trust"—notably Ameliasburg, where the amount exceeds 915,000
The indebtedness of Picton is merely nominal compared with that of
other towns of similar size and importance; being but 96,600, of which
95,000 are in debentures, bearing interest at six per cent.—besides 920,000
lately granted to the P. E. Railway. These railway grants will not become
liabilities till the road is built; so the people run no risk of paying for what
they fail to receive.
There was raised in Picton last year by taxation 9 9,040
Received from other sources.    6,047
Total revenue.  15,087
There was paid on account to Schools.     3,000
do. do. do.        Salaries     1,088
do. do. for local improvements.    4,000
do. do. Interest on Debentures.         800
The total rate of taxation, including county and all local rates, was one
and a half cents iu the dollar.
The rates of taxation throughout tbe townships are very light compared
with some sections of the central and western parts of the Province, aver-
aging two to three mills in the dollar. The local rate in Picton this year is
eight mills.
The following table shows the result of the labors of the " Equalization
of Assessment Committee," of the County Council, at the June session, 1878:
plaeai them beyond immediate want, thev betbonebt themaslvM of their
duty to their little ones, and it was only then that the teal difficulty of the
situation was fully realized.
Many of the early Loyalists had been men of wealth, influence, and edn*
cation in their obi borm-a.   Those, so far as more niirnssenr duties an
permit, instructed
wanting, the difficulty of want of books fmaseted \h
settlers having abandoned everything in their flight i
For many years after neighbourhoods commenced t]
gathering together of rive or six families, within a r-ti
the only pretence to regular school teaching was by
opening a private school in the winter season, and inoj
the " settlement" in the " three It's." The more aft
lessons in the New Testament and " English Reader;'
-   Municipality.
No. acres.
Vol fciac.
$ 457,820
9 482,820
Marysburg, North,...
Marysburg, South,.,.
Wellington (capitalize
Picton             da
Grand total,.
A tax was levied st tbe rate of one and five eighths mills in tbe dollsr,
which makes the proportion of each municipality ss follows :
Ameliasburg. S1.S72.4S; Athol, 9784.68 ; Hallowell, 82,191.15; Hillier,
$1,358.25 ; Marysburg, North, $935.09; Marysburg, South, 9770.26; So-
phiasbuig, 91,872.81; Wellington, $141.37 ; Picton, 9698.75.
In addition to the above, a by-law was passed to raise the further sum of
$2,621 for school purposes. And this reminds us that there are a few general
facts concerning
Which it would be as well to refer to in this connection. As is well known,
one of the greatest disadvantages experienced in all the early settled portions
of the county, arose from tbe entire absence of facilities for educating the
children of the 'pioneers. This has been the case even in those counties
which, compared to Prince Edward in point of age, are yet young. How
much more so most it have been in the early days of Prince Edward?
We of the present day, with our universities and colleges, normal and
model schools, high and public schools, almost without number, can scare
realize the vast difference, when even the scenes depicted in that populj
mnch-pernsed work " The Hoosier Schoolmaster, would have been li
upon as a wonderful advancement towards what we might term the extravagances of a higher order of civilization. For years and years after tin
advance guard ol that army of Loyalists who made Upper Canada what it is,
first come into Prince Edward, schools nor intellectual training were novel
thought of, except as an adjunct of that civilization which they had
hind—a thing to be ardently desired, but not seriously hoped for. It was
for years simplv n question of keeping body and soul together by the most
i looked
Bat i
laborious toil; and the hardships endured in procuring the bare necessaries
of life precluded the idea of looking for intellectual improvement
the clearings gradually broadened, the little settlements grew mon
and the toil of the inhabitants had, by the favor oTa kind
opportunity was not  j
:li, soot of the first
Hi escape to Canada.   I
1«  funned bv the
is of s* toauy miles,
|ume of the settlers  i
ratting the youth of I
uoed probably took
.,   and those who were I
fortunate as to be able to spend their winter evenings in poring over the
pages of those text-books by the light of the blazing luck-lug on the hearth,
wen happy indeed, and the envied of all the settlement.   Bot notwithstanding these great disadvantages, some of our mast able men were the mm  I
of the earliest settlers of the Bay Quints District, who gained all their 1
education in the manner described.
The names and location of the first teachers in the county will be found 1
in the various township sketch?*, wherever It has been possible to obtain
reliable information of the same: which, iu the absence of any iwsittvu  1
records, and from the great length'of time since elapsed, it baa been difficult,
and in some cases impossible, to do,
i     Generally speaking, the progress of the school system here, as well as  I
(elsewhere throughout the country, has been of a most remarkable and satis-  I
factory charucter.    The legislature seems early to have recognized the fact  j
which centuries of history had already proven, that upon the completeness
and ellicicnay of our educational institutions must be laid the groundwork of
our country's success and national greatness.    Parliament, therefore, passed
the first Common School Act in 1816, which provided for the election of three
trustees in each township, whose duties were to hire teachers, select text-  I
books, and make general regulations such as are now provided for by general   j
law, or attended to by the Department of Education.   This Act was accompanied by a grant for school purposes, which was supplemented from time
to time, and continued to be spent without system and to comparatively
tittle advantage.
Finally, by the Hon.. S. B. Harrison's bill of 1841, which provided for an
annual grout of $200,000 to the various counties of the Province, In propor-  j
tion to their school population, and conditional upon the said counties aupplc-  I
meriting said respective sums by like amounts for similar purposes, and Sir I
Francis Hincks*s amendment thereto in 1S4S, the scheme of dividing town-
ships into school  sections was initiated, and other reforms inaugurated,   I
which have been extending and improving till impartial, disinterested, and
well-qualified judges are not slow to assert that Ontario now possesses the
finest school system in the world.
This is tbe fruit, in a very great measure, of the superior abilities and  I
untiring exertions of the Rev. Dr. Egerton Ryerson, whose name for more
than half a century has been a familiar household word In every home of our
country.    He was of TJ. E- Loyalist stock, a self-made man—one who had
experienced in his youth and early manhood the difficulties of the early  j
Slancers, sod was therefore especially qualified to deal with them. He Was
ir many years one of the ablest and most popular Methodist preachers who
ever graced that or any other Christian church. Being appointed Assistant-
Superintendent of Education in 1844 (the Provincial Secretary being at that
time, and long afterwards, ex ojffeio, the nominal Chief Superintendent!,
Dr. Ryerson made several trips to the eastern hemisphere and to various
porta of the United States, to study the educational systems of foreign countries, and on his return prepared a School Bill, very comprehensive in its
character, and embodying the best points in the various systems of the
different States and European nations. The chief features of this Bill are
still in force.
But the difficulty of bringing order and symmetry out of the chaotic state
then existing, was a matter of more time and labour than simply framing a
Bill or passing an Act of Parliament; and to comprehend this it is only
necessary to understand the existing state of affairs previous to Dr. Kycrson
taking the matter in hand. What school-houses existed were of the rudest
description. Rough log shanties covered with bark, or thatched with marsh
hay, were quite common ; while in many the well-known characteristics of
the proverbial " Irishmsa's shanty " celebrated in song, were there to be
found, in an aperture which served the treble purpose of door, window, and
chimney. Interior arrangements were in keeping with the structures themselves—rived slabs, with sticks stuck in for legs, forming seats snd desks.
The sparsely settled districts, with intervening swamps and forests, and wsnt
of good roods, made the location of the school a matter of no small difficulty;
and more than all, the objection on the part of those who had reared families
without education, or educated them themselves, was very strong against
any system which distributed the expense of a school among all property
owners, whether with or without children requiring its use.
But all those, and many more difficulties of a similar character, have bean
gradually overcome. A few primitive, ill-ventilated, and unhealthy log
shanties have given place to fine, commodious frame-houses, or splendid
brick snd stone structures. The teachers, too—of whom very many were
possessed of but indifferent scholastic attainments, and would now be considered far from competent,—have been supplanted, through the means of
the splendid Normal and Model Schools, which the Uberal-mindedneas of
our legislator* has given us, with those who are n credit to the present
system and the county which supports it; and, in a word, " the Public
School system of Ontario, from a condition of perfect infancy, has ripened
within the compass of s generation into one which will compare favorably
with any in the world, and conclusive proof of this statement need be
I sought no further than in a comparison of the state of circumsloacet existing
l>revious to the passage of the Harrison-Hincks Acts above noted, with the
facts set forth in a few statistics given below, which we have gleaned from
the very exhaustive, voluuiinotii, and able report of G. I). Piatt, of Picton,
the County Superintendent of Public Schools, for the present school year.
This report refers simply to the schools in tbe county proper, those within
the corporate limits of the Town of Picton being referred to in the sketch of
that place.
We find tbe number of schools st present in operation throughout the
County, as follows:—Amaliosbu rg, 15; Athol, 8; Hallowell, IS -, Hillier, 11;
North Marysburg, 9; South Marysburg, 9; Sonhisaburg, 13; Wellington,
1; or a total of 81 schools, having each one teacher, except the Wellington
School, those st Milford, Demurest* ille, and tbe "Union," near Robun's
Mills, each of which baa two, making a total of 89 teachers in the county.
There are 36 brick ochoolhonses in the county, 18 of stone, and 96 frame
During the past year 'even new schoolbouscs have been erected—two
frame snd five of brick. There is not a single log sehoolhouse remaining in
the county.
The amounts of school taxes raised last year bv the several municipalities
were as below:—Ameliasburg, $(,121; Athol, 91,587 ; Hallowell, $5,089;
Hillier. $3,712; North Marysburg, 91.911 ; South Maryshorg, $2,414 :
Snphiasburg, 95,020 : Wellington, $767 : or a total of 924,626 io taxes.
Total amount received from alfeourees, $-10,077.
Highest salary paid to any teacher, $507; lowest do., $1S0; average
salary to male teachers, $103; ditto female, §241 ; total number of pupils,
4,789 ; daily average attendencc, 48 per cent.
Compared with other counties of Ontario, tbe school expenses ore fonnd
to l<e greater in proportion to the school population than in any other; or,
in other words, the people el PtifsW Edward tax themselves the hl^mt of
all tbe counties of the Vi»vuk» for ednnettimol pwposss. COtUpannS lb*
lost year, report of the variMaOesmte SupariW^dsMS, we find the tigum
as below f»r U» six Counties .tandii a Ur»t •* ihe list ;J™C* ■"*•**■ ***° :
Weotwurth, -i 7 . 0*1 •-'. **■•• i Bgla, 4-filt Durham, 9*--» 11
$4.13. This rr|*r~n:* the total c*«t of raeb pupil lor the school Jos* 1 J.
including snlariaa to teachers, hstklutg and repairing of sobOMbouMS, .-.*, i oil
expenses for school purpura.
lint Majesty"** CtwruH.'^Tbe officers of this department of th* Civil
Service for Prince Edward District, ore aa follows :—
Walter T. Boss, collector. Pwton; r\ W. Maiidoville, landing waits*.
Wellington ; W. II. MoUsan. landing-waiter, Port Milford : John Pnitwr.
preventive officer, Prinyer and Crassy | Joanna M. Cadaaan, i =■ •■
officer, Cnntcc.ui. The latter two belonged till raoSsttly under the »ui<ctyim«u
of the Kingston and Brighton others respectively, but have lately '- » odd-*t
to the jurisdiction of Picton to which sfl th* above bow Moi*fr
John 8. Clubs, the lata collector at Picton, was recently superannuated,
after twenty-seven years' service.
I num. IUvkm'k. - Hnbert Boy)* is Inspector of Weights and stoarart-n
for the district, which includes th* whole comity. There an BO regularly
stationed excite officer* hi the county, those duties Iwing attended to by
officers from the Belleville station. 	
Jt mum: AMD KtsiiutiKA.— The following are the name* and address** ol
th* " Inspectors of Fish«rics " for tho various districts into which «•***
Edward is divided t—David Conger, Wellington • Peter Hnff, Salmon Point:
KU Kutchum, Cherry Valley j Wesley Hicks, South Bay (P«t Milford I.
Abeam Welbank*, South Bay {Port Milford) [ William PWws, Prinyer.
There ore seven lighthouses within the Prime Edward District. Their
locations are apparent from their names, which are given below, Willi U»
! names of their keeper, r—" Blue Bonnet," Robert Pye: " Crryinjj-plarr,
Bonbon Young; " Salmon Point." Peter Huff i " Point Potto. James
Burlinglinm ; " Falsa Ducks." William Sweetman ; " Indian Point, John
Prinyer; "Telegraph Island," — Mason. .
AmiiMSTlt avion or J UfinrjK.—Prince Edward ha* long been proverbial
for tbe lightness of its criminal calendar. Various anuses have bem assigned
for It, but whatever the true one the wot remains th* same. This is attested
by the exceptionally small expenditures charged to the " Administration of
Justice" account year after year. Thia amount for th* hut judicial year was
94,364 i while the amount received from Government on aooonnt of tho same
was $1,114.83.
Following are th* County Court official*: - Judge of the Comity Court,
Robert Patterson Jellett; County Crown Attorney and Clark of the Peace,
Philip Low, Q.C.; Clerk of the County Court, Clerk of th* Surrogate Court,
Deputy-Clerk of the Crown and Pleat, John Twigg ; Mastardii-Chaiicory,
S. S. Lazier; Registrar, Walter McK-mrie : Deputy-Ucglilror, Major Bog _;
" Qffieapte ; High Constablj
Sheriff, Jamas Gillespie t Sheriff* Clerk, J. F. Gillespie; High Cm
Ellis Orimmon ; Jailor, W. K. Patterson; Turnkey, Ktekiel Harris.
The following table, giving th* number and location of the various Hi vi •
■ion Court* in the county, with their clerks tM bailiga and their poet-office
addresses, will be found useful for referenc*.
Nip. sad N mu',
1. licton 	
x, muerd	
3. Uemorestvllle .
lUlllrT. P.O.
....Andrew llucluium I'lcton
....RkhardLobb ..HBferd
....>dward Nixon Dsworaatviilc
..J. a. Ties Auirllwliurk-
l...TliiimuJ*ek»m.. Wcllituttoi,
John •ni..tii|.-iti MflooJiW
..J. P. Downst...,
...H. II. llalfc-IU „|
..Until llamtlloi,
.V WdUnston' WlUhm Voilnc .,
U. Kin-1 mil i III Obadtah Coo|wr ,
7. Oinweim........ J. II. t'a'lnian ..[
b. Notth Horjrtainr Bo. Harrlxm  Juues Rosa. Woupoo*
A full description of tbe minor municipalities of Prince Edward, and of
tbe principal objects of local or general interest connected therewith, may be
found in the respective town and townatdp hiatoricol aJutehm.
Pinrox, which is, aa to date of inoorporation, n comparatively new place,
waa in point of settlement one of the oldest in th* district. Previous to in*
corporation it was part and pare*! of 11 alio well, by which name it was also
called- Thus it happens that th* history of town and township ia ao intimately interwoven as to be in a jgnat degree identical, tbu one with the
other; which fact we judge sufficient cans* to treat them, for tho purpose*
of this history, still practically as one—which they were in reality, until a
comparatively recent date. And although Hallo wall as a township, was
neither the first organized, tbe first surveyed, nor the first settled, still ite
central location and superior natural advantages very soon gnv* it th* for**
most position among the townships of the district—a pontttoo which it still
maintains; and thia circumstance, coupled with th* fact of Picton fstill
within its limits) bring tbe County Town, and consequently the judicial, as
well as the commercial, financial, educational, snd social centre of tho county,
gives the palm to this anciant township, which therefore ilasei i ■* Uj*
first i il.ii i- in tbe history of tho various mnnlcipnlitlaa of the county.
The township of Hallowell waa formed by virtue of su Act of Parliament, passed July 3rd, 1797, which provides " that a towmbtp b* struck off
from the sonth«mmost parte of Mar-fsborn, and Sonhiasbafg." Tho Act
also seta forth the reasons therefor, viz. : That " the inhabitants of tho said
townships flxperienee many difficulties from the uncommon length of such
townships." It strikes us as a little singular, however, 'but "Surveyor*
General Smith was the person employed to lay out tbe now township /' ss
we are led to believe from every aooonnt we have soon of the original litres
townships, that the snrvevs of the same had bseu eompbted, and all remnin-
log to bo done was simply to describe the meteo and bounds. There is
another curious tiling about it, i.e., the Act specified that the nsw township
should be taken "from Ifniyahnrg and Sophiaabnrg,*' notwithstanding
which, it contain* so much of tne original township of Atneliaabur^ s* Um
west of s line produced southward from the eastern boundary of the present township* of Ameliaaburg and Hillier. Agsin, the Act states that it
*~~ th* southernmost parts, sVo where-*.*, as rrganl*
positions of the townships, as tlicy nt present stand,
ractioas were obmi Preen all of whicb we consul aimed at bv the Act was simplv to ameliorate
experienced by tbe inhabitant*," Ac", and that anr-
is to be taken "Cm
Matysburg, the reutiv
show that no such Ina
elude that the real p
lieve tbe said
apparently st
triangle*, and ifiHiflfii triangles, can
formed in part by the indentation!
and Wast Lake—it psansnto a p
Chinese puzzle, or Mark Twain's ci
Pnutiou war.
It may, howovcr, be described
burg. Hillier, snd Picton Bay;
southerly by south Maryaburg an
•1 <
chested map of the ■
puar •■ .■!'-.',
-HaTsetoa Bay
[ndarit v to a
''-in.* bounded nortbttly by Svpbta».
■riy by north and south Marysburg;
Lboi, and weoteriyby UilUcrsnd take XIV.
Ontario. In very many respects, it is the finest township of Prince Edward
county—all that can be said in praise of the "fifth" "sixth" and "seventh
towns'' being true in respect to Hallowell. It excels them all in wealth and
population, though only third in size—a fact which may be taken as a
general indication of its splendid natural attributes, and their judicious and
prosperous development by a class of citizens whose general intelligence,
morality, hospitality, and superior social qualities mark them the worthy
descendants of a race, who, animated by the purest principles of loyalty,
and with a devotion to the cause of their King, which moved the highest
admiration even of their enemies—preferred the loss of all of this world's
goods; and war with its entailing sufferings and dangers ; and even death
itself, to a servile submission to principles of political government, their
hatred and contempt for which could only be measured by their love and
reverence for the glorious British Constitution, and the taws of their fathers.
If the sacrifices involved in an enforced or voluntary exile from once-loved
homes, to an unknown land, the home only of savage wild beasts and wilder
human savages, can be repaid, after the toils and trials oi a century, by the
possession of magnificent estates, palatial residences, and a country universally admired by travellers from all parts of the world, then the present citizens of Prince Edward County, and more particularly those of Picton
and Hallowell, are now enjoying the well-earned reward of lives devoted to
the most noble principles.
The land of the township bears a greater proportion of improved to unimproved, than is to be found in any other section of the district. The surface is nearly all of on even and geutly undulating character, while its
soil is for the most part of a depth and richness which yields a most
generous return to the toiling husbandman. The "equalized" assessment
of the county shows Hallowell to be a 20 per cent, higher pcr-acre valuation
than the next highest township.
The following account of the origin of the township's name is gleaned from
Sabine ;—Benjamin Hallowell, of Boston, Commissioner of Customs, while
passing through Cambridge in his chaise, in the year 1774, was pursued
toward Boston by a detachment of one hundred and sixty Continental
cavalry, at full gallop, but eluded them. To escape persecution at the
hands of the Americans, he sailed to England on the evacuation of Boston
by the British. He seems to have been an object of special animosity to the
Americans, as he was proscribed and "banished" in 1778, if any one could
be said to be banished who had already been two years in England. Prior
to the Revolution he owned extensive landed estates on the Kennebec
River, in Maine. These were confiscated by the " Conspiring Act" of 1779,
in which Mr. Hallowell was included. He returned from England to
America in 1796, with bis daughter and son-in-law, Mrs. and Mr. Elmsley,
the latter of whom had just been appointed Chief Justice of Upper Canada.
His estates all being confiscated and himself proscribed, he could not remain
there, but came to Canada, and took up bis residence in Toronto, where he
at the age of seventy years—the last surviving member of tbe
lmissioiicrs. To compensate for the losses sustained by his
ie King's cause, " the British Government granted him lands
r, and two other towns in Nova Scotia, aud a township in
t which bears his name." It appears quite plain, however, that
the head of Picton Bay, gave the name of "Hallowell
Bridge," nntt to tne bridgiytself, which was onilt over the stream emptying into the head of the bajr^and, as a natural consequence, to the village
which subsequently sprang up there. This being the chief place within the
its of the new township, and the place where public business was traus-
his bud-grant
acted,  the name  " Hallowell"
appears pretty certain that Benjai
its hi
f the
adopted for it.    Thus,  although it
i Hallowell owned land "in a township
at-East Lake, in 1783, or 1784. This tract of land originally belonged"^
Marysburg, and was of part taken off by the Act of July 3rd, 1797. Tbe
Youngs were, beyond dispute, the oldest settlers in the limits of the original
township of Hallowell. The next settlers came in and located at the bead
of Picton bay, but at what precise date hi not quite certain. Dr. Cannilf, mi
admitted authority on such matters, states that probably the first settlers
took up their residence at the head of Picton bay in 1788. It is pretty
certain however, that there waa at least one settler at "Hallowell Bridge"
before that date, as we hare it from Mr. Lewis I >. Stinson, that bis greatgrandfather came in and Battled on the present Stinson homestead (Lot 3,
north of West Lake), in 1774, or certainly not biter than 1775, "whan his
nearest neighbor en the east was at the present town of Picton." It thus
appears that there was at least one settler at Picton Bay in 1776, and that
after him, John Stinson and family were the first settlers within the present
limits of Hallowell. Ebenezer Washburne, father of the Hon. Samuel
Washburne, is said to have been one of the very first to settle at Hallowell
Bridge, though we have been unable to learn the precise dote of bis advent:
aud about the same time, or shortly after, came Captain BJchordson,
Biohard Hare, James Dougall, aud Henry Ferguson. It seems that before
1788, the Congers, Peterson, Cory Spencer, and Henry Johnston, had also
taken up their residences at the bead of the bay; and they were followed
very shortly by Van Dusen, and Abraham Barker. The place gradually
acquired accessions to its population. It soon became " Hallowell Bridge,"
and took the lead in all township, and even county nutters, and has
succeeded in holding to the present day the leading position thus early
acquired. In the neighbourhood of West Lake, the McVauls, McDonalds,
Congers, Whites, Coopers, and Halls, were very early settlers. There were
several families of the name of Conger—all relatives, who settled in
different parts of the township. The following Obituary is taken from one
of the newspapers of the day. " Died.—At West Lake, Hallowell, on the
27th May, 1825, JD. E. Ganger, in the sixtieth year of his age. He held a
commission in the Prince Edward Militia during twenty-three years. He
resided in Hallowell forty years, and lived an exemplary life, dying re-
gretted by all who knew him." From this it will be seen that the West
Lake Congers came in about 17.8o ; with David Conger came also Thomas
Goldsmith, all. E, Loyalist, in 1786. He had previously owned extensive
estates in Ulster County, ifew York; and had performed important and
dangerous services to the Royal cause, meeting with many thrilling adventures and hair-breadth escapes. On first coming to the country he settled
temporarily in Bath, but soon removed to Hallowell, where the Government granted him a tract of land as partial compensation for his loyal services, and heavy losses he thereby entailed. The Garrotte, EUises, Dor-
lands, Haigbts, and Hubbs, were also among the earliest, and further on
towards the spot where Bloomfield now stands, the Bowermans, Bulls, and
Leavens'. Philip Dorland, one of the above, was the first member elected
by Prince Edward, to represent the county in the first Parliament of Upper
Canada. The Proclamation of Governor Simcoe, calling upon the people
to elect members to this Parliament, was dated at Kingston, July 16th,
1792, William Jar vis, as Governor's Secretary, signed tbe document, which
established nineteen counties ; giving some two members, some one each,
and in some instances, a number combined to elect one member, according
to the population. "Fourth," or Adolphustown, then as now, in the
county of Lennox, was annexed to Prince Edward County for the purpose of
forming one electoral division. There were in alt sixteen members elected
by the nineteen counties. The elections were held in the early autumn of
1792, and the Assembly met at Niagara (then called Newark), on the 18th
September of the same year, and continued in session till October lath
ensuing. " Kor marble domes, nor gilded spires" cast their classic shade
upon the assembled wisdom of the first Parliament of Upper Canada, who
mat in a common army-tent to give laws to the nation.    John McDonell,
of Glengarry, was elected Speaker, and the following officers were appointed viz. :—
Clerk.—Angus McDonell. Sekceant-at-Akms.—George Law. Chaplain.—Rev. Mr. Addison.
The oaths of office'were administered by William Jarvis, Governor's
Secretary ; aud from the fact that the Assembly unanimously voted Philip
Dorland incompetent to serve in that body, on account of his religious convictions (he was a Quaker) forbidding him to take an oath, conclusively
proves that our early legislators had lost that Christian spirit of religious
toleration, tbe denial of which had driven many of their ancestors to the
new world, in the "Mayflower," nearly two centuries before. Thus the
populous and important county of Prince Edward was disfranchised during
the first session of the first Parliament A Writ having been issued for a
new election, it resulted in the return of Peter Van Alstine, who was thus
the second member elected, and the first who served Hallowell, and with it
Prince Edward county, in the Parliament of Upper Canada.
Hallowell shows an official record of its public Acts of a more ancient
date than any of the three townships from which it was taken. We have
seen that it was created a township by the Act of July 3rd, 1797. We have
inspected the records of the first "Town meeting," and its comparative
antiquity imparts to it on interest which calls for its reproduction, which
we herewith give, verbatim et literatim.
" Tqws Laws, 1798.—At the annual meeting of the inhabitants of the
"township of Hallowell, held on Monday, the fifth day of March, 1798,
" held by virtue of an Act of tbe Legislature of Upper Canada, before
"Augustus Spencer, and John Stinson, jr., two of His Majesty's Justices
"of tbe Peace,—the following persons were chosen town officers for the
ensuing year;—
" Town Clerk.—Rozel Ferguson. Assessors.—Caleb Ellsworth, Peter
"D. Conger. Town or Chubch Wardens. —James Blokeley, Thomas Gold-
' 'smith. Overseers of Highways and Fence Viewers.—benjamin Waite,
"John Miller, Owen Richards, Henry Zufelt, Iehabod Bowerman, Aaron
"White, Corey Spencer, George Baker. Pound Keepers.—Daniel Young,
"Isaac Bedall, Samson Striker, Henry Johnston. Constables.—Samuel
"Williams, Isaac Garrett.
" It is enacted at the said meeting this fifth day of March, that no fence
"is to be lawful in the township of Hallowell, under the height of four feet
| eight inches high, sufficiently made,
"Horses and horned cattle are to run at large, in this township,
" except stags, which are not to be a free commoner the ensuing year. If
'• auy such shall be found at large, it shall and may be lawful for any inhabitant to impound the same.
" All hogs are to run at large, except boars, which are not to be a free
" commoner from the first of March, to the loth December ensuing. If any
" such shall be found on the commons of the township of Hallowell, between
"the two periods above-mentioned, it shall be forfeit, and the person who
■' takes him up, shall hold and keep him as his lawful property. No pig is
"to run at large in the said township under the age of four months.
"All sheep is to be a free commoner the ensuing year, except rams, -
" which ore not to have the liberty of the commons, from the tenth of September to the tenth of November ensuing.
" It is further enacted, that if any freeholder in this township shall suffer
" any Canadian thistle to go to seed on his own farm, he shall forfeit and pay
" the sum of twenty shillings, H. Cy., (meaning Halifax currency).
"If any person in this township shall put fire to any rubbish, brush,
"stubble, or whatever, whereby his neighbors, or the publick may be in
"danger of receiving damage thereby, without previously acquainting two of
" his neighbors, so that he may have help to suppress the fire in case of
" damage, he shall forfeit and pay (he sum of forty shillings, H, Cy., to the
" benefit of the 'highways.'"
It appears from the above that even at that early day the " Canada
Thistle had made its appearance there ; and it is extremely creditable to
the yeomanry of this part of the country, to be able to state, in this connection, that the land throughout Hallowell and the whole of Prince Edward,
County, is for the most part very free from this pestiferous weed—extremely
' so, in fact, in comparison with some of the townships of Western Ontario,
where the settlements are of a much more recent date, and where the owners
justly boost of the superiority or> their hinds. And to those acquainted with
the ins and oats of the agricultural profession as carried on iu this couuty,
the above speaks volumes, not only for the present inhabitants of this delightful agricultural township, but for those who preceded them in the
cultivation of the soil since the place has had a history.
Following the course of municipal events : after the first " Town Meet-
ng>" we] find that Rozel Ferguson continued to be clerk till 1810, when
James B. Armstrong was chosen to the position, which he held two years,
being succeeded by Arva Ferguson, who held tbe office three years. Then
followed, in succession, Simeon Washburne, Ebenezer Washburne, Arva
Ferguson (three years), Robert Scott (two years), Arva Ferguson, Simeon
Washburne, Arva FeiKuaon (seven years), William Rorke(two years). This
brings us down to 1832, when James McDonald was appointed clerk, and the
first " special" meeting was held on March 24th of that year ; after which
the meetings- gradually became more frequent, and the reports of the proceedings more voluminous, till they finally grew into the present system.
Up to 1812 the following names appear in the lists of " Town aud Church
Wardens "—corresponding with our Councillors of to-day, James Blakeley,
Thomas Goldsmith, Barret Dyre, James Fulton, Samuel Gardiner. Henrv
, Samson  Striker,   Partington F
Two of the above gentlemen were elected each year.
piite a number of times.   Messrs. Dyre and Goldsmith
i ruber of terms.
i record kept, during that early day, of what we now
tisties, so we are kept in ignorance as to the wealth,
i year to year.    The last assessment returns give the
Total population <
976; total number of i
950; value of persona
total number of horse!, , --m-s^.-—, , —- . -
The present incumbents of the various muni
Rbevb.—Lewis B. Stinson j Deputy Ri
>; total number of acres of land 42,-
1,157; value of real property, §1,417,-
i; amount of taxable income, $1,200 :
>,456     ' " —      '
-A. Huyck, a. J. I,a
; Asa
, Wm. H. Johnston ; C
; Collector,—-01i\
Bloompibld, the only village of any size within the corporate limits of
Hallowell, is near tin- head ofwest Lake, and is situated near the centre of
the township, on the old Danforth Road, and about midway between Picton
and Wellington. It is comparatively an old place, quite a large settlement
having been formed here in the very early days of the township. Among
the first to make the place their home were the Leavens', Bulls, Bowermans,
Jonathan Clarke, Cornelius White, James Barker. The Bulls and Bowermans were both large families. Jonathan Bowerman built the first grist
mill here, and John Bull the first saw-mill. The beautiful stream which
runs through the village and empties into the head of West Lake, affords
splendid opportunities for the milling business; and the advantages were
early utilized by the enterprising citizens, thus making Bloom Held quite a
centre of trade. The village extends over a mile along the Danforth Road,
with a considerable number of cross-streets. The plan of the place is irregular, as is also the ground on which it is built; all of which, however,
tends to add to its picturesque appearance, aud give it an ensemble of
pleasing variety extremely enjoyable to the traveller. The residences are
of a class far exceeding those of the average town of equal size, and have been
—these  and other
nth refined taste
is another post village
hamlet located about eight mil-
shore of that body of water from
A short distance further on a
"The Sand Banks." These are
northerly and southerly directioi
has been driven hem
seemingly laid out and built with a more than usual view to the health,
comfort, and convenience of their respective occupants. Beautifnlly^shoded
avenues,  luxuriant flower-gardens,   well-kept grounds,—"'-
attributes of a competency of this world's goods, coupled i	
and praiseworthy liberality, are to be seen on every hand.
The business portion of the place contains one boot and shoe store, two
general stores, two water grist-mills two steam saw-mills, steam shingle and
stave factories, planing mills, one tannery, one woollen factory, one cheese
factory two brick-yards ; also a post office, with daily mails both ways, to
and from Picton and Trenton, per stage; two telegraph offices'and four
churches—some of them very fine ones,—viz : one Methodist, one Universa-
list, and. two Society of Friends.
The Town Hall is also here situated ; it was built in 1857, by John
Thompsett, contractor, at a cost of §2,000 ; and with ground and sheds attached is worth about §3,000. For a long time—probably till the incorporation of Picton—the town meetings were held at Hallowell village : generally
at some private house at first, and later, in 1807, at the "Inu of Thomas
Eyre," where they continued to be held for many years. It was customary
in those days to hold town'meetings "in the presence of certain of His
Majesty's Justices of the Peace." As will be seen from the minutes, -
Augustus Spencer and John Stinson, junior, presided in that capacity at the
first town meeting ever held in the place. The next year John Peters was
added to the list; and under the supervision of those three, who were without doubt the first magistrates in the township, the town meetings continued
to be held for many years.
Bloomfield is the seat of the sixth Division Court of Prince Edward
County. Obndiah Cooper is Clerk of the Court, and John Thompsett is
i Hallowell, viz: West Lake, a pleasant
south-east of Picton, and on the south
Inch its name is derived,
about ten miles from Ficton, we come to
gli hills, or ridges, running in a general
md composed of pure white sand, which
mmemorial, by the winds aud waters of
Lake Ontario, and by the raging south-west storms, until, by degrees, these
"Sand Banks "have acquired their present form and size. They extend
respectively across tlie mouths of East and West Lake ;—in the former ease,
being more broad, and of less altitude, and consisting of two points, or
"tongues," overlapping each other to a long distance, and divided by a
narrow channel, which is the outlet of East Lake. The "Wellington
Banks," or those across the mouth of West Lake, are so called from their
proximity to the village of that name, though within the municipal bounds
of Hallowell. The ridge here is very high and quite narrow, and of a
length (approximately) of three miles; divided only near the north end,
which joins the south-east portion of the township, by a narrow channel
fordable for men or horses, which connects West Lake with Lake Ontario.
The Sand Banks are, beyond dispute, curiosities of no mean order. The
northern, or "Wellington" Banks, are the most celebrated, from their
greater height They are covered in spots by groves of beautiful trees,
which form pleasant picnicing grounds for the numerous parties of tourists
and pleasure seekers during the summer season. In other places, the baie
white sand glittering in the sunlight, presents a curious and agreeable contrast to the variegated foliage of its many natural parks ; while these, with
the blue waters of West Lake at their feet, and the sea-m-eon of TaI™ Ontario, dotted with snow-white sails, and c<
cloudless sky, combine to form a panoram.
eye of the artist to rest upon, and commen
points of attraction and interest in this ex
locality. There is a magnificent wide and
Banks into the Lake on either side, formiu
ing ; and it is in the contemplation of so
Picton to build a large summer hotel here,
undoubtedly become a highly popular sums
In the eastern part of the township, we
of the locality up to the period when it beci
to revert for a short time to " Hallowjbll Hri
with the early settlement of which have already
public-bouse built here at an early day, known as
the name of the man who built and kept it. By t
the Young*, atEost' Lake, and that of the Stin.
Lake, had received considerable accessions to their
and as they were all obliged to go to Kingston mi
...... flw.Vj their routes across thecamping.pl
This made quite a traffic tlirough tl
rith a liberal degree of patronage, an
sport and gaiety, not only for those livini
but it is said to have been frequented by settlers i
to the distance of fortv miles either wnv.    This ma
' attractive
beach strut
ireal blue of a
: delights the
e of the chief
ad interesting
dug from the
dace for bath-
ng citizens of
j Banks " will
onable water-
not yet brought the history
town, so we may be allowed
well Bri v
House met i
' after that the
rmvingion continued, tor many years to deal or
to those who thirsted, and music to the discip
years. The Hovington still occupies a place in
habitants, as one of the oldest laud-marks of the
rw apace;
not rapidly,
tng up at the
'tis rn
on the east side ot
> the creek
.    It was fo,
who came into Ha
came into possessi
id.   T
ively at the old
were built in
reased, and the
about which—thoug
irly days of Hallowei
-r-but surely, still. Men
short ti
the otln
■ family', a i
fiS^L118!?' Gr3at rivalry existed betw
irom tne time the former took its start
, and secure to itself the advantages
When Prince was set off aa
necessary to build a Jail andCc
two villages as to which should
of public spirit and wealth co
buildings to his village, by em
hundred dollars in cash, to ass
tinned to be called bv their ab
into a town, neither bavin**- evi
porated village. Then the inli-
named; those of the other villi
determined that Picton should
Court, he again succeeded in e
majority, and had the name ol _
which incorporated the new town.
As Mr. Mocaulay was the one
aud the founder of the village of
short sketch of the rev. gentiemaj
of several
Picton and Hallowell
Lch striving to outstrip
g to the place of greater
erection.    The: two villaiei
;ive names till their incorrar
the middle position of an i
f.Hallowell wanted the town
Bifierent, while Mr. Macauto
me, and through his influer
_     5 point against the wishes • o
flCTON inserted in the Act of Parlia
vlio named the present Town of Picton,
be same name, now a part of the town, a
might not be uninteresting. He was one
father settled in New York previous to
"' ' lerable prominence among the
 —.-.« nun. city was the signal for his departure for
Canada.   Here he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and for many years after
ofaiamilyo- _„„     „
the Kevolution, and being a"iuiui r.
nTJfli??' t^ir abandonment of that e
taking »P *
soppbes to
'111 rely, -till Mean-
aooritte bridge,
r. IV. M srsuby,
>urclwse, or both,
I 1%1oii> in honor
isJI..Iofficer, »»"
M «d Hallowell
living to outstnp
,e place of fft&r
taking up his residence in this country, be waa tbe principal contractor for
supplies to the troops in and about Carleton Island and Kingston. He
amassed a great fortune in trade at Kingston, where he died in 1800, and his
business was subsequently carried on by his family with great success. The
sons were among those exerting the highest influence of any family, or any
individuals in the country, iu public and political affairs. One of them was
the Hon. John Macautay, a man whose name was closely identified with all
public questions of the day. Among the many honourable and highly important positions filled by one or other of the brothers was that of Member of
the Legislative Assembly, Chaplain to the Legislative Assembly, Provincial
* Secretary, Surveyor-General, Inspector-General, and various other positions
of almost equal importance. At the time of the incorporation of Hallowell,
one of the Rev, Mr. Macaulay'sbrothers waa Chaplain to the Canadian Houses
of Parliament. The result of all this was that in spite <<f the protests of the
people, the place received the official name of Picton, as above stated ; and
although Mr. Macaulsy evinced in this matter a very determined disregard for the wishes of his parish oners, still it must be admitted that
in all matters of public concern—whether of Church or State, or municipal affairs, or public or private undertakings for the advancement either
of. his country or his own particular parish, he was beyond question a most
enterprising and public-spirited citizen, and one to whom the present town
of Pictou undoubtedly owes much of its material prosperity, as well as its
■ In regard to the incorporation of Picton, we have been unable to arrive nt
the exact date, as there are no preserved records of the public acts of the governing body of the town previous to the commencement of the operation of
the Municipal Act. We have the authority of a gentleman who had been
identified with the affairs of the place, however, for many years previously,
that the incorporation took place about three years—or certainly not more than
five—previous to the passing of tbe Municipal Act, which would probably be
in 1847, or possibly as early as 1845 From this time up to 1850 the town
was governed by what was called a "Board of Police," also called "Commissioners of Police." The commissioners who comprised tbe first Board were.
—Philip Low, chairman ; Alexander McAllister, now of the Customs
Department, Kingston; and the late Sheriff McDonald, Mr. Low was
Chairman of the Board for some years, and at the time tbeMunicipal Act came
into force.
We find by reference to the oldest preserved minutes, that the first meeting
of the Town Council under the said Act, was held at the Court House, on the
21at January, 1850, when the following-named gentlemen handed in their
respective certificates of election and qualification as town councillors, and
took tbe oath of office, viz. :—
For Hallowell Ward—William Hale, James McDonald, Calvin Pier.
For Brock Ward—James Porter, David Barker Stevenson, Walter Boss.
For Tecumseth Ward—John Proctor, John Miller, Philip Low.
On motion of Mr. Hale, seconded by Mr. Boss, Mr. Low was unanimously
chosen the first mayor of the town. Mr. Lampriere was then chosen Town
Clerk and Treasurer, and the following officers were subsequently chosen at
the same meeting in the usual manner, viz.:—
John G. Reynolds, Chief Constable, Assessor, Collector, and Census
Cecil Mortimer (by Mayor), James Cook (by Council), Auditors.    ■
David Barker Stevenson, Town Reeve.
James-Shannon, Weigh-muster.
Thomas Donnelly, Superintendent of the Public School.
i  The Council and town officers for the year 1878 are as follows, viz. r—
John H. Allen, Mayor; Wm. P. Reynolds, Reeve ; J. PlattNash, M.D.,
Deputy-reeve; John Twigg, Clerk; B. J. Chapman, Treasurer; George H.
Hart, Assessor ; John Gibson, Collector; Dr. Piatt, Superintendent of Public
Schools ; Ellis Grimmon, Chief of Police; Wm. P. Reynolds, Chief of Fire
Brigade ; Jabez Bennett, William Carter, William Coughliu, Jacob J. Fralick,
Richard A. Foster, Charles Garner, Arthur W. Hepburn, John Perrill, George
. C. Van Blaricom, George E. Van Dusen, J. F. Van Horn, Isaac N. Wait,
3 Councillors.
: The Picton of to-day is a delightful town, possessing very many ad
of lot
s to the
which have olwt
resulted in mal
tiness, as well i
of tbe
jstof the
it a
itioit as to water
,-er other parts of
if all commercial
nd Picton reap
res, the jail, the
est residences, w
intry. This can
wf of which we
Which ate fine
of like class,
r old Hallowell,
the Banks, Inau
Telegraph Ofilc
icb emptie
ively.    Tl
out exception, wmen are to oe seei
o be said of the residences in all pi
Fer our readers to some viewB hei
cimeiis of architectural beauty rai
still tho principal part of the to*
Iron-working and Cai
The two parts of the toi
. Shops
icted by bridges
oriKinoUy known as " Hallowell Bridge" being now a very handsome orched
stone structure, as broad as the street on which it is built; and one side
separated from tbe extreme head of the bay, only by the stone wall forming
the usual and necessary protection to pedestrians on bridges ot   similar
*The Bay here runs to a narrow point, opening gradually towards the
mouth, with shores of comparatively regular outline, and of the general shape
of the letter " V," with the angle very acute. Along these shores on either
side snd extending for a considerable distance from the angle or the V
there are wharves, docks, and store-houses, sufficient to accommodate a very
large amount of marine commerce. ' .
The western part of the town is built/upon a. level table la
bable height of one hundred feet above-W"---
down somewhat suddenly to the creek which divides ^^ portion of the
town while along the Bay it runs on aHevel. almost to the water s edge,
wSIb reached by descending a steep and.aTmcat perpendicular precipice
w£ exteXneurly to tbe water level, then breaks abruptly and slopes
£&*, to, the vk*^tt£^^ tfSSS
with comparatively light cost, to apracticaUy
und on the coat side rises more gradually from
i much Kceater height; forming in fact a moun-
siniply a part of the "High Shore,"so called,
ich known from the earliest days, which extends all along that sicie
; point of Sophiasburg. Taken ™g™»r. tUB
>ell-built business blocks, fine public buddings,
nces, with the magnificent grounds which in a
ound them make Picton one of the pleasantest
™«™ rniT-mrriiPjisive idea of the place, than can
may be formed, if we mention u
incut iu the same <
unlimited extent,
both creek and Ba;
) the
, whi
the pro-
I'his dips
Bay to the
beautifully shaded at
and splendid private
great majority of ca
places imaginable. .,,.....
whicht ^IvelbyL large number of business -*^*"«<» of the place,
a careful estimate of which places the number as follows :-
2 Newspapers, 2 Banks, 6 Lawyers, 7 Doctors, 4 Drug Stores, 3 Book
Stores, 8 Jewellery Stores, 2 Photographers, 4 Hardware Stores, 12 Dry
Goods Stores, 5 Merchant Tailors, 7 TBoot and Shoe Stores, 1 Hat and Fur
Store, 3 Butcher Shops, 4 Bakeries, 84 Groceries, 4 Confectioneries, Several
Fancy Stores, 3 Liquor Stores, 7 Hotels, 1 Temperance Hotel, 2 Tanneries,
1 Brewery, Several Tobacconists, 3 Barber Shops, 3 Livery Stables, 4 Carriage Shops, 1 Waggon Shop, 7 Blacksmith Shops.
There are many very fine private business blocks, principally located on
Upper Main street. The principal ones are Striker's block, the Conger
block, Mottashed block, Ayres block, (Oddfellow's Hall), and the Post
Office block.
Among the finest business blocks in the place are The Banks, of which
there are two, viz. ; Bank of Montreal (R. J. B. Crombie, Agt), and the
Standard Bank (George P Reid, Agt.)
The Jail and Court House were built in 1831, at a cost, including additions and improvements since effected, of about $24,000. They are veiy
substantial and moderately handsome stone buildings, beautifully situated
on the east side.
The Town Hall is a handsome building, well calculated to meet the
wants and requirements of the citizens iu matters relating to the public
business of the place.    It was built in 1866, at a cost of $6,000.
The old HtOH School is a very large and handsome brick building, and,
together with the wings added subsequently to the erection of the main
building, now forms the Centra3$Public School. The citizens are now
building a new High School at a cost of $5,500.
t, The building called The Couktv Offices is a fine brick structure, situated on Lower Main street, and on the brink of the "High Shore." It was
"erected in 1876, at a cost of $9,000, and contains the offices of the Sheriff,
County Crown Attorney, and Clerk of the Peace, Registrar of the Surrogate
•' Deputy Clerk of the Crown and Pleas, County Judge's Chambers,
: the First Division Court of the County, Clerk of the County Court,
f the County Council, and the Chamber of the County Council, also
I office of the Prince Edward County Mutual Fire Insurance Com-
The various offices are laid out too with due regard to the require-
wtsofthe respective officials occupying the same, and all are provided
with the best fire-proof vaults. The County Council chamber is one of the
best we have anywhere seen. For the size of that Municipal Body, and the
kind of business transacted at their meetings, no more complete and convenient hall could be wished for, whether for convenience of the members
themselves, or their constituents, or others who may choose to visit their
meetings or witness their deliberations.
The County Registry Office is situated immediately beside the county
offices. It is of brick, and built on the usual plan approved by the Ontario
Government. There are now so many line buildings of this class throughout
the country, exactly similar to it, that a description would be superfluous.
The Churches are five in number, some of them being quite costly, aud
of considerable pretentions as to architectural beauty. The ground for two
of these, viz.: the English and Roman Catholic, was presented by Rev. Mr.
Macaulay ; aud he also contributed a great share of the cost of the English
church, which was built in 1825, the first church in the limits of the present town of Picton. The first Roman Patholic church was built in 1830,
by Rev. Father Brennan. It is now used as a separate school. The new
stone church—Saint Gregory's,—a view of which we give in another part of
this work was built in 1839, by the Rev. Father Lalor. The Methodist
Church of Canada, and the new Episcopal Methodist church are both splendid and handsome structures. They cost about $15,000 and $16,000 respectively. The first Methodist church built in Prince Edward County, as well as
one of the very oldest iu the Province of Upper Canada, was the old chapel
near Picton. It was erected on land given by Stephen Conger, in 1809, and
the first trustees were Benson Conger, Dougal, German, Van Blaricom, Vau
Dusen, and Wilson, all long since gone the way of earth. As late as the
beginning of 1818, but one other place of worship—a Quaker meeting house
—had beeu .erected in Hallowell, though preparations were then going on
to build a Presbyterian church.
A Public Cemetery was opened in 1873, under the conditions of the
Cemetery Act.   Of an area of twenty-live acres—in a delightful situation—
it i
the he
a most
appropriate place f
>r the burial of the dead.   Much 1
as been
ance the natural bea
Ityofthc place, which is one of th
ntended.    It already contains alar
e finest
Is for tho purposes
,'e nil in-
iful and costly mom
merits to the memory of loved ones
one be-
wspapers ol Picton
compare favorably with those of a
the United States, both for neatnes
ay town
ii.il >iz
in this country or
s of ap-
•iii-ral interest of tin
ir content-matter, and the manner i
o which
ldncted.   They ore
wo in number ; Tie OazelU, Conser
alum, Keform.    The
former was established as long ago
le called the HcMoxneU Free Press,
as Dec.
It was at that tin
mil was
.spaper published b
tween York and Kingston.    It has
1 office
; tin- ma.-hin.-rv is I
twelve hundred.   1
in bv steam, and the Jon.! Jitfe circnl
he -V- -■ Nation was started in 1865,
ation of
bad been published here by the M
ry, 1877, it waa merged with The
!. had been establish
ed by Unarm. Gillespie and Boyle,
Mr. Boyle
dred copies. Anouner paper, i*r»
Mr. J. Douglas, but removed to Oobou
Educational.—There arc iu Pictpi
School, two Primary Public Schools,
School.   The principal officials of tl
J. M. Pb
Principal of
T5. Curry, C
L. Fralick, j
There an
each of the Primaries,
.    It prints over twelve hun-
was established in 1341, by
tor of Publii
bool,  a Central Public
man  Catholic Separate
ment are as below: —
s; J. A. Clarke, M.A.,
_,  Head Master of Public Schools ; G.
■tary of the Public School Board ; Jas.
l). .Monlon, Secretary of the High School Board.
s in the High School, eight in the Central, one in
I two in tho Separate School; a total of fourteen
teachers employed in the High and Public Schools of the town.
Ontario College.—This was the name of an Institution designed for
all the higher branches of education, which was chartered by Act of Parliament, and brought into successful operation in May, 1867. It was more
especially in connection with the Established Church, though professing
freedom From all sectarian forms. Those who were chiefly instrumental and
principally active in getting Ontario College into operation, were the Church
of Fn-laiid Clergymen of the Bay of Quinte District, and the leading laymen
of that religions oody. Philip Low, Q.C., was one of the most active and
efficient organizers. Bishop Lewis, of Kingston, was also a very active
worker, aud the nominal head of the College. Quite a handsome endowment
fund was subscribed for its support, ami it entered tbe list with a fair attendance a fine staff of Professors, and every prospect of a biilliant future, It
was found, however, that the great delay and inconvenience in connection
with visiting the place, caused by lack of travelling facilities—particularly
in the winter sunson—soon caused the. attendance to drop off, and prevented
fresh accessions to the ranks of the students ; so it was closed after about
five years' operation. The building, which is now occupied by Arthur W.
11.■i.i.u'i n Esq., was a delightful place in every respect, for tbe purposes for
which it was intended. It was built by Col.- Ryland, of Montreal, and is at
nreaent one of the finest private residences in the country.
1    M.i.itary.—Picton is the head quarters of the 16thRegiment of Voli
rs, a body of men. so well
! country, that they need
nine companies, but the j
l the military circles of
It formerly consisted
. by the Government in
military matters during the last'few years has had its effect here, as well as
elsewhere throughout the country, and three very line companies were disbanded and "gazetted out" As the Regiment now stands, the Field, Staff
and Line Officers are as follows:—
Lieut-Col. "Walter Ross, M.P. ; Major, Bvt. Lt.-Col. Bog; Paymaster,
Captajn Walter T. Ross; Quartermaster, Captain Donald Ross ; Surgeon,
Dr. Piatt; Assistant Surgeon, Dr. IngersohV
No. 1 Company, Piston; Cant J. J. Fralick, Ensign Aylesworth.
No. 2-Company, MUford'; Capt. Ostrander, Lieut. Ackermair, Ensign
No. 3 Company. Milford; Capt. Van Dusen, Lieut. Craig.
No. i Company, IHcton; Capt. Johnston, Lieut. Foster.
No. 5'Company, RednersvilU; Capt. Dempsey, Lieut. Anderson, Ensign
No. 6 Company, Moblin's Mills ; Capt Peterson, Lieut. RotliwelL
Cavalry.—Picton is also head-quarters of "D" Troop, 4th Regiment
Cavalry, Lt.-Col. Duff, with head quarters at Kingston. The officers of the
Troopare, Captain, Major White ; 1st Lieut H. McCullough ; 2nd Lieut
Lieut-Col Ross, of the 16th'Regt. is now the senior Colonel of this
Military District.
During the rebellion of 1837-8, Prince Edward raised and sent to the front
two companies of infantry, and one of cavalry, besides detachments for tbe
Artillery and Engineers. One of these companies was put into Cob Taylor's
Regiment, and dad service in the Western Peninsula, at Sandwich, and Fort
Maiden. The other marched to Toronto, York, and was put into Col. Kings-
mill's Regiment, which did duty there while the troublous times Listed. This
company was commanded by Capt Flagler—Wm. Dempsey, Lieut.—and
named themselves "Tbe Queen's Own," from the fact that when marching
over the camping place, Capt. vVilkins witnessed their *' march past," and
was so pleased therewith that he involuntarily exclaimed, " Look ! the
Queen's Own '. '." On arriving at York, the question of a name for the
regiment came up, and Lieut. Dempsey suggested his company's self-assumed
name, which was adopted; and in this way that splendid regiment "The
Queen's Own," of Toronto, came by its title.
The cavalry troop was commanded by Capt., afterwards Lt-CoL the
Hon. Robt Charles Wilkins, and were stationed in detachments along the
Danforth road, between Carrying Place and the "Old Marsh Tavern," 5
miles above Port Hope. Prince Edward is embraced in the third Military
District, the head-quarters of which are at Kingston.
Navigation.—The splendid natural facilities of Picton, as a shipping
point, have already been referred to. The county is well supplied with the
best of shipping facilities on every side, but the. advantages by Picton in
other lines of business, which outside points do not possess, draw the great
bulk of the produce of the county to its warehouses. The amount of all
kinds of produce, including stock, annually passing over Picton Bay is immense. The only figures we have at hand are those of the TJ. S. Consular
Agent at this Port, John Quincy Sullivan, Esq., and include direct shipment
to the U. S. during 1877, and up to 30th Nov., of that year; 162,066 bushels barley, 10,605 bushels peas, 11,675 bushels rye, 48 bushels potatoes, 61
barrels apples, 4,851 dozen eggs, 295 hides, 34 cows, 2,084 sheep, representing a total value of $111,570.38. The small negsfcf these figures is accounted
for by the fact that most of the Picton buyers deal in Kingston ; and the
steamers hence to the U.S. calling there, they take out Consul's certificates
at tbe Utter place. A leading produce dealer estimates that about a quarter
million of bushels of grain pass over Picton harbor annually, and that an
average of at least 10,000 barrels of apples is annually shipped from this port
to Montreal and the Maritime Provinces.
Insurance.—Almost every Insurance Company operating in Canada—
whether fire, life, marine, accident, or guarantee—has an agency in Picton,
The reason is to be found in the fact, that being central, and easy of access
from all parts of the District, aud the only town in the county, the fanners
all centre in to that place to do their trading, and consequently their Insurance business also. There are two companies having their head offices here.
"The Prince Edward County Mutual Fire Insurance Company" is the name,
of the one, which is represented by the following officers:—
President, Lewis B. Stinson, who is also Manager and Inspector; Vice-  ■
President, John Prinyer ; Secretary, C. D. Morden ; Treasurer and Solicitor^'
Philip Low,'Q.C. ; Directors, Lewis B. Stinson, John Van Alstine, A; H.
Taylor, T. B. Hubbs, John Prinyer, George Martin, Carleton McCartney.
The " Prince Edward" does a large and prosperous business ; careful management, economy, and square dealing having succeeded in reducing the expenses of the insurer as nearly as possible to the long desired basis of " Insurance at Cost," which so many stock companies chum with more assurance
than honesty.
The other is the " Bay Qnint| Mutual Fire Insurance Co." The officers
are as below :—
President, Archelaus Southard; Vice-President, Andrew Wycott; Secretary, Frederick Dodge; Treasurer and Solicitor, R. S. Roblin ; Directors,
Robert Carson, John Murney, R. R, BurUngham, William. Blokeley, William^
G. Stafford, David R, Spencer, Thomas Welbanks.
This is a comparatively young company, but it has already succeeded in
securing a fair share of the Insurance business of those sections of the country
in which it operates.
Masonic.—Prince Edward Chapter of Royal Arch Masons, No. 31, G. R.
C, is held at Picton.    Following are the officers :—
Z., Wm. Smealon; H., D. W. Allison ; J., T. N. Van Blaricom; S. E.,
A. J. Corkindale-; S. N., Wellington Boulter ; P. S., James Tennent; S. S.
William Lawson; J. S., W. H. Orchard; Janitor, P. McFaddeh.
There is a Blue Lodge held here, viz.: Prineu Edward Lodge, A. F. and
A. M., No. 18, G. R, C,, of which tbe following are the present officers :—
W. M, William Lawson ; S. W., N. B. Rose ; J. W., E Blakeley;
Sec, Wm. Smeaton; Trees., Wm. P. Reynolds; S. D., Lucius Hart; J
D., Samuel Minaker; J. G., James W. Barker; Tyler, Patrick McFadden.
The masonic district includes Froutenac, Lennox and Addington. Hastings, and Prince Edward. Donald Ross, of Picton, previous to tbe present
year, held the position of D. D. G. M. for three successive years.
Meteorological and Climatic—We owe it to the interest in science of
Levi Varuey, Esq., of Hallowell, that we ore acquainted with the climatic
changes and rainfall for a period of nearly a decade. Tbe figures were obtained by careful'daily observations at 6 o'clock a.m., and at 1 and 6 p.m.,
with the thermometer in the shade on the north side of the house.
jJ3"The lowest tem
perature is below zero,
indicated  by  tbe sign
(—} minus.
*3" The   observation
in 1865 extends through
only 11  months.    All
but mean temperature
[is eon sequently omit ted. XVI.
The annual rainfall for six years
commencing with 1860, is as follows :—
22.53—(11 months)
It will be seen from above that the •highest temperature in eight years
was 92°, and the lowest 29°, or a range in eight years of 121°. The
greatest range during any single year was 116°, and the lowest 95°. The
highest mean temperatrue of any single year was 46.43°, and the lowest
44.25°, or a range of 2.18° of mean temperature iu eight years.
The difference in the yearly rainfall is proportionately greater than the
variation of the temperature. The lowest depth falling during a single year
was 24.13 inches, aud tbe highest 36.93 inches, a range of 12.80 inches—
the greatest fall being 50.17 per cent, more than tbe least, over a period of
JivTS years.
Aqhioultural. —The Prince Edward County Agricultural Society is iu
a most flourishing and prosperous condition, owning one of the finest fair
grounds of any county society in the Province. It boasts of a delightful
situation, and for convenience of location, and excellence of appointments,
is all that could be suggested or desired. The main building, for the display of manufactures and arts, is a fine commodious structure, containing
plenty of room and all facilities for the purposes for which it was designed ;
while the grounds are supplied with sheds and all conveniences for tbe proper care of stock, &c There is a house on the premises, built expressly for,
and occupied by, a caretaker, kept constantly on permanent salary, to attend
to tbe grounds and look after the general interests of the society. The
value of the property approaches very near §600. Below are the officers for
the present year:—
President, Wellington Boulter, - Demorestville; 1st Vice-Prest., D.
Spencer, Rose Hall; 2nd Vice-Prest, Isaac Minaker, Picton; Sec. and
Treas., R. S. Roblin, Picton ; Andrew Davidson, Q. A. Welbanks, R. G.
Davis, W. G. Stafford, Stephen B. Hubbs, W. B. Cooper, Robert McCartney, H, H. Huycbj, and Allen Caven, Directors.
The receipts last year were over 31,900, of which upwards of §400 were
paid out to township societies. Membership last year 249, which is about
the yearly average.
We make a note of the various cereals, &c., which are chiefly grown in
the different townships. There is one agricultural interest, however, which
aU centres to Picton to find market, and for this reason we propose to give
our readers an idea of the great cheese product of the county. As is very well
known, this industry has grown from very smaU beginnings within a few years,
to be oue of paramount importance. Every farmer is directly interested in it,
and the English cheese reports are as eagerly watched by the agriculturists
here as are the New York and Chicago wheat markets by the millers and
speculators of Western Ontario. With the probable exception of BeUeville
and IngersolL Picton is tbe greatest cheese market in Canada. There are
twenty-six factories in the county, twenty-three of which are now in operation and running full. iSoing of these are very valuable establishments, and
all am furnished with modern and most approved appliances for the manufacture of a first-class article of that staple, in the production of which so
much capital has been invested, and for the quality of which Prince Edward is
justly regarded as the choicest brand in the English market. Oue of the principal buyers (Mr. W. Crandall) estimates the cash value of these factories at over
$45,000, many of them having cost over $3,000 each to build. A fair average number of cows to each would be two hundred and fifty (this is under
rather than over the mark). Compared with the stock of other parts of the
country they are good. A fab: estimate of the value of all those annuals (iu
the spring season) would be, without fractions, $208,000. Then there must
be at least $12,000 represented in various traps connected with the business
not before counted—such as waggons, &c, making a total, approximately,
of $265,000 invested. The number of boxes average 25,000 per season,
varying in value, of course, according to the fluctuations of the markets.
Some years $200,000 worth of cheese has been made. Mr. Crandall has
handled over $75,000 himself in one season at Picton. He is the principal
buyer, though there are a number of others.
The Prince Edward horses have been a household word among stockmen all over the country for many years past; and where people have good
stock they like to show their good qualities, particularly if those qualities
run iu the direction of speed. Consequently we are not surprised to
find in Picton one of the finest specimens ol a driving park, which we remember to have seen anywhere. The course is admitted by sporting men
everywhere to be the best half-mile track in the Dominion. Everything
which couM.be improvised for the best display of the speeding qualities of
the stock, and the comfort and convenience of visitors has been provided
with a lavish hand, and horsemen from all parts are loud in their praises of
the judgment and liberality of the Picton Driving Park Association.
Having now briefly touched upon the main points of interest of Hallowell and Picton—those points which strike the outside observer as most
worthy of note—we will take leave of it for a season with a few retrospective and commonplace remarks.
The present town of Picton, dating from its first settlement, is now
nearly a century oM. Within its time many and great changes have occurred—not in our own country alone, but throughout the world. The
great majority of mankind, who knew of the events transpiring in their
several parts of the universe, when Picton was the embryo town of Hallowell Bridge, have long since done their work among their fellows and passed
off the stage of action, and the places that once knew them will know them
no more forever. Still there are some few—aud they are very few indeed
—still living, who lived before the foot of the white man ever trod the
shores of the Picton Bay. What a strange and wonderful experience has
been theirs J Born in a day when this—the finest province of the '' Crown
Jewel" of the first nation in the world had yet no existence, they have seen
an unbroken wilderness reclaimed from a primeval state of nature aud give
place to fertile fields of waving corn; and the spots which, at their advent,
resounded but to the scream of the eagle, the cry of the panther, or the
war-whoop of the savage, are now busy centres of life and industry. Under
their own eye they have seen this country have its origin iu the wrestling
from the British Crown, another, which has since become a leading nation
iu population, riches, power, trade and commerce, and all the mechanical
arts. They have seen their own country grow from a "great unknown
Northland " to be second only to the one whose revolt from Britain was
war and enjoyed tin
lir countrymen have
stories have been the
' rugged nature—the
en conquered by the
bile steam and elec-
The birch-bark canoe and
the origin of this, They have suffered th
blessings of peace in their own home;
never yielded in the tug of war, still th
victories of peace—the victory of humm
victory of mind over matter. Forest an
pioneer's axe and ploughshare of the hi
tiicity have annihilated time and space-
broils batteaux have given place to magnificent floating palaces propelled by
steam; land journeys, instead of being made on foot or horseback, are accomplished in luxurious palace cars; and the antipodes are visited	
tune and with greater facilities than those pioneers of olden time could
make the distance from New York to Picton in the century which gave
them birth.
This, in our own eountry 1 whilo in the old world mighty empires have
.' Jen and mightier have crumbled to ruin.    Napoleon, an unknown private
j soldier, bos given haws to the world—adorned his capital with tbe spoils
and treasures of nations conquered, and made emperors and kings for every
kingdom and empire worth governing, save Britain alone.
This also has been a century of the decline of what has been known as
"State" churches, connected with different religious faiths — whether
founded by tbe blood of the conqueror's sword, or upon that of Christ, the
Saviour. We have seen the "States of the Church" gravitate to Italy,
where they properly belong, and the "Eternal City" become again the
capital of a mighty empire. Nearer home we have seen the " Established "
Church disestablished, and the ban removed from an oppressed and despised religious sect, one of whom now rules the destiny of Great Britain,
and is to-day the admitted foremost man of all the world. And we see at
the present hour the disintegration of an empire built up by religious fanaticism, which has ruled by the sword for many centuries the brad of the
Apostles and the Holy Sepulchre, and ground to tbe dust, for their conscience sake, the finest Christian provinces of Europe. And while we read
of aU these signs that the nations are gradually drawing closer to that
period of religious toleration, which is the nearest approach yet experienced
to the Christian millennium, Britain still rules the wave, aa of old, and the
red cross—the " flag that braved a thousand years the battle and tho
breezo," still waves triumphant over half the world—the proud emblem of
an empire on whose shores the sun never sets.
When we contemplate the vast amount of history and the rapid succession of tremendous events which have crowded into the time when Picton
first was "Hallowell Bridge," we are lost iu "-wouder, love and praise" of
that Supreme Ruler who has made us what we are and the world as we see
it to-day. The thought inspires with awe, and fills us with a patriotic wish
that He may so direct our affairs as to make Canada what it bids fair promise under His blessing to become—a land whose Christian virtues are the
foundation and cope-stone of a greatness and prosperity more durable than
brass, and whose glory and grandeur shall remain for the admiration of
future ages.
The original " Ten Towns " of Upper Canada were so called from the
number of tbe order iu which they were surveyed, and from the fact that
instructions were issued from time to time by the British Government to
survey one township after another, as each in succession became either
"located"by grant or actual settlement; or, as the tide of emigration
pushed tbe furthest settlements, as was sometimes the case, beyond the
territory last laid out. Up to the time of the survey of the last of the ten
above referred to, they were officially known by their respective numbers,
" First Town," 2 Second Town," etc., and for many years after they continued to be so caUed by the Settlers. After the " Tenth Town " was
surveyed, however, the authorities adopted the plan of naming instead of
numbering them as they were laid out, and at the same time gave names
to the " Ten Towns " as follows :—The first, in honour of the Monarch of
Great Britain, was called King's Town, which afterwards was abbreviated
to Kingston; the second was named after the eighth chdd of the King
Ernest Town, afterwards Ernestown; the third Fredericksburg, after the
King's second son ; the fourth Adolphustown, in honour of the tenth member of the Royal Family. Then came Marysburg, Sophiasburg, and
Ameliasburg, in the order named, and called thus in honour of Mary,
Amelia, and Sophia, Princesses of the Royal Household, and the eleventh,
twelfth, and fifteenth children respectively of tbe King. Though the
eighth, ninth, and tenth towns were not in Prince Edward County, yet
they may be appropriately referred to in this connection. They were
named in the following order—Sidney, Thurlow, and Richmond—the former
iu honour cf Lord Sidney, the British Colonial Secretary during the Revolutionary War; the others after Lord Thurlow and the Duke of Richmond.
It will be seen from the map of the Province that the two former townships
are in Hastings County, and the bitter in Lennox, and that between them
lies a stretch of land apparently missed by the surveyors in laying out the
"Ten Towns." This, however, simply obtained its "metes and bounds,"
and was granted in a block to the Six Nations, and called iu honour of
their Chief, Thayendenagea, which was in time abbreviated to Tyendenaga.
A full description of these townships appears under tbe proper bead.
Tbe fifth, sixth, and seventh towns above-named originally comprised
the whole of Prince Edward County, which was thus called in. honour of
the Prince of that name, son of George III., who afterwards became tbe
Duke of Kent aud father of Queen Victoria.
We have no accurate data as to the bounds of the original township of
Marysburg, as parts of what are now Hallowell and Athol were included
in the Fifth Town—the northern portion of the remainder being also taken
off to form a separate municipality quite recently. Though, as at present
constituted, Marysburg is far from being tbe most important township in
the county, it claims notice in this order from the fact that it is the oldest
—as to the survey—of any in tbe county. It is also churned for it that
CoL Henry C. Young settled at East Lake—then Marysburg, afterwards
Hallowell, and now Athol—in 1788, the first actual settler in the county.
(See Athol. ) This, however, is disputed on apparently good authority, by
the Weeses, and many others of Ameliasburg.    (See Ameliasburg.)
We will here remark that Marysburg at present consists of two distinct
municipalities—North and South—the former having had an independent
corporate existence since January 1st, 1871. All that is now therefore left
of what was originaUy considerably more than one-third of the whole
Peninsula, is a tract of 23,741 acres of land of an extremely irregular
shape, called South Marysburg—the main portion of which is bounded on
the north by Prince Edward, or South Bay ; on the north-east by parts of
North Marysburg, Hallowell, and Athol; on the south-east, also by the
township of Athol; and on the south by Lake Ontario. That portiou
known as "Long Point" extends in an easterly direction into Lake
Ontario, terminating at Point Traverse. The shelter formed by Long Pointy
from tbe winds and waves of Lake Ontario constitute South Bay, one of the
finest harbours of refuge, in every respect, of which the great inland lakes
can boast; while the geographical position of Point Traverse renders the
harbour easy of approach in any weather. This township, as compared
with others of the couuty, is admittedly the poorest of all, being valued at
an average of but nineteen dollars per acre, by the " Equalization of Assess-
meat" Committee of the County Council—the next lowest being twenty-
four dollars per acre. Notwithstanding this, there are numerous exceptionally fine farms and many wealthy farmers in the township. Topographically, the county may be described as principally of an even face, with
occasional and considerable breaks of a somewhat irregular character, to
which a stronger term than "undulating" might justly be applied; geologically, its composition is in a high degree calcareous, the limestone
coming to the surface with such prominence as to render the soil in manv
places incapable of sustaining vegetable growth through seasons of continual drought. Other parts are less rocky.and more sandy, while some
sections with rocky foundation have still enough of soil on top to make the
land less susceptible to lack of moisture, and where it is thus, the soil is
almost always of excellent quality, aud responds most liberally to the touch
of the husbandman. To repeat a much-used expression, the farmer tickles
bis land with the plough, and it laughs with a bountiful harvest. But, in
face of the fact that South Marysburg, taken as a whole, is below the
average of excellence, yet the industry and enterprise of its inhabitants
have covered it with comfortable and, in many cases, beautiful homes,
commodious schools, fine churches, and everytliing tending to constitute it
a prosperous and thriving community. This end has been attained by
careful cultivation, proper rotation of crops, and a strict attention to business, for which the inhabitants of this section of the country have long and
justly been noted.
ited tbe
barns, of the differer
Of the early mu:
ignorance; the first
being after the pnssnj
Barley, rye, oats, buckwheat, hops, and corn are the chief agricultural
products. There are also large quantities of fruit raised, chiefly apples,
though all kinds grow here in as great luxuriance and to as great perfection
as in any country of similar latitude and corresponding climate.
As can be seen by a glance at the map, the facilities for shipping are
very great; the wharves and store-houses being so numerous along the
shores that the farmer is obliged to go but a very short distance to market
his grain. This very fact, which equally applies to the other townships of
the county, renders it difficult to obtain anything like a correct account of
tbe exports, except in case of such articles as gravitate to a common centre
—notably cheese, which is a paramount in this as in other parts of the
county. This staple is all marketed at Picton, and in the sketch of that
place will be found some reliable information in regard to the cheese
The first settlers, in what is now South -Marysburg were tbe Moncks,
Hicks, Colliers, Lbneys, Martins, and Ostranders, along tbe south shore;
the Hubbs, Ellis, Minakers, and Ackermans, along South Bay; and tbe
Clapps, Garrisons, Van Dusens, Van Vlacks, Van Alstines, Wellbanka,
Palens," Heads, and Dulmages, in the vicinity of Black River and Milford.
Most of the above were IT. E. Loyalists or their families. Some were discharged British soldiers-
James Gerollamy was a very old resident, one of the first in the township. He was a U. E. Loyalist and quite young when be came to Canada.
He performed important service for the British during the Revolutionary
War, and the Government granted him one thousand acres of land. The
war of 1812-13 again found him under the Royal Standard, together with
Ms two sons, all of whom distinguished themselves by performing arduous
and important services of the most daring and dangerous character.
The Hicks above-mentioned were descended from Edward Hicks, who,
with Ma father, was condemned as a spy by the Americans, who had captured them while acting in that capacity. The father was- taken from
prison at Boston and hung before his sou's eyes, which aroused bis fury to
Buch a pitch that he broke from bis confinement, slew tbe armed guard
while yet handcuffed ; and though closely pursued and unable to release
his hands from the manacles, he succeeded iu eluding his enemies, aud'
after nine days of fasting and untold suffering be reached the British lines.
The first school in the township was taught in' a log shanty, long since in
ruins, where Milford now stands ; and the first religious services were performed for a long time by traveUing Methodist ministers, who periodically
and held meetings at the houses, and sometimes in the
t settlers in turns.
licipal history of Marysburg-we [remain in comparative
official records iu the possession of tbe Township Clerk
of the Municipal Act in 1850, from which we learn
that the followipgwere the town officers for that year:—Andrew Wyeott,
Reeve,; John GJ Hicks, James Clapp, and Alexander Ghannon, councillors ;
Richard Lobb, clerk.
In 1851, Palen Clarke was Reeve, and'Richard* Lobb again Clerk, whose
duties he continued to perform in 1852, when E. W. Wright was reeve. In
1858, tbe first Deputy-Reeve was sent to the County Council from Marysburg.
The following gentlemen held the positions respectively credited to them
during that year :—Palen Clarke, Reeve; Lewis Hudgins, Deputy-Reeve.;
Robert Turnbull, Clerk. Mr. Turnbull has performed the duties appertaining t
to the above position ever since.
From thence forward the following gentlemen filled the offices of Reeve and
Deputy-Reeve respectively :—In 1854, Messrs. Clarke and Hudgins; in 1855,
Messrs. Lobb and Nelson Dodge ; in 1856 and 1857, Nelson Dodge and Lewis
Hudgins ; in 1858, Messrs. Cavan and Thompson ; in 1859 and 1860, John
G. Hicks and Robert Clapp j in 1861, James Cavan and Nelson Dodge ; in,
1862, Nelson Dodge and William Lane ; in 1863, William Kerr and John
Cavan ; in 1864, John Cavan and John Prinyer; in 1866, John Prinyer and
James Wilson; from 1867 to 1870 inclusive, Robert Clapp and Andrew -
Wyeott H
In January, 1871, North Marysburg was incorporated as a separate municipality. South Marysburg continned to be represented as follow*:—In 1871
and 1872, by Messrs. Dodge and Collier ; in'l873 and 1874, by Messrs. Clapp
and Van Alstine; in 1875 and 1876, by James Henry Knox and Nelson
Hudgins; and in 1877, by J. H. Knox and Solomon Collier.
Below we give a complete list of town officers for the year 1878 :—Tames
Henry Knox, Reeve; Nelson Hudgins, Deputy-Reeve ;" Benjamin Hubbs,
John Walters, and Carleton McCartney, Councillors; Robert Turnbull, Clerk;
Garrett Dingman, Treasurer and Poor Commissioner j Marshall Palen, Road
Surveyor; George A. Welbanks, Assessor; Samuel Ostrander and George
P. Farrington, Collectors.
There was a Town Hall (already built), purchased at Milford in 1864, at*
a cost of $400.
There are four post villages in the township, viz., Milford, Port Milford,
Cardwell, and South Bay. At the latter three places, notably at Port Milford (which contains an office of tbe Montreal Telegraph Co.), quite a large
amount of shipping is done.
MiLFOflD, however, is the most important point in the township. It
takes its name from a pumber of mills here, erected at an early day, on the
banks of Black River; the first of which was built by Mr. Clapp, a U. E.
Loyalist, and the second settler in the place. Some interesting facte in regard
to ite early settlement will be found in our sketch of Robert Clapp, Esq., a
grandson of the above-named gentleman, who is now one of the leading men
of tbe place. °
The military spirit of their ancestors still fills the breasts of tbe inhabitants, there being two full companies of the 16th Regiment having their bead-
quarters here.   The second division court of the county is also held here;
■ S--1F1,1,ght ls.Clerk of tlle Court- an« diehard Lobb, Bailiff.
Milford was m some respects tbe leading place in the county for many
years It wa« the depot of the lumber tradTfm-fhe whole county, tbe southern
part of which was covered with a dense forest of as fine pine and oak timber
•^eyergrew. It was also a great sporting centre at one time; but with the
failure of the lumber trade Milford lost its former prestige, though it is stiU a
pleasant village, containing three or four stores, cardingTgrist, and saw-mills,
a graded school, two churches, telegraph office, two Tiotels, boot and shoe
shops etc, etc., and a number of private residences which would be extremely
creditable to a town of much largerdimensions and more ambitious pretensions.
a called int<
This township
■ an Act of Pari
iy, it may be d
.unty, of the av
lat part of Bay Qu
■ —rounded on it
which took effect Janut
l arm of the ma
one and a half t.
eighteen miles in a
rally narallel p
t by the Eastern Bi
rn end and st
the body,
south alio
the Mountaii
nsbip of HaJIo-
rg, thei
'    1 within
:' 23,800 i
y 1st, 1871.
i body of Pi
three miles.
ell till i
$i  n
n  m 1
IPs* >J # ..
Bri **•
W: *
Stock Farh of -Hej-jry, Edward 8c StephejsI  JoseXurlo X-r-HastijTgs Co. OjX
4%    <- r
^* 86
Allen, Join	
Blakely, John	
Beckett, William .   ..
Bognrt, A. L.	
Barber, James	
Badgley, William	
Clare, G. a...'.'.'...'...'.'.
Clare, James	
Caskey, Robert ...'.
Coumoyer, Antoine...
Detlor, John McG.. ..
Davis, Rev. Thomas ..
Eastbrook, George.....
Farrell, James	
Famsworth, John	
Foster, J. E	
Tree, A......
Tinkle, Henry	
Gordon, Robert	
Graham, John 	
Gilbert, A H	
Graham, Thomas	
Graham, William	
GabourieL Joseph	
Gordon, Robert	
Graham, Thomas.	
Grills, Thomas	
Gartland, Joseph	
Huyck, I. C	
Hicks, William	
Harrison, John 	
Johnston, S. C	
, Wjllia
Porter, R
Parks, Gilbert..
Robinson, Robe
Eoblin, Ivy	
Reynolds, J. T
Roblin, B
Sayers, Robert..
Sherry, Forbes..
Stokes, Thomas.
Smith, Thomas
Tnttle, L„ M.D
Tinley, William
Trumper, Mrs.
Tracy, Joseph...
Turkington, D»
Tandnsen, A.M
White, William
! W.,
r T.
, Mrs)
nd Shingle Mill.
k Raiser..
o   Fa
ek Grower
■» P
[   Merchan
and Parmer:	
•>   Fa
4   Fa
ik Grower
6 Fa
nd Shoe Store	
5 Fa
1)   Fa
6 Fa
ck Grower
7   Err
id St
ek Grower
3   K.
3   Fa
and Flour
.k Grower,
ck Grower
3   Fa
d Sir
ck Raiser.
7   Fa
6   Fa
12  Fa
21 IFa
.    \\
1 1
id Taj
ck Raiser.
rri'age Ma'k
8  Fs
22   Fa
8  Ft
10  Fa
edeTof Fin
2 Rr
9  Sa
and Planing Fact
i |Ft
nd Ktr
ek Grower
6   Fr
id Stn
ck Raiser..
17   Fa
2   Fs
ck Grower
ck Grower
... M
 i Ge
rend Merchants, and P. Mas
iggon and Carriage Maker ...
iprietor Munro Honse™*..,,.
C      8   Pr
oprietor Saw Mill, GriKMuf
Warding Macbine	
9      s  Fa
rmer and Stock Grower	
l, Chemist and
t, and Gene
ral Dry Goods,
r lor the Co
anty |
id Breeder
£ good Horses
nd Stock G
nd Dairyina
id Dnrggist.
Alkenbrack, W,*
Ashley, George U
Ashley, William
Ashley, Simeon.
Archibald, Williai
Ashley, J. M	
Alkenbrack Samu
Bailey, Arthur C.
Brenton, P. W..,
7 Farmer
W, Huntangd'i
in Co-
POST OFFICE,     Con.  Lot-
. W. Huntingd'
. Halloway   ...
Darling, William.
Da-foe, George ....
Downey, John . .,
Downey, It	
Dix, Margaret Jan.
I Dockstator, T. G.,
Garner, L.	
gaggerty, James
Hagerman, H. C
Herity, L.	
Hamilton, Willia
Hockey, James..
iHoIden, Sylveste
Holgate, C. A....
Holdeu, Sylveste
LHoskins, Ira ...
Hewitt, John...,
, Ow
, Philip
Ketcheson, Elijal
Kilpatrick, Samu
lLafferty, John ...
Lidster, G. C	
Lancaster, Robert
, William .
, "W. H. ...
, Alexandei
Mullett, E. B.
dartyn, CI
1833   Roe
d, J. W
1840   Rev
1843   Sni
1845    Say
nolds, I
d, John
ler, An
ere. Job
. W. Huntingd'n
. I Ivanhoe    I"
"         10
Fuller U..N
Boalin .'.
Ivanboe <    7
FuUer      B
Tweed     10
Thomasburg ..]   8
Moira..      2
Thomasburg ...j
W. Huntingd'n!
Ivanboe ..|
W. Huntingd'n
Thomasburg .
Moira ......
Halloway   ,.
.Ivanhoe    10
Moira      3
.Ivanboe       9
W. Huntingd'i
W, Huntingd'n
Fuller  j
Moira '
Roslin....'.".'.". i
W. Hnntingd'nl
Ivanhoe |
Thomasburg ...j
Tweed .....\
Halloway  .... I
..Thomasburg ...
.. W. Huntingd'n
Schryver, G. R	
Seely, Lyman W....
Thompsou, Charles .
Thrasher, Zadock ...
Tulloch, James	
Thompson, Geo.».
Tweedy, John
.. & Son..
, D	
bright. Jarne
Wickens, Wi]
W. Huntingd'n
W. Huntingd'n
Ivanhoe.   ... ..
W. Huntingd'E
farmer and Thresher
Hotel Keeper	
■"     icr and Stock H,r
id General Ag.
iage Licenses .
United States .
United States .
armer snd Sto
^armer and Rt
United State.
United State.
loot and Shoe Make
of   the    Celebra
mining Mill...;....
Farmer, Stone Cutter and Builder
.Contractor, Builder & Manufacture
Carriage Builder it Gen. Blaeksir.it
.'armer and Post Master
meral Blacksmith.
1855 ■
1854 .
. 1821-r,
1841 IS*
' 1SU
Allen, Thomas, Sr..... Cooper..
Allen, William.)	
Atkins, W. H	
Aylsworth, C. F.	
Armstrong, John.	
Knakoll, K. II	
Broad, Joshua	
Brooks, CM	
Bonk, Thomas.	
Bnrnside, Robert....
Blair, John	
Blackburn. John	
Bo wen ft Ellis	
Bull, Henry	
Blair. William	
Bond, Mary	
Blair, Sarah	
Curtis, A. —
Clother, Lorenzo D...
Caskey, John  Cooper
Caskey, Samuel I •—
Carman, John 'Madoc
Caverly, Joseph
Chard, Peter ....
Caskey, James.
Coe, William.. I
Clapp, Philip	
,, W. H	
Cooper ^	
Dingman, Oliver....
Dilyea, Samuel	
Dunn, 0. W	
Dulmage, William.. .
Dnlmage, 0. S	
--Dunn, J. H	
Dougan, William....
Dougau, Robert
Dunn, John M	
Eagleson, James	
Kmpey, Levins .*. —
English, Charles	
Furrcll, David	
Farrell, Fitzmaurice.
Fox, William	
Fox, Charles	
Fox, John	
Ferguson, William...
Farrell, Richard	
Grcam, Charles	
Glover, Alexander....
Gawley, Henry	
(idIfii, John	
Green, Charles E ...
Gray, R. T	
Garey, John	
Hart, Thomas.	
Harper, J /....
Huffman. J. \V	
Jones, W. H	
Johnson, 0. B.	
i, Jai
J. R....
A. M. .
Seltlrd , ■
1 Jan nock bur ii...
" John..
unci .,
McCallum, William...
McLeod, Hugh J.	
McNsmara, John	
Mackintosh, William.
Maybee, Marshall	
Maitland, James.....
Moore, John	
Moore, TV?!	
Moore, Albert	
Moore, John N	
Mullet t, William	
Mullett, Walter	
; Murphy, Peter, Jr....
Montgomery, William
• Moxley, Joseph A	
■ Nickle, John	
O'Flynn, E. D. & Bro.
Orr, J. A- & Bro. . ...
O'Hara, James, Jr....
O'Riordan, Robert....
"     ;Rnfi
Bridge water..
gle,W. H.
Phillips, William..
Pigden, Joseph	
Ross, A. B	
Robertson, John...
Rose, George W....
Rimington, John ..
Roy, William.	
Iteid, John	
Richardson, John..
Roblin, W. A	
Uowe, G. D	
Rollins, Robert....
Rollins, Samuel	
Simmons, Robert	
Shsltry, Joseph. j
Saudford; Peter	
Sandford, Ebeneaer...
St. Charles. John	
22 {Parmer (Post Master at Cooper) 4
i   Collector of Town       Ireland ....
23 Parmer and Councillor [Canada	
....Central Store and Shoemaker Canada	
4   Farmer, I'.l.-S.&C.E.Ins.of C.roodaCanada	
....(Gentleman [Scotland	
 j Bookkeeper. England	
11 Farmer and Stock Rsiser Canada	
-- Groceries, Liquors and Provisions.. Canada	
7 ' Farmer snd Stock Raiser „.  Canada	
9 Farmer and Road Contractor Ireland	
21   Farmer and Stock Rsiser. Ireland	
.... !Post Master, &c  .... Canada	
....   Bakers Canada	
2 1 Farmer and Bailiff Canada	
28   Farmer and Stock Raiser        ... 'Ireland	
26   Farming.   !Ireland. ..
28 Farming....   Canada	
0 Farmer and Stock Raiser United States..
12 Carpenter and Joiner,.  Canada..   ..
24 Farmer and Cheese Manufacturer.. Canada	
20 [Farmer and Stock Raiser. [Ireland	
20   Farmer and Stock Raiser. ! England ...
 Carriage and Sleigh Manufacturer.. Canada	
— Custom and Merchant Miller iCsnsdn	
29 Farmer snd Stock Raiser Canada	
 Miner , .. England	
10 Former  ...Canada...
1 Farmer and Stock Raiser. Canada...
1   Farmer and Stock Raiser        Canada...
14 Carpenter and Joiner. ... .... Canada ...
....(Agent for Agricultural Implements..Canada ...
... Canada	
.. Canada	
.._ United States .
../Canada ...
. .' Canada	
. . Ireland.	
.._ Canada	
... Ireltnd	
.. Ireland	
- ICanada
,.   Scotland
.. (Ireland	
.. 'England.	
.. | England	
...I Canada.	
.. England	
. .Ireland	
... Canada.	
..United States..
22  Farmer and Stock Breeder..
12 Carriage Maker ....
2 Parmer and Stock Raiser..  .
3 ' Fanner and Stock Raiser	
3 Farmer and Stock Raiser ...
4 Farmer and Stock Raiser	
13 Farmer and Stock Raiser	
19 [Farmer and Stock Raiaer	
21 (Farmer and Councillor	
Farmer and Stock lta<tor	
Farmer and Stock Rsiser	
Farmer, Carpenter and Joiner .J
Carpenter and Joiner	
Farmer and Stock Breeder	
Railroad Contractor	
and Stock Raiser	
Farmer and Stock Raiser	
Farmer and Stock Raiser	
Farmer and Stock Raiaer	
General Merchant ....
Sash and Door Factory	
Farmer and Stock Raiser	
Baker and Grocer....
rtner and Stock Raiser	
Farmer and Stock Raiser....
; 1832
; 1820
Sandford, C- W....
[Seymour, Kind. K ..
Lseymour, Horace...
Stout. Adam	
j Puller, Wareham	
"Kumdtry, T. B.	
[Thompson, Charles..
{Puller, W. H... .
(Thompson, James ....
Vjtnkfetk, 1*.	
Wood, A. F	
[Weiss, E. L.	
Wellington, J. W...
Wanainaker, 8   H.,..
Wanamaker, John.. ,
Whytock, -lames. ....
Weiss, Louis.........
C sited Stab*..
MADOC    IOM \N|||i*    < uNiiiiiiril
23 j Farmer and Stork RaJnr ...
1 [Farmer  	
6 {Farmer and Stock Itaiavr
1   Farmer ...UUUUU^njtMStajS
3 .Farmer and Stock Raiser . .  . I
28   General Store ami Mill W right	
1    Fanner nml StockRotor, »>..
3   Fanner ami Stock Itaiacr ...I
25 'Fanner and Dmty Rsmm... Uj
. ... Rwvo of aUrdoc Township	
.. .   Watchmaker	
 Butchir .„„,.	
24 Fanner	
20 ' Farmer and Stock Raiavr	
 General Merchant  Scotland
  Boot and Shoo Maker. .Cemun-J
Ban i.n.- k burn
iMadoc I
1 lrl.1
P3ST OFFICE.    Ooa-
Ackers, Frederick	
Brown, Philip, Junr.
Bailey. David	
Burgess, Thomas	
Burgess, W. S	
Bailey, Samuel ,
Ilargar, Charles	
Belshaw, J. T	
17   Farmer k St'k.RV, Plast'r ft Mason. England .
Farmer and Stock Raiser.. 'England
Farmer and Township Clerk [Canada....
Farmer and Stock Raiser Canada.
Waggon Maker	
Farmer and Stock Raiser Ireland... .
Parmer and Stock Raiser [Canada—
12   Farmer and Stock Raiser  Scotland...:
Farmer and Stock Raiser [Canada	
Farmer and Stock Raiser Scotland..
Miller and fust Master. Ireland	
Miller and Accountant	
General Blacksmith Scotland  .
Farmer and Stock Raiser.. .     Ireland—
Public School Ins. for N. Eastings; [Canada	
Cabinetmaker and Undertaker. ....Canada....
Proprietor of Maitland House Scotlsnd..
Farmer and Stock Raiser 7... Ireland	
Shoemaker   Ireland....
Proprietor of Hastings House ..Canada.	
Farmer and Stock Raiser Ireland...
 Harness and Saddlemaker (Canada	
6 General Blacksmith   {Canada....
3   Fanner and Stock Raiser |Ireland...
7 Farmer and Stock Raiser Ireland	
7   Farmer    England ..
20 Farmer and Prop. Nickle Saw MilL [Ireland....
 'Merchants    Canada. ...
 ; Publishers and  Proprietors of N.!
Hastings Review.	
6 ! Farmer and Proprietor Saw Mill. . Canada.....
 Labourer Canada...
9   Farmer  .... Canada.....
6   Farmer and Prop. Saw and Fulling
[    Mills.....-....  Cansds.	
and Clerk of Marmora and!
1 1840
! 1849
I 1850
Wellmsn's Cor,
. Scotlsnd.
. England .
.[Rimington j   9
. Queenaborough  10
|    Lake Townships.
12 (Farmer and Stock Rsiser... .
.... Merchant..	
 [General Merchant	
10 {Farmer and Stock Kaiser	
19  Shoemaker and Post Master.	
14 J Farmer and Stock Raiaer	
13 Fanner and Stock Raiser	
18   Retired Former !
22   Blacksmith and General Merchant
 Clerk Division Court, Watchmaker!
1   and Jeweller.	
 iCheese Maker	
1   Farmer,  Brick Manufacturer and.
President Modoc Cheese Factory. Ireland..
. Proprietor of Madoc House.	
..Livery, Blacksmith and Bakery... .Canada..
11 Farmer and Stock Raiser... [Canada..
11   Farmer ond Stock Kaiser....
16  Farmer snd Stock Raiser  mad*..
. [Canada..
. 'Canada.
.{England ....
i 1848
| 1847
; 1843
I 1826
i 1857
I 1860
I 1857
! 1842
< 1831
i 1852
I 1858
| 1848
i 1874
I 1849
I 1851
Bull, O. E.	
Booth, John	
Cooke, James	
Chord T.	
lisle, T	
Conley, George... . .
Cum minus, George..
Clancy, Robert....
Caverly, Ebenezer....
Coverley, Sandford.
Craige, Charles.....
Clute, T. G.......
Cotton, John	
ley, Newton	
Clark, Nathan	
Clements, J nines	
Davis, Samuel A...
Downes, John	
Duncan, James ....
Demurest, B.G.G. M.
I lei like Isaac	
Drewrry, George....
Ed wards, F. L.	
Eastwood, Edgar...
Fair, Thomas .1.	
Green, John	
Glass* Andrew.	
rrison, Joseph ....
juriiy, Rev. J. M	
Gnod, Robert	
Iloglo, Joseph.	
!Hiil"-l, Silvenns ...i..
Hi*lonn*, Rodney	
Hagcrman, J. S	
Hubble,  Peter.	
Heath, William	
Morton, Elijah  	
Hough ton, Robert.,
Hurst, James	
II ogle, William	
Hufi; Jacob	
Helmer, Char lea W.
Lfeffery, John	
luby, James	
(Johnson, John	
Johnston, James. . .
Kingston, Charles...
Kingston,  William.
Kingston, Robert....
Kingston, Psul	
Kyle, William	
Lott, Orison	
McGowan, John . ...
McKce, Chsrles......
Mc Williams, A.	
McCnnn, E. M	
McKee, David	
McCqrmack, Robert
Mclnroy, Daniel.....
Montgomery, J......
Maybee, E., Junr...
Maybee, Robert... ,
Mack, David	
Martin, W. S	
Meiklejolin, Peter....
Meiklejohn, John	
NeU, Isaac	
Ovens, Thomas	
I'ennick, Joseph	
Porker, Robert, M.D
Psrker, F. B	
Prcstlev, Munro	
Itcid, Allen	
iteid, James 	
Rosebush", J. W	
Sine, Frederick	
ay, Martin. ...
Spring Brook.
II an, Id	
Brinkwdrth ..
Wellmsn's Cor.
Ma mid	
Hsrold ....
Stirling ..
Spring Brook...
Wi-11 man's Cor.
D'Stirling  jj$
ISpnug Brook..
RJwksmitb ..  jCsnads.
Former  Canada..
Former    ... KngUnd ,
Farmer    .... UmukU..
Fanner and Moonn  .... (OauatU..
Psnner Canada .
Farmer .!. C«n«b».|
Conveyancer,   Clerk   of  Division
1   Contt, and J. I*	
Fanner mid L'niiin ilmnn	
[Farmer snd Cheese Factory .
Former ..
Farmer .,'*: ;-.■..,...
Canada ...
United State)
Canada ...
Partners; Agt for Agriculture! Imp {Canada
-Reeve .
Merchant... I
Hotel mid IJvcry	
Farmer. ...
Farmer and President Ch<
Farmer ....
Former. ....
1'hvii. ■:*■*   - Mi,in y to
Farmer....   ,
I   Farm'
. 'Fan,,.
I [Hotel Keener and Itutebej
i  Farmer sun President Chi
Stirling [•■
Stirling ....„..[.
Brinkworth ....!
(Stirling .....-...{
W. Huntingdon
Spring Brook .
Stirling .. .
Stirling ....
Spring Brook...   10    11
Stirling  |
WeUmon'o Cor.
Stirling ...
Bnrnbrsa ..
Spring Brook..    14
Wei) nun's Co
Former ,un,...,
Farmer—Cheese Factory..]
Presbyterian Clergymen . .
Farmer—Contractor for Stone lifting
Farmer and Township Clerk ...
Farmer... ... .,
Kami.', and Brick Mnnufocturt
aimer and J. P	
'armor. ;...,...	
Farmer. _.
Former and Mechanic	
Former. i...".-...i
Photographer ,
Former ond Councilman	
Fanner.. ,
Fanner. .".;.-..	
P. M. aud Hotel Proprietor.....
General Merchant	
Fanner ,
Farmer '.XU..,..;.,>>*^v
Farmer -.'....-.....'.".vU.]
Manufacturer ond Dealer in 1
ond Shoes	
Fsnner i.\~J#S$$m
Fsnner... i*i*J^*3$ffiift
Fanner  ^i.i,.. ,;U£X.
farmer ...;«.U...^U«
Merchant and Grist Miller	
Druggist ,.v.,.;~i
Fanner and Mecbanic	
Fanner i
Groceries and Liquors	
Carpenter ond Joiner,..,;	
Former ond Lumber Manufact
'KngUnd... .
Camilla ....
England ..
Canada ....
Canada ....
Ireland. ....
Ireland.. .
Csnsda  .
Cull:idn  ....
Cansds ....
United State
Canada  .
Canada ...
Euglsnd ...
England ....
I, "I.i ml	
United States..
Canada ....
Canada ... .
Ireland.   .
Ireland ..
Canada ..
Canada .
Canada .
I 1844
j 1819
| 1816 9°
AIIi:i.l isr.l IRG X.OWSSHIP—Continued.
POST OFFICE,    Oon.   Lot
Crouter, Anthony	
Crouter, Abraham... .
Cummins, James 	
Coleman, James 	
Corrigan, R. S.	
Murray ....
Cudlipp, W. G.	
Chureh, S	
Delong, William	
Dempsey, W. R	
Rednerville . .
Dodd, Joshua	
Mountain View
Delong, David 	
Dempsey, P. 	
Albnry . :... ..
Delong, S. E,	
Dempsey, Peter	
Denike, C. H	
Rednerville ...
'Rlvin, William	
File, A. J., M.D	
Mountain \ iev
Fories, WffliamA	
Gerow, W.	
Glenn, James E	
Gibson, David	
Howell, Griffith 	
Mountain Viev.
Howell, John A	
Howell, James R,	
Hawley, S. S	
Huff, Alger H.   	
Hayes, George, jun. ..
Hawley, Charles J. ...
Herrington, A. W. ...
Johnson, J. A	
Mountain Vie
Ketcheson, E.-C	
Kemp,Vincent ..':....
Killip, W. C	
Rednerville .
Loveless, John	
Laird, J.N	
Lander, M. M.	
Rossmore ....
McKim, James C	
McKlbbon, Archibald
Maclise, John, jun. ...
Morden, J. B	
Rossmore ....
Brighton. ...
Rossmore ....
Pulver, Henry 	
Peck, William 	
Porter, Robert L	
Peck, Francis 	
Peters, W. L	
Potter, S. S.
Parliament, S	
Aiiicliasl.ii i-gh
Rossmore ....
Rednerville ...
Rossmore ....
Robison, Rev. M..
Richards, James ..
, A. A .1
, W. G.
Sager, Albert L.
.hears, Wilson ....
Inider, James M..
Illotson, T. B.....
.'ho mi won, Joseph
See, Jacob	
'aylor, Gilbert....
flee, Jason S	
ffobb, II. F.	
iVay, S.G.	
Carrying Place
Mountain Viev
Rednerville ...
Murray  ,
Mountain View
Rednerville ...
Mountain View
United States
■as. of Ameliasburgh
i-broker, Reeve ol
i,  and   Warden \ of
Carpenter and Farmer.
Farmer and Hop-growe
P. S. Teacher	
Blacksmith,   Waggon-i
General Jobber	
Farmer,   and  Agricull
iral In>
ment Agent	
•al Mer
lip, Ha
Intend P. M7. Is*
Canada .
ada ...
Canada ...
ada .
ted States
iMiller, and Clerk 4th
Minister C. M.'churc
Carriage Painter	
Farmer, Carpenter an
Dealers in Dry-goods;
Carnage Hardware
Farmer,   Tanner and
Farmer .
Fanner .
Gentleman, Tc
ii ted States
. M.
id (
.Canada .
.Canada .
.Canada .
.Canada .
Watt, Amos	
Wallbridge, A. E..
Wallbridge, J. F...
Wallbridge, T. D..
Wallbridge, Elias..
Way, Alpheus 	
Weeks, Charles	
Wannamaker, C. ..
Wood, Abram	
Way, Reuben R. ..
Weeks, D. II	
Wood, Jacob R,	
Way, Amos 	
Mountain View
Ameliasburgh..     4
■ Ameliasburgh.
, G.
-ins Place
Wflkins, E. D. S	
Weese, Mrs. Mary C.
young, Reuben	
Young, Charles G......
Young, Oliver   	
Young, John	
Murray I
Farmer and Drover ...
Farmer and Mechanic .
Farmer  -	
Farmer, Gardener, Fruit-grower, al
dealer in shrubs	
Grocer, and Bailiff of Div. Court,
Farmer and Blacksmith	
Farmer, Carriage and General M
nd Carpenter,
ad Carpenter.
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ...
Canada ..
.Canada .
.Canada .
. Canada .
.Canada .
.Canada .
Anderson, G:
Blakely, "W.
Cooper, John V	
Cole, Luke F	
Cole, EliBha	
Crandall,, S. D	
Campney-, W. T....
Clapp, Allen	
Cork, Samuel	
Cronk, J. H	
Crawford, J. W....
Goodwin, Thomas..
Graham, J. B	
Hudgin, Alfred A..
Hubbs, W. S	
Hubbs, B. A	
Huff, Peter.	
Holaey, John	
Insley, S. P	
Kj&hum, Eli... .
Losee, W. M	
Reed, J
John W
J. W...
r, w: V
W. A..
i, Eugen
ns, H. M
ey, Sami
POST OFFICE.    Con.  Lot.
Cherry Valley
Cherry Valley
Cherry Valley
Salmon Point.
Cherry Valley
rry Valley
Salmon Point.
Cherry Valley
Salmon Point.
Cherry Valley
Salmon Point.
Milford '.'
Cherry Vallcy
Cherry Valley
Salmon Point.
Farmer and Fruit Grower. *Sjc... ■.:
irmor, JP., and Insp'r. oftEicenseSj
for Prince Edwaitl Co . .„K^S
Farmer, Fmit-Grower and Dealer?.
Ex-Councillor of Athol and Farmer
nerand J.P	
Farmer, Fruit Grower and Dealer..
Farmer and Stock Dealer	
United States
Farmer and J.P	
Merchant, Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Boots & Shoes, Hardware &(
Farmer and Stock Dealer	
Farmer—Agent for Cossitta Agric.
Impts. Gang Ploughs a Specialty
Farmer, Reeve of Athol Tp., Warden
of Prince Edward Co., and J.P
Farmer, Government Light House
Keeper, & Fish Inspector, J. P..
Farmer and Miller	
Carriage Maker	
Farmer, Tp. Councilman and Ex-
Reeve, J.P	
Farmer, Fruit Grower and Grazier.
Farmer and Fruit Dealer.	
Farmer and Stock Dealer	
Farmer, Machine Thrashing	
Farmer and Blacksmith	
Farmer and Stock Dealer.  	
Farmer. Fruit Grower and Dealer..
and Milk-
.. 1836
.. 1830
.. 1844
.Cherry Valley, last.
Farmer,  Proprietor of Young's
I    Lake Cheese Factory.. M	
Atkin, Francis F..
Anderson, A. L	
inning, J. & Co..
Allison. W.  H. R..
Allison, C. B	
Bank of Montreal-
Bennett, Jabez	
1855 Blanchard, "W. H...
1810 Brennan, Rev. John
1851   feristol, A	
Stoves, Ploughs, Phoenix Foundry. [Canada
Barrister, &c   Canada
Chemist and Druggist ...X.... Canada
Agent for Mutual Life Ins. Co.,
Lancashire, Scottish Imp'l., Standard & P. Edw'd. Fire Ins. Cos..
 iDeputy Registrar and Wharfinger..
 Machinists* Iron Founders, Manufacturers of Agr"! Implements..
 Proprietor Globe Hotel	
... .  General Dealer in Dry Goods, Groceries, Crockery, Glass & Stone-
|    ware, lamps, and Chandeliers....
7  Farmer nnd'Cheese Manufacturer--
16   Farmer ^!	
 jPainter and Carpenter	
in Co.
[ 1860


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