Okanagan Historical Society Reports

The thirtieth report of the Okanagan Historical Society 1966 Okanagan Historical Society 1966

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 RE  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL     1  SOCIETY -V..-V  '-••'<* v<rv PENTrcT0^B.C.RS£r^ C^rrata  In The 29th  Report Of The Society  Page 40  G.  D.   and  Mrs.   Chambers   should  read  G.   D.  and  Mrs.  Cameron.  Page 40  Mrs. M.  I.  Roylance,  President of the Boundary  Historical  Society.  Page  125, second  last paragraph  It was the M. V. Okanagan that took the Sicamous from  Okanagan Landing to Penticton.  c  tents  on ten  Notice of Annual Meeting       6  President's Report       7  Rainbow in the Sky       8  Officers and Directors of the Okanagan Historical Society       9  Branch Officers of Okanagan Historical Society     10  Minutes of 40th Annual Meeting     11  Summerland Schools      26  The Good Citizen     33  History of Canadian Girl Guides — Vernon    34  Edgar Emeny    42  A Visit to Phoenix, 1966     45  Mountview Methodist Church     50  Okanagan  Valley  Days       60  The Bassetts of Okanagan     61  The Okanagan Language     67  Hector Whitaker     70  Lake Kiluk (School Essay)     73  The Story of the Postill j.'amily     77  Similkameen Telephone Service     86  Max Herman Ruhmann     95  William (Bill)  Ruhmann     97  Oliver's First Golf Course    98  The White Lake Basin  102  Book Review  104  Indian Lore 105  The Joyce Hostel  115  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  116  Robert Carswell   124  The Order of the Bell  127  The  Brent  Story   129  The Passing of Steam   135  Maggie  Victor   138  A Mountain Renamed  144  Harry Wishart Keith, M.D.   145  Okanagan Heritage Lectures  148  Lest  We  Forget   150  Okanagan Valley Legend  153  Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Woods  154  Pioneer  Canadian Nurse    159  The Ellis Centenary Feted  160  Centennial Homecoming  166  William and Mary Rice  168  Annual Meeting,  Penticton Branch  172  Lawn Tennis in the Early Days  174  The History of Okanagan Mission  176  Post Offices in the Okanagan  248  Membership List   256  Index of Previous Reports   269  oLidt   of   ^jfliudtrationd  Penticton's First Packing House   3  Past Presidents of Okanagan Historical Society   25  Grade 8 Class, 1921 — Summerland   26  Lady  Baden-Powell  at  Vernon    35  Guides at Coldstream Ranch   36  Picnic  Site    45  Phoenix Mine Building   _ " _ 46  "The Glory Hole"   46  4 Mountview Methodist Church and Parsonage     55  Mountain Bible Class  Picnic     56  New Rutland United Church     56  EUen Arnott     65  Bassett Freight Wagons     66  Hector Whitaker     71  Chliluk — Spotted Lake     75  Postill Ranch     76  Eleanor and Alfred Postill     78  Postill Family — 1895     78  Postill Ranch     80  Steer Roping     81  Postills/ Lamblys and Stillingfleets, 1900     81  Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lambly    83  Mrs. Edward Postill     83  Postill Home — 1900     83  Princeton Telephone Cutover     91  Princeton Telephone  Staff      93  Max Herman Ruhmann     94  White Lake Radio Telescope  103  Joyce Hostel  114  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  119  Osoyoos Museum   123  Mr.  and Mrs. Robert Carswell  124  Order of the Bell  128  Joe Brent House  133  Gertrude Detjen  134  Maggie  Victor  143  Nkwala Mountain  144  Ellis Centennial Banquet  161  Historical  Marker  161  Ellis Homestead  162  Thomas and Wilhelmina Ellis  167  Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Rice  168  Annual Meeting —  Penticton   173  Father Pandosy Mission  181 and 183  S.S.  Okanagan  187  Modes of Travel  188  Log Cabin  193  Kelowna  Races,   1908   195  Logging,  1909   196  Bellevue Hotel Bar  197 and 198  On C.P.R.  Wharf,  Kelowna  200  Mrs. R. Hardie,  Dr.  B.  Boyce   201  Fletcher's   Threshing   Crew     203  Mr. and Mrs. G. R. Thomson 205  Mr. and Mrs. W. D. Walker   207  W.  D.  Hobsqn   209  R. Gray Log House   209  H. B. D. Lysons  211  Okanagan Mission Store  221  Early Sports  223  Red Cross Fete — 1916  229  Mounted  Sports   231  First School Jitney  233  Tug of War 234  Pupils of Okanagan Mission School, 1929  235  Okanagan Mission School, 1950  236  St. Andrew's Church  237  St. Andrew's Pupils  239  Girl Guides, Scouts, Okanagan Mission  241  Flag Raising   242  Brownies  243  Middlemass House;   Eldorado Arms  Hotel  245  Okanagan Mission Community Hall  246 tfotice    of  ^rnnual    IfVleetina  of  The Okanagan Historical Society  1967  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting of  THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  will be held on  Monday, May 8th, 1967  in PENTICTON at 2:30 p.m.  in the COMMUNITY ARTS CENTRE, Main St.  BUSINESS  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers  The meeting will be followed by the Society's  ANNUAL   DINNER  to be held in the PEACH BOWL  6:30 p.m. J^resident 5    rseport  It is not so much the memories of past events that makes interesting, bearable, and enjoyable living so much as in the "Looking  Forward."  Looking forward to a friend's visit or visiting friends.  Looking forward to a visit by relatives or visiting relations.  Looking forward to that picnic planned.  Looking forward to that day to be spent on the beach.  Looking forward to that book to be read, or chapter ahead.  Looking forward to a quiet evening home with loved ones.  Looking forward, the expectations of fun and pleasure to come  and not the looking back to the fun and joy already gone, that  makes life worth while.  We, the active members of the Okanagan Historical Society  have become almost a family group. We look forward td our meetings and feel let down if a member is not present and sad if a member has passed to the Great Beyond.  There is so much to be done, so much yet to be written of our  Valley History, in some cases, so little time. Why not join the group  of active members of your Society, come meet with us, talk with  us and work with us in preserving the history of our valley on the  pages of time for all to read.  Willing workers are needed and wanted in this, your Okanagan Historical Society.  Come forward, we welcome you.  Harold Cochrane,  President. rCainl?  A  Ok  Si  ow  f  By  lanet  Anderson  Up and down the valley-  All the yellow bells are ringing;  And the bluebirds in the appletrees  Are singing, singing, singing!  All the bees around the ilowers  Are humming, softly humming;  When presto!   All crescendo!  The Centennial is coming!  Canada's Centennial!  Our first one hundred years!  Time to remember dauntless men,  The early pioneers;  And breathe a prayer for brides unsung  Yet proven sterling worth.  Their children were their monuments;  Their altar fire the hearth.  Leading the van of progress  All these have held their place,  And every walk of hie has known  The lootprints of their race.  Has forged the steel of Canada,  That led our fathers here  The high resolve, the vision  This land we hold so dear.  For these have conquered more, far more  Than forest, flood and fire.  The liberties they gained were such  As all brave hearts desire;  And they learned to live in brotherhood  With men from other lands,  And smoke the pipe of peace to win  The trust of Indian bands.  Nor did the older loyalties  Increase our war's alarms.  Ever alert, our native-born  Have heard the call to arms  To guard our country's birthright:  To live in freedom's light  Where all may meet on equal terms,  Nor merit yield to might.  Such is our nation, Canada!  Alter one hundred years  We read the record proudly,  The triumphs . . . and the tears.  Freedom is our heritage!  Salute the storied past!  We stand on guard for Canada!  Be ours, to hold it fast!  i \JfficerS    and    ^Directors  of the  \Jhanaaan   ^rristorical   Society  Honorary Patrons:  His Honor the Lieutenant Governor of British  Columbia, Honorable George Randolph Pearkes V.C., D.S.O., M.C.  The Honorable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of British Columbia  The Honorable Frank Richter, Minister of Agriculture  Patron: Mrs. Charles Patten  Honorary Presidents: Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Captain J. B. Weeks,  H. C. S. Collett, Reverend Dr. John Goodfellow, Guy Bagnall  Life Members: Guy P. Bagnall ,S. R. Manery, Reverend Dr. John  Goodfellow, E. T. Marriage, H. C. S. Collett, Dr. Margaret Ormsby,  Captain J. B. Weeks, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Harry Corbitt.  President: Harold Cochrane, 2006 28 Cres., Vernon  Vice-Presidents:   Mrs.   D.   Tutt,   Kelowna,   Nigel  Pooley,   Kelowna,  R.  L.  Cawston,  Cawston,   James E.   Jamieson,  Armstrong,   Victor  Wilson, Penticton.  Secretary: Reverend Everett S. Fleming, Old Mill Ranch, RR 2,  Kelowna.  Treasurer: Mrs. Harold Cochrane, 2006 28 Cres., Vernon  Editor: Major Hugh Porteous, RR 1, Oliver.  Auditor: T. R. Jenner, 3204 32nd St., Vernon.  Essay Secretary: Mrs. G. D. Herbert, 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna  Directors:  Armstrong: Gerald K. Landon  Vernon: Ken Ellison, G. P. Bagnall, Bert Thorburn  Kelowna: D. S. Buckland, William Speer, Donald Whitham  Penticton: H. W. Corbitt, H. R. Hatfield, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney  Oliver-Osoyoos: Ivan Hunter  Similkameen: Sam Manery  At Large: Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, F. Guy DeHart  Editorial Committee:  J. E. Jamieson, Nigel Pooley, Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney,  W. R. Carruthers, Harry Corbitt, Sam Manery. (JSranch    VJfficers    and    ^Directors  PENTiCTON  Honorary President, Captain J. B. Weeks  President, J. V. H. Wilson  Vice-President, Reverend Alvin Miller  Secretary, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney  Treasurer, Douglas H. Gawne  Directors, H. W. Corbitt, E. D. Sismey, J. G. Harris, H. R. Hatfield,  H. O. Rorke, N. L. Barlee, Walter Wright, C. E. Clay, Mrs. Hector  Whitaker, Mrs. James Gawne, Sr., Mrs. Donald Orr  Director at Large, R. N. Atkinson  Editorial Committee, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, E. D. Sismey  Editorial Committee OHS, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney  VERNON  President, Harold Cochrane, 2006 28 Cres  Vice-President, Dr. D. A. Ross  Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. R. Beairsto  Directors, Mr. and Mrs. Ivan Crozier, A. E. M. Spence, G. P. Bagnall,  Mrs.  Harold Cochrane, Ken Ellison,  G.  Byron-Johnson,  Mrs. M.  Middleton  Director at Large to OHS, Mrs. Ivan Crozier  Editorial Committee,  Mrs.  G.  P.  Bagnall,  Mrs.  M.  Middleton,  Mrs.  Mable Johnson  ARMSTRONG  President, Hugh Caley  Vice-President, Craig McKenzie  Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Hugh Caley  Directors, Mrs. C. Gregory, Mrs. L. Hardy, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Young,  Mrs. G. K. Landon, John Serra, James Jamieson  Editorial Committee, James Jamieson, Mrs. W. H. Winkles  KELOWNA  President, Mrs. T. B. Upton  Vice-President, William Spear  Secretary, Mrs. D. Tutt  Treasurer, J. J. Conroy  Directors,  D.  S.   Buckland,  Donald Whitham,  W.  T.  Bulman,   Nigel  Pooley,  Guy DeHart,  Mrs.  G.  D. Fitzgerald, A.  W. Gray,  G.  D.  Cameron, Charles Shayler, Herbert Keating  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  President, A. N. Peterman  Vice-President, Eric Becker  Secretary, Mrs. Blaine Francis  Treasurer, Ivan Hunter  Directors, Frank McDonald, Blaine Francis, Harvey Boone, Hunt  Lomon, Mrs. Retta Long  Historian, Miss Dolly Waterman  Past President, Mrs. N. V. Simpson  SHraJCAMEEN  President, S. R. Manery  Vice-President, Mrs. Barbara Lawrence  Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. Alberta Parsons  Executive Committee, Mrs. Dorothy Clark, Mrs. Mary Walters, George  Gottfriedson, Roy Lucich  Editorial Committee, Mrs. Jean Willis, Mrs. Barbara Lawrence, S. R.  Manery  Ways and Means Committee, David Francis, George La Bounty, Mrs.  Alice Thompson, Mrs. Edna Vansanten  10 Winutes   of tL   40tk   Jlnnual   Weetiny  MAY 9th, 1966  The Fortieth Annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society was  called to order at 2:35 p.m. by the President, Mr. G. D. Cameron of  Kelowna, in the hall of Trinity United Church, Vernon, B.C., on Monday,  May 9, 1966.  President Cameron gave a welcome to all present and expressed  pleasure at the large number in attendance.  A one-minute silence was observed in memory of those members who  had died during the year.  MINUTES:  On motion of Victor Wilson and Donald Whitham the minutes as  printed in the 29th Annual Report were adopted ... as printed.  CORRESPONDENCE:  The Secretary drew attention to a fairly voluminous correspondence  without reading it all pertaining to letters from the Department of  Parks and Recreation concerning the preservation of ancient Picto^-  graphs and other artifacts; concerning the re-naming of geographical features, with special reference to Niggertoe Mountain, near  Penticton; further correspondence concerning the John Falls Allison  family; and letters from Mrs. Frembd concerning historical information about the Tulameen and Otter Valley area.  Action was taken as follows . . .  Moved by Donald Whitham and Mrs. H. Cochrane that this Society  concur in the recommendation of the Penticton Branch to change  the name of Niggertoe Mountain to that of Nkwalla in honour of  a notable Indian chief, and a book of that name. Motion carried.  Moved by S. Manery and Victor Wilson that the Secretary be  authorized to seek historical data concerning the Western Tulameen  and Otter Valley area. Motion carried.  COMMITTEE ON HISTORICAL ART:  Mr. Nigel Pooley reported (in absentia, through Mrs. T. B. Upton)  . . . 'Your Committee which was instructed to bring in recommendations in regard to a painting Contest on Historical buildings of  the Okanagan consisted of Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mrs. M. Middleton,  Mr. N. R. C. Pooley. After study and discussion, submit the  following recommendations:  1. The Okanagan Historical Society should hold a painting  Contest to encourage the painting of old buildings within  our area with the object of creating interest of the public  in the buildings and recording them for posterity.  2. That to implement the plan the Society should put up the  sum of $300.00 (Three hundred) dollars. Half of this would  be used as prize money, the other half to buy pictures.  3. That this contest be open to amateurs only.  4. The medium may be oil, water colour, pastel or whatever  the artist may choose.  5. The pictures will be judged on their artistic merit. The  historical interest of the picture will add to its value in the  final decision.  6. There will be one judge who will be a professional artist.  1 1 7. All pictures will remain with the Okanagan Historical Society  for a period of one year for the purpose of exhibition in  various Valley centres.  8. The Society will purchase a number of pictures at $25.00  each, for the permanent use of the Society. Those purchased  will not necessarily be prize winners.  9. All pictures are required to have captions stating what they  are, location, and any historical interest the artist may  discover.  10 .The Society reserves the right to reproduce any of the  pictures submitted.  11. Pictures are to be submitted by mid October, 1966, to each  branch president. They will be judged as soon as possible  and the first three winners announced. They will probably  be reproduced in the Report.  12. The widest publicity shall be given to this Contest by mimeo  sheets, radio, T.V. and through the Secretary of each  Branch."  Motion:  Moved by Victor Wilson, seconded by Mr. Guy Bagnall that the  report of the committee on Art be adopted and that we proceed  forthwith to make this project a success. Motion carried.  THE PRESIDENT'S REPORT  Mr. G. D. Cameron  "Ladies and Gentlemen: I have much pleasure in reporting that your  Society has had another good year.  We had only one full Executive meeting against three last year, however, we had a meeting of the Editorial Committee and also most Branches  sent representatives to a meeting with CHBOTV to discuss the program  "Pioneer Reflections", so I felt that perhaps that was enough in way of  meetings as I realize that some of the Branches have a long way to come.  I had pleasure in attending the Field Day held by the Similkameen  Branch last June. It was most interesting; I would like to suggest that  other Branches do the same.  I also attended the Penticton dinner honoring the Ellis family. The  Penticton annual meeting which was a salute to the Indians was also very  worth while.  I went to the Similkameen annual meeting in Keremeos where Mrs.  Gabriel gave a very interesting talk. This Branch is to be congratulated  on providing the winner of our Essay competition this year.  The Penticton and Kelowna Branches have been sponsoring adult night  school classes on historical subjects. These not only create an interest in  historical matters, but bring in revenue; the other Branches might find it  worth while to copy this plan.  The Television program, "Pioneer Reflections" being sponsored by the  Okanagan Telephone Company should also help to create interest in the  Valley history.  I would like to thank the treasurer, Mrs. H. Cochrane, the Secretary,  Reverend E. S. Fleming; the Editor, Major Hugh Porteous, and the Essay  Secretary, Mrs. G. D. Herbert for their work in the past year. Without  these very efficient people it would be hard for your Society to function.  I will not be standing for election this year, but I must thank you for  the honour and the pleasure you have given me by electing me as your  president for the last two years.  Respectfully submitted and moved by G. D. Cameron, seconded by  Harold Cochrane. Motion carried.  12 REPORT OF SECRETARY  Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen:  My report as Secretary must be brief. However, there are a few things  that should be mentioned which are not likely to appear in any other  report.  The number of Executive meetings held during the year has not been  excessive nor burdensome, but some important matters were reviewed.  The problem of ancient pictographs and artifacts was given serious  attention. A resolution was formulated and sent forward to the department  of Parks and Recreation Branch of the Government the resulting correspondence is here for your interest. In a word, some progress can be  reported.  A matter of more local interest was proposed by Mr. Harold Cochrane  of Vernon. He proposed that a suitable Certificate be prepared for presentation to Life Members and to Presidents of the Okanagan Historical Society  upon completion of their term of office. The Executive approved the suggestion and I hope that this Annual Meeting will concur in the establishment  of a gracious gesture toward those whom the Society is pleased to honour.  The Executive also gave consideration, and final approval, to the  publication of a special Centennial Edition in 1966. This too is a subject  on which you the members at large, might well voice an opinion, and if  possible give your approval.  In the way of correspondence it has fallen to me to carry on a lively  exchange with the Rev. Dr. John Goodfellow on a variety of subjects, more  particularly in connection with the visit of his Excellency, the Hon. Bruce  Rogers, Canadian Ambassador to Spain. (Fuller details may be given by  Past President, Mr. Guy Bagnall who arranged a reception for him and  Mrs. Rogers on the occasion of their visit to Vernon).  Another series of letters was exchanged with Mrs. Bruce McDiarmid  of Princeton as a follow-up on a reference last year to the family of the  late John Falls Allison.  Last November a letter was received from Mr. W. R. Young, Chief,  Geographic Division, and B.C. Representative on the Permanent Committee  on Geographical names for Canada. He requested our assistance in connection with a proposal to rename a prominent mountain in the Pentioton-  Summerland area presently known as "Niggertoe Mountain". A considerable correspondence developed. One result of this exchange you will find  embodied in a resolution from the Penticton Branch with their recommendation of "Nkwalla" ... an Indian name well known in the area.  You will be asked to concur in this interesting proposal from the Penticton  Branch. N.B. (Word has just reached me from Mr. Young, that the recommendation of the Penticton Branch has received favorable and final approval, and the name has been changed accordingly. E.S.F.).  The general correspondence is much too lengthy to read, or even to  offer a Precis at this time. Suffice to say that the Department is eager  for our co-operation in the matter of place names, historic or otherwise.  There is a wide open opportunity here for the Branches to voice approval,  or otherwise, of place names in their own communities.  One other important duty fell to the Secretary. That was to draw up  a formal agreement with the Printers for the work to be done on the  29th Annual Report. With one minor omission, the printing of the name  and number on the spine of the book, the work was carried through harmoniously and effectively.  Personally I may say it has been a pleasure to do my little bit for the  Society during the year, and I wish for it many years of invaluable work  Respectfully submitted and moved by Everett S. Fleming, seconded by  H. S. Corbitt — Motion carried.  13  _J TREASURER'S   REPORT  for year ending April 30, 1966  Receipts  Sale of Memberships and Reports:  Amstrong       $ 103.00  Vernon     971.98  Kelowna  742.00  Penticton  394.50  Oliver - Osoyoos  193.85  Similkameen    •  117.50  Interest on Savings account, Bank of  Montreal, Osoyoos  15.47  $2,538.30  Expenditures  Long distance telephone calls  2.00  Vernon News—Life Membership Certificates .. 27.96  The Vernon News—1,000 Membership cards .. 20.98  Wayside Press—Mimeographing paper   3.66  Kelowna Printing Co., banquet tickets   5.16  Kelowna Printing Co. — 200 post cards  10.47  Kelowna Printing Co.—Printing  1,000 29th Reports   2,029.85  Paper and postage, re-Essay contest   3.72  Postage and Express  50.00  Bank service charges .   6.20  $2,159.95  Excess of Receipts over expenditures    $  378.35  Bank Balances  Total funds on deposit April 30, 1965    $1,482.65  Add Receipts over expenditures  378.35  Total funds on deposit April 30th, 1966  1,861.00  Bank of Montreal, Vernon  711.57  Bank of Montreal, Kelowna  389.29  Bank of Montreal,  Penticton  78.79  Bank of Montreal, Osoyoos  681.35  $1,861.00  Statement of Reports as at April 30, 1966  No. 29 Reports sold (with membership)  Armstrong  41  Vernon    245  Kelowna  245  Penticton  Ill  Similkameen  44  Oliver - Osoyoos  41  759  14 Reports on hand Reports on hand  Report No. 11       34 Report No. 22 120  Report No. 14       5 Report No. 23        3  Report No. 15       89 Report No. 25        2  Report No. 16     35 Report No.  26       23  Report No. 17       95 Report No. 27       92  Report No. 18      76 Report No. 28 120  Report No. 20   126 Report No. 29  228  Report No. 6 (reprint)       45  1,210  1210  1,210  Report No. 30 — prepaid  11  Amount received during the year for sales of Reports  previous to No. 28, including four large orders       180.00  Amount received from sale of Report No. 6 (reprint )......     120.00  Respectfully submitted and moved by Mrs. H. Cochrane, Treasurer.  Seconded by Guy Bagnall, carried with applause.  EDITOR'S REPORT  The Editor, Major Hugh Porteous reported very briefly. He expressed  thanks for the co-operation of members and Branches in sending forward the  material this year and at an earlier date in order to comply with the plans  of the Executive for an enlarged Centennial edition in 1966 ... of about  300 pages. He thanks the Society for the privilege of acting as Editor, but  requested to be relieved of his duties next year. The Report was adopted.  ESSAY COMMITTEE REPORT  Mrs. G. D. Herbert presented her first report as follows.  After Mrs. G. P. Bagnall found it necessary to resign from the post of  Secretary of the Essay Contest for the Okanagan Historical Society, due to  ill health, Mrs. T. B. Upton approached me with the request that I assume  these duties. Her powers of persuasion were sufficiently potent to induce  me to accept the position, and I must admit that it has been a very rewarding and interesting venture.  Consent from individual executive members, and from three Branch  secretaries to make minor changes in the rules of the contest enabled me  to make two slight revisions; viz. (1) That Grade X be included along  with Grades VIII and IX. (2) That typing of Essays be permitted either by  the contestant or some other person. It was felt too, that historical content,  research and originality should be the main criteria by which the essays  should be judged.  Accordingly the Rules were revised and mimeographed copies were  sent to each local secretary for distribution in the schools in the respective  districts. These revised rules were accompanied by a circular letter, under  date of October 30, 1965 to the teachers in Grades VIH, IX and X. On  February 17, 1966 a further reminder was sent to Branch Secretaries along  with a suggested letter to teachers of the Grades concerned.  A large number of essays were sent in. Three were submitted for final  judging; i.e. Kelowna, Penticton and Similkameen. Mrs. A. P. Pettypiece  and Rev. Everett S. Fleming assisted in the judging. We were all agreed  that the essay submitted by Mary Anne Haker of Similkameen should receive first place, and that the Shield and First prize should go to her. The  Essay submitted by David M. Kroeger, Div. 8, McNicoll Park School, Penticton placed second. Mr. S. R. Manary, President of Similkameen Branch  15 and Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Secretary of Penticton Branch were duly notified  and Complimentary tickets were sent to them to be given to the successful  contestants.  The judges decided that all three essays (the Third by Terry Brunette  of Kelowna) were the product of painstaking research and commended  them most highly.  Your Essay secretary would be most pleased to receive any suggested  topics for next year's essays.  Respectfully submitted and moved by Mrs. G. D. Herbert, seconded  by Mrs. W. R. Dewdney. Motion carried.  BRANCH   REPORTS  Armstrong — Prepared by Mr. James E. Jamieson.  The Armstrong Branch held two Executive meetings during the past  year, as well as the Annual meeting in mid-April.  The highlight of the Branch report must be the singular and concentrated work of Mr. John Serra in compiling a History of the Armstrong  district. Over the twelve-month period he has devoted countless hours of  research and writing to the assignment. A compilation of some twenty-  five separate histories of various area organizations, businesses etc. which  played formative roles in pioneer days, as well as those still active in the  continuing functions of the district. Mr. Serra claims that the results of  his efforts could be a terrific reference book.  With 1967 as Centennial year, and also the 75th anniversary of Spal-  lumsheen municipality, the Armstrong Branch is formulating plans with  special emphasis, historic-wise, on the latter.  Submitted on behalf of the officers and Executive of the Armstrong  Branch, Okanagan Historical Society. Read and moved by John Serra,  seconded by D. Whitham. Motion carried.  Kelowna — Our branch held five executive meetings during the year,  sponsored five night school sessions in the Kelowna Senior Secondary  School before Christmas. Thirty people took the course, plus ten people  who came in for one or two nights, for specific lectures. Speakers were:  Nov. 3, Steven Canning, Flora and Fauna of the Okanagan; Nov. 10, Mrs.  T. B. Upton, Explorers; Nov. 17, Mr. Nigel Pooley, Canyon Creek Irrigation system; Nov. 24, Panel consisting of Mrs. G. D. Fitzgerald, Mrs. Duncan Tutt, Mrs. Wm. Spear, Mrs. D. (Hazel) McDougall, theme "Pioneer  Living", Dec. 1, Mr. Guy De Hart spoke on an interesting old timer, Ben  Snipes, Mr. Bill Bulman spoke on "Early Cattle Raising."  Before the annual report came from the press we again sent out over  200 cards to local people who had previously purchased them. Mr. G. D.  Cameron and Mrs. G. D. Fitzgerald spoke of "Coffee Break" and Mr. Donald Whitham and Mr. W. T. Bulman went to TV to promote sale of the  reports. Sales of reports for this current year have been: No. 29—258; No. 6  (reprint)—10; No. 30 (presale)—2; No. 28—2; No. 27—2. We are most  grateful to all the news media for their co-operation. They all gave us  excellent coverage. I would especially like to mention Trench's Drug Store  who have sold tickets for the annual dinner as well as selling the annual  reports.  The annual essay contest brought in 35 essays from grades 8, 9 and 10.  17 from Immaculata, 12 from George Pringle, and 6 from Kelowna Senior  Senior Secondary. Winners were Terry Brunette of Immaculata writing on  "The Sicamous Hotel." Second prize was a tie, Marion Hoover of George  Pringle writing on "George Pringle" and Tom Lewis of George Pringle writing on Shannon Lake district.  At the request of the Kelowna Centonary Committee, Mrs. D. Tutt  and Mrs. T. B. Upton supplied the names of pioneers living at the Okanag-  16 an Mission in the 1860s .This plaque is to be carved in oak by Mr. John  Wilson of Rutland, and will be placed in the entrance of the new Kelowna  Museum.  A special meeting of Presidents of local Branches was called by Mr.  Terry Scaife of CHBC-TV regarding a proposed series to be sponsored by  the Okanagan Telephone Company. This series commenced on March 21 to  continue for 16 weeks, and was shown on CHBC-TV every Monday from  6:00-6:14 p.m. We are most grateful to the television station for all their  work and co-operation. The series will assist greatly in preserving and  recording Okanagan history.  A special meeting was called by the editor, Major Hugh Porteous, on  Jan. 10, 1966, to make plans for a Jubilee edition of our annual report. At  this meeting it was decided to reprint the history of Okanagan Mission by  Primrose Upton and to include the index compiled by Mr. Harold Cochrane. It was further decided to have all branch presidents ask for pictures  of local interest historically to be considered for the cover of the next report. Crests for the Okanagan Historical Society are also to be asked for  by local presidents. We have received no entries for cover pictures from  any other branches, seven from the Kelowna Branch. We have received  three entries for the crest, two from Vernon and one from Armstrong."  This branch has gone ahead with the printing of Ogopogo's Vigil, written by the late Frank Buckland. The reprinting has involved editing, redrawing of maps and pictures, and the addition of photographs. This  branch is grateful for the work done by Mrs. N. Pooley; Mr. D. S. Buck-  land; Mrs. T. B. Upton; and Mrs. J. (Owen) Lamont. Mention must also  be made of the Museum Archives Society of Kelowna who have lent us  many interesting and valuable photographs.  Our annual dinner was held at the Parish Hall of St. Michael and all  Angels, Sutherland Avenue, Kelowna on April 4, when 154 persons enjoyed  the excellent dinner and the illustrated talk by Mr. Neville (Bill) Barlee  of Penticton on Sagebrush and Pictograph country. Old timers also enjoyed  a photographic display by Mr. A. W. Gray, line drawings by Mrs. Owen  Lamont, and the interesting collection of artifact brought by Mr. Barlee.  The B.C. Centenniel year is here, and Canada's Centenniel year will be  celebrated in 1967. There has been a tremendous upsurge of interest in  local and regional history. Members of the Kelowna Branch have been  asked to speak at a number of local functions, and it is our responsibility  to assist in promoting interest in our history.  I wish to thank all our executive of the Kelowna Branch. They are a  most co-operative group.  Respectively submitted, and moved by D. Primrose Upton.  Motion seconded by E. S. Fleming, Motion carried.  Oliver-Osoyoos Reports—The activities of the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of  the O.H.S. have been conspicuously absent during the past year. This is  possibly due to the lack of time at the right time on the part of the President who often wishes there more days in the week.  The annual meeting and two executive meetings were held during the  year. At our last meeting Mr. Art Garrish spoke on 75 years of fruit growing and some of its various facets, a subject in which he is thoroughly  versed, and was thoroughly enjoyed by all who heard him.  A clean-up campaign at the old Incaneep church was foiled due to the  lack of co-operation on the part of the contacted members of the Indian  Band in reference to obtaining the necessary fire permit to burn the rubbish.  Our annual essay contest also fell by the wayside due to your President  not appointing a committee to look after this endeavor, and then forgetting  it himself until it was too late.  17 On June 13th last, an invitation of the Cawston-Keremeos Branch and  Penticton also, a number of our members attended and enjoyed the Annual Field Day which ended up at Hedley with a picnic and various interesting speakers explaining the early history of the area.  In conclusion I would like to thank the members of my Executive for  their support on the few times I have called upon them.  Respectively (and apologetically) submitted, and moved. A. N. Peterson.  The motion, duly seconded was carried.  Penticton Branch Report—  Membership 135.  During the past year our branch held eight meetings; two general, five  executive, and our annual.  Highlights of the year include:  Four-generation dinner at Okanagan Falls on June 5, 1965, honored the  families that proudly seated four generations.  We joined the Similkameen branch to organize and conduct our Field  Day on Sunday, June 13, 1965. We started our study at Cawston, with a  stop at Keremeos and lunch at Hedley. The host branch is to be commended for a memorable day — well organized and steeped in history.  The Penticton branch participated in the opening of the new Community Arts Centre for the city on July 24, 1965. This complex is a tribute to  the vision and planning of a city that really honors the cultural depth of  its founders. The new museum ranks among the finest in Western Canada  and serves as a fitting tribute to our pioneer days.  During the Peach Festival we prepared a display to focus attention  on the need for an historic park at Fairview, and a typically Okanagan  Wilderness Park in the area of Okanagan Mountain. This display was  shown also at Kelowna during the Rotary Harvest Festival.  In conjunction with the City of Penticton the 1958 Historical Souvenir  Book on Penticton will be reprinted, revised and up-dated with a further  pictorial supplement edited by Mr. R. N. Atkinson. This book will be available for the 1967 Centenary.  Our largest function of the year was the Ellis Centennial Banquet held  in the Peach Bowl on January 28, 1966. Working closely with the Penticton  Centennial Committee we honored Penticton's first white settlers, the  Thomas Ellis family. With this highlight we opened our Centennial year by  reminiscing with our guest of honor, Dr. Kathleen Ellis. Many distinguished  guests joined some 280 historically minded people to honor the beginnings  of our city, and view with considerable satisfaction the role that history  can and should play in the preparation for a glowing future.  The Fall General Meeting held in the Community Arts Centre building on  October 29, 1965, paid tribute to Mr. Reg N. Atkinson, curator of the Penticton Museum, whose boyhood collection of Indian artifacts and relics  became the basis for the present museum. Over 200 guests toured the  museum and joined in honoring this dedicated and capable man.  Our Annual General Meeting was held in the Arts Centre on March 31,  1966. It took the form of a tribute to the Penticton Indian Band. Mr. Eric  Sismey, working closely with Father Blacquire and Mrs. Frank Richardson,  arranged a never-to-be-forgotten evening of Indian arts and crafts to be  highlighted by members of the Band participating in speeches, songs, and  demonstrations of their fast-fading native culture.  We would do well to integrate these people into our Historical Society,  and thus help to preserve a culture that is in serious danger of oblivion.  18 The Penticton Branch was represented at the opening of the Richter  Pass Highway on July 7, 1965 by the Hon. Philip Gaglardi and the Hon.  Frank Richter.  The response to the essay contest was good. The winner, David Kroeg-  er, whose subject was "Early Transportation in the Okanagan Valley," was  presented with a cheque for $10.00 at our annual meeting on March 31, 1966.  Barbara Fleet received the second prize at $5.00 for her essay, "Interviewing a Pioneer Penticton Resident." Certificates of Merit were presented to  eight other contestants.  At an executive meeting on February 17, 1966, a presentation was made  to Capt. J. B. Weeks in appreciation of his long and faithful years of service with the Historical Society.  At an executive meeting on February  In response to a request from the Chief-Geographic Division, Canadian  Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, for a new and appropriate  name to replace the objectionable name, "Niggertoe Mt." our branch proposed the name "Mt. Nkwala." This mountain, elevation 4,701 feet, is just  west of Penticton at the south end of Okanagan Lake. The name, Mt.  Nkwala, was approved by the committee qn April 29, 1966.  The CHBC-TV series, "Pioneer Reflections," depicting the highlights  of Okanagan's colorful history, features sixteen 15-minute programs by  members of the Okanagan Historical Society. It commenced on March 21,  and some Penticton members are taking part.  A list of names for future streets in Penticton was compiled by a committee of members.  For the fourth year (1966) we have participated in the Adult Education  Program arranged by Director Mrs. Colby at the Penticton Secondary  School. We presented a series of eight "Okanagan Heritage" lectures:  February   1—First Centenary of B.C. History, Mr. Victor Wilson.  February   8—100 Years in Penticton, Mr. J. G. Harris.  February 15—Saga of the Paddlewheelers, Mr. Eric Sismay.  February 22—Early Missionaries in B.C., Rev. R. Blacquire O.M.I.  March   1—Railroading in B.C., Mr. G. Meldrum.  March    8—The Homesteader in B.C., Rev. Alvin Miller.  March 15—The Royal Mail in B.C., Mr. Reg. Atkinson.  March 22—Second Centenary of B.C. History, Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney.  It has been a very interesting year because the city has an awareness  of history. We could hardly go wrong with a new museum, new Community  Arts Centre, new library, new City Hall and a new Convention Centre. But  it takes a vigorous and co-operative executive, alive to the great desire  of most people to join in historic events, to put a year of action in the  record. Penticton Branch is proud to have been able to write such a story.  Respectfully submitted and moved by Victor Wilson, duly seconded.  Motion carried.  Similkameen Branch Report;—By Sam Manery.  During the past year one annual, two general and eight executive meetings were held.  One general meeting was held in Princeton where approximately 30  people attended.  Mr. Stevens of the Keremeos High School staff showed many interesting  slides of the coast region and northern interior of B.C.  Mrs. Louise Gabriel of the Penticton Indian Band gave an enlightening  talk on the old herbal remedies practiced by the pioneer Indians of the  Okanagan and Similkameen. We were happy to have with us at this meeting. Mr. and Mrs. G. D. Cameron of Kelowna.  19 The Similkameen Branch sent out three petitions, one each to Cawston,  Keremeos and Princeton and also contacted various organizations and  clubs in regards to the preservation of the Indian paintings. One of these  petitions had upwards of 100 names. The wording on a post plaque has  been approved by the Department of Recreation and Conservation, and will  be placed on the site of the old grist mill at Keremeos this summer.  Our Branch is sponsoring a Centennial dinner in co-operation with the  Keremeos Centennial Committee for the pioneers of the valley, sometime  in July. A definite date has not yet been set.  Forty-eight copies of the Annual Report have been sold and we have on  hand five copies of the 28th Report and three copies of the 27th Report.  The 29th Report met with very favorable comment and sales are  gradually increasing.  I wish at this time to thank my executive for their loyal support and  co-operation.  Respectfully submitted and moved by Sam Manery,  (President).  When duly seconded the motion carried.  ed.  Vernon Branch Report—Harold Cochrane, President.  During the year we had five executive meetings. All were well attend-  Since the annual meeting was to be held in Vernon there was much to  discuss and many plans to make. We had a busy season.  We had one general meeting—very interesting, but not too well attended.  Mrs. Cochrane read some articles by Marie Houghton Brent. One was  "An Indian Mother's Tradition," historical events in the lives of the chiefs.  The Chief's address to the white men; Events in the life of Chief N'Kwalla,  Incidents in the life of Joseph Tonasket and Okanagan Valley Legend.  We had our Annual Meeting on March 31. This was well attended and  we showed three films after our business session. One was called "Barkerville or Bust." This film was based on the Barkerville stage show. The second film was the Fraser Canyon, showing road building as it was and is  now. The third was very much enjoyed. It was a dramatization of Judge  Begbie.  I would like to thank my executive for their faithful attendance with  special thanks going to Mr. Ivan Crozier and Mrs. Dolly Craig in the refreshment department and to Ken Ellison who did a fine job of selling our  reports.  Respectfully submitted, the motion carried.  On motion of Sam Manery and Harold Cochrane the Branch Reports as  a whole were approved and adopted.  Tea was served.  At the conclusion of the Penticton Branch report the Ladies of Trinity  United Church served tea and cookies.  President G. D. Cameron called for a hearty vote of thanks to the ladies.  ELECTION   OF   OFFICERS  HONORARY PATRONS: His Honour the Lieutenant Governor of B.C.,  Honorable George Randolph Pearkes, VC, DSO, MC, The Honorable W. A.  C. Bennett, Premier of B.C., The Honorable Frank Richter, Minister of  Agriculture.  LIFE MEMBERS: Guy P. Bagnall, S. R. Manery, Rev. Dr. John Goodfellow, F. T. Marriage, H. C. S. Collett, Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Captain  J. B. Weeks, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Harry Corbitt.  20 PRESIDENT: Mr. Harold Cochrane, Vernon, B.C.  VICE-PRESIDENTS (as nominated by the Branches): Mrs. D. Tutt,  Kelowna; Mr. Nigel Pooley, Kelowna; R. L. Cawston, Cawston, B.C.; James  E. Jamieson, Armstrong; Victor Wilson, Penticton.  SECRETARY: Rev. Everett S. Fleming, The Old Mill Ranch, R.R. 2,  Kelowna, B.C.  TREASURER: Mrs. Harold Cochrane, 2006-28th Crescent, Vernon, B.C.  EDITOR: Major Hugh Porteous, Oliver, B.C.  AUDITOR: Mr. T. R. Jenner, Vernon, B.C.  ESSAY SECRETARY: Mrs. G. D. Herbert, 1684 Ethel St., Kelowna,  B.C.  DIRECTORS: Armstrong, Gerald K. Landon; Kelowna, D. S. Buckland,  William Speer, Donald Whitham; Oliver-Osoyoos, Mr. Ivan Hunter; Penticton, H. W. Corbitt, H. R. Hatfield, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney; Similkameen, Sam  Manery; Vernon, Ken Ellison, G. P. Bagnall, Bert Thorburn.  DIRECTORS AT LARGE; Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Mrs. H. C. Whitaker, F.  Guy De Hart.  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: J. E. Jamieson, Armstrong; Nigel Pooley,  Kelowna; Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Vernon; Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Penticton; W.  R. Carruthers, Kelowna; Mr. Harry Corbett, Kaleden; Sam Manery, Similkameen (Cawston).  BRANCH   OFFICERS   FOR   THEIR   RESPECTIVE   BRANCHES  ARMSTRONG:  President:  Hugh Caley.  Vice-Pres.: Craig McKechnie.  Sec.-Treas.: Mrs. Hugh Clay.  Directors: Mrs. C. Gregory, Mrs. L. Hardy, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Young,  Mrs. G. K. Landon, John Serra, Jas. E. Jamieson.  Editorial Committee: James E. Jamieson, Mrs. W. H. Winkles.  KELOWNA:  President: Mrs. T. B. Upton.  Vice-Pres.: William Spear.  Secretary: Mrs. D. Tutt.  Treasurer: J. J. Conroy.  Directors: D. S. Buckland, D. Whitham, W. T. Bulman, W. R. Carruthers, Nigel Pooley, Guy DeHart, Ben Hoy, Mrs. G. D. Fitzgerald, A. W. Gray.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS:  President: Art Peterman.  Vice-Pres.: Eric Becker.  Secretary: Mrs. Blaine Francis.  Treasurer: Ivan Hunter.  Directors: Frank McDonald, Blaine Francis, Harvey Boone, Hunt Lo-  mqn, Mrs. Retta Long.  Past President: Mrs. N. V. Simpson.  Historian: Miss Dolly Waterman.  SIMILKAMEEN:  President: S. R. Manery.  Vice-Pres.: Mrs. Barbara Lawrence (Keremeos).  Secretary: Mrs. Alberta Parsons (Keremeos).  Treasurer: Mrs. Alberta Parsons.  Committee Executive:  Mrs.  Dorothy Clark, Keremeos;  Mrs. Mary  Walters,   Keremeos;   George  Gottfriedson,   Cawston;   Roy Lucich,  Cawston.  21 Editorial Committee: Mrs. Jean Willis, Keremeos; Mrs. Barbara Lawrence; S. R. Manery, Cawston.  Ways and Means: Mr. David Francis, Keremeos. George La Bounty,  Olalla, B.C.; Mrs. Alice Thompson, Cawston; Mrs. Ena Vansanten,  Keremeos.  PENTICTON:  Honorary President: Captain J. B. Weeks.  President: J. V. H. Wilson.  Vice-Pres.: Rev. Alvin E. Miller.  Secretary: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  Treasurer: Douglas H. Gawne.  Directors: H. W. Corbitt, E. D. Sismey, J. G. Harris, H. R. Hatfield,  H. O. Rorke, N. L. Barlee, Walter Wright, C. E. Clay, Mrs. Hector Whitaker, Mrs. James Gawne Sr., Mrs. Donald Orr.  Director at Large: R. N. Atkinson.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, E. D.  Sismey.  Editorial Committee of Parent Society: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  VERNON:  President: Mr. Harold Cochrane, 2006-28th Crescent, Vernon.  Vice-Pres.; Dr. D. A. Ross, 1703-37th Avenue, Vernon.  Sec.-Treas.: Mrs. R. Bearisto, 1608-33rd Street, Vernon.  Directors: Mr. and Mrs. I. Crozier, Mr. A. E. M. Spence, G. P. Bagnall,  Mrs.  H.  Cochrane,  Ken Ellison,  Mr.  G.  Byron-Johnson,  Mrs.  M.  Middleton.  Editorial: Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. M. Middleton, Mrs. M. Johnson.  ERRATA: Donald Whitham moved that a page in the next Report  should be kept to record the errata in the 29th Report. Seconded by E. S.  Fleming. Carried.  PICTOGRAPHS: A second resolution from the Kelowna Branch, moved  by Mrs. T. B. Upton, seconded by Donald Whitham that the Provincial  government should be approached through Mr. Aitkens regarding the preserving of Pictographs from the weather through a process known to Mr.  N. Barlee . Motion carried. (NOTE: The meeting was informed that  Premier W. A. C. Bennett had been approached and he had given some  assurance that the government would supply the materials needed to  weather-proof the pictographs.)  DATE OF EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Moved by Nigel Pooley and  seconded by D. S. Buckland that in order to insure the publication of the report by November 30 that the meeting with the editor should be in August  rather than September. Motion carried.  NEW BUSINESS: Moved by Sam Manery, seconded by Mrs. Dewdney,  that where ever possible the maiden names of married women members be  entered in the list of names in the Report. Motion carried.  AUDITOR: Moved by Mr. Guy Bagnall and generally seconded, that a  special letter of thanks be sent to Mr. T. H. Jenner, for his splendid work in  auditing the books of the society. Motion carried.  SPINE: Moved by Harold Cochrane and seconded by G. Bagnall that  printing of the date and number of the Report on the Spine be mandatory.  Motion carried. It was further moved by Harold Cochrane and seconded  that the price of membership, and therefore of the Report, be mentioned  somewhere in each. Furthermore that credits given for pictures used in  each Report. Motion carried.  COLOR: Harold Cochrane moved that in future all Reports be of one  uniform color. When the motion was seconded, considerable discussion developed. Motion was lost.  22 FATHER PAT: Moved by Victor Wilson, seconded by Mrs. Kathleen  Dewdney that the incoming executive put on the agenda and consider the  publication of the book, "Father Pat," a hero of the Far West," by Mrs.  Jerome Mercier. and consult with Harley Hatfield who has all the pertinent  facts concerning the publication of the said book. Motion carried. Moved by  Harold Cochrane, seconded by Sam Manery that a committee be appointed  from the incoming executive with power to take action on the book concerning Father Pat. Motion Carried.  DR. GOODFELLOW: President Cameron recognized Rev. Dr. John  Goodfellow, life member and past president of the O.R.S. and called upon  him to speak. Dr. Goodfellow responded in his usually happy vein . . . pointing up his remarks by an anecdote in the life of Bill Miner in Princeton  based on the theme "Be careful to entertain strangers, for thereby some  have entertained angels unawares."  CERTIFICATES: In accordance with the action of the executice, Harold  Cochrane has prepared certificates of past presidents and life members.  On motion of Victor Wilson and Hume Powley it was agreed that the  certificates should be approved and presented to those concerned. Motion  carried.  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION: Victor Wilson drew attention to the deterioration of the Pandosy Mission. He moved, seconded by Donald Whitham that the Chair be asked to appoint a sub-committee of the O.H.S. to  consider the possibility of setting up a limited company to take over, develop and operate a museum at the Father Pandosy Mission. Motion carried.  COMMITTEE WITH POWER TO ADD: President Cameron appointed  Mrs. T. B. Upton as chairman with power to gather her own committee and  arrange meeting.  NEXT MEETING: Mr. Victor Wilson invited the Society to hold their  1967 meeting in the City of Penticton. Invitation was cordially accepted.  THANKS: Moved by Harold Cochrane, seconded by Victor Wilson that  a vote of thanks be extended by letter to each news medium in the area  in appreciation for their generous interest and support. Carried.  MINUTES: Moved by Victor Wilson that minutes of all meetings be  sent to all news media. No action.  THANKS: Moved by Mr. Guy Bagnall, seconded by Donald Whitham  that a hearty vote of thanks be extended to retiring president, Mr. G. D.  Cameron. Carried.  NEW PRESIDENT: Without fanfare, Mr. Harold Cochrane of Vernon,  was inducted and installed in office for the coming year.  ADJOURNMENT: At 5:30 p.m. Mrs. H. Cochrane moved adjournment.  Generally seconded. Motion carried.  BANQUET: The members re-convened at the banquet table in the  Hall of Trinity United Church, Vernon at 6:30 p.m.  The evening meeting of the O.H.S. took the form of an banquet and  program. President elect, Harold Cochrane of Vernon presided. A turkey  dinner was served by the ladies of Trinity United Church, Vernon.  First came the introduction of the members of the Ellison family whom  the Society was pleased to honor at this time. Unfortunately one daughter,  wife of Rt. Rev. Bishop Sovereign was unable to attend owing to the illness  of the Bishop.  23 O Canada was sung, followed by grace said by Rev. E. S. Fleming in  lieu of Bishop Sovereign.  Words of welcome were spoken, vigorously and humorously, by Mr. J. V.  H. Wilson, of Penticton.  Mr. Cochrane introduced members of the head table. A toast to Canada  was proposed by Mr. Jack Wilson, chairman of Vernon Centenniel Committee.  Past President, Mr. G. D. Cameron proposed a toast to British Columbia  Mr. Harold Thorlakson, alderman, proposed a toast to the City of Vernon. Mr. Guy Bagnall proposed a toast to the Ellison family.  First speaker of the evening was Mr. Johnson, president of the Cariboo  Historical Society from Quesnel. In his informal talk Mr. Johnson stated  that he was no stranger to the Okanagan, having visited Vernon in 1892. He  traced the history and growth of the province from the days of Alexander  McKenzie who is said to have visited what is now Quesnel in 1793. He stressed the fact that much credit should be given to the Indians for their pioneer work in opening up the country before the days of the white man.  In general his theme was "Gold." He traced the history of the various  strikes in the Cariboo and showed something of their influence upon the  developments that have taken place in the last 100 years.  Mrs. C. Rines, president of the Quesnel Historical Society was the next  speaker. Her material covered much the same ground, literally and metaphorically, as Mr. Johnson had done. She elaborated on the growth that  has occurred in Quesnel in recent years, and in the Cariboo in general. She  extended a hearty invitation to everyone to pay a visit to the Cariboo to  witness the changes that are taking place.  Mrs. T. B. Upton moved a hearty vote of thanks to both speakers for  their contribution to the annual meeting and the work of the O.H.S.  Adjournment of the annual meeting followed.  NOTE: A brief summary of the Price Ellisons may be in order:  Price Ellison, born and educated in England, came over the Dewdney  Trail to seek gold at Cherry Creek in 1876. There being no city of Vernon,  his home ranch building stood where Capital Motors now stand. He owned  what is now the golf course and Poison Park. He married Miss Sophie  Johnson, December 1, 1884. He became a prominent farmer, stockman,  orchardist. He was elected to the legislature in 1898. In 1909 he became minister of lands; 1910 minister of finance and in 1913 minister of agriculture.  He had a major interest in the Vernon News for a time. He died in 1932.  Mrs. Price Ellison, (nee Miss Sophie Johnson), came in the hard way;  by rail from Peoria, 111., to the coast; then by boat, next by CPR as far  as Yale, B.C., by stage coach over the wagon trail to Kamloops, from  Kamloops to Vernon, riding side-saddle on a stock saddle!  She arrived in Vernon (Priests Valley) in 1884 to become the first  school teacher in May, 1884 ... on October 22 of that year (nine years after  the Benvoulin School had been opened further south in the valley.)  She married Price Ellison on Dec. 1, 1884. Her death came in 1954 at the  agrj of 97.  Signed: Everett S. Fleming, secretary.  24 J^ast   J residents    of  \-Jkanaaan    ^rristorical   S^ociet  ir  *  CAPTAIN J. B.  WEEKS  1941 - 48  LEONARD  NORRIS  192.. - 41  J.   B.   KNOWLES  1949  -  54  frank Mcdonald  I960 - 61  GU* BAGNALL  1962 - 63  G.  D.   CAMERON  1964 -  65  25 Summerland   Schools  By  S.  A.  MacDONALD  About 1902 the Summerland Development Company, which  had been organized by J. M. Robinson, purchased a number of  properties in this district and laid out the land in fruit lots. Around  this time also James Ritchie bought property in Garnett Valley  and some Indian Reserve lands around where West Summerland  is now located. These lands were also sub-divided into fruit lots  and offered for sale in various places, particularly in the Prairie  Provinces and the Maritimes.  These lots sold readily and settlers began to arrive in considerable numbers. As the only means of transportation at that time  was by boat on Okanagan Lake most of the settlers located near  the lake.  The establishment of a public school system for the new district was first considered at a public meeting in what was then the  new Summerland Hotel on February 3, 1903. Three trustees J.  M. Robinson, J. R. Brown and H. C. Atkinson were chosen and  space for a classroom was arranged for in a building across from  where the Cornwall Cannery is now situated. A lady teacher was  engaged but on account of illness was unable to come so K. S.  Hogg, of Peachland, was chosen to conduct the School until the  end of the term.  Grade 8 class — 1921 — Summerland School  26 Summerland Schools  At first there were children from only two families to attend  this school. The children from the J. M. Robinson family lived close  by in the Summerland Hotel but the J. R. Brown children had to  come from the Trout Creek area about three miles south. A democrat and horses were used and as there was no road, the travelling was along the edge of the Lake, which at some places was so  narrow a shore line, particularly at the base of the clay cliffs, that  two wheels of the vehicle were in the water, Great skill in driving  and much ingenuity was needed to guide the democrat through  some of the boggy places along the way. Each day brought some  new adventures to the passengers. However, in a short time a  road made travelling much easier. One of the pleasant memories of the school was the shift of location on hot days from the  classroom to a sailboat where studies were carried on in the cooler atmosphere on the Lake. Anita Brown, now Mrs. Granville Morgan, was one of the pupils at this school and is still living in Summerland.  It might be of interest to add that this building and also the  school building that was erected later this year, were used for  church services by three denominations until their own churches  were built. Anita Brown played the organ for all three for a time  and also for the Anglican Church.  By the end of June there were 24 pupils in attendance and the  building was over-crowded. Mr. H. C. Mellor was given a contract  to construct a one-room school at a cost of $1,280. The site chosen  was below the present hospital, opposite where Miss Banks now  lives. Durinjg the next year the attendance went up to 43. Miss  Minnie Smith, of Peachland, was the teacher and received a salary  of $55.00 per month.  By 1905 this school was too small so the citizens decided at a  meeting called by Inspector Gordon to build a larger and more  central school. Among those attending the meeting were: J. R.  Brown, Alex Steuart, H. Gailaugher, C. H. Cordy, H. Bristow, R. H.  English and Miss Smith. The site chosen was where West Summerland is now located. The proposed school was to have two  rooms, one for the junior pupils of the area around West Summer-  land, and the other for the senior pupils of the whole district.  In 1906 a school was built in Prairie Valley. This school remained in use until 1911 when it was permanently closed. In 1907  the Garnett Valley School was built and opened with Miss Ballon.yne in charge. The school was closed temporarily in 1911 but  reopened in 1913 and remained in operation until it was finally  closed in 1919. Miss Ruth Dale was the last teacher in charge.  The following are1 extracts from an article written by Mr. J. C.  Robson, who was the first principal of the Summerland Schools.  Mr. Robson had taught in Ontario for many years before coming  27 Summerland Schools  to B.C. He had been principal in Vernon, and after leaving Summerland he was principal in Revelstoke and later in Rossland. After  his retirement he lived in Summerland where his daughter, Mrs. E.  R. Butler, and two grandsons still live.  As the fruit lots began to go on the market, the trustees conceived the idea of building a central school with two rooms, one  for the junior pupils of the whole municipality. The three schools  already established were to remain open for the younger pupils  of their respective districts.  In 1908 the board called for tenders for this building. The government considered the tenders too high and as a result the building was not proceeded with when the fall term opened. I had  been appointed principal and when school opened in the fall we  had to find temporary quarters.  The upstairs of Mr. Laidlaw's store then owned by the Summerland Supply Company was then put in shape for our grades  seven and eight. As the trustees seemed unable to get the government to put up the building and as I objected very strongly to  having our classes moved up in a dark and inconvenient room, I  took a hand in the matter myself. I wrote to Mr. Price Ellison, member then for this constituency, and with whom I was well acquainted, asking him to prevail on the government to take action. Inside  of 10 days the contract was let and the building was ready for use  by the beginning of the New Year.  At the end of the first year 10 pupils passed the entrance examination but this number did not entitle Summerland to a high school,  so the board asked me to take up the first year high school work  as well as my own. At the end of the next year 11 pupils passed  so now we had enough for a high school. The high school classes  at first were taught in a building on the Main Street of West Summerland.  The school board was so well satisfied with the central school  experiment, which, incidentally, was the first in British Columbia,  that they decided to build a larger central school building, to bring  in all the pupils of the whole municipality in vans, and to close  all the outlying schools.  Tenders were called for a four-room school and January, 1911,  the tenders were opened. With present-day figures in mind it  might be of interest to quote the bids:  H. W.   Harvey, with plumbing and heating  $10,000  J. A. Darke, without plumbing and heating  $10,225  H. Tomlin, without plumbing and heating    $11,050  Nelson Bros., without plumbing and heating  $10,475  28 Summerland Schools  Harvey got the contract and C. N. Borton got a contract for the  plumbing and heating at the figure of $2,300. This building was  used until the present high school was built in 1951.  When this four-room school was completed in 1911, all the outlying school were closed but three of them were reopened at a later  date.  The closing of the district schools made necessary some means  of transporting all the pupils to the central school. The first vehicles  used were, of course, horse-drawn and were usually owned by the  drivers. In 1919 the first motor-driven vehicle was put into use and  the following year all the transportation was by motor vehicles.  It is interesting to note the change in names of the vehicles as time  went on. At first they were called "rigs," this gradually changed  to "vans" and finally they became "buses." The drivers of these  rigs, vans, buses can tell tell many interesting tales of their experiences over the years. The record for long years of safe driving goes to George^ Henry who retired only last year after driving  for 46 years. On his retirement he received well-earned words of  congratulation from the community and also an official letter irom.  the Supt. of Motor Vehicles in Victoria, as follows:  Mr. George Henry, Victoria, B.C.  West Summerland, B.C. October 22, 1965  Dear Mr. Henry:  I have learned of your retirement after 46 years of service to  your community as a school bus driver.  You have probably driven a school bus longer than any other  person in British Columbia. The fact that the record of your driving in our files is without blemish speaks very highly of the manner in which you carried out your work.  You will be able to look back on the countless thousands of  children you transported safely to and from school with justifiable  pride. The citizens of your community will be forever grateful to  you.  Please accept my commendation for a job well done.  We join all your friends and neighbors in hoping you will  enjoy a well-earned retirement.   May good health and happiness  long remain with you.  Yours sincerely,  R. A. Hadfield,  Supt. of Motor Vehicles.  The school on Hospital Hill was closed temporarily in 1911  but was reopened in the following year and remained in use until  it was finally closed in 1920. Miss Kathleen Elliott was the last  teacher.   It was sold in that year to H. Lumsden for $750.00.  29 Summerland Schools  In 1909 a school was started at Trout Creek in a building  owned by J. R. Brown. It was closed in 1911 as well as the other  outside schools but in 1916 another school was opened in a private building also owned by J. R. Brown. A new school building  was put up in 1917 and remained in use for three years when it  was finally closed. Two of the teiachers of that period atre still  living in Summerland — Miss Rita Harrison (now Mrs. Thorn-  thwaite) and Miss Grace Logie (now Mrs. Hector Whitaker). While  we are at Trout Creek we might bring the story up to the present  time. In 1956 a new site was purchased and a two-room, building  constructed. Two years later this was enlarged and again in  1965 a new classroom and an activity room were added. Now it  is a very modern well-equipped four-room school.  Following the First Great War the rapidly increasing attendance  made it necessary to plan for further accommodation. A one-  room, cottage-type building was constructed and later became  the Public Library for many years. A block of land where' the  MacDonald School now stands was purchased from James Ritchie  and plans were drawn up for an eight-room building. A by-law  to provide the necessary funds was placed before the ratepayers  in May, 1921, but was defeated. This was the only school bylaw  ever to be defeated in Summerland. However, the bylaw Was  brought up again the following year for a slightly smaller sum  and this time it passed. When this eight-room building was completed in 1922 it was able to accommodate all the elementary  pupils and the high school pupils moved into the' four-room building which continued to serve as a high school until the present  secondary school was built in 1951. The contractor who built this  eight-room building was Thomas Carson, of Vancouver, and his  bid was $34,987.  During these two years of expanding enrolment, all the existing buildings were needed for the elementary pupils so that the  high school had no home. For a time they used the Okanagan.  College buildings on Giant's Head and when the climbing became  too strenuous they moved down to Summerland at the Lakeside  where they were accommodated in the Men's Club of the Methodist Church and also in the Summerland Hotel.  In those early days the terms Industrial Arts and Home Economics were not used but it was Manual Training for the boys  and Domestic Science for the girls. The first Manual Training  course was started in 1918 with Rev. Charles Baker as instructor.  He held that position for three years and was followed by A. Wishart and Mr. Cunliffe. In June, 1923, Manual Training was suspended temporarily but it was started again the following February with  S. W. J. Feltham in charge. Mr. Feltham continued, as instructor  until his retirement in 1950.  30 Summerland Schools  Domestic Science had a very hard struggle at first. Miss Oliver started the course in September, 1919, but resigned at the end  of that term and Miss Anderson took over until June. In September, the teacher who had been appointed was unable to come and  as accommodation was very limited the board seized the opportunity to dispense with Domestic Science and the room was used  as a temporary classroom. As a result there was no further Domestic Science until 1937 when Miss Kay Rutherford became the  teacher.  Since 1948 there has been almost continuous building activity.  In that year the eight-room building was enlarged to 12 rooms and  fully modernized. In 1950 it was named MacDonald 'School in  honor of S. A. MacDonald who had been principal since 1919.  He continued to be principal until his retirement in 1956.  In 1948 a five-acre orchard which adjoined the school grounds  on the south was purchased from Judge Kelley and plans were  prepared for a new Junior-Senior High School. When this building was completed in 1951 the high school pupils moved in as  well as grades 7 and 8 from the elementary school. Grade 7 was  later returned to the elementary school. In 1961 five classrooms  and an activity room were added to the MacDonald School. In  1956 a contract was let for an addition to the high school and in  1965 another addition was authorized to provide for the new  courses being offered. This is still in the process of being built  and when completed the whole Summerland school system will  be modern and well-equipped.  During the1 Second Great War a Cadet Corps was formed consisting of all the high school students, both boys and girls, and  also all the senior pupils of the elementary school. No military  uniform was issued at that time but a uniform was provided locally consisting of white shirts and blue skirts or trousers, and they  looked very smart. As the war years went on many of these  cadets as well as former pupils enlisted in the various services.  Some 175 boys and 25 girls joined up and, sad to relate, 20 of  them did not return.  This year, 1966, extensive improvements are being made on  the school grounds. A ]crrge area of the present grounds has  been seeded down to grass and a five-acre tract of land to the  north was purchased from D. Dunham. When these developments  are completed, we will have a campus of which Summerland  can be rightly proud.  A number of teachers, particularly in the elementary school,  have put in a great many years of service and are now retired  and living in Summerland. Mr. Feltham became instructor in Manual Training in 1924 and held that position until his retirement in  1950. For many years there were no school counsellors and Mr.  31 Summerland Schools  Feltham acted as unofficial Boys' Counsellor. Many of the boys  who were members of his class can well remember the sound  advice given to them on many occasions and have profited greatly as a result.  Miss Ruth Dale who retired in 1960 had taught for a few years  in the Garnett Valley School and drove out there every day with  her horse and buggy. When that school closed she moved in to  the central school. She was greatly loved by all her pupils and  still hears from some of them from widely scattered places. Miss  Banks was the primary teacher for about 40 years and made a  strong and lasting impression on the pupils during their first year  at school. Miss Nicholson, now Mrs. Bob Tingley, taught for a  short time in the school on Hospital Hill and then moved up to  the Central School. After her marriage she left the profession for  some years but returned and relmained on the staff until her  retirement. Mrs. Jessie Johnston and Mrs. M. K. MacRae retired  last year after many years of service.  On the high school staff Mr. Ken Caple was principal for 10  years and is now CBC Director in Vancouver. Mr. A .K. Macleod  was principal for 20 years and is now supervisor at Trail.  Principals—High School:  1911-1913    D.  Hunting.  1913-1916    R. B. Forsythe.  1916-1920   D. H. Macintosh.  1920-1922   D. J. Welsh.  1922-1924   G Lundie.  1924-1925    J. O.  Stejeves.  1925-1928   D. L. Milne.  1928-1938   K. P. Caple.  1938-1959   A. K. Macleod.  1959-1962   A. J. Longmore.  1962- J. P. Tamblyn.  Principals—Elementary School:  1908-1911 J. C. Robson.  1912-1913 D. M. Brown.  1913-1914 S. I. Mott.  1914-1919 C.  W.  Lees.  1919-1956 S. A. MacDonald.  i       1956- J. Cooke.  32 ^Jne    Ljood    (citizen  By GUY MacKENZIE  (EDITOR'S NOTE: These lines were penned by the Rev. Guy  MacKenzie a few days before the passing of his esteemed friend  George McLeod, MLA, who died in Enderby, December 20, 1965,  and used in his funeral oration at the service oi burial.)  What is it in the citizen  That sets him off from other men?  'Tis not alone the right to vote  And keep the ship of state afloat,  But something in the Inner man  That keeps him always in the van.  He catches with the seeing eye  What others miss in passing by—  Some fatal flaw or some small defect  That turns a good to bad effect.  Then, making no ado about,  And this he does, not by himself,  While other men are on the shelf,  For, all together is his plan,  What people will to do they can.  This is what makes the citizen  A variant from other men,  But all may emulate his kind  By using the creative mind  To bring the human into line  With what is in itself divine.  33 ^rristoru    of    Canadian    \-jirl   guides  *3n      Vernon    and    ^District  1916 - 1960  The history of Girl Guiding in the North Okanagan started in  the fruit growing area of Coldstream, near Vernon. The Coldstream  Ranch, five miles east of the town, was owned at that time by Lord  Aberdeen (Governor General of Canada from 1893-1898). The Hon.  Coutts Marjoribanks, his brother-in-law, had been manager, later  retired and had his own ranch. Part of these very large holdings  were sold to English and Scottish families who were encouraged to  plant orchards.  1st Coldstream Guide Company  Many families soon came to this part of the country and a  school started. As early as May 29th, 1916, the 1st Coldstream.  Guide Company was registered, as well as a local Association, the  registrations being issued from Toronto, Ontario, and signed by  Sarah Warren, Chief Commissioner for Canada. The Association  was presided over by Mrs. Marjoribanks, and the secretary-treasurer  was Mrs. Raymond Fitzmaurice. Other members included Mrs. E.  J. Sunderland, Mrs. Kirkpatrick and Mrs. H. W. Husband. The  Captain of the Company was Miss Deborah Fowle. Among names  taken from an old roll call were: Kitty Fitzmaurice, Doris Husband,  Dallas and Phyllis Kirkpatrick, Phyllis Henderson, Beryll Laidman  and Phyllis Stevens. The Company pennant, a red rose on a white  background, now faded and yellow with age, has been framed and  is held by this Company.  Once the 1st Coldstream Co. was inspected by General Duff-  Stewart, who tested the Guides' semaphore by giving one patrol a  message to send to another. Just in case they were not too well up  in signalling, he kindly sent his aide to the receiving patrol with the  message. On another occasion the Company was invited to the  Military Camp for tea in recognition of their services in collecting  magazines for patients in the camp hospital. A picture shows them  all mounted on horses.  Guiding may have been organized in Canada, from Toronto,  but a more direct influence came from England, and the Valley was  imbued with the spirit of Guiding in all its challenges and adventure.  Through letters and ties with the old country, this English influence  has always maintained a high standard. The Okanagan Valley is  a valley of homes, not only fruit ranches, farms and fruit industry.  The early inhabitants came to stay, and their big families and lovely  gardens produced a stability that is disappearing.  Before the story  34 History oi Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  of those happy days is lost completely in the progress and growth  of today, we hope to record it.  Much later, the 1st Coldstream Brownie pack was registered  March 23rd, 1933, and its Brown Owl was Miss Molly Holtman. Miss  Hilda Both (Mrs. H. E. Walker, Vernon) was Tawny Owl.  1st Vernon Company  The 1st Vernon Company was registered July 10th, 1917,  Captain Miss Dallas Kirkpatrick (Mrs. Vernon Sutton, Vancouver),  and her sister as Lieut. Miss Phyllis Kirkpatrick (Mrs. Allan Sutton,  Victoria, B.C.). Later the Captain was Mrs. W. C. Carnac Morris,  and meetings were held in the Anglican Parish Hall, and then in  the Gateby, which was the Ranchers' Club in the very early days  of Vernon. Following Mrs. Morris was Miss Clare Johnson, and  among the early guides, appear the names: Queenie Bolton (Mrs.  Towers, Vernon), Margaret Cochrane (Mrs. Rogan, Vernon), Hilda  Both (Mrs. Walker, Vernon), Dorothy Price, Madeline McGaw.  This Company still proudly carries the original colors, a dark  blue flag with the red and green 1st Class ensignia in the centre.  There are very few in all Canada.  Lady Baden-Powell congratulates three of British Columbia's Gold  Cord Guides. Left to right, Rochelle Touzeau, Vernon; Isabel Tyacke,  Vernon;  Kimi Isamura, Revelstoke.  35 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  1st Vernon Brownie Pack  Was registered May 20th, 1921. The Brown Owl was Miss  Winnifred Lloyd, whose brother was accountant at the Coldstream  Ranch. She was followed by Miss Betty Leroy (Mrs. F. J. Dillard).  2nd Vernon Company and 2nd Vernon Pack  Formed at the girl's School, St. Michael's, Vernon. There is a  registration dated 1925 for them, and Miss Constance Trenowath was  Captain and Brown Owl. These were closed in 1935 but both were  re-opened as town units. Mrs. Charlie McDowell was the next  Captain, then followed Miss Joan Trehearne.  In 1926 the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the Empire,  throughout Canada, sponsored Girl Guide Companies and Packs.  They had representatives on local associations, and helped wherever possible, financially and otherwise. They were very helpful  in Vernon, sometimes paying rent for halls, providing vegetables  and fruit for Guide camps and helping with transportation. The 1st  Vernon Company at this time became the 22nd I.O.D.E. Company,  and the 1st Pack was the 5th I.O.D.E. Pack. This continued until  1946, when they returned to their original numbers, as the I.O.D.E.  withdrew their services.  Looking through the Vernon News, the files are dotted with  notices of meetings, one in the Presbyterian Church on September  20th, 1923, and another at the Park School November 30th, 1923. At  one of these meetings they were implored to send information to the  Provincial Headquarters; and a familiar notice that orders for supplies were to be sent to Toronto only twice a month.  _««______.-.   ......   -__-."."V-^T^'^^^^^.^mm^^.--  ••" __1.-Hi-Mh_  Guides at Coldstream Ranch in 1955 during Lady Baden-Powell's visit.  36 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  During the summer of 1927 a camp for Vernon Guides was held  at Oyama, when the Captain and Commandant was Miss Clare  Johnston and her Lieut. Miss Margot Gillespie. In a report, guides  who excelled in sports were: Betty Baillie (patrol leader), Mary  Harwood, P.L., Margaret Cochrane and Bonnie Wolfe. Swimming  instructor was Miss Vera Sharpe (Mrs. J. McCullough, Vernon), of  Enderby. The same summer, the first Dominion Camp was held, in  Victoria. Margaret Cochrane and two guides from Armstrong were  among the 300 who attended the big Jubilee Camp. July, 1928, the  22nd I.O.D.E, Company went to camp at Otter Bay with the same  Captain and Lieut, and 21 Guides. Mis? Bey Doull was swimming  instructor, Miss Price, Nurse, and Miss Elaine Jameson as Q.M.  Otter Bay continued from then on to be the camping ground (thanks  to the Ellison family) for the Vernon Guides, Scouts and Cubs, for  32 years.  Miss Margot Gillespie became the next Captain for the 1st  Vernon Company, and she was followed in 1932 by Miss Agnes  Monk (Mrs. Max Ladner, Vernon) who carried the company for  several years, taking them lightheartedly to camp without the aid  of any local association—"but we did have raspberries from the  I.O.D.E."  In 1934 Miss Margaret Palmer became Captain and loudly proclaimed the need of a local association, which was formed that  year. In the early days, the President of the local association was  the guiding spirit. The earliest minute book to be found is dated  Vernon, March 5th, 1935. Mrs. Jervis Clarke was President; Mrs.  Drew, Vice-President; Mrs. K. Kinnard, Treasurer; Mrs. Guy Greenwood, Secretary.  These minutes report: "As Mrs. Pellett was unable to be present  Mrs. Clarke took the chair". Mrs. Pellett lived in the B.X. District,  later moving to Armstrong. She was the first Commissioner for the  northern part of the Okanagan. A new secretary Mrs. Adams, wife  of Bishop Adams, was unanimously elected. Her daughter, Beth.  Adams, was Captain of the Coldstream Company at that time, and  later also of the 1st Vernon Company, as well as Brown Owl for the  1st Vernon Pack. By their work and great enthusiasm Mrs. Adams  and her daughter did much to stimulate Guiding and built the firm  foundation that has made Guiding in the Okanagan so strong.  Records have been kept ever since this year. At this meeting  it was decided to meet quarterly. "Miss Palmer submitted a report  of her Guide Company. Miss Adams and Miss Drew read reports  of their Brownie Packs. There was no report from Coldstream  Brownies as Miss Holtham could not be present. It was moved that  a small sum be contributed to headquarters at Victoria for postage  costs. This was agreeable. Two dollars was voted, the company  and packs paying half the amount.   The yearly L.A. fee was 25c."  37 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  A letter was sent to the road engineer asking if it was possible  for the Otter Bay Road to be improved as many children had to be  conveyed over it to various summer camps. This polite request  appears in almost every annual report, and in 1949 the road cut  was blasted and made wide enough for two cars to pass.  In 1938 Mrs. Geoffrey Whitehead led the Guide Movement, and  since her time First Aid and Home Nursing have played an important part in the training programme for the Guides. In turn, these  classes have been largely responsible for the large number of girls  going in for training as nurses from this valley.  Rangers were formed in the thirties but due to lack of leaders  dispersed shortly.  In 1942 Mrs. H. L. Coursier was elected President. The Girl  Guides by this time had companies all over the Okanagan, and  with the expansion came Commissioners to organize further. Mrs.  Coursier became District Commissioner in 1943 and her district took  in Vernon, Oyama, Armstrong, Lumby and Coldstream. Later Mrs.  Coursier organized and sent trainers to Sicamous, Enderby and  Salmon Arm.  Leaving the story of the Association and returning to the companies and packs, we come to the very difficult war years. Many  people kept the 1st Vernon Company going, some for very short  periods. At times the work was done by Acting Captains and Acting Lieuts. who were too young to hold warrants. Janet Clarke was  the leader from March to October, 1941. Betty Jane Fleming's dates  were October, 1941, to March, 1943. Hilary Menzies carried on  from February, 1943 to October, 1943.  One large rally was held in Poison Park during this time, and a  loud speaker loaned by the Army was an amazing innovation.  There was also an important parade. The Guides were allowed to  be present at the Vernon Army Camp on the occasion of the visit  of H.R.H. Princess Alice and the Earl of Athlone;. There was a  march past of the 19th Brigade under Brigadier W. W. Colguhon.  Later the Earl of Athlone inspected the Guides, 1st -Vernon Co.  under A/C Hilary Menzies, and 1st Coldstream Co. under A/C  Beth Alderman; and the leaders were presented to H.R.H. Princess  Alice. Forgetting all instructions, they saluted, and then curtsied as  well—"just to be safe".  October, 1943, Captain Joan Montague and Lieut. Sally Heggie  (Mrs. Leslie Viel) tried to hold sixty wildly enthusiastic Guides all  in the 1st Vernon Company. Mrs. Yerburgh (Beth Adams) and Mrs.  Hertzburgh (Bea Corner) were in command in 1944. Two Gold Cord  Guides did much to keep the company together and later became  Lieuts. They were Betty Anne Gray (Mrs. C. Hamilton) and Marion  Harris (Mrs. J. B. Moen). About this time Betty Husband was asked  to be Captain, and received her warrant in 1945, which she held  38 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  until 1956. The large company was divided and the 2nd Vernon  Company was formed in 1945 with Mrs. Charlie McDowell, Captain.  In 1947 the 3rd Vernon Company was formed with Betty Jane  Fleming, Captain (Mrs. Eric Denison). There were three Packs by  this time and St. James Church wished a company to be formed.  This 4th Vernon Company (St. James) had Miss Anne Stocks as  Captain and Miss Anne Boursette at Lieut.  Rangers were formed in 1945,, with Mrs, Stuart Gray as Captain  and they were a particularly strong group for quite some years.  In 1946 Guiding in the North Okanagan really developed. Two  English Guiders caught in B.C. by the events of war got involved  in our Guiding and became our top Guiders. Miss Doris Illingworth  was Provincial Commissioner, and Miss Margaret Hannah was  Head of Training. They also drove Anglican Church Vans, and so  came through Vernon on several occasions, giving lively training  to Guides, Guiders and even Local Association members, each  visit. It was in 1946 that Lady Baden Powell visited Vernon, where  a large rally was held for the whole Interior. It was this year also  that the North Okanagan Division was formed with Mrs. H, L.  Coursier as Division Commissioner. The Division took in Revelstoke,  Sicamous, Salmon Arm Enderby, Armstrong, Lumby, Vernon and  Kelowna. The Vernon District was taken over by Miss Grace  Nichols. Kelowna joining made a much larger territory to cover,  and many training classes were held there by Division Trainers  and much effort was made to help the new District Commissioner,  Mrs. Rannard.  Mrs. Coursier very successfully carried out a large programme  for the World Chief Guide. She planned for and got 1,000 Scouts,  Guides, Cubs and Brownies from the North Okanagan, South  Okanagan and the Kootenay to assemble in the Vernon Arena  for a Rally. The Rally was preceded by a luncheon for the Commissioners both Scout and Guide, Presidents of all Local Associations, some Scouters and some local dignitaries, including the  Mayor and Bishop Adams. After the Rally there was a Civic Reception to which 250 were invited and many, many more just arrived,  having been associated with Guides and Scouts in the Old Country.  In 1949 Mrs. Coursier was a B.C. delegate to the Dominion  Annual Meeting held in Montreal.  In 1949-1951 Betty Jane Fleming volunteered and was accepted  for Guide International Service in Germany. She was stationed in  Hanover, and worked in D.P. Camps. Her letters were an inspiration  to all Guides at home.  In 1950 Betty Husband volunteered and was accepted as an  exchange trainer at Camp Ruby, near Minneapolis. This was a  most interesting experience, as she was asked to teach "primitive  39 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  camping".  Later this led to more across the border camping being  done by the Division.  In the same year Miss Grace Nichols, who had trained and became an Eagle Owl in 1938, went to Toronto for a Training Conference, and has been giving valuable training ever since, not only  in B.C. but also in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward  Island.  In 1952 the Provincial Annual Meeting took place in Vernon,  when Vernon was host to 150 Guiders, one of the few times this  meeting has been held anywhere other than Vancouver or Victoria. There was a great deal of thought and effort put into this  event, and it ended with a banquet which was an innovation at that  time. This was the climax to Mrs. Coursier's ten years of very active guiding. She subsequently was a member of the Provincial  Council and also for three years was on the Dominion Council.  1952 was the year of the Third National Camp at Ottawa. The  North Okanagan Division sent seven Guides and one Guider, those  from Vernon being Erica Creed, Ellen French, Anne Steele and the  Guider in charge was Betty Husband.  1957, a Canadian World Camp took place at Doe Lake, Ontario, and attending from Vernon were Gay Frisby, Ruth McClounie  and Donna McPherson.  During the years we have had many visitors and great preparations were made for them. Rallies were held and a warm friendly feeling developed among Guides as the visitors left us with  inspiration.  In 1937 King George VI and Queen Elizabeth passed through  Revelstoke and Sicamous, with short stops. Guides were transported  to the main line.  1946 The Chief Guide as mentioned before.  Later that year Lord Rowallen visited Kelowna, and Guides  from Vernon, Lumby and Armstrong went to the Rally by train.  1950. The Provincial Commissioner, Mrs. Quinell, visited Vernon  and Kelowna.  1951. Princess Elizabeth met Guides at Revelstoke, Sicamous,  Salmon Arm and Kamloops.  1952. Mrs. Nesbitt, then Deputy Chief but later that year Chief  Guide for Canada, came through the Okanagan.  1953. The Rt. Hon. Vincent Massey, Governor General of Canada visited Kelowna and Vernon and asked especially to' see the  youth of the Valley, so Cadets from three services, Scouts and  Guides paraded for his inspection.  40 History of Canadian Girl Guides In Vernon and District  1955. Lady Baden Powell made a second visit to Vernon. By  this time there were 1,000 Guides and Brownies in the North Okanagan alone, without counting Scouts and Cubs, Kootenay Guides  or South Okanagan. Brownie Revels were held in Poison Park and  a a Day Camp set up at the Coldstream Ranch. At the latter it was  decided to give the Guides who were coming from 12 towns as  much adventure as one day's camping would allow. Some twenty  tents were pitched, including First Aid and Administration. The  Coldstream Scouts supplied a water system in barrels. A meal  was cooked, each Company making their own arrangements, then  they cleaned up for the Chief's arrival and inspection. Scouts who  had been to the Jamboree that year in Ottawa formed one side of  a Guard of Honour, and Guides from different towns the other.  Many L.A. members were presented to Lady Baden Powell, as well  as Scout Commissioners and Scouters from Vernon. Awards for  Long Service were presented and three Gold Cords given.  1959. Princess Margaret visited Vernon.  1960. Queen Elizabeth and Prince Phillip visited Vernon. On  both occasions Guides and Scouts from the Okanagan Valley were  in attendance.  Continuing with the chronological order of events, when Mrs.  Coursier resigned Mrs. C. W. Husband was appointed Division  Commissioner. Mrs. A. Fleming, who was Secretary for the District,  continued as such and Mr. J. A. Illington became Sec. Treas. for  the Division. Both had belonged to the Local Association from, its  very early days, and been active in every undertaking involving  Guides.   They both were warranted.  In 1958 Mrs. Frank R. Harris, former badge secretary from Vernon, became District Commissioner after Mrs. Sterling. From. 1952  onwards more towns joined the North Okanagan Division. In the  north, a Guide Company was formed at Mara, a Company and  Pack at Falkland, a Pack at Lavington. Salmon Arm was re-organized and the District enlarged to take in White Lake, Salmon Arm,  Canoe and Sicamous. Revelstoke had a District Commissioner to  care for its three Companies and three Packs, while in the south  Kelowna expanded so much it was necessary to have two- Districts.  All these were controlled and directed by the Division Commissioner for North Okanagan, in Vernon. Mrs. Husband was elected one  of the B.C.'s two delegates to the Dominion Annual .-Meeting in  Fredrickton in 1955 and became Deputy Provincial Commissioner  for B.C. in 1957.  The following year, Mrs. C. D. Osborn became Division  Commissioner for the North Okanagan Division, which brings the  history from the start of the 1st Coldstream Company in 1961, to  one of the largest Divisions in the Province in 1960, under the leadership of Mrs. Osborn of Coldstream Ranch, Vernon, B.C.  41 C*daar    C*n  laar    i^menu  By BERYL WAMBOLDT  It is almost impossible for today's generations to picture the  Okanaan as many of our pioneer families found it. With only  rough wagon roads and not even many of these and in many places  only trails.  The railroad, when some of our first settlers arrived, had only  been built on the mainline a year or so before and as yet had not  been extended into the Okanagan Valley.  The only mode of transportation in the 1880s was from Sicamous to Enderby on the Flour Mill's boat, the "Red Star".  Such was the country here when James Emeny, his wife and  four year old son, Edgar, moved to their homestead which consisted  of approximately one hundred and sixty acres with correction lines,  along the west bank of the Shuswap River, about three' miles north  of Enderby.  Edgar Emeny was born in Milton, Ontario, on March 23rd,  1884, and he arrived in British Columbia in August of 1888. He spent  his entire life from then on, on the homestead, until his death, October 25th, 1965, at eighty years of age.  A small log house was built in 1888 by his father. The farm  lands were then entirely covered by bush and this was slowly  logged off, by hand cutting and cleared away to make a large  acreage of flat, productive farm land.  For the first four years cord wood was cut for the woodburning  engine of the river boat "Red Star" and a low place on the river  bank of the Emeny farm, today is still known as "the Scow", for  this is where the "Red Star" pulled in to take on wood from the scow  loaded with cordwood.  When the Sicamous and Okanagan Railway was built it ran  through part of the Emeny land and it also replaced: the Red Star  which was now not needed by the mill. However, the earliest railroad engines were woodburning too, so until they were replaced by  coal burners, cordwood was cut for the railroad from the Emeny  farm.  The first train, Mrs. Emeny recalls, was almost like a hand car  with seats, only drawn by a steam engine that was so slow you  could run along the tracks beside it and easily keep ahead of it.  Another son, Arthur, had been born to the family, unfortunately  he died at the age of twenty-three. When a neighbor lost his wife,  42 Edgar Emeny  Mrs. Emeny took his eight-month-old daughter to look after until  other arrangements could be made. However, she remained with  the Emeny family and was raised as their own.  As there were no schools nearby in those days, Mrs. Emeny  taught Edgar at home.  As Edgar Emeny grew he helped, his father and "Uncle", who  made his home with them, to clear the land. This became one of  the choicest mixed farms of the area and it still is today.  The Emeny men constructed the first irrigation system in the  district. Living so close to the river they pumped the water up and  into wooden flumes that ran through the fields. This was later  changed to a more modern piping system.  In November of 1917 Edgar Emeny married Miss Nellie Crandle-  more at her parents home in Grindrod. She had been a school teacher and taught at Grindrod school from 1912 to 1914.  Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Emeny. Two boys and  three girls and there are twenty grandchildren.  It is interesting to note that their daughter Grace married Leonard O'Keefe, a member of the pioneer O'Keefe family of O'Keefe  Ranch. Another daughter, Jean, married a Schubert, a member of  the Schubert pioneers of Overlander fame. Jim, their son, married  Alice Skyrme, daughter of yet another Okanagan pioneer, Thomas  Skyrme. A son, Frank, won the Distinguished Flying Cross with  the RCAF for aircraft action on the Eighth front in Italy in World  War II. Alice, their youngest daughter also served in the Air Force,  Women's Division, and married an RCAF man. They now live in  Brampton, Ontario.  The first British Columbia generation of the Emeny's passed  away within a few years of each other.  "Uncle", as he was always called, died first in 1939 at the age  of 84 years. Then James Emeny, Edgar's father, in 1944, at the  age of 81 and Mrs. Emeny, his mother, in 1945, when she was' almost ninety years of age.  The Emeny home where Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Emeny lived, is  made of cedar logs taken from their own land. The unique feature  of this log house is that the logs were placed upright throughout.  Mr. Emeny searched the farm carefully for cedar trees of uniform  size and those used would be from 10 to 12 inches through. Hand  made shingles were used for roofing. This is an eight-room home  with modern conveniences. Its cedar log walls keep it warm in winter and cool in summer.  Farm work leaves little leisure time for other activities, especially during the earlier years and Mr. Emeny was a quiet, re-  43 Edgar Emeny  served, home loving man. One pleasure he enjoyed was the art  of taxidermy, and in it he excelled. He did this for his own pleasure  and later for others who* would ask him to. His collection includes  almost every bird native to this area, from a humming bird, which  incidentally he found the most difficult he had ever done, to the  large grey owl. Even baby skunks are in his large showcase. A  bear, he considered, his best work, and one of two coyotes he had  done, were given to the Vernon Museum a few years ago by Mr.  Emeny.  In 1954 his youngest son, Jim, bought the farm but Mr. and  Mrs. Emeny continued to live in their comfortable farm home.  The Emeny family have been members of St. George's Anglican Church in Enderby throughout the years.  Mrs. Emeny told me the family farm had been her husband's  "life". He took a keen interest in bird life and loved every phase  of nature, he had spent his life with it. Never a day passed, as long  as he was able, that he did not walk around some part of the farm  or to some favorite spot.  Edgar Emeny was respected by his friends and neighbors as a  quiet, reserved and honest man. He made his living from the land  and he loved it and at no time did he have any desire to leave it.  Today it is a beautiful farm nearly all under cultivation, it  has kept three generations of the Emeny family and a fourth generation is growing up on it today.  ADS IN THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE VERNON NEWS  May 1891  Okanagan Hotel  Will be opened June 15, 1891.  Newly furnished throughout.  First-class table kept.  S. S. "Okanagan"  Will make regular trips to the Mission, Trout Creek and  Penticton on and after  May 11,  1890.  Rashdale & Costerton  Real Estate and General Agents  Enderby, B.C.  A number of small farms for sale throughout the Spallumcheen  District.  44 ~A    Visit   to    Phoenix    1966  By ERIC SISMEY  This year, in keeping with custom, it was the Boundary Historical Society's turn to hold a field day picnic and to invite members of the Okanagan Historical Society to share with them the day.  The date, June 19, the site, historic Phoenix or rather the ground  on which a city stood through the first two decades of the 20th Century.  Phoenix, a copper mining camp, at one time the highest city  in Canada, 4630 feet, was described by one writer as: "A brassy  place, full of locomotives, blasting, four churches, a champion hockey team, 28 saloons, five dance halls, gambling casinos, the biggest  plate-glass windows in the west and a boardinghouse where 400  miners ance had a fight over a girl."  The first claims were staked in 1891 in what was known as  Greenwood Camp, but it was not until 1895 after the extent of the  mineralized area became known that the boom began. The Granby  Copper Company, B.C. Copper Company and the Dominion Copper  Company began extensive development. About 1900 smelters were  built at Boundary Falls, Greenwood and Grand Forks, power transmitted from Cascade and two railroads, the Canadian. Pacific and  the Great Northern, were quarreling even though there was enough  traffic for both.  Eric Sismey Photo A Visit to Phoenix 1966  Phoenix Mine Building.  — Eric Sismey Photo  "The Glory Hole"  Eric Sismey Photo  46 A Visit to Phoenix 1966  As the mines developed and grew log cabins and shacks  gave way to frame buildings, which, in turn, were soon replaced  by substantial brick business blocks and homes. And rough-and-  ready Phoenix mining camp became a city of Victorian elegance.  In the rougher part of town the 1958 Report of the Boundary  Historical Society records that table board at the Imperial was offered at $7.00 a week, while at the famous Brooklyn Hotel the menu  of the 1911 Christmas Day dinner included such exotic delicacies  as Russian caviar, Blue Point oysters on the half shell, and Green  Turtle soup.  Early mining was largely by shaft and tunnel. Mineralized  rock was loaded in cars and taken by rail to the smelters where it  was mixed with coke and charged into blast furnaces, each 500-600  ton capacity. When a melt was complete white hot molten slag  was drawn into 30 ton cars to be dumped to cool into black glassy  slag piles still seen from the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway. The  metallic end product, blister copper, containing values in silver  and gold, was sent to Tacoma for final separation and purification.  In 1918,, at the end of the First World War, after more than a  hundred million dollars worth of ore had been taken from the mines,  copper prices fell and when labor troubles cut off the supply of  coke from the Crow's Nest the Boundary mines closed down in 1919,  people moved crway, frame structures rotted and fell while substantial buildings, stores, churches, skating rink and hospital were  carefully salvaged to be erected again elsewhere.  A few years ago, in the face of rising copper prices and with  the new refining processes and equipment available the Granby  Company decided to take a look at their Crown granted Phoenix  properties. Webster defines Phoenix: "A lengendary bird being  consumed in fire by its own act arid rising in youthful freshness  from its own ashes"—And it has!  At the time of our visit on June 19, 1966, 2,000 tons of ore a  day were being blasted and scooped from a huge open pit and  trucked to the concentrator. At the mill the ore was crushed by  mechanical crushers and after mixing with water was passed in  succession through rod mills and ball mills to emerge as a slurry  to the flotation tanks where it was mixed with certain oils and  where with fantastic complexity, yet delightful simplicity, the metallic particles are picked up by the oily bubbles to skimmed away  while the worthless gangue sirJks to the bottom of the tanks to> be  drained away. Very simple did you say? It is after all the necessary conditions are met, but flotation took years to develop and  the ore from every mine demands its own special treatment.  One hundred men, who commute from Greenwood and Grand  Forks, mine and refine the 2,000 tons of ore a day. Concentrates  are trucked to Vancouver, from there shipped to Japan.  47 A Visit to Phoenix 1966  The site of old Phoenix is five miles and 2,000 feet up over  a well gravelled switch back road from Greenwood but before  reaching the mine our Boundary hosts had arranged a picnic spot  at the bottom of a short hill leading down from the main road. A  delightful glade sloped gently upward; a little- rill, cold enough  to keep pop bottles cool, trickled down the glade and under the  road. The air was fresh, warm enough to< sit in sunshine or shade.  Tea and coffee were ready for the nearly two hundred scattered in  friendly groups. Among them were folks from Grand Forks, Greenwood, Midway, Rock Creek and Beaverdell; still others from Republic on the American side; from Penticton, Victor Wilson, President  of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, Brian  Wilson, Eric Sismey, and Mrs. Walter Dewdney; from Kelowna,  Mrs. T. B. Upton, President of the Kelowna Branch, Mr. T. B. Upton,  Mr. and Mrs. F. M. Upton and Mrs. Ron Irwin; from Oliver Mr. and  Mrs. Harvey Boone. Sailing races on Osoyoos Lake kept some Oliver and Osoyoos historians at home to partake in the local event.  After picnic hampers were nearly empty, Mrs. Roylance, President of the Boundary Historical Society welcomed everybody before introducing the speaker, Mr. Bruce Ramsey, the well known  author. Mr. Ramsey's work is mostly of an historical nature, his  writings have appeared in Vancouver papers, he has prepared  historical material for CBC radio broadcasts and his "Barkerville—  A Guidebook" and "Ghost Towns of British Columbia." are well  known. Mr. Ramsey told his audience that he would not talk about  Phoenix since there were too many among the listeners who had  not only lived and worked in the original town, but -who knlew much  more about Phoenix than he did. Accordingly he would have something to say about Rock Creek and because it was 100 years since  those placers were worked there would be nobody around to dispute him.  At the conclusion of Mr. Ramsey's interesting and informative  talk several of the visiting guests were introduced before the group  was invited by Bob Matthews, mine manager, to tour the Granby  workings where guides had been arranged to escort small groups  around.  This writer visited the machine shop, crushing plant and the  flotation mill before walking up to the edge of the vast open pit  mine. From this viewpoint, near a cliff which was the only spot on  a 1918 photograph that I could identify, the whole townsite of old  Phoenix spread out below. Except for a partly demolished brick  building, a former transformer station, there was not a vestige of  the old town. In its place were the work-shops, crusher, concentrator and other functional buildings. Elsewhere mountainous piles of  ore were ready for the crusher and lined up, like soldiers on parade,  were mammoth Euclid trucks which carry ore from the open pit 20  tons at a time.  48 A Visit to Phoenix 1966  An old timer standing beside me at the open pit, who had laid  down his tools more than two score years before, pointed to where  many of the old buildings once stood. "Phoenix," he said, "was a  well chosen name for I always knew she'd come back." "See," he  said with a sweep of his hand, "there's enough ore there for another  50 years — perhaps more."  Leaving Old Phoenix we stopped by the cenotaph to read the  names of those who had fallen in the First World War. It stands  solitary now, at the edge of a growing forest far from human company. Leaving the cenotaph we followed the road downhill halting occasionaly to photograph the tumbled heaps of former homes;  the trace of old streets; a rusting fire-hydrant, leaning in, useless-  ness; and a solitary headstone surrounded by wild flowers. At the  edge of the old townsite we stopped to wander through the ceme-  tary and to read names on headboards and headstones, some fallen  others still erect. The cemetery is a forest now where growing trees  pay no respect to graves.  Obituaries reflect youth and sudden death far from their native  land. One that I remember was carved on a squared fallen timber  post. It read: 'In memory of James McGregor, of Nyanza, N.S.; who  was killed in the Granby mines, July 17, 1905, aged 21 years."  Returning to Penticton as evening fell to end our delightful Boun-  day day we stopped for picnic supper on the banks of Rock Creek.  The creek rambles along forgetful that a century ago a gold  camp lined its banks and scores of men turned its bed upside down  in frantic scramble for the yellow dust which had lain there since  time began. Now, except for a "Point of Interest" sign and a length  or two of roting flume, nothing remains! to remind rubber-tired tourists that Rock Creek was ever anything more than another mountain stream.  49 r 1/lountuiew     fllllethodist    (church.  By ARTHUR W. GRAY  In the very early days in the Okanagan Mission Valley no  Protestant church of any denomination existed. Services were first  held by itinerant ministers or missionaries of Protestant denominations, who had their headquarters in Nicola. They held services  in private homes, and might be Presbyterian, Methodist or Anglican, but the congregations would include many denominations.  When churches were established in North Okanagan the services became more frequent. The ministers, often only students or  probationers, rode horseback at first, and later drove down with  horse and buggy, holding periodic services at various places.  The first Protestant group to establish a church building of their own  in the Okanagan Mission Valley (their efforts stimulated by Lady  Aberdeen), were the Presbyterians, with the construction of Bethel  Presbyterian Church in Benvoulin, the name given by George  Grant MacKay to his townsite, a rival to Lequime's new lakeside  town of Kelowna. This was in 1892, and a news item in the Vernon  News of June 15 that year is interesting as a comparison of the  costs of church construction then and now. It reads: "The Bethel  Presbyterian Church at the Mission is well underway- Mr. Raymer, the successful bidder has several carpenters at work. The  contract price is $1,575 not including seating and heating."  Rev. Thomas Neville, a Methodist minister stationed, in Vernon  at that time, had been conducting services in the hall over Lequime's store in Kelowna, and in the Benvoulin. school, from time  to time. Shortly after the Presbyterian Church was completed this  letter to the editor appeared in the Vernon News: "Dear Sir: The  fine new Presbyterian Church is only used for an hour or so on  Sunday. Rev. Mr. Neville still preaches in the schoolhouse. What  is the matter with him preaching in the new church at a differant  hour, where the congregation may sit in comfort? Quite a number  of the same people attend both services." The letter must have  had an effect for not long afterwards just such an arrangement  was made. This indicates that a Methodist congregation existed  in the Okanagan Mission rural area in 1892, and while it is difficult to obtain much information regarding their activities we do  know that successive Methodist ministers from Vernon held services in the Benvoulin district. References to them are found from  time to time in the old issues of the Vernon News. Rev. J. P. Hicks,  of Enderby, was one of the earliest, preceding even Rev. Thomas  Neville. (We will hear of Rev. Mr. Hicks again later on), and D.  W. Scott and George E. Smith between 1893 and 1897 the latter  being a probationer at the time. The Vernon News of Nov. 21,  1895 states that "Rev. J. S. Thompson (of Vernon) preached at Ben-  50 Mountview Methodist Church  voulin. The sacrement of the Lord's Supper was observed, after  which an official board meeting was held. The stewards present  were Robert S. Hall, J. Drennan, George McCurdy and Mr. Munson, recording steward."  Though lacking a church building, or a resident minister,  the congregation was obviously an organized entity, as a mission  field of the Vernon Methodist Church.. George E, Smith, and his  successor W. E. Moody (1897) were located in the Okanagan Mission area, serving both Kelowna and Benvoulin Methodist congregations, neither group having a church building. Rev. George E.  Smith returned at the turn of the century a fully ordained minister,  and according to a letter written by Rev. J. H. White, and quoted  in Rev. John Goodfellow's "Kelowna United Church History," in  the O.H.S. 18th Report (1954)" it is to his ability and judgement  the prosperity of the church was due. A new frame church, seating 140, was built (in Kelowna) in 1904 and a splendid parsonage  in  1905."  The same year (1903) according to Charles Buckland, in his  "Ogopogo's Vigil" another Methodist church was opened. Buckland  states that "Mount View Methodist Church was dedicated by the  Rev. J. H. Wright of Vernon in 1903. The building was bought from  Charles Mair and moved from his property in Benvoulin to the  farm of John Dilworth a mile further north on the Mission ;P,oad.  They placed the little frame church just north of Dry Creek, where  it remained for several years. It was again moved to Rutland north  of the present school when that centre was established in 1906."  He gives the name of Rev. J. P. Hicks as the first minister.  The date of 1906 is incorrect, as the moving of the church to  the new site in Rutland came early in 1908, a fact that is borne  out by newspaper reports in the Kelowna Courier and the Kelowna  Record, Rev. E. S. Fleming, who came to the district with his  parents in the winter of 1907-08, remembers the building being located by Dry Creek then, though not in use at the time, and the  Fleming family drove to Kelowna to attend church at first. /The  building had historic associations, for it had been built by Charles  Mair as a branch store in 1892 when the two rival townsites of  Kelowna and Benvoulin existed.  Charles Mair was a man of some prominence in his day, a  celebrated poet and the author of several books, amongst them  a verse drama "Tecumseh" and "Dreamland" and other poems.  In the days of the first Riel Rebellion, as a member of the Canada  First Party he had been imprisoned by Riel, but made his escape. In later years he was employed by the federal Immigration  department. His business ventures in Kelowna did not prove successful, the hard times that depressed the economy of the United  States and Canada in the mid-nineties forced him to make an assignment. Possibly the venture of trying to operate two stores in  51 Mountview Methodist Church  Mission Valley may have contributed to his troubles. He and his  family had beon quite an asset to the social life of the district  He served on the committee that was set up to organize the Anglican church congregation, was a trustee on the first school board  and an active member of the Cricket Club. His oldest daughter  married Bert Crichton and "in-laws" of the Mair family, descendants of Bert's brother (and best man at his wedding. Allan Crichton, still resides in the district. The site of the church also has historic interest, for it was located on part 'of the did Frederick Brent  ranch, one of the very earliest of the Mission Valley farms, having been first homesteaded in 1861 by two former French Canadian  voyageurs, August Calmells and Chapee, who had come here  from Frenchman's Prairie in Oregon. Brent bought them out in  1870, and built the first grist mill in the valley on Mill Creek.  Brent sold to E. T. Davies in 1892, who in turn sold to John Dilworth  in 1900. "Dry Creek," which ran through the south part of the ranch,  where the church was located, got its name because of the fact  that it was, in the early days, just an outlet for the overflow of  Mission Creek into Mill Creek in the flood season, and was practically dry the rest of the year. With the development of irrigation  this has changed, and is still intact, and is known as "Mountain  Shadows," and the site of a large golf course, auto court, curling  rink and country club, while the range on Dilworth Mountain is  used for trail rides. The Brent house and mill site and north part  of the ranch was sold by John Dilworth to W. H. Fleming in 1907.  His son, Rev. E. S. Fleming, presently secretary of the Okanagan  Historical. Society, resides there today. The church was given  the name "Mountview" in honor of the donor of the site, John Dilworth, who called his extensive holdings "Mountview Ranch."  Particulars regarding the opening of the church at Dry Creek  (now officially called Dilworth Creek) are unobtainable, but of  this we may be sure, that when that early Methodist congregation  began their first service in a church of their own they rose and  sang the Doxology — "Praise God From Whom All Blessings Flow"  —as only Methodists can sing it! Some of the early services were  taken by Rev. George E. Smith from Kelowna, but Vernon News  reports indicate that ministers from that city preached there on  occasion between 1905 and 1907. I have, met only one person  who attended a service there as an adult at that time, and that  is Mrs. Alex Reid of Benvoulin, now in her 95th year, but mentally  alert, and still able to attend the occasional function ai Rutland  United  Church.  The Mountview Church was closed during the winter of 1907-8  and the names of members of the Dilworth family appear in new  reports of the Kelowna Methodist Church activities published in  the Kelowna Courier. Some important changes were impending,  however, that would give the church a new start in a different location. John Dilworth had moved away to the coast to reside, and  52 Mountview Methodist Church  his son Leslie took over the ranch, minus the old Brent house and  the part bought by the Flemings, and had built a large new house  near Dry Creek. John Rutland sold his extensive holdings and irrigation system in 1905 to a syndicate headed by D. W. Sutherland,  and his property was subdivided and sold to incoming settlers  from the prairies, this development taking place in 1906. The same  year a new company, The Central Okanagan Lands, headed by  ]. W. Jones, Dr. Gaddes and others, acquired most of the remaining land in the district, other than the present Belgo and Hollywood  areas, and installed an irrigation system from Mill Creek. This  caused a shift in the centre of population that would be served  by the church, and resulted in the change in location.  Late in the winter of 1907-08 a new site for the church was obtained in the centre of the C.O.L. properties, at the junction of  what now are called Rutland Road and McCurdy Road. It is of  interest to note that the latter road was named after the McCurdy  who was at one time a member of the Board of Stewards of the  churchless Methodist congregation at Benvoulin. Another item of  historic interest is that amongst the list of names suggested for  the new post office in Dan McDonald's store was "Mountview." A  letter from the Post Office Department, Ottawa, to the 1958 Rutland Centennial Committee gave a list of the names suggested  in 1908, they were: Ellison, Bench view ,Dawn Sunset, Sproule, Don-  alda, Rutland and Mountview, and the one in the original petition,  "Blackmountain," spelled in that manner, as one word. The Post  Office Department was unable to say why Rutland was the choice.  The church building at Dry Creek was dismantled, and hauled to the new site in the early part of 1908 and re-assembled there.  The Kelowna Courier of April 9, 1908 announced the forthcoming  opening of the church in its new location: "Thef new Methodist  Church at Mountview in the heart of the Central Okanagan Lands  properties will be dedicated on Sunday next by the Rev. J. H.  White, New Westminster, superintendent of missions". On the Thursday evening following the church opening, the Kelowna Courier  states, "The Rev. J. P. Hicks, late Army Chaplain at Esquimalt, will  give a lecture entitled 'Peter McKenzie, Humorist, Lecturer and  Preacher', the admission 50 cents with the proceeds going to liquidate the church debt." The attendance was not as good as was  hoped for, but, nothing daunted, the lecture was repeated the following Thursday evening. Rev. Mr. Hicks had been assisted by his  brother, Mr. Gideon Hicks, a singer, and the Courier report said.  "Those who did not hear Mr. Hicks missed a musical treat." Search  of subsequent Couriers failed to state the outcome of the second  show. Presumably the Rev. Hicks was the same minister who  travelled the valley in the very early days, from a base in the  northern end of the valley.  During the summer months of 1908 the "summer supply" was  a young student minister, Rev.  E. D. Braden, who later was to  53 Mo un. view Methodist Church  become the first minister of the Kelowna United Church in 1916. In  Sept. 3, 1908, The Courier states: "Rev. Mr. Braden of Mountview  left to resume studies' at Columbia College."  That summer The Courier carried an interesting report of a  combined social and Sunday School picnic, held at W. H. Fleming's ranch. Under the heading of "Black Mountain Notes," we read  of the large gathering, and are told "There was music supplied  by a gramophone belonging to Mr. John Woolsey, and a baseball  game between Benvoulin and Black Mountain, which was won  by the Black Mountain team." In those days the church was the  social centre of the community. On Sundays they drove to the  church service early, tying up the horse or team in the large driving shed provided, and chatted with their neighbors outside the  church both before and after the service. Week night activities of  young peoples groups were the main local events.  The Box Social was a flourishing institution, and the Orchard  City Record, The Courier's rival newspaper, tells this story of one  such event. 'The box social in aid of the Methodist Church at  Mountainview (sic) on Nov. 25 was a great success. The program  was lengthy and varied, a large number of people taking part. The  chair was taken by Mr. W. F. Schell. The feature of the evening  was an auction of the prettily decorated boxes, and Mr. Dilworth,  in the role of auctioneer, did a very good business, the proceeds  amounting to $42.85. Messrs. Schell, Brown and Charlton were the  judges and found it very difficult to make a decision. However, the  first prize was awarded to Miss Carrie Dilworth, the second prize  to Miss Fleming, and third prize to Miss Gladys Bird." There was  some unscheduled entertainment later, not planned by the committee, for the report goes on to state: "At the close, of the evening  some of the livelier spirits paid Mr. W. R. Craig a visit, at whose  home they ended a very enjoyable evening dancing to the strains  of Jack Copeland's violin." Mr. Craig's home, at that time, was his  newly constructed barn, not having got around to building himself  a house!  The earliest record of members of the Mountview Methodist  Church that I have seen is dated May 1909, and was compiled by  the secretary, William Gay. Included were the following individuals and heads of families: W. H. Fleming, D. E. McDonald, W. R.  Craig, Dr. Baker, C. H. Pitt, W. Lansdowne, Will Schell, Willis  Schell, George Schell, Thomas Barber, Victor Dilworth, Jack Charlton, Samuel Gray, Harry Elder, Earl Clever, W. H. Ford, I, C. Goodrich, William Quigley, A. E. Clarke, (the latter being Sunday School  Superintendent at that time), Rev. J. H. Wright (formerly at Vernon  and then at Kelowna), also had charge of Mountview for a time.  Early in the first winter that Mountview Church was located  on the new site, a Bible class was organized in connection with the  Sunday School, the meeting being at the home of W. H. Fleming.  54 Mountview Methodist Church  Above: Mountain Methodist Church, on its new site in Rutland. 1908.  In the background is Baldy Mountain, at the foot of which Father  Pandosy located in the spring and summer of 1860, before moving  to the permanent Okanagan Mission site.  Iff  Left: The fine  new parsonage,  built by the  Schell Bros, in  1910 and first occupied by Rev.  William Vance.  The building is  still in use, as the  United Church  manse.  55 Mountview Methodist Church  Mountview Church and Bible Class picnic, Mission Creek, 1910 or  1911. Tall man on left is A. E. "Pagewire" Clarke, Sunday School  superintendent. The other man standing at the back, in shirt sleeves,  is Mr. W. H. Fleming. The young man at the right, kneeling with hat  and tie is Everett Fleming, son of W. H. Fleming, now Rev. E. S.  Fleming.  The new Rutland United Church, built on the site of the old Mount-  view Methodist Church,  and officially opened March 19,  1950.  56 Mountview Methodist Church  Officers elected were: President, Victor Dilworth; Vice-President,  Miss Ida Fleming; Secretary, W. G. Schell; Treasurer, Miss Leta McDonald; Teacher, Mr. A. E. Clarke. The last named had a small  non-producing orchard, and made a living by selling wire fencing  of the woven-wire type, that came in big rolls. It was rapidly replacing the old rail fences and those of barbed wire. It was popularly called "Pagewire," and as there were a number of Clarkes  in the district, including for a time a Rev. George Clarke at Mount-  view Church, the worthy Sunday School Superintendent was dubbed "Pagewire Clarke," a nickname that stuck to him as long as  I knew him, but I never heard him called that to his face!  In 1910 a fine new two storey parsonage was built on the north  side of the church property, facing the main road. The building put  the small white church to shame by its size and newness. With this  acquisition (built by the Schell Brothers), a married minister came  to Mountview in 1911. He was Rev. William Vance, a square built,  long jawed man (meaning the length of his chin, not of his sermons), who built up the congregation. He later served in Vernon  from 1914 to 1916.  The first recorded baptism took place in 1911, Rev. Mr. Vance  performing the ceremony. The infant was Mary Thelma Dilworth,  daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Victor Dilworth. World War I came along  in 1914 and gradually the young men, and some of the middle  aged, were missing from the congregation, as they enlisted in the  various services. A plaque in the church today contains the' names  of those who served in both World Wars, including many who' gave  their lives. Rev. Thomas Griffith became the minister in 1916, succeeding Rev. Mr. Vance, and is remembered locally as the founder  of the Rutland Boy Scout Troop in 1919, with Rev. Griffith as Scoutmaster and Mr. E, T. Money as his assistant. The troop was not a  church group, but included boys of all denominations. It has a rec-  cord of continuous existence since. (Rev. Thomas Griffith re-visited  the district last year, while staying with his daughter, the wife of  Rev. F. H. Golightly of St. Pauls United Church.) Rev. E. C. Curry  was the pastor for two1 years, 1920-22, and in turn was followed by  Rev. Frank Stanton, who came here from Keremeos. An ex-serviceman, who had served through the war as a soldier, he had quite  a strong appeal to the young men of the community. He' was active  in sports, hockey being his forte, and also took over the job of  Scoutmaster from Mr. Money. Working with boys was what he excelled in the most, and in 1924 he accepted a position with Stan-  stead College in Quebec province. He drove all the way to Quebec  in a Model T Ford car with his family. His wife, the former Olive  Masse, was a native of that province. Rev. Mr. Stanton, now retired, still resides in Quebec.  The successor to Rev. Stanton was Rev. H. S. Hastings, who  was to prove the last minister of Mountview Church. Church union  57: Mountview Methodist Church  was due to come into effect at the end of the year, and the question  as to which church should be used, the Methodist or the Presbyterian, became an immediate subject of discussion. The Presbyterian Church was formerly the Black Mountain School building, a  large one room building west of the Rutland Post Office. The Presbyterian congregation in Rutland was an offshoot of the Benvoulin  church, and the minister, Rev. Archie McMillan, served both congregations, and resided in the manse at Benvoulin. The decision on  this moot question was taken entirely out of the hands of the congregations by an unexpected turn of events. The Kelowna Courier  of October 15, 1925 tells the story: "The Mountview Methodist  Church at Rutland was destroyed by fire on Sunday last, October  11. Sunday school had been held as usual in the morning, and  when the children left, the heater had beefe- turned off by Mr. E.  Mugford, the superintendent. At one o'clock Rev. H. S. Hastings, at  dinner in the manse, (the report must have been written by a Presbyterian), noticed smoke coming through the roof. There was a  strong north wind blowing, and this soon whipped the1 roof into a  mass of flames. There being no fire brigade or means of fighting the  fire, all hands turned to removing the contents. They were successful in removing everything, including the organ!" At that time I  was a resident of McCurdy Road, close to the church, and helped  in removing the contents. The fire was confined above the tongue-  and groove wooden ceiling and there was not much smoke to  bother the workers. I remember assisting Mr. Wm. Gay, to remove  the last item, the heater that had helped to start the fire. Shortly  after this the ceiling went, and the winds whipped the place1 into an  inferno.  Within a fairly short time after Mountview Church came1 to a  fiery end the Methodist congregation and the Presbyterians were  united in fact as well as in name, and began to1 hold joint services  in the Presbyterian Church, which had been built as a school in  1908, the same year that the Mountview Church had been moved  to Rutland.  Rev. Mr. McMillan stayed on as minister and Rev. H. S. Hastings moved to serve Vernon rural churches, with his abode in Okanagan Landing. In due course Rev. Mr. McMillan and family moved to the former Methodist parsonage and due course the former  Methodists got accustomed to calling it the "manse." This building  is still in use, and recently underwent a face-lifting stucco job and  some interior remodelling.  There is a sequel to the story of Mountview Church. In course  of time the congregation became disatisfied with their ex-school-  house church and sold it, planning to build a new church with the  money, plus other funds they set out to raise. For a time services  were held in the Community Hall and also for a while in the Anglican Church. Eventually, after a fund raising drive, undertaken dur-  58 Mountview Methodist Church  ing the ministry of Rev. Stewart Crysdale in 1949, a successor to  the old Mountview Church rose upon the site of the burned church,  like a phoenix rising belatedly from its long cold ashes.  The new church, modern in design, was dedicated on March  19, 1950, a great deal of the work having been done by members  of the local United Church congregation, filled with the same spirit  that inspired the early settlers who dismantled, moved and reconstructed the old Mountview Methodist Church on the self-same site  in 1908.  +  ADS IN THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE VERNON NEWS  May 1891  John Chipp, M.D.  M.R.C.S., Eng.: L.S.A. Lond.  Office and Drug Store at  Vernon Okanagan  F. B. Jaques  Practical Y/atchmaker and Jeweller  Enderby, B.C.  Repairing a specialty.  E. C. Cargill & Co.  (Late Wood & Rabbitt)  Lansdowne,   B.C.  Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Boot and Shoes, etc.  A large' stock always on hand.  A large list of Farms For Sale on moderate terms.  Crowell & Cameron  Builders & Contractors.  Estimates furnished. Plans and specifications drawn free of  charge where contract is obtained.  Office and Store Fittings a Specialty.  Tronson Street Vernon, B.C.  The Vernon Hotel  West end of Barnard Avenue, Vernon, B.C.  First-class in every respect.  Every comfort and convenience — Stage meets steamers regularly.  A call solicited — J. A. Schubert, Proprietor.  59 \Jhanaaan     Valley.    eJJaus  By PACE STICK  My days of youth are long since gone  The whistle, laughter and the song.  There cannot be a better place to rest  Than in this valley of the blest.  'Tis strange to think brief years ago  The "Red Skin" hunted here with bow.  O'er mountain lake and forest stand  Through untamed Okanagan land.  Each morn the journey down the hill  My eyes alight on beauty new.  Throughout the seasons changing call  The spring, the summer, winter, fall.  The orchards clad in Easter garb  A mass of blossom, scent—a Psalm.  The bluebirds chirp, the bees low hum,  A "Herald" of the summer days to come.  Upon the slopes of mountains high  The stately firs reach to the sky.  Like sentinels that stand and vigil keep  O'er lake and strand, yet half asleep.  'Neath summer skies and warming sun  The white sails tack at sound of gun.  The water of the lake an azure blue  Entice, and shimmer like the dew.  Forgotten are the days of toil and school  The pen, the pencil and the tool.  Here, fun and laughter hold their sway  And care is banished for the day.  The beauty of the autumn scene  The reds, the yellows and the green.  A canvas painted by the "Master's" hand  Created out of earth and sand.  The virgin snow, like unto bridal veil  Envelopes now each hill and vale  And doth enhance with wonderous charm  This "Eden" with its peace and balm.  60 ZJne    vSasselts    of    \Jkanaaan  By ERIC SISMEY  Had you gone into one of the long-haul livery barns where  teamsters gathered in the 1890's — Penticton, Okanagan Falls,  Fairview, Camp McKinney, Rock Creek, Anaconda or Greenwood;  had you yelled "Hi Bassett" it would have been more than likely  that one of the five brothers would have answered your hail. Had  you enquired why the man answering your call wore three rolls  in the cuffs of his pants you would have been told that this was  the mark of men who drove six horse teams.  Gold, placer gold, seems to have had something to do with  the peregrinations of the Bassetts, but whether it was the lode mines  in southern British Columbia that brought them to Okanagan Falls  we shall never know.  James Bassett, father of the clan, was born in Kent, England,  on January 13, 1824. Nothing is known of his early life. He turned  up in California in gold rush days, he married there, his son Jim  was born there and there he lost his first wife.  In the 1860s, James Bassett followed another gold rush, this  time to Australia, and in the family bible we find:  "James Bassett married Eliza Cox in Adelaide, Australia, on  March 31, 1869. Eliza's parents were on their way to Australia on  the sailing ship "William Mitchell" when Eliza was born in Australian waters on August 29,  1840."  Further entries in the Bible show:  Augustus "Top" Bassett, born in Adelaide, 1869.  Richard "Dick" Bassett, born in California,    1873.  Fred Bassett born in Oregon,  1877.  Henry Bassett, born in Washington,  1879.  Ellen Bassett, born in Washington,  1885.  On September 10, 1965, Ellen, the last of the Bassetts, died at  Penticton. In 1919, she married Warwick Arnott, a pioneer in Okanagan since 1903. Warwick was one of the early motor stage drivers  between Penticton and Oroville. He died in 1963.  While Ellen was alive she enjoyed telling about the early days,  she remembered the large Bassett farm just a mile or two from old  Hudson's Bay Fort Spokane, where the Spokane River joins the  mighty Columbia. She remembers large fields of waving grain, the  orchard in blossom and the fruit laden branches of late summer,  the cows, the pigs and poultry; large barns for work horses and  saddle stock for everyone.  61 The Bassetts of Okanagan  Life on the farm was a happy one. She recalled the ploughing,  seeding and harvesting. The milking and yellow butter coming  from the churn. Everyone had chores and one of Ellen's jobs was  to tend the chickens, ducks and turkeys.  It was a rich life and though dollars were scarce, they needed  little that they did not produce.  Ellen could never understand why her father, obsessed, by  visions of a fortune to be made from coffee and banana growing in  Central America, sold the Washington farm in 1896, moved from  a land of plenty to trek to Jimenez, Costa Rica. Details of the move,  discomforts, strange people, strange language, a strange and hostile land were dimmed from Ellen's memory. But she remembered  the horror of their fatherless flight from Jimenez before a spreading epidemic of yellow fever, the difficulties at the border, quarantine and all that sort of thing that ended only when half brother  Jim met them at Greenwood to take them by wagon over the Anarchist Mountain Road to Okanagan Falls.  In the early 1890s railroad construction between the head of  Okanagan Lake and the Canadian Pacific's main line at Sicamous  was completed and steamboat service between railhead and Penticton. was firmly established not only by the CPR, sternwheeler  Aberdeen but by several competitive operators.  Freight for Southern Okanagan and Boundary mining camps  was landed at Penticton and from there moved south either by  road or by water. The road between Penticton and Okanagan Falls  was made difficult by two hills, the long sandy Kruger hill a tthe  head of Dog Lake, now Skaha, to the benches and the steep mile-  long Waterman hill down into Okanagan Falls. For this reason  freight was moved by water route from Penticton down Okanagan  river and through the lake, or from the head of Dog Lake to Okanagan Falls.  In 1890's Okanagan Falls — it was called Dogtown then —  was enjoying a boom. A syndicate headed by W. J. Snodgrass, of  Oregon, laid out a townsite. The promoters had great ideas, sites  were reserved for parks, schools, hospital, city hall, railroad yards  and wharves. In addition to selling 25 foot city lots for $10.00 down  and wait for the balance, Mr. Snodgrass owned the sawmill, hotel  and general store. He also ran stage and freight lines to various  Similkameen, Boundary and Okanagan mining camps and. in addition operated freight and tugboat service along Dog Lake.  The first steamer on the lake was the Miramachi, owned and  skippered by L. Holman, a syndicate man, was advertised in the  Okanagan Mining Review of August 19, 1893 — a syndicate paper  — to be available for towing and freighting anywhere on Dog Lake.  The October 19 issue of the same paper reported that W. J. Snod-  62 The Bassetts of Okanagan  grass was expecting a new steamer, S.S. Jessie. The Jessie was the  first steamer to navigate the river between the two lakes. She  burned in 1898. Other steamers delivering supplies to long-haul  freighters at Okanagan Falls was the sternwheeler S. S. Fairview,  built at Okanagan Landing in 1894 especially for the service. She  was not a succeiss for the twisty, snag filled river was too much  for her 55-foot length. One day, after a snag poked a hole in her  pilothouse nearly shoving it overboard she was taken off this run  to spend the rest of her life on Okanagan Lake.  The next ship, S.S. Maude, built in Ontario for Snodgrass in  1899 was powered by boiler and engines from the Jessie. She operated up and down the Lake until 1905. Another sternwheeler S.S.  Greenwood, built in 1897 at Okanagan Landing, ran up and down  Dog Lake until she burned in 1903 at Okanagan Falls. Until a few  years ago her paddle and other parts could still be seen on the  rocks by the old road bridge.  Thus freight came to Okanagan Falls by road, but mostly by  water for reshipment to the southern mining camps. And it was  to this freighting centre that the Bassett family came in 1896.  The Bassets, Top, Dick, Fred and Henry, found jobs quickly  around the busy Snodgrass stables or with half-brother Jim, who  had not been part of the South American adventure, but who had  come to the Okanagan several years before.  When Eliza Bassett set up housekeeping for her family early  in 1897, she bought from the Snodgrass general store a six-hole  Kootenay cookstove built by McClary's of London, Ontario. When  McClary manufactured cookstoves in the 1800's the day had not  yet dawned when, household equipment was made to be exchanged  for a new model every year or two. But even so it is doubtful if  McClarys expected a Kootenay stove to be used daily first by  Eliza and then her daughter, Ellen, for 62 years and when still in  good condition to be returned from Penticton, four years ago, to  the kitchen of the Community Hall at Okanagan Falls.  Before long the Bassett brothers bought the interests of their  half brother Jim to set up freighting in their own name.  In the late 1890s, the peak of the mining boom, it was not unusual to see the five foot high freight boxes of a dozen wagons  being loaded and readied for the morning start.  Horses, kept like circus stock, were well groomed, sleek and.  fat. Harness, oiled and well polished, was decorated with colored  rings and strings of little bells. It is still remembered by several  old timers that Bassett outfits were always among the best. In  summer six horses, with sometimes a trail wagon, was a freighting rig. In winter four horses handled a lighter load.  63 The Bassetts of Okanagan  It was always a delight to se© a freight train leave;. Among  the teamsters at least one Bassett would climb atop the high box  seat, gather the six lines in his gloved hands, kick the brake loose  with his right foot, a word and the hostler let go the leaders, and  another word to the team and away they went, harness bells tinkling, down the east side of Vaseux Lake, under Mclntyre Bluff and  along the sage brush flats. Some to the Fairview camp, while others  would turn left over the' Incameep Indian reserve to begin the  twenty mile drag from the valley floor up 3500 feet to Camp McKinney where McKinney freight was replaced by mineral concentrates for shipment to smelters in the United States.  Other freight rigs would go south a bit to turn at Osoyoos into  the switchbacks across the face of Anarchist Mountain, the Bridesville, Rock Creek and Greenwood.  With the dawn of the twentieth century long-haul freighting  slackened. Railroads had come into the Boundary country and to  the Similkameen. The Camp McKinney mines had passed the peak  of their production which ended about 1903. But freight outfits still  rumbled south from Okanagan Falls to the Fairview camps and  from Penticton up the "Sandhills" and "Green Mountain" to the  Nickel Plate mine perched, mile high, on the top of the mountain.  Ellen remembered clearly the savage winter of 1909-1910  when Dog Lake, froze from end to end. One day in early January,  when teamsters in coon skin coats would sooner walk then ride,  ten four horse outfits started over the ice to Okanagan Falls with  Dick Bassett in the lead. They had not gone very far when, without warning, Dick's leaders went through the ice. Cutting the tugs  saved the rest of the outfit but his leaders drowned.  By 1910 horse drawn stages to Oroville, Washington and to  the Similkameen were replaced by automobiles and further curtailment of long-haul freighting the Bassetts were forced into other  activities. Top and Dick expanded development of the rich bench  land above Vaseux Lake — now the C. E. Oliver ranch — which  they had pre-empted in the 1890's. They undertook farm and orchard cultivation, road construction, logging and general hauling  around Okanagan Falls.  Fred Bassett moved to Penticton where he built a livery barn  on Nanaima Avenue. Soon after opening he went into coal, wood  and feed business in addition to regular team and livery work.  Among other activities were pack train contracts back into the  hills to the Penticton irrigation reservoirs, log hauling contracts and  a great deal of freighting with four horse rigs to the Kettle Valley  railroad construction and tunnel camps between Penticton and  Chute Lake.  64 The Bassetts of Okanagan  In 1914-1915 Bassett's  corral was used by Army  Remount buyers to examine, pace and buy  from the horses offered  and to drain the best  horseflesh from southern  Okanagan.  After the livery, feed  and fuel business was  firmly established Fred  Bassett, prompted perhaps  by boyhood memories of  the farm not far from  Old Spokane, bought an  orchard on the Penticton  bench and a quarter section in Marron Valley. It  was ever his delight to  wander through his orchard at blossom and harvest time, or to drive an  automobile in 1930 — to  Marron Valley to' supervise haying along the  creek bottom and to look  up to see fat cattle graz-  i n g the bunch grass  slopes.  Fred's little office at the livery barn was always a centre where  riders and hopefuls gathered, where tall stories were bandied  around to which Fred listened with smiling tolerance. It was rare  for him to tell his own adventures, real enough, of freighting, bronco  busting and packing. His corral was often the seat of impromptu  stampedes where wild cayuses were ridden, just for fun, or in acceptance of a challenge. It was here that riders showed their mettle,  while others who had talked too long or too loud, literally bit the  dust.  With the passing years Fred Bassett's horses, gnawing old,  were pastured out to end their days in Marron Valley, one by one,  and at the time of Fred's death in 1955 he had no horses at all.  His motor vehicles always reflected the spirit of freighting days,  his equipment was always bright and well polished.  Today in a newer age, no trace of Fred's bam or corral remains. A building supply establishment, a furniture and office  equipment store cover the land where the corral and bam used  to be. Along Nanaimo Avenue parking meters have replaced hitching posts and it is a long, long time since a wagon ,drawn by a  four horse team, has rambled out of town from Fred Bassett's barn.  Ellen   (Bassett)  Arnott — 1963.  — Eric Sismey Photo  65 I  _?  I  CO  13  £  -£    .  fj  __!  i is  be  ■*»  bC  66 Jhe    \jkanaaan    oLa  laan    cJL.ana.uaae  A REPORT BY ERIC SISMEY  Around the turn of the century when ethnologists from the  Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C., were making intensive  studies of North American languages our Okanogan seems to have  been overlooked and subsequently very little work or study has  been undertaken.  For quite some time I have nursed a smoldering desire to do  something about the language of our valley. Not long ago, with  the help of local informants, I began gathering Okanagan words but  after I had written, as best I could, nearly 200 words it soon became  apparent it was a hopeless task unless one had special training in  linguistics.  It must be recognized that the human voice is capable of uttering an almost infinite number of sounds. And that our language,  represented by our alphabet, covers a very limited range. In fact,  our alphabet is not even adequate for our own language let alone  other allied tongues.  In Okanagan, there are, of course, a number of words which  lend themselves to representation by our alphabet. For example,  "Yam-qua" (woven root basket), "Pee-cha" (root digging tool), "Neek-  min" (knife) and many others.  Soon we reach more difficult words such as "K'geet-min" (gaff-  hook) and added difficulty arises when two informers spell a word  differently. Our word "wolf" has been written for me thus "En-ze-  chen" and by another informer "N'chee-chin".  There are several place names along the valley derived from  Okanagan, Kelowna (grizzly bear) and Keremeos (place divided by  a creek) for example. We have nothing in our alphabet which represents the Indian "k" sound used in these names which originates in the throat rather than further forward on the roof of the mouth  and our pronounciation of Kelowna and Keremeos is radically different from the way the Indians say the names in Okanagan. Penticton, unlikely as it seems, is also of Indian origin but the place-  name in English has drifted so far from the native pronounciation  and meaning as to be unrecognizable.  To overcome these difficulties linguists have expanded our  alphabet by the addition of other symbols together with accents  and with other markings to indicate when letters are globalized.  When this phonology is mastered thoroughly it becomes possible to render Okanagan, and other native languages, into a spell-  67 The Okanagan Language  ing code which students of linguistics understand and can utter  the Indian words correctly.  Difficulties increase as one delves deeper into the language.  Verbs do not follow the English pattern in the simple "I - You - He -  She - It" declension. There is no "to' have" and "to be" verb to  modify the tense. Where we use adjectives, adverbs, etc. the Okanagan incorporates the thought into one word, usually by the  use of suffixes, prefixes, or both. For example: "I ran swiftly" and  "I ran slowly", each become one word as does the expression  "I ran yesterday".  This spring having received encouragement from both the  Penticton branch of the Historical Society and the Indians Affairs  Committee I began to look for help. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, could do no more than suggest that the University of Victoria was arranging studies in linguistic©. A letter to Dr.  G. N. O'Grady, Associate Professor, Linguistics Department, University of Victoria, brought an immediate reply that Mr. R. T. Bouchard was more than willing to begin a study of Okanagan and  that he was prepared to start at once. Before I had time to gather  myself together my door bell rang on Sunday morning, July 10, and  I answered it to find Mr. Bouchard standing at the door. Scrambling around that afternoon resulted in my being able to arrange accommodation in the old Indian school building on th© Penticton  reserve where1 Mr. Bouchard could camp and work.  Mr. Bouchard is a graduate in Arts from the1 University of Victoria and he is presently working toward a PhD degree in linguistics at the University of California, San Diego: Through the summer  of 1965, when Mr. Bouchard served as quartermaster aboard HMCS  Camsell he studied the Eskimo language at Barrow and adjacent  villages. He has also made an extensive linguistic study of the  Diegueno Indians who live adjacent to the California-Mexico border.  Since Mr. Bouchard understands Indian people and knows the  way they think and act he has met with nothing but success. He  has been completely accepted and our local Indians have been  more than willing to help in every way. He has assembled about  750 words into an English-Okanagan and an Okanagan-English  dictionary and he has not only mastered Okanagan pronounciation but he has learned much of its syntax, grammar and agglutination. In addition he has secured tapes of legends, songs, together  with some of the very difficult Okanagan words which will be used  to perfect pronounciation, emphasis and accent.  Mr. Bouchard states that it is very likely that Okanagan will  be an important part of the thesis which he will prepare for his PhD  degree and he tells me that he may return some time to polish and  amplify part of his work.  68 The Okanagan Language  After his studies have been committed to paper we have been  promised a copy for our archives. This I feel will be a very good  thing for while older Indians speak Okanagan; between themselves  and while older teenagers are also fluent, the younger ones are not.  Hence, in Mr. Bouchard's opinion, the Okanagan language may  pass into history in another 50 years.  For my part I feel great satisfaction in having brought this  project into being and in observing Mr. Bouchard's understanding  and knowledge of the Okanagan tongue accelerate almost day by  day.  His work, when documented, will not only be a valuable contribution to the philology of the Okanagan valley but to all North  America.  69 ^rrector     Whitaker  By D. McN. LOWE  Although Hector Whitaker came to B.C. in 1907, he was truly  a pioneer of this one-hundred year old province. He was one of  that hardy, venturesome band who helped open up its' vast reaches. Their exploration expanded the known Province from a narrow  belt between Quesnel and the 49th parallel to the vast area that  stretches north to the Yukon boundary and eastward to Alberta.  He was bom in Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, in 1887, and  moved with his parents to New Westminster, B.C.  He took part, as a rodman, in the initial survey for the Vancouver, Westminster and Yukon Railway that was to start in Vancouver, proceed to Squamish and generally along the route of  the present P.G.E. Railway to Prince George and beyond. He  told of working between Deep Cove' and Seymour Creek, scrambling over huge fallen cedar trees when for days their feet would  never touch the ground. Financial difficulties forced the cessation  of this railway project.  The next work was a survey in a very underdeveloped section of B.C. for the Grand Trunk Railway, now the northern line  of the C.N.R. This extended from Yellowhead Pass to near the  present cities of Hazelton and Prince Rupert.  Travel then was a vastly different experience than it is now.  To reach Fort George (now Prince George) the surveying party  of 1908 travelled by C.P.R. train to Ashcroft, thence by a six  horse drawn stage to Clinton. Deep snow made it necessary to  change to sleighs. From Quesnel teams of two men hauled three  hundred and fifty pounds of their supplies on Hudson Bay hand  sleighs. They travelled at night when it was easier to pull on  frozen snow. In this way they covered one hundred miles in a  week, living on bannocks, porridge, rice and a few snared rabbits.  Only two white men resided at Fort George at that time. One  was the Hudson Bay Factor and the other was an ex-Mountie  turned fur trader.  The saga of the life of a survey party in those then remote  wilds through the perishing cold of the winters and the insect infested summers should never be forgotten. This life has been made  obsolete by the invention of aeroplanes, helicopters, radios and  power boats. It is a story of times of near starvation, of perilous  trips over treacherous river ice, of long snow shoe journeys in  weather far below zero, of death defying rides on scows being  poled through treacherous river rapids. It is a (tale of grit and  determination, of hardships overcome, of terrible perils encounter-  70 1  Hector Whitaker  ed, of scanty resources shared and true friendships made It  was a way of life that soon lost the weakling but developed qual -  wl?Tage and helPfulness in those who could survive Sector Whitaker was a man born for this way of pioneering and Ms  qualities were emulated by those who worked with him  ♦I.    v?I5e?atel1Y upon the  outbreak  of  World War  I he  joined  he 72nd Battalion of the Seaforth Highlanders.   It was tpica? of  tl^UeTwuSt^ if? h,lm f°r S9Veral yeOTS beforeTearning  ZidP    Ln^n mentioned  in dispatches   and  awarded the D.S O. for conspicious gallantry. The official history  of the Seaforths describes the action which earned him Sis W  71 Hector Whitaker  "During the Battle of Amiens in August, 1918, special mention  must be made of the splendid work of Lieut. H. C. Whitaker and  the scouts who accompanied him, while the work of all officers  and men was beyond praise, this case stands out even amongst  such examples of conspicuous valor. He led his men over fifteen  miles of enemy territory keeping perfect direction. They gained  and won their objective. For this gallantry he was awarded the  D.S.O. He was severely wounded in the face and neck immediately afterwards."  After his discharge from the army, he was located in Penticton with the firm of Dufresne and Whitaker. They laid out many  of the irrigation systems of this district. The highway location surveys included that of Anarchist Mountain, the B.C. portion of the  Banff-Golden Highway, and the Sheep Creek-Rossland Highway.  In 1924 he married Grace Logie, of a pioneering Summer-  land family. As he was the employed on the location survey  of the Fraser Canyon Highway between Alexandra Bridge and  Boothroyd, their first home was a small tent on a very narrow  rock ledge of the old Cariboo Trail above the swirling Fraser  River. He was later to work on the Thompson River Highway between Spences Bridge and Lytton, also on portions of the Skeena  River Highway between Smithers and Prince Rupert, and on the  Revelstoke  West  Road.  Summerland always meant home to the Whitakers and they  took up residence there on Jones Flat. From there Hector Whitaker continued the work of highway location and with the Legal  Surveys Branch of the B.C. Government. After retirement, in spite  of failing health, he enjoyed life on his small orchard.  He was a charter member of the B.C. Engineers' Society and  a B.C. Land Surveyor.  This poem that was written by Beatrice Macleod at the time  of his death, in 1965 could also be a tribute to all pioneering engineers and surveyors of our province:  The road he mapped and made explicit ran  From then until this last where we  stand now.  Tall  tree  and  stark  grey  stone—witness  the man  He took the measure of the waiting land —  Will against wild, a world to overcome.  Here, on the narrow ledge foot found, strong hand  Held taut the1 chain,  set down  the finite sum  In terms of love and of the absolute.  By river  and by  rock, by scarp  sky-bent,  Gouged depth, dark timbered pass, in far pursuit  Of verity determinate, he went.  Aligned his traverse, truly the long day,  Nor turned aside nor ever lost his way.  72 rJLake   ^J\iluh  (EDITOR'S NOTE: In order to encourage, and stimulate 'research into the history of the land they call their home, the Okanagan Historical Society instituted a school essay contest and annually awards a plaque to the writer of the essay judged the best  by the High School Essay Contest committee headed by Mrs. G.  D. Herbert of Kelowna.  The essay that follows was written by Mary Anne Haker of  the Similkameen  Secondary School.)  By MARY ANNE HAKER  The written history of the Similkameen covers barely one  hundred years and is filled with reports of activities and ventures  that blossomed and then faded into the past. From the fur trade-  under the Hudson Bay Company to the gold of Hedley, the coal  of Princeton and the copper of Copper Mountain, all have come  and gone. The Great Northern Railway, in the space of half a  century/ thrust its nose up from the United States to tap our mining, lumbering, ranching and fruit growing industries, to say nothing of providing passenger transportation, and then fell victim to  time, with modern highways and modern cars and busses. It still  comes as far as Keremeos during the summer months for the  weekly load of freight, consisting mainly of fruit. But, the railway  story in the Similkameen Valley is almost over.  But some things rise from their ashes for a second life. For instance the "Horn Silver" mine which closed for the first time  over forty years ago, has, due to modern mining methods :and  transportation, found a second life, as the newly opened "Utica  Mine."  Near the summit of the new Richter Pass Road lies the source  of another story of the "second chance." In a little basin by the  side of the highway lies a strange looking body of water commonly known as "Spotted Lake." If one will trouble to study the history of this remarkable little lake of changing colors it will soon  be evident that it deserves its real name, the one given to it by  its first discoverers and users, the Indians. They christened the  lake, Lake Kiluk."  Long before the coming of the white man, the Indians realized that Lake Kiluk was no ordinary lake. They used its water  and mud for their healing powers. 'Legend' foretells that, many  years ago two Indian tribes were at war: Like most wars the  exact cause of the fighting has long ago been forgotten. The battle  however, was long and bloody. Finally, it was decided that the  73 Lake Kiluk  fighting had gone on long enough and a temporary armistice was  declared. Then, as now, a bitter fight seemed to be a good way of  cementing friendly relations. The chief of one tribe invited the  other chief and his warriors to join him to recuperate at their  "army medical centre," Lake Kiluk. And that is what they did.  Both Indian tribes retired to Spotted Lake to wash in the water  and relax in the mud. Further details of the story seem lost. Perhaps both tribes felt so wonderful after their aches were relieved by the mud and their wounds healed by the hot mineral  water, that they went back to fighting one another with increased  vigor.  Lake Kiluk played an important part in another war many,  many, years later, and incidently made an American businessman  very wealthy. Lake Kiluk is overflowing with non-metallic minerals  including common salt, calcium sulphate, washing soda, baking  soda, Giauber's salt and Epsom salts, it was the latter, Epsom  salts which drew the attention of this particular American, and  it was not for its lowly medical purpose that he wished to mine  the Epsom salts found in the lake. Rather he literally wished to  light the skies of Europe from the deposits of Lake Kiluk.  The United States entered World War I in 1917 and needed  magnesium, not for healing wounded soldiers, but rather for flares,  to light the night skies over "No Man's Land" so that fighting might  continue all night. At this time the best source of Epsom salts, or  to give it its true chemical name, magnesium sulphate, was Lake  Kiluk. Fifty thousand tons of magnesium sulphate were mined  from Spotted Lake, processed in Seattle, and exploded 'over Europe.  The lake, forty acres or so of various colored pools of hot water  and white crystals, lay quiet and almost deserted for 45 years,  but, its period of rest seems over. For years the only way to get to  Lake Kiluk was to take a steep, crooked, rough trail of pot holes  and protruding bedrock that could not honestly be called an actual  road. But a few years ago Spotted Lake was brought out of hiding,  with the completion of new Richter Pass Highway. This new highway, coupled with development of the Queen Elizabeth Observatory on Mount Kobau will bring both residents of British Columbia  and visitors from the United States and the rest of Canada to the  shores of Lake Kiluk.  For centuries hot mineral baths have been used for relieving  pain and healing infections. At many places scattered throughout  the world, health resorts have developed around hot mineral  waters with far less to offer than Spotted Lake, in natural state.  Cradled by rolling hills, tapering into towering mountains and  blessed with the best summer tourist climate in Canada, Lake Kiluk  is just waiting to be developed  as  a  health  resort or  as  they  74 Lake Kiluk  are called in Europe, a "spa." Several companies and individuals  have already gone so far as to have tentative plans' prepared for  proposed development of the lake and surrounding area as a deluxe health resort. Whether the development of the lake is to be  rapid and spectacular, or slow and progressive, will probably depend on the present owner of the property, Mr. Earnest Smith of  Oliver. But rapid or slow, development of the healing lake is inevitable. The next use of Spotted Lake will not be as startling as  its contributions to World War I but will likely be permanent and  bring much pleasure to many people and perhaps a profit to a  few.  Chliluk — Spotted Lake — on Richter Pass  — Eric Sismey Photo  CHLILUK  Chliluk—-why do white men not take the trouble to call such  maiural wonders by the native name—lies near the summit of  Richter Pass on the new B.C. No. 3A bypass between Osoyoos and  Keremeos. Spotted Lake, if you want to call it that, is just a short  walk from the pavement.  Ernie Smith of Oliver has done a worthwhile job in painting  a sign telling the virtues of the chemical laden waters.  At one time Indians considered Chliluk as No Man's Land  where friend and foe, alike, could meet in peace to enjoy the health  giving waters.  We are told that Indians, intuitively finding Nature's cures for  ailments came from afar tq lie in the soft, warm mud to ease the  pain of rheumatism and arthritis.  75 «  «  s  Q  4)  >  O  ,&  1  o  -  Kg  s 5 ZJhe    Storu    of    the    f^ostill   ^ramilu  and   Some    of    ^Jheir    eUJeScendants  By PRIMROSE UPTON  To write a history of the Postill family could be a straightforward task — statistics don't convey much — born, lived and died  could be the story; but I feel with the Postills that a terrific contribution was made to the young community growing around the Okanagan Mission by the family, particularly Alfred Postill. Here was  a man years ahead of his time — he foresaw events and agricultural growth which his more unimaginative neighbors probably  laughed to scorn. Alfred, son of Edward Postill, was the first Okanagan member of the British Columbia Fruit Growers, Association, and  as such, had fantastic vision about the potentialities of the Okanagan Valley. The first telephone in the interior of British Columbia  was set up between the Postill Ranch and the home of T. Wood, a  distance of five miles (1891). His name was mentioned in 1893 as  having called a meeting at the Okanagan school house to find  some means of marketing the products of the farmers in this end  of the valley. The Vernon News of September 20, 1897, reports "Mr.  and Mrs. A. Postill came home on Monday from Montreal, Toronto  and other points. Mr. Postill saw all that was best of the eastern  agricultural sections, and returns with the firmly grounded belief  that no part of Canada offers so many material advantages to the  farmer as this portion of British Columbia. It is a pleasure to have  our belief in our magnificent resources of soil and climate confirmed so emphatically by a man of Mr. Postill's standing."  Edward Postill, with his wife Mary Dickenson, lived at Malton,  Yorkshire, before emigrating to Ontario. The following delightful  story has been given to me by Mrs. J. W. Barnes, nee Mary Postill.  Edward Postill and Mary Dickenson lived on prosperous adjoining  farms in Malton, Yorkshire in the early 1880's.  They grew up and fell in love. But, as strong-willed lovers do,  they had a quarrel, and Mary refused to speak to Edward. He tried  valiantly, but in vain, to get her to speak to him. Finally, in desperation, he declared to her that if she wouldn't speak to him he would  go out and ask the first girl he met to marry him. Mary wouldn't  relent. So Edward went home, saw the maid in his mother's kitchen,  and asked her to marry him. She accepted and did marry Edward.  (Not at all the thing to do in those days!)  They left shortly afterwards for Canada, and the poor young  wife was terribly seasick and ill—and died and was buried at sea.  77 The Story of the Postill Family  Eleanor Armour Postill  (nee Jamieson) taken about  1903.  Alfred Postill,  aged about  46 years   (1896).  Copy of an original photograph, taken by Lord Aberdeen himself,  of the Alfred Postill family in the Okanagan in 1895. Alfred Postill,  his wife and his mother Mrs. Edward Postill. Children left to right,  Eleanor Garven, Alfred Edward,   (died in 1963)  Mary, and Dorothy.  78 The Story of the Postill Family  Edward stayed in Canada for a while1 and then returned to Yorkshire and his then repentant Mary. They were married and lived  in England for some eight or nine years before returning to Canada. Father Alfred, the eldest son, was seven years old when they  came to Bothwell, Ontario. They were there for about 10 years,  and then set out for western Canada, spending about two years  in New Westminster before coming to the Okanagan Valley. Edward died in Priest's Valley (Vernon) in 1872. He never saw the  ranch which became the home of his Mary and her family for 25  interesting and productive years."  Let's stop to look at modes of transportation to Western Canada about 1870. A booklet "Information for Intending Settlers"  tells us that "The usual route of travel, from the Eastern Provinces  to British Columbia is via San Francisco by the Union and Central  Pacific Railway, and thence by steamer to Victoria. Many heavy  supplies are sent from England around Cape Horn, and it is  believed many immigrants will avail themselves of this means of  communication. The present advertised passage from San Francisco to Victoria is twenty dollars. The advertised cost of immigrant  tickets from the Atlantic seaports to Victoria is from eighty to  ninety dollars. The immigrant will have to furnish himself with  provisions on the railway.  One hundred pounds of baggage is allowed to each adult  on the railway, from Chicago to San Francisco to Victoria. The mail  steamers leave San Francisco for Victoria on the 10th, 20th and  30th of each month."  Thus Mr. and Mrs. Edward Postill, sons Alfred, William and  Edward and daughter Lucy, travelled to their new home .One  report has the eldest son Alfred with friend T. McK. Lambly, going  ahead to the Okanagan Valley and purchasing the ranch owned  by George Simpson. Another report states that the whole family  came at the same time, and at Kamloops, Edward Sr., became ill,  and died at Priest's Valley. His body was carried to the new  Ranch and buried on a mound on the meadow. One later Postill  obituary notice states that "The trip was continued down the  lake by dugouts and home-made oxcarts until the ranch, was  reached. Whichever report is correct matters little — what does  stand out in the early days of this family at their new Ranch is  that Mrs. Edward Postill must have been a wonderful organizer  and manager — the family prospered, new buildings were put up,  and the Ranch grew. Mrs. Postill was known to have used a pair  of field glasses to oversee her extensive ranch operations — living  was hard and tough in those days, and "slackers" were not welcome on the Postill Ranch.  The location of the Ranch itself is of interest to Okanagan  historians — the Parsons Brothers farmed there in the late 1850's  — as far as we know they were squatters. Frederick Brent took  79  The Story of the Postill Family  Roped steer before branding at the Postill Ranch about 1895.  Postills,   Lamblys   and  Stillingfleets   returning  from   Polo   match  at  Kamloops in June 1900. Photo shows double democrat taken in front  of Adelphi Hotel at Westwold.  81 The Story of the Postill Family  up land and later sold to George Simpson. However, in the autumn of 1859 Father Pandosy, Father Richard, Brother Surel, the  Laurence brothers and William Peon arrived at the south end of  Duck Lake, spent a miserable winter there in a rude shelter,  moved a few miles to the south in the spring and spent some  months "under the little hill facing the rising sun" and in the  autumn drove their stakes in on a claim bordering Mission Creek.  At the Postill Ranch buildings were being erected. A small  sawmill on the site operated by Frederick Brent was continued,  and lumber from this mill was ferried down Okanagan Lake in a  raft to build a home for J. C. Haynes, judge at Osoyoos. According  to Mrs. Robert Lambly (Lucy Postill), this was in 1878.  The Ranch was gradually added to by pre-emption and purchase until the family owned about 5,000 acres, together with  another range of 2,000 acres some miles away. There was a band  of 600 - 700 head of cattle, a fine band of horses, sheep and swine.  Edward Jr. died in 1888 aged 32 years, and about the year  1895 Alfred bought out his brother William, who moved to Alberta  to engage in stock raising.  On January 20, 1890, Rev. Robert Jamieson, married his daughter Eleanor Armour to Alfred Postill in the manse in New Westminster. Eleanor Jamieson, daughter of a pioneer Presbyterian minister, proved to be a wonderful wife. Their children were:  Alfred Edward,  1890-1964.  Mary, m. R. R. Garner 1925  Mary m. J. W. Barnes 1916. Two sons.  Eleanor m. R. R. Garner 1925. One surviving son.  Dorothy m, P. L. Birrell 1916. Two1 sons, one daughter.  Leonard m. Beryl Morgan 1928. One son, one daughter. He  died 1947, his son in 1949 aged 18 years.  Alice m. G. A. Johnson 1919. Two daughters, one son.  Alfred Postill died in September, 1897, and his wife in 1954.  She left 10 surviving grandchildren and 18 great grandchildren.  Medical services were very limited according to Mrs. J. W.  Barnes, "my mother said that the usual practise about fees in the  case of confinements, was that the doctor received $50.00 if he arrived before the child was born, and only half of that if he arrived  too late. She had five children during her life on. the ranch, and says  that when the doctor would come rushing in, asking "Am I in time,  am I in time?" she had the uncharitable feeling that he was more  concerned about the fees than the patient! Fees for medical visits  other than maternity were based on mileage $1.00 per mile."  82 The Story of the Postill Family  Mr. and Mrs. Robert Lambly  (nee  Elinor Postill)   taken  about 1935.  Mrs. Edward Postill (nee  Mary Dickenson)   about  1900.  Group taken 1900 on verandah of Postill home. Miss Frances Lambly,  Miss Gwen Cole and Miss Dora Thomson taken with Mrs.  Edward  Postill (whose clothes they were wearing)  looking on disapprovingly  from the background.  83 The Story oi the Postill Family  During the time that Lord Aberdeen was Governor-General of  Canada he bought the Coldstream Ranch (and Guisachan) and was  a frequent visitor to the Postill home.  "Our home was set in a large meadow, with a long lane winding down from the road. Mother used to tell us that she never started  to set the table for meal without first looking up the "long lane" to  the road to see if there were any travellers nearing the place, either  on horseback or in a buggy. Country etiquet was such that any  traveller would come in and share whatever meal the family was  having. The horse, or horses, would also be fed and watered. There  was no payment made for this."  According to Mrs. J. W. Barnes, "after my father died, mother  did bring Will Postill back to manage the ranch. She bought a large  house in Vernon, and w© lived there for two years or more. The  arrangement did not work out, and Uncle Will returned to the  Prairies and mother sold the ranch to Mr. Price Ellison. The latest  word we have had of the Will Postill family is that he had five  sons and two daughters. One son, George Edward, had grandchildren by his two daughters.  Lucy Postill m. Robert Lambly and they had three children.  Robert m. twice, no issue.  Frances m. H. Stillingfleet, three children. William died in infancy, Robert m. Isabel Crawford, Mary m. E. Stafford, three children; H. Culbard, one daughter, Olive Frances m. H. A. D. Greenwood, three children.    ,  V. Postill, no issue.  Edith Alice Bobbinette m. A. H. Crichton and had issue Madge,  m. A. F. Willett; Kathleen m. C. Renfrew; Elizabeth m. Capt. J. Ramsay, m. Capt N. King, one son; Joyce m. E. Whiting, three girls; Patricia m. C. Renfrew, one girl.  Having given some of the family history, and told you of some  of the surviving children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren,  let's go back to the days when Alfred Postill and his wife, Eleanor  Armour Postill, were living on the well-known Postill Ranch. Again  I am most grateful to Mrs. J. W. Barnes for her interesting information. "The house was the largest in the valley, and to our home came  many people. When a clergyman, of whatever denomination came  through the Valley the news was spread, and services were held  in the different larger houses.  There is so much more to be written about the Postill family—  they were true pioneers, with the vision needed to develop a new  settlement.  I quote from a letter sent by Mrs .Alfred Postill to the Family  Herald and Weekly Star in 1937. Sir: The story "Beef Cattle on  Okanagan Hills" appearing recently in your paper does not give  84 The Story of the Postill Family  full information on the first owners of the Postill Ranch now owned  by the McNair Brothers, who came with their father from Ontario  in 1872. In 1888 Edward died, leaving Alfred and William to carry  on. William was the stockman, and his word was law as far as  the cattle were concerned. It was he, not Countess Bubna, who first  introduced pure-bred polled Angus cattle into the herd. Alfred was  general manager and attended to the farming business end of the  work. He was always on the alert to try new and. improved methods.  While still carrying on the business of stock-raising, Alfred's  attention turned more and more in the direction of fruit growing. He  was one of the first to see the possibilities for that industry in the  Okanagan. There was already a fine orchard on the ranch—mostly  apples as well as a berry patch, and Mr. Postill began experimenting with other fruits. A small vineyard was planted on one of the  benches and in the year 1897 bore a wonderful crop of grapes of  different kinds, in size and flavor equal to any California grapes, if  not better.  The motive that lay behind all his experimenting was not so  much gain for himself, as prosperity for the Valley he loved. He  sowed the first crop of alfalfa in the Valley, on a dry bench ,saying,  "If it will grow here, it will grow anywhere." And it did, and today  there are hundreds of acres of alfalfa, not only on this ranch, but  throughout the Valley. He also tried peanuts, which grew and ripened, a few being exhibited at the Vernon Fair in 1896.  Mr. Postill was a firm believer in co-operation in handling and  marketing produce of all kinds, and by tongue and pen advocated  it in season and out of season. But, as Dr. B. F. Boyce of Kelowna  scr'd "Mr. Postill was 25 years ahead of his time." Many times Mr.  Postill spoke of what he visioned for the future—saying to his wife,  "You will live to see it, but I will not." Time has proved him right.  Mr. Postill's sudden death in September 1897 at the early age of  45 years, put an end to all his plans. About 1903 the property was  sold to the Hon. Price Ellison. He did not live on the place, but in  Vernon. (About this time the Hon. Price Ellison also bought the  Simpson Ranch to1 the south.)  Owners since have been a Mr. McLellan, Countess Bubna, the  McNair Brothers, and A. C. Taylor. The old original farmhouse was  destroyed by fire, new buildings and fences have been put up. The  confidence felt by the Postills has been justified. Over the years  the Postill (Eldorado, A.C.T.) Ranch has flourished and prospered,  and is still one of the most beautiful places in the Okanagan Valley.  Bibliography:  Okanagan Historical Society Reports.  Mrs. J. W. Barnes (nee Mary Postill).  Family Herald and Weekly Star 1937.  Vernon News, Sept. 2, 1897.  Statements from several wonderful and respected old  timers in this area.  85 Similkameen    ^telephone    Service  "Number please?" is a phrase of the past. Telephone service  may be more efficient now, but it is also more impersonal. There  was a time when we told, the operator the name of the1 person with  whom we wished to speak. That was enough then, but after 1928  numbers were insisted on. There was some grumbling at first, for  the only number Princeton subscribers knew without looking at the  book (which they had probably lost) was Number 1 — Hugh Hunter, Government agent. That was his residence number. Then in  November, 1965, "Number please?" became obsolete, with the  installation of the dial system, and coloured telephone receivers  ushered in the new age.  Princeton and district had enjoyed telephone service since the  early years of the present century. The key date in the long story  is 1928. On 1st September of that year the British Columbia Telephone Company acquired the Dominion Government telephone and  telegraph system servicing Princeton and other interior points,  a total of 1,006 miles of pole line (Telephone Talk, September, 1928).  Similkameen telephone history before that date is most elusive.  The earliest reference we have found is in The Year Book of British  Columbia, edited by R. E. Gosnell (Victoria, 1903), page six: "The  Village of Nicola Lake, at which point the Provincial Government  office is located ... a bi-weekly mail service runs between Nicola  Lake and Princeton. Telephonic communication between Lower  Nicola and Kamloops is present, and much valued by the people."  It was in 1903 that J. M. Haggerty built a line up the Similkameen  River to Nighthawk mines (Okanogan County Heritage, December,  1964, p. 18). Of course, Princeton is not mentioned as having telephone service at that early date.  The original telephone office was in the early Howse building,  which was afterwards occupied by P. W. Gregory, and later by  the Canadian Legion. From here it was moved to the Bell Block,  which housed a general store, Post Office and Telephone. Mr. Bell  died in 1925, and for a time the Telephone Office was in Princeton Hotel, before it was moved to Billiter Avenue near its present  location.  We are told that the first line to Princeton was simply strung  on trees. Before this, Princeton messages were sometimes relayed  from Nicola by horseback riders.  A letter dated 1st September, 1928, signed by E. F. Helliwell,  General Commercial Superintendent, advised Princeton subscribers  that on this date the British Columbia Telephone Company "took  over from the Dominion Government a large portion of the latter's  telephone lines in the interior of southern British Columbia, and Similkameen Telephone Service  as a result you now receive your telephone service through our  Company instead of through the Government system." This takeover marked the end of the Government system in our area and  the beginning of B.C. Telephone Co.  operations.  For Similkameen telephone history prior to 1928 we are indebted to Miss Harriet Lockhart, Federal Department of Public  Works librarian, who sent photostats of pages relative to Similkameen in annual reports of the Minister of Public Works. Earliest  mention of Similkameen is in special report of Inspector J. E. Gobeil.  On 1 June, 1905, C. S. Stevens of Kamloops (formerly agent  for the Kamloops-Nicola line) was appointed superintendent for  lines south of Ashcroft, and the planned extension to Penticton,  which had been authorized in 1904. This extension was completed  in January, 1905. William Henderson was in charge of the work  from Lower Nicola to Penticton, by way of Princeton and FairviewT,  a distance of 168 miles. The most durable kinds of wood available  were used for poles, and in timbered sections standing trees supported the wire, which was No. 6 galvanized iron, with insulators  of white poreclain. Telephone stations (with intermediate distances)  were: Lower Nicola, Aspen Grove 24, Otter Valley 24, Princeton 26,  Hedley 25, Keremeos 20, Fairview  12 and Penticton 37.  There were nine phones on the line from Princeton to Penticton: Stewart and McDonald sawmill, 21 miles east of Princeton,  Hedley (John Love and Bradley), Keremeos (Richter and Kirby),  Fairview (John Love and McCuddy), Okanagan Falls (W. J. Snodgrass), and J. A. Schubert at Penticton.  The 1907 Report tells of appropriation of $5,500 the previous  year to place poles where trees were used on the Nicola-Penticton  section. Staff changes noted included: B. S. Kennedy succeeding  A. E. Howse, who had resigned the Princeton agency; Bradshaw  agency closed- A separate office was opened for the Daly Reduction Co. at Hedley.  Falling trees continued to be a problem, making service hard  to maintain. From his office in Summerland, the District Superintendent (C. S. Stevens) tells Ottawa (1910) that falling poles are also  a matter of daily concern. Referring to the; poles in the Kamloops-  Nicola section, he writes: "These poles were reset October, 1905,  butts being treated with carbolineum. This experience teaches that  it is useless to try and preserve a pole after it is dead." In the  Nicola-Penticton section two-thirds of the line had been strung on  trees. Replacement of poles could no longer be delayed. Falling  timber between Aspen Grove and Princeton, coupled with heavy  snows, had made operations extremely difficult the past winter  (1909-1910). Mr. Stevens notes that the exchange at Princeton was  opened for business in November, 1909. "Everything appears to be  running to the satisfaction of all concerned at this point, where in  the past so much trouble and friction was continually in evidence."  87 Similkameen Telephone Service  But all was not rosy elsewhere. Report for year ending March  31, 1911, states that the Nicola-Penticton line is in very poor condition, and the only relief is in rebuilding. Estimates ask for $16,-  500 to bring the section to standard. Beginning 30 April, 1911, we  find Agent Alex Bell on salary of $40 per month, with allowance of  $5 for rent. This applies also to F. M. Gillespie at Hedley. Mr. Bell  had been appointed agent in August, 1908, Mr. Gillespie in 1909;  H. Turner at Aspen Grove November 1908, R. L. McGill at Hastings Ranch June, 1911, J. G. Thynne at Otter Valley October,  1907, J. A. Schubert at Tulameen September, 1911, Isaac McTavish moved, from Granite Creek to Coalmont appointed 1 January,  1913, F. P. Cook at Granite Creek 1 December, 1911 (office reopened).  The various telephone Reports reflected progress in other  fields of endeavour. Report for year ending March 31, 1913, notes  that from Nicola south towards Princeton, where the old road has  been closed and abandoned, ten miles of new construction was  completed over the Hamilton Hill; and "three miles of line was  also put up to give service to a large cement plant which is being  located there, and promises to develop considerable business".  In the autumn of 1912 gangs were diverted from Hamilton Hill and  Penticton to make repairs to the whole line (171 miles). This work  was completed at end of November, and exhausted the revote of  $4,700 for Okanagan construction.  The 1914 Report tells that spur was built from Quilchena to  Douglas Lake at a cost of $772.22. The local exchange at Merritt  had grown from 64 to 85 subscribers. Princeton has 38 subscribers. At Keremeos, H. C. N. Etches was appointed agent 1 March.  "At this point we transfer all messages with the Western Union  Telegraph Company's lines. The proposed new Government line  from Fairview to the Boundary, south, connecting up with Oroville, Washington, will be a great benefit to our service, and. put our  line in direct telephone connection with Spokane, and. all points  south."  D. A. Miner (Princeton) was appointed Lineman 20 October,  1913, T. J. Largue agent at Copper Mountain, and El Voight at  Voight's Camp. Extension at Princeton exchange is requested  (1915 Report) also a switchboard at Keremeos. Telephone service  with Copper Mountain was opened in January, 1914, with two offices.  Princeton reported 47 subscribers (1916, with A. Bell agent, J.  Day and L. Woodbum operators (appointed. 1915), and F. W. Phil-  lipps lineman.  The 1929 Report tells of decrease in receipts for the fiscal  year (ending 31 March), due to sale and transfer of a large part of  the Government system to the British Columbia Telephone Com- Similkameen Telephone Service  pany. "In all, 1006 miles of pole line and 2042-112 miles wire,  and eleven miles of submarine cable were thus disposed of, reducing the number of offices from 240 to 104."  This brings us to the year 1928, the key date in our history.  The B.C. Telephone Co. librarian, Miss T. G. Rhodes, has supplied us with photostat copies of Telephone Talk for September  and December, 1928, and these supply information about things  as they were at the time of the take-over. The acquired lines consisted largely of toll lines, from Kamloops to Merritt, Princeton,  Keremeos etc. The new Company took over exchanges at Merritt, Princeton, Coalmont, Hedley, and Keremeos, an important  step in the development of long-distance service. Exchange personnel soon adapted themselves to new routines. Plant men  (Maurice Royds, Alfred Nanson, Archie Hardy) under District  manager E. J. Davis of Kamloops, worked hard to bring equipment  to standard. Miss V. Simmons, traffic supervisor, visited all the exchanges in the 500-mile circuit to acquaint operators with the Company's methods. In Merritt was Miss E. Stephenson with an operating staff of four, and Fred Phillips plant man. Coalmont had only  three subscribers and was linked with Princeton, where Mrs. Frances Mathewson (died 17 June, 1930) had a staff of five. R. E. Baxter  was in charge at Hedley. The plant from Keremeos to Princeton  was supervised by Ruben Echlin. Miss L. L. Ellis was Keremeos  agent.  Early summer 1931 a start was made on the new brick building, not far from the old one on Billiter, in Princeton. New headquarters and equipment were of latest design, reflecting the Company's faith in Princeton's future, and guaranteeing increased service for Similkameen subscribers. The delicate task of transferring  old, and installing new equipment was supervised by District Manager E. J. Davis. The change-over was effected at midnight on Sunday 25 October 1931, an important date in Princeton telephone history. At that time Miss Annie Cunningham (afterwards Mrs. Frank  Anderson) was Agent, and Miss Jessie Adamson night operator.  Percy W. Gregory, president of Board of Trade, made the first call  after the transfer to G. M. Harmon, manager of the local branch of  the Bank of Commerce, and vice-president of the Board of Trade.  Dave Taylor, secretary of the Board, and editor of The Star, took  over from Mr. Gregory. Calls were made also W. A. Wagenhauser,  and to A. E. Howse (Princeton Star, 29 October, 1931). At the banquet which followed, Mr. Gregory commented on the good work  well done. Mr. Davis thanked all whose work made possible what  had been accomplished. Al Miller, construction superintendent,  spoke of the Company's program of expansion; and Clarence Boul-  ier, local plant man, expressed satisfaction that the work was well  done.  89 Similkameen Telephone Service  In August 1935 work began replacing the line from Princeton  to Merritt, following the CPR tracks through from Brookmere; and  from Keremeos to Penticton. When the new poles were erected they  were strung with copper wire instead of iron as before, copper being a much better sound conductor (Princeton Star 25 July, 1935).  The building erected in 1931 served the growing needs of the  local service till 1947 when the office capacity was doubled by a  $10,000 addition (Contractors Armstrong & Monteith Construction  Co. Ltd.) to house repeater and power equipment, and, a second  position of local and long-distance switchboard, providing facilities for additional telephones in Princeton area. A key repeater  point in the trans-Canada long-distance system, local subscribers  at beginning of 1946 numbered 179, and by August 1947 had risen  to 215. (Telephone Talk July-August, 1947, page 10).  Telephone Talk (July August, 1948, pages 2, 3) carries five photographs by M. C. Parkinson, showing (1) Princeton telephone office with extension, (2) apparatus room, (3) the lounge with chief  operator Miss Susan Allison and Miss Mary Gallo, (4) a general  view of the offices with Miss Lillian LaGrecca, Mrs. Violet Guns  liffe and Miss Allison, (5) Clarence Boulier, district repairman at recently installed toll test desk.  Telephone history was made in 1951 and. 1952 when the new  Hope-Princeton line was installed, following the highway opening  2 November, 1949, and replacing the Coquihalla line, which always  presented maintenance problems because of heavy snowfalls in  winter months. The new line was part of the Trans-Canada network.  Hope Road travellers during this operation will remember the1 giant  revolving crane which picked up poles and dropped them into prepared positions. This was the first time the Company had used this  technique for setting poles.  The S. Spotlight (16 May 1956) reports work in progress on installation of additional position of switchboard and rearrangement  of central office equipment, giving four positions of switchboard. At  the same time, automation was being applied to Keremeos office,  so that it would have an unattended system, governed from Princeton.  In October, 1959, all business accounts were centralized in  Kamloops, the change being due to limited space in Princeton. Accounts could still be paid at Scott's Drugstore (later at the local bank)  and at Bert W. Munden's in Keremeos.  Engineering studies for conversion of Princeton exchange from  manual to dial service were completed in 1961. W. S. Pipes, Vice-  President and general manager, announced that work on Princeton  dial service would begin in about two years. The exchange had 680  telephones in that year (1961). In Autumn 1964 another addition was  90 Similkameen Telephone Service  One minute before Princeton cut-over, November 20, 1965 Isaac  Plecash, chairman of Princeton Village Commission and (rear) Eric  Goodfellow. ,x---  — W. Fagervik Photography  91 Similkameen Telephone Service  made to Princeton telephone building to house automatic equipment. A circular letter (10 June 1965) to subscribers, signed by T. E.  Brett, District Commercial and Traffic manager, announced that conversion to automatic service had been tentatively scheduled for  November. Numbers would be changed to a seven-digit series, and  "harmonic ringing" would be introduced. The attending office would  be Vancouver as there would be no operating personnel in Princeton following the conversion. No doubt many miss the familiar  "Number please?"  When the B.C. Telephone Co. took over in 1928 Mrs. Frances  Mathewson was in charge. Following her death in 1931 Miss Annie  Cunningham was appointed agent in charge. She presided over the  Princeton exchange for fifteen years. She died in Princeton on 1  February, 1963. Miss Susan Allison was in charge from 1949 to May  1954. Mrs. Helen Kolbo succeeded, and was transferred to Williams  Lake in 1965.  Clarence Boulier, district repair man, served the company here  from 1930 till his death on 5 November, 1964. Born in the state of  Maine, USA, he lived most of his life in Canada. He was married  to Miss E. Hobson of Merritt. He gave of his best that telephone service in this district might be maintained on a high level. He was always ready to help in any community project, and year after year,  when the season came around, he played Santa Clous. Mrs. Boulier left to live in Chilliwack at end of August, 1965.  It is said that a sun or a star may contract, and yet give off  more heat. Automation in the telephone field has reduced the number of personnel, but service to subscribers has increased. Maintenance will still present problems. The human element cannot be  entirely eliminated, but the changes that have been effected usher  in a new age in telephonic communications.  A number of Princeton citizens were invited to the staff banquet in the Princeton Legion Hall arranged by the telephone Company to mark the switch-over at 11:05. Guest speakers were G.  Stenner, Interior Division manager, and J. Asselstine, Division manager at Kamloops. Mr. Asselstine recalled the days when Princeton  had 122 phones; now it had nearly 800. Total cost of the switch-over  had been $835,000. Front page picture in Similkameen Spotlight  (W. 24. Nov. 1695) shows Ike Plecash, Chairman of Village Commission, all set to pull the plugs at the word of command; also Mrs.  Kolbo and Mrs. Margaret Jamieson, who had just been presented  with corsages by Eric Goodfellow. Company men taking part in  the switch-over were W. Woodhouse, District Plant Manager, F. V.  Bogle, T. E. Brett, J. Walsh, H. Karvonen, A. Thomas, E. Goodfellow,  E. Mauger, J. Andrews, J. Muir, G. Parkinson, T. McPhail, G. Lewis,  J. Charlton and M. Thomas. It was a night to be remembered. No  more "Number please?"  92 eS o  S3  is  Hi  ._f«J)  S£  U   fcjj  ? cS  S-S  5B  ** s  93 -  C q  5 ,g  93 Max Herman Ruhmann  94 Ill lax   ^riermann    rsuhmann  By BILL  RUHMANN  Max H. Ruhmann was a charter member of the Okanagan  Historical Society, having served the organization as secretary-  treasurer during the period from 1925 through 1937, with the exception of the year 1931. He was very proud to have been associated with Leonard Norris, the society's first president, and with  James C. Agnew, its first editor, in the establishment of the Society.  Max Herman Ruhmann was born in Itzehoe, Schleswig-Hol-  stein, Germany, on September 9, 1880, the only son of Nicholas  and Rebeccas Kelting Ruhmann. His early years were spent in  Holland, and in 1886 his family moved to England, where he attended Claremont House School, Wateringbury, Kent. Some years  later he moved to- Dublin, Ireland, where he attended the Har-  court Street High School, and on graduation from high sqhoo,l  he entered Trinity College to study medicine. His college career  was interupted with the outbreak of the Boer War. He enlisted  in the British Army and saw active service with the First Royal  Dragoons, a noted Irish cavalry regiment.  In 1902 he returned to Ireland, but due to severe attacks of  malaria, contracted in South Africa, decided to abandon medicine and devote himself to horticulture. It was at the Glasne-  vin Botanical Gardens — then under the direction of his friend,  Dr. W. Moore, that he laid the foundation of the wide knowledge  in plant pathology and entomology, which became his life's  work. By that time he had made plans to become a fruit grower  in British Columbia and was already seriously interested in economic  entomology.  He married Freida Damann, in 1904 and moved to Canada  in 1907, residing in the Kootenay district until 1909. He then  moved to the Vernan area, where he worked on fruit ranches at  Lavington in the Coldstream and at the Vernon Orchards at Swan  Lake to gain practical experience. In 1912 he was appointed to  the provincial agricultural staff as assistant plant pathologist and  entomologist, which position he held until 1918, when he became assistant entomologist. In 1935 he was appointed provincial  entomologist and he held this office until his retirement, due to  ill health in December,   1942.  Mr. Ruhmann's talents and skills were widely recognized.  Farmers and fruit growers in all parts of the Province referred  matters of identification of insects and plant diseases and their  control to him. A factor in this was his competence in preparing  well  arranged   exhibits   for  use   throughout   the   various   farming  95 Max Hermann Ruhmann  communities. He was a fine photographer and his pictures were  used for illustrations in technical papers and books. They were  also used in the preparation of slides, which were very useful for  illustrating lectures. His office housed a large and well arranged  insect collection. This was of great use to the technician, as well  as being of interest to the student and the layman.  In the area of community service he' was most generous  with his time in helping service clubs and civic organizations with  their activities. He was most proud of the part he played in assisting the Kinsmen with the development of the Kinsmen's Beach on  Okanagan Lake. One of his pet projects was to1 encourage the  school children to build and set out bird houses, and for many  years he enjoyed participating as a judge at the exhibition of  these bird houses.  Max Ruhmann became a Mason in Ireland, his mother lodge  being of Israel, No. 126, Dublin. He affiliated with Miriam Lodge  No. 20, Vernon in 1933. He was a member of Elks Lodge No. 45  and the Vernon City Club. He was also a member of the Canadian Legion.  Those having a close personal acquaintance with Max Ruhmann knew of his dedication to his library, which included a most  complete collection of books and pamphlets dealing with all  phases of entomology, the bulk of which he bequeathed to the  University of British Columbia at Vancouver. He was an accomplished linguist and this enabled him to keep abreast of entomological research in various European countries. He was known |o  help many in\ research by translating and abstracting foreign  literature on a variety of subjects.  Max Ruhmann, a quiet, scholarly, gentle and kindly man,  died on December 4, 1943, at Tranquille at the age of 63. His wife  had predeceased him, having passed away in Vernon on March  13, 1936. His parents, who had preceded him to Canada, survived  him.  Two children were born to Max and Freida Ruhmann; a son,  William, was born in 1906 in Dublin, now residing in Oregon, and.  a daughter, Marion, (Mrs. Gordon E. Clarke) born in Vernon and  now living in Toronto.   She is the mother of three children.  96 vViiiiam    Il/Dillj   f\uhmann  By HAROLD COCHRANE  Bill Ruhmann graduated from Vernon High School in 1923, entered the Oregon State University to study logging engineering.  He graduated with a degree in logging engineering. He belonged  to Zi Sigma Pi, Scholastic society.  Bill worked for some years as a logging engineer in Klicketat  County, Washington. He is credited with engineering what is believed to have been the last major logging railroad to be constructed in the industry. He also developed a safety device for logging  trucks which was used by the industry for several years. He is  credited with reporting the advance of Port Orford root rot into  Coos County and has since been participating in efforts to control the disease.  Bill has been timberlands manager of the Coos Bay division  since 1965. He began with the Coos Bay Lumber Co. in 1945. He  had been active in many forest products industry associations and  committees including the Society of American Foresters, Coos Forest Protective Association, Bureau of Land Management advisory  board, Coos County Sail and Water Conservation Committee, Coos  County Forest Land Classification Board, Southwestern Oregon College Advisory Committee and others.  Bill has been honored for his outstanding community work and  was presented the Distinguished Service Award for outstanding  civic contributions by the Coquille Chamber of Commerce, April  14, 1966. He has been active in Lions, United Good Neighbors,  Toastmasters and political campaigns. He is presently chairman  of the committee on flood control.  97 Lyliver's    ^jrirst    L/olf    C<  ourse  By JANET ANDERSON  Back in the early twenties, Oliver was a little shack town that  had sprung up some fifteen miles from the U.S. border. The reason for its being was, of course, the irrigation project that a benevolent government headed by "Honest John" Oliver had financed  in aid of returned servicemen. Land was sold on easy terms to veterans, and many still remember the early days in that hitherto  desert area.  Memories abound. Dust storms, hard labor ploughing virgin  soil, the building of wooden flumes, the mosquitoes, and the constant backbreaking work of raising ground crops while the baby  fruit trees were nursed through the years before coming into bearing.  We still remember the difficulties of getting winter water for  domestic use after irrigation ceased at the end of summer. We remember the labor of procuring winter fuel, the precious wood that  in the cutting, hauling and. final chopping heated men three times  over before it arrived at kitchen stove or fireplace. And we remember the cutting and hauling and storing of blocks of ice to combat  the spoilage of food and drink in the dog days of July and August.  Besides all this, however, we recall the joys of neighborly life.  The sharing of trials and problems forged unbreakable bonds of  fellowship, and the ever-present lack of ready cash, common to us  all, made for understanding and true sympathy and. a blissful absence of any need to "keep up with the Joneses". This last was certainly never one of the problems of life in early Oliver .  Towards the end of the Twenties, most of us had settled into our  stride and even found a little leisure could be snatched from work  without at least making us any poorer. It was then that some enthusiast conceived the brilliant idea of making a golf course. The  Minister of Lands was approached, and being a plus four man himself he most graciously gave his permission and presented Oliver  with a considerable tract of ground too hilly to be useful for anything else.  Straightaway the fun began. Fever ran high. Only one real  golfer could we boast, but he and three other worthy Scots speedily  laid out the course. And what a course! Hills, gullies, rocks, cacti,  speargrass, sagebrush, every conceivable hazard. Name it; we had  it! Within two weeks the course was "ready" and play was started.  This haste was imperative, for the Fall was nearly over and in  winter and summer games must give way to other attractions.  Our greens, a courtesy title, deserve description. These were  mere plots of shingly sand, with fences to keep off the range cattle.  98 Oliver's First Golf Course  Putting was a merry gamble, for grass without irrigation water was  not possible. Improvised brooms, fashioned, from bits of carpet  tacked to sticks, furnished each green with something to smooth  the surface. Or one could use one's putter, although this was frowned upon as being a temptation to make a guiding path for the wandering ball.  My own introduction to the game was thrilling. Our first match  was staged at Rock Creek, and word came that they were bringing  two lady players. Our own ladies were few, and all novices like  myself. I had not even seen the course, but I was known to have  clubs, and I hailed from Scotland. Enough said! That very night  I was driven out to the course, played three holes, walked three,  and was shown the three in. the middle as darkness fell. And next  day I halved my match! Comical. Four years in Canada with never  a club in my hands, and before that only friendly foursomes on the  duffers' course, and now in a night, fame. For surely this was fame,  to be the crack lady golfer in the town, even if only for that one  time, and the opponent an unknown quantity.  In the beginning, we had no clubhouse. Neighboring ranch  houses would be our gathering places. Sunday games were an institution and many a match was played again over the teacups.  There, too, came the suggestions. Major Puller wanted the fairways  mowed further to the left, and Captain Sheer demanded, they be  extended to the right. The club wit opined that two parallel strips be  mown, and the centre lane where no ball travelled be left in its  wild state. Surely we had more fun over our golf than better players ever knew. We were all beginners, and par for the course  was set at 46, by our one good golfer. This was Mac from Ruther-  glen with gold medals to his credit, so it can be seen that our  course was no easy one.  Today, we see golfers ambling round Oliver's modern course,  Cherry Grove, nibbling cherries, strolling idly on smooth level  sward with their clubs in elegant wheeled carts, and close at hand  a shady club verandah furnished, with easy chairs, cold drinks,  all the luxurious appurtenances of gracious golfing. What would  THEY think if they met a snake? Or a wandering black bear?  Never, for them, to step on a flat patch of cactus and be crippled  out of the game. And speargrass! After all these many years, memories of that plague persist. It would leap to the attack. Socks and  stockings would be matted with stickers, excruciatingly painful  and impossible to wash out. It was no secret that husbands had  to cope with such laundry problems themselves.  One year this speargrass became such a nuisance that our  men decided to burn it off the course. Permission was obtained,  and. the Firewarden with a squad of volunteers duly started the  blaze. All was well until they were called away to a real  out-  99 Oliver's First Golf Course  break across the valley. Alas! A breeze sprang up, and away up  the hillside raced our fire, out of control. It was a close call for  at least one ranch home before the wind fell and the flames  were beaten out.   The speargrass had won again.  In spite of all these annoyances, however, we loved our golf  course. Never was there such an exciting one, entirely composed  of gullies, knolls, little plateaus, sharp and sudden declivities, as  was ours. The pinnacle was at the ninth tee, which you reached  almost imperceptibly, so that it was breath-taking to look down  into the depths where you must send your ball. The drop was  over two hundred feet, and the descent was so steep you must  go down sidewise. It was seriously suggested that a bannister  be made, preferably of rope to deter the foolhardy from sliding  down to disaster.  Cherry Grove Country Club is a delightful place indeed, but  it has of course its inescapable rules, and it allows no alibis. We  pioneer golfers were more fortunate. We could always take comfort in thinking how well we might play on a properly equipped  course, where the greens are really green and the fairways' really  fair; where you sometimes meet a sheep, but never a big black  bear; where you never hear the shocking, crashing, splintering,  shattering sound, as your jigger strikes a rock lying hidden in  the ground. Now, alas, too few of our early golfers can put this  to the proof, but they lean contentedly on the comfortable alibi of  years and reminiscences. And who dares question the stamina of  these pioneers who blithely hit their balls among the hazards of  such a sporting course?  ADS IN THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE VERNON NEWS  May 1891  T. W. Fletcher  Builder & Contractor  Enderby, B.C.  Estimates free of charge. A large supply of building materials  always on hand.  Victoria Hotel  Vernon, B.C.  Every possible convenience and comfort for guests.  Good stable and attentive hostler.  E. J. Tronson — Proprietor  100 Jrtems    Jrn    ZJ-irst   Zsssue    of      Vernon     Hews  MAY 14th, 1891  A preliminary meeting of those interested in the formation of  a volunteer fire brigade in Vernon was held on Monday night at  8 o'clock, at the residence of Mr. Coryell, C. E. Present, Messers.  Kirby, Taylor, Hull, Barnes and Stuart: Messers. Simms, Gallagher  and J. R. Alcock were unavoidably absent. On Motion, Mr. Barnes  was appointed chairman and Mr. Stuart secretary. Messers. Taylor,  Hull and Kirby were appointed a by-law committee to frame a set  of by-laws to be presented for discussion, and Messers. Barnes,  Gallagher, Simms, Stuart, and J. R. Alcock, a soliciting committee,  to report progress at the next meeting. The Meeting then adjourned  till Friday, 15th inst. to assemble at Mr. Barnes' store at 8 P.M.  The necessity of establishing a fire brigade in this town must  be so patent to every resident that it is unnecessary to enlarge upon  it, and it is sincerely to be hoped that everybody will contribute  something (however little) to show his appreciation of the endeavors  now being made to form one. It would not be proper to solicit outside aid of any kind until we have made a fair start ourselves;  then we will have a right to do so. There is no reason why the  V.V.F.B. should not ultimately become one of the best in the  Province and a credit to the District.  MAY 14th, 1891  Our readers will notice that, to prove the interest we take in  the progress and prosperity of the Okanagan Country, we' offer to  insert notices of Marriages and the Births which take place in the  District, free of charge. We take the liberty, however, of hinting  that, though we know nothing about babies, we are abnormally  fond of bridecake and experts in testing its good qualities.  JUNE 4th, 1891  Mr. Luc Girouard, who, for many years has held the position  of post-master in this town, has resigned and Mr. R. McDougall  has been appointed to the vacancy. The thanks of the entire community are due to Mr. Girouard who has never studied his own  convenience but has always been willing to oblige every one in  every possible way, and has filled the duties of a thankless office  to the satisfaction of the settlers. Now that the duties of the local  post-master are daily increasing, and, as a money order office is  becoming an imperative necessity, we are glad to know that so  efficient a gentleman as R. J. McDougall has been selected to fill  the billet.  JULY 10th, 1891  Two thousand, four hundred acres of Mr. Ellis' range at the  Mission, lately acquired by Mr. G. G. Mckay, will be laid out in  fruit farms at a low figure.  101 Uhe     White    rJLahe    (JSt  as in  White Lake is old in Okanagan history but young in modem  scientific study.  The sage brush covered basin was crossed by the first trail  north which began at Fort Okanagan in Washington to end at Fort  St. lames.  Used by the Northwesters in 1812 it became the path of the  Hudson's Bay Fur brigades after the two companies amalgamated  in 1820. The last Fur Brigade crossed White Lake Basin in 1848  and the trail came to short life again; in the 1850s as an alternate  route to the Cariboo.  After a sleepy interval of more than a century White Lake  Basin was chosen by the Dominion Government for the site of its  astrophysical observatory.  The dish shaped antenna is so balanced and geared through  clockwork that it can be locked to follow a spot in space. But the  fixed antennas, strung on a forest of poles, can only monitor a  sweep through space as our earth spins around.  During the summer, July and August, the observatory is open  on Sunday afternoons. Inside there is not much to see anyway.  Mostly the restless fingers of automatic instruments record the radio  signature of distant galaxies on endless strips of paper. Perhaps it  would be best to regard the wiggly lines as representing the "Music  of the Spheres" about which philosophers of old discussed and  disputed endlessly  Eric D. Sismey  102 On the right i s  shown a close-up  view of the radio  telescope in  White Lake Basin.  Below: One of  the fixed antennae at White Lake.  Eric  Sismey Photos  103 Bool    /?.  eview  Black Robes and Indians on the Last Frontier by Sister Maria  lima Raufer, O.P. (The Bruce Publishing Co., Milwaukee, 1966. Price  $12.50 from St. Mary's Mission, Okam, Washington, U.S.A. 98841.)  The book is well-described as a story of heroism. It tells of the  coming cf the Black Robes and the establishment of the Roman  Catholic Church in Okanogan, Central and Upper Columbia valleys  by missionary priests such as Father De Smet and his successors.  The record extends to Similkameen, Okanagan, and other parts in  British Columbia. The book has nearly 500 pages, is well illustrated  and thoroughly documented, the result of years of pains-taking  research.  The years from 1811 to 1885 saw the building of Forts Okanogan  and Colville, the growth of St. Paul's mission at Kettle Falls on the  Columbia, and the St. Francis Regis mission in the Colville Valley.  The period also saw the encroachment on Indian lands by white  settlers, and the creation of Indian reservations. The early priests  did what was humanly possible to help the native peoples save  some of their heritage.  The years subsequent to 1885 saw the development of St. Mary's  Mission at Omak, Washington, under the guidance of Father Etienne  de Rouge, S.J. — a member of French nobility — into a Christian  centre with adequate schools for natives and newcomers.  -Jrem-J   In   Irirst Csssue  of   Vernon    Views   —    llllau   1891  OCTOBER 1st, 1891  The first private telephone line in the interior is just being  completed, and will connect the residences of Mr. Alf Postill, Mr.  W. Postill, and Mr. Thos Wood, on the Mission Road. The line is  a little under five miles in length and is entirely on the land of  the promoters — running east of Duck Lake. The poles were in  position last June, but the insulators went astray en route and have  only recently arrived — hence the delay. The cost will average  $55 per mile. At this rate a line between Vernon and Benvoulin  would prove a good paying investment.  OCTOBER 22nd, 1891  We are pleased to welcome into Vernon's business circle Mr.  Walter B. Cochrane, who has opened up a general real estate and  insurance office in town. There is plenty of scope in the Okanagan  country in this line of business for a young man of enterprise  and energy and we have no doubt that success will attend Mr.  Cochrane's venture.  104 Indian    cJLi  ore  EDITOR'S NOTE: The following series of stories on Indian  life in North Central Washington, the Okanagan and surrounding area by Marie Houghton Brent were compiled by Mrs.  Harold Cochrane of Vernon and checked by references in The  Bureau of American Ethnology, The American Museum of Natural History, Anthropology in British Columbia and the  American Anthropological Association.  My Life . . . Marie Houghton Brent  (Indian Mother's Tradition)  Father fell in love and married a young Indian princess,  grand-daughter to the great N'kwala. It was Chief N'kwala in person that married his granddaughter, Sophie N'kwala to my father.  It must have been 1868 or 1869. It was the custom at that time to  have the chief marry couples as there were no priests there. A  chief could marry any two people. It was the only law there. N'kwala was the chief of all the Okanogans (Book of Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.) I am proud to state "I am his  great grandchild". I was born on December 5th, 1870, and father  was on his second 700 head of cattle. I was baptized at the Okanogan Mission in the Diocese of Kamloops, June 1, 1871.  When I was two years old, father finally accepted and became the first Member of Parliament at Ottawa for Yale-Kootenay  District of B.C. He was active in late 1872 and 1873 in Sir John A.  MacDonald's cabinet. My brother Edward was born in 1872. We  were left with our grandmother.  In an Indian tribe they pick one sober child with a good memory and train them to remember the story of their family and their  ancestors. I was chosen for this. It was my great grandfather's  daughter that taught me (my grand aunt, old N'kwala's daughter,  young N'kwala's sister). I now lived with my grandfather's sister.  My great aunt was from Colville. She was married to a Frenchman direct from France. Her name was Teresa N'kwala and his  name (in English was Laurence) in French was Cyprienne Laurent.  My great aunt spoke French too.  My grand aunt taught me as a child the following tradition,  which she in turn learned from her father, the old Chief N'kwala.  Historical Events In the Lives of the Chiefs  As I Remember Them — By Marie Houghton Brent  My  historical   narrations   open  with   Chief   Pelka-mu-lox   (3-4  Number in the book of Ethnology). Chief Pelga-mu-lox came from  105 Indian Lore  a long line of Chieftains who were natural bom rulers. Chief Pelka-  mu-lox was born a chief in the North Spokane, somewhere around  1675 or 1680 of an Okanogan mother, daughter of an Okanogan  Chief from the head of Okanogan Lake. He married first an Okanogan woman (3-4a) from N'kamaplex. She was the mother of  his little son N'kwala (49) afterwards called by the Hudson Bay  headman (Nicolas) Hwis-tass-em-tre'gen. pronounced Whis-tass-  um-'ken. This is the title he inherited and means "Mighty Walks  the Earth." This name is said to be of Spokane Indian origin, according to the book of ethnology. This son N'kwala later became  known as the Old Chief N'kwala, and the Great Chief N'kwala. He  was born 1780 or 1785, and died about 1871. He is also referred to  as Nicoli and Nicolas. Chief Nicoli and Chief Nicolas.  Events In the Life of Chief Pelka-Mu-Lox  Chief Pelka-mu-lox, other spelling Pila-ka-mu-lah-uh. Chief Pei-  ka-mu-lox was chief in the north Spokane, connected to the Okanogans through his mother who was the daughter of an Okanogan  Chief from the head of Okanogan Lake. Chief Pelka-mu-lox, my  great-great-grandfather travelled far in his time. He ruled the different bands of his own people, had business relationships with  neighboring tribes and was acquainted with the Flatheads, Coer-d  'Alenes, Shoshoni, and Blackfeet tribes. It was the habit of his tribe  together with the Kulspelm, Kootenias, and sometimes the Nes  Perces and the Coer d Alenes to band together against the Blackfoot people and cross the mountains to hunt buffalo.  It was on one of these hunting expeditions that Chief Pelka-  mu-lox met a party of Canadian trappers or Courier des bois at  the eastern end of Hells Gate Pass, near the site of the present town  of Helena, Montana. Pelka-mu-lox and his people made1 friends  with the trappers and in the fall when they set out on the return  trip, two of the trappers accompanied them. (Legace, a Frenchman  and Finan MacDonald, a Scotchman.) These two men were made  guests of the Colville Chief, who took them to their winter quarters at Kettle Falls, on the Columbia, at the north end of the Colville  Valley. They in turn, (Lagace and MacDonald) married the two  daughters of the Chief and afterwards had children by them.  It was here that Chief Pelka-mu-lox made his great speech to  the white men, and his people. Chief Pelka-mu-lox thought the1 white  men were spirits come to look after him and his people. When the  Indians heard this they all wanted to hear about the wonderful  people.  After exacting a promise from the white men to stay with the  Colville Chief and a promise from the Colville Chief to take care  of the white men, he (Pelka-mu-lox) made this speech to the white  men in the presence of the Colville Chief and his followers.  106 Indian Lore  The Chief's Address to the White Men (He First Saw)  "You are my white children, and I do not want to lose you. I  want you to live in my territory. I have a big country, big enough  for all of us. I have plenty of everything — enough for all of us,  for our children and for our children's children."  "Our mountains are green and full of fruits. We have many  roots for food. We will show you which ones to eat and which ones  not to eat, so that you will not be poisoned. We hav© grouse and  many other birds for the hunt. We have plenty of deer for meat  and hides. We have all kinds of fur, large and small for use, and  salmon to eat."  "As long as the waters run and until yonder hill is no more,  you and I stay here, your children and my children. From my  waters, I drink, you drink. From my fruits I eat, you eat. From my  game. I eat, you eat."  "You are my white children stay with me."  Chief Pila-ka-mu-la-uh (Pelka-mu-lox) went into winter quarters with his Okanagan wife near Penticton. Chief Pelka-mu-lox was  a descriptive and forceful speaker. He spent the winter and spring  telling his wonderful stories of the white men. At one of the feasts  given in his honor, when he had almost finished, a chief from Se-  ton Lake, afraid he might lose his chieftainship arose and declared  all these stories false. That there were no people with white skins,  or eyes blue like the skies, or light short curly hair like wood shaving, who wore clothes made of woven stuff, which kept them, warm  without making it hard to move. There were no weapons that could  kill birds in flight. There were no moccasins one could walk over  cacti and not get stuck. No weapon that would kill animals as far  as across the Fraser River. That nothing could be thrown so- fast  you couldn't see it. There was no weapon that made1 a noise like  thunder and smoke like a fire at the same time. There was no animal that one could ride that ran faster than a buffalo. He said  Pelka-mu-lox was a liar and shouldn't be listened to by men and  warriors. It can't be true a stick could make thunder, make smoke  and fire and kill all the same time. He must b© a liar. No animal  beat buffalo.  This was a challenge for Chief Pelka-mu-lox to get bow and  arrow. The little Chief shot him with two arrows before he could  get his bow and arrows. Chief Pelka-mu-lox's own people took  him to their camp.  Chief Pelka-mu-lox called his little son to him. "Hear me. I  make this little boy a Chief in my place. I leave my boy in my  brother's care. The brother and son saw Chief Pelka-mu-lox die.  Chief Pelka-mu-lox means "Revolving Earth".  107 Indian Lore  Chief Pelka-mu-lox was buried at his winter quarters at Na-  Kam-a-plex. Na-kem-a-plex means at head of Okanogan Lake.  This son that Pelka-mu-lox made Chief on his death bed was  Chief N'Kwala. Chief N'Kwala when grown to manhood did avenge his father's untimely death, and did show this tribe that what  his father said was true.  Chief Pelka-mu-lox was the first chief to bring white men into  this country and the country of the Okanogans, Okanogan Basin in  Washington and extended into the Similkameen and the great Okanogan Lake in British Columbia. The Okanogans were a powerful tribe when the fur traders first came among them.  Events In the Life of Chief N'Kwala As I Remember Them  My great grandfather, Chief N'Kwala was chief of all the Okanogans and Colvilles. He was born about 1780 or 1785. There  are many ways to spell his oame depending on the references.  N'Kwala, Nicola, Niqualeas, Niqualla, N'Kuala, and Ni-kua-la. He  was the son of Chief Pelka-mu-lox. He was made chief when only  a lad on the death of his father, Chief Pelka-mu-lox.  Chief N'Kwala (Nicola) was considered a very wealthy man,  he had numbers of fine fur robes and other wealth, large bands of  horses and before 1858 had a good many head of cattle. The first  of these cattle he obtained from some Indians and whites and half  Indians from Colville and Spokane. He also cultivated some patches of corn and a little tobacco, before 1860. He obtained the seeds  from traders from the south and from Kamloops. The Hudson Bay  Company directed his cultivation and gave him seeds of different  things. This he raised at his home by the lake, eight miles down  from the head of Okanogan Lake.  N'Kwala (Nicola) looked after trading goods during the summer for the Hudson Bay Co. He also looked after and wintered a  bunch of cattle for French traders who thought the world of him,  and paid him well for his honesty, faithfulness and kindness. The  white traders gave him ten guns and lots of ammunition, the first  that came into the country. Chief N'Kwala gave them a lot of valuable furs he had collected. N'Kwala had a horse given him by  traders from Walla Walla.  During the winter Chief N'Kwala trained the best of his tribe  on how to use these guns. When the Lillooets were salmon fishing  in the Fraser River, Chief N'Kwala (Nicola) met with the Thompsons,  Shuswaps, and Similkameen in council and asked them to join  him in an attack on the Lillooets for his father, Chief Pelka-mu-lox's  untimely death. They fell upon the Lillooets about the middle of  the fishing season as they were salmon fishing. Taken, unawares  the Lillooets were completely upset by the noise and the deadly  effects of the guns, and the appearance of N'Kwala on horseback  108 Indian Lore  directing the attack. After a short resistance they fled. Three hundred were killed and many women and children were taken prisoners. Thus Pelka-mu-lox's death was avenged. Chief N'Kwala  had kept his word with his father, Pelka-mu-lox, to prove his word  as being true.  In return from his victory, Chief N'Kwala gave a feast for his  allies in, the Nicola above the lake. (The fur traders named this  part of the country "the Nicola" meaning Nicola's country.) The  meat for this feast was obtained by driving a large herd of wapiti  (elk) into an enclosure and killing them with spears. The antlers  from the kill at this time could still be seen in two well built heaps  as late as 1863. Also they drove a herd of big horn mountain sheep  over a cliff near Stump Lake. You can find record of this by J. W.  MacKay (Kie), Indian Agent at Kamloops. MacKay gave Dawson  this story pieced together from several sources of information. I  knew Mr. MacKay when I was a little girl.  Old Chief N'Kwala (Nicola was a kind humane man. He was  the chief who came down to the Nicola Valley and buried the  Thompson and Stuwix victims of the Shuswap raid at Guichan,  (See Smith Archaeology of the Thomspon Region, page 432.) This  was about 1846. Fur traders recognized Chief Nicola as the most  powerful and influential chief in the interior of British Columbia.  He was noted for his sagacity, prudence, and fair dealings. He  was honest and more of a peacemaker than a fighting man. He  was greatly respected by the Indians. His word was law among  his own people and even among the neighboring tribes. There  was no other law. He overshadowed all other chiefs of his time in  power and influence.  Like all head chiefs, Nicola usually had a body guard of young  warriors who did his bidding and accompanied him on all important trips and visits to neighboring chiefs. During his lifetime, the  Okanogans were his friends. The first white men were the fur  traders in the very early part of the century from 1803 to 1811.  About fifty years later, from 1856 to 1864 the first gold miners came.  On the advent of the latter, Chief Nicola used his great influence  for their protection, and in preventing the Indians from making  war on them. During the Fraser River trouble between the Thompsons and the whites in 1858 and 1859, he advocated peace, although  preparing for war had the affair not been settled. The Thompsons  were against the miners and settlers. Although he was begged by  the Spokanes and. Thompsons to join them in war against the  whites, he refused to allow his people to join them. He said that  he was an ally of the whites, fur traders, King George and the  Queen and that they were all good to him and his people. When  the boundary line was being surveyed, he asked for a reserve  where he and his children and his people could live quietly unmolested. All of his life and until his death, he worked for the  109 Indian Lore  welfare of his descendants and one and all of his people. Queen  Victoria recognized his urgent request for his children and promised him it would be so, for it was his father, Chief Pelka-mu-lox  who welcomed the first white people with open arms. The reserve  given him is now called the Okanogan Reserve at the head of Okanogan Lake. Reserve number one.  In 1840, Chief Factor Samuel Black was assassinated by a  foolish misinformed Indian boy. Mrs. Black sent for Chief Nicola  to help her family. Chief Nicola went at once to Mrs. Black and the  children. He ordered the assassin be brought and punished. They  got the assassin and while bringing him back by canoe, he upset  the canoe and jumped into the whirl pool at Tranquille Lake where  Kamloops River enters the lake. When once and a half around,  his screams imitated a loon and he was swallowed up by the  whirl pool. It makes a big black hole in the water. The noise is  terrifying, like a big waterfall. All the Indians were good swimmers  and got home safely as they were trained for this kind of swimming.  Some were Chief N'Kwala's own boys.  Chief N'Kwala died about 1875 or 1880. He died in Grand  Prairie on his way to Kamloops for a conference with the Hudson  Bay men. His body was taken to Kamloops by a great cortege of  Indians and temporarily buried near the Hudson Bay people. During the winter a large number of Indians remained with the body  and either the Indians or Hudson Bay men kept a guard of honor  over it in military style. In the spring the body was exhumed and  carried on horses to Nkemaplex (head of Okanogan Lake), where  he was finally buried with his medals. Chief Nicola generally  wintered there at Nkemaplex as his father, Pelka-mu-lox had done.  He was buried with the medals King George of England had. given  him years before when he made a treaty with him. (King George),  when Chief Nicola got his reservation for himself, his children and  people.  This is now the Okanogan Reservation on the west side of  Okanogan Lake. Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, also gave him recognition and medals. Some of these must still be in existence and  some one must know where they are.  Upon the death, of Chief N'Kwala, his young son also named  Nicola was made chief. Upon the death of young Chief Nicola, he  was buried in the same grave with his father. A large wooden cross  was erected on the grave. It was still there about thirty years ago.  Incidents In the Life of Young Chief N'Kwala (Nicola)  Before Old Chief N'kwala died in Grand Prairie enroute to a  council, he called his people to him and made his youngest and  favorite son Chief. This son was to rule in his place after his death.  There were three sons.  One had died, the oldest and youngest  110 Indian Lore  were left. He chose the youngest son for Chief. It was his people  he; was thinking about and for some reason of his own he chose  the youngest son. This was my mother's father. He had helped to  take care of the Old Chief. Young Chief N'Kwala and wife, G-pee-  cha (Suzette, priest's name for her) were grandfather and grandmother of Marie Houghton Brent and Edward Houghton. Younjg  Chief N'kwala ruled but a short time as Chief. He was killed by his  older half brother, jealous because the younger brother was made  Chief. Sophia N'kwala, daughter of young N'kwala was my mother  and wife of Charles Fredrick Houghton, my father. Sophia's two  younger brothers and sister died of tuberculosis about this time. My  mother, Sophia N'kwala died of a broken heart soon afterwards.  Young N'kwala's full sister took Marie Houghton/- Brent to raise1.  She put her with her own daughter to1 go to school. It was she that  taught Marie Houghton Brent the traditions and ancestry of her  tribe. Edward Houghton was put with a friend of his father's, Mr.  Tronson, to go to school with his boys. My father was a Lieutenant  Colonel in the Canadian Army at this time.  Incidents In the Life of Joseph Tonasket  Chief N'Kwala (Nicola) Makes Tonasket a Sub-Chief  After one of the Indian wars, N'kwala found Tonasket an orphan. Tonasket would not go back to his people. Old N'kwala saw  good stuff in him and had him trained to be a chief. When he was  old enough,, Chief N'kwala married him to1 one of his daughters as  N'kwala, though he had seventeen wives, had few sons to follow  in line.  The Okanogan Indians fought a great battle with the Shuswaps. The Shuswaps had come down, here and ordered great  grandfather, Chief Nicola, and his people away from here saying  "They wanted this land and country for their own." My people  said "They were not going. This was their home." The Shuswaps  gave them till sunrise to vacate or be wiped out of existence. Our  folks knew they were sadly outnumbered, but they also knew they  were skilled in warfare and that the enemy was not.  The Shuswap moved back a little way and made camp. Chief  Nicola moved behind their own camp and, held a conference. The  Chief told his folks to stand up to the last man. He thought they  might have a chajrice if they watched every step. He said to let  the Shuswaps make the first move and then mow the first line  down and, keep fighting. They did and killed everyone in sight  before the Shuswaps knew where the Okanogans were. The dead  were piled up. Many of the Okanogans were killed too. But after  a strong assault, the Shuswaps were on the run. The Okanogans  mowed them down as they were running. They came to rocks and  brush, but the Okanogans went right on. The Shuswaps made another stand, but they were falling right and left. Then they were on  111 Indian Lore  the run again. At this time they were almost half way back to their  own country. They made another big stand and fought foot by foot.  These different spots are all named by the Indians. At last the  Shuswaps gave up and the Okanogans chased them until they were  back in their own country across the Shuswap- River. Only a few  of them were left to tell what happened. They were told never to  put foot on Okanogan soil again and that they should never marry  into the Okanogan tribe. They never did, they were so badly beaten. They never forgot it to this day. A few of the younger ones  have intermarried of late years.  The Okanogans came back from the Shuswap River and Chief  Nicola held a conference with all his people. He told them they  were still in danger of losing their country to other western tribes.  He told them he must go back to the head of Okanogan Lake to  hold that land and that some of the people would go with him. He  said he would leave young Tonasket here to help the rest of them.  He knew the young man well, being with him a long time and  growing up with him. He knew that Tonasket was honest, kind, with  good judgement and that he could trust him. Chief Nicola said he  would make Tonasket a Sub-Chief to take care of the Indians here,  and that he would marry his daughter to Tonasket. Then Chief  Nicola would not be alone and would have help when it was needed. This daughter of Chief Nicola who married Tonasket was my  mother's aunt and Millie Tonasket's aunt. This was Batiste Tonasket's mother of Republic, Washington. Chief Tonasket's wife (Batiste's mother) died very young at the head of Okanagan Lake in  British Columbia. After a long time, Chief Tonasket married Antonia  Somday, a widow with two children.  Then Chief Nicola went north to the head of Okanagan Lake.  Later the boundary line was established between the United States  and Canada: on June 15th, 1846, dividing the Okanagans in half.  This was a cause of great regret to Chief Nicola that his people  should be separated. Only then did the people accept Tonasket  as their real chief, though Tonasket was greatly respected by the  Indians north and south of the boundary line. They all felt bad,  north and south, when the boundary line was made. Them Chief  Nicola got his big beautiful lakeside reserve from King George III.  It was very rich soil and creeks came down from the mountains  every short distance1 to enter Okanagan Lake. The King gave  Chief Nicola medals to seal the treaty that gave the Indians this  land for themselves, his children and their descendants. When  Chief Nicola died, most of the medals were buried with him. After  his death, the ruling was divided into different districts.  Chief Nicola married one of his daughters to a young man by  the name of Francoise. He was made Chief of Penticton. When  Francoise died, my grandmother's brother (my mother's uncle was  next in line. His name was Gabbian and he was Chief of Pentic-  112 Indian Lore  ton until his death. Then his brother came and took up the duties.  That was my grandmother's brother Edward. He became Chief Edward of Penticton until his death. After that the Chief was decided  by election. The first elected Chief was Michel. My grandmother  referred to above was my mother's mother. Her name was Susette  Pepetsa (Chief Edward's daughter).  During Indian unrest and settling of the Indians on reservations, the Indian Department sent General Miles to get four chiefs,  Tonasket included, to come to Washington, D.C. for a conference.  The result was the Moses Agreement. In the Moses Agreement,  Tonasket's people would be furnished with a grist mill, a saw mill,  a boarding school for one hundred pupils and a doctor. The school  was located where the town of Tonasket now stands.  Tonasket always worked for the good of his people. His last  home was above the town of Curlew, Wash. Close by is his grave.  A granite monument was erected June 21, 1958. The inscription on  the stone reads as follows:  Chief Joseph Tonasket  1822 - 1891  He proved himself a strong and able leader, and  although his was not an inherited chieftainship,  he was officially recognized as Chief of the Okanogan Indians in about the year 1858. His whole  life was a series of accomplishments for his people.  This sums up Chief Tonasket as a Chief as fine as words could  say it.  113 House on Park Ave., Kelowna, that was the Joyce Hostel, 1912 to 1914.  114 Uhe    Aouce    ^hrostel  In the British Isles before World War I there were thousands  of young women as thepre are today who wanted to emigrate to  the dominions and colonies. At the present time it is quite easy  for them to do so because they can come as stenographers, nurses  and any of a score of professions. In the early 1900's domestic  help was about the only sure way of finding a job in new lands  unless you had friends or relatives to go1 to.  This story by Mrs. Forge (nee Miss Sutcliffe) who is a cousin  of Mr. Paddy Cameron of Kelowna shows how adventurous girls  were assisted to find their feet in the Kelowna district.  The Joyce Hostel was so called after a prominent member of  a British society for helping girls to emigrate to Canada.  Kelowna was chosen, partly because it was the rapidly growing centre of the Okanagan district and partly because my aunt,  Mrs. Cameron lived only a mile from Kelowna at Guisachan, and  she had always taken a great interest in the scheme.  Early in 1912 Miss Joyce herself came out and bought a large  house on Park Avenue, to be converted into the hostel, and largely  owing to the recommendations of "Aunty Mem" I was appointed  to manage it. My first job was to superintend the alterations making six single bedrooms out of two large ones. The kitchen too  needed a good deal doing to it, but at last all was ready for the  first party of girls to arrive.  I enjoyed the work immensly but of course it was not all  smooth going. I have vivid memories of one young lady who  came out complete with wedding dress and a great many wedding  presents to marry a fruit farmer who had lived on one of the  benches. He of course met the boat and they came up to the  hostel for tea. Two or three days went by and I had, arranged a  small reception and ordered a wedding cake, when the bride  came to my room one evening and told me she could not marry  her intended. I argued with her, all to no avail, she kept on saying  he had changed, and so I expect had she.  Next morning the bridegroom came to make last arrangements and I as requested, had to tell him the sad news. Then the  bride appeared, dressed for travelling, with her luggage around  her, bent on catching the next boat home. He wept bitterly on my  shoulder and at that moment the wedding cake arrived.  But on the whole the hostel filled a long felt want — a place  where girls could come to on their free days, meet their friends,  and stay to tea. It was also available for short holidays. Unfortunately the Joyce Hostel only lasted about 2Vi years, as the  First World War broke out and all civil emigration was stopped.  But I believe th© house still stands today in a vastly changed  Kelowna.  115 J*ruah    L^harleS     fVlusarove    cJLeir  Sawmills    for    60     Clears  By ERIC SISMEY  EDITOR'S NOTE: Since this story was written in 1965, the Leir  financial interests in the Penticton Sawmills has been sold to  a national lumber and mining corporation.  It was the apple trees around his father's place, the rectory,  where Hugh Leir was born, that he remembers best, Cox's Orange,  Scarlett Pearmains and rusty Ribston Pippins.  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir was born in 1880, in the Somerset  village of Charlton Musgrove. Englishmen will tell you, and Hugh  Leir will agree, that the sweetest, crunchiest apples in all the world  come from the Vale of Avalon, and so do the richest of golden ciders  Somerset lies in the heart of rural England, where the land is  not yet infected by industry; where hawthorn hedges shelter fields  little changed since Alfred, Britain's king, was there a thousand  years ago. At primrose time, after the Somerset crop was gone, there  were apples again in the greengrocer's shop, Scarlett Pearmains and  rusty Ribstons too. From Tasmania, he was told.  I shall go there one day! I will grow apples there! Such was his  schoolboy dream.  But it was not to be.  In 1901, Hugh Leir, carrying a bulging suit case, his pockets  nearly empty, and clutching a one way ticket in his hand, embarked  for Canada. It was nearer than Tasmania, the fare was less, and  perhaps there were places in Canada where apples grew.  Landing at Halifax he took the train westward as far as his  money would carry him and in Saskatchewan he worked just long  enough to escape that treeless plain.  Kamloops, at the turn of the century, was little more than a  play-boy camp. Young Britishers with a little money to spend, hunted, fished, played polo and chased coyotes over the sage brush  plains and it was quite clear to Hugh Leir that Kamloops had nothing to offer to him.  Wandering down the Nicola Valley he took odd jobs wherever  he could find them until he reached the golden gravels at Granite  Creek, then to Princeton and along the Similkameen where people  talked of gold and silver in the hills even though, except at Hedley,  there was little to show.  116 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  When Hugh Leir reached Keremeos in 1902 he found a community to his liking. And sportsmen liked it too; they came from  Europe and the United States to hire guides, packers and pack-  horses for Bighorn hunting in the high Ashnola country. Among  them came Archduke Ferdinand of Austria with a retinue of servants, cooks and lackeys, and who, it will be remembered, was  assassinated at Sarejevo, Serbia and it was this that triggered the  first war.  Before the railway came there were no bridges over the Similkameen and it occured to Hugh Leir that a ferry could be a profitable  venture. With help he built a scow about 15 by 30 feet which was  arranged to roll along a cable stretched across the river. It worked  very well, it was quite profitable, until an unexpected freshet washed  one of the anchors away and the scow drifted nine miles down the  river before it stranded on a sand bank. There it stayed for to bring  it back upstream was an almost impossible task.  At Keremeos the Similkameen Valley widens, waist high  timothy, red top and clover, grew in the meadows along the river.  On the irrigated bench land green alfalfa fields stretched in sharp  contrast to the bunch grass slopes where cattle grazed.  From the Similkameen the Richters, Lowes, Allisons, and  Cawstons drove their cattle to the Coast over the Dewdney trail and  to the beef hungry camps along the Boundary for a hundred miles.  And there were trees laden with juicy apples on the Richter  ranch at harvest time.  During the two years Hugh Leir lived at Keremeos he cut his  teeth on sawmilling which was to become his vocation, his avocation, for more than sixty years.  At Keremeos the name Penticton was being bandied around.  The stage driver told of the sternwheel Aberdeen reaching Penticton  from Okanagan Landing laden with mining machinery, steam boilers, rails and cable for the Nickle Plate mine above Hedley. And  with supplies of every kind for the gold camps at Fairview and Camp  McKinney, for other camps along the Kettle River and the Boundary  from Rock Creek to Phoenix. As fast as the freight was unloaded  there were freighters with four and six horse teams waiting to haul  it away.  There was talk, too, that the Tom Ellis cattle empire was about  to be broken up —■ subdivided for sale as irrigated orchard land.  Leir listened with interest; he held his counsel and knowing  that lumber would be needed he decided to go there to see. Perhaps  this would be the opportunity he had been looking for.  There was not much at Penticton when Hugh Leir drove there  from Keremeos with all his possessions in the wagon box. There  117 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  was the Government wharf, a bulging freight shed, a hotel on the  hill above the wharf and a dusty main street. Wade's general store  stood on the corner of Ellis and Front Street and there were several  livery bams, headquarters for freighters. But there was no sawmill  and lumber, lots of it, would be needed to build flumes which would  carry the water to the land where apple trees would soon be planted..  A hurried survey revealed that there was prime Western Yellow  Pine along the east side hills between the two lakes and that the  best location for a mill was about three miles up from the valley  on the north side of Ellis Creek. And since there was no road the  first job would be to build one. This piece of road, which Hugh Leir  pioneered in 1904, was the first three miles of a promised road to  Carmi in the Kettle valley — a promise which successive governments have failed to honor.  After Leir satisfied the management of the Southern Okanagan  Land Company — purchasers of the Tom Ellis holdings — that he  would and could build a sawmill he was awarded a contract for  three million board feet of flume lumber, the first million to be delivered by 1906 and the remainder by 1908. And with this contract  in his pocket Hugh Leir set out to find machinery. A circular saw,  an edger, a cut-off, and a steam engine was brought from Keremeos,  but he had to go to Vancouver for a boiler which was found on a  scow which had been used for driving piles for the Granville Street  bridge. The boiler was shipped to Okanagan Landing by way of  Sicamous, loaded on the Aberdeen for Penticton. From the Government wharf to the turn-off at Ellis Creek the road was level and in  good shape, but the three mile drag up the hill was in teamster's  language not printable. It was narrow, bumpy, it twisted between  trees, dodged boulders and while the Bassett Brothers had provided  eight horses for the most part only four could be used.  Hugh Leir was his own millwright. By the time the boiler arrived  engine and machinery had been set up and it was not long before  the first planks went through the edger early in 1905.  Yellow Pine logs cut from the surrounding forest were hauled  to the mill by contract and before long it became apparent that by  the time three million feet of lumber had been cut the length of  economic haul would be reached and if production was to continue  a new mill capable of larger and more varied output would have  to be built where logs could be brought by water.  A suitable location was found along the Okangan River about  two miles down from the lake where a convenient back-water would  serve as a log pond.  When it was breezed around that Hugh Leir had bought 27  acres in the sloughs for a mill site from the Southern Okanagan  Land Company many eyebrows were raised.  118 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir — 1965  Eric Sismey Photo  119 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  The Sloughs? All they were good for was a little wild hay in  the summer, to hunt ducks in the fall and a place to cut ice in the  winter. How could anybody expect to find a foundation for machinery?. But Leir knew better; he observed that the1 sloughs in general,  his acreage in particular, was on top of the outwash from Penticton,  Ellis and Shingle Creeks. And after coming to this conclusion a  little spade work revealed compacted gravel three or four feet under  the marsh muck and tules.  The new mill, with a capacity of 30,000 ft.b.m. adjacent to the  surveyed right of way of the proposed Kettle Valley Railway was  ready for operation in 1910. The machinery was new, up to date  and additional equipment had been installed to diversify production)'  This new operation was incorporated as Penticton Sawmills Company.  In 1910 the Okanagan was booming. At Penticton stores and  houses were being built, the Municipality was laying miles of  wooden sidewalks, irrigation projects were under way in adjacent  communities and the demand for lumber continued until the outbreak of the First World War.  It was not until war ended in 1918 that full capacity was resumed.  To furnish logs for this extended operation a decision was  reached to1 log a stand of timber at the head of Four Mile Creek and  in order to get logs down to the1 lake a chute 3 miles 300 feet long  was built. The chute made from long, large poles were laid to  form a concave trough. At the top of the chute logs kicked into  it were given a shove to start them down the hill and by the time  they took their final dive into Okanagan Lake they were racing  along at 60 miles an hour trailing a plume of smoke. A man with  a bugle was stationed at the crossing at Naramata road on chuting  days to see, or rather toot, travellers from getting into trouble.  At the lake the logs were boomed, towed to the river where the  current floated them down to the mill.  Completion of the Kettle Valley Railway in 1914 was timely  since the supply of local logs was becoming insufficient. Now logs,  pine, spruce, tamarack and fir could be brought to the mill economically from as far east as Beaverdell in the Kettle River valley and  from beyond Princeton in the west.  In 1919 fire damaged the mill causing a temporary halt in production, fire damage occurred again in 1947 and again in 1957  but after each fire improvements were made and since 1957  electronic and automatic controls have brought mill operations to  a high standard. At the present time rough and finished kiln dried  lumber is manufactured to meet every requirement, including two  inch tongue and groove spruce which is meeting increasing popu-  120 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  laxity. A recent inovation by the Penticton Sawmills, one that has  been received with satisfaction, particuarly by importers in the  United Kingdom, is packaged lumber sawn to length and strapped.  Kiln dried spruce packaged and wrapped in waterproof polyethylene has also been well received by both rail and steamship  companies.  The Penticton Sawmill Company has contributed a great deal  to the economy of Penticton and the surrounding country. Started in  1905 by Hugh Leir as a one man show it has expanded until currently 125 men are employed on a two shift basis with an annual  payroll in excess of a million dollars.  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir, its founder, stepped down from  active management a few years ago relinquishing leadership to  two of his sons, John in charge of the mill and Paul outside activities  and sales.  It is unusual in the history of sawmilling to find an operation  started sixty years ago still in the hands of the family. It is a  tribute, I am sure, not only to the wisdom and foresight of its  founder but also to the sound judgement of his sons.  Mr. Leir has two other sons, John farms the Junction Ranch an  extensive operation near Kaleden and Richard who was recently  appointed Commander First Canadian Escort Squadron at Halifax,  N.S. This was effective January 18, 1965. Richard joined the  Canadian Navy as a cadet in 1940, he saw service in the world  war and for a period of three years was officially listed as dead  while actually a prisoner of war of the Japanese. He is also a  veteran of the Korean conflict having served in the destroyer  Athabaskan.  Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir, now in his 86th year, never realized his boyhood's desire to grow apples in Tasmania, but he can  look back to the fun he had in Canada at the1 turn of the century.  There were no ready made amusements in those days, he  declared, we made our own and perhaps that is why sport was  enjoyed much more then than now. We hunted, we fished, played  cricket, baseball and football, skated on the sloughs in the winter.  There were more boats on the lake than there are today, we rowed  them or sailed them or paddled canoes to enjoy the quiet of our  surroundings and conversation with our companions.  We rode our horses, unless you have owned a horse, ridden  one over our rolling Okanagan hills you can never know, or understand, the affection which can exist between a man and his horse.  But back to apples again. "While I never grew them many  millions of feet of my Penmill planks were built into1 flumes to bring  water to the land where apples grow and where the crop was, and  121 Hugh Charles Musgrove Leir  still is, taken from orchards to packing houses in crates made from  Penmill lumber and shipped around the world in boxes of Penmill  shook.  While Hugh Leir looks with skepticism on such proposals as  logging with helicopters and captive balloons, and while he admits  the efficiency of the chain saws, trucks, bull dozers and loaders  which fill the woods with noise and the stink of burnt oil, he regrets  the passing of the Paul Bunyon type of logging and the men who  did the work.  It was a never to be forgotten sight, he declared, to watch  fallers, working in pairs, one on each side of the tree, stripped to  their Stanfield undershirts, swinging razor sharp, double-bitted axes,  first one then the other, Shunk-shink! Shunk-shink! as chunks of  bark, white slabs of sapwood and then the heartwood flew from  the undercut.  Then to the other side with the long saw. One man in the pull  and the ride of the hands of the other on the saw handles; in the  turns of the teeth and the rakers from one position to another in the  kerf; and in the feel of just when to stop and slush coal oil on the  sticky pitch in time to wedge against the bind.  On steep downhill hauls logs were bolstered over a pair of  wheels and often the dragging tail was not brake enough.  Standing on his load the teamster braced himself with the help  of the lines to his four horses while his team raced to keep the  whiffletrees away from their flying heels.  Lumberjacks and teamsters did our logging forty years, Hugh  Leir mused, mechanics do it now!.  AD IN THE FIRST ISSUE OF THE VERNON NEWS  May 1891  W.  J.  Armstrong  The Tin and Stove Man  Spallumcheen  Has in Stock  Ranges, cooking stoves, parlor stoves, box stoves, camp stoves,  miner's stoves, tin ware of all kinds, force and life pumps, refrigerators, ice cream freezers, daisy churns, creamery cans,  wooden ware, cutlery, lamps, wind mills.  Tin, copper and sheet iron ware made to order. I sell McClary  Stoves only. Will shortly open up a Tin and Stove Store at  Vernon, B.C. All orders by mail promptly forwarded.  W. J. Armstrong  The Tin and Stove Man, Spallumcheen, B.C.  122 f  i  Dovetailed Corners — Osoyoos Museum  — Eric Sismey Photo  OSOYOOS MUSEUM  In the 1963 report of the Okanagan Historical Society the late  Kate Lacey wrote on page 116, "The Osoyoos Museum."  "The building built entirely of hand-hewn logs, which had been  cut above Fairview and hauled to the river where the building was  framed. The logs were then marked, dismantled, made into a raft  and rafted down the river to a point opposite the present school.. ."  Not long ago when I was passing through Osoyoos I stopped  at the museum and while there photographed the dove-tailed corners of the original building.  Note how perfectly the dove-tailed corners fit.  Eric D. Sismey  123 r\ohert    L^arSu/ell  By RUTH McDOUGALL — ROBERT CARSWELL JR.  Part of this story of my father is taken from a letter written to  Mr. C. B. Lefroy in 1945.  "I was born near the town of Renfrew in the Ottawa Valley on  the 3rd of May, 1864. At the age of two my father sold his farm  there and moved up into the County of Hastings. There he took up  one hundred acres of land covered with heavy hardwood timber.  We were one hundred miles from a town of any size — which was  Belleville on the Bay of Quinte. The only markets we had for our  produce were the lumber camps which were engaged in taking out  squared timber for the English market. This timber had to be driven  down the Madawask River and into1 the Ottawa at Arnprior, rafted  there and taken down to Quebec for shipment to England. By the  time I was twelve or thirteen years of age we began to hear of the  wonderful land around Fort Garry and by the time I was seventeen  years old my Father and I came out to Winnipeg by way of Chicago and St. Paul, landing there on the 23rd of May,  1882.  "My father then went farther west looking for land and I went  down to Rat Portage which is now called Kenora and got a job in  a sawmill. I got $1.75 per day and worked eleven hours a day. By  the time the mill closed in November my mother and the rest of the  family had come out to Winnipeg, and being pretty homesick by  Mr. and Mrs. Robert Carswell  124 Robert Carswell  this time, I joined them there. I spent that winter making railway  ties in southern Manitoba and in the spring went up west eighteen  miles from Brandon and took a homestead near where father had  located. During the three years that was necessary to live on the  place in order to secure the deed I decided that I was not the making of a successful farmer so that at the first opportunity, sold out  and opened a lumber yard near Brandon. I contracted a heavy  cold that fall and the doctor told me that if I wanted to live I would  have to go to a warmer climate. During the time I was on the farm  I married Miss Ann Elizabeth Curie and in 1892, when we decided  that I would have to come west we had two children, Eva, who is  Mrs. Montague, of Vernon, and Laurie, who died suddenly two and  a half years ago.  "Coming through the mountains I met an old man by the name  of Fawcett and although my ticket was for Portland, Oregon, he  advised me to come down from Sicamous and see the Okanagan  Valley, which I did. I walked in from Sicamous to Vernon. This  Mr. Fawcett was afterward the father-in-law of the late C. D. Simms.  I had left Brandon in a howling blizzard and when I got to Vernon  the sun was shining and there was about an inch of snow on the  ground and the green grass was showing through, so I got a very  favorable impression of the place. The first job I landed here was  working for the late J. J. Hull on the first Anglican Church that was  built in Vernon. The wages were about $2.50 for ten hours and there  was little or no work in the winter. Later I worked in a livery stable,  at the present site of Shillams Garage. About this time R. W, Neil  bought the livery stable and he and I worked together for some  time.  "About this time I got a position with S. G. Smith, taking charge  of his lumber yard here, his partner was a Mr. Clerin and the firm  was Smith and Clerin. Later Mr. Clerin sold his interest to Mr.  McLeod, and the firm was Smith and McLeod. The sawmill was  located at Okanagan Landing, and all the lumber had to be hauled  to town by teams. Joe Harwood drove one of the teams hauling from  the Landing. About this time Mr. Smith moved his mill from the  Landing to Enderby and I took charge of the Enderby end of the  business. However, Mr. S. C. Smith sold the Enderby business to  an Eastern firm and I stayed the winter with them and did their  scaling. In the spring of 1904 I formed a partnership with the late  W. J. Johnson and started a small sawmill at Long Lake which we  operated for fifteen years. By that time we had cut all the timber  that could be profitably brought to the mill. The Government put  in the canal at Oyama to haul logs through. When we sold the  mill, Johnson and I, at that time, intended to put in a mill near Merritt but as the war was on then, we decided to go overseas in the  Forestry Corps. However, when the time came, Mr. Johnson's health  was not good and he was not able to go, so I had to- go alone.  I would like to say here, that I do not believe a finer man ever  came to the Okanagan than A. J. Johnson, always pleasant and  125 Robert Carswell  agreeable and as honest as a human being can be. I missed him  terribly when I came back from overseas. During the operation of  the Johnson & Carswell Mill on Long Lake, as it was called then,  they had two1 boats plying up and down the lake. A tug, the "Alert"  which hauled the logs in booms up the lake to the mill, and an excursion boat, "The City of Vernon", which took passengers every  Wednesday afternoon, the weekly half holiday, down the lake. It  was also chartered out for parties, picnics, dancing, etc."  The above is the history of my father's life prior to going overseas in 1917 with the Forestry Corps. They were stationed in Bedfordshire on the Estate of the Duke and Duchess of Bedford. My  father had the rank of Sergeant and they had German prisoners of  war doing all the laboring at the mill and cutting of the timbers.  When the Armistice was signed in 1918 the Government wanted  him to stay on and help rebuild the bombed places, so he sent for  my mother and the two youngest children, Margaret and Ronald.  They came back to Canada in 1920.  I remember, as a child, my mother and father going to a ball  attended  by Lord  and Lady  Aberdeen  of  the Coldstream.   My  mother wore a gown with a long train which was thrown over the  arm while dancing.  In 1922 he was managing a timber operation at Chute Lake,  east of Penticton on the Kettle Valley Railway, for the Vernon  Fruit Union. After the operation was well underway he returned and  was employed as manager for W. F. Moffat of Vernon in his lumber yard, sash & door factory in Vernon. After several years there  he moved to Kamloops where he built and operated as manager,  a retail lumber yard owned by Robertson & Hackett of Vancouver.  After nine years of operation this yard was sold and he returned  to Vernon. After several months in Vernon he returned to Kamloops  and operated a sawmill near Pinatan Lake and also a retail lumber yard in Kamloops. After several years of operation, he retired  to Vernon, where he lived until his death in 1951 at the age of 87.  He was a member of Company No. Two of the Vernon Fire  Department in old Hose Reel days, about 1908. Company No. 2  Reel was located on Pleasant Valley Road just off Schubert Street  in "Lover's Lane".  He was also an Alderman of the City of Vernon in 1917.  He was an ardent outdoorsman, serving as President and Director of the Fish and Game Club, also a member of the Oddfellows Lodge for over sixty years.  My mother died at the age of eighty-one in 1949. They raised  eight children, Laurie, deceased in 1942, Archie in 1947, Eva Montague in 1948 and Ronald in 1953. Members of the family surviving are Mrs. Ruth McDougall and Robert Carswell of Vernon,  Mrs. Gladys Lee and Mrs. Margaret East of Vancouver.  126 ZJhe    \Jrder    of    the    d5ell  W. R. CARRUTHERS  There are a few people, who have in their homes, a round  cow bell, on which are silver scrolls and a shield. The shield is  engraved with a date and the initials of the recipient. It also  carries the following inscription: "MAY YOU NEVER BE 40 MILES  FROM HOME WITHOUT A BELL ON." The scrolls are engraved  with a series of initials, being those of the gentlemen, who presented the bell.  As far as can be discovered the first Bell was presented to  R. N. Dundas in 1906, when h© was leaving Kelowna for Great  Britain. The second bell was given to W. D. Hobson on the occasion of his marriage in August, 1911 and th© third bell to E. M.  Carruthers on January 8, 1912, on the eve of his departure to London. This presentation took place at the Green Tea Rooms, whose  owners were the Misses Oates and Minns. Sixteen Kelowna old  timers were present and two from other Okanagan points attended. George C. Rose was asked to act as chairman for the evening  by those present, who were the Rev. T. Green, Dr. B. F. Boyce, T.  W. Stirling, W. D. Hobson, F. E, R. Wollaston, D. W. Sutherland,  E. R. Bailey, E. W. Wilkinson, D. W. Crowley, R. N. Dundas, W.  R. Barlee, H. B. D. Lysons, A. H. Crichton, H. B. Burtch, S. C. Cosens,  W. L. D'Aeth and E. M. Carruthers.  After an excellent meal, spiced with toasts, speeches, songs  and reminiscences of former days, when Kelowna consisted, of  little more than a sawmill, post office, two or three stores and  other places of business, a cow bell, suitably engraved, was presented to Mr. Carruthers. The presentation was accompanied with  appropriate remakrs by the chairman, and many of the guests,  after which the bell was hung around the recipient's neck while  he made his speech and there, according to the established custom,  it remained for the balance of the evening.  So enjoyable and successful was the evening that it was  decided, there and then, to form a society tp be known as "The  Order Of The Bell." The only object of the society seems to have  been that of presenting a suitably engraved cow bell, at a dinner  given in his honor, to any member, who was leaving the district.  George C. Rose was elected the first president, the Rev. T. Greene  vice-president and F. E. R. Wollaston the secretary. It appears  that membership was originally restricted to those who had arrived in the district prior to 1900.  A fourth, bell was presented to W. R. Barlee in 1916 and it  is said a fifth was given to G. R. Binger. There:' may have1 been  other presentations  of which there is  no record  and  the writer  127 The Order of the Bell  would be pleased to hear of them so that the record could be  completed. The Society of the Bell came to an end) because of  the difficulty of obtaining the round cow bells together with the  outbreak of World War One.  As it might be of interest to our old time readers to see how many  of the initials they can recognize, a list of those appearing on the  bells given to E. M. Carruthers, W. R. Barlee and W. D. Hobson is  given below: T.G.; D.W.C.; E.R.B.; C.S.S.; T.W.S.; B.F.B.; E.W.W.;  D. W.S.; L.H.; H.B.B.; D.L.J.; H.B.D.L.; F.E.R.W.; G.C.R.; H.S.R.;  W.R.B.; T.H.; R.N.D.; A.H.C.; B.E.C.; W.D.H.; J.F.; A.D.; W.D.W.;  E.M.C.; J.T.  The only one that the writer has been unable to identify is  J.T. which only appears on the bell presented to W. D. Hobson  in 1911. Can any of our readers help with this one?  FOR THE RECORD ONLY: Names as above. Thomas Greene;  D. W. Crowley; E. R. Bailey; Colin S. Smith; T. W. Stirling; Dr. B.  F. Boyce; E. W. Wilkinson; D. W. Sutherland; Len Hayman, H. B.  Burtch; D Lloyd-Jones; H. B. D. Lysons; F. E. R. Woolaston; G. C.  Rose; H. S. Rose; W. R. Barlee; T. Hamilton; R. N. Dundas; A. H.  Crichton; B. E. Crichton; W. D. Hobson; Jimmy FitzMaurice; Arthur  Day; W. D. Walker; E. M. Carruthers; ?.  One of the Bells  128 ^Jhe    (J->rent   Storu  By ERIC SISMEY  When I read about the preparations to celebrate British  Columbia's Centennial Year I am reminded, Gertrude Detjen of  Okanagan Falls remarked when I called on her a few weeks ago,  that it is 101 years since grandfather Brent with his wife and three  year old son, Joseph, my father, arrived in the Okanagan. And she  continued, my maternal grandfather was Roderick McLean, Hudson's  Bay Company trader at the Similkameen post (Cawston) from 1863  until the post was closed in 1871. At that time McLean pre-empted  the land at Okanagan Falls which the family still manages.  Frederick Brent was born in Germany, he emigrated to the  United States, served in the Union army during the Civil War and  later in the U.S. Cavalry through the Indian wars in 1857. While  garrisoned at Fort Colville he married and after discharge crossed  the border into Canada in 1865.  There was little settlement in the southern valley in 1865, J. C.  Haynes, Collector of Customs at Osoyoos, held most of the bottom  lands along the river to Mclntyre Bluff and the bench land now  covered by the orchards of Oliver and Osoyoos. Thomas Ellis in  1866 settled at the foot of Okanagan Lake (Penticton) to found the  cattle empire which over the years stretched from Naramata to the  Boundary.  Settlement in the Okanagan centered around the Mission  founded by Father Charles Pandosy, O.M.I, in 1859-1860 and a  number of settlers had recorded pre-emptions adjacent to the  Mission farm.  Frederick Brent filed on land near Duck Lake where, in addition  to clearing and cultivating his land, he operated a small grain grinder which he had packed over the trail from Hope. In 1870 Brent  sold this land to the Postill Brothers and the Brents moved closer to  Okanagan Mission so that his children could attend Father  Pandosy's school.  Gertrude Brent Bet j en tells that her father was just a boy when  grandfather Brent realizing the need of a grist mill in the Okanagan  decided to build one. The stones, bought in San Francisco, were  shipped to Esquimalt by sea, by river to Fort Yale, thence by team  and wagon to Savona's Landing and by water to Fortune's Landing  (Enderby).  Nine year old Joseph accompanied his father to bring the  stones from Fortune's to the lake head (Okanagan Landing) on a  wagon whose wheels were cut from the rounds of a log, and since  129 The Brent Story  there was no road along the lake the stones were loaded on a boat  borrowed from Kelowna pioneer, Luc Girouard, rowed by Nitasket,  an Indian, to L'Anse au Sable, the original name for Kelowna.  A mill of hand hewn logs and whip saw lumber was built in  1871 on the 160 acres which Frederick Brent bought in what is now  Rutland. It was powered by water from Peon (Mill) Creek. Wheat  was brought by pack train, by boat and home made wagons from  as far south as Osoyoos and from points north to the head of the  lake and from the time ice went out in the spring until freeze up the  mill usually ran for 24 hours a day. Indians and settlers made a  camping holiday while waiting their turn at the mill. A story has  been told—perhaps a tall one—that one settler dissatisfied with the  charge Brent made for milling claimed that one third of the grind  was far too much — one half, he thought, should be enough.  Indians usually paid their toll in trade, horses, buckskin or  buckskin shirts artistically embroidered and decorated with bead  work.  After the run was finished the mill stones were dressed against  the coming season and until a blacksmith came to Vernon in 1885  the picks were sent to San Francisco for sharpening.  When the Brents moved from Duck Lake to their new home  Louis and William attended Father Pandosy's Mission school little  more than a mile away. At school they learned, not only the three  "R's" but music. Joseph played alto horn in the Mission band,  while his brothers and one of the Richter boys from the Similkameen  learned to play other instruments.  In 1872 Frederick Brent was appointed Justice of the Peace and  a skookum-house (jail) was built on his land. In the same year Eli  Lequime was running a store and post office and terming himself  "Trader, Hotelkeeper and Postmaster". Mail was brought to the  Mission over a new road from the lake head. It was delivered to  the foot of the lake (Penticton) first once a month and later twice a  month by Frederick Brent and later by son, Joseph.  The trail across Squally Point was described by Tom Ellis as  being "by far the worst trail I have seen in this country". And in  1880 when Bishop Stillitoe, Anglican Bishop of New Westminster,  was travelling with his wife and an Indian guide to Penticton. Mrs.  Stillitoe wrote in her memoirs "Where nature alone is reponsible  the trails are good, but where human ingenuity has been exercised  the trails are as tortuous and difficult as possible".  When the first government school was established near the  Mission in 1875, Joseph and his brothers were among the first pupils.  The first teacher, Angus McKenzie, a Nova Scotian, arrived at the  Mission with his school books and all his other possessions on his  back.  130 The Brent Story  Like most boys of that era, Joe as he was called, left school  soon after he was 14. There was always work to do at the ranch,  fields to plough, to sow, to reap; there was hay to cut, to cure and  stack; there were cattle to tend, a dozen other chores, and in addition there was always something to do at the mill.  On May 4, 1885, Joseph Brent was married to Margaret McLean  by Father Carton, O.M.I, in the Church of the Immaculate Conception, a new church built in 1881 opposite the old Mission chapel.  When the Brents moved to Okanagan Falls in 1899 there were  four children; Ferdinand 1886, Gertrude 1889, Joseph 1894-1958 and  Yessa 1897-1963. Old school records at Okanagan Falls record the  names of Brents until the family moved to Shingle Creek in 1904.  At the time the Brents moved to Okanagan Falls in 1899 it was  the most important place in the southern valley. It lay at the foot  of Lac du Chien (Skaha now) the end of water transportation from  the north; it was the depot and starting point for the several freight  lines serving the Fairview camp, Camp McKinney and along the  Boundary to Greenwood. The importance of the "Falls" may be  judged by the fact that the first school began on August 10, 1896  with an attendance of nine boys and twelve girls while Penticton  did not rate a school until 1903, even then age stretching was done  before the necessary eight pupils could be mustered. Penticton in  1899 was little more than a landing where merchandise and equipment from the sternwheel Aberdeen was stored until freighters  hauled it away.  After Joe Brent began freighting from Okanagan Falls to Camp  McKinney, to Fairview to Anaconda and along the Boundary to  Greenwood, there was never an idle moment.  Freighting is a simple word which Webster defines "to load  goods for transportation" but freighting in the last century was  much more than that. The difficulty of moving heavy, bulky loads  over tracks called roads would have terrified their drivers.  In the twenty miles from the valley floor to Camp McKinney the  road climbed 3500 feet and over this trail steam boilers, air compressors, stamp mills and all the machinery for a large concentrator were landed safely at the camp. Between Osoyoos and the  Boundary Anarchist Mountain stood in the way, up 3500 feet to the  summit then down again 2500 feet to Rock Creek. And the Nickel  Plate road was even worse. The mine lay on a 6000 foot plateau,  nearly a mile up in the air from Penticton. Joe Brent told of the  time when 16 horses were used to drag a large steam boiler to the  mine and that two additional four horse teams, one on each side  of the load, stood with snatch block tackle ready to keep the load  from overturning. Sometimes an hour was needed to move the  boiler 100 yards and the time to deliver the boiler at the mine,  35 miles from Penticton, was something like ten days.  131 The Brent Story  On another occasion several thousand feet of two inch wire  cable, in one continuous length, was coiled partly in one wagon  then draped from one wagon box to another with the horses in between.  These are but two samples of everyday jobs encountered and  overcome by Brents and Bassetts and other freighters of that day.  In 1904, Joe Brent quit freighting to pre-empt 160 acres on  Shingle Creek. Over the years he expanded his holdings to more  than 200 acres of freehold land together with grazing rights over  the surrounding bunch-grass covered hills, which, with the help of  his sons grew into one of the large, well known Okanagan cattle  ranches.  Both before and after the first war Joe Brent log ranch house  on Shingle Creek was a favoured place for young bloods to go. It  was a little more than a two hour ride from Penticton and on Sundays there was sure to be some sort of activity going on. It might be  a little bronco busting, pony or foot races, perhaps target shooting  and, of course, another attraction was the two charming Brent girls,  Gertrude and Yessa.  In 1919 Gertrude Brent married Herman Detjen, a rancher at  Falder, above Summerland, and when she became a widow in  1933 she moved back to Shingle Creek.  Joe Brent died in 1936 and the Brent ranch was managed by  the boys, Ferdinand, Joseph and Roderick who was born at the Falls  in 1900.   The ranch was sold to Alex. Gardner of Penticton in 1943.  In their younger days the Brent boys, Ferdy in particular, were  well known figures in stampede circles before they became commercialized into little more than a spectacle. At Kelowna, Keremeos,  Okanagan. Falls and Penticton it was not unusual to se© the three  Brent boys, Ferdy, Jose and Roddy competing in the several events.  Ferdy was the winner of the B.C. Championship belt on several  occasions and he won top honours at the Kelowna stampede in  1914. It is of interest that championship riding still runs in the family  for Kenny McLean of Okanagan Falls, winner of the World's Bronco  Riding Championship at Los Angeles in 1962 is Ferdy's and Gertrude's cousin.  Ferdy Brent, now 80, lives at Peachland in a cottage overlooking  the lake. From his window he can see up and across the water to  Kelowna, Okanagan Mission and southward beyond Penticton to  where the village of Okanagan Falls lies cuddled between the hills.  Gertrude Brent Detjen lives at the Falls with daughter Thelma  and her grandson. She is happy to see Okanagan Falls blossoming  132 The Brent Story  Joe Brent house at Shingle Creek.  133 The Brent Story  again after many years of quiet. People are coming to the Falls to  live and build new house around the lake shore. From her windows  she can see the spot where her father's bam and corral stood.  The descendants of Frederick Brent feel honoured that the  people of Rutland selected recognition of historic Brent's mill as a  centennial project in 1958. A cairn was built just off highway B.C.  No. 97 where it runs through Rutland and the plaque on the cairn  reads:  Brent's Flour Mill.  First Industry of the Okanagan.  Built in 1871 by Frederick Brent.   The mill stones  were brought from San Francisco by steamer, stage  and wagon.  Pioneers from the entire valley brought their  grain to be ground.  Erected by the Centennial Committee.  Dedicated August 10, 1958.  Among those at the dedication performed by Father F. L. Flynn  oi St. Theresa's Church, Rutland were 86 year old, Caroline, Mrs.  Renshaw of Kaleden, daughter of Frederick Brent, two granddaughters, Gertrude, Mrs. H. Detjen of Okanagan Falls, Yessa, Mrs.  H. McLellan of Penticton, two grandsons Ferdinand of Peachland  and Roderick of Kelowna.  Portions of the old  mill, hand hewn  beams, whip sawn lumber fastened with  square wrought iron  nails still stand to reflect its sturdy, careful  workmanship. And inside, on a few of the  old timbers are the  stencilled letters of the  Brent Mill brand  brushed there by the  miller's hand and  which after nearly a  century have not yet  faded away.  Gertrude Detjen  (nee Brent)   1966.  — Eric Sismey Photo  134 ZJhe   J-^assina    of   St  earn  By DONALD CLEMSON  Courtesy   of   Farm   and   Ranch  Review  Few mechanical innovations have brought such general regret  as the introduction of diesel locomotives to1 our railways.  To the onlooker railroading hasn't beejrt the same since the  rather sudden transition caused the steam locomotive to dissappear  from the track. The unlovable usurper, ugly though efficient, is  now firmly established and already grade one in our schools is  composed of children that have never seen a steamer hauling a  train.  This statement applies particularly to British 'Columbia where  conversion was complete by April, 1958. Actually, the provincially  owned P.G.E. was the first railroad to go all diesel in this province  but it wasn't long before the steamers were thinning out on the CN  and CP tracks. By the time it had dawned on me that the steamers  were doomed to disappear there were so few left that I was unable  to find any on the main lines to photograph. I had neglected, many  opportunities in the past thinking that the subject would always be  available and I could afford to wait for perfect conditions, and by  doing so had lost for ever chances of picturing the giants of steam  in action.  I remember many times passing the summit of Notch Hill, the  big grade on the CPR between Kamloops and Salmon Arm, where  you could always find a cluster of big locomotives with steam, up  waiting to help trains on the hill. I never got a picture — they had  vanished before I got around to it. Now the diesels take the Notch  Hill in their stride. You see as many as five units hauling a big  freight up the grade, no puffing, no wheels spinning, no coluds of  smoke and steam; interesting to watch of course, but not to be compared to the sight of a pair of steam locomotives battling the same  grade.  In the century and a half since Stephenson's Rocket first took  the rails and astonished the world by hauling passengers at 24  miles per hour the steam locomotive had become the symbol for  fast land transportation, and the locomotive engineer achieved  heights in the mastery of man over matter than established him as  a hero of the first order wherever the hoarse whistle of his throbbing iron monster was heard.  This exalted person, sometimes referred to as Casey Jones  after that almost legendary hero who was "found in the wreck  with his hand on the throttle," controlled freight locomotives up to  135 The Passing of Steam  250 tons on some North American lines, and notified lesser mortals  of his presence in the vicinity by blasts on a whistle which — according to some observers — could be heard forty miles away.  Out of the goodness of his heart he made occasional appearances before his admirers, climbing down from his cab and poking  about with a long spouted oil can among the enormous wheels of  his snorting charge. His return to his pedestal up the iron ladder  would be unhurried and dignified; the spell-bound onlookers would  see him settle himself in the cab, take out his watch, then reach  for the controls. With the bell clanging and smoke belching 100  feet in the air the power would be transmitted to the huge drivers,  and like a live thing exerting its utmost strength the big locomotive  would begin to move. The lord of the machine would bestow not  a downward glance on his admirers as he slowly moved off.  He was a very different person indeed from the cheerful brake-  man who would appear eventually at the tail end of the train, waving a leg at the spectators from the caboose window.  Inevitably Casey Jones shed much of his glamour when he  went into diesel. He wears the same clothing, it's true, and the way  he hauls his watch out of his pocket and looks at it would inspire  confidence in a horse, and his manner, too, is still dignified; but  he no longer controls the closest thing to a living creature that  man ever devisied.  It breathed. It made terrifying noises but the engineer wasn't  afraid of it. Perhaps it was his nonchalant handling of the formidable giant in his charge that elevated him to such a peak in the  estimation of the ordinary people.  When the diesel came in railroad fans were shocked. They  could see no good in it. The horn of the first diesels emitted a ghastly wail, like a sick cow, only harsher. People complained. Fortunately the horn has been improved since but it's still a long way  from the full throated, mellow roar of the steam locomotive's whistle.  Rather late in the day I began photographing steam locomotives on the Okanagan branch lines after the main lines were pretty  well converted to diesel. Part of this line was shared by the CN and  CP trains, both lines running a daily passenger service as well as  freights, but it wasn't long before the CP steamers disappeared. It  was a sad and sudden break with the past. From as far back as I  could remember the whistle of the daily CP passenger was a familiar sound. You could measure the train's progress miles away and  the big standing columns of smoke and steam, particularly noticeable on a sharp winter day, indicated its stopping places at the  several valley towns.  136 The Passing of Steam  The CN steamers kept going for a couple of year's longer, giving me many opportunities to photograph them in action. The daily  passenger train from Kamloops to Kelowna was latterly hauled by  the big locomotives of the 4300 class, several of these1 being employed up until March, 1958, when, the last of them, No. 4308 made its  final run. These large locomotives with their five pairs of driving  wheels made a most impressive show. I liked to see them bucking  he grade in winter; they showed at their best when frost was in  the air. The last shot I got was on a. sparkling March morning when  the frost was on the track. Next day the valley was unpleasantly  jarred by the raucous horn of a diesel, a ghastly valedictory to the  exciting epoch of steam.  137 llHaaaie     Victor -   Wha-hul-hin-malhs  An Okanagan  Wha-hul-kin-malks, Maggie Victor, has seen a great deal of  change to Penticton and the Indian Reserve where she was born 78  years ago.  She has seen the beginning and the end of steamboating on  Okanagan Lake along the river and on Skaha Lake. She has seen  the gasoline engine replace the power of horses; she has seen the  railroad and airplane come.  Meadows once rich with growing grass have dried since the  river channel was straightened and dredged. New sawmills, strings  of box cars and a black-topped air strip sully land which was once  green. The years since the turn of the century have not used her  people well.  Maggie was born on lanuary 2, 1887, her father Chief Edwards,  her grandfather, Chief Francois were well known and respected by  Indians and whites alike. She was baptised in the two year old Sunday House Mission House now falling in ruin on the Reserve — by  Father Charles Pandosy, O.M.I., who it will be remembered, founded the first mission at Okanagan Mission, near Kelowna, in 1859.  Father Pandosy died at Penticton in Chief Francois' cabin on February 2, 1891.  There were no schools when Maggie was a girl, Chief Edwards  taught his family English and simple arithmetic. The chief spoke  both English and Chinook. He was often engaged as interpreter  when business between Indian and whiteman was being arranged.  Outside of lesson hours the family spoke Okanagan and the  chief was very particular that his language was correctly used.  Chief Edwards did well for Maggie speaks Okanagan fluently, her  English is good and she understands a little Chinook.  "In the Okanagan tongue, Maggie told me, boys and girls use  different words for father and mother. I called my father "Mes-tem",  my brothers called him "Le-ee-oo". My mother was "Toom".  "I remember the long winter evenings when father or mother  recited old tribal legends while we listened in rapt attention.  "When the world was very young before there were any real  people in the world "Hah-ah-eel-me-whem", the Great Spirit, called  the Animal people together. All of you "Chip-chap-tiqulk" — Animal People — must have proper names. Some animals had names,  some had not. Coyote, the most important animal, was called "Sin-  ka-lip" which means "Imitator". We listened to many stories in most  138 Maggie Victor - Wha-hul-kin-malks  of them Coyote played a part, sometimes helpful, sometimes mis-  chevious. There were other fables, too, "Why spider has such long  legs"; Why skunk's tail is black and white; Why mosquitoes bite  people. These were but a few of the legends our parents told, by  candle light, before we went to1 sleep.  "I still remember those tales, Maggie said, perhaps not very  well, for it is almost 70 years since I heard them, and I never had  children of my own I could repeat them to.  Village children will not listen now they have TV. Soon our legends will be forgotten for the Okanagan have no written word and  there is no one to write them down.  "Sweat Bath! Maggie replied in answer to a question, we call  them "Quil'sten" and there are still several in use on the Reserve.  Quil'sten is much more than a bath, it is one of our honoured institutions. Its use is governed by strict rules said to have originated by  Coyote —■ the Law Giver. It is a place to purify ourselves, a place  where one con ask for strength (Shoo'mesh), where we can fight  sickness and find relief from, trouble.  "Our food, as I remember it, was much the same as now. Mother bought flour, sugar and salt, bacon, beans and tea from the  trader, but we also gathered roots, sprouts and other native dainties.  "As a girl I often went with other youngsters and women to  the dry benches above the village to dig "spet'lum (Bitter-root). It  was dug in early summer, peeled and dried. Maggie brought a jar  from her kitchen to show me, it was filled with spet'lum which looked like cold macaroni. Next you come, she told me, I shall boil  some, you will find it good.  We gathered other roots and bulbs and seeds. Sunflower seeds  was one, we called it 'Smoka-hem'. Later in the year there were  berries, one was See-yia, (Saskatoon) which we dried for winter use.  In the old days we used fish, both fresh and dried and when  Kik'ney (Okanagan for Kikininney) ran into Trout Creek and up the  river we camped together with families from as far as the Similkameen. Men and boys waded the creek or fished from the bank and  the fish when hooked were tossed to the bank where they were  cleaned, split and hung on racks to dry.  Salmon were speared along the Okanagan River through the  Reserve and on the gravel bars below Mclntyre Bluff. The first  Salmon to come were called 'Si-gha-wien'; they were silvery, best  eaten fresh, for they were too fat to keep well after smoking and  drying. After they turned red at spawning time, when most of their  fat was gone, we called them 'Tan'ya'. These kept well after drying  through the whole winter."  139 Maggie Victor - Wha-hul-kin-malks  Fishing camps were colourful in a festive way. Cousins, aunts  and uncles, families we had not seen for a year were greeted with  gossip and news. They joined with us in singing, dancing and feasting.  But now, since whitemen have built dams across the river salmon in their hundreds and thousands do not come any more. Kik'-  neys are scarce too for creek waters irrigate orchards now and the  mouths of creeks are dry.  "When I was a girl there was always work for the men. Freighters, needed hay, horses and pack ponies. Saddle horses were in  demand and fat cattle found a ready market. My father, Chief Edwards did much work for Judge Haynes at Osoyoos, He accompanied Haynes pack trains to Hope over the Dewdney trail, he packed  for and sometimes joined, Haynes cattle drives into the Boundary.  My brothers worked for Tom Ellis, they rode his range, worked  round-up, helped with the branding and haying in the meadows  on the east side of the river where Penticton orchards and houses  cover the land today.  Until the outbreak of World War 1, much of the economy and  life of the Indian band revolved around horses. In fact horses were  equally important to early settlers. From the 1860's when settlement  first began in Okanagan and Similkameen. horses made life endurable. Horse drawn wagons freighted into the Boundary, over to  the Similkameen and down to Fairview and Camp McKinney. Men  and horses worked the range, the fields. And not the least horses  were used for pleasure.  Horse days were colourful. Riders, Indians and whitemen,  alike, were not properly dressed u'riless "chaps" of long angora  wool, white, black or golden yellows, were worn. Silk shirts in gaudy  colours, bright bandanas and wide brimmed hats were part of the  current costume. At that time, when Penticton was little more than  a village, whitemen and Indians knew each other better, we (I  among them) knew them by name, we recognized each other on  the street, we often played and hunted together.  Soon after the outbreak of the war in 1914 Army Remount buyers combed the valley for horses for every sort of military duty. The  best Okanagan horseflesh was bought, sent overseas to leave their  bones on the battle fields of France.  When the war ended, when the men came back, things had  changed. Motor cars and trucks were doing the work and the day of  the horse was done. With it went woolly chaps, silver spurs, decorated martingales and saddles. It also marked the beginning of  the end of sport days at Penticton, Keremeos, Okanagan Falls and  Fairview when Indian and whites met to enjoy and compete in foot  races, running races, wild horse and harness events.  140 Maggie Victor - Wha-hul-kin-malks  The end of the horse era also signalled drastic changes to the  Indian way of life. The hay market dwindled, few people wanted to  own, to ride or drive a horse. The gas wagon was the thing to rattle and bang over the rough roads.  Cattle ranges were being sub-divided and planted to apple  trees, fossil fuels were taking the place of firewood. Later when the  Okanagan River channel was straightened and dreged Indian hay  meadows on the reserve, formerly sub-irrigated, dried up when the  water table was lowered.  Men, growri from boyhood, to1 manhood on horseback who  found their livelihood gone were faced with a difficult change. Adjustment was eased somewhat by an inflow of money from railway right-of-way, sawmill leases and later from the sale of land  for the Penticton airport. For younger men, not brought up in the old  ways, the change was less severe. Two sawmills on the Reserve  employ Indian help in the mill and in the woods. And Indian women  find useful employment at the nearby cannery.  Maggie Victor is satisfied that opportunities for her people are  improving slowly, probably too slowly. But Indian children now attend school in the Penticton school district where they find no barriers to High School education or University if they are so inclined.  Telephone and mail delivery service has recently been extended  to reserve homes, a study hall has been established and about 30  new houses served with electricity and running water have been  built recently. Maggie lives in a new, nicely furnished cottage with  an up to date bathroom and a convenient kitchen.  The Penticton Indian Affairs Committee includes members from  the School District, Indian Affairs Branch, Social Services, Health,  Welfare, Church as well as members from the Indian band. It meets  regularly endeavouring to speed complete integration and to program activities in handicrafts and adult education. It is felt that the  results are encouraging.  Too few people realize that North American Indians have great  artistic talent and one of the aims of the committee is to develop  such talent ability.  As late as 30 years ago Indian handicraft in the shape of exquisite basketry was commonplace. Beautifully embroidered buckskin gauntlets, embroidered and beaded buckskin shirts and vests  were fairly common attire.  About the same time paintings on buckskin by Sis-hu-lk, Francis Baptiste of Incaneep, were of sufficient interest to have been exhibited and to have attracted attention in London. And it is gratifying that one talented boy from Oliver and three girls from Penticton  were awarded scolarships to the 1965 Penticton Summer Art School.  141 Maggie Victor - V/ha-hul-kin-malks  I am glad to know that Okanagan is still spoken and that many  children speak their native tongue. While the language is difficult  it is poetically beautiful and expressive. It would be a catastrophe  if the language became lost. It seems a shame that students from  among our people do not undertake to leam Okanagan especially  since we force Indians to learn English.  I have used the word "Latent" already but I have no hesitation to use it again because Maggie Victor, when she was 70 years  old, undertook for the first time, to make a buckskin costume in  traditional style, complete with head-band, mocassins, and a beautifully executed beaded waist band. And every stitch by hand.  When one considers that she can speak two languages, can  cook in both Indian and Canadian style, understands the preparation of buckskin, knows how to preserve and smoke fish, understands native medication and midwifery and is familiar with the  edible qualities of many herbs, roots, berries and seeds, I am sure  you will agree that Maggie Victor, Wha-hul-kin-knalks, is a well  educated woman.  142 Maggie Victor - Wha-hul-kin-malks  Maggie Victor  — Eric Sismey Photo  143 Mt. Nkwala, west of Penticton.  — Eric Sismey Photo  A MOUNTAIN RENAMED  The rounded mountain between Penticton and Summerland  which dips its feet in the waters of Okanagan Lake has long been  known by the offensive name "Nigger Toe Mountain." (Elevation  4,701 feet.)  Early this year, 1966, the Okanagan Historical Society was approached by the Chief Geographic Division, Canadian Permanent  Committee on Geographical Names, inviting suggestion for a new  and appropriate name.  The Penticton Branch suggested the name Mt. Nkwala which  the Committee approved on April 29, 1966.  Gerry Forestry Lookout is atop Mt. Nkwala.  The name not only perpetuates a respected personal Okanagan  Indian name but it honors Edith Lambert Sharp of Penticton, the  author of the best selling, prize winning, juvenile book, Nkwala.  144 Marry    Wukart   JCitL,    W-2).  1873-1933  By JEAN KIDSTON  Harry Wishart Keith, my father, must have been one of the  last "horse-ond-buggy-doctors" in the North Okanagan.  Born in Havelock, New Brunswick, in 1873, the eldest son of  Harry Keith and Henrietta Fownes, pioneer decendants of United  Empire Loyalists whose ancestors had lost fortune and title in the  Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 — he grew up listening to the tales of  his sea-faring uncles who sailed the clipper ships of that era.  Sensing that he planned to follow suit, his waxy parents sent him to  private school in Sussex until he was ready for McGill University  and a career in medicine.  His first practice was in the pretty little village of Kingston,  N.B., my mother's home, and here in his free time he sailed his own  small "clipper" up and down the Kennebecasis.  But this must have been tame work for a young medico in his  twenties, so he packed up and came West to work for Dr. Brouse  at New Denver, Slocan City and Silverton and later, for Drs. King  and Green of Cranbrook, handling the cases of miners and C.P.R.  construction crews who were laying the rails through the Crows  Nest Pass. This work was done mostly on horseback and the saddlebags which carried his instruments still reek of carbolic acid,  iodine and lysol. His albums show grisly pictures of victims of  small-pox epidemics that raged through, the C.P.R. camps of Elko,  Moyez, Fernie and Coal Creek. Accidents caused by blasting,  slides and collisions were handled without help of nurse, anesthetist  or adequate facilities and this pioneer life must have been a rude  shock to his eastern bride whom he brought to Coal Creek in 1905.  Opening the door to him one night she was greeted by two  beautiful black eyes innocently collected while watching a couple  of rugged miners fight it out — the man in front had been hit so  hard his bullet-head crashed back into father's face and, patching  him up later, father had hard work convincing him that he and  he only had given him his own two black eyes. The wives of these  miners were just as rugged — making his house calls (no hospital  here) he would diplomatically wait after knocking, until the scurrying steps told him his patient was safely back in bed where she  was supposed to have been instead of tackling the day's chores.  But the arrival of a daughter, Dorothy Fownes, in June 1906, may  have had something to do with the move to Enderby a year later,  as bringing up a child in this mining town did not appeal to my  145 Harry Wishart Keith, M.D.  mother. When I made my appearance in 1908, Enderby, a pretty  town on the banks of the Spallumcheen River, was a flourishing  community — operating the only flour mill in the Valley, employing 400 men in the lumber yards, and the hub of a surrounding  district of good mixed farming. His practice stretched from Sicamous  in the north to Armstrong in the south. Their home here was. a rambling, old-fashioned house sitting in the grounds that ran a full  city block, with stabling for horses, cutters, carriages, an ice house,  chicken-runs, large fruit, vegetable and flower garden, all of which  he looked after in his free time. The surgery and waiting room were  part of the house — this involved his family closely in the practice,  and answering the phone and relaying vital messages could be a  complicated business for a small child — medical terms were just  as tongue-twisting then as they are today, and after his death, we  found he had kept a wonderful collection of mis-spelled messages.  If he were out, an anxious caller often asked mother's advice saying she was just as good as a doctor, but this duo-practice was not  encouraged by my slightly sour father.  Quite a large number of Hindus worked in the mill and each  Saturday night these magnificent, bearded and turbaned men filled  the waiting room to receive a "chit" which they took at once to the  local druggist who solemnly doled out their small bottles of medicine. Father's contract with the mill was $1.00 per man per month  for complete medical care and these East Indians insisted on something for their form of "Chinese insurance" even though in perfect  health; so the two men concoted a dose of slightly sweetend, colored water. This left everyone happy with the exception of my sister and I who were always brought bags of beautiful candy which  were promptly confiscated the minute these kind men left the office. They must have led lonely lives in their settlement below the  mill — no wives or children here to brighten their free time and I  often thought the candy was a gesture of reaching out to far-away  families.  These early years in Enderby must have been strenuous ones,  with long, cold, cutter-drives in winter (in the remote districts he  would b© gone several days) with only a kitchen table to operat©  on, and the light from a held lamp or lantern to see by. But the  coming of "Henry Ford" lightened the work of all country doctors  and I imagine, like my father, they became expert mechanics. At  long last a small nine-bed hospital gradually took shape — a community effort with the Auxiliary making the mattresses and stocking the linen cupboard — the gardeners of the district filled the  larder and father made and painted all the cots for the nursery.  Now he could treat a seriously ill patient with proper equipment  and trained help.  146 Harry Wishart Keith, M.D.  His hobbies were varied — an avid reader, he could smell an  auction sale mileis away and would bring home sets of books,  some in good shape, some in tatters, but no matter — BOOKS!  An excellent shot, he hunted grouse on his country calls and curling he loved — the highlight being the annual trip to Fintry to match  stones with Dunwaters, the Laird of Fintry. Highly musical, he sang  in public only if well disguised (or so he thought).  As each Christmas approached, father suddenly felt very poor;  so the fireplace blazed in the surgery, the big desk was covered  with day-books and ledgers and a pile of bills emerged. But the  aches and pains had long been forgotten and this yearly spasm  of collecting yielded very little in cash but the debt was often settled by barter, or "contra" is the term I remember best. Watching  father set out with his black maternity bag one day, Mother groaned, "another year of poor butter!" And father looked slightly grim  as he struggled through a tough roast to find bear meat had been  substituted for the promised mutton.  I have often heard it said, "Our pioneers were colorful characters, why make them colorless saints in retrospect" — and this  pioneer would have thoroughly agreed. He couldn't resist a game  of poker, so it was probably a good thing many of his bills were  not paid in cash. Badly in need of a holiday and waiting to see1  one of B.C.'s historic sites, he took me with him to Barkerville in  the early twenties and over those miserable roads we pulled into  Clinton to spend a Saturday night. Cowboys from the surrounding  ranches were rolling into the old hotel and father's eyes began to  glisten. I was shattered when he announced after dinner that it was  bedtime, but he firmly saw me to my room — then quietly locked  the door, pocketed the key, and descended to have an uproarious  night with the boys.  I doubt if he had many enemies, although, in trying to bring  vaccination into the schools of his district, he and the local editor  crossed swords and the battle raged with neither giving an inch.  But when he1 died in 1933, the editorial written by his arch enemy  ended — "a neighbour supremely kind; a friend supremely good."  147 \_Jhanaaan   J^reritaae    oLectureS  REPORTED BY OBSERVER  For the fourth year a series of Okanagan Heritage lectures  arranged by the executive of the Pejnticton Branch OHS, at the  suggestion of the director of adult education was presented through  February and March, 1966.  It is the opinion of this writer that the subjects were particularly well suited to this the Centennial Year. The first in the1 series  of eight lectures given on February 1 by Mr. J. V. H. Wilson had  for its theme the "First Centenary of British Columbia's History."  Mr. Wilson had much ground to cover but with maps and slides  he turned back the pages of history to the travels and adventures  of early explorers — Cook, Meares, Vancouver, Thompson, Fraser  and Mackenzie.  On February 8, Mr. J. G. Harris chose for his subject the century that belongs to Penticton and which was started in 1866  when Thomas Ellis planted homestead stakes on land between Okanagan and Skaha Lakes. Step by step Mr. Harris discussed transportation from pack-train to steamer, train and airplane. He  traced the course of the fruit industry with pictures to show th©  evolution from the raw land of th© early Ellis era to' the present  city, its fruit, its tourism, light industry and to its probable destiny.  Mr. Eric Sismey, on, February 15, related some of the high  spots in the "Saga of the Paddlewheelers," and their place in the  development of the province. Steamboating, he said, lasted less  than a century but their era on our interior lakes and rivers was  filled with adventure and romance. After a showing of slides of  certain well-known ships Mr. W. S. Morrison of the C.P.R. showed  his movie "Splashing Paddles," actually the saga of the sternwheel Minto on the Arrow Lakes, and the last of the sternwheel  ships to sail our inland waters. This movie an epic in color was  delightful and is a priceless document of our history.  On February 22, Father Blacquire, O.M.I., spoke of early  missionaries and the impact of Christian teaching was explained.  It was emphasized that early missionaries had little trouble in  moulding native thinking to the teachings of the church. Father  "Black" spoke with authority. His whole working life has been  spent among our native people.  Mr. George Meldrum was the speaker on March 1. His subject, dear to his heart, was railroading. Mr. Meldrum began his  railroad career as a boy in the roundhouse in Penticton. When he  was retired a few years ago Mr. Meldrum was assistant superintendent of the C.P.R. at Revelstoke. Following his talk Mr. Morrison  148 Okanagan Heritage Lectures  showed his second historic movie. This one the "Iron Horse,"  another epic, led his audience back to the days before diesels took  the romance and glamor from railroading.  On March 8, the Rev. Alvin Miller told of the hardships endured by the first settlers who came by way of Cape Horn to  serve the Hudson's Bay Company. During the voyage, usually of  about 6 months duration, there was no fresh food of any kind  and often a shortage of fresh water.  Others, the Overlanders, for example, crossed the continent  in Red River carts, found a track through the mountains and then  committed themselves to unknown, dangerous waters, some to the  Fraser, others to the Thompson. Such was the measure of the first  settlers.  Others followed in a never ending stream. They came on  horseback, on foot, by canoe and wagon to open the land from  Oregon Territory to the Peace River country and beyond, ta carve  farms from the forest and to search the hills and river channels for  minerals.  "We, who follow their rutted tracks, the footprints of man and  beast, on rubber tires must never forget our heritage and the debt  we owe those early pioneers."  The showing of a movie "The City of Gold" (Dawson 1898)  with a commentary by Pierre Berton ended the evening.  Mr. Reg Atkinson reminded his listeners, on March 15, that  the mail which we accept at our doorstep was not always this  way. At first, in the early days of the Ellis Ranch there was no regular mail at all. In a few years there was mail once a week and  not until 1907 was there daily mail from Okanagan Landing. Mr.  Atkinson outlined mail service from the day it began in England.  He showed old letters and stamps. Several were addressed to his  grandfather a surgeon in the Royal Navy at a time when ships of  the line were still rigged with sail.  The last of the heritage lectures was presented, March 22, by  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney. Her subject was the "Second Centenary of  British Columbia's History." More changes and advancements,  she stated, have taken place in our daily life since 1866 than had  been developed since the beginning of time. Our mining, logging,  railroads, shipping, and farming have all come into being in this  century.  New processes, new methods of manufacture and entire new  industries have been developed. The tallow candle has given way  to electric light and the hand-split shake to plywood which was  illustrated by an interesting motion picture.  Photographs projected on a screen showing old places, old  methods of mining and logging as well as modern methods were  also a part of this interesting evening.  149 eJLest     We    ZJ-oraet  r  In one sense there is no death. The life of a soul on earth lasts  beyond his departure. You will always feel that life touching yours,  that voice speaking to you. He lives on in your life and the lives of  the others that knew him.  Angelo P'atri.  GEORGE EVERETT FRENCH: With the passing of George Everett French at the age of 83 on April 16 of this year the Okanagan  lost a pioneer resident. Th© late Mr. French was born in Winnipeg  and came west to settle in Vernon in 1891 and spent most of the  rest of his life in the Okanagan and Similkameen. He retired in Oliver in the early sixties. Surviving are his wife Effi©, two daughters  Mrs. Norma Chartres of West Vancouver and Mrs. Peggy MacLean  of Halifax, Nova Scotia.  HENRY RUDOLPH LEAKE: Henry Rudolph Leake died suddenly at his home in Oliver on April 18 at the age of 78. The late Mr.  Leake was bom in Harwich, England and came to Canada in 1908  settling in Saskatchewan. Moving to Oliver in 1937 he was a tireless worker in community activities. He received the Good Citizen  Award in 1951. Surviving are his wife Edith, on© son Douglas of  Penticton and two daughters loan, Mrs. Robert Potter, Oliver and  Doris, Mrs. Stanley Brooke in Lilloett.  REGINAL HERBERT BROWN: Reginal Herbert Brown well  known Okanagan pharmacist died in Kelowna June 17, 1966 at the  age of 88. He came to Vernon in 1913 from Alberta and opened a  drug store for R. E. Berry, later Nolan Drug and Book Store. He  moved to Kelowna in 1917 and was associated with Willits and McKay uriiil 1927. He opened his own pharmacy in 1933 which he  operated until 1948 selling out to Long's Super Drugs.  Mr. Brown was a prominent Rotarian, a member of the First  United Church and a past master of St. George's Lodge and a deputy grand master of the Grand Lodge A.F. and A.M. of B.C. He had  a 60 year Masonic insignia.  He is survived by his wife Marjory and two sons Rondeau  and Bruce all of Kelowna.  MRS. E. F. GLADYS POWLEY: Mrs. Powley died in, Kelowna  in lanuary at the age of 82 she was born in the district of Crueddyn,  Wales. She obtained a degree in Music in London and taught there  before coming with her parents to Oyama, B.C., in 1907. In 1908 she  married W. R. Powley and they farmed in the Winfield area until  retiring in 1948.  150 Lest We Forget  Mrs. Powley was an active community worker and was given  a life membership in Winfield Women's Institute. In 1958 she compiled "The Early Days of Winfield, B.C.' for the B.C. Centennial  Year. She was librarian at Winfield for the Okanogan Regional  Library.  She is survived by her husband W. R. Powley and two sons  Rex of Boise, Idaho, and Hume of Kelowna and three grandchildren.  ERNEST WILLIAM McCLUSKEY: Mr. McCluskey died in Vernon Jubilee Hospital January 28, 1966, at the age of 86.  Brought to Vernon at the age of eight from. Lachute, Que., Mr.  McCluskey was born on lanuary 9, 1880. His father, William McCluskey came to Vernon as foreman of the BX Ranch and following his death in 1896 the family moved to Oyama. Ernest returned  to Vernon about 1903. About 1920 he settled, in Lumby where he  worked for the Bell Pole Co. Ltd., and later the Coldstream Ranch.  In 1928 he maried Marry Adams who survives him along with  four sons and one daughter, also a sister Mrs. J. A. Creig of Vernon. He was predeceased by four brothers and two sisters. Burial  was in Pleasant Valley Cemetery.  MRS. ROSALIE MABEL COMYN CAESAR: Mrs. Caesar died  in Kelowna in August, 1965, in her 91st year. The late Mrs. Caesar  was born in Bredgax, near Sittingbourne in Kent England. She came  to Canada in 1903, first residing in Winnipeg and coming to Peachland in 1904 "where she taught kindergarten for a year before  marrying N. H. Caesar settled in Okanagan Centre where they  lived until Mr. Caesar's death in 1957. Mrs. Caesar then moved to  Kelowna. She is survived by one daughter, Mrs. H. Bernau of Okanagan Centre, two grandaughters and. two great grandchildren.  CARLTON MacINTOSH: Passed away in Oliver on January 17,  1966, Carlton Macintosh at the age of 88. The late Mr. Macintosh  was born in Petrolia, Ontario and prior to coming to Oliver with  his family in 1926, to take up fruit growing he had spent his life  in the oil fields in various parts of the world. He married in Austria  where he was stationed at the outbreak of World War I and escaped with his family to Russia and to the oilfields in the Caucasus  and later managed his father's tool manufacturing business in Poland. Surviving axe his wife Frieda, a son Ralph provincial magistrate in Grand Forks and a daughter Molly, Mrs. Louis Deighton  in Oliver.  MRS. MABEL CHARLOTTE WATERMAN: Mrs. Waterman, a  pioneer resident of the Similkameen Valley, passed away in Kelowna in May, 1966, after a brief illness. Mrs. Waterman! was in her  151 Lest We Forget  88th year. She was born in Duns, Berwickshire, Scotland. She emigrated to California with her family in 1882 and came to Princeton,  B.C. as a bride in 1899. Mr. Waterman predeceased her in 1943.  Mrs. Waterman is survived by a brother, John Hunter in California, a daughter Dorothy in Osoyoos, a son Fred, in Kelowna and  two grand children.  T, F. McWILLIAMS: Mr. McWiliams, prominent Kelowna lawyer, died at Kelowna in April, 1966. He came to Kelowna with his  parents in 1904 and later moved to Summerland where he attended  Okanagan College. He graduated from McMaster University in  1914 and went overseas with the 2nd. C.M.R.'s as a machine gunner. He was discharged in 1917 and began to study law in Vernon  under the late W. H. D. Lander and was called to1 the bar in April,  1921. He opened an office in Kelowna where he practised until his  death at the age of 74, 45 years later.  He is survived by his wife Murial and a daughter Adelaide in  Vancouver, two grandchildren and his brother Clifford of Vernon.  WILLIAM EARLE MEGAW: Mr. Megaw died suddenly Nov.  21, 1965 while pursuing his favorite hobby, hunting. He was am a  week's hunting trip with his son, Robert, near Invermere, when he  collapsed of a heart attack and died instantly.  He was born in Kamloops, B.C., Nov. 19, 1888, and had lived  in Vernon for 75 years. He married Jean Beattie Forester in 1911,  a member of the office staff in his father's department store, the  first such store in Vernon, and reported the biggest west of Winnipeg.  In his early years Mr. Megaw worked with his father. Latterly  he was accountant for Armstrong Sawmills, retiring three years  ago.  He was an active Mason; was Master of Miriam Lodge in 1915  and was made a life member shortly before his death. He was Master of Royal Arch, Master of the Lodge of Perfection and a 33rd Degree Mason.  The funeral was held on Nov. 25, 1965, at Trinity United Church  and cremation took place in Vancouver.  VINCENT GREEN: Mr. Green, a life time resident of the Twin  Lakes area, passed away Oct. 9, 1966, at the age of 71. Survivors  are four nephews Charles Allen in Wenatchee; Canon Thomas Allen, New Westminster; Steve Allen, Duncan and Robin Allen of  Calgary.  152 Lest We Forget  RUEBEN ECHLIN: Mr. Echlin died in Oliver on March 22, 1966,  at the age of 88. The late Mr. Echlin was a native of Copetown, Ontario and came to British Columbia in 1898 where he spent his  working life in the telephone business being employed by the Chilliwack, B.C. Government and Okanagan Telephone Companies.  He is survived by two sons; his wife predeceased him in 1964, a  son George in 1966 and a son Grant who was killed in World Wax  II.  +  \ykanaaan      Valleu    cJLeaend  By MARIE BRENT  Once upon a time there lived a bunch of little dwarf people.  They were little but they were strong and were great hunters. One  day they came to their spot in the woods, when suddenly they  heard an. echo in the tall tamarac trees. They stopped for a while  and listened breathlessly, then on tiptoes they walked toward the  sound. There lying on his back was a huge giant. Now the little  people had never seen anything like this before and they were  very surprised. Pretty soon one of the little people said "Why this  must be a man and he must be dying, maybe we can cure him, but  first we have to find out what ails him." They found two little balls  in his eyes. Like the white balls bound in the eyes of cooked salmon heads.  The head dwarf said to the others "That is his disease, let us  take them out." And it came to pass that they took them out, and  found that the giant could not see, so the little people had to look  after the giant. They were so happy to have a grand pal to take  care of.  They believed the great spirit wanted them to do this. The little  dwarf people were glad to help the great spirit and the giant. The  great spirit changed the giant into the great tamarac.  When the winds blow cold, the leaves turn to the color of the  sunset and th© tamarac turns the color of the sun going down it is  then the spirit of the giant sleeps until the little people of the forest  awakens it, to new life in the spring. It is then the tamarac puts on  its green robe that is as soft as the feathers of the birdlings in its  branches.  153 W,   and    Wrt.     W.   j.     Wood,  By BERYL WAMBOLDT  Very few bridal couples are allowed the Divine privilege of  living together to celebrate their Diamond Wedding Anniversary.  Sixty years of married life together. The words "for better, for  worse; for richer, for poorer; in sickness and in health" mean more  than just words to such a couple, for into sixty years has been  written a lifetime of sharing the good times and the bad times; the  deepest moments two people can share. Of knowing one another's  thoughts and motivations. The sharing that growing older together  and the deep relationship and tightening of the bonds of a long  love and relationship brings to each.  October 11th, 1965, was just such an occasion for Mr. and Mrs.  William Woods, when they celebrated their 60th—The Diamond  Anniversary—surrounded by family and friends at Enderby, where  they met and married.  William John Woods and hi_. twin sister, Emma, were born in  Egremont County, near Mt. Forest, Ontario, on July 17th, 1874, to  Mrs. Mary Anne (lones) Woods and her husband, Thomas Henry  Woods, who had come to Ontario, from Ireland, at the age of ten  months, with his parents.  When William Woods was nine years old his family moved to  North Dakota, where he grew to manhood and received his education.  In 1895, at the age of twenty one, Mr. Woods arrived in Enderby  to work for Bell Brothers in their meat department, and for the Bells  he spent two years at their store in Revelstoke and another two  years at their Nelson store. These stores were known as the Bell  Trading Company.  He returned to Enderby in 1901 and in a partnership with  George Bell and Robert Peel, formed the Enderby Trading Company.  Later the Bell interests were bought out and following the death  of Mr. Peel, the Enderby Trading Company continued under Mr.  Woods. He spent twenty five years in this business in Enderby and  for the most of this time he was associated with William E. Duncan,  who commenced his employment with the Woods enterprise and  eventually, in partnership with his brother Gordon, purchased the  Enderby Trading Company from Mr. Woods.  Mr. Wood recalls the "early days" when the horse and buggy  or sleigh was the mode of travel and many of today's highways  were little more than a narrow wagon road through the stumps.  154 Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Woods  Around the turn of the Century, a quite large gold mine operated in the Salmon River area, the closest bank was in Vernon;  because Mr. Woods made a weekly trip to the Gold Mine with the  groceries and supplies, the Company payroll of $1500. was sent  to the Enderby Trading Company from the Vernon bank and carried in a canvas bag, lightly covered, in the box of groceries, under  the wagon seat, by Mr. Woods on his regular trip to the mine.  Another incident stands out in his memories of the early days,  that is, a trip to Mara to the Mosier Farm. At that time there was  no village of Grindrod or a Grindrod bridge and the road to Mara  from Enderby was just a wagon road through the forest. It was the  custom then to go to the farm to butcher the animals and take them  back to the butcher shop. By the time Mr. Woods' started back for  home dusk had settled in; along the Mara Road a pack of coyotes  picked up the scent of the freshly butchered beef he carried in the  wagon and they trailed him right to the Enderby Bridge.  It was a matter of schedule to be down to the store at 6:30 a.m.  to load the four horse outfits for the logging camps at Mabel Lake,  especially in the winter when the trips were made with sleighs and  took longer, and darkness fell much earlier.  Music has always been one of the delights of Mr. Woods' life.  An accomplished violinist, one occasion he recalls with pleasure,  took place in Vernon during the earliest years of the 1900's. Lord  and Lady Aberdeen had purchased the Coldstream, ranch from  Forbes Vernon and planted the first commercial orchard in the  Vernon area. A large packinghouse had been erected and a Ball  was held to celebrate the opening. Mr. Woods and Mr. Jack Bell,  both popular fiddlers in the Okanagan, were invited to play for  the dancing and they travelled to the Coldstream Ranch from Enderby by horse and buggy. Mr. Woods recalls a Vernon lady was  the pianist at the Ball and she said, "I won't know your tunes likely,  but I can "vamp"'for you — and Mr. Woods recalls, with humor,  ■— "and how she could "vamp", she kept perfect time, which is the  most important thing for dance music."  His music helped him to lead an active and social life. He  was a member of the Enderby Band from its inception to its dis-  bandment. As a member of an orchestra he played for dances, concerts and all fund raising efforts during the First and Second World  Wars. During the days of silent movies music played an important  role in setting the mood and the pace of the picture shown and Mr.  Woods, as a violinist, played an important part in setting the tempo  of the orchestra he played with for movie showings.  In Enderby's earlier days the Band built a little bandstand,  complete with electric lights, near the C.P.R. parking lot today. The  band held concerts there on summer evenings. The1 townspeople  155 Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Woods  enjoyed strolling along Enderby's streets as they listened to the  music of their Band. This Band was also in great demand for all  Sport's Days, both at home and throughout the Valley.  Mr. Woods was always interested in sports, hockey and baseball mostly, and he was one of the interested and enterprising citizens who helped to build the Enderby rink.  During the First World War, Mr. Woods was a partner with  his brother, operating a farm, known as the Woods Bros. Wheat  and 'Pork Farm. The pork was brought to Enderby from the farm  at Retlaw, Alberta, and Mr. Woods smoked bacon and hams,  which "Walker's Weekly" described (now in the Provincial Archives) as "delicious, tasty, home-cured bacon and ham." One season he cured one ton, which all sold.  Prior to this period in his life, Mr. Woods had met Miss Elizabeth Alice Johnson, who had moved to Enderby in 1903. Miss Johnson was born near Buckingham, Quebec, and moved, with her  parents to Sudbury, Ontario, in 1891, and a little farther west, to  Winnipeg, in 1898, before making their home, for many years, in  Enderby.  Miss Alice Johnson became the bride of William I. Woods on  October 11th, 1905, at the home of her parents in Enderby. The  Rev. Duncan Campbell, minister of the Presbyterian Church serving Armstrong and Enderby at that time solemnized their vows.  In the 1905 copy of the "Edenograph" (Enderby's paper then) preserved today in the Provincial Archives, we are told "the bride  wore a gown of cream viole, trimmed with silk lace. Her sister,  Miss Edith Johnson, attended the bride and Mr. Edgar Robinson  was groomsman. The happy couple left on the evening train for  Nelson. The Bride travelled in a becoming dress of grey tweed."  During the following years five children were born to Mr. and  Mrs. Woods. Four sons: — Alvin, Walter, William and Arthur and  a daughter, Kathleen.  In spite of a growing family, Mrs. Woods found time to be  active in many worthwhile causes and organizations essential for  the growing community to take its place in society.  Mrs. Woods was on the Board to organize and bring Enderby's  first Hospital to the community. Mrs. Woods was an active worker  in the Presbyterian Church, and, following Church Union, has continued to work in the United Church. She taught Sunday School  Class, was on the Board and a member of the Ladies' Aid, known  later as the Women's Association. Also she is a member of the  Women's Missionary Association, which is now a part of the "United Church Women" which encompasses all Circles of the United  Church. She was a member of the first Hospital Association and also  served on the Hospital Board.  156 Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Woods  Because Mr. Woods was a popular violinist and Mrs. Woods  accompanied him on the piano, much of their leisure time followed  a musical trend. Along with this accomplishment, Mrs. Woods has  been well known in Enderby and surrounding valley for monologues and reading of humorous poems, especially the Habitant  poems of Dr. Henry Drummond, at which she is especially adept.  These have been greatly enjoyed at concerts and gatherings  throughout the years.  Anyone who has known Mrs. Woods throughout the years  will testify to her artistic abilities; for many years she hooked rugs  of exceptionally distinctive designs, in most cases from her own  design. These were not made of wool but from rags she prepared  for rugmaking herself.  Many unique articles came to the table of the Church Bazaars  from Mrs. Woods artistic hands, one especially remembered by  members was an assortment of dainty birch bark containers with  growing violets, in bloom, in each one, at an early Spring bazaar.  For many years Mrs. Woods has collected bells and one\ corner of her home is devoted to this collection; there are temple bells,  Swiss bells, fishermen's bells (from the nets), a replica of the Mission bells of Capistrano and "just bells" of every size, shape and  material but the most precious is a strap of sleigh bells. These bells  have special memories, for Mr. Woods was fond of a nice driving horse and had a lovely Kentucky "driver"; in the sleigh, with  sleigh bells jingling and his Kentucky driver stepping proud and  high, he took his "wife to be" driving in their "courting days". These  are the sleigh bells from the cutter of that day.  From the early days Mrs. Woods recalls the pleasures of a  Literay Club the ladies of Enderby enjoyed. Sewing has always  been a pleasant part of her life and activities and the Red Cross  work of two World Wars holds a place in her reminiscences.  Reminiscing further Mrs. Woods recalls walking down the  railway tracks south of town, with other ladies of the Church to  visit Mrs. A. L. Fortune, whose husband was/ the first white settler  in the Enderby district; following his historic trip with the famed  "Overlander Party", and later coming to establish his Fortune Ranch  in 1864.  Mrs. Woods was present at the service held when Mrs. Fortune laid the corner stone of the new Presbyterian Church in Enderby on May 25th, 1906. Mrs. Fortune also gave the 500 pound bell  that is in the St. Andrew's United Church steeple today, the former  Presbyterian Church.  She recalls the wonderful nursing abilities of Mrs. Webb Wright  in the community in those early days; and the beautiful voice of  Mrs. Aldin, mother of Hudson Aldin, who lived at Ashton Creek and  157 Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Woods  sang at the concerts of those days and she Recalled: hearing; a  Mrs. Cole, then living on the present Ernie Skyrme Farm, who- sang  the song "Love Was Once a Little Boy". Special little things that  give Mrs. Woods pleasure to recall.  In 1931 Mr. Woods gave up his store to go farming and logging  at North Enderby. Finally at the age of seventy-eight, in 1952, when  arthritis began to slow him down, they retired to their comfortable  little home in Enderby.  His twin sister, Emma, came to Enderby to celebrate their  eighty-fifth birthday together in 1959. Emma passed away in 1964  at the age of ninety.  W. J. Woods, "Billy" to all Enderby oldtimers, has been noted  for his even temperment and his even nature. He has the ability  not to panic in the face of adversity but to stick and see it through.  He neither smokes nor drinks nor uses profane language. At over  ninety years of age the merry twinkle of his eye and his cheery  smile are still as predominating as in his earlier and younger years.  Mrs. Woods ,through her long years of residence in their midst  is respected by those who have known her through the years as a  "little lady" who knows the right and proper way to do a task and  is determined to see it through that way. We need more people today willing to stand up for the codes and ethics of yesteryear, for  Mrs. Woods IS a "lady" in every sense of the word.  Many years ago Mrs. Woods had a trip up the "Enderby Cliff";  today she has two wishes, one to take a jeep trip to the- Enderby  "Cliffs" again to see the changes in the panorama of the Valley,  and, secondly, to go cruising down the river — the Shuswap — in  one  of Mr.  Hann's  Houseboats.  Ten grandchildren and two great grandchildren add to the W.  J. Wood's family tree.  Both Mr. and Mrs. Woods have been a "working part of the  growth of this Valley" and especially of Enderby, where they have  lived throughout their entire married life.  158 J ioneer    Canadian     ifurSe  By Wealthy Grigg, R.N.  Mrs. Mary E. Wilmot, Superintendent of Kelowna Hospital Society from 1920 to 1944 died in Kelowna in her 91st year on May  3rd, 1966.  Born in Toronto, Ont., where she received her early education  she trained in nursing at Winnipeg, Man., where she received her  diploma in 1901. She nursed in Winnipeg until she was married in  1910 when she gave up nursing for a short time until the outbreak  of World War I. In 1916 she went overseas with Canadian nurses  and served until 1919 when she returned to Canada with the Canadian forces.  In 1920 Mrs. Wilmot was appointed matron of the Kelowna  General Hospital and over the next twenty four and a half years  made an outstanding contribution not only to patient care in Kelowna but nursing throughout British Columbia. A year after her  appointment as Superintendent of Nurses at our local hospital she  obtained permission from R.N.A.B.C. to start a training school for  nurses. The trainees had to have somewhere to live and first of  all the Old Stirling house was used, but money was soon found in  Kelowna and District by the Kelowna Hospital Society to build a  Nurses' Residence. This was completed and opened in Feb., 1924.  At the time of opening a Training School for Nurses we had a  60 bed hospital, and 4 doctors on our staff: Dr. Knox, Dr. Campbell,  Dr. Boyce and Dr. Wilson Herald, E.E.N.T. Not long after this Dr.  Ootmar joined us and started a laboratory in a small room in the  hospital along with a Public Health Division. Typhoid fever was  very prevalent in the area at that time and Dr. Ootmar was not  long in tracing down the source of the trouble. He found three waitresses in Kelowna restaurants were typhoid carriers and also found  polluted water and polluted milk. Mrs. Wilmot gave Dr. Ootmar a  great deal of help at this time when he first arrived in Kelowna.  During the years a "Training School for Nurses" was conducted  in the Kelowna General Hospital, Mrs. Wilmot gave us our classes  in Practical Procedures and no one was better equipped to make  a patient comfortable. She also had an enviable knack in teaching  the various treatments necessary in caring for the sick.  Dr. Knox gave the lectures in Anatomy and Physiology and Dr.  Campbell lectured on Obstretics and Surgical Nursing. Mr. P. B.  Willits of P. B. Willits Drug Store gave classes on Materia Medica.  Our lectures on dietics were given by Mrs. S. M. Simpson, who had  been a home economics teacher. Many of her demonstrations were  given in her own home kitchen.  During the years that Mrs. Wilmot conducted a Training School  at our local hospital we had 49 graduates. For several years the  3rd year was spent in affiliation at the Vancouver General Hospital.  Laterly, however, all the training period was spent at our own local  hospital. Graduating exercises took place in the Kelowna Hospital  Auditorium and a very proud day it was for Mrs. Wilmot and all  the nurses she had trained.  159 ZJhe    Chilis    L^entenaru    ^reted  By Kathleen S. Dewdney  One hundred years after Thomas Ellis found the location,  between O