Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Sixty-fifth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 2001

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Array *  ,,—.  J''..Ji  ^r ^r   \   J  *^M'< ■  ,  w  r  1  A  i  Report of the  Okqnqgan  HlSTORICPL  Society  . 'V'S  V-l /v «  v.', r  i- '■ !  fi\  'I  I  1 :" "iMk  ..,,.,.....•   v;r-.:-.-."•.  Okanagan History  The Sixty-Fifth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded September 4, 1925  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN 0-921241-71-2  2001  ©  www.okanaganhistoricalsociety.org  Printed in Canada on Acid-Free Paper  by Hucul Printing Ltd.  Salmon Arm, BC  Front Cover  Large Image - American Bitter Sweet Vine that has been climbing a  Ponderosa Pine for 70 years at the Summerland Research Station.  (Courtesy Penticton Branch OHS)  Small Photo - The Log Cabin 1949, Summerland Research Station.  (Courtesy Penticton Branch OHS & Maureen Roberge)  Back Cover  Southern Interior Rotary Cancer Lodge  (Courtesy Edie Dickins) SIXTY-FIFTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Betty Bork, Penticton  Denis Marshall, Marilyn Kernaghan, Salmon Arm  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Cowan, Armstrong-Enderby  Bob Hayes, Fenella Munson, Kelowna  The late Wallace Liddicoat, Similkameen Valley  Ralph Engelsby, Jacquie Bicknell, Andrea Flexhaug, Oliver-Osoyoos  Membership  The recipient of this Sixty-Fifth Report is entitled to register his/her membership in  the Sixty-Sixth Report, which will be issued November 1, 2002. For membership registration and certificate forms see insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society ( The Report) including recent back issues, are available through the Treasurer, Box 313, Vernon, BC VTT 6M3, from branches  of the OHS, and from most museums and bookstores in the Okanagan - Shuswap-  Similkameen region. You may also arrange to receive future issues by mail by contacting the book committee, c/o the Treasurer.  Editorial Inquiries  Inquiries about material in the Reports, or for inclusion in coming issues, should be  directed to the Editor at 3956 Bluebird Road, Kelowna, B.C. V1W 1X6.  e-mail: zoellner@okanagan.net  The complete index of Okanagan Historical Reports can be found on the internet-  http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  2001-2002  PRESIDENT  Enabelle Gorek  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Lionel Dallas  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Robert Hayes  SECRETARY  Helen Inglis  TREASURER  Bob Cowan  PAST PRESIDENT  Peter Tassie  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY  Armstrong- Enderby: Louise Everest, David Simard  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Bob Marriage, Peter Stirling  Oliver-Osoyoos: Lionel Dallas, Mary Roberts  Penticton: David MacDonald. David Gregory  Salmon Arm: Allan Wilson, Elizabeth Revel  Similkameen Valley: John Armstrong  Vernon: Jack Morrison, Bob dePfyffer  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Basil Collett, Bob Marriage, David MacDonald BRANCH OFFICERS OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  2001-2002  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY:  President: Robert Dale; Vice-President: David Simard; Secretary: Jean Lockhart;  Treasurer: Eleanore Bolton; Directors: Bob Cowan, May Dangel, Louise  Everest, Kathy Fabische, Jessie Ann Gamble, Elinor Hagardt, Pat Romaine,  Tom Sidney, William Whitehead  KELOWNA:  President: Fenella Munson; Vice-President: Bob Hayes; Secretary: Kaye Benzer;  Treasurer: Gifford Thomson; Past President: Hugh McLarty; Directors: Doug  Ablett, Eleanor Bulach, Vivian Haminishi, Betty Ivans, Cathy Jennens, Alice  Lundy, Denis Maclnnis, Bob Marriage, Judy Ohs, Peter Stirling, Dorothy  Zoellner  OLIVER-OSOYOOS:  President: Dan Roberts; Vice-President: Gayle Cornish; Secretary: Mary  Englesby; Treasurer: Mary Roberts; Directors: Jacquie Bicknell, Joan Casorso,  Judy Dallas, Lionel Dallas, Ralph Englesby, Andrea Flexhaug, Joyce Thomson  PENTICTON:  Past President: Claud Hammell; Secretary/Treasurer: Bob Elder; Honourary  Directors: Molly Broderick, Joe Biolla; Directors: Louise Atkinson, Marylin  Barnay, Skip Clapperton, Betty Bork, Enabelle Gorek, David Gregory, Art  Hinchcliffe, Randy Manuel, Dave MacDonald, John Ortiz, Maggie Ricciardi  SALMON ARM:  President: Mary Wetherill; Vice-President; Ralph Bartman; Secretary: Rosemary  Wilson; Treasurer: Denis Marshall; Director for Life: Frances Farmer; Directors:  Dorothy Askew, Don Byers, Sheila Cran, Pam Johnson, Marilyn Kernaghan,  Dan MacQuarrie, Yvonne McDonald, Alf Peterson, Elizabeth Revel, Allan  Wilson  SIMILKAMEEN VALLEY:  President: John Armstrong; Directors: Dick Coleman, Charles Finch, Art  Liddicoat, Ed Minshul  VERNON:  President: Carol Abernathy; Vice-President: Shirley Louis, Secretary: Betty  Holtskog, Treasurer: Ger Van Beynum; Directors: Ruth Caley, Alvina DeLeeuw,  Bob dePfyffer, Terry Lodge, Lucy McCormick, Elsie Wilson, Jack Wilson; Past  President: Jack Morrison Business of the Okanagan Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 77th Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  2002  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society will be held  at the  PRESTIGE INN  SALMON ARM  Sunday, April 28, 2002, at 10 a.m.  Luncheon at 12:30 p.m.  All members and guests are welcome to attend.  POLICY OF EDITORIAL FREEDOM  EXECUTIVE COUNCIL  26th February, 1978  Kelowna, B.C.  RESOLUTION:  Whereas we stand by our original plan of the POLICY of EDITORIAL  FREEDOM  And whereas such freedom may require certain changes in the articles  submitted: i.e. - deletions, condensation and rewrite, etc.  Therefore be it resolved that:  Editorial Freedom gives the Editor the right to edit all material submitted as  he sees fit: UNLESS the author has stated otherwise in writing at the time of  submission.  MOVED by Victor Wilson SECONDED by I.E. Phillips OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  STUDENT ESSAY CONTEST  2002  AIM/GOALS  To encourage research and writing of history by post secondary students.  TOPIC  This must be some aspect of Okanagan history. The Okanagan is defined as  the geographic boundaries and society of the Okanagan, Shuswap and  Similkameen Valleys.  ELIGIBILITY  This competition is open to all post secondary students registered in a British  Columbia university.  PRIZES  $1000 monetary award. Publication in Okanagan History - Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society.  RULES OF SUBMISSION  (a) The entry must be suitable for publication in the O.H.S. Report.  (b) Due date to be the end of April. (This will coincide with the end of the  spring semester, which is the end of June.)  (c) Length to be 1500 to 2000 words.  (d) The cover page must contain the following:  Student's name and registration number  Name of institution  Student's telephone number and mailing address  Topic/title of essay  The format to be letter sized double-spaced typed paper, hard copy - plus a  floppy disk.  SELECTION PROCESS/ADJUDICATION  The judging panel to have FOUR members, one of whom must be a member  of the Okanagan Historical Society and one member whose major discipline  is history.  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY ESSAY COMMITTEE:  Enabelle Gorek • David MacDonald • David Gregory Table of Contents  Feature Articles  The Summerland Research Gardens  Through The Years, Maurice Welsh 9  The History of The Cancer Lodge, Edie Dickens 17  The Forest Industry in the Enderby/Mabel Lake Area,  Robert Dale 23  Never A Dull Moment, Sam Pearson 30  May I Have This Dance?, Mary (Ritchie) Wetherill 44  Pioneering- A Memoir, Dr. F.E. McNair 52  When Grandpa Was Young, John West  61  The Norman Day Family, George Arthur Day 66  Ellard Henry Williamson, Sandy Williamson 73  Crowe's Auctions, Wm. J. (Bill) Whitehead 78  The Gibson Family, By Joan (Gibson) Shaw 82  On Track-Two Railways Re-visited  Vancouver, Victoria and Eastern (W&E), Wallace Liddicoat 86  Shuswap and Okanagan (S & O), Bob Cowan 92  Homes  The Gillespie Homestead, Betty Bork  106  The Adair House 1913-2001, Dagmar Watkins  107  The Lady At 2875 Rosedale Avenue- Armstrong, Dawn Jamieson 119  Hillcrest Manor, By Pam Johnson  125  The Tbkios Bunkhouse- Home Sweet Home,  Andrea Dujardin- Flexhaug  127 Out of Sight - But Not Out of Mind  Sugar Lodge, Peter Ward  131  Olalla Camp, By Wallace L. Liddicoat  135  People - They Made Our History  Dr. John Gibson-When a Raven Calls, Randy Manuel  137  William Dennis Gallacher, Allan Claridge  140  Ewart Gilbert Harry Price, Harry Price  141  William Metcalfe Stiell, Rosemary Stiell  143  Richard Stuart Pelly, Peter Tassie  145  William Francis Monteith - Salmon Arm's First Blacksmith,  Denis Marshall  149  Henrietta Knight, Richard Knight  157  Tributes  Bernard Webber, Vernon Branch Editorial Committee  159  Tierney O'Keefe, Kathleen (O'Keefe) Nield  164  Bill Osborn, Diane Toth  167  Harley Hatfield, Ray Findlay  171  Anita (Bennett) Tozer, Geoff Tozer  174  Dufton Booth, James H.(Jim) Hayes  176  Jack Petley, Doreen Duncan, Ruth Gordon  178  Dennis Reid, Contributed  180  Betty Joan Atkinson, Shirley Campbell  180  Morris John Thompson, Okanagan Falls Review  186  Cliff and Effie Clement, Robert M. ( Bob) Hayes  188  Lives Remembered 191  OHS Business and Financial Statements 206  Errata 224  2001 Membership List 225 Feature Articles  The Summerland Research Gardens  Through the Years  By Maurice Welsh  "lj he history of the gardens is intertwined with the history of  the Dominion Experimental Station (more recently Agriculture Canada Research Station and now, Pacific Agri-Food  Research Centre), and has been enriched by the interesting people  and events associated with them. Agitation for establishment of  the Station persisted from 1909 to 1914. One of the most influential proponents was Summerland Reeve R.H. Agur, who had excellent political connections, and managed to outmanoeuvre those  who were striving to have the Station established in Kelowna. The  land at Summerland was purchased in an agreement with Antoine  Pierre and work began in 1914.  The first superintendent was R.H. Helmer, who had been orchard  foreman for the Agur family. He was a good choice, an excellent organizer,  and not afraid to roll up his sleeves and join his men in manual labour.  There is a story told by Bill May, the first man hired as a labourer  by Helmer, and subsequently the Vegetable Foreman. In 1920 land was  still being cleared for the gardens and this entailed removing many  large stones and boulders. Arthur J. Mann was the first professional  recruit. He was a small man, always immaculately dressed; he arrived  in a dark suit, white shirt, tie and white gloves. When he was told that  the Superintendent was up in the garden area, he walked up and tackled the first labourer he encountered, a big, husky man loading the  largest boulders on a wagon. When he inquired for Mr. Helmer, the  reply was "So you're Mann. I'm Helmer. Get those white gloves off and  start helping to load these stones". Incidentally, I had an opportunity to  meet Mr. Helmer, in his 90's, retired in Fort Langley, and still a tall  imposing man.  In the early years, Helmer's most bothersome problem was a  shortage of water, which forced postponement for several years of development in all the upper area of the station, including the gardens.  Maurice Welsh has known the station gardens as a child and man since about  1926 when his family began attending the annual "Farm Picnics". In 1935, he  worked as a student labourer in the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology,  and was head of the lab from 1956 to 1959. He remained as section head until  retirement in 1975. Mr. Welsh extends thanks to Mrs. Maureen Roberge for reviewing and amplifying the records and contributions of her father, Nat May.  OHS 9 THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH GARDENS THROUGH THE YEARS  One of Helmer's first appointees was Joseph Smith, a gardener hailing from Winnipeg. He and Alf Aveson were given responsibility for designing the gardens. There is a story, perhaps  apocryphal, but more probably true, that they found an English  painted plate depicting an attractive English garden, and proceeded  to model our gardens thereupon.  Alf Aveson, who succeeded Joseph Smith in 1921, was almost stone deaf. One day he walked onto the railway trestle to  survey his gardens, and failed to hear an approaching train. The  Superintendent's wife heard bellowing in the distance and spotted  Aveson dangling helplessly from a girder. She sent a rescue crew,  who pulled him up just as his grip was loosening. Thereafter he is  said to have refused to step on the trestle for any reason.  W.T. (Bill) Hunter who succeeded Helmer in 1923 was a dynamic man who very rapidly pushed through many major projects.  He had putting greens established on the lower part of the lawns,a  tennis court laid out in the hollow below the Superintendent's house  (the Big House), and a baseball diamond and a golf course created  above the tracks on the present site of the Budwood Orchard.  Among the many new buildings was a residence built for the  Head Gardener, near the railway track on the small hill that now  faces the iris bed. Seven family residences were constructed on the  Station, as well as quite a large boarding house for single employees. Few had cars and the roads were poor, and so social life was  centred on the Station, and the gardens were well frequented.  There was a tall imposing flagpole near the Log Cabin. The  28.5 metre pole had been cut by Ferdie Brent near Allengrove (on  the present Apex Road) and hauled on a bobsleigh the thirty-two  kilometres to the Station.  I remember the annual Farm Picnics begun in 1924, and held  every June 3rd (King George V's birthday). The picnics would attract  crowds of as many as 4000 people. As a student labourer in the 1930's,  I was assigned to the parking lots (on the present site of the upper  greenhouse). One year I was promoted to supervising the children's  races on the lawns. The prime purpose of the picnics was to provide  guided walking tours of the orchards and other experimental plots.  However, in addition, there would be livestock judging and visits to  the poultry farm at the bottom of the hill, near the creek. Also, children's races on the lawns and a baseball tournament up on the hill  were featured. The latter events would be centred in the gardens  where families would picnic and enjoy their colourful surroundings.  One year, there was a Scottish piper, Dan MacLean, who marched,  playing his bagpipes from 2:30 until 7:00 o'clock at night, fortified by  an odd drink contributed to him along the way.  10 OHS THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH GARDENS THROUGH THE YEARS  In those years the gardens were magnificent, with beds of  flowering annuals all around the margins of the lawns, and in carefully arranged and spaced individual beds dotting the upper parts  of the lawns, in what someone termed a "Paisley pattern". There  were massed planting of petunias, pansies, snapdragons, geraniums, salvia and many other annuals and perennials. The geranium (properly Pelargonium) beds were bordered with ageratum  and lobelia. Extensive greenhouses provided the gardeners with  opportunity to raise thousands of annuals every spring. A distinctive touch was the border of lavender facing the railway bridge,  planted to form the words "Dominion Experimental Station".  Alfred Hornby became Head Gardener in 1928 and held the  position for 13 years. He had emigrated from England to the Cariboo  and moved on to Summerland. He was a very capable gardener,  but he had a second enthusiasm; he spent all his spare time studying racing charts, and every year devoted his holidays to the race  tracks in and around Vancouver. It was claimed that he always  came home richer for his informed betting.  The year 1928 was also notable for the recruiting of Bill May's  younger brother Nat. Bill and Nat had grown up in a family of growers and nurserymen in Northern Ireland. Nat had been a stretcher  Nat May as a gardener. (Courtesy Maureen Roberge) MML,/-):''ñ†:  The Gardens, about 1950. (Courtesy Maureen Roberge)  bearer in World War I, winning decorations for bravery. He would  be succeeding Hornby as Head Gardener in 1941. As well as being  a very knowledgeable plant man, Nat was a colourful raconteur in  the best Irish tradition. During the 1939-45 war, he served as Welfare Officer for the Summerland Branch of the Royal Canadian Legion, very conscientiously dealing with the problems encountered  by wives and families of local enlisted men.  I was fortunate because Nat often dropped in at my office to  regale me with reminiscences and accounts of current adventures.  Some of these emanated from his running skirmishes with the Superintendent and his wife, Dick and Marjorie Palmer. A basic cause  was the unrestrained romping through Nat's flower beds by the  two young Palmer sons and their big French Collie, Lassie.  One day, Nat came in especially gleeful. Mrs. Palmer had  ordered him to plant vines on the trellis arbour near the front door  of the Big House. That was in the period when his brother Bill was  growing and testing zucca melons, which bore melons resembling  vegetable marrows, but attaining lengths of five feet and more. Nat  had obtained two plants from Bill and was planting them on either  side of the arbour. We can only guess whether they ever matured  because Nat developed cold feet or because zuccas failed to thrive  in that location. It really had sounded like an intriguing enterprise.  12  OHS THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH GARDENS THROUGH THE YEARS  Another day, Nat reported that the Superintendent had threatened to fire him. The long spiraea hedge that paralleled the road  above what is now planted as the Xeriscape had grown tall and  straggly. That morning, Nat had started slaughtering the hedge  almost to ground level. Dick Palmer, walking to his office had been  shocked and had sworn that the hedge was ruined. Of course, Nat's  procedure was the correct one; in a year or so, the spiraea had  produced vigorous new growth and was a mass of bloom. Nat was  not fired.  Oddly enough, despite all these little adventures, Nat and  the Palmers enjoyed a close friendship. During W.W. II, when the  garden staff was sadly decimated, Dick Palmer would join Nat at  six o'clock on Sunday morning each week, working through a long  day to perform all the needed maintenance chores in the gardens.  After Dick's sudden death in 1953, Marjorie Palmer frequently  turned to Nat for advice and help.  There are many other Nat May anecdotes that can be recorded. On another of Nat's visits to my office, he reported that he  had spotted two ladies examining his rock garden very closely,  surrepetitiously removing the plants and putting them in a brown  paper bag. Instead of confronting them, Nat waited until they had  placed the bag in their car and taken their picnic lunches up to a  table on the lawns. Then he rescued all his plants and replaced  them with weeds.  During Nat May's tenure as Head Gardener, a number of improvements and embellishments were added to the landscaped area.  These included rock walls, a lily pond, and a long trellis covered  with honeysuckle and grapes. This led from the Superintendent's  residence down the "Hog's Hollow" that had been the bowling green  site, later a tennis court, and occasionally a skating rink.  Nat developed several new cultivars of ornamentals, including a new lavender that captured a Royal Horticultural Society  award. He issued a number of small green pamphlets for home  gardeners, and frequently was speaker at Valley garden clubs.  During the war years, when supplies of pots became severely  limited, Nat and brother Bill co-operated with John Embree (shop  foreman) in devising their own "mud pots". These were a mixture  of peat, manure and soil compressed in moulds and baked.  In the early years, the gardens were amply staffed, with three  or four people working twelve months a year, and extra help provided during the growing season.  Among the garden employees  OHS 13 THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH GARDENS THROUGH THE YEARS  through the years were Wilf King, George Ryman, Walter Powers,  Charlie Manning, Charlie Hornby (Alfred's son), Ed Joy, Lew  Wright, Walter Greber and Percy Willis. Several of these men still  live in Summerland (George Ryman, Walter Greber, Ed Joy). Wilf  King passed away in 1997 at ninety-four. His record in tending the  gardens from 1925 to 1968 was outstanding.  The gardens have been a mecca for local people and visitors through the years, an attractive site for picnics, weddings, family reunions, conventions, field days, or just for short tours or simply to enjoy. Thousands visited the site every year. For several  years, views of the gardens, always with Brent Mountain and the  railway trestle in the background, were featured on calendars issued by Canadian Pacific Railway.  It has been mentioned that the old Log Cabin (now demolished) was a focal point for the landscaped area. It had a small  kitchen and served as a refuge when the weather turned unpleasant outdoors. Some of us who worked at the "The Farm" in those  days have especially warm memories of the Farm Parties. They  were held in the cabin every month during the summer, on a Friday evening and always while the moon was full. They were for  Farm employees (who were mostly male and single) and a few  friends, as well as the girlfriends or acquaintances from Summerland  and Penticton whom we brought. We had a record player and a  collection of dance records. The dances always ended at midnight  and were well chaperoned (the Wilcoxes, Brittons, sometimes the  Palmers), but there were unlimited opportunities to stroll romantically among the trees and shrubbery surrounding the Cabin. Several local romances began or were fostered at the Farm Parties.  I remember one party especially well. Cedric Hornby was a  summer student then, later to become Dr. CA. Hornby, and Head  of the Vegetables and Ornamentals Section, and later again Professor of Horticulture at U.B.C. He too, often visited me in my office  while I was having my brownbag lunch. One day he came in very  excited, reported that the previous evening there had been a picnic  in the Gardens that proved to be a gathering of the St. Andrews and  Caledonian Society. Walking on the fringes he spotted a beautiful  blonde and was sure it was love at first sight. He was going to find  a way to meet her. In later days, he reported finding out that she  was Marguerite Nuttall from Naramata, and that she had many  would-be suitors chasing after her. In short, he did meet her, courted  her and they were married. They had three gratifying children,  one of whom is my goddaughter, and all of this had its beginning in  the Farm Gardens.  14 OHS The Lily Pond. (Courtesy Maureen Roberge)  In the years since 1971, as periods of government cost-cutting  followed, the gardens were especially hard hit, given a lower priority than the tree fruit and grape research programmes. Garden staffs  were reduced steadily. This was the period when Nat May had been  succeeded by Henry Keuning (a well-trained Dutch plants man) and  then Ken Haddrell (who was from a Summerland farming family  and took pleasure in the gardening assignment). In this period, too,  the greenhouses were closed and dismantled. It became necessary  to reduce the gardens to the basic planting of trees, shrubbery, perennials, and the lawns to have minimal resources for their care.  Nevertheless, in the earlier part of the period, there were  significant accomplishments. During the time when the Vegetable  and Ornamentals Section was in operation, Lyall Denby had responsibility for it. Lyall published a number of bulletins and pamphlets on such subjects as Trees and Shrubs for the Okanagan Valley, and Care of Lawns. He also conducted tests and breeding programmes. Included were trials of an extensive assemblage of flowering crabs. Another lavender, Summerland Supreme, was developed as well as a new chrysanthemum, Sunrise. In the 1930's and  1940's, there had been extensive tests of newly-introduced  ornamentals. All such activities were terminated when ornamentals  were removed from Lyall's responsibility.  OHS 15 THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH GARDENS THROUGH THE YEARS  Finally of course, Brian Stretch has been recruited and has  inspired the formation of Friends of the Gardens, recruiting enthusiastic volunteer help, which has led to supplementary financing  from memberships and donations, and generous support from the  Summerland Municipal Council. It is now possible to return the  Gardens to their full glory as well as to initiate in co-operation with  U.B.C., new developments such as the Xeriscape, testing of new  introductions to the Botanical Garden, and the hosting of courses,  field days and special events. The gardens have had a long and  adventurous history and now have entered a new very gratifying  chapter. May it be a long chapter!  Some chronological records  The Dominion Experimental Station was established in 1914.  The Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, in 1922.  The Dominion Entomology Laboratory moved from Vernon to  Summerland in 1945.  Work on the ornamental grounds began in 1916, completed by 1921.  The old Log Cabin, the centrepiece of the garden area, was built in  1917; the neighbouring "outhouses" were built in 1924.  Landscaping around the buildings was in progress during 1921-22.  The Superintendent's residence was completed in 1927. Known as the  "Big House", it won Summerland's Heritage Award in 1997.  Staff responsibility for the gardens and their workers was allotted to the  Vegetables and Ornamentals Section until 1971, when it was transferred  to Administration.  HEAD GARDENERS HAVE BEEN:  Joseph Smith (1916-1921)  Alfred Aveson (1921-1928)  Alfred Hornby (1928-1941)  Nat May (1941-1961)  Henry Keuning (1961-1982)  Ken Haddrell (1982-1985)  Brian Stretch (1985)  16 OHS The History of the Cancer Society  Southern Interior Rotary Lodge  251 Abbott Street,  Kelowna, B.C.  By Edie Dickins  Ed. Note: Seldom is it possible to record the history of a project from its beginnings. In this instance, the O.H.S. has been fortunate to receive the journal of  Edie Dickins, Chair of the Lodge Committee. Edie has been a dedicated volunteer at the Southern Interior Rotary Lodge since its inception, and herein  charts its progress from birth to actual operation.  Until July 6, 1998, cancer patients living outside the Lower  Mainland, had to travel and live away from home while receiving " medicamentation". However, with the opening of  the Southern Interior Cancer Lodge, accommodation in bright, airy,  caring surroundings was provided at a reasonable cost for patients  undergoing cancer treatment.  April, 1994: Division Board developing process to address a range  of issues associated with the anticipated construction of a lodge in  Kelowna - would accommodate patients from the Kootenays and  Interior.  June, 1994: Discussion with Kelowna General Hospital re-feasibility of a joint capital campaign.  September 1994: Lodge's User Group appointed. Ketchum Canada  to conduct fund-raising feasibility study.  December 1994: Cancer Society B.C. and Yukon Board of Directors approved the building of a lodge- (third in B.C.) adjacent to  B.C. Cancer Care Centre and K.G.H. - Cost $4.9 million. TUrik,  Neumann, Fulker, Maltby architectural firm appointed and cost  ceiling fixed.  June 1995: Capital Campaign approved.  May 1996: The Campaign for Cancer Care launched- Dean Cooper-  Chair. This was to be a joint fund-raising effort of Cancer Society  B.C. and Yukon, B.C. Cancer Agency, and Kelowna General Hospital. Cancer Society Board of Directors committed $1.3 million  from 1996 campaign, $1.5 million from C.C.S. building fund, balance from Campaign for Cancer. Rotary Clubs in Districts  5040,5060,5080 committed to raising $1 million (two year project).  Projected opening -1998.  OHS 17 THE HISTORY OF THE CANCER SOCIETY  1997: The architectural firm's plans were approved by the Board  of Directors.  Bill Goodsir- (Ret.) Engineer, Vancouver, B.C. will be a consultant for the Cancer Society with this project.  SpringValley Construction was the successful bidder. The  Lodge will have accommodation for thirty-five residents- fourteen  double, three single and two wheelchair accessible rooms, plus a  Lodge Supervisor's office, nursing supplies' room, administration  office, boardroom, lounge, dining room, activity room, Look Good  room, volunteer room, Masonic Volunteer Drivers' dispatch and  lounge area, library, laundry and exercise room. Square footage to  total-20,900.  August 1997: Lodge Committee was in place:  Edie Dickins: Chair Elsie Johnson: Art Committee  Carol Bernard: Volunteer Coordinator Evelyn Blaine: Committee  Pat Jaster: Co-Volunteer Coordinator Shirley Grant: Committee  Ann Zibin: Patient Representative Lome Donaldson: Coordinator Volunteer Drivers  Permit secured for building of Lodge.  October 29, 1997: The day of the "Sod Turning". Officiating were  B.C. and Yukon Cancer Society C.E.O. Barbara Kaminsky and President Baird McLean. In attendance: Diane Slater- Interior District  Manager; Bruce Johnson- President Interior Region; Kelowna Unit  President Dr. Michael Muzzin; Rotarian Representative Wayne  Evans; Construction and Architectural Representative Dean  Cooper; Edie Dickins-Chair Lodge Committee; Pat Jaster and Bill  Zoellner- former residents at Vancouver Lodge.  December 1997: Linda Andrews- Manager Lodge Services travelled to Kelowna for a one day workshop with the entire committee in attendance to give us much-needed guidance as to our responsibilities re the functioning of the Lodge. A very informative  day!  Committee from Division: Cathy Adair- Programme Services  Co-ordinator; Linda Andrews-R.N.; Bill Goodsir- (Ret.) Engineer;  Diane Slater and Edie Dickins held a meeting with the architects  re plans, decor, furnishings, etc.  Signage approved with Rotary "logo" for the Cancer Society  Southern Interior Rotary Lodge.  January 1998: Carol Bernard, Pat Jaster and Edie Dickins travelled to Victoria for an overnight stay to obtain an insight as to  how Vancouver Island Lodge functioned. Toured that Lodge, had  an opportunity to visit with the residents and get their input and  share a coffee. Spent time with the Volunteer Co-ordinator before  travelling to Vancouver Lodge. Toured this lodge and also visited  18 OHS with its Volunteer Co-ordinator and  attended the Division Lodge Subcommittee meeting. Returned home  after a very worthwhile trip.  Volunteer forms were being submitted to the Kelowna Unit Office,  and Carol Bernard and Pat Jaster  were looking after these. Lodge Committee meetings were held to keep all  informed. Arrangements were being  made through the Cancer Centre for  the use of rooms to be able to hold  interviews with potential volunteers.  Four committee members were given  names to phone and set up times for  these interviews.  A committee from Vancouver  Division travelled to Kelowna at different times to again go over decor  and progress of building. Many decisions had to be made.  April 1998: Ads were posted for the  position of Lodge Supervisor. Cathy  Richardson- Manager Human Resources; Linda Andrews, Diane Slater  and Edie Dickens were the interviewers. Mairin McManus was the unanimous choice. She accepted the position.  Restauronics of Vancouver was  contracted for the Food/Housekeeping with Eric Pateman-Manager.  May 1998: Mairin McManus began  her duties on May 21st- no desk and  door, just dust and workmen. However, she found a chair and card table to use as a desk. Besides Being  R.N., she was a construction "boss"  as well. Eric Pate man arrived to supervise the kitchen equipment, etc.  and was a great help!  The Public was so enthused  about the Lodge that on-going dona-  tions-in memoriam- were given. Serv-  Sod turning, October 29, 1997, Southern  Interior Rotary Lodge, left to right: 2 unnamed officials, Bill Zoellner, Edie Dickins,  Pat Jaster. (Courtesy Edie Dickins)  Opening of the S.I.C.L., July 6, 1998.  (Courtesy Edie Dickins)  Free Masons' Volunteer Driver Program  Dick Auty and drivers.  (Courtesy Edie Dickins)  OHS 19 THE HISTORY OF THE CANCER SOCIETY  ice Clubs donated complete rooms. A donor wall was created.  Plaques were ordered for all donations- which included a pool table, pianos, television sets, V.C.R.s, even a computer with E-mail.  Thank yous were sent to all donors.  Ads were posted for an office administrator. Mary DiCicco  was hired part-time.  A new Volunteer Co-ordinator, Judy Ardelian took over this  position, as Carol Bernard left and Pat Jaster had to have surgery.  June 1998: Finally received word in June that the Southern Interior Rotary Lodge would be having its opening in July.  Judy and Edie contacted all volunteers and set dates for the  orientation. Such meetings could now be held in the activity room.  Karen Mellor- Programme Co-ordinator for Interior Region; Mairin  McManus- Lodge Supervisor; Judy Ardelian-Volunteer Co-ordinator  and Edie Dickins- Lodge Committee Chair conducted these workshops. There was great enthusiasm!  The official opening was finally announced for July 6, 1998  at 1p.m. Volunteers were contacted and information sheets were  given out. Practice tours were held with all participating being  given name tags. Volunteers would be very visible and knowledgeable.  "Our" jobs had begun!  Ed. Note: There were fifty-three volunteers originally. For the record they were:  Joan Atkinson, Judy Ardelian, Donnie Aquilon, Marion Aquilon, Celia Besse,  Grace Brown, Wilhelmina Brown, Vera Burns, Jim Burns, Denise Butticci,  Diane Clement, Patricia Cochrane, Tina Diamond, Edie Dickins, Diane Dolman, June Emslie, Irene Eurchuk, Audrey Fraser, Ruth Galinis, Ann Gilbert,  Fran Heyming, Linda Horner, Elsie Johnson, Fran Klassen, Anna Kosman,  Nancy Landsiedel, Kristina Le Marchant, Rose Longson, Roberta Monahan,  Robert Martin, Louise McNamara, Dorothy McPherson, Patty Mcintosh, Bea  Monk, Fred Monk, Bill Phillips, Edna Rennie, Ian Rennie, Gisela Rentmeister,  Jean Scaife, Margaret Scott, Cindy Selkirk, Noreen Simkins, Agnes Steurle,  Bud Stewart, Jo Stewart, Anne Sutfin, Sherrin Taylor, Heather Turcotte, Terry  TUrner, Mary Victor, Ethel Waite, Bill Zoellner  July 6, 1998: Gala Opening Day- sunny and hot! Dignitaries attending were many: B.C. and Yukon Cancer Society C.E.O. Barbara  Kaminsky; President B.C. and Yukon Society-Clair Buckley; Dean  Cooper; Bill Goodsir; Vice-President C.C.C. Dr. Bill Nelems; District Governor of Rotary; K.G.H. Board Members. Invitations had  been sent to all large donors and many service clubs. After the  dignitaries had made their speeches, Bill Goodsir and Dean Cooper  were each presented with a plaque and each was honoured by  having a wing in the Lodge named after them. Senia Howard ( 96  years of age), who in 1938 was the first President of the B.C. and  Yukon Cancer Society, cut the ribbon to officially open the Lodge.  20 ohs THE HISTORY OF THE CANCER SOCIETY  THE WILLIAM GOODSIR WING  In Recognition Of your  ol ' standing cc     f on to  t«-   Canadian C     _.      ~«. .iety.  British Columbia & YU;  Division   ,jv.:-    .  KON  1       J  -:an cooper wing  In Recognition Of Your  ding contribution to  The Canadian Cancer Society.  - '   . 3lumbia & yukon  (Courtesy Edie Dickins)  For the occasion, the Lodge was so festive- balloons- everywhere; artwork-hung; furnishings in place; volunteers giving tours;  entertainment and food provided on the back parking lot.  Public Tours were held on July 7th and July 8th from 10 a.m. to  2 p.m. and again on Saturday, July 11th from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Radio  Station C.K.O.V. was on location, doing interviews. The public was  very impressed with the Lodge. Donations of books, afghans and  artwork kept arriving. Our volunteers were great!  July 13, 1998: First resident will be admitted. Volunteer schedules are in place- three shifts per day, seven days a week- two on  each shift. Volunteers were given instructions on using the phones.  Fire drills will be held. Lodge Supervisor Mairin McManus has her  R.N.s hired. Full-time: Dawn Baglole, Helen Gartner, Deana Nonis  Casual: Elfe Shukla, Cynthia Leon.  August 1998: The Masonic Volunteer Drivers Programme is in  place with one van stationed in Kamloops and another in Penticton  plus local volunteer drivers ready. The dispatching is all done from  their office in the Lodge.  November 1998: Dean Cooper, Chair of the Cancer Campaign is  invited to Salmon Arm to receive a cheque for $1 million, pledged  by the Rotarians and presented by Past Governor of District 5060,  Ken Arthurs, on behalf of Districts 5060 and 5080.  Ray Gawriluck, Salmon Arm, presented a cheque for $200,000-  profits from two 5th wheel and truck draws - money over and beyond the $1 million pledge. An additional $10,000 was donated to  the S.I.R.Lodge and Cancer Care Centre to produce a video for  fund-raising.  What an awesome commitment was made and met by the  Rotarians!  January 14, 1999: Eric Pateman, Manager Food/Housekeeping  left. Penny Krauter took over.  The Look Good - Feel Good Programme became an integral  part of the Lodge. It is sponsored by a Toronto firm-Canadian Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association. Karen Mellor and Phyllis  OHS 21 THE HISTORY OF THE CANCER SOCIETY  Ryan, Kelowna Cancer Society, attempted to start the programme  locally, but were informed they would have to wait to sponsor the  workshop when the Lodge opened- which they did. They held  training sessions for interested volunteers when the Lodge opened.  With the Look Good and Feel Good Room open, workshops for  cancer patients are now held the third Tuesday of every month.  The above company supplies the "give away kits". What a success  it is! (Phyllis Ryan left Kelowna in September 1999, and Fran  Klassen took over. The room is open five days a week with a volunteer in attendance).  July 6, 1999: The Lodge has been open one year. On this day, a  one year birthday party was planned, and invitations sent to all  former "residents" (approximately 400) to attend. All volunteers  helped to write these invitations, look after music, balloons, cake  and refreshments. The time was spent renewing friendships and  remembrances. Everyone was so appreciative of the caring staff  and the volunteers. The away-from-home atmosphere was certainly the predominant factor. Central was the fact that "we did  care about them all!"  That last entry in Edie Dickins' journal was over two years  ago. The Southern Interior Rotary Lodge continues as a fantastic  "home away from home" for cancer patients. The Lodge owes its  existence to the myriad of people who have given of time, effort  and finances to make the dream a reality!  22 ohs The Forest Industry  in the Enderby Lake Prep  By Robert Dale  "j he Enderby Lake area has had a long history with the forest  industry. In 1895, shortly after the completion of the  Shuswap and Okanagan Railway, T.K. Smith of Vernon built  a sawmill on the banks of the Shuswap River at Enderby. The river  would be used for log storage and transfer to the mill, while the  railway would be used to ship the finished product. There was a  bountiful supply of mature timber in the Shuswap River Valley east  of Enderby to Mabel Lake and beyond to Sugar Lake.  At first, the mill had to import labour from other areas because of the shortage of skilled manpower and the terrific amount  of hand labour involved. Some of these men were from Ontario  and Quebec, and already had a good knowledge of river driving.  Later, many of these men settled in the area.  Around the turn of the century, most of the logging was done  in the winter. Large logging camps were established along the river,  where there was a good year or two of timber. Then the camps  would be moved to another stand of timber.  To supply these  camps, the company had to  build a wagon and sleigh  road through the valley.  This road was built on the  north side of the river. In  some cases, such as at  Hupel (which was about  five miles west of Mabel  Lake), there were some  very large camps on the  south side of the river. Temporary bridges were built to  service these camps. The  bridge would be used in the  fall and winter and taken     6-foot cedar log, Noisy Creek 1963, the author, faller  OUt in the Spring. and bucker Rob Dale. (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  Robert Dale has lived and worked all his life in the Enderby/Mabel Lake area.  He is currently retired and O.H.S. Armstrong/Enderby Branch President.  ohs 23 THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN THE ENDERBY LAKE AREA  In early May, when the river started to rise, the huge decks  of logs would be rolled into the river and driven down to the mill at  Enderby. Most of the men who had done the logging would also be  employed on the river drive. When this drive was completed, the  men would then be in town with their pay in hand, and were ready  to celebrate!  By 1905, the big mill in Enderby was owned by A.R. Rogers  from Minneapolis, Minnesota. He increased the cutting capacity  threefold in the next five years. The mill had a voracious appetite  for timber. But the easy timber was increasingly difficult to find,  so there became some ingenuous devices to move the logs off the  mountain sides and down to the river.  One of the most common was sleigh hauling in the winter.  Timber chutes were also constructed to slide the logs down long  slopes. Another plan was to place the logs in a creek that emptied  into the river and run the logs down the creek. Mr. Andy Faulkner  had a logging camp up in the Kingfisher Creek Valley. His logs  were driven down the creek to the river with the aid of a "Splash  Dam" that was constructed on the creek. Every few hours at a set  time the dam was opened and a flush of water was sent down the  creek. In between flushes, the crew spent their time rolling logs  back into the water. This system was not too successful, since it  was dependent on the volume of water in the creek, which fluctuated constantly with the weather.  It didn't last too long.  My family moved into the area in the early 1900s. My uncles  and father were involved in the logging and river driving at an  early age.  A. R. Rogers LumberjCo, camp across the river at 1 lupcl. 1911-1918.  'Ģ{Courtesy Enderby Museum)  24 ohs THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN THE ENDERBY LAKE AREA  In the early 1920s, the big sawmill closed down in Enderby.  This closure was probably caused by a lack of available timber. In  spite of their ingenuity and best efforts, those pioneer loggers could  only move timber so far with horses and man power. The economical supply of wood was becoming exhausted.  This fact, combined with some larger developments, had  brought about a change in the local forest industry. With the advent of telephone communication and rural electrification in North  America, there developed a huge demand for cedar poles. The  Enderby Lake area had a large reserve of red cedar trees which  made the very best poles. As there was a lot more money in a pole  than the equivalent sized tree for a log, the industry shifted more  to the production of poles.  The first of the small cats and trucks made their appearance  in the 1920s and 30s.  During the 1930s, the Simard family established a logging  and pole camp at Noisy Creek on Mabel Lake, at the site of the  present Forest Service campground. They logged and poled for  years at various areas around Mabel Lake.  My own recollections begin in the early 1940s. At that time,  the river was still the main means of transportation for logs in this  area. I remember there being many drives on the river in one  season. Armstrong Sawmills had taken over the site of the old A.R.  Rogers Mill in Enderby. This mill was owned by the Smith family  in Armstrong. They had the first rights for drives on the river, and  everyone else had to work around their schedule. This factor gave  the Armstrong mill at Enderby a real advantage.  Malpass Lumber and Pole Company also drove the river to a  mill just north of Enderby. There were also pole drives to the B.J.  Carney Pole Yard and the Harry Danforth Yard in Enderby. I remember George Hammond who owned a shingle mill in Enderby  driving shingle bolts from the Wap River to his mill.  Besides shingle bolts and poles, split and round cedar fence  posts were made locally. Also, hand- hewed and milled railroad  ties were produced.  During the 1940s, a lot of the small farms (sometimes called  Stump Ranches by the locals) supplemented their income by selling logs off their own land to Armstrong Sawmills. The logs were  decked on the river bank and scaled by the Armstrong Sawmills'  scaler before being put in the water. I remember the scaler stamping them with an /O.K./ mark which I thought meant the log was  good, but actually it was the same mark that the Okanagan Saw-  ohs 25 Heel boom loader, Noisy Creek 1964, left to right: Linda Dale, Rob Dale, Alan Dale and Ward Dale.  (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  mills (the predecessor to the A.R. Rogers Company) had used years  before and designated ownership of the logs to Armstrong Sawmills.  My father, Walter Dale, purchased a 4-wheel drive Jeep in  1947, and used it to skid poles to the river. Later in the summer, we  drove them to town. I recall my brothers and I helping with that  drive and having the greatest fun working in the river in the middle of summer.  In the 1940s and early 50s, another change took place in the  industry. Small bulldozers began to build roads back into the new  timber supplies and small sawmills were moved out into the woods.  The lumber was trucked out to larger mills to be planed and kiln  dried.  Soon there was a proliferation of small sawmills in the valley. Some prospered, but most just came and went. From the mid-  1940s to the mid-1950s, twenty-eight different sawmills operated  between Enderby and Mabel Lake. One of the more notable small  mills was the Kingfisher Sawmill directly across from the present  Kingfisher Community Hall (owned and operated by Ed Tipton  and Harold Acutt). Another mill was Mabel Lake Shingle Mill  (owned and operated by the Clark brothers - Bill, Stewart and Bob),  located initially at the mouth of Kingfisher Creek, but then moved  to the Wap River and finally into Enderby.  Mr. Tokairin had sawmills in different sites, and later built  and operated a small box factory located close to the Trinity Valley  or Baxter Bridge. The veneer was made on site for the wooden  fruit baskets that were used by that industry.  Between 1954 and 1958, Salmon Arm Lumber and Timber  Company had a fairly large mill at eight mile on the Kingfisher -  Three Valley Gap Road. The Potrie brothers developed Cooke Creek  26 ohs THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN THE ENDERBY LAKE AREA  Sawmill at Cooke Creek. Tom Malpass had his first mill just west  of the Ashton Creek Store on the Case property. Eventually it moved  down to north of Enderby.  Mr. Jerry Raboch and his sons started a mill at the junction of  the Hidden Lake and Trinity Valley roads. Later, this mill was moved  down below Ashton Creek along the river. Gerald Raboch took  over the management, and this mill later developed into the present  Riverside Forest Products Ltd. Their mill site is still visible, but not  in use at this time.  Some of the other mills included Baird brothers at Baird Lake;  Dave Jones at Hidden Lake; Joe Kass at Noreen Lake; Widmarks in  Trinity; August Lutz on the Halfway; and Roily Hill in Enderby.  By the late 1950s, the industry started to change again when  logging became more mechanized with power saws, better cats to  build better roads, better trucks on those roads. Tree length skidding became possible. It became possible to truck the logs to mills  more easily.  Possibly the biggest influence on the industry at this time  was the adoption by the government of the working circle and quota  system for the allotment of timber. Until this time, most Crown-  owned wood in the area was sold at open auction. With the heavy  competition of so many mills, often the price was overbid and no  one made any money at it. With the new rules, the holders of  rights in a certain area were given advantages over other bidders.  This stabilized the industry and assured the larger mills a steady  supply of wood. Soon the sawmills moved back out of the woods  and became larger and more efficient. A boom in the industry  took place that has lasted for decades. These same rules are what  the United States government is objecting to with our trade talks  today.  Loading logs, Mabel Mtn. 1966. (Courtesy Enderby Museum) THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN THE ENDERBY LAKE AREA  With the mills moving out of the valley, more focus came on  the logging contractor. Three of the best known and longest lasting contractors were Baird Brothers, Don Dora Logging and Kingfisher Sawmills. Baird Brothers was owned and operated by Osburne  (Ossie) and Audrey Baird. Don Dora Logging was owned and operated by Fred Chantler. Kingfisher Sawmills had been purchased by  George Hagardt and Clarence Karras when the mill shut down,  and they turned it into a logging company.  In the 1960s and 70s, many more changes took place in the  industry. Clear cutting and reforestation became the responsibility of the tenure holder. Safety standards became far more stringent. I can remember as a young man going off to work by myself  Logs in the river, spring 1964. Located just above Schalin's driveway. (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  for the entire day making cedar poles. If you injured yourself seriously no one would have known for hours. First aid attendants  and emergency transport vehicles became necessary.  New equipment came to the woods. Rubber tired, articulated steering four wheel drive skidders were used to move the  trees to the landings. There were new types of loading equipment.  The trucks and roads just kept getting better.  With the construction of a road along the east side of Mabel  Lake in 1963 and the closure of river driving on the Shuswap in  1967, water transportation for logs became a thing of the past. I  was able to take part in a few log drives in the 1960s, but it was  different. We had outboard motors on our boats and had to wear  life jackets. The old timers never had those advantages.  The last tugboat on Mabel Lake was operated by Lumby Timber Company. It towed booms of logs from Noisy Creek Bay to the  south end of the lake. The logs were then loaded onto trucks and  28 ohs THE FOREST INDUSTRY IN THE ENDERBY LAKE AREA  hauled into Lumby. The tug was named the "Noisy Mabel". I thought  it was very appropriate because it was powered with a two-cycle  G.M.C. diesel motor that you could hear for miles.  In the 1970s and 80s, more sawmill consolidation took place,  and bigger and more specialized mills were built. The plywood  plant in Armstrong and the pulp mill in Kamloops are only two  examples. New close utilization standards were put into practice  which resulted in less waste; instead of cutting your tree down to  an eight inch top, you had to go down to four inches. Wood that  had formerly been burnt was chipped and sent to the pulp mill.  Enderby started to lose its sawmills. The first to go was the  Armstrong Sawmill in town. Then Riverside moved away. The  Gansveld (the former Malpass) mill shut down after it was purchased by Riverside. Later, the Mabel Lake Shingle Mill closed.  The only two plants that have survived are Paragon at Grindrod  and North Enderby Timber. They have specialized in cutting and  utilizing cedar logs.  In the 1980s and 90s, there was much more concern about  the environment. Now the object is to remove the timber with the  least amount of disturbance to the soil and water as possible. Logging blocks are smaller, and the types of logging are more restricted.  The steep slopes must be logged by highlead methods and even in  some cases by helicopter.  Now, logging on good ground is more mechanized than ever.In  stands of smaller timber, a faller/buncher cuts and bundles the  trees. They are then picked up by a grapple skidder and taken to a  landing. A log processor then limbs, bucks, sorts and decks them.  Later, a button head loader loads them onto a truck. All these machines except the skidder are mounted on excavators. Three or  four men can do the work it used to take twenty to do. As a result  of this mechanization, there aren't as many jobs in the woods any  more.  Over the past fifty years that I have worked in the bush, I  have worked with and for many wonderful people. During the  first three decades, we were always building roads into new stands  of timber and looking over the next hill. In the last few years, I  noticed there were no longer new places to develop, and what you  see is what you have got. Another thing I have noticed is the return to horse logging, on a very small scale in some specific sites.  Also new, very small and portable one- man sawmills have been  developed. These no doubt will only be small contributors to the  industry in the future, but it is interesting to see their return.  ohs 29 Never A Dull Moment  My 60-Odd Years Living in Kelowna  By Sam Pearson (1984)  Ed. Note: This article was written over sixteen years ago.  It is interesting to  see how history has evolved in the meantime.  Forward  After many years of prodding by my family and friends, I  have now decided to accede to their wishes and write my  memoirs for whomever has the time and inclination to read  them. Due to the diversification of my various pursuits in trying to  make a living in the Okanagan paradise, I must divide my writings  into several sections, which may appear to be a separate life, but  really is only one facet mixed with one or two others. Never one to  live a simple life, there was usually more than one thing "-on the  go" at any one time.  Early Days in and Around Kelowna  My first glimpse of Kelowna was in April, 1920, when my  mother and I and my elder brother disembarked from the S.S.  Sicamous at the west end of Bernard Avenue. As usual, most of the  people who happened to be on the main street (that's about the  only street there was) came to the wharf for their daily thrill and to  ogle at the new settlers (us). My father, also named Sam, had come  earlier, and so met us at the boat with horse and buggy. I remember that some of the trees were in bloom, so it must have been near  the end of April. What a lovely drive it was to the north end of  Glenmore, where my father had purchased ten acres on Scenic  Road. This was in the great days of real estate promotions on land,  particularly orchards.   The promotion was to buy ten acres and  Sam Pearson, Senior, and his wife, came to Canada from England. He worked  on a ranch in the Coldstream Valley before moving to Kelowna. The author,  Sam Pearson Junior, was born in Vernon, and died on July 12,1985, in Kelowna.  He was survived by his wife, Margaret (nee Dunnett), sons Al and Lome of  Kelowna, and daughter, Nonie, of Kamloops, and their families. As of this publication, these families consist of seven grandchildren and six great grandchildren.  30 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  Sam Pearson. (Courtesy Margaret  (Dunnett) Pearson McComb)  plant it to trees. "Keep it for ten years  (the time to grow a bearing tree) and it  will keep you." Nothing, of course,  could be farther from the way it happened.  Having bought the orchard without  seeing it, my father was unaware that  he had bought the worst frost pocket in  Glenmore, only to be exceeded in this  respect by a small part of the Rutland  Flats.  Anyway, after getting to our new  home (a one- room shack and a tent to  sleep in), from my four-year-old point  of view this was a great lark. There  was no water, except that which came  out of the irrigation pipe, which was  shut off in October. There was no electricity, in fact, no nothing compared to  today.  Well, when the first winter came, we realized that the roads  were just dirt. When the snow melted and the frost came out of  the ground, the roads were quagmires. The mud would suck your  footwear off. The buggy ruts were eighteen inches deep. In fact,  all the roads in Glenmore were bad, and the government at that  time would not gravel them. The result was that the residents got  together in 1922 and formed their own municipality. This was the  only way to get the roads fixed - do it yourself. Where the money  was to come from was another matter Most of the roads got a  smattering of shale hauled by team and wagon owned by the taxpayers who "worked off" their taxes by hauling shale once or twice  a year. All loading and spreading was done by 'Mexican dragline'  (shovel and muscle). Little did I know at that time that some thirty  odd years later, I would be taking care of these very same roads for  the municipality.  The years went by, and regularly every spring the frost would  come at blossom time and take half the crop or more. This occurrence may seem strange now as it hardly ever freezes at blossom  time any more. In fact, the whole Okanagan weather pattern has  changed, whether for the better or worse, is a matter of opinion,  based on where you work or play. More on this subject later.  Schooling for us youngsters was provided by the Glenmore  School District in a one room school located where Cliff Rojem  now (1984) lives just south of the Glenmore Irrigation District works  ohs 31 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  yard. There was one room, eight grades, one teacher and lots of  fun. We walked to school and back. I had to walk one and a half  miles to Grade One and run the gauntlet, in winter, of girls ready to  stuff snowballs down the necks of the smaller ones (like me). I  survived three years of that, and then we were all bussed to Kelowna.  It was the first school bus in the Kelowna area, and remained this  way until all schools were made into consolidated districts many  years later.  There wasn't any electricity until 1933, but we managed to  get the house wired for a couple of bulbs, although it was many  years later before we got a refrigerator. Telephone came sooner on  the old party line system (everybody listened in).  Domestic water didn't come to North Glenmore until 1946,and  so in the meantime we filled cisterns with irrigation water to last  the winter months. As we didn't have modern homes (no bathrooms and water closets), water consumption was kept to dishes,  laundry and Saturday night baths. We did have a well for a great  many years, but the water was so hard that it was unfit to drink,  and needed copious amounts of expensive soap. We did use it to  keep our dairy products and meat cool, as we lowered pails into  the well when we needed something cooled.  The south part of Glenmore, as far as what is now Mountain  Avenue, had water supplied by arrangement with the City of  Kelowna via a four inch steel main starting at Bernard Avenue and  Glenmore Street. After World War Two, the people in the north  area decided that they should have a good supply of domestic water, and so started proceedings. In the meantime, the Department  of Veterans Affairs had acquired some seventy-five acres from the  Bankhead Orchard Company. This was dry farm land with many  ponds and sand hills. It is now the Highland Drive area. For a very  modest amount, this was subdivided into one acre holdings, complete with homes, and sold to veterans. A six inch main was installed at Glenmore Street and High Road and proceeded easterly  to North Highland Drive, where it was reduced to four inches and  served the north side of the tracks. No connection was made under the railway to connect the new extensions. Many years later,  this chore was to be completed by my two-man crew and me at five  o'clock on a Sunday morning. We had to have the track replaced  before noon or else the heat of the sun would expand the rails and  they wouldn't go back in. With the help of the entire railway maintenance crew, we just made it in time.  Several years after the domestic water was extended to the  Bankhead area, a parallel system of irrigation water was installed,  as the domestic lines were hopelessly inadequate to supply the  32 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  water demands of the thirsty sand hills. This system started (and  probably still exists) in the center of the Parkinson Recreation Centre soccer fields. Now that the Bankhead area was well supplied  with water, sights were set on the northern extension. My father  was Reeve of Glenmore at that time (1946). Little did he know that  his youngest son, some nine years later, would inherit the maintenance of the worst domestic water system in all of Canada. The  cost of the nine-mile extension was $45,000.00 spread over one  hundred-odd new customers. This system was installed by the  use of the first backhoe in the area, a large cable-operated machine  brought in for the job. As there were no other underground services and no rocks in the area, the pipes were laid with great expediency, and, as it turned out later, not too much care in handling.  The pipes were wood stave with wire wound and dipped in tar and  pitch to protect the steel wires from corrosion. At that time, the  engineers forgot that alkali (a high soil content in the area) was  "murder "on steel. During the hauling and storing of the pipes,  much of the tar covering got chipped off, thereby laying bare spots  of wire ready for the ravages of alkali. It would eat through the  wire in five to ten years and break, letting the pipes open up from  the pressure inside (one hundred thirty pounds in some areas).  The result was that you had a massive 'blow' that would drain the  small reservoirs in two hours.This long nine miles was a one-way  system, no loops or back feeds. If the 'blow' was in the south end,  everybody in the north was soon out of water. In fact, it got so bad  that most people kept water on hand at all times. Not only that,  but the wooden pipes had been made out of random length boards  and butt-jointed to achieve the right length. Instead of one board  going the full length of the piece of pipe, it could have one or two  joints in it. The strength of the joint must have relied on the glue  because they wouldn't hold water for love or money. Soon after  the system was installed, it required two men working full time to  fix these leaks. This task was done by hand as the district did not  have a backhoe and, in fact, there wasn't a backhoe in the area to  do this until I made one in 1953. By 1953, it was obvious the District had been 'taken for a ride' by the pipe company, and they  agreed to supply free an amount of cement asbestos pipe made in  Italy. Thus, in 1954, some of the worst wood pipe sections were  replaced by this fancy new pipe. The solution was at hand. By this  time, the water loss through leaks greatly exceeded what was being  used by the residents.  This wasn't the end of the story - I started to work as Superintendent of Works for Glenmore in October 1955. We had an early  winter and the crew, (now one other man and I) spent nights ploughing snow with our one truck and sanding in the daytime. This kept  ohs 33 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  up for about three weeks of cold weather. Then, in the sandy areas  in the south of Glenmore, pipes started freezing in the ground.  Some people had no water for a week. As all the lateral lines were  galvanized iron, of small diameter, and had not been buried very  deeply, they froze in one place while we were thawing in another.  Well, we got past that, but guess what! Our fancy new Italian pipe  started leaking in the joints as the rubber rings hardened with the  cold water and lost their grip on the pipes and slid out of the collars. One morning, we counted twenty-eight leaks in one short  section. The pipe company couldn't believe it, and said this pipe  was used all over the world without any trouble. One cold morning, we removed a couple of rings, and put them in the freezer.  They still were as hard and flat as iron a month later. The company paid, at its expense, to replace all the rings. Glenmore was  the first district to use transite pipe (cement asbestos). This was  the same as the Italian pipe, but had different joints. Shortly after  this, this type became very popular for water and sewer. The Johns-  Manville salesman said he would come and show us how to lay  this new pipe, as one had to be very careful to bed it in sand and  see that the collar rings were in properly. To do the job, we had to  cut into a six-inch wooden main line. We told everyone the water  would be off for awhile. We chopped into the main and inserted  the valves and tee, etc., ready to lay pipe, but no salesman showed  up. By the time he got there, we were well up the road laying pipe  at a great rate (correctly as it turned out). By the time (1960)  Glenmore was divided, part to the City and part to an unincorporated area, most of the problems had been solved. I am happy to  say that water systems have improved since then. However, once  in a while, I read of blowouts. Then I know exactly how the repair  crew feels, especially when it happens on New Year's Eve, as it  happened to me once.  Orchard Pest Control  Much has been written about how to control orchard bugs,  but little has been said about the people who actually applied the  "control stuff. My first recollection of orchard spraying came sometime in the 1920's. At that time, the only pests were aphids (green  and wooly). These we controlled by spraying with Blackleaf 40,  nicotine (found in tobacco) mixed with some soap and applied, in  some cases, by a hand- operated sprayer, much like today's home  garden sprayers. As this was extremely slow for an orchard, a power-  operated machine was soon developed (American, of course). For  years, the latest thing was a three horse power motor and a pressure pump, which produced about one hundred fifty pounds pres-  34 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  sure, fed from a 150 gallon wooden tank on four steel wheels. A  handgun was used at the end of a fifty foot hose. As the trees were  small and the aphids were usually at the tops, a tank of spray went  a long way. In fact, the hoses wore out from the outside from being  dragged through the dirt. They rarely leaked as the pressure was  too low. Then, one year, the dreaded coddling moth was found in  the Okanagan. It was unbelievable how fast this spread. Our primitive spraying methods were no match for this. We were told what  to do and when, but the equipment was inadequate and the fruit  growers totally ignorant of the proper way to spray a tree. My  father and I made a trip to Wenatchee, Washington, to see what we  could learn. The American growers were several years ahead of us  in combatting the moth. It was obvious we must apply about four  times as much spray and oftener. Thus, we had to get a larger  spray machine. By this time, the trees were over twenty feet high,  and it took a great deal of pressure to get the spray up to the tops  where the moths and worms were abundant. Now we had four  hundred fifty pounds pressure. This increase in pressure started  blowing hoses, necessitating an improvement. By this time, forty  percent of the crop was worm-eaten, and so, we didn't make much  profit. All this was in the "dirty thirties",when we were getting  about fifty cents for a box of apples. In 1936,1 took over the largest  and most powerful spray machine in the valley. A Hardie, with a  four hundred gallon tank would pump fifty gallons a minute, and  could run at one thousand pounds pressure with three guns. It  took a large team of horses to pull it. My orders were to do what I  wanted, but get control of the "coddlers". In one year, the moths  were cut to ten percent and held there, more or less, until I left to  join the army in 1943.  After the war, things changed so fast it was hard to keep up.  We all bought FOG (spray) machines called Bes-Kil. A product of  the war, it was originally designed to kill mosquitos in the Pacific  Islands, to control malaria using D.D.T (nowbanned for some years  as dangerous because of its residual effect). We used tons of D.D.T.  for about five years. There were eleven machines in Glenmore,  and there wasn't a bug left alive. We had to spray in the evening or  night when the air was still and the whole valley could be fogged at  once. This was great, as it really cut our costs.One man could  spray five acres in one hour versus the old way with three men  spraying five acres in one day. In our ignorance, we killed most of  the bugs, good and bad, but some of the mites became resistant to  D.D.T. Now we had no coddlers, but we had something equally  bad. Well, then we changed to more exotic materials with long  names and continued to kill everything in the orchards (and very  nearly some orchardists). We had not used respirators or masks for  ohs 35 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  protection up to now. I often wonder if D.D.T. is so bad, and yes,  how we survived about five years of breathing it, licking it off our  lips and not even covering our arms, which were covered with the  stuff most of the time we were actually applying the spray.  With the evolution of the speed sprayers, the Bes-Kils were scrapped.  They made darn good steam cleaners for garages. We stopped polluting everything in general, including the neighbours' children. I  should have explained that we had graduated to organic phosphates  with the Bes-Kils, and as we could not control the drift, innocent  people were subjected to some awfully dangerous chemicals. Now,  control is done in such a manner that the 'good' bugs (predators)  are more or less allowed to survive, thus assisting the orchardists  in pest control.  B.C.F.G.A. Participation  As my father had always been involved in public affairs, it  was only natural that I should follow in his footsteps. Around 1952,  I became involved with the Fruit Growers' organization at the local  level (Glenmore), then later on, the district council, and finally  the executive. The problems are the same today as they were then.  I always remember my father saying that he never made any money  growing apples, and I am afraid I said the same. However, for not  making any money, we survived and raised our families over a  period of forty years, and if we did have to take some outside work  at times, we really weren't too badly served by the fruit business.  The one singular happening that affected everyone in the  valley was the 1949-50 freeze. From the first plantings around  Kelowna in 1910 to January 1950, there had never been a killing  winter frost (lots of spring frosts). The 1949 crop was a large one  and all the trees were vulnerable to a cold spell. Most of the trees  were forty years old - past their prime, but still bearing tremendous crops. If an orchard didn't produce one thousand bushels per  acre on the average each year, it wasn't much of an orchard. One  of the reasons for this was that the trees were so high (twenty to  twenty-eight feet) in a great many orchards. It would be impossible to get pickers to do that kind of picking now. In early January  1950, the north wind started to blow and typically we knew a "Zero"  spell was coming, not an unusual happening. In fact, we expected  the "cold snap" every year in January. This time it didn't stop  getting colder, as every night it got down to -30 degrees Fahrenheit. The apple trees were popping the bark on their trunks like  rifle shots. The next day it warmed up to +34 degrees, but the  damage was done. Sixty percent of all the trees in the Kelowna  area were either killed or badly damaged. Added to that, in the Fall  36 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  of 1949, we had a bad mouse population. There were literally millions of them. They got hungry about the end of January, as they  had eaten all the grass under the snow, and so they started on the  trees. What the frost didn't get, the mice did. The growers received government aid to replace the lost trees. The trees that did  survive were the Macintosh variety. All others were virtually wiped  out, including all soft fruits and pears. That is why we still see the  odd orchard composed of old trees, now some sixty to seventy years  old. They kept the growers going while they rebuilt the rest of  their orchards. We survived this disaster somehow. It was suggested and tried by many to grow small fruits for quick return -  grapes and various other things. Very few of these suggestions  bore fruit (if you will pardon the pun) and most growers replanted  tree fruits.  This was the beginning of a completely different weather  pattern than we had previously depended upon. It still exists today. Cold struck again in 1955, and killed many young trees that  had been planted in 1950-51. In December 1964, there wasn't any  snow, and the north wind came again and froze all the buds of the  1965 crop. This was when I sold out. I had had enough of Mother  Nature's tricks.  As this chapter deals with my contributions to the fruit industry, it would not be complete without the sordid details, never  before written, of the one and only strike by the packinghouse  workers' union. It occurred in August of 1955, and as I was on the  Labour Negotiating Committee representing the growers, I was right  in the middle. The committee was comprised of seven members -  four from management and three from the growers. It was made  clear at the beginning that it would be up to the growers to settle.  In the end, they were paying the bills, as most of the packinghouses  were owned by them. If I remember correctly, the union was only  asking for an increase often cents an hour!!  The three committee members took their direction from the  B.C.F.G.A. executive (all were executive members), who in their  wisdom and at the insistence of our president (who was a very  forceful person) decided no wage raise was necessary. Discussions  had been going on for months, and it was a case of who (union or  growers) could bluff the longest. About the time of the Fall Exhibition in Vancouver, the union decided to go on strike, contrary to  what we had heard from the grapevine. Of course, this was in the  middle of the soft fruit season, and so some staff was needed in the  packinghouses to ship what was being brought in. The growers  banded together, and worked shifts themselves. This seemed to  work quite well, but what would happen if the strike went on until  apples were ready?   To my mind, the growers working the  ohs 37 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  packinghouses would not be able to cope. I, as a committee member, was subjected to severe pressure by large growers in the  Kelowna area to get the strike settled. However, I had to go along  with the executive directive of no wage raise. I took it upon myself  to make a tour of packinghouses to see how they were proposing to  deal with the apple problem. They all agreed it could not be done  with growers only. I had an undercover meeting with the union  negotiator, and he said they would settle for three cents an hour if  I would call a meeting right away. This I did, but it was again  rebuffed by the executive - imagine!! In the meantime, the apples  were getting riper and pressure from the growers was terrific. My  phone rang continuously. Finally, a large grower meeting was held  in Kelowna, where all the facts were presented and a resolution  was passed to empower the committee to settle the best way they  could. After this meeting, we settled the strike in about one hour.  However, the payoff came at the next growers' convention, (when  I resigned from all fruit industry positions because I had taken a  full time job with the District of Glenmore), when one of the negotiating committee, who didn't get re-elected to his executive seat,  made the remark that he had been 'axed' because of his stand during the strike. He was from Penticton, and it seems the majority of  his area would have given the union the wage increase in the first  place! After talking to the rest of the executive, they all agreed  with me, that we could have given the increase without any hassle.  At that time, we were retooling our handling methods and making  savings that we could have shared with the workers, and finally  did. It was a very unfortunate and, as it turned out, unnecessary  strike. I learned a lesson from this episode - speak your mind at  the opportune moment, or your ideas may get lost in the scramble.  Evolution of Fruit Handling  When we first came here in 1920, all apples were picked into  what was called an orchard box. It was larger than the bushel box  that was used for shipping the finished product. It was made to  last for years of rough use. However, there was not sufficient supply to pick the crop into on time, especially if there was a bumper  crop. So we gradually started to use the well-known 'apple box',  about twelve inches by twelve inches, by eighteen inches, made of  white pine and weighing about two and a half pounds. They were  made in the growers' orchards by 'boxmakers' working piece work,  usually for one cent a box. A good man could make one thousand  a day, and in the 1930's that was an extremely good day's pay,  although they sure earned it. I had to make boxes after the War.  The best I could do was five hundred a day. Of course, all these  boxes, when full, were handled, one at a time, from the trees to the  38 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  trucks and off again at the packinghouse. This was primitive by  today's methods, but labor was cheap, and we hadn't found abetter  way. By 1938, we had saved one handling at the packinghouse by  having the men come on to the truck decks and take six or seven  boxes at a time with hand trucks. Eventually, someone used pallets. Then we moved forty-eight boxes at a time with our tractors in  the orchard, and fork-lifts at the packinghouses. No real labour  was saved until the present -day twenty-five bushel bin was introduced in 1958.  *For many years, inventors had dreamed of a way to get away from the  ladders necessary to operate large trees. No one came up with a prototype  until about 1950 when Ted Trump of Oliver developed the Giraffe,which was  hydraulically-operated by the tractor motor required to tow it. The Giraffe  was comprised of two booms, hydraulic cylinders and controls. The idea was  to park the rig in the center of the square made by four trees planted thirty  feet apart and to work in a circle and either pick, thin or prune one quarter of  each tree in the square, and then move up to the next setting and so on. Being  of mechanical inclination, I bought one. It was good for pruning, but not  much else. It also tied up one tractor and was not too convenient to disconnect when the tractor was needed elsewhere. * Author's Note  One day, I got the bright idea that this monster had all the  parts necessary to make a hydraulically-operated backhoe. All that  was needed was to rearrange things. Working with the boys at  Kelowna Machine Shop, we produced a funny looking thing to dig  Glenmore Council and staff, cl957. Back row, left to right: Sam Pearson, Bill Baker, Jim Hayes,  Ichiro Yamamoto, George Straza. Front row, left to right: L. E. Marshall, Phil Moubray Victor  Haddad, Ruth Purdy. (Courtesy Margaret (Dunnett) Pearson McComb)  ohs 39 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  ditches, but it did dig them. I then mounted "the thing" on an old  truck and was in business. My first customer was the Glenmore  Municipality and their leaky pipes. What used to be a" drag" for  their crew became a picnic, and actually kept most of the leaks under control for a while. Outside of one large backhoe owned by  Chapman's, I had the only machine on this side of the lake. Well, I  didn't charge much, but managed to make a few dollars to augment  my income from my orchards (reduced after the 1950 winter freeze).  This machine lasted for years, but, of course, numerous modifications and repairs kept it going. When I went to work for the Municipality in 1955,1 stopped doing custom work, and did all the municipal work, which was increasing due to the residential expansion of  the south part of Glenmore. The boundary between the City and  Glenmore was Glenmore Street (now Gordon Drive). Capri Shopping Centre was started in 1958 with nineteen stores. By this time, I  had also become, along with being building inspector, assessor and  Superintendent of Works, a gas inspector. It sure wasn't a hum-drum  job. About this time, subdivisions were getting numerous. The City  of Kelowna did not have a subdivision bylaw. When one wanted to  subdivide, the city would put in all the services at its cost! It expected to recover sudivision costs through normal taxes. This, of  course, was taking a very shortsighted view of what could happen in  a period of rapid expansion. We, in Glenmore, could not do this, as  just the general tax from the whole of Glenmore would not cover the  cost of the Capri development. Glenmore Council drafted a bylaw  requiring the developer to pay for everything. We did the work in  most cases, and this allowed us to increase our crew to where we  had a more workable situation. By this time, my office duties had  increased to a point where I could no longer work with the outside  crew. When Glenmore "disincorporated" in September 1960,1 went  to work for the City in the Inspection Department. The rest of the  crew and staff were absorbed into the city and two of them are still  there (1984). The part of Glenmore not taken into the city became  unincorporated area and it enjoyed much lower taxes than previously. The water system was given to the Irrigation District to maintain, and so things worked out well in those respects. A busy year  was 1958 as I took on the Secretary position for the Centennial Committee. The project was to add a stage and washrooms to the  Glenmore School Activity Room, with the blessing of the School Board,  of course. Glenmore had a very active community club. It had  started in 1946, but the club didn't have a stage after the old school  burned. It is sad to see what has happened to the original activity  room and the stage. The room was cut in half and the stage, for all  practical purposes, was useless.  40 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  The first thing the City did after taking in part of Glenmore  was to adopt the old Glenmore subdivision bylaw. That was the  smartest thing they had ever done. It became the basis for the  present bylaw, which as far as I am concerned, goes too far in the  way of demanding services for some areas remote from the core.  The Road That Went Nowhere  Outside of Glenmore area residents, very few people are aware  of a planned one hundred foot wide right-of-way through the valley with its northern end near the large gravel pit south of the  airport. Its southern end was at Burtch Road and Highway 97. The  land was all purchased and part of the road built - the straight  stretch in Glenmore. That's as far as it got. The rest is lying vacant  and probably will remain the political blunder it was for a very  long time. The idea of a secondary route to the north was good,  but the location was wrong. At the present time (1984), the city is  trying to get a truck route to the north end industrial area. This  route would have provided a connector at High Road. However,  this year of planning by-pass roads was also an election year. All  the merchants, and there weren't many at that time along Highway 97, made a lot of noise about losing business, so in order to get  their support, the by-pass was abandoned, at least for the time being. Not many years thereafter, Highway 97 was widened to four  lanes and pretty soon will have to be six-laned because the speed  limit is now fifty miles per hour. With all the control lights that  there are, it is a traffic nightmare, to say the least. This could have  been largely eliminated by constructing the Glenmore by-pass years  ago. Of course, it should not have started at Burtch Road , but at  Bernard Avenue, with a truck route at High Road. Subsequently,  the right-of-way past the Doctor Knox Junior Secondary School was  given to the city, and forever the by-pass route has been lost. Unfortunately, this was only the first of many planning (or lack of)  errors made in this area.  Early Day (Relative) Planning in the  Kelowna Area  I served two years on the Glenmore Council in 1950 and 1951.  At that time , community planning was first introduced to the area  by Professor Peter Oberlander. I was delegated to attend his seminar, and became really interested in the function. When I became  Superintendent in 1955,1 had the opportunity to carry out some of  my ideas in a small way, as I was limited to the Glenmore area. At  OHS 41 NEVER A DULL MOMENT  the time, High Road was to have been a truck route, but was changed  many years later to send the gravel trucks down Bernard Avenue  and through many blocks of residential areas. Voters pressured  again! As Approving Officer for the Glenmore District, I had much  to say about how the many subdivisions were to be laid out. After  1960, when the City had taken over new land around the High  Road area, it appeared that it now had some vacant land for housing development, which was why the boundary extension had been  done in the first place. Unfortunately, most of the vacant land was  owned by one family who, for various reasons, did not elect to  subdivide immediately. Most of this land still(1984) remains vacant (orchards) at this writing. It wasn't very long until the Capri  and Bankhead areas were fully built upon, so newcomers and developers had to look elsewhere for lots and land. The key to development at that time was availability of domestic water. There were  only three systems in the area: City of Kelowna, North Glenmore  and Rutland. The North Glenmore system was too small to take on  any more services, and so one had the choice of Rutland or some  area where one could get a good well. This explains why you see  these small subdivisions spotted here and there throughout the  whole Kelowna area. Lack of planning control by the government  (B.C.) was to blame for this. The natural future expansion of the  City was to the south- west, but the landowners in that area had  formed the Local District of Guisachan to prevent such development. In 1966, the pressure for housing lots was getting pretty  high, but financing was tight. Private mortgage companies were  not interested, and N.H.A. lots had to have sewer, practically nonexistent, at least, until a developer put in a private sewage treatment plant in the Hollywood area and provided water from a good  well. He sold these lots for $2550.00 each, and you could buy one  with a home for $900.00 down and six and one- half percent interest with a twenty year mortgage. This was the beginning of the  housing boom era which lasted until the government legislated the  expansion of the City to its present boundaries, and also brought  into being the "Land Reserve Act" of 1972. Much was said about  good farm land being subdivided, but there would soon be none  left. It was not true (at that time), as a study showed that a great  deal of land that had been developed was very poor farm land due  to the lack of topsoil and/or a lack of irrigation water supply.  I have always dreamed that Knox Mountain should be a residential area (long before the land freeze). I was instrumental in  starting this idea with the Mount Royal subdivision being the first  one. My dream had a prolonged delay in that the third stage (at the  north end of Glenmore Street) took seven years to get past the City  requirements. This is hard to understand when a good supply of  water, as well as sewer mains, were adjacent.  Possibly this is the  42 ohs NEVER A DULL MOMENT  speed the City works, as Dilworth Mountain (Daon Development)  took eight years before the first stage was approved. Many years  ago, I sold about one thousand acres on Knox Mountain. The owners have been trying for years to get going, but still there are no  visible signs of advancement. Rather than eight or ten miles in  other directions or across the lake in the Westbank area, this is a  logical area to develop because of its proximity to the City core.  By the time the 'land freeze' hit, almost every parcel of land  in the Kelowna area was controlled by a speculator or developer.  Some lucky ones made the grade and developed their holdings, but  many didn't. The foregoing remarks are prompted by my old yen  for organized community planning being frustrated in some areas.  During my eleven years in Real Estate, again the planning urge,  it became obvious that no concrete planning was available for the  provision of school sites to take care of all the new housing developments. In fact, neither the City nor the Regional District had any  idea of siting, as it turned out. I had acted as agent for the school  district on a few occasions, usually after the proper site was no longer  available. So I set about to do something about it. I developed a  formula that worked for a few years, and as a result of this, sites have  been reserved or purchased in areas that will be developed over the  next ten to twenty years. The formula has had to be adjusted because of smaller families, but I believe that history will repeat itself,  and more children will be raised than at the present time. After the  need for new sites was taken care of, I then directed the School District Energy Conservation Program. This was a new challenge, one  which I was well qualified to do, with my background in the municipal field. I had stopped selling Real Estate at this time. The electrical  consumption was cut eleven per cent right away merely by turning  off lights when rooms were not in use, especially for one hour at  noon and as soon as classes left in the p.m. Sewage treatment costs  were slashed by about fifty percent by installing manual controls on  various fixtures. Most people do not know that in the City of Kelowna,  if you are a commercial user, the water coming onto the property is  metered, so you get charged for that amount going down the drain  to the treatment plant. As this cost is around fifteen times the cost  of water, some fairly large bills were being incurred. This was gradually reduced to a reasonable cost. Other savings were made in heating and cooling costs. The total savings were, as I remember, some  $50,000.00 a year. I recommended that some schools should be  closed. This is happening as this is written. It is unfortunate that  our sprawl development has necessitated closing core area schools,  while having to build new ones in the outlying areas.  All that is now behind me, but I am satisfied that I have, in  some small way, assisted in developing a better community for my  grandchildren to enjoy!  ohs 43 May I HfiVE This Dance?  The History of Two Salmon Arm Dance Clubs  By Mary (Ritchie) Wetherill  The Year 2001 marks the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Old Time Dance  Club and the eightieth anniversary of the Social and Dramatic Club. (Dance  and Social Club).  /"-^ almon Arm became home to two dance clubs during the 1920's.  ^^ It had been little more than thirty years since the first white  Ly settlement, but the community was thriving. There was no  lack of entertainment, concerts, dances and sporting events were  advertised each week. Visiting groups such as the Chautauqua  and Banff Orchestra made appearances, and The Farmers' and  Women's Institutes and service clubs were active.  Why then did two clubs o—<■—"— >—..—n—n—»—o«-^—,_"_,-  form in an already socially vi- j EMPRESS THEATRE - - SALMON ARM, B. C.  brant locale? Perhaps it was  this very vibrancy that created the desire of people of  like interests and talents to  band together.  Private parties were a  popular way to socialize, and  these parties resulted in the  formation of two "homegrown" clubs: the Social and  Dramatic Club and the Old  Time Dance Crowd.  Enthusiasm was obviously high in 1921 when the  Salmon Arm Observer headline proclaimed, "Salmon  Arm Labour Day Celebration  one of the most successful  ever held in the city". Vying  |    Wednesday and Friday  I April 27th and 29th  j   •! The Social and Dramatic Club Presents  — THEIR EIGHTH ANNUAL PLAY —  j PEG 0'MY HEART  A comedy in three acts by J. Hartley Manners  •   Produced by Special Arrangement with Samuel French  SALMON ARM CONCERT ORCHESTRA  Doors Open 7:30 p.m.   Curtain at 8:00 p.m.  Admission, Adults 50c;     Children, 25c  I   Seats may be reserved at A. Bedford's Drug Store at an  extra charge of10c  (Courtesy Salmon Arm Observer, April 12, 1932)  Mary (Ritchie) Wetherill is serving her third term as President of the Salmon  Arm Branch of the O.H.S. Born and educated in Salmon Arm, she obtained  her B.Ed, degree from U.B.C, and taught school for twenty-seven years - mostly  in the Peace River District.  44 ohs MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  for best-decorated car in the parade, the harvest theme of J.L.  Jackson's Maxwell won over the flower-bedecked vehicle of Mayor  Newnes. The Jackson decorating committee had obviously enjoyed their creativity. Anyone working with Jimmy Day, a house  painter by trade and a comedian by nature, could do little else. It  was in this euphoric mood that Mrs. Jackson used the prize money  to rent the Finn Hall for a party. She engaged Mrs. Mary Emma  Pickering to play the piano and invited her friends, many of whom  were musically or otherwise artistically talented. They enjoyed  themselves so much they decided to meet once a month. This  group eventually named themselves The Salmon Arm Social and  Dramatic Club.  As the club evolved, the Finn Hall was no longer suitable and  a move was made to the Empress - the hall built by M.M. Carroll  above his plumbing shop and formerly used as the movie theatre.  The large stage was suited to the presentation of musical numbers  and skits that interspersed the dances.  According to an unsigned article in the Salmon Arm Scrap-  hook (probably written by Connie Tweeddale), literary meetings  were also held. Dances started early as the electrical plant shut  down at midnight unless the operator, Les Boutwell, could be bribed  with a plate of sandwiches and goodies to keep the lights on longer.  Drinking of liquor was not allowed, but the committees who hosted  the dances provided a sumptuous lunch presented in style. Each  member served on a committee twice a year, and on those occasions was allowed to invite two guests.  The members of the Social and Dramatic Club were no strangers to providing entertainment, and took part in plays for several  years before the organization is credited with sponsorship. Names  such as Mr. and Mrs. Eric Richards, Mr. and Mrs. J.L. Jackson, Mrs.  G. Cameron, Mrs. M.M. Carroll, Miss Munro, Miss Turner, Miss Eva  Ireland, Mrs. J.R. Tweeddale, Miss Senia Laitinen, Tom Prescott,  Albert Bedford, Jimmy Day, Jack Moir and Hal Pardy are prominent before and after May 1924 , when the Salmon Arm Observer  first referred to "The Club".  Three or four one-act plays were usually presented twice a  year to an audience of up to 250 invited guests. Some of these  plays were written by club members. On several occasions, a three-  act play was produced. At one such time, a free concert was given.  However, most of the time, there was a charge of twenty-five cents  for children and from fifty cents to seventy-five cents for adults.  Many people worked on the productions. Notable among them  were Les Farrow, Jack Moir and Gus Tweeddale who designed sets  and made furniture, Cyril Thompson, Jimmy Day and Jimmy  ohs 45 MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  Cameron who painted scenery, and Mrs. Cameron who was often  wardrobe mistress. Second and third generations involved in the  club plays included Syd Thomson, Roland Jamieson, Alister McKim,  Dora Springer, Frank Pardy, and Pat and Gordon Bivar.  During the 1930's, attendance at the plays dropped, and expenses were barely made. In 1936, when the Empress was declared  unsafe for large crowds, the club gave up theatrical presentations.  However, into the 1940's, many of the same people were active in  plays staged in the Gym Hall. The club moved its dances to the  Salmon Arm Women's Institute Hall, which had no stage. To reflect the change in emphasis, the club became the Salmon Arm  Dance and Social Club.  In the early years, the annual Masquerade Ball provided a  highlight of the season. The fun created became part of the folk  history of Salmon Arm. On one occasion, during breaks in the  dances, Jack Moir, an Englishman noted for his dry wit, dressed as  a Scott intent on curling down the floor with his bread loaf "stone".  Dora Springer was a mechanical doll who twirled and danced when  a string was pulled. George Shirley dressed as a skeleton, and Mr.  and Mrs. Les Jackson represented Old Mother Hubbard and her  cupboard.  In the 1950's, it became popular for couples to meet prior to  the dances. Drinking liquor at the dances was prohibited, but many  gathered beforehand with friends at each others' houses to have a  social hour.  The Melody Five, left to right: Doc. Ferguson, Cecil Sladen, Helen Shirley,  Reg Leonard and Carrie Tweeddale. (Courtesy Pat Shirley) MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  Dress was always of great importance, especially for the  women, as were the tablecloths, china, dainty sandwiches and fancy  sweets.  For many years, "The Melody Four" provided the music for  the club's dances and performed at its concerts. Piano was played  by Mrs. Everell and later by Mrs. Helen Shirley. Mrs. A.E. Tweeddale  played the cello and banjo, Ed Tweeddale the drums, Bud Tweeddale  the violin and saxophone. When Bud Tweeddale left, Doc Ferguson  joined the orchestra. The group was known as "The Melody Five"  when Cecil Sladen joined its ranks. During public productions of  the plays, the Salmon Arm Concert Orchestra under J.F. Doe, performed, as did the Lyric Orchestra, Mrs. Henrietta Kennedy and  Mrs. Margaret Springer.  Orchestras usually were engaged for the season, and included  were those of Frank Farmer in the 1940's, J. Kew in the early 1950's  and the Ford Orchestra in the late 1950's. In more recent times, a  variety of orchestras were used throughout the year.  The Social and Dramatic Club gained a reputation of being  elitist, and perhaps they were. The original members were the  business owners and professional people of the community. They  filled their membership with family, friends, and people whose  talents they could use. Many people did not have the time, money,  or interest to devote to either dramatic pursuits or the niceties of  society, but a closed membership in a small community was bound  to create an impression of privilege.  However, the second dance club to develop, the Old Time  Dance Crowd, was also very particular about the suitability of members. Also as a result of a private party, the club began in 1926.  Harry Farmer, a blacksmith in Salmon Arm since 1907, invited  friends to help him celebrate his forty-fifth birthday. They danced  at the Finn Hall and enjoyed the old time dances so much that  they continued to meet every three weeks, dancing to the music of  A. McPhail. In 1928, they elected an executive, drafted rules and  regulations, and moved their dances to the Salmon Arm Women's  Institute Hall.  The first president was J.K. Urquhart, vice-president, Mrs.  J.D. McGuire and secretary-treasurer, R.N. Bray. Committee heads  were A.H. Barr, J.C. Robinson, GA. Gobbett and Harry Farmer.  The committee heads were responsible for the program and refreshments for the dances. Each member served on a committee  once each winter and that night could invite two free guests. Membership was originally set at eighty, but increased the following  season to one hundred.  ohs 47 MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  Rules of membership were quite involved. New members  had to be approved. Fees for each dance night were originally set  at twenty-five cents for ladies and forty cents for gentlemen, but in  1934 these were changed to forty cents for single members and  seventy-five cents for a couple. The matter of collecting fees during the 1930's reflects the difficulties of the times. In 1930, a member was "stroked off the list" if fees were not paid for three dances.  By 1934, members were allowed to get a substitute with a signed  note and the appropriate fee. By 1937, members were required to  give three weeks' notice in writing to withdraw, and no member  could be re-admitted without full payment of arrears.  In the late 1930's, the name was changed to Salmon Arm Old  Time Dance Club, and rules of behavior were officially adopted.  Couples were not allowed to change partners during a circle dance  until the caller announced "all dance", and then they were instructed  to dance with the nearest person already on the floor. Propriety  was observed by the rule, "The circle is an introductory dance and  takes the place of making personal introductions". Convenors were  instructed to speak to anyone coming into the hall in an improper  condition, and all drinking of liquor of any kind inside the hall was  strictly prohibited. Smoking while dancing was not allowed. Anyone doing different dance steps would be put off the floor. It was  emphasized that "there was to be no jazzy dancing". The business  of having fun was taken very seriously!  The Old Time Dance Club has been doing many of the same  dances for seventy-five years. Waltzes, quadrilles, minuets, two-  steps, seven-steps, the Jersey, schottische, Log Cabin, reels, polkas, Lancers, Veleta and the Bon Ton were all dances done in the  thirties. In the 1950's the one-step, Rangers' Waltz, Rangers' Polka,  Lili Marlene, The Roberts, Varsoviana and Casey Jones were added.  The Fox Trot was not allowed until 1967. Mixers used have been  the Circle two-step, the Boston two-step and the Oklahoma mixer.  Some of the club members often met prior to the dances to  learn new steps to introduce to the members. Lois Cunningham  remembers her parents, Albert and Vera Laitinen, almost ready to  fight over how to do the Flea Hop. Apparently, because they could  not agree, this dance never did make it past the practice stage.  There are now approximately thirty-five dances done.  Evelyn (Minion) Garbutt tells of the enthusiasm brought to  the Quadrilles by the Scottish people from the Salmon River Valley. The Brookes, Garbutts, Hobbs, Jacksons, Patersons and Symes  gave enjoyment to the entire crowd with their hoots and hollers as  they met on the floor.  48 ohs MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  Members were expected to dress for the occasion. In the  1970's, the propriety of women wearing slack suits was questioned.  However, it was decided they should be allowed. Every spring, a  "Gingham Dance" was held, which provided an excuse for the  women to buy a new summer dress.  Elsie Tweeddale (now Paterson) became the only woman  president in the Club's history, and served both in that capacity  and as secretary for many years. The second president was Albert  Gobbett, who also made the first board on which to display the  order of the dances. His daughter, Winnie Cochrane, went to the  early dances and still attends. She learned dance steps from charter members Bert Cummings, Alf Barr and Albert Laitenin as well  as from her father.  Longest-serving president was the late George Blanc. Others  who served in that capacity were C.G. Callas, Sam Thompson, Don  Turner, Earl Hanson, William Blackburn, Jack Glen, N.S. Minion,  Steve Schaff, Harry Ockley, Louise Rolin, Tom Yerbury and Alf  Peterson. Between Alf and Edna Peterson, they have a record of  over twenty-five years' continuous service on the executive. Gene  Spence audited the club books for a long time.  Salmon Arm Social and Dramatic Club group in the Empress, cl930. Back row, left to right:  Jennie Miller, Marion Suckling, Marjorie Urquhart, Marguerite McCurdy - ? -, Marjorie Barr,  Alice Blair. Front row, left to right: Bill McDiarmid, Gordon Robinson, Syd Dolan, Bill Smith,  Gerry McPhail, Jack Wilcox, Jerry Walker. (Courtesy Salmon Arm Museum Archives) MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  Among those who took tickets at the door for many years  were Mrs. Harry Farmer and Marcia Dodds. Nancy Peterson has  recently filled that role. Ladies who looked after the kitchen were  Mrs. Harry Farmer, Mrs. Albert Laitinen and Mrs. Ina La Clare.  From 1928 to 1966, J. Kew's orchestra provided the music.  For years, the orchestra consisted of J. Kew and his brother Pearson  Kew. They each received five dollars for their night's work. A list  of musicians who have played for the dances would include Bill  and Elmer Maki, Keith MacPherson, Joe Howard, Earl Hanson and  Mr. and Mrs. Alex Syme. More recently, Jack Roth, Lloyd Smith,  Clara Anderson, Dick Ponsford, John Moroz, Laverne Moerike and  Lloyd Handley have provided the music.  The group met at the Salmon Arm Women's Institute Hall  until the property was sold in 1964 to Peter Ferguson of Ford-Mercury Sales. By that time, although the hall floor sloped to one corner, that didn't hinder the dancers. On one occasion, an earthquake shook the building, but only those in the kitchen noticed the  tremor. In following years, the club used the Salmon Arm West  W.I. Hall, the Salmon Arm Elementary School Gym, the Royal Canadian Legion, the Community Centre, the United Church Hall  and the Canoe Hall.  In 1938, it cost approximately $32 to put on a dance. This  price included the orchestra, the hall rent, lunch supplies and  kitchen help. By the 1980's,the cost had risen to $430. The club  has made donations almost every year, giving to the Grace Hospital, The Salvation Army, the arena fund and the local hospital. In  2001, the members gave $1000 to the hospital for cardiac equipment.  Both clubs are probably victims of their own success. Always more people wanted to belong than could be accommodated.  Each club had a waiting list. Very few younger people had an opportunity to join. As the members aged, they aged together, and  gradually many were unable to take an active part. By the end of  the 1980's, membership requirements were dropped by both clubs,  and dances were opened to the public.  The Dance and Social Club's music and dances have changed  with the times, resulting in a greater turnover of membership. No  record of the early executive has been found, but it is known that  couples in the 1950's paid $30 for the year. Now guests pay $30 a  couple for each of the six dances of the season while members pay  $120 a couple for the year. Any members may bring guests. Current  president is Marilyn Emmerzael; secretary is Sandra Jones and treasurer is Norma Sawada. The attendance has again grown, and dances  open only to the membership are again being considered.  50 ohs MAY I HAVE THIS DANCE?  The Old Time Dance Club has changed very little since its  inception. Even with no membership requirements, attendance is  down. It is intimidating to think of learning steps for each dance to  be done in an evening. However, the music sets the pattern, and  there are many eager teachers. To combat dropping attendance,  the club joined with the Enderby Old Time Dance Club alternately  to sponsor monthly dances. From a time when 116 people were  active members, attendance has dropped to approximately half.  A very successful 75th anniversary dance was held in March, 2001,  but the club has decided to be inactive for a year. It is hoped this  will not be the end of an era - just a time to rebuild.  Salmon Arm Old Time Dance Club 75th Anniversary - longtime members cut the cake; left to  right: Kathleen Blanc, Elsie Paterson, Mae Hanson, March, 2001. (Courtesy Mary Wetherill)  References:  Books: Minute Books of the Old Time Dance Club, Salmon Arm Scrapbook  Salmon Arm Observer  Interviews: Winnie (Gobbett) Cochrane, Evelyn (Minion) Garbutt,  Elsie Paterson, Alf Peterson  And many others.  OHS 51 Pioneering - fl Memoir  By F.E. McNair, M.D.  Introduction  This is the story of my part in the development of the Mental  Health Services in the Okanagan Valley. In the Spring of  1962, the Minister of Health assigned four positions to comprise the original staff of a Mental Health Centre in Kelowna. The  four included a psychiatrist director, a psychologist, a social worker  and a nurse. Office space was made available by adding a second  storey to the existing Public Health Building. I applied for and was  granted the director's position (at a reduced salary from what I had  been receiving as director of the Burnaby Mental Health Centre).  At this time, my wife, Margaret and I moved with our family  of five children to Kelowna. I have spoken of this assignment as a  "calling". Please understand that I heard no "voices" from beyond,  no spirit visitations. Rather, it was an honest appraisal of new work  to be undertaken and an assurance that my previous training fitted  me for this challenge that led me to accept the Kelowna position.  I was granted permission to have a private practice in addition to my civil service assignment, a circumstance both financially rewarding and essential to my status as a professional in the  community embarking on the creation of a new venture. For sixteen years, I spent thirty-five hours a week minimum in each position, often putting in ninety hours, and still had time for community activities and for my family.  Errly ProfessionrlCrpeer and Personal Life  During the Depression, I attended high school in Vancouver,  and subsequently graduated from UBC with a major in psychology. I entered McGill University the September 1939 weekend that  the Second World War started. On graduation, I enlisted in the army,  but discovered that I had tuberculosis, which changed my career  plans.  After my recovery from T.B., the Montreal hospitals were unwilling to employ me as an intern, and because of my interest in  psychology, I applied to Essondale Mental Hospital in B.C. The  Superintendent jokingly informed me that staffing seemed to be  As Dr. Frank McNair says, he wrote this memoir to record his part in the  development of the Mental Health Services in the Okanagan Valley.  52 ohs (Courtesy Dr. McNair)  limited to the physically impaired, the mentally impaired and ethnic minorities. In the 1940's, custodial care was the mainstay in the  mental hospitals, although therapeutic programmes were being  introduced. Available were: a programme for nursing staff, electro  shock, insulin coma and hydro therapies, plus occupational therapy  workshops.  Dr. Arthur Crease, Director of Mental Health Services, envisioned a change in legislation and treatment opportunity by having the Veterans' Building on the Essondale property converted to  an up-to-date clinic for patients. They would be admitted voluntarily for treatments, and those who had to be certified could be detained a maximum of four months.  The Crease Clinic was opened in 1950 with Dr. Arthur Gee,  the Director of Mental Health Services and Dr. Allan Davidson, the  Clinical Director. I passed my Certification Exam in Psychiatry in  1949, and that year became Assistant Clinical Director of the Crease  Clinic and Riverview Hospital. I was responsible for three major  advances: the elimination of restraint (at the price of lobotomies  done on persistently aggressive patients- about twenty in number);  the introduction of volunteers ( notably CMHA personnel, Jim Ward  and Gladys Pound) to the chronic wards; and the development of  the programme of open wards, both of which additions accelerated  the return of "normal" living patterns, such as casual dress and the  use of cutlery at mealtimes. Additional appointments at this time  brought the medical staff up to ten.  So much was going on during the 1950's: the development of  paramedical professions, the movement of the equality of women,  the discovery in 1952 of chlorpromazine and other antipsychotic  medications, Dr. Spock and permissiveness, and the community  mental health movement in the U.S.A. Also, one noted the increasing concern for civil liberties, the attention to the contributions of  Freud with regard to unconscious motivation, Pavlov with regard  to conditioned reflex, and Watson with regard to behaviour therapy.  ohs 53 PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  While at U.B.C., I discovered the Student Christian Movement  (S.C.M.), a union of the Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A. and the Student Volunteer Movement on campus. It was known for its liberal theology  and its left-wing political views. In conversation with Robert Mackie,  then Director of the World Student Christian Federation, I remember him gently chiding me, "Remember, the first thing is to be a  good doctor!" I found lifelong friends in the S.C.M., both in Vancouver and in Montreal. One of this group was Margaret McKenzie. We  were married in 1945, and took up residence in a staff house on the  Essondale grounds, where we stayed until 1953.  Our first child, Thomas George, named for his two grandfathers, lived only six days, dying from the complications of a precipitate delivery. Eleanor was born in 1947, Lorrie in 1949 and Cathie  in 1951. To have better access to schools, we moved to Burnaby in  1953. We were fortunate to purchase a waterfront summer cottage  at Ocean Park, where we used to spend four summer months. The  family increased with Don born in 1954 and Barb in 1960.  I became Clinical Director at Essondale in 1953. The success  of the Crease Clinic, both in accessibility and effectiveness, allowed  for progress in bringing mental health into the mainstream of health  care. The location of the clinic on the Mental Hospital grounds  meant that the psychiatric staff divided its time between the Clinic  and the chronic wards, and thus improved the prospects of the  care of the mentally ill. New facilities became available: a recreation centre called Pennington Hall was erected on the grounds and  two rehabilitation houses were established in Vancouver. The first,  through the efforts of Ernie Winch, MLA, was for women, and  named "The Vista". It was purchased in a public appeal and located  in Kitsilano (in spite of the objections of 486 neighbours). The second, named "Venture" was for male residents. Both gained acceptance and overcame stigma.  The Burnaby Mental Health Centre (now called Psychiatric  Services) opened in January 1958, in new premises at the corner  of Willingdon Avenue and Grandview Highway. This was a major  improvement in providing accessible mental health services on a  multi-disciplinary basis. Entry was by medical or social agency referral or on personal application. Office psychotherapy and Day  Hospital care were available five days a week. The Provincial Child  Guidance Clinic, which had been functioning for years out of a  renovated house on Twelfth Avenue, Vancouver, was incorporated  in the new building. It offered a travelling clinic to the Interior of  the Province, spending one week every six months in each of several B.C. urban centres.  54 ohs PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  In 1959, just after I was getting started in Burnaby, the U.S.A.  beckoned. I was offered the position of Medical Superintendent at  the Eastern State Hospital in Medical Lake, Washington, near  Spokane. One Saturday in that summer, we bundled our then four  children into our station wagon and drove to Spokane to inspect  the prospects. It was easy to refuse. Patient care in that mental  hospital was fifteen years behind B.C. In addition, Washington State  had a law which authorized detaining sex offenders in mental hospital, to be released only when the Superintendent would certify  the offender would not repeat.  In Burnaby, I learned a great deal about teamwork, as well as  learning to contribute to policy formation. It was a creative and  enthusiastic enterprise, and we introduced a system for evaluating  treatment results. Other professionals who contributed to this  progress should be mentioned here: Doctors Bill Powles, Ray  Parkinson and Alan Cashmore; Beverly Mitchell in Nursing; Alisson  Bailey and Barbara Holloway in Occupational Therapy; Lee Brown,  Business Manager; and headquarters staff, Alice Carrol in Social  Work and Charles Watson in Psychology.  We decided to take the Travelling Clinic time and modify it to  become an agent in the development of local services in several  interior communities. Accordingly, one travelling team would visit  the Interior of the Province every two months: fly into Penticton  on Monday, go by car to Kelowna on Tuesday, to Vernon on Wednesday, Salmon Arm or Revelstoke alternately on Thursday and  Kamloops on Friday.  We spent a full clinic day in each location, meeting over noon  hour or in the early evening with our local professionals, who were  keen to promote a local service. The team took the train down  from Kamloops to Vancouver on Friday evenings. On alternate  months, the team would go to Abbotsford and Chilliwack in the  Fraser Valley, then over to Trail, Nelson and Cranbrook in the  Kootenays. When Riverview Staff proposed using the Burnaby facility for visits following discharge, we insisted on those patients  being screened by our staff. As a result, a suite of offices on East  Hastings Street in Vancouver was rented for Riverview Staff to provide this follow-up patient care.  It was by my participation in the travelling clinics that my  interest was aroused in developing a mental health centre in the  Okanagan Valley. Why leave Burnaby? Marg's Dad thought that it  was a "goofy idea" to leave a good position, and head off "into the  sticks". In reflection, I would say that seventy percent of the decision was a matter of personal challenge. But, there were three other  factors, which I will rate at ten percent each. First, the "cold war"  ohs 55 PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  was very confrontational. Kruschev was threatening to put missile  bases in Cuba. If war broke out, cities would be the target for atomic  missiles. Second, I thought there were some obstacles to my becoming an independent adult, free of the matriarchal inclinations  of my mother, whom I loved dearly. Third, Marg and I had discovered Naramata Centre in 1952, and, for me, this represented a resource for renewal.  KELOWNR-   1962-1986  So, in 1962, we moved to Kelowna, and I now address myself  to the subject of these memoirs, namely pioneering. My colleagues  were Ish Holmes in Social Work, Dr. Keith Barnes in Psychology,  Mitze Montgomery in Nursing, replaced within the year by Delcie  Hill. (The names Hill, Holmes and Barnes sounded like a rural real  estate firm!)  From the onset, the health professionals and the community  at large made us welcome. We undertook to bring in a new resource and to integrate that resource with current health services.  I had the support and co-operation of the Director of Public Health,  Dr. David Clarke, and our nurse, Delcie Hill (later, Marie Gauthier)  worked with the Public Health Nurses.  I had the full co-operation of the doctors, being granted admitting privileges at Kelowna General, the Vernon Jubilee and the  Penticton General Hospitals. Hospital Administrator at KGH,  Charles Lavery, assigned four psychiatric beds on the medical ward.  This was soon increased to seven beds in an old building shared  with Pediatrics. Chris Sinclair, Superintendent of Nurses, named  Elsie Shpicula, Charge Nurse. The change in staff dress from uniform to casual presented a challenge.  I must name several of the doctors who were particularly helpful: Doctors David Whitbread, Ron Ellis (who covered the ward for  me when I was out of town), Cliff Henderson, Director of Continuing Education Gerry Stewart, Ewan Carruthers and Brian Plain. Ish  Holmes worked with the City and Provincial Departments of Social  Work and Probation Service. Dr. Keith Barnes worked with the school  teachers and counsellors. My area included the RCMP and the Courts.  As a team, we spent one week of each month on the road- going to  Penticton, Vernon, Salmon Arm, Revelstoke and Kamloops. That  meant an early start each day. After a year, we reviewed our achievements, and Keith and I wrote a paper showing that mental health  patients were no longer kept in a jail in Kelowna, and that the admission rate from the Okanagan Valley to Riverview Hospital had  been reduced from one hundred and fifty a year to fifty. Unfortunately, we had made no imprint on the number of suicides.  56 ohs PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  While at Burnaby, I had been appointed Assistant Clinical  Professor in the Faculty of Medicine at UBC, and had indications  that when I moved to Kelowna, a senior resident in psychiatry might  be named to my staff. Nothing came of that prospect. However,  through another route, Dr. Milan Gavanski, a Serbian immigrant,  was appointed for one year, and therefore had the opportunity to  complete his credentials and to be eligible to sit the specialty exam  in psychiatry.  By the second year, as the private practice was decidedly overloaded, I moved to a larger office to make a colleague welcome. I  paid visits to Seattle, Vancouver and Saskatoon, hoping to persuade  psychiatrists whom I had earlier worked with at Riverview to come  to Kelowna. Finally, I went to Montreal to see Dr. Phillip Ney, and  he agreed to do a locum for two weeks, before settling down in  Nanaimo. During his stay, I managed to have a hernia operation by  Dr. Jim Rankine, and to my dismay, Phillip stayed only one week,  then left to take up other duties. That was the week of the "Six Day  War" in Israel, and I managed to read Mitchener's The Source during my time off.  On another occasion, I remember spending a week in bed  with pneumonia, having driven home in haste from Vancouver,  covering the distance of the Hope-Princeton Highway non-stop in  four and one-half hours. Happily, our experiences "were not all  work and no play". Looking for recreation, we purchased a lot by  Lake Okanagan at Peachland, and arranged to have a pre-fab summer cabin built on the property. I joined the Kelowna Golf Club,  and in 1965, I made a hole-in-one! Indeed, I enjoyed many relaxing times with my fellow physicians.  At the time of the Montreal Exposition in 1967, Marg and I  took the whole family to Montreal, there and back by train. While  in Montreal, we spent a week at the home of classmate, Dr. Peter  Pare and his wife, Anne. Coming home, we had a stop at Toronto  with Ruth and Bern Ennals, and we visited at Niagara Falls. Bern is  a lifelong friend. At McGill, we shared a room in residence for two  years; he was studying for the Ministry. We agreed I would look  after his body, and he would look after my soul.  Subsequently, a psychiatrist set up practice in Kamloops, later  another in Vernon, and still later another in Penticton. Afterwards,  Dr. Ken Davies joined me as a colleague. We enjoyed a happy, compatible relationship. Referrals from family doctors, we soon learned,  were usually made on the following formula: "If a patient's need is  nurturing- ask for Ken; if a patient needs to be challenged - ask for  me - Frank."  ohs 57 PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  In the ensuing twelve years, the service grew, and Ken and I  recruited seven additional psychiatrists to an enlarged office. They  were: Drs. Barry Booth, Valerie Jones, Des Griffin, Paul Latimer,  Gerry Mittler, Grant Smith and David Wheelwright. By a move to  the former Nurses' Residence, the hospital ward at KGH increased  to nine beds. (KGH President at this time was Colin Elliott.) The  Psychiatric Unit was later enlarged to twenty-six beds by taking  over the renovated surgical floor. It was named the McNair Unit.  (Charge Nurse was Paul Hilder- or "if you really want to know what  is going on"- see Ethel McSorley, Clerk, Yvonne Topf, Head Occupational Therapist.) Meanwhile, the Mental Health Centre caseload  exceeded 300, many for follow-up care after hospitalization. Ken  took ill with multiple myeloma in 1982, but continued his consultant practice until ten days before his death, one year later.  In 1962, Kelowna had a population of only 10,500. The bridge  across Okanagan Lake had been up for four years, and tolls were  still being collected. Later that summer, the Rogers' Pass to Alberta  was opened. Initially, the economy of the Okanagan area was  largely dependent on a lumber mill and the tree fruit industry. A  number of independent businessmen had offices in the downtown  commercial area. I think there were six or eight lawyers in town,  and I was Doctor Number Twenty-eight. Twenty-four years later,  the population had risen to 85,000 in the city and 125,000 in the  Central Okanagan Regional District. Banks and investment houses  were located downtown. In the industrial area, there was a steel  fabricating plant and a truck assembly plant. Golf courses and ski  resorts had come into being, thanks to the great increase in tourist  facilities. Most noteworthy was the growth of residential areas and  the building of several shopping malls. The airport had been expanded, and in 1986, the Coquihalla Highway and Okanagan Connector were completed.  It was the Age of Aquarius- national health insurance, Martin  Luther King, Ronald Reagan and the market economy, dysfunctional families, feminism, the need for two incomes per family,  homosexuality out of the closet, psychopharmacology and much  more. In effect, the urbanization of a previously rural economy  had taken place. Corresponding social changes were in evidence.  Components on the social scene which provided stability included  the sixty-or so- churches, the Provincial Departments of Public  Health (Dr. David Clarke), Human Resources (Aubrey Reid), and  Probation (Carol Beaver), the RCMP and community organizations  such as Teen Town and the Boys' and Girls' Club (Herb Sullivan).  Okanagan College had been established. Social agencies were expanded as will be described below. KGH had become a referral  centre for cardiology, cancer and psychiatry.  58 ohs PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  Our basic multi-disciplinary team met monthly at our house  for supper. We would be joined by some of the hospital staff and  fellow workers from the district. (We met on the evening of the  Kennedy assassination, and daughter Barbara, now age three, came  into the livingroom to announce, "LBJ is a good guy, he didn't 'shot'  nobody".) These monthly meetings helped to bond us as friends.  Early on, Mayor R.E Parkinson had named a Social Planning  Council: Archbishop Ted Scot, Ish Holmes, Lionel Wace and me.  The Council set a Community Action Planning (CAP) Day one Saturday. About two hundred people, representing community agencies, came together to prioritize community needs. We agreed that  the prime concern was for family counselling. After a delay, Marsha  Warman, a volunteer with the CMHA prepared a report which  formed the basis for the Kelowna Family Centre. It recommended  that the Centre incorporate as a Board and secure a government  grant.  The infrastructure for a social support network is complex.  Social planning brought into being the first group living home for  boys, which was located in our neighbourhood; a storefront school;  crisis line; the Community Service Directory; Advice Services  Kelowna (ASK), and much more. Lionel Wace drew together a group  of prominent citizens to establish the Central Okanagan Foundation, an endowment for charitable funds to be used for community  benefit. Many people volunteered. Ken Harding called for donations to provide bursaries for high school graduates proceeding to  college. The idea was given a resounding response. A drop-in centre for street people was opened (L. Thirkle). One summer weekend, a flood of marijuana and LSD hit Kelowna. Many young people had toxic reactions and were hospitalized. Subsequently, Dr.  David Stewart and his wife provided their own home for aftercare  for a score or more young people.  Our Mental Health team was involved a little or a lot in a  variety of developments. The Elizabeth Fry Society opened a branch  which provided help for women in difficulty with the law. A Chaplain was appointed to the hospital (a project of Rev. Clyde Woollard).  A hospice group was organized and a palliative ward was opened (a  project of Dr. Mike Banwell). A methadone treatment project was  set up by Dr. Ken Davies. A non-profit organization under the  CMHA, chaired by Gordon Wilfert and aided by MLA Cliff Serwa,  was established. It consisted of two residences for patients ready  for independent living. One was named Davies House, the other-  McNair House.  ohs 59 PIONEERING - A MEMOIR  Ours was a busy household. Marg joined with other parents  to form a Co-operative Kindergarten, served on the Social Planning  Council and was elected to two terms on the School Board, the last  two years as Chair. My own activities included: a term as President  of the KGH Medical Staff, President of the Rotary Club, Chairman  of the Board at First United Church and Chairman of the Board at  Naramata Centre. I was defeated in a two-way contest for presidency of the Canadian Psychiatric Association- thank goodness!  In the context of the welfare of the whole community, so  many people gave of their efforts in these endeavours. I am honoured to have been one of them. On my official retirement in 1986,  I was made a Freeman of the City of Kelowna by Mayor Dale Hamill.  Conclusion  I wrote this memoir to record my part in the development of  the Mental Health Services in the Okanagan Valley.  What could I offer? On the one hand, I had specific knowledge and  experience; elements of the specialty of Psychiatry; mental mechanisms; human relationships; personal growth; and familiarity with  psychotropic medications. Therapeutic effectiveness depends upon  trust, which must be built up. Sometimes, firmness is required,  particularly if there is need to take charge of the situation with an  involuntary psychotic patient.  On the other hand, psychotherapy is a "give and take" affair.  My kind of psychiatry was easy to accept. The language was commonplace (no psycho-babble). It represented a combination of mind,  body and spirit. It was consistent with research and new advances  in an era when the "me first" philosophy seemed to be taking precedence over concern for the common good.  I would emphasize that great personal fulfillment comes in  giving service to others, particularly in team relationships.  There are many rewards in the practice of Psychiatry, though one's  clientele is often under a veil of anonymity. In this regard, I recall  a social evening at the golf club when a former patient introduced  himself with the remark, "You must miss out on much of the credit  for what you do. It's a lot easier to say, 'That's my obstetrician'-  (pointing to Dr. Jim Dukelow) than to say, I want you to meet my  psychiatrist."  This pioneering story is incomplete without reference to  house calls and other anecdotes of the perils of being a "PK" (Psychiatrist's Kid). However, that must wait for another chapter!  60 ohs When Grandpa Was Young...  By John West  y life began on July 25, 1925 at the Jubilee Hospital in  Vernon, B.C. The town and surrounding district had a  population of about 5,000. My father, John George (Jack)  West, was employed by the Vernon News, a pretty good weekly  newspaper. His job as Mechanical Superintendent made him responsible for the printing of the paper and the job printing work,  which made most of the money for the owners.  Entry:  JANUARY 25,    1991.  Vernon is one of the three  main towns (now cities) in the  Okanagan Valley of British Columbia. (The others are Kelowna  and Penticton.) Vernon was a  good place to spend formative  years. Even though my sister,  Sharon and I grew up during the  Great Depression, we were relatively well off. My father had his  job throughout the "dirty thirties",  as they were called, and although  he received only a modest salary,  we had a comfortable home and  plenty to eat. During that time,  many families in all parts of  Canada and the U.S.A. did not.  We were particularly fortunate to  live in an agricultural community, where farming, (mostly  John West, age 12.  (Courtesy the author, John West)  After spending his early years in Vernon, graduating from Kelowna High  School, serving in the Royal Navy in World War Two, working in the advertising agency business, John now leads the life of an active retiree. This involves volunteer work, enjoying the successes of his four sons and watching  his grandchildren grow up. After a visit to Vernon and Kelowna in the fall of  2000, he has renewed his interest in Okanagan history. The following are entries from his diary.  ohs 61 WHEN GRANDPA WAS YOUNG.  fruits and vegetables), and  lumbering were the main  sources of income. Every  Fall, my Dad, whom we  called "Dadda" when we  were little, would buy directly from the farmers (often Chinese or Japanese) all  manner of vegetables, apples  and pears. These we would  store on racks in the basement of the house, well away  from the coal and wood-  burning furnace. When we  got a sawdust burner during  the early part of World War  Two, we thought that we  were becoming very modern  indeed.  Entry  February 10  1 7 71  There are photos,  some of them in old albums,  which show how and where  we lived as children. Shortly  after I was born, my father  purchased a house on a large  lot. Sharon and I grew up  there until 1942, when we  moved to Kelowna, where  my father had taken the position of Advertising and  Public Relations Manager for  B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, the  marketing agency for all the  fruit production of the  Okanagan Valley, (...more  about this and our life in  Kelowna later.)  Sharon and I enjoyed  our childhood, at least, I did.  Living on the edge of town,  there was lots of room to  SAWDUST BURNERS, as you would expect,  burn sawdust - not the fine stuff you get in  a carpenter's shop - but more the coarse  sawdust you get from a chain saw. This is  fed to the furnace from a hopper. (There  were several sawmills in the district, which  sold to homeowners, what would otherwise  be a waste product.) The sawdust was delivered to homes in big box trucks, just as  heating oil is delivered in tank trucks these  winter days.  Usually, the sawdust was dumped  through a basement window, into what in  earlier time had been the coal chute. It was  usual for the boy or boys in the family to  keep the hopper full and generally to take  care of keeping the "home fires" burning.  Lighting a sawdust burner was a tricky  business, involving getting a small fire of  newspapers started on the grate, and then  slowly trickling sawdust onto the fire until it was going well. After that, you would  fill the hopper, which was designed to feed  the sawdust slowly onto the fire grate. If  you were not patient, and tried to put too  much sawdust onto the fire too soon, the  fire would start to die. What do you do  when you want to keep a dying fire going?  You blow on it, right? It is not a good idea  to do that with a sawdust burner, as many  of my school friends and I learned. When  the fire started to die in the sawdust burner,  smoke and gases would build up in the fire  box. When you blew on the grate to get the  fire going, all too often those gases would  explode, sending sparks from the fire right  into your face. Many the kid, myself included, would appear at school on a winter morning with singed hair and eyebrows  and very red faces. It didn't help that all  the other kids in the class would laugh and  "give you the gears". As I remember, nobody was seriously hurt, but it was certainly one of the discomforts boys of the  time and place endured, ^  62 ohs WHEN GRANDPA WAS YOUNG.  play in the fields and the gulleys beyond. The boys in the area  organized in gangs for elastic band gun wars, which were played in  these fields. The guns were made out of shaped wooden sticks with  clothes pegs on the handle. The bullets were elastic bands cut from  rubber inner tubes. One end of the band was stretched to be held  by the clothes peg at the handle. By squeezing the clothes peg, the  elastic band was "fired". Sometimes, we would knot several bands  together for use on a really big gun. The "bullet" bands would often  travel ten or fifteen feet!  When Sharon and I were young, deliveries of milk, bread,  etc. were made by horse and wagon in the summer and by horse  and sleigh in the winter. In the summer, blocks of ice for the cooler  chests, which were used in those days to keep perishables cool  during hot weather, were also delivered by horse and cart. (I must  have been around ten when we got our first electric refrigerator.)  The iceman would chip a small block of ice from a very large block,  which always resulted in some chips. Seldom did you see an ice  wagon without a bunch of kids following along to ask the iceman  for chips to lick. Horses were not the only "beasts of burden" used  for delivering goods at that time. The Chinese "vegetable men" carried baskets hung from each end of a long pole, and balanced over  their shoulders. The baskets were filled with all kinds of vegetables, which the men sold from door to door. (Somewhere among  my papers is a copy of a substantial university term paper entitled,  Distribution of Perishable Goods in Canada. The frontispiece of the  document is a hand-coloured picture of a Chinese Vegetable Man  taken in Vancouver Chinatown in the mid- 1940's. (As an aside,  that term paper, along with some reasonably good exam marks,  earned me the Woodward Scholarship in Marketing at U.B.C. in my  senior year there...more about my time at U.B.C. later.)  I can't remember when we didn't have a car. The first one  was an open four - seat Chev with a canvas top and no windows. It  was strictly for summer use. Later, my father got a second - hand  Model A Ford coupe with a ramble seat, which Sharon and I enjoyed riding in with our dog, Rusty, a rust-coloured cocker spaniel.  On Summer Sundays, we would often drive to the public beach at  Kalamalka Lake for a swim. As I grew older, I spent a lot of time at  that beach, taking swimming and lifesaving lessons. I received my  Royal Life Saving Society Bronze Medal when I was fifteen. Swimming was the only sport in which I really excelled; although like  most kids growing up in small Canadian towns, for a couple of  summers, I did play different sports, including cricket. Yet, my major  sports interest always seemed to be aquatic .  ohs 63 WHEN GRANDPA WAS YOUNG..  KHS Reunion, October 2000; left John West, right Hal Shugg. (Courtesy the author, John West)  When I was around thirteen or fourteen, my father gave me  a super birthday present. He had one of his friends build me my  own sailboat. It was a flat bottom "dishpan flyer" sloop, rigged with  main and jib sails and a retractable centreboard. There are pictures  around somewhere of "Buccaneer" and me. I even had a Jolly Roger  (skull and cross bones) pennant for the top of the boat's mast. No  doubt this early interest in things nautical led me into the Royal  Navy and later to Canadian Power Squadron courses. We even flew  international code flags from our large mast at the cottage near  Brockville. Your fathers will be able to tell you more about this, if  you care to ask them.  Entry March 4f  1991  We lived in Vernon until the summer of 1942, at which time  we moved to Kelowna, where, as noted earlier, my father took the  position with B.C. Tree Fruits Limited. If any of you are interested  in knowing more about how the fruit growing industry started and  was operated in those days, refer to the university term paper mentioned on an earlier page. Some background on the production of  fruits and vegetables can be found in another paper I did while at  U.B.C. entitled, An Economic Survey of the Okanagan Region. (Ed.  Note: This work is on file at OUC Kelowna campus.)  64 ohs WHEN GRANDPA WAS YOUNG..  The seventeen years (twelve years for Sharon) that I lived in  Vernon were generally uneventful. Nothing took place that had  any profound effect on my later years. At school, I had average or  a bit better marks, except in French. (I was able to get my Matric  only because the French teacher agreed to recommend my passing mark, on the condition that I promised never to take the subject again.) When I went to Kelowna High School, I had my Matric  French in my pocket, and didn't need to take any further second  language instruction!  For fun, there were swimming and boating in the summer.  Spring and Fall involved hiking and camping and other Scouting  activities. I went to Cub and Scout camps most summers. In the  winters, we skied a bit. You wouldn't believe the ski harnesses-  completely leather strapping. It's a wonder we didn't break our  necks! One winter, a group of us in Grade Nine or Ten went with a  couple of teachers on a three or four day winter camp. We skied up  Silver Star Mountain with our bedding and supplies on our backs,  stayed in a log cabin for, I think, two nights, and skied the high  slopes during the days.  The trip down was some fun with harnesses slipping off every  few hundred yards. Today, there is a huge luxury resort on the site  where, in 1939 or 1940, your then young Grandfather froze at night  in a draughty cabin!  ohs 65 The Norman Day Family  By George Arthur Day  y Grandfather, Ephriam Arthur Day, father of Norman Day,  was born in Mount Pleasant, Sanpete, Utah. At the age of  JL eighteen, he left home and travelled by horseback to  Seattle, then on to Vancouver, B.C. by rowboat. In 1884, he walked  over the Hope-Princeton Trail to Penticton. After working several  years on large ranches in the Penticton area, he moved north to  Summerland. Here he married Jane Gartrell, daughter of a pioneer Summerland family. My father Norman, their first child, was  born in Summerland on the 29th day of December, 1890.  Eight years later, in  1898, the family moved to  Kelowna, where E.A. Day  went to work for the  Lequime Ranch. Later, in  1902, he pre-empted  eighty-six acres of land on  what is now the corner of  Byrns and Burtch Roads,  where Norman was  raised. To-day (1999),  ninety-seven years later,  the property is still owned  by the Day family. Norman's first job was at the  Kelowna Sawmill, working for the Lloyd-Jones  family.  In 1910, Norman  married Florence May  Hurlburt of Westbank.  They built a home, still in  existence at 842 Stockwell  Avenue,   where   they  Mr. and Mrs. Norman Day and their two first     raised their family. Muriel  bom, c 1914. (Courtesy the author, Arthur Day)      Florence,   their   eldest  Art Day is retired and living in Kelowna, where he enjoys golfing at the Kelowna  Golf and Country Club in old Glenmore.  66 ohs THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  daughter, was born on March 4, 1911. A second daughter, Doris  Jane, was born on February 28, 1912, followedby two sons- Fred on  January 22, 1914 and myself, Arthur, on June 12, 1916.  In 1919, the family, father, mother and four children, headed  for what was known as the Peace River Crossing (north of Edmonton), to take up a homestead. At the time, Yours Truly, at the age of  three, was the youngest, but I still remember crossing a high bridge  over the Peace River on a hand-propelled speeder. We settled on a  piece of land nearly ten miles out of town, where my father built a  house and barn, bought a horse, and started to clear land to plant  grain. The next five years were very hard for the family, especially  for mother.  After trying to get the farm paying, the money ran out, and  father returned to Kelowna, where he worked cutting logs for the  Kelowna Sawmill. Unfortunately, he was seriously injured when a  large log let go on the hillside and rolled over him, breaking six  bones. During this time, Mother and the four children ( the eldest  being only eleven) had to look after the stock, which consisted of  three horses, one cow, several pigs, chickens and turkeys. The farm  water system was a forty foot well with a hand windlass and a pail.  The only heat in the two story house came from the wood-burning  cook stove, while coal oil lamps were used for light, and all the  plumbing was outdoors. That spring, our Father, Norman, returned  on crutches to a house that was very scarce on food. However, he  managed to get a horse and go out and shoot a moose- out of season! A couple of weeks later, a Police Officer came to the door and  told my father that he was taking a chance shooting a moose out of  season, to which my father replied that he was taking quite a chance  of his family starving to death!  On November 28, 1922, my sister Wilma Maryle was added  to the family. Sometime in the next few months, she developed  pneumonia, and at one point, the doctor told our family that she  could not survive. Upon receiving this news, my father said that  his cure couldn't do any harm, and he gave the baby a teaspoon of  brandy. Little Wilma lived!  Another time, my two eldest sisters, returning home from  school, saw what they thought was a starving horse in a field. They  went into the owner's barn and took a pail of wheat out to it. This  must have been too much for the horse. It up and died! Needless to  say, this resulted in more problems for the Day family.  When I was six years old, my brother and I usually walked to  school. One morning, I left a little early. While going through a  timbered area, I ran into a large cinnamon-coloured bear. He had  heard me coming, and was standing on his hind feet, looking around.  ohs 67 THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  I was sure that he was at least eight feet  tall. When I told my parents about this  meeting, they, of course, wanted to  know what I had done. I told them that  I had just put down my lunch bucket,  and walked back to meet my brother!  In the spring of 1924, my father was  still partially crippled, and the farm was  too much for the family. We returned  to Kelowna, and in 1925, went back to  the house on Stockwell Avenue. It was  at this time that my father decided to  Norman Day.    start a dairy. As the house was on a  (Courtesy the author, Arthur Day)     1 arge \ot> he put up a building behind  it, where a large work area provided for washing bottles, bottling  milk, making butter, and a little later, pasteurizing the milk. Indeed, he had the first pasteurizer in B.C. outside the Lower Mainland. Next were added two walk-in coolers, a storage area and a  horse barn. The business progressed, and in a year or two, four  hundred quarts of milk and cream were being delivered daily to  the customers' doors. The milk sold for twelve quarts to the dollar.  As well, butter and ice cream were sold at the dairy and to local  stores. My father was an expert shot, and so we always had a supply of game to eat and an excellent place to keep it. Although there  was little money in the family, things were easier for my mother,  and everyone was happier.  On the 3rd of September, 1925, the sixth and last child was  born to the Day family. She was named Norma Edith, Edith being  the name of great uncle David Lloyd-Jones' wife. Our six Day children consumed huge amounts of milk, cream and ice cream each  day. Indeed, I often wondered how father could make any money!  When my sister, Wilma, was five years old, mother gave her  a birthday party. One of her friends said something that Wilma  didn't like. She hit the guest on the head with a rock. That ended  the party! Wilma disappeared, and was finally found hiding in the  hayloft.  These were the years of the Great Depression. Families with  many children could not afford to buy milk. Often, I would see my  father give away two or three pails of milk a week. The year 1928  saw a polio epidemic in Kelowna. All the schools were closed, and  children under the age of eighteen were confined to their yards.  We did not adhere to this quarantine. Ethel Street ran close to our  house, and right down to the brickyard at Knox Mountain. There  were very few residents between our house and the mountain, and  68 ohs THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  so we would go down there, often with some of the neighbours'  children, to play. My six year old sister came down with polio, and  then we had to obey the law, and stay in our own yard. These were  trying times for my mother, with six children, one of whom with  polio needing constant attention.  Later in 1928, tragedy again hit my father when the ammonia tank that controlled the cold storage blew up, and he was severely burned. When he recovered, he sold the dairy, the house  and the land. He then began to sell life insurance for the Confederation Life Association. He was a good salesman, and in 1930, was  made District Manager for the Okanagan Valley. A year later, in  1931, he had a new house built at 1023 Glenn Avenue (to-day Lawrence). My mother now had modern facilities, and her life was  easier. However, the many years of hard work were beginning to tell.  The six Day children, 1927. Back, left to right: Doris, Fred, Arthur, Muriel.  In front, Wilma and Norma. (Courtesy the author, Arthur Day)  In 1932, my father, having lost sixty pounds in three or four  months, was tragically diagnosed with diabetes. Little was known  about this disorder in those days- only that insulin helped. He was  told that he might live from five to ten years. This was hard on my  mother as she was trying different diets to try to find a cure.  My eldest sister was now working at the Gore Laundry on  the corner of what is now Queensway and Water Street. Doris, the  second eldest, married Vin Pease of Ewing's Landing. They started  a fishing camp at Beaver Lake. This was the first fishing camp on  ohs 69 THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  the lake, where fish were very plentiful and up to ten pounds in  weight. Meanwhile, my brother started to work for the Ford Garage. He would come home every night covered in grease, necessitating a nightly bath. It was my job to wash the grease from the tub,  a hated task, for which I charged him twenty-five cents. This was  my first money-making job! The next summer, I worked in the box  factory at the Kelowna Sawmill, where I earned twelve and one-  half cents an hour.  In June, 1934, I went to work at the Highland Bell Mine in  Beaverdell. This was very hard work. It was the height of the Depression, and there were men applying for work every day. These  men were prepared to work for less. When I started, the boss told  me that I would have to shovel the rock very fast. He expected me  to keep two shovelsful in the air and one load on the shovel at all  times! Two men would shovel about twenty tons of muck (waste  rock) in a day, push them outside in one ton cars, then dump them.  My brother, Fred, married Muriel Seddon in 1936, and came  to work with me in the mine. In 1939, he enlisted in the army,  going overseas in 1940. That year, I married Agnes Seddon, and, in  1942, joined the airforce. With four children leaving home, life became easier for my mother. However, my father suffered from insulin shocks and took a lot of looking after. As his health worsened, his business started to slip. In 1940, he quit the insurance  business and moved to Sorrento, where he started a hunting and  fishing camp on Shuswap Lake. There was a small house on the  property to which my mother and sisters moved.  In 1942, tragedy again struck the Day family. On October 18  of that year, father, while guiding on a sheep hunt on Squilax Mountain, was killed by an American hunter. The camp was just getting  started. There was no equity left in the property, and it returned to  the mortgagees. Fred and I were both in the services, and so we  were of no help to the family.  Following this tragedy, mother moved to Vancouver and lived  with my youngest sister. In 1959, she moved to a small apartment  of her own, and lived by herself the rest of her life. She was very  religious, and could finally attend church- her first love. She never  allowed liquor, cigarettes or cards in her house. In February of 1969,  she passed away at the age of eighty-one.  Through the years, the Day brothers and sisters established  their own families. Muriel raised two children, Lewis and Arlene,  who both reside in Mission, B.C. Lewis, crippled by a motorcycle  accident many years ago, has suffered much in his lifetime. Arlene  has a mattress store in Mission, and lives in a condo with her mother.  Her father had died in October, 1987.  70 ohs THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  Doris raised one child, Alan Pease, from her first marriage.  Alan spent many years in the top R.C.A.F. band, playing all over  the world. Considered one of the best clarinet players in Canada,  he now lives in Victoria, B.C., where for a long time, he had his  own jazz band. Although semi-retired, he still plays all summer at  Butchart Gardens in Victoria. In 1944, Doris had remarried. Her  second husband, Al Morgan, died in July 1992. She lives happily in  Kelowna with her sister, Norma.  After the Second World War ended, my brother, Fred, went to  work for the S.M. Simpson Sawmills in the Parts Division, where  he advanced first to head of the Parts' Stores and later to Purchasing Agent for the mills in the  Interior. Fred and I and our  wives, in 1956, started a sporting goods store in Kelowna.  Fred sold his interest in the  business in 1960, and due to  ill health, Agnes and I sold in  1964.  Fred and Muriel raised  two children, Dennis and  Diane. Dennis is retired and  lives in Vernon. Diane and her  husband, Albert live in one-  half of a duplex in Kelowna,  while Muriel lives in the other  half. Fred had died in 1978,  due to a ruptured aorta.  My sister, Wilma had  married Carl Sjodin of Notch  Hill, who had a farm near  Sorrento. Wilma and Carl  raised two daughters, Carolyn  and Linnea. Carolyn lives in  Fort St. James with her husband, Mark, and Linnea lives in Ponoka, Alberta. Wilma now lives  where she has for most of her life, in Revelstoke, B.C. Carl, who  worked there for the C.P.R. for many years, died of a heart attack,  August 28, 1976.  Norma married Jack Dugdale. They moved from Vancouver  to Enderby in 1945, where Jack worked in the bush, and also had  an orchestra. Norma and Jack had a family of two children, Gordon  and Sandy. Gordon lives in Surrey with his friend, Carolyn. Sandy  is in Cranbrook with her husband, Garett. Norma had worked very  The Norman Day family 1999. Back row, left to  right: Muriel, Arthur, Doris. Front row, left to right:  Norma, Wilma. (Courtesy the author, Anhur Day)  OHS 71 THE NORMAN DAY FAMILY  hard as a cook in the Enderby Hospital for twenty-five years. The  lifting of heavy pots caused her shoulders to give out, and she suffers much to-day. Jack died in March of 1988, and Norma moved to  Kelowna, where she now shares a condo with her sister, Doris.  After World War Two, Agnes and I returned to the mine at  Beaverdell, where I was made Mine Foreman. We rented a log house  in Beaverdell, and worked hard to make it modern. However, when  the Highland Bell Mine sold out to a large mining firm in 1949,  they brought in their own staff, and we had to leave. In the next  few years, I moved around to many different mines, causing Agnes  much hard work, packing and unpacking. She even took ajob cooking for a crew of miners, when I was in charge of driving a new  tunnel in the Big Bend area. Finally, we settled down in Kelowna,  bought a ten acre parcel of land and built a new house. We raised  one son from Agnes' first marriage, Wallace George Ryder, born  June 9, 1930 in Kelowna. He married Kay Elliott, and they had  three children. Todd and Nancy live in Kelowna, and Rhonda lives  in Penticton. All are married and have families.  This concludes the history of the Norman Day family, and is  written to the best of my knowledge and memory, with the help of  my wife, Agnes and my sisters.  72 ohs Ellard Henry Williamson  By Oline (Sandy) Williamson  Hard's father, Thomas Henry Williamson was born at Orno,  Ontario in August 1869. At sixteen years of age, he left home  to head west, looking for work. He arrived in Winnipeg just  as Louis Riel was captured. Thomas and a couple of friends continued west on foot, arriving in Sicamous in February 1885. They  hadn't eaten for three days. An Indian camp took them in and fed  them "bannock and sow belly". Their boots were worn out. The  weather was wet and slushy, and so they cut holes in the toes of  the boots to let the water run out.  They stayed at the Indian camp for several days, working for  the Indians to pay for their meals. The Indians gave them new  moccasins to replace their worn out boots. They continued on  their way, finally arriving at the Father Pandosy's Mission near  Kelowna, staying there for awhile, working to pay for their keep.  Thomas left the Mission, and headed north to Vernon. He  became quite friendly with the Indian Band at the Head-of-the-  Lake, learning their language and trading with them, mostly horses.  He then moved to Lansdowne, where he met and married  Emma Seed. They opened a butcher shop there and ran a successful business for several years. When the railway by-passed  Lansdowne, Thomas joined the exodus to Armstrong , and continued in the butcher business.  Thomas and Emma had four children: Mary, Bertha, Thomas Jr. (Tommy) and Ellard Henry. When scarlet fever hit the  family in 1904, Emma died at the age of twenty-eight and Ellard  Henry died at the age of four. Both were buried in the Lansdowne  Cemetery. Thomas took the deaths extremely hard, and was deeply  grieved at losing both his child and his wife. He carried on as best  he could, but later placed Mary and Bertha in a boarding school in  Victoria, while Tommy was sent to his grandmother's home in  Armstrong.  About this time, Thomas sold the butcher shop in Armstrong  and moved to Vernon. He went into partnership with Bill Thomas, doing various jobs. Bill had lived in Vernon for a number of  years with his wife Wilhelmina and four daughters: Helen,  Catherine, Martha and Virginia.  Oline (Sandy) Williamson (nee Sandaker) was raised in Salmon Arm, and  married Ellard Henry Williamson in 1955.  ohs 73 ELLARD HENRY WILLIAMSON  Tragedy struck when Bill and another friend were fishing on  Swan Lake. A violent storm blew up, overturned the boat, and Bill  drowned. The friend managed to swim to shore, but it took several  days before Bill's body was located.  In the year that followed, Wilhelmina had a hard time supporting her family. Since Thomas was still alone, they decided to  get married. Mary and Bertha were almost grown up by now and  still living in Victoria. Tommy was about ten years old.  On September 9, 1915, Wilhelmina and Thomas had a son,  born in their Vernon home on View Street (now 34th Street). Thomas could never forget Emma and the son he lost, and so he named  his new son, Ellard Henry. Over the years, three more children,  Rita, Frank and Doreen were born to this union.  Ellard grew up in Vernon, working with his father at almost  any job that was available. At the age of thirteen, Ellard got ajob  putting in seats for the Famous Players Theatre chain at the Empress Theatre on Barnard Avenue. After the seats were completed,  he continued working at the Empress as usher and janitor. When  the Capitol Theatre opened, he went to work there, and continued  working for Famous Players in various capacities for the next sixty-  three years.  Ellard married a girl from Armstrong, Marguerite Anderson.  They had a daughter Mary Josephine (Joy), but a few years later  they divorced. Then he met and married a girl from Salmon Arm,  Oline (Sandy) Sandaker. They had two children Linda and Eric.  Ellard Henry Williamson, near Tulameen, 1988. (Courtesy the author, Sandy Williamson) ELLARD HENRY WILLIAMSON  Often, when Thomas would be working with Ellard, he would  reminisce over Emma and Ellard Henry, and expressed a desire to  be buried with them. However, the family chose to have Thomas  and Wilhelmina buried together at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Vancouver.  Many times throughout the years that followed, Ellard and I  (Sandy) drove past the Lansdowne Cemetery. Sometimes, Ellard  would stop and wander through, looking for the grave that contained the first Ellard. If there had been a marker at one time, it  was gone now. He always spoke of how beautiful and peaceful it  was there on the hillside overlooking the valley.  Ellard became quite ill and had to go on dialysis. One day,  when he and I were returning from one of our trips to Kelowna  Hospital, he asked me to drive past the Lansdowne Cemetery. I  asked him if he wanted to be buried there, and he said his Dad  would sure be pleased if he was.  When Ellard died on November 21, 1999, the Bowers Funeral  Home in Salmon Arm made the funeral arrangements. We asked  about the Lansdowne Cemetery and were told that it had been declared a Heritage Cemetery, and no backhoes were allowed to go  in there and dig an open grave. However, there was nothing to say  we couldn't plant a flower.  The children and I decided to drive to the cemetery and look  things over. We were very impressed with all the work that had  been done to fix it up. We wandered through and couldn't find the  original grave, and so we decided to go down to the Municipal Hall  and investigate.  The clerk was so co-operative and friendly we were amazed.  We finally found the record book and the location of the grave on  the cemetery map. Thomas had always told Ellard that the grave  was in the top left hand corner, and so of course we had always  looked in the top left-hand corner of the cemetery. We now discovered that was true, but it was the top left- hand corner of the plot  and not the cemetery. We were told that although there were no  new graves allowed, there were no by-laws prohibiting the burial  or scattering of ashes in the cemetery. Then we asked if we would  be allowed to place a marker identifying an existing grave that currently had no marker. The clerk was sure that there would be no  objection, providing that it was tastefully done and blended in with  the existing markers.  We had already opted for cremation for Ellard, and so we  went back to the cemetery, and checked the map to find where the  grave should be. There was an existing headstone marked "Seed".  Could this grave be that of Emma's father? We had a very strong  ohs 75 ELLARD HENRY WILLIAMSON  feeling that this was meant to be. We would be doing the right  thing by having Ellard buried in Lansdowne in lieu of his father  Thomas, and that ninety-five years later, the family would be connected and identified.  In his lifetime, Ellard had enjoyed crafts, especially making  beautiful things from good quality wood. When our family picked  up the urn, we were pleased to find that it was a wooden box-  almost like a mini casket- one that Ellard could have made himself.  He also loved horses, and was a great rider. Apparently, on  the rideo circuit, it is customary that when a cowboy dies, his family and friends give him his last ride. The saddle is placed on his  horse, his hat is hung on the saddle horn, his boots placed backwards in the stirrups, and the urn is placed in the saddle bags.  Ellard's nephew, Bill Muir, made these arrangements, and when  the ride was over, the horse was tied to the cemetery gate, and Billy  carried the urn to its last resting place. During the eulogy, given by  his son, Eric, a few light snowflakes fell- this being a typical overcast November day. Daughter Linda placed the urn in the hole.  A Scottish tradition says that the Deceased must have a last  drink. Billy poured a drink of rye whisky over the grave. Granddaughter Stephanie Williamson recited a poem, The Stallion, that  she had especially written. Then Eric, Ellard's only grandson Deric  and nephew Tommy  Williamson filled in the  grave. At that exact moment, the sun came  through the clouds and  shone for about two minutes. At the same time, the  horse at the gate whinnied. How strange that  this should happen at that  instant.  Wouldn't it be nice to  think that Ellard and Thomas were giving us a sign  that we had done the right  thing, and that they were Funeral of Ellard Henry Williamson,  really pleased and happy! (Courtesy the author, Sandy Williamson)  76 ohs ELLARD HENRY WILLIAMSON  STALLION  By Stephanie Williamson  My stallion is the strongest horse I've ever seen  He stood tall and beautiful  His coat shone bright with pride  His eyes talked of the love he had inside  His sturdy legs took on the burdens of others  He'd carry twice his weight just to help a fellow man  He used to run unbridled with no saddle  Free in fenceless pastures  When the gentle wind blew illness into his body he carried on  Tall, Bright and Beautiful  He fought with all of the power he had  Angels came down to help him; they hated seeing such a  Beautiful and magnificent creature in pain  They lifted his wounded body  But they left his spirit to guide me  Ride my wild horse, ride  Run beyond the horizon  Toss the saddle and the bridle  Be free  Explore the wildest frontier  Be all you can be  Gallop into the sunset  Walk through pastures of green  You are free my wild horse; free of pain  It's hard to believe I will not be able to hold you again  But I feel you holding me now even more than ever  I find comfort in knowing you are shining down on me from heaven  Everytime I see an unbridled horse running free in unfenced pastures  I will smile for I know my Grandfather's free spirit is living on  Ride my wild horse, ride  ohs 77 Crowe's Auctions  By Wm. J. Whitehead  "^ hroughout the years, sale by auction has been an accepted  and popular way of disposing of extra goods and holdings.  Offerings may vary from large and valuable subjects to a  teacup. In fact, almost anything that may have a monetary value  can be sold by this method. It can be quick, final, and depending  on the auctioneer, it can be humorous and entertaining. Auction  sales also provide an opportunity for visiting, discussing the weather  and politics and exchanging the latest gossip. One such business  was Crowe's Auctions of Kelowna.  Originally, Fred and Kazia Crowe came from England near  the Welsh border and the town of Wrexham. They had married  young in life, produced a family of ten children and like many  others, found the economy of the early 1920's less than kind to a  comfortable existence. Fred had no particular trade, other than  what might be referred to as a "hawker". Goods known as "seconds" were purchased from the several potteries in the area, then  taken around to the many little towns and hamlets, and sold by  auction to the local populace.  Their decision to move to Canada and establish a "ranch" in  Alberta was likely prompted by reading, and possibly by stories  they had heard. They had no experience in farming, much less the  Canadian way of life. Nevertheless (during the mid 1920's) they  arrived and settled on a small holding of poor land near the village  of Trochu. They experienced difficult times for several years, but  with the older children going "out to work" and milking cows and  raising chickens, they managed to survive. When war broke out in  1939, the youngest son, Donald, joined the R.C.A.F. He was lost in  a raid over Germany and is buried in a Canadian cemetery in Denmark. (In 1952, his parents made a trip to Europe to visit the grave  and by a strange coincidence, they were stopped on the streets of  Copenhagen by an old gentleman who had retired to Denmark from  Kelowna and had lived on the Pandosy Mission farm).  The Crowes moved to Kelowna early in 1947. They rented a  small cottage on Glenwood Avenue and since they were not yet of  pensionable age, Fred began scouting around for some sort of business to establish.  Wm. J. (Bill) Whitehead is a Director of the Armstrong-Enderby Branch and a  Life Member of the OHS.  78 ohs CROWE'S AUCTIONS  There was a community auction being operated occasionally  in the Kelowna area known in those days as "Five Bridges". Crowe  purchased this business, such as it was, and then decided to establish it on a more permanent basis. He rented a double store on  Leon Avenue. Chinese merchants had previously owned it but  during the war years it had become vacant. He decided to commence holding auctions once a week and selling furniture, mainly  secondhand, by private sale during the week.  He would purchase surplus goods from residents or sometimes take them on consignment. He would place the furniture on  the floor for private sale during the week, and on Wednesday afternoon he would dispose of the small stock such as dishes, tools, etc.  by auction. This proved to be a very popular time for those who  might be looking for extra supplies or bargains. If it were complete  households that were on offer, he would possibly hold an auction  sale at the home.  During the post-war years, furnishings were in short supply,  and with the multitude of new homes being set up by those returning from overseas, the demand was greater than the supply. He  decided to travel to Vancouver in search of a greater supply. There  he made connections with different second hand merchants, Joe  Kaplan and the Wosks among others. He would buy beds, tables  and chairs, chesterfields as well as rebuilt kitchen stoves. The last  mentioned he would bring in by the carload. They were so much  in demand that they were quite often sold before they were out of  their crates. As manufacturing got into gear once more, he would  purchase new stock and this too found a ready market.  I became involved with the business in mid-summer of 1947,  when he engaged me to do his clerking and cashiering for the auctions. Before long he had me helping during busy days at the store  and also managing the business when he travelled on buying trips.  After about three years, I undertook to do some of the sales by  auction and was soon doing most of it.  The premises he was renting were bought by the Elks Lodge  for their club centre about 1949, and the auction market was moved  up the street to a building constructed by Archie Cadder & Associates following the end of the war. Cadder was far ahead of present  day programs for recycling materials for he used every available  piece of lumber that might come his way as a result of demolition.  The cement used received more than a fair share of sand, and  through the years much of it was swept up from the floor when  cleaning the store. However, the building did provide a good-sized  showroom, plus a workshop at the rear. Adjoining on the west was  a small grocery kept by a Japanese gentleman, K. Iwashita, and on  ohs 79 CROWE'S AUCTIONS  the east a vacant lot, then Jenkins Cartage, operated by Eldred (Slim)  Adam and George Anderson. We used the open lot for outdoor  sales and Adams and Anderson did most of the cartage required.  Charley Adam and Gordon Thomas were their drivers and in later  years they took over the firm and continued until they too eventually retired. Mr. Crowe did not drive, so consequently Jenkins did  a lot of the hauling required.  Beside myself, handymen employed through the years on a  part-time basis included Walter Schiewe, Joe Hudson and a third  man named Morris.  With the new location, business increased substantially. Mr.  and Mrs. Crowe purchased a nice little cottage on Royal Avenue  and were quite enjoying their new venture into business.  Fred had a collection of sayings and quips he would employ  while auctioning, mostly of English origin. Some would prompt a  laugh from the customers, while others were lost as to their meaning.  He particularly liked selling chinaware and then holding up  a piece of "Blue Willow" pattern, would recite the following:  "Two little birds flying high,  A little boat went sailing by,  A little stream with a bridge running over,  And three little men going over to Dover,  The orange tree with the oranges on,  And the Willow tree the sun shone on,  The Chinese mansion there you see,  And the neat little cottage down by the sea."  On occasion, when attempting to get a starting bid on a piece  of china or glassware and the bid offered might be ridiculous, he  might even throw the piece to the ground and break it, rather than  accept the offer.  At the rear of our store, but facing on Harvey Avenue, were  two buildings owned by the Chinese people, the Dart Coon Club  and the Chinese Masonic Lodge. These buildings had a series of  small rooms that were occupied, for the most part, by single Chinese men who rented land in the surrounding farming area to grow  vegetables during the summer months, and who rented these rooms  during the winter months.  When they discovered we had floor covering for sale, they  proceeded to come over and purchase "Congoeum Rugs", a linoleum square with a rug pattern imprinted on it, for their respective  80 ohs CROWE'S AUCTIONS  rooms. They would only buy one per day and only if we would  "bargain" and lower the price, which varied from $5.00 to $8.00.  We soon learned to increase the asking price by $1.50, agree to a  reduction of $1.00 and then it seemed that everyone was happy.  In 1953, I moved back to Kelowna from Winfield and started  working full-time in the business.  In 1954, while on a trip to Vancouver, Mrs. Crowe died very  suddenly while waiting for the train at the C.P.R. Station. This loss  brought a finish to the business for Fred and he sold in 1955 to  Larry Kaplan, son of the merchant mentioned earlier.  The following year I left the business for personal reasons.  The new owner did not seem to have the ability for such an undertaking and the store closed out altogether by 1958.  After leaving the store, I went on to develop a janitor business for several years and eventually opened our own secondhand  business in Rutland in 1960. I did considerable auctioneering for  both Valley Auctions near Armstrong, as well as Dome Auctions in  Rutland. In 1974 my wife and I decided it was time to retire, so  sold the property and moved to Armstrong. Fred Crowe passed on  in the mid 1960's and I have lost trace of other members of their  family.  OHS 81 The Gibson Family  By Joan (Gibson) Shaw  y father, George Middleton Gibson, was born in Notting  ham, England on the 28th of November, 1880. He came to  B.C. in 1904, at age twenty-four, with family friend, M.P  Williams, who was returning to his sheep and cattle ranch in  Winfield.  My father had attended  Wye Agricultural College in England, and to gain some experience, he first worked on two  small B.C. farms at Pritchard and  Ducks. One of his employers  had gone to England for a holiday, and left my father in  charge. On his return, he had no  money left to pay wages, so in  lieu of money, he gave my father a horse and saddle, and father set off for Vernon. When it  became dark, he rode towards a  house with a light. There he was  able to stable and feed his horse  and sleep on the floor with other  travellers.  On arriving in Vernon, he  made inquiries as to farm land  for sale. He was directed to some  property on Okanagan Lake opposite Nahun- forty-five acres  with about a quarter mile of lake front. It was the early spring of  1906, and it looked so beautiful with spring flowers in bloom, that  he pitched his tent and decided to stay. The Indians had a name  for this place. They called it Cussasonyx, which means Paradise  Point. For many years, the Indians had built fires at night on the  shore to attract the Kickaninnies (Kokanee) over the reef out to the  Island, so that the fish could be speared, netted and smoked and  dried on racks in the sun. My father had a nice collection of arrow  heads and skin scrapers that he found when he ploughed.  Joan (Gibson) Shaw is the daughter of the Gibsons, and resides in Williams Lake.  Wedding of George Middleton  Gibson & Grace Chapman.  (Courtesy Joan (Gibson) Shaw)  82 ohs THE GIBSON FAMILY  For seven years, father "batched" there in a small four room  house that he had built. During that time, he spent one threshing  season at the O'Keefe Ranch. There were no frills there, and he  thoroughly enjoyed his new experience of sleeping on the ground  beneath the threshing machine, with fellow workers of different  colours and creeds.  At the turn of the century, the Okanagan was changing from  cattle ranching to fruit orchards. Thus, after clearing his land, he  planted about half in apples (Jonathans and Wagners) on the hillsides, and soft fruits, (pears, plums, apricots and peaches) on the  flat. The orchards were irrigated with lake water, pumped into a  large wooden box at the top of the hill. From there, water travelled  in wooden flumes, which had adjustable openings to allow the water  to pour into ditches to the rows of fruit trees. This method of irrigation required much flow regulation and the keeping of the ditches  hoed.  My mother, Grace Chapman, was born in Tonbridge, England, on  the 31st of December, 1889. In 1911, age twenty-two, she came with  Mr. and Mrs. Ward to Okanagan House at Sunnywold (Carr's Landing). One day, she was asked to take a phone message to the Gibson  place, and that is how my parents met. In 1912, our family home  was built by Teddy Hare. Jim Gleed, a stone mason, built the pink  granite fireplace in the sitting room and also the rock wall to contain the lawn and garden above the beach. My mother and father  returned to England to be married in Tonbridge on the 27th of February, 1913. They came back to Canada, and on September 16th  1915, their first  daughter Pamela  was born in Vernon  Jubilee Hospital.  In 1916, my father joined the Canadian Army, and  trained at the  Vernon Army  Camp. My mother  and sister went to  England for the rest  of the "Great War".  My father followed  on a troop ship  with the 172nd battalion Of the Cana- The Gibson House, Okanagan Centre, built 1912.  dian Expeditionary (Courtesy Joan (Gibson) Shaw)  ohs 83 THE GIBSON FAMILY  Mr. & Mrs. G.M. Gibson, Pamela & Joan, in front of the Gibson House .  (Courtesy Joan (Gibson) Shaw)  Force. In England, father transferred to the British Army, and was  assigned a commission with the 122nd Northumberland Fusiliers.  On the 5th of September, 1918, he was taken prisoner by the Germans near Lille in France, and sent to Karlsruhe on the Rhine. The  12th of October, he arrived at Pillau, and was marched two miles to  Kamstigall, a prisoner of war camp on a small promontory in the  Baltic Sea. The area was then East Prussia.  A second Gibson daughter, Joan, (myself) was born in Berkshire,  England on November 5,1918. In early 1919, our family was repatriated to Canada. My father was in very poor health due to near  starvation as a prisoner of war. ( He kept his last day's ration- a half  slice of black bread. The German civilians too were hungry, as there  was so little food left.)  My parents' return to our Canadian home was a heart-breaking  situation. The caretaker left to look after our small farm had neglected the irrigation, and nearly all of the fruit trees had to be  pulled out. The launch was sunk in the lake, and much of the farm  equipment was broken. My father now turned to mixed farming.  He raised pigs, had milk cows and chickens. He did grow some soft  fruits, but no apples. I can remember "helping" to separate the milk,  churn the cream and make butter. The butter and eggs went to  Vernon on the paddle wheel boats. Later on, my father planted an  apricot orchard, and sold the fruit through the Vernon Fruit Union.  84 ohs THE GIBSON FAMILY  Both my parents were active in the badminton and tennis clubs.  Indeed, before the First World War, father and some of his friends  had started the tennis club at Okanagan Centre. He was its president for thirty years. Miss Winnie Wentworth took over while he  was in the army. There was a tennis cup in his memory, which  was played for annually at the Kelowna Tennis Club.  In the 1930's, ice hockey became a very popular sport in Vernon,  and my parents became great fans of the game. They were also  active in St. Margaret's Anglican Church in Winfield, my mother as  a member of the Women's Guild and my father as a People's Warden. Mother was also a member of the Women's Institute and a  School Trustee. For a number of years, my parents invited the  Kelowna Sea Cadets and the Girl Guides to their property, to use  part of the shore for their annual summer camps.  After my father's death on June 10, 1950, my mother sold the  property, and bought Frank Grey's apricot orchard on the south  corner of Lakeshore and Sixth Street in Okanagan Centre. She had  a small house built there. My sister, Pamela Wentworth died September 17, 1979, at the age of sixty-four. Mother died October 25,  1979, aged eighty-nine. She was a hockey fan to the last!  Ed. note: The Gibson house has been preserved, and is now a heritage site in  Kopje Regional District Park.  ohs 85 On Track - Two Railways Re-Visited  The Vancouver, Victoria  and Eastern Railway  A.K.A. THE VV&E,   A SUBSIDIARY OF THE GREAT  Northern Railroad, an American Company  By Wallace L. Liddicoat  n 1900, James J. Hill's Great Northern Railroad Co. acquired  the assets of the Spokane Falls and Northern Railroad, and, in  due course, the tracks of this railroad were extended from its  western terminus at Marcus, Washington, north into British Columbia.  The purpose of this report is to present an overview of certain  events which relate to the history of this acquired railroad's branch  lines, with particular emphasis placed on the section that ran from  Oroville, Washington, through the Similkameen Valley, to serve the  B.C. towns of Keremeos, Hedley and Princeton.  In passing, a few words are necessary about the last of the  American empire builders- James Jerome Hill. Hill, a man of humble beginnings, rose to become the undisputed master of a third of  the railroad facilities in the American West - a position he held for  most of the last decade of the 19th century. We must add that Hill  accomplished this spectacular feat without the benefit of subventions.  Both of J.J. Hill's first enterprises involved the transportation industry: namely a fuel company that supplied wood and coal  to a railroad, and a steamship line on the Red River - between Minnesota and North Dakota. By 1878, J.J.Hill was in a position to  acquire the assets of the St. Paul & Pacific Road. This acquisition  led to the formation of his Great Northern Railroad. By 1893, Hill  had extended the Great Northern's tracks to Seattle, Washington,  and was well on his way to becoming a railroad baron.  In 1900, in a move that was intended to assist him in tapping  the riches of British Columbia's Boundary Country, Hill's Great  Northern Railroad took control of the Spokane Falls & Northern  Wallace L. Liddicoat was the Secretary-Treasurer of the Similkameen Valley  Branch of the O.H.S. at the time of his death May 15, 2001. He was a keen  advocate for this branch and for the preserving of the history of the  Similkameen Valley. He will be greatly missed.  86 ohs THE VANCOUVER, VICTORIA AND EASTERN RAILWAY  line with its terminus at Marcus, Washington. Soon the SF&N's tracks  had been extended north from Marcus to Cascade, B.C., and on to  the mining camps at Grand Forks, B.C.1 In 1906, after following a  rather circuitous route, the line reached Oroville, Washington.  Many of the historical accounts of the W&E Railway are, to  a degree at least, truncated- often providing incorrect information,  or omitting some of the more important technical details, and, as  such, have very little research value. It is for this reason that many  of the pertinent details of this railway's history e.g. construction  features, and details regarding the VVcVE's articles of incorporation, are noticeably absent. It is hoped that at least a certain amount  of missing data will appear in an addendum that is nearing completion.  In April of 1907, the W&E's track-laying crew of 145 men  reached the border. On April 11th, after a short delay, resulting from  the Canadian Government's reluctance to admit the Italian content of the W&E's crew, construction work began on the Canadian  side. On May 2, 1907, steel was laid across the Armstrong bridge  (bridgel.M150)2. The record shows that the W&E's tracks reached  the Village of Keremeos on July 7, 1907.  Construction of the WcVE's tracks west of Keremeos began  on the 16th of October, 1908, reaching Princeton in 1909, and  Brookmere (M 240.7)3 in 1915.  Construction of the W&E Railway's Similkameen line appears to have been accomplished in a piece-meal fashion: different  crews performing different tasks simultaneously and in staggered  intervals- i.e. grade preparation, track laying, and the building of  both trestles and bridges. It appears to this writer that at least part  of this work was done before W&E's track crew crossed into British Columbia.  The building of the WcVE Railway through the Similkameen  Valley to Princeton, and on to Brookmere, involved the construction of a number of bridges and trestles. Five bridges were built on  the Similkameen, and a number of wooden trestles were used to  span sloughs, backwaters, creeks, ravines and gullies.  The types of trestles used by the W&E Railway's Similkameen  line fell into one or other of two types; each built to suit the right-  of-way, terrain, soil and foundation requirements. Frame types (of-  ^'    First V. V. & E. train to arrive at Keremeos.  (Courtesy Doug Cox and Joe Harris} THE VANCOUVER, VICTORIA AND EASTERN RAILWAY  ten referred to as box types) were made of timbers which had been  squared, cut to size and creosoted. Pile-type trestles, as the name  suggests, were supported at their bases by clusters of wooden piles.  The Similkameen line used a number of trestles between Chopaka  and its terminus at Princeton. The spans of these trestles ranged in  length from less than 50 feet to more than 750 feet. The trestle  built across Hedley's Twenty Mile Creek had a span of 780 feet,  more or less. Because of its strength, durability and availability, fir  was the wood of choice for trestles and bridges.4  Those sections of W&E's trackage laid on Canadian soil came  under the jurisdiction of the Dominion of Canada's Board of Railway Commissioners. This august body was responsible not only  for the inspection of the civil work that was performed on Canadian soil but also for all structural, operational, and safety requirements as they pertained to Canada's railway standards. Also, it was  agreed that all steel used on Canadian soil would be of Canadian  origin.5  Between Chopaka and Princeton, the W&E Railway's tracks  crossed the Similkameen River at five different points. These crossings, in the way of bridge spans, are marked on the map (dwg.01)  which is included in this report. Looking up-stream from Chopaka,  their mile points (measured from Marcus, WA) are as follows:  Bridge 1, M. 146 a.k.a.  Bridge 2, M. 164 a.k.a.  Bridge 3, M. 171 a.k.a.  Bridge 4, M. 180 a.k.a.  Bridge 5, M. 202 a.k.a.  the "Armstrong Bridge"  the "Red Bridge"  the "Paul Creek Bridge"  the "Hedley Bridge"  the "Princetom Bridge"  Similkameen Station cl937. The dog team pictured arrived from the North and proceeded to  New York City. Please note Union Jack, radio aerial and root cellar. Sign beside pole reads:  Canadian Immigration Inspection. (Courtesy Doug Cox)  88 ohs C N. Station, Princeton, B.C. The station still stands next to the highway, most of Highway 3  follows the former V. V. & E. (Great Northern) rail bed. (Courtesy Doug Cox)  A number of histories of the W&E Railway have been written: some are imaginative while others are quite vague; all fail to  deal with the principals and their routines.  On occasion, newspapers of the day reported on the progress  of the WcVE's track-laying work, and the names of those contractors who were doing this work. These names were published by  the Keremeos Bugle in 1908 as follows:  Erickson & Co.  Williams #Co.  Johnson & Co.  sic H.E. Richardson, Anderson & Co.  sic Anderson Co.  Not included in this list, but of particular importance, is Swan  Engineering Co. This company played a role, possibly a major one,  in the construction of the W&E's five bridges used to span the  Similkameen River. The concluding paragraphs of this report attempt to provide some background material as they relate to the  fabrication of these spans.  This writer is of the opinion that all of the VVcVE's  Similkameen River crossings were Howe -truss type bridges, Trestle bents were used for their approaches. In the beginning, both  their abutments and their piers consisted of piles and rock-filled  caissons.  During the early 1920's, on several occasions, I travelled to  and from Hedley by train. While I cannot recall all the details of  these trips, I do remember that there were two river crossings between Hedley and Keremeos, and these crossings were "covered"  bridges. However, these two bridges may have been preceded by  simpler structures.  ohs 89 THE VANCOUVER, VICTORIA AND EASTERN RAILWAY  According to the reports which appeared in the 1907-1909  Keremeos newspapers, The Bugle, and later, The Trumpet, the WcVE's  track-laying crews reached Keremeos on July 7, 1907, less than  three months after crossing into Canada from the United States-  hardly enough time to construct three spans of a Howe-truss type  bridge. It may have been that the builders misjudged the vagaries  of the Similkameen River and its propensity for flooding. Although  it is only a matter of conjecture on my part, perhaps the deck spans  of the Armstrong Bridge M. 146 were supported by piles as photos  suggest. Perhaps, and again it is conjecture on my part, all of the  first crossings were of this type.  On October 16, 1908, the W&E Railway let contracts to lay  steel west of Keremeos. By October 21st of that year, grading, construction of buildings and bridges and track laying had begun. At  this time, it was reported that construction of the M.164 bridge (the  Red Bridge) had been (sic.) delayed due to a lumber shortage and  that a representative of the Swan Engineering Co, had gone to Sidley,  WA to check on supplies.6  I have concluded that by the early 1920's, the five bridges  used by the VV&E Railway to cross the Similkameen between  Princeton and Chopaka were of the Howe through-truss type. All  were made of timber. The trusses of at least three of these bridges  were shrouded to protect them from the elements. Also, the staggered failure of two of these bridges played a role in bringing about  the demise of the Similkameen section of the WcVE Railway.  A   CHRONOLOGY  In 1934, the bridge at Princeton was washed out, resulting in  the suspension of rail service to and from Hedley. In 1937, this part of  the line was abandoned, and soon after, all of the trackage removed.  In 1955, due to the closure of the Nickel Plate Mine, the service from  Keremeos to Hedley was discontinued. In 1972, flood waters disabled  the Armstrong Bridge. It was never repaired. Rail service between  Keremeos and Oroville, WA. was discontinued for all time.  Apart from those few segments of trestles which can still be  seen here and there along the WcVE's abandoned right-of-way, the  "Red Bridge" is all that remains of an American railroad baron's  dream of a rail link between Spokane WA. and tidewater on the  coast of British Columbia.  The Red Bridge, purported to have been built in 1923, has  undergone several structural changes since it first went into service as a railway crossing. The caissons which provided the in-stream  90 ohs THE VANCOUVER, VICTORIA AND EASTERN RAILWAY  supports for its three spans, have been replaced with piers made of  concrete. These piers, and their corresponding abutments, have  been raised to make the structure more suitable for highway use.  Notes  This was not J.J. Hill's first track-laying venture on Canadian soil. In the  early 1880's, he extended the tracks of his St. Paul & Pacific line across the  Canadian border to Winnipeg.  Measurement of VV&'E's track mileage used the Marcus Wye as a reference  point. Oroville, WA. was M.120.5, the international border was M.144.1, and  Keremeos, B.C. was 161.1 etc. Heaton's Annual, A Commercial Handbook of  Canada, in its 1916 publication, lists the VV&E's miles operated, in total, as  236.31.  This discrepancy may be the result of using posted mileage as it appears in  Roger G. Burrow's Railway Mileposts: British Columbia, Vol. Two- August 1984.  In Okanogan Highland Echoes, a report gathered and compiled by the Molson-  Chesaw-Knob Hill History Committee, Oroville, WA., 1962, it states that stands  of fir, pine, spruce and tamarack, were available in the Boundary country-  on both sides of the Canada/U.S. Border. This report goes on to say that the  first real boom for this area's sawmills started with the coming of the railroad in 1905. A large mill located at Sidley, WA, a site 3 miles west of Molson,  WA, cut bridge timbers, ties, piling, and building material for the railroad's  needs.  An attempt to determine whether or not any of the inspector's diaries still  existed, proved to be less than fruitful. It was thought that such data would  explain how and when the bridges were put into place.  See previously-cited account of Sidley Sawmill.  BROOKMERE  W&E RAILWAY  LDBWS *.3~  routes appr  RAILWAY BRIDGES SPANNING  THE SIMILKAMEEN RIVER UP  -STREAM FROM CHOPAKA-  TRESTLES NOT INCLUDED  BRITISH COLUMBIA  ROCK   CREEK  GRANDFORKS  3J^+W^^IBJ ^*%cascad:  UNITED   STATES  W&E Railway Line  OHS 91 The Shuswap pnd Okpnpgpn  Roilwpy Revisited  By Boh Cowan  George Morkill, the chief accountant for the Shuswap and  Okanagan Railway, wrote a most informative essay on the  construction of that railway for one of the early Okanagan  Historical Society Reports. Its importance has been acknowledged  over the years by reprinting it twice in subsequent reports. At the  end of his essay he wrote: "There are a lot of things still to be cleared  up in connection with the history of this road, and we intend to  pursue the subject further in our next Report." (George Morkill  "The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company" 3rd Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, p. 12) Unfortunately, he never wrote  the next article.  In 1880, the Canadian Pacific Railway began construction of  the road that would link the Pacific with the rest of Canada. The  settlers in the Shuswap and Okanagan Valleys wondered how best  to connect with this modern access to the outside world.  A wagon road existed from Kamloops to O'Keefe's at the head  of Okanagan Lake, which followed the old Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade Trail. That road passed on to Priest's Valley or Vernon, then  went south to the Mission (near present-day Kelowna). Before  reaching O'Keefe Ranch via this road, a branch went through Round  Prairie to Lansdowne. From there, it carried on to Spallumcheen  Landing (the future Enderby). The mail came via this route.  After the completion of the CPR in 1885, a wagon road was  established on the west side of Mara Lake, connecting Enderby  with Sicamous. By 1887, this road became the mail route into the  Okanagan.  Large items, equipment, and supplies were often shipped by  boat from Savana or Kamloops via the Thompson River, Shuswap  Lake, Mara Lake and the Shuswap River to Enderby. From there,  they were taken overland to the Head of the Lake, where boats  were again used as transport.  Bob Cowan is a Past Editor of the Okanagan Historical Report-Okanagan History.  He is presently Chair of the Enderby Museum Society. This article grew out of a  programme for Pioneers and Places done with Mike Roberts of CHBC Television.  92 ohs Thomas Wood, rancher and  business associate of Cornelius  O'Keefe, promoted a canal connecting the Shuswap River at  Enderby with Okanagan Lake,  thus allowing a continuous water  access to the CPR mainline. Such  was his persuasion, that the Provincial Government placed a reserve along the river at Enderby  for the entrance to the canal. The  Dominion Government dispatched one of their surveyors,  E.L. Hamlin, to the area for a more  detailed analysis. His report suggested the canal was feasible with  five locks and at a cost of  $27,000.00 per mile. (Judith N.  Pope "The Spallumcheen and  Okanagan Canal" 6th Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, p. 242)  There the matter rested until 1889, when the unflappable  Captain Shorts resurrected the  idea as an alternative to the development of a railway from Sicamous  to Okanagan Lake. Captain Shorts' plan never materialized because by that late date, the railway had become a reality thanks  largely to another early pioneer, Moses Lumby.  Moses Lumby and his partner, Preston Bennett, operated a  large ranch just south of Enderby. This ranch later became known  as the Stepney Ranch (after Sir Arthur Stepney who owned it after  the turn of the century). Mr. Lumby envisioned a rail line connecting the CPR mainline at Sicamous with a terminus on Okanagan  Lake. It would provide farmers in the Spallumcheen a reliable  transportation link to move their products to market. At the time,  wheat and livestock production dominated the local agricultural  scene.  Lumby was not a stranger to provincial politics, having been  offered the position of member of the provincial parliament in the  early 1880s, but he deferred to his friend and fellow rancher, Forbes  Vernon. In 1884, Lumby had succeeded in convincing his friends  in Victoria to initiate legislation that would see the provincial government build a railway from Sicamous to Okanagan Lake. This  legislation failed. The argument against it was simple: at a cost of  Moses Lumby (Vernon Museum and Archives)  OHS 93 THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  $25,000.00 per mile, most members of the legislature could not  justify the advantage to the province. It was too expensive a project  for too few settlers.  Lumby was undeterred. He had engaged C.E. Perry, a civil  engineer, to explore the route. It was Perry who introduced Lumby  to Patrick Larkin in 1885, while they were in Victoria on business.  Captain Larkin was well-versed in railroads and their construction.  His company, Larkin and Paterson of St. Catherines, Ontario, had  constructed several in eastern Canada. (Vernon News, December  31, 1891)  It was shortly after this encounter that the Shuswap and  Okanagan Railway was incorporated by an Act of the Dominion  Government. Its board of directors read like a who's who of B.C.  political life in 1886: J. A. Mara was Member of Parliament for Yale,  and as a Kamloops businessman had done very well by the construction of the CPR mainline; James Reid was Member of Parliament for Quesnel, and it was his signature that graced the petition  to the Dominion Government a year later for a subsidy for the S. &  O.; Frank S. Barnard was a Member of Parliament for Yale-Cariboo,  Victoria businessman and owner of the B.X. ranch near Vernon;  Thomas Earle was Member of Parliament for Victoria, businessman and sometime railroad contractor; John H. Turner was a Victoria businessman and Minister of Finance for the province; Forbes  Vernon was Minister of Lands and Public Works for the province  and owner of the Coldstream Ranch; R.P. Rithet was a Victoria entrepreneur and future owner of the Columbia Flouring Mill in  Enderby; D. McE. Eberts was a Victoria businessman; Dr. E.B.C.  Hannington practised medicine in Yale; and Moses Lumby.  Under their articles of incorporation, shareholders could sit  on the board if they owned more than $1,000.00 worth of shares.  The total capitalization of the company was to be $750,000.00 of  which only 10% was needed to begin the project. (Public Archives  of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  By early April 1887, this high-powered board had secured a  subsidy from the provincial government of $4,000.00 per mile for  the new railway. While sceptics remained in the provincial legislature regarding the economic viability of this proposal, it passed  with the qualification that the subsidy amount not exceed  $200,000.00; that the gauge and standard be the same as the CPR;  that it be completed in three years. This last requirement was  amended a year later to extend the time of completion to five years.  The estimated cost of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway's  fifty miles of track was $1,250,000.00.  94 ohs THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  A subsidy from the Dominion Government was the next requirement. James Reid submitted the petition for a subsidy, and  there it sat for about a year. In the meantime, the B.C. Board of  Trade put its weight behind the proposal and sent off a letter to the  Federal Government to that effect.  In May 1889, the Dominion Government granted a subsidy  to thirty-five railways (mostly in Eastern Canada and the Maritimes).  The Shuswap and Okanagan was the only one on the list in British  Columbia, and it received a grant of $3,200.00 per mile, the total  not to exceed $163,000.00. They had computed a road of fifty-one  miles. (Public Archives of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  By the time this grant was given, the Board of Directors of  the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway had changed. Only two of the  original shareholders were still on the Board, Moses Lumby and  R.P. Rithet. All the politicians were now gone. Were they paid  handsomely for their shares and their work? Who knows? In their  place were the principals of Larkin and Paterson Company and no  doubt their friends: Patrick Larkin, president of the S.fif O. and  also president of the construction company; T.W Paterson, the chief  engineer of the company, who later became a Lieutenant-Governor of the province; George Riley, the company's chief land negotiator, who later became a Member of Parliament for Victoria and  ultimately a Senator; M. Connelly; T.J. Jones; J. Hunter; and N.W  McQuade. (Vernon News, June 3, 1891)  After the Dominion subsidy was secured, the most recent  board brokered a new deal with the Province, the Dominion Government and the CPR. The Province would forego its subsidy in  return for guaranteeing interest at 4% on $1,250,000.00 in bonds to  be floated on the London market. The Dominion Government  would turn their subsidy money over to the province on completion of the railway. The CPR would lease the line for twenty-five  years, provide the rolling stock, maintain the track and the stations, and turn over to the S. & O. 40% of its gross income before  expenses. The S. & O. would use this revenue stream to pay the  interest and hopefully the principal on the bonds. (Public Archives  of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44 and George Morkill  "Shuswap and Okanagan Railway" 3rd Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, p. 11)  The deal appeared to be fortuitous. The province did not have  to put out any immediate cash as the subsidy would have required.  It only had to guarantee the interest on the bonds. As business on  the line grew, its exposure would be reduced. The CPR would have  a toe hold deep in the interior with the first branch line off the  mainline. They envisioned CPR lake boats bringing in revenue as  ohs 95 THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  well as providing traffic to the rail line. The Dominion Government would appear to be opening up the country to development  and investment. The S.cV O. people would build a railway without  going to tender: Larkin and Paterson would be the company of  choice.  This wonderful tripartite agreement needed to be ratified by  an Act of Parliament. This action did not occur until July 10, 1891.  By that time, the tracks were laid to Enderby. Larkin and Company didn't wait; they had a five year deadline from 1887, and time  was running out.  In all the legal agreements, the only requirement of the  Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company was to construct a line  from Sicamous, running on the left (or west) side of the Shuswap  River to some point on Okanagan Lake. The original survey of the  line had been done in the winter of 1885, and it was this document  that had been used to cajole funding from the Provincial and Federal Governments. In this initial survey, the curves around Mara  Lake were very minor. The route went to the west of Rosemond or  Mud Lake at the south end of Mara Lake. From there, the line  went directly into Enderby by the straightest possible route. It followed Bennett or Fortune Creek south, cutting through the middle  Building the S & O Railroad around Mara Lake, 1890. (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  *,ftiiiJtn»»nul?S THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  of Spallumcheen, and passing to the west of Otter Lake. It continued on the west side of Swan Lake, and thence to Priest's Valley or  Vernon, turning west and following that valley to Okanagan Lake.  The final position of the line was different. Around Mara Lake,  the cutting of rock and the proximity to the lake forced the rail line  onto higher ground and into tighter curves. As none of the curves  was so tight as to be in contravention of the conditions laid out by  the Dominion Government for construction, they were all approved.  At Mud or Rosemond Lake, T.W. Paterson made the decision  to build a bridge over the narrows between Rosemond and Mara  Lakes. By passing to the east of Rosemond Lake,he avoided considerable expensive rock work.  The straight line into Enderby was uneventful. All of the  land from Sicamous to Enderby was in the Railway Belt and was  the property of the Dominion Government, who had granted the  right-of- way to the C.P.R.. Mr. Larkin appealed to the government  to allow the Shuswap and Okanagan line to be placed anywhere  that was appropriate. Precedence existed in Manitoba and the Northwest Territories for granting this request. Permission was given on  May 14, 1891, while the rails were being laid. Homesteads dotted  the Shuswap River, but the homesteaders were not given legal title  until the Shuswap and Okanagan rail line right-of-way was secure.  (Public Archives of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  The line was built right through the middle of the Columbia  Flouring Mills yard at Enderby. In 1888, R.P. Rithet and Co. had  purchased the bankrupt mill. Mr Rithet continued to be a shareholder in the railway. His mill could not be missed. In fact, a  siding was placed off the line so that cars could be loaded and  shipped with ease. This siding was the only one built when the  line was first pushed through.  Once out of Enderby, the railway continued along Fortune  Creek through the Spallumcheen Band Reserve. The Indian Agent  had concluded the value of the property taken by the right-of-way  at $25.00 an acre. The amount was placed in the Spallumcheen  Band account held in trust by the government.  From there, until its terminus at Okanagan Lake, the line went  through private land. The owners had to be compensated. Some  were willing participants such as S. cV O. shareholder Moses Lumby,  whose land was just south of the Spallumcheen Band Reserve; some  were unwilling participants such as Elizabeth Greenhow at Swan  Lake, who stood fast for $250.00 an acre. Under the Railway Act,  property owners could not hinder construction by holding out. The  line would be put through, and the dispute placed in arbitration.  ohs 97 THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  Train arriving at Enderby station, 1920. The building pictured was originally Lamblys Hotel. It was  later purchased by S & O and used as its headquarters. It eventually became the train station.  (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  Between 1887 and 1890, about half of the private land traversed by the railway changed hands. These latecomers were no  doubt speculating on where the line would be placed. Some of  these recent landholders in the right-of-way, including Leonard  Norris and Judge William Spinks, were friends of Moses Lumby.  (22nd Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, pp. 58-61).  The principal village in Spallumcheen in 1890 was  Lansdowne. It had been clear even from the earliest survey that  the grade from Enderby to Lansdowne was simply too great to include the village on the route. Some of the Lansdowne businessmen and property owners, such as Robert Wood and E.C. Cargill,  had already begun purchasing property in the valley below the  town, speculating on the railway right-of-way and the possible site  of a new town in Spallumcheen.  Near the point where the rail line crossed Davis or Fortune  Creek, the road from Lansdowne crossed the rail line. Mr. Davies  recently purchased a quarter section farm in that location, and  believed it the ideal place for the new townsite. Negotiations were  conducted by George Riley who handled these matters for the railway. When it became clear that Mr. Davies wanted the S. & O. to  purchase his entire 160 acres, Mr. Riley considered other options.  Robert Wood owned property in the right-of-way on both sides  of the Davies acreage, and he proposed that the new townsite be  placed on his property just south of the Davies farm on what was  known as the Island. It was surrounded by swamp. It had no road  connection to it, but it did have certain attractions for the railway  folks; Mr. Wood would survey the townsite and give the railway  every other lot in town.  98 ohs THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  A howl of protest went up from Mr. Davies and other farmers  in Spallumcheen who couldn't believe the audacity of the railway  and Messers Wood, Rabbitt and Cargill, the businessmen involved  in the proposition. They believed that commercial interests were  being placed in front of community interests. If you had to move  Lansdowne to a new location, didn't it make sense to move it along  an existing road to a place that wasn't surrounded by a swamp? Mr.  Rabbitt responded that the Island was more centrally located in  Spallumcheen, and even if there were no roads at present, he and  his partners would build the necessary roads without public expense. (Vernon News, August 6-27, 1891)  Messers Wood and Rabbitt called the new community Aberdeen. The railway called it Armstrong. Armstrong? William Charles  Heaton-Armstrong was the London financier who placed the  $1,250,000.00 bond issue at 4%. He had provided this great service  for the company which allowed it to proceed. The grateful company had promised him a place name on the route.  Proceeding south out of Armstrong, the route shifted to the  east, deviating from the original plan that had it more central in  Spallumcheen. Again, there was a howl of protest from the farmers  of Spallumcheen. This time, a petition was sent to Ottawa. JA.  Mara, the Member of Parliament for the area and a former shareholder in the Shuswap and Okanagan, sent a telegram and personal  letter imploring the Dominion Government to consider the petition  before allowing the deviation from the original proposal.  Larkin and company obviously had more influence in Ottawa than the farmers of Spallumcheen or J. A. Mara. The Dominion Government ignored the protest and allowed the deviation.  Now that the line had been moved to the east along Pleasant  Valley, yet another minor deviation occurred that did not require  permission from the government. It seems that the survey crews  had been billeted at the Cumming farm in Pleasant Valley. Mrs.  Cumming, cook and house keeper, didn't like the house her husband had built for her, and convinced the crew to place the line  through her house. This they did. She got her new house. (Shirley  Campbell, Our Fair: The Interior Provincial Exhibition, Armstrong,  1999, p. 14)  The line then traversed a 6.11 acre parcel that belonged to  the Okanagan Indian Band. Somehow they managed to receive  $30.00 per acre for their property as opposed to $25.00 an acre for  the Spallumcheen Band.  Once to the east, the line continued on the opposite side of  Swan Lake from the original plan. If the builders thought that going through Elizabeth Greenhow's property along Swan Lake was  ohs 99 THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  going to be easy, they were met with a surprise. The average price  per acre that the railway was paying was about $25.00. Acreages  outside of the railway right-of-way averaged $2.00 to $5.00 for unimproved land, and as high as $10.00 for improved land. Obviously, the railway people were willing to pay a premium price for  the land they needed. Mrs. Greenhow held out for $250.00 an acre.  At an arbitration hearing in Vernon a year later, she settled for  $75.00 an acre, still considerably more than others had received.  (Vernon News, December 17, 1891.)  The Okanagan Land and Development Company owned property in the right-of-way on both sides of Vernon. With the exception of G.G. MacKay, the Vancouver real estate developer, the other  First train arriving at Enderby, 1891. (Courtesy Enderby Museum)  principals of this company were former shareholders in the Shuswap  and Okanagan Railway: J.A. Mara, Frank Barnard, and Forbes  Vernon. The most important parcel that they sold to the railway  was the site of Okanagan Landing.  During the construction period of the railway, as many as 400  men were employed with wages averaging between $1 and $3 per  day. Teamsters with their teams earned $5. Over half the crew were  Chinese. And it was these Chinese who later formed the strong  Chinese communities in Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon and Kelowna.  100 OHS THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  With the rail bed prepared, the average rate of actual rail construction was about one mile per day. T.W. Paterson had invented  a method of labour-saving construction: "The train consisted of  the tracklaying machine, seven cars, and a locomotive. The first  three cars carried the ties and the last four the rails, spikes, and  bolts etc. required. The machine used was the invention of Mr.  T.W. Paterson, the managing contractor and was one of the most  complete labour-saving devices on the continent. Two small cars  ran continually to and fro on the flat cars, fetching up the ties,  which were placed as required on an endless chain on which they  were carried to the end of two long beams projecting over the grade  and dropped at regular intervals. The rails were run on rollers on  one side of the train, and as fast as the ties were placed in position  the rails were laid thereon, bolted and spiked, and the train moved  forward another length. The arrangement for hauling the rails saved  the employment of at least 20 men. The rails were fully spiked and  bolted by men who followed the train with a handcar." (Vernon News,  Sept. 17, 1891)  As the line reached the established communities of Enderby  and Vernon along the route, the hotel proprietors would open their  doors to the workers and a celebration occurred: "Saturday, 12th of  September, 1891, the track layers reached Vernon at 4 p.m. and  finished work for the day by laying track to Barnard Avenue. The  occasion was made a cause for rejoicing at the Coldstream Hotel,  where open house was kept for several hours." (Ibid. Sept. 17,1891)  There was usually a considerable push to reach these communities by the construction crews, but no comment was made about  the sort of progress that occurred following an evening of celebration with an open bar.  Over 150,000 ties were cut from the forests between  Lansdowne and Enderby. Farmers had an immediate market for  their produce. More than one commentator has noted that the  country was flush with cash. Enderby Post Office applied to have  a postal money order service available for the workers.  "During the construction of the road this valley was a busy  place. The villages along the line were being built up, and building material of all kinds was in demand. There was lots of freight  to be hauled in from Sicamous in winter and from Enderby in  summer, consequently horses, hay and oats were in demand, and  everyone had work and everyone had money." (George Morkill  3rd Report, p. 11)  Even after the line was completed through to Okanagan Landing in the fall of 1891, the railway was not opened to passenger or  freight until the requirements of construction were completed and  ohs 101 THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  a final inspection made by the Dominion Government. Fences  had to be placed on both sides of the track along the entire right-of-  way except at crossings and towns. Cattle guards needed to be  constructed. Stations and water towers were built. In Vernon,  George Riley's nephew escaped with his life when the bolts sheared  on the tower while he was on it, throwing him, water, metal and  wood everywhere. (Vernon News Feb. 15, 1892)  The Province could not receive its last subsidy from the Federal Government until final inspection. Would the shareholders of  the S.& O. be responsible for the 4% on the bonds if the Province  had not yet received the final instalment from Ottawa? In the fall  of 1891, Mr. Larkin put pressure on the Dominion Government to  do a final inspection.  With the snow falling on December 17, 1891, Mr. Horatio  Forrest, Dominion Railway Inspector, was provided with his own  engine and car to proceed along the route and give his opinion of  the condition of the line. His final report (Public Archives of Canada,  R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44) included the degree of curvature for  all the curves, the number of culverts (58), and the type of rail  used (56 pound "West Cumberland 1890 C.P.R."). He noted that the  ties were of fair size and quality and ran 2640 per mile. He reported that a telephone wire had been strung between Sicamous  and Vernon.  He also described the various stations along the route and  the buildings on each site. At Sicamous there was a freight shed  with a platform in front plus "...a two stall engine house brick lined  inside, length 70', front 48', rear 28'..." In Enderby there was  Lambly's old hotel that had been purchased by the rail line and  used as headquarters during construction. It was two storied and  served as office space as well as station plus a freight shed 30' x 60'  with a platform on three sides. Armstrong's station was nearly  completed with a 100' long platform plus a 24' x 42' freight shed  with a platform in front. Larkin's buildings were almost identical  with Armstrong, while Vernon boasted the largest station at 50' X  24' with a platform that was 150' long and 16' wide. Vernon's freight  shed was 96' x 40' with a platform in front.  At Okanagan Landing "...an engine house similar to the one  at Sicamous is being built, the frame being up and the pits excavated. The foundation pits for a combined railway and steamboat  freight shed and office 100 x 30 feet are excavated." A wharf had  been built 18 feet wide 195 feet out into Okanagan Lake where it  made a right turn and extended for another 64 feet.  "At the date of inspection 2 trains, 190 labourers and 13 teams  (the latter loading the gravel in flat cars with wheel scrapers) were  engaged in ballasting." Another seventeen men were making cross-  102 ohs THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  ings and cattle guards. Thirteen men were engaged constructing  the turntable at Sicamous; five were employed creating the wharf  at Okanagan Landing; and other nine were working on buildings.  "Of the above number 110 were Chinese."  Mr. Forrest's report reached the office of the Chief Engineer  and General Manager for Canadian Government Railways,  Collingwood Schreiber. The latter then wrote to the Secretary,  Department of Railways and Canals, indicating that $17,595 be  withheld from the total subsidy of $162,528 until all the work was  completed, but that $144,933 could be sent forthwith.  By June, Mr. Schreiber recommended that the line be opened  to passenger and freight traffic and that the total subsidy be paid  minus $300 for some painting on station buildings and laying of  plank on some road crossings. He didn't figure it was necessary to  have another inspection since little remained to be completed and  "...the expense of inspections in that far off country is heavy." (Public  Archives of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44) The Okanagan's  distance from Ottawa hasn't changed much over the years!  The first freight over the line was a shipment of five carloads  of hogs from Mr. Cargill in Armstrong. Initially, sixteen carloads of  flour from the mill in Enderby was the maximum that could be  produced and shipped in one month. As Mr. Morkill reported: "For  some years after the C.P.R. took over the road there was not much  freight to haul or passengers to carry, and the road bed was neglected and fell into disrepair. Three times a week on Monday,  Wednesday and Friday, a freight train with a passenger coach attached, left Sicamous and made its way to Okanagan Landing, and  the next day after the arrival of the boat from Penticton it retraced  its course, carefully picking its way over the dilapidated roadway  to Sicamous. With a service so poor and shabby there were many  complaints, and of course comparisons were bound to be made  and people sometimes wondered if they would not have been as  well off on one of Shorts' mud scows with a trace chain down the  middle of the creek, but with increased business the service improved." (3rd Report, p. 11)  Armstrong c 1920. At right is the Inland Flour Mill (later Buckerfield's). The Agricultural Hall  and Armstrong High School appear on the left. (Courtesy Armstrong Archives)  tjfit&i'  4$t¬a*S        l    *t Aerial photograph of Armstrong, showing as an island surrounded by the  market gardens and agricultural lands. (Courtesy Armstrong Archives)  C.W. Holliday reported that the initial service was a rather  casual affair. "At Sicamous, each weekday morning after a leisurely  breakfast and a pipe, the conductor of our friendly little train would  say to the rest of the crew, "Well, boys, if you've finished your smoke,  I guess we may as well make a start." And after looking round the  hotel to round up his passengers if any, it would be "all aboard",  and the engine, followed by one antiquated passenger coach, a mail  and express car and a caboose, and about once a week with a freight  car hitched on behind, would leave for its leisurely journey down  the valley. Why should it hurry? They had all day if necessary, to  travel the fifty-four miles to Okanagan Landing, where they connected with the new lake boat, Aberdeen, and having reached the  landing, the train crew would have the rest of the day off to go  fishing or swimming, and the following morning would leave for  the return journey to Sicamous. It seemed an ideal occupation  and I used to envy them their job...They were very obliging too,  they would always stop the train and let you off anywhere along  the line, and pick you up too, if you flagged them." (C. W. Holliday,  The Valley of Youth. Caldwell, Idaho, 1948, pp. 256-7)  As can be imagined, with thin revenues from freight and passenger traffic, even at 40% of gross, the shareholders of the S. & O.  could not cover the 4% bonds for the construction of the line. For  many years, the Provincial Government was responsible for the  interest on the bonds.  By the turn of the century, the growth that had been predicted by Moses Lumby was beginning to materialize. The sawmill  that had been built between the rail line and the Shuswap River in  Enderby in 1895 had expanded production three fold by 1905 and  104 ohs THE SHUSWAP AND OKANAGAN RAILWAY REVISITED  was employing 200 men in the bush and in the mill. In the fall of  1910, the mill set a company record by shipping 60 carloads of lumber in 20 days.  (Enderby Press, Sept. 22, 1910)  The C.P.R.seriously promoted the area with glossy pamphlets  extolling the virtues of the Okanagan, Kootenay and Boundary regions. According to these pages, the place simply oozed economic  opportunities for the willing worker and investor. The 1909 edition included statistics for the tons of fruit shipped between 1902  and 1905. Not only had the number steadily increased, but also it  had doubled between those years. The acres previously planted  were now coming into production. Most of those tons were shipped  out on the Shuswap and Okanagan line.  The rail line was becoming the economic force that its backers had predicted, and the C.P.R. was anxious to secure the future  of the line. Their twenty-five year lease would end in 1915. In  1912, at a shareholders meeting in Montreal, it was agreed to enter  into a very long term lease with the S. & O. Probably the easiest  way to secure a long term agreement and keep the legal entity of  the S. & O was for the C.P.R. to purchase the outstanding shares of  the S. & O. This event must have occurred between 1912 and 1915,  because when the officers of the two rail lines signed the agreement for a 999 year lease in 1915, the signing secretary was the  same for both railways: H.C. Oswald. (Public Archives of Canada,  R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F 3268-44)  ohs 105 A home is a house that has acquired memories.  We have an obligation to retain the memory  as part of our Canadian Heritage!"  Author unknown  The Gillespie Homestepd  By Elizabeth Bork  ocated along Highway 97 between  Okanagan Falls and Kaleden, the  "Gillespie House" was built by Dugald  Gillespie, who acquired the property in  1895. It became known as Gillespie Flats.  As well, the barn, still standing at Highway  97 and White Lake Road, was part of the Gillespie Ranch. In 1901,  Dugald developed the area's first irrigation system, and built a five  foot dam at Marron Lake to irrigate his hay fields. In addition to  operating a small orchard, Dugald also had four-horse to six- horse  freight wagons travelling to Camp McKinney and Fairview in the  south valley, and over to the Nickel Plate Mine in the Similkameen.  Dugald and his wife, Jenny raised three children in their small,  two-storey house. In 1909, Dugald sold his holdings to James Ritchie  from Summerland, and he and Jenny moved to Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan.  For several decades into the 1980's, the ranch was owned and  operated by Jim and Patricia Leir. Presently, the house and surrounding twelve acres are owned by Larry and Annette Raincock.  The remainder of the holdings is operated as a cattle ranch by the  Leir daughters. -¬±r***&*..-  Leir barn on White Lake Road  (Courtesy Elizabeth Bork)  Stopover house at Waterman Hill  (Courtesy Elizabeth Bork)  Elizabeth Bork is a well-known historian and Penticton Branch O.H.S. Editor.  106 ohs The flDfliR House  1913-2001  By Dagmar Watkins  The Alexander Adair House represented the station in life of  the first owners for whom it was built. The family, whose  ancestry went back to Scotland and Ireland, personified the  new middle class of Canada. Staunchly Presbyterian, an Elder of  the Zion Presbyterian-United Church from 1915 to 1945, Alexander  Adair, the patriarch of the family, was also active as a School Trustee from 1920 tol937, was on the hospital board, sat on the  Armstrong Council for two three year terms consecutively and was  Mayor of Armstrong from 1938 to 1941. He supported his family  throughout his working life by owning and operating" the business  of the manufacture and sale of clothing in Armstrong", later known  as Tip Top Tailors for whom  he became an agent. He  advertised in the local paper  with eye catchers such as  New Spring Goods.... For Ladies and Gentlemen by Alex  Adair Merchant Tailor in 1913  and Adair The Tailor, Clothes  Cleaned and Pressed could be  seen in the local newspaper  until 1944. The " price was  always right" and " it was no  trouble to show the goods".  After travelling across  Canada from Toronto, seeking relief for his asthma in a  drier climate, Adair made  the decision to settle for  good in Armstrong. He built  a house designed to express  this permanence.  His ear-     The Adair house, cl920's. (Courtesy Richard Landon)  Dagmar Watkins majored in History and Art and taught in both England and  Canada. She is particularly interested in Social History as evidenced in the  settlement of the Okanagan Valley. She has lived in Armstrong for the past  thirteen years.  ohs 107 nest nature needed a serious yet attractive home in which to house his  family. Two adjoining plots of land  were purchased in his wife's name  in 1913, and remained in her name  until 1941. The building stands on  one lot only, giving the house and  garden a spacious feeling, while at  the same time allowing the structure  to be seen at its best. It would be a  house worthy of someone who had  his name in Wrigley's British Columbia Directory 1923, as, Adair, a Tailor  and Cleaner as well as that of his eldest daughter, Florence E., School  Teacher. The cost of the volume was  ten dollars, a lot of money for that  time.  A building contract for the  house on lot 28, Map 599 Osoyoos  Division, Yale District, was drawn up  on the 27th March, 1913 between  Alexander Adair and H.AAndrews  (See OHS Report # 61). It gave the  builder until the first of June of the  same year to complete the building.  The total cost was $ 2,678.00.  The house is a cross-gabled two-  storey building, and was heated by  a sawdust burner located in the basement. The front fagade has  the distinct feature of having the main entrance door placed off-  centre. This was a deliberate action to create a larger sitting room  and keep the hallway to one side of the house. Coming up the front  steps, which are centred to the verandah, the visitor is faced with a  blank wall and has to turn to the right in order to enter the building. The wooden railings around the verandah are designed in the  pattern of the flag of St. George. Above the verandah is a small  deck which is accessed through the master bedroom. The ladies of  the Minerva Club (See OHS Report #51) who met every Saturday to  read Shakespeare, would have approved of the decor of the present  owners, who have a small table displaying folk art, centred on the  verandah above the steps.  Selina Adair, nee Crawford Acheson, welcomed her turn to  host the ladies of the Minerva Club in her new home. Started in  1908, the club was considered a cultural escape from a lively but  Selina Adair, c 1920's, in front of the  Adair house. (Courtesy Richard Landon)  108 ohs very new town. Since the club could  never have more than twelve members, it was easily accommodated in  someone's house. Each member was  one of a select group of women  whose aim was to improve their own  cultural knowledge and, by extension, that of the town. New members had to have unanimous approval from the entire existing group  before being accepted. It is not recorded how they decided who would  be approved and who would not. All  decisions were kept behind the coloured leaded-glass windows of the  house.  The ladies met every Saturday, at 2:00p.m., paid fifty cents annually, and took turns to host. Since  the first meeting at the home of Mrs.  Annie Jackson, where the reading  of As You Like It was begun, the format of the afternoons has not  changed to the present day. In addition to Shakespeare, fifteen minutes would be devoted to Current  Affairs and some time given to refreshments.  At a time when the radio was  only just beginning to make its presence felt and television was unknown, these Saturday afternoons  must have been a welcome and much needed respite for Salina  from the daily chores she was expected to fulfill. She had been  born in 1865 in Gait, Ontario, and was the daughter of a Presbyterian minister father and an Irish mother. Selina had followed her  husband to Armstrong in a colonist railcar, frightened the entire  time that she would lose one of her children each time the train  stopped. At first, she found the mountainous terrain confining,  but grew to love it. She began a long life of service to her family  and to the community. Besides looking after her husband and her  three children, Florence, Douglas, and Margaret (Peggy), she was  the prime caregiver to her often bed-ridden mother, and later to  her sister who was confined to a wheelchair for fifteen years. Both  her mother and sister lived in the Adair home.  Alexander and Selina Adair, cl936,  on the porch of the Adair house.  (Courtesy Richard Landon)  ohs109 THE ADAIR HOUSE  Selina was actively involved in Church affairs. As "a daughter of the manse" she knew her role in Society, and she did what  was expected of her. She was also very active in the Women's Missionary Society and was its president for many years. She could  always be counted upon to assist in community activities. She combined all of these roles with "a gentle kindliness of nature," and  turned her home into a welcoming place. It was a home in which  she made sure everyone was healthy, well-dressed, fed, and quiet  in the evenings when her husband would be home. He was an  amateur radio builder and a keen reader and his children, as Peggy  later recorded, scarcely dared to speak or breathe while he was  thus engaged. The children, as a consequence, all became excellent readers.  Selina managed to create "a home for many...and her welcoming smile, which she never lost...will long live in the memory  of those who were privileged to meet and know her." Guests who  were invited to dinner at the Adairs remembered that the children  had their own little table and that they used "thin" glass. Guests  were also entertained by the sight of a brightly coloured, carved  wooden parrot, which sat on the mantelpiece rocking backwards  and forwards.  There was always a lot of activity in the Adair household.  Summer months were an especially busy time. Light-weight clothing for all the female members of the family was made every year.  A seamstress would be hired and boarded at the house and, if this  was not a possibility, then a Mrs. Stokes, who lived on Wood Avenue, would arrive and help. Winter clothes were tailor made and  both summer and winter clothes were covered by pinafores to protect the clothing. Throughout her life, Peggy would have a reputation as always being "well-tailored".  The two girls were expected to do their share of helping  Mother in the home, while Douglas would assist in more manly  things, like keeping the furnace going by feeding it with wood chips  from the hopper. Local saw mills, sometimes from as far away as  Monte Creek and Falkland, would supply these chips..  This was very much a traditional household of the time, and  there was little personal space for Selina. When the family went  for their Sunday walk, Dad insisted on leading the way up the  mountain. He always looked straight ahead while the children straggled behind. Selina would remain at home appreciating the quiet  opportunity to write letters. This seems to have been one of the  pleasures of her life. The early part of the twentieth century was  still a great time for the art of letter writing, and so the arrival of  the mail was always an excitement in the household.   The mail  110 OHS THE ADAIR HOUSE  was delivered to Armstrong by train. It would have been sorted  and bagged between stations and taken to the post office by a local  contractor.  Selina died of cancer in 1941, and a long obituary praising  her many virtues and accomplishments was published in the  Armstrong Advertiser, followed by a card of thanks from her husband and family a week later. By 1942, the house had been passed  on to the youngest daughter, Peggy, and it was registered in her  name. After her mother's death the year before, Peggy had married Gerald Landon, and moved to their farm on Schubert Road.  Alex lived for a while above his store, and then took turns with his  children, to visit and stay.  One year at Normal School in Vancouver had given Peggy  some teaching skills with which to educate 16 Grade 7 students at  Salmon Bench School, and her first year there must have left her  with lots of interesting stories to tell later at home. With true pioneer spirit, she was successful at her first job, for on her return to  Armstrong she was hired to teach at the Brick School. That Peggy  had become a teacher did not surprise her family, for since her  first day at the school, which was then situated at the corner of  Railway Avenue and Bridge Street, she had always been happy to  attend; though she later said that the teachers were always right!  She resigned her position in December 1941, a piece of news noted  in the Armstrong Advertiser, and her position was given to a Mrs.  John Murray.  Peggy had come home in the 1930's to help her parents both  financially and physically. Her siblings, Florence and Douglas,  had already left home; Florence to become a teacher and Douglas  to work in a bank. Youngest daughters at this time were expected  to help aging parents, and for Peggy there was no exception. She  did her duty just as her mother had done before her. She had one  spell of freedom, and then had to return, no longer a child but not  an independent person either. Peggy recalled and recorded some  of her memories of this time, but does not tell of her feelings except to say that her sixties were the most enjoyable years of her  life. By that time, she was long married and had returned to eighteen more years of teaching, retiring in 1966. Her children were  grown and independent, and Peggy and her husband were traveling  every year, exploring new horizons. Her son, Richard, recalls that  his mother always referred to the Adair house as " Sandy Knoll",  but no one seems to know why!  Peggy grew up in the Adair house during Armstrong's liveliest days. The town was the centre for agricultural commerce. The  flour mill was one of the first to ship its flour to the " Orient", and  OHS 111 THE ADAIR HOUSE  the superior Chinese market gardens exported vegetables and fruit  all over Canada. There were at least fifteen different businesses,  two hotels, and even a theatre. The life-line of all of this was the  CPR and the town and community existed around it.  The Adair family would know, along with everyone else, the  exact time of the arrival of the passenger train to and from, Sicamous  and Vernon. One of the town's highlights was to see who got on or  off the train onto the long wooden platform outside the station. It  was here that a six- year old Peggy had alighted from a caboose on  the family's arrival from Ontario. She was unimpressed by what  she saw since it was late at night and Armstrong did not have the  lights of the big cities. It was also from here that later in her life  she could, if she wished, take the train to Vernon in the morning  and return later in the day and all for 15 cents.  The Adair children were cautioned at home to stay away from  the trestle railway bridge across from the Public School, but when  that train whistle blew it proved to be an irresistible temptation.  The game was " Dare". The Dare was to stay as long as possible on  the bridge before the train came.  During the Summer months, through the windows of the  house, Peggy would have watched her brother and his friends heading off to Davis Creek for a swim. She was unable to join them  because the boys usually went "skinny dipping". For a really special occasion, the family would hire a team and democrat to take  them for picnics to the Salmon River. During the winter, Peggy  could skate on Otter Lake once it was solidly frozen, or get permission to go for a sleigh ride down the hill on Okanagan Street.  Alex Adair died in 1949 of pneumonia. During 1943, he had  spent many months with his son in Vancouver, recovering from an  operation. The Armstrong Advertiser welcomed him back in 1944,  and Alex, always the consumate business man, took the opportunity in the article to advise his customers not to leave the ordering  of new suits too late. However, by 1947, he had retired and sold his  business.  Peggy had also sold the Adair House in 1945 to John " Jack "  Armstrong (See OHS # 51). Jack and his family had moved in 1942  from Nakusp to manage the Overwaitea store in Armstrong. (This  was before Jim Pattison used the name for his store). Jack started  his career in 1937, and only changed direction when he bought a  dairy farm in Enderby in 1950. He was an Alderman from 1947-  1950, and was proud of the fact that during his tenure on Council,  all the roads in Armstrong were paved for $25, 000. It was the only  town in the Okanagan at this time which had all paved roads.  112 OHS THE ADAIR HOUSE  Jack was a keen historian ,and eventually became President  of the Enderby and Armstrong Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society. In this interest, he was supported by his wife Merle, who  was also very involved with the history of this valley. They had  five children and the house with its spacious rooms and partial  attic was ideal for a lively family.  All the Armstrongs would have been busy keeping the house  warm during the winter of 1949-50. It is remembered as " The Big  Freeze " by the Old- Timers of the town. For ten consecutive days,  temperatures hit 40 degrees below zero Fahrenheit. A large house  like the Adair house would have taken a lot of constant shoveling  of sawdust to maintain warmth from the basement to the attic.  Jack, himself, together with Charlie Shepherd, had to go to the  store every night at 1:00 a.m., to stoke the furnace to prevent  everything from freezing. He had to go back again very early in  the morning to repeat the process.  The Overwaitea store had no fridge when Jack took over the  management in 1942. Ice was hauled by horse and sleigh from  Otter Lake, and stored in a log ice-house at the back of the store.  About fifteen to twenty tons of ice were obtained in this way and  that amount was usually considered enough to last a summer.  Jack obtained the fresh vegetables for the store locally. Between  1940 and 1960, Armstrong was not only the asparagus capital of  Canada but also grew an abundance of other vegetables as well.  Later in his life, in a speech he gave at A.L.Fortune School, Jack  praised the skills and hard work of the Chinese farmers who had  settled in this valley and created the market garden. They produced so much that they were able to export their produce by train  to many parts of B.C. and Canada.  Jack and Merle's move to Enderby in 1950 opened the Adair  house to renters throughout the fifties, before it was finally sold  ten years later. The first family to follow the Armstrongs, was that  of Andy Calvert. He was the lone policeman in town and an enthusiastic bird hunter. A good friend of his, Dick File, at that time a  High School student who had just obtained his hunting license,  recalled that Andy didn't have the patience to wait for the birds to  be in the right spot and always shot too early. Dick also helped Art  Danallanko deliver milk to the Adair House early in the morning,  so that there would be fresh milk for breakfast. He further supplemented his allowance by working for Mr. Lee, who would give him  thirty-five cents for a pair of live pigeons when the "going rate for  odd jobs" was ten to twenty cents an hour.  OHS 113 THE ADAIR HOUSE  Andy Calvert's crime prevention appears to have been mostly  dealing with the odd single prisoner in the town jail sleeping off a  few too many drinks. The Calverts moved after a couple of years  into another house in town.  In 1952, Conrad and Stella Starkell arrived from Manitoba  and occupied the Adair House. Conrad bought and operated the  Texaco Service Station in Armstrong. He was a licensed mechanic  who had taken a leave of absence from the CPR to fulfill a lifelong  ambition. The move also brought him closer to his family in B.C.  Although the Starkells left Armstrong after only two years, they  had many fond memories of the house and their lives in it. There  were four children, Audrey, Gail, Arlene and Robert, and it is  Audrey, later to become a librarian, who recorded her memories.  The Starkells' move into the house coincided with the Grade Nine  Initiation, which entailed meeting passengers at the railway station and singing to them. Unfortunately for Audrey, about to enter  Grade Nine, all her clothes  were still packed. Help  came from Marion  Jamieson, who was the  same age as Audrey and  the niece of Jack and Elda  Jamieson, who lived  across the road from the  newcomers. The Jam-  iesons had welcomed the  new family the night before, and Marion had  kindly offered to share her  clothes with Audrey.  Audrey also recalled  that the High School was  overcrowded and on one  memorable occasion on a  very hot day in class, the  boys decided to each eat a  clove of garlic causing the  girls to nearly pass out  from the heat and smell. A  homework assignment entitled, Benefits and Effects of  Garlic had to be completed  by the boys  for the  next      Audrey Gail, Arlene and Robert Starkell, in the front  class. yard of the Adair house. (Courtesy of Audrey Starkell)  114 OHS THE ADAIR HOUSE  The Jamieson family came to the rescue once again when  Audrey was baby-sitting her younger siblings and the water tap  came off the sink in the kitchen. She was unable to locate the  main tap in the basement, and by the time she had phoned Mr.  Jamieson, the kitchen had flooded, and the water was running down  the stairs into the basement. He located the shut - off tap above the  hopper and saved the day. A fire in the roof is another memorable  episode. Thankfully, a volunteer fireman had spotted it, and the  brigade was already on its way by the time the alarm was raised by  the family.  During the spring, the Starkells hosted a windup party for  the C.G.I.T. girls. Wieners and marshmallows were roasted in the  fireplace, carpets were rolled up and everyone danced in the dining and living rooms. A romance was blossoming between two of  the guests, but it was discovered on the very next day that the young  lady had a suspected case of mono or spinal meningitis. She was  promptly hospitalized, leaving all the other guests to wonder if they  had picked up the virus. It did not prevent the young man in question from sneaking into the hospital to see his intended.  The two youngest children, Arlene and Robert, spent happy  hours roaming the neighborhood with Arlene pulling her brother  in his wagon. On one such expedition, they carefully dug up the  beautiful flowers from outside the hospital and transplanted them  outside the Presbyterian Church, which had no flowers. This caused  their mother so much embarrassment that she was loath to leave  her house for a while.  When Conrad Starkell's leave from the CPR ran out, he decided to return to Manitoba with his family. The house was then  rented to Corolla and Don Mclean. Don worked with maintenance  at the Vernon Royal Jubilee Hospital. They had nine children, but  only three were still living at home when they moved into the Adair  House.  After the Mcleans moved, the house was briefly occupied by  Mrs. Diebolt and her two sons. One son would later become a  judge and the other a teacher at the U.B.C. Law School. The house  was then rented to the Chalmers. Mr. Chalmers was the ice-cream  maker for Valley Dairy, but he moved from Armstrong when Valley Dairy ceased production. The house was finally sold in 1960 to  Don and Edith Levey and they would stay for twenty-eight years.  Don and Edith Levey arrived with their three children, Bill,  Mark, and Ann. Two more children, Margaret and John, were born  after the move. Don and Edith settled into their new home to begin their long life of service both to their family and to the community. Don had a full time career both as a teacher and a school  OHS 11 5 THE ADAIR HOUSE  administrator. He was a Special Education teacher and was President of the Association for the Mentally Handicapped. Edith, following the traditions of the women of the Adair House, had a full-  time, unpaid career as mother, cook, nurse, housekeeper and Community Volunteer. Both partners were, and still are, very involved  with Amnesty International, are strong supporters of the Okanagan  Symphony Orchestra, and were among the first to establish a Recycling program in Armstrong.  Besides their strong involvement in community and family  activities, the Leveys gave the Adair House some structural attention. A summer kitchen , which was no longer, was replaced with a  deck; and the house got a new shake roof. The building was rewired and the old sawdust furnace was replaced with a gas- fired  heat and hot water system. During some of the renovations and  decorating inside the house, an interesting discovery was made.  John had decided to renovate his room, and he had rented a machine to strip the walls of their many layers of wallpaper. When  the plaster wall itself was reached, he found a pencil mark near the  closet door. It seemed to be a height marker and beside it was  pencilled "Margaret Adair, age 10". Edith was able to show a delighted Peggy Landon (Adair) this memento from her childhood.  Mark, the second son, can still recall the old sawdust burner  where the children were "encouraged" to go and feed it in order to  work out some of their problems. He also remembers that they  had the biggest yard in their street, and it became the meeting  place and playground for many children, not to mention a cow  which wandered freely around the empty properties.  In 1982, Don and Edith sold the house to the present owners,  Jim and Morna Howie. Like the original owner, Alexander Adair,  Jim had lived and gone to school in Ontario. The old Edwardian  style house was exactly what the Howies were looking for, and they  set about restoring it to its original concept, while making sure  modern technology was incorporated where possible. They knew  that it would be a long-term commitment. Jim did most of the work  and contracted out some things such as plumbing.  It was a brave decision. Their daughter Mary-Jane was two,  and the day they moved into their new home, they learned that  they were to have another baby. This would be Thomson. Both  Jim and Morna have full time careers, with Jim teaching music at  the local High School and Morna teaching cello both at home and  at the Music Academy in Vernon. Both play in the Okanagan Symphony Orchestra; Jim plays Second Trumpet, and they perform for  three days once a month throughout the Okanagan Valley.  116 OHS THE ADAIR HOUSE  Into this already busy life, they fitted the renovation and restoration of their new home. The Adair House had maintained its  architectural integrity, but over the years, changes had been made.  The Howies began the slow, hard, and messy work of turning the  building back to 1913. A cement floor was laid in the basement,  and the original thick cement basement walls were checked. Trying to cut through one of the walls, Jim discovered large rocks  embedded in the concrete. Room by room, the house was gutted to  its studs. Ceilings were restored to their original heights and the  original fir floors were uncovered and treated. Upon taking out  some electrical wires from under the floor, Jim wondered how to  best plug the holes in the wood. The electrician told him that the  best thing would be cork from a wine bottle. Not having a spare  cork, Jim bought a bottle of wine which they drank, and then  plugged the holes - a most satisfactory solution.  While the Howies' plan was to retain the Edwardian character of the house, they also wanted to have light - filled rooms. As  they completed each room, they kept the paintwork white and the  furnishings in white and natural tones. The original kitchen had  little natural light, and so they broke through the outside kitchen  wall and added a breakfast nook with the ceiling following the pitch  of the roof. They used the space which had originally been the  summer kitchen and later a deck. The addition was large enough  Adair house c2001, owned by Morna and Jim Howie. (Courtesy Dagmar Watkins)  m wk THE ADAIR HOUSE  to create a hidden laundry area, a boot room and, most important  of all, a special closet for Morna's cello. A maple floor cleverly  joins the addition to the original building. While renovating the  kitchen, Jim found the remnants of wainscoting on one wall. It  was difficult to find suitable wood to restore and complete the wainscoting on the rest of the walls, but the job did get done very effectively.  When removing one of the plaster walls, Jim discovered a  very old plasterer's specialty hammer on a wooden ledge. It must  have been forgotten there, perhaps during a coffee break, and finally abandoned when the owner probably couldn't remember  where he had left it.  The lot is bordered by a white, wooden fence. This was added  by Jim when the children were small. He floods the back garden  every year, and creates an ice arena for his children, both of whom  play hockey. He can often be seen skating in their company, wearing his old-style Boston Bruins jersey. At this time, he can still out-  skate them, since he gets to practise in the Old-Timers' Recreational Hockey, but he knows it's only a matter of time until his  children will out-do him. Both children also play musical instruments and already perform for special events. The house, with its  large, open rooms, masses of light, and sense of peace, is an ideal  place in "which to practise, learn, and make music.  The families which have had the opportunity to live in the  Adair House have all added to the uniqueness of the place. As  each family moved on, it left a precious and lasting spirit of itself.  When Alexander and Selina Adair built their home in 1913, they  could have had no idea who the occupants would be almost one  hundred years later. That the house would still be standing, however, they would not have doubted, since it was built to last!  At this time, the Howies have turned one of the bedrooms  into a light and airy study, complete with technological gadgets  giving access to the world. This is a world far removed from the  one in which the Adairs found themselves in 1912. It is not inconceivable, though, to think that they would approve of what they  would find today. After all, the house looks very much as they  would remember it, and the quick access to the world would suit  both their community and family spirit as well as their business  and cultural minds.  118 OHS The Lpdy pt  2875 rosedple hvenue,  Armstrong  By Dawn Jamieson  s she looks forward in five short years, to her one hundredth  birthday this old house can contemplate the joys and sor-  .rows of the many people who have found comfort, joy, sorrow and solace within her walls.  She has seen (and heard) it all.  From the personal tragedy of the death of a family member to the  titillations of a romance - out of marriage, but surely platonic -  within her walls.  She has been a sharing kind of edifice. While naturally family oriented, she has attracted families that like to share her ample  space. Young teachers boarded; up and coming, but single, young  businessmen rented rooms, and in the past twenty years, seventeen Rotary exchange students from many countries of the world  have called her home for a few months of their young lives.  She is not a fancy lady, very utilitarian actually, but she has managed to spread and rearrange herself to accommodate the needs of all  her inhabitants. The first records show that this proper lady established  herself on one of the thirty-six lots in the Frances subdivision of  Armstrong about the turn of the century (1904 -1906). She has a basic  solid farmhouse frame and fagade. No nonsense. But her fertile grounds  have provided many generations of wonderful gardens.  Her one claim to elegance maybe the double stairways to the  second storey. One from the front entry hall and one from the  kitchen, which, it would be assumed went, originally, to servant  quarters. Certainly the room at the top of the stairwell, which is now  a large bath and laundry room, must once have been a bedroom as  the house was built well before indoor plumbing was considered.  A fully functional outhouse in the shed at the back door was  a cause for concern when the present owners, Jack and Dawn  Jamieson, owners of the community weekly newspaper, The  Dawn Jamieson (nee Bethune) serves on the Armstrong Heritage Advisory  Committee. She and her husband, Jack own the Armstrong Adviser, the community weekly newspaper, purchased by Jack's grandfather in 1927. Dawn  started a co-operative kindergarten in Armstrong in 1969, and has continued  in a career as a teacher and school psychologist.  OHS 119 THE LADY AT 2875 ROSEDALE AVENUE  Armstrong Advertiser, bought the home in 1969. The city had a bylaw against such conveniences and Jack's father, also Jack (or John)  Jamieson, was Mayor of the city at the time and did not take well  to the contravention of city ordinances.  The floor plan of the house is quite standard for the time of  its origin: large dining room, parlour and kitchen with pantry on  the main floor and four bedrooms on the second floor. A small  room off the dining room might originally have been a farm office.  A large wrap around porch originally surrounded 3 sides of the  building and a square bay window adorned the front of the parlour. The cellar is of huge rock pieces over which a coating of  plaster was applied during the Tom Andrews' family occupancy.  Don Andrews, their only son laments: "Part of my aching back undoubtedly can be attributed to the many buckets of concrete that I  hauled down those basement stairs." Beams, about 30 centimetres  square form a solid base for the floors above. This basement has  been the source of many house incidents as the "lady" fought to  keep her cellar feet dry from the capricious reroutings of an underground stream in the area.  Over the years, the plan and girth of the house has adapted  to fit the needs of the families dwelling within. The porch on the  north side was built-in, which involved the encompassing of the  front bay window. The room, thus created, served as a bedroom  for the Andrews' son when the house was a boarding facility, but is  now a den. The small kitchen, once dwarfed by a gigantic sawdust  The house in the 1950s during the teacherage days, with its original channel siding.  It was a cheery yellow. (Courtesy D. Jamieson)  120 ohs THE LADY AT 2875 ROSEDALE AVENUE  burner, which supplied heat, cooking source and hot water, has  undergone many changes to suit the various needs of several families. It is now an enlarged family room kitchen that opens on to a  covered area that is a carport in winter and outdoor living area in  the summer. This area had previously been the outhouse and  chicken coop. An outdoor screened summer bedroom and swimming pool now fill the back yard, but there is still plenty of room  for gardens.  In fitting with its utilitarian ethic the "ladyhouse" has over  the years been home to many citizens who devoted their lives to  work and the betterment of the community. Not "butcher, baker  and candlestick maker" but certainly butcher, minister and newspaper editor families have inhabited this house and enriched the  community.  Tax records indicate that George Gratis Lynn, son of a pioneer Hullcar family, owned the house, from 1910 to 1944. Mr. Lynn  married Grace Ford in 1934, but it does not appear that they lived  in the home for many years, as several of the next occupants were  renters until the Andrews bought the home from Mrs. Lynn in 1944.  The local butcher and sports enthusiast, Joe Sanderson, who  was well known in the community for his kindness and his well-  disciplined Labrador retrievers, was one of the renters. The story  goes that one of these pets was so well- trained that Joe's wife could  send a note to her husband via the dog to let him know what meat  to send home for dinner. Remember this was before the telephone  was a common household item! Mr. Sanderson would wrap up  the requested meat and send it home, again via dog, so that it could  be cooked and ready when he came home at noon for dinner. The  dog was well known in town, and one story tells of watching the  dog, on a return to home trip, being challenged by another  canine. The Sanderson dog set down the meat, chased  off his attacker, picked up the meat and continued on home. We  can only assume that dinner appeared on schedule that day.  However, not all times were so happy, and ghosts, though  friendly, do seem to linger. The children of current owners, as  little ones, often refused to go to the cellar on errands. They protested that it was just too spooky down there. It seems that they  might have been right, for when Joe Sanderson was moving some  heavy items in the cellar for yet more renovations to the house, he  suffered a heart attack and died a few hours later. His daughter,  Millicent Sanderson Harris explains: "My Dad had a coronary heart  attack on the 7th of October, 1936 in the basement lifting cement  sacks to make it easier for men who were going to put a base under  the old furnace the next morning. I was upstairs doing my home-  OHS 121 THE LADY AT 2875 ROSEDALE AVENUE  work and my Mom called me at 9:00 after she found him. There  was a lot of water in the basement. Dr. Calvert, the dentist, our  neighbour came over and together he and I carried Dad up the  basement stairs and into the bedroom where he died about 1:00  a.m. on the 8th." When they learned of Mr. Sanderson's death the  Jamieson children , JJ and Jodi (van der Meer), now adults, said in  knowing terms, "See, we told you it was spooky."  The parlour of the house must certainly have been a featured room during the residency of the next tenants, for the Reverend Netterfield and family lived in the home until 1939 , when the  Andrews family moved in. Reverend Netterfield was the Baptist  minister and the unique 3-part folding door that separates the parlour from the dining room must certainly have been closed to allow the business  of the  church to proceed in privacy.  Perhaps the most engaging residents of the house were the  many teachers and other single workers who lived there when the  place was owned by the Andrews in the 1940's and 50's and commonly known as the Teacherage. Apparently rules were not often  spoken but well understood and observed by all "boarders". They  were welcome in only the kitchen and dining room and only at  meal times. Their rooms upstairs were usually shared, with two  women to a bed and bath days in the big old claw foot tub were  scheduled on a weekly basis. Two creative women who shared a  room at one time figured that they could get two baths a week if  they were willing to share the tub. They had their own rule:  "remember how we used to take turns sitting at the tap end to get  the warmest water?" reminisced one lady when she recently visited this home from her youth.  Gender inequalities were also remembered. While all boarders, male or female, raved about her wonderful cooking, it seems  Mrs Andrews used to give some special considerations to the male  boarders. They got their laundry done ,but ladies did their own.  Another couple that recently visited the house had their own  shared memories. They provided the romance part of the story.  While both were "boarders", Shirley and Charlie Perry met, fell in  love and married shortly afterwards, and now live in Maple Ridge.  Forty or more years later, they recall only happy times in Armstrong.  Don Andrews, son of Tom and Annie, has his own memories  of the house. The "lady's" feet were wet again and so another cellar and water story is told. "The basement always reminded me of  a dungeon with its large rough granite blocks. Dad once went down  there during the spring monsoons to find a veritable fire hose jet of  water spouting forth from a pipe hidden in the west wall of the  basement. We later found that this pipe was connected to a buried  122 ohs THE LADY AT 2875 ROSEDALE AVENUE  wooden trough that  headed eastward into the  garden, probably meant to  drain the flooded basement. Trouble was, the  trough sloped the wrong  way."  He also recalled,  with some pleasure, a venture into communications  on a local level. It was wartime- and a neighbour, Mr.  Watson was moved to  phone the Police when he  heard Morse code coming  over his radio. "Raymond  Bradford, living at the corner of Okanagan and  Rosedale (about two blocks  way), and I had strung between our houses a telegraph wire in the ditch -  we had to appropriate a  telephone and a power  pole to get it across  Rosedale - and were having a delightful time communicating with each  other. It seems to me I recall dimming the street lights on several  occasions, too." Don pursued his scientific interests into a life career working at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, B.C.  Yet another story involving water in the basement occurred  on New Year's Eve, 1977. The Jamieson family were dressed and  about to set out for the celebrations of the evening when a gushing  sound, like a waterfall was heard. Opening the basement door  revealed that the cellar was rapidly filling with water. It seems that  when renovations had been done to the kitchen about six months  previously, the plumber had neglected to connect the drain pipe  from the kitchen sink. The "grey water" had for several months  drained into the crawl space under the kitchen. With the freezing  temperatures that New Years brought, the water froze and broke  the water pipes. The new year outing was delayed only briefly  while the city crew was called to find the water shut off.  The stove - source of heat, hot water and good  food, when Annie Andrews was the landlady at  the teacherage. (Courtesy D. Jamieson)  ohs 123 The "lady" with her latest exterior change that was done in the early 1970s.  A bright red front door now shows the Jamieson family crest. (Courtesy D. Jamieson)  Tricks of the old house do not end with water stories. It seems  that the old girl also had a habit of bringing down the roof - or  walls - on occasion. During the Netterfields' tenancy, a particularly solemn Baptist dinner was interrupted when the entire plaster ceiling in the dining room came crashing down on them. One  church dinner that ended with a bang!  Many years later, the Jamieson family was enjoying a quiet  evening at home. The fireplace was roaring and family members  were reading and talking. A creaking and cracking noise was heard  and a bulge appeared in the ceiling wallpaper. A nudge from a  broom handle brought most of the ceiling down with a lazy peeling  and much dust. Then there was the time when renovations called  for the addition of a fireplace. An enthusiastic friend with large  chain saw in hand began to cut. The lady house did not take cheerfully to such action and before the wall had been customised to a  fireplace opening, much of the side of the room had collapsed, and  over thirteen pounds of plaster needed to be vacuumed from the  carpet.  This dear old lady house, for surely she is a lady, with all the  sincerity, love and foibles of the age and gender, has seen, heard  and endured it all (though not without the noted displays of temper). As she relaxes onto her firm foundations, she contemplates  the next hundred years, the people, and the tricks she will play...  124 ohs Hillcrest Mpnor  By Pam Johnson  Euilt in 1915, Hillcrest Manor is a well-built and to-day, a well-  restored home. It has survived much as did its original owner,  ' Norman Sydney Richards, who was determined to "make a  go" of fruit farming in Canada. He overcame his war wounds, the  hungry thirties, the lack of a farm truck during World War Two, the  frigid winter of 1950, and, at his retirement age, the threat of his  land being taken out of the land reserve.  Norman Richards was a sixteen year old graduate of Clifton  College, Bristol, England who chose not to follow in his brothers'  footsteps. (They had attended Oxford University.) Norman's widowed mother, A.S.E. Richards and her travelling companion came  to Salmon Arm to purchase an acreage (ten acres bordering on the  Auto Road, what is now 20th Street S.E.) and to build a home there  for Norman.  WD. Chown was hired as  the architect, and a large English Manor House was constructed. It had four bedrooms,  three of which had screened  sleeping porches, accessed by  French doors. All rooms had  high ceilings and picture rails.  The master bedroom had a fireplace. One bedroom boasted a  walk-in closet (later used to enlarge the bathroom) and a separate flush toilet room. A landing ran the length of the upstairs. All  rooms downstairs had French doors leading out to a full-length verandah on the north side, which faced from the hilltop to overlook  Shuswap Lake. In the 1930's and 1940's, this lake froze over every  winter, and a howling north wind made for frozen water each morning in the washstand basins. Coal was expensive, and the furnace  was not lit until the temperature was well below zero degrees Fahrenheit. Water was pumped from a well to a cistern in the attic and  supplied the house by gravity. Sometimes the cistern froze, and  sometimes it overflowed if someone forgot to switch off the pump!  Pamela (Richards) Johnson is a daughter of Norman and Pearl Richards. She  currently resides in Salmon Arm.  Looking North at the renovated Hillcrest  Manor in 2001. (Courtesy Pam Johnson)  ohs 125 HILLCREST MANOR  When World War One had called, Norman had elected to leave this  land ofbeauty, lakes, trees, flowers and birds-all at his doorstep. The house  had been rented out, as Norman and his mother returned to England.  Norman had trained there to be a lieutenant in the Worcestershire Regiment, and in 1917, was wounded in France. In 1919, he met and married  Pearl Cullimore of Berkeley, Glos. Bringing their furniture with them, the  young couple then returned to Canada and took up residence in the manor.  On Norman's pension, they lived in three of the spacious rooms. In the  ensuing years, the fruit trees had died due to lack of water. It was decided  that Norman should take a correspondence course in Poultry Farming,  and the house was mortgaged to cover expenses. However, by the 1940's,  Norman had regained his health, and the farm was flourishing. Day-old  chicks were being shipped all over B.C. Electricity as well as city water  had come to the home. A hired man, Ray Davies from Bath, England,  lived in and helped with the feeding of the 3,000 Leghorns, Rhode Island  Reds and Barred Rocks. An incubator house, brooder house, three double-decker poultry barns and some eight colony houses for developing  young stock- all were in operation. A walk-in deep freeze and an electric  incubator were added. A sawdust furnace, soon replaced by oil, made the  home more comfortable. However, the cleaning and candling of the eggs  was still done in the house. A large vegetable garden was possible. Besides enjoying his tennis and boating on the Shuswap, Norman caught  many fish from his campsite at Paradise Point.  By the early 1980's, the Richards were forced to sell to a developer,  Mr. Visscher, but were allowed to remain in their home, until they were  hospitalized in 1983. The new owners of Hillcrest Manor, Mr. and Mrs.  Bowlby, accomplished an enormous amount of restoration. The rainwater tank in the basement was demolished, a concrete floor was laid, entrances were changed, many coats of kalsomine were removed from  upstairs rooms and the kitchen was remodelled. (Amanda Bowlby has  recorded all this in My House, on file at the local Haney Museum.)  Within ten years, Richard and Zona Ross purchased Hillcrest. The  sleeping porches and the downstairs verandah were glassed in, thus extending all the rooms. Heating these extensions made for brighter and  more comfortable living. Both sets of new owners had kept the original  shape and structure intact. Since 21st Street now passed within feet of the  east side of the manor, much landscaping was needed to give privacy.  This was accomplished, and is a joy to see. The home now has a pink  stucco exterior and a green roof. It no longer resembles the Haney House,  built in the same era with brown shingle siding and a shingled roof.  Some fifty modern houses now cover the original ten acre Hillcrest  Poultry Farm and Hatchery. Our father, Norman, died in 1986 at the age  of eighty-nine, and our mother, Pearl, died in 1991, age ninety-one. My  sister, Esme Farnham lives in Kamloops B.C. Yet, manyyears and many  changes later, Hillcrest Manor is the same dear home where I was born in  1920, and where I am made to feel welcome!  126 ohs Tokios Bunkhouse  Home Sweet Home  By Andrea Dujardin-Flexhaug  man would have to have great patience and forbearance to  move a building by himself. Josef John Tokios had both when  .he decided to perform just such an endeavour, but "Johnny",  as he was known to friends, was always interested in trying new  things.  Johnny was born in Ujvidek, Hungary in 1924, and had a lifetime of experiences before immigrating to Canada in 1952. As a  young man, he wanted to design jewellery, but his first occupation  was as a beautician. He also had training as a goldsmith. However,  at the age of nineteen, he enlisted in the Hungarian Army, but  soon became a POW during wartime years. Upon release, Johnny  worked in the harsh environs of a coal mine in West Germany. In  January of 1950, he married wife Ursula Pendzich in West Germany, and on Christmas Day of that year, daughter Marika was  born. Deciding to make a fresh start in Canada, the young family  sailed by ship to Quebec in 1952. They worked and travelled, and  eventually settled in the B.C. southern interior town of Beaverdell,  which had been an important mining area, with initial prospecting  beginning in the late 1880's.  These three attached buildings were part of the Sally Mine camp. Left to right: school house,  kitchen, bunkhouse - which Johnny Tokios moved to his land between Oliver and Osoyoos.  (Courtesy the author)  Andrea Dujardin-Flexhaug is on the Editorial Committee of the Oliver-Osoyoos  Branch of the O.H.S. In the past, she has worked at the Osoyoos Times and at  the Osoyoos Museum.  ohs 127 TOKIOS BUNKHOUSE  It was while working as a locomotive driver at the Highland-  Bell Mine that Johnny chatted frequently with local miners, and  hiked up to the by then, out-of-production Sally Mine. The Sally  Mine was a past producer, located 1.5 kilometres south-southeast  of Beaverdell. First discovered in 1901, in its heyday, it produced  silver, gold, lead, zinc and copper. Operated from 1901 to 1910 by  the Vancouver and Boundary Creek Development and Mining Company, it has since passed through various hands.  The school house, kitchen and bunkhouse were still in tact in  the 1950's. and later, Johnny became inspired to move one of the  buildings down to land he had purchased in 1963-midway between  Oliver and Osoyoos. Since, even for Johnny, it would be too much  of an undertaking to move all the buildings, he decided on the  bunkhouse, and soon had permission to move it. The bunkhouse  had been home to nineteen men, and so was a fair size, but Johnny  was determined. Over the course of about a year, he took the wooden  structure apart, piece by piece, numbering each one for shipment  down the steep, winding incline of Anarchist Mountain, through  the valley to his land south of Oliver. All he had was a Volkswagen  truck and a little trailer in the back.  Johnny is no longer around to recount the experience, as he  died at Oliver, September 16, 2000. However, his wife, Ursula recalls the whole event clearly, and relates the tale. "I asked him,  why do you make yourself so much  trouble getting it down log by log?"  I said to him once. "Can't we rent  a big logging truck?"  Sally Mine bunkhouse  transport and reconstruction  on Johnny Tokios' property,  south of Oliver. One of his  wood carvings stands in front  of it. (Courtesy the author)  128 ohs TOKIOS BUNKHOUSE  Following his wife's advice, he tried to get a truck, and all of the  men he approached, refused. They well knew that the switchbacks  on the road were so high up in the mountain, and were so sharp  that the loaded truck couldn't take the curve. It was just Johnny  and his Volkswagen truck with a little trailer on the back. "He used  to come flying through Osoyoos with a small red flag at the end of  his logs," remembers Ursula. "It looked funny doing that. People  were smiling and saying, 'There comes Johnny with his logs.'" However, he managed not to have any major mishaps on his two and  one-half hour trip down the mountain to 123rd Street, south of  Oliver.  All this time, he was still working at various jobs up in Beaverdell,  and later at the Midway Sawmill. Ursula had moved down to a rented  house in the more amenable Oliver. Johnny came home on weekends, bringing the bunkhouse logs with him. In 1964, the enterprising couple also planted their first three acres of vineyard, which,  over the years, eventually grew to ten acres. Their young family,  which by now included a son David as well, helped Johnny reconstruct the bunkhouse on their land, and the family moved into  their new home in the summer of 1975. A power post with four  lines provided electricity, and they had a propane gas stove as well.  The harsh winters up at  the Sally Mine had weathered the bunkhouse roof,  and  so  Johnny  didn't  transport it.  ohs 129 TOKIOS BUNKHOUSE  He constructed a new, rather unique one instead, layered with plywood and tar paper, sod overtop, and later, a scattering of animal  horns for an even more creative touch.  When Johnny retired at age sixty-five, he had more time to devote to another artistic endeavour- his large, wooden carvings, that  still surround the house. He had showings in Vancouver, Oliver  and Osoyoos. "My husband was an artist at heart," says his wife  Ursula fondly. Indeed, his memory lives on through his artwork,  and the house on the hillside stands as a unique testament to the  man himself!  Johnny Tokios dismantling the Sally Mine bunkhouse, late 1950s.  (Courtesy the author)  130 ohs Out of Sight - But Not Out of Mind  SugprLodge  By Peter Ward  In the spring of 1939, Brenda Falls still flowed free, and fly fish  ing was excellent in its pools. It was then that Raymond Ward,  my father, obtained permission to use the two deserted log cabins that had once been the Bell Pole Company camp at the outflow  of the Shuswap River on the south-west side of Sugar Lake. We  used the smaller building as our summer home; the larger building, Dad used as a workshop in which he built a huge rowboat for  the family and a little canoe for me. Joe Charbonneau was our  nearest neighbour, and with his wife and daughter lived in the "almost ruins" of that grand old resort hotel, Tillicum Inn. Down the  river from our camp were Leland's cabin and "The Creel", the commercial resort of Geof and Edna Montford.  Since the old bridge over the river had been destroyed years  previously, the residents of the west side of Sugar Lake had no  road access to their camps. Monk, Montford, Leland, Edwards,  Curwin, Mackie, Nicklin, Barkley, Fraser (Fraser Lodge) and others had to access their properties by boat from the south end of the  lake. Here, the road from Cherryville ended at the B.C. Forestry  Station. The forest ranger was often called upon to ferry the west  side people across the river to where they berthed their boats at  "The Creel". Trailering boats was not common in those days.  In spite of the inconvenience of getting to and from our camp,  that summer of 1939 passed gloriously. Many friends came to visit  us. They expressed enjoyment in their visits, so much so, that Dad  was inspired to build a commercial resort somewhere on the lake  but with road access.  In the spring of 1940, he obtained a ninety-nine year lease  from West Canadian Hydro Electric Corporation for property on  the lakeshore across from our Bell Pole cabin. The location was  perfect for Dad's vision of a commercial resort. The primary site  was a flat meadow that almost flooded during high water, and remained green all summer. A sandy, shingle-beach, a resort owner's dream, extended the entire length of the meadow to the foot of  Viddler Mountain. Huge cottonwood trees would provide shade  for the proposed cabins. Also, on that property were the remains  Peter Ward taught at Charles Bloom Secondary School in Lumby. Now retired,  he lives in Vernon.  ohs 131 OUT OF SIGHT - BUT NOT OUT OF MIND  of George Constable's shingle mill, which would become the frame  of our new canteen. On weekends especially, this grassy meadow  became a meeting place for many of the portable sawmill crews  working in the area. In the evenings, after a swim, the men would  gather around a campfire to sing songs, tell stories, and drink a  bottle or two of beer from our canteen.  Then, the first dam came! It was a small dam, and was completed by the end of September 1940. It raised the lake level only as  high as the usual high water line, and though we lost acres of sandy  beach, it was still possible for us to operate the resort. At that point,  Dad was assured that the dam would never be raised to a higher level.  On this assurance, he proceeded to build Sugar Lodge. For a  place to live, he collected a dozen huge cedar logs for a raft on  which he built an ample frame cabin. A walkway extended all  around the house and included a berth for our new nineteen foot  cabin cruiser. On shore, the frame of the shingle mill was soon  renovated to become our canteen, from which we sold everything  a sportsman might want: ice-cream, bread, jam, fish-hooks, candy  and beer. At the back of the canteen was the boat shop. Several  boats of Dad's unique design came from this shop. One he called,  "Pancake", which proved to be a favourite among fly fishermen  because it was so very stable. It had a Vee bottom, a length of fifteen feet, a width of six feet, but only a six inch freeboard. It was  powered by a one-horse Briggs-Stratton engine. Our boats made  money at the rate of a dollar a day for rowboats, three dollars and  fifty cents a day for motor-boats. The cabin cruiser, on which we at  one time loaded seventeen men and all their firefighting equipment, rented for five dollars a day.  After the canteen was completed, three shiplap cabins were  constructed. They were simple one room shacks, each equipped  with a small wood stove, a bed, a table, two or four chairs, a good  quality linoleum on the floor, a screened cupboard on the shady  side, and a necessary path leading to the outside toilet. To complete the resort, Dad bought another floating cabin from "The Creel",  the resort on the west side of the river. Our best cabin rented for  three dollars and fifty cents a day.  As hard as he tried, Dad could not build boats fast enough to  supply the demand, and he was required to buy several from wherever he could find them. He bought good ones and bad ones. One  inboard "Procter" boat he bought and paid for without even seeing it.  When the boat was delivered to the lake, it leaked very badly and the  engine would not start. But the deal was done! Dad was disgusted,  and said to me, "If you can start it, you can have it." Antoine Andre  later showed me how to start it, and I now had my first power-boat.  132 ohs OUT OF SIGHT - BUT NOT OUT OF MIND  Back then,  forest fires were  fought at close  quarters by men  with grubhoes,  shovels, handsaws,  and axes. The only  way into Sugar  Lake back country  was by forestry  trails which radiated from the  lakeshore. The  only way to the  foot of these trails  was by boat. As  soon as a fire was  spotted by the  look-out man on  Sugar Loaf Mountain, he would telephone the ranger  at the lake, who  would then commandeer a crew  from the beer parlours, the sawmills, the farms, anywhere he could find men. If the  fire were on the west side of the lake, crews would attend it from  Squaw Valley, Mabel Lake or the Silver Hills. If it were on the north  or east side of the lake, "Sugar Lodge" boats were called out to freight  men and equipment to the foot of the appropriate trail. These Forestry contracts were a great financial boon to Sugar Lodge.  Dad believed in advertizing. He had small brochures printed,  showing a map of the area, the facilities and prices offered, and the  hiking and guided fishing tours available. He gave these brochures  to any and all satisfied customers, and asked them to distribute  them to their friends back home. It was a good plan. Several of the  brochures came back from as far away as Indiana, Washington and  New York- with avid fishermen looking for the same good fishing  and rustic accommodations as their friends had found at Sugar  Lodge. To tempt the local folk to patronize the lodge, he kept the  Vernon News supplied with tidbits of news such as, "Bill Christian  and Stan Violette caught a nine pound Dolly", and "Mr. Ward has  erected a diving board at Sugar Lodge for both timid and bold divers.  It was much appreciated by visitors on the long week-end."  1^  /  15^  riLLICUM INh^^p"  0w  bellpoleM                 . O                              <<v  CAMF^  thS  ^J    SUGAR LODGE  CREEI^  J^   FORESTRY  BRIDGE  'WL          NOT TO SCALE    /   ^^^^  SUGAR LAKE  BRENDA FALLS        /  ONE HALF INCH = ONE KILOMETRE  ■■               /    '  ^  BRENDA FALLS    Jl  Wm   / INSERT AREA  SUGAR LAKE  Courtesy Peter Ward  OHS 133 OUT OF SIGHT - BUT NOT OUT OF MIND  Then came the high Sugar Lake Dam, and all was lost! The  flooding from the first dam had swamped most of the beaches, but  by the end of 1942, when the reservoir of the higher dam was filled,  the lake had doubled its length and breadth, increasing its storage  capacity seven hundred percent. All of the beaches, thousands of  tree stumps, acres of wild hay land, some homes and Sugar Lake  Lodge were under thirty feet of turbid water. Once crystal clear,  the water was now tea-coloured and littered with uprooted trees,  bits of old cabins, shingle-bolts, dead-heads and driftwood. Our 99  year lease was cancelled. Our canteen and all the cabins were taken  by the power company at cost. Our twenty-three boats were sold  individually. And our hearts were broken.  To-day, as you stand on the bridge and look north, you cannot see any evidence of what was once a thriving summer resort.  Like Brigadoon, Sugar Lodge came and went and left no trace.  Sugar Lake is located 43 KM. east of Lumby, 15 KM. north of Cherryville  on the Shuswap River system.  134 ohs Olpllp Cpmp  By Wallace L. Liddicoat  Today's Olalla straddles B.C. Highway 3, seven km. north of the town of  Keremeos - at the confluence of Keremeos and Olalla Creeks.  jf"m\ lalla, known in the beginning as "Olalla Camp", is said to  I have derived its name from a service berry which, at one  time, grew in abundance along the area's creeks and hillsides. Known locally as the "olalla", this berry is akin to one that  grows east of the Rocky Mountains.. .the "saskatoon berry". Saskatoon  is a word that comes to us from the Cree language, and when translated, means "a berry bush with large or strong branches". Although  its origin cannot be verified, the name of the local variety maybe a  "pidgin" form of the Lakota Indian word, "oglala" that refers to a  similar berry which grows in the Dakotas. Perhaps the word olalla  originated from within the chinook jargon, an auxiliary language  used by local settlers to communicate with the First Nations people.  Exactly when the first white miners stopped at Olalla to prospect for minerals is not known. Certainly, it was long after the  indigenous people first began making seasonal trips to this particular area to gather both roots and berries.  The late 1850's saw the demise of California's gold rush; a  gold rush that began in 1849 and, within years had attracted  Argonauts from around the world. News of a gold strike in the  Colony of British Columbia lured many of the displaced miners  from their exhausted California "diggins". By 1858-59, thousands of  miners, mostly Americans were working the sandbars of the Fraser  River. When the Fraser rush petered out, the rest of the Colony  became a target for these itinerant gold seekers. In less than a decade or so, the Pacific North West was awash with mining camps;  some big, some small; Olalla being one of the smaller ones. However, Olalla Camp did take on the trappings of a boom town, a status which it maintained- albeit intermittently- for nearly thirty years.  In this writer's opinion, the history of Olalla as a mining camp  spans the years 1885 through 1922. It was during this period that  the Camp's most important mining claims were staked and recorded.  Wallace Liddicoat was secretary-treasurer of the Similkameen Valley Branch,  O.H.S. at the time of his death in May 2001. This article is part of the written  record of the history of this area which he has left as his legacy.  ohs 135 OLALLA CAMP  In 1894, L.S. Brown of Ashland, Oregon, and his partner, C.W. Jordon  of Keremeos, staked both the Dolphin and Spar Fraction claims, a  gold and silver proposition. A few years later, the brothers, Archie  and Dan McEachern began their Golconda Claim. Claims were  staked on both sides of the valley by Price Jandell, a Welsh miner.  One claim, the Mount Zion, caused mining promoters in Spokane  and New Westminster, to take a second look at Olalla Camp. However, while the ore at the surface proved to be high grade, it was  very limited in quantity.  Olalla Camp's history is miniscule when one considers ore  production. In total, very little ore was shipped. A Minister of Mines  Report (Osoyoos Mining Division, 1923) states that between 1906  and 1918, the Dolphin/Spar Fraction claims made several shipments  to the smelter at Northport, WA. The first consisted of twenty tons  of un-picked ore for the purpose of determining, by authentic  smelter returns, the actual ore value. Another car was shipped in  1917 and netted $837.56 in returns. In 1918, these claims were  worked for twenty-six days during the year, and forty-six tons of  ore (1.5% Ag. and 6.2% Cu.) were shipped. The report goes on to  say eighty tons (gross value $35.00 a ton) were shipped in 1919.  Around 1917, the McEachern brothers shipped ten tons of  picked ore, which contained 18.1 % copper to the ton. In the following year, 4,390 lb. of molybdenite ore (17.11% MoS) were shipped  to Ottawa.  Price Jandell eked out a living working his claims: the Mica,  the Groundhog, and the Silver King, which contained values principally in silver. Jandell's hand-picked ore was shipped to various  smelters in the Boundary country.  Ore from Olalla's mines was brought down to the valley bottom by one of several methods: on the backs of miners, on pack  animals, or, in the case of the Dolphin, by aerial tramway. The  Dolphin's tramway, the cable of which was 1,050 feet in length,  stretched from the portal of No. One tunnel to the 100 ton ore bin,  located at the foot of the hill. Ore from the two 400 pound capacity  buckets was dumped into the ore bin automatically. From Olalla,  ore was hauled by wagon to a loading platform which had been  erected near the Keremeos railway station.  The Olalla we know to-day stands without a vestige of its former self.  The buildings: a hotel, an assay office, a school, a dance hall, a store, a post  office, and most of the original dwellings, have vanished. First surveyed more  than one hundred years ago, the Olalla townsite now plays host to a bedroom  community, a community with few connections with the past.  136 ohs People - They Mode Our History  When R Raven Colls  The Dr. John Gibson Story  By Randy Manuel  I cannot hear a raven's call without thinking of Dr. John "Jesus"  Gibson. John was one of those old-time doctors who would  make house calls at any time of the night or day.  He was instrumental in a number of community projects  such as the Okanagan Game Farm. It opened in 1967,and he was a  founder. In the 1950's, he was one of the pioneer group that started  Apex ski hill. The list of workers on "Operation Carmi", the road  over the mountain to Beaverdell in 1964, included John. He was  part of the rescue team when CP Air Flight Four crashed on  Okanagan Mountain in December 1950. He was also an author  and noted guest speaker.  I knew John from several aspects, one of which was being  stupid enough to wreck myself in a toboggan accident. He arrived  and smacked my backside, I yelped, so he pronounced me alive  and well, then went on to enjoy a lengthy visit with Mom and Dad.  I also knew him in his capacity as a Director of the Penticton Branch  of the Okanagan Historical Society. He, along with Victor Wilson  and Harley Hatfield, researched and located the famous 1849 to  1869 Hudson's Bay Company Fur Brigade Trail between the  Tulameen and Fort Hope on the Fraser River. It was on one of  those trips that I heard his incredible Raven call. The birds went  nuts at John's cawing, and the members of the camp were held in  total awe during this chorus between man and bird.  His sense of humour was always sharp, and he was one to  tell tall tales around a campfire, while drinking coffee usually laced  with "stuph" stronger than milk and sugar. One of his stories was  about growing up in Keremeos, where he was born on January 8,  1914. He and his siblings liberally laced the rails of the Great Northern with soap. As the train pulled up to the platform, locals were  stunned to see it glide by on the well-soaped steel! Keremeos was  Randy Manuel is Director of the Penticton Museum. He is an author and artist, a guest speaker, and host of the "Brown Bag Tuesdays" in the Museum  building, where he gives talks on local history and slide presentations throughout the winter months. He is also a Director of the Penticton Branch, O.H.S.,  one among a number of local organizations to which he belongs.  ohs 137 Dr. John Gibson pictured with California Big  Horn Sheep from the Okanagan Game Farm,  taken to Victoria to promote the Game Farm  and the Okanagan valley. (Courtesy the author)  saved from the antics of the  Gibson clan when they moved to  Penticton in 1919. They settled  on a ten acre orchard on Main  Street, where St. Ann's Catholic  Church now stands.  In 1930, John went to Victoria College, spending two years  in the Arts programme. The summer of 1930 saw him going north  to Port Essington on the Skeena  River, where he worked on a  United Church Mission boat, as  deckhand, cabin boy and cook. It  was here that John's interest in  medicine came alive. He was assistant to Dr. R. G. Large, when  the mission team would visit the  canneries and scattered villages  along the coast. This interest led  him to graduate from Queen's  University in 1938. His first practice was back to the north coast,  where he ran a hospital on his  own for five months. Pay for the  position was one hundred dollars  (yes, one hundred) per month!  There was no standby pay, no  overtime pay. As well, he fished  for food for the patients and grew  vegetables for the hospital  kitchen... so doctors- don't complain about now! John spent two  years at Tulsequah, then went  over to Prince "Rinse" as he called  Rupert, where he married the  same girl twice!  When John married Freda  (from Picton, Ontario) in Juneau,  Alaska, the pilot who took them  there was also to pick up the marriage licence. However, he forgot.  When John found out this omission, the next day, he had a marriage commissioner flown into  138 ohs WHEN A RAVEN CALLS  the fishing camp where they were honeymooning, to redo the task.  Even that, according to a judge, was not legal, and for over the next  half century, it remained so in the eyes of the law. John and Freda  moved to Penticton in 1946, settling down in the great old home of  F.H. Latimer on the corner of Eckhart and Martin Street. John  became a partner in the R.B. White Medical Clinic, staying there  until his retirement, after which, through the 1980's, he was coroner.  John's sense of humour, sharpened by his stint on the north  coast, now came to full bloom in the Okanagan sun. Dr. Bill Rowe  tells this story. At one time, during the Saturday morning hospital  rounds, doctors presented scientific papers for discussion. "One of  the other doctors, Hugh Barr, was giving his lecture and Dr. Bill  Wickett had his own notes rolled up in his hand," said Rowe.  "Wickett fell asleep and Dr. Gibson, who was still smoking at the  time, lit a cigarette and also lit Dr. Wickett's notes." Feeling the  heat on his hands, Wickett awakened, and was alarmed to discover  his lecture notes - and his turn at the podium - gone up in smoke!  In his capacity as Director of the Okanagan Game Farm, Dr.  Gibson took a California Bighorn Sheep to the steps of the Provincial Legislature. This was to promote the Game Farm and the  Okanagan, and he got his point across.  Once, in an interview with him, I asked him what the J. in  John J. Gibson was. With a great laugh, he told me John "Jesus"  Gibson.  At age eighty-five, Dr. "John" died on April 2nd, 1999, but I  still hear his laugh every time a raven calls.  Gibson family (except  Hardy girl). Back row, left  to right: Frankie (Frances)  Palmer, Bill Estabrooks  (Lillian), Joan Hardy, Fred  Gibson. Front, left to right:  John Gibson, Marney  Gibson, (photo supplied and  identified by Bill (Lillian)  Estabrooks)  ohs 139 William Dennis Gallagher:  fl Tribute  By Allan Claridge  ill" Gallacher was born in Stirling, Scotland on December 25,  1921, and he passed away in Kelowna on December 27,1999,  at the age of seventy-eight years. He spent his "growing up"  and early adulthood years in Oyama, where his family had located,  after moving to the Okanagan from Scotland. Bill served in the  Canadian Armed Forces during World War II, and returned home  in 1946, after having been in England and continental Europe during that conflict.  Bill attended U.B.C. in 1946 -1947, then  worked with his brothers on the Gallacher  farm at Oyama, before leaving the area to  work for the Kitimat Construction Company  Limited. After several years of varied construction work, Bill made a decision which  was to launch him on a career that spanned  the country, through his employment with  Parks Canada; this occupied him for most of  the next three decades.  To say that Bill was well-suited to supervisory work in his chosen field would be  an understatement. At various times, Bill  was Superintendent at Mount Revelstoke and Glacier National parks,  Superintendent at Point Pelee Park, National Parks Officer (at Ottawa), Regional Supervisor of National Historic Parks and Sites (Atlantic Region), and many other responsibilities that are a matter  of record.  Numerous newspaper articles clearly show that Bill liked  when he was doing, and that he did it well. He faced many challenges and opportunities, and he retired from his chosen work  knowing that his dedication and devotion contributed in a large  way to the legacy which Canadians will enjoy for many generations.  Bill Gallacher has left us now, but his contribution to Parks  Canada lives on.  Allan Claridge is a well-known fruit grower in Oyama. He is Past President of  the B.C.F.G.A. and a member of the A.L.R. Commission  Bill Gallacher  (Courtesy the family)  140 ohs Ewart Gilbert Harry Price:  1888   -   1958  By Harry Price  My father was born and  raised in Stroud,  Gloucestershire, England. In 1906, after completing his  education and apprenticing as a  cabinet-maker, he came to Canada  with his family, settling at Winnipeg. Dad's brother, Heygate, and  his first wife Kate passed away in  the next few years.  My mother, Mabel Price of  Stonehouse, England, came to  Canada to marry Dad, in 1912, just  a few months after the Titanic sunk  after hitting an iceberg in the North  Atlantic. In 1913, Mom and Dad left  Winnipeg, to join his parents, who  had come to Armstrong, B.C. in  1909. Soon after buying a few acres  from his father, who had settled in  the Hullcar District, Dad built a  small home; he called it the "Match  Box". Nine children were raised in  that small home, which required a  few additions.  In the early years, Dad worked for Charlie Hoover, as a  millwright for grain thrashing and operation of his sawmill. Later,  Dad went into building construction in Armstrong and district, and  worked on Dr. Haugen's Office, the four-storey Pea Mill, Fletcher's  Garage, and the Armstrong Swimming Pool, to name but a few. In  1939, Dad joined the B.C. Pea Growers Association, taking charge  of building construction and millwrighting. He enjoyed his work  very much , but had to retire from the B.C. Pea Growers Association in 1955, because of health reasons.  Harry Price has been a resident of Kelowna for more than fifty years. He is a  longtime employee of School District #23, and now enjoys his retirement.  Ewart and Mable Price pictured  in front of their home, 1952.  (Courtesy Harry Price)  OHS 141 EWART GILBERT HARRY PRICE  The Price family, August 1929. Left to right: Hazel (Shay), Harry, Emma, Dave, Jack, Ron, Beatriss  holding baby Edna. Photo taken on the Terrace Home on the Hill. (Courtesy Harry Price)  During Dad's short retirement, there were many happy times,  visiting the family with Mom, learning to type, and even mastering  short hand. My father's big thrill, however, was in the Spring of  1956, when he made a boat trip back to England - fifty years after  leaving that country.  Dad passed away in May of 1958, and was much missed by  many. Our mother and her youngest daughter Edna lived in the  house on the hill until 1983. Mom passed away in 1985, in her  ninety-sixth year. We are all very thankful to have had parents like  Mom and Dad; they sacrificed a great deal for their children, especially during the desperate years of the 1930's. I recall Mom baking forty-two loaves of bread a week, to feed her hungry children.  We had a very large garden that supplied vegetables for the Winter.  Each year, our family would raise two pigs - one for the family and  the other for the butcher, to help pay for the cost of the feed. Dad's  brother, Uncle Stan, kept us supplied with milk.  Every five years, we have a Price family reunion. The most  recent reunion was in 1999, with close to one hundred descend-  ents of Ewart and Mabel Price attending.  142 ohs William Metcalfe Stiell:  P  TRIBUTE   (1920   -   1999)  By Rosemary Stiell  William Metcalfe Stiell passed away on March 25, 1999. He  left behind a tremendous legacy of publications on plan  tation forestry and pine management, and he will long be  remembered by his colleagues as one of the finest research scientists of his time.  Will Stiell was born  in Scotland, in 1920, but he  was raised in Kelowna. In  1939, he enrolled in Forestry at the University of  British Columbia. During  World War II, he served in  the 9th Canadian Armoured Regiment (the  British Columbia Dragoons); they were posted  overseas with an advance  army, then in the Italian  campaign, and finally in  the northwest theatre (Holland and Germany).  In 1947, Will Stiell married Margaret Pettigrew, of the well-  known Kelowna family.  After graduating with a Bachelor of Forestry, in 1949, Will  was offered a summer job with the federal Forestry Branch. This  led to a permanent job at the Petawawa Forest Experiment Station  (P.F.E.S.), situated on one hundred square miles of forest within  the Petawawa, Ontario military reserve.  Will StielPs first assignment was to make a survey of all the  plantations on the P.F.E.S. - planting had started back in 1922. This  was the start of a career-long commitment to plantation research.  In 1953, Will initiated the A.E.C.L. spacing trial, the most  cited study conducted at Petawawa. The design of this experiment,  and the careful quality control, yielded valuable information about  tree spacing, and how this affects tree growth, competition, and  wood quality.  Will Stiell. (Courtesy Rosemary Stiell)  OHS 143 WILLIAM METCALFE STIELLE  In 1955, Will received a Master of Science Degree from the  New York State College of Forestry.  Out of the more than sixty articles and publications which  Will Stiell wrote, two stand out: "White spruce: artificial regeneration in Canada" and "Introduction to Christmas tree growing in  Canada." More than seventy thousand copies of the latter publication were distributed.  Will Stiell saw many changes during his career. Twice, the  federal government gave forestry the status of being a separate  department. Twice, too, P.F.E.S. was threatened with closure.  Will retired in 1985, after thirty-five years of service. Several  years later, he was appointed Emeritus Research Scientist, the first  in the Canadian Forest Service. His contribution to forest research  and management continued through his publications, presentations,  and field tours. He spent several years helping Dr. Cam Place compile source material for the history of P.F.E.S., and continued to be  involved at the Petawawa Research Forest until February 1999, when  ill health forced his second retirement.  Will Stiell will long be remembered for his research and the  example that he provided for others. His dedication to forestry  never waivered. He generously shared his knowledge, and he cared  deeply for the people with whom he worked. Will Stiell was survived by his wife Margaret, son Ian, daughter Jennifer, and two  grandsons, Andrew and Michael.  Much of the above information was obtained from a tribute printed in the  Forestry Chronicle, which was made available to the O.H.S. by Rosemary Stiell,  Will Stiell's sister.  144 ohs Richard Stewart Pelly  By Peter Tassie  ichard Stuart Pelly was an early land surveyor in British Columbia, one of those who were in the province on or before  J890, and who were authorized or recognized prior to the  Land Surveyors' Act of 1891. Like many of his colleagues, he came  here from England, where his family traced its ancestors back at  least to the Elizabethan days. Pelly's grandfather, Sir John Henry  Pelly, was one of the great figures of the time in London financial  circles, and was Governor of the Bank of England in 1841-42. He  was also the Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from 1822 to  1852, and because of this position, the Pelly River in Yukon Territory was named after him. He had a family of eleven children, one  of whom, Charles Henry Pelly, in turn had nine children. The second child of Charles Henry Pelly was Richard Stuart, born in England in June 1846.  As a young man, R.S. Pelly spent some time in India, where  his father was in the Indian Civil Service in Madras from 1830 to  1865. In 1875, he married Frances Anna Robinson of Thomastown,  County Mayo, Ireland. They immigrated to Canada, settling in Winnipeg, only to return to England four years later. In 1886, the family, which by this time included four children, returned to Canada,  settling in the northern part of the Okanagan Valley, near  Armstrong. Their first home was at Hullcar.  About 1888, the Pellys acquired land further south, the Fractional West Half of Section 23, Township 7, Osoyoos Division of  Yale District, on the west side of Otter Lake, south west of Armstrong,  The parcel contained about 132 acres, and on it they built a house  and established a farm. For the first twenty-five years or so, before  the advent of the automobile, the house was operated as a lodge,  known as Otter Lake Lodge, where travelers could have a meal, a  bed, and have their horses fed and rested for the next day's journey.  Details of Mr. Pelly's training in surveying are skimpy, but he  did receive some training in India. His name was included amongst  the eighty surveyors in the Official List of Authorized Provincial  Peter Tassie is Past President of the OHS. He and his wife, Libby, through the  years, have contributed their time and many talents for the benefit of the  Society. Peter prepared this article for the Corporation of B.C. Land Surveyors.  ohs 145 RICHARD STUART PELLY  Land Surveyors for British Columbia, published in the British Columbia Gazettes of December 18, 1890 and January 3, 1891, and  "grandfathered" in anticipation of the Land Surveyors' Act of 1891,  which authorized examination as a qualification.  Mr. Pelly practised as a British Columbia Land Surveyor,  mostly in Spallumcheen, a district municipality, established in July  1892, the first municipality in the interior of the province. He carried out many Land Registry Act surveys, some of them subdivisions of district lots or quarter sections into agricultural holdings,  and some of them for residential lots in what became in 1913 the  City of Armstrong. One of his later subdivisions, in 1912, was the  subdivision of a forty-four acre part of his Otter Lake property. The  plan was deposited in 1920, and at the time, the owner was his  daughter-in-law, Brenda Pelly.  Mr. Pelly also carried out about ninety District Lot or Section  surveys of provincial Crown Land. Almost all of these were in  Osoyoos Division of Yale District, and were made in the decade  from 1900 to 1910. Locations were on the west side of Okanagan  Lake, around Peachland and Westbank, with some further north  around Equesis and Whiteman Creeks. The last one, in 1910, was  in Cowichan District of Vancouver Island.  The surveys carried out by Mr. Pelly were of a poor standard,  with coarse measurements and poor monumentation. Fortunately,  a number of his contemporaries or successors, including E.O. Wood  (No. 174), William Hallam Jr. (No. 222) and R.S. Worsley (No. 219)  worked in the same area. Today, most of the difficulties associated  with his work have been solved in one way or another.  Mr. Pelly became the second Municipal Clerk and Assessor  for the Township of Spallumcheen. He served for ten years between 1895 and 1905. His annual salary as clerk was $135.00. As  assessor, he initially earned $40.00 a year, but this was reduced in  1901 to $20.00. The council minutes of January 1905 noted that  Mr. Pelly wished to relinquish the  position of assessor, as the salary-  was too low. A month later he  resigned as municipal clerk.  Mrs. Pelly died in 1911. One  can sense that her death, together  With his advancing years, Caused PELLY graveyard overlooking Otter Lake,  Mr. Pelly to move about 1927 tO     southwest of Armstrong. Graves pictured, left:  Victoria, where two of his daugh-    Mrs- Pdly d-June 2> 19u> a§e 63; centre R-s-  , v      j ax, -u     a-   a Pelly, bom 1846died 1928; back right, Rebecca  ters lived, and where he died on    CI.     D . ■        A- A ,Lnn /^TM    u  ' Elinor Robinson, died 1922; front, Nonah,  February 6, 1928 at the age Of beloved wife of W. H. Barrett, died Octorber  eighty-One. A Service was held     26, 1898, age 22 years. (Courtesy Peter Tassie)  146 OHS RICHARD STUART PELLY  there and in St. James Anglican Church in Armstrong on February  10, at which the pall bearers were members of the Masonic Lodge.  He was buried on the family property at Otter Lake, in a small  graveyard in an attractive location overlooking the lake. Besides  the grave of Mr. Pelly, the graveyard contains graves of his wife,  daughter Winonah and Mrs. Pelly's sister, Rebecca Elinor Robinson  Mr. and Mrs. Pelly had five children, two boys and three girls.  One son and three daughters were born before they came to Canada,  while the youngest, George Stuart, was born in Spallumcheen in  1888. The eldest, Rebecca Julia or Winonah, married Harry Barrett,  and unfortunately died in childbirth in 1898 when she was only  twenty-two. The second, Henry Conway Dobbs Pelly, married his  cousin Brenda Horsley, and they and their family farmed at Knob  Hill, in Spallumcheen, until 1938. The third, Ellie May, married  Hugh McMullen, a member of the North West Mounted Police, who  later became Commissioner of the B.C. Provincial Police. The fifth  child, George Stuart Pelly, worked on the farm and in survey work,  and after returning from overseas in World War I, married and made  his home in Port Dover, Ontario.  The Pellys' fourth child, Frances Kathleen, called Leena,  married Ralph Stanley Worsley in 1915. Mr. Worsley had emigrated  from England in 1908 and lived in Armstrong from 1912 to 1914. In  that time, he served some of his articles as a surveying pupil under  Mr. Pelly, his future father-in-law. After a distinguished career in  the army in World War I, Mr. Worsley and his family returned to  Spallumcheen, where they lived on a small farm. He qualified as a  British Columbia Land Surveyor in 1920 (No.219), and one of the  subdivisions he made was in 1921, when the southerly part of the  Pelly farm was subdivided into six lots (Plan 1766). The Worsley  family moved to Victoria in 1927. R.S. Worsley's son, George Norman Jr., in turn qualified as a B.C.L.S. in 1954 (No. 339). He is now  a retired member of the Corporation, and has provided much information on the Pelly family.  Not much is known about Mr. Pelly's personal life. He was a  charter member of the Masonic Lodge, and was secretary in 1891.  A photograph shows him in front of the lodge at Landsdowne, at  the time the central community for Spallumcheen, later to be supplanted by Armstrong. In the journals of Alice Barrett Parke1, a  sister-in-law of Winonah Barrett (nee Pelly), the Pellys are frequently  mentioned, but most of the references are to Mrs. Pelly or her daughter, Winonah, who became very good friends. One senses that Mr.  and Mrs. Pelly and their children were a pleasant, interesting and  cultured family. This is confirmed in the mention by Leena to her  son Norman Worsley, that her childhood was a very happy time.  ohs 147 RICHARD STUART PELLY  When the Pellys came to the Okanagan in 1886, they came  up the Shuswap River by barge from Sicamous to Enderby, and  then overland by wagon to Hullcar. The area was sparsely inhabited and not easily accessible. Nevertheless, the resources of land,  wood and water and the availability of cheap, fertile land were  known. With improved accessibility, there was a large influx of  settlers; ranches, farms, mills and communities soon followed. It  was the start of a tremendous period of expansion, and there must  have been a sense of excitement and optimism. When they left  forty years later, the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway from Sicamous  to Vernon and Okanagan Landing had been completed;  sternwheelers plied Okanagan Lake from one end to the other; a  second railway (the Canadian Northern Pacific) had been extended  from Kamloops to Kelowna, and a strong agricultural base of ranching and farming had been established. Communities in Enderby,  Armstrong and Vernon were created, and automobiles had been  introduced. Within a few short years, Mr. Pelly and his family played  a significant part in this remarkable transition.  Notes  1 Alice Barrett Parke came to Spallumcheen in 1891 from Port Dover, Ontario,  and later married Harold Parke, while her brother married Winonah Pelly.  She spent much of her life in Spallumcheen and Vernon from her arrival  until 1900, and was an intelligent, observant and astute woman, exceptional  for her time. Her journals form a significant social history of life in the  Okanagan in the last decade of the 19th century, and have been edited by Jo  Jones of Vernon. They are to be published by UBC Press in 2001.  References  • List of Crown Land Surveys by R.S. Pelly provided by the Surveyor General  of British Columbia  • The Pelly Family at Otter Lake 1886-1927. Manuscript by Norman Worsley  (1993) on file at Armstrong Spallumcheen Museum and Archives.  • The Pelly Graveyard at Otter Lake by Louise Everest, Publication of Vernon  and District Family History Society, Volume 14, No. 1 (1998).  • The History of Armstrong, British Columbia by Johnny Serra, date of publication and publisher not shown.  • Little Known Pioneers - The Parkes of Vernon - Article by Jo Jones in  Okanagan History, The Journal of the Okanagan Historical Society, No. 62  (1998).  • Minutes of the Council of the Township of Spallumcheen. On file at  Armstrong Spallumcheen Museum and Archives.  148 ohs William Francis Monteith:  Salmon Rrm's First Blacksmith  By Denis Marshall  n the pioneering era, nature was a daunting adversary, and the  man with an inventive mind and a propensity for work was  -i likely to achieve the greatest rewards. Such a man was William  Francis Monteith, blacksmith, millwright, steamboat captain, who  left his mark on forest and waterways throughout British Columbia.  During most of his time in the West, Monteith headquartered  in Salmon Arm, while spending long periods away on forest-related business. His wife, Susan Jane, was largely responsible for  raising their seven sons and daughters.  Monteith was born to Irish parents October 16, 1868, at  Townsend, Ontario, and was twenty-seven years old when he married Susan Jane Thompson from Simcoe. A year previously, July  16, 1894, he was certified as a Master of a Steam Tug-boat in the  Minor Inland Waters by the Minister of Marine and Fisheries for  the Dominion of Canada, after sitting for a qualifying examination  three weeks earlier. Granddaughter Betty Ward, writing in her 1998,  Our Monteith Family History, speculates that Bill Monteith as a  boy and youth must have spent quite a bit of time on the nearby  busy Lake Erie waterfront of Port Dover.  Steamer Thompson soon after 1895 launching, on holiday excursion to Kamloops Lake.  (BC Archives B-00716)  Denis Marshall, since stepping down as OHS Editor, has been catching up on researching articles and collecting photographs for the Society's Salmon Arm Branch.  ohs 149 WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  Soon after receiving his captain's papers, he was an employee  of Kualt1 lumberman Joseph Genelle, who had dreams of adding a  transportation division to the family timber and sawmilling interests. On May 3, 1895, Genelle launched the 94-ton sternwheeler  Thompson, 100 feet long with abeam of 18 feet, ostensibly for use  as a freight and passenger vessel between Kamloops and all points  on Shuswap Lake. Kamloops Historian Mary Balf recounted the  ultimate role of the Thompson "under Captain W R. Monteith—an  attractive ship, intended for excursions. But the demand was limited; after a few pleasant trips and dignified protests that she was  NOT a tow boat, she had to swallow her pride and turn to logging,  proving very useful."2  Over the next few years, Monteith made periodic trips back to Ontario, first to marry and then to visit his new family: Bessie Laure,  born in 1896, and Francis Elliott, in 1898.  In 1897, he was once again at  Kualt to oversee the delivery  and assembly of a uniquely  Canadian contraption—an  Alligator amphibious tug.  The Gage Canadian Dictionary defines the alligator as: "a scow-like  amphibious craft  Front Street, Salmon  Arm, about 1911.  Monteith dwelling  third from left,  former blacksmith  shop altered to suit  new occupant.  «   : f       It WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  equipped with a winch and cable, used for towing log booms, breaking up logjams, etc." (Author's note: Evidence has yet to be found  verifying that an Alligator, plied Shuswap waters.)  Whether here or not, a few lines on this utilitarian apparatus  and its connection to Bill Monteith are worthy of mention. The  Alligator warping tug was invented in 1890 by Monteith's cousin  John C.(Jack)West, a partner in a Simcoe foundry and machine  shop. It introduced steam-power to the Ontario timber-harvesting  industry at a time when the distance between standing trees and  river drives was becoming increasingly longer. The standard Alligator had a ten foot beam and a length of forty-two feet, and West  and Peachy, over the next thirty-five years, built two hundred for  customers in Northern Ontario, Quebec, the Yukon and even South  America.  "It will climb hills and go through swamps and woods, or up  small streams from one lake to another. After warping down a boom  of logs, it will return with the empty boom, doing the work cheaply  and thoroughly, with a great saving of time and number of men,"  extolled the manufacturer's sales literature.  After he was believed to have delivered the tug to Genelle's  mill, Monteith rejoined Susan in Simcoe—but not for long. Their  second-born, Frank, arrived less than three months after the Simcoe  weekly newspaper, The British Canadian, reported that "Mr. Wm.  F. Monteith has secured a position on the CPR and leaves for  Revelstoke, B. C. next week." There, his blacksmith training helped  build bridges on the eastern portion of the rail line. He was also  engaged as a rotary snowplow operator when frequent avalanche  closures plagued the exposed and vulnerable Rogers Pass summit  in pre-Connaught Tunnel days.  In 1899, after a brief stint with Genelle's successor, the Columbia River Lumber Company, Monteith purchased a one-acre lot on  Front Street, Salmon Arm, and went into business as the area's first  H WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  Captain W. R. Monteith (far right) at Kualt with members of Genelle sawmill hierarchy.  (BC Archives B-00411)  blacksmith. In the absence of any regulations, the shop took its  place among other haphazardly-situated commercial buildings. It  would be another six years before the community attained municipal government and thirteen years before the emerging business  cluster became part of the City of Salmon Arm. At the rear and  attached to the forge at right angles stood the two-storey Monteith  home, which would survive until the 1929 Front Street fire.  By 1906, Western winters appeared too harsh for the Monteiths,  because the business was offered for sale and a move back to Ontario was contemplated. With departure imminent, Bill Monteith  was selected for jury duty for the celebrated robbery trial of Bill  Miner; meanwhile, Susan and their five children—ages one to ten-  boarded a train for the East. Incidentally, the father was passed  over for the jury when it was learned that he, like so many others  in the region, considered Miner a friend. Shortly after, the Monteith  family was reunited in Salmon Arm; this time it would be permanent. Permanent, that is, for Susan, who would remain behind to  raise her brood, while her husband followed the uncertain and  nomadic millwright career.  Their next home would be beside Currie Pond (now known as  Hucul Pond), four kilometres east of Salmon Arm, conveniently  close to a small sawmill Bill Monteith ran with his father-in-law,  John Thompson, and brother-in-law, James Thompson. John came  to the Salmon Arm area in 1906, the son having already settled  here. Thompson, Monteith and Thompson was not a successful  business partnership, according to familial observations recounted  by Betty Ward in her history/genealogy of the Monteith and  152 ohs WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  Thompson families. The enterprise was noteworthy, however, for  the fact it hired East Indian labourers previously drawn to Salmon  Arm by the need to clear land for orchards. James Ross Thompson  (1875-1971) served as the district's sole police constable for a sixteen month period, beginning in November, 1908, and was at the  centre of a controversy caused by his freeing a prisoner who happened to be a native Indian, whom he deemed was being unlawfully held.  These were the years of boom times and optimism in the fruitgrowing localities, typified by an item in the Salmon Arm Observer,  October 18, 1907, commenting on the area's rapid growth and listing buildings recently completed or under construction, among  them a residence for "Monteith and Thompson" valued at $1,750.  Bill Monteith's considerable energy promoted mineral claims,  another money-making scheme popular at the time among members of Salmon Arm's entrepreneurial circle. Two months after its  debut, The Edenograph of Enderby, on August 24, 1904, carried  the following item: "Wm. Monteith reports his mineral claim—the  Simcoe, on Mt. Ida—as looking well and giving satisfactory assays,  under development. Mr. Monteith has great faith in the Mount Ida  mineral belt. There has been some very rich ore shipped from the  Silver Sceptre, running as high as $1,000 a ton in silver and gold.  Another valuable claim is the Silver Thread, owned by Andy Currie,  and we may expect to see shipments of ore from here in the near  future." And on October 19, a follow-up story: "Billy Monteith has  started work on his mining claim on Mount Ida, and intends to  work one shift all winter."  Like many hopes for predicted riches the Simcoe never became  a producing mine.  The last phase of Monteith's working life began with troubleshooting for the Shuswap Lumber Co., which in 1908 sent him to  Duck Range to resurrect a bankrupt mill founded by Philip McBryan.  Thus began an association with four interesting personalities on  the Interior forest scene: Manager Fred Estey later a successful  oilman in Calgary, Alex (Sandy) McRae of Revelstoke, prominent  politician, lumberman and postmaster, Thomas Kilpatrick, then  divisional superintendent of the CPR and later manager of the  much-maligned Pacific Great Eastern Railway, and W W Foster,  one time deputy minister of public works, and later Col. Foster,  DSO, "exemplar and sponsor of many good things in the interests  of returned men and the Canadian Legion in particular."3  Later, the same company had Monteith and Jack Ruttan deliver the first mill to Fort Fraser in Northern British Columbia,  achieved by spending the entire summer hauling components by  ohs 153 WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  wagon over the Cariboo Road. According to a family member,  Monteith also took the first portable mill into Prince Rupert in 1910.  These ventures kept him away from home for about two years.  Monteith and his brother-in-law were also associated with a sawmill at Big Eddy at Revelstoke.  At long last, employment at the Brayden and Johnston sawmill  at Salmon Arm West offered Monteith the opportunity to work  within a mile of his Piccadilly Road farm. About 1913 or 1914, he  lost a leg in a freak accident, ironically having nothing to do with  working around slashing saw teeth or whirling planers. Son Jack  recalled that his father had ajob with the Dominion Forest Service,  and was taking a load of supplies by horse and wagon to the Shuswap  Lake forestry boat moored at the Salmon Arm wharf. A steam tractor approached and Monteith chose to pass rather than give way.  The horse bolted and he jumped clear, fracturing a leg. The wound  became gangrenous and the limb had to be amputated below the  knee.  Bessie Miller would later tell about visits from a friend of her  father, who had also experienced the loss of a leg. The children  would know when they went downstairs in the morning if the friend  had been an overnight guest, because there would be two wooden  legs, instead of the usual one, leaning against the dining room wall.  The unfortunate mishap brought to a close Bill Monteith's wanderings on behalf of the lumber industry and while still in his forties, he assumed the life of a mixed farmer, conscientious citizen  and staunch monarchist. He is mentioned in accounts of first attempts to form Salmon Arm Municipality and was a nominee for  the original council of 1905, although he failed to be elected. In  1921, he won a council seat and remained in office for sixteen years.  Summing up his civic contributions, the Observer said Monteith's  practical knowledge of general construction work assisted materially in the development and improvements evident throughout the  district. He was one of those responsible for getting a new municipal hall built in 1928, and made it his business to see to the planting of a hedge and flower beds around the building.  He took particular interest in Mount Ida cemetery and campaigned ceaselessly for its improvement and beautification, especially as it had previously been looked after in a very indifferent  manner. As a member of a district parks committee, he advocated  the widespread planting of trees. In 1936, he was also credited with  developing a new apple variety—the Piccadilly Spy.  In private life, Monteith displayed a different persona. He was  considered "somewhat of a tyrant" by his family, given to bursts of  temper, sparing of frivolity and held in total awe by his grandchildren. But he is also remembered for his fair-mindedness.  154 ohs WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  Monteith family, about 1906. Susan holding Mais, Bessie, Frank, Will, Jack, Dora.  (Courtesy Betty Ward)  As in so many cases where the husband worked out-of-town,  either by necessity or inclination, Susan Monteith was called upon  to bear eight children, (seven of whom survived), run the farm  on Piccadilly Road and see that each of her daughters went to  Normal School. Their first-born, Bessie, later Mrs. Charles Miller,  was the first teacher hired in 1916 for the new Silver Creek school;  thereafter, she lived in Kamloops for sixty-two years, where she  was honored as Citizen of the Year in 1983. A dressmaker and  women's tailor before marriage, Susan's sewing machine was the  only piece of furniture in the Monteith household that wasn't made  by her husband. With it, she transformed bleached flour sacks  into contemporary articles of clothing for all her children. One of  her farming accomplishments was that of beekeeping, where she  worked with impunity among the hives without benefit of protective gear.  Although she had no medical training, apart from experience  gained from pioneer living, she was often called upon to doctor  or to midwife as the occasion required. Reputedly like her spouse  in one respect, she owned a short temper and used it to good  effect. A striking woman with snapping, dark-brown eyes, according to Betty Ward, she had a horror of growing old, or of showing  her age. Such was not her destiny, for she was stricken with cancer and died February 25, 1926, in her fifty-sixth year. "Grandma  was a single mum more than half a century before it was fashionable," Ms. Ward said.  ohs 155 WILLIAM FRANCIS MONTEITH  Salmon Arm was the birthplace of six Monteith children: John  Waddle (Jack) in 1901, Dora Rebekah in 1903 (married James  Millar), Mary Ethel (Mais) in 1905 (married James Fulton); William  Groff in 1908, Isabel Lila (Isa) in 1911 (married James Moffat).  Another daughter, Nina Estaline, died of whooping cough when  barely a month old.  Following his wife's death, Monteith lived alone with the help  of his school-teacher daughters, who routinely kept their parent's  house in good order. He spent his final years with his daughter,  Dora, and her husband, Jim, the Columbia River ferryman at Twelve  Mile on the Revelstoke-Arrowhead Road. Bill Monteith died February 16, 1943, of complications from a blood transfusion following a  prostate operation.  Sources pnd Acknowledgement  I especially wish to acknowledge the contribution made by Betty Miller Ward  of Vernon in the preparation of this article through personal discussions and  reference to her research on the Monteith-Thompson families. Other sources  include The Inland Sentinel; Salmon Arm Observer; Enderby Edenograph; Mary  Balf s History of Kamloops Up lb 1914; History of Salmon Arm by Ernest Doe;  interview with William and Margaret Hopkins; Historical Highlights of Norfolk Co.,compiled by Bruce M. Pearce, Vol. Two, 1973; personal research dealing with Genelle Brothers lumbering activities.  Notes  1 Kualt, BC, now known as Fraser's Beach, near Tappen.  2 From Kamloops, A History of the District up to 1914  3 From Salmon Arm Observer, February 11, 1932.  156 ohs Henrietta Knight (nee rowntree)  Penticton Centenarian -Celebrating a Century  By Richard Knight  he youngest of a family of three girls, Henrietta Knight was  born on February 11, 1899 in Darlington County, Durham,  England. Two months before Henrietta was born, her father  died in an accident. Sadness touched her young life at the age of  twelve, when her mother passed away.  When she was nineteen, Henrietta met and married a Canadian  soldier, Richard Knight, who brought her to Vancouver in 1918, having  sailed to Canada on the Mellita, a Canadian ship. In 1919, their first  daughter, Kathleen, was born, followed by son Richard (Dick) in 1921  and daughter Marjorie in 1923.  The Knight family resided in Vancouver, Chilliwack,  Courtenay and Mission, until they moved to Penticton in 1937. Richard had been manager of "Copp the Shoeman" stores in all those  locations. Henrietta was very active  in many organizations in Penticton-  serving as President of the Ladies'  Auxiliary of Royal Canadian Legion  Branch #40, President of the O.A.P.  for two terms, plus service in the  Hospital Auxiliary, and for many  years, in the Ladies' Auxiliary to St.  Saviour's Anglican Church.  Richard Knight died in 1969 at the  age of ninety-two years. As a widow,  Henrietta continued to live at 502  Bennett Avenue (for a total of fifty-four  years). At the time of purchase, the lot  had been sold to the Knights for $130,  and their little house was built for un-  Henrietta at 99 years. der $1,000. At the age of ninety-nine,  (Courtesy Dick Knight)   Henrietta suffered a stroke, and was  Richard "Dick" Knight came to Penticton in 1937 as a fifteen year old. Following High School, he enlisted in the Canadian Army, and served overseas during W.W. Two. Upon his return to Penticton, Dick was employed by Leir's  Penticton Sawmills, but left to work in several downtown stores, and later, for  the Federal Government. He retired at sixty-five years.  ohs 157 HENRIETTA KNIGHT  hospitalized for two months. She passed away in Penticton Regional  Hospital at one hundred years in March 1999. She lived a full and  active life with her family in Penticton, and is remembered by many  oldtimers of the area. Henrietta is sadly missed by her son, Dick of  Penticton, daughters Marjorie (Arnold) Pederson and Kathleen (the late  Frank) Suckling, several grandchildren, great grandchildren and her  many friends.  158 ohs Ed. Note: A lifetime may be chronicled in a few words, but in printing these  words, we record and honour the person's accomplishments.  ft Scholar and a Gentleman:  Bernard George Webber   1914-2000  Anyone meeting Bernard Webber for the first time could be  forgiven for assuming that he was a graduate of Cambridge  or Oxford, as his impeccable good manners, quick wit and  formidable vocabulary were immediately apparent. Such was not  the case. He was neither a Cambridge or Oxford graduate nor was  he born into a family of wealth and ease. In the best sense of old  cliches, Bernard was a truly self-made Canadian scholar and gentleman.  Bernard Webber was born on August 6, 1914 in Winnipeg,  where his father, Henry George (Harry) Webber, was based as a  railway engineer/fireman for the Canadian National Railway. Harry  Webber had been trained as a machinist in England and was an  early bicycling enthusiast. As a young man, in pursuit of his interest in this very democratic conveyance, he had joined the London-  based Clarion Gycling Club, which he later discovered had strong  connections to the Fabian Socialist movement. Despite his family's politically conservative views, Harry became involved in handing out socialist pamphlets during his lunch hours. This activity  soon led to his being blacklisted and losing his job at several places  of employment. Eventually, he immigrated to Canada in search of  more tolerant employers. Harry  had come to greatly admire George  Bernard Shaw, even to naming his  son after him.  Shortly after his son Bernard  was born, despite his pacifist leanings, Harry Webber enlisted as a  soldier in what became known as  the Great War. He was gassed during that conflict while serving in  France. As a baby, Bernard had  traveled with his mother, Emma, to  England in order to be nearer  Harry. One of Bernard's earliest  memories was of witnessing a zep-  pelin attack in England; another  Bernard Webber.  (Courtesy Christopher Webber)  OHS 159 TRIBUTES  was of returning with his mother to North America, where they  landed in New York on Armistice Day. Bernard never forgot standing on the deck, clad in a lifejacket, when the ship was under submarine attack in mid-Atlantic.  The horrific cataclysm of the Great War (World War 1-1914-  1919) shook the social, political and religious assumptions of an  entire generation to its foundations. In the quagmire of the bloody  trenches, many returning veterans had lost their youth, their health,  and their innocent unquestioning faith in established political,  military, and social authority. As the survivors of the "lost generation" returned from the battlefields and the peace-making, the old  pre-war world order was irrevocably changed.  In 1919, when Harry Webber returned from the Great War to  Winnipeg , he became actively involved in the tumultuous postwar political events in that city. While son, Bernard, was finishing  high school, Harry became active in the Independent Labour Party,  precursor to the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), and  subsequently, the New Democratic Party (NDP). Both Harry and  Bernard Webber were delegates in 1933 to the founding of the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation in Regina. During this time,  Bernard was also the editor of a labour paper, the OBU (One Big  Union) Bulletin. He had enrolled at the University of Manitoba,  wanting to be a lawyer, but in those days, law students had to pay a  law firm to obtain an articling appointment. By now, the depression years were making it hard for even experienced men to find  work, and Harry Webber had suffered a broken back in a railroad  accident, putting an end to his railway employment. With insufficient funds to continue, and profound regret, Bernard left university after his second year. However, he soon received a different  kind of education when he secured an appointment as private secretary to J. S. Woodsworth, Member of Parliament for Winnipeg,  and leader of the CCF in the Canadian House of Commons. Bernard  couldn't afford the train ticket from Winnipeg to Ottawa, but Harry  was able to get a railway pass for him so that Bernard could take  the job, provided that he agreed to work for J. S. Woodsworth for  only his board and no salary. For spending money, Bernard had  what was left of the proceeds of his paper route in Winnipeg. Thus,  Bernard was for a time at the centre of the political struggles of the  Great Depression.  In 1935, Bernard and his entire family moved to Vancouver  Island, where Bernard was able to obtain a job as a janitor in the  Shawnigan Lake School. No doubt part of the attraction of this job  for Bernard was that he was once again at least associated with  education. Jeremy Webber, Bernard's son, writes of this time, "Dad  was a man of great intellectual ability and an eager and restless  mind.   JS and Lucy Woodsworth strongly encouraged him to go  160 ohs TRIBUTES  back to university to study law. They offered to lend him the money  to do so. He declined, explaining that he could not impose a load  on their finances when they had their own children to put through  university, and when J. S. Woodsworth had such important work to  do for the country. But he did borrow enough to go to Normal  School, here in Victoria, to become a teacher. It was here he met  our mother, and began a lifelong partnership that has had an impact on every community in which they have lived."1  Mr. Webber completed his teacher training at the Victoria  Normal School in 1938, graduating with honours, and subsequently  began his teaching career in 1938-39 at Brookmere, later teaching  at Osoyoos. Bernard and Jean, daughter of Dolphe Browne of  Vernon, were married on July 1, 1941. Dolphe Browne was a well-  known businessman in the North Okanagan and a staunch member of the Conservative Party.  In that same year, Bernard resumed his political career, and  was elected to the BC Legislature as the CCF Member representing  Similkameen, and the youngest serving MLA. Although his mentor, J. S. Woodsworth, is still famous for his pacificism and his opposition in Parliament to Canada's Declaration of War on Germany  in 1939, Bernard tried to enlist in the Canadian military. When he  found that, because of medical reasons, he would not see active  service, but would only serve on desk duty, he decided that continuing as a MLA would be of equal national service. He served  Similkameen as MLA until 1945, working hard for rural electrification, better working conditions for miners, improvements to education, betterment of the conditions in Japanese internment camps.  The CCF was the only party to oppose the Japanese deportations,  which cost them many votes in 1945, and Bernard was defeated.  After the war, Bernard returned to teaching, and raising his  growing family, but he continued to have an active interest in politics. Jeremy Webber recounts how his father "would tell with relish the story of the time all three campaigns in the north Okanagan  - Conservative, Liberal and CCF - were run out of my maternal  grandfather's packinghouse2 in Vernon - the Conservative by my  grandad, the Liberal by one of his managers, and the CCF by Dad."  (Eulogy)  Bernard embraced both formal and informal lifelong learning long before that term became fashionable. He finally obtained  his coveted Baccalaureate Degree from UBC in 1950 as a part-time  student, and in 1962, a Master of Arts Degree in Literature. Throughout his life, he continued to read and research his interests on a  daily basis. As a scholar, he bridged the ground between literature  and history, and was proud of his fine collection of books in both  disciplines. He was an outstanding teacher who loved literature  and history, and was skilled at communicating his enthusiasm for  ohs 1 fil TRIBUTES  books and ideas. He firmly believed that, as a teacher, his responsibility was not to indoctrinate the students with his ideas, but to  stimulate them to think constructively and to achieve their own  informed opinions through research and reasoned argument, a  philosophy he applied as a father when bringing up his own five  children. Above all, Bernard was a man of principle, and when he  became a school administrator, he was quickly recognized as a leading figure in the B.C. educational system. Throughout his career,  he was concerned with the importance of academic discipline and  as a school principal and later as a superintendent, he expected all  teachers to be scholars as well.  Bernard was also concerned with the development of a distinctly Canadian culture. Jean Webber relates that, "When Bernard  was asked to prepare Essays of Our Time - Canadian Edition,3 he  was instructed to select essays from the two volumes of the American edition. He protested that all the authors of this edition were  either American, British, or European. He believed that the Canadian edition should include essays by Canadian writers. The publisher gave him permission to choose and include five Canadian  essays, but warned him that the added cost would reduce considerably his royalties. I believe one of the American editors also pointed  this out to him. He felt very strongly that the principle was more  important than the royalties. Hence we have essays by Eric Nicoll,  Hugh Garner, Northrop Frye, Hugh MacLennan and Marshall  McLuhan in this Canadian high school textbook. The book has  been off the course for a number of years, but teachers have told  me that they still, on occasion, assign work from it when the topic  is relevant. The five-page introduction was written by Bernard."4  Mr. Webber's ideas and ideals as an education administrator  were an inspiration to teachers in Richmond, where he was Principal of Richmond High School), in Vernon, where he was Director  of Instruction, and in Kitimat, South Okanagan, and Keremeos,  where he was a District Superintendent. Toward the end of his  career, Bernard had been seconded to the Ministry of Education in  Victoria, as Superintendent of Special Services. In this position, he  was influential in establishing a First Nations Education program.  This was an interest that he had first developed through his friendship with Anthony Walsh, teacher at Inkameep, near Oliver, from  1932 to 1942.  Bernard Webber believed that as well as his role as an educator, he should play a role in his community. His many interests  included being a volunteer fireman on the executive of the Oyama  Fire District, participating in the annual bird count, serving on both  the Boy Scout executive, and The Okanagan Summer School of the  Arts executive, promoting the development of better libraries, and  being a member of the Rotary Club.  162 ohs TRIBUTES  In retirement, Bernard continued his research, and also, as a  tribute to his father, wrote a book on the famous silk trains that  were perhaps the high point of Canadian railway history5. He was  also keenly interested in other aspects of Canadian and British  Columbian history.  He was very involved in the history of the Okanagan Valley,  and along with his wife, Jean, played a central role in the Okanagan  Historical Society, willingly serving in many executive positions,  including President of the Parent Body, 1989-1991. Both he and  Jean were made Life Members of the OHS in recognition of their  outstanding service. Even after their retirement to Victoria, they  returned each May for the Society's Annual Meeting, until Bernard's  sudden death, December 5, 2000.  As impressive as was his record of achievements, it is Bernard  Webber, the man, who may be most memorable. Jeremy Webber  has captured some of that when he writes:  "He reveled in ideas, drinking them in, sharing them.  I have often wondered how frustrating it must have been for  him in the Depression, longing to study, but held back by money  and unemployment. Yet if he felt any bitterness about this or other  challenges, neither I nor my siblings saw it. Dad had resilience,  restless energy, an ability to rise above challenges - a sense that  the good in life was a gift, for which he was grateful, indeed in  which he reveled, not something to which he was entitled and about  the lack of which he could be bitter.  He took real joy - indeed an impish glee - in life. He was  mischievous. One had the sense that he wanted to grab life by the  shoulders and shake it, to see just what would fall out.  He was, in some ways, what the Australians call a "stirrer",  always trying to needle and provoke . . . But never with a hint of  malice. . . When matters were serious, his judgement was firm,  straight as a dye. . . Dad had conscience, immense integrity, a concern for the least fortunate, and respect for everyone, no matter  what their ideological persuasion. . .  He lived well, and we will miss him." - by vernon branch editorial COMMITTEE  Notes  1 "Bernard George Webber - In Memoriam (1914-2000)", from eulogy delivered by Jeremy Webber on December 10, 2000.  2 Now the Briteland Building behind Bearisto School.  3 Essays of Our Time, McGraw-Hill Co. of Canada, 1967  4 From a note to Lucy McCormick, May 2001.  5 Silk Trains The Word Works Publications, Kelowna: 1993.  ohs 163 TRIBUTES  1  Tribute To Tierney O'Keefe  1911-2000  y name is Kathleen O'Keefe- Nield, and I am the third of  five children born to Tierney and Betty O'Keefe. On behalf of my family, I'd like to thank you for being here to  celebrate the life of our Dad, Tierney O'Keefe. We are truly honoured by your presence, and we know Dad is smiling, as he loved  to see a full house at church.  Oh, where to start...especially when one considers that  Tierney's grandfather Michael O'Keefe was born in the year, 1783,  six years before the French Revolution.  Dad was born in Victoria on February 8, 1911. In his immediate  family, he was the fifth of six children born to Cornelius O'Keefe  and Elizabeth Tierney, but in his extended family, he was actually  the seventeenth of eighteen children born into Cornelius' three  families.  Being one of the youngest in the family, he arrived  very late in Cornelius' life...in  fact, our grandfather was seventy-two when Dad was born.  He died when Dad was eight  years old. Grandfather's death  left our grandmother alone to  raise the large family, and also,  she kept the Ranch operating.  When Cornelius died in 1919,  the outrageous death taxes  nearly broke the Ranch, but due  to Elizabeth's strong spirit, they  never broke the family. Elizabeth played a huge role in Dad's  life, and we're sure she was  paramount in developing that  tenacious nature of our father  that would later become his  trademark.  Growing up, Dad received his early education at the Otter  Lake School, then came to Vernon for senior high school. He spoke  of riding a saddle horse or a bicycle to his school lessons, as well as  to his Catechism instruction during the summer months.  Tierney O'Keefe, 1967 (Donovan Clemson Photo)  164 ohs TRIBUTES  My Dad's life changed at the age of eighteen with the death  of his mother, Elizabeth. Her passing was a huge hurdle in his life-  the first time that his heart was broken and his spirit tested. However, his mother had raised him to pick up and get on with the  tasks at hand. He chose not to pursue a university education like  his brothers and sisters. Instead, Dad assumed the operation of the  Ranch.  As a young man of eighteen, one of the biggest frustrations  he faced taking over the operation of the family ranch, was that he  looked eighteen. It was very difficult to get anyone to take his ideas  seriously, especially the bankers. To help remedy this dilemma, he  decided to grow a mustache, to have a more "mature" look, and  amusingly, it seemed to work, for one reason or another. But times  were tough, debts were mounting and taxes were high. It would  have been easy to walk away, but that was not in his character. One  had to be creative to make ends meet, and this was the philosophy  that would save the Ranch more than once. The family survived  the "Dirty Thirties" on a lot of "blood, sweat and tears", as Dad  would say. Somehow he always managed to stay one step ahead of  the bill collector.  During Dad's bachelor years, some of the Ranch workers were  quite dedicated to changing his marital status. They told Dad about  the pretty young school marm, Miss Neave, who was teaching at  Six Mile School. Who knew she would be "the one for him". A year  later, in September, 1945-after the crops were in, of course- Tierney  and Betty were married in St. James Church. Two children came  quickly, and times were improving. Ten years later, two more children came close together, and Dad's life again changed.  In spite of little encouragement and no financial assistance,  Dad forged ahead in the spirit of a frontiersman, much as his father had. He gave up his comfort zone of farming and ranching,  and with our mother, Betty, pursued a belief and a dream of preserving history. Together, to coincide with Canada's Centennial in  1967, they restored and rebuilt the original buildings. In the middle of this busy adventure, the fifth child in our family was born in  1970, just twenty-three years after the first, when Dad was approaching his sixtieth birthday. In 1977, the O'Keefe Ranch was sold to  the Devonian Foundation, who, in turn, donated it to the City of  Vernon. The Ranch continues to be open to the public as a National Treasure.  The sale of the Ranch began a new chapter in Dad's life. No  longer committed to the busy tourist industry, Dad and Mom were  able to travel globally, and once again, they were able to enjoy an  ohs 165 TRIBUTES  active church life. But Dad's heart was to break again in 1989, when  Mom died, although his faith helped to support and give him  strength.  Commitment to faith has always been a part of the O'Keefe  family. This church, St. James, was the second church the O'Keefe  family helped to build, the first being St. Ann's at the O'Keefe Ranch,  built in 1889. The community of Vernon was growing, and a larger  church was needed, and so, in 1902, Grandfather Cornelius purchased and then donated the land St. James is built on; as well, he  assisted financially in building the church. Dad's mother, Elizabeth  donated the first chalice for the altar as well as the bell in the steeple. Following in his parents' strong commitment to their Catholic  faith and family traditions, Dad also played an active role in both  his church and community. Prompted by Father John Miles, he  became the first lay person to read the Easter Passion from the  altar. Some of you will remember his doing this for many years.  Dad also had a strong tenor voice and loved to sing with the choir.  His commitment to the education of children led him to become  the founding chairman of the St. James School Board of Trustees.  Dad, a member of the Knights of Columbus, was also involved in  the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Board, the Vernon Operatic Society,  and was a longtime member of the Rotary Club and the Cattlemen's Association.  He was the kind of man whose handshake was a binding contract. He had a brilliant legal mind and a keen knowledge of the  interpretation of the law. Dad was an opinionated man with strong  convictions, and would go to the wall for something he believed  in...did you meet him there? He was also creative. From horseshoes to iron gates, Dad loved to work with his hands. He was meticulous and a perfectionist with everything he did. He was a teacher,  a historian, a storyteller who truly loved to be around people. In  spite of a longtime hearing impairment, he was always active, "about  98 percent", as he'd say. Dad took pride in his children's accomplishments, and adored his grandchildren. We all miss that twinkle  in his eyes. I think Dad said it best when he recently reflected:"I  suppose life could have been a whole lot worse for me, but one  thing is for certain, I know I would never have wanted it to be any  better."  It was our mother's request to provide a memorial gift of padded kneelers to the St. James Church. The tradition continues with  our father's request that memorial donations may be made to the  St. James Parking Lot Fund- a project he felt was long overdue, and  one he had hoped to see completed. - by kathleen ckeefe - nield  (Given on the occasion of the celebration of Tierney's life - July 21st, 2000)  166 ohs TRIBUTES  CD. Bill Osborn  19 11 -2000  ill was born on March 24, 1911 in Inverkip, Scotland, son of  Colonel and Mrs. George Osborn (nee Alice May Whitehouse).  In April 1912, Colonel and Mrs. Osborn and their two children, Violet age two and Billy age one, emigrated to Canada. Younger  sister, Una was born in Canada a year later.  It should be mentioned that Colonel George Osborn's first  wife, Helena Chadwick died in 1900. They had two sons, Ashby  and Gordon, and a daughter, Lorna. George met Alice May  Whitehouse in Singapore, where he was doing a tour of duty and  she was a nursing sister. They were married in Singapore in 1904,  and a few years later, Colonel George was posted to Scotland. It  was a great sadness to all of the family when Ashby (1888-1917)  and Gordon 1894-1915) were reported killed in W.W.One, both having distinguished careers in the British Army. Lorna married and  lived in England until her death in the 1970's.  Bill loved to tell the story of his lifelong association with the  Coldstream Ranch, and of how his father, who crossed Canada from  east to west in the early 1900's, and had liked what he had seen,  contacted Lord Aberdeen, who owned a large acreage in British  Columbia. From Bill's memoirs, Lord Aberdeen is reported to have  said, "Well, Osborn, we have the perfect solution for you and your  family. We have purchased a  large property, 'The Coldstream  Ranch' in the dry belt of the  North Okanagan Valley in B.C.  Our intent is to encourage British families to settle on  Coldstream Ranch land that is  subdivided into ten and twenty  acre lots, that are already  planted to fruit trees." Colonel  Osborn was put in touch with  Mr. Ricardo, Coldstream Ranch  manager, and so the family came  to settle in Lavington.  At the age of ten, in keeping  with British tradition, Bill was  enrolled in the Vernon Prepara-  . d. (Bill) osborn, une i torY Sch¬∞o1 (more commonly re-  (Courtesy Diane Toth)    ferred to as 'Mackie's School').  ohs 167 TRIBUTES  He enjoyed the sports and the camaraderie of school. Sadly, his  father died in 1925 when Bill was thirteen years old.  In June of that year, he graduated from Grade Nine (the upper limit of the school) and then attended Vernon High School. He  described it as " the old building that was in use at that time, a two  story ancient building on 26th St. and 28th Ave." He graduated from  high school in 1928, then stayed to work on the family farm until  August 1929.  He always felt grateful for the combined efforts of his mother and two sisters, Vi and Una, which made it possible  for him to attain his goal of attending  the University of British Columbia. In  September 1929, he enrolled in the Faculty of Agriculture, graduating in 1933  with a Bachelor of Agriculture degree.  Bill then returned to Lavington, to  run "Turfs Hill", the family dairy and  fruit farm. In 1934, as well as keeping  up the farm, he began working as a Hail  Insurance Adjuster for fruit crop damage throughout the Okanagan.  A few years later, through mutual  friends, Ernest and Mada Rendell, Bill  met his 'wonderful' girl, June Tryon, and  on June 12, 1937, they were married in  Parksville on Vancouver Island.  Military Service: Bill joined the  COTC (Canadian Officers Training  Corps) at UBC, and was active from 1930  tol933. Upon graduation from U.B.C, he  returned to Vernon and joined the B.C  Bill Osborn, checking onion seeds  at Turls' Hill, Lavington, 1946.  (Courtesy Diane Toth)  Dragoons (reserves). He  gained a commission, and in January 1936, attended training with  the Lord Strathcona Horse Regiment in Calgary. With the outbreak  of W.W. Two in 1939, Bill was called up as a member of the B.C.  Dragoons, but was declared "Unfit for Active Service" due to severe  recurring stomach problems. He returned to work on the family  property, and reapplied for military service two years later. He was  accepted by the R.C.A.F. in Edmonton, later being transferred to  the Instructional Staff, Cavalry personnel, Camp Sarcee, Calgary.  He had many stories of freezing temperatures and horses on parade. Eventually, the Army Medical Branch caught up with his  medical history, and it was a real blow to him to be discharged in  June 1942.  168 ohs TRIBUTES  In the autumn of 1942, he accepted a position as Field Man  for the B.C. Co-operative Seed Association, travelling throughout  the interior of B.C. " to assist growers in their efforts to grow large  quantities of vegetable seeds for the War Effort in Great Britain".  He felt that at least, in this way, he could do his duty!  In the midst of it all, Bill and June raised their four children,  Bob, Ted, Diane and Peter, and with help, continued to run the  family farm, Turfs Hill.  In 1951, Bill was invited to join the Coldstream Ranch as assistant manager, and in 1953, was appointed Ranch manager, moving the family to the Coldstream. In those years, the Ranch had  forty employees and three hundred acres of orchard. There were  also potatoes, pigs and a large dairy herd. It was one of the largest  mixed farms in Canada. Many happy years were spent at the  Coldstream Ranch until Bill's retirement in 1974. He was so proud  that his son, Ted could continue the legacy of the Osborn involvement with the Ranch, going back to his own father's connection  with Lord Aberdeen.  Throughout his life Bill was involved on various boards:  Lavington School Board  Vernon Irrigation District (continuously for forty years)  Vernon Fruit Union  B.C. Beef Cattle Association  Advisory Board to the Kamloops Experimental Range Station  Continuing as a Director of Coldstream Ranch  His love of skiing continued throughout his life, and he imparted this enjoyment to his family. At university, he had been  known as "Mountain Man", as he spent many weekends hiking up  Grouse Mountain- with friends or alone, just to have that one long  ski down- many hours to get there and a few minutes to get down!  As he always said, " being a fellow brought up living in the country  and loving the outdoors, the chance to escape from the city was so  attractive". He continued downhill and cross-country skiing until  about ten years before his death, when he had to give it up due to a  second hip fracture.  In 1976, June and Bill built their retirement home overlooking the Coldstream Valley, and Bill enjoyed developing his garden,  watching the many birds, deer and coyotes in residence on the  property. He worked hard to help June have facilities for her horses,  and enjoyed the many young people who came to be part of their  family through riding.  ohs 169 TRIBUTES  Bill had great joy in watching his family grow, and venture  into the working world. Then to become a grandfather and great  grandfather was a great pleasure for him. He expressed great admiration, thanks and love to his wife of sixty-three years, June- his  partner and dearest friend. He always said that her sense of humour and cheerfulness carried them through both difficult and  happy times in their journey together.  Bill was predeceasedby his father George (1860-1925), mother  Alice (1870-1966), sister Violet (Moss) in 1993, sister Una (Dobson)  in 1996. He is lovingly remembered by his wife, June, three sons,  Bob (Maureen), Ted (Carolyn), Peter (Cherry), daughter Diane  (Geza) Toth, as well as nine grandchildren and seven great grandchildren, numerous nephews and nieces. - by diane toth  Excerpt from Eulogy to CD. Bill Osborn, given by Reverend Peter  Davison, All Saints' Anglican Church, May 23, 2000.  "...Briefly, these are the facts of his life, but today we gather to give  thanks to God for the qualities of the man. Among them I would  list the fact that he was a gentle-man in every sense of the word.  His gentleness could not, however, disguise his strength; and it  was that deep inner strength which perhaps made him gentle, for  he had no need or desire for pomp or show. He was highly intelligent and alert, but married his intelligence to a real earthiness. He  loved to point out the different forms of wildlife around him. It is  no accident that the hymns we sing today reflect his love of and  respect for nature. If it is true that we must 'become as little children to inherit the kingdom of heaven', I have no doubt Bill has  come into his inheritance. There is a world of difference between  childishness and childlikeness and our quest for adult cleverness  and pseudo- sophistication. Bill would take the better part of a day  to climb a mountain for the sheer pleasure of one five-minute ski  back down. He found joy in the simplest pleasures. His appreciation of nature and family also made him thankful. I was always  struck, not only by his kindness and generosity of spirit, but also  by his gratitude for even the most simple gestures towards him.  Then there was his sense of humour. Humour, of course, is  related to earthiness and a sense of perspective. Self-important people do not possess it. Bill's greatness lay in his basic goodness and  simplicity, and the wisdom which distills complex matters down to  their essence. He was a good and wise man, who inherited and  passed on the palities (sic) which define us as truly human."  Some of the quotations were taken from Bill's memoirs, which were completed  for his 89th birthday with the help of his daughter, Diane loth.  170 ohs TRIBUTES  Harley Robert Hatfield  1905   -  2000  The Okanagan lost one of its most respected historians, authors  and speakers when Harley Robert Hatfield died in Vancouver  on February 14, 2000.  At the age of two, Harley moved with his parents, A. Seaman  Hatfield and Roberta (Christie) Hatfield, from Nova Scotia to Annis  on Shuswap Lake in British Columbia. In 1909, the Hatfields heard  of a new development on the west bank of Skaha Lake that had  been newly named Kaleden. Seaman Hatfield joined James Ritchie  of Summerland, and played a very important role in Kaleden's early  history. He became the Kaleden Development Company's timekeeper, opened a real estate  and insurance office; was  Kaleden's first postmaster;  had interests with Ritchie in  the general store; began a  freight service on Skaha Lake;  and held the mail contract  from Penticton to Osoyoos  and eventually to Oroville,  Washington.  Harley Hatfield took his  early schooling in Kaleden.  Our families were closely connected as were most in those  days. At one time he stayed  at our place while his parents  were away. My parents told  me a lot about Harley - an adventuresome boy.  As I look back over the life of Harley Hatfield, I see an incredibly honourable man who earned the respect of all with whom  he was in contact. He was a man with a great respect for and  awareness of central British Columbia, its heritage and environment.  After his schooling in Kaleden, Harley went to Penticton High  School, graduating in 1923. He then completed a Bachelor of Arts  degree in History at the University of British Columbia.  In 1930, Harley and his father founded Interior Contracting  Company and, along with brother Phillip, went on to do major construction work throughout the interior of B.C. While much of their  Harley Hatfield, about 10-years-old, with brother  Phillip. Note: Scout uniform on Harley.  (Courtesy Ray Findlay)  OHS 171 TRIBUTES  H. Hatfield cl990. (Courtesy Doug Cox)  work was for the railways  and municipalities, they  carried out a great deal of  road construction and land  preparation for mines in  the province, and built a  few fish hatcheries. One  of their many challenging  contracts included site construction in rugged B.C.  terrain for the Trans  Canada Telephone Company during the building of  the Trans Canada Microwave System. After the  S.S. SICAMOUS was towed  down Okanagan Lake to  Penticton in 1951, Interior  Contracting assisted in the  beaching of the vessel at  West Lakeshore Drive.  Interior Contracting Co. Ltd. had a very large payroll encompassing their main body in Penticton and PenKam Contracting Co.  Ltd., their Kamloops Office. Somehow, there always seemed to be  room for members of pioneer Okanagan families.  In 1932,Harley Robert Hatfield and Edith White Tisdall, daughter of a Vancouver Mayor, Charles Tisdall,were married. During  World War II, Harley served in both the Royal Canadian Air Force  and the Royal Canadian Engineers. He was commissioned and,  when discharged, had attained the rank of Captain. Following the  sale of the family business in 1958, Harley became a consulting  engineer.  Harley Hatfield was associated with the Boy Scouts of Canada  for decades. While living in Kaleden in 1913, at the age of eight, he  joined the First Penticton Scout Troop and served the Scout movement faithfully, eventually taking on positions from Cubmaster to  District Commissioner. On a 1959 Rocky Mountain hiking adventure with senior scouts of the First Penticton Scout Troop, and after  hiking all day in the high mountains, Harley and his patrol made  up the following poem:  "Fall, fall on the high white hills o'snow,  But not on us in our little tent below.  Some boy scouts went tramping,  172 ohs TRIBUTES  In the high mountains camping,  But the sky remained grey,  and it snowed every day,  And they soon lost their liking for hiking."  What a great Scout Leader! Harley was a man of patience,  warmth and humour, who always had a story to tell and a unique  way of doing so. He was awarded Scouting's Medal of Merit in  1967 and the Silver Acorn, Scouting's highest service award, in 1994.  Harley worked tirelessly in exploring and preserving the  Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail in the Okanagan Valley and the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade Trail between Hope and Tulameen. He was  honoured in 1986 when a mountain on Mansons Ridge east of Hope,  B.C., was named MT. HATFIELD in recognition of his many years  of effort. His passion for preserving the Brigade Trails, his respect  for nature, his great interest in conservation and setting aside areas as Parks, is documented in many of the Okanagan Historical  Society Reports. Harley was a life member of that Society where  he served as director, speaker, author and long-time supporter.  Harley Hatfield was a founding member of Apex Alpine Ski  Area, served on Penticton City Council, and sat on the Regional  District Okanagan-Similkameen Board and Penticton School Board.  He was a Civil Defence Officer, member of the Okanagan-  Similkameen Parks Society and South Okanagan Naturalist Club,  and sat on the R.N. Atkinson (Penticton) Museum Advisory Committee and the Penticton Centennial Committee.  Aside from the local organizations, Harley was a director of  the Engineering Institute of Canada, was active in the Canadian  Legion and Canada Club, and was a 20 year member of the Penticton  Board of Trade. He was an active member of Engineers for Disarmament, World Federalists of Canada and the Borstal Society of  Canada. This remarkable reflection of his unlimited energy demonstrates his commitment and concern for others. On Heritage  Day, February 16, 1981, at a reception in Government House in  Ottawa, Governor General Edward Schreyer presented Harley R.  Hatfield with a Heritage Canada Foundation Community Award  (OHS Report #45).  In 1984, his beloved wife of 52 years, Edith "Toddy",died in  Vancouver.  I had the great pleasure of spending many wonderful hours  with Harley and other old-timers, out in the hills during the 1980's  and 1990's. A carload of us would head out to Vaseux Lake, White  Lake, Fairview, Osoyoos, Spotted Lake or, perhaps Kilpoola Lake  for a full day of activity. Harley was happy when we got on a piece  ohs 173 TRIBUTES  of the old Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail near White Lake, Allen Grove,  Summerland or Nahun. We made trips to Head Water Lakes, Christian Valley and over to Tulameen to visit his friend, Jim Logan. It  was an honour to hike with Victor Wilson, Bob Burns and Jack  Collins on Okanagan Mountain. Allan Roadhouse, Robert Hall,  Sandy Brent, Bill Sanderson and Harley Hatfield had a story for  every turn in the trail. Harley climbed to the very top of Mt. Lookout in Kaleden with Ron King, Jack Collins, his dog, Fred and me  in 1986. He was then eighty-four years of age. I treasure those  years of our association and would not have missed them for anything.  Harley was predeceased by his brother, Phillip, in 1988. He  is survivedby his children John (Pat), Peter (Sally), Chris (Jill) and  Alyson (Bruce) Hay; five grandchildren and four great-grandchildren.  It is a rich experience indeed, to look back over the life of  Harley Hatfield. He would not want us to indulge in sorrow at his  passing, but I believe, would rather have us think kindly of him  when we walk in the hills among the pines and sagebrush here in  the beautiful Okanagan Valley. His life spanned so much of the  development of the South Okanagan and we are the beneficiaries  of his remarkable life.  In his last years, as time took away his strength, he kept in  touch. In January, just a month prior to his death, Harley telephoned to see how my wife, Win, and I were doing. My last conversation with him included, "We'll talk soon, Harley", to which he  replied: "Don't leave it too long."  Harley Robert Hatfield is gone. What a good friend. He is  greatly missed. - by ray findlay  Ray Findlay is the second son of Jud and Iva (Simpson) Findlay, early pioneers of Kaleden. He is a W.W. Two veteran. Since his retirement from Safeway  Trucking, Ray and his wife Win, returned to Kaleden, where he has found  time to renew an interest in history and writing.  Anita Bennett Tozer  1928   -   2000  nita, the eldest child and only daughter of W.A.C. and May  (nee Richards) Bennett was born in Edmonton, Alberta, May  31,1928. Two years later, after the birth of her brother Russell,  Anita and her family moved to Kelowna, where her father had pur-  174 ohs TRIBUTES  Anita Bennett Tozer (Courtesy Geoff Tozer)  chased the Leckie Hardware Company, an old and well-established  local business. The Bennett family  lived in two different houses on  Bernard Avenue, before moving to  Brookside, shortly after the birth of  Anita's brother, Bill.  Anita Bennett attended Central Elementary School (including  the little DeHart School behind the  larger brick building), Junior High,  then K.H.S. She was a top student,  and was active on the Students'  Council and in the production of the  school newspaper.  Since her family was a strong  supporter of the United Church,  Anita attended First United Church,  taught Sunday School, and joined  the C.G.I.T. (Canadian Girls In Training). After graduating from  high school, she attended the University of Alberta, where she  earned her degree in Education, majoring in English and Drama.  In 1952, the year of her graduation from university, she met  and married Geoff Tozer, who was then working on the boats on  the MacKenzie River and Great Slave Lake. They were married in  December of that year, and eventually set up housekeeping in a  repaired trailer in the yard of the Yellowknife Transportation Company, in Hay River, N.W.T. Word got out that Anita owned a typewriter, and she soon found herself recording the minutes for the  Town Council, and working as a bookkeeper for a local garage.  In 1954, her elder son, William was born, and in November of that  year, the Tozer family decided to leave the rugged life of Canada's  north. They moved back to Kelowna, and there went into the motel business. Son Allen was born in 1956. Anita continued to work  with the family business until the early 1960's, when she took a  teaching position at Chesterfield Hall, a local private school. In  1964, she moved to George Pringle Secondary School, and taught  there until her retirement in 1972.  After her retirement, Anita was at loose ends. Any thoughts  of entering Federal politics were discouraged by her father, who  suggested instead that she get involved with charity work. She followed WA.C.'s advice, and threw herself into the work of helping  others, through the United Way, the Downtown Business Association, the Children's Fund, and many more worthwhile organiza-  ohs 175 TRIBUTES  tions and societies. Any "spare time" which she might have was  taken up with supervising the closing of the Bennett Stores, working for several months as the Executive Director of the Kelowna  and District Society for the Mentally Handicapped, and several trips  to Europe and Australia.  Anita Tozer's busy life ended on the morning of July 10th,  2000, husband Geoff and sons William and Allen at her side. She  did not fear death, but was very annoyed that it had come to take  her when she still had so much to do. - by Geoffrey tozer  Anita's husband Geoff kindly contributed this tribute to his late wife.  Dufton Robert Booth - a Tribute  192 1   -  2000  ne of Ellison's most beloved and respected citizens, Dufton  Robert Booth, passed away at the Kelowna General Hospital,  September 29, 2000, following a debilitating illness. Born in  the same hospital, on January 7, 1921, he was the son of Robert  Dufton "Bob" Booth (who emigrated from Banffshire, Scotland in  1908) and Victorina Renard (formerly of Belgium), who came to  the Okanagan in 1911.  "Duff, as he was affectionately called, lived his entire life in  the Ellison District, receiving his elementary education in the  former Ellison Primary School. As a result of having being kicked,  in his youth, by a horse, Duff received a serious leg injury, resulting in many months of treatment at Vancouver General Hospital.  Much to his chagrin, this permanent injury exempted Duff from  military service during World War II.  Duff Booth was very mechanically inclined. It is said that  there wasn't an engine or piece of machinery which he could not  mend, no matter how badly its state of disrepair. Because of his  analytical mind, Mathematics always intrigued Duff Booth.  On October 31, 1958, at Victoria, Duff married his fiance,  Beulah Boyd, who came from Saskatchewan. They were blessed  with three children: Neil, Joan, and Christine. Tragically, Beulah  passed away on February 10, 1995.  Duffs involvement in the Ellison District is well-known. He  was a founding member of the Ellison Volunteer Fire Brigade, and  was awarded an honourary life membership upon his retirement.  Son Neil, a professional fireman at the Kelowna Municipal Airport,  credits much of his own expertise to the training which he received  from his late father.  176 ohs TRIBUTES  For many years, Duff served on the Ellison Parks Board, and  he was instrumental in the construction of the ice rink, long a  popular outdoor facility in Ellison. Duff also served, from 1973 to  1979, as the Director for Ellison/Joe Riche on the Central Okanagan  Regional District.  One of Duffs pet projects was the Ellison Irrigation District.  When Bob Booth retired as Chairman of the Board, Duff was elected  to replace him, remaining in that office uncontested for twenty-  seven years, until the District amalgamated with the Glenmore Irrigation District.  Upon his father's retirement, Duff assumed the operation of  the family orchard, which had originally been acquired through  the Soldier Settlement Board, following demobilization after World  War I. For many years, Duff was a pilot, having received his license  in 1957; he continued to fly until as late as 1980.  An avid outdoorsman, Duff enjoyed hunting and fishing. As  a devoted family man, he relished the opportunity to take his children on canoe trips. When his mother, Victorina Booth, retired as  the custodian of Ellison School, in 1965 (after forty-three years of  service), Duff and Beulah took over that job, and worked in that  school for an additional thirteen years.  When Duff Booth passed away, he was mourned by his family and community. Surviving him were his son Neil (Leanne),  daughters Joan (Brent) Patraquin, and Christine (Dan) Tiessen,  grandchildren Robert and Ryan Booth, Richard and Erin Patraquin,  Amanda, Samantha, and Matthew Tiessen, and sisters Yvonne Cotton (of Victoria) and Norma Decaire (of Alexandria, Ontario). A  brother Harry died in infancy.  A legacy left in memory of this remarkable person has to be  his honesty, his loyalty to Ellison, and his perpetual unselfish offer  of help to those in distress. - by james h. hayes  James H. "Jim" Hayes is a longtime resident of the Central Okanagan Valley,  and is a past director of the Kelowna Branch, O.H.S. He knew Duff Booth for  many years, having worked alongside him for the Ellison Irrigation District.  OHS 111 TRIBUTES  Jack Petley  1 9 1 1   -   2000  "1 he life of the young man who grew up in Calgary and started  work with the C.P.R. in 1929 was the beginning of a life-long  passion with railroading, his career for over forty-eight years.  Jack Petley was born in Vancouver, B.C. on June 5, 1911. The  family moved to Penticton in 1945 on a C.P.R. transfer from Winnipeg, and Jack soon became involved in the pursuits that were to  become his legacy in the Penticton and Okanagan Falls communities.  He was active in the Junior  Chamber of Commerce, the Kinsmen  Club and Red Cross Society, where he  served as President, then Director for  a number of years. Working with Jack  Newton, he raised money for the  Penticton Vees Hockey Club toward  their overseas trip when they won the  World Championship. He was a member of the Penticton Branch, Okanagan  Historical Society; a Charter Member  of the Penticton Peach Festival Society;  a founding member and Past President  of the Okanagan Falls Heritage and  Museum Society. He attended many  heritage conventions where he and his  wife, Min, were able ambassadors. In  Penticton, Jack was the first President  of the Sicamous Restoration Society, and was instrumental in the  goal of preserving the old CPR trestle in Okanagan Falls.  In 1972, Jack was in charge of the railway during filming of  Pierre Berton's Canadian Dream, the story of the C.P.R.  On May 10, 2000 Mr. Petley was honoured when he was chosen to receive the Governor General's Caring Canadian Award presented by Lt. Gov. Garde Gardom.  Jack was passionate about his involvement in charitable and  civic projects, and wrote endless letters to obtain grants. He organized many projects, and saw them through to their completion, His  work enhanced other people's lives through fun and enjoyment,  He strove to preserve our relatively short history.  Jack Petley, cl960.  (Courtesy Min Petley)  178 ohs TRIBUTES  Jack made a difference in our communities. We are the richer  for his contributions over the years. It was always a delight to  spend time with him. He had a great sense of humour and his  story-telling was legendary.  Even with all his involvement, Jack found time to be a devoted family man and enjoy his favourite pastime, fishing.  A resident of Penticton for fifty-five years, Jack Petley passed  away on July 19, 2000. He is survived by his loving wife, Min;  daughter, Pat; and son, George; other family and many friends. He  will be greatly missed. - by doreen duncan and ruth Gordon  Doreen Duncan and Ruth Gordon reside in Okanagan Falls and worked with  Jack and Min Petley on the Heritage and Museum Society Project, HERITAGE  PLACE. Mrs. Duncan is a Past President of that society, and has remained  active in many organizations throughout her life in the Falls. She is also a  recipient of the Falls' Good Citizen award. Mrs. Gordon has remained an active participant in several Okanagan Falls organizations, especially the Falls'  United Church.  Jack Petley, 1999. (Courtesy Min Petley)  OHS 1 79 TRIBUTES  Dennis Reid  1919 - 2000  Dennis Reid died in Prince George, July 7, 2000. He was  predeceasedby his wife, Marjorie in 1996, infant son Brian  in 1945, and his parents John and Annie. He is survived by  sons Patrick (Judy), Ken (Karen) and daughter Cathy (Bruce)  Reynolds.  Dennis was born in Kelowna, January 25, 1919, and grew up  at "Reid's Corner" near Rutland. Here, he achieved his King's (now  Queen's) Scout status, the highest level in the Boy Scout movement. He began his broadcasting career at CKOV Radio in Kelowna,  working there from 1938 to 1940. He was later assistant manager  from 1947 to 1957. He met his wife, Marj in Chilliwack, while he  was stationed at the Canadian Army base during World War Two.  They were married April 8th 1944.  In 1957, Denny helped found the new radio station CKCQin  Quesnel, where he was General Manager and later company majority owner. Cariboo Broadcasters expanded to create the first private commercial radio network in Western Canada, opening stations in Williams Lake (CKWL) and 100 Mile House (CKBX).  Denny was a member of the Canadian Association of Broadcasters Quarter Century Club, and in 1971, was selected the first  B.C. Association of Broadcasters, "Broadcaster of the Year". In November 1993, he was inducted into the C.A.B. Hall of Fame.  He first retired in 1972, and moved to Nanaimo, where he  was in the mobile home sales business for several years. He retired  a second time in 1975, moving to Salmon Arm. In Salmon Arm, he  was Golf Club Secretary, and co-authored a book on the history of  golf in that community.  Following his wife, Marj's death, he returned to Quesnel in  1997. This pioneer broadcaster will be remembered in every community where he resided.  Leader and Mentor - ft Life  BettyJoan Atkinson  "tt 'm an in-your-face sort of person," said Betty on one occasion.  "I don't back down." From her arrival in Armstrong in 1952  JL until her death on November 4, 2000, Betty made commitment  and change a part of her routine and therefore a part of her community's too. Their gratitude was expressed when she received  180 ohs TRIBUTES  three distinguished awards in 2000: Life Membership in the Interior Provincial Exhibition, Good Citizen of the Year, and Freedom  of the City of Armstrong. In awarding her this final accolade, Mayor  Jerry Oglow quoted Winston Churchill: "We make a living by what  we get, but we make a life by what we give."  Betty's influence in Armstrong began inauspiciously. Freshly  graduated from the University of British Columbia, and clutching  her degree in Honours French and English with a minor in Spanish, and a Teaching Certificate, she was hired to teach French,  English and physical education, including ballroom dancing, at  Armstrong High School.  None of these subjects is particularly student-friendly, but  Betty had a worse surprise. The building had been condemned and  classes were being housed around the town. Her first classroom  was over the gymnasium in a mouse-infested garret that used to be  the lunch room.  Betty didn't flinch. Growing up Betty Joan Gray in her grandmother's boarding house in Cumberland on Vancouver Island, she  had watched her grandmother manage the coal miners who shared  their home. Strict rules and no exceptions: Betty recognized and  adopted a clear model for feminine power and success. As her father was often absent, especially in her teen years, her female relatives had provided the values by which Betty would live - fairness,  consistency, tenacity, and a sense of humour. She also had brains -  she passed grades eleven and twelve in one year - and the ability  to adapt. As UBC then had no Education Faculty, for example, she  chose languages and postgraduate training in order to qualify to  teach.  She needed these qualities as she shared her first teaching  experience, not with miners, but with mice and students doubtful  of the benefits of learning French, English, and ballroom dancing.  "Hornby," she said to the boy who would later become mayor of  Armstrong, "how am I expected to teach you to write and spell in  French when after ten years you still can't do [it in] English?" Eric  Hornby was not much better at ballroom dancing. Betty suggested  that she might find it easier to teach a refrigerator.  Betty also coached basketball, soccer, track, and square dancing. The students loved and respected her knowledge, humour and  forthrightness. They asked her to be an adult sponsor of Teen Town,  a significant youth club that from the mid-50s to the mid-70s taught  values of leadership and community service. One year Armstrong  Teen Town hosted a 'B.C. Battle of the Bands.' When the fear was  expressed that a youth gang from the Valley might disrupt the event,  Betty's solution was to hire members of the gang as security guards,  OHS 181 TRIBUTES  and the festival proceeded without incident. Without a doubt Betty  was a general hit, and a model of professional success for her female students. Her students fondly remember her encouragement  to persevere and achieve.  Betty's public life began after 1957, the year she married  Howard Atkinson, who at the time worked in retail sales in Vernon.  She and Howard loved to dance, and they "danced together like the  wind." The needs of their three children - Kathleen, Robert, and  William - catapulted Betty into a series of initiatives.  Firstly, Armstrong had no kindergarten. In 1969 Betty founded  and was the first president of the Kindergarten Co-operative, which  operated in St. James Anglican Church Hall until its integration  within the school system several years later. True to its name, the  Kindergarten was supported by parent volunteer time and money.  Next she helped organize the Armstrong Figure Skating Club and  sat as president. Another interest was the Student Loan Association, a non-profit society in which she acted as treasurer to disburse loans to Armstrong-Spallumcheen students needing emergency funds to go to college, university, or trade school. At Betty's  death her family established the Betty Atkinson Memorial Bursary  for which any Armstrong or Spallumcheen adult who is entering a  vocational programme at Okanagan University College may apply.  Betty always said that vocational students had the greatest need of  support but the least access to funds.  Not surprisingly, her kitchen table in the mid-1970s became  the first site of the Armstrong branch of Okanagan College. "They  gave me yoga, woodworking, and ballroom dancing. 'See what you  can do with that,' they said. I did!" The College transferred out of  her kitchen in 1977-78, the first move of four into cramped quarters which gradually improved to an office and meeting space in  the mall on Smith Drive.  As she attempted to answer the specific educational needs of  her community, Betty's most innovative venture was to set up a  curriculum and locate instructors for a shepherd training program  to train people to watch over sheep that would graze under power  lines and in clearcuts, and so obviate the need for using herbicides  to keep the grass down. "God, they nearly died [at the College's  administrative office] in Kelowna," Betty recounted. "No prestige!  But they were fun days though." Fifty shepherds finished the course,  and a surprise parcel arrived for Betty from cartoonist Charles  Schultz of 'Peanuts' fame, who had seen a news release touting  Armstrong's unique shepherding programme. The parcel contained  the stuffed toy named Spike, Snoopy's brother, who is portrayed  with a shepherd's crook. For a woman with no experience of farm-  182 ohs TRIBUTES  ing until she came to Armstrong, Betty had made her mark. She  continued as program director of the College in Armstrong until  her retirement in 1995.  When Betty began her association in the early '70s with the  agricultural fair called The Interior Provincial Exhibition, she joined  a strong community organization which had its roots in thel900  Table Top Fair and a long history of agricultural promotion, civic  pride, and volunteerism. Betty joined and then headed the newly  formed Wine Division, which boasted a particularly festive mood  during judging of the wines and beers. On the Fair Board for over  twenty years, she supported in the early 1980s the controversial  acquisition of the Dunne property in Spallumcheen as a new site  for the IPE; however, the removal of the property from the Agricultural Land Reserve was not permitted, and the Fair remained in  town. In the period of building expansion which followed, Betty  wrote the grant applications which garnered the money for extensive, new horse barns. In 1990 she shared with Doug Hunt the  President's Trophy for IPE Volunteer of the Year. That year she was  diagnosed with breast cancer from which she made a complete  recovery.  Betty saw many IPE managers come and go. One was former  student Eric Hornby, who valued her fearless assessment of his  administration. Current manager Mike McCarty acknowledges that  prior to presenting a new idea for the board's consideration, he  touched bases with Betty, whose feel for the community he valued. Sometimes she called him first! In February, 2001, the Annual  General Meeting of the IPE voted on a constitutional change which  she had tabled at the general meeting the previous February.  Howard Atkinson proposed the motion on her behalf and it carried  without debate. Despite her death her influence was still being felt.  In 1978 Betty was annoyed that Armstrong Council was considering locating the Colonial Farms chicken processing plant south  of the ridge where she and Howard lived. When her objections had  no effect, Betty decided to run for Council. She became the longest  sitting councillor in Armstrong's history - 1978 to 1999 - and at the  time only the second woman to have served. In politics Betty was  able to use all her talents, and to wield power laced with salty humour on behalf of her community. She became the historian for  her colleagues - which decisions had been made in the past, and  why; where present problems had their origins; how long an issue  had been under discussion; why certain solutions had or had not  worked. Like her grandmother, Betty had no patience for long-  windedness or impractical schemes. Councillors and community  alike produced 'just the facts' or ran the risk of her repartee. She  was indefatigable, however, in her patient mentoring of newly  ohs 183 TRIBUTES  elected councillors: "People are reluctant to run  because they don't think  they know enough. But  everybody is a newcomer when you start."  At age twenty-seven  Ryan Nitchie, the youngest Armstrong councillor  to date, acknowledged  Betty's part in his decision to run. She had told  him how satisfying the  job could be. Her advice  on public speaking: "Be  concise. Be brief. Be  gone."  During her twenty-  one year tenure, Betty  served on every Council  committee and brought  to each her attention to  i   ,   -t   i        j      .      r Betty Anderson, photographed when she received the  detail, her desire for con-       «,,   .      f~r v    ,ac\n.    A" r     ~     u   4  ' Volunteer of the Year 1990 Award  from Doug Hunt  Sistency, her devotion tO for her work with the Interior Provincial Exhibition,  fairness,   and her pen- (Courtesy Armstrong Archives)  chant for seeing a situation's funny side. She was Armstrong's representative to the Okanagan Regional Library Board and fought for an  expanded library budget when opponents saw books as frills. Improved water and sewage systems, a spray irrigation programme,  and long term capital planning were visions she coddled into reality.  To strengthen Council's resolve for the revitalization of Armstrong's  downtown core, Betty photographed examples of good city planning  during a cross-Canada holiday with Howard and presented them for  her colleagues' consideration. Her dream of a flag and a coat of arms  for the City materialized in 1998. A daily walker, she badgered Council with her unsolicited Weed and Doggie Doo Report.  She was most piquant, however, at municipal conventions  where she bearded astonished politicians and ministers of the Crown  over public policy. She also kept a grandmotherly eye on the rest  of the Armstrong delegation. Once, losing patience with a mayor's  behaviour at the buffet table, she whipped the name tag off his  jacket with the cryptic statement, "We'll not have people knowing  you're from Armstrong!" Betty usually came away from these events  with 'souvenirs'; such as, pins, beer mugs and, memorably, a red  barn lantern and an Expo '86 hard hat. Her colleagues accused her  of accumulating inventory to furnish a thrift shop at retirement.  184 ohs TRIBUTES  Betty's retirement came when she lost her bid for re-election  in November, 1999. At the time she was undergoing chemotherapy  for lymphoma in her lungs - an irony, as she had never smoked.  Committed to consistency and opposed to the idea of exceptions,  she chose to face the electorate despite opposition to her support  of taxation of non-profit organizations and institutions. For the first  time in twenty-one years, Betty was out of a job. Betty, however,  was philosophical. "The trouble with being in the rat race is that  even if you win, you are still a rat."  Her attitude to her illness was unequivocal: "I've told everybody I'm medically illiterate. I'll take the treatment, but I don't  want to know about it. I can keep my positive attitude better if I  don't know you've put two gallons of something in me. I've got a  positive attitude about getting through it, and I think that's what  counts." In effect, she expected her doctors to do their job while  she went on with living. This decision caused some discomfort to  friends and family, as discussion of her disease was not of interest  to her.  As if to redeem itself for denying her a council seat, the community spent the following year in demonstrations of respect and  good will. In February, 2000, she was made a Life Member of the  IPE. In mid-June under the trees in Memorial Park on a sunny  Sunday, the community sat at tables spread with delicacies on white  cloths and listened to the Vernon Girls' Trumpet Band, the student  bands of Pleasant Valley Secondary School, and tributes to Betty as  she was named the Good Citizen of the Year. Finally, in the garden  of the Atkinson home on her 70th birthday, August 19, 2000, a Royal  Canadian Legion colour party introduced a ceremony which no  one in Armstrong had seen for twenty-five years - the granting of  the 'Freedom of the City.' Her family, relatives from England and  Scotland, representatives of the organizations which Betty had  served for the last half-century, and friends witnessed Betty Joan  Atkinson receive the highest civic honour which Armstrong may  give. Uniquely, of eight recipients since the award's inception, Betty  was the first female.  In his presentation Mayor Jerry Oglow said, "It is not a monetary reward. You can't sell it. You can't give it away, or loan it,  and, really, it is not something you would hang on your living room  wall. What it is, though, is the mind and spirit and will of a grateful  community coming together at one point in time and saying, 'Well  done, much appreciated, congratulations, thank you.'"  Although she battled her lymphoma well, Betty slipped away  on November 4, 2000, as a result of a pulmonary edema (blood  clot) brought on by her forced immobility. At her crowded memorial service at Centennial Hall on November 13, 2000, people told  ohs 185 TRIBUTES  their stories. Speaking of Betty they told jokes on themselves. They  spoke of citizenship and service. They spoke about straight talk  and laughter. They spoke about respect. Some of them might have  been surprised to know that since 1961 Betty had belonged to a  Shakespeare reading group, the Minerva Club. She was a woman of  surprises.  "There's nothing special about me," Betty had said. "I just get  interested in something and get at it. Once you get into something,  you have to give it your full attention. You give it your all. I really  hope that women that are considering or interested in municipal  politics will pay attention. Women have a different point of view to  offer in municipal politics."  On July 25, 1999, Morning Star reporter Jason Mercier  summed up his impressions of her: "Betty Atkinson came to  Armstrong forty-seven years ago to teach. In many ways she still  does." - BY   SHIRLEY CAMPBELL  Shirley Campbell was a teacher of English in the Armstrong Secondary School  until 1993. She has authored a number of books including the Our Fair history  of the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  Sources  The Armstrong Advertiser: June 14/00; July 12/00; Aug. 23/00; Nov.8/00.  The Morning Star (Jason Mercier): July 25/99; July 12/00; Aug: 23/00.  City of Armstrong; IPE Office; Eric Hornby; Nancy Visser; Bonnie Hamilton;  Jessie Ann Gamble; Muriel Nelson; Howard and Kathleen Atkinson; Shirley  Campbell.  Morris Fondly Remembered  Morris John Thompson   1938 - 2000  ne could immediately discern what type of man Morris  Thompson was by the number of people who attended his  funeral service in Okanagan Falls. More than five hundred  people paid tribute to the man described as a "millwright by trade,  a fixer-up at heart and everyone's friend."  Morris died of cancer at the age of sixty-two on September  26. He is survivedby his loving wife of forty years, Donna May, his  son Dale Mark (Leslie), daughter Joanne Marie (Clint) Bailey, brothers Grant (Sharon) and Donnie (Ulrike), sister Yvonne Cumberland  and brother-in-law Ken.  186 ohs TRIBUTES  Morris was born in  Penticton on August 3, 1938. A  good portion of his life was  spent working at Weyerhaeuser  in Okanagan Falls. The rest of  the time he was either fixing  things or helping someone in  the community.  At the funeral service, eulogist Jim MacNaughton said  whenever he needed to find  Morris, he would drive down  Main Street and look for "Old  Blue", his pick-up truck. "I  loved this man like the brother  I never had." But MacNaughton  admitted, when push came to  shove, Morris could be as stubborn as a Missouri mule. He  recalled how Morris could get  any old car up and running in  no time.  MacNaughton said Morris  and Donna May turned their  courage and commitment into  their 40th wedding anniversary  on August 12 of this year. They  raised two children who made them proud.  "Mechanics aside, Morris had a special compassion for young  people," Jim MacNaughton said. "Between Donna May and himself, always a few strays seemed to be living somewhere near or in  the house.He would immediately go to the aid of anyone who was  trying to sober up, or was down on their luck. A phone call to help  someone would lead to Morris giving the individual something like  a tent, a sleeping bag, a fishing pole and $50, none of which he  would ever see again."  But like the shoemaker's kids who have no shoes, he wasn't  quite so quick to fix things for Donna May, MacNaughton told us.  So, in frustration, she took her broken wheelbarrow up the street  to a friend, who immediately phoned Morris, saying she needed a  wheelbarrow fixed badly. Morris would drop everything and fix it,  not realizing it was his own.  When Jamie Soule thinks about Morris, he always smiles.  Soule was Morris' supervisor, peer and friend at Weyerhaeuser.  Morris Thompson, OK Falls Millwright in front  of log bundling machine he invented and  designed. (Courtesy Donna May Thompson)  OHS 187 TRIBUTES  Did you ever hear about the Mickey Mouse award that Morris won? A major failure occurred on an edger at Weyerhaeuser  and it couldn't be fixed because parts weren't available in Western  Canada. Well, once Morris heard about it, he built a contraption  that kept the mill operating until a replacement was found. Soule  said Morris left solid footprints in the community, footprints that  can never be filled.  Morris Thompson, everyone's friend, is sadly missed in his  community of Okanagan Falls and its surrounding area. When he  met you at his door or answered the telephone, Morris' "Hello,  'ello, 'ello..." was the warmest, most welcome greeting anyone could  receive, and it said everything about the man he was. That is how  we remember him.  Submitted, courtesy of the Okanagan Falls Review, dated October 5, 2000  Cliff ond Effie Clement - fl Tribute  1913   -  2000,   1912   -   2000  n the year 2000, the District of Ellison lost two of its best-known  and most beloved citizens, Cliff and Effie Clement.  Although  L they had not resided in Ellison for seven years, their passing  was felt by many who knew and admired them.  Clifford Delbert Clement was born in the family home on  Richter Street, Kelowna, on November 5, 1913; he was the middle  of three children born to early residents Ernest Leslie Clement (who  came to Kelowna with his parents, William Charles Clement and  Matilda Jane Brown Clement, and siblings in the Spring of 1898)  and Margaret Annie Whelan (who was born in the Ellison District  in 1884, the second daughter of pioneer residents George Whelan  and Lucy Freeman). Other children in the family were Leslie George  William Clement (1910-1998) and Wilma Doreen Clement (born in  1922). Cliff grew up in Kelowna and received his education there,  before moving with his family to the Whelan Westholme farm in  Ellison in 1928. His introduction to farming was a happy one, and  this became his chosen life-long vocation and love.  Euphemia "Effie" Mitchell was born in Kelowna on June 18,  1912. She was the one of two daughters (the other, Grace Campbell  Mitchell, died in infancy) born to Scottish-born Alexander "Sandy"  Mitchell and Euphemia Rattray. Sandy Mitchell was a well-known  local stonemason, whose work is yet to be found in a number of  local buildings, including the historic C.N.R. station in Kelowna.  188 ohs TRIBUTES  Effie, too, grew up in Kelowna, in the north end of town, so it  is not surprising that she came to know Cliff Clement. They were  married on February 27, 1935, and remained together for almost  sixty-five years.  The young married couple settled on the family farm in  Ellison; Cliffs parents and sister Wilma had meanwhile moved to  Winfield, where Ernest Clement operated the general store. Cliff  and Effie were an ideal farming couple: they both loved farm life,  and supported each other in the many challenges and demands  which agriculture can present. It was on the farm in Ellison that  Cliff and Effie raised their four children: Lois Audrey, Kenneth  Clifford, Bruce Allan, and Vicki Ann.  The Clement home was open to friends and neighbours alike.  Cliff was always willing to help his neighbours, fellow orchardists  and ranchers; he was frequently called upon, to offer suggestions  or assistance. Effie, too, made others feel welcome in her home.  There was always a pot of fresh coffee or tea, and a plate of delicious homebaking to greet anyone who came calling on them. No  guest in the Clement home ever went away hungry or feeling unwelcome.  Cliffs farm was a very successful one. Over the years, he  raised beef cattle, had an orchard, raised nursery stock, grew turf,  and tried his hand at growing potatoes and other ground crops. He  loved the land, and this was very obvious when he proudly showed  his farm to anyone who came to visit Effie and him.  Eventually, the Clement farm was turned over to the next  generation. In 1966, Ken Clement took over the running of much  of the farm, and his parents built a smaller home above Westholme;  from there, Cliff and Effie looked out over their former home and  the farm which they both loved so much. Once again, their home  was open to all, and friends, neighbours and family members (including grandchildren, their spouses, and children) knew that they  were always welcome there. In 1985, Effie and Cliff Clement were  honoured as Ellison's Citizens of the Year, in recognition of all that  they had done for their community.  Eventually, ill health forced Cliff and Effie Clement to leave  their beloved Ellison District. In 1993, Cliff and Effie purchased a  unit in the Wedgewood, on Sutherland Avenue, in Kelowna. They  had several happy years together there, but Effie's health continued to deteriorate, so she had to relocate to the the David Lloyd-  Jones Home, in Kelowna. Cliff did not long remain apart from her,  and he, too, took up residence in that care facility. Effie's life came  to a peaceful conclusion on February 3, 2000. Cliff did not long  survive his wife of almost sixty-five years; he passed away in the  ohs 189 TRIBUTES  Kelowna General Hospital on November 11, 2000. Both were buried in the Lakeview Memorial Park, high up on the hill, with a fine  view across to Ellison, their home for so many years. They were  survived by their four children: Lois (Ron) Taylor, Ken (Andrina)  Clement, Bruce (Iris) Clement, and Vicki (Wilf) Lang. Also surviving were eleven grandchildren, eighteen great grandchildren, and  Cliffs sister Wilma (Jim) Hayes.  The Clement family and community of Ellison suffered one  final blow in the year 2000. On December 26, Vicki (Clement)  Lang died suddenly in her home in Ellison. She was fifty-three  years old, and was survived by her loving husband Wilf, children  Glen and Deanna, and two infant grandchildren. Once again, the  Community of Ellison was plunged into sadness by the death of  one of its citizens. - by Robert m. "bob" hayes  Robert M. "Bob" Hayes is a director of the Kelowna Branch, Okanagan Historical Society. He is also a nephew of the late Cliff and Effie Clement.  Cliff and Effie Clement, 60th wedding anniversary, February, 1995. (Courtesy Lois Taylor)  190 ohs Lives Remembered  <I2£* Indicates Member of the Society  ADAMS, Barbara Ellen.b.Kelowna December 18,1913;d.Kelowna November 14, 2000.Survived by sister Joan and brother David (Olive). The daughter of well-known Kelowna citizens,  William and Gertrude Adams, who had arrived in 1905, Barbara worked as a social worker in  London, England,at the G.F. Strong Rehabilitation Centre in Vancouver, at Kelowna General Hospital and Cottonwoods. She was an outdoor enthusiast-bird watching, gardening and hiking, and  was a longtime member of the Vancouver Natural History Society  ADRIAN, Nicholas. b.Chase (Legwike) December 15, 1919; d. Salmon Arm, April 12, 2000.  Elder of Neskonlith Indian Reserve No. 3 Band (Salmon Arm). Predeceasedby wife Mariah Narcisse,  son George Narcisse, daughter Teresa Narcisse. Survivedby James Adrian, Dianna Francois, Patsy  Montgomery, Elaine Kruger, Winnie Narcisse, Brenda Narcisse, Gary Narcisse, Loretta Narcisse,  Audrey Narcisse, Frances Narcisse.  ANDERSON, George Keith.b. Edinburgh Scotland September 21, 1903; d.Kelowna September 15, 2000. George came to Kelowna in 1936, and worked for Jenkins Cartage Ltd., becoming a partner with his brother-in-law, the late E.L. Adam. Survivedby wife, Alice (Clement)Anderson  and son, Robert C.(Linda).  ANDREWS, William Arthur "Bill", b. Cranbrook; d. Oliver, October 28, 2000. Survivedby  wife, Erna and son Robert "Bob" (Cheryl). Bill served during the Second World War with the Canadian Army. He moved to Oliver in 1961, where he worked for the fisheries department, patrolling  the waterways from Osoyoos to Mclntyre Bluff. For many years, he worked for CPRail at various  points in the Kootenays and Southern Interior, including being a field agent in Oliver until the  closing of the CPR station. He was a member of the Royal Canadian Legion, Masonic Lodge and  Air Cadets.  ARNOLD, Ethel (nee Duggan). b.Nanton, Alberta, December 6,1910;d.Winfield, B.C. May  25, 2000. Survived by husband Art, sons, Norm (Edie) and Frank, daughters Barbara Dapavo (Mike)  and Laurie Davis (Rhett). She was pre-deceased by daughter Shirley (Ron) Haskins. A daughter of  pioneer Winfield dairy farmers, she lived in Penticton after her marriage, where she and her  husband operated a corner grocery store. Later, they returned to Winfield, and Ethel was actively  involved in the United Church. She will be remembered for her kindness and her great sense of  humour.  ARNOLD, Gilbert Nelson, b. Kelowna, December 11, 1928; d. Kelowna, October 15, 2000.  Predeceased by son, John. Survived by wife Jane (nee Weddell).Gilbert, a lifelong Winfield resident, was the eldest son of Mr. and Mrs.Nelson Arnold and the grandson of Mr. and Mrs. John  Arnold, all longtime residents of Winfield. Following High School graduation, Gilbert went to  work with his father's trucking firm, which soon became Arnold and Son. In the 1960's, the firm  focused on the gravel and excavating business, which lasted until 1995, when Gilbert retired. He  loved farming, and besides his orchard, he raised pigeons, chickens and other animals. He collected antiques, and was a strong supporter of the Lake Country Museum. In addition, he took an  active role in the construction of Jack Seton Place.  ASPINALL, George, b. North Manchester, England April 9, 1915;d. Vernon March 6, 2001.  Predeceased by wife, Reina Petranella in 1981. Survived by sons, Danny, Rick, Bob, Jim, and  daughters Kathy Pepper and Jeanette Baumbrough. This longtime resident of Armstrong served  with the Royal Canadian Engineers in World War Two, and worked at the local; Smith/Crown/  Fletcher Challenge Sawmills until his retirement in 1977. He played and taught accordion for  many years.  ATKINSON, Betty Joan (nee Gray) (See tribute p. 180)  BARTELL, Henry "Harry", b. Ukraine, April 8, 1914; d. Enderby, September 2, 2000. Predeceased by wife, Frances. Survived by sons Richard and Ross. From 1941 until 1972, he farmed  north of Enderby. With his wife, he was an active member of the Springbend community.  BENNEST, Beryl Frances (Babe) (nee Stocks), b. Penticton; d. Oliver, July 21, 2000. Predeceased by husband, William "Bill". Survived by sons Grant, William, Brian (Anita), Jack, Jim  (Bernadette), Doug (Jill). Babe moved with her family to Oliver in 1953, where Bill was the Imperial Oil Agent. They purchased a five acre orchard, where they lived for almost thirty-five years.  Babe worked in the Sears outlet, was active with the choir and women's auxiliary of St. Edward  the Confessor Anglican Church, worked with the food bank and Sunnybank Women's Auxiliary.  OHS 191 LIVES REMEMBERED  BENSON, Victor Adolf. b.Pangman, Saskatchewan, May 24, 1917;d.Vernon, December 28,  2000. Predeceased by wife Margaret in 1983, brothers Clarence and Iver, sisters Gladys and Kate.  Survived by daughter Judy and her husband Melvin, three brothers Orville, Melville and Leonard,  one sister Noreen Litzenberger and many family members. Victor first came to B.C. in 1937, and  worked in many areas. He returned to the Prairies when his father became ill. He returned to B.C.  in the 1940's, and settled in Trinity Valley. Later, he purchased the Flour Mill Block at Enderby,  and became owner-operator of the Dew Drop Inn in Enderby. For many years, he was a construction supervisor with the Department of Indian Affairs. This position took him to many places in  the Interior of B.C. He owned and operated Ainsworth Motel for many years. He retired to Vernon  and enjoyed skiing and golfing, living his life to the fullest.  BESSETTE, Arthur Joseph Alphonse. b. Lumby, April 10, 1908; d. Blind Bay, January 22,  2001. Predeceased by wife May in 1996. Survived by son, Norm, daughter Yetta and sisters Betty  and Gladys. Arthur belonged to a pioneer Lumby family. He was a partner with his brother Foss  in the lumber industry. He was a member of the Lumby Flying Frenchmen Hockey Club when  they won the B.C. Amateur Hockey Championship in 1931. In 1958, he moved to Blind Bay to  raise Black Angus cattle, and retired to Chase in 1978. He was an avid hunter and fisherman.  BEVAN, Jean. b. 1922; d. Vernon, March 12, 2001. Survived by two sons, Willy and Wally,  one daughter, Jean Elliott. Jean was a Registered Nurse, and worked in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital for many years, retiring in 1985. She was loved and respected by all who knew her, and was  known as "Mother Bevan".  BINDER, Dr. J. Peter, b. Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, August 30, 1914; d. Vernon, July 28,  2000. Predeceased by first wife, Vera. Survived by wife Helga, son Egon and daughter Hayley. He  graduated from the University of Saskatchewan and later attended Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, graduating with honours in 1949. He practised in Vernon for forty-five years. He moved  to Oyama in 1977. In the community, he was known as a talented musician. For many years , he  was a member of Kiwanis, Masons and the Royal Canadian Legion.  BLANC, George Louie, b. Kamloops, February 23, 1908; d. Salmon Arm, January 8, 2001.  Predeceased by first wife, Barbara. Survived by wife Kathleen, stepsons Dave and Grant Hawes.  The son of sheep-ranching China Valley pioneers, he and his brothers owned a steam-powered  sawmill and timber tracts in the Skimikin area. He was a founding member and director of Salmon  Arm Community Association, only retiring in 1997 after helping to plan the new community-  operated Salmar Grand Theatre. Also, he was a longtime member of Co-operative Granite Ttading  Association ( Tappen Co-op) including fifteen years as president.  BOOTH, Dufton Robert(See tribute p. 176)  <33*> BRENT, Fredrick Joseph Ferdinand. b.Shingle Creek, Penticton, November 9, 1910;  d. Burnaby, September 24, 2000. Survivedby sister Margaret Warren, sons David and Hartley and  daughter Clara Drewoth. Predeceased by wife Rachel, December 1, 1994, brothers Sandy and  Donny and sisters Mary Winkler and Alice Tweddle. While he was a member of the pioneer Brent  family, Fred lived the past several years in Burnaby. Active in Scouting for many years in Penticton.  BUCHHOLZ, Wilhelm. b. August 25, 1914, d. Vernon, August 29, 2000. Pre-deceased by  wife, Hannah, survived by two sons Ken and Doug, daughter Faith.  Bill was a war veteran and long time employee of the City of Vernon.  BYER, Cecil, d. Oliver, December 26, 2000. Predeceased by first wife, Dorothy in 1965.  Survived by wife, Beryl and children: Marlene (Peter) Janzen, Carol (Bent) Nielsen, Jane (Brian)  Baehr, Willard (Ethna) Edwards, Wendie (Wayne) Radies, Bob (Kim) Byer, Dan (Bonnie) Edwards,  Janet (Kevin) Hertz, Michael (Leanne) Edwards, Shirley (Scott) Petri. Cecil came to Oliver in  1938, and worked with his father in the stucco and plaster business. He served with the Royal  Canadian Navy 1943-1946. Following the war, he operated a taxi business and then owned and  operated the Standard Oil/Chevron service station. Later, he and Beryl operated Hannigan's Restaurant and the Byer Apartment block. He also worked on the Milk Truck and at "Mr. Pop". Cecil  was involved in local sports, including baseball, minor hockey, and curling. He was a member of  Kiwanis, Royal Canadian Legion and Village Council (1976-1982).  CAESAR, Lillian Frances (nee Policheck). b. Lumby, February 8, 1912; d. Armstrong, December 19, 2000. Predeceased by husband William in 1938. Survived by daughters Irene Corley  and LaRaine Wimill. Widowed young, she worked in a variety of ladies' wear shops, including  Block's Apparel in Armstrong and Vernon. She belonged to the Rebekah Lodge in Armstrong.  192 OHS LIVES REMEMBERED  CAMPBELL, Mabel (nee Jenkins), b. Kelowna 1915; d. Vernon, B.C. May 11, 2000. Survivedby sons Bob (Ethel), John (Lee), daughters Sharon (Tom), Marilyne (George). Mabel was the  daughter of pioneers Max and Bessie Jenkins. Her late husband, D.H. (Pi) Campbell taught school  in Rutland for many years, and was Principal of Rutland High School.  CARSON, Vern (Edward Matthew Lavern) b. near Bethune, Saskatchewan,  July 14, 1919, d. Vernon, November 16, 2000. Predeceased by brothers Cecil, Gordon, Gillis, survived by wife, Irene, one son, Ken and one daughter, Elaine. He started a trucking and excavating  business in 1949, and retired in 1988. Vern served  overseas during W.W.II. He was a Legion member and a member of Trinity United Church.  CATT, Henry Joseph, b.Vernon, September 17, 1918; d. Lumby, February 25, 2001. Survived by wife, Phyllis (nee Treen), two sons, Charlie and Jim, four daughters, Irene Myers, Corinne  McLeod, Shirley Moase and Pierette Johnson; three sisters, Ena Walter, Joy Farmer and Nickie  Dunkley; one brother, Ron Catt. Henry was a lifelong resident of Lumby. He was a Life Member  and Past President of Lumby Royal Canadian Legion, Trustee for the School Board District 22;  founding member and former Fire Chief, Life member of the Wild Life Association, member of  the Lumby Search and Rescue Association, leader of Lumby Beef Club. He and brother Bob were  joint owners of the Catt Ranch, Lumby. He belonged to a pioneer family.  CAVE, George William, b. Rocky Mountain House, November 2, 1922; d. Salmon Arm,  July 27, 2000. Survived by companion Helen Downey. He came with his parents to the Silver  Creek area in 1928, and took up barbering after service in World War Two. He returned to Salmon  Arm in 1966. He was made a Life Member by Salmon Arm Fish and Game Club, for taking a  leading role in restoring wildlife habitat.  CLEMENT, Clifford (See tribute p. 188)  <&£& CLOUGH, Florence Elizabeth (Betty), b. 1915; d.Penticton, December 6, 2000. Survived by sons Paul and Bruce, daughter Ann. Predeceased by husband Grove in 1983. Active in  Okanagan Summer School of the Arts, Naramata Choir and Penticton Art Gallery. Mrs. Clough  authored three major articles about Naramata for OHS Annual Reports.  <9IE!» COELL, David Roy, Brigadier-General (ret'd). b. Enderby December 26, 1926; d.  Victoria, January 2, 2000. Survived by wife, Norma and son, Murray. Born on the Coell farm,  Lyndene, north of Enderby, he worked for the Provincial Government for many years as an appraiser. He served on numerous boards and commissions, including B.C. Assessment Appeal Board,  the Federal Electoral Boundaries Commission, and the Unemployment Insurance Commission.  In 1970, he was promoted to Brigadier-General, commanding Militia Area Pacific.  COLEBROOK, Jean Lawson. b. Vernon, October 16, 1908; d. Vernon, December 11, 2000.  Predeceasedby her parents Peter and Anna Dickson. Survivedby son Dr. Peter Colebrook and his  wife Catherine and other close family members. Jean was office manager of the Vernon Irrigation  District for many years. She was an active member of the Arts Council and the Music School, and  was a great community worker.  COLTER, Christine ( Tina) (nee Schultz). b. Rush Lake, Saskatchewan, December 31,  1915; d. near Chase, April 5, 2001. Predeceased by husband, Russell in 1977, and stepchildren,  Verna, Ed and Raymond. Survived by stepdaughter, Hazel Spooner. She was a longtime resident  who worked as a Licensed Practical Nurse in the Armstrong Hospital for thirty-four years. Her  upbeat personality and care giving skills made her an ideal employee.  COONEY, William J. Bryan, b. Keyes, Manitoba, September 24, 1908; d. Okanagan Centre,  B.C., January 29, 2001. Predeceasedby wife, Evelyn (nee Dawson) in 1982. Survivedby daughter  Mauvorneen (Rod) Houston. Bryan came from Manitoba to Okanagan Centre as a young man of  twenty on the S.S. Sicamous, spending the rest of his life at the "Centre". He became a Jack of all  Trades, as jobs and money were very scarce. He later became involved in the labour unions,  especially the Fruit and Vegetable Workers Union. Later, he wrote a column called.Thin Ink in the  B.C. Fruit and Vegetable Workers' Journal. For some years and when he retired in 1980, he wrote  the same- titled column for the Winfield Calendar, now Lake Country Calendar. His column was  very popular as the readers enjoyed "The Cooney Flair and Philosophy".  CRETIN, William Charles (Bill) b. Kelowna April 13 1927; d. Kelowna, October 29,2000.Sur-  vived by wife, Isobel (nee Rhodes) son David and daughter Janice, brother Harry (Joan). Bill lived  all his life in Kelowna, working at different vocations: in his father's garage as a young man, and  latterly as an orchardist.  OHS 193 LIVES REMEMBERED  CROOKS, Benjamin (Ben) Lewis Thomas, b. Nanaimo, B.C. June 23, 1910; d- Kelowna,  April 27, 2000. Predeceased by wife Frances (Frankie) May (nee Cox) in 1992. Survived by son  Benny (Marina) and daughters Noreen (Ken) Chester, Theresa Shaw, Margaret Leyland. Ben came  to Winfield in 1958, after thirty years in the Canadian Army. In his forty years in Lake Country, he  was prominent in many undertakings. He was appointed Fire Chief of the new Winfield Fire  Brigade. He was very involved in the Canadian Legion Branch 189 in Oyama, the Lions Club in  Winfield, and was awarded Life Memberships for his efforts.  CRUCETTI, George Dominico. b. Princeton; d. Oliver, May 5, 2000. Survived by wife,  Anne-Marie and sons Todd (Allison), Mark (Giselle). George came to Oliver with his parents in the  mid- 1930's, where they purchased Tuck's Cafe on Main Street. George was in the restaurant business all his life, and took over Tuck's in 1967. In 1976, the family sold Tuck's, and managed  McGowan's from 1982 to 1985, at which time, they opened Crucetti's in the Oliver Place Mall.  CUMMINGS, Kenneth Albert, b. Salmon Arm, November 23, 1921; d. Salmon Arm, December 13, 2000. Survived by wife Joyce, daughters Gaye Leggat, Glenda Jones. He was a standout  hockey and lacrosse player, later a hockey coach, and active in the drive to build Salmon Arm's  Memorial Arena. He was also a Life Member of the Kinsmen Club.  <!S0> DANIEL, Rita. b. Sudbury, Ontario, January 10, 1911. d. Penticton, February 9,  2000. Survived by son, Barry, daughters Sharon Leveque, Mary Auld and Barb Daniel. Pre-de-  ceased by husband John/Danny, an infant daughter Louise and son Doug.  DANTZER, Vincent Martin, b. Rush Lake, Saskatchewan, October 2, 1923; d. Vernon,  March 13, 2001. Predeceased by parents and one daughter, Kim. Survived by wife Mary (nee  Boyd), sons Alex and Mark and daughters, Mary Jo O'Keefe, Betty Jean Goodwin, Pat Ketterling,  Ruth Dantzer, Kathy Krass, Tamara Dantzer and twelve grandchildren. Vince was a veteran, serving as a Flying Officer with 435 Squadron in the India-Burma campaign 1942-1946. On completing  his law degree, he established the Cormack, Dantzer, Kerans Law Firm in Edmonton. He was  appointed Queen's Counsel in 1967, and that year received the Canada Centennial Medal. His  public service included Chairman of the Separate School Board, city alderman, and in 1965 was  elected Mayor. Later, he served as President of the Canadian Federation of Mayors and was honoured by a lifetime membership. He was a lifelong member of the Knights of Columbus. In 1969,  he and his wife and family moved to the Vernon area, where he set up a law practice, Dantzer,  Wenger and Wagner. He was elected Member of Parliament for Okanagan North in 1980, serving  for eight years. He retired in 1989 to enjoy a happy time with his family and garden, after a  lifetime of public service.  DAVIDSON, Isabel Muriel, b. Edmonton, Alberta, May 4, 1916; d. Vernon, October 21,  2000. Predeceased by sister Frances Geddes, survived by husband, Neil, three daughters Barbara,  Terri, Tina and son, Gordon, sister Dorothy Grimble, brother Don Stanley. Isabel loved the outdoors, enjoying gardening, skating and skiing, and was involved in many community activities.  She was a long time member of the Vernon University Women's Club.(She was a graduate of the  University of Alberta) and a lifelong member of Trinity United Church, Vernon.  DAVISON, Charles Thomas, b. Deep Creek, November 15. 1916; d. Vernon, November 27,  2000. Predeceased by parents, brothers Bruce and Bill, sister Vinnie. He was a veteran, joining the  Canadian Army in 1939,serving with the Cameron Highlanders. After WWII, he operated a sawmill at Deep Creek. He loved to travel abroad, as well as enjoying camping in B.C.  DAVISON, Ruby Grace (nee Baird). b. Springbend(near Enderby), December 6, 1914; d.  Enderby, August 13, 2000. Predeceased by son Robert. Survived by husband, Henry, daughters  Christine Belcher, Holly File, Wanda Fowler and Sandra Lindblom. She was born on the Baird  Farm in Springbend, and after her marriage in 1934, she farmed with her husband in Deep Creek  until 1969, when they moved to their Fortune Road farm. She was the last surviving sibling of the  pioneer Baird family.  DAY, Douglas MacKenzie (Max). b.Kelowna, B.C. March 27, 1935; d. Kelowna, March 6,  2001. Survived by wife, Donna (nee Sande), son, Tim (Kristine Patton) and daughters Lani Day  (Rick Evans), Coleen Day (Richard Haavik), Darla Day (Morris Sauve). Max was born in Kelowna;  grew up in Rutland. He had an orchard in Winfield, where he lived for the past forty-five years. A  third generation orchardist, he was the son of George and Kathleen Day, early residents of Winfield  and Rutland, and grandson of Ephriam Day, who came to Kelowna in 1900. Max was a volunteer  Winfield firefighter for forty years, and a former Director and President of the Okanagan North  Growers Co-op. For over thirty years, he was involved in the Oceola Fish and Game Club.  194 OHS LIVES REMEMBERED  DEULING, Gertrude Rosemary, b. Field, B.C. April 10, 1925; d. Vernon November 20,  2000. Predeceasedby husband Bill. Survived by five sons. Paul, Patrick, Peter, Joseph and Timothy and two daughters, Julie and Debbie. Rosemary was very involved with the Mabel Lake (Lumby)  Community Club, and helped to write two histories of Lumby and district. She served as a trustee  in School District 22 for thirteen years, and visited classrooms in support of teachers and children.  ECKHOFF, Mildred (Millie) Hattie (nee Kines). b. Roblin, Manitoba, April 20, 1918; d.  Vernon, October 18, 2000. Predeceased by husband, Lloyd in 1980. Survived by son Bruce and  daughter Joanne Stephens. She and her husband were Armstrong business people for many years!  They first ran the Cozy Nook Cafe, then the Armstrong Cleaners. She was an active member and  Past Noble Grand of the Rebekah Lodge in Armstrong. Her lovely singing voice enhanced many  services at the Zion United Church.  EDWARDS, Robert Lisle (Bob).b. Vernon, 1940; d. Vernon, January 25, 2001. Survivedby  wife, Pearl, four sons, Lisle, Robert, Rocky and Shane, one daughter, Laurie. Bob was an Honourary  Life Member of Royal Canadian Legion, Branch 167. He was a player and coach for the Lumby  Flying Frenchmen Hockey Team, and was very active with minor hockey. He loved his free time  at his Arrow Lake cabin and on his farm.  ENDRENY, Andrew Francis, b. Hungary; d. Oliver, June 15, 2000. Predeceased by wife,  Valfrida. Survived by sons Howie (Cheryl), Franklin (Jackie) and daughters Lovern (Bill), Florence (Garth), Lexy (Bruce), Sophie (Rob), Bonnie. Andrew came to Canada in 1926, moving to  Oliver in 1932. He and Valfrida settled on property on Airport Road and planted an orchard.  Andrew worked at the Co-op Packinghouse and later the Co-op Store, until he retired in 1975. He  played on Oliver's first soccer team, and was involved in baseball. He served the school board for  over twenty-three years, was an active member of the Royal Canadian Legion, and was Oliver's  1977 Good Citizen.  ERICKSON, Jean. b. Mission City, B.C. April 11, 1916; d. Vernon, November 26, 2000.  Predeceasedby husband, Carl in 1988. Survivedby son Bill and daughter Debbie Skaalid. Jean and  Carl resided at Earlscourt Farm, Lytton, moving to Armstrong, raising purebred Herefords for  several years. Jean was a 4H leader during this time. Carl and Jean retired to the Coldstream, and  Jean became a longtime member of Coldstream Women's Institute.  FALCONER, M. Ruth. b. Estevan, Saskatchewan, August 27, 1916; d. Vernon, March 10,  2001. Predeceased by husband, George, sons David and Neil and Neil's wife, Ala. Survived by  daughter, Janet Falconer Valair, sister Jean, brothers Keith and Ross and nanny, Rotie Go. Ruth  came to Vernon to teach Home Economics. She married George, and they both taught in Vernon,  and later, in Soest, Germany, where they instructed Canadian Army children for eight years.  After retirement, they did much travelling. Both were very active in the community, being longtime members of Trinity United Church and various associations in Vernon.  FISHER, William Alan (Bill).b. Vernon, April 10, 1912; d. March 19, 2001. Bill was the last  remaining of six brothers and one sister. He was co-owner of Bob and Bill's Meat Market for  twenty-five years, and was a resident of Vernon for eighty years.  FOSTER, Henriette (Bud) (nee Martin), b, Lumby, 1908; d. Vernon, September 29, 2000.  Predeceased by husband, Jack, infant son Gary, brothers Joseph, John, Henry, sisters Marion,  Jeanne. Survivedby daughter Joan Sawyer. Henriette worked in the Vernon Packinghouse and for  many years in the Ladies FM. Shop.  FRANCKS, Jennet Victoria (Jean), b. Arnprior, Ontario, May 24, 1909; d. Vernon, January  17, 2001. Predeceased by husband William H. Survived by three sons, Lome, Wayne, Gary; one  daughter, Wendy Gorman. She grew up in Golden, B.C. After taking a secretarial course, she worked  with her husband in their optical practice, continuing after her husband's death. In the community, she was an active worker in the Trinity United Church. At the age of sixty-seven, she took up  golf, and did a great deal of travelling with friends.  FRASER, Myrtle Delaney(nee Jones), b. Lethbridge, Alberta, August 6, 1915; d. Vernon,  June 28, 2000. Survived by daughter, Terry Hill. Myrtle attained her Bachelor's degree in Nursing  and Education, and Master's degree in Sociology. She taught and nursed in the North at Hulman,  Tuk, and Norman Wells for ten years; later in Special Services at the Vernon School Board. She was  a tremendous community worker at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital, in the University Women's Club  and many other associations.  FRASER, Stewart Alexander, b. Winnipeg, Manitoba, October 4, 1902; d. Vernon, April 17,  2001. Predeceasedby wife, Irene and son Alfred. Stewart attended school in Basswood, Manitoba,  and later attended Manitoba Agricultural College (now University of Manitoba). He graduated in  agriculture in 1923, and came to Vernon with his wife and son in 1938. He was involved with the  OHS 195 LIVES REMEMBERED  Boys and Girls Club in Manitoba, later the 4H Club. His knowledge of agriculture was useful when  Mrs. Rendall needed help with her orchard in Coldstream. His community activities were: President of My School organization, Life Member of the Vernon Curling Club, and active with the  start-up of Venture Training.  FULTON, Marjorie Adelaide (nee Kenney), b.Vancouver, May 1, 1918; d. Vernon, April 13,  2000. Survivedby husband, Clarence and children, Thekla, Linda and Kim. Marjorie was a teacher  in the Cariboo, later Primary Supervisor for the Vernon School Board. After retirement, she taught  English to new Canadians and in an Adult Literacy Program.  FUMERTON, Frank, b.Winnipeg, Manitoba, September 25, 1903;d. Kelowna, November  29,2000. Survivedby son Grant (Joy), daughter Gail Johnston. Frank passed away at age ninety-  seven. His family was well-known in Kelowna where they owned and operated Fumerton's Dry  Goods store for many years.  GABELMANN, Fritz, d. Oliver, April 3, 2000. Survived by wife, Nora and children, Eleanor,  Mark, Kathleen, Douglas, Paul, Colin. Fritz came to Osoyoos in 1934, where he worked at the  Osoyoos Dividend Gold Mine until 1940, when it closed. He bought an orchard in 1940, and served  on the Board of the Osoyoos Cooperative Growers.  GALLACHER, Don, b.1913; d. Vernon, July 11, 2000. Predeceasedby wife, Cecile Mary.  Survived by sons Reynold and Don and daughter Carole. Don was fire chief in Lumby for many  years, past president of the Lumby Lions and a long time resident of Lumby. He worked for many  years at Crown Zellerbach, where he was shipper for the last fifteen years.  GATZKE, Frederick L. (Fred), b. 1910; d.Vernon, April 15, 2001. Predeceasedby sister  Irene. Survived by wife, Olga and three sons, George, Ron and Dennis. Fred was a longtime resident of Lumby, President of O.A.P for manyyears, employed by the C.N.R. for forty years. He was  a lifelong active member of Peace Lutheran Church, Vernon.  GIBBONS, Clare, b. Brandon, Manitoba November 11, 1910; d. Kelowna, November 14,  2000. Predeceased by wife, Peggy (nee Freisin). Survived by sons Richard (Elaine), Glen (Karen)  and daughter Sharon (Sandy) Laing. Clare was a longtime resident of Winfield, arriving from  Manitoba in 1929. He worked on the Rainbow Ranch for a while, later operating sawmills in the  Kettle Valley and Canyon Creek areas. In retirement, he spent much time on his orchard and  home.  GOUGH, George Alexander "Alex", b. Saskatchewan, 1908; d. Osoyoos, February 17, 2000.  Survived by wife, Annie Elizabeth "Dolly", daughter Marilyn Dowler, Grand Forks, B.C. Alex leaves  to Oliver his legacy of the Oliver Theatre, which he built in 1946, opening with the movie, Great  Expectations. He and wife, Dolly owned and operated the theatre until the early 1960's.In 1964, he  was the first Chairman of the South Okanagan Regional Planning Board, now known as the Regional District of Okanagan- Similkameen. Alex was highly visible in South Okanagan communities, serving on the Okanagan Basin Water Board, the School Board and the Library Board. In 1998,  Mr. and Mrs. Gough were the recipients of the Oliver/Osoyoos Branch OHS, "Pioneer Award".  GRAHAM, Albert (Bert), b.Vancouver, B.C. December 22, 1913; d. Penticton, December  10, 2000. Predeceased by son Anthony. Survived by wife, Lisa, son James and daughter Elizabeth.  A pioneer orchardist in the Osoyoos area, he was involved in the fruit industry and Canadian  Department of Agriculture, Boy Scout Movement, Rotary Club, Flood Control and Salvation Army.  During World War Two, he was a bombing instructor in the Canadian Air Force, and installed the  first airborne radar in Canadian planes.  GREEN, Evelyn. b.Kelowna, November 17, 1899;d. Saanich,B.C. July 29, 2000. Survived  by nephews, Peter (Ruth) Stirling, John (Pat) Stirling. Evelyn was the last surviving daughter of  Archdeacon Thomas Green, the first Anglican priest in the Kelowna area. She worked for forty-  four years in the main branch, CIBC, Victoria, B.C.  HABER, Anthony, b. Poland, 1923; d. Vernon, July 5, 2000. Predeceased by brother Stanley.  Survived by wife, Aileen, son Ray and daughter Patti. Tony was educated in Vernon, moved to  Vancouver. After WWII, he returned to Coldstream, becoming Mayor in 1967. Later, he was Coordinator of Adult Education at Okanagan University College until retirement in 1987. He was an  active volunteer with Canadian Mental Health Association.  HALL, Vern William, b. Naicam, Saskatchewan, September 22, 1931; d. Vernon, Novembers, 2000. Predeceased by mother and brother, Victor. Survived by wife, Angela, daughter,Corrine  Cormier. His career was with telephone companies: Saskatchewan Telephone, Okanagan Telephone  and B.C. Telephone. Vern was very involved with softball and tennis groups, and after retirement,  with golf and the community.  196 ohs LIVES REMEMBERED  HAMBLIN, Joan..d.Kelowna, B.C. May 11, 2000. Joan will be remembered for founding  the Bunny Hutch Kindergarten. She was also actively involved in and a Past President of the  Kelowna S.P.C.A.  HARRIS, Maud, b. Rossland, 1906; d. Vernon, June 2, 2000. Predeceased by husband,  Donald Darby Harris and daughter Marion Moen. Survived by daughter, Barbara Cashen. Maud  and her husband founded and operated Harris Flower Shop from 1935 until retirement. She was  well known in the community.  HARTWICK, Ernest Richard (Dick). b.Kelowna, November 30, 1919; d. Kelowna, October  2, 2000. Predeceasedby first wife, Claire. Survivedby wife, Edythe, sons Rick (Renae) and Dennis  (Betsy), daughters Karen Vizi (Steve) and Pat Hartwick. Dick was born and lived in Kelowna all  his life, except when he served overseas with the B.C. Dragoons in WWII.  HASSEN, Rose Emma (nee Rice), b. Winnipeg, February 16, 1916; d. Vernon, March 3,  2001. Survived by husband, Mat S., son Mat and daughter Trish Findlay. As a small child, Rose  survived the Halifax Explosion of 1917 that claimed the life of her mother. She spent her young  years living in various parts of Canada with her Civil Engineering father. She was a legal stenographer in Vancouver when she met her future husband. After marrying Mat S. in 1940, she moved to  Armstrong in 1942, and remained a prominent citizen there the rest of her life. Rose was a dynamic lady who managed home, work and numerous community activities, including the Minerva  Club, with great skill. For many years, she was a tireless office secretary/worker for the Interior  Provincial Exhibition, and was presented with a Life Membership in 1998. Rose and Mat were the  Good Citizens of 1980 for Armstrong-Spallumcheen.  <SIB> HATFIELD, Harley Robert. (See tribute p.171)  HAYDEN, Wilhelmina "Willie", b. Grand Forks, B.C.; d. Oliver, June 24, 2000. Predeceasedby husband, Smokey in 1986, son-in-law Reg Moore in 1999. Survived by daughters Joanne  Moore and Alice (Roy) Nelson. Willie worked as a nurse in St. Martin's Hospital from the early  1950's, and in South Okanagan General Hospital, when it opened until she retired in 1974. She  was an active member of the Royal Purple and Rebekah Lodges.  HAYES, Charles, Arthur Andrew, b. Croyden, England, March 18, 1915;d. Penticton, April  14, 2000. Survivedby wife, Margaret, children Christine Rougier-Chapman, Michael Hacking-Hayes,  Jane Volden, Julian Sylvester, Roger Sylvester, Judith Roselli-Cecconi, Caroline Webb. Mr. Hayes  was a World War Two veteran, and following wartime service, lived in Kenya. He was a publisher,  photographer, active in the Scout movement among other notable world organizations. In the  early 1980's, the family moved to Okanagan Falls, where Charles founded the Heritage and Museum Society; was for a time an OHS Penticton Branch member; became associated with Okanagan  Falls Kiwanis and Chamber of Commerce; and was a noted historian and guest speaker in the  Okanagan Valley. He and wife, Margaret founded the South Okanagan Review newspaper.  HOPFNER, Del. b. May 23, 1930; d. Vernon, December 15, 2000. Survivedby wife, Jen  (nee Genevieve Lenz), daughters Sharon, Lorna Marsh, Kathy and son, Gerry. Del worked for B.C.  Hydro for twenty-five years, retiring in 1988. He was very active in the community, belonging to  the Knights of Columbus. During his forty-one years of membership, he held very high offices in  Vancouver.and later in Vernon. He was very involved in the opening of first the Gateby (1983),  and later, the Schubert Centre (1985). Del enjoyed golfing and curling.  HUGHES, Ernest Henry, b. 1913; d. February 13, 2001. Predeceasedby wife, Constance in  1996. Survived by brother, Jack, sisters Patricia Hague, Peggy Henrickson and Lois Kennelly.  Ernest was a veteran of the R.C.A.F, and a chef at Vernon Jubilee Hospital for many years. He was  a longtime member of the Knights of Pythias.  HUMPHREYS, Jean Irene, b. Vernon, June 17,1917; d. Vernon, February 24, 2001. Predeceased by husband Owain and parents, two sisters Annie Craib and Patricia Craib-Collins, two  brothers, Norman Craib and George Craib. Jean was a Life Member and Past Grand Mistress of the  L.O.B. Association, a longtime member of the Order of the Eastern Star, Ladies Shrine Club,  Okanagan Historical Society and the Friends of History, and a very active hospital volunteer.  INGLIS, Philip Mervyn, b. Youngstown, Alberta, January 29, 1924; d. Vernon, October 21,  2000. Predeceased by his parents, his first wife, Erica "Ricky", brother Michael. Survivedby wife,  Irene, sons Rob and Rick and daughter Sandra Quibell, brothers Nat and Brian. He was a lifetime  resident of Lumby, active in the community.  OHS 197 LIVES REMEMBERED  IRWIN, Vera Elizabeth (nee Coell). b. Mara, September 14, 1923; d. Parksville, March 12,  2001. Predeceased by husband, Rev. Canon Selby Etsel Irwin. Survived by daughters Carol  Kresitschnig, Beverly Jean, Patricia Elizabeth Pecka. Mrs Irwin was the only daughter of Enderby  area pioneers, Henry and Doris (Chadwick) Coell.  JAMES, Gordon Charles, b.Lumby, March 31, 1922;d.Lumby, June 26,2000. Predeceased  by wife Sigrid. Survived by five brothers: Howard, George, Edwin, Melvin, Harold and one sister,  Edythe Haycock. During the war, Gordon worked in the shipyards in Victoria. Later, he was active  in the logging industry. He was very active in the community: founding member of the Wildlife  Association, donated land for club grounds, member of the Lumby Fire Department, helped build  the first curling rink and golf course. He belonged to a pioneer family.  JAMES, Joan Thelma (nee Piatt), b. Ladysmith, August 15, 1947; d. Armstrong, March 11,  2001. Survived by husband, Barry and sons Chris and Jeff. She had a profound impact on the  Armstrong-Spallumcheen community in her twenty-six years of residence. She was a business  person who served on the Chamber of Commerce executive, including President, founded the  Armstrong Ladies Club, and headed many fund raisers to help their good works. Her work with  the Minor Hockey Association garnered her a Life Membership. She was Armstong-SpaHumcheen's  Citizen of the Year for 1993.  JOHNSON, Leslie John George (Les). b. Medicine Hat, Alberta, July 26, 1922; d. Vernon,  March 1, 2001. Predeceased by his mother, Flora, who was the first white child born near Fort  Walsh in Southern Alberta, one son, Adrian, brother Vern and two half-brothers Dr. Pete Sanderson and Norman Sanderson. Survived by wife Daisy, four sons and three daughters. Les and Daisy  moved to Vernon in 1958, where Les was employed by the Department of Highways on sign  maintenance until his retirement.  KAMINSKI, Georgina (Ena) nee Berry,b.West Hartlepool, England, December 6,  1906;d.Vernon, September 30, 2000. Predeceasedby husband, Amil, five brothers and two sisters.  Survived by two sons, Alfred and Edwin, five daughters, Winnifred, Mildred, Jean, Joan and  Georgina. Ena worked at Vernon Jubilee Hospital, Bulman Cannery, and helped run the ranch on  Rimer Road.  KITSON, John Aidan McCreery, b. Victoria, B.C. February 14, 1927; d. Summerland, July  9, 2000. Survived by wife, Ilo, son David and daughter Denise. Employed by the Summerland  Research Station in Food Processing, retiring in 1980, after which he contracted in this field,  travelling all over the world. He was a founding member of Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society  and at one time, a member of OHS. He served on Science Council of B.C., B.C. Tree Fruits, Okanagan  Basin Institute, Summerland University Committee and Trails B.C., as well as working with boating safety in the Power Squadron.  KNOBEL, Franz (Frank) Paul. b. Marienbad, Germany, June 29, 1929; d. Kelowna, December 23, 2000. Survived by wife Iris, son Gerald and daughters Marina O'Zero, Donna Goertzen;  one brother, Johnny Roch. Frank worked in the dental field in Germany for eleven years prior to  coming to Canada in 1957. He set up a denturist practice in Vernon, continuing until his retirement in June 2000. He was dedicated to his patients. He was a member of the Knights of Columbus  and the Royal Canadian Legion. Active in sports, he enjoyed golf, soccer, tennis, racquetball and  squash.  LaBOUNTY, Dorothy Eloise May. b. Hilda, Alberta, March 8, 1936; d. Oliver March 31,  2000. Predeceased by husband, Frank in 1998. Survived by son Ken and daughters Debbie (Stan)  Casorso, Diane (Dwayne), Cindy (Brian), Brenda (Mark). In 1947, Dorothy came with her parents  to the Oliver area, where she finished high school. She married Frank LaBounty in 1956, and they  built the family vineyard on which they lived.  LeBLOND, Campbell Maynard (Cam), b. Vernon, March 19, 1913; d. Vernon, December  23, 2000. Predeceased by wife Myrtle, companion Nancy Mann. Survived by son Barrie, daughters  Gayle Swenson and Sue LeBlond. Cam was educated at Vernon, afterwards attending the University of Oregon at Corvallis, studying forest engineering. He joined the R.C.A.F. and went overseas  during World War Two. He took over the family photographic business, LeBlond Studios, operating  it until his retirement in 1988. He was a Freemason; a member of the Knights of Pythias; Vernon  Club; Royal Canadian Legion; Vernon Golf and Country Club and Public Relations Officer of the  Vernon Cadet Camp. Cam was also active in curling, golf, hunting and fishing and many other  sports. He had a host of friends.  198 ohs LIVES REMEMBERED  LEEPER, Mary Cecilia, b. Penhold, Alberta, June 1904; d. Vernon, November 17, 2000.  Predeceased by husband, Clyde, son Barry. Survived by son Edward. Mary came to Vernon in  1923, and was very active in the community. She was a member of the White Heather Group of  Vernon United Church, Secretary of the Vernon Old Age Pensioners Group, and was instrumental  in the planning of McCulloch Court. She enjoyed travelling, and lived a full life.  LEWERS, Myrtle Dora. b.Princeton, B.C. July 1, 1913; d. Vernon, January 25, 2001. Predeceased by husband, Dexter in 1959. Survived by daughter, Bev, son-in-law Wayne Johnstone and  three grandsons, David, Ian and Sean. Myrtle was an active member of the Vernon community.  She was a member of Trinity United Church Women's Auxiliary, member of Vernon Golf and  Country Club, the Vernon Curling Club and played badminton in her later years. She was the last  member of a large family of eight brothers and sisters.  LIDDICOAT, Wallace, b. Keremeos, 1919; d. Keremeos, May 15, 2001. Wallace Liddicoat  was Secretary-Treasurer of the Similkameen Valley Branch, OHS at the time of his death. He was  well-known across North America for his expertise on water wheels and mills. He authored a  book, Water Wheels in the Service of British Columbia Pioneers. Born in Keremeos, Wally spent his  early years there, until he joined the army at the outbreak of World War Two. Following the war, he  worked and did research in the field of industrial x-ray, pioneering many techniques for x-raying  pipeline welds. After his retirement in Keremeos, he spent much of his time recording the history  of the Similkameen and Okanagan Valleys and working with the South Similkameen Museum in  Keremeos.  LIDSTONE, Clifford Gordon,b.Vernon, October 4, 1925;d. Ross Creek, June 7, 1972. Survived by wife, Doris, children: Eileen, Clint and Matt.  LIDSTONE, Doris Kathleen, (nee Wutzke), b.Medicine Hat, Alberta, June 11, 1933;  d.Shuswap Lake Hospital, August 31,2000. The two families, Lidstone and Wutzke, lived on ranches  along the Shuswap River near Shuswap Falls. After their marriage, Gordon and Doris lived in  several parts of B.C., and established themselves in Salmon Arm, where Gordon was responsible  for clearing land for the Salmon Arm Airport. He died in an accident in 1972. Doris remained  living in Salmon Arm until her death in 2000. She was a wonderful mother and a great community  worker all her life.  LONG, Janet "Margaret", b. Summerland, B.C. July 31, 1932; d. Kamloops, B.C. October 3,  2000. Survived by sisters Helen Knutson (Bill) and Dorothy Martiniuk. She was the daughter of  George and Betty (Buchanan) Long of Peachland, and was raised on the Greata Ranch. She attended U.B.C. and Vancouver Normal School, and taught school for a span of thirty-five years-  twenty-five of that time in Kamloops.  LUND, Lydia Margaret, b. Birmingham, England, June 13, 1908;d. Salmon Arm, October  9, 2000. Predeceased by husband Eric in 1998. Survived by sons Rusty, Garry, daughter, Carol  Kettles. Following a life of farming and ranching in Saskatchewan, she moved to the Shuswap in  1972, and soon became interested in local politics. From 1977-1982, she served as the only woman  mayor in Salmon Arm's history.  MacDONALD, Helen Bell. b. Hastings Ranch, Douglas Lake, August 1, 1899; d. Vernon,  May 12, 2000. Predeceased by husband, John A. "Jack" in 1988. Survived by daughter, Jeanette  (Tim) Strang. Helen was a pioneer of the Oliver area, residing there for over sixty-five years.  MacDONNELL, Laura (nee White) b. Kelowna, 1917; d. Kelowna, May 30, 2000.  Survivedby husband, George and sons, Bryan(Lorraine), Laverne (Rita), James (Frances). Laura  lived all her life in the Kelowna area. Her parents were George and Martha White of Rutland.  McCLUSKEY, Herbert Victor, b. Vernon, d. Vernon, March 5, 2001. Predeceasedby his  parents. Herbert was a member of the Royal Canadian Legion Lumby, Vice-President of the Wildlife Club of Lumby. He belonged to a pioneer family.  McKIM, Stuart Allistar. b. Grand Forks, April 20, 1917; d. Oliver, April 13, 2001. Predeceased by wife, Virginia in 1999. Survived by daughter Marilyn Rollo. Spent early years with  family in Salmon Arm, and began a long law- enforcement career with the B.C. Police. At age  twenty, he was chosen to go to England as part of a contingent for the coronation of George VI.  After serving with the Seaforth Highlanders in World War Two, he had a successful career with  the RCMP, retiring as a superintendent in 1973. He then worked for the T Eaton Company in its  security department.  McTAGGART, Dora Irene, b.Vernon, September 9, 1905;d.Vernon, March 15, 2001. Predeceased by husband WD.(Mac). Dora attended business school in Vernon. She was a lifetime member of All Saints Anglican Church and of the Trefoil Guild, and was a wonderful gardener.  OHS 199 LIVES REMEMBERED  MALCOLM, Hugh Myddleton. b.Baulder, Manitoba, May 23, 1922; d. Summerland, B.C.,  January 29, 2001. Predeceased by parents Susan and James Malcolm. Survived by sister Heather  Wood, two brothers, John and Robin, Hugh was a veteran with the R.C.A.F. He later had positions  with the C.P.R. in the Okanagan and Kootenays, retiring after thirty-three years with the C.P.R.  MARSHALL, Clark Alexander, b. Burton, B.C., September 21, 1908; d. Vernon, December  21, 2000. Survivedby wife, Athelia, sons Ken, Lome, Stuart , Roger; daughters Barbara, Sandra.  Clark was born of a pioneer family at Burton, on the Arrow Lakes. He and his wife owned the  Burton General Store and Cafe.