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Okanagan history. Sixtieth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1996

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 ^t Okanagfm  ■UPSu -"Mf"" "     mjui      a  I History  MM—a—».  :'■»-*•  ofth<  \-  nasan  Historical Society  If*  Okanagan History  The Sixtieth Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded September 4, 1925  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN 0-921241-64-X  1996  Printed in Canada, Hucul Printing Ltd.  Salmon Ami, B.C.  Cover  Doris Duck weds Bertie Butler in 1920  and celebrates her 100th birthday in 1995 SIXTIETH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Historic continuity with the past is not a duty, it is only a necessity.  — O.W. Holmes Jr.  EDITOR  Denis Marshall  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Mary Englesby, Oliver and Osoyoos  Betty Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Lorna Carter, Armstrong and Enderby  Yvonne McDonald, Salmon Arm  Michael Burn, Similkameen  Membership  The recipient of this Sixtieth Report is entitled to register his or her membership in  the Sixty-first Report which will be issued November 1, 1997. For membership registration and membership certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the treasurer of the  Parent Body (Box 313, Vernon, BC, V1T 6M3), from branches of the OHS and from  most museums and bookstores in the Okanagan-Shuswap region. For availability  and prices of back numbers see the order form on insert.  Editorial Inquiries  For editorial enquiries concerning material in the Reports or for inclusions in  future Reports, please contact the editor at 4910 - 16th Street NE, Salmon Arm, BC,  VIE 1E1 (Fax 832-5367). Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1996-1997  PRESIDENT  David MacDonald  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Denis Maclnnis  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Yvonne McDonald  SECRETARY  Helen Inglis  TREASURER  lean Lockhart  PAST PRESIDENT  Jessie Ann Gamble  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Vic Casorso, Bernard Webber  Salmon Arm: Mary Harrington, Joan Idington  Similkameen: Dorothy Clark, John Armstrong  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Claude Hamell  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson  Armstrong-Enderby: Eleanore Bolton, Jessie Ann Gamble  Vernon: Bob dePfyffer, Jack Morrison  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Jean Webber, Robert Marriage, Peter Tassie,  Denis Maclnnis, Lionel Dallas OHS TO BENEFIT FROM  ENDOWMENT FUND  An endowment fund in the name of Okanagan Historical  Society has been established with the Central Okanagan Foundation, thanks to a $5,000 donation by a long-time Society member.  The grant will remain with the foundation in perpetuity, but income earned therefrom will be used to support OHS projects. The  donor's wish that the Society make a matching grant was answered  at our annual meeting May 5, together with the hope individual  members will see fit to add to the fund. The Central Okanagan  Foundation is a non-profit organization registered with Revenue  Canada and is authorized to issue receipts for income tax purposes.  It currently administers nearly $2,000,000 and since inception has  supported many community organizations, including the Father  Pandosy Mission Committee. The foundation also provided a major financial boost for the Okanagan History Index project.  Contributions can be made in several ways — cash, bequest  (money or real estate) or a specially-tailored insurance policy. Further information about how to donate to this fund may be obtained  from the Okanagan Historical Society or the Central Okanagan  Foundation.  Business of the Okanagan Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 72nd Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  1997  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 4, 1997  at 10 a.m.  at Osoyoos Seniors Centre  17 Park Place - Osoyoos  Luncheon at 1 p.m.  All members and guests are welcome OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS - 1996-1997  SALMON ARM  PRESIDENT: Yvonne McDonald; VICE-PRESIDENT: Joan Idington; SECRETARY: Barbara Hall; TREASURER: Denis Marshall. DIRECTORS: Florence Farmer, Hubert Peterson, Hjalmar Peterson, John Lund, Hugh Ehlers,  Mary Wetherill, Marilyn Kernaghan, Kay Currie, Allan Wilson.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY  PRESIDENT: Donald Wells; VICE-PRESIDENT: Robert Dale; SECRETARY:  Kathy Fabische; TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton. DIRECTORS: Pat Romaine,  Ellen Laine, Gerrie Danforth. EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Lorna Carter,  Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Cowan, William Whitehead.  VERNON  PRESIDENT: Carol Abernathy; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Betty Holtskog;  DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Pat Collins, John Corner, Bob dePfyffer, Jean  Humphreys; Lucy McCormick, Len McLeod, Doreen McLeod, Jack Wilson,  Bill Seaton, Doug Kermode.  KELOWNA  PRESIDENT: Peter Stirling; VICE-PRESIDENT: Hugh McLarty; SECRETARY: Dorothy Zoellner; TREASURER: Gifford Thomson. DIRECTORS:  Pat Carew, Fred Coe, Bob Hayes, Jim Hayes, Bill Knowles; Stan Miller,  Denis Maclnnis, Bob Marriage, Fenella Munson, Hume Powley, Jack Ritch,  Rhoda Weisgarber, Marie Wostradowski.  PENTICTON  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; PRESIDENT: Enabelle Gorek;  VICE-PRESIDENT: Claude Hammell; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Bob Elder.  DIRECTORS: Louise Atkinson, Marilyn Barnay, Joe Biollo, Betty Bork,  Mollie Broderick, Olive Evans, Bob Gibbard; Dave MacDonald, Randy  Manuel, Don Sutherland, Grace Sutherland, Ethelyn Tily, Gordon Guidi.'  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  PRESIDENT: Joan Casorso; VICE-PRESIDENTS: Terry Sarell, Victor  Casorso; SECRETARY: Elaine Shannon; TREASURER: Alice Francis. DIRECTORS: Charlton MacNaughton, Stanley Dickson, Aileen Porteous,  Blaine Francis; Cyril Headey, Leslie Doerr, Isobell MacNaughton, Joy  Overton, John B. Musgeave. EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Jacquie Bicknell,  Vickie White; Jean Webber, editor, Best of OHS.  SIMILKAMEEN  PRESIDENT: Michael Burn; VICE-PRESIDENT: John Armstrong; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Carol Armstrong; DIRECTORS: Dorothy Clark, Wally  Liddicoat, Hildred Finch, Mildred Johnston. EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  Michael Burn. TABLE OF CONTENTS  OHS Local Branch Officers 1996-97 5  Feature Articles  Lost Okanagan: In Search of the First Settler Families, Jean Barman 8  Family Ties in the Land of the Okanakans, John Coldwell  21  Crime and Punishment in the Okanagan-Shuswap, 1891-1903,  George Abbott  25  R.P. Rithet and the Closure of the Columbia Flouring Mill, Robert Cowan .. 32  Railway Post Offices in the Okanagan, R.F. Marriage , 43  Vernon's 1943 Typhoid Epidemic, Doug Kermode 47  Hunters Range, Compiled by Armstrong-Enderby OHS Branch 53  100 Years at All Saints' Anglican Church, Lucy McCormick 60  The Catholic Church in Salmon Arm, Reginald Humphries 65  Timberland or Farmland: The Limit, Roland Jamieson 73  Pioneers Extraordinaire: William Fraser and  Clara Matilda Cameron, Theresia Hurst 81  The SOLID Project: Preserving Oliver's Past, Michael Gourlie 89  The B.C. Women's Service Corps, Clare Smith (Johnson) 92  Oliver Then and Now: Our 75th Anniversary, Victor Casorso 94  Changing with the Times: Fifty Years from Desert to Oasis, Stan Stodola.. 101  Summerland's Upper Class: Lord Shaughnessy's Friends, David Gregory .. Ill  The Okanagan Goes Western: The Kelowna Stampede of the 1940s,  Glen Mikkelsen  116  When Okanagan Wild Horses Were Sold to Russia, Victor Casorso  122  Student Essays  The Oldest Existing House in the Kingfisher Valley, Jessica Heywood 126  Fruit of the Okanagan, Kara Wight 133  Nostalgia  Centennial Landmarks:  I. The Barn Dance. II. The Birthday, Brenda Thomson 138  Green's Lancers: The High School Horsemen of Salmon Arm, Ken Reed.. 143  Bus Accident, A. David MacDonald 147  The Lib One Fast Lady . . . Ten Minutes to Paradise, Glenn G. Graham .... 150  Rail Days Were Busy, Eric Chapman 153  Hall of Learning: Oyama's One-Room High School, Wilma Hayes 155  Early School Days in Glenrosa, Eunice Gorman 158  A Frosty Welcome to the North Okanagan, Vesta Foote Leslie Philpott  161  Legendary Kelowna Teamster, Thelma Dillon Owen 163  Personalities  Ormonde (Pat) Aitkens, 1892-1976, John Aitkens 165  6 Alice Isabell Brydon, 1893-1994, Mildred Hartman  166  The Mallet-Paret Family, Joan Needham 168  The Lanfranco Family, Katie Francescutti  171  The Tutt Family, Michael Tutt 172  George Day, 1899-1993, Jack McCarthy 173  Frank and Lilly Whitehead, W. J. Whitehead  176  Tributes  Elsie Boone, 1902-1994, John A. Boone 180  Constance Greta Cumine, Carleton MacNaughton and Aileen Porteous .... 184  Phyllis Shirley Danallanko, 1926-1995, Phyllis Brett 186  Dorothy Fraser, George Fraser 187  Minnie Freeze, 1909-1995, Shirley Campbell  189  Bill Hucul, 1915-1996, Salmon Arm Observer 192  Book Reviews  Salmon Arm's Historic Routes and the People Behind the Names Reviewed  by Robert Cowan 194  Perilous Charmers Reviewed by Denis Marshall 195  Recapitulation . . . An Unusual Life Journey Told Through Art Reviewed by  Linda Wills 196  Geology of the Kelowna Area and Origin of the Okanagan Valley 199  British Columbia Reviewed by Charles Patterson 199  Shuswap Chronicles Number Five 199  Obituaries 201  OHS Business  Minutes of the 71st Annual General Meeting 209  The Best of Okanagan History  210  Fairview Lots Kiosk  210  Index Committee 210  Father Pandosy Mission 211  President's Report 211  Auditor's Report 212  Vernon Branch 213  Similkameen Branch 213  Armstrong-Enderby Branch 214  Kelowna Branch 214  Penticton Branch 214  Salmon Arm Branch 215  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch 215  1996 OHS Membership List 216  Errata 224 LOST OKANAGAN:  IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST  SETTLER FAMILIES  Jean Barman  The annual reports of the Okanagan Historical Society,  now Okanagan History, are unequalled for their commitment to keeping the local record. For 70 years, ever since  1926, long-time residents and newcomers have shared their knowledge and insights in print. No other area of British Columbia has  received so much attention for so long a period as has the Okanagan Valley. Presumably then, everything to be known should be  known. However, our sense of what counts as history changes  over time. Some topics are always more inviting or acceptable  than others.  One of the most fundamental assumptions about the settlement of the Okanagan Valley has been its identification with Whiteness. From the very beginning Whiteness counted. Oblate Father  Charles Pandosy, whose arrival in 1859 initiated non-aboriginal settlement, enthused almost immediately that: "Already we have a  white family near us—it is probable that others will present themselves before winter, or at least at the beginning of the season."  White firsts have been repeatedly lauded in the annual reports of  the Okanagan Historical Society. For example, "Susan Allison was  the first white woman to live on the west side of Okanagan  Valley . . . She and Mrs. Eli Lequime, who lived across the lake at  the Mission, were the only white women at that time, in the entire  Valley." It is not just white women but also their children that  have been celebrated, for therein lies the essence of family life.  The victor as the "first white child born in the Okanagan" and even  "the first white child born in the interior of British Columbia" is  generally considered to have been Gaston Lequime, born in December 1861.  Jean Barman is a professor in the Department of Educational Studies at UBC and  co-editor of the journal BC Studies. She is the author of The West beyond the West: A  History of British Columbia and Growing Up British in British Columbia: Boys in Private  School. Dr. Barman's essay "Lost Okanagan" partners the talk she gave at the 1996  OHS annual meeting.  8 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  Increasingly, I have pondered whether Whiteness of the type  just described—the Whiteness of a woman and then the Whiteness  of her child—is so absolutely essential to settlement. Do settler  families have to be all white? If not, then a lost Okanagan awaits  retrieval from obscurity, for settlement in the Okanagan during  the 1860s and 1870s very often—indeed most often—originated with  an aboriginal woman cohabiting with a white man.  Until the arrival of railroads in the late 1880s and thus ready  access to the Okanagan Valley, numbers of newcomers were very  small. Almost all of them were men, for the difficulties of getting  there almost completely excluded white women. In any case, white  women were in short supply more generally across British Columbia, as compared with the thousands of men who had arrived with  the gold rush beginning in 1858. The provincial voters' list for the  years 1874-78 contained just 69 names spread across the Okanagan  south through the Similkameen. These men essentially divided  into two types. The Oblates encouraged settlement by French  speakers like themselves, most of whom very ordinary in their lifestyles. The first gold commissioner reported in 1862 that the settlers clustered around the Oblates at Okanagan Mission were all  "paupers, comparatively speaking." The second group differed in  being English-speaking, generally better educated and wealthier,  and more dispersed in settlement.  For both of these groups of men, the lack of acceptable human companionship sometimes became overwhelming. Glimpses  that survive embody a strong element of pathos. Tom Ellis came  out from Ireland in 1865 with the appropriate letters of introduction indicating considerable personal status, and soon secured a  government position. For the first few months he kept a journal,  and its entries underline that loneliness rather than frontier survival most troubled him. 11 August 1865: "Have been alone for ten  days and am so tired of this solitude, with nothing to do. I would  not mind so much if I had a good book to read." 19 August 1865: "I  am thinking a good deal of home (Ireland) today, as I do most days,  especially when I am here and alone." A daughter recalled how  Ellis once passed three months without speaking to another white  person. She emphasized how important it was to have a wife, and  a suitable wife. "Like most men, my father did not go far without  the aid of a woman, one who was truly his companion and helpmate." Translated, she meant a white wife, and Ellis secured one  from Ireland in 1872.  If Ellis could afford to go back home to find a mate, for others  the wait was too long or the possibility too remote. In some cases,  as with Cyprian Lawrence, a Quebec packer who accompanied the  Oblates north from Washington Territory in 1859, men were mar- LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  ried before they arrived. Indeed, it was Lawrence's wife Theresa,  described as "a Flathead Indian who, being devoted to Fr. Pandosy,  had resolved to face exile with him," who was responsible for their  coming in the first place. Frenchman Francois Ortolan, who arrived in 1862, also had a Flathead wife. John McDougal was among  a small number of prairie Metis who settled at Okanagan Mission.  Married to an aboriginal woman while working for the Hudson's  Bay Company at Fort Kamloops, he had visited the Okanagan with  pack trains from the early 1840s, and in 1861 pre-empted land.  German-born Frederick Brent represented another strand of the  small community growing up around the Mission. Discharged from  the U.S. army, he arrived in 1865 and was soon operating a grist  mill as well as farming. Brent's wife was an aboriginal woman  named Mary Ann. Most Mission settlers of the 1860s and 1870s  had aboriginal wives and relatively stable relationships. Just over  a third of the 69 voters of the mid-1870s lived around Okanagan  Mission, and about half of them had children bearing their surname by aboriginal women.  As for the second group—those with generally greater resources—Duane Thomson in his doctoral thesis succinctly contrasted their marital circumstances with those of Okanagan Mission families: "In the 1860s, due partially to the sexual imbalance  in the population, most of the married White males had chosen  Aboriginal wives. Many others, perhaps most others, such as J.C.  Haynes, C. O'Keefe, J.F. Allison and C.F. Houghton, had Aboriginal  concubines of a more or less permanent nature. While these concubines were obviously sexually exploited and many were eventually rejected by their common-law husbands, it cannot be denied  that Aboriginal-white relations exhibited a degree of intimacy." Of  1874-77 voters living beyond Okanagan Mission, at least a third  had children by aboriginal women to whom they had bequeathed  their surname.  Two measures reveal just how extensive had been liaisons with  aboriginal women, particularly among the more successful of the  second group. Thomson calculated the 13 wealthiest Okanagan  settlers as of 1879, and half of them—Haynes, O'Keefe, Allison,  Houghton, Forbes Vernon, Francis Richter, and possibly one other-  had children with their surname by aboriginal women. A second  measure are the five settlers whom the Civil War general William  Tecumseh Sherman considered worth visiting when he passed  through the British Columbia interior in grand style in 1884. Crossing over the border at Osoyoos, his entourage came first "to the  residence of Judge J.C. Hayne [sic], the British collector of customs," and shortly thereafter to the house of "Mr. Kreuger [sic], a  German."  Next mentioned in the official report was the ranch of  10 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  "Mr. Richter" and a bit later "Price's mill, the site of an old Hudson  Bay trading post." Then came "Allison's ranch" where special note  was made of his "rosy-cheeked English" wife. All five of these men  had children bearing their surname by aboriginal women.  As economic circumstances improved, so the pressures for  men in this second group to discard an aboriginal partner in favour  of her white counterpart  became enormous.  Henry Shuttleworth,  who pre-empted land in  the Similkameen in the  1870s, was a decade later  looking for a teaching job  and complained to the  superintendent of education "that for some reason or other you cannot  give me the appointment  of Teacher." Obviously  reflecting attitudes more  generally, Shuttleworth  continued: "I suppose it  is because I have an Indian Woman but I can  assure you and if necessary also prove to you  that I am lawfully married to her." The superintendent replied only  that someone else had  been hired. Other men  responded by hiding  their aboriginal wives  from view. Irishman E.J.  Tronson, who pre-empted land on the eastern side of Okanagan  Lake in 1868, became a very respectable businessman in the budding community of Vernon. He had at least six children by his  native wife Nancy. C.W. Holliday, a young Englishman arriving  there in 1889, did not know what to make of Tronson, perceiving  him to be "a courtly-groomed old gentleman. But to see him in  church looking rather like a saintly old patriarch you would never  have suspected . .. that on his ranch he maintained an Indian wife  and a large half-breed family; a quite separate establishment, none  of them ever appeared in public with him."  John Fall Allison, first white settler in the  Similkameen, bom 1825 in Leeds, Yorkshire.  11 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  Men with pretensions to respectability found it increasingly  difficult to withstand the pressure. Given the publication of Susan  Allison's memoir edited by Margaret Ormsby, John Fall Allison  becomes perhaps the best known of the men who changed partners. According to one account passed down through his first family, he had five children by three different aboriginal women. In  1868, at the age of 43, he married Susan Moir, just half his age, by  whom he then had a second family. Others following his example  generally also chose a white woman much younger than themselves.  One of the most enduring relationships was between Francis  Richter, a German who in 1865 homesteaded in the Similkameen  Valley, and an aboriginal woman named Lucy. Together they had  five sons, and clearly got on well. Their son Joseph recalled his  childhood fondly: "When I was little coal oil was brought 70 miles  from Hope on the backs of horses. It was used sparingly. My  mother made candles in a special mold and after the cotton wick  was threaded it was filled with our own tallow. She made soap  from waste fat and lye. Some of our clothing was made from buckskin traded with Indians. Mother fashioned into coats, shirts and  pants. Take it from me. Buckskin garments are warm, soft and  comfortable." Richter continued, "I suppose that today most people would think that our early days were rough. We worked hard,  we had everything we needed. We were a closely knit, affectionate  family, self-sufficient, yet depending on one another, each respecting the other's worth under the guidance of wise parents. I shall  never forget those early ranch days. The valley was all ours." The  son of one of Francis Richter's close friends, the Loudons who lived  just across the border in Loomis, Washington, remembered this  time period similarly: "Richter took good care of his Indian wife,  Lucy, and his sons . . . That Lucy respected him as well as loved  him was clearly demonstrated one time in a near tragedy that had  a humorous ending." Richter ended up struggling in deep water  while crossing the Similkameen River at near flood state, and it  was Lucy who reached him with a fence rail. "She pulled him to  safety then beat him soundly with the rail for risking his life unnecessarily!"  Nonetheless, even the Richter relationship crumbled. Guy  Waring, an acquaintance of the late 1880s, recalled how Richter,  whom he described as "the only rich squaw man I knew in those  days, confessed to me privately one day" that Lucy "had a penchant for entertaining friends and relatives" while her husband was  away. "But he had chosen to solve the problem by picking out  another Siwash woman and inviting her to live in the house with  him, along with his Indian wife, who never again dared to enter-  12 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  tain, lest her rival, who was very fond of Richter, might make trouble. This strange design for living of course resulted in much bitter  feeling between Richter and his wife so that eventually he had to  let her send his Siwash mistress away." Whether or not such incidents contributed, the relationship ended in 1894. Aged 56, Richter offered to escort the Loudons' daughter, aged just 17, to Victoria  to school, and the two returned married. Richter did, however,  make accommodation for his first wife of over a quarter of a century and ensure that their sons were provided with their own  ranches. His new brother-in-law recalled: "Immediately after his  marriage to my sister, Richter established a home for Lucy and  provided for her as long as she lived. She never wanted for anything, according to my mother and father . . . Lucy, the Indian  wife, died in about 1903 or 1904 in the cabin she lived in on the  original Richter Ranch." In the interim Richter fathered six more  children by his second wife.  While relationships might unravel, particularly among this second group, their human consequences in the form of mixed-race  children remained part of the texture of everyday lives. While increasingly unacknowledged publicly, their fates became intertwined  with those of their white half-siblings. Three examples—Haynes,  Kruger, and Allison—make the case.  John Haynes, who like Tom Ellis arrived with the requisite  letters of introduction needed to get a government position, served  as customs collector at Osoyoos from 1860 to his death in 1888, as  well as operating a ranch. Haynes had at least three children by a  Colville woman named Julia. The story long circulating was that  he kept a "separate little log house for his Indian 'wife'" just a few  yards away from his bachelor quarters in the government building  at Osoyoos. Then, in 1868 Haynes, aged 37, married a young white  woman less than half his age, and after her death in childbirth wed  a second white woman.  Publicly, Haynes now had only a white wife and family, but  privately his two families intermingled. Waring recalled visiting  Haynes in about 1886. "In August I decided to pay a surprise visit  to Mr. Haynes, an educated Irishman who had the first house across  the British line. He was a lifetime Justice of the Peace, a Gold  Commissioner and the local Customs Officer. In British Columbia  these were dignified positions and everybody regarded Mr. Haynes  as an important man." The physical setting confirmed Waring's  judgment of Haynes' status. "The Haynes ranch was large, and the  house was beautifully built of logs and covered with dressed lumber. We arrived just in time for supper, . . . Mr. Haynes, a man of  about forty-five, received us warmly and extended us the hospitality of his home. Mrs. Haynes proved a very delightful hostess, and  13 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  her husband's half-breed daughters, who acted as waitresses and  housemaids, were all very attractive." All the same, Haynes' first  family disappeared from the public record, and his white daughter  Hester is generally considered to have been "the eldest daughter of  Judge Haynes."  Theodore Kruger, born in Hanover when it was still under the  British Crown, came to British Columbia with the 1858 gold rush,  and in 1866 took over the  Hudson's Bay store at  Osoyoos. Kruger had at  least two children,  Matilda and Billy, by an  aboriginal woman before  his marriage in 1873, at  the age of 44, to a 16-  year-old just arrived from  Denmark. During the  1880s Matilda Kruger  worked for the Haynes  family, as recalled by one  of Haynes' white daughters: "Matilda had been  with us for three years.  She was Mr. Kruger's native daughter and mother's right hand. 'Splendid', underlined and in  parenthesis, describes  her, tall, slight, lovely,  olive skin, nut brown  hair, clear, and she could  do anything." If this was  the private Kruger  daughter, in public  Matilda did not exist.  The same Haynes daughter who penned these lines referred with  equal ease to "Theodore Kruger and his eldest daughter, Dora," this  being a child by his Danish wife.  With John Fall Allison, the erasures were more thorough, even  though the two families also mingled on an everyday level. At the  time of the 1891 manuscript census the Allison household at  Princeton included John and Susan, 13 children aged 2 to 21, and  also Lily Allison aged 28. Shortly thereafter, Lily married John  Norman, a nearby farmer born in France, and the Allisons' twelve-  year-old daughter Caroline served as bridesmaid.   Yet, when  Ground-breaking Similkameen rancher and  businessman Francis Xavier Richer had five sons  by his aborigianl wife, Lucy. Standing, left to  right: Charles, Hans, William. Front: Edward and  Joseph. (Doug Cox collection)  14 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  Margaret Ormsby edited Susan Allison's memoir in the mid-1970s  no reference was made, either in the text or the introduction, to  Allison's first family. A white Allison grandson interviewed on  tape in 1977 reiterated that, "no, he did not have a family when he  first came into the area, and he went back out to Hope, he met my  grandmother . . . and returned to the valley with her . . . there were  13 children in the Allison family."  The mixed character of early settlement was perhaps most  visible in the classroom. Okanagan Mission Public School opened  in 1875. Two of its three trustees—Frederick Brent and William  Smithson—had aboriginal wives. Smithson was an Englishman  lured by gold in 1863 who had briefly taught school and then settled at Okanagan Mission in the early 1870s with his Indian wife.  The school's record book reveals that at least 15 Okanagan settlers  enrolled mixed-race offspring, in some cases at considerable sacrifice through boarding them with local families.  At first school officials were optimistic: "Considering that  nearly all the children were ignorant of English when school was  opened, wonderful improvement has certainly been made." Visiting geologist George Dawson commented in 1877 that "there is a  school with about 20 scholars (all half-breeds) some of whom we  met on our way to the mines, with lunches & books, neatly dressed."  Over time assessments became less complimentary in ways that  likely lowered expectations put on children and thereby their opportunities to learn. The teacher in 1883 reported: "With one exception the pupils are half-breeds, & speak better Chinook & Indian than English, & those who have a French father speak French,  Indian & Chinook at home, & English only when at school, consequently their written English is very inferior." Children's obligations outside the school became linked to their mixed race. "Two  more are obliged to reside at home & cook as their mother (a native) has been visiting her tillicums [children in the Chinook jargon]." The same teacher noted the difficulty of sending reports  home. "There are several children in the first book [reader] to whom  I do not give reports, some whose guardian is a native woman,  uneducated."  In 1884 a second school opened at Priest's Valley, soon to become Vernon. Again, two of the three trustees—Edward Tronson  and Alfred McNeil—had mixed-race families, and almost all of the  pupils were of mixed race, including members of the Tronson,  McNeil, Houghton, and Brewer families. Prairie-born McNeil, who  farmed and packed, was likely a Metis, as was his wife, Jane. An  early justice of the peace in the North Okanagan, Anglo-Irish Charles  Houghton had two children by an aboriginal woman before becoming an MP in 1871, pursuing a military career, and in 1879 marry-  15 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  ing a daughter of coal mining magnate Robert Dunsmuir. Charles  Brewer was an American rancher married to an aboriginal woman  named Jenny. The sole white pupils were siblings from Oregon  being cared for by Price Ellison, the third trustee and a bachelor  who very soon wed the school's teacher. From her perspective  race helped explain the school's lack of success. "They are all half  breeds but three, and do not make as rapid progress as White children, because they do not understand the language well. They are  accustomed to Indian talk at home, and most of them could not  speak English when they started to school."  Two years later, in 1886, residents of the nearby Coldstream  Valley requested their own school. Again, it was farmers with mixed-  race families who took the lead. Brewer wrote the letter, and signatories included George Keefer, Stephen Lambert and Vincent  Duteau. The four men supplied 13 of the 14 school-age children,  and all four had aboriginal wives: German-born Keefer was married to Mary; Lambert, born in Manitoba and likely a Metis, also to  a woman named Mary; and Quebecker Duteau to Amelia.  Schools differentiated pupils by race, perhaps as much subtly  and indirectly as openly and overt. The children of the Okanagan's first families learned young that their lives would be different from those of their white counterparts. It is impossible to know  which was hardest to bear—the subtle discrimination in the school,  the scorn of newcomers, or the very denial of their existence by  members of their own families. New arrivals' uncaring words, undoubtedly repeated time and again over dinner parties and in drinking establishments, are expressed openly in Waring's and Holliday's  memoirs.  Guy Waring, an American living just across the border during  the late 1880s, was convinced he had aboriginal women pegged.  "As Justice of the Peace I also acted as confidant in cases involving  domestic difficulties between white settlers and Siwash girls, many  of which proved very amusing. Virtue, of course, practically did  not exist among the Indian women of the Okanagan. Even when  caught in the very act of adultery, of simple fornication with a  white, the incident rarely resulted in a loss of caste, but was considered rather a monstrous joke by all." Waring disparaged anyone  who, in his words, "kept a squaw, had his will with a squaw, or took  to himself a comely squaw as a mistress—this being a common  custom of the time and locality."  C.W. Holliday, a young Englishman who arrived at about the  same time as Waring, was infatuated by "a spirit of adventure, and  a desire to get away from the cramping and uncomfortable respectability of what we call civilization, to where they had freedom and  space to move around in and do what they felt like doing."  Like  16 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  Waring, Holliday defined freedom in his own image, one which did  not much respect aboriginal women or families of mixed race.  Referring to Okanagan Mission, he ruminated that "the mixture of  white-Indian sometimes had produced rather unfortunate results.  Occasionally they were the offspring of men of education and breeding and would be a strange mixture of two distinct personalities in  the same individual—a savage and irresponsible strain from their  Indian ancestors and the polished manners acquired from the white  father. You might, one day, meet a dark, good-looking chap, quiet  and well-bred, who would talk to you as well, or possibly better  than many educated Englishmen, and a day or two later see the  same lad whooping 'er up with a bunch of Siwashes on the rancherie.  And the women were much the same, most of them were decidedly good-looking, and they had charming manners—in fact, the  young ones were most attractive; they had what we now call 'it,'  that made them easy to get on with."  As for aboriginal women, Holliday recalled a contemporary  who, "fed up with batching, had disturbed the monastic peace of  the community by taking unto himself a dusky mistress." Even as  his friends were deciding whether to be jealous, "he and his lady  had a bad row, and realizing that his little romance was ended he  fired her out." What happened next indicates the great extent to  which aboriginal women were viewed as distinct from white  women, effectively .disposable at will. "And as none of the rest of  the old boys were gallant enough to take a chance on her, the lady  returned to the bosom of her tribe, and once more there was peace  on earth in the little community; Bill was received again into the  fold and friendly relations were resumed all round."  Only snatches survive of how mixed-race children reacted to  their growing and perhaps overwhelming patronization and disparagement. Rarely did individuals have the courage to speak out  publicly, as did Maria Houghton repeatedly in the Okanagan Historical Society Reports. She described her parents' relationship in  decidedly romantic terms: "Father fell in love and married a young  Indian princess, grand-daughter to the great N'kwala. It was Chief  N'kwala in person that married his granddaughter, Sophie N'kwala  to my father. It must have been in 1868 or 1869." When her father  went off to Ottawa, Maria and her brother "were left with our grandmother." Without going into detail, she recalled that her mother's  "two younger brothers and sister died of tuberculosis," and "my  mother, Sophia N'kwala died of a broken heart soon afterwards."  Houghton took pride in having grown up between her two  heritages and being taught the stories of her mother's family. "In  an Indian tribe they pick one sober child with a good memory and  train them to remember the story of their family and their ances-  17 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  tors. I was chosen for this." Neither did Maria's father forget her.  She recalled how in 1893 "I left the Okanagan Valley to go to live  with my father, Col. Houghton," a circumstance described very differently in Holliday's memoir: "I remember one girl, the daughter  of an army officer who had spent part of his younger days ranching in the Okanagan. Later on he was attached to the governor  general's staff, and sent for his daughter—who in the meantime  had been growing up with her half-breed friends and relatives—to  join him in Ottawa, where she was educated and became a society  belle at the vice-regal balls and such-like doings in the capital. And  then I think her father died; at any rate she came back to the Okanagan, and soon dropped right back into the old half-breed ways."  At least in her writings, Maria Houghton was able to reconcile  the two aspects of her heritage. She was passionate in defence of  persons of mixed race like herself: "They seem to possess a certain  mental aloofness, a freedom and independence and judgment which  makes them different from the whites, pure blood; and these qualities make for leadership among men. The half breed will either  live entirely to himself, or, if he takes part in community life at all,  he is apt to forge to the front. These men are in a sense 'well-born.'  They . . . have descended from a race of men who for many generations never knew what it was to receive a command from another and feel that they were under compulsion and bound to obey  that command. Always they were free men, and, they say, blood  will tell." Houghton was, at the same time, aware that her views  were not generally shared: "This is an aspect of Canadian history  which seems to have been strangely overlooked, viz., the natural  aptitude of men of mixed Indian and white blood, for public office,  and for leadership."  If few descendants of the Okanagan's first settler families were  as eloquent as Maria Houghton, they nonetheless made clear, in a  range of venues, that they would not easily be erased. According  to a local historian writing in 1927, Johnny McDougal's family  gained "a high reputation as skilled guides and trappers, that has  lasted to the present time."  "To illustrate the family pride, a story is told of one of the  younger generation who replied when asked if he was a half-breed,  'No, sir, I'm a McDougall'" An Allison story still circulates among  local aboriginal people, as narrated by Harry Robinson:  The white man tell his son,  that's Allison—John Fall Allison.  White man.  He is the one that tell the stories to his son.  His son, Bert Allison.  18 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  His son was a half Indian and a half white,  because his mother was an Indian.  And his father was a white man.  So his father told him these stories.  But he told me —Bert Allison.  So he told me,  "This is not Indian stories.  White man stories."  You understand that?  With the coming of the railroad, the Okanagan familiar to us  today began to emerge. New arrivals soon swamped the first generation of settlers. The more successful of the first settlers were  already consolidating their holdings, and their large ranches were  then bought up by entrepreneurs with even greater financial resources. As irrigated fruit growing gained in appeal, so the big  holdings were subdivided and sold off. Among the most enthusiastic purchasers were British immigrants, exemplified by men like  Waring and Holliday. They, together with Canadians from the prairies and elsewhere, created new communities and ways of life.  Canadian poet Charles Mair, who settled at Okanagan Mission in  1892, epitomized some newcomers' attitudes in his observation that  "the primitive people are Siwash Indians, half-breeds, ancient, uncouth farmers who packed in with ponies 30 years ago from the  Coast," but "there are good people, too, and numbers of nice old  country families." The founding of the Okanagan Historical Society in Vernon in 1925, and the appearance of its first Report a year  later, confirmed the valley's transformation.  The consequence was a lost Okanagan. The glimpses and  snatches offered here underline that the past, just like the present,  is always being constructed in our own image. We select the heroic firsts that we recognize at least in part to validate ourselves  and who we are. We want the comfort and security of others like  ourselves being parts of our pasts. When we write, we consciously  and unconsciously make it so. While we laud the first white men  who came to the Okanagan Valley, we obscure or ignore the aboriginal women with whom they cohabited and the children born of  these relationships, and replace them with the first white women  and children. By making Whiteness the criteria, we erase an entire generation of settlement.  All of us need constantly to rethink our pasts. We are all victims of assumptions about what counts as history and what should  not be revealed. Certainly, we cannot tell all, for there is simply  too much to tell.  It is very important, just as it always has been,  19 LOST OKANAGAN: IN SEARCH OF THE FIRST SETTLER FAMILIES  that we maintain confidences and protect sensibilities. At the same  time we need to be aware that by protecting some sensibilities we  are silencing other voices. All of us, each and everyone, must strive  to ensure that there are no more lost Okanagans.  PRINCIPAL SOURCES: Annual reports of the Okanagan Historical Society, now Okanagan History; manuscript censuses for 1881, 1891, and 1901, correspondence of the Superintendent of Education (GR 450 and 1445) and diary of the first Superintendent (GR 1468),  and taped interviews, all in the British Columbia Archives and Records Service; Okanagan  Mission School record book, 1875-1909 (no. 179), in UBC Library Special Collections; voters'  lists in British Columbia, Sessional Papers (Victoria); Richard J. Loudon, An Odyssey: The  Loudon Family in Retrospect" (memoir in author's possession, Yuma, Arizona); Duncan  Duane Thomson, "A History of the Okanagan: Indians and Whites in the Settlement Era,  1860-1920" (unpublished PhD thesis, Department of History, University of British Columbia, 1985); C.W. Holliday, The Valley of Youth (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton, 1948); Guy Waring,  My Pioneer Past (Boston: Bruce Humphries 1936); Douglas Cole and Bradley Lockner, ed.,  The Journals of George M. Dawson: British Columbia, 1875-1878 (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1989);  Margaret A. Ormsby, ed., A Pioneer Gentlewoman in British Columbia: The Recollections of  Susan Allison (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1976); and Harry Robinson, Write It On Your Heart:  The Epic World of an Okanagan Storyteller, ed. Wendy Wickwire (Vancouver: Talonbooks/  Theytus, 1989). I am especially grateful to the late Dorothy Fraser of Osoyoos for sharing  her husband's research notes and encouraging me to write on this topic. /&>.  MEMORIES  I am walking through the silence of this cold  and frosty night,  I am treading on the diamonds that sparkle  with the light.  And the throbbing, beating pulses of the whispering  cold night air,  Have reached into my heart and found the memories  lurking there.  I can glimpse the roaring bonfire  And the laughing, joyous crowd,  And the bob that came a shooting  Like an arrow thru a cloud,  I can taste the baked potatoes  And the butter and the salt,  I remember how the coffee  Called the sledders to a halt.  The echo of young laughter,  The call of "clear the track!"  All the wild, mad joy of living  Has come swiftly surging back.  And my soul is filled with gladness,  Yet my heart is weeping tears,  For my childhood that has vanished  With the swiftly passing years.  By Barbara Beldam  from May to December, 1979  20 FAMILY TIES IN THE LAND  OF THE OKANAKANS  John Coldwell  Introduction  Inspiration for this article came from Vernon Society members Libby  and Peter Tassie, who hosted the author and his wife during their 1995  research trip through the Okanagan. John Coldwell originally sought  assistance from the OHS in his quest for information on Astorian Alexander Ross and it was that initial contact that resulted in meeting the  Tassies in person. Coldwell grew up across Canada as the eldest of four  sons of a Canadian army officer. Two years of university in Victoria  disclosed he was not destined for city life. One year with the Weather  Service in the Northwest Territories and 26 years on the west coast of  British Columbia as a lighthouse keeper revealed that the outdoor life  was more appealing and adventurous.  "My ancestral ties probably affected my career decisions more than  anything else, as the life of a fur trader was far more tempting that that  of a city accountant," Coldwell said in a letter to the Report. "When my  father relinquished the family records, I was the only one interested in  continuing the search for my ancestors. My continuing interest is to  find the rest of the Alexander Ross family and eventually combine the  complete history in print."  Since childhood I had been aware of my native Indian ancestry. My father always told us stories about our great, great  grandfather—a fur trader named Alexander Ross—who married an "Okanagan" Indian woman named Sally. That was all I knew.  At that early age, I didn't even know where Okanagan was located.  A few years ago I received my father's old newspaper clippings, diaries and family Bible. With the help of a computer genealogical program I put my relatives in order and found that a lot of  information was missing. Where to begin was the problem. Scotland, England, Halifax, Toronto, Manitoba or the Okanagan?  John Coldwell is one of a vanishing species—lighthouse keeper on Mclnnes Island, off the central coast of British Columbia. He can be contacted by writing Box  3670, Prince Rupert, V8J 3R1. Don't expect a speedy reply: mail delivery is usually once a month.  21 FAMILY TIES IN THE LAND OF THE OKANAKANS  At least now I knew where the Okanagan was—or thought I  did. My wife Karen reminded me that in the historical period I was  researching the Canada/U.S. border was not in existence, so "the  Okanagan" extended from Kamloops south to the junction of the  Okanogan and Columbia rivers in Washington State. This was the  rough geographical area known as the Okanagan Valley, where a  Time on his hands, Mclnnes Island light keeper John Coldwell seeks ancestral ties.  river flowed from Okanagan Lake across the border then changed  its name to Okanogan before blending with the Columbia. Did Sally  come from somewhere in this area, or was "Okanagan" just a tribal  name? I was lost again.  Skimming Beautiful British Columbia Travel Guide one day,  moving down the Okanagan Valley, reading all the articles hoping  an idea would come to me . . . "Keremeos . . . fur trader Alexander  Ross was the first white man to show up, in 1813 ..." I had a place  to start.  In the summer of 1994 my wife and I left our home on  Mclnnes Island and travelled to Keremeos. From there we were  redirected to Nespelem, Washington, on the Colville Indian Reservation. This was the right direction, but our timing was off. We did,  however, stumble upon the Okanogan County Historical Museum  in Okanogan, Washington. There we learned a bit about the  Okanogan Indians, more on Alexander Ross and some information  on Fort Okanogan at the confluence of the Okanogan and Columbia rivers. Sally must have come from this area.  22 FAMILY TIES IN THE LAND OF THE OKANAKANS  Back home on the lighthouse, I wrote to the Colville Reservation, with no luck; obtained bundles of photocopies from the  Okanogan Historical Society which filled in a few blanks; discovered our B.C. Okanagan Historical Society and drove them crazy  with questions and requests; found numerous research reports and  books published by museums and universities; wrote a number of  letters and read a carload of books.  The next clue came from an autobiography written by  Christine Quintasket (pen name Mourning Dove) which stated that  "Timentwa was not  descended from  chiefs, but his family  gained prominence  when his great-aunt  Sara married Alexander Ross, the trader at  Fort Okanogan. During the 14 years they  lived there they had  four children." After  years of searching, my  great, great grandmother had a name!  Another letter  to the Colville Indian  Nation; a long wait and  then one day in May  1995 two phone calls  within hours of each  other and I heard a  voice say "I think we  might be related." I  was talking to my fourth cousin, Matilda Gorr (nee Timentwa) an  Okanogan woman living near Nespelem. She was a descendant of  Sara's brother Abraham. It was one of those days you will remember for the rest of your life.  We had to meet. She had been working on her family's genealogical records and I had Ross's. A month later Karen and I were  again on our way to Washington State. I remembered Mourning  Dove's last words on the subject when, in May 1825, Ross travelled  to the Red River Valley with his eldest son and Sara followed later  with the other children: . . . "the Okanogan never saw her again.  The Timentwa family remains suspicious of white husbands ever  since, fearing they would desert the children or take the wife away."  This was 170 years ago! How would I be received? Would we like  John Coldwell and Matilda Gorr - cousins two  centuries removed.  23 FAMILY TIES IN THE LAND OF THE OKANAKANS  each other? We met, spent five days in the area, and never ceased  talking. Tillie (Matilda) was a never-ending source of information  on Indian life, historical landmarks and Indian genealogy. I introduced her to her ancestor Sara Timentwa (also known as Sally or  Grannie Ross) via pictures and historical books I had brought with  me, and also showed her the wonders of genealogy on computers.  It was an adventure and a learning experience I hope never ends.  Where to next? Alexander Ross had 12 children and I have  not yet traced any of their descendants besides his daughter  Jemima, my relative.  Many thanks to the following for their knowledge, help and encouragement: Cuyler Page, the Grist Mill, Keremeos; Arnie  Marchand, Colville Confederated Tribes; Bill Kohls, and Jessica  Sylvanus, Okanogan County Historical Society; Elizabeth M. Tassie,  Okanagan Historical Society; Dr. Frits Pannekoek, Edmonton, m  THOSE WERE THE DAYS  "A Wonderful Day's Lake, Auto and Rail Trip from Salmon Arm" (From  the Salmon Arm Observer, 28 June 1928).  Each Monday and Thursday the steamer C. R. Lamb leaves  Salmon Arm for Canoe, Sicamous and down the main lake to beautiful Sorrento, where really good swimming, boating and fishing  can be enjoyed. Dinner at the well-known Sorrento Inn, a motor  drive to Notch Hill in time to catch CPR train No. 4, which brings  you back to Salmon Arm 10:10 p.m. same day.  Boat trip, including lunch on board, dinner at Sorrento Inn,  motor drive to Notch Hill and train fare back home all for $5—a  wonderful day's outing. <§§|  24 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT  IN THE OKANAGAN-  SHUSWAP,  1891-1903  George M. Abbott  Modern historians have generally characterized Canada's  western frontier as an orderly and law-abiding society,  particularly when compared to the American west. (See,  for example, William Kilbourn, Canada: A Guide to the Peaceable  Kingdom, p. xv). In 1894, the editor of the Vernon News offered a  similar assessment, claiming there "is probably no more orderly  and law-abiding town west of the Rockies than Vernon, and it is  seldom that the NEWS man has to chronicle anything very startling in the way of crime." (Vernon News, 12 April 1894; hereafter  cited as the News'). However, while crime was far from pervasive in  the Okanagan-Shuswap a century ago, the darker side of the human personality was periodically revealed—in crimes ranging from  murder and rape to drunkenness and vandalism—in the pages of  the News.  The News commenced publication in 1891. At that time,  the Vernon courthouse was the centre for administration of justice  in the Okanagan-Shuswap. Probably as a consequence of its proximity, the News featured unique and sometimes extensive firsthand descriptions of the more spectacular trials, while accounts of  petty crimes typically appeared in the "Town and Country" column, sandwiched between social notes.  News coverage of the criminal justice system was not comprehensive. Some of the offences outlined in "Diary of a Provincial Police Constable, 1899-1908" in the 1995 edition of Okanagan  History were not reported. The Vernon Police Court Record (1894-  1905) also lists numerous minor offences ignored or overlooked by  the News. In some cases, the News likely chose not to publicize the  indiscretions of prominent citizens. In August of 1894, for example, the Record notes that Coutts Marjoribanks, brother-in-law of  Governor-General Lord Aberdeen, pleaded guilty to "disorderly and  throwing stones"—a case which escaped notice by the News. Despite such deficiencies, News coverage was of sufficient frequency  George Abbott operates a farm at Sicamous. He is also a political science instructor at Okanagan University College and chair of Columbia-Shuswap Regional District.  25 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  and detail to permit some observations concerning the nature and  flavour of crime and punishment a century ago.  As in other areas of social life, some aspects of crime and  punishment have remained consistent over time. Some petty crime  problems like vandalism have persisted for a least a  century (Constable  Heron advised Vernon City Council in  1898 that there was  "a gang of very bad  boys in town" who  had broken windows in nearly all  vacant buildings.  News, 4 May 1898).  Like our own age,  the reckless consumption of alcohol  was often at the root  of both serious and  petty offences (the  only reference to  drugs, a high-profile  problem in our own  time, was the 1894  theft of opium-  then a legal commodity—from the  CPR station in Vernon). As News reports also indicate, aboriginal people suffered more than their  proportional share of criminal problems a century ago, a situation  which sadly continues today.  Other aspects of justice have changed over time. Some provisions in criminal law were overtly racist a century ago. As well,  News accounts suggest that there was far less sensitivity within the  justice system toward issues of race and gender than exists today.  Perhaps the most striking difference is that property offences were  judged more harshly, relative to violent crimes, than they are now.  In August of 1891, A.B. Knox, a prominent Okanagan Mission rancher, was sentenced by Judge Spinks to three years imprisonment with hard labour for burning three stacks of hay belonging  to ranchman Tom Ellis. (On his release, Knox "spoke very eloquently  North Okanagan titans c.1891. Rear, left to right:  Cornelius O'Keefe, Moses Lumby, Luc Girouard. Front,  left: E. J. Tronson, Bernard Lequime. (Vernon Museum)  26 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  of the kind treatment he had received at the penitentiary . . .", an  unusually genteel assessment of incarceration. (News, 1 March  1894). In a similar case, Louis Brodeur was sentenced to four years  for burning a stack of hay in the Mission Valley, despite some evidence of mental instability (News, 24 January and 20 June 1895).  Like today, some people believed that courts were too lax  in their sentencing. In 1895, the News reviewed the case of "One-  eyed Louis," a native Indian charged with stealing and branding  two colts. "In a stock-raising country hardly any crime is regarded  as more serious  than an offence of  this nature," the  News intoned.  "Hundreds of men  have been lynched  in the Western  States and Territories for like offences." To the disgust of the News,  Judge Spinks sentenced the accused  to six months imprisonment when  he "might have  been sentenced to  14 years ..." (News,  21 March 1895). In  fairness to the  judge, the accused  had already spent  several months in  jail awaiting trial.  Among the  more notable sentences for theft  were six months for  stealing a saw, 18  months for stealing 16 bags of wheat, and five years for cattle rustling. (The News was particularly appreciative of the last sentence  by Judge Spinks, believing it would "have a salutary effect in stopping this class of crime in the lower country." (News, 22 November  1900, 22 December 1894 and 21 March 1895). The severity of punishment for property offences is not difficult to understand. In a  frontier agrarian society, devoid of our modern social safety net,  Judge Spinks (foreground) presides over 1893 fish catch.  Other men are Moses Lumby (middle) and a "Mr.  Streatfield." (Vernon Museum)  27 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  the margin between success and failure, between survival and disaster, was often perilously thin. The practical value of a stack of  hay or a bag of wheat could far outweigh its monetary value.  Sentences for violent crimes appear light in comparison. A  prominent 1902 case provides a sad commentary on judicial tolerance, both of violent assault and of racial hatred. Three young white  men were charged in the savage beating of Sam Wing, a cook at the  Coldstream Hotel. According to the News, "The Chinaman was  knocked down and badly pounded, one man holding him while  the other two gave him a severe thrashing, using their fists and  belts to inflict the punishment." A prominent citizen was awakened by Wing's screams and witnessed the assault. Two of the defendants pleaded guilty before justices of the peace Hankey and  Carew and were each fined $15. The third, whose role was apparently limited to holding the victim, pleaded not guilty and was fined  $10. To its credit, the News noted that while the justices of the peace  made no remarks concerning the case, "their example was not followed by the crowd around the courtroom, expressions of disgust  that such a disgraceful affair should have occurred in the city being  very freely indulged in by those who heard the evidence." (News,  11 September 1902).  Judicial tolerance of violence toward aboriginal women was  also evident. In 1894, a native named Bazil Moses was fined $20 or,  in default, two months imprisonment by Magistrate Price Ellison  forbearing his wife Suzette with "a piece of iron." In the same year,  a native named Edward appeared before Magistrate Ellison charged  with "being drunk on reserve and beating his wife." The defendant  pleaded guilty and was fined $10. Edward subsequently claimed  that a white man, William Baker, supplied the intoxicant. This was  obviously viewed as a more serious offence as Baker was fined $50  or two months imprisonment. (News, 18 October and 21 June 1894).  (It should be noted that surnames were frequently not used in accounts of native trials).  Judicial officials of the day were not misguided, heartless  or evil men. Their sentencing simply reflected the attitudes and  prejudices of their society. For example, hotel advertisements commonly claimed "whites only employed."  A century ago, and indeed through much of the present  century, native Indians were subject to overtly discriminatory liquor laws. In 1894 Judge Spinks sentenced "Jim, a particularly cultus  Indian" to six months for "having intoxicants in his possession." At  the same sitting, Spinks sentenced another native to two months  hard labour for being "drunk on reserve." (News, 4 January 1894).  Another offence now removed from the statute books, "supplying liquor to Indians," was frequently reported during the pe-  28 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  riod. Penalties for this offence ranged from $15 or two months imprisonment (given a "half-breed" in 1901) to six months imprisonment with hard labour (given to a "half-breed" in 1894 and a native  Indian in 1900). Whites charged with this offence were usually fined  $50 or two months, although penalties could be slightly more severe in some instances. William Sheils, who furnished whisky to  aboriginals subsequently involved in a deadly altercation, was sentenced to four months in jail for this offence. (News, 25 August  1892).  "Drunk and disorderly" was the most common minor offence for both natives and whites. Over three-quarters of the approximately 150 offences listed in the Vernon Police Record (1894-  1905) were "drunk and disorderly" or some variation thereof. There  appears to have been relative consistency of treatment regardless  of race with respect to this charge. Typically, fines ranged between  $1 and $25, presumably reflecting the severity of the offence. The  harshest penalty recorded, $100 or two months hard labour, was  directed at a white habitual offender.  Alcohol abuse was frequently an important element in more  serious crimes, regardless of race. For example, it was a key factor  in both reported cases of "assault with a deadly weapon." A native,  "Big Bazille," was sentenced in 1891 to 18 months and a white, "Wild  Goose" Bill McLaughlin, in 1897, to 12 months for assaults involving knives. (News, 24 September 1891, 15 March 1894, and 16 October 1897).  Drunkenness was also a factor in the three cases of attempted murder listed in the News, all involving white men. (In  the two cases where verdicts were reported, sentences of five and  seven years were handed out). (News, 11 June 1896 and 17 June  1897).  Of the six murders reported in the Okanagan-Shuswap between 1891 and 1903, alcohol was cited in at least half of the cases.  The first murder reported in the News took place in August of 1892  on the west side of Okanagan Lake, opposite Kelowna. A native  Indian known as "Michel, the gambler" was shot and killed by another native known as "Little John" during a drunken altercation.  (News, 18 and 25 August 1892).  The first murder in the City of Vernon occurred in 1901. It  was the product of a family dispute between Leonard English and  his brothers-in-law, Thomas and William Carson. After drinking  together for some time at the Victoria Hotel, the trio was seen talking on Barnard Avenue. Suddenly, four shots rang out; Thomas  Carson lay dead in the street and his brother William was wounded.  English was quickly apprehended and charged with murder. (News,  24 January 1901).  29 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  Alcohol also contributed to the first murder in the Shuswap  recorded by the News. In April of 1902, a man named Pauquette,  who "had been drinking hard for two months past," confronted Alfred Ledger of Notch Hill demanding beer. Infuriated when Ledger  did not comply, Pauquette shot him in the chest, killing him instantly. Pauquette then attacked Ledger's wife, but she escaped into  the darkness and notified authorities. The villain was apprehended  on his way to Kamloops, confessed to the crime and was charged  with murder. (News, 8 May 1902).  Two of the most dramatic murder cases did not appear to  involve alcohol. The Vernon Fall Assizes in October of 1897 included the sensational trial of Mrs. Euphemia Rabbit, charged with  the murder of Jas. Hamilton. If the account of the trial presented  in the News was accurate, the decision to prosecute certainly reflected poorly on police and Crown officials. As testimony revealed,  the woman whom authorities had imprisoned and charged with  murder had clearly been the victim of a violent sexual assault.  At the time of his death, Hamilton was working as a miner  on the TUlameen River, across from a ranch owned by Thomas  Rabbit. The first witnesses called by the prosecution were Hamilton's co-workers William Kyle and Ole Benson. Kyle testified that  late in the afternoon he and Benson heard Mrs. Rabbit screaming  for help and, a short time later, heard a shot fired. After crossing  the river, Kyle found her "in a very excited state . . . Her dress was  torn and covered with sand, and her hair was loose."  Benson testified that he met the wounded Hamilton coming up from the river and asked him what he had been doing. According to the witness, Hamilton responded "with a 'cold' laugh  that he had been having a little fun with Mrs. Rabbit." Benson helped  Hamilton into a vacant cabin; the latter soon "realized that he was  dying and said that it was all his fault; he said he forgave Mrs. Rabbit, as he had caused all the trouble himself."  Subsequent witnesses included mine manager Alexander  Swan, who noted "the habitually disgusting manner" in which his  late employee had spoken of Mrs. Rabbit, a woman of "unblemished moral reputation." The defendant also took the stand in her  own defence:  As she detailed in a voice choked with emotion the harrowing particulars of the brutal assault made upon her by  Hamilton, every person in the court must have sympathized  with her. The story as related amidst sobs and tears, by the  witness, showed conclusively that a most dastardly outrage  had been attempted against a virtuous woman, by a man whose  lustful passions had made him little better than a fiend.  30 CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN THE OKANAGAN-SHUSWAP, 1891-1903  After narrowly escaping his clutches, testimony revealed  she fled to her house and grabbed a rifle. Almost immediately she  was again confronted by Hamilton and shot him. As the case concluded, Judge Drake advised the jury that there was not sufficient  evidence to consider a charge of murder and they could therefore  bring in a verdict of manslaughter or acquittal. When the jury  quickly chose acquittal, "an outburst of applause occurred in court,  which called forth a sharp rebuke from His Lordship. . ." (News, 14  October 1897).  The consequences of judicial and societal tolerance of violence against native women were reflected in the heart-wrenching  case of Julienne, a young female murdered on the Head of the  Lake Reserve in 1903. On April 1, an aboriginal male named Alec  Stockings went to E.J. Tronson, justice of the peace, and claimed  that he had accidently shot his common-law wife "while getting  out his rifle to kill an owl on a tree nearby." The following morning  Constable Simmons and Dr. Williams went to the reserve, where  they found the wounded woman in grave condition. They summoned the nearest justice of the peace, Cornelius O'Keefe, and  through an interpreter obtained the following declaration:  I, Julienne, knowing that I am likely to die, make oath  and say: I have been living with Alec. He hit me with a monkey-wrench a few days ago, then I came to my mother's. Yesterday he came to my mother's house here, and asked me to  go home, I said "No, I will not go, because you have been  beating me, and have been bad to me." He was on his horse,  and he said, "I will try and kill you right straight." Then he  shot and I tried to turn away. I fell down and did not know  anything. Alec has threatened to kill me before; he was hitting me often ... I think I am going to die, and I am telling  only what is true."  Julienne died a few hours later. Corroborating evidence was  provided by the dead woman's mother and sister. Stockings was  subsequently charged with murder, convicted and hanged.  The cases of Julienne, Euphemia Rabbit, Sam Wing and  others demonstrate some of the weaknesses in the criminal justice  system on Canada's western fringe. However, the evolution of our  judicial, political and social institutions is a never-ending process.  Just as we can readily see the unfairness inherent in some aspects  of frontier justice, future historians will puzzle over some aspects  of our own laws and society. But if the cases above reveal the darker  side of the human personality, they also reveal the fundamental  human decency most people display in response to the plight of  others—in every age. ^  31 R.P. RITHET AND  THE CLOSURE OF THE  COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  Robert Cowan  In 1887, a flour mill was established on the banks of the  Spallumcheen (or Shuswap) River in Enderby by George R.  Lawes and G.H. Rashdale. The mill's source of wheat was the  rich Spallumcheen Valley. In his report on the economic viability  of a railroad into the Okanagan Valley, A.S. Farwell estimated that  there were 325,760 potential acres of agricultural land available for  farming and that 3,500 acres were already producing wheat between Enderby and the head of Okanagan Lake. (Public Archives  of Canada, R.G. 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44. Report of Government  Engineer Farwell, Victoria, B.C., 9 June 1887)  In its first year of operation, the Columbia Flouring Mill  turned out about 100 barrels a day. Before the completion of the  Shuswap and Okanagan rail line, the product was transported to  the CPR main line at Sicamous via the river. In winter, flour was  hauled over the ice by sleighs. This journey could be a treacherous  undertaking. Several years before the opening of the mill, Web  Wright, later proprietor of the Enderby Hotel, lost a team pulling a  heavily laden sleigh at the narrows in Sicamous. (Enderby Commoner, 10 December 1908). Clearly, transportation was major concern to the owners.  Their other problem was financing. The mill cost $60,000—  not a small amount of money in 1887. They were initially bankrolled  by the Bank of British Columbia, but when the bank withdrew its  support they were forced into liquidation. By the fall of 1888, Victoria entrepreneur R.P. Rithet had controlling interest in the Columbia Flouring Mill.  "After R.P. Rithet took over the management, the mill was  run to the general satisfaction of the farmers for some years, but  gradually the farmers became convinced that they were not get-  Robert Cowan, edited the Report for seven years. He now devotes much of his  free time to civic and regional politics, as well as serving as chair of Enderby  and District Museum Society.  32 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  ting enough for their wheat considering the price of flour, and this  feeling was brought to a climax in 1895 when the price of wheat  was reduced to $16 per ton or 48 cents per bushel. A meeting was  accordingly held at Armstrong for the purpose of organizing a company to build and operate a mill as a co-operative concern."(Donald  Graham, "The Rise and Fall of Grist Milling in the Okanagan Valley" 4th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, p. 13)  Thirteen years later, in  1908, Okanagan Flouring Mills  Company was placed in liquidation. Attempts were subsequently  made to revive the Armstrong milling firm under the management of  Murdock MacKay of Salmon Arm,  but the effort failed in the long run.  In the meantime, the Columbia  Flouring Mill in Enderby continued  to ship flour and became a joint  stock company with limited liability on 1 June 1903. "The capital  stock was $100,000 divided into  1,000 shares of $100 each. The first  shareholders were T.H. Lawson,  F.V. Moffat (sic), R.P. Rithet, WA.  Lawson and R.J. Ker, all of Victoria  except F.V. Moffat (sic), who is described as a travelling agent of  lacoma, Washington. The company ceased to do business and was  struck off the Register of Joint Stock Companies on 31st May, 1923."  (Donald Graham, "Rise and Fall of Grist Milling in the Okanagan  Valley" Ibid, page 13)  Why were the mills that had seemed so successful at the  turn of the century struggling for existence in the following decade, and ultimately dying? In a 12 November 1928 letter to the  Okanagan Historical Society, F.V. Moffet, manager of the Enderby  mill from July 1903 until it closed, offered the explanation that  with operations at Vernon, Armstrong and Enderby, the valley was  over-supplied with grist mills: "... that the largest crop of wheat  raised in the valley, while he was manager at Enderby, was 5,000  tons, and that the capacity of the three mills was 600 barrels per  day of 24 hours. A little calculation, therefore, will show that the  three mills were capable of grinding the entire crop in 64 days."  (Frederick H. Barnes, "Early Days at Enderby," 6th Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, p. 205) Coupled with the emergence  W. A. Lawson c.1915  33 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  of prairie grain farms, it was only a matter of time before some or  all of these mills in the north Okanagan closed.  The Enderby mill ceased production in early 1914. There  was not a hint of a problem with overcapacity in the local newspaper, nor was there any public announcement as to why the mill  had closed its doors. The Armstrong mill continued to operate.  A close examination of the correspondence between W.A.  Lawson and R.P. Rithet from 1908 to 1915 answers the question of  why the Enderby mill closed when it did. It had much more to do  with the financial situation of R.P. Rithet and his empire than it  had to do with the question of overcapacity.  If Messrs. Lawson, Lawson and Moffet were shareholders  in the Columbia Flouring Mills, they were very minor ones. WA.  Lawson was Rithet's principal secretary and office manager of the  former's vast commercial and financial empire. T.H. Lawson was  also employed in the Rithet Victoria office as an accountant. As  you will discover, Moffet borrowed from Rithet to finance his shares  in the Enderby enterprise.  Rithet was not only involved with flour mills (Enderby and  Vernon) and railroads (Shuswap and Okanagan), but he had a cannery on the Coast, a wharf in Victoria, office buildings, and real  estate in Vancouver and near Victoria. He had retired to San Francisco by the turn of the century, and it was Lawson's job to keep  him informed and keep the cash flowing. The latter was not an  easy task as it turned out. "I enclose a letter just received from the  Bank of Commerce. Gillespie is absent at present but the Assistant  Mr. Foster read to me yesterday afternoon the letter they had from  head office when I asked to put their views in writing to forward to  you. I am surprised at the remarks they make about the Columbia  Mill and the Grocery Accounts but they are just in line with the  position they took about the Albion affairs—pressing for realization no matter at what sacrifice. We have had no complaint from  the Bank about our account for nearly a year when we were notified that it had to be kept on new lines by that no overdraft on  current account would be allowed and that it should be kept within  the authorized limit. It has exceeded it slightly at times but only for  a few days." (British Columbia Archives, Mss. 504, Vol. 3,1 September 1908. Hereafter referred to as Vol. 3 with the date of the correspondence.)  After receiving a reply from Rithet, Lawson responded to  the bank: "Mr. Rithet deals very fully with the points mentioned in  your letter and complains that although our business has not been  profitable for some years he has refrained from curtailing or making material changes on account of the many interests which are  connected with it and also in the hope that conditions will change  34 JR. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  which will enable such a business as ours to be conducted on times  approaching at least the Winnipeg comparison given in your letter." (Vol. 3, 9 September 1908)  Lawson then outlined for the bank's consideration numerous "... realizations now in progress . . ." meaning, of course, the  sale of real assets. He gave a partial list: the Wellington Farm with  a value of $42,700; 108 lots of the Esquimalt Road property (half  owned by Rithet) listed at $63,000; plus an unspecified sale of additional properties at $59,000. He believed that the bank account  would soon be in a more satisfactory position.  But Rithet had a $100,000 overdraft limit with the bank that  by August 1910 was averaging  $25,000 per month, but was sometimes as low as $17,500. If Lawson  wasn't concerned, the bank was. By  spring of the following year, Rithet  was $25,000 over his limit. (Vol. 3,  26 August 1910)  Throughout this period,  Lawson was also corresponding  with Moffet in Enderby. There  wasn't a hint of the tight financial  situation that the parent company  was experiencing. It was business  as usual. In October 1908, Lawson  wrote: "I sent a copy of the Mill accounts to Mr. Rithet. He remarks  'Sorry all the earnings are gone in  repairs and improvements but  hope some may show to the good  this year.' He authorizes us to allow you the additional remuneration as before to go in payment of interest on your note and I have  today written an official letter about it." (Vol. 3, 5 October 1908)  The Columbia Flouring Mill was experiencing its own cash  flow problems. In November 1908, Harvey and Dobson, the mercantile store on Cliff Street just south of the flour mill, encountered serious problems and hadn't paid its bills. A scheme was devised to recover part of the money through debt restructuring, but  all the creditors had to agree to it. Lawson gave permission to proceed, but"... I agree with you that it is very uncertain as to whether  the business can be brought around and that until all the creditors  agree to the arrangement proposed there is a certain amount of  risk in furnishing supplies. After all have granted the extension  R. P. Rithet c.1890 (B.C. Archives &  Record Service)  35 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  new supplies have, of course, preference of payment." (Vol 3, 16  November 1908)  A year later, Lawson wrote Moffet: "I have your letter of the  22nd (July) and am very pleased to hear you have made a good  showing for last year. I have had an idea all along that the results  would be fairly satisfactory and am in hopes now that the turning  point has come that for the future good returns on the capital employed will be realized. I don't see how it can well be otherwise  with your plant in first-class order and the ability and attention  given to the management. I am sending a copy of your letter to Mr.  Rithet who I am sure will be well satisfied but you need not be  surprised if he insists on a dividend being paid out of your profits.  I think myself we ought to pay 10%. That needs not be paid out in  cash but simply brought to your debit with us and your share applied on your note. I am not to suggest this to Mr. Rithet but quite  expect he will take this view." (Vol. 3, 26 July 1909)  As the cash flow problems of the Rithet empire continued,  Lawson told the owner he had opened discussions with the Bank of  Montreal which he thinks will offer fewer bank charges and a larger  overdraft. (Vol. 3, 28 September 1909)  It was still business as usual at the flour mill. Lawson wrote  in August to discuss such matters as businesses getting an extra 60  days on flour from Vancouver or problems with Columbia Flouring  Mill's salesmen. "In this connection, I may mention that a customer of ours, J.J. Irving Co., Ashcroft, when here the other day  said he had been doing business with you and had a connection in  China who might buy largely of your product but that you had  lately been very stiff with him about terms insisting, I understand  him to say, that you would not sell to him without the cash first in  hand. I have no doubt that if you adopted this course you had good  reason for it. We give this man fairly large credit as we believe he is  good although slow pay, but we take out payment for our supplies  largely in Beans and (?) which he grows extensively. However, he  seemed to think you were treating him rather harshly and I just  mention it as I am writing to you anyway and to show how ready  people are to take offence." (Vol. 3, 21 August 1909)  A few months later, Lawson reported to Rithet: "I found  everything in order. The property being well kept up and in first-  class condition. The mill at present is running full time. The new  wheat supply coming in well and of capital quality. The building of  the dwelling house progressing favourably. This is much needed  as the old house is not now fit to live in. I sent you a day or two ago  a copy of the balance sheet and profit in account. As you would  notice, his ranch shows badly caused largely by a heavy loss on a  lot of sheep he brought, many of them dying during last winter.  36 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  They are now all sold off and the operations are now limited to  keeping hogs for the purpose of consuming mill waste which would  otherwise be of no value. This property should be sold when opportunity offers." (Vol. 3, 1 November 1909)  The house referred to in the report was a two-storeyed brick  Victorian masterpiece complete with hardwood floors and a ballroom. A significant dwelling in any town, but in Enderby it was a  mansion. Certainly, it was appropriate for the manager of the oldest and primary industry in the community to have such a magnificent structure. It was located on mill property at approximately  the corner of Belvedere and Regent streets.  In the spring of 1910, officials were looking into the legal  implications of using the term "Wheatlets" for a breakfast food. It  had been registered as a brand name by the Tilson Company.  Lawson was willing to submit the proposal to the Rithet company  lawyers, but in his musings he suggested that perhaps the Tilson  firm would profit equally by the advertising done by the Columbia  Flouring Mill. Management was continuing to create new product  lines to expand the market. (Vol. 3, 24 April 1910)  A month later, Lawson forwarded to Enderby a series of  clippings from the Canadian Cereal & Milling Co. Rithet had the  following to say about pursuing the possibility of interesting the  larger milling company in the Enderby operation: "It has struck  Columbia Flouring Mill delivering order by rowboat to settlers on Spallumcheen  (Shuswap) waterway. (Photograph by Trueman & Co., 1893-1911;  courtesy Enderby & District Museum.)  37 JR. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  me that Mr. Moffet might ascertain whether they would care to  deal with the Columbia Flouring Mills Co. in order to get them out  of the way. I am only making a suggestion of this kind as I wish to  leave it entirely to Moffet but it appears to me that in this business  as in all others the small institutions will have to go to the wall  sooner or later so I think it would be well to get under cover if we  can do so upon anything like reasonable terms." (Vol. 3, 16 May  1910) Could this have been one of the first signals to Moffet that  Rithet wanted out of the milling business?  While we don't have Moffet's letter, we do know the contents of Lawson's letter to Rithet: "I wrote to Moffet as suggested in  your letter sending him the advertisements you enclosed and now  hand you his reply as well as a supplementary line to myself from  which you can notice he takes a hopeful view of the future and not  anxious to dispose of the property. I think it would be well however for him to keep in mind that we are anxious to realize should  a favourable opportunity offer." (Vol. 3, 26 May 1910)  Clearly, Moffet saw a future for the flour mill in Enderby,  while Rithet and Lawson wanted out as soon as possible. In June,  Lawson was even more explicit with his Enderby mill manager:  "Mr. Rithet in acknowledging your letters about the Enderby property suggests that it would be well for you to keep an eye on the  market with the view of having the Mill included in any large deal  which may be handling other properties in the same direction. He  still thinks that the larger properties will absorb the smaller ones  and while we do not want to appear anxious to sell, he thinks if we  get the proper price, it would be better for all of us to do so. When  there is any bonafide business in sight we can go into the matter of  prices and terms. This is all put before you first as a suggestion."  (Vol. 3, 3 June 1910)  How soon a suggestion would become an imperative was  probably foremost in Moffet's mind. He had a young family and  was well established in the community, but it appeared that the  parent company was prepared to sell the mill. Perhaps he was beginning to sense the cash flow problems of the Rithet Company  (April 20, 1911: $26,000 over the $100,000 overdraft limit) when he  complained about shares in the company not being sent to him.  Lawson replied that he had been just too busy lately, but would  attend to it as soon as possible. (Vol. 3, 8 May 1911)  The year 1912 seemed uneventful, but it's obvious Lawson  had been pressuring Moffet to sell the mill in Enderby. In a letter  to Rithet, he wrote: "We have written Moffet again pointing out the  necessity of realizing more speedily and asking for a statement  showing the change since June." (30 September 1913)  38 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  By the spring of 1914, the Rithet Company had hit the wall.  It had restructured its debt in 1912-13 in hopes of getting enough  cash from sale of assets to cover the outstanding obligations. It was  not successful. Lawson to Rithet: "Mr. Crawford, Canadian Bank of  Commerce, reminded me yesterday of the arrangement made last  year by which the balance of your loan was to be paid off last month.  I am afraid we cannot well give them a cheque now and if you  approve we might apply for an extension of time giving as an excuse the disappointment we have had with the monies due on the  Broadmead purchase as with other collections, Esquimalt Road  property, etc. Our bank loan account stands at $103,000 with the  Colonial Securities balance to be provided for as well as a possible  demand from the Bank of Montreal on the account of the Columbia Mills, with other ordinary payments for Fraser, etc. Money keeps  very tight.. . amounts are hard to collect. The enclosed is a sample  of the response we get to our letters requesting payment of sums  due." (Vol. 3, 7 May 1914)  In early 1914 the Columbia Flouring Mill ceased production. Moffet had been at the Coast, no doubt going over the final  details of the closure and his future with head office. He reported  to the local newspaper that he didn't know when the mill would  begin production again. (Enderby Commoner, 19 February 1914)  Lawson wrote Rithet: "Moffet is to start a commission business in Flour and etc. and will occupy our Vancouver Premises for  the present paying us $60 per month, but retaining storage accommodation for the staff we have on hand there. We only give him  these premises from month to month. When business picks up we  should get considerably more for them." (Vol. 3, 4 June 1914) Moffet  went from managing a major western flour mill, to flour broker,  paying Rithet rent in Vancouver. Such a turn of events seemed  hardly the payout for a business partner, but more likely the outcome of a manager put out to pasture.  The former manager was a frequent visitor to Enderby after the mill closure. He presented himself as managing the Columbia Flouring Mills in Vancouver and was in the area "... to buy  Okanagan wheat at the highest price obtainable. The Moffet Flour  Co. is the firm name of the new enterprise." (Enderby Commoner,  16 July 1914)  Whether or not Moffet knew the real reason for the closure  of the Columbia Mill, he never let on. (Nor did his daughter, Esther,  when I interviewed her in Seattle in 1979.) In fact, from the letter  referred to earlier, he maintained that there was processing overcapacity for the wheat produced in the north Okanagan.  The locals were mystified at the mill shutdown, attributing  it to the fact that farmers had been duped by eastern flour inter-  39 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  ests: "With flouring mills at Vernon, Armstrong and Enderby, the  latter with everything in shape to operate at two weeks' or a month's  notice, some 200 carloads of wheat have been shipped east this fall  from the northern part of the Okanagan. The mill at Vernon has  been dismantled several years; that at Armstrong is only partly in  condition, but the mill at Enderby was, when it ceased grinding  some three years ago, one of the most up-to-date 500-barrel mills  in the Province, and its product—Moffet's Best—was as good as the  best on this or any other market. Today this mill lies dead. It has  not turned a wheel for three years, though much of the machinery  was put in new only a short time before it ceased grinding. Afflicted with the fruit myth, the farmers and merchants of the Okanagan killed the bird that laid the golden egg. They fell to the special  inducements and rebates offered by eastern flour manufacturers  and killed the home institutions which were employing large numbers of men and at the same time offering a ready home market for  the wheat grown here." (Enderby Commoner, 5 October 1916) One  can only imagine the wrath of editor Henry Walker if he had been  privy to the Lawson-Rithet correspondence.  Even after the closure, the Rithet Company's financial woes  with the Columbia Flouring Mill were far from over. Lawson to  Rithet: "We enclose copy of a letter received from the Enderby  Manager of the Bank of Montreal regarding the indebtedness of  the Columbia Flour Mill and our reply. It would seem that the local  manager has instructions to keep nagging at us and we think it  would be well if you could take the matter up with Mr. Sweeney  letting him know that we quite realize that we are responsible for  this debt and that we are anxious to reduce it and will do so from  time to time, but that we cannot very well pay it all off and partial  only as we find it impossible to realize it now ..." (Vol. 3, 3 August  1914)  Later that month, Lawson told Rithet that they would try to  reduce the overdraft of the Columbia Flouring Mill's account with  the Bank of Montreal in Enderby by $5,000. That was the best they  could do. He hoped Rithet had taken the matter up with Sweeney  so that they would no longer have to endure the nasty letters from  the Enderby bank manager. He added: "There is no inquiry for the  property and as it has been advertised in all the Milling papers we  think it would be useless at present to make any special effort in  that direction." (Vol. 3, 22 August 1914)  The economic direction of the Rithet Company seemed to  be a continuous downward spiral. Obviously, in the heated economy  of the first decade of the 20th century, Rithet had made numerous  investments (some with partners) that had by the second decade  become serious liabilities. "... these shares in the Colwood Land  40 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  Company have been paid for and there is no use asking Sayward or  anyone else to take them over at cost. No one appears to have any  money for such investments at the present time . . . The Captain  seems to be pretty hard up. He comes in periodically to see if there  is any money coming in from Esquimalt Road sales but not a cent  can be collected just now and I am afraid a lot of it will come back  on your hands." (Vol. 3, 2 November 1914)  Even when the economic picture appeared bleak, Lawson  continued to do his best and assured Rithet, "We are keeping a close  watch on the credit and keeping down expenses to the lowest point  possible." (Vol. 3, 31 August 1914) Their bank overdraft had been  bumped up to $125,000, but they found themselves over that amount  by $24,500 in December 1914. A desperate Lawson declared: "We  cannot keep the business going and pay off the liabilities as well."  (Vol. 3, 7 December 1914)  One of those liabilities was the Columbia Flouring Mill's  $70,000 debt at the Bank of Montreal in Enderby. Lawson suggested  Moffet house, Belvedere Street, Enderby 1912. (Enderby & District Museum)  that Rithet personally intervene with senior management at the  Bank of Montreal and especially with Sweeney. "I enclose a draft  of a letter we propose to write to him. Please look it over and make  any suggestions you may think advisable. While we send this draft  for your consideration would suggest that a personal letter from  you would have much more effect and if you decide to take it up  with him please destroy our letter." (Vol. 3, 24 November 1914)  Either Rithet delayed writing his letter or it had no effect,  because by January 1915 the acting superintendent of the Bank of  Montreal in Vancouver had written a nasty letter asking for some  41 R. P. RITHET AND THE CLOSURE OF THE COLUMBIA FLOURING MILL  definite action on the outstanding account. "This is a very perceptory  (sic) demand and calls I think for some very definite reply," Lawson  told Rithet. (Vol. 3, 19 January 1915)  It became very clear that the bank wasn't interested in the  property as a substantial debt payment; it wanted something more  liquid. Lawson catalogued what options Rithet might have. Unfortunately for Rithet, his shares in the "Cattle Company or the Western Canadian Flour Mills" were already held by the Bank of Commerce. Did he wish to pledge shares belonging to the Proprietary  Company (the main Rithet holding company)? Lawson thought not  for two reasons: (1) that company had not taken on the debt directly, and (2) it was obvious from previous correspondence that  Rithet did not wish to alienate any more of these shares. In the end,  Lawson thought that the Wharf Shares in the Victoria Scaling Company valued at $40,000 might be acceptable to the bank. He was  hoping that the bank would be willing to write down about half the  debt. (Vol. 3, 4 and 5 February 1915)  In the end, it was the Bank of Commerce that was willing to  once again come to the rescue of the Rithet empire and pay off the  Columbia Flouring Mill debt. (Vol. 3, 25 March 1915)  So ended the saga of the R.P. Rithet Company's involvement  with the Columbia Flouring Mill in Enderby. More than a crisis in  flour milling in the Okanagan Valley, the closure of the Enderby  mill was a result of the Rithet financial difficulties played out on  the larger stage of the province and the world.    ^  Dispatching  S'  CANADA  ER BILL (FEUILLE D'  BE USED B.Y POSTMASTfr  ' 3E. RAILWAY POST OFFICES WHE  THERE IS NO REGISTER9fWTTER TO BE DISPATCHED.  Les maitres de poste et les commis ambulant* doivent se servir  cette feuille quand ils njexptdient pas d'objets recommandes.  £V/aAT£ipc,  Stamp  From  de  TRAIN —TRAIN  FIX — ENVOliE  M.V.S.—AUTO  Initials of P. M. or Clerk Dispatching       Initials of P. M. or Clerk Receiving      Initiates du m. de p. ou du commis du bureau de depart.       Initiates du m. de p. ou du commis du bureau d'arriveo.  N.B. This Bill must be stamped and Initialled by the person Making Up, also by the person Opening the Mails  and be filed at Office of receipt.  N.B.—La personne qui confectionne les depeches et celle qui les depouille doivent timbrer cette feuille d'avis  et y inscrire leurs initiates.  Cette feuille sera gardee dans les archives du bureau d'arrivee.  2G—8,000,000-4-S-Sl.  RAILWAYS AND THE POST OFFICE once combined to provide ultra- A  efficient mail service. R. F (Bob) Marriage provides first-hand account of L?  Railway Post Office operations in the Okanagan-Shuswap.  42 WHEN THE POST  OFFICE RODE TH  RAILS  R. F. Marriage  For 60 years the Okanagan Valley was dependent on the railways for the transport of mail to and from the rest of the  country. When the Canadian Pacific main line was completed  in 1885, the Valley was already in transition from cattle ranching to  the more complex agricultural economy still prevailing. The land  would become more closely settled and urban communities would  develop, all the while enjoying the benefits of the railway age.  The railways held two types of contract to carry mail on  their passenger or mixed trains: (a) "RPO" (Railway Post Office),  using cars equipped for sorting in transit by clerks employed by  the Post Office Department; (b) "BCS" (Baggage Car Service) carry-  the train baggageman. A  iat^i^fcfic^Bened until it reaches  ing closed mails in posj  "closed" mail shipj  the depot namej  routes where^  sorting en rt  ments andfce  rcai  space o(f|jppie(  iar roui  and to  fold: to]  ible mrj  include (!  directioi  north-soul  the letters''  bers. Purpose  to mount a Cc  rere'estal  msid^ed  HSe o  coul  '-ere royirmjpmsbd'for m^fts of md  the train. These travelling oljjrceyji  ing device .known to the putffrajs  the office and date of maili  lumber or a letter (E, W, Nj  All North^njgydcan rail  ht on ejjlsi^Bivision.%ver a p  Indicate airStiin were replaced  lt cars included brackets at the wj  ed only on those  ient to require  or compart-  raised  ment and  the famil-  ostmark"  was two-  ve a leg-  ters also  icate the  esignated  od of years  train num-  ing doorways  >o  Ste  he clerk to^p-ab mail from a  us. The^Hsurefy schedule of  trackside crane  Okanagan trains did rW^jJuiire A:iffi0&gchire\  Before British Columbia joined Canada in 1871, the few settlers in the Okanagan had postal service available only at  Similkameen and Rock Creek, offices established in 1859 and closed  R. F. (Bob) Marriage worked for Canada Post until retirement in 1980. He was  secretary of the OHS from 1979 to 1990.  43 WHEN THE POST OFFICE RODE THE RAILS  in 1863. Mail was carried by pack train on the Dewdney Trail from  Hope. Service was provided again in the south country when the  Osoyoos post office opened in 1884. In 1870 the Crown Colony  opened post offices at Kamloops and "Duck and Pringles" (Monte  Creek, so named in 1896). They received mail from Cache Creek,  on the Cariboo Road, served by the stages to Barkerville. "Okanagon"  post office, the first in the Valley, was established at O'Keefe Ranch  in August 1872, followed by "Okanagon Mission" in October of the  same year. B.C. Express Company secured the contract from Cache  Creek to the "Head of the Lake." Another contract was let to serve  the Mission. The Spallumcheen post office opened at Lansdowne  in 1881 and would most likely have required a side service from  O'Keefe's.  J. B. Leighton eventually took the mail contract for the stage  run from Cache Creek and held it from 1881 until the CPR commenced regular service on the main line in 1886. A transfer then  became possible at Sicamous, offering a much faster and cheaper  route into the Okanagan Valley. Clerks on the transcontinental train  despatched all "south" mail at Sicamous and the cross-country route  from Monte Creek was soon abandoned for mail, passengers and  express.  By 1887 post offices were set up in Sicamous, Enderby and  Vernon. James Schubert, an Overlander of 1862, purchased some  of the Leighton equipment and ran a stage from Sicamous on the  wagon road until much of the right-of-way along Mara Lake was  forfeited to the new Shuswap and Okanagan Railway (S&O). We  can find nothing certain on record, but the steamer Red Star could  have moved the mail and other traffic as far as Enderby, the upper  limit of navigation on Shuswap River. From there Schubert's stage  could operate through to Lansdowne, O'Keefe's and Vernon. However, this is all conjecture—it is not known if Schubert had a mail  contract—but other business would, no doubt, be on offer. Armstrong post office did not open until the S&O was in regular operation in 1892.  In 1905 the Post Office Department changed the official  spelling of Okanagon to the present form at all offices using the  word in their title. Lansdowne's Spallumcheen office closed in 1908  and the Okanagan office at O'Keefe followed suit in 1912 on the  retirement of Cornelius O'Keefe. The various spellings of both  Spallumcheen and Spillimacheen, near Golden, and the resultant  confusion which persisted as late as the 1960s, would make a story  in itself. An article about place names in the Society's 12th Report  offers information about Valley post offices, many now closed.  The S&O carried closed mail as soon as it opened in 1892. A  similar service commenced in 1893 on Okanagan Lake when the  44 WHEN THE POST OFFICE RODE THE RAILS  steamer Aberdeen was launched. However, the growth of settlement  and business in the Valley obviously warranted use of a postal car  to make up mails for local exchange on the line, together with a  closed bag to go south on the boat. In 1894 an RPO was established  between Sicamous and Okanagan Landing. Around the turn of the  century the new daters were being made and one was issued reading "Okanagan Landing & Sicamous RPO," abbreviated to OL&S.  William Finlayson was the first clerk employed on the line.  From 1893 members of his family ran the general store and post  office at Sicamous, holding the postmaster's position until William's  son Doug retired in 1954. At Okanagan Landing, other Finlaysons  occupied a similar position from 1908 until 1969—122 years of combined service.  Early in the century it became obvious that the closed mails  on the lake steamers were inadequate and Ottawa was urged to  Zenith of speedy mail dispatch in pre-electronic days was attained by railway post  offices. Perpetual travellers, postal crews rode trains - and boats - processing a  continuous stream of mail to be dropped off at destinations along the way. (c.1905  photograph courtesy National Archives of Canada [PA59920]).  supply an RPO. After much pressure was applied by municipal  councils and other bodies, the Aberdeen and Okanagan were fitted  with mail rooms on their freight decks in 1911. Although it was a  Water Service, the route was designated "Penticton and Okanagan  Landing RPO." At the same time a similar improvement—long overdue—was made on the busy Arrow Lakes run from Robson to Arrowhead, which connected the West Kootenay mining area to the  CPR at Revelstoke. Plans of the Sicamous (launched 1914) included  a mail room. The trains and boats with clerks sorting mails en route  offered a quality of service never since equalled.  45 WHEN THE POST OFFICE RODE THE RAILS  This arrangement lasted until 5 January 1935, when the  still crude highways of the day forced the CPR to withdraw the  Sicamous from service. The vessel was reported to be losing $14,000  a month, a sizeable sum at that time. The Aberdeen had been laid  up in 1916. The Okanagan was retired from service in 1934.  Already holding running rights over the CNR from Vernon  to Kelowna, the CPR extended its passenger (mixed) run to Kelowna and soon abandoned the branch from Vernon to Okanagan  Landing. A new RPO (Kelowna & Sicamous) was established 1 January 1935 and a contract made with Chapman's trucking company  to haul closed mails between Kelowna and Penticton. In the 1940s  the Kelowna & Sicamous RPO was augmented by closed-bag service on the CN line from Kamloops to the Okanagan, southbound  only. In the 1950s it became clear that the rapidly-improving highways would soon force the railways to reduce and even eliminate  passenger trains. The Post Office gave notice in the spring of 1954  of intention to cancel both rail contracts in favour of establishing  truck service to haul closed mails between Kamloops and Okanagan Valley towns. The trucks would traverse a route the stages used  seven decades earlier.  The writer was employed on trains 708 and 707 the last day  the Railway Post Office car operated, 30 September 1954. Other  clerks employed on the line at that time were Everett F. Magaw  and Alfred D. Green, both deceased. After he left railway service  Green served as postmaster at Sicamous.  From 1915 to 1957 BCS on the Kettle Valley line carried  mails to and from the RPOs terminating westbound at Midway from  Nelson, and at Ruby Creek or Hope eastbound from Vancouver.  Penticton was a busy forwarding office serving that large area. Overnight service to and from Vancouver was an accepted routine for  40 years.  It's hard to realize now (1995) another 40 years have gone  by. Truck service has been extended and improved, but a substitute for sorting in transit has never been developed. And in combination with other factors, this has resulted in a decline in quality of  service. Modern methods of communication have rendered the  mails relatively unimportant to the great majority of people.  Editor's note: For more information on early mail service,  see "Stagecoaches in the North Okanagan—1872-1892" by Ken  Mather in the 52nd Report.  Sources:  Boundary Historical Society, 10th Report 1985  Okanagan Historical Society annual Reports  Kelowna Daily Courier  L. M. Ludlow, Catalogue of Canadian Railway Cancellations, 1982  G. H. Melvin, Post Offices of British Columbia, 1972  46 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID  EPIDEMIC  Dong Kermode  Illustrated with this article is a photograph of the old Vernon  Jubilee Hospital. Prior to its first major addition in 1949, it served  the community well for more than 30 years on the ground originally donated by Samuel Poison in 1907. But in late 1943 and early  1944, the facilities were taxed to the limit by an outbreak of typhoid fever. Fifty-five citizens contracted the virulent disease: five  died. Most of the afflicted were treated as isolation cases at the  hospital, while a few were dealt with at home. My wife, Nesta, and  I both came down with the complaint and were patients in the  Jubilee. The epidemic was caused by contaminated milk. In this  article we will endeavour to outline some of the complexities involved.  As it was wartime, a general shortage of medical and nursing personnel prevailed. Patients were lucky, indeed, that many  volunteers such as Anna Cail, Grace Nichols and the late Betty  Baillie greatly helped retired nurses and overworked staff. Fortunate, too, was the fact we had such knowledgeable doctors as Hugh  Campbell-Brown, John Harvey and Hugh Alexander. Harvey was  the first to suspect the culprit. Typhoid, rarely seen then, had caused  most medical authorities to mistakenly conclude that some form  of the 'flu bug was causing so much distress.  That was the case in our family. My wife first complained  of neck stiffness, tiredness and heavy sweating, especially at night.  We learned that neighbour Jack Burnham was showing like symptoms, and had gone to the hospital. There were also others in various parts of the city who appeared to be victims of the same illness.  The following evening we attended a concert and Nesta  complained of really feeling sick. Her doctor, Hugh Campbell-  Brown, suggested she go to hospital for tests, where she remained  for two days. In that interval I, too, was visited by my own doctor,  John Harvey, as I was also feeling poorly. He inquired where our  Doug Kermode is a past-president of Vernon OHS branch and a retired professional photographer. Author's note: The medical terminology proved a bit tricky,  so I am indebted to several doctors for their assistance. Dr. Art Sovereign and Dr.  Bob Henderson gave helpful advice. Dr. Jack Wiggin, a retired newcomer to the  Vernon area, was a valued editor.  47 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID EPIDEMIC  milk came from and when I told him he said he strongly felt that  Nesta, and possibly I, had typhoid fever. He reached this conclusion from his concern about Jack Burnham, who received milk  from the same supplier. Likewise, inquiries by Campbell-Brown's  colleagues were pinpointing the same source of this mysterious  complaint. It was suggested I get an anti-typhoid shot. There would  be little or no reaction if I was not infected. If I had the bacillus,  then I would probably feel worse. What about our nine-month-old  baby, Arlene? When the doctor was informed she was still on a  formula (canned milk), he was relieved, as were we.  The following day I was not feeling any too spry, but I had  to go to the studio that evening to print up some urgent films for  the police department. I asked my good friend Bob Nelson to assist  me, because about this time the doctor's admonition about possibly feeling worse if I had contracted the disease was certainly evident in a splitting headache. Bob finished up my work and I left for  home. The next day I entered a hospital ward next to Nesta's, who  was now a confirmed victim. Patients continued to pour in for the  next seven to 10 days, depending on the incubation period of the  "bug" in their systems.  Many of the serious epidemics that plagued our civilization  only a few years back have now been conquered, or their severity  lessened by wonder drugs. Consequently, it might be in order to  digress for a few lines to chronicle what it was like to experience  typhoid and the treatment necessary to combat such a virulent  disease.  It would appear the outbreak in Vernon that affected so  many had its origin in a dairy that supplied all the victims. Soon  the ravages of this quite serious—often fatal—disease began to surface: violent headaches, nausea, lack of appetite and high fever  resulting in very profuse sweating, with many patients exhibiting  delirium. Of prime importance in treatment was a bland diet of  milk, poached eggs and cream-of-wheat (as every precaution must  be made to avoid roughage). The lining of the intestines is subject  to a type of ulceration that can cause perforation and produce peritonitis. With no desire to eat and under strict instructions not to  move more than necessary, spoon feeding was patiently administered to us by the volunteers and nursing staff—angels of mercy—  to whom my wife and I will always be grateful (likewise for the  overworked regular nursing staff, medicos and orderlies). One of  the real treats patients looked forward to was a complete change of  pyjamas. The severe sweating would soak them completely in half  an hour and be followed by grim headaches, high fever and bed-  shaking chills. When this condition was at its worst thermometer  48 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID EPIDEMIC  readings ranged from 102 to 104 degrees F and I can recall that the  doctor prescribed morphine to relieve the high fever and body aches.  Fever and delirium were experienced by most patients. One  such session that overcame my hospital neighbour (I believe he  was the youngest victim at age nine) still remains only too vividly  in my mind. Geoff would quite frequently mutter unintelligible  words or phrases, and occasionally recount something that made  sense. But one morning he awoke with a shout and began clambering over his bed shrieking "FIRE, FIRE, FIRE" in ever-increasing  loudness and begging to be taken out of there. Then he struggled  over the edge of the bedframe, took one step and collapsed on the  floor, still screaming  to be let out. Soon  after he became unconscious and lay in  crumpled pyjamas  on the drafty floor.  Joe, a patient across  the ward, and I frantically rang for help,  without success. We  both had the same  urge to get out of  bed and get the boy  back in his. Re-  learning to walk  later showed the  wisdom of the admonition to stay in  bed as, for sure, we  too would have  ended up on the  floor. But that scene of poor Geoff lying helpless (undoubtedly undergoing those true-to-life delusions of a roaring fire) and us looking idly on, still loom in my memory. After what seemed an eternity, a nurse and an orderly arrived and got the lad back under the  covers.  Another case that perturbed us concerned "Will" (short for  his full name). One morning during the breakfast conflab, in a sincerely apologetic mind, he said he hoped he hadn't disturbed us  when he had parked his airplane just outside the hospital kitchen  area. Likewise, when he opened the clothes closet doors to hang  up his air force uniform. On several occasions he intertwined accounts of his air force exploits and plane parking. We became concerned Will was taking much longer to pull out of delirious periods  Nesta and Doug Kermode 1942. (Arlene Smith)  49 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID EPIDEMIC  than most others—especially when we learned that some years  earlier he had suffered from a slight mental disorder. We felt maybe  his problem would become permanent.  Delusions can be related so precisely by those under the  influence of a high fever that frequently you don't "twig" when a  story is true or mixed with fantasy. So it was with real relief one  morning that Will broke a long silence to ask if he had ever said  anything about parking a plane nearby, or about an air force uniform. We realized then his spell had been broken and rejoiced that  he was now on the road to recovery. He was able to join in chuckles as we regaled him with some of/his imaginary "air force" accounts.  After two weeks of bedridden misery, the good news came  that thermometer readings were stabilizing and that I would be  able to feed myself mashed potatoes no less!  Inquiries, relayed by a favourite nurse, confirmed that my  wife was coming along, too, but was not quite as far advanced as I  was. It was then we male patients learned through the grapevine  that three sufferers—one a girl of 14—had died. Later an elderly  couple also succumbed.  All treatments had to be administered under isolation procedures. Nurses and aides wore an additional gown over their regular uniforms and hung it up at the end of each ward after each visit.  Particular attention was paid to hand washing with disinfectant  solutions, as transmission of the disease is customarily by mouth.  Of special importance is the sterilization of bedpans and urinals, as  the patient's urine and stool are prime carriers of the typhoid bacillus which is cultured in the ulcerated lining of the intestines. The  test that will release one from being contagious (except designated  carriers) is a negative report from stool culture for three consecutive weeks. Finally the day comes when one's appetite has improved, temperature readings are OK and you are permitted to sit  up in bed, the next day to dangle your legs over the edge. Later you  watch fellow patients get on their legs for the first time, assisted by  a nurse on each side. By this time, as you see their rubbery legs  collapse, you are convinced that the moment you put your feet on  the floor you will easily go from bed to bed without assistance.  However, the cold truth strikes forcibly when you discover the complete loss of limb power for yourself.  It is a devastating realization, but with the assistance of those  faithful nurses and the aid of bedposts (too far distant) you eventually manage to log a half-ward length. The next dire shock comes  when the day of your discharge arrives (now six weeks from admission) to find someone has blatantly enlarged all your clothes.  Glancing casually at the scale, the nurse remarks I am now 42  50 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID EPIDEMIC  pounds lighter than the day I checked in. However, following recovery four months later, the proverbial "eat like a horse" rule takes  over and now, at 190 pounds, all clothes buttons simply do not  match.  So much for the clinical descriptions of this debilitating illness. It took Nesta and I about six months before we could go a full  day without an afternoon siesta, but again good friends like Vera  Olppingdale and Mrs. "Mike" Carew staunchly filled the gaps and  attended to baby Arlene.  Where does the typhoid mystery come in? Much argument  prevailed in civic and medical circles as to its origin and distribution. We patients, with time on our hands, managed to provide a  useful clue before we left the hospital.  Contaminated water was a prime suspect. The creek that  went through the centre of Vernon, as well as bordering the supplier's property, originated in marshy land northeast of the city. It  flowed in open ditches, finally ending up in Okanagan Lake. An  additional mystery confronted the experts when it was revealed  that the vendor, who did not pasteurize his milk, had secured additional supplies from another dairy that DID pasteurize its product.  Nevertheless, known consumers of this milk source and of milk  independently bottled by the suspect major supplier, also became  typhoid victims.  One case in particular—almost an Agatha Christie puzzler—  was the story of 17-year-old Marshall Garrett, in the bed across  from me. Marshall was a top figure skater, gracing the ice at many  functions in the arena at that time. He later rose to professional  Old Jubilee hospital was battleground of Vernon's 1943 typhoid epidemic (Vernon  Museum)  status and was a star for several years with the American Ice Cycles and Canadian Holiday on Ice. It was established that neither  he nor his brothers, or his mother purchased milk from the suspect  dairy. Yet Marshall had a full-blown case of typhoid. This, however,  51 VERNON'S 1943 TYPHOID EPIDEMIC  provided a clue that proved to be an important link. One of the  patients, who had been originally diagnosed with the "flu," had arrived two weeks earlier from the Mabel Lake area, where he had  been living with an in-law. Doctor Harvey's diagnosis classified the  male as also having typhoid. Owing to his earlier contamination,  he was one of the first to be discharged. This young man, perhaps  20 years old, was also related to the milkman's wife and had been  staying with the operator's mother-in-law. There was little doubt in  our mind that the older woman was the carrier, but it took the  experts a further two months to gather the data and crystallize the  facts. This woman had come into Vernon for one evening to assist  her relative in bottling the milk for the following morning's delivery. She had taken part in washing the bottles prior to filling and  had contaminated the water from her own hands. Here, then, lay  the explanation as to how the pasteurized milk from the other dairy  also bore typhoid germs. Pasteurizing is null and void once the  milk is cooled and is again contaminated with bacteria, which of  course happened when it was put into bottles rinsed in the impure  wash water.  All these facts were verified later. Hence, the explanation  for the raw and pasteurized customers coming down from the one  supplier and the equally perplexing question as to how Marshall  Garrett became infected. It proved to be a simple incident (as many  are). He had gone to the home of his friend, Ted Strothers, became  thirsty and drank a glass of milk. Ted was also a customer of that  same nefarious dairy and, presto, Marshall was shortly in the hospital. Strangely, neither Ted nor one of his brothers was infected,  but other brothers Boon and Bob, unfortunately, did fall victim to  the capricious malady.  Medical advisors informed me that the gall bladders of carriers house the bacillus in concentrated form, but the carriers themselves usually do not display the symptoms of typhoid. In pre-anti-  biotic days the cure was to surgically remove gall bladders.  By the time our "Typhoid Mary" had been identified she  had moved away from Vernon to a Prairie location. Apparently  good fortune prevailed—for a time anyway—as no outbreak was  noted at her new area.  The creaky old Vernon hospital, with its hand-operated elevator, served our community long and well before being condemned by the fire department. It was replaced by the first modern structure in 1949 and further updated from 1968 to 1974. But  we "typhoiders" of 1943 have good reason to be thankful for that  old edifice and the staff, medical personnel and volunteers who  accommodated an extra 40-odd very sick patients during that trying period.  ^  52 HUNTERS RANGE  HUNTERS RANGE  This article is a compilation of reports given to the fall 1995 meeting of the Armstrong-Enderby branch of the OHS by Len Bawtree  and Rob Dale of Enderby; Ernie Schweb of Salmon Valley, and  Terry Nitchie of Armstrong. Editing by Eleanore Bolton and Robert  Cowan.  Hunters Range is a high alpine zone on the west flank of the  Monashee Mountains. The southern end begins at the  Enderby Cliffs and follows a northeasterly direction to  Three Valley Gap. To the east, the range is bounded by the Wap  River and Mabel Lake. Much of the area surmounts the 6,000-foot  level, making for extensive meadows above timberline.  Shortly after the arrival of Europeans, trappers began to  traverse Hunters Range. One of the earliest of these men was Harry  Blurton, who had been born in England in 1873, and who arrived  in Lansdowne in 1892. He built a small cabin near Sweetsbridge  and later homesteaded at Mara, close to the creek that today bears  his name. In 1905 he established a trapline up Blurton Creek and  along the range to Mara Mountain, coming down at Sicamous.  Other early trappers included Tom Mant and Jack Bulman,  along with the Dale brothers, Dougie, Billy and Johnny. These men  covered the southeastern sections of the range including the drainage areas of Noisy, Kingfisher and Cook creeks. The marten was  Trapper's cabin on Hunters Range. Photo taken in 1920 by H. J. Blurton (Robert  Dale)  53 HUNTERS RANGE  the main animal trapped. It quickly became scarce in the lower  areas, so trappers established lines higher up on the range.  In 1880 British Columbia placed under federal jurisdiction  a strip of land extending 20 miles on each side of the Canadian  Tightly woven lambswool blankets-on-the-hoof cross Shuswap River at Enderby.  54 (Donovan Clemson photograph courtesy Doris Clemson)  55 HUNTERS RANGE  prevention. Joss Mountain Lookout was built in 1921 and one was  placed at Eagle Pass the following year. In 1925 the lookout on  Mara Mountain was completed at an elevation of 7,200 feet.  Contact with all these stations was maintained by trails and  telephone lines. The Mara Mountain trail started at Sicamous Creek.  A service and line cabin was built about six miles north of the lookout and has been called the "Cache Cabin" ever since. It was used  by the men maintaining the trail and telephone line, as well as by  packers bringing in supplies. It was fully stocked with lamps, dishes  and a bed. To this day it continues to shelter hikers in the summer  and snowmobilers in winter. The original guest book is still there,  with its many signatures and comments from bygone days.  Many of the lookouts were closed down when the Dominion government turned the Railway Belt back to the province in  1930. Mara Mountain lookout, however, was retained and rebuilt in  1950. It continued to be used until 1994 by the Ministry of Forests.  No decision has been made about the eventual fate of this lookout  on the highest point in Hunters Range. Although the Joss Mountain lookout was closed in 1930, it is still in pretty good shape, probably because it is not so easily accessible.  Some of the wildlife found on Hunters Range includes: caribou, moose, mule deer, cougar, mountain goat, grizzly and black  bear, coyote and wolverine.  In the 1920s sheep farmers began grazing their flocks on  the Range in the summer months. Some of the early users were  Robert Davidson, Anthony Holland, Shorty Ferar, Krueger, W A.  Moving camp by pack horse 1955. Bert Schweb (left) and sheepherder Ed McNeely.  (Bert Schweb)  56 HUNTERS RANGE  Hunting party returning from Fish Lake area; 1908 photograph by H. J. Blurton.  (Robert Dale)  Palmer, Dave Crerar, Alfred Bryce, the Bostock Ranch of Monte  Creek, Bert Smith of Hullcar and Walter Schweb from Salmon River.  In the early 1930s there had been a large fire in the Kingfisher forest and the sheep enjoyed a two-week graze in this area  before being moved higher. Sometimes pack horses loaded with  trout fingerlings from the fisheries department would accompany  the sheep. The fingerlings would be released in some of the numerous lakes on Hunters Range. In October, when the first snow  appeared, the sheep were driven down the mountain to their winter grounds on the valley bottom.  Sam Edgar, who had a hook on one arm, built a sheep trail  in 1926 from Zettergreen's place at Mara to the meadows and on to  Mara Mountain. This trail, although steep, was well built, with the  muskeg sections corduroyed and stretches across the open meadows marked by rock cairns. At the top corrals were built, the remains of which are still visible today, nearly 70 years later. Keith  Davy's eldest brother, Frank, packed on that trail when it was being built. Places for driving the sheep through abluestone solution  (to control foot rot) were also built.  R. A. Davidson used this trail in 1928. He grazed his animals on the back side of the range which necessitated bringing his  lambs down the Sicamous Creek trail for early market. These lambs  were sold under the "Alpine Lamb" label and earned a premium  price. Often these sheep ranchers would drive half their lambs to  either Enderby or Malakwa, where they would be loaded into  57 HUNTERS RANGE  boxcars. In the last years of sheep grazing on Hunters Range, the  animals were herded out to Kingfisher and loaded on to trucks.  In 1930 there were three to four thousand sheep feeding on  the range, where today there are one thousand cows grazing the  clear-cut logging sites and alpine areas. These logged swatches are  now almost up to the 6,000-foot level. Grazing fees in 1950 were 9  1/2 cents per ewe for the alpine season of 2 1/2 to three months.  The cost in 1995 for cattle was $6 per head for the grazing season!  The year 1964 marked the beginning of cattle-grazing on  the Range, when Keith Davy and Zoltan Balas took stock up there  from the Mara area. Predators were not so great a problem for these  larger animals as they had been for sheep. Bert Schweb continued  to take up sheep until 1970 when he, too, switched to cattle. It was  no longer viable to move sheep on the highways, due to the increasing traffic.  In 1949 Len Bawtree and Charlie Hawes made an arrangement with Jack Smith of Armstrong Sawmills and Harry Danforth  of Enderby to finance a road up to some timber limits between  5,000 and 5,500 feet. The road is still in use 46 years later. At the  time of construction cat work on the road cost $1,700 a mile.  The first road from Ashton Creek into Hunters Range was  built in 1951. The Forest Service extended this road in 1956 for fire  access. The way was very steep and only negotiable with a four-  wheel-drive vehicle in dry weather.  In 1957 the Hunters Range Alpine Club was formed with  the idea of having annual treks to the high meadows, with their  magnificent views, lovely wildflowers and clean air. Groups travelled up to Mara lookout on either the Ashton Creek or Kingfisher  Sheep dining out on Hunters Range in 1955. (Bert Schweb)  58 HUNTERS RANGE  Creek access routes. With the announcement by the Department  of Transport in 1959 that it was planning to build an air navigation  structure on the mountain, interest in the club subsided.  A contract was let in 1959-60 for the world's first underground radio range set on top of a mountain. Rather than extending the roof for 300 feet to get the required unobstructed flat surface, the mountaintop was blown off and levelled. A building was  constructed inside the mountain with access via a tunnel. The  project, at 6,600 feet, was the second-highest VOR site in Canada  (the highest being at Kimberley at 7,500 feet). Initially, Enderby  people under the direction of Richard Archer serviced the facility.  Today the maintenance staff comes from Kelowna.  Since 1965 snowmobiling has become a popular winter activity on the Range. In 1980 the Hunters Range Snowmobile Association built a chalet in the meadows at the head of Blurton Creek  near the road going to the VOR site. In 1992 the old log chamber of  commerce travel information centre—built by Charlie Bubar in the  early 1970s—was moved seven miles past the Ministry of Transport site to an area called The Saddle. It is used as an emergency  shelter and was named after an avid snowmobiler, Gordon Sydney  of Armstrong.  Hunters Range will continue to be a multi-use area, with  recreational pursuits such as snowmobiling in winter, hiking and  fishing in summer, coupled with economic activities such as logging, trapping and grazing. |g|  59 100 YEARS AT ALL SAINTS'  ANGLICAN CHURCH  VERNON  Lucy McCormick  In the beginning a group of Church of England members gathered for a divine service in a barn at the Coldstream Ranch  through the good auspices of owner Forbes Vernon. The service was conducted on 16 September 1881 by Bishop A. W Sillitoe,  whose duties as Bishop of New Westminster made him responsible  for the vast area of the interior of B.C. His sermon was interrupted  by a loudly-cackling hen laying an egg and then by noisy chipmunks running along the barn beams. The bishop and his wife  were used to such incidents in their pioneer journeys through the  frontier land.  C. W Holliday, in his book The Valley of Youth, tells an anecdote about Bishop Sillitoe's visit to Vernon to plan a new church.  The young bachelors—mostly English—donated $5 each towards  the building fund and decided to celebrate the occasion by having  an impromptu banquet for the bishop at the Kalamalka Hotel. The  party carried on after the bishop had retired, indulging in a favourite form of hijinks—riding chairs around the room "cowboy style"  with a dreadful clatter. On seeing the bishop the next morning the  youngbloods apologized to their guest, who diplomatically replied,  "Oh, I never heard anything like that!"  On 30 April 1893 All Saints' Anglican Church was dedicated.  The first rector, Reverend T. W Outerbridge, celebrated matins and  communion. The first lesson was Deuteronomy, Chapter 4, Verse  1.  The first church, a wooden building, was at the corner of  Tronson and Whetham streets, now 31st Street and 31st Avenue. It  was built by Edwin Harris for $2,000. The tower housed a small  bell, which had a double duty as the town fire alarm.  The first baptisms were on 27 June 1893 and Bishop Sillitoe  conducted the first confirmation on 12 October 1893. The first wedding was on 10 May 1893 when Charles E. Costerton exchanged  vows with Gertrude Ann Perry. Moses Lumby, Vernon's first gov-  Lucy McCormick is a retired teacher, a past president of Vernon OHS branch  and life member of Okanagan Historical Society.  60 100 YEARS AT ALL SAINTS' ANGLICAN CHURCH VERNON  ernment agent, was one of the witnesses. Descendants of Mr. and  Mrs. Costerton are still members of All Saints'.  The first burial service was for Dr. John Chipp, father of  Clara Matilda Dewdney, later the wife of W. F. Cameron.  Notes in Lady Aberdeen's 1896 journal mention a concert  organized by Rev. Outerbridge, where he was not only chairman  but also sang. A talented young man, Rev. Outerbridge usually wore  lavender gloves with black trim—a source of amusement in this  wild-west town. He persuaded the Aberdeens to attend this Church  of England concert even though they were devout Presbyterians.  The rector and the small congregation suffered through  rocky times as the parish was being established. Some comments  from the register attest to the problems:  No service. Rector has neuralgia.  Very small congregation. Ink frozen solid.  No one lit the stove so no heat. Congregation went home.  Offertory 50 cents—poor congregation—four in church,  two in choir.  Snow and thaw, poor congregation. Poor choir and very  lazy!  Thursday in Holy Week. What is the world coming to!  Ttoo men actually came to church!  Eclectic architectural style produced striking second All Saints' church in 1907. In  1931 it was destroyed by fire. (Vernon Museum)  61 100 YEARS AT ALL SAINTS'ANGLICAN CHURCH VERNON  After the Women's Guild was formed it was called upon to  provide heating, lighting and caretaking. Thus began a tradition of  service that carries on today in other forms.  The opening of All Saints' coincided with the inauguration  of the City of Vernon and construction of the Sicamous-Okanagan  rail line. This meant more settlers and in 1905 plans were made to  raise funds for a larger church. Eventually a new church was built  on Mara Avenue (27th Street) and it was consecrated 9 June 1907.  Many donations were made to the church by local parishioners and friends in England. The bell was provided by parishioners of 25 years' standing. Rector of the new church was Reverend J.  H. Lambert. As the population increased in the outlying districts  services were held in various areas. St. James The Less was built in  1913 and consecrated on Easter Day.  During WWI, Vernon army camp became a very busy place  and the women of the parish made welcome many families of men  stationed there, as well as working tirelessly to provide comforts  for the troops overseas.  On 8 September 1931 a great loss occurred when All Saints'  became a charred ruin at the hands of an arsonist. The chapel  erected as a memorial to the men who died in the Great War was  saved, due to the efforts of the Vernon firemen, Canon Gibson and  other volunteers. Plans immediately went forward to replace the  destroyed church and the United Church kindly loaned the former  Methodist church for Anglican services in the intervening period.  (On 30 August 1985 Trinity United Church suffered a similar fate  and All Saints' came to the rescue until a new building was erected  in the spring of 1987).  A new All Saints' place of worship was dedicated by Bishop  A. J. Doull 8 November 1932 and loyal parishioners replaced many  of the beautiful furnishings lost in the fire.  By 1939 Canada was at war once more and Vernon army  camp had a great influx of military units from across Canada. Evacuees from overseas, especially children, came to live with families  and friends. Once again Vernon Anglicans rallied in support of the  war effort.  One of the many dedicated people serving the church at  this time was Sister Lois of the Society of St. John the Divine. Her  service as a parish social worker is still well remembered by older  members. She was of great assistance to Canon H. C. B. Gibson,  who, with his sisters Mabel and Susan, served All Saints' with devotion for 26 years. A Chinese Mission was also established with Reverend George Lim Yuen as minister, and from time to time he rendered much assistance to Canon Gibson.  62 100 YEARS AT ALL SAINTS' ANGLICAN CHURCH VERNON  From 1914 to 1942 All Saints' parish was home to Bishop A.  J. Doull, first Bishop of Kootenay, and his successor, Bishop W R.  Adams.  The year 1953 marked the diamond jubilee of All Saints'  and it was celebrated by a special service in April, followed by a  banquet on 21 May. This was a very festive affair attended by 300  people, with many tributes to early rectors and noteworthy parishioners. Reverend L. A. C. Smith was rector at this period.  During the incumbency of Canon C. E. Reeve, 1955-1971,  the former  Women's Institute Hall was  moved to the  back of the  church and  used as a  school for  handicapped  children, later  as a hostel and  now as a nursery school.  As previously mentioned, the  women of the  parish played a  most important role in the  life of the  church. From  early days the  Guilds   have  raised funds by  c     All Saints' as it appears today. (Vernon Museum)  a   variety   of yy * v J  means for the myriad needs of the church and have also done their  share in community life through visits to care homes and by participating in the Meals on Wheels program.  The men's groups are concentrating at present on raising  money to replace the parish hall which is no longer adequate for  the growing congregation. Over the years the men have been responsible for the building maintenance and ever-ready to help in  any way.  Sunday School, youth groups and choirs have been active  since the first days. Dedicated leaders have guided young people  63 100 YEARS AT ALL SAINTS' ANGLICAN CHURCH VERNON  in Christian teaching and fellowship and many older members look  back fondly on Sunday School outings. One well-known junior choir  was organized by Molly Boyd and toured under the name of The  Singing Saints.  Within the parish were two private schools, St. Michael's  Girls' School and Vernon Preparatory School for Boys. Girls from  St. Michael's "clomped" along the wooden sidewalks—crocodile fashion—to attend Sunday morning service at All Saints'. Boys from the  preparatory school attended on special occasions.  In the span of 100 years All Saints' has had many dedicated  rectors and curates. In this brief history it was not possible to mention them all, however in later years Reverend Roy Hoult, Canon  Paul Robinson and the first woman priest, Reverend Jane  Moorhouse Bourcet, have worked tirelessly fulfilling their Christian ministry. At time of writing All Saints' was welcoming a new  rector, Reverend Dr. Peter Davison.  Footnote: This history of All Saints' Anglican Church was prepared as a script for part  of the entertainment at the 100th anniversary dinner 1 May 1993.  SOURCES:  1) Much of the early history was recorded in A Tree Grows in Vernon, by Bishop A. H. Sover  eign.  2) Lady Aberdeen's Diary, edited by R. M. Middleton.  3) Valley of Youth, C. W. Holliday.  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION was a fitting site for the 1996 OHS picnic, hosted by  Kelowna branch. Log dwelling in background belonged to Okanagan pioneers Joseph  and Annie Christian. (Denis Marshall photograph)  64 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN  SALMON ARM  Reginald Humphries  On Thanksgiving weekend, October 1995, the Catholic parish community of St. Joseph's in Salmon Arm gathered to celebrate the centennial  of the first Mass offered in Salmon Arm by Father Augustine Dontenwill,  OMI, in July 1895. The centennial theme of Homecoming and Thanksgiving acknowledged the contribution and commitment of parishioners and pastors, past and present, to the development of a vibrant community of faith, and invited all to participate in a spirit of thanksgiving  for the blessings of the first 100 years.  This article is an excerpt from a Parish History written for inclusion in  the current parish directory. The article covers the period from 1895 to  1926.  On 10 October 1838, Fathers Norbet Blanchet and Modeste  Demers crossed the Rocky Mountains through the Athabasca  Pass to become the first Catholic priests to enter the interior of B.C. On Sunday, 14 October 1838, Father Demers celebrated  Mass—the central act of Catholic worship—at Boat Encampment,  about 100 miles north of Revelstoke. Father Blanchet referred to  this as the first Mass said in the Diocese of Oregon, the name given  to the Pacific Northwest at that time. The priests continued down  the Arrow Lakes to Colville in Washington. Both pioneer clerics  were later consecrated as bishops, Father Demers becoming Bishop  of Vancouver Island.  Almost 60 years were to pass until a priest reached Salmon  Arm to offer the Sacrifice of the Mass for the few Catholic residents  of the community. To understand the sequence of events that preceded the first Mass said in the living room of the Cameron Hotel  in July 1895, one needs to know about the religious order of the  Oblates of Mary Immaculate, founded in 1826 by Charles Joseph  Eugene de Mazenod, Bishop of Marseilles. These missionary priests  have worked tirelessly in British Columbia since 1858 when Father  D'herbomez, the Oblate vicar of the missions on the west coast,  requested permission from de Mazenod to establish missions on  the "Mainland" of British Columbia.  First was the Mission of the Immaculate Conception on the  eastern shore of Lake Okanagan, and the earliest link between  Reginald Humphries is a retired educator and a computer consultant in  Salmon Arm.  65 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  Salmon Arm and the pioneer priests of the Catholic faith in the  British Columbia interior lies with Father Charles Pandosy, the  "Apostle of the Okanagan." The mission founded by Father Pandosy  was reconstructed as an historical site in Kelowna in 1958. Moved  to the same site was the home of Joseph Christian (or Christien),  another pioneer of the Okanagan. A native of Quebec, Christian  came by sailing vessel to Panama, crossed the isthmus carried by  Negro coolies, and then re-embarked on a ship bound for Victoria.  Two fellow passengers befriended by Christian were Sisters of St.  Anne en route to  Victoria to found  the historic convent  and school of the  same name. On a  visit to Victoria in  1861, Father Pandosy convinced  Joseph Christian to  settle in the Okanagan.  In 1869, Christian travelled to The  Dalles, Oregon,  where he married  Annie Caron. They  returned to Kelowna where Annie  gave birth to a  daughter 25 April,  1870, but died 11  hours later. The  child, Annie Christian, is said to be the  first white girl born  in the Kelowna  area. Joseph was  assisted in raising  his daughter by his  relatives, Mrs.  Frank Young and Mrs. Louis Christian. Her father did not allow  Annie to start school until she was eleven, as the teacher up to that  time was always a man. Leonard Lequime was her only non-native  classmate when she began her formal education at the school 21/2  miles north of Okanagan Mission under the tuition of Miss Coughlin.  Years earlier, the Sisters of St. Anne suggested to Joseph that he  John Duncan and Annie Cameron family c.1894. (Pat  Timpany)  66 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  First Catholic Mass was said in 1895 in the Cameron Hotel. (Pat Timpany)  send his daughter to them for an education when she was older. So  in June 1883, Annie left on a 12-day journey to Victoria: by horse  and buggy to Yale, riverboat to New Westminster and then to the  Island on the steamer Yosemite. Two years elapsed before she returned home for a holiday.  Annie had planned to train as a nurse in Victoria but came  home to the Okanagan in the fall of 1886 and later went east to visit  relatives in Quebec. On her return to the Okanagan she married  John Duncan Cameron, 8 October 1888 in Vernon, the officiating  priest being Father Carion, OMI. Duncan was born in Port Lewis,  Quebec. He had arrived in the Okanagan in March 1887 and became manager of the Victoria Hotel in Vernon. Following his marriage, he continued to manage the Victoria, except for a short period when he and Annie returned to Okanagan Mission. They then  moved to Lansdowne, a community between Armstrong and  Enderby, where they operated the Lansdowne Hotel 1893-95. When  the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway located lower down on the  valley floor, the demise of Lansdowne was inevitable. The  Camerons next moved to Salmon Arm where Duncan Cameron,  together with John Tbbin, built the Cameron Hotel (or Cameron  House) above the railroad tracks on what is now Shuswap Avenue.  There was some resistance to the building of a hotel, as evidenced  by the following quote from the Inland Sentinel of Kamloops:  Salmon Arm, 21 November 1894—There are rumours of a hotel being put up here next summer. Mr. J. D. Cameron is around  the valley with Mr. Tbbin getting signatures for a license. We sincerely hope that the people of this valley will look into this matter  67 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  before it goes any further for the reason that the people here have  no money to spend on liquor.  Despite the warnings of the temperance movement, the hotel, built by J. Bolton, opened and was named "Cameron House."  The family continued to operate the business until 1901 when  Cameron was advised by his doctor to find other work. He subsequently purchased the Davis property on Harbell Road which had  been homesteaded in 1890. Photographs taken at the town school  in 1901 and at the Hedgman's Corner school in 1904 show several  of the Cameron children. Those 11 youngsters, all born in Salmon  Arm, were strongly influenced by the faith of their parents and the  dedication of the Oblate missionaries. As soon as practical, the children were baptized and received the sacraments of the church. An  entry in the parish register at Revelstoke has the following information:  On the 11th day of December, I Edmond Peytavin, O.M.I, have  baptized ad domicilium at Salmon Arm, Grace Florence Margaret  Cameron, born November 11, 1896, lawful child of John Duncan  Cameron and Annie Christian of Salmon Arm. Mr Mark Cameron  and Miss Alice Cameron, both of Cornwall, Ontario, being sponsor. Miss M. Violette standing as proxies, (registered in Kamloops).  The Catholic faith, nurtured by Joseph Christian and nourished by the ministry of the Oblate pioneer priests in Annie Christian, her husband, Duncan, and her children, was the best-recorded  foundation on which our contemporary Catholicism in the Shuswap  was built.  Ernest Doe notes in his history that in 1894 a Catholic family named Bunyan had lived in Salmon Arm. Patrick Owens and  John Dolan and their wives, who were members of the young Catholic community in later years, also appear in the British Columbia  Gazette record of residents of 1893. Doe says: "It is probable that a  priest . . . visited this family before 1895." John Bunyan kept a  store on the north side of Front Street near the current Saan store,  but facing the railroad tracks. Later the store was turned to face the  street, and was for a short time used as the first town school. Until  1908 this building was the R. J. Glasgow store, then it became part  of the "West End" or "John's Garage."  While there is no authenticated record of a visit by a priest  to these Catholics in Salmon Arm prior to 1895, Father Nicolas  Coccola from the Kamloops Mission had been assigned in August  of 1883 to minister to the railway workers in the CPR construction  camps. Coccola continued the ministry that the renowned Pere  Lacombe had undertaken on the prairies. In August of 1883 he arrived at Eagle Pass Landing, near present-day Sicamous. Though  there is no record in his memoirs of his having said Mass in Salmon  68 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  Arm, it is quite likely that Father Coccola, or Father Patrick Fay (or  Fey), a secular priest from Scotland who had been engaged by William Van Home, vice-president of the CPR, to serve the construction camps, may have said Mass in the community. With the completion of the railroad in 1885, Father Coccola returned to Kamloops  until he was posted to Cranbrook in 1887.  One of these itinerant priests may have visited Salmon Arm  en route to other missions. Annie Christian knew Father Fay, and  had travelled in his company from Kamloops when she was returning home from Victoria in 1886. Historical records of Catholic  ministry in the region show that Bishop Durieu administered the  Sacrament of Confirmation at St. Mary's Church on the  Spallumcheen Band Reserve south of Enderby in June 1891, and  that Mass was celebrated in the North Okanagan at places such as  O'Keefe Ranch, Head of the Lake Reserve and Vernon in earlier  years. The Kamloops Mission was established in 1878, and with the  Well-wishers at first wedding held in St. Joseph's Church in November 1910 pose with  the bridal couple, Lillian Cameron and Eugene Timpany.  completion of the CPR and the establishment of regular steamer  service on Lake Okanagan, it was decided to close the Okanagan  Mission shortly after the death of Father Pandosy in 1891.  There is some difference of opinion as to who offered the  first Mass in the sitting room of the Cameron Hotel in July 1895. At  this time the communities along the CPR line from Donald westward were served by priests stationed in Revelstoke. Doreen Carroll  and Helen Frattura in their article in the Salmon Arm Scrapbook  state that the first Mass was said by Father Peytavin. Their source  of information was Mrs. Sandy Reader, the second daughter of Annie  and Duncan, born Charlotte "Lottie" Cecilia Cameron on 12 January 1891.  69 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  Ernest Doe quotes J.D. Cameron when he states that the  first Mass was said by Father Dontonville (sic):  After the sale of the Cameron Hotel in 1901, visiting priests continued to say Mass in the Cameron home on Harbell Road in  Salmon Arm. Masses continued to be offered there until the completion of the first Catholic Church in 1908. Lillian Cameron, the  oldest daughter of J.D. Cameron, born in 1889, was the first bride  whose wedding was celebrated in the new church in Salmon Arm  after its consecration in 1908.  Father Peytavin, OMI, was the third priest to serve the  Revelstoke missions, his predecessors being Father J. A. Bedard,  OMI, who built the first church between Kamloops and Alberta in  Donald in 1888, and Father Joseph Accorsini, a diocesan priest from  the United States who served the railway missions until his transfer to Nelson in 1894. Father Peytavin had been among the first  group of Oblates to come to Kamloops, and among his ministries  was an assignment in Golden where he built a church, also in 1888.  In a written history of St. Francis of Assissi Parish in  Revelstoke, it is noted that Father Peytavin started the parish register in 1895. The register notes the first baptism was that of Catherine  Julian on 19 August 1895. The priest who performed the ceremony  was Reverend Father Dontenwill. It would seem quite probable  that Father Peytavin's summer replacement, Father Dontenwill  from the seminary of St. Louis in New Westminster, had also visited Salmon Arm in the summer of 1895, and therefore has the  honour of celebrating the first recorded Mass in this community.  Father Augustine Dontenwill (not Dontonville or  Dontenville as noted in some sources) was born in Bischwiller, Alsace in 1857. He was brought to the United States as a child, so he  was fluent in English as well as in French and German. A brilliant  student, his education was supervised by his uncle, a priest in the  States, who sent him to Ottawa University, known then as St.  Joseph's College. After his ordination in 1885, Father Dontenwill  taught for four years at the university prior to being sent out to  New Westminster as rector of St. Louis College. In 1897, at the age  of 40 and after six months spent in study and prayer at St. Joseph's  Mission in Williams Lake, he was consecrated coadjutor or auxiliary to Bishop Durieu of New Westminster.  He succeeded to the title of Bishop of New Westminster on  Durieu's death on 1 June 1899. Bishop Dontenwill was elected Superior-General of the Oblate Order in 1908 and held this post for 20  years. Augustine Dontenwill died in Rome on 30 November 1931.  In the British Columbia Record of March 1901, in an article chronicling the visit of Bishop Dontenwill to Revelstoke, the author notes:  70 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  His Lordship, when a simple priest, labored and was stationed at  Revelstoke during two summers and his visit was a source of delight to the old friends there.  The Catholic community of Salmon Arm was first served  by priests who were stationed at Revelstoke. Father Peytavin, who  had been in Kamloops since 1878, was stationed at Revelstoke in  1894. Father Henry A. Thayer, an American born in Massachusetts, succeeded Father Peytavin and the missions under his care  in 1898, when Father Peytavin was appointed pastor of the Church  of Sacred Heart in Kamloops. In those years Mass was said in  Revelstoke only on the fourth Sunday of each month at 10:30 a.m.  Other centres had Mass on the remaining Sundays of the month.  In 1901 Father Thayer went to Rome for a two-year course  of study and during his absence Father Francois-Regis Lardon served  as acting pastor. In 1904 Father Thayer left Revelstoke for the Coast.  His successor was Father Andre Michels of New Westminster, who  was replaced by Father Remi Pecoul from Greenwood and Grand  Forks. Father Pecoul, who was known to be an ardent curler, spent  much of his time in missionary work, travelling as far as the Okanagan and the American border to serve isolated Catholics. He left  the Oblate Order and went to the diocese of Boise, Idaho in 1908.  Following Father Pecoul, the mission of Salmon Arm came  under a succession of priests from Kamloops and Merritt. The first  of these was Father Andre Michels. It was Father Michels, together  with the pioneer residents, who were responsible for commencing  the construction of the first St. Joseph's Church in 1907.  Fundraising was an important part of parish life then as  now. A report in the Salmon Arm Observer of 29 November 1907  states that $115 was raised at a box social held at the home of the  Camerons. The draws for the raffles were made by Misses Kathleen  Owens and Vera Evans. The faith and hope of priests and pioneers  for the future growth of the community was rewarded when the  first St. Joseph's Church in Salmon Arm was consecrated on 9 February 1908 by Bishop Dontenwill of New Westminster. He was assisted by Father Lejeune and Father Rohr. Though the number of  Catholics was small, the parish built a church with a seating capacity of 100.  The next priest to serve the Salmon Arm area and the  Shuswap was Father Jean-Marie Le Jeune, born 12 April 1855 at  Pleyber-Christ, France. He completed his studies for the priesthood  in Autun, France, and was ordained in June 1879. From 1882 until  his death in 1930 he laboured with the Thompson, Nicola and  Shuswap Indians. Father Le Jeune served as the sub-deacon at the  consecration of St. Joseph's Church. His ministry to the native people was also an important part of Catholicism in the Shuswap.  71 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SALMON ARM  Father Jacques (James) Wagner, OMI, a native of  Nousseviller, France, studied in Holland and was ordained in  Huenfeld, Germany in 1899. He came to B.C. later that year, and  after working in Mission City, Cranbrook and Sechelt he moved to  Kamloops in 1911 and was initially placed in charge of the Nicola  and Thompson Valley missions. In 1912, Father Le Jeune took over  the Indian missions of the Nicola and gave Father Wagner the responsibility for Chase, Salmon Arm, Notch Hill and Tappen. Father  Wagner died in New Westminster in 1932 and is buried in Mission  City. Father E.C. Bellot, OMI, succeeded Fr. Wagner in 1916 and he  stayed in Merritt for a year. In turn, Father Herbert P. Bessette  presided over the local mission from 1917 to January 1919.  Father Bessette was born on 28 June 1888 in White Valley,  near Lumby, a son of Peter and Virginia Bessette. Father Bessette  visited Salmon Arm to minister to the community during the years  1917-19 while living in residence in Kamloops. His last years were  spent at Sechelt and Kakawis, where he died 7 May 1952. Father  Louis Choisnel, born at Geoltiere-en-Cogles, France, on 25 August  1878, was the next pastor for Sacred Heart, Merritt, and it was during his 20-month sojourn that a parish was established in Salmon  Arm, thus removing this community from his circuit. After his ordination on 13 July 1902, Father Choisnel came to the B.C. missions where he worked until 1914. In 1914 he returned to France  and was there until his return to B.C. in 1919. Father Choisnel returned to France in 1937 and died in 1952 at Notre Dame de Sion.  Father W B. McKenzie and his brother, J.C. McKenzie, were  pastors in Revelstoke and Salmon Arm in the years from 1911 to  1929. Father J.C. McKenzie was the first of the brothers to come to  B.C. as a newly-ordained priest from Prince Edward Island. Father  W.B. McKenzie's time in Salmon Arm was sandwiched between the  years 1919-1921 and 1926-1929 as parish priest in Revelstoke. Father McKenzie was living in retirement in Victoria at the time of  the consecration of the new St. Joseph's Church in 1967. Father  Chaloner, later to become Monsignor Chaloner, was pastor between  1926 and 1929.  With the arrival of a parish priest as a resident, the initial  phase of Catholic history in Salmon Arm was complete. The Oblates had served their missionary role with distinction and sacrifice, meeting the ideals and goals of their founder, Bishop de  Mazenod. It was indeed fitting that in the year that Salmon Arm  celebrated the centennial of the first Mass, offered by an Oblate  who later became a distinguished leader of this order of priests,  the founder's life and holiness should be recognized by the Catholic Church with the title of Saint Eugene de Mazenod on 3 December 1995.   m  72 TIMBERLAND OR  FARMLAND . . .  SETTLING THE LIMIT  Roland A. Jamieson  Editor's note: "The Limit" was the name that stuck to a portion of  the six-kilometre-long whaleback separating Salmon Arm townsite  and Canoe Creek valley. The land in question fell within the Railway Belt, a strip 40 miles wide—20 miles on either side of the  Canadian Pacific Railway—from Port Moody to the Alberta border. The enormous cost of building the CPR through B. C. had severely encumbered the whole country and the province turned over  9.5 million acres to the Dominion government in order to assist  with the railway outlay. The Settlement Act of 1883 gave Ottawa  complete control over land and resources in the Belt. Cutting rights  on the Limit, now called Broadview, were owned by the Columbia  River Lumber Company, successor to Genelle Brothers, whose  holdings included a large mill at Kualt, near Tappen. By 1902 the  timber interests had finished plundering the Limit, but it would be  at least another decade before Ottawa permitted homesteading on  the sought-after land. Some pioneers, recognizing the logged-off  acreage was of no further use to the lumbermen, proved posses-  Salmon Arm land rush c.1913. Release for homesteading of land locked in Railway  Belt caused long queue at John Lacey's real estate office. (Ernest Doe Heritage  Collection)  73 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND . . . SETTLING THE LIMIT  sion was indeed nine-tenths of the law by "squatting," thus heading the list of applicants when the land was thrown open for permanent settlement.  Roland Jamieson originally intended to tell the story of the Limit  in three parts, by tracing the lives of three pioneer families in the  Broadview area. Unfortunately, he was only able to complete the  first segment before illness prevented him from going on. Part One  deals with Matt and Mary Laitinen and their descendants.  *      *      *      *  The Enderby newspaper, The Progress, on 1 February 1907, in  its special Salmon Arm column, reported the start of a long political and local issue of intense interest with coverage of a meeting  sponsored by Salmon Arm Farmers' Institute:  Thursday, January 25, 1907 in the McGuire hall, a public meeting was called for the purpose of discussing the timber limit question. There was a large and representative crowd present, and  excitement ran high. A lengthy petition was prepared after a prolonged and heated debate between the settlers and the squatters  over the size of their holdings. Finally a consensus was reached  and the first of many appeals to the Federal government was sent  to the Honourable Frank Oliver, Minister of the Interior in Ottawa.  Family work bee improves Laitinen home, started in 1904. (Oliver Laitinen)  During 1887, Matthew Laitinen and his bride, Mary, planned  to emigrate to Canada. Mary would stay in Finland until she received a letter from Matthew, telling her he had ajob and a house  for them to start life together in their chosen land.  74 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND . . . SETTLING THE LIMIT  Matthew travelled to B.C., where his brother, Gusta (Gus),  was working for the Canadian Pacific Railway at Craigellachie, all  the while marvelling at the vast country he was seeing for the first  time. In Finland, Matthew was known as "Pelari Matti" or Matthew  the Bellmaker. So with experience in metalwork he soon had  ajob with the Craigellachie CPR  section crew. He posted his letter to Mary, who then made ar-  rangements for the trip to  Canada. In 1891, Mary and her  sister-in-law Wilhelmina  Laitinen journeyed together on  that long odyssey by ship and  rail. "Minnie" Laitinen would  become  Annala.  Matthew was waiting  for Mary at the Farwell station,  re-named Revelstoke in 1899.  They went on to Craigellachie  the next day to their small  house and talked about their  future together. Their first  child, son Matthew Jr., was  born in 1892 and soon after  they moved to Griffin Lake,  which was to be their home for the next 10 years. Griffin Lake is an  enlargement of the Eagle River, in an area where the winter is long  and harsh, with deep snow and a late spring. However, nature has  a way of compensating, by rapid change into summer with a bountiful growth in garden and glade.  The passing years brought more children to bless their lives  as William (1894), Ina (1895), Albert (1898), Mamie (1899) and Senia  (1902) started life in this isolated area.  Matt and Mary Laitinen  75 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND . . . SETTLING THE LIMIT  Matthew had visited Salmon Arm several times over the  years and was very taken with the beautiful lake and surrounding  tree-covered mountains. He told Mary and the young children about  this wonderful place, vowing to live there one day. In 1898 Matthew bought a homestead near the Limit and made arrangements  with a couple of men to clear part of the land as required by the  Homestead Act.  In 1902 Matthew was promoted to section foreman at Salmon  Arm. Their new home was a company house near the CPR depot.  Now the older children could attend school. It was also time for  more work at the homestead, and by 1904 a log house was taking  shape and the family was able to move in by 1906. Everyone had a  job to do. It was a happy time for the growing family. The Laitinens  welcomed three more sons, George (1904) who died in infancy of  whooping cough, Elmer (1907) and Oliver (1909), all born at home.  The many improvements made to the farm became noticeable as the years passed, with horses, cows, chickens, pigs and a  growing orchard of apples and other small fruit. A large barn was  built in 1910. Everything was going well until tragedy struck on 18  August 1911.  Matthew Laitinen was returning to Salmon Arm on his  speeder when he was struck by a delayed passenger train. The  train stopped and he was picked up by the crew and taken to hospital in Kamloops for treatment of multiple injuries. However, he  was overcome by internal complications and died on the following  Monday. He was 50 years old.  The funeral was held in the Finn Hall, which was filled  with friends and neighbours. They all had come to pay their last  respects to a man who was held in high esteem in his community,  and to share their sorrow with his wife and her eight children.  The great loss of husband and father gave the Laitinen family greater strength as Mary, with the help of the children, continued to run the homestead. All the pioneer women were resourceful, but Mary was exceptional. She spun and knitted socks and mitts,  wove mats, hooked rugs, milked the cows, churned butter, sewed  clothing, preserved and dried fruit and looked after the vegetable  garden. When the Lutheran minister visited for communion classes  she boarded him. When the tailor came around to make suits for  the growing neighbourhood boys he also stayed at Mary's home. At  the railway community of Griffin Lake she acted as midwife and in  Salmon Arm she helped her daughter Ina deliver her first-born  son, Robert Hautala.  The increasing number of families with children on the  Limit gave the school board reason enough to discuss the matter of  a school for that area. The Salmon Arm Observer 6 May 1915 re-  76 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND  SETTLING THE LIMIT  ported that Mrs. Mary Laitinen had offered to donate one acre of  land for the proposed school. With sincere appreciation for the kind  offer, the board instructed Mr. Heathcotte, a surveyor, to proceed  with the necessary work. *  Soon after his father's death, young Matthew obtained work  at the Granite Creek fish hatchery near Tappen. David (Scottie)  Mitchell was the manager. Matthew soon earned the respect and  confidence of Mitchell, who realized the great potential of this young  man. However, the  federal government  closed the hatchery  in 1916 and Matthew moved to the  State of Washington,  where he found a  job with the Great  Northern Railway.  William  (Bill) Laitinen enlisted for military  duty in WWI and  was away for the  duration. Ina was  the next to leave  home, joining Matthew in Washington. She soon found  employment and as  time passed she met  the man she eventually married.  The 1915  District of Salmon  Arm council rejected the school  board's budget of  $3,225 for teachers'  salaries and maintenance of schools at Salmon Arm West, Dolan's  Corner, Gleneden, South Canoe, North Canoe, plus building a new  school on the Limit. The council contended the Limit school was  not absolutely necessary. There was a great scarcity of money and  if the proposed school was included, the education tax rate would  be increased by four mills. Another reason became evident when  the tax sale listed 138 parcels of land up forbid. Many of the army  volunteers abandoned their land when they enlisted and some of  Home again. Laitinen siblings get together on original  homestead in March 1994. From left, Mamie Maki (age  94), Senia Howard (92), Oliver Laitinen (85). (Yvonne  McDonald photograph)  11 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND . . . SETTLING THE LIMIT  their families were left to fend for themselves. Only two parcels  were sold. The Limit school was shelved until a more favourable  time.  Mary Laitinen continued to operate the farm with the help  of the remaining five children. Albert had begun to work in some  of the neighbouring orchards. Mamie stayed home to become her  mother's trusted helper. Senia found full-time work in the post office on Front Street (Lakeshore Drive) next to Josh and Ernie  Graffton's barber shop. Before her daily long walk up to the Limit  and home on Wednesday afternoons, Senia had time to help Joe  Richards set up a library in his Montebello Hotel.  Elmer attended Salmon Arm elementary school and worked  at home until he was hired by the Farmers' Exchange packinghouse.  Oliver finished his formal education at the new school on the Limit.  He still lives on the farm where he was born. Reminiscing about  his younger days, Oliver said, "We were a happy family because we  worked together and loved our mother. She was the strength and  bond and taught us the virtues of life, truth and honesty, of helping  your neighbour with a strong commitment to our community."  Oliver remembers the time the family was quarantined for  measles, and stricken two-at-a-time. "The local policeman arrived  on horseback. He stood at the gate and rattled it until someone  came out to speak with him. He had come out to see if we needed  anything.  "The Rawleigh salesman called on everyone in the neighbourhood. His team of horses pulled a van that resembled a hearse.  He stayed overnight at Johnson's place and fed and rested his team  in their barn.  "We had a very frightful experience one day as our family  were driving to Mara to visit with some friends. As we were going  down the Springbend Road, our team of horses stopped and reared  up with a cry of alarm. They saw an approaching car. It was the  first car they had ever encountered. The driver of the car was quick  enough to realize the situation and managed to turn his car around  on the narrow road and disappeared down the hill in a cloud of  dust. The horses soon calmed down and we continued on our way."  The Laitinens sold milk to a few customers and it was  Oliver's job to take care of the deliveries. The route was along the  lower Lakeshore Road and part of the Limit road.  During early October 1917 the provincial government called  for tenders on a large one-room school to be built on the "Limit  Road." The tender closed 16 October 1917. No further information  on the school appeared until 4 July 1918, when the editor of the  Salmon Arm Observer reported on the graduation and concert held  78 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND . . . SETTLING THE LIMIT  in the new school by the Limit road. Broadview's Peterson brothers  said the Limit school was built during the winter of 1917-18 by  Canoe contractor Will Kirk.  Salmon Arm Observer (July 1918)  Congratulations are due to Miss V. Halpenny for the very bright  little entertainment which was given by the pupils of the  Broadview School on closing day Friday, June 28. The following program was carried out without a hitch and no prompting was necessary.  Song "Boys of the King" by school  Medley Drill by small classes  Recitation Helen McLeod  Round by school  Presentation of honour rolls:  Deportment Sennia Hissa  Proficiency Bernard Barlow  Regularity and Punctuality Mary Johnson  Recitation Jack Johnson  Song "The Long Trail" by school  Recitation Edward Dalzell  Duet "John Brown's Knapsack" Oliver Laitinen,  Jack Johnson  Recitation Oliver Laitinen  Sketch "The Three Little Kittens"     Mother, Helen McLeod;  kittens, Oliver Laitinen,  Fred Currie; rat, Bernard  Barlow  Drill by Seniors  Violin accompaniment Edward Dalzell  Song with action "Kentucky Babe" by school  Miss Halpenny was asked for a recitation and she gave "Votes  for Women" which concerned a well-known "very militant suffragette" of about five years ago. While cakes and ice cream  were brought in, Edward Dalzell played a few pretty pieces on  his violin. After the refreshments were "demolished" a little  dancing was indulged in for which the violin was again in evidence.  Three cheers were given for Miss Halpenny and a collection  was taken for the prisoners of war fund. About $4 was collected. The morning was brought to a close by the singing of  the National Anthem.  The school board agreed that "The Limit" was not a suitable  name for a school and asked the residents to find abetter one. Miss  79 TIMBERLAND OR FARMLAND  SETTLING THE LIMIT  Marie Greenwood, a resident and school teacher, suggested  "BROADVIEW," which was accepted. The name was to apply to the  whole upper area. However, when the early settlers were asked  where they lived, they invariably replied "on the Limit."  * Broadview school was built on an acre of donated land about a mile north of  Mary Laitinen's homestead on the Limit road. I was unable to find out why the  school was not built on the acre Mary Laitinen had offered in 1915. R. A. J.  RESEARCH REFERENCES  National Archives of Canada, Cartographic and Architectural Division.  Salmon Arm Observer files  The Saga of Canoe (1888-1938), prepared by the Canoe History Committee, Mary  Raven, co-ordinator, 1980.  Dunn, Joyce, A "Town Called Chase, 1986.  Members of the Laitinen family, including Marilyn Kernaghan.  My sincere thanks to Henry and Reba Harper, Ronald Turner and OHS editor  Bob Cowan for their generous help in compiling this article.   GB&  Hosts Paul and Gloria Lautard shared  memories of Carmi's past glories with  OHS members at 1995 Boundary Historical Society picnic. Paul was born at  Carmi in 1922. His father, Edouard,  came in 1907 and chose to locate his  farm above and several miles away  from the village. He later "moved to  town" and became postmaster.  Robert Cowan, editor of Reports 53 to  59, is our latest life member.  80 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE  . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND  CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  Theresia Hurst  W. F. Cameron—mayor, merchant, entrepreneur, sportsman—was an outstanding example of the progressive businessman of his time. Cultured and well educated, shrewd  and energetic, his integrity in financial dealings won him many  friends throughout the Okanagan.  William Fraser Cameron was born 15 October 1851 in  Antigonish, of a family that gave Nova Scotia a bishop and a large  number of priests, doctors and lawyers. His paternal grandparents,  Hugh and Margaret Cameron, emigrated to Antigonish from Scotland in 1801. Their son, Hugh Og, and his wife Mary, farmed all  their lives.  William was probably educated at the newly-founded St.  Andrew's Grammar School, considered one of the better learning  facilities in Nova Scotia at that time. He would have covered the  five miles to school on foot, in all seasons, twice a day.  William Cameron came west during the early years of the  construction of the CPR, first locating at Fort William and later  serving under Andrew Onderdonk during the building of the section between Kamloops and the Coast. He arrived in Vernon, then  known as Priest's Valley, in 1884, and built a general store in 1886.  That summer, a journalist with The Inland Sentinel,  Kamloops, who undertook the then lengthy journey to the Okanagan, described the little town of Priest's Valley as a "very pleasant  situation, that is likely to be made the most of." The few businesses  present, mostly mercantile and lodging, were either concentrated  in or facing the present Eaton's triangle.  Theresia (Terry) Hurst, born and educated in Vernon, has been interested in  local history since high school, when Clarence Fulton, substituting for his daughter, reminisced about Vernon's past instead of teaching English. In 1958 she wrote  Vernon, a Brief History, (compiled chiefly from OHS Reports) and in 1973 she  provided the historical background for the photographs in Vernon, an Illustrated  History. She was a board member of Vernon Museum and Archives for nine years  and continues to keep her interest in the past alive by volunteering at O'Keefe  Ranch.  81 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  Cameron's building stood at the western point of the triangle at the intersection of Barnard and Coldstream avenues, facing  west—a high-profile location indeed. Since the main wagon road  then ran along Alexis Park Drive, Gateby Place and Coldstream  Avenue, the store would have been the first business encountered  as one arrived from the north.  By the end of 1896 the Sentinel reported, "By his geniality  and strict attention to business, Mr. C. has succeeded in building  up a trade which far surpasses his most sanguine expectations."  The Vernon News, reflecting in later years upon Cameron's  life, stated that he "practically controlled the trade of the valley  between Lansdowne and Okanagan Mission." A firm believer in  advertising, Cameron ran weekly ads in The Vernon News from the  paper's inception in 1892 until the store closed in 1911. Rarely varying, the ads drew attention to a wide variety of stock, including  "Rubbers, Boots and Shoes, Hats and Caps, and New and Choice  Groceries at Lowest Cash Prices."  With the Hudson's Bay Company next door (on the site of  Eaton's facing Coldstream Avenue), and Megaw on the corner of  34th Street and Barnard, there was plenty of competition, but no  enmity in the rivalry. In fact Megaw and Cameron often shared  freight cars to reduce expenses.  In 1892, encouraged by the ever-increasing influx of settlers arriving on the new railway line from Sicamous, Cameron  moved his old store to the back of his property and replaced it with  a much larger building. The plans showed a two-storey frame structure 26 1/2 by 55 feet. The ground floor once again faced west and  the upper level was used variously as a meeting hall (scene of early  city council deliberations), a reading room and a school. The building was demolished about 1937.  Cameron was one of a group of men instrumental in having the town incorporated. A month after Vernon became a city on  30 December 1892, he was elected mayor by acclamation. Fellow  council members were S. C. Smith, J. A. Schubert, J. Lyons, W J.  Armstrong and A. G. Fuller, each of whom appears to have been  nominated by a combination of the others. The Vernon News reported that in his inaugural address Cameron thanked the council  and the electors "for placing him in his present position and conferring on him unanimously an honour and an office unsought by  him. For his own part he could not lay claim to any former municipal experience and was sorry that the education of each of the  aldermen had been similarly neglected."  Dogs appear to have been a problem in the city at the time,  since one of the first bylaws imposed a dog tax which, the paper  82 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE  WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  Clara and William Cameron  the seemingly disparate  purposes of "preventing  offences against public  morals and to regulate  driving and riding on  highways and public  bridges."  In August of 1893  a public meeting was  held to discuss a bylaw to  borrow $10,000 for the  purchase of a steam fire  engine and to build a  firehall. There was considerable heated debate  over the proposed expenditure between "the  advocates of waterworks  quipped, "placed each  canine's right to citizenship and the privilege of  wearing corporation jewellery ... at the sum of  $2."  Other bylaws  passed in the first few  months of 1893 were for  business licences, appointment of a police  magistrate, establishment of a pound and the  position of night watchman. Another city law  was "... for protection  of public health and regulating the sanitary position of the municipality."  Still another dealt with PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  having no faith in the efficacy of a fire engine, and the supporters  of a fire engine contending that waterworks was a scheme far beyond our reach."  Price Ellison felt that a waterworks was a greater priority,  commenting that "council had not considered the people in the  matter" and that "if anyone wanted to see what the present council  had done they had only to follow the sidewalks which led to the  aldermen's doors"—hardly a fair criticism considering council had  diligently pursued sidewalk construction as a result of many petitions from residents.  With only taxpayers voting, the fire protection measure was  defeated 35-28. Apathy set in following the vote, and council accomplished very little during the remainder of its one-year term.  Cameron was succeeded in office by J. M. Martin in 1894.  Having done his civic duty, Cameron settled down to exercise his business acumen. He had a keen eye for a bargain, concentrating chiefly on land speculation (hardly a risk in those days) and  taking well-secured mortgages. At one point he admitted to "loaning a few thousand dollars ($15,000 in all) that I could spare out of  the bis (sic) on gilt-edge land security between Armstrong, Mission  and Lumby. I thought this a safer investment than business expansion ..." By the standards of the time and place, he was a wealthy  man.  One of his most impressive deals was the purchase of 17  acres at Cameron's Point. The moment he bought the property for  $10 an acre, he announced it was for sale at $100 an acre!  With his friend and wholesale supplier, Harvey Bailey of  Merritt, he also bought land at the proposed terminus of the Great  Northern Railway in Vancouver. His letters for several years expressed doubt about the wisdom of the deal, because of the distance the lots lay from business areas, but eventually the scheme  paid off handsomely.  A keen sportsman, Cameron was widely known for his hunting prowess and the excellence of his horses and hunting dogs. He  made frequent shooting trips to other parts of the Okanagan with  Price Ellison or other friends. On one trip to Shorts Mountain he  and a fellow hunter returned with six sheep and many deer. For a  time he even supplied the Victoria Hotel with wild meat for its  dining room. He claimed he only shot what he needed and felt  scorn for men who killed only for sport.  In 1894 another phase of his life began.  Clara Matilda Dewdney was the daughter of Dr. John Chipp,  a pioneer Cariboo doctor. Born in Shropshire, England, Dr. Chipp  84 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  emigrated to what would become British Columbia in 1862, serving as ship's surgeon on the trip around the Horn. He practised in  Barkerville during its heyday until he left for Nicola in 1880. He  came to Vernon in 1890 to be near Clara, who was the only member of his family in this country. He died in 1893. "Kindness," The  Vernon News reflected, "was always a marked trait in the doctor's  character" and he was "remembered by old Cariboo miners with  the warmest friendship."  Clara married Walter Dewdney while she was working in  Victoria as governess to the family of Walter's brother, Lieutenant-  Governor Edgar Dewdney, making her stepmother to Walter's children by his first wife.  When she arrived in Vernon as a bride in 1888, she was one  of only a dozen white women in the burgeoning town. As wife of  the government agent, Clara had a fine reputation as a hostess and  community worker. An Inland Sentinel correspondent, patently  envious, described her as a "charming partner, one who enacts the  part allotted (sic) to her in a most graceful manner and fills the  role of hostess ... to perfection."  Clara and Walter Dewdney lived in the government cottage  just east of Cameron's store on Coldstream Avenue. Dewdney, described by The Vernon News as a trustworthy public servant, was a  workaholic, often toiling late into the night seven days a week for  years, without holiday. The continual worry and responsibility,  combined with his "confinement to a small and badly ventilated  office" led to his "last rash act." In January of 1892 he shot himself.  After Dewdney's death, Clara built a small house next to  that of her father. Later combined into one with a further addition,  the two cottages stood directly across Coldstream Avenue from  Cameron's store. With such proximity, Cameron and Clara would  have known each other well.  For several years running Clara and one or other of her  Dewdney stepchildren made regular trips to Victoria to spend time  with their relatives at Government House. However, one day in  August 1894, Clara and her stepdaughter Rose Dewdney made a  mysterious trip in the opposite direction, to Gleichen, NWT (now  Alberta). Soon afterward an announcement appeared in The Vernon News under "Marriages."  Cameron-Dewdney—at Gleichen, NWT on August 29, Mr.  W. F Cameron, to Mrs. Clara Dewdney, both of Vernon.  The 13 September edition gossiped: "Mr. and Mrs. W. F.  Cameron returned on Tuesday from their bridal trip and have since  been the recipients of cordial congratulations and good wishes without number."  85 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  With his popular wife, Cameron entered wholeheartedly into  the social whirl of the community. Their names are often mentioned in newspaper columns as having attended funerals, fashionable weddings or public functions.  Clara Cameron's greatest contribution to the future of her  community was the establishment of Vernon Jubilee Hospital. While  president of the Women's Council of Vernon, she also headed the  hospital committee. When her eloquent pleas to city council requesting funds for construction of a hospital failed to elicit support, she canvassed the area from Enderby to Keremeos, personally or by letter. She was rewarded with a generous response and  the hospital was inaugurated 17 June 1897. Clara was named to the  board, of which her husband was chairman. It was also at that time  the name Vernon Jubilee Hospital was selected to commemorate  the 60th jubilee of the coronation of Queen Victoria.  In December 1900, only two weeks before the commencement of the century to which she had bestowed so much, news of  Clara's death swept through the community.  Reporting on the circumstances, the News recounted that  Clara's "mind had given way under the strain of bodily illness ..."  and that "for several weeks she had been suffering from illness of a  nervous nature . . ." The report added, "It was the common subject  of mournful comment among her friends that... her usually bright  and cheerful manner had given place to an attitude of despondency and depression." In a final note to her husband, Clara wrote:  "I am much worse today. Goodbye." In unendurable pain, she swallowed carbolic acid and "expired almost immediately."  The article concluded, "Self-sacrificing, kind, charitable almost to a fault ... if ever a woman lived a consistent life it was  she."  A long funeral procession accompanied the coffin to the  Pioneer Cemetery in the Alexis Park area. Her headstone is incorporated into the commemorative wall.*  Clara bore no children.  *      *      *  Alone again, Cameron made no reference to his bereavement in his letters at the time. His life once more revolved around  business.  Two months after Clara's death, in February 1901, Cameron's  niece, Mary Ellen, arrived from Nova Scotia to be his housekeeper.  In August, Cameron, Mary Ellen, Rose Keating (nee Dewdney,  Clara's stepdaughter) and Rose's small daughter made a boating  trip to Peachland.  86 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  Mary Ellen kept a diary of part of the trip in which she  recounts that from Okanagan Landing "we took our boat with all  our provisions and came to uncles (sic) point." On the second night  they camped several miles south of Shorts' Point (Fintry). On the  third, camped across from Kelowna, she remarks: "Uncle is pretty  tired, as he did all the rowing."  They then "went over to Kelowna and got fresh steak, lemons, apples, peaches, claret and lime juice." The following day "Uncle got a team and we went for a drive to the Mission . . . saw very  nice fruit orchards  . . . and I saw tobacco growing.  They have a cigar  factory in Kelowna." She adds  that the town "is  noted for its vegetables and fruit. The  hotel is just near  the wharf. Kelowna  is not a very large  place, with a saw  mill, 2 or 3 nice  stores, a druggist,  one doctor..."  Continuing  south, they camped  at the Gellatly farm  at Westbank, where  they obtained potatoes to eat with  their baked ham  and cabbage. Mary  Ellen comments,  "They told us that  rattle snakes were  killed around  where we camped,  so we decided not to stay in our camp and took our blankets and  made our bed on Mr. G's wharf."  The diary's final entries indicate that "Camp No. 5" was seven  miles farther south at the Lambly Ranch, where they purchased  peaches, and Cameron "caught enough trout with his rod for supper." That evening they "went over to Peachland and had a look  Cameron's Store ... a progressive merchant with a  reputation for square-dealing. (All photographs courtesy  Vernon Museum)  87 PIONEERS EXTRAORDINAIRE . . . WILLIAM FRASER AND CLARA MATILDA CAMERON  around. Peachland is a small place, only one store with about a  dozen houses. Only started the town two years ago."  Mary Ellen stayed with her uncle for a year before returning to Nova Scotia. Her granddaughter, Patricia Sebastian, presently  lives in Vernon. A few years earlier, Mary Ellen's brother, David,  came out at the tender age of 14 to assist his uncle. Over the years  David married three successive Salish wives: The name Cameron  is a familiar one on Head of the Lake Reserve.  Life went on as usual for William Cameron in the next few  years. He continued with his investments, hunted occasionally and  made a trip to Nova Scotia by way of California in 1906. Then in  1910, as The Vernon News later recounted, his friends were "greatly  distressed to notice symptoms of mental trouble," which rapidly  developed until his lack of reason made it necessary to place him  under restraint. He was accordingly removed to an institution for  nervous diseases in Guelph.  In January 1911 a Vernon advertisement announced that  "the entire remainder of the W F Cameron stock will be disposed  of at auction.  Cameron remained in the Guelph institution until his death  in 1912. The News reprinted a Hedley Gazette editorial reflecting  on Cameron's life which concluded:  It was men like him who made the days of long ago a golden  age to look back upon, with its sturdy honest friendships and  square dealing between man and man. Rest his ashes, for there  were few truer or better men than Billy Cameron.  * The W. Cameron listed as one of those buried in the Pioneer  Cemetery is not Clara's husband, but W F. Cameron, a contractor  who was a contemporary of his well-known namesakes. The Vernon News of the 1890s usually describes the men as either "contractor" or "merchant," but where neither term is used, context is  the only guide. To complicate matters, Contractor Cameron may  also have been married to a Clara.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Kamloops Inland Sentinel, 1884 to 1891, courtesy Vernon Museum and Archives.  The Vernon News, 1891 to 1912, courtesy Vernon Museum and Archives.  The diary of Mary Ellen Cameron, 1901.  MacCormack, John R., The Camerons of Antigonish and St. Peter's Nova Scotia and their Descendants, 1989.  The Morning Star Centennial Family Feature, 18 December 1992.  Letters of W. F. Cameron to Harvey Bailey, courtesy Vernon Museum and Archives.  Many thanks to Linda Wills, archivist at the Vernon Museum, for her help and patience.  Thanks also to Patricia Sebastian for providing family background, editorial comment and  encouragement.    /©&  88 THE SOLID PROJECT:  PRESERVING OLIVER'S PAST  Michael Gourlie  Spanning several years, the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District (SOLID) records preservation project of   Oliver  Heritage Society represents a major contribution to the  history of the entire South Okanagan region.  Some background information is necessary to understand  the nature of the records. In 1918 the Province of British Columbia  purchased 22,000  acres (8,888 hectares) from the  Southern Okanagan  Land Company and  established the  Southern Okanagan  Lands Project  (SOLP). Based in  Oliver, the project  had two main purposes. The first was  to subdivide the  tract into orchard  lots and create the  townsite of Oliver.  While this work was  mostly completed  during the 1920s,  SOLP continued to  manage the sale  and leasing of various properties until  its office in Oliver  closed in 1978.  SOLP's sec-  View of irrigation ditch, looking north. Scene takes in  Mclntyre Bluff and Vaseux and Gallagher lakes. (Oliver  Heritage Society)  ond purpose was to bring water to the lots. To accomplish this it  built an irrigation system between 1919 and 1927 consisting of a  concrete canal, flumes, syphons, laterals and other structures. SOLP  Michael Gourlie has a BA in honours history and a masters degree in archival  studies. He was the SOLID Project contract archivist from September 1994 to January 1995. This article is the revised text of a speech given 22 January 1995 at a  meeting sponsored by Oliver Heritage Society.  89 THE SOLID PROJECT: PRESERVING OLIVER'S PAST  maintained the system until 1964, when the province decided to  turn it over to a new entity, Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation  District (SOLID). Following a 10-year rehabilitation, the system was  officially transferred to SOLID in 1974. For the next 15 years SOLID  guided the system through floods, rockslides and political controversy. In 1989 the towns of Oliver and Osoyoos took over administration of the irrigation district and SOLID was dissolved.  The dissolution provided the genesis for Oliver Heritage  Society's own SOLID Project. Society president Bernard Webber  contacted the two towns and offered the facilities of Oliver Museum to preserve the records, which dated from the original construction of the canal. The towns readily agreed, but the situation  became somewhat complicated for the Oliver Heritage Society. In  its previous decade of acquiring archives the society had amassed  six metres of textual records, 65 maps and 1,000 photographs, which  were stored in a room 10 metres square. The unprocessed SOLID  papers stretched 34 metres and included almost 1,000 maps and  plans.  Perhaps because the volume was so daunting, the material  remained in storage until 1993, when the society hired archival  consultant Kathleen Kyle to provide an action plan. One of her  recommendations called for an archives appraisal committee and  another dealt with applying for a backlog reduction grant from the  Canadian Council of Archives to arrange and describe the records.  The society accepted Kyle's report and a preliminary inventory was completed in January 1994. The appraisal committee,  consisting of Bill Ross, Victor Casorso, Norman Martin, Professor  Duane Thomson, Professor Robin Dods, Cindy Pinske, Laura  Klassen and Ms. Kyle, met to consider the results of the preliminary inventory and decide what to set aside for permanent preservation. Oliver Heritage Society received more than $14,000 from  the Canadian Council of Archives to hire a contract archivist, who  would arrange and describe the records, re-house them in acid-free  file materials and produce a finding aid. This work was largely completed between September 1994 and January 1995. The only work  remaining is map-cleaning and creating a computer data base to  provide greater access to the maps. The question of where the  material will ultimately be stored remains unresolved.  With the SOLID Project nearly complete after almost five  years, Oliver Heritage Society can look back favourably upon its  efforts to preserve a significant legacy. The records are significant  for two reasons. Dating from 1907 to 1989, they document all aspects of SOLP and SOLID. They include numerous plans of the  entire irrigation system, topographical maps from the Southern  Okanagan Lands Company era, field books of the townsites of Oliver  90 THE SOLID PROJECT: PRESERVING OLIVER'S PAST  and Fairview and the correspondence, financial records and diaries from both enterprises. In particular, the journals of the managers document daily life from a unique perspective and include reactions to the bombing of Pearl Harbour and the disastrous 1948  flood.  The records are also significant for their place in Oliver's  collective memory. Although noteworthy on their own, they only  express one point of view. However, the heritage society has gathered material from other sources relating to SOLP and SOLID. For  Building the Big Ditch 1921, utilizing mobile concrete mixer. (Oliver Heritage Society)  example, the records of Oliver Chamber of Commerce contain correspondence expressing the concern of the business community  over SOLID'S formation in 1964. The newspaper columns of Wallace  Smith document the opinions of a grower affected by SOLID's activities. These multiple points of view constitute a written memory  of the entire community which, if properly cared for, will tell future generations about life in Oliver after all of us are gone.  The entire project would not have been possible without  financial contributions and volunteer assistance from many institutions and individuals, including the federal government, B.C.  Buildings Corporation, Oliver government agent's office and the  Town of Oliver.  In closing, a quote, slightly paraphrased, from a past National Archivist seems appropriate: "Of all assets, archives are the  most precious; they are the gift of one generation to another and  the extent of our care for them marks the extent of our civilization."  $§  91 KELOWNA JOINS  THE B.C. WOMEN'S  SERVICE CORPS  Clare Smith (Johnson)  In October 1939 a Kelowna detachment of the B.C. Women's  Service Corps was formed, based on the same principles as those  of the Auxiliary Territorial Services in Great Britain.  Its aim was to be of any service—directly or indirectly—to  the war effort which the government, community or the military  might call on it to perform. The first step for recruits was to learn  army drill and discipline, first aid, motor mechanics, commissariat  (home economics, canteen work, proper feeding) and army clerical duties.  Members were required to be at least 18 years of age and  have the ability to pass qualifying exams after attending lectures.  f *** n  mm,  if ffT.thlWt  Homefront support for Canada's war effort was supplied by Kelowna detachment of  the B.C. Women's Service Corps, shown in this 1941 photograph. Author Clare  Johnson Smith can be found in back row, sixth from right end. Man at the window is  Howard Williams. (Kelowna Branch OHS)  92 KELOWNA JOINS THE B.C. WOMEN'S SERVICE CORPS  The standing orders (general rules) occupied 14 pages of closely-  typed information and only the officers had a copy.  Meetings were held weekly on two succeeding nights. On  Monday about 11/2 hours were devoted to drill and a short lecture  in the Kelowna Armoury. Tuesday meant regular attendance at St.  John's Ambulance training sessions. Regular roll call kept attendance compulsory, except when a member had a real excuse. Drill  and army routine maintained discipline.  The uniform was made up of navy blue jacket or cardigan,  navy skirt, regulation white shirt, navy beret, corps armbands,  badges and insignia. Tie colours varied according to what subject  the member was taking. Detachment officers included chief commandant, senior commandant, adjutant, platoon commanders and  squad leaders. The local corps was under the jurisdiction of headquarters in Victoria. Membership dues were $2 a year.  When we first joined the B.C. Women's Service Corps, it  was known as the Canadian Red Cross Corps.  Marion Elmore was chief commandant and Mabel France  headed up the training regime. Audrey Hughes acted as secretary,  Edna Dunn handled the membership responsibilities and Howard  (Red) Williams was in charge of military instruction. My training  included St. John's first aid, home nursing, army clerical and, of  course, drilling.  Besides the work part, we also entertained members of the  military who were stationed in Vernon at the Toe H1 in Kelowna.  We went to Vernon on some occasions and danced at the "Dugout."  Other assignments were catering for a 1942 Gyro Club installation  banquet, and a fish and game club banquet. The unit disbanded in  1945.  lrToc H, the World War I army signallers' code for Talbot House, began in  1915 in Flanders as an all-ranks' social centre and chapel—a "shell shot" from the bat-  tlefront. Its spirit survives as the international Toe H movement which promotes peace  and reconciliation among people of all races, classes and creeds.    £jj&  93 OLIVER THEN AND NOW:  OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  Victor Casorso  My roots in south Okanagan history go back to my grandfather's era, when the Boundary Country had its heyday.  My grandfather and father were regular suppliers to this  area of beef, hogs, ham, bacon, fruits and vegetables (either fresh  or dried). They told me many wonderful stories about their exploits. Can you visualize what they would have seen? Great open  spaces, sagebrush and grass, abundant wildlife and up to 20,000  head of cattle roaming the range, drinking clean, fresh water from  lakes, rivers and streams of the Okanagan Valley. The Okanagan  River meandered leisurely through the region, with lush vegetation along its banks. In those days there were no railroads; saddle  and pack horses provided transportation for the trail drives to get  the livestock to market. Wagons were used if roads were passable.  In relating the early history of Oliver, I would like to take  you back to the days before the settlement came into being. About  10,000 years ago, as the great ice sheet melted, people began to  enter the Okanagan from the south. The Indians were the first residents, with their own customs, legends and folklore. Generally they  were peace-loving and if treated fairly were good neighbours and  workers, had a great sense of humour and lived by hunting, fishing  and by picking and preserving berries and roots. To the Indians,  "Okanagan" meant "the land of the big heads."  In 1778 the first wild horses, descendants of European horses  brought in by the conquistadors to Mexico in the 16th century,  found their way into this territory. Indians used captured horses  for transport and food, and ownership of these beautiful animals  expressed the family's wealth. Twelve head per family unit was  average. It made life much easier, especially for the women, but it  also made the Indian a nomad.  IMPORTANT EARLY EVENTS  In 1811, when we were still part of "No Man's Land" governed by  New Caledonia, the first fur traders made their appearance. David  Stuart of the American-based Pacific Fur Company travelled up  Victor Casorso is well known in the Okanagan. He has lived in Oliver since  1946. He is the author of The Casorso Story and is presently writing a book on  the wild horses of the Okanagan.  94 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  the Columbia River from Fort Astoria to the Okanagan. A year later  the North West Company bought out the Pacific Fur Company, then  in 1821 the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company  amalgamated. That same year the Brigade Trail was built. Furs from  New Caledonia were transported in canoes down the Fraser to Fort  Alexandria, then by a colourful brigade of between 200 and 300  horses which passed through Oliver and Osoyoos en route to Fort  Okanogan in the United States. To accomplish this, many horses  were used as pack animals. Some of these horses escaped, went  wild and mixed with the wild steeds that came up from Mexico to  form the nucleus of the wild horse bands that frequented the area  in large numbers.  In 1846 the 49th parallel was established as the border between British and American territories in the west. Thirteen years  later the boundary line was surveyed. Over 100 years later my boys  had the thrill of straddling the border at the Boltz ranch in Midway,  with one foot in the USA and the other in Canada.  Gold discovered at Rock Creek in 1859 started a rush to the  Boundary Country, bringing about the building of the historic  Dewdney Trail from Hope to Wild Horse Creek. Many original old-  timers walked or rode to Rock Creek to register their homesteads,  including the missionaries from Kelowna, and Judge Haynes, who  registered his Osoyoos property. In 1860 W G. Cox was named gold  commissioner and posted to Rock Creek to police and enforce the  law, including land pre-emption. I guess you would say 1860 was  the first year a person could take out a homestead.  Gold did not last long. By 1861 Rock Creek was deserted,  Cox reassigned and J. C. Haynes posted at Osoyoos (Soyoos) as  St. Martin's Hospital, Oliver. Built in 1942, closed January 1973, demolished 1982.  95 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  gold commissioner and customs officer, among many duties.  Osoyoos became the administrative centre for the Boundary Country.  After the Rock Creek workings closed, there was a lull in  mining and, between 1861 and 1887, large-scale cattle operations  West side of Oliver's Main Street, 1921. Identifiable are the Canteen, Canadian Bank  of Commerce and S. O. Supply Company.  were established. The resulting trail drives herded cattle to the north,  south, east and west. J. C. Haynes established one of the first ranches  in the valley (1860-1888). In 1887 there was a gold rush to Fairview  and Camp McKinney; then another lull until the Ditch was planned  in 1919.  A one-armed prospector named Reid discovered gold in  Fairview, starting a rush. Reid Creek is named after him. The town  of Fairview, with its fabulous view of the whole valley, quickly built  up and had all the facilities of a wild-west town. One of these, the  Fairview Hotel, nicknamed the Big Teepee, was the most famous  hotel in the west at that time, catering to many well-regarded plays  and theatrical performances. It set the stage for future social events  in the area, resulting in the present population having a very strong  interest in the arts. With its courthouse, Fairview was the seat of  government. Oliver still has the courthouse.  In 1902 the Big Teepee burned with loss of life, and this  tragedy was really the beginning of the end for Fairview. The gold  petered out and a series of events, such as fires, smallpox and diphtheria resulted in people leaving. Fairview's buildings were later  96 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  demolished by the veterans, who used the salvaged lumber for their  own buildings.  To the east was the notorious Camp McKinney where the  miners extracted another fortune in gold, and the thunder of the  McKinney stamp mills was a worthy rival to the clamour echoing  from the Fairview workings. Socialites, business people, ranchers  and miners travelled the dusty road between the two camps. But  when the gold was gone, so was Camp McKinney.  OLIVER'S BEGINNINGS  At the junction of the two roads, from Fairview to Camp McKinney,  and from the USA to Penticton, was to be the town of Oliver. Oliver  is part of the Sonoran desert where the scent of indigenous plants  permeates the air. Rattlesnakes, scorpions and rare reptiles live  here, and the longhorn cattle once roamed along with the wild  horses. It was just open country until after the First World War.  The returning veterans had to be rehabilitated and there  was no better place to get them re-established than a new town  named after the premier of B.C., "Honest John" Oliver. He had the  area surveyed, a dam was built at Mclntyre Bluff, and an irrigation  canal with mighty flumes and aqueducts carried precious water to  the south end of the Okanagan Valley. This water soothed the thirst  /. K. Anderson's Cash Store 1921. The two men are unidentified.  of a sweltering desert, changing the valley into a green and glorious place in which to live and farm.  WATER  In 1919 the South Okanagan Land Project came into existence and  the Okanagan River was dammed to feed water into a concrete  97 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  irrigation ditch, then along flumes and across trestles which ran all  the way south to the international line. The northern work was  completed in 1923. The ditch, 20 miles long, permitted the gravitational flow of life-giving water to an arid valley. The veterans purchased lands with long-term loans, built homes and planted orchards, which soon became the mainstay of the south Okanagan  valley. When the Depression hit in the 1930s, all the land had not  been sold, so many settlers from the prairies bought places and  planted orchards and vineyards. The early orchards were inter-  planted with cantaloupes, tomatoes and cucumbers. Oliver became  famous for the quality of its cantaloupes, only now it is famous for  high-quality grapes and wine.  Between 1952 and 1958, a flood-control project straightened  the Okanagan River from the bridge north of Oliver to Osoyoos  Lake, replacing 23 miles of beautiful winding waterways and spectacular scenery along the river banks. In recent years, the dike  enclosing the river has been graded and landscaped by a volunteer  program for use as a hike and bike trail.  In 1963 the Southern Okanagan Land Irrigation District  (SOLID) was formed. The irrigation system was upgraded so as to  deliver water under 30-pounds pressure, which led to the installation of sprinkler systems. With sprinklers operating on 5,000 acres,  there was a cooling effect on the climate. Few other projects have  changed the standard of living for so many as our irrigation ditch.  Another milestone comes in 1996 as the ditch goes underground.  AMENITIES  The growing farm population and increased production required  schools, hospitals, packinghouses, cold storage, rail and truck transportation and businesses to provide services and to bring in supplies. These facilities were built in the vicinity of the crossroads.  The railroad was built in 1922 and a big celebration was held for  the arrival of the first railroad cars on 24 May 1923. The railroad  was abandoned in 1978.  The first school classes held in Oliver, in 1921, were in a  garage, then in Elliot's restaurant, then in the United Church basement. Early in 1922, a new two-room school was completed; in  1929 a large elementary school was built; in 1941 the present Oliver  elementary was completed, and in 1949 the present high school  was officially opened. As a note of interest, it was my uncle, Louis,  who brought Rudi Guidi to Oliver, where he was hired by the school  district in the 1930s.  The packinghouses grew with the area; as population and  farming increased, so did the fruit-processing plants—in number  and technology.  98 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  During the Dirty Thirties there were a number of unemployed people around, and to relieve this situation the federal government had bunkhouses and a cookhouse erected for the crew  put to work constructing the airport, which is still being used.  In 1942 the Sisters of St. Anne opened a 48-bed hospital, St.  Martin's. Prior to that, the closest hospital was in Penticton or  Oroville, and patients had to travel by horse and buggy or by car  over the rough and dusty roads. By the 1960s, the hospital had outgrown itself and was to be replaced. In 1973 the Southern Okana-  Capt. G. D. Wilson's intercrop of tomatoes c.1925. Twenty tons, 741 pounds were  picked from one acre, netting $348 from the Oliver Cannery. (All photographs  courtesy Oliver Heritage Society Museum and Archives)  gan General Hospital superseded St. Martin's, and the Sisters retired to Victoria.  INCORPORATION  The urban population grew around the crossroads until it reached  about 475. Incorporation of the Village of Oliver was granted on 19  December 1945. The first Board of Commissioners comprised Robert  Whiting Smith, Douglas Percival Smithers, George Alexander Stuart  and the first chairman was R. W Smith. The first election took place  12 December 1946, with 155 people voting. There have been several boundary extensions since. I served as clerk for the village  from 1947 to 1964. In 1990, Oliver village became a town.  CLOSING  Oliver has had many pluses since its beginning. It has excelled in  agriculture, mining, education, sports, parks and health; it has been  a good place to live and raise a family. We have had hardships and  good times. The residents have held to their own beliefs, and hard  99 OLIVER THEN AND NOW: OUR 75TH ANNIVERSARY  work and co-operation have made this the finest town. It is a place  where time and effort bore fruit.  On 17 June 1995, to celebrate the 50th year of Oliver's incorporation, Robert D. Watt, Chief Herald of Canada, presented  His Worship Mayor Rick Wilson with a formal coat of arms, a flag  and a badge for the Town of Oliver. A beautiful piece of art, the coat  of arms outlines the history of the community. Don Bennett carved  out of wood a gorgeous replica of the coat of arms.  We have a recorded history, a coat of arms, and a tartan  designed by Daphne Malins. We now have a complete and prosperous town and celebrated the 75th anniversary of our founding on  14-16 June 1996. gfe  No room at the inn. Okanagan and Boundary history buffs swarm around former  Carmi Hotel, by now relegated to providing private accommodation, of a sorts.  100 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES:  FIFTY YEARS FROM  DESERT TO OASIS  Stan and Rosemarie Stodola  The citizens of Osoyoos have a multitude of reasons to celebrate, give thanks, and be proud as they commemorate the  50th anniversary of incorporation as a Village Municipality  in 1946. From a few small clusters of homes, a nucleus of a business community, and a scattering of farms, Osoyoos has made outstanding progress on all fronts, symbolized by its recent selection  in a national competition as the most beautiful community of its  size.  Faith in the future, a determination to succeed, a spirit of  co-operation, and outstanding effort on the part of the pioneers  have resulted in Osoyoos growing from a small, hardly-known spot  in the desert of southern British Columbia, to the modern, attractive community of today.  In that same year, 1946, a newly-married couple in search  of their own future chanced to stop in Osoyoos. They were encouraged to make a home there and have been active and involved  citizens ever since. Finding a place to live, starting a business, and  the excitement of joining the residents who always had so many  on-going projects, are among our many cherished memories. Our  First Cherry Carnival 1949. (Mrs. Wandy Armstrong)  Stan and Rosemarie Stodola came to Osoyoos in 1946 and one year later founded  the Osoyoos Times, which they operated to retirement in 1986. Both Stodolas have  been active Osoyoos citizens, and remain so.  101 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  recollections are aided by reference to the pages of the Osoyoos  Times, the first local weekly newspaper that we founded in 1947,  that has served as a mirror of the community ever since.  This will not be a complete history. It will deal primarily  with events from 1946 onwards. Looking back over 50 years it is  impossible to focus on any one person, project or event. It is like  looking through a kaleidoscope, seeing constantly changing pictures, rapidly moving in our recollections and forming countless  images. As they flash by, we reach out, grab some and thus hope  we can present a word picture of what we found in Osoyoos in  1946 and what followed in the succeeding half-century of our history.  BY CHANCE, WE COME TO OSOYOOS  Our first glimpse of Osoyoos came in late June of 1946 as we  rounded the sharp Anarchist Mountain corner and saw far below a  big body of water. It was a spectacular view. Around the lake we  saw a vast expanse of arid landscape. Through this snaked a road  which we realized was the scary route we would be taking to get  down. Below, to the left, a band of green along the lakeshore indicated the first orchards planted in the area. Coming into focus next  were two thin wedges of land cutting the lake into three parts.  Around the northern strip we saw a cluster of buildings, which we  rightfully assumed would be the townsite. Beyond was desert dotted with small blocks of green orchards and tiny buildings. Although  rather desolate, the scene seemed attractive and inviting. Without  realizing it at the time, we had fallen in love with Osoyoos at first  glance.  Railway age dawns for Osoyoos 28 December 1944. (F. L. Goodman)  102 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  We stopped in Osoyoos briefly, then left, headed for Vancouver where we hoped to locate permanently. It took only six  days to agree the big city was not for us. What next? We recalled a  small town, Osoyoos, and decided to give it a try.  Returning to the interior, we stopped overnight at Oliver.  Next day at a ball game we met Harry Smith, an orchardist, who  urged us to go to Osoyoos because it had a future. We listened, and  by late afternoon we were on the bus. July 1, 1946, on the hottest  day we had ever experienced, we got off the bus at our new home.  Our first contact in Osoyoos, Father Anthony Meulenberg,  told us this was a young community with a good future for those  who were prepared to work hard. For the second time, we were  urged to stay in Osoyoos. That was the turning point in our lives,  and we often marvel how our destiny was decided. Our hopes and  our prayers for a new life, a home, family, friends and community  were firmly planted on that eventful day.  WHAT WAS HERE?  In 1946 there were many gaps between buildings on Main Street;  within five years hardly a vacant lot was left. Businessmen, most  of whom had started up around 1944, seemed young. References  to earlier settlers such as the Frasers, Olajos, Goodman, Plaskett,  Burpee, Kohler, McCrae, Beurich or Brownjohn families, some of  whom had been here "as long as 20 years," awed us. There were  many job opportunities, but a shortage of housing. Growth was  taking place in town and in the desert surrounding the lake. Farmers were coming in, breaking the land, putting water on it, planting  some trees, but relying heavily on ground crops, as this brought in  money sooner. Tourism was barely a dream. There was some lumbering, but agriculture was the number one economic base.  Main Street 1949, with Rialto Hotel at foot. (Mrs. Wandy Armstrong)  103 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  It was evident that Osoyoos needed a newspaper, and ever  since my days as a high school newsletter editor I had dreamed of  owning my own paper. We started preparing for this, as did a retired prairie newspaperman. Eventually, we secured the endorsement of the Board of Trade, which felt a young town needed young  people. Thus, in January of 1947, we launched the Osoyoos Times,  joining the ranks of beginning small businesses.  THE BOARD OF TRADE  As secretary for the Board of Trade for 14 years, I found it a great  experience to see first-hand a community being built. The Osoyoos  Board of Trade, formed in 1939 with Crae Dawson as president,  was seven years old when the Village of Osoyoos was incorporated.  For many years, the board was the dominant organization which  brought together people from all walks of life, furthering many  causes and being involved in everything as a de facto government.  Its first major achievement was convincing the CPR to bring  rail into Osoyoos in 1944. To induce Canadian Pacific to extend its  line south, it had been agreed to pay two cents extra per pound on  all freight. As volume grew, this hurt our competitive position, and  the board started working to have the extra levy removed. Eventually the CPR brass threw a big dinner on their special car, where  they graciously withdrew the surcharge.  FIRST LOCAL GOVERNMENT  As the community grew, so did the need for a form of local government. After almost a year of preliminary work, elections were held  and the three charter commissioners for the newly-authorized village municipality were Chairman W A. Andrews, Gordon Kelly  and J. C. Armstrong. H. H. Hesketh was secretary-treasurer.  Electors have always taken a keen interest in local politics,  with very few acclamations to office. They also set a record when  one year they decided to chuck out all incumbents.  Commissioners set policy and were directly involved in  carrying it out. The first major project was the domestic water supply which came into being in 1947. In 1949 the village purchased  the former school buildings, which over the years became an attractive office structure and fire hall.  Early commissioners were a frugal lot, with a pay-as-you-go  policy, except for major capital projects. During the years I served  as alderman (1969-73), borrowing was encouraged by a formula  increasing borrowing powers, leading to increased debt and staffing.  In 1951, local government increased from three to five. In  1969, titles changed to alderman and mayor; in 1993, to councillors  104 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  and mayor. It cannot be denied that the duties of councillors today  are far more onerous than the work of the early commissioners.  In this 50th year, local government is led by Mayor Tbm  Shields, with councillors John Motz, John Slater, Carley Lahaise  and Lockie Miles.  MANY NEEDS IDENTIFIED  In 1946 the community had a huge shopping list for services. There  was no domestic water system. We remember hauling buckets of  water from a neighbour who had a hand pump in his kitchen. Neither was there a sewage system; there were a good number of one-  holers around the area.  Camera points northwest for 1946 view of townsite. (Helen Lacey Miller)  Main Street was unpaved, with bits of sidewalk and  boardwalks built by some owners in front of their establishments,  resulting in dangerous variations in height. Power poles and lines  ran along the main thoroughfare, giving it the appearance of an old  western movie set.  There was a volunteer fire brigade with a 1926 Reo truck  for the village, but the surrounding areas were unprotected.  Residents who wanted golf, curling or tennis had to seek  elsewhere.  Upon completion of Grade 6 in Osoyoos, students were  bused to Oliver for grades 7 to 12. There was no local hospital and  citizens went to St. Martin's in Oliver, or to Penticton.  1947: BANNER YEAR  Our fledgling Times recorded events as they unfolded. Some of the  items from 1947 issues:  105 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  *Building perVnits totalled $181,575; assessed value was  $100,904 on land and $512,775 on improvements.  *An increase from 4036 to 4300 acres of cultivated land, with  additional 200 acres slated for 1948.  *Seventh teacher added to Osoyoos school for a student population of 250.  *Sunland theatre opens, replacing community films.  *Committee formed to work towards a local hospital.  * Monashee Co-op installs modern fruit storage plant.  *Sugar rations increased from seven to eight pounds per person per quarter. Price board permits donut prices to go from 30  cents to 33 cents per dozen. A 15-ounce loaf of bread goes from  nine to 12 cents.  *Landslide majority, 106 out of 110, supports referendum for  domestic water system.  *Health authorities provided every resident with plans for an  outdoor privy.  *Weekly, rather than twice-a-month garbage collection approved.  * Council starts to plant trees on Main Street, builds some  sidewalks, approves street naming, and sets aside $600 from poll  tax towards a hospital in Osoyoos.  MANY CHANGES IN AGRICULTURE  Some farming existed in the area as early as 1907, but the greatest  surge in agriculture took place in the early to mid-40s when conditions in Alberta and Saskatchewan forced farmers off their land.  Those who came to Osoyoos, many from German and Hungarian  backgrounds, showed themselves to be excellent workers.  To get a quick cash flow, the first choice was to plant back-  breaking ground crops. Most farms were family operations. Straight  rows of hot caps, used to shelter the young tomato plants from  frost, dotted the landscape. Soft fruits were the second crop. Wooden  flumes carried life-giving water from the irrigation canals to the  plants and trees.  One early crop was the cantaloupe. Osoyoos was famous  briefly as the Cantaloupe Capital of Canada. Another interesting  early crop was the zucca melon. Cucumber-like in shape, it grew  up to four feet long and at harvest time was piled like wood. Herman  Gummel introduced the zucca. Although naturally tasteless, it was  peeled, dried, enhanced with a variety of flavours and used as a  substitute for fruit peels. Growing zuccas was discontinued, as they  106 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  drained too much out of the soil and their flowers had to be hand-  pollinated.  At one time there were three packinghouses, an evaporator  and a cannery here. Most produce was shipped out by rail until the  line closed.  Osoyoos also became famous for producing the earliest fruits  and vegetables in Canada, which brought premium prices. However, under a pooling system, local farmers lost this benefit, as the  price was averaged with lower-priced northern Okanagan Valley  produce. It took years of fighting by pioneers such as Hart, Kunz  and others to rectify this inequity. As a reporter, I sat through many  Stan and Rosemarie Stodola, with bound copies of the newspaper they founded in  1947. Photograph taken 1986.  British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association meetings and witnessed  the valiant efforts for fairness in the marketplace.  As crop volumes increased, central selling was not handling  all the fruit and vegetables. Stop-pick orders, when farmers were  forced to leave their crop to rot, were heart-breaking for the industrious agriculturalists. Some took matters into their own hands and  started selling directly, a practice which was not then condoned by  the industry. It was unlawful to carry more than three boxes of  fruit, and "police" were hired to control the roads out of Osoyoos.  Although a central marketing authority was needed to sell  the ever-increasing crop, the governing body reacted slowly in permitting growers to try selling their own produce. Today many farmers sell directly.  When the size of family operations outgrew the picking ability of the owners, the first outside orchard help was provided by  the very reliable Doukhobors from Grand Forks and the Kootenays.  When they turned to other occupations, the government permitted the migration of Portuguese workers, who came in a small group  107 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  to begin with. They were excellent and liked their work so much  that in a few years they were buying out the orchards. Rather than  borrowing money from institutions, they pooled resources, and one-  by-one became owners.  As their operations increased, the Portuguese-Canadians also  needed orchard workers. In the 1980s these were French-Canadian.  Lately, there has been another wave of new orchard hands—this  time mainly people from the Punjab.  Recent agricultural trends see many of the old fruit varieties being replaced with the help of government subsidies, greenhouse-growing of tomatoes and cucumbers, and, as many trees are  being removed, some of the land reverts to growing corn.  EDUCATIONAL NEEDS A PRIORITY  Education has always been a high priority, commencing with the  efforts to establish the first Osoyoos school in 1917. Although short  of the minimum 10 pupils, they managed. By 1946 there were 250  students enrolled in the six-room school on Main Street. In 1951, a  modern 13-room building was serving an enrollment of 522 in the  elementary grades, with the rest going to Oliver. By 1970 there was  mounting demand to build our own high school. After considerable pressure from Osoyoos, the district school board in 1976 approved a school of grades 7 to 12 for Osoyoos. In September 1979,  the residents of Osoyoos proudly attended the opening of their own  high school.  CO MM UNITY SPIRIT ALIVE  Osoyoos is noted for its community spirit. When there is a cause  for our common good, people rally in great numbers to attain it.  The greatest show of unity and determination occurred in  the push for a local hospital, beginning in 1967 and lasting almost  four years. Hundreds of citizens joined the South Okanagan, Kettle  River & Similkameen Health Society, donating thousands of dollars to support the cause and holding many meetings. The largest  show of strength was on 10 July 1968, when more than 700 people  from Osoyoos joined about 800 from Oliver at the Oliver school  grounds. A new hospital was planned to replace St. Martin's. Osoyoos  people argued it should be in their town; people in Oliver were  adamant that as the old hospital was in their community, the replacement should be also. Osoyoos lost the battle for the hospital,  but there were benefits. The two communities began an improved  relationship, as equals.  Over the years, Osoyoos residents rallied on other issues  about which they had a strong opinion. In 1975 the provincial gov-  108 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  ernment wanted to close an X-ray service operating in the doctors'  offices. Strong opposition caused the ministry of health to back  down. For the coverage on this, the Times won a B. C. newspaper  best-journalism award in 1975.  More than 300 citizens, aroused by a regional district plan  to put a road through the community park, stood firmly opposed  and the RDOS backed away.  Following many large gatherings, a determined part of community "for" a local hockey arena prevailed against those who  thought an arena should not be built.  After the RCMP vacated their Main Street building, the town  decided to rent it to a power company. The community wanted the  building for local service groups, and won. Once more the Times  won an award for "service to the community" with a series of stories showing what the people wanted.  Without such community spirit, many projects would not  have become a reality.  TOURISM'S BIG ADVANCES  Lake Osoyoos has drawn many people to its shores: Indians, fur  traders, farmers. In 1946, residents realized the lake's potential as a  tourist attraction. Within 10 years there were a dozen motels and  six restaurants. Promotions using "Arizona of Canada" and "Jewel  of the Okanagan" were replaced in 1974 when the town adopted a  Spanish motif. At that time the older buildings were not aging gracefully. Through the Spanish Development Society organized by F. B.  van Duzee, Main Street was transformed into an eye-catcher with  gleaming white stucco, red roofs and decor and black wrought-iron  trim.  MUSEUM: OUR HISTORY  When we came in 1946, people still sifted through the sand for  arrowheads and flints. A sense of history prevailed.  Personal collections were first housed in the village hall in  two glass showcases. An old log building, built in 1917, has become  our most cherished link with the past. It served as a government  agent's office, jailhouse, school, church and residence before it was  obtained for the museum and placed on Main Street, to be later  moved into the current museum, which houses an impressive collection of our history.  A BIT OF EVERYTHING  In 1949 the first Cherry Carnival, headed by T. W Tbwnrow, with  Louise Weddell as queen, brought thousands of people to watch an  109 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  excellent parade. This carnival has become a traditional Osoyoos  celebration. The carnival float has appeared in many parades  throughout the Pacific Northwest, bringing our community much  publicity.  Another event, headed by Rosemarie Stodola for many years,  was the Folk Festival, later the International Fair, in which national  costumes were donned and groups representing many cultures  sang, danced and entertained.  Synonymous with music lessons and the arts was Dorothy  Fraser, who was teacher, critic and supporter for over half a century.  An adult literacy program, with many volunteers under  Rosemarie Stodola, operated to help new Canadians. This was tied  in with the citizenship court being held in Osoyoos.  The community respected and supported its senior residents  in many ways. They now have a big organization and a building of  their own for recreation.  Many denominations have established churches to deal with  spiritual needs. Most have youth programs, while the Grace Lutheran Church has expanded to provide a grade school.  Law and order have been preserved and services expanded.  In 1949 there were two officers: Corporal Ken Bond of the RCMP, to  deal mainly with federal matters, and Constable Marvin Marcus of  the B.C. Police, to handle local needs. J. H. Mitchell, as magistrate,  held court here once a week.  And people loved their sports. In 1954 the first curling rink  was built under the leadership of Pat Fraser at a cost of $45,000.  Supporters came up with $17,000, a goodly down payment in those  days. In 1975 a new arena was built and the old quonset-type curling rink turned into a home for the museum. Golfing started here  in 1923, but a real course only came in 1970, with Howard Slingsby  as charter president. The successful Osoyoos Golf and Country Club  now boasts 27 holes and much-expanded facilities.  A FINAL LOOK BACK  As we remember Osoyoos in 1946, it was a small place coming  alive with big ideas. Before we knew it, our lives and the operation  of the newspaper were closely intertwined with the life of the community. We were one big family; when we had successes we all  rejoiced, and when there was tragedy we shared the pain.  Osoyoos is blessed with many assets. The lake enabled the  growth of an agricultural industry as well as tourism. The sunny  climate attracted retirees. The most important ingredient was the  people: a mixedbag of cultures, religions and skills. They respected  110 CHANGING WITH THE TIMES: FIFTY YEARS FROM DESERT TO OASIS  their differences and harnessed their abilities as community-builders. We remember their loyalty to causes, their courage to persevere, and their faith in the future.  We marvel that fate has been so good to us. A chance stop  in Osoyoos has resulted in an interesting and fruitful life. As we  enjoy our retirement years we look with contentment on the past,  and it is a good feeling to see the continuing interest in Osoyoos by  the newest group of residents.   ®  SUMMERIAND'S UPPER CLASS:  LORD SHAUGHNESSYS  FRIENDS  David Gregory  At the beginning of this century, many of Canada's business  elite lived in a section of Montreal along Sherbrooke Street  called "The Square Mile." These men made their fortunes  in the railways, the banks and the utilities. It has been estimated  that by the beginning of the 1900s, the residents of The Square  Mile controlled two-thirds of Canada's wealth. This group often  worked together as partners in companies and even shared common summer retreats such as St. Andrews, New Brunswick. Several of these businessmen invested in the agricultural industry in  the Okanagan Valley, specifically in Summerland.  Sir Thomas Shaughnessy, president of the Canadian Pacific  Railway from 1899 through 1918, played a major role in the development of Western Canada, particularly in Summerland. He believed, in his own words, "if we can give agriculture in that section  of the country a little push, I shall be quite satisfied." (14 July 1902).  In that year Shaughnessy formed a company called the Summerland  Syndicate and bought the Barclay Ranch. He then acquired the  surrounding properties, to a total of 14 large district lots—the main  portion of present-day Summerland. On 18 August 1902,  Dr. David Gregory lives in Summerland where he is a dentist. A member of  Summerland's municipal council, he maintains an interest in civic affairs as well  as in local history.  Ill SUMMERLAND'S UPPER CLASS: LORD SHAUGHNESSY'S FRIENDS  Shaughnessy's company was the first to acquire the water rights to  Summerland's main water source, the Trout Creek Reservoir. On  17 April 1903 he wrote to Senator John Nesbit Kirchhoffer, discussing plans for a new agricultural community in the Okanagan. He  wrote that he thought he could get "two or three friends to do likewise" and invest in the project.  By 18 June 1903, Shaughnessy had set up the Summerland  Development Company with J. M. Robinson as manager. Through  the promotional efforts of Senator Kirchhoffer and J. M. Robinson  (formerly of Manitoba), many of Summerland's settlers of that time  came from Manitoba and of those a large percentage were from  Brandon. As for Shaughnessy, he was able to convince some of  Canada's most prominent businessmen to purchase land in  Summerland. They included R. B. Angus, Sir Edward Clouston, Sir  Edmund Osier, Sir Herbert Holt, Sir Charles Hosmer, Charles F.  Smith and Henry and Horace Joseph. Sir Thomas, Senator  Kirchhoffer and J. M. Robinson were also successful in convincing  other prominent people to buy land, including Count F. D deFrasso  of Lecco, Italy, W. A. Derrick of Berlin, Germany (originally from  Manitoba and a friend of Robinson), German Consul William  Hespeler, the first Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta, G. H. V. Bulyea  and Sir William Whyte, a CPR executive from Manitoba.  R. B. Angus was one of the co-founders of the Canadian  Pacific Railway and corporate records show he was the first to suggest that the CPR operate boats in the interior of British Columbia.  He, along with the other members of the CPR syndicate, played a  prominent role in Canadian business from the 1880s through the  1920s. Angus was active in many company mergers involving coal,  steel, pulp and paper and electrical power and even salt (forming  Windsor Salt). In the 1890s Angus was considered one of the five  richest men in Canada. He was general manager of the Bank of  Montreal from 1869 to 1879 and president from 1910 to 1913. He  was offered a knighthood twice, but declined. His Montreal home  is still used for McGill University's Conservatory of Music.  Sir Edward Clouston was the general manager of the Bank  of Montreal, but was also a director of many companies, including  the Sun Life Assurance Company. Clouston played an important  role (in opposition) in the formation of the Canadian Bankers Association, although later he became its president, and in events  leading to public ownership of Canadian Utilities, a move he also  opposed.  Sir Edmund Osier was president of the Dominion Bank. He  also was president of the investment firm Osier and Hammond  and president of the Ontario-Quebec Railway. Osier was a Member of Parliament representing Toronto West from 1896 to 1917. He  112 SUMMERLAND'S UPPER CLASS: LORD SHAUGHNESSY'S FRIENDS  founded and became president of Canada's largest land company,  the Canada North West Company.  Sir Herbert Holt was, at the international level, one of the  most successful businessmen of this century. He was president of  the Royal Bank from 1906 to 1934 and remained chairman until his  death in 1941. In the 1920s and 1930s Holt was the richest man in  Canada. At one point in his career, he was a director of more than  300 companies. At the beginning of the 1900s, Canadian business  experienced merger  mania, when com-    r , — ——. ,  panies acquired  their competitors at  dizzying speed.  Holt became famous for his corn-  Lord Shaughnessy's Summerland orchard house c.1906.  (Canadian Pacific Archives/Shaughnessy family)  pany mergers; in  one he formed the  largest private utility company in  Canada, controlling  Montreal's supply  of water and electricity. More than  any other reason, Holt's mergers in Montreal forced the formation  of the Union of Canadian Municipalities.  Sir Charles Hosmer began his career in the telegraph business (Dominion and later CPR). He sat on the boards of 27 companies, including the Bank of Montreal. He was the founder and  president of the Ogilvie Flour Mill Company of Montreal.  Charles F. Smith was a wealthy investor in a number of  Canada's largest companies. He was president of the Ames Holder  McCready leather company. Along with his Summerland property  adjacent to Sir Charles Hosmer's land, he also had a large summer  home in St. Andrews, next door to Hosmer and Shaughnessy.  Henry and Horace Joseph were wealthy investors from  Montreal. Their family's primary interests included banking, railways and real estate. Their group of friends included Shaughnessy,  Holt, Senator D.F. Angus and Herbert Holson.  Sir William Whyte originally worked for the Grand Trunk  Railway in Ontario. He became the general superintendent of the  Ontario division of the CPR in 1884 and two years later became  CPR's western superintendent. In 1910 he was named vice-president of the CPR under Shaughnessy and the following year Whyte  was knighted.  113 SUMMERLAND'S UPPER CLASS: LORD SHAUGHNESSY'S FRIENDS  Senator John Nesbit Kirchhoffer was a lawyer from Manitoba. He helped found the town of Plum Creek (later called Souris).  He was the member from Brandon West in the Manitoba Legislature and was a senator for 22 years. Kirchhoffer was a close friend  to Shaughnessy and played an important role in the early years,  LORD SHAUGHNESSY'S RANCH - 1902  rescent    Beach  (Illustration by Randy Manuel)  monitoring Summerland's progress. Kirchhoffer was also involved  with J. M. Robinson's mining adventure near Peachland.  These prominent Canadians did have some effect on the  development of Summerland. Reeve James Ritchie is credited with  convincing Ottawa that the Kettle Valley Railway route should pass  through Summerland, but certainly having several members of the  national Executive Committee of the CPR owning land in  Summerland also helped influence the decision to route the KVR  over the Trout Creek canyon and into West Summerland.  114 SUMMERLAND'S UPPER CLASS: LORD SHAUGHNESSY'S FRIENDS  Having three presidents of Canada's largest banks (Bank of  Montreal, Royal Bank of Canada and Dominion Bank) owning land  in Summerland also had its benefits. British Columbia's celebrated  architect Samuel Maclure designed Summerland's Bank of Montreal building on Main Street and a home for the branch manager,  called Faircrest. In addition, the home of George Arthur Henderson,  the Bank of Montreal's Vernon manager and partner in the  Summerland Development Company, was a Maclure design. It was  called Hochelaga and was the site of frequent Saturday evening  dinner parties in the early 1900s. The attractive architectural style  used by Maclure in these examples was Tudor Revival and this style  has been adopted by present-day Summerland as its downtown  theme.  In the Dominion Bank's 50th Anniversary Report (1921),  Summerland investor President Sir Edmund Osier reported that in  British Columbia his bank had five branches: one was in Victoria,  two were in Vancouver, one was in Summerland and one was in  West Summerland.  These prominent Canadians played a significant role in Western Canada's development. Some played a prominent role in the  creation of a transportation system for the Okanagan Valley's fruit  industry. Others provided some of the initial capital to develop  Summerland. Today, little remains of Western Canada's own Square  Mile,   m  115 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN  THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE  OF THE 1940s  Glen Mikkelsen  As the Allies began to overthrow Germany's occupation of  Europe, the citizens of faraway Kelowna decided to hold a  western whoop-up. Under the sponsorship of the local Benevolent Protective Order of Elks Lodge No. 52, the Kelowna Stampede was born.  Kelowna's agricultural history is centred on the fruit industry,  however, ranching has also played a significant role in the Okanagan Valley. The non-irrigated scrub land provides reasonable grazing for cattle, and throughout the region a variety of ranching operations were established. It was from this culture that the Kelowna Stampede sprang in 1944, approximately 20 years after the  last rodeo had been held in the area.  In 1944, despite the number of men participating in World  War II, there were still enough cowboys in Western Canada and  Washington to stage a rodeo and the Elks Lodge believed the people of Kelowna would come out to watch it. In addition, the rodeo  could be a new source of funds for lodge projects.  A headline in the 31 August 1944 edition of The Kelowna Courier announced "Wild West Days to Return." The "Elks Stampede"  was held on September 4 and 5 at Knox Mountain Gyro Park (now  Elks Stadium) at Recreation Avenue and Richter Street.  In his invitation to the community, the leader of the Kelowna  Elks wrote:  EXALTED RULER'S WELCOME TO STAMPEDE  The Elks have put forth great efforts to make the coming two  days one of the biggest events in Kelowna's history, and we can  assure everyone attending a program packed full of thrills, spills  and chills.  Since inauguration the Elks have pledged themselves to aid  Glen Mikkelsen is a former Kelowna Museum employee who returned to his  hometown, Calgary, in 1995.  116 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN - THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE OF THE 1940s  underprivileged children whenever possible, and all proceeds from  the coming Stampede will be devoted to that end. The citizens of  this district have always supported us in our endeavours in the  past, and we again appeal to every one of you to combine two  days of relaxation with the thought that you have also contributed  to a worthy cause.  The organizers were able to raise $3,000 for prize money and  advertised a "Jitney Dance on Tuesday Nite!" The Elks also made  arrangements with Okanagan Lake ferry service for late sailings at  12:30 and 2:30 a.m.  One of the  most interesting advertisements in the  Courier, and one  that illustrates the  hospitality of the  community, was an  appeal for billets to  host visitors attending the Kelowna  Stampede. Anyone  who was able to provide sleeping accommodation was  asked to "call Joe  Spurrier at 568 or  87."  The first event  of the stampede was  the parade. To entice involvement,  cash prizes were offered to rider and  horse for several  Rodeo spectators totalled a whopping 9,000 in 1948, the  last year of the Kelowna Stampede.  categories, including men's western style, ladies' single western,  ladies' single eastern, and most colourful parade horse. The Most  Colourful Parade Horse prize went to Hong Mar. Rodeo events included steer riding, saddle bronc riding, steer decorating, wild cow  milking; calf roping, bareback bronc riding, wild horse race and  the wild Roman races. Roman races featured competitors straddling two galloping barebacked horses. The racers needed remarkable balance and a good team to stay at an even pace careening  around the track.  An interesting point to mention about some of the 1944  rodeo events, such as steer riding, bareback and saddle bronc, is  117 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN - THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE OF THE 1940s  that contestants had to stay on 10 seconds, as compared to eight  today. In fact, up until 1927, horses were ridden to exhaustion—  until they ceased to buck—no matter how long it took. Sometimes  these rides could take up to five minutes, and often the horses  would quickly learn not to buck, making them unsuitable for competition. With the 10-second rule, the horses usually stayed unbroken and it allowed for a shorter, more organized rodeo.  Also included in the entertainment were several feature  races, including the Kelowna Derby, the Ladies' Open, pony race,  City Club Race, Cowboys' Race and the thrilling point-to-point event.  The point-to-point race saw entrants tear down Knox Mountain, in  a way similar to the present cliff race at the Omak Stampede. It  took about two minutes to cross the finish line in front of the grandstand.  Tragedy struck the inaugural race on 4 September. Wid  Thompson of Kelowna, who was one of the race judges on the  mountain, was accidentally knocked from his horse by one of the  contestants dashing down the hill. Thompson never regained consciousness and died from a head fracture.  Despite this death, the point-to-point race carried on the  second day and for the following three years.  Unlike today's rodeos, one of the competitors in steer riding was a cowgirl, Blanche Blooming, from Saskatchewan, (the  Brahma bulls had not yet come to Kelowna). The local newspaper  reported that Blanche was "... the only woman contestant on  Labour Day, but she bit the dust before she got a ride on a wild  steer. Her sportsmanship was uppermost when she left the chute,  scratching the beast for all she was worth."  The 1944 stampede attracted 200 contestants, 5,000 spectators on Monday and 3,000 on Tuesday. According to newspaper  reports, two of the significant problems during the western events  were children getting on the race track and rodeo infield, and billowing clouds of dust.  Once the dust had settled and spectators had gone home,  even the editors at the Courier were calling the first stampede a  success.  Probably the most dominant reaction in Kelowna to the  Stampede was pleasant surprise. There had been some  doubt in the minds of many whether it would be a real  show or just another "rodeo" of the type so frequently  seen, with little of interest and a scarcity of ability. That  doubt was soon dispelled, for the Elks staged a spectacle  that is said by those who know to have been superior to  any other similar event ever held in this province.  118 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN - THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE OF THE 1940s  The Stampede can only be branded as an unqualified  success. It is already apparent that this will be an annual  affair and that another Kelowna institution has been born.  It was such a fine vigorous and healthy youngster that  with its first "Yip-ee" it set a standard that will take a great  deal of maintaining in future years. But be that as it may,  the Elks have put Kelowna definitely on the Stampede  map.  The name of the two-day 1945 rodeo was changed from the  Elks Stampede to Kelowna Stampede, with Roy Eden as manager.  It encountered rainy weather, but according to press reports "Kelowna's second annual Stampede, without the slightest doubt, was  the most successful ever staged in the Interior of British Columbia." An estimated 10,000 people attended the rodeo over two days,  with all reserved grandstand seats sold out.  For the second year the Most Consistent Winner title went  to Carl Olson, who was a frequent winner at the Calgary Exhibition  and Stampede. Olson took first place in saddle bronc riding (prize  money $192) and steer riding ($101).  As demonstrated by the addresses of the prize winners, the  stampede was attracting interest from all over Western Canada.  For example, Johnny Kruger of Penticton was awarded first prize  for being best dressed in the men's single western style, and Mary  Edmondson of Chilliwack earned top place in the women's competition. Wally Lindstrom of Airdrie, Alberta, a former world champion cowboy, was another headline performer.  In response to Kelowna's very successful Lady of the Lake  pageant, 1945 witnessed the first selection of a Stampede Queen,  Mabel Kuipers of Kelowna.  In 1946 Canada was finally released from the burden of  World War II, and to honour its participants the organizers of the  Stampede was doing everything right, but couldn't buck regatta.  119 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN - THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE OF THE 1940s  Kelowna Stampede asked Major General R. F. L. Keller, CBE, Kelowna's highest-ranking soldier, to open the event with a "Three-  Cannon Salute."  Highlight of the '46 stampede was the addition of  chuckwagon races—the half mile of hell. Since Kelowna's track was  narrower and the arena smaller, only two wagons raced at a time  (as compared to four at Calgary). Adding to the racing delays was  the fact there were only two chuckwagons available, so horse teams  were switched after each race. Despite the slow going, all races  were held and Charlie Chick of Armstrong was the initial champion, winning $160.  The Kelowna Courier, although praising this stampede as  the best one ever, did have a couple of criticisms. In particular, the  reporter complained the stampede queen contest was not on par  with Kelowna Regatta's Lady of the Lake pageant and chastised the  parade's tardiness.  Was there ever a parade that wasn't late? Monday's parade  was probably the best seen in Kelowna in a long time, but  the long wait took the icing off the cake. Youngsters tire  standing on the curb and tiring youngsters jar the nerves  of mothers and fathers and irritable nerves do not make  for enthusiasm. Rather, the reaction is, 'Thank goodness  that's over! Let's go home.'  On the other hand, the stampede was being rated as the  best in British Columbia and second only to the Calgary Stampede.  Advertisements for the 1947 Kelowna Stampede proclaimed:  "With Spills, Thrills and Chills. Fourth Kelowna Stampede To Be  Better Than Ever." The '47 version included the added attraction of  western trick riders, starring Chet and Juanita Howell, a well-known  American team, and the stampede was again a success.  The 1948 stampede advertised $2,250 in prize money and it  was the first year Brahma bulls appeared in a Kelowna competition. Prior to the stampede, the local newspaper reported: "The  noted Brahma steers will be unloaded at the exhibition grounds  Saturday evening and will be driven to the corrals. Officials of the  Elks club (sic) request that women with prams and small children  stay away from the area during the unloading time, as the steers  are wild and hard to handle."  The year 1948 also brought a change in management. Roy  Eden, who had held the job three years, was replaced by Ken  Thomson of Black Diamond, Alberta. Thomson had been an organizer and competitor at prior stampedes and was also president  of the fledgling Cowboys' Protective Association (formed in 1945).  120 THE OKANAGAN GOES WESTERN - THE KELOWNA STAMPEDE OF THE 1940s  Two featured entertainers of the 1948 show were Anna Lee  Mills, a noted trick rider, and at that time the only female jockey  allowed on the Santa Anita track. The other noted performer was  Arizona clown Scotty Bagnell and his horse Jumbo. Softball games  and donkey baseball were also staged.  By the end of Tuesday, 2 September, attendance had shattered all records, with 9,000 people on hand the second night. The  only casualty was Bobby Robinson from Cochrane, Alberta, whose  foot was broken by a Brahma bull in the bucking chute.  Manager Thomson boasted he was positive the Kelowna  Stampede could be built into one of the largest rodeos in the Interior. "You have the facilities, the climate, and thousands of stampede fans. Attendance at this year's stampede proved beyond a  shadow of a doubt that Kelowna is definitely a rodeo city," he said.  However, Thomson's statement became an ironic comment.  It turns out that Cam Landsdale of Turner Valley, who won the  saddle bronc riding in 1948, is still the reigning titleholder for the  Kelowna Stampede. After five years the Elks decided to cancel the  show. Appealing as it was, the stampede could not compete with  the regatta. The regatta was growing and prosperous in the 1940s  and it took up many of the volunteer hours people were willing to  donate.  Kelowna was not prepared to fully endorse an annual rodeo, feeling it could not support a local celebration twice each summer. Also, the rodeo did not receive sustaining commitment from  the local ranching community. Nevertheless, it was this western  legacy that eventually produced the 1975 Black Mountain Rodeo,  presently held east of Rutland on Highway 33. It was first owned  and operated by Budge Winters, and it continues to bring rodeo  competitors to the Okanagan each May.  The Kelowna Stampede illustrated there was an interest in  rodeo and other western events at that time, but Kelowna was not  yet prepared to actively support it. The success of today's Okanagan rodeos lies in the development of local rodeo 50 years ago, and  their future rests in a tradition determined to carry on.   <f¬ß)  121 WHEN OKANAGAN WILD  HORSES WERE SOLD  TO RUSSIA  Victor Casorso  In years past there were large numbers of horses at large in the  Okanagan, Similkameen and Boundary Country. Alice Tweddle,  granddaughter of old-timers Joe and Margaret Brent, told me  about a wild horse roundup and sale to Russian buyers and the  subsequent delivery of 1,400 head to the yards in Penticton. The  horses were shipped to Vancouver in rail cars, then by boat across  the Pacific Ocean to Vladivostok and by rail again to the heart of  Russia.  Alice, who was only four years old when her mother died  in 1920, was raised by the Brents on Shingle Creek Ranch, north of  Green Mountain Road towards Summerland. Ferdie Brent, Alice's  father, was a travelling musician and a ladies' man, so likely he was  not home too much.  As a young girl she looked forward to Sundays, for this was  the day her father, an accomplished horseman, took the family on  riding excursions and picnics in the mountains. It was on one of  these rides that Alice and her horse were attacked by a wild stallion. Luckily for her, her father was close by and was able to drive  the stud off with a big club, and Alice escaped with only a scare.  Many range riders have told me similar stories. They'd say, "wild  stallions are dangerous." However, when these wild horses were  caught and properly broken they made good saddle horses.  The wild horses were descended from European stock  brought to Mexico by the conquistadors in the 16th century. The  horses multiplied and spread north, including those that had been  rustled and bred by the plains Indians, who no longer had to use  dogs as beasts of burden. The Nez Perce and Cayuse tribes greatly  added to the horse population, hence our term "cayuse." By 1778  the broncos reached Canada—larger than their ancestors through  Victor Casorso grew up observing, breaking and riding Okanagan wild horses.  He is presently at work on a book about wild horses of the Okanagan.  122 WHEN OKANAGAN WILD HORSES WERE SOLD TO RUSSIA  selective breeding—and mixing of the bloodstock continued with  additions from Oregon Trail and Brigade Trail escapees.  Around 1926 Russian authorities arranged to purchase as  many wild horses as possible in the Okanagan. They were to be  used on farms and by the army. Some were destined for the slaughterhouse.  Telephones were few and far between, therefore the "moccasin telegraph" had to be used to let ranchers and cowboys know  of this great roundup and pending sale. It took a lot of organization  to get the show on the road. Contacts had to be made with cowboys  and ranchers at Keremeos, Osoyoos, Oliver, Penticton, Summerland,  Marron Valley and other places. It meant fixing and building corrals,  riding the range to gather up the wild horses, separating all branded  animals and driving the saleable ones to a central location at the  Brent Ranch near Shingle Creek for corralling and feeding. All this  had to be accomplished by a certain date. There was no remorse  over seeing these horses go, for it meant a rest for the overgrazed  ranges.  It was as exciting as getting prepared for a rodeo. Everyone  dressed in their best western style—bright colours, Stetson hats,  flaring bat-wing chaps. Alice (Brent) Tweddle, then 12 years old,  said her happiest memories were of Tommy Terbasket of Chopaka,  who wore white woolly chaps, a silk kerchief around his neck and  a beautiful hat. The others were also colourfully dressed and it  made for a festive occasion.  Alice Tweddle said the roundup and sale to the Russians  placed a lot of strain on her grandmother's household, as there  were many extra mouths to feed. This was not usually a big problem for these hardy pioneers, as all the neighbouring women and  young girls pitched in to help. The house was full to the rafters and  Margaret, Alice and Donald Brent c.1926 on horses rejected by Russians. These  animals were saddle-broken and the children rode them to school. (Alice Brent  Tweddle)  123 WHEN OKANAGAN WILD HORSES WERE SOLD TO RUSSIA  people slept in haylofts or on the ground under trees and washed  in the creek. The sociability was just out of this world; they all  enjoyed themselves, swapping yarns and telling stories.  The high-stepping Russians, dressed in military uniforms,  arrived at the same time the cowboys were bringing in the horses.  It seemed to be a timed event. Everything was jammed to the gunnels and the log corrals creaked under the strain of the milling,  snorting animals. The horses came in groups of various sizes and  in every shape, colour, breed and age. Some had been broken; others were just plain wild and roary-eyed. The sorting began. The  Russians knew what they wanted, but were abrupt and aloof. Barney  Allison of Keremeos told me one of the tests was to jab a horse in  the shoulder and if it didn't jump it was rejected as being too lifeless.  During the sorting process one of the Russians got a load of  fresh manure dumped on him when a horse came charging out of  the chute, much to the merriment of Alice, the crew and the onlookers sitting on the corral fence. The Russian did not appreciate  his "popularity" and got very angry. Work was held up until he  went to the creek to wash up.  Another incident took place when one of the buyers was  run over by a horse and badly hurt. There was no stretcher available, so a bedroom door was used instead. The injured man was  taken to the Penticton hospital in the back of Max Ewart's big old  roadster. The visitor had sustained a broken hip and other injuries,  which caused him a three-week stay in hospital before returning  home.  The sorting continued until 1,400 head were chosen. The  price was $15 apiece. The horses were branded on the hoof and a  metal tag was put in the mane so they could be easily recognized.  The rest were returned to where they came from.  The next excitement for Alice unfolded on the drive to the  Penticton railway station, where a log corral had been erected and  water and feed were available. She was afraid her dad would not let  her go on the 14-mile drive with the other children, however, her  grandmother told her she could go, much to the displeasure of her  father. Grandmother Brent is remembered for being fairly stern  with the children, but also for the love and care she gave them. She  "was the boss," hence her permission for Alice to go on the ride  would prevail over Ferdie's objections.  The youngsters got their saddle horses ready the night before, as the drive was to start at daylight. To save time in the morning, the children slept in their clothes on the floor, and before they  went to sleep Alice's grandmother put a lunch at their heads.  124 WHEN OKANAGAN WILD HORSES WERE SOLD TO RUSSIA  At daylight the cowboys were strung out on both sides of  the road. Their job was to keep the horses from cutting into the  bush or other places they weren't supposed to go. In the lead were  the best hands with the fastest mounts and their job was just to  keep ahead of the lead horses until they reached Penticton. The  gates were opened, the wild horses crashed into the open spaces  and instinctively followed the racing lead cowboys, who galloped  at breakneck speed for about six miles. One of the objects was to  keep the horses going so fast they could not see any way to escape,  and also to tire them out so they could be more easily controlled  on the trail and in the city. It was a herculean task to keep those  wild horses headed in the right direction.  It was also no place for timid or inexperienced riders. There  were about two miles of solid horseflesh thundering over those  roads and trails and everyone was covered with dust. Oh, those  fancy clothes!  The next tricky manoeuvre was getting the horses into the  corrals on Hastings Street (now Hastings Avenue) near the railway  station and it took all the cowboys' skill. Some animals got away,  but all were eventually placed in the corral. Horses and men were  a lathered bunch when it was over. Excitement reigned supreme. It  was a ride to be remembered and boasted about.  After the successful delivery everyone was in a joyful mood  and ready to celebrate. When everything was under control the  cowboys headed for the B.C. Hotel to get cleaned up and have refreshments and food. The spare saddle horses from the ranch were  tied together, tail-to-head in a long line, and the children, on their  horses, led the string home. The broncos were loaded in to boxcars  for Vancouver. One car would hold about 25 to 30 head and it would  have taken up to 50 stock cars to haul the horses to the boats en  route to their final destination: Russia.  Alice Brent married Hal Tweddle, Frank Richter's stepson.  She still lives in Keremeos.   £§§  125 Student Essays  EDITOR'S NOTE: Despite strong support from some branches, the  Society's 1996 Essay Contest suffered from a general lack of interest,  perhaps reflecting changing conditions in the classroom. With this in  mind, the editorial committee is studying ways of positioning the contest to be more in tune with the times. The two essays featured in this  Report shared first-place honours in the senior category. Owing to space  limitations, it was not possible at this time to publish the winning junior entry written by Harley Heywood.  THE OLDEST EXISTING  HOUSE IN THE KINGFISHER  VALLEY  Jessica Heywood  Armstrong-Enderby (Homeschooled)  On the road to Mabel Lake, there is a "halfway." Just 15 minutes east of Enderby you come down the halfway hill and  see the Shuswap River bend close to the road. You see some  ancient apple trees, an old rail fence and then your eyes are treated  to the Dale House, a big, old, two-storey log home complete with  verandas and bay windows full of flowers.  A few weeks ago I sat in the Dale House, talking with Rob  Dale, the present owner. The living room is large and comfortable  and you get the sense that many people have sat here in the evening.  Marion, Rob's wife, moves her knitting and sets tea and cookies  before me on the coffee table. "Why don't I see logs inside the  house?" I ask. She explains that most people cut off the round to  flatten the logs, then plastered them over. In those days they built  with logs because logs were handy and the price was right. "They  didn't particularly want to look at them all the time."  This house was built in 1905 by Alexander Dale with the  help of his older sons. His youngest child was born that same year.  Alexander was 66 years old and in those days the "halfway" was a  full day's journey from Enderby.  Alexander first homesteaded in Portage la Prairie, where he  was "froze out, hailed out and draughted out." The local newspaper  promoted the Enderby area as the "Eden of Canada." (Odd; the  Peace River country was touted as Canada's Garden of Eden. I wonder how many other localities used that image to lure settlers?)  126 STUDENT ESSAYS  By applying for a pre-emption when the Okanagan sawmills  had finished logging, Alexander acquired 130 acres, a quarter section less what's in the river. Cedar, fir, pine, cottonwood and birch  were cleared for farming. Alexander's wife, Jeanette (Jenny), didn't  want the trees to be cut, but farming was their livelihood. How  could they have known that their offsprings' livelihood would be  from trapping and river-driving, and then later logging, and that  those trees would now be marketable? The Dales would eventually  farm mainly for their own food.  First, Alexander built a little cabin by the river. In summer  the children went barefoot. In winter they wrapped rags, sacks or  anything around their feet for inside and outside warmth. In a few  years the cabin had burned down, along with all of their possessions from Scotland.  So they built the house I am sitting in. With abroadaxe, out  of fir logs, it took about one year. The windows, doors and timber  for floors were brought up-river by boat, and from the river to the  building site on the back of their great blue ox.  It was one of the first houses they built and, says Rob, "They  got better, but none has lasted this long."  To my eyes they can't get much better. Also, why has this  one outlasted some of the later ones? I had to wait for my answer,  as Rob was now explaining a boon to the housewife. "Right over  there where the TV is: that's where the water trough was." Marion  points to the northwest corner of the room. A reservoir was up the  hill for gravity feed.  Alexander and Jenny had eight children. Alexander also had  several children by his first wife. Some sources say eight, others 11.  Children of interest to this account are as follows: Johnny is Alexander and Jenny's oldest. In 1916 he married Anne Bruynel from  Antwerp, Belgium, who came to Canada with her sister and brother-  in-law, the Pittons, who lived where Isobel Simard now lives. John  and Anne moved from the halfway to Frog Ranch at Hupel, where  Johnny drove stagecoach for Sir James Baird. Anne, who spoke six  languages and played classical piano, made meals and looked after  rooms for overnight guests. They moved back to the halfway just  west of Alexander's home, to what is known as The Islands (now  owned by Hatfields), where Johnny farmed and trapped.  Then John and Anne built their log home on the shores of  Lusk Lake where Cargyle, who made the trappers' snowshoes, lived.  Cargyle had been a logging contractor and had a camp at Lusk  Lake. According to John's son Norman, when Cargyle's contract  was up, "he took a look around and shrugged that he didn't seem to  make much money at logging. So he spent the rest of his life there."  Besides making snowshoes, Cargyle tanned hides for his own use  127 STUDENT ESSAYS  and wore buckskin trousers. At this time Cargyle was getting on in  years but still had time to go before he'd proved up his homestead.  Johnny agreed to come and do the necessary work in order for  Cargyle to get title. In exchange, Johnny would ultimately get the  property. So Cargyle was able to live there till he died in 1958.  I walked the property this autumn. Johnny's old green cedar boat Tippy rests under one of the big old cedars in front of the  house. Remnants of Johnny's boathouse and pier are by the water.  Anne's sweet peas still bloom and raspberry canes scraggle amongst  the encroaching wilderness. But the outstanding feature is Johnny's  two-storey log home featuring veranda on three sides, another on  the second floor and a hip roof. Unfortunately, the present owner,  who lives in Saskatchewan, has not maintained the roof or foundation and the house is in sad shape. Norman says in those days  when cement was an added expense and bother to get to the site,  builders typically just skidded rocks from the bush for the foundation. But rocks just seem to keep sinking.  John also built several log hunting, fishing, trapping cabins. According to Norman, his dad simply liked building cabins.  He'd be out hunting, and see a likely spot. So he would stop and  build a cabin. Who knows? He might need shelter some day. And it  wasn't hard to do. All he needed were three or four days, an axe, a  rope and a small crosscut saw.  When Norman was in his early teens, he helped build some  of his father's log trapping cabins on the ridges of Park Mountain.  They could build a cabin and lay in a supply of wood in five days.  Norm says it was like a summer holiday for them both—dramatically beautiful country. Cabins were made out of whatever trees  grew there. The lower trapping cabins were made of cedar. Marion  Dale says they were beautiful and fragrant with cedar shake roofs.  At a higher altitude the cabins were made of balsam. Rob says it is  poor wood and stinky. The top cabins are damper and colder. The  roof was made of small logs or poles with a dirt/sod top.  Two years after the birth of their sixth and last child, arthritis severely crippled John at age 45, so that he couldn't walk or use  his hands. Anne cared for him, carried on their sustenance farming and looked after the children. John lived till he was in his 70s.  John's log fishing cabin, across the lake from Noisy Creek,  is still used by the family. A trapping cabin at Smythe Creek, seven  miles towards the south end, is still standing. It is on someone's  Summer Use Permit and a group in Vernon is interested in preserving it.  The ridgetop cabins might be gone, though. Just before Colin  Brookes bought Kenny Dale's line, it hadn't been trapped for two  years. The Forestry burned Kenny's cabins to prevent hippies from  128 STUDENT ESSAYS  squatting. What a waste. I sort of think it would have been better to  chance the hippies wrecking them, than to burn them and remove  any doubt of the destruction. Forestry didn't even take the stoves  out or save anything; they just torched the lot. Ranchers, who used  the area as summer range for their cattle, tell me the cabins had  been such a blessing during a cold autumn roundup. Hopefully,  Johnny's cabins are inaccessible enough that the Forestry left them  alone.  Norman built his own log house for his Scottish war bride,  Mary. It took him nearly all summer "and it hasn't moved a bit."  Norm put it on concrete pillars. It adjoined his parents' property  on land he bought from Tom Mant. Someone homesteaded it before Mant, but Norm didn't tell me much more. "Heck," he said,  "you can go back so far it doesn't matter anymore." The original  homesteader's dwelling was at the north end of Lusk Lake.  George was the second son of Alexander and Jenny. He  homesteaded on the Ashton-Cooke road. The place was later known  as the Stamberg place.  William (Billy) trapped the river. Across the river from his  parents, on low ground, he built his log house and lived there until  he got older, when he moved back into the family home with his  brothers. Rolf and Waldy Maier still live in the home Billy built.  The next son was Walter, Rob's father. Walter married Mae  Blurton (there is a Blurton Creek at Mara named after the grandfather) and lived in a log house across the road and a little bit east,  which he purchased half-built and then finished. When Mae moved  "Halfway-house" continuously occupied by Dale family since 1905.  129 STUDENT ESSAYS  there, Johnny's wife Anne was so happy to have a woman her age  close by. Before that she had to go six miles in either direction for  female company. Walter's land included the land that is now  Kjasgaards Country Cottages.  Agnes married a Radoux and lived in a cabin along the river  just east of her parents (where Gerald and Cathy Ross live now). In  giving birth to her daughter, Doris, Agnes' oxygen was apparently  cut off. She suffered brain damage and spent the last part of her  life in an institution. Her husband took their son and went to Australia.  Douglas, known as Dougie (to rhyme with boogie), was a  lively trapper, river-driver and logger. He lived on in the Dale House  until he died.  The Dale boys, George, Bill and Dougie—all three bachelors—started building barns all over Trinity Valley for the Czecho-  slovakians and Bohemians settling there. Those Europeans apparently made good wine. The Dale boys would work all day, dance  the night away, work the next day. And whoever I talk to I get the  same impression: the Dale boys developed a reputation for being  good workers.  In this valley, the Dale brothers also built their first barn—  on The Islands—and the log garage above the road from the house  I sit in, which is still in use. Their base camp trapping cabin across  the rivermouth'is now cherished by Rob's nephew, Doug Bigney,  and his family. Also at Mabel Lake is the "Dixon cabin," later owned  by the postmistress, Mrs. Harvey. Its present owner, Mike Zemla,  was told when he bought it in 1956 that it was built by the Dale  boys. In 1931 the Dale brothers built the first Ashton Creek Hall.  TO quote the 25 August 1938 edition of the Enderby Commoner: "The Dale Brothers are building a log cabin for Mrs. A. R.  Horn and her daughter on their lakeside property at Dolly Varden  Beach. The cabin will be 25 by 18, have 3 living rooms and wide  bedroom porches." This is still standing, just across the creek from  Wayne McLeod's. The address is 10 Simard Road and it is now owned  by Chuahs.  On 2 December 1922 Alexander died at age 82. Jenny continued to live there with her sons George and Dougie. As Marion  refills my tea, she relates that nobody went past the house without  Grandmother giving them a cup of tea. It was a stopping place to  and from town. By now it took only a half day to get to Mabel Lake.  Betty Wilson, a daughter of Johnny Dale, remembers that  the teapot was always on the back of the stove at a simmer. "As a  little girl I thought my grandmother's tea was the most bitter thing  in the world." Betty's sister Agnes, who was born the year Alexan-  130 STUDENT ESSAYS  der died, remembers treats from Grandmother Jenny. Her brother  Donny liked the colourful rock candy that came each Christmas in  a tin from Scotland. They were told to try to see who could make it  last the longest. But Agnes' treat was a slice from the huge wheel of  cheese that Jenny kept in a kitchen drawer. "It's a mystery to me,"  says Agnes, "as nowadays my cheese goes moldy in the refrigerator." The house seemed to be a castle to her with the long hall.  There was always a couch in the kitchen, too.  Jenny died later on in the 1920s. She was but 63, but Agnes  says she looked years older, she was so wrinkled and withered. She  had worked so hard Agnes says she was "just plain worn out."  The Dale place remained a bachelors' abode for 30 years  (George, Billy and Dougie). Most of the year when you went past  you could still see Jenny's flowers—lilacs, tulips, daffodils, grapes—  in amongst the bachelors' weeds. Agnes laughs, "I'd a thought those  daffodils would have got discouraged after 30 years without Jenny."  Lots of people would come over for parties and Rob, who  lived just down the road, as a young lad would sit on the stairs and  watch the people dancing. Rob showed me where the steps used to  be. They danced in this very room. Dougie would play the violin  and a button accordion, and Rob's dad, Walter, would play the guitar. Music and laughter filled the house. Rob must have been very-  young because he was six when his dad died. His mother had died  four years earlier, so the three little boys looked after themselves.  There is probably a whole other story in that.  In the early 50s, John's daughter Agnes, now married to  Lewis Abbey and mother of three, lived with the bachelors for a  time. "The boys" were always off trapping or logging and thought it  was a good idea that the place be farmed. The Abbeys stayed about  a year then built their log home at Lusk Lake, on a bit of land they  bought from Agnes' brother Norman, near where Mant's home had  stood. Keith and Susan Gray have lived in that log home for the  past 20 years.  And so the Dale House was a bachelor abode once again.  When Betty was a young girl she remembers it was a big treat to go  into the parlour. They always kept the parlour door closed and  kept everything the way their mother had it before she passed away.  The highlight was listening to music coming from the big horn on  the cylinder record player. This was a real Sunday treat and to Betty  it was almost magical. The children had to get one of their uncles  to crank it, as they were not allowed to touch it. And her uncles  would allow her to play on the stairs, but never to go into the upstairs bedrooms. One thing that struck Betty as a small child, was  that the bachelors kept all of their dishes washed and the glass  cupboards in the kitchen spotless, but the outside windows you  131 STUDENT ESSAYS  could hardly see through. Perhaps they didn't feel a need to see  outside. After all, they spent most of their day working in the outdoors. Betty could also remember a very good root cellar.  In 1965 Dougie was the only bachelor still living. Walter's  son Rob and his wife Marion, who were living at Hupel, moved in  an bought the place and Dougie was able to live there until he died  17 years later. Because of some complication to do with Alexander's daughter Agnes' time in an institution, Rob and Marion had  to pay one-eleventh to the government for Agnes' share of the property.  Rob and Marion put in the electricity and the bathroom and  they re-covered some of the walls, but didn't do any major renovations at this time. The house lasted this long, Rob says, because it  had a good roof and good, dry ground under it. The roof was repaired or replaced. That was top priority. Rob and Marion also added  a concrete foundation.  After Dougie passed away, Rob and Marion changed the  original kitchen to a living room and moved the kitchen into the  old dining room.  Rob has several times suggested building a new house, but  Marion has always said no. I am glad. The Dale House is not just a  house, but a home. It has been lived in and altered as the need  arose. The fifth generation of babies now play on those floors. It  has been lived in, loved in, sorrowed in—and I like to think you  can feel that when you step inside.  I thank Rob and Marion for the tea, cookies and chat. As I  drive away, in my heart I thank Rob for maintaining the house and  bringing us all so much delight in its beauty. I honour Marion for  her decision to stay in the lovely old house in the first place.  Although it now takes 30 minutes from Enderby to Mabel  Lake—instead of two days—it is still a mighty pretty sight halfway  along the journey to round a rocky corner and suddenly spread  before you is a narrow valley with a river winding through. You  seem cut off from the rest of the world, like in a mythical Brigadoon  or Shangri-la. The huge two-storey log Dale home appears, Jenny's  flowers blending with Marion's. "This is my valley, my home," I  whisper. A remarkable pocket of wilderness in the middle of the  populated Okanagan.  Sources: Dale, Rob and Marion, Kingfisher; Dale, Norman, Lusk Lake; Enderby Commoner, 1935; Large, Alice, Vernon; Martinson, Agnes, Vernon; Muifs Original Log Home Guide  for Builders and Buyers; Reflections Along the Spallumcheen, October 1975; Simard, I. "Reminiscences of Mabel Lake 1907-1967" OHS Report No. 34; Wilson, Betty, Kamloops; Zemla,  Mike, Enderby.  132 STUDENT ESSAYS  FRUIT OF THE OKANAGAN  Kara Wight, Grade 10, South Okanagan Secondary School  Since the beginning of the European settlement in the Okanagan Valley, agriculture has been the main industry that has  lasted. When the miners ran out of ore, the agriculture was  there to fall back on as a way of life. In 1927, the completion of the  Ditch, which is a main irrigation canal, widened the options for the  agricultural industry. Crops ranging from zucca melons to apples  to tobacco were all given a try. Some crops did not take, but others  prospered and progressed to becoming a booming industry. Among  those that have taken well in the area have been apples, pears,  peaches and other soft fruits. Grapes have also become a big hit.  Wineries have emerged into a multi-million-dollar industry. Farm  equipment has made labour less strenuous and more efficient.  Thanks to technology, equipment has advanced far above the horse-  drawn plows. The fruit, the Ditch and the livestock have all added  up to a winning combination—the Agriculture of the South Okanagan.  Fruit has been in the valley as the main crop for almost as  long as the non-aboriginal settlements. The first white man to settle came in 1858. His name was Hiram F. Smith, Okanogan Smith,  as the people would call him. With him, he brought 1,200 fruit  trees and he planted his orchard on his property that was across  Osoyoos Lake, in Washington State.  The Oblate Fathers of the Okanagan Mission were the first  people recorded to plant apples north of the Canadian border in  1863. Other settlers started to follow their lead by planting small  orchards. These crops were never intended to be sold, but for personal use only. Perhaps one time or another a small amount was  sold on the local markets.  The first attempts to grow fruit commercially began in the  1890s, but because of so many problems, including lack of transportation and available land, poor orcharding practices and small  markets, production was slow. The Canadian Pacific Railway was  completed in 1885, but even so, it was so far away that it was unreasonable to use. The fruit, unlike cattle or grains, would not be  able to stand up to such a long trip. The dusty, long road to the  station did not make things any easier. In 1893, the continent-wide  depression that lasted five years overcast the prediction that the  Okanagan would become wall-to-wall with fruit trees.  133 STUDENT ESSAYS  Things slowly started to improve. A railway was built in the  Shuswap and Okanagan regions, completed on 12 May 1892. The  potential of this land was soon to be realized. The fruit was not the  main industry at the time, as reports about the area claimed; it was  the grain and cattle ranching that dominated the valley. The land  that was best for farming was already taken up by the ranchers, so  the only way for orchards to expand was to get the ranch owners to  sell out. Until this was done, the business of growing fruit screeched  to a halt.  The man who saw the potential for the Okanagan was the  Earl of Aberdeen. He was the Governor General of Canada at the  time when he toured the regions of the country, including the  Okanagan. In 1890, he bought 480 acres of land at Okanagan Mission. One year later, he bought an estate called the Coldstream  Ranch, which added to his property, bringing the total to 13,480  acres. With the cattle ranchers still not selling, Lord Aberdeen, in  an effort to encourage more people to start production, subdivided  his land. It helped a bit, but most of the good land was still under  the thumb of the ranchers.  Adding to the problems of expansion was the lack of care  that was taken in planting the young trees. The common idea was  to dig a hole and throw the tree in. The trees would take care of  themselves and the profits would start to roll in. Due to this assumption, Aberdeen's orchards did not do very well and the Mission Creek orchard was pulled out. The trees were also found to  have been neglected, due to improper pruning and spraying.  The final blow to the industry was that there were no nearby  markets large enough to support all the farmers. There were only  small markets with the local miners. However, there was a ready  market on the Prairies which was importing nearly all its fruit from  the United States. The newly-booming mining industry in the  Kootenays, which had all its food imported, was also a willing market. The only thing that was stopping the orchardists from shipping to these new markets was the freight costs. They were very  high for the amounts being shipped and many farmers just broke  even. A report published in 1899 by the Canadian Agricultural  Department said that four-fifths of all the fruit bought by the 250,000  consumers in this country was from the United States. The fruit  industry in the U.S. definitely had the advantage. Their crops came  earlier in the year than the Canadian crops, which gave them the  upper hand in pricing. When the Okanagan's fruit was ready, prices  had to be lowered just to compete. The freight rates were gradually  lowered, but the growers were slow to take advantage of them because the first shipments had been poorly packaged, resulting in  bruising and spoiling.  134 STUDENT ESSAYS  Interest in the Okanagan fruit industry was slowly renewed.  The economy was picking up. Branches of the old trees that were  heavy with fruit indicated to many that the fruit growing industry  had a chance at being profitable. Newcomers journeyed from England and the Prairies to get in on what was believed to be a get-rich-  quick scheme.  J. M. Robinson was the first to snatch up a chance at making a profit, not by selling fruit, but by selling land. He purchased  6,743 acres for only $6,500. As people came to the Okanagan looking for a new start, he sold his land for $100 to $200 an acre. Others  followed his lead. In an effort to make one site better than another,  real estate agents built cheap irrigation systems on the properties.  Prices rose to as much as $2,000 per acre where older trees existed  that were bearing fruit. The Okanagan boom was on. Books, brochures and articles were all being written about the fabulous Okanagan. However, many new owners soon found that the irrigation  was inadequate and wouldn't last the season without being replaced.  Others were barely keeping up with the payments because of the  non-profitable crops. Promises made by the agents were fading  away, as some realized they had been lied to about the quality of  the soil, the climate and the profits. Around 1914, some of the young  English settlers left the Valley to fight in the Empire's war, fed up  and glad of an excuse to leave everything behind.  The decrease in interest was not such a bad thing for some  people. Those who had arrived near the beginning of the boom  had bought the good land and had made the honest deals. There  were more of these people than the cheated ones. Most of them  stayed in the Valley to develop their land and make a settlement  for themselves. In 1913, over 20 million pounds of fruit was exported, leaving the growers a total profit of $640,000.  The South Okanagan had progressed from a dusty, cattle-  grazing region with great agricultural potential, to a prospering area  of Canada. We recall H. F. Smith set out 1,200 fruit trees, plus grape  vines, on 24 acres just south of the border. Twenty-one years later  he planted a peach orchard, which has evolved into the types of  peaches grown today.  In the 1890s an orchard was planted by Hiram Engle near  White Lake. He planted King, Jonathan and Ben Davis apples. Later,  he planted an orchard in Osoyoos made up of trees bought from a  nursery near Brewster, Washington.  In 1902, 160 acres were cleared just above the Sportsman  Bowl and incorporated as the Park Ranch Company. Today this is  known as Covert Farms. Later 40 more acres were cleared and  planted with many different types of apples—Wagner, Cox's Orange, Alexander, Greening, Wolf River; Rhode Island, Red Astrachan,  135 STUDENT ESSAYS  Snow, King, Black Twig and Baldwin. The land also grew crab apples and Triumph and Crawford peaches. Little spraying had to be  done because diseases and pests were few. Park Ranch was taken  over by an Englishman, C. J. Rippen, in 1905.  One of the largest orchards in Osoyoos was planted by Leslie  Hill, a mining engineer. He had a whole array of fruit, such as  cherries, nectarines, plums, prunes, peaches, pears and apples. By  now, orchards were scattered up and down the valley, with cattle  grazing the spaces in between. Most farmers found they had to  install fences to keep out unwanted livestock.  In 1918 another population boom occurred in the Okanagan when the government bought 22,000 acres of land from the  border to Mclntyre Bluff for about $350,000. The government then  sold it to World War I veterans at bargain prices. Soldiers hurried to  the area to get a piece of land and immediately ordered fruit trees  and started to clear and prepare their orchard sites. The Okanagan  was soon to be known as the foremost fruit-growing region of  Canada.  While the farmers waited for the trees to start producing,  they planted ground crops between the rows. Sometimes they used  the whole field and planted fruit trees elsewhere. The ground crops  included tomatoes, cucumbers, cantaloupe and zucca melon. The  melons did well because of the hot climate.  The cantaloupe used to dominate the town. People remember how there were fields and fields of them. Oliver was once known  as the "Cantaloupe Capital of Canada." In the season of 1923, 44  carloads were shipped out by train. The packinghouses were receiving more than they could handle. A festival was celebrated every  year on the streets. As part of the festivities, a contest was held for  a Cantaloupe Queen. The first crowning was in 1936, the queen  being Miss Peggy Fraser.  The zucca melon, originating from South Africa, was the  largest type of fruit to leave the Okanagan, growing between four  and six feet long and weighing as much as 100 pounds. When it was  ready to be picked, the melon turned white. The growers often  stood them on end in the fields to show how big they were. A farmer  could expect to grow 15 to 20 tons per acre. During World War II,  when there was a shortage of tropical fruit, the zucca melon was  used as a substitute for the candied fruit used in cakes, etc. The  market gradually died out and the giant melons were replaced by  less-strenuous crops.  Tobacco was an interesting crop that was tried in the 1920s.  Ontario was growing fruit and tobacco during that time. It was reasoned that since the Okanagan could grow fruit, tobacco would  work too. The short-term results were encouraging and the gov-  136 STUDENT ESSAYS  ernment assisted farmers by building drying and curing barns. However, the industry was short-lived, as the Valley lacked Ontario's  humidity. The tobacco was very prone to insects and diseases. There  were few experienced farmers and harvesting and shipping was  difficult. When the government found that producing tobacco was  not profitable, the barns were sold at various auctions in 1937 and  1938.  Crops such as cucumbers, tomatoes, canning tomatoes, potatoes and watermelons never really made their mark as the others did. Most of the ground crops gradually faded away as the fruit  trees came into production and proved to be more profitable.  Grapes have been a huge success in the Okanagan. They  were cheap to grow—wage-wise—and in the early stages did not  require as much maintenance as fruit trees did. The first serious  attempt to grow grapes occurred in 1907, by W J. Wilcox of Salmon  Arm. He planted as many varieties as he could, utilizing about 3 1/  2 acres. His vineyard was more experimental than commercial.  The results showed which plants survived the winter, and many of  these are still grown today. Other problems he faced were lack of  irrigation and inappropriate climate and soil.  The first successful commercial vineyard was established  in 1926 by J. W Hughes. He planted his vines in the Okanagan  Mission and Black Mountain areas. As Europeans came across the  ocean to the Valley, they brought other varieties. With the arrival  of grapes came wineries. The demand for wine was overpowering  and the local production couldn't keep up. Local wineries turned  to the United States and imported 33 to 38 million pounds of grapes.  The B.C. Grape Growers Association and the Liquor Control Board  decided to step in to help local growers and forbade importation of  grapes from the U.S. As pruning techniques improved and knowledge increased, grapes took off. Wines of the Okanagan are now a  major part of the Valley identity.  The agriculture of this valley is one of the chief reasons the  Okanagan is a thriving region of British Columbia. Fruit is the basis  of our communities and is part of our heritage. In the soil lies a  history of failure, defeat and success.     £§  137 THE BARN DANCE  Brenda Thomson  How would we celebrate the 100th anniversary of the 1892 Okanagan arrival of Gifford and Harriet Thomson and family? Someone  said, "Revive the barn dance!" Barn dances previously held by the  Thomsons to mark significant events became almost legendary.  Older children remembered hearing the music while imprisoned  in the house with a sitter; younger children remembered it being  spoken of in stories with hints of adult misbehaviour.  The first barn dance in 1950 celebrated the 21st birthday of  Ken Thomson. This dance also signalled completion of the dairy  barn built by Ken and Gifford. They had bought the late Dr. B. F.  Boyce's barn, dismantled it and rebuilt it on their farm. Dairying  was a new venture begun after the collapse of the vegetable industry, which previously sustained the farm. The Thomson place on  Gordon Drive had been in the family since the turn of the century.  Gifford, Ken and their sister, Marjorie, grew up there, as did their  offspring—15 in all.  Dances continued through the fifties, when Holstein cows  were tenants in the barn. They had to be milked and the gutters  cleaned before the bar could be hauled in. The bar was a 16-foot  section salvaged from the Bellevue Hotel before it was demolished.  The Bellevue was built in 1898 as a Thomson family home only to  be sold and converted to a hotel.  The dance I remember best was the year the Cedar Creek  Gang (friends who lived south of Chute Lake Road) arrived in a  replica of a Kettle Valley Railway steam engine built on a tractor  and trailer. The smokestack was fueled with a bucket of burning  manure as it was driven down through the Mission loaded with  costumed passengers, stopping at every corner to entertain the  gathered crowd. Tbday, they would probably have all been arrested.  We danced in the hayloft to music provided by Pauline and Louis  Senger and Les Evans. A young English girl we feared might be  shocked by our antics was soon noticed sitting on the bar, swinging  her legs and having a wonderful time. Old Jock Thomson, crippled  Brenda Thomson began life in Westwold and moved to Kelowna in 1945. She is  a member of the Central Okanagan Naturalist Club, hiker and keen bird-watcher,  as well as being a leading advocate for linear parks and pathways. She married  Gifford Thomson in 1951.  138 THE BARN DANCE  with arthritis, proved he could still "skin the cat" from the overhead track.  The bar hadn't seen such a good time since its heyday during the construction era of the KVR. The revelry lasted until the  cows were poking their heads around the barn door for the morning milking. The only casualties were a missing husband and a  leftover horse.  The dances eventually died out, resurrected briefly and disastrously by the teenage Thomsons when party-crashers, noise  complaints and police visits were in style. By 1992 the teenagers  had grown up, replaced by grandchildren. The dairy barn was gone,  victim of the Gordon Drive extension. However, we still had the  old horse barn, so Revive the Barn Dance! it was. Invitations were  sent out requesting period dress, a band was hired and the Bellevue  bar dusted off.  In April 1892 Gifford and Harriet Thomson and their eight-  soon to be nine—children arrived at the dock to settle first in  Benvoulin and shortly after in Okanagan Mission (see 30th Okanagan Historical Report). In August 1992 their descendants gathered  to commemorate this event.  On a beautiful warm Okanagan evening, those of us who  waited to greet the guests had a feeling of slipping back in time  through those 100 years. A hush fell over us, broken suddenly by  Thomson family marks 100 Okanagan years in grand style at 1992 barn dance.  Margot and Tom Middleton and children Stuart, Amy and Sarah came dressed to suit  the times. (Brenda Thomson)  139 THE BARN DANCE  the clip-clop of hooves. Horace and Joan Simpson, Pat and Bob  Brown-Clayton, Kendy Ellis and cousin Peter Mallam made a dramatic entrance by hired horse and buggy. With some mechanical  wizardry, Ken Thomson's boys brought to life the 1935 Ford farm  truck and delivered their family with a bang. The ghost of Wong  Wing appeared in the person of another cousin, Dick Ford. Wong  Wing used to rent land on the farm in the thirties, growing vegetables that he delivered in baskets hanging from a pole balanced over  his shoulder. Howard Morgan rode in, cowboy-style, right up to the  bar, demanding a drink. The dance began with a grand march  around the field led by a piper—a tribute to the family's Scottish  heritage. Stephen Thomson, dressed as a rather outlandish Father  Pandosy, was master of ceremonies. Both he and his father, Gifford,  spoke on the history of the clan. Once again the revelry went on  until morning by some young hangers-on, the original barn dancers having gone home to bed. No cows poked their heads around  the stable door, all husbands were accounted for, but there was one  leftover horse. $&  140 THE BIRTHDAY  Brenda Thomson  On 4 May 1995, Doris Crossley was 100 years old—100 years  evenly divided between the Thompson and Okanagan valleys. She was born in Kamloops, the daughter of pioneers  Edith and Albert Duck. Albert came from England in 1881 to join  his cousin, Jacob Duck, who had settled on a ranch near Monte  Creek after following gold rushes in Australia and California. Edith  Morley, also from England, came out in 1891 to act as governess to  the Grahams, a family living opposite the hamlet of Shuswap on  the South Thompson River. She met Albert and they were married  in 1892. Jacob sold his ranch to  Hewitt Bostock and returned to  England, but Albert stayed in  Canada, and by 1901 had his own  ranch, Holmwood, located between Monte Lake and  Barnhartvale.  Doris, along with her sister Mona and brothers Rupert,  Wilfred and Arthur, grew up at  Holmwood. They had an interesting life during the days when  the ranch was a natural stopping  place for travellers. Polo players,  cattlemen and cowboys all found  a bed in the bunkhouse, dinner  at the dining room table and  amusement as well: Tennis,  Her own centennial. Doris Crossley on  100th birthday (Brenda Thomson)  ping-pong, cards, musical evenings and dances were all part of life  at Holmwood and guests were expected to join in. The children  were taught by their mother, whose knowledge and determination  provided them with an excellent education, which included piano,  French and the literary classics. However, to the children's delight,  books were whisked away when visitors appeared or a cattle drive  was approaching.  Everything changed with the advent of World War I when the  young men, including Rupert and Wilfred, joined up. Many did not  return—among them Wilfred—who was killed in France 25 January 1918.  141 THE BIRTHDAY  In 1920 Doris married Robert (Bertie) Butler and settled in  Grande Prairie (now Westwold). Bertie had come to Grande Prairie  with his father, George, in 1902, only to return to England to join  the King Edward Horse Regiment during the 1914-18 conflict. After the war Bertie bought 340 acres from Jim Clemes at the west  end of the valley near the Douglas Lake turn-off. Doris and Bertie  Butler had five children, Nancy, Barbara, Constance, Stephen and  Brenda. In 1944, after many years of hard work and successful farming, the ranch was sold and the Butlers retired to Okanagan Mission. They lived briefly on the "back" road (Raymer) in a house  bought from Bert Charters. But they soon moved to a Lakeshore  Road house where there was electricity!  Bertie died in 1948. In 1955 Doris bought half an acre from  her son-in-law, Gifford Thomson, and his brother Ken, where she  had a new house built, in which she still lives. In 1956 she married  Ivan Crossley, a former Barr Colonist from Lloydminster, Alberta,  who had retired in Kelowna. He died in 1966.  Doris has always enjoyed life in Okanagan Mission. Among a  large circle of friends and family she has led an active social life,  with bridge games and tea parties at the forefront. She belongs to  St. Andrew's Anglican Church, continuing an historic connection,  as her father was the first People's Warden at St. Luke's, Grande  Prairie, and the donor of land for St. Mark's at Holmwood. She has  been an avid gardener, startling everyone with the number of trees  she planted on the once-bald half acre. She had no yen to travel,  leaving B.C. only about five times in her life. She still takes a keen  interest in politics and is always ready to enter a lively discussion.  Always a Conservative, she recalls S. F. Tolmie on the campaign  trail, talking over the fence with her father.  A celebration held in her garden 25 May 1995 brought out  nearly 150 guests, of whom 140 were in some way related. All five  children, nearly all her 23 grandchildren and 40 great-grandchildren attended. With daughter Nancy Gray in charge of the program, many toasts and tributes were proposed to this remarkable  woman, whose memories include going on a democrat trip to Douglas Lake Ranch in 1905 and being given candy and sarsaparilla by  ranch manager J. B. Greaves; meeting the famous train robber Bill  Miner in 1906, when he came to Holmwood for supplies before  staging the holdup at Ducks, and watching cattle king Johnny Wilson  go by in his top buggy, as his herd of 1,000 cattle was driven to  winter at Grande Prairie. Everyone at the party was aware of how  fortunate we were to be able to take part in the wonderful celebration of a life woven through the tapestry of 100 years of British  Columbia history.    g&  142 GREEN'S LANCERS:  THE HIGH SCHOOL  HORSEMEN OF SALMON ARM  Ken Reed  In the fall of 1936 Constable Morley Green of the B.C. Police  received a transfer from Clinton to Salmon Arm. In addition to  wife Vi and sons Cameron (Bud), aged 14, and Gordon (Bonzo),  13, the Green family included two horses and two dogs. Officer  Green was an avid and accomplished equestrian, having served as  captain in a military cavalry regiment, plus logging time in the  saddle as a member of the B.C. Polo Club.  By good fortune, the Greens' arrival coincided with plans  for a Salmon Arm celebration to mark the June 1937 coronation of  King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Fred Middleton was commissioned to organize a fife and drum band for the local Rocky Mountain Rangers militia company, while Morley Green offered to provide a youth musical ride for the occasion. The new Green residence was perfectly sited for the undertaking, with a large fenced  pasture next door and a vacant barn across the street surrounded  by a fairly flat, unfenced field.  Not only was the fledgling troupe modelled after the RCMP  Musical Ride, it was destined to replace the famed counterpart at  the Armstrong Fair.  The RCMP version of the ride provided for eight sections of  four mounts, whereas Green proposed to field half that number.  Dubbed The Peanut Cavalry, schoolboys' mounted precision troupe was the toast of  1937 Salmon Arm Coronation celebration and the Armstrong Fair. Author Reed is  eighth from right. (Mrs. F. A. Green)  Ex-Lancer Ken Reed was a career army officer and federal civil servant. Now  retired, he lives in Victoria.  143 GREEN'S LANCERS: THE HIGH SCHOOL HORSEMEN OF SALMON ARM  Even turning out 16 horses and riders was an extremely optimistic  project for Salmon Arm; most of the available animals and tack did  not exactly fit the standard one would expect for this type of endeavour. The recruits consisted of youths 14 to 18 years, some  with horses, some without. Their tack ranged from bareback to  stock saddles to war surplus military saddles. Not to worry. Those  without horses could find a loan and Green arranged to borrow a  complete issue of tack from the B.C. Dragoons in Vernon. The horses  were best described as mainly Indian cayuses, with some infusion  of Clydesdale (very hairy legs). Some were well turned out, but  most came straight from the outdoors, with unruly manes and tails  and a long winter coat. Again, not to worry. Morley set up a beauty  parlour in his barn, which was equipped with a hand-powered cow  clipper. Budding Lancers presided on the crank handle.  At this point Green had his horses and riders, but much  effort lay ahead to mould the recruits—animal and human—into a  presentable unit. A training centre was established in the barn area  and eventually the group moved to the fairgrounds, where a proper  layout was set up. Here the intricate routines, encompassing 52  segments, were introduced and practised to perfection. The horses  became so conditioned little or no reining was necessary.  As promised, tack arrived from the Dragoons—albeit smothered with protective grease—and a saddle rack was provided for  each trainee in a room at the Agricultural Hall, which doubled as a  drillhall for the RMRs. Everyone now had the same equipment and  for most this was the first time they would ride in an English saddle and for all it was the first time they would use two sets of reins.  Our standard tack was as follows: Bridle, white taped brow and  nose band. Saddle, standard army grey blanket, folded, with white  saddle blanket cover made from a flour sack. Head rope, white  with hangman's knot, pipe clayed.  The lances were improvised from small trees cut from the  bush and taken to Jack Moir's woodworking shop for shaping a  "steel point" and "butt." Silver paint was applied to the tip and butt  and the whole lance varnished. A white tape sling and white and  red pennon completed the armament. Uniforms were deliberately  kept simple. Popular and cheap, white cardboard pith helmets with  added black elastic were adopted for headgear. White shirts and  bluejeans were given a uniform look by a one-inch white leg stripe  and black elastic band under the instep, and black ankle boots. All  the sewing of regalia and clothing was done by a group of volunteer women headed by Vi Green.  Morley Green was always a showman and part of the Lancers' routine was the laying out of the show grounds. This was carried out by Bonzo Green and Bob Labron and a red setter dog, the  144 GREEN'S LANCERS: THE HIGH SCHOOL HORSEMEN OF SALMON ARM  team whose job entailed delineating the field with three-foot stakes  and placing red and white pennants at eight locations. The pennants were utilized as reference points during the various manoeuvres.  After weeks of practice and rehearsals the great day dawned.  Morley Green, resplendent in the summer uniform of a cavalry  captain and astride a gleaming "Midnight," brandished his sword to  signal the debut of Green's Lancers in the coronation parade and  the dashing performance to come.  The local military establishment was not thrilled by this  martial display, perhaps feeling envious and miffed that it had been  upstaged by a civilian group.  The next chapter of the Lancers' short-lived fame revolved  around their selection in 1937 by  the Armstrong Fair to replace the  RCMP Musical Ride. In order to jazz  up the performance, Green decided  to add a tent-pegging display. He  was aided in instruction by Walter  Hodgson, a skilled pegger who had  recently moved to Salmon Arm  from Vernon.  Summer was spent honing the  ride, adding new routines and  breaking in new personnel. The  horses were ridden to Armstrong  by a small detachment and the rest  of the boys were transported by automobile.  Daphne Tate, writing in A  Salmon Arm Scrapbook, 1980, observed: "Both pupils and horses responded with great enthusiasm,  effort and often exhaustion. Their  discipline and the precision of the  drills in their musical ride gave  much pleasure to local gatherings and received well-deserved acclaim during all their performances, including those at the Armstrong Fair."  From Frank Kappel, a prominent member of the Sicamous  community, came this May 13,1937 note: "My dear Green: I hoped  that I would see you last night, as I wished particularly to express  to you my sincere congratulations on the show that you and your  boys put on in the afternoon ... I have seen similar displays put on  by the Mounties and by professional soldiers in the European coun-  145  Ex-Lancer Ken Reed 1943, by now  an officer with the Seaforth Regiment  in Italy. GREEN'S LANCERS: THE HIGH SCHOOL HORSEMEN OF SALMON ARM  tries, but never have I seen a musical ride which gave me greater  pleasure, due no doubt largely to the fact that a few weeks ago  these boys were slouching aimlessly around the town, and the  horses possibly pulling ploughs or hauling cordwood into Salmon  Arm . . ." Green's Lancers had outgrown their local nicknames  of "The High School Yeomanry" and "The Peanut Cavalry." Their  brief glory lasted until the closing day of the 1937 Armstrong exhibition. Green was soon transferred to Golden.  Morley Green continued to apply his organizational skill  wherever he was posted. In Golden he organized a junior athletic  association, then in Port Alberni he organized a schoolboy traffic  patrol, plus riding and badminton clubs. He also received the Medal  of the British Empire for extreme devotion to duty.  Green's Lancers included Derek (Buster) Belli-Bivar, Wilson  June, Jacques Lionel Seymour Metford, Ken Reed, Harry Anderson,  John Ehlers, Gordon Sutherland, Cameron Green; Roger McKeown,  Cecil Smith, Elmer (Emmy) Smith; Bill Whitlock, Ken Cummings,  Roy Beech, Lawrence (Bubs) Perry, Owen Hooper, David Bennetts,  George Ruggles.  Footnote: Most of the Lancers were destined to serve their country in World  War Two. Ken Cummings enlisted in a light anti-aircraft battery, Third Division  Canadian Army, and when he arrived at London, Ontario, in August 1941, Corporal Morley Green was on the railway station platform to meet the incoming draft.  Cummings and Green—by now Regimental Sergeant-Major Green—were reunited  on an English parade square. According to Ken Cummings, the RSM had included  an impressive collection of Lancer press clippings and photographs in his overseas kit and never tired of going over his Salmon Arm accomplishment.    £j^  Salmon Arm's salute to George VI's ascension to English throne include grand  parade led by Green's Lancers. (Mrs. FA. Green)  146 BUS ACCIDENT  A. David MacDonald  Motor vehicle accidents raise only passing interest in an age  when police radio channels routinely report road mishaps.  However, in the 1930s when highway traffic was light, accidents were still somewhat of a novelty and topics of great interest, especially if a large number of people were involved. One such  accident occurred about six o'clock on the evening of 6 March 1937,  when a Greyhound bus carrying 21 passengers was proceeding down  Peach Orchard Hill in Summerland. This piece of road was then  part of the provincial highway system through the Okanagan Valley but has since been bypassed by the modernized Highway 97.  One of the passengers on the bus was Mrs. Stella Gummow,  wife of Peachland reeve Ben Gummow. Already well known in the  Okanagan, she was in later years to gain prominence in several  fields. In December 1942 Mrs. Gummow was elected reeve of  Peachland by acclamation, the first woman to head a municipality  in British Columbia. She was also well known provincially for her  work in the Women's Institute. However, at the time of the accident she had one other qualification: she was Peachland correspondent for the then-weekly Penticton Herald. From Summerland hospital she forwarded an eyewitness account of the accident in time for  the March 11 edition. Using her left hand, she wrote:  It is three o'clock in the morning, but one can't sleep so much  when one is in bed all day. My left hand isn't so good, but my  right arm is stretched out on a metal frame to allow the one  bone that has not yet gone back into place to take its rightful  position.  Although it seemed to me that the bus was travelling pretty  fast after we hit a bad bump at Peach Orchard, it was not until  Mrs. Donovan of Kelowna, with whom I sat in the front seat  to the right of the driver, nudged me and said, 'Look, the brakes  won't work,' that I realized that anything was wrong.  The bus was gaining speed at an alarming pace and then the  driver, Michael Murphy, who kept his head wonderfully  throughout the whole experience, attempted to put the car  into lower gear to check its speed. He failed in this and released into neutral. The bus sped down the road, through the  fence and took off through mid-air to land on the beach.  A. David MacDonald, a former educator and active Penticton historian, is currently serving as president of the Okanagan Historical Society.  147 BUS ACCIDENT  Driver Murphy did indeed keep his head. He had a choice of  making a sharp right-hand turn at the foot of the hill, in which case  the bus would have rolled over, or of heading straight ahead for a  60-foot leap on to the muddy shore of Okanagan Lake.  Nearby residents rushed to the scene and passengers were  given first aid at the home of Mr. and Mrs. George Gartrell. Others  quickly responding were Summerland physicians F. W Andrew and  A. W. Vanderburgh and provincial police constable W. W.  Hemmingway. One of the passengers, Miss Marion Miles, was a  public health nurse from Kelowna and she rendered immediate  invaluable medical aid.  Summerland residents survey accident scene following morning. Note destination of  bus: Oroville. Dorothy (MacDonald) Fisher  148 BUS ACCIDENT  The passengers had various reasons for being on that particular bus. Mrs. Gummow was travelling to Penticton to be at the  bedside of her mother, Mrs. Valentine Dynes. Sadly, Mrs. Dynes  died at eight p.m. Saturday while her daughter lay in Summerland  hospital. Among the other passengers were a number of South  Okanagan educators who had been attending a day-long meeting  of the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association in Kelowna, including Kenneth P. Caple, then principal of Summerland High School,  and later regional director of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and chancellor of Simon Fraser University. Caple, who lived  at Trout Creek, was seriously injured, but was welcomed back to  work on March 24, according to the Herald.  More fortunate was S. A. MacDonald, principal of  Summerland (now MacDonald) Elementary School. He had the  habit of buying his children a chocolate bar on the way home from  an all-day meeting, so he decided that morning to drive his car to  the upper town of West Summerland to catch the bus to Kelowna  and thus had left the ill-fated vehicle minutes before the accident.  Other passengers included Mrs. Donovan and Miss Miles  from Kelowna, Claire Loomer, a teacher from Penticton, L. E. Dalton,  Rose Ellett, Mr. Leiterman and Miss Dolan. Michael Murphy stopped  driving for Greyhound after the accident, but returned to  Summerland in the 1970s to serve as fire chief.   $&  149 THE "LIE" — ONE FAST LADY  . . . TEN MINUTES TO PARADISE  Glenn G. Graham  A most interesting historical chapter in the sport and cultural  life of early Summerland seems to have been passed over. I  cannot find any mention of either the Lil or E. N. Rowley in  any OHS Report or index, other than in the "Chapman Story" (OHS  Report No. 38, p. 103), where it states "Rowley from Summerland  pre-empted at Mazama and later sold to Chapman." As I am probably the last, or one of the few survivors who rode in the Lil, I feel  that something should be noted.  Esme N. Rowley was a colourful Englishman and a neighbour of ours who lived at what is now 12010 Lakeshore Drive in  lower Summerland. The house burned in the 1920s. It was said  that in the early days most of our English friends like Rowley had  two suits: a full-dress or tuxedo, and bib overalls. It is told that the  gentleman in our story once arrived at a ball (probably at Empire  Hall) in full dress and white gloves, wearing a new pair of moccasins.  Another anecdote goes as follows: Rowley, while walking  home from the post office reading a letter, passed the McLaughlin-  Buick garage. Proprietor Hatfield asked, "Letter from Home, Mr.  Rowley?"  "Yes."  "All well, I hope, Mr. Rowley?"  "My uncle just died."  "Oh, that's very sad, Mr. Rowley."  "Yes, Mr. Hatfield. Oh, incidentally, what is the price of the  new Buick this year?"  But back to the Lil. She was the fastest boat on the lake for  several years and reputed to be the fastest in B.C., according to C.  E. (Mike) Clay, Esme Rowley's brother-in-law. Mike often operated  the Lil and it was he who once took my mother and me to Paradise  Ranch at Naramata. The Lil could run from Summerland to the  Ranch in 10 minutes, which would give her a speed of about 25  miles per hour, faster than you could drive a car in Summerland.  Glenn Graham's family came to Summerland in 1903, where Glenn was born in  1912. The family moved to Kelowna in 1917, but kept close ties with Summerland.  Glenn lived in Oliver for 30 years, where he was a funeral director.  150 THE "LIL"- ONE FAST LADY  She was commissioned by Rowley and built by Burton L.  Hatfield (a master boat builder from Nova Scotia, who arrived in  Summerland in 1909), in a shop behind his McLaughlin-Buick Garage in 1914. She was named for Miss Lillian Brown, later Mrs.  George Craig (OHS Report No. 38, p.41). The Lil was a long-hulled  launch and narrow of beam, with a displacement hull, and although  she lifted at top speed, she did not plane. She was powered by an  eight-cylinder Skripps-Booth marine engine. Interestingly, when  she was launched, the engine had not arrived and time was short  before the 1914 Kelowna Regatta. Rowley had it EXPRESSED in  from Chicago, installed immediately and entered in the speedboat  race.  The race course was from the Kelowna Acquatic Club to  Bear Creek and return, and the Lil entered the race for a number of  years. From Kelowna Courier files her placings were as follows:  1914 — First (driven by R. V. Agur  1917 — No mention  1915 - Lost to Rip II 1918 - First (disqualified)  1916 — First 1919 — Second (silver cigar  ette case)  The reason for the 1918 disqualification was that there had  been motor trouble going out and her return time was greater than  her outgoing time.  Speed launch Lil; was she the fastest in B.C. ? Builder B. L. Hatfield (in cockpit) and  owner E. W. Rowley on Okanagan Lake trial run. (Glenn Graham)  151 THE "LIL"- ONE FAST LADY  The Lil came to an untimely end, crushed in the ice in the  early 1920s. Only the engine was salvaged. The last time I saw her,  about six or eight feet had been cut off the bow end and she was  being paddled around the end of the government (CN) wharf by  the late Cammie McAlpine, still with her brass nameplate in place.  There are several boats sitting on the bottom of the bay there and I  imagine Lil is with them.  Esme N. Rowley "inherited" in the mid-1920s and returned  to England, taking his Buick roadster with him. He loved the outdoors and on arrival in Quebec City days ahead of the Atlantic  departure, bought a tent and camped out on the Plains of Abraham  with his wife and son. @&  152 RAIL DAYS WERE BUSY  Eric Chapman  Kelowna did not have direct railway service until 1925, when  the CNR brought a line down from Vernon. Up to that time  all passengers and freight came in or went out on the CPR's  boat and barge service.  Lake sailings emanated from Okanagan Landing in the north  and from Penticton in the south, where connections were made  with the Kettle Valley Railway. Passengers travelled on the CPR  paddlewheelers Okanagan and Sicamous, the latter now docked  permanently at Penticton. However, freight moved mostly by barge,  with an initial capacity of eight boxcars, later increased to 10.  The barges were pulled by steam tugs—Kelowna and  Naramata—and special docks were provided for loading and unloading. Because the rail yards had dead-end tracks and sharp  curves, steam locomotives could not be used in the barge-loading  operations. At first the transfers were handled by teams of horses  and I believe the Dillon family had the contract. There were about  7 1/2 miles of track in Kelowna's CPR yard. In 1922 D. Chapman  and Company was awarded the contract. Trucks with hard rubber  tires were used in wintertime, and if there was lots of snow it sometimes took two trucks to move the railcars.  Specially modified 1950 International truck stood in for switching locomotive in  Kelowna's rail yards and barge-loading operation. Chapman company's participation dated back to 1922.  Eric Chapman, the son of David Chapman, is a longtime resident of Kelowna  and a member of the OHS.  153 RAIL DAYS WERE BUSY  Chapman "pusher engine" was a step up on horse teams. Staff member in this c.1940  photograph is Bert Marshall, who put in 52 years with the Chapman firm.  In the busy season, when all the packinghouses and canneries were going full-tilt, switching and moving freight cars went  on day and night, with two, two-man shifts doing it all. Peak days  saw four barges being loaded, off-loaded on their return from the  Landing at night and then re-loaded! There were also incoming  and outgoing freight trains, both CP and CN, to be handled. The  CPR yard was a joint operation because most of the businesses  were situated on Canadian Pacific tracks.  All this shunting was done by specially designed equipment,  with spring-loaded bumpers fore and aft for pushing and stopping  cars. Special towing cables were also used in the truck-train hookups.  The operation went on until the CPR docks and railyards were removed in 1972.   <£&  154 HALL OF LEARNING  — OYAMA'S ONE-ROOM  HIGH SCHOOL  Wilma Hayes  I  n these days of modern secondary education it's almost impossible to visualize a high school with all grades in one room. It's  equally difficult to imagine one teacher instructing about 25  Oyama High grades 10 to 12: left to right: Sadie Draper, Beth Peters, Beryl  Trewhitt, Margaret Getty. (Wilma Hayes)  Wilma (Clement) Hayes is a lifelong resident of the Kelowna area and a  member of the Kelowna OHS branch.  155 HALL OF LEARNING - OYAMA'S ONE-ROOM HIGH SCHOOL  students in every subject in that classroom. Such was the situation  in Oyama when a group of Winfield students, including the writer,  joined local students at Oyama High School.  The one-room school, an addition to the two-room public  school, had a modest beginning in 1921. Built at a cost of $6,000,  the building housed classes from grades nine to 11, the last being  matriculation level at the time. As the building was not ready for  the start of the 1921 term, the first teacher, a Mr. Bendroth, gathered the pupils together for senior instruction in the kitchen of the  community hall. Prior to that time ambitious students took up residence in Vernon or  travelled there daily  to receive a secondary education.  From 1921 to  1945 Oyama offered  the only high school  between Rutland and  Vernon. Many students walked, some  cycled, while the  winter months saw  skaters heading  north on Wood Lake  to attend classes.  During the years I  attended —1936 to  1940—with the two  youngest Berry boys  and three other  Winfield students, we  travelled comfortably  in a reliable Hudson  sedan. As I recall, we  each paid only $5 a  month for that special transportation.  Our teacher,  Gordon Hall, grew up  in Rutland and was  well known for his academic skills. He had achieved the highest  senior matriculation marks for all B.C. and was the recipient of the  Governor-General's award. At Oyama High, Hall had grades nine  to 12, and often had a single student in Grade 13. Not only did he  cover the entire curriculum, he also created a stimulating program  Gordon Hall, a brilliant student and inspired teacher.  (Wilma Hayes)  156 HALL OF LEARNING - OYAMA'S ONE-ROOM HIGH SCHOOL  of after-school activities. An enthusiastic supporter of the annual  track meet, he met eager contestants at 6 a.m. and continued with  training drills until minutes before classes began at 9 a.m.  Hall always had the best interests of his young charges in  mind. Realizing that learning to use a typewriter would be a definite advantage, he arranged to have space made available for typing instruction in the furnace room.  I also remember an Easter hike on the range of mountains  west of Oyama and a June picnic on the sandbar of Kalamalka  Lake, both led by our teacher. Our Christmas concerts compared  favourably to those presented by much larger schools. On occasion  we rehearsed in Gordon Hall's "home," a cabin at a local motel.  Reminiscing about our one-room high school, I realize how  little we missed and I marvel at the level of education we received  at the hands of an outstanding educator.   |g|  157 EARLY GLENROSA  SCHOOL DAYS  Eunice Gorman  If you make a left turn at Gates Road on the way up Glenrosa  Road toward Crystal Mountain ski resort you can see the old  one-room Glenrosa schoolhouse still standing on the property  of the Ficke family. If the building could talk, it would tell about a  long history, going back to 1911 or 1912. With the help of some  former pupils, we can learn some of that story.  Sketch by Rob Christie  In 1908 a group of Christian believers commenced meeting  in a log cabin at Glenrosa. The following year they used a building  made from canvas stretched over a wooden frame. Between 1911  Eunice Gorman is married to Ross Gorman, as well as being Helen Gorman's  sister-in-law. As a long-time resident of Westbank, she is keenly interested in the  history of her community.  158 EARLY GLENROSA SCHOOL DAYS  and 1913, lumber having become available from Hitchner Brothers  sawmill, they erected the little building which still stands.  One of the members of the congregation, Ernest Smith, had  come from Yorkshire and in 1913, with his wife and five children,  settled in the Glenrosa area. It was Smith who proposed the building also be used for a school. The first page of the class register lists  the five Smith children in attendance, including Ruth Smith  Maddock, who now resides in Westbank.  Two others among the original 12 pupils also live in  Westbank: Marian Webber Fenton and Stella Webber Fenton. The  ages of the first class ranged from Stella Webber, five, to Eunice  Smith, 13. Marian Webber was seven years old, but as she had never  been to school before, she began her education with the same studies as those of her sister, Stella.  They learned to read from the British Columbia Beginners'  Reader (phonics) and the British Columbia Primer, which contained  stories. After those came the British Columbia Second and Third  Readers. In 1922 those books were replaced by The Canadian Reader,  beginning with Book One.  Fifteen different teachers stood in front of classes in the  schoolhouse cum church. Helen Gorman, who still resides in  Westbank, began to attend at the age of five—half days only—and  Timeless rural school scene features Glenrosa's 1931 pupils. Front, left to right: Una  Morrison, Grace Fenton, Eva Fenton, Ross Gorman. Centre, Irene Webber, Dora  Hitchner, Mrs. Norma J. Morrison, Ethel Webber, Enid Gates. Back, John Hussey,  John Gorman, Douglas Webber. (Eunice Gorman)  159 EARLY GLENROSA SCHOOL DAYS  later taught at the tiny school. She stayed the longest, beginning in  1931 and continuing until the school closed at the end of June 1942.  The lowest point in attendance appears to be 28 August-1  September 1916, when the register reads "actual daily attendance -  2." It picked up after Labour Day to a total of four pupils through  September. The end of both 1931 and 1933 school years boasts the  largest enrollment reached, 18.  Marian Webber Fenton remembers that as soon as warm  spring weather arrived the children came barefoot to school. They  had one new pair of shoes a year, which were kept for Sundays at  first, and then could be used every day in winter. Lunches were  carried in a lard pail. Pupils helped keep the wood stove burning  and were sometimes permitted to ring the hand-held bell.  There was no playground area, as a dirt road—the main  street of the Township of Glenrosa—ran directly in front of the  school. The grocery store/post office was across the way in a private home. There were no balls or playground equipment, but the  children didn't miss these props, as they played prisoners' base,  pom, pom pull-away, fox and geese and anti, anti eye over [the  schoolhouse roof]. The girls also had a playhouse in nearby trees  and one teacher brought a rope and made a swing suspended from  a branch.  Marian Webber, being the eldest of nine children, had to  miss school frequently to help at home. She remembers going down  to Westbank to write Grade 8 entrance exams and being so nervous  that she was sick for three or four days.  In 1939 the church congregation moved to Westbank to the  newly-built Highway Gospel Hall. When the little school closed in  1942, teacher Helen Gorman and pupils were transferred to the  Westbank school.  The old building was used for a government athletic program for some years, and the sign "Glenrosa Gym" remains a part  of the history.   $fe  160 A FROSTY WELCOME  TO THE NORTH OKANAGAN  Vesta Foote Leslie Philpott  I arrived in Vernon on New Year's morning, 1941. It was just  coming daylight. I had travelled on the CNR train from Fraser  Lake in northern British Columbia to Kamloops, where I had  stayed overnight with my aunt and uncle before completing the  journey. I was 22 years old and expecting my first child in February. I had wired my husband, Phil Leslie, about when to expect me,  but he did not get the telegram. No one at the Vernon railway station knew of anyone named Leslie. My husband was living with  his sister and brother-in-law, Elmer and Lizzy O'Toole on the west  side hill near Kin Beach. They worked for Allan Davidson on his  sheep ranch. It so happened that Phil and the O'Tooles had taken a  sleigh and team of horses into Vernon and were at the station when  my train arrived. They were surprised to see me get off, but it  turned out to be perfect timing.  The O'Tooles lived in a one-roomed cabin with their four  boys and four girls. The girls slept in a wood shed with a blanket  over the doorway. Phil and I moved into a sheep shack that was 12  feet by 12 feet. We could boil water on the B.C. camp stove from  the bed. On the morning of 31 January 1941, Mr. Davidson brought  two slimy newborn lambs into the place and put them under the  camp stove. They were to dry off and be kept warm.  That same day, I started to get cramps. Lizzy came over to  check me out and decided that I was in labour. They sent their son  Howard over to the Palmers, who delivered milk in Vernon. The  Palmers came and took me to the hospital.  Marie Ann Leslie was born at two o'clock in the afternoon  of 31 January 1941 with Dr. Pettman in attendance. I believe that  they kept a new mother in bed for 14 days at that time, and Vernon  Jubilee Hospital was not the modern building it is today. I think  the beds were vintage World War One.  It was so good to take my new baby home. But, where would  that home be? Phil had been laid off and he had gone to work for  Vesta Philpott is an amateur artist and involved with the Armstrong-Spallumcheen  Museum and Art Gallery.  161 A FROSTY WELCOME TO THE NORTH OKANAGAN  Chief Clarke (sic), so we had to move into the bunkhouse until  March 1. The bunkhouse was horrible! It was full of bedbugs! I had  never seen a bedbug before in my life. The beds were cots with  large gaps in the springs, and the mattress kept falling through.  Mrs. Clarke came over when I was in the depths of the three-  week blues. She was very kind, but her husband was ill and she did  not have much time. She did give me some preatherum powder to  ward off the bedbugs.  Later, we moved into the cottage on Sherbourne Avenue  that belonged to Chief Clarke. It had two bedrooms, a living room,  kitchen and bathroom. There was no central heating, nor hot water. I used a wood stove and at least I had electric lights. There  were wood floors—no lino or rugs—but that was good in the summer. In the very hot weather I also turned the garden hose on the  outside of the house. It was so hot at night that I put Marie to bed  without a stitch of clothing on, as her little arms and legs were  covered with beads of perspiration. When it got cool in the middle  of the night, I would get up to diaper and cover her. The heat was  too much for Chief Clarke and he passed away in the hot spell.  We stayed in that cottage until my husband, Phil, joined the  Royal Canadian Artillery that fall. He took his basic training in Vernon, and then he was sent to Gander, Newfoundland. I moved into  a small house on Hankie Street after Phil left, but then I moved  back to Fraser Lake in March of 1942 and lived with my baby and  parents until Phil came back from the war. At present, my daughter Marie Kump is a nurse living in Osoyoos. She is a widow with  three grown children and one grandson.  I always liked the Okanagan, despite all my hardships, and  I always said that I would return when I retired. Phil died in 1966  and I married Elden Philpott in 1972. In 1984 we moved to Vernon  and from there, in 1990, we moved to Armstrong, where we still  live.   <£>  162 LEGENDARY KELOWNA  TEAMSTER  Thelma Dillon Owen  Kelowna pioneer George Dillon was the pre-eminent teamster of his time, a worthy candidate for the haul of fame.  He was born in Caledon, Ontario, in 1869 to Irish immigrants and in 1893 married Minnie Blackwood, whose parents hailed  from Scotland. Five years later Minnie Dillon came to Kelowna  with her two children, Harry and Jennie, to help family members  run a cafe on Water Street.  George Dillon was reunited with his dependants in 1900  and at that time they lived on Eli (Harvey) Avenue in a small house  beside Mill Creek. After being evicted by a flood, they moved to  the Oak Hall building on the southeast corner of the Bernard and  Water intersection, which was owned by Minnie's father, William  Blackwood.  George Dillon entered the teamstering business by delivering meat in a covered wagon for a small downtown butcher shop.  At the same time he worked for the city watering streets to settle  the dust. In 1905 the Dillons moved to 1000 Bernard Avenue, where  they built a large horse barn and erected house and tents for the  family. The new residence was accompanied by the emergence of  Dillon and Son hauling contractors.  Meanwhile, the Dillon household had increased. Violet made  her appearance in 1903 and in 1905 Thelma and Muriel became  the first Caucasian twins born in Kelowna. Another daughter, Faye,  didn't arrive until 1924.  Dillon and Son soon proved they could haul anything, anywhere—brick, coal, rock, fruit, vegetables, sand and gravel, the last  two products from George Dillon's own pit in the Bankhead area.  They also hauled goods to the CPR wharf for transportation on the  lake barges. The firm owned several beautiful teams of horses which  shuttled boxcars, both empty and full, from the wharves to the packing houses and canneries until trains came to Kelowna in 1925.  Thelma Owen married Chester Owen in 1925. They moved into a new home on  Lawson Avenue with running water and a bathroom; no more tin tub in the kitchen  for a bath. Their daughter, Gwyndolyne (Hansen) was born in 1931.  163 LEGENDARY KELOWNA TEAMSTER  George Dillon and his horse teams, were vital link in moving Okanagan produce to  market. This pre-1922 scene by pioneer photographer G. H. E. Hudson shows rail  cars carrying Orchard City and Standard of Empire produce from Western Canners  Ltd. being loaded on barges on first stage of journey to Edmonton wholesaler.  Eventually the horses were sold, the barns came down and a garage was built to usher in a new age. Dillon purchased his first  truck in 1930 and drove very well, but he had a little trouble stopping to "whoa!!!" The business remained in the family for another  26 years.  George Dillon lost his right leg to diabetes in 1943 and had  a three-wheeled cycle built by Campbell's Bicycle Shop so he could  enjoy daily trips around the neighbourhood. In 1943 George and  Minnie celebrated their 50th anniversary. George died in 1953, two  years before Minnie. Faye was laid to rest in 1986 and Jennie died  in 1987. Violet and Thelma still reside in Kelowna.   gfe  164 Personalities  ORMONDE (PAT) AITKENS,  1892-1976  John Aitkens  On 2 September 1976 Ormonde St. Patrick Aitkens of Kelowna died  at the age of 84 years. Pat, as he was called by his friends, was born  in Picton, New Zealand,  and educated at St. John's  College at Leatherhead,  England. He came to  Canada in 1909 and found  employment with the Kelowna branch of the Bank  of Montreal. In 1913 he  joined the staff of Okanagan Investments Limited,  embarking on a career  that was shortly interrupted by the First World  War.  Ormonde Aitkens  was a member of the 47th  Battalion of the New Westminster Regiment. During  the fighting he was  wounded and promoted in  the field to the rank of  lieutenant. Back in action,  he was again wounded in the Battle of Amion, during which he  was awarded the Military Cross for conspicuous gallantry for single-handedly knocking out an enemy machine-gun post.  After the war he married Phyllis Wollaston of Victoria and  in 1919 returned to his position at Okanagan Investment Company.  He served as secretary, manager and managing director before retiring from the company in 1968.  Ormonde (Pat) Aitkens  John Aitkens is the son of Pat Aitkens. He resides in Kelowna.  165 PERSONALITIES  He was closely connected with St. Michael and All Angels  Anglican Church and filled the position of treasurer for the Diocese of Kootenay for 29 years. Actively involved in promoting the  Okanagan, he is credited with pioneering Kelowna's first fruit juice  processor, Kel Apple Juice, later to become Sun-Rype Products. He  was also instrumental in the formation of Okanagan Helicopters  Ltd.  Ormonde Aitkens was a noted sportsman and did much of  the groundwork in procuring a coat of arms for the City of Kelowna.  ALICE ISABELL BRYDON  Mildred Hartman  In the spring of 1885 Alexander Ferguson came west from Owen  Sound to visit his sister, Margaret Hargreaves, in Kamloops. He  walked from Craigellachie to Kamloops, as the rail line was not  finished until the following November. Ferguson returned to Ontario  that fall and again came west in  1887 to settle at Grande Prairie  (Westwold). In 1888 he was joined  by his wife, Teressa, and their three  children, Archibald, Margaret and  William. Over the next several  years five more children were born:  Wilbert, Pearl, Alice, Ellie and  Ruby.  Alice Isabell Ferguson was  born 6 February 1893. She started  school at the age of four to make  up the minimum enrollment of  eight. When she was seven years  old, her father sold the Grande Prairie property and the family moved  to the Falkland district. Alice had  to spend a year at home until a  classroom was built. The children  walked 2 1/2 miles to school over  Alice Brydon reaches 100 on 6  February 1993.  a rough road, often having to break trail in knee-deep snow. The  Mildred Hartman lives in Armstrong and is Alice Brydon's younger daughter.  166 PERSONALITIES  first to arrive lit the fire. The building also served as a church and  as a community hall. Alice learned the waltz and the polka at one  of the socials, and that is where she met her husband, Lewis Caldwell  Brydon.  They were married 12 May 1915 and made their first home  on the China Valley Ranch. Their neighbours were the Joe Blanc  family and Mrs. Blanc's brother, Henry Bicais, and the Dan Pement  family. Mrs. Pement was a sister of Mrs. William Sidney. Mr. Sidney  rented Dan Pement's place for about two years before moving to  Lewis and Alice Brydon, posed at Falkland in 1945 for early North Okanagan  photographer George Meeres.  Armstrong. Brydon (on some maps, Bryden) and Pement lakes,  southeast of Chase, memorialize the two old China Valley families.  The Brydons had to haul water from Charcoal Creek in a barrel. They raised beef and payday was once a year when the cattle  were sold. In 1918 forest ranger Tom Patterson had the telephone  line brought over the mountain from Gleneden and the people of  the area helped with the work. Alice cooked for the crew that strung  the line, driving daily to the ranger station with infant son Wilbert.  There were three phone "subscribers" in the area: Brydon, Lewis  and Peck. Mrs. Kirkpatrick was the operator at Gleneden and Alice  talked to her nearly every day, but they never met.  The nearest post office was 10 miles away at Paxton Valley  and anyone going there returned with mail for the others in China  Valley. The same went for groceries. Those heading for Chase gathered the neighbours' want lists the night before, so an early start  could be made in the morning.  167 PERSONALITIES  Four children were born to Alice and Lewis Brydon: Wilbert,  Harold, Norma and Mildred. Lack of a school brought about a move  to Rashdale Road at Armstrong. The Rashdale house was built by  Lewis's great uncle, William Burnett. In 1924 they moved to the  farm where Alf Fowler now lives and built up a herd of purebred  Ayrshire cattle.  When Harold was three years old he contracted polio and  managed to live only four more years. While serving with the air  force in the Second World War Wilbert failed to return from a mission on 5 March 1945.  The Brydon family stayed in Armstrong until 1941, when  all the children had completed an education. They farmed in the  Falkland area until Lewis's health began to fail in 1956, at which  time Mildred and her husband, Werner Hartman, took over the  land and the Brydons moved to Vernon. Lewis died four years later  at the age of 72. Alice continued to live in their home until 1985,  when she moved to McCulloch Court. She maintained her own  apartment until experiencing a fall in January 1994. She died 15  February 1994, aged 101. She was a charter member of Falkland's  Mountain View Rebekah Lodge.  THE MALLET-PARET FAMILY  Joan (Mallet-Paret) Needham  John Mallet-Paret was the youngest of a family of five brothers  born to Louis and Helen Mallet-Paret on the island of St. Lucia,  British West Indies. The family was of French-Scottish descent and  was associated with governmental affairs in the islands during the  Napoleonic Wars.  In 1894, at the age of eight, John was sent to England to be  educated at St. Augustine's Benedictine Abbey in Ramsgate, Kent.  Here he spent his formative years and developed an interest in  English literature and the classics. He also excelled at cricket. During holidays he was placed in the home of a guardian by name of  Brown. The Browns became his surrogate parents until he left England at the age of 18 to return to St. Lucia.  On his return to St. Lucia his mother, by then a widow, came  to the conclusion the isolated Indies was not a suitable place for a  young man to spend the rest of his days. She suggested John choose  either Argentina or Canada, so with the flip of a coin his Canadian  168 PERSONALITIES  destiny was sealed. This was quite provident, as he had an older  brother, Joseph, working in the Bank of British North America  branch in Duck Lake, Saskatchewan. Eventually both brothers arrived in Kelowna, having heard this beautiful valley was a land of  opportunity.  Joseph went into farming and owned property at Highway  97 and Benvoulin Road. John, on the other hand, decided to strike  out on his own and worked many years as a surveyor in the  Beaverdell, Carmi and Penticton areas. He also worked for the  Henry Burtch family in Kelowna and helped plant orchards and  look after livestock.  John spoke often of the pleasant social climate that existed  in Kelowna in the early days. Many educated young men and  women with a fair amount of talent had come out from England  and Europe and their presence made for many entertaining evenings. Both John and Joseph were devout Roman Catholics and  were charter members of Kelowna Knights of Columbus.  At the outbreak of war in 1914 the brothers joined up and  went to France. Joe served with the Seaforth Highlanders and came  home wounded, but not before he won the Military Medal for bravery as a stretcher bearer. John was badly gassed at Ypres and after  seeing action at Paschendale was sent to a military hospital in England and came home to Kelowna in 1918.  Prior to leaving for Europe, Johri had met Helen Shayler,  whose parents, Charles and Ellen, reached the Valley in 1900 from  Australia—via the United States—to investigate the tobacco-growing potential of the Okanagan. "Jack and Nell" were wed in 1920  and spent their first year together working on the Rutland farm of  Richard Loosemore. Before her marriage, Helen assisted Dr. W J.  Knox in his medical office and during the 1918 influenza epidemic  she volunteered with Anglican archdeacon Thomas Greene in caring for members of Kelowna's Chinese community.  After building a house at Elliott and Pandosy, Jack became  interested in orcharding. He purchased 60 acres at Okanagan Mission on Gordon Road (originally Paret Road, after my father), Old  Meadows and deHart roads. The property was bounded by the  Wilbur Thomson farm on the north, and by the Bartholomew orchard to the south.  In 1922 Nell and Jack became parents to twins, Douglas  and Joan. Several years were spent planting, planning and trying  to establish a financially viable farm, with the result it eventually  became a mixed operation. As most of the processing plants were  at the north end of Kelowna it meant an 18-mile round trip from  the farm. Sometimes, if the weather was bad or the trip took longer  than expected, Jack stayed overnight with his in-laws.  169 PERSONALITIES  By 1929 Jack and Nell had put the finishing touches on their  home, which had seven stoves and two fireplaces. Houses were  not well insulated those days, if at all, and the plan could be described as "rambling." One can only imagine the large quantities of  wood and coal that had to be used to keep the house warm. Jack  spent almost every winter's night going from room to room stoking  up the stoves.  The Mallet-Parets' many years on the farm would not have  been that successful were it not for the help of a Japanese couple,  Takishiko and Mura Arima, who worked for 22 years without a written agreement of any kind. All was done on trust, after discussion  as to what should be purchased, planted and harvested. At the end  of each year, usually in late October, Takishiko and Jack would  meet and have what they laughingly called "the day of reckoning,"  when they would calculate all the accounts and  all the receipts and divide the net proceeds in  half.  During the Depression Jack kept the  farm going as best he  could. In fact, times were  so awful he was thankful  to be on a farm; they  never lacked for food.  Many Kelowna businesses, whose owners  were family friends,  were going bankrupt and  it was agreed with  Takishiko that surplus  crops be given to people  down on their luck.  Those recipients did not  forget the kindness and as times got better they reciprocated in  many ways.  To make ends meet in the mid-1930s Jack took ajob in the  Occidental fruit-packing plant, but the work began to tell on his  health. He left Occidental and later was engaged as fieldsman by  the B.C. Interior Marketing Board until about 1950. By then farming activities were becoming somewhat specialized and the Arimas  carried on with outside help producing vegetable seeds. Onion growing was particularly successful and many prizes were won in the  seed division of the Royal Winter Fair in Toronto. They also grew  Jack and Nell Mallet-Paret, with Doug and Joan.  Photograph taken in late 1930s.  170 PERSONALITIES  carrot seed and some flower seeds, namely zinnias and portulaca.  As this operation took place around WW II, much of the vegetable  seed was shipped to Europe, Australia and Great Britain. The Russians especially wanted large orders of onion seed.  Through these years of hard work on the farm it was Nell  who kept the home on an even keel and it was not unusual to see  her pitch in with chores when Jack was swamped with work. She  loved to have people around and every afternoon, no matter how  busy, she gathered neighbours for tea under the huge maple trees  in her beautiful garden.  Farming days ended in the 1950s when old age and ill health  began to take their toll. Jack and Nell retired to a lakeshore home  with Joseph, who was living alone at the time. Joe died in 1955.  Both parents lived long enough to see the entire farm covered with housing subdivisions. Nell Mallet-Paret died 28 August  1971, one year and 43 days before John.  Douglas left Kelowna to serve with the RCAF during the  war. He then returned to UBC to study electrical engineering and  worked for many years as an executive with Alberta Government  Telephone. He married Phyllis Cope, daughter of Kelowna old-timers Jack and Hattie Cope. They have four sons.  Joan married Jack Needham, from another pioneer Valley  family. Jack was assistant postmaster for many years and Joan is a  painter of watercolours and assists with art gallery classes. They  have a son and a daughter.  THE LANFRANCO FAMILY  Katie Francescutti  On July 1,1994 the Lanfranco family held a picnic in Oyama Keloya  Park attended by 50 descendants of a pioneer Kelowna couple.  Giovachino Lanfranco came to the Kelowna area before 1900.  His future wife, Enfrosina, came from Italy a year or two later.  After their marriage they farmed on an acreage west of present-  day Gordon Drive, on land now divided by Lanfranco Road.  The Lanfrancos first built a four-room home and later, as  their family increased to 10 children, a larger home was built for  them by Charles G. Clement and George Ward. Until recently this  house could be seen on the northwest corner of Gordon and  Lanfranco. It was torn down in 1994 to make room for the Tuscany  Apartments.  The Lanfranco children attended Mission Creek School and  fondly remembered teachers Miss Olson and Miss Reid.  171 PERSONALITIES  Lanfranco children honour their parents at 1994 reunion. Standing, left to right:  Katie Francescutti, Paul Lanfranco, Mary Van Burens. Kneeling: Margaret Hewitt.  Louise Marchuk missing from photograph.  Eldest of the Lanfranco children was Henrietta, who resided  for many years near the old homestead. Today (1995), five of the  Lanfranco siblings survive: Paul Lanfranco, Mary Van Burens,  Margaret Hewitt, Louise Marchuk and Katie Francescutti.  THE TUTT FAMILY  Michael Tutt  At age 15 Duncan Tutt emigrated to Kelowna from England with  his parents, George and Sarah, and the rest of his family, Fred,  Violet, Henry and Cecily. George Tutt built a house on DeHart  Avenue while the family tented in what is now City Park. Henry,  the only surviving member of this branch of the Tutt family, still  resides in the same home.  Michael Tutt is the son of Duncan and Nellie Tutt and has been prominently  identified with Okanagan cattle and horse circles.  172 PERSONALITIES  George started Tutt's Tailor Shop in 1910, a business he operated for about 36 years. When he retired, his son Fred took over  and also spent his entire working life in the trade.  Duncan married Mary Ellen (Nellie) Hereron in 1920 and  they had eight children: Henry, Frances, Hilary, Gerry, David,  Michael, Stacy and Brian.  In 1922 Duncan, Mary Ellen and son Henry moved to the  South Pandosy property where Duncan operated Tutt's Dairy for  23 years. He also had hay-producing property in the Reid's Corner  area, destined for sale in the 1930s when he took over the Sunset  Ranch. The Sunset was sold to Bill Bulman in 1945 and Duncan  began to subdivide the dairy property bounded by Pandosy Street,  Richter Street, KLO Road and Raymer Avenue in the same year.  Tutt Street was part of this development.  In 1946 Duncan moved to the orchard on Mail Road in  Glenmore, where he combined fruit growing with a small beef cattle ranch on nearby Sexsmith Road. The orchard was sold in 1964.  He then moved to the Tutt Ranch on Glenmore Road, which had  been purchased in 1958 (the Sexsmith Road holding was disposed  of in 1960).  Duncan continued to work with his sons, David and Michael,  who later partnered with him on the ranch. Duncan died in 1978  and Mary Ellen died one year later.  The Tutt Ranch now has some 700 acres and David and  Michael continue to raise between 500 and 600 head of cattle.  GEORGE DAY 1899-1993  Jack McCarthy, nephew  Ernest George Day was born to Ephriam and Mary Jane Day on  the Lequime Ranch, adjacent to the Father Pandosy Mission on  Benvoulin Road. The population of Kelowna was but a few hundred at the turn of the century and the boom years of the early  1900s were yet to come.  George, along with brothers Norman, Fred, Lloyd and Bill  and sisters Charlotte, Dora, Mary and Win were among the first  students at the old Benvoulin school that used to stand where today's School District No. 23 administration building is located.  Ephriam Day came to Kelowna in the early 1880s, with some  early work experience as foreman on Tom Ellis's Penticton ranch.  His marriage to Mary Jane Gartrell of Summerland was performed  173 PERSONALITIES  by Reverend Henry Irwin (Father Pat), the pioneer Anglican missionary whose parish covered much of the Southern Interior.  When George was a youngster his family moved to the farm  that is currently owned and operated by his son Ernest and grandson Kevin Day.  George learned early in life the nature of farming and  worked on the family place after school and throughout the holidays. After completing high school in Kelowna, he went on to two  years of university at Vancouver. Early on he aspired to be an architect. He applied to Boston's Institute of Technology and was accepted, but the lure of the land and his farming background kept  him from further studies. Before learning he had been accepted by  the institute, he purchased an orchard in Winfield and began a lifelong career as a fruit producer.  He showed some prowess as a wrestler and boxer around  the Kelowna district. He was also a pretty fair ballplayer in his day  and, according to rumours, the star catcher of the Kelowna baseball club. It was baseball that brought together George Day and his  wife of more than 60 years, Kathleen (Kay) McCarthy. Kay was  apparently enamoured with the handsome young catcher on the  team that took on Winfield in a field near her home.  Kay was born to E. J. (Mac) and Dora McCarthy on 6 December 1906 in Winfield. She had three brothers, Justin, Lionel  and Maurice.  George Day bought land on Day Road and began planting  an orchard. When he had constructed a liveable building he married his Winfield sweetheart and they set about raising a family,  which grew to five sons and a daughter over the next dozen years.  As the family grew so did their holdings. They bought the  McKenzie Road property in 1938 and spent the next decade finishing the "house on the hill." Over those first two decades of marriage George continued to plant more orchard. He was intensely  involved in the fruit industry and was among the first Valley growers to try innovative methods to improve yields, including new  sprayer technology in the late 40s.  After taking some bad losses from the severe frost damage  in the winter of 1949-50, he began importing hardier rootstock from  England and Holland and established a nursery to grow his own  trees. Together with son Ken he further refined the nursery operation and they propagated thousands of trees for themselves and  other Valley growers.  Over the years, sons Art, Ernie, Max, Ken and Colin also  took to the land, all becoming successful farmers in their own right.  Daughter Kathleen, who became a registered nurse after she left  174 PERSONALITIES  high school, also returned to the land when she married Glenmore  orchardist Elwyn Marshall.  George took time out from his busy farm and home life to  serve his community. As a trustee on Rutland school board in 1949,  he became one of the founding trustees of School District No. 23,  which amalgamated all school districts from Oyama to Peachland.  When Rutland high school was built in 1949 he, principal Pi  Campbell and Claude Bissell picked the site and negotiated its purchase. Day went on to serve 17 years as a member of the school  board.  He also served 14 years as a director of Kelowna Growers'  Exchange and contributed in various capacities to other fruit agencies, including BCFGA.  Among the things George enjoyed most in life was the sound  of music, although he was not particularly musically adept. It was  through music he relaxed and related to the beauty and wonder of  life. It also afforded him the opportunity to apply his talent for  creating things with his hands to a lifelong desire to make violins.  As a boy, he spent many hours watching a neighbouring  elderly master craftsman build violins. When he was 50 years old  George finally decided to make one of these instruments himself.  He bought books on the subject and began collecting wood native  to this province that he believed would be suitable for violin manufacture. Over the next 40 years he made 125 violins, many of exceptional quality.  The legend that George Day was born with a fishing rod in  his hands is not true. His skill as a fisherman is, however, true. He  whetted this passion as a child along the banks of Mill Creek and it  never deserted him. He had an uncanny "seventh sense" that enabled him to catch fish, when others went home empty-handed. If  he didn't have the appropriate fly he would quickly tie one from  the kit he kept in his tackle box.  He was intensely proud of his family, which grew to include 20 grandchildren and 12 great grandchildren. He lived a long  and productive life and remained mentally and physically fit into  his 90s. Kathleen Day's death occurred 13 November 1992. George  Day died 13 December 1993.  175 PERSONALITIES  FRANK AND LILY  WHITEHEAD  William J. Whitehead  My mother and father, Lily and Frank Whitehead, settled in the  Hullcar district northwest of Armstrong in October 1936.  Previously, they had spent 25 years developing a farm and  a small cattle ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan, devoting their  labour and their youth to pioneering a homestead from the prairie  plains. After a quarter century of battling poor prices, bad weather,  several successive years of drought and travelling 22 miles to  Tompkins (the nearest town) for supplies, they were forced to give  in to the economic depression of the 1930s.  Many settlers from that area were moving to northern Saskatchewan or to Alberta. The question to be answered was, where  would the Whiteheads move?  Mother had visited the Okanagan as a small child. Mr. and  Mrs. William Hall of Vernon (See OHS Report No. 56) were her  uncle and aunt. After a brief visit in 1935 by my mother, Dad came  to scout out the land during the summer of 1936. I had made my  move earlier that summer and was working for the Beaven Brothers at Cherry Creek.  Returning to Saskatchewan, the decision to move was made,  and they proceeded to dispose of the cattle and horses. Hereford  cows with calves at foot brought $13.50 the pair. Young Clydesdale  horses sold for $25 each. Dad was a lover of horses, and to see 20  young head bring only $500 was near heartbreaking for him. My  parents arrived in Vernon with a small amount of furniture and  supplies, a Model A Ford coupe and $1,200.  Following the advice of a Mr. Howe from Grandview Flats,  they were able to purchase a small holding from Charlie Mitchell,  situated a half mile south of Hullcar Hall. There were 40 acres in  the plot, mostly cut overbrush from which the sawlogs had been  taken and with innumerable stumps left behind. About five acres  had been cleared and were under cultivation. The buildings consisted of a very small barn, a log chicken house and a little house  with lean-to kitchen and two cramped bedrooms upstairs.  William J. Whitehead is a life member of Okanagan Historical Society. He  resides in Armstrong.  176 PERSONALITIES  The purchase price was $1,000, with a down payment of  $500 and the balance to be repaid at the rate of $150 a year. Easy  payments, you say? Try making them when the going wage working for the larger farm operations was $20 and board per month—  when you could get work! Sometimes, you might find work cutting  cordwood as an alternative. It had to be cut, split and piled for the  rate of $1 per cord. Your tools were a crosscut saw and a splitting  axe.  Mother and Dad had one outstanding attribute: compassion  and concern for others. Through all their life together, it is difficult  to recall a period when there was not someone else included in the  family, be it grandparents, nieces, nephews, bachelor uncles, or  just someone who was in need of a home.  In keeping with this practice, Mother's uncle, Ira Simpson,  became a permanent member of  the family in 1937. He was of old  Irish stock, originally from Ontario. An early pioneer in Manitoba and a veteran of the 1885  North-West Rebellion, he was 78  years of age when he came to  Hullcar. He held a belief that old  age was something you had to  put up with, but that it should  not interfere with hard work. He  took up two main occupations  on the farm. During the winter  he used to saw wood with an old  "one-man saw" to keep up the  supply in the woodshed. During  the summer he waged war on  the many stumps that needed removing, with a "one-man stump  puller" borrowed from the neighbours. This contrivance was an  invention of cables and ratchet  gears, operated with a long pole called a "Johnson Bar." You attached one end of the machine to an anchor stump, the other to  the stump you wished to remove. You then proceeded to push the  pole back and forth until the objective was reached. It was slow  and hard work, but it was most effective, and to a certain degree,  satisfying.  Neighbours are a very necessary ingredient of any district,  and we soon found we had several of the best. They included the  Fords, Charlie Webster and Tommy Yetton to the south of us; Walter  Newly-wed Lily and Frank Whitehead,  13 November 1916  177 PERSONALITIES  and Dorothy Parkinson to the west. Adjoining on the east were  Tony Smith and his sister, Florence. Bill and Ruth Parker lived a bit  farther down Schubert Road. To the northeast were Levins,  Schriebers and Dick and Holly Skelton, while on the north were  Mr. and Mrs. Charlie Babbs and their son, Lester.  There was no electricity. The roads were gravel and there  were only two telephones in the area, one at Fords and the other at  Skeltons. Since there was no money to spend without good reason,  we provided our own entertainment, consisting for the most part  of card and parlour games at the neighbours'. Once a month we  "Molly" and Frank Whitehead . . . young grey mare for Model A.  would meet at the Hullcar Hall to take part in and enjoy the presentations of the Literary Society (See OHS Report No. 43). These  included songs, recitations, plays and musical selections. Occasionally, a special speaker would be brought in.  I was successful in obtaining work with Bill Parker for the  winter of 1936-37 and later worked for Jim Pringle at Lansdowne  during the summer of 1937.  Dad did part-time work with some of the neighbours and  also hired on with the municipality, shovelling gravel at Hitt's pit  for the modest wage of 25 cents an hour. He was not impressed  when he discovered that the man working alongside him was receiving 30 cents, because he was working off his relief.  178 PERSONALITIES  Love of horses was always uppermost in Dad's mind, so in  1937 he exchanged the Model A with Josh Blackburn, a local transfer operator, for a nice young grey mare he named Molly. The price  established was $150. Blackburn then sold the car to Frank Harrison  for that same amount on the time plan at $5 a month, an example  of "high financing" during the depression days.  Three years later Dad sold the mare to Jim McChon of Deep  Creek and purchased a team with harness for $145. He received  $150 from McChon, so it might appear that the figure 150 had some  particular significance.  The first few years were difficult ones, and it was not easy  to raise the funds necessary to make the annual payments. I was  "working out" when work was available, and Dad did likewise. During the summer, Mother thinned and picked apples for Charlie  Webster and for Tommy Yetton. With a great deal of effort on the  part of all three of us, the place was cleared of debt. I moved to  Kelowna to pursue other interests in 1939.  The future was just beginning to look brighter, when in February 1941 disaster struck. The house and most of the contents  were lost to fire, the result of a faulty chimney. It was then that the  value of neighbours was realized to the greatest extent. They all  rallied around to help and to rebuild. Money to purchase materials  was extremely short, but it arrived from where you would least  expect. Tommy Yetton was the first to offer a substantial loan, without interest, to start the ball rolling. Gifts, labour and furnishings  came from all corners. Soon a new cottage of much better construction stood in place of the old one.  During the next few years, the Whiteheads were able to put  together a small dairy herd, mostly Holsteins purchased from Jim  Gillick of Deep Creek. They proceeded to erect a new and larger  barn with loft to accommodate the larger herd. Ed Hopkins, noted  locally for his ability to trade, built the barn.  After World War II electricity was brought into the district.  To have this source of power to help with the time-consuming work  of a small farm was indeed almost like living in heaven. Next came  the telephone and a second-hand Ford car. Mother and Dad had  also been able to purchase the adjoining 40 acres, thus giving them  more ground to clear and to use for growing potatoes and carrots.  Farming then was still very labour-intensive. Mobile hay  baling was still to come and Dad was not inclined to consider any  motive power other than his horses. Consequently, in 1954, they  decided they had done their share of farming and sold the cows  and the farm to Mr. and Mrs. Websdale from Alberta.  They spent the next winter with a neighbour, Lug Lardson,  and then they bought a cottage on Rosedale Avenue in Armstrong.  179 PERSONALITIES  After a year or two, Dad was able to claim the Old Age Pension and  Mother would do housework for different folk around town.  My parents were quite comfortable and happy in town.  Mother had a large garden and a few chickens, while Dad spent a  lot of his time visiting and helping anyone whom he felt might  need it. During August of 1961 he and a friend, Jack Krueger, went  out to look after a young couple's place while they took a holiday.  While there Dad suffered a severe heart attack and died within a  day. He was 74.  Mother continued on for 20 years, content with gardening  and rug-making. She moved into Willowdale Home in 1980, where  she spent the next 11 years. Her last few months were spent at the  new Pleasant Valley Manor, until she died in 1991, a few days after  her ninety-third birthday. ¬Æ  Tributes  ELSIE BOONE  (NEE KING) OF KALEDEN  AND OLIVER, 1902-1994  John A. Boone  On 6 October 1994, pioneer Elsie Boone passed away at the age of  92. This is an account of her family, but it is also intended to be a  tribute to the many early settlers whose lives were so different  from ours today, but from whose labours we continue to benefit.  The Kings were among the 75 per cent of B.C. residents, who at  that time were of British origin. Although this account is about  European settlers, it is not meant to ignore the fact that the land  had been occupied by native people since sometime after the last  ice age.  John Boone is the son of Elsie and Harvey Boone. He grew up in Oliver and is  now a Vancouver cardiologist.  180 TRIBUTES  Elsie Boone was born in Chew Magna, Somerset, in 1902, the  fourth and last child of Edwin James and Isabella King. The Kings  had a lively carpentry and wheelwright business, with several employees, a family enterprise inherited by Elsie's father. They lived  in a comfortable, three-storey stone house with domestic help as  part of the scene. The oldest of the siblings was Billy (F. W. King),  who journeyed to Canada in 1910, shortly before his 21st birthday.  Coming from Somerset, there was a natural attraction to the Okanagan with its promising fruit industry. He liked what he saw and  enticed his father and sister, Vera, to join him. Then followed the  rest of the family: Mrs. King and her two other daughters, Kathleen  and Elsie, to make their new home in Canada. Mr. and Mrs. King  had then been married for 27 years.  The women had a rough voyage across the Atlantic, and if  Mrs. King ever had any doubts about emigrating to Canada, they  were overshadowed by any thoughts of making the return journey!  Their trip by train across the Dominion seemed endless—especially  to folks who came from a village where hardly anyone would have  been more than 30 miles from home in their lifetime. The girls  would later recall seeing large farmhouses on the prairies and commenting  to their mother that they imagined this  one or that one would be like the new  house waiting for them at the end of  their journey. Imagine their surprise  (and let-down) when they climbed the  benchland above Skaha Lake where new  orchards had been planted, only to find  a two-room shack whose capacity had  been extended by a tent to accommodate the sudden influx of family. What  a contrast to the comfortable "Walton  House" they had left behind in Chew  Magna. Vera later recorded that this was  "decidedly a new life," and also noted  that "with brave hearts and uncomplaining lips made a place for themselves in  the community." Although used to directing men, E. J. King performed the strenuous labour needed for road work, construction  and orcharding. Isabella King, who had been a schoolmistress in  England, became Kaleden's postmistress and held that position for  many years.  As Elsie grew up, she and Vera began working in the newly-  established packinghouse in Kaleden, as well as in similar operations in Penticton and Summerland. Wrapping and placing fruit in  boxes just so, required accuracy and speed. Elsie's marvellous hand-  181  Elsie Boone, 1980 TRIBUTES  eye co-ordination enabled her to win many fruit-packing competitions.  In 1922, at the age of 20, Elsie married Harvey Boone, who  had been courting her from his home in Fairview, where his family  had pre-empted 320 acres of benchland after the flourish of mining  had receded. They were married by Baptist Pastor Page in Kaleden,  and were among the early couples to settle in Oliver the year after  it had been established and three years after the dam at Maclntyre  Bluff had been built. Their first home, built by Harvey on Fairview  Road, was the only house in Oliver at that time to boast a plumbed  bathtub. While Harvey was busy with his carpentry and construction business in Oliver and Osoyoos, Elsie continued to do seasonal work in the packinghouse and took considerable pride in the  shipping of Oliver cantaloupes, which went out on the newly-laid  spur of the Kettle Valley line.  With orcharding becoming more established, the Boones acquired a partly-planted 10-acre ranch next to the highway in  Testalinda, 5 1/2 miles south of Oliver, and it is there that they  raised two children and spent the rest of their lives. Harvey had  distinguished himself in carpentry, orcharding and beekeeping.  When the two-room school was opened in Testalinda in 1927, Elsie  boarded several successive teachers, many of whom became lifelong friends (although few remained at the school more than one  or two years). Elsie was accomplished in many home crafts and  her handiwork was greatly admired. She helped form the Testalinda  Girls Auxiliary and meetings were frequently held at her home.  She was also a charter member of Oliver Women's Institute.  Elsie Boone was initially among the congregation of Reverend Harry Feir, Oliver's first United Church minister, but she returned to the religion of her childhood when Oliver's Anglican  Church became established. She was a church choir member for  nearly 50 years, while in the early days she would sing at public  functions. Her joyous rendition of World War I songs would raise  the listeners' spirits, as well as prompt many a tear.  While Elsie made her life in Oliver, the rest of her family  went about their lives in Kaleden. At the time of the accompanying  photograph, taken in 1935 on the occasion of their 50th wedding  anniversary, Mr. and Mrs. King had 11 grandchildren (with the author of this article "on the way").  Billy was a graduate of the Bristol Trade School in carpentry  and in his first few years in the Okanagan practised his trade in  Summerland and then in Kaleden, where he constructed the building now occupied by the 1912 Restaurant. He became an orchardist  and married Annie Findlay in 1914. They raised five children:  Ronald, Catherine, Mary, Betty and Fred. Bill was the first presi-  182 TRIBUTES  dent of Kaleden Co-operative and held many other leadership positions in the community. An ardent gardener, the flowers he provided for his Kaleden church were legendary. After a long illness,  Annie King died in 1948. Bill later married Phyllis Walker and together they raised three sons: John, David and Raymond. The house  that he had helped build for Judd Findlay in 1910 had become his  home and he continued to live there until his death in 1991 at the  Mr. and Mrs. E. J. King mark golden anniversary in 1935. Standing, left to right:  Kathleen, Billy (F. W), Elsie, Vera.  age of 102. He was predeceased by two children, Catherine and  Betty.  In 1915 Kathleen King married George Robertson, who had  emigrated from Scotland and who had been a resident of Kaleden  since 1910. For a time they lived at the Junction Ranch, a few miles  to the west, but later on moved back to Kaleden. In the early days  George was primarily a teamster and did custom work in the orchards and hauled fruit. This later became a trucking business.  Kathleen and George had three sons: George, Jim and John.  Kathleen was an energetic, hardworking person who, in addition to looking after her husband and three boys, milked a cow  and made butter. During World War II, with two of her sons in the  forces, she drove one of their two trucks, loaded by hand with 40-  pound fruit boxes stacked six-high, to the packinghouse. She was a  willing participant in community affairs and active in the IODE, as  was her sister, Vera. Kathleen was predeceased by George in 1966.  She died tragically with Vera in a car accident in November 1973.  183 TRIBUTES  Vera was regarded by some as the most socially engaging of  the King family. In 1921 she married Jack Swales, who came out  from Yorkshire about 1911 and spent several years in the Nelson  and Arrow Lakes districts. Their wedding was the first held in the  Kaleden church. They raised two sons, Ted and Leonard. For many  years Jack Swales was the water bailiff for Kaleden Irrigation District. Those were the days of wooden stave pipes, which required  much ingenuity to be kept in service. In the 1930s they purchased  property next to the highway and established the familiar Swales  gas station and bus depot. They continued with the business for  the rest of their lives, expanding and modernizing over the years.  It was no ordinary experience being a customer of "Swales Service." Vera was a wonderful cook and countless customers would  have tea or coffee with a sample of her baking as part of their stop  for gas, or while waiting for a bus. Those were less-hurried times.  Jack lived an active life until his death in July 1973. Less than five  months later Vera was killed.  Elsie had been widowed in 1969, and for her remaining 25  years she and her daughter Margaret lived together in the family  home next to Highway 97 in Testalinda. When Elsie died, she was  survived by Margaret (who continues to live in the same residence)  and son John. Her many nieces and nephews saw her as the last of  her generation, a woman whose life spanned so much of the early  development of the South Okanagan.  CONSTANCE GRETA CUMINE  Carleton MacNaughton and Aileen Porteous  For every living thing there is a beginning, an ending and an in-  between. It is what we do with this in-between that dictates our  character, our ambitions, our loves and our service to our fellow  man. In these things Connie was tops. In recent years Connie became abridge player, also a member of the Oliver-Osoyoos Historical Society. She was very active in St. Edward's Anglican Church  and with the Sunnybank Auxiliary. Connie helped at the Oliver  food bank and she spent long hours visiting the sick. She was a  good hostess and cook and she loved to entertain. Connie was a  very special lady. She leaves her daughter Rosemarie, a granddaughter and three great-grandchildren.  Carleton MacNaughton, a well-known naturalist and a long-time resident of the  South Okanagan, gave the eulogy at Connie Cumine's funeral. This tribute is taken  from the eulogy, with additions from Aileen Porteous, an Oliver resident since  1956.  184 TRIBUTES  Like so many other pioneer settlers who came to the Oliver-  Osoyoos area when the big ditch was built, and the land sold to  veterans of the Great War, Connie and her husband Adam had very  little money for luxuries. Their first few years were hard work.  Starting in 1928, Connie and Adam farmed and then had an orchard near Osoyoos. They later ranched in the Similkameen Valley, then for many years ran Inkameep Lodge on Osoyoos Lake.  Connie was born Connie Cosens on 29 May 1906 in Kelowna.  Where did Adam find this lovely girl? In his own words, from OHS  Report No. 47:  I was foreman on a ranch on the Chilcotin River. Girls  were as scarce as hens' teeth and we thought nothing of  riding 50 to 60 miles to a barn dance in hopes of meeting  a girl. One day as I was riding along the high bank of the  river, far below I saw a girl on horseback. I happened to  glance up the river and spotted another rider who saw  the same thing. This called for drastic action—the trail  was steep and crooked. We jabbed the spurs into our respective horses and over the bank we went, taking all  the shortcuts. The other rider was close behind but, to  make a long story short, I reached my objective in a cloud  of dust. The outcome was I  married that girl two years  later in 1928 in the little Anglican Chapel in Penticton.  Connie's        grandfather,  Cornelius Cosens, had  homesteaded at the head of  Kalamalka Lake near Vernon and  Cosens Bay is named for the family. Connie's father was Sidney  Cosens, who, with his brother  Arthur, had a store in 1899 at Camp  McKinney. In 1904, when the  mines closed, Connie's family  moved to Kelowna. Her father imported the Chinese pheasant to the  Okanagan Valley and also brought  20 Shetland ponies to Kelowna.  Connie drove her little sister Susette to school in a two-wheeled  basket-carrier governess cart, hauled by a pony named Blue Bell.  Both Carleton and Aileen first met Connie and Adam in 1982,  when the Cumines had retired and moved to Cherry Grove in Oliver.  In July 1983 Adam passed away.  Connie Cumine c.1988. (Rosemarie  Charlish)  185 TRIBUTES  Aileen and Connie became good friends and went on many  enjoyable trips together. Connie was a good driver and made friends  easily. She loved browsing the shops and she could run circles  around everyone. With Con's determination, she conquered cancer, and more recently, a broken hip.  In the OHS, Connie found many friends—both old and new.  When the MacNaughtons hosted the Society's summer picnic at  their mountain property, Tamarack, a group including Connie was  walking through the little chapel. Towering trees surround the  chapel and there was a breeze blowing. Connie said, "Listen to the  trees whispering to us."  Although she has left us, we will still see her smiling face in  the flowers on the hillsides and hear her voice as we walk through  the whispering trees.  PHYLLIS SHIRLEY  DANALLANKO -1926-1995  A tribute by Phyllis Brett  Phyllis Shirley Danallanko (nee Becker) was born 10 September 1926 in Armstrong, the youngest child of Frank Becker and his  wife Lillie (Unterbrink). Shirley lived her entire life in Armstrong  and was a very active member of the community.  She married Arthur Danallanko 2 October 1946 and they  raised four daughters: Shirley-Ann Asay of Salmon Arm, Linda  Aspinall and Wendy Shrauwen of Armstrong and Becky Leister of  Revelstoke.  Shirley was a charter member of the Ladies' Auxiliary to  the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 35, a Brownie leader, charter member of Kinettes and K-ettes, and a member of the parks  and recreation commission. She also served on the committee that  was instrumental in obtaining artificial ice for the Hassen Arena.  Shirley was committed to her work as a member of the Order of the Eastern Star, Lansdowne Chapter No. 72, and as head  archivist for the Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum and Arts Society. She also became a member of the Daughters of the American  Revolution. (Her family and friends often heard her talk of the  DAR and all her ancestors).  186 TRIBUTES  Shirley was a devoted member of St. James Anglican Church,  where she spent many hours helping with meals during the IPE, or  cleaning and preparing the altar before Sunday services. As many  of her friends will recall, she voiced her opinion strongly on many  occasions about subjects she truly believed in.  On 27 March 1995 Shirley was honoured by the Armstrong-  Spallumcheen Museum and Arts Society for her long, dedicated  work on the archives.  Even with all her activities, she always had time for family  and friends. Her grandchildren were the light of her life and she  was a very proud "gramma."  Shirley died 22 July 1995 after a courageous battle with cancer.  MEMORIES OF  DOROTHY FRASER 1910-1995  George Fraser  At the time my parents were married, it was considered normal  that the wife would live wherever her husband wanted. My father,  who had lived in Osoyoos for most of his life, felt that they should  live there and take on the family occupation of fruit growing. My  mother, on the other hand, having spent most of her life in Victoria, had some pretty large adjustments to make. But make them  she did, and for the 57 years of their marriage they stayed in  Osoyoos. It would not have been her choice, as she would have  preferred the more culturally rich surroundings of a larger centre,  but there was never any question they would live anywhere else.  She remained in Osoyoos after my father died in 1991 until her  own death in 1995.  In 1934 there was very little resemblance between Osoyoos  then and Osoyoos now. The population was small, and it was a  community in all the best senses of the word. My parents both  influenced the way the community changed, and my father's role  has already been chronicled (OHS Report 1992).  Mother put her own indelible stamp on that town over the  years. She was involved in so many aspects of the community and  George Fraser has lived most of his life in Osoyoos. He recently retired from high  school teaching and administrating, but not from the family orchard.  187 TRIBUTES  involved either directly or indirectly in so many people's lives, that  her contributions will never be overlooked or forgotten.  As I grew up in the historic Haynes house, into which we  moved in 1945, I became aware that very often there were things  going on which were not related to the day-to-day orchard life. There  were meetings to be attended and there were meetings to be hosted.  There were adult learning groups coming to the house. There were  piano students five or six days a week. There was a stream of visitors: politicians, artists, musicians, naturalists, horticulturists. There  was often a quickly-invited guest for dinner, and often an unplanned-  for overnight guest.  It was in many ways a very traditional house, for the daily  routine of farm life and meals was seldom violated, but all the extras made it an environment that was different. And through it all  Douglas and Dorothy Fraser on their 50th anniversary, 1984. (George and Ellen  Fraser)  ran the concept that all was not right in the world and that everybody had a responsibility to try to make changes for the better.  This commitment to betterment was part of my mother's  entire life in Osoyoos. In her early years here, she scrounged books  from different sources and started a lending library. She belonged  to the Women's Institute. Along with everyone else in the community she was involved in the building of the now-demolished Community Hall. Before she had her own piano, she taught piano to a  few students in their homes. She was an occasional substitute  teacher in the local elementary school. She was greatly involved in  the CCF and later the NDP. She was instrumental in the starting of  Osoyoos Credit Union. She was a member of the executive of the  South Okanagan Concert Society for years. She was an amateur  188 1 Kl&U l£iH  botanist and her collection of plants is now in the Royal B.C. Museum.  Mother was never reluctant to let others know what was  right and what was wrong! This did, upon occasion, lead to some  difference of opinion between us, but it could never be said that  she did not have the interests of others first and foremost in her  mind. And even toward the end of her life, when her energy waned,  she was still concerned about the community, whether it was  Osoyoos or the world.  She was greatly shocked when my father predeceased her,  and she found her last few years a burden, but continued to find  solace through voracious reading, inspiration from a small number  of piano students and knowledge about the world through newspapers, magazines, radio and even the "dreadful TV!"  She left a legacy of thoughtfulness, of cultural and community values, and of doing what was "right."  MARY MINNIE FREEZE  - 1909-1995  Shirley Campbell  Minnie was a prairie woman, born at Togo, Saskatchewan, 1 May  1909, the elder daughter of Ukranian parents Wasyl and Katherine  Kohut. She was like a prairie flower herself: tiny, sturdy and sweet.  She had a stability in her nature that comforted and warmed. Her  trademark was a welcoming smile.  Her loving ways and strong organizational ability found an  appropriate outlet in teaching. She took her teacher training in  Regina. The caption under her picture in her yearbook states among  other compliments: "Minnie was the gayest person in the class."  She was also an excellent letter-writer. The friendships she made  in Regina were sustained for the next 60 years by regular correspondence.  Minnie loved her years as a teacher in rural elementary  schools in Saskatchewan. Being in charge of a one-room school-  house, with all its challenges and responsibilities, suited her inde-  Shirley Campbell moved with her family in 1976 to Brett Road in Spallumcheen.  She taught at high schools in Armstrong until 1993 and now pursues special  interests in the arts, health and nature.  189 TRIBUTES  pendent spirit. Cold winters added their particular flavour, often  causing schools to close in January and February and remain open  in July and August to make up for lost time. The school year in  those days were well over 300 days, and Minnie could recall teaching right up to Christmas Eve on occasion.  In the early 1930s her father decided to relocate the family  to the Okanagan, in order to escape the harsh weather. They settled at Hullcar: Wasyl, Katherine and Minnie's younger sister,  Sophie. Because her mother's health was not good, Minnie left her  beloved Saskatchewan at the close of the teaching year in 1933 and  joined them.  Minnie loved children. As a result, she was soon in the classroom again at local schools, where she taught for another five years,  first at Heywood's Corner and later at Hendon. She bought herself  a car. On one occasion, as she was driving along a muddy country  road at night, the headlights failed and for several miles her companion was forced to hang out a window shining a flashlight so that  Minnie could see enough not  to drive into the ditch.  Russell (Rusty)  Freeze, after a six-year courtship, convinced Minnie in  1940 to marry him and relinquish teaching for farming.  She did so, but followed with  interest the careers of her students and maintained contact  with her teaching colleagues  for the rest of her life.  Minnie and Rusty  farmed at Heywood's Corner  for 40 years. During that time  they were a focus for a strong  community spirit that linked  the farms along the Salmon  River Road. For example,  Minnie was a member of the  Salmon River Women's Circle,  which renovated and enlarged the Salmon River Centennial Hall for use as a community  kitchen and recreation centre. This circle also won yearly agricultural prizes at the Interior Provincial Exhibition (IPE). It was said  that Minnie would shuck 100 ears of corn to find the six perfect  ones for display.  Minnie and Rusty Freeze  190 TRIBUTES  Minnie was a wonderful floral gardener and her vegetables  consistently won ribbons at the IPE. She was a volunteer weather  observer for 20 years and a regular correspondent for the Armstrong Advertiser. She was the local librarian, the books being located in her home and on loan seven days a week. One year her  recompense was a novel by Nevil Shute, and she was so taken with  it that she collected all Shute's other titles.  The years on the farm were filled with both sunshine and  sorrow. Before her death, Katherine Kohut was bedridden for six  years, and Minnie cared for her unstintingly. Minnie and Rusty's  only child, Rossi, was born with an incurable ailment that ended  his life at age five. Minnie's sunny nature and enduring spirit, along  with her husband's unfailing strength, carried them through these  difficult times.  In 1980 Minnie and Rusty sold their farm and built a house  at 2780 Wood Avenue in Armstrong. They poured their talents for  beauty and productivity into their extensive grounds and garden.  Minnie was never happier than being outside with her flowers and  vegetables, or standing at the kitchen stove canning, freezing and  preserving. She was also adept at all the other home crafts, including knitting, crocheting, tatting and needlework. She taught me to  crochet "granny squares" and launched me on a multicoloured  afghan.  A favourite commitment was the Armstrong Spallumcheen  Hospital Auxiliary, to which she belonged from the time of the  move to Armstrong until her death. Her special interest was in the  arrangement and display of the gift shop goods, and in supervising  the jewelry counter. She was very proud of the accomplishments  of the auxiliary in supporting the hospital and later the Pleasant  Valley Health Centre.  In 1992 she and Rusty shared the Commemorative Medal  for the 125th Anniversary of the Confederation of Canada, in recognition of their significant contribution to compatriots, community and Canada.  When Minnie was diagnosed with cancer in 1992, she had  already witnessed the illness and death of her beloved sister Sophie  from the same disease. As a result, she formed some strong opinions about which treatments she would undergo and which she  would not. Consequently, she remained in charge of her busy life  until approximately 10 days before her death on 26 September 1995.  Minnie's life was an example of a woman's successful attempt to live to her fullest potential. She directed her talents into  creative and nurturing outlets. She drew inspiration from nature.  She lived each moment fully. She maintained an independent  stance. Mary Minnie Freeze lived and died with grace.  191 TKWUTUS  BILL HUCUL,  MR. HOCKEY, 1915-1996  From the Salmon Arm Observer  To generations of Salmon Arm residents he was Mr. Hockey.  Minor hockey wasn't the only interest in Bill Hucul's life,  but it was one to which he devoted endless energy, and thousands  of youngsters were the beneficiaries.  Bill Hucul died 27 January 1996 at the age of 80, unaware  he was to be honoured by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association later that same day. It was another in a long list of awards he  received for his work with minor hockey.  Born in Cardale, Manitoba, Bill knew the blistered hands  and aching muscles of the prairie harvest. Arriving in Salmon Arm  in 1936, he worked for a shake-cutting outfit, toiled in the orchards  that were then a mainstay of the local economy and even did a  turn as a logging camp cook in Anstey Arm—without any previous  experience.  He married Nancy Cave of Salmon Arm on the 24th of October 1942 and the next day joined the army. Enlisted in the Manitoba Dragoons, Bill served overseas four years. He didn't talk much  about the experience, but his journal and photographs later provided family and friends with fascinating insights into one man's  war. Soldiering over, he returned to the orchards in Salmon Arm,  later switching to construction and roadwork. In 1954 he began a  25-year career with the provincial department of highways construction branch, while working the small family farm and raising  two sons, Bernie and Gary.  A straightforward, honest and caring person, Bill Hucul was  always there for community causes. He and Nancy devoted endless hours to Salmon Arm Fall Fair; he strongly supported the Royal  Canadian Legion. In his 70s, Bill hiked Bastion Mountain to help  maintain the community television service. He installed floodlights  on "Hucul Pond," just off the Trans-Canada Highway, so people  could enjoy outdoor ice-skating.  But minor hockey was Bill's passion. He began coaching in  1962 and soon after took on the "equipment manager" role, a task  he was to perform for the next 30 years. Bill Hucul taught kids the  finer points of skating and the game of hockey itself. He spent  hours encouraging minor teams, working on fund-raising ideas and  filling sandbags, sold to send youngsters to tournaments. He fought  tirelessly for more and better equipment and, although he didn't  192 TRIBUTES  advertise it, he often contributed his own money to the cause. For  decades he encouraged the local media to take a greater interest in  amateur sport and wrote a minor hockey column in the Salmon  Arm Observer for almost 30 years. He saw to it that local hockey  records were preserved and strove to establish an archives containing stories, photographs and awards.  Minor hockey, Bill said, was for the kids, not the parents;  he had little patience for anyone  who forgot that.  The Salmon  Arm community  saw fit to thank  Bill—and Nancy—in  a number of ways.  In 1984 Bill received  the Rotary Club's  Citizenship Award  and two years later  husband and wife  were named Citizens of the Year by  the local chamber of  commerce. Successive recognition  came in the form of  two awards for community work from  the federal government, an Air  Canada/Canadian  Community Newspaper Association  citizenship award  and a tip of the hat  from the B.C. Recreation and Parks  Association. In 1993  the Legion presented Bill Hucul with a service award. He and Nancy  received a life membership from Salmon Arm and Shuswap Lake  Agricultural Association and, not surprisingly, Bill was given similar treatment by the local minor hockey association.  Bill Hucul liked people, and to go along with that he had a  pretty simple philosophy: Something wrong? Don't complain to  others ... do something about it.  Bill and Nancy Hucul on Mother's Day 1995.  193 BOOK REVIEWS  Book Reviews  Salmon Arm's Historic Routes and  the People Behind the Names  Published by Salmon Arm Branch, Okanagan Historical Society, 1995.  Reviewed by Robert Cowan  If you do not have access to the standard History of Salmon Arm by  Ernest Doe, you could read this slim volume by Denis Marshall  and get a very good sense of Salmon Arm's past through its street  names. It has been published by the Salmon Arm branch of the  Society, with Florence Farmer as editorial chair.  This wonderful book has a short introductory history, plus  a foreword that covers the evolution of roads in the district. In the  latter you will discover, for example, that there was a serious question about continuing the practice of landowners to offset some of  their municipal taxes by working on the roads in the 1930s. Or that  one of the ways of raising money for local road improvements was  to tax landless males over the age of 21 at a rate of $2 per year. This  statute was passed in 1912 but was not repealed until 1952, even  though neither the city nor the district enforced collection.  The format of the book is to take each street alphabetically  (with the more recent numerical designations in brackets) and explore the history of the name. Families and their contribution to  Salmon Arm are given complete coverage, even if they were only  in the area a short time. How fortunate that the first one is Alexander Avenue, thus allowing the author to explore at the outset the  earliest history of the community through the McGuire family.  Perhaps the most interesting section is the discussion on  Auto Road, short for Automobile Road. Would it supplant the Old  Enderby Road (now part of highways 1 and 97B) and become the  major route south? Certainly there was a great deal of support for  that change. This fascinating story is told with clarity and subtly.  Some of the roads have been recently named and often refer to developers who have created subdivisions since 1960, e. g.  Dettelbach Road or Colbee Crescent. Forgotten Road refers to a  short lane that received its name from an irate property owner  who ". . . grew tired of having repeated requests for attention from  194 BOOK REVIEWS  the municipal grader ignored and erected the Forgotten Road sign  as his form of protest." Another delightful but recent name is Shady  Lane (25th Street NE), named for the 1950s hit song, The Naughty  Lady of Shady Lane.  Salmon Arm is a community built on hills. The author was  meticulous in including the stories behind the names of the hills,  such as Reinhard Hill, Merton Hill and Leech Hill.  There are some problems, mostly in the introductory history. Coldstream does not lie on or near the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade Trail (p. 4). And how could Salmon Arm have a population of  28 in 1893 on page 6, while on page 7 in 1891 it had a population of  200? These are textual problems. One improvement to the layout  might have been to keep the footnote references on the same page  instead of placing them at the end of each selection. Often the  reader has to flip several pages to find the meaning of the notation.  These are minor irritants that are easily forgiven. The print  is large, the pictures clear, the index complete and the text readable. There is a handy map in the middle plus delightful vignettes  in bold print spaced throughout, such as "The Okanagan Telephone  Company respectfully requests the public not to use their (sic) poles  for hitching posts. (1911 newspaper item, p. 90).  What a tribute to Denis Marshall and Salmon Arm Branch  of the Okanagan Historical Society if their district council should  decide to resume changing numbered roads back to their original'  names on the basis of this book.  Perilous Charmers: Poisonous Plants  of the Pacific Northwest  By Mary L. Tapson-Jones. Edited by Graham Boffey. Published 1995 by Fran Kay & Associates, RR2, Chase, B.C., VOE  1M0.  Salmon Arm naturalist Mary Tapson-Jones may find herself hailed  as a life-saver, thanks to her colour-illustrated guide to poisonous  wild and domestic flora in the northwest region.  A fourth-generation botanist—"born with dirt under my fingernails"—she planted the seed of her book almost 20 years ago,  when a doctor showed her a poster meant for B.C. medical emergency rooms, listing toxic plants and flowers. The only trouble was  two-thirds of the culprits didn't grow farther west than Manitoba.  Mary Tapson-Jones set to work then and there compiling Perilous  195 BOOK REVIEWS  Charmers, not realizing it would be two decades before the book  made it to print.  She was also motivated by a concern for children, who are  naturally curious about plants and appetizing berries found in the  woods and backyard. In addition, she became keenly aware of the  need for public education on the subject while conducting popular  plant identification outings in the Shuswap district.  Perilous Charmers is enhanced by easily-recognized photographs, all of which were taken by the author. The work is grouped  in three sections, wild plants, garden plants and houseplants and  each is categorized according to degree of toxicity. As we are reminded, even the humble potato or common apple have dark sides  and such pictures of innocence as the wild rhododendron and marsh  marigold have lethal potential.  Mary Tapson-Jones chose as editor Graham Boffey, toxicolo-  gist at Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops.  One regret is that the book does not contain a section on  mushrooms to avoid, which would have rendered an even greater  service under one cover. However, since fungi constitute such a  large and complex family, it was not possible to include them in  this offering.  The medical profession, parents of small children and outdoor enthusiasts will all find Perilous Charmers vitally informative,  perhaps indispensable.   DPM  Recapitulation . . . an unusual life  journey told through art  By Heidi Thompson, Coldstream Books, Vernon, 1995  Reviewed by Linda Wills  Pick this book up; hold it in your hands. Recapitulation is not just a  feast for the mind, but a physical pleasure to handle. The admirable physical aspects of the book are soon apparent: the weight of  the paper, the careful spacing of text, the high quality of the photographs, and the richness of the colour reproductions. Publisher Heidi  Thompson has set an industry standard that others could well try  to emulate.  However, this publication does not lend itself to just browsing. Seldom does an "art book" require the reader to begin at the  beginning, reading every caption and poem. Recapitulation is a very  personal journey for Sveva Caetani and it is best for the reader to  196 BOOK REVIEWS  follow the path the artist has set. While the paintings can be admired individually, it is only as a series, with accompanying explanations, that they are able to be understood.  The book is loosely based on Dante's Divine Comedy, and,  as such, takes the reader on a journey through Hell, Purgatory and  Heaven, using Sveva's father, Leone, as mentor and guide. As Sveva  herself explains, it will be a "Hell not of punishment but of evil-  doing, a Purgatory of helplessness rather than expiation, and a  Heaven of achievement instead of rest. But the end is still the love  that surpasses all understanding." Inspiration for the watercolours  comes from cultures and histories throughout the world, ranging  from the darkness of Aztec religion to the warmth and light of an  abandoned farmhouse in Armstrong. The majority of the paintings  include Sveva and members of her family as onlookers on their  metaphysical journey.  Sveva Caetani's use of bold colours and forms in each of her  paintings inexorably draws the viewer into her work. The three-  dimensional effect created by the  undulating ribbons of colour allows  one almost physically to enter each  painting. The use of mathe-matical  images in many of the works suggests that Sveva was equally at  home using both the left and right  sides of her brain. While one reviewer has commented on the  greeting-card prettiness of some of  her work, most would agree that  many of her paintings are dark visions, bordering occasionally on  nightmares inspired by the loneliness and suffering of her own life.  We are seldom privileged to accompany an artist through such a harrowing journey.  Recapitulation will remain  an outstanding and fantastic (in the  true sense of the word) art book.  However, there is still a story to be  told about Sveva's life, the inspiration for this impressive body of work. Her most unusual journey  through life deserves a sympathetic biographer.  Sveva Caetani - 1917-1994  ... a personal journey to hell and  back. (Heidi Thompson)  197 BOOK REVIEWS  At the request of Okanagan History, Ms. Wills and publisher/  author Heidi Thompson have provided a short biography of Sveva  Caetani, condensed from pages 124-125 of Recapitulation.  Sveva Caetani was born in Rome in 1917, a descendant of one  of the oldest families in the Eternal City. The Caetani family was  extremely powerful during the Middle Ages, when Pope Gelasio II  (a Caetani) held office. In addition, the family numbered among its  ranks numerous scientists, scholars, statesmen and literary figures.  Sveva's father, Leone Caetani, was a distinguished scholar  whose 12-volume Annals of Islam is considered a standard work  on the subject. In 1921, Leone foresaw the growing influence of  fascism and moved to Canada with his small family. They settled  in Vernon where Leone purchased an orchard. He was proud of his  new occupation, that of gentleman farmer, but his wife, Ofelia, accustomed to the fashionable life in Europe, never adjusted to  Canada.  From 1925 to 1932 Sveva was educated at home by governesses brought from England. During these years the family made  frequent trips back to Europe to visit relatives. During these visits,  Sveva had private instruction in painting and drawing. In her early  teens she attended a private boarding school for girls in Vancouver.  While there she received the news that her father was dying of  cancer. She returned home and, after her.father's death, was compelled by her mother to live in isolation for the next 25 years. Reading became Sveva's lifeline to the outside world.  In 1960 Ofelia Caetani died, leaving her major possessions  to the Catholic Church. Her daughter now had to make a living and  accepted an offer to teach at a local parochial school. She eventually earned a teaching certificate and taught art and social studies  in Lumby.  In 1975 Sveva began writing outlines for a series of paintings called Recapitulation. The actual art work was begun in 1978.  After early retirement in 1983 she concentrated on the series, finishing it in 1989. In her last years she was confined to a wheelchair,  but continued her writing through the use of a computer.  In the fall of 1993 she and her friend Heidi Thompson began working together to publish Recapitulation. Sveva Caetani's  death 7 April 1994 prevented her participation in the editing of the  manuscript and in other details leading to completion of the book.  198 J300.K REVIEWS  Geology of the Kelowna Area and Origin  of the Okanagan Valley British Columbia  By Murray A. Roed and the Kelowna Geology Committee,  Kelowna 1995  Reviewed by Charles Patterson  From the writer's home in Kelowna, a view of Dilworth Mountain  is enjoyed and it is pleasing to find a description of its formation  and less immediately observable features in this book. It is interesting to learn that both Dilworth and Knox mountains were volcanic in origin millions of years ago and that both are remnants of  the extensive post-glacial lake that covered the area to a depth some  100 metres above the present level of Okanagan Lake. In addition  to the descriptions written in readable language, the book contains  photos of these two highly visible Kelowna landmarks. Indeed,  throughout the book there are quality colour photos that have been  selected with care, making the views easily recognizable. Similarly,  for the student and curious observer alike, the book contains clear,  uncluttered sketches and maps of geological features and the inclusion helps to orient one.  The book abounds with useful information and answers  questions not infrequently asked by residents and visitors. An example might be like that of a visitor from Eastern Canada who  asked me, "What is the main stream emptying into Okanagan Lake?"  The answer is found in word and illustration on page 100, where it  states that Mission Creek drains one of the largest Okanagan watersheds and supplies one-third of the annual runoff to Okanagan  Lake. Land developers might want to heed the warning that its  potential for flooding should not be underestimated. This is not  unexpected, for it is learned on page 71 that the flatland of Kelowna was under 100 metres of water just 10,000 years ago and is  subject to flooding even today. Residents whose homes are close to  the shoreline of Okanagan Lake discovered this fact to their dismay during an unusually high spring lake level just a few years  ago.  Not only does the book deal with the geological past, but it  also has some sections on the general history of the area, especially as it relates to geology. Chapter 7, for example, "Ancient Peoples of the Okanagan," includes the role geology plays in archaeological digs. And this writer suspects that many residents like himself were unaware of the oil well fiasco in the early 1930s, when a  deep and dry hole was drilled in the area of present Lakeshore  199 BOOK REVIEWS  Drive where it crosses Mission Creek, to the disappointment of  several gullible investors. Care has been taken by the editors to  make the book user-friendly, for it contains a good index, table of  contents and glossary of geological terms. The last is especially  useful for those with no particular geological training, but who just  bring a general interest and inquiring mind.  This book should be part of the library of every discerning  resident of the Central Okanagan. And certainly it belongs in the  backpack, or better, in the handy pocket of every walker and hiker  in the area who observes and has asked some of the "whys" and  "hows" of the many natural beauty spots in the region.  Briefly Noted  Shuswap Chronicles Number Five  By The North Shuswap Historical Society, Box 22, Celista, B.C.,  VOE 1L0, December 1995.  Like its quartet of previous editions, the North Shuswap's fifth look  at the old days continues an estimable undertaking for such a small  group. Highlights include "The Wheeler Family and Shuswap Lake,"  an account of halcyon summer camping seasons enjoyed by A. O.  Wheeler, pioneer surveyor and one of the founders of the Alpine  Club of Canada, and his offspring. The colourful Bischoff clan and  the Herrings of Squilax Store are also brought back to life for a new  generation of readers.  200 LIVES REMEMBERED  LIVES  REMEMBERED  ADAMS, Jane. b. 1920. d. Vernon 17 April 1995. Survived by husband Matt; daughters Joyce Roy  and Lynette Mackie. She was a long-time resident of Lumby and a life member of the Pythian Sisters.  ALMAAS, Josie Alice, b. North Dakota 20 March 1908. d. Enderby 15 January 1996. Predeceased  by husband Jorgen in 1993. Survived by sons Ole, Vernon, Gerald and Gordon; daughters Ruby and  Lorraine. She was an active resident of Enderby dating from 1945.  ANDERSON, Margaret Jean (nee Fleming), b. Penticton 25 June 1921. d. Oliver 22 October 1995.  Predeceased by infant daughter Margaret Elaine. Survived by husband Henry; daughters Ann Wahlen  and Audrey MacNaughton. Raised in Oliver as a member of a pioneer family, she was active for 35 years  in the family business, Anderson Potatoes Ltd.  ATKINSON, Inez Christine, b. 1906. d. Summerland 30 December 1995. Predeceased by husband  Ted. Survived by daughter Frances. In 1954 Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson shared Summerland's Good Citizen  award.  BABB, Beatrice Maud (nee Hitt). b. Devon, England 20 June 1916. d. Armstrong 5 April 1996.  Predeceased by a son. Survived by husband Lester. Her family came to the Armstrong area in 1922 and  fruit-farmed in the Hullcar and Knob Hill areas.  BARTON, Kathleen Nancy Carruthers (nee Fort), b. Chorleywood, England 18 April 1898. d.  Nanaimo 24 January 1996. Predeceased by husband David in 1981 and daughter Rachel Wesch in 1984.  Survived by son Hugh.  BATES, Rena Lillian (nee Dawson), b. Phoenix, B.C. 1903. d. Oliver 30 December 1995. Predeceased by husband Percy in 1973. Survived by daughter Beverley Fallon; son Don. Raised an educated in  Penticton, she was an early school teacher in Osoyoos. In the late 1930s she and her husband started the  family orchard in Osoyoos, which they ran for 30 years.  BAZETT, Royse (Charles Edward), d. Kelowna 6 December 1995 at age 83. Survived by wife  Gwynedd; daughters Ann, Lynda and Joan. He was a partner in the chartered accountancy firm of  Rutherford and Bazett from 1945-1972. He was the first secretary-treasurer of the Central Okanagan  Foundation and was awarded Fellowship to the Institute of Chartered Accountants of B.C. in 1971.  BLANC, Edmond Joseph, b. Kamloops 18 October 1906. d. Salmon Arm 9 July 1995. Survived by  wife Ina; son Murray; daughter Helen Oko. Raised in China Valley, he farmed there and in the Chase  Creek area, later operating a sawmill inSkimikin. He was a member of the school board and IOOF Lodge.  BLANKLEY, Jack D. b. Lavington 1917. d. Vernon 6 December 1995. Survived by wife Fern; son  Bruce. Predeceased by son Donald. A member of a pioneer Lavington family, he headed the firm of  Watkins Motors and served Canada in World War II.  BOKLAGE, August (Augie). b. Kelowna 6 November 1916. d. Kelowna 1 February 1996. Survived  by wife Noreen; son Richard; stepchildren Bryan Mills, Robert Mills, Irene Wilson and Marlene Mills. He  spent all his working life with the Laurel Co-op and B. C. Fruit Packers.  BONGERS, William Johannes, b. Etten, Holland 5 July 1922. d. Armstrong 15 May 1995. Predeceased by son Hugo. Survived by wife Willhelmina; sons Harry, Fred and Peter; daughters Thea  Luttmerding, Ria Johnson, Mary Ann Gamble. After coming to Canada in 1952 he worked on a farm in  Grindrod, owned a farm in Kelowna and finally became a successful dairyman on Back Enderby Road.  BORNAIS, Joseph Alside. b. Kelowna 3 July 1913. d. Kelowna 1 November 1995. Survived by  wife Blanche; daughter Lillian; stepson Morris Carson. He was the son of Ellison district pioneers.  BOUTWELL, Dale George, b. Salmon Arm 27 November 1931. d. 9 May 1995. Survived by wife  Amy; son Bob and daughter Betty Switzer. He spent his entire working career with the provincial ministry of highways engineering department. Skilled in any sport he chose to take up, he was Salmon Arm's  outstanding athlete of his time.  BRISCALL, Kathleen Mary Constance, b. Birmingham, England 20 May 1905. d. Oliver 31 March  1995. Predeceased by husband Reverend F. C. Survived by daughter Margaret; son John. She was Oliver's  Good Citizen in 1971 and for many years was a secretary at Oliver Elementary School.  BRISCO, George E. b. 1911. d. Vernon 7 April 1996. Survived by wife Betty; son Eric; daughter  Sandra. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias for 50 years, WWII veteran with the RCAF and past  president of Lumby branch of the Royal Canadian Legion. He taught school for many years in Lumby  and Vernon.  BRISTOW, Charles Alfred Thomas, d. 14 February 1996 at age 84. Survived by wife Verna; sons  Dennis and David; daughter Patricia Ann Smith. He was a life-long resident of Vernon.  BROCKINGTON, Margaret Janice (nee Bearisto). b. 28 June 1935. d. Mission 6 July 1995. Survived by husband Peter; sons David and Michael. She was a graduate in education from UBC and taught  201 LIVES REMEMBERED  English and drama in Mission for more than 20 years. She was co-author of the play "Impasse," which was  produced by the 1993 Vancouver Fringe Festival.  BROWN, Annie Esther (nee Banner), b. Victoria 11 December 1897. d. Oliver 29 August 1995.  Predeceased by husband Ian in 1963; son Dick in 1992. Survived by daughter Dorothy Wright. An Okanagan resident since the turn of the century, she married Ian Brown, son of Judge J. R. Brown of Fairview.  They settled at Fairview in 1918 and were one of the first families to own an automobile there. Later they  ranched south of Oliver. With her husband and others she helped form the White Lake Livestock Association.  BROWN, Christopher Dale. b. 11 March 1923. d. Vancouver 27 October 1995. Survived by wife  Doreen; sons Jack, Chris Jr.; daughters Terry Muir, Pat Maderyc, Shelly Liefke. He was a former president of Vernon Chamber of Commerce, Vernon Winter Carnival committee, Powerhouse Theatre and  Senator Jaycees.  BUYERS, Peter Nicholas, b. Downing, Alberta 8 December 1915. d. Armstrong 10 May 1995.  Predeceased by his first wife, Mary Pearl Spelchan. Survived by wife Ann; sons Dennis and Nicholas;  daughters Deanna MacDonald and Caroline Saunders. After serving in the Canadian armed forces during  World War II, he came to the Armstrong area to farm. He served on Spallumcheen council for a number  of years. In addition, he managed a motel in Desert Hot Springs, California, in the winter months for the  last 20 years of his life.  CADDEN, William Henry John. b. Mara. d. 2 July 1995. Survived by wife Eleanor; sons Billy and  Larry. Member of pioneer North Okanagan family.  CAMPBELL-BROWN, Mary Agnes, b. Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, 11 December 1902. d. Vemon  2 December 1995. Predeceased by husband Dr. Hugh Campbell-Brown. Survived by daughters Linda  Kennedy, Elizabeth Hieronymi. Member of the Women's Auxiliary of Vernon Jubilee Hospital, mental  health society, Vernon Naturalist Club. Honorary life member of Vernon and District Riding Club. She  and her husband donated the Campbell-Brown Ecological Reserve above Kalamalka Lake.  CARRUTHERS, Colin MacKenzie. b. Kelowna 18 December 1915. d. Vernon 22 November 1995.  Descended from a pioneer Kelowna family, he served in the Royal Canadian Navy in World War II, then  went on to a celebrated career in industrial logistics.  CHAMBERLAIN, Frederick Kitchener, b. Dauphin, Manitoba 25 June 1915. d. Kelowna 25 January 1996. Survived by wife Joan; daughters Bonnie Talbot, Patty Mcintosh; son Trevor. He established  and operated Mission Creek Motors; served as first chairman of Kelowna Planning Board and was a longtime supporter of W A. C. Bennett and the Social Credit party.  CLEMENT, William Thomas, b. Edmonton 12 September 1918. d. Telkwa, B.C. 15 December 1995.  Predeceased by a son, James. Survived by wife Klara Margareta; sons Samuel and Alexander. He was the  son of W J. Clement, a pioneer Okanagan teacher and newspaperman. Father and son farmed near  Osprey Lake before young Bill joined B.C. Forest Service.  CLERKE, Robert Charles, b. Vernon 14 June 1914. d. 30 August 1995. Survived by wife Herma;  son Michael. Predeceased by son Patrick. He was the son of Vernon Police Chief Clerke. Employed by  Gulf Oil for more than 40 years, he was an active member of the Masonic Order for half a century.  CLOSE, Samuel Hawthorn, b. Ireland 24 January 1919. d. Kelowna 25 September 1995. Survived  by wife Dorothy; daughters Coleen Wittek, Marjorie Close; son Daniel. He was one of Kelowna's first paid  firemen.  COLLIS, Frances Mary (nee Sidney), b. New Westminster 3 October 1914. d. Kamloops 26 September 1995. Predeceased by husband Maurice in 1986. Survived by son Richard; daughters Maureen  Ingam and Barbara Collins. She received her registered nurse's diploma from St. Paul's Hospital in 1938  and worked in Armstrong Hospital for many years. She was a charter member of St. Joseph's Catholic  Women's League.  COOKE, Irene Frances, b. London, England, 21 June 1904. d. Vernon 15 October 1995. Predeceased by husband Edward and daughters Patricia Irene and Olive Frances Munro. Survived by son Jack.  She was an active member of both the Salvation Army and the Royal Canadian Legion.  COOKSON, Marjorie V b. Kelowna 1900. d. Kelowna 19 March 1996. Predeceased by husband  Percy; survived by son Hugo; daughter Valerie Hanson. She was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W R. Barlee  of Barlee Stretch. She was active with horses, particularly the Morgan breed, and was a long-time member of Kelowna Riding Club.  COUBEAUX, Edward Charles George, b. Big Sandy, Montana 10 April 1902. d. Salmon Arm 23  September 1995. A lifelong bachelor, he took over the family sheep farm and orchard at Sorrento, which  remained his home until he reached 90 years.  CROSS, Elwyn Graham, b. Kelowna 1924. d. Kelowna 10 April 1995. Survived by wife Joy; daughters Marilyn Guidi, Linda Thompson; son Glenn. A fruit grower, he was the son of Rutland pioneers Mr.  and Mrs. A. L. Cross.  CUMEME, Constance Greta (nee Cosens). (See tribute page 184).  DANALLANKO, Phyllis Shirley (nee Becker), b. Armstrong 10 September 1926. d. Armstrong 22  July 1995. Survived by husband Arthur; daughters Shirley-Ann Asay, Linda Aspinall, Wendy Schrauwen  and Becky Leister. (See tribute page 186).  DENMAN (HICKMAN), Margaret Anne. b. Salmon Arm 20 September 1926. d. Salmon Arm 3  August 1995. Predeceased by her two husbands G. R. (Bob) Hickman and Larry Ricks. Survived by sons  Dann and Rob.  202 LIVES REMEMBERED  DICKSON, Gregory John. d. 14 February 1995, aged 77. Survived by wife Doris; sons Lome,  Gary, Dale; daughters Leona Mather, Linda DeLeenheer. Taught in air force in WWII and was principal of  Vernon secondary school.  DOBSON, Una Grace (nee Osborn). d. 28 March 1996. Survived by husband William Kenneth;  sons Phillip, David, Donald; daughter Wendy Hampson. A member of a pioneer Lavington family, she  was a past president of Coldstream Women's Institute.  DOOLEY, Lyman Rundle. b. Lloydminster, Saskatchewan 23 June 1914. d. Oeachland 18 August  1995. Survived by wife Ernie; daughters Margaret Silvester, Marie White; son John. He was a former  director of the Central Okanagan Regional District, veteran Sun-Rype Products employee and early ski  enthusiast.  DUNBAR, David Alexander Irwin, d. Vernon 5 August 1995, aged 90. Survived by wife Viola;  stepson Murray. Member of Royal Canadian Legion for more than 50 years.  DUNCAN, Jim. b. Kelowna 12 February 1922. d. Kelowna 12 November 1995. Survived by wife  Gloria; son Ross; daughter Susan Steele. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Duncan, came from Scotland  to Vernon in 1904 and later to the Belgo district, where Jim Duncan operated an orchard.  ENGLER, Elizabethe (Betty), b. Manitoba, d. Vernon 9 September 1995, age 84. Predeceased by  husband John. Survived by sons Joe and Elroy; daughter Evelyn Bond. A long-time resident of White  Valley, she was active in the Catholic Women's League, Women's Institute and old age pensioners' activities.  FAVELL, Cecil William, d. Kelowna 7 December 1995 at the age of 70. Survived by wife Mary;  sons Don, Dave and Rick; daughter Gloria Ewan.  FLETCHER, Bertram Wilfred, b. Armstrong 28 July 1914. d. Vernon 10 June 1995. Survived by  sons Don and David; daughter Janet Dart. In 1932 he took over the Okanagan Garage in Armstrong from  his father and ran this General Motors dealership for many years. He served on the board of School  District 21, as both trustee and chair. He was an alderman on Armstrong city council, and from 1984 to  1987 served as mayor.  FRASER, Dorothy (nee Johnson). (See tribute page 187).  FREEZE, Mary Minnie. (See tribute page 189).  GAGNON, Abel. b. Kelowna 9 October 1910. d. Kelowna 14 February 1996. Survived by wife Rose;  sons Rodney and Don; daughters Thelma Bruce and Reba Hawthorne. His father, Abel Gagnon, arrived  in Kelowna in 1898.  GALLON, Marie Louise, d. Vernon 2 August 1995, age 91. Predeceased by husband Joseph and  son Lionel. Survived by sons Marcel, George; daughters Cecile Gallon, Denise Rouck. She was an old-  time Lumby resident.  GIBSON, Elizabeth, b. England, d. Vernon 29 January 1996, age 98. Predeceased by husband  Thomas. She was a long-time resident of Coldstream.  GARRISH, Arthur R. b. Estevan, Saskatchewan 1 June 1915. d. Oliver 30 March 1996. Predeceased by wife Nan in 1984. Survived by daughter Gillian; sons Michael, John and Timothy. A long-time  champion of agriculture and the fruit industry in the Okanagan, he was a force in the British Columbia  Fruit Growers' Association as president from 1951 to 1965 and was made a life member in 1978. He was  instrumental in mergers forming the Okanagan-Similkameen Co-operative Growers Assn., was president  of the Oliver packinghouse 1967-1984; a director of SOLID; an original member of the B.C. Land Commission, serving from 1972 to 1975. He was also on the Canadian Horticultural Council and a director of the  Oliver Co-op store. He operated his orchard from 1935 until his death.  GEMMILL, Gertrude Amy. b. Spokane 1895. d. Kelowna 10 October 1995. Predeceased by husband, Col. J. D. Gemmill. She travelled from her birthplace to Kelowna by horseback in 1914.  GIBB, Gertrude Aisne. b. Kelowna 1915. d. Kamloops 3 August 1995. Survived by husband James  Sidney; three sons, one daughter.  GIBB, James Sidney J. b. Kelowna 15 January 1913. d. Kamloops 16 January 1996. Predeceased  by wife Gertrude. Survived by sons Bert, Wally and Harry; daughter Vicki. He spent most of his working  life in the fruit industry with Oyama packinghouse, Laurel Co-op and McLean and Fitzpatrick.  GILBERTSON, Larry Henry, b. Saskatoon 4 October 1931. d. Vernon 7 April 1996. Survived by  wife Mary-Lee Dumont; sons Terry Steven and Larry Gerrold; daughters Lara and Tracey-Lynn. He served  with the Vancouver police force and the RCMP before coming to Armstrong to engage in the funeral  home business and then real estate.  GRAHAM, Vie (Violet D.) b. Whitehorse 8 March 1908. d. New Westminster 26 December 1995.  Survived by husband Glenn; sons Douglas Lyall and Bruce Edward Chambers. She came to Summerland  in 1914 and moved to Penticton in the 1930s. She was a founding member of the Penticton Rose Garden.  In 1922, when the lower town of Summerland burned, she was left alone at the telephone switchboard,  operating it while a man on the roof watered down the sparks with a garden hose.  GRAY, Dr. Ross Edward, d. Kelowna 11 November 1995 at the age of 93. Predeceased by wife  Illvya; son Claire. Survived by son Dr. Leighton Gray. Ross Edward Gray was the pioneer chiropractor in  Kelowna. A lover of music, he organized and led the Bethel Boys Band.  GRIFFIN, Charles Russel. b. Vernon 22 June 1913. d. 6 April 1995. Survived by wife Nell; daughters Ghislaine Denbigh, Wendy Grudneski. Served with anti-aircraft division in Italy in WWII, member of  Royal Canadian Legion Branch 25.  HAGARDT, George Bernard, b. Winnipeg 21 October 1925. d. Vernon 31 January 1996. Predeceased by son Robert in 1985. Survived by wife Elinor; sons Ron and Bill; daughters Dawn and Cathy.  203 LIVES REMEMBERED  After service in the RCAF he moved to Enderby in 1947. A logging contractor for many years, he was a  major supporter of sports in Enderby, including minor hockey and baseball.  HAGSTED, Ruby Eveline, d. Vernon 28 November 1995, age 81. Survived by husband Nels; daughter  Yvonne MacDonald. Long-time resident of Lumby district.  HANDCOCK, Alan Gerald William S. b. Glasgow, Montana 13 May 1905. d. Enderby 15 February  1996. Predeceased by wife Marie. Survived by daughters Marion, Kathleen and Claudine. He moved with  his parents to a Grindrod homestead in 1906. After service with the Canadian Forestry Corps during  WWII, he returned to Grindrod, where he operated G. S. Handcock Electric.  HANDCOCK, Marie Drummond (nee Hancock), b. Sheffield, England 8 January 1901. d. Enderby  24 January 1996. Survived by husband Gerald; three daughters. She settled with her parents on a Naramata  orchard in 1910 and moved to Grindrod upon her marriage in 1934.  HANNA, Stuart Francis, b. Victoria 30 July 1913. d. Salmon Arm 18 October 1995. Survived by  wife Dilys; sons Stuart, James and John; daughter Heather Baum. S. F. Hanna came to Salmon Arm in  1921. He worked on his father's farm and later developed a large orchard, now run by two of his sons. He  was active in tree fruit industry affairs.  HARPER, Henry Ivens. b. Salmon Arm 11 November 1909. d. Salmon Arm 31 December 1995.  Survived by wife Reba; son John; daughter Linda Griffiths. He worked for various sawmills in his younger  years and later began his own general construction company.  HARRER, Joanna, d. Vernon 9 May 1995, age 80. Predeceased by husband Sebastian. Survived  by son Eric; daughter Erica Young. She lived at Lavington for many years.  HARRISON, Francis Charles, b. Winter, Saskatchewan 15 March 1910. d. Vernon 4 May 1995.  Survived by wife Isabel; son Bill. A resident of Armstrong from 1921 until his death, he was a merchant  and active community worker. He owned and operated Harrison's Groceteria (later IGA) for 25 years. He  served as a director of the Interior Provincial Exhibition and was later made a life member.  HARRISON, Isabel Helen (nee Lancaster), b. Bowden, Alberta 8 January 1912. d. Vernon 30  December 1995. Predeceased by husband Frank in May 1955. Survived by son Bill. She came to Armstrong in the 1920s and took an active part in community affairs, including those of the IPE. In 1960-61  she was president of the Rebekah Assembly for British Columbia.  HARWOOD, Frank, d. Vernon 3 August 1995. Survived by wife Hazel; daughters Doreen Arpacci,  Dorothy Hanson. He worked in the family transfer and cold storage business and also as a heating  engineer at Delview Hospital.  HAUG, Gordon William, b. Kelowna 1908. d. Kelowna 11 June 1995. Survived by wife Jean;  daughter Margot. He was the son of pioneer Kelowna businessman William Haug.  HAY, John. b. Lamedeer, Montana 1916. d. Enderby 15 March 1996. Survived by wife Muriel;  sons Jack and Robert; daughters Muriel and Catherine. For many years he worked in the logging industry  in the Kingfisher/Mabel Lake area, retiring to Enderby in 1970.  HAY, John Arthur, b. Brockville, Ontario 21 August 1902. d. 28 September 1925. Predeceased by  wife Eva Mary. Survived by sons Ken and Doug. Manager of CRP Farms 1927-1944; superintendent of  government farms at Coquitlam 1948-51; manager of Nicola Lake Stock Farms 1951-56. Moved to Blue  Springs Ranch, Lumby, in 1956. He was also a B.C. provincial court judge.  HITT, Frederick Charles, b. Cullompton, Devon, England 11 June 1893. d. Armstrong 2 October  1995. Survived by wife Nora; son Raymond; daughter Marjorie Gordon. He came to Armstrong in 1913  and owned farms in the Knob Hill, Hullcar and Schubert Road areas.  HITT, Nora Margaret Beatrice (nee Price), b. Stroud, Gloucestershire, England 31 August 1898. d.  Armstrong 17 November 1995. Predeceased by husband Frederick Charles in October 1995. Survived by  son Raymond; daughter Marjorie Gordon. She moved to Armstrong in 1911, married in 1923 and lived as  a farmer's wife for the rest of her life.  HOLLAND, Maurice Manclin (Red), b. Swan Lake, Manitoba 7 August 1907. d. Vernon 20 March  1996. Predeceased by wife Gladys. Employed by Vernon News for 30 years. Life member of Vernon Golf  and Country Club.  HOPE, William George David, b. Armstrong 30 June 1919. d. Vernon 1 May 1995. Survived by  wife Marion; sons Ted and George; daughters Patricia Reimer and Margaret Hope. Over the years he was  a major contributor to the Armstrong community. He was honoured as life member of the IPE, was  president of the chamber of commerce and Armstrong Museum and Arts Society and was a longtime 4-  H leader.  HOWDEN, Verna Minodelle. d. Vernon 17 June 1995, age 83. Predeceased by husband Lance and  daughter Lois Louis. Survived by daughters Ila Slizak, Aloma Sadorsky. She was a life-long resident of the  Silver Star area.  HUCUL, William. (See tribute page 192)  HUGGINS, Janet Bliss, b. Foam Lake, Saskatchewan 15 December 1915. d. Vernon 27 November  1995. Predeceased by husband Frederick in 1992. Survived by sons Ian, Allan and Norman. Moving to B.  C. as a youngster, she took all her schooling in Armstrong and remained there all her life.  HUHTALA, Hanna Pauline (nee West), b. Seattle 5 August 1909. d. Salmon Arm 2 August 1995.  Survived by husband Toivo. Her parents homesteaded in the White Lake area of the Shuswap in 1911. She  was active in the group Finns of the Shuswap and in Sicamous seniors' centre.  JERMYN, Isabel Warburton. b. North Vancouver 29 July 1911. d. Vernon 4 September 1995. Survived by brother Thomas Jermyn. She spent 30 years in public service and was a life member and former  204 LIVES REMEMBERED  president of the Business and Professional Women's Club, secretary for the Red Cross in WWII and a  member of the Anglican church choir.  JONES, Angeline Eva. d. 26 April 1995, age 74. A member of the Okanagan Indian Band, she is  survived by daughter Sandy Lewis; son Truman.  KAULBACK, Emma (Petie). b. Nova Scotia 20 February 1914. d. 16 February 1996. Survived by  husband Al; daughter Karen; sons Dennis and Grant. She was active in the B.C. Summer Games, Vernon  Winter Carnival.  KIDSTON, Elizabeth Marianna Eileen (Polly), d. Vernon 1 October 1995. Predeceased by husband James. Survived by sons Jamie, Phil; daughter Ann Denman. She was a long-standing member of  Coldstream Women's Institute.  KIDSTON, Mary Jean Wishart. d. Vernon 3 January 1996. Survived by husband J. R. Kidston;  sons Hew, Keith and Michael. She was the daughter of pioneer doctor Harry W Keith of Enderby.  KOPETSKI, Cecilia Agnes, b. Kelowna 16 May 1930. d. Kelowna 20 June 1995. Survived by husband William; sons Dennis and Gerry; daughter Debbie Kopetski-Reid. Her family, the Kleins, were early  settlers in the Ellison district.  KUHN, Olga. b. Russia 7 February 1904. d. Vernon 6 March 1996. Predeceased by husband  Ferdinand. Survived by daughters Hanna Steiner, Audrey Hemminger; sons Edward, George, Norman,  Bill, Arthur, Alfred, Charles, Nelson, Kenneth and Donald.  KURBIS, Wilfred Arthur (Bill), d. Vernon 1 January 1996, age 74. Survived by wife Evelyn; sons  Ken, Rod, Bob; daughter Sarah Stack.  LAND, Douglas Charles, d. 17 April 1995, age 85. Survived by wife Helen; son Gary; daughter  Valorie Mann. He had resided in Vernon since 1927.  LAND, Helen Cecilia, d. 17 February 1996, age 83. Predeceased by husband Douglas; Survived by  son Gary; daughter Valorie Mann.  LEBLANC, Emiliana (Bella), b. Prescott, Ontario, d. 4 April 1996, age 94. Predeceased by husband Avila in 1971. Survived by sons Edgar, Gerald, Roland; daughters Jackie Dolan, RheaSankey, Deanna  Wagner.  LITTLE, Clarence Henry, b. Vernon 18 February 1918. d. 4 July 1995. Predeceased by daughter  Lynette. Survived by wife Miriam. He served in North Africa and Europe with the 1st Armoured Brigade.  LOUIS, Ben. d. 30 October 1995, age 86. Predeceased by son Oliver; daughters Jean and Marie.  Survived by wife Rosie; sons Mike, Charlie, Howard, Robert, Frank, Cecil, Blaine, Vaughn; daughters  Clara, Evelyn, May. A member of a well-known Okanagan Band family, he was active in rodeo sports.  LUNDIN, Earl Martin, b. Princeton 24 September 1912. d. Westbank 24 September 1995. Survived  by wife Eunice; daughters Lenore Young, Ruth Dobbin, Joyce Dubuc, Barbara Mandau; son Lloyd. He  resided in the Okanagan-Similkameen area all his life, working as a scaler in the logging industry.  MAARD, Carl Alfred, b. Kinnard, Sweden 22 November 1903. d. Salmon Arm 4 August 1995.  Survived by wife Helen and son Arthur. He came to Grindrod in 1936, then moved to Salmon Arm where  he purchased a 40-acre orchard. After losing his trees to the disastrous winter of 1949-50, he started a  cedar fence post business which he ran until he retired.  MacDONALD, Marian Ruth. d. 16 April 1995. Predeceased by husband Donald. She served in  WWII with the Royal Canadian Medical Corps and was a resident of Vernon since 1947. She was a life  member of Vernon curling club.  MacKAY, Earl Archibald, d. Vernon 4 March 1996, age 68. Survived by wife Lorraine; son Andy;  daughters Linda Hendrickson, Darlene MacKay, Ramona MacKay. He was a member of Salmon Arm's  pioneer MacKay family.  MAKI, Vivian (nee Ruotsala). b. Carbonado, Washington 15 June 1910. d. Salmon Arm 25 March  1996. Predeceased by husband Arne in 1968. She came as an infant to the Gleneden area and after  marriage she and her husband farmed the Maki homestead at White Lake.  MARCHAND, Elizabeth, b. Douglas Lake. d. Vernon, age 72. Predeceased by husband Charlie,  two sons and five stepsons. Survived by sons and stepsons Carey, Ron, Bailey, Joey, Alex, Duane, Kelly;  daughters Rita and Christine.  MARTY, Eitenne (Steve) Justin, b. Kelowna 29 December 1910. d. Kelowna 23 December 1995.  Predeceased by first wife Olive in 1972. Survived by wife Margaret; sons Maurice and Donald; stepsons  Father Jim Ratcliffe, Hugh, Vince and Bert Ratcliffe; daughter Kathleen Wong; stepdaughters Mary Royal,  Elizabeth Dunn, Jeanine Ratcliffe. He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Marty, who came to Kelowna in  1907.  MAYNARD, Arthur Sheldon, d. Vernon 15 December 1995, age 83. Survived by wife Helen;  stepson Don Hilton; daughters Jackie Nash, Margo McConkey. He owned Maynard's Ladies Wear for  many years, was a past president of the Kinsmen Club and active in Schubert Centre.  McASTOCKER, Margaret Noreen. b. 1910. d. Kelowna 12 April 1995. Predeceased by two brothers and a sister. Survived by many nieces and nephews. She was a long-time school teacher in the Penticton  area until retirement in 1972, and a supporter of the OHS.  McCALLAN, Alice Georgina Crighton (nee MacLean). b. Breasclete, Scotland 18 December 1904.  d. Enderby 17 November 1995. Predeceased by husband John Hilliard in 1959, son John (Skip) and  daughter Sheila Rear. Survived by daughter Bernice. She came as a child with her family to the Westwold  area and then to Armstrong. She worked in the Armstrong post office before her marriage and then went  farming with her husband. She headed the handicraft section of the IPE for many years.  205 LIVES REMEMBERED  McLARTY, Muriel Timpany Stillwell. b. Concanada, India 30 October 1896. d. Penticton 3 August  1995. Predeceased by husband Harold and daughter Ruth. Survived by son Hugh. Harold and Muriel  McLarty were supporters of local history and the OHS.  McCLUSKEY, Richard Franklin (Dick), b. Vernon 2 May 1928. d. 26 June 1995. Survived by wife  Joan; sons Rich, Rob; daughters Debbie Bachman, Donna Lester. He managed Beaver Lumber store until  1984 and was a member of Vernon Fire Department. He was also known for his athletic achievements.  McCLUSKEY, Wesley, d. 14 December 1995, age 72. Survived by wife Gladys; daughters Kathleen  Hampton, Susan Stacey. He served with the medical corps in WWII and was a member of Royal Canadian  Legion Branch No. 25.  McGREGOR, Paula, b. Vernon 27 September 1931. d. 30 November 1995. Predeceased by husband Odie Simard in 1961. Survived by Don McGregor; sons Larry, Peter, Robert, Michael. She was a  member of the Mabel Lake Sigalet family.  MEGER, Edward, d. Vernon 2 August 1995, age 85. Predeceased by wife Elsie. Survived by son  Ken; daughters Verna Barrow, Ivy Nashman, Joan Meger, Ina Hudson.  MORRISON, George Thomas, b. 5 November 1920. d. 30 July 1995. Survived by wife Joan; sons  Doug, Bruce, Rod; daughter Dale. An active local businessman, he spent 11 years on Lumby council, 10  years on Vernon city council and completed two terms on school board. A WWII veteran, he belonged to  both Vernon and Lumby Legion branches.  NEILSEN, Doreene Pearl, b. England 18 April 1919. d. Vernon 25 November 1995. Predeceased  by only daughter Leslie Bayliss. Survived by husband Bill. She was a bookkeeper for many years, in  addition to being active in the Eastern Star and a keen bowler and curler.  NELSON, Marianne, b. Lumby. d. Vernon 9 August 1995, age 89. Survived by husband Ollie. Born  Marianne Martin, she taught school in the North Okanagan from 1927 to 1967.  NELSON, Mary Irene, b. Vancouver 7 May 1905. d. Salmon Arm 19 September 1995. Predeceased  by husband Clarence and daughter Shirley Schmitz. Survived by son Robert and daughter Audrey  Montgomery. She came to Silver Creek in 1914 and was a 1927 nursing graduate of Royal Inland Hospital.  She was a member of the Hospital Auxiliary, cancer and arthritis societies, a volunteer for Meals on  Wheels and a long-time member of the United Church.  NEWBY, Dr. Cecil David, b. Sardis 7 April 1902. d. Kelowna 20 June 1995. Survived by wife Gwen;  daughters Linda, Diane and Lorraine; son David. He practised dentistry in Kelowna for nearly 30 years,  dating from 1933, served a one-year term as alderman and was prominently identified with Kelowna  Riding Club, as well as with other organizations.  O'KEEFE, Patrick Leonard, b. Vernon 25 July 1916. d. 15 May 1995. Survived by wife Grace; sons  Patrick, Dennis, David, Larry, Brian; daughters Margaret Scheck, Karen Pasechnik, Lorraine O'Keefe.  Employed as a meat-cutter at Pioneer Meat Market, he was a member of one of Vernon's earliest families.  ORR, Charles Donald, b. 1910. d. Summerland 3 March 1995. Predeceased by wife Mary. Survived by daughter Elizabeth Souder. An orchardist, Mr. Orr was active in community affairs and a longtime member of OHS.  OUCHI, Betty Yoko. d. Vernon 6 April 1995, age 80. Predeceased by son John. Survived by husband Edward; sons Lester, Bob, Eugene, Ron, Conrad; daughter Marie Bourgh.  PATERSON, Muriel, b. Kelowna 30 December 1905. d. Kelowna 19 August 1995. Predeceased by  husband Pat. Survived by son Thomas. She and her sister, Thelma, were the first Caucasian twins born in  Kelowna. Their parents were Minnie and George Dillon, he being one of the area's early teamsters.  PAYNE, Ethel (nee Vance), b. Agassiz 1 August 1902. d. Pouce Coupe, B.C. 4 November 1995.  Predeceased by husband Howard in 1979. Survived by sons Gordon and Douglas. She was active in the  Enderby branch of the Royal Canadian Legion and a life member of the United Church Women. With her  husband, she operated the Summit Creek store in Springbend for many years.  PAYNTER, Edwina Margaret Coleman, b. London, England 2 February 1905. d. Kelowna 24 February 1996. She traced her residence in Westbank—later East Kelowna—back to the year she was born.  She served with the air force from 1938 to 1945.  POPE, Leslie Arthur, b. Hamilton, Ontario 1909. d. Vernon 1 July 1995. Survived by wife Alvie;  daughter Louise Christie. He moved to Vernon in 1942, where he was tire rationing officer during the  Second World War. He was a partner in Pope, Little Real Estate and Insurance until 1975. He was an  active Kinsman, helped set up Kin racetrack and served as president of the B.C. Rugby Union.  POTHECARY, George Allan, b. England 8 January 1914. d. Vernon 5 June 1995. Survived by wife  Beverly; son Allan; daughters Meagan, Erin, Dierdre, Fiona. After an RCAF flying career in WWII, he was  employed as a fruit inspector until 1977.  PURDABY, Adam. b. Salmon Arm 1 January 1903. d. Kelowna 18 February 1996. Survived by  nieces Mary Thomas, Marj Johnny, nephews Louis and David Purdaby.  RAUMA, Vivian (Vieno) Violet, b. Helsinki, Finland 16 June 1910. d. Salmon Arm 9 November  1995. Predeceased by husband Andy. Survived by daughters Amy Boutwell and Betty Hill. She was active  in Finnish Canadian organizations and was awarded life memberships by the Women's Institute and the  old age pensioners' association. In 1994 she was voted Sicamous's Citizen of the Year. Contributions to  the community at large included the making of hundreds of dresses and many quilts for Children's  Hospital.  READE, Robert, b. McBride 9 March 1929. d. 4 November 1995. Survived by wife Laura; sons  Melvin, Don, Rob; daughters Bev Johnson, Laurene Gartner, Tracy Read Olsen. He worked at Pioneer  206 LIVES REMEMBERED  Sash and Door 42 years and later for Howrie Millwork; also at Vernon army camp. A long-time member  of IOOF Lodge No. 18, he helped initiate the Lifeline program at Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  REEDMAN, Arthur, b. Blind Bay, B.C. 1907. d. Victoria 27 September 1995. Survived by wife  Jessie; daughter Marilyn. He was the son of John and Florence Reedman and spent most of his working  life providing a mechanical repair service from a shop on Blind Bay-Sorrento road.  RICE, Magda. d. Vernon 9 April 1995, two days short of her 81st birthday. Survived by husband  Elwood; son William; daughter Madeline Kerr. Predeceased by son Fred Stewart in 1993. She was an artist  and author.  SCHERBA, John. d. 1 April 1996, age 84. Survived by wife Rose; daughters Ellen, Joy and Susan.  An orchardist and millwright, he owned Vernon Saw Repair many years. Member of Friends of History,  Ukranian Village Council and Senior Citizens Choir.  SCOTT, Douglas Easdale. b. Manitoba 1912. d. North Vancouver 28 June 1995. Survived by wife  Lissetta (Kitty); daughter Audrey Marliave. Predeceased by son Ray. He completed M.A. degree at the  University of Saskatchewan, moved to the North Okanagan in 1949 and became teacher-librarian at  Vernon Secondary School. He later taught at Okanagan College, retiring in 1976.  SHAW, Katharina (Katie), b. Germany, d. Vernon 7 May 1995, age 96. Predeceased by husband  Russell, sons Ben and Ray. Survived by sons Chuck, John. A resident of Vernon from the age of 10, she  fondly remembered working on the O'Keefe Ranch, where she knew Cornelius O'Keefe.  SHINNERS, William Dennis, b. 25 June 1911. d. 21 August 1995. A long-time Coldstream resident, he was foreman for Verite Jackson's orchards.  SHUMAY, Nick. b. Saskatchewan 12 October 1919. d. Vernon 18 November 1995. Survived by  wife Betty. He served overseas in WWII with the B.C. Dragoons and worked for B.C. Hydro until retirement in 1973.  SIGALET, Harry Alfred, d. Vernon 27 April 1996, age 80. Survived by wife Irma; son Don; daughter Dale Hawkshaw. He was a member of the pioneer Sigalet family.  SIMMONS, Fanny Pearl, d. 4 June 1995 at 99 years. Survived by son William; daughter Bernice  Harriet Notschke. Predeceased by husband John Victor; sons Clarence Victor, George Franklin; daughter  Pearl Redmond. Long a resident of Vernon, she was the great-niece of Peter Elson, first recorded Member  of Parliament for Ontario.  SIMPSON, Dorothy Ruth (nee Tomlin). b. Summerland 4 April 1907. d. Summerland 12 January  1995. Predeceased by husband N. V. (Vern). Survived by son Vern. A teacher, she maintained a strong  interest in education and the arts and was a member of the OHS.  SKELLY, Adaline. b. Freisland, Holland 1899. d. Enderby 12 June 1995. Predeceased by husband  Ernest in 1992; son Harry in 1945. Survived by son David; daughters Betty, Tena and Florence. Ernest  Skelly operated Enderby Creamery during the 1930s.  SMITH, Lucille B. d. Vernon 26 April 1995. Predeceased by husband Oliver H. Smith. Member of  pioneer S. C. Smith family.  SPEERS, Samuel Barrie. b. Enderby 1913. d. Kelowna 13 September 1995. Predeceased by wife  Evelyn in 1992. He was the son of Olive and Sid Speers and the grandson of Elizabeth and Samuel Poison,  pioneers of Vernon and Enderby.  STANNARD, Philip Sturgess. b. Duncan 17 June 1922. d. Penticton 24 November 1995. Survived  by wife Donna; daughters Nancy Lynn Hunter, Laura Ann Jolicoeur. A former news director and newspaper editor, he had a lengthy career in journalism. He also served as public relations director for Dominion Bridge Company.  STARK, Gordon, d. 14 December 1995, age 65. Predeceased by wife Anne in 1978. Survived by  son Greg; daughters Linda Strymecki, Bev Denham, Laurie Pollen, Debbie Schnackenberg. He spent 50  years in Vernon, where he was a successful businessman.  STURT, Arthur Gilbert, b. Armstrong 1914. d. Salmon Arm 19 February 1996. Survived by wife  Pearl; son Bryon; daughter Cheryl; step-children Clarence, James and Sharon File. He moved to a farm  on Gardom Lake in 1947 and was employed in the logging industry and by B. C. Forest Service.  SUMMERFELT, Jacob (Jack), b. 7 June 1916. d. Vernon 3 October 1995. Survived by wife Rita;  sons Harold, Jim. He was a long-time resident of Lumby.  SUTTON. Caroline Taylor, b. England 26 February 1900. d. Kelowna 16 July 1995. Predeceased by  husband Felix. Survived by daughters Peggy Lyon, Doreen Thompson; son Jack. She was a resident of  Kelowna for 70 years, taking an active part in the First United Church, Bankhead Circle of the United  Church Women, Lady Lions and Rebekah Lodge.  TAKAHASHI, Gertrude Mieko. b. Salmon Arm 24 August 1921. d. Salmon Arm 17 September  1995. Survived by husband Yoshio (Yosh); mother, Take Tanemura; daughters Judy, Linda, Karen and  Joanne; sons Richard and Mark; brothers Ken, Tom and Wayne; sisters Dorothy, Molly, Ada, Hana, Mary  and Yvonne.  TAKAHASHI, Yoshio. b. Vancouver 25 August 1913. d. Salmon Arm 13 February 1996. Predeceased by wife Gertrude Mieko. He came to Salmon Arm from the Coast in 1942 and first worked for his  sponsor, Archie Tanemura, later finding employment at Federated Co-operatives Ltd., Canoe, until retirement.  TANAKA, Yukihisa (Roy), b. Steveston 6 July 1915. d. Kelowna 3 November 1995. Survivedby his  wife Sachiko; daughters Reiko and Dorothy; sons Keiko and Herby. He was a founding member of Folkfest  and the Kelowna Multicultural Society and taught citizenship classes for 17 years. He was the recipient of  numerous awards for his work in the community.  207 LIVES REMEMBERED  TOMPSON, Angus Clement, b. England 1 July 1910. d. Vernon 25 May 1995. Predeceased by wife  Lydia. He owned a trucking business and raised sheep on the Commonage. Also noted for training  racehorses, along with Andy Smithers. He was a charter member of Vernon Knights of Columbus.  TOPORCHAK, Cecilia, b. Slovakia 20 September 1903. d. Vernon 21 May 1995. Predeceased by  husband John in 1985. Survived by sons Frank, John; daughters Mary Shaw and Lil Hodgson. The  Toporchaks were early farmers on Old Kamloops Road.  UPPER, Lois Theresa, b. Edmonton 2 December 1925. d. Vernon 22 February 1996. Predeceased  by her first husband Peter Jacob Clemens and by her second husband, Walter Upper. Survived by sons  Charlie, Peter, Don, Ron, Neil and Pat.  VIEL, George Sidney, b. Montreal 28 May 1909. d. 27 August 1995. Survived by wife Lillian;  daughter Sheila Miller. He came to Vernon in 1911 and spent his early years on the Coldstream Ranch.  Later he owned and operated Vernon Lock and Cycle Shop, resorts in the Shuswap Lake-Chase area. He  was keenly interested in matters concerning the Okanagan Valley water supply.  WARDLAW, Mildred Mary Doris, b. Kelowna area 6 December 1926. d. Kelowna 11 June 1995.  Her parents were old-timers at McCulloch on the Kettle Valley Railway and she was noted for her paintings of animals and landscapes.  WATSON, James Wellington (Pete), b. Alberta 1908. d. Kelowna 13 April 1995. Predeceased by  wifeMurdie. A resident of Penticton since 1915, he spent 42 years with Penticton Co-op Growers and was  the last employee when the association closed its doors in 1971. (See Report No. 53).  WHITE, Mildred Evelina, d. 16 January 1996, age 82. Predeceased by husband Wilfred. Daughter  of Vernon's pioneer Phillips family, she was a long-standing member of Ruth Rebekah Lodge and of the  senior choir of Trinity United Church.  WHITE, Reginald V (Jack), b. Penticton 6 March 1910. d. Penticton 31 May 1995. He was the  youngest son of pioneers Dr. and Mrs. R. B. White. Predeceased by half-brother W. T. Lambly and by  brother Dr. Bill White. Survived by wife Shirley and half-brother Spud Lambly.  WILLS, Walter George Winsborrow. d. 14 February 1996, age 80. Survived by wife Margaret; son  David; daughter Jo-anne Lissa. Born and raised in Vernon, he was active in sports and was recognized as  a youth for having saved a boy from drowning in Kalamalka Lake. A flight sergeant and air-frame mechanic in WWII, he worked for Okanagan Sash and Door and the Department of National Defence.  WIGHT, J. Laird, b. North Vancouver 28 June 1911. d. Oliver 29 March 1995. Survived by wife  Joan; daughter Vicki Stafford; son Richard. Educated in Seattle, he graduated from the University of  Washington in 1935. He was connected with the South Okanagan since 1919, when his uncle and aunt  began the Oliver government fruit tree nursery. He worked in the insurance business, then in 1944  joined Victor Fairweather in Fairweather's Oliver hardware business, managing it until it was sold in  1969. He was a charter member and past-president of Oliver Rotary Club, which honoured him as a Paul  Harris Fellow.  WILLIAMS, Howard N. b. Pincher Creek, Alberta 8 February 1913. d. Kelowna 28 May 1995.  Survived by wife Grace; sons Bruce and Perry; daughter Sharon Brooks. He co-owned Williams Men's  Wear and Shoes until retirement in 1973.  WODINSKY, Anne. b. Bienfait, Saskatchewan 5 November 1914. d. Vernon 6 February 1996. Predeceased by husband Stephen in 1968. Survived by sons Marvin and Gene; daughter Sandra Heal. She  came to the Stepney area of Spallumcheen in 1927.  WOOD, Cecil Arthur, b. England 10 May 1903. d. Vernon 23 September 1995. Survived by wife  Charlotte; daughters Jean Lynn, Margaret O'Neal. He was employed by Bennett Hardware and also at  Vernon army base. He was a past Noble Grand of IOOF Vernon Valley Lodge No. 18.  WOOD, Mary Helen (nee Glasgow), b. Portland, Oregon 22 May 1909. d. Richmond 30 April 1996.  Predeceased by husband Ronald W. E. Wood in 1984. Her father, R. J. Glasgow, was an old-time Salmon  Arm merchant.  208 O.H.S. BUSINESS  MINUTES OF THE  71 ST ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF  THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Salmon Arm Campus, Okanagan University College  May 5, 1996  President David MacDonald opened the meeting at 10 o'clock with approximately  75 persons present. He requested observance of a minute's silence in memory of those  members of the OHS who have died since our last annual meeting. In particular, we remember one of our Life Members, Mrs. Beryl Gardner.  NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary. Agenda was distributed and alterations  noted. Agenda accepted as amended on motion by Jack Morrison, seconded by Hume Powley.  MINUTES of the 70th annual general meeting adopted as printed in the 59th Report  on motion by Alice Lundy, seconded by Mike Holman.  BUSINESS arising out of minutes. None.  CORRESPONDENCE: The secretary read letters/announcements from Boundary  Historical Society: Invitation to their annual picnic at Christina Lake June 16, 1996; Mrs.  Rosemary Carter, Winfield, asking if it is possible for OHS to interview Okanagan Centre  pioneer residents; announcing the opening of the Gibson House at Carrs Landing; Dr.  Margaret Ormsby, expressing gratitude to OHS for acknowledging her as a Member of the  Order of Canada.  REPORTS OF OFFICERS  President Dave MacDonald reviewed the highlights of his first term as OHS president: well attended parent body meetings; progress on the Best of OHS publication; individual branch projects; the Jack Newsom donation to the Central Okanagan Foundation, on  behalf of the OHS; Margaret Ormsby named Member of the Order of Canada; Fintry/Shorts  Creek made a provincial park.  Secretary Helen Inglis recorded and distributed minutes of the executive council  meetings to all members of the parent body. Because the various committees capably handled most of their own, her correspondence duties this term were light.  Treasurer Libby Tassie distributed copies of the current financial statement and provided additional explanation regarding donations, expenditures and investments relevant  to the Okanagan Historical Society. Acceptance of audited financial statement for the year  ending December 31, 1995, moved by Treasurer, seconded by Denis Maclnnis. Carried.  Editor Denis Marshall briefly commented on the progress of the 60th edition of the  Report and then addressed the "complex and frustrating" issue of the "viability of the Report  itself." He challenged the membership to re-examine our current membership-report relationship; reconsidering the membership fee structure, selling the Reports, economy of reporting OHS business by providing "on request" instead of publishing it at $56 a page. He  urged all branches to copy the example of Kelowna, Armstrong-Enderby, Penticton and  Oliver-Osoyoos in rejuvenating the student essay contest.  BRANCH REPORTS  Armstrong-Enderby, Bob Dale on behalf of Don Wells. Kelowna, Alice Lundy. Oliver-  Osoyoos, Joan Casorso. Penticton, Enabelle Gorek. Salmon Arm, Tom Smith. Similkameen,  Dick Coleman (read by Dave MacDonald). Vernon, Jack Morrison. Reports accepted on  motion by Enabelle Gorek, seconded by Libby Tassie.  COMMITTEE REPORTS  Best of OHS, Jean Webber. Fairview Lots, Victor Casorso. Finance, no report. Historical, Bob Marriage. Index, Dave MacDonald. Pandosy Mission, Denis Maclnnis. Sales and  promotion, Lionel Dallas. Reports accepted on motion by Dorothy Zoellner, seconded by  Bob Dale.  209 O.H.S. BUSINESS  NEW BUSINESS:  a) Proposed changes to the constitution: The president explained the necessity for  the change in the OHS constitution, providing for the event of dissolution of the Okanagan  Historical Society. The official resolution was read by the secretary. Motion by Denis  Maclnnis, seconded by Hume Powley, that the foregoing resolution be adopted. Carried.  b) Annual Field Day and Picnic, Pandosy Mission, June 9, 1996.  c) Invitation from Boundary Historical Society, as covered under Correspondence.  d) Jack Newsom donation: Mr. Newsom, a resident of Kelowna, has made a donation  to the Central Okanagan Foundation, with the hope OHS would match the amount. The  interest earned by this fund will be used to support Society projects. Motion by Hume Powley,  seconded by Alice Lundy, that the Okanagan Historical Society provide $5,000 to match the  Newsom donation. Carried.  DISCUSSION: Interest credited annually to OHS from foundation; no limitation on  how OHS uses the interest earned on the $10,000; further donations can be made on our  behalf to C. O. Foundation, e.g. bequests; fund represents a source of income in perpetuity;  money donated "in memory" has a long-lasting effect when put in fund; represents an alliance with another community-minded body; Central Okanagan Foundation has put hundreds of thousands of dollars in grants into community.  ELECTION OF OFFICERS: After paying tribute to retiring treasurer Libby Tassie for  her years of dedicated service, past president Jessie Ann Gamble presided over the election  of a slate for the 1996-97 Executive Council. Elected by acclamation were as follows:  President, David MacDonald; 1st vice-president, Denis Maclnnis; 2nd vice-president,  Yvonne McDonald; Secretary, Helen Inglis; treasurer, Jean Lockhart; editor, Denis Marshall.  APPOINTMENT OF AUDITOR: Moved by Gifford Thomson, seconded by Libby lassie  that Leonard G. Miller be appointed as auditor for the ensuing year. Carried.  COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS: Moved by Bob Marriage, seconded by Bill Whitehead that the complimentary resolutions follow customary format. Carried.  1997 ANNUAL MEETING: Approved for May 4, 1997, hosted by Oliver-Osoyoos.  MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT moved by Bob dePfyffer.  THE BEST OF OKANAGAN HISTORY  With respect to our publication of The Best of Okanagan History, I am happy to  report progress, with over 200 pages written. Once the first draft is completed then begins  the task of cutting down the manuscript, for it is our aim to have about 200 pages of finished  text with pictures, bringing the publication up to about 360 pages.  I hope this summer to begin collecting pictures for the book. If members are familiar with museum collections or private collections, I would appreciate your help in selecting interesting and significant illustrations of our past, pictures that have not formerly been  given wide circulation.  A very supportive committee has read and criticized the first five sections of The  Best of Okanagan History. I look forward to turning over a more finished manuscript to  them later this summer.  Jean Webber, editor  FAIRVIEW LOTS KIOSK REPORT  We have very little to report. The winter was a tough one and nothing was able to be done on  the building. Now that the nice weather looks to be just around the corner things should  start to hum.  We have $3,302 in the bank, with $500 more promised and nothing spent.  The Okanagan Falls United Church renovated their 1897 church, which was originally on our Fairview lots. We have a few boards that are almost 100 years old. The contractor said he'd utilize them in a special way.  The $2,000 grant has not yet been approved by BC 21.  V. R. Casorso  INDEX COMMITTEE  This report is basically the same as reports given in previous years. Annual Report 59 has  been indexed and this index merged with the index of Reports 56 to 58. When Report No. 60  is published, it will be indexed and the results merged with 56-59. The index of 56-59 has not  210 O.H.S. BUSINESS  been published, except for copies supplied to a couple of museums and individuals. However, when Report No. 60 is indexed the Society should give some consideration to what is  going to be done with the index. The supplement covering Reports 51 to 55 was not particularly successful, although no doubt it was useful to those who purchased it. We printed too  many copies and still have a reserve. We have the computer discs containing the original  index and the supplement and it looks like it would be technically possible to merge the  original index, the supplement and Reports 56 to 60 into one index, so we should give some  thought to how such an index could be useful.  We do have one request to make to users of the index. If you find any errors, please  record them and send them to me. It is not too onerous ajob to make corrections. Hours and  hours were spent proofreading the original index, but there are still errors. The only major  proofreading done after publication was done by Frank Pells and Win Shilvock of Kelowna  and we thank them for this.  Dave MacDonald  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  Again we have experienced a successful year at the Mission. Visitations were up, as well as  on-site donations to the amount of 60 percent over the previous year.  We were able to complete all roof repairs throughout the site, eight buildings; both  privies on the grounds have been completely restored and painted. New valves for drinking  fountains have been replaced, and a submersible sump pump has been installed in the  domestic water pumphouse.  We have commenced repair and renovations on the upstairs of the McDougall House,  as well as Father Pandosy's bedroom above the chapel.  Most of this work would not have been possible had it not been for the generous  financial help from the Father Pandosy Knights of Columbus, the Kelowna Branch of the  Okanagan Historical Society and especially the large donation of $1,777 from the parent  body of the OHS.  I wish at this time to express my thanks to the members of my committee, and to  our carpenter, Dan Murphy, for his generous hours of labour at a very nominal charge; also  our faithful caretaker, Judy Toms, who continues to look after our site, keeping the grass  trimmed and maintaining the site in a tidy condition.  It is with deep sorrow and regret that I must report the passing of a dear friend and  longtime committee member, Steve Marty. Members of the Marty family are synonymous  with the restoration and maintenance of the Mission since 1958. We will miss Steve sadly.  Denis Maclnnis  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  This 71st annual general meeting of the Society is itself an historic occasion as we meet for  the first time in Salmon Arm. The Salmon Arm branch has been active for 14 years, part of  the time as the Salmon Arm Museum and Heritage Society, and since 1989 as a branch of  this society. In 1994 our constitution was changed to include the Shuswap in our geographical area.  The strength of our society lies in the strength of our branches and I would like to  congratulate all branches for their work during the year. We look forward to hearing reports  of their activities today. I was pleased to be able to attend the annual general meetings of  three branches and to visit a regular meeting of another branch.  All branches have been well represented at executive council meetings held in July,  October and February. We averaged 25 members per meeting and this is very encouraging  for the officers.  Each branch has its own projects, but there are two which are essentially parent  body projects, one being Okanagan History and the other the Pandosy Mission. We are most  fortunate to have Denis Marshall assume the position of editor this year, the latest in a long  line of talented and dedicated editors. Major responsibility for the operation of the Pandosy  Mission falls to the Pandosy Mission Committee, currently very capably chaired by Denis  Maclnnis. I hope that members from all branches will become more aware of the Mission  and make a point of visiting the site. Also the Oliver-Osoyoos branch is planning the con-  211 O.H.S. BUSINESS  struction of an informative kiosk on our property at Fairview and we thank them for taking  the initiative in this matter.  Members were most pleased to learn that Dr. Margaret Ormsby has been made a  member of the Order of Canada for her contribution to heritage preservation. Dr. Ormsby  was editor of eight of our annual reports in the 1930s and 40s, including the excellent Report  No. 6 and she has provided much wise counsel to the Society over the years.  The Society received a very generous gift this year when Mr. Jack Newsom of Kelowna donated $5,000 to the Central Okanagan Foundation to establish the Okanagan Historical Society Fund. The Society will receive the revenue from this fund annually to be  used in whatever manner the executive council decides. This is an open fund and further  donations can be made to it.  We were pleased to learn that the Fintry estate has been purchased by the provincial government and the Central Okanagan Regional District to form a park. The Society has  pressed for years to have a portion of the Okanagan Brigade Trail which runs through Fintry  preserved and we hope park status will ensure this.  I would like to thank all the officers and directors for their support this year and in  particular Treasurer Libby Tassie, who completes six years in that post. She has indeed  made a tremendous contribution to our Society.  Dave MacDonald  AUDITOR'S REPORT  To the Members of the  Okanagan Historical Society  Attached are the Financial Statements of the Society for the year ending December  31, 1995 and they include the General account, the Bagnall Trust account and the Father  Pandosy Mission Committee account.  All the pertinent banking records and statements, receipts and disbursement vouchers  have been examined in this audit procedure. These records have been verified as a true and  correct accounting of the Society's financial affairs as presented by your treasurer, Elizabeth  M. Tassie.  These statements have been prepared to include the monies due at the year end  and are represented by the Accounts Receivable.  Leonard G. Miller, Accountant  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  (General Account)  Year Ended December 31, 1995  RECEIPTS  Membership and sales $ $  Armstrong-Enderby 2,763.00  Kelowna 3,981.00  Oliver-Osoyoos 1,275.00  Penticton 2,055.00  Salmon Arm 1,395.00  Similkameen 277.00  Vernon 3,435.00  Treasurer Report Sales 3,034.00  Treasurer Index Sales 6.00 18,221.60  Postage and handling 454.52  U. S. Exchange 60.14  Interest Earned 2,120.86  Essay Contest 300.00  Donations 3,045.00  Prepaid Insurance 424.99  Miscellaneous 55.75  GST Rebate 387.69 6,848.95  25.070.55  212 O.H.S. BUSINESS  DISBURSEMENTS  President's Expense  Honorariums: Treasurer       387.69  Editor 1000.00  Editor's Expense  Reimbursement Vernon  Armstrong Branch  B. C. Historical Association  Essay Contest  Printing & Stationery  Postage  Executive Meeting Expenses  Audit Expense 1994  Donations  Bus Insurance 1996  Miscellaneous Expense  74.20  1,387.69  573.08  660.00  36.00  50.00  300.00  13,205.35  522.47  63.00  150.00  5,957.96  550.00  78.00  23,607.75  EXCESS OF RECEIPTS  OVER DISBURSEMENTS  $1,462.80  VERNON BRANCH  Our year started in September with an excellent talk by editor Denis Marshall on the early  days of the lumber industry in the Salmon Arm area. October, Sheila McKenzie Brown of  Okanagan University College gave a very interesting talk and slide presentation on the use  of bells and the Bells of the Okanagan. In November, we held a Christmas dance in the  Women's Institute Hall with live music reminiscent of the school dances of yesterday. All  who attended enjoyed!  January Rudy Kowalski and Terry McCooey spoke to us on their activities in horse  logging, showing us a professional video on the subject. It proved to be the topic that brought  out the largest turnout, much enjoyed by all. February Randy Manuel, curator of the Penticton  Museum, gave us a fine talk and slide show on the steamboats and sternwheelers of the  Okanagan which brought back many happy memories. In March Gordon McNabb, who was  chairman of the Columbia River Treaty Permanent Engineering Board, gave us a first-class  and interesting inside view of the Columbia River Treaty.  The year was finished off with our AGM and potluck supper held in the Coldstream  Hall. Carol Abernathy, who was editor of the annual report for several years, was elected  president of Vernon branch. She was also our guest speaker and gave a very interesting talk  on a historical book she and her students had done in a joint project with O'Keefe Ranch.  We are sorry to report the loss of four long-time valuable members: Doug Scott,  Nesta Kermode and Beryl and Ernie Gardner.  Jack Morrison  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH  The year 1995 was somewhat less hectic than 1994, mainly because we did not have the  responsibility to host the annual picnic. Although relatively quiet, we did however have a  good year.  At our first meeting in February, branch members resolved to change our fiscal  year-end to December 31. This move evidently brings us more in line with most other  branches.  On February 20 the Keremeos Museum Society invited us to join a tea party in the  Seniors Centre. Our members set up a display table where a number of annual reports and  memberships were sold.  Our next regular meeting was in May. It was held at the Grist Mill where many  recall Cuyler Page is the curator. Cuyler presented an interesting and informative talk on  the "golden rule of architecture and nature."  At our next meeting in November editor Mike Burn introduced guest speaker Al  Shipton, who entertained us with stories of his early childhood days in Cawston in the  1920s.  On a sad note we learned the day after our meeting that D. Ross Innes had passed  away on November 11th. Ross was a strong supporter of our branch and would oftenbring to  213 O.H.S. BUSINESS  our meetings some memorandum or picture of the early days in our valley. Ross was born  in 1911 and his parents settled in Keremeos around 1900.  We ended the year in stable financial condition, supported by 15 paid-up members.  Richard S. Coleman  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH  We had another interesting year. Our fall meeting was held in Armstrong with a good attendance. The topic for the evening was Hunters Range and its various uses throughout the  years. Robert Dale had some excellent pictures of early fur trapping on the Range and gave  an interesting account of his grandfather's years of trapping. Eleanor Bolton read a letter  from Jessie Schweb telling of the herding of sheep from various locations to Hunters Range  for summer pasture. Len Bawtree gave an overall history of the Range and Terry Nitchie  spoke of the formation of the Armstrong-Enderby snowmobile club.  Our book sales went well with sessions in both communities served by our branch.  Our annual meeting and potluck supper was held in the Enderby seniors' complex  on March 22 with a good attendance. Gordon Mackie of Sicamous gave a very interesting  account of the early paddlewheelers and steamships on the Shuswap water'system. Three  local students received awards for their essays in this year's OHS contest.  Don Wells  KELOWNA BRANCH  It has been a very interesting and rewarding year for me as president of the Kelowna  branch, capped by our 1996 annual general meeting, attended by 300 people. Two bus tours  were offered during the year. The first, in the spring of 1995, was entitled "Where do we  grow from here." It covered both the Kelowna and Westside areas. The fall tour "On Track to  Revelstoke" proved very enlightening. As with all our tours we endeavour to travel on back  roads and these tours were no exception, especially the fall one when we travelled into  Malakwa and Mara.  The five-part fall lecture series was extremely interested and varied, and well attended. Our weekly, articles in the Kelowna Daily Courier have been very well received by  the general public. Headed by Bob Hayes, this committee is always looking for articles of  interest.  The book Kelowna Street Names and Their Origins and the video Our Chosen Land  are still available.  Last, but certainly not least, our essay contest for 1996 was an overwhelming success. We had 39 entries in three categories. Many thanks must be given to Bill Zoellner and  his committee for a job well done. We decided to give monetary prizes and a gift certificate  to each of the winners and invite them to the annual dinner meeting. Many of the essays  are being printed over the next year in our local weekly historical column.  Alice P. Lundy  PENTICTON BRANCH  Penticton Branch held three general meetings in 1995-96 and three directors' meetings.  Each general meeting featured a guest speaker and an average attendance of 45. Guest  speakers were Ms. Sheila McKenzie Brown on Bells; Randy Manuel/Dave MacDonald on  Penticton Schools and Schooling Over the Years, and Bob Harvey, author of The Coast Connection.  Two book sales were held under the direction of Joe Biollo, one at Cherry Lane Mall  and the other at the Penticton Museum. Book sales at meetings were brisk.  The branch took part in the annual Seniors' Symposium at the Trade & Convention  Centre. On May 22, 1995 the branch held its annual strawberry social at the SS Sicamous.  This affair, although less well attended as in previous years, was financially successful.  A major donation of $1,000 was given to the museum for the Penticton Herald microfilm project. This will nearly complete the project.  The branch sponsored a writing contest directed by Marylin Barnay. Stephanie Lund  won in the senior class and Lauren Currie's essay was judged best in the junior category.  Election of the new executive took place April 25 at the local AGM. Total membership stands  at 92- Enabelle Gorek  214 O.H.S. BUSINESS  SALMON ARM BRANCH  During the past year our branch held five directors' meetings, a Christmas membership  meeting and two committee meetings.  In August we were left without a secretary-treasurer when Nancy Gale accepted  new employment at Williams Lake. However, we were fortunate to have Barbara Hall take  over as secretary and Denis Marshall as treasurer.  Denis Marshall also took over the work started by Roland Jamieson on our street  names project, and with the great assistance of Florence Farmer and others, produced Salmon  Arm's Historic Routes and the People Behind the Names. The book is virtually sold out.  This past year we again participated in Heritage Week with a sale of Okanagan  History February 22 to 24. Our branch also carried out very successful sales of the Report at  two locations, December 1 and 8.  The student essay contest failed to ignite interest on the part of schools last year,  but we will try again.  The Salmon Arm Branch annual general meeting on April 14 drew over 118 persons. Our honoured Pioneer Family this year were the Petersons. Present were Hubert,  Hjalmar, Margaret, Floyd and Alf, along with several other relatives. Guest speaker Reg  Humphries described the early days of South Canoe School.  Thomas Smith  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH  Sunday, May 7, 1995, attended the OHS annual meeting in Armstrong; also attended three  Executive Council meetings in Kelowna, along with branch directors Bernard Webber, Lionel  Dallas, Vic Casorso and Best of OHS editor Jean Webber.  At a meeting in Osoyoos November 5, John Corner gave us a great talk on Indian  pictographs. The annual meeting was held in Oliver March 10, with local historians Jean  Webber and Vic Casorso giving us an historical overview of our two communities to set the  stage for birthday celebrations. Vic also gave us a brief history of Oliver at the "Coat of  Arms" ceremony celebrating Oliver's 50 years of incorporation. Three executive meetings  were held at Park Place in Oliver throughout the year.  The Oliver Pioneer Award was presented to the Tomlin family at the Chamber of  Commerce Awards Night June 9, 1995. The Osoyoos Pioneer Award was presented to Roy  and Doris MacDonald at the Osoyoos Chamber of Commerce banquet January 27, 1996.  A few members attended the Boundary Historical Society picnic at Carmi in 1995,  including Connie Cumine—an inspiration to us all.  Carlton MacNaughton resigned as our representative to the parent body. A special  thank you to Carlton for years of service and dedication to the Fairview Lots site and its  upkeep.  The Pioneer Walkway in the town of Osoyoos was officially opened October 7, 1995  after three years of voluntary work..  The essay contest under the leadership of Jacquie Bicknell and Vickie White was  activated in 1996 with six entries from Oliver. In the junior category Andrew Frank won first  place with his essay entitled "The Mining History of Fairview from 1890-1940." In the senior  category Kara Wight won first place for "Fruit of the Okanagan." Kara was also a winner in  the OHS-wide writing contest.  We look forward to hosting the annual meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society  in May of 1997.  Joan E. Casorso  215 MEMBERSHIP LIST  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1996  LIFE MEMBERS  Broderick, Mrs. Mollie, Okanagan Falls  Cochrane, Mrs. Hilda, Vernon  Corbishley, Donald, Oliver  Cowan, Robert, Enderby  de Pfyffer, Robert, Vernon  Ellison, Kenneth V, Oyama  Gamble, Mrs. Jessie Ann, Armstrong  Hatfield, Harley R., Penticton  Iceton, Mrs. Ermie, Oliver  Lewis, Mrs. Dorothea, Osoyoos  McCormick, Mrs. Lucy, Vernon  MacDonald, David, Penticton  MacNaughton, F. Carleton, Oliver  Marriage, Robert, Kelowna  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, Vernon  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, Vernon  Thomson, Gifford, Kelowna  Wamboldt, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Waterman, Miss Dolly, Penticton  Webber, Bernard, Osoyoos  Webber, Mrs. Jean, Osoyoos '  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong  Zoellner, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna  MEMBERS  Abernathy, Carol, Vernon  Ackerman, Mrs. E. H., Canoe  Adam, Charles, Kelowna  Advocaat, Bertha, Keremeos  Agar, M., Vernon  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver  Allan, Olive, Kelowna  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley  Allsup, Curtis, Rock Creek  Anderson, Keith, Enderby  Andrews, C. F., Burnaby  Argue, Lois, Osoyoos  Armstrong, John, Keremeos  Armstrong, Julia, Enderby  Arnold, Gilbert, Winfield  Ashton, Wayne, Armstrong  Ashwood, G. J., Summerland  Askew, Lloyd and Dorothy, Salmon Arm  Atkins, Fay and David, Vernon  Atkinson, Louise, Summerland  Attlesey, Thursa, Enderby  Bailey, Mary E., Armstrong  Baird, Marion, Enderby  Balcombe, Mrs. G., Vernon  Bannister, C, Salmon Arm  Barber, Ray, Peachland  Barford, Denis, Kelowna  Barkwill, Harry J., Summerland  Barman, Dr. Jean, Vancouver  Barnay, Marylin, Penticton  Basham, Dave and Betty, Creston  Batten, Marion, Osoyoos  Bawtree, L., Enderby  Bayliss, Mrs. P., Vernon  Beames, T. B., Ladysmith  Beaton, M., Vernon  Beckett, Bernice, Armstrong  Beckett, Ray, Victoria  Bedwell, Sid and Marg, Salmon Arm  Beecroft, Lucille, Cawston  Beekhuizen, Jerry and Wilma, Sicamous  Beenan, Laurie, Armstrong  Behncke, J., Armstrong  Bell, John, Kelowna  Biro, John W., Keremeos  Blackburn, Mary H. E., Armstrong  Blackburne, Ernest and Syliva, Kelowna  Bolton, Bruce and Eleanore, Vernon  Booth, Margaret, Salmon Arm  Bork, Elizabeth, Okanagan Falls  Bowen-Colthurst, Mr. and Mrs. T. G.,  Ladysmith  Brennan, Terrance, Montreal, P.Q,  Brent, Frederick, Burnaby  Brett, Phyllis, Armstrong  Briscall, Miss C. M., Vancouver  Broderick, Molly, Okanagan Falls  Brown, Mrs. Ada, West Vancouver  Brown, Pat and Ron, Kelowna  Burke, Nancy and Wayne, Manotick,  Ontario  Burn, Michael, Cawston  Burns, Donna, Prince George  Burns, R. E., Armstrong  Burtch, A. H., Winfield  Cail, Anna, Vernon  216 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Cain, Mrs. G., Armstrong  Caldow, David, Vancouver  Caley, Hugh and Ruth, Vernon  Caley, Mrs. Margaret, Kelowna  C'iley, Michael, Osoyoos  Caley, Robert, Kelowna  Cameron, W. J. V, Kelowna  Campbell, Shirley and Kevin, Armstrong  Cannings, Jean and Steve, Penticton  Carbert, Gordon, Rimbey, Alberta  Carbert, Maynard, Enderby  Carew, P. H. C, Kelowna  Carnes, C. and B., Armstrong  Carstens, Prof. Peter, (U. of T.)  Toronto, Ontario  Carter, Lorna, Armstrong  Carter, Mrs. R. A., Winfield  Casorso, Vic and Joan, Oliver  Catchpole, Diana M., Delta  Chamberlain, Fred and Joan, Kelowna  Chapman, Eric W, Kelowna  Chapman, Ian, Kelowna  Chapman, K. D., Armstrong  Charman, Barbara, Kelowna  Christensen, D. B., Vernon  Christensen, K. L., Vernon  Christensen, R. G., Fanny Bay  Christensen, Violet, Vernon  Clark, Barrie, Kelowna  Clark, Dorothy, Keremeos  Clarke, K. D., Kelowna  Claydon, Mrs. Nora, Salmon Arm  Clay don, R. D. Browne, Kelowna  Cleaver, William H., Kelowna  Clement, Arnold F, Salmon Arm  Cochrane, Pat, Vernon  Coe, Fred and Phyllis, Kelowna  Coe, Rita, Kelowna  Coleman, R. S., Keremeos  Collins, Julie, Lilloet  Colquhoun, Gordon, Vancouver  Constable, Mr. and Mrs. Frank, Kelowna  Cooper, I. L., Armstrong  Cossentine, Jac