Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Sixty-third report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1999

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 63  rd  Okanagan  Historical  Society  - 49&S -  Okanagan History  The Sixty-Third Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded September 4, 1925  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN 0-921241-69-0  1999  ©  http://members.home.net/counsell  Printed in Canada on Acid-Free Paper  by Hucul Printing Ltd.  Salmon Arm, BC  Cover  He called her "the dearest little girl in the world."  No wonder their marriage lasted a lifetime.  Olive Beloud and Art Ritchie wedding portrait, 1918  Inset: Armstrong pioneer market gardener Jong Hughie. SIXTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Traditions and authenticated history must always be the  background of citizenship - B.A. McKelvie  EDITOR  Denis Marshall  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Jacquie Bicknell, Vicky White, Andrea Flexhaug,  Oliver-Osoyoos  Elizabeth Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Cowan, Enderby - Armstrong  Marilyn Kernaghan, Salmon Arm  Membership  The recipient of this Sixty-Third Report is entitled to register his/her membership in  the Sixty-Fourth Report, which will be issued November 1, 2000. For membership  registration and certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society (The Report) are available from the treasurer, Box 313, Vernon, BC, V1T 6M3, from branches of the OHS, and from most  museums and bookstores in the Okanagan-Shuswap region. You may also arrange to  receive future issues by mail by contacting the book committee, c/o the treasurer.  Editorial Inquiries  For inquiries concerning material in the Reports, or for inclusions in coming issues,  please contact the editor at 4910 - 16th Street NE, Salmon Arm, BC, VIE 1E1.  Fax: (250) 832-5367; e-mail: pugrinz@shuswap.net  The complete index of Okanagan Historical Reports can be found on the Internet -  http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1999-2000  PRESIDENT  Peter Tassie  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Enabelle Gorek  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Lionel Dallas  SECRETARY  Helen Inglis  TREASURER  Elizabeth Tassie  PAST PRESIDENT  Denis Maclnnis  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Armstrong-Enderby: Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Cowan  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley  Oliver-Osoyoos: Lionel Dallas, Mary Roberts  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Claud Hammell  Salmon Arm: Allan Wilson, Elizabeth Revel  Similkameen: John Armstrong, Wallace Liddicoat  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Jean Webber, Robert Marriage, Basil Collett, David Gregory The Maude Allen and loaded barge passing through the new canal, built in 1908, joining  Wood and Long (Kalamalka) Lakes. (Hume Powley)  Business of the Okanagan Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 75th Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  2000  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society will be held  Sunday, May 7, 2000 at 10 a.m.  O'Keefe Historic Ranch  Vernon  Luncheon at 1 p.m.  All members and guests are welcome to attend At the suggestion of life member Mollie Broderick from Okanagan Falls, the Okanagan Historical Society approved a Talking Books project at the annual general meeting in May 1998.  Thanks to the hard work and determination of her son, Fred  Broderick of Rutland, the project was launched in the fall of 1998.  Mollie wanted Okanagan History recorded on audio tapes.  These tapes could be used by the visually impaired as well as by  the general public who wish to have audio tapes for company while  they are travelling.  The need was obvious but the means were less so. Fred  Broderick took the idea to his Rutland Lions Club and members  gave their wholehearted support. With money from the Rutland  Lions and Lioness Clubs, the 60th Report was produced by Kelowna's  Apex Audio Visual under the guidance of general manager Gord  Gibbs. Obtaining the services of retired CBC announcer Gary  Goudeau was indeed fortunate, as his pleasant reading voice has  lent a highly professional tone to the audio tapes and has truly  enhanced the production quality.  Fred Broderick has continued to contact various Lions and  Lioness clubs in the Interior for financial support so that more taped  issues of Okanagan History can be produced. For many years, these  clubs have taken a special interest in helping the visually impaired,  so the Talking Books venture blends well with their long-term goals.  Production of the 61st and 62nd Reports is underway, to be  followed by other numbers, as long as the public continues to purchase the tapes.  The local branches of Okanagan Historical Society are donating copies of the Talking Books to care facilities in their region.  These gifts will be enjoyed and appreciated by the older people as  so many will remember the times, events and individuals mentioned in the articles.  The Talking Books, which provide about seven hours of listening per volume, are available from the treasurer of the OHS,c/o  Box 313, Vernon, B. C. V1T 6M3, or by contacting Bob Cowan at  (250) 838-9641. Some museums in the Okanagan and Shuswap regions may also carry the tapes. As well, orders can be placed through  the e-mail address dallas(g)vip.net - JESSIE ANN GAMBLE Feature Articles  The Chinese in Armstrong, Peter Critchley 8  Arthur Brown Ritchie: 70 Years Service to  King and Country, Mary Ritchie Wetherill .20  Camp Fairview, The Fairview Campsite  and Thomas Ellis, 1887-1905, Paul Koroscil 36  Harris & Clark and the Cathedral Lakes,  By Joe Harris as told to Doug Cox  44  Building the Kelowna-Naramata Road, 1936-39,  Hume M. Powley 54  The Armstrong Women's Institute, Faith Hall 62  The Mission Creek Greenway: History in the Making,  Jodie Sexsmith 67  The Lime Quarry on Waterman Hill, Steve Arstad 73  A Community Affair, Daphne Thuillier 77  Mail Sorted and Steamed on the Okanagan,  R. F. Marriage  83  Relief Camps of the Great Depression, Dorothy Smuin 85  Lord's Day Alliance Opposes Sunday Train Service,  Robert Cowan 89  Spring Station at White Lake, Elizabeth Pryce 92  The Presbyterian Churches of Salmon Arm,  Dilys Hanna 97  Heritage Lost, Sherril Foster 104  Casa Lorna Origins, Alice Zdralek 112  The Incola Hotel, Elizabeth Pryce 118  Essay Contest Winning Entry  Early Ferry Transportation and the  Okanagan Lake Floating Bridge, Ayla Fortin 122  Nostalgia  Mr. Byam's Bones, Jo Jones 126  New Light on the 1909 Okanagan Hotel Fire, Pat Bayliss 134  The Cremation of Sam Magee, Oh Really!, David Gregory 137 Memories of the S&O Railway, Lois Roberts 141  The End of Penticton's Romance With the Passenger Train,  Mollie Broderick 145  Ontario Journals Reveal More about the  "Terrible-Tempered Mr. Irwin," Joan Adams 153  Human Endeavour  A Mother's Struggle: Sue Lee Ping Wong of Kelowna,  Tun Wong 156  The Gibbard Gardens, Fern Gibbard 161  Personal History  Bert Anderson: Trapper and Tugboat Operator,  Ruth Sihlis 166  Sam McCallum: Last Manager of the Stepney Ranch,  W J. Whitehead 173  A Woman in a Man's Trade, Jean Porterfield 177  Tributes  Thomas Audrey Baird, 1923-1998, Robert Dale 182  Roland Alexander Jamieson, 1914-1998, Denis Marshall 184  Chess Lyons, 1915-1998, Steve Cannings 186  Art "Skinny" Peterman, 1912-1998, Ermie Iceton 189  James David Pettigrew 1886-1967, Margaret Pettigrew Stiell ....190  Lives Remembered 192  OHS Business  Minutes of the 74th Annual General Meeting 204  Branch Reports 208  Committee Reports 204  Auditor's Report 214  Errata 217  1999 OHS Membership List 217 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  By Peter Critchley  Editor's note: This article springs from  a series in the Armstrong Advertiser,  also written by the author, on the Chinese in Armstrong. Mr. Critchley based  his material on presentations made at  a meeting of the Armstrong-Enderby  Branch, Okanagan Historical Society,  and an interview with Ben Lee, son of  one of the Chinese pioneers.  Sedge grass, rushes and reeds  now flourish in the rich soil  of the abandoned fields nudging the City of Armstrong.  Ducks, geese and seagulls  feed there in the spring when the  creeks overflow and flood the  land. Blackbirds warble in the  rushes and the odd hawk wheels  skyward. Ben Lee in front of family home. (Armstrong Advertiser)  But at one time long, straight rows of celery, lettuce and cabbage lined this fertile bottom land, cleared and drained by hundreds of Chinese men early in this century. And the produce from  those once immaculate fields ended up on tables across the country and as far away as Hawaii.  The express trains that once rumbled through town to pick  up boxcars laden with crates of celery and lettuce stopped rolling  long ago. The former packing houses and a few faded photographs  Peter Critchley, a product of the co-op writing program at the University of  Victoria, covers the news for the Armstrong Advertiser, an independent weekly  that began publishing in 1902. He lives in Spallumcheen with his wife and two  children. THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  are all that remain of the Chinese market gardeners who transformed Armstrong into the celery capital of Canada—with the singular exception of one family.  "We are the last of the Chinese gardeners and we still garden," said Enyit Guaw Jong, better known in the community as  Mary Jong, the daughter of Jong Hughie, one of the first Chinese  to settle here.  "All of the old-timers are gone. Mainly, the California vegetable industry was the end, and they were all elderly people. They  made a bit of fortune and sent the money back and as they themselves grew older they wanted to go home, too. They soon passed  away or left the area."  But the Jongs stayed and struggled for many years to make  ends meet. Today, they still garden the same piece of land they  bought just a few years after the Canadian government repealed  the Exclusion Act, which prohibited Chinese from becoming citizens or purchasing land. Mr. Jong obtained an eight-acre parcel  fronting Pleasant Valley Road in 1956, two years after bringing his  wife from China, and bought an adjacent 10-acre parcel nine years  later.  "Last year we had the best crop  of celery ever," Ms. Jong said. "We  shipped at least 3,000 pounds to  Askew's store here and at Salmon  Arm, and to farmer markets."  The Jongs grow celery virtually the same way that the local Chinese market gardeners did at the  turn of the century. They even use  a celery stamper, constructed with  two pieces of light board separated  by coil springs, to punch holes in the  soil for the young plants. And all the  weeding, harvesting, washing, grading, bagging and shipping is still  done by hand. "You're out there from  early morning until late at night."  For many years, primarily before the Second World War, the gardeners also needed to hill the  celery to stop it from turning green. Some of them rented horses,  but most hilled the long rows of celery and lettuce by hand. They  worked incredibly long hours during the growing season to tend  crops on land most of them did not own.  Mary Jong THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Family of Mr. and Mrs. Lee Bak Bong gather for parents' 50th wedding anniversary  in 1961. (Donovan Clemson photograph, courtesy Jan Clemson)  Some years they earned a pittance, compared to the profits  the packing houses were making. For example, even as late as 1952  the packers paid the Chinese gardeners nine cents a dozen for lettuce and sold it by the three-dozen pack for $4.80.  But the little money they did earn enabled many to support  wives and families back in China. This is what drove most of them  to labour in the fields that once surrounded Armstrong And this  opportunity, limited as it might appear today, is what drew many  of them here. J  "I remember people who didn't understand the problem and  would complain. They complained to me that the market gardener  would make money here but didn't keep it in this country They  sent it away to China. They were criticized for that" These are the  words of Ben Lee of Kelowna, son of pioneer Lee Bak Bong.  "The Chinese have a saying, which translated to English  means gold mountain," Mary Jong explained. "They believed this  land was filled with gold, holding out opportunities denied in their  distressed homeland."  Mary Jong's father, a highly-educated scholar and teacher  came m search of the golden mountain at the turn of the century'  He travelled with his own father, who chose to emigrate to the  United States; they parted company and never saw each other again.  Despite his education, Hughie Jong could not find work as a  teacher when he arrived in Victoria. He first supported himself as  a bricklayer and later cleared land for roads, some of them located  in the small Chinatown that is still a vital part of Victoria.  10 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  "He was one of the first Chinese to settle here. A lot of people  think that Lee Bak Bong and Harry Lee were but my dad was here  before them," Ms. Jong said. "He helped build the roads around  here. But he didn't know that many people or speak English then  and he didn't make himself that well known."  Armstrong soon became a haven for people like Mr. Jong  and the permanent Chinese population grew to about 500. At one  time during the First World War up to 900 Chinese men lived there,  many working for a potato dehydration plant that operated during  the war.  Mr. Jong later  worked for market  gardeners such as Lee  Bak Bong and Harry  Lee. He also wrote  countless letters for  members of the Chinese community, as it  was the only way they  could communicate  with families stranded  in China, since they  Armstrong celery fields photographed September 4, 1929.  (W. A. Smith Collection)  were forbidden to join their loved ones in Canada.  Like the rest of the Asian population in the community, Mr.  Jong lived a world  apart from the  Occidental citizenry.  A Chinatown existed  in Armstrong, built  on land purchased by  countrymen before  the Exclusion Act of  1923. Many of the  field hands who  worked together also  lived communally.  These small enclaves  helped to shield the Chinese from the widespread racism that existed here and across the province; it even resulted in disembarking Chinese immigrants being killed at the Vancouver waterfront  during a race riot in the early 1900s. "In the past the Chinatown  communities offered protection from the discriminatory society  and provided the Chinese with security and company," Ms. Jong  said.  Celery field ready for harvesting.  11 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Ben Lee: "Many of  those men working out  on the land would  come to town in the  winter and many lived  here [Chinatown].  They had bunk beds  and a common kitchen  . . . The other thing was  that in winter the days  were long and this gave  Row upon carefully tended row, Chinese market gardens    them an opportunity to  were a study in symmetry. (Bill Jamieson photograph) socialize."  Some also used the opportunity to gamble for a few dollars,  usually above the laundry in Chinatown. It is believed debts from  these games of chance resulted in a couple of unexplained murders in the early 1930s, according to Mary Jong's father.  Mah jong and dominoes drew the attention of the local police, despite the relatively small stakes. This reflected the deep and  widespread prejudice against the Chinese; that then existed throughout the province. Armstrong and other B. C. municipalities even  Celery field showing board hilling method.  passed their own by-laws to collect head taxes. Of course, the police never raided a poker game played by members of the Caucasian community.  The little Chinatown burned to the ground in 1922, with strong  suspicions itwas arson. Ben Lee: "The old Chinatown used to be on  the corner. But the funny thing was a building stuck out partly on  the road. It was a big wooden building. Lo and behold, not much  longer after the city said 'cut it back,' they had a big fire. It might  just be a coincidence."  12 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Chinese market gardeners even ran into problems working  on Sunday, after a local Christian group agitated against the practice. The Chinese, liking the idea of a day off, agreed to stop working on the Sabbath, but on Monday morning the packing houses  lay idle. None of the shops had any vegetables for sale, either, to  the consternation of the same people responsible for the decision  not to work on Sunday. Whereupon, it was generally agreed that,  yes, the market gardeners could toil on Sunday.  Virulent racism abated in the decades that followed, but it  didn't disappear. And Ms. Jong learned that the hard way as a young  child in school. "It was then that I first learned of my cultural difference. When I went to school I remembered the difficulty they  had in pronouncing my name, so they gave me Mary. For the longest time I didn't answer to this because this wasn't my name.  "I felt dumb and shamed that I was different from everyone  else. Deep down I never felt I was different, but everyone reminded  me of how different I was. I would be in the back of the class in  silence and terrified the teacher would call my name. When she  asked a question, I would freeze and a deafening silence would fill  the air and I could hear my heart pounding louder and louder. I  just didn't understand, but how could I explain? The kids at first  would just stare at me. Later they would tease, point and laugh at  me and call me a dumb chink."  Consequently, Ms. Jong did not speak to anybody except her  brother in the first few years of school. She did not even ask to go  to the bathroom and ate her lunch in silence, alone in the playground. She also failed Grade 1. "I felt isolated, miserable and alone.  I hated school and everyone in it.  "Every morning the teacher would check our hands, hair and  clothes and divide the class into rows and give stars to the row with  the cleanest students. My row always came in last because of me.  Everyone blamed me and didn't want me in their group. How could  they know that I had to work in the vegetable garden every morning before going to school and didn't have time to clean up?"  The teacher also awarded stars for eating a proper breakfast,  as defined by the Canada Food Guide. Of course, Mary Jong did not  eat cereal, bacon, eggs, or drink juice and milk for the first meal of  the day; she ate a Chinese rice pudding dish. "I never got a star for  that either."  But Ms. Jong, who dropped out of school at one point, returned to the classroom and eventually earned a star of another  kind—a university degree. She is also an accomplished artist specializing in lithographic printing.  13 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  While a punitive head tax virtually barred Chinese women  from entering Canada, one did arrive in Armstrong three years  before the way was completely blocked by federal decree.  She was Lee Bak Bong's wife and the mother of Ben Lee, who  was born and raised in the red brick building that still stands on the  site of Armstrong's small Chinatown. Ben Lee's father and grandfather both worked with the sole purpose of bringing Mrs. Lee to  Canada at a time when the head tax was $500, a veritable fortune  when two acres produced $28 for a year's work. Soon after, only  Chinese men were admitted—with a still more exorbitant price on  their heads.  As the only Chinese woman in the community, Mrs. Lee Bak  Bong found herself without a female friend. Her family said that as  children growing up they never realized how lonely it must have  been for their mother.  Some of the Chinese lived in a little neighbourhood that developed at the corner of Okanagan Street and Patterson Avenue.  Others lived in shacks out in the fields, or in boarding houses like  the Taylor house beside St. Joseph's Catholic Church. The influx of  Chinese men, primarily from Canton province, started after the  pioneers had drained the land of present-day Armstrong and the  Shuswap & Okanagan Railway (S&O) made its appearance in 1892.  Field crops were soon generating lucrative express revenue for the  rail line.  At that time people called the area The Island and three creeks  drained into it, with the only settlement of any size residing at  Lansdowne in north Spallumcheen. There was a swamp where  Davis Creek becomes Fortune Creek. Deep Creek came down  through the McNair property (Lansdowne area) and spilled out here,  while Meighen Creek flowed where the Highway 97 shopping centre makes its home.  Men worked for a dollar a day during the winter to earn a  grubstake to finance farming activities. They dug Davis (Fortune)  Creek down to the Shuswap River at Enderby to drain that district  and deepened Deep Creek down to Otter Lake. "When that was  drained out, first of all it was hay and a bit of oats and the odd  fellow grew a few potatoes," recounted Mat Hassen, native son and  good friend and associate of the Chinese market gardeners. "Then  the vegetable business started up with people like the late W A.  Cuthbert. He brought in some Chinese men, including the notable  Louie Chin, who came here in 1911."  14 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Some of Chin's contemporaries were Wong Chog, Harry Lee,  Leon Sing, Jong Hughie, Wong Soo and Lee Bak Bong. They raised  early and late varieties of celery and lettuce, alternating one crop  with the other—harvesting early lettuce and planting late celery  and vice versa. This "double-barrelled use of land" entailed a great  deal of labour. "They did everything by hand except for using horses  to plow the fields or sometimes renting animals to hill up the rows  of celery to blanch it; at that time they only grew white celery for  market," said Mr. Hassen. This was all Chinese labour; white men  owned the land. The Chinese couldn't own the land until they were  granted citizenship in the late 1940s. So they were renters.  "They would ship things, particularly berries, strawberries  and lettuce that perished very rapidly en route. So the guy on the  other end would claim 50 percent damage or worse. The man in  the packing house here would have to get on the train to go out to  that place to see vegetables or fruit that arrived in that state. He  couldn't always do it and it ended up he might get paid for a quarter or half a shipment. And you know how much they paid the  grower for it."  During the growing season the weeding never stopped until  harvest. The crops were gleaned by hand, using a heavy knife to  cut off the celery just above the root system, and peel the outer  layer before packing the remainder in 400-pound boxes to deliver  to one of eight packing houses once operating in Armstrong. During peak season as many as 10 boxcars a day were sent off to market on the S&O.  By coaxing bumper yields from the fertile bottomlands, the  Chinese gardeners bestowed economic benefits on other sections  of the community. Armstrong and Enderby sawmills were kept  busy manufacturing shipping boxes and there was a brisk demand  for ice, distributed from a storage shed where Buckerfields later  operated. Packinghouses, of course, were part of the picture, while  other men found employment cutting, hauling and putting up ice  in the winter.  "They would cut the ice in blocks and store it in sawdust in a  shed made out of logs," explained Ben Lee. "In the spring they would  take [the blocks] out, wash off the sawdust and put them through a  chipper to crack it up and use it for packing lettuce in the wooden  boxes. And when the boxcar was filled they also blew it into the car  so the whole space was filled with chipped ice. It was early refrigeration."  15 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  The Chinese market gardeners once farmed as far out as Otter Lake, and north to Enderby and Salmon Arm. But they grew  much of the celery and lettuce on the rich alluvial muck surrounding Armstrong—land that otherwise probably would never have  been cultivated.  As the 1940s dawned men with families in the homeland were  finding it increasingly frustrating to live with the Exclusion Act.  They didn't earn much working from dawn to dusk, but many had  somehow managed to save enough to bring their loved ones over.  The question grew more pressing after the Second World War when  Chinese-Canadian veterans added their voice to efforts to convince  the federal government to throw out the discriminatory legislation.  "After the war many of the returned soldiers—the Chinese-  Canadians—who fought for this country questioned why they were  still classified as aliens. They said they had rights and, after all,  they were born here." The veterans and Chinese associations made  many trips to Ottawa on behalf of their cause. Finally, in 1947,  their campaign bore fruit.  "Unless you were a Canadian citizen you couldn't vote. If  you can't vote you can't buy property. In fact, I think even  Armstrong city council once excluded Chinese from owning land,"  Mr. Lee said.  Repealing the Act did not significantly alter the lives of the  people it affected in  Armstrong, Mr. Lee claimed.  "Some of them were now at the  age they wanted to retire and  go back to see their families;  some had never been back  since they came out. And some  went back and returned with  their families. "The few  dollars they earned, unless  they were in a bigger business  or worked larger farms,  weren't enough to buy land.  Land cost at least $3,000 an  acre and they were only making something like $1,000 a  year. They had to live on that  and send money back to  China. Some enterprising market gardeners, led by Wong  The Jong Hughie market garden has long been a family  enterprise, noted for growing some of the finest fresh  vegetables in the North Okanagan. Helping with the 1969  crop were Mary, Joan, Margaret, Danny and Jeannie.  16 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Armstrong farming scene circa 1909  Chog, did band together to purchase property and farm it collectively. But they still faced obstacles few Occidental farmers did.  The Vegetable Marketing Board controlled the marketing of  all vegetables, including perishable crops like lettuce and celery,  grown primarily by Chinese gardeners. But it failed to recognize a  fundamental difference between root crops that stored well and  perishable commodities.  "Many of the market gardeners had no qualms about the control and regulation of root vegetables. But they sure didn't have a  good feeling about controlling vegetables that are perishable, such  as lettuce and celery. When these are ready you have to get them  to market. They didn't give any consideration to that; they just  wanted to control it," was how Ben Lee felt about central selling.  "The board failed to meet its mandate to protect the grower. Instead, it protected the packing houses and wholesalers.  "For instance, if you grew vegetables you could take them to  sell within a 15-mile radius. Where do you go if you have 10 to 20  acres of celery to sell? To Enderby? But there is a market in Kelowna,  Penticton, Revelstoke and Kamloops."  The marketing board refused to even issue the Lee Bak Bong  family a licence, despite the fact it was given a business licence by  the City of Armstrong. Eventually, the family challenged the board  17 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  in court twice and won both cases. "They said we could not take  vegetables outside of our growing area. But they couldn't find a  market for us."  Sometimes the market gardeners simply plowed their crops  under when prices dropped to the point where harvesting the crop  was pointless. At other times the marketing board could not find  willing buyers for the celery and lettuce.  Today, there is far greater understanding about cultural differences than when Ms. Jong first attended school, or when Ben  Lee gave up any designs he might have had on farming to pursue a  successful career in education. People are also more aware of the  instrumental role that the Chinese market gardeners played in the  development of Armstrong. The produce they laboriously grew in  such abundance helped to transform and fuel the local economy.  In the process they laid a foundation that still benefits the people  living here.  The new and ultra-modern restaurant, located in the heart of the downtown business area, has attracted large  crowds of patrons, with many from  neighboring centres enjoying the specialized Chinese foods featured as well as the  unique and attractive atmosphere. The  business is a tribute to the foresight and  long-planning on the part of its owners,  Mr. and Mrs. Jong Hughie.  (Armstrong Advertiser, May 11, 1967)  Grow vegetables or start a restaurant: those  were generally the only options open to ambitious Chinese of humble origin once the great  railway-building era ended. In many ways the  choices were astonishingly similar—long hours  for painfully little gain.  "Chinese and Western Cuisine" establishments became an institution of Small Town  Canada, often the only place for a stranger to  get a meal and now one of the few survivors in  many dying Prairie hamlets.  At first, most Chinese restaurants catered  to the Western palate, saving authentic fare for  countrymen who enjoyed a meal out, or for ad-  18 THE CHINESE IN ARMSTRONG  Jong Hughie  venturous Canadian diners willing to try something besides meat-and-potatoes. For many of us,  it was our first taste of exotic foreign food.  Jong Hughie was both  gardener and restauranteur. He  came to Armstrong not long after the turn of the century and  outlasted most of his contemporaries, obtaining his own land  and starting a successful sales  outlet for his produce.  In the 1960s he and his  wife demolished the old  Overwaitea building and began  constructing the Shanghai Chop  Suey House, finished in "striking amber elm and indirect fluorescent lighting" behind matching elmwood panels. On the auspicious fifth day of the fifth  month, 1967, the Hughies  opened for business after hosting a banquet the previous night for 80 business  associates and guests.  By now a Chinese restaurant was usually a  family enterprise; and just as often a means to  procure a good education for the next generation. It also provided job opportunities to recent  immigrants, literally their first taste of the new  land.  The Shanghai Chop Suey House survives as  the Great Wall Restaurant, but under new owners, Hughies having sold out in 1995.  19 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE:  70 YEARS' SERVICE TO  KING AND COUNTRY  Mary Ritchie Wetherill  Few men or women devoted as much of their life to public  service as did Arthur Brown Ritchie. He served 33 years on  the Salmon Arm municipal council, eight years as an MLA  and nine years as president of the Salmon Arm Fall Fair. He was a  charter member and many times president of both the Royal Canadian Legion and its forerunner, the Great War Veterans Association. His story is really the story of the Salmon Arm district from  1908 to 1977. Before he entered public life in 1923, he had already  experienced a run of adventure that had forged his plucky, forthright nature.  He was born in Peebles, Scotland, on October 18, 1885. His  father died before the birth, so he was raised on his grandparents'  farm, Whippielaw, which had 160 acres of leased land used for mixed  agriculture.  Young Art did not have an easy time growing up. When his  mother married William Blackadder he remained with his grandparents. Although he eventually had 11 siblings, he seldom saw  them, and according to neighbours his grandmother gave him little  care and even less love. When he was 11 or 12 years old, he left  school to work in a coal mine for about a year. The reason is not  known, but it could have been an economic necessity as it was  common practice during hard times for farmers to work  outcroppings of coal with the help of someone small enough to  enter the tunnels. After a year of this Art thankfully began to help  full-time at Wippielaw Farm and vowed he would never become a  miner.  After his grandfather died there was no family member old  enough to take over the lease, so prospects for the 19-year-old looked  bleak. Then came an act of kindness for which Art was eternally  Mary Ritchie Wetherill, who taught in B. C. schools for 27 years after graduating  from Vancouver Normal School, class of 1949, realized her goal of a bachelor of  education degree from UBC in 1983. She is currently serving her first term as  president of the Society's Salmon Arm branch.  20 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  grateful. His best friend was Jim Jamieson and Jim's mother gave  both young men the money to come to Canada. Art recalled that  she said it was their only chance for a better life.  The pair arrived in Canada in October 1906. Jim continued  his journey to Vernon, where his brother worked for the BX Ranch.  The rest of the Jamieson family emigrated in 1907 and 1908 and  purchased a farm at Deep Creek from John Williams Gardom. Art  remained working in Ontario until the fall of 1908. Then he headed  west, intent on reuniting with his friends. After working through  the harvest in Saskatchewan, he finally made it to Salmon Arm.  The story is told by Harry Naylor that Art got off a CPR freight  in Salmon Arm still carrying the grime of the Prairies and a week's  growth of whiskers. Harry's father, E. H. (Harry) Naylor, happened  to be in town and heard that a young man was inquiring about the  neighbouring Jamieson family. Naylor offered Art a ride, but as  the drive progressed the older man wondered whether or not he  should be taking this unkempt, bearded stranger to the Jamiesons.  He was greatly relieved when they greeted Art like a long-lost son.  Art remained in Deep Creek that winter enjoying his hosts' hospitality while helping them to establish their farm. Come spring, he  got a job with J. D. (Jack) McGuire in Salmon Arm, splitting his  time between orchard and dairy chores.  McGuire and Ritchie were both men of action, so they got  along well. When Helen (Ella) Carson came to town as a teacher  and later married McGuire, Art became friends with her brothers,  Bob and Ernie Carson of Pavilion, and was accorded a standing job  offer at the Carson Ranch.  In 1910 Art accepted a post with the Dominion Lands Survey  while it was blocking out all of Shuswap Lake's Anstey and Seymour  arms over to the Columbia River. The experience left Ritchie with  a taste for tramping the forests and even though he went back to  work for the McGuires he applied for another survey job. This one  was sited in the North—possibly the Alaska-B. C. border. However,  fate had other ideas.  Art said he waited in vain for a reply to his application. Then  one day Postmaster Sam McGuire, who happened to be Jack  McGuire's brother, came out of his office waving a letter and saying, "Look, Art, I found this behind the desk." It was the long-awaited  survey acceptance requesting him to report in Vancouver that very  day. Art was more than a little annoyed, thinking the missing letter might not have been accidental, as Sam wanted him to stay on  with the McGuires. Art's reply was to pack his belongings, saddle  his horse and head for the Carson Ranch.  21 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  That decision led to  meeting "the dearest little girl in the world," Olive Beloud. Olive lived on  her stepfather's ranch,  Truman Caleb Clark's  Echo Farm at 17 Mile on  the Lillooet-Clinton road.  It being ranch country,  the family were still  neighbours of the  Carsons, notwithstanding  the fact their houses were  several miles apart. Until they became embroiled in a fight over  water rights, which left  lawyers richer and the  Carsons and Clarks  poorer, the two families  had shared lives on Pavilion Mountain. Ella  Carson had gone to  school with Olive and  had later been her  teacher.  How Art met Olive  is not recorded. It may  Art Ritchie in the oft-repeated role of parade marshal, have been when he was  May 12, 1937 George VIcoronation celebration. driving a freight stapp  between Lillooet and Clinton. Clarks built the first frame house in  the Cariboo and it was noted for the cordiality of its owners. It  became a popular stopping place for travellers on the Cariboo Highway.  Art described many a hair-raising experience driving the four-  horse freight teams. The road was even narrower than it is today,  and sitting on top of the load all one could see was the Fraser River  hundreds of feet below. The way over Pavilion Mountain was so  steep that trees were cut down at the top to drag as brakes on the  descent to Kelly Lake. Art often arrived at Echo Farm with boxes of  chocolates. It was obvious whom he was courting, but he didn't  forget Olive's sisters—or her mother—and captured their hearts as  well.  22 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  Young Ritchie easily took to the life of a cowhand and before  long won the respect of old-timers at Pavilion for his horse-handling skills. Between 1911 and 1914 he made two or three return  journeys by horseback to Salmon Arm. Often he overnighted at a  ranch near Pritchard, at Cherry Creek Ranch, and at the Semlin  Ranch near Cache Creek.  On one occasion chance or maybe just good sense played a  hand in Ritchie's survival. He was outbound from Salmon Arm  and had been recruited to help round up cows and fix a fence before making a late departure from Cherry Creek. The early-November weather had turned bitterly cold by the time he reached  the crest above Kamloops Lake, where he was hailed by some people travelling by bobsleigh who had stopped to build a fire. They  encouraged Art to camp with them, afraid that he would freeze on  the trail, but he declined. By alternately riding and running he  made it safely to Savona. As he headed for Cache Creek the following day, a blizzard developed and Art knew he had to find shelter  or perish. Having heard of a prospector in the adjacent hills, and  hoping he had found the right  gulch, Art turned up one of the  draws and a few miles later came  upon the miner's cabin. Art later  learned that the stormbound people had all met death in the storm.  Art and "Ollie" Beloud made  plans to start their own ranch in the  Empire Valley across the Fraser  River. Again fate stepped in. First  of all, a raft laden with building supplies disappeared from its moorings  on the east bank of the Fraser. Next  came a far bigger setback: World  Warl.  Ritchie was a man of great  loyalties: loyalty to his country, his    Arthur Brown Ritchie's "political  community, his employer, and his    portrait" while serving as MLA for  family. When war was declared he Salmon Arm ridins-  rode into Kamloops and joined the B. C. Horse Mounted Infantry  and went overseas with the first contingent, later transferring to  the First Battalion, Third Battery, Canadian Field Artillery. He saw  action at Ypres, the Somme, and Vimy Ridge. He was gassed twice  and wounded three times. He received the Distinguished Conduct  Medal at Ypres in 1915 for twice returning after a retreat to free  men and horses from a disabled wagon and to carry a wounded  23 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  man to safety, despite heavy gunfire. In 1917 at Vimy Ridge he  won the Military Medal for going back to an Allied gun pit to extinguish a fire that threatened the gun and ammunition.  Through all the horrible events of the war, Art didn't forget  Olive back in B. C. He sent numerous letters and postcards that  were carefully preserved and treasured. After coming home he  spent some time in hospital having shrapnel removed from his  neck. A month before his discharge he and Ollie were married at  Echo Farm, June 4, 1918. They spent some of their honeymoon as  guests of Jack and Ella McGuire and it was then that they decided  Salmon Arm would be their home. Sadly, Art's friend Jim Jamieson  had been killed in the war.  In 1919 the Ritchies bought through the Soldier Settlement  Board 80 acres of land on The Limit (North Broadview) formerly  owned by Alexander McGuire. It boasted a two-room house and a  few fruit trees. It wasn't long before the newlyweds had four acres  cleared and planted to fruit. Two of those early trees are still bearing. The cottage became the nucleus of the dwelling still standing  on the property, which has sheltered five generations of Ritchies.  Eventually, more than 30 acres were cleared—all by hand—and a  mixed farm developed. In 1957 half the property was sold to one of  their daughters and the Ritchies built a new home on the east 40  acres.  Art was proud of his emerging orchard. During the 1920s he  often entered fruit in the local fair and won prizes for packed boxes  of Wealthies and Grimes. He was particularly pleased that his first  prize of five boxes of Wealthies were sent to Wembley, England to  compete in a world exhibition. They again won a blue ribbon as  part of an entry from Salmon Arm.  However proud he was of his farm, the reality was it didn't  pay the bills. In 1923 Art commenced summer employment with  the Dominion Forest Service. He worked there until 1930, when he  was hired by the Columbia River Lumber Company. From 1934 to  1939 he was employed by the B. C. Forest Service as an assistant  ranger.  In the role of a forester, Art footed it over nearly every hill  and dale in his district. Fire fighting was one of his responsibilities, so he developed roads and trails to enable equipment and personnel to reach the trouble spots without delay. In June of 1931 he  was credited with averting a large outbreak after a fire started near  the Larch Hill school and swept east, where it endangered a house.  24 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  Great credit is due Mr. Arthur Ritchie and his fire fighters  for the marvelous swiftness with which they arrived on the scene,  took in the situation at a glance and grappled it with such wonderful success. Had it not been for their admirable organization  and the unhesitating swiftness of their action that fire would have  swept. . . the timbered slopes to Grandview Bench and beyond.  (Salmon Arm Observer)  His ability to quickly size up a situation and to take action  attracted both praise and criticism. He never asked anyone to do  something that he was unwilling to do himself, but when he delegated responsibility he expected results. These traits made him  successful in running Depression-era forestry camps organized by  the Department of Defence. Established as a means of providing  employment, they ran full-scale logging operations and built parks  and trails. The winter of 1937 saw Art in charge of a camp at Williams  Lake, and in 1939 the Observer reported:  Mr. Art Ritchie got a sudden call to travel to Victoria from  whence he will take charge of the camp on Vancouver Island.  The right man in the right place although it is tough taking him  so far from home.  Later that year he was picked to supervise the Dominion-  Provincial Youth Training Plan between Revelstoke, Ashcroft and  Williams Lake and B. C.'s south boundary. This was an organization that brought groups of youths together for two-week courses  in handicrafts, agriculture, homemaking and physical training. The  chance to live away from home and participate in social activities  were possibly major benefits for the recruits.  It would seem that Art had a full life, what with a farm, a  demanding job and a growing family. Olive Margaret "Peggy" had  arrived on April 5, 1919, Arthur George on May 29, 1922, Jean on  January 1, 1926, and Mary Bernice on January 29, 1930. However,  their father was committed to his community and was involved in  almost everything he thought would make a difference to the quality of life. During the Depression years he helped organize a hockey  league that played all its games on natural ice. He managed the  neighbourhood team called the Broadview Giants, provided a rink  and a change shack, and served as president of the club. Before  marriage, Art played football with the Salmon Arm team but later  took on the role of facilitator of team sports, rather than that of  25 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  player. One exception was a hockey game in 1935 to raise money  for an X-ray machine for the local hospital when Ritchie's Rogues  took on Ruth's Rovers.  Art devoted a good deal of time to veterans' affairs. He actively tried to get the Soldier Settlement Board to address the problems of returned men who had been financed for land whose value  was inflated 100 to 200 percent, making it impossible to repay the  debt. He was the marshal in charge of almost every Remembrance  Day parade until 1973, when he turned his baton over to Ralph  Kernaghan. In fact, he was at the head of practically every town  parade for decades.  Beyond all these activities, the one that defined A. B. Ritchie  once and for all was his involvement with municipal government.  He embarked in politics in 1922 when he became a Salmon Arm  municipal councillor. The ward system had just been abolished,  but many of the old animosities remained. Throughout much of  his time on council there was a perception that one section of the  district or another was not getting its fair share of improvements.  On the eve of the 1933 election the Salmon Arm Observer  reported:  Clr. Ritchie has had so many after his scalp that he is going to give them an opportunity at election time. A born scrapper,  Clr. Ritchie has had to do a lot of rough and tumble for council.  But he is a great worker, few would give the time he does to look  after road work and unemployment relief.  He again headed the polls.  In his second year on council he was appointed public works  chairman, a position he held until he became reeve. Until 1964  every road built in Salmon Arm was influenced in some way by  Ritchie decisions. He hired workers, appointed foremen, "engineered" road construction and directed improvements. He constantly lobbied Victoria and fellow councillors for road maintenance  and enhancement.  One of his first acts was to recommend the purchase of two  plows (horse-drawn). By the time he retired, the municipality had  a full complement of road building and maintenance equipment.  If something was done wrong, or not done at all, on municipal  roads Art was blamed, and probably rightly so. As Harold Cox, who  operated a bulldozer for the municipality in the late '50s and later  became road foreman, said, "He was straight-forward and not hard  to work for, but you better do it his way. While the council was  talking about it he'd have the job started."  26 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  Ritchie was a councillor for seven years during the Depression. Then, municipal business was more a matter of how to provide social assistance, lower taxes and keep the roads in repair. It  was the municipality's responsibility to financially aid married men  in the area; the provincial government set up relief camps for single men. Up to 1932 social services were provided by senior government, but by 1934 these became the burden of local councils.  In the unincorporated areas the province provided relief payments  at a higher rate than the municipality could afford. This disparity,  plus the desperate conditions under which many lived, brought  many delegations before Salmon Arm council meetings.  Salmon Arm municipal councillors economized by taking a  25-percent reduction in their indemnities. Art Ritchie spoke out  about the improvement tax and a small reduction was made in  1934. Much of the road work was done by statute labour (people  working off their taxes) and a portion of the rest was done by men  on the dole. In one part of the municipality, it was reported taxes  collected amounted to $237, but $878 in relief had been handed  out.  On more than one occasion Art had to defend his action to  council and he did so in no uncertain terms. His compassion for  those in need was evident when he described the case of a man  whose ". . . allowance worked out to 13 cents a day for each member of his family." Councillor Ritchie wondered how many of his  cohorts would care to feed and clothe their families on that pittance.  Forestry commitments probably motivated Art not to run for  council for the 1937 term, but personal tragedy certainly influenced  the decision. On September 30, 1935, nine-year-old Jean died unexpectedly—apparently of appendicitis—and within two months  Olive was diagnosed with breast cancer. Art, the man who could  "take it and dish it out with the best of them," was devastated. However, Olive's stoic acceptance and Art's fortitude bore them through  their grief and medical problems.  Like many others who had purchased land through the Soldier Settlement Board, the Ritchies struggled to pay just the interest on their loan. Then their financial burden increased enormously  with a large bill for medical services from the Vancouver General  Hospital. Art was immensely relieved when he was able to pay off  the obligation with a carload of apples. He picked and packed his  best fruit with care and sent it off on the CPR, only to be advised  that the hospital would not allow full credit for the shipment, as  some of the apples were considered not to be good "cookers." The  amount allowed barely covered the shipping costs; no wonder Art  was such a champion of hospital insurance when it was introduced.  27 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  By 1940 he had recovered some of his old bounce, and when  word reached the B. C. Forest Service office that an army forestry  company was to be organized he was chosen by the process of elimination to be the Salmon Arm recruit. Ranger Pete Campbell drove  him to Kamloops to enlist. By the time he got home, Art probably  regretted his hasty action, and his wife certainly did. However, with  characteristic pluck they faced the future. Ollie ran the farm with  the help of Ernie Burton, who had lived and worked on the place  since 1936. She continued to be active in the Red Cross and in the  Order of the Eastern Star. Art was commissioned a lieutenant with  No. 7 Company and was soon back in his Scottish homeland.  Lieutenant Ritchie looked on the members of his company  as his boys and most of them called him Pop. They were stationed  near Inverness, primarily as a forestry unit assigned to provide  timber for the war effort, but were also expected to assist in a military function should there be an invasion of Britain. Drill was not a  popular activity after six long days working in the bush or mill, but  Art got the best out of his men where other officers failed, according to Joe Ludwig, a member of the unit.  Art was promoted to captain and transferred to No. 17 Company in the latter part of 1943 during a major troop reassignment.  Soon, both companies returned to Canada and by May 1944 Art  was back working as an assistant forest ranger.  The year 1945 saw him again serving on municipal council,  but it also marked his leap to a larger stage, that of Coalition member in the B. C. Legislature.  He had seldom been active in party politics but had attended  Liberal meetings and was a staunch supporter of Rolf Bruhn, longtime MLA for Salmon Arm, who died in office in 1942. When Art  was approached to run as a Coalition candidate in the 1945 election he did so on the condition that both the Liberals and the Conservatives endorse him. However, at the nomination meeting Thomas Prescott, veteran Liberal association secretary, was also nominated as a gesture of appreciation. Ritchie won on the first ballot  and his opponent quickly moved to make it unanimous. Nevertheless, the die was cast for Art's political future and he was considered a Conservative when he got to Victoria.  He was elected MLA in 1945 and again in 1949. His speeches  were full of humour and colourful expressions. But more importantly he was honest and direct. As political columnist J. K. Nesbitt  wrote: "Mr. Ritchie is a good plain speaker. He doesn't believe in  mincing words or paying compliments that he doesn't think are  justified." The Victoria Daily Colonist referred to him as "blunt spoken, gravel voiced..."  28 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  Some Ritchie concerns were highway improvements, irrigation schemes, rural electrification, aerial forestry patrols and airstrips. Under his watch a bridge was finally built over Sicamous  narrows (in 1949) and other improvements were made to the Trans-  Canada Highway, including its relocation through Salmon Arm.  After considerable lobbying the Sorrento ferry was replaced and  the Kamloops-Vernon highway reconstructed.  Art had long advocated a forestry access road on the Fly Hills  and saw it built as part of the Public Working Circle (PWC) recommended in the Sloan Report.  The PWC was expected to  benefit small mills and to provide a sustained yield. MLA  Ritchie supported the three-  percent sales tax as long as it  went for welfare and social  services, and he was adamant  about keeping the hospital insurance scheme.  After his return to municipal council in 1944, one of his  first acts was indicative of his  decisive nature. When he  heard that beach property  west of the existing municipal  park at Canoe was for sale he  immediately took out an option to buy it. Then he proceeded to convince councillors that they wanted it. However, there was no money in  the budget. Fortunately,  Councillor Dan McMullan  and his wife were agreeable  to the acquisition and offered  to provide a loan to the municipality to purchase the  lakeshore.  At times it was difficult to  carry out two public tasks. Art  was often in session in Victoria while the municipal council prepared its budget, so  there were instances when he  did not have the input he  Wedding bells rang for Olive Beloud and Art  Ritchie June 4, 1918.  29 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  would have liked. On several occasions this resulted in some lively  words at council meetings. But as former clerk David Johnston  said, "Many times Art's sense of humour saved the day." That sense  of humour must have been sorely tried during the early 1950s.  Serving in a dual capacity, Ritchie found himself in the middle of controversy in 1951 when Salmon Arm became embroiled in  a squabble over school expenditures. The tree fruit industry in the  Shuswap and Okanagan had been devastated by the killing frosts  of 1949-50, and despite two million dollars in provincial compensation for replanting, the loss to growers and orchard workers was  substantial. At the same time, school trustees were faced with unavoidable cost increases. An arbitration board found that school estimates were beyond the district's ability to fund and in an effort to  pressure the province to increase capital, Salmon Arm municipal  council (with members Ritchie and G. A. Reynolds opposed) upheld the arbitration board decision. The senior government refused  additional aid and subsequently the district voters turned down a  bylaw to raise 11 mills. Consequently, the trustees closed the schools  to municipal students—it was classes as usual for City of Salmon  Arm students—until the next fiscal year. Thereupon, Victoria pre-  Salmon Arm District Council 1948—Rear: A. B. Ritchie, Frank Downey, Daniel  McMullan, David Johnston (incoming clerk), Ross White. Seated: J. G. Campbell, Reeve L.  S. Metford, B. A. Wild (retiring clerk).  30 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  pared a bill to allow arbitration boards to order a reduction in expenditures only if they were excessive and not on the grounds of  inability to pay.  The seemingly insoluble problems of an adequate water supply and distribution system led to another ongoing debate in Salmon  Arm. Art Ritchie deplored the lack of decision, and at a joint city-  district water committee meeting in 1946 declared that [discussion]  "has been going on for the past 25 years and apparently we are no  farther ahead now than we were then." As MLA he secured government support for a joint irrigation and domestic water project, only  to be asked by the Fruit Growers' Irrigation Committee to drop the  plan as it was considering its own scheme. A joint water system  was finally built, but without any capacity for crop irrigation.  By 1951 a difficult working relationship existed in the legislature as party politics divided the Coalitionists. W A. C. Bennett,  MLA for South Okanagan, had attempted to gain the Conservative  leadership from Herbert Anscomb in the fall of 1950, but failed. On  March 16,1951 Bennett made his pivotal walk across the floor to sit  as an independent. Ever-loyal Ritchie regarded the maverick politician as an opportunist. Art had favoured John Hart's Liberal policies, but many of his old friends, including public works minister  Ernie Carson, were Conservatives. With Boss Johnson now leading  the Liberals and Anscomb the Conservatives there was much friction. The break came in January 1952, prompting this reaction from  the member for Salmon Arm:  "Because of the method by which I was first chosen as candidate and because I have always sat in caucus with the Conservatives I intend to support Mr. Anscomb and to join him as a member  of the Opposition in the Legislature." Characteristically, Art remained loyal to those around him, but at great personal cost; the  strain of events at home and in Victoria began to take its toll. Salmon  Arm Conservatives chose A. B. Ritchie as their candidate, but shortly  after the campaign was launched he developed a hemorrhaging  ulcer. He remained in the Salmon Arm hospital for several weeks  and then went to Shaughnessy Military Hospital for further tests.  British Columbia voters subsequently elected a Social Credit  government and Art Ritchie was among the vanquished. But the  victory was short-lived, as Bennett's upstart party went down to  defeat on a motion for educational grants and Ritchie again ran as  a Conservative in the ensuing general election. This time Social  Credit swept the board, with James A. Reid successfully fighting  off a Ritchie bid to regain the Salmon Arm seat.  Municipal affairs and other community involvements continued to fill Art's life. As chairman of the municipality's golden  jubilee celebration in 1955 and as a 25-year member of council he  31 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  A. B. Ritchie and the man who succeeded him as MLA,  James A. Reid, with 4-H Club members John McLeod  and Marion Turner.  and Olive were honoured at a pioneer dinner. The same year Art  was given a life membership in the Royal  Canadian Legion, and  in 1958 he was presented with a centennial scroll and named  Salmon Arm's Citizen  of the Year. He also  served on the Salmon  Arm hospital board  and was granted life  membership in his  Masonic lodge.  Both Ritchies actively supported the Salmon Arm Fall Fair in  its early years. When the event was revived in 1946 Art again demonstrated keen interest, serving as president from 1952 to 1962, at  which point he insisted that someone else take on the responsibility. During his fair tenure two acres were purchased adjoining the  drill hall and a land swap with the B. C. Power Commission was  arranged. This provided grounds that bordered the athletic fields  and Memorial Arena. Livestock sheds and fences were constructed  and the fair took on a three-day format.  Holding to his prolonged belief that the district should have  its own road-building machinery and continue to pave its roads,  Art urged voters in 1947 to authorize borrowing $15,000 for public  works. "The time has come," he said, "when Salmon Arm must  take a decisive step forward in its road maintenance and construction. The policy followed in the past will no longer serve the needs  of modern traffic. It is inefficient and expensive. Only through the  use of machinery can the maximum value in roadworkbe obtained  from the taxes collected."  Limited paving was laid in 1945, but Art was still selling the  idea of hard-surfacing prior to the 1950 municipal election. He said  that surfacing the main routes offered the only permanent solution to road problems. Apparently the electorate agreed as Ritchie  headed the polls, the only member to be returned from the previous administration.  In November 1954 he proposed a bylaw to borrow $50,000  for road improvements, but the paperwork couldn't be finished by  voting time. Ritchie thought the blacktopping should be done, with  or without the referendum. In this bold-headed approach he was  32 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  not without support, including this comment in the Salmon Arm  Observer, December 1954: "In some quarters the impressive victory of Coun. Ritchie (there were seven candidates and he polled  more than half the ballots cast) is considered as a vote of approval  for a program of road surfacing in the municipality next year." Not  all of the council saw it that way, but Ritchie wishes prevailed.  However, by then the preparatory work needed to be re-done, so  paving was delayed until 1957.  In 1958 Art finally got help laying out roads. The consulting  firm of Read, Jones and Christofferson was engaged to prepare a  master street plan. Its main purpose was to designate proper locations for roads in new subdivisions. Five years later when Art became reeve, a consulting firm was hired to prepare a zoning bylaw; the municipality was recognizing the need for more orderly  development.  This era also saw a lakeshore park developed at Gleneden, a  new hospital at its present location, a new high school, a fire hall  on South Broadview and a new arena in the city. It also saw the  municipality's land area increase by 3,864 acres, including 2,410  acres of Indian reserve and 1,454 acres extending 1,000 feet into  Shuswap Lake the length of the shoreline within the district limits.  This provided an increased tax base from improvements constructed  on foreshore leases and those made by lessees on Native property.  Educational finances again became controversial in 1959 and  the council rejected the school budget, blaming the province for  causing school costs to double in five years. This time the ministry  increased its contribution and the municipal share was reduced.  Disagreement between Salmon Arm city and municipality  over shared expenses was another thorny issue. The municipality  suggested amalgamation, but Ritchie warned that "proper and equitable representation is of vital importance." He had become acting reeve in August 1961 when the incumbent, E. C. Turner, resigned, and then gave up his councillor's seat to make a run at a  full term as the district's top elected official in the fall election.  After Art narrowly beat out W B. Paget, one of the first accomplishments of the new council was to form a committee to study amalgamation. By now the city had chosen to revert to village status.  Meantime, Salmon Arm's water system was demanding attention. By 1961 the municipal population was near 4,000, an increase of nearly 30 percent since 1956. The village looked more  favourably on improving the system when it was discovered that it  was using 31 million more gallons of water a year than was the  municipality. Finally, in 1963, the village agreed to share the cost  33 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  of extending the Shuswap Lake intake into deeper water. Plans were  also made for a new 150,000-gallon storage tank to be built in South  Broadview at the 1675-foot elevation, together with larger pumping capacity and more distribution lines.  However, Art was not to be part of the council that brought in  these improvements. The Civic Voters' Association fielded a candidate in the 1963 contest for reeve to challenge Ritchie and another  aspirant. The vote was close, but for the first time Art Ritchie lost a  municipal election. Many residents felt that at the age of 78 he was  too old for the job. He had contributed to that perception with remarks such as, "I'm like a fence post—gone at the bottom. I should  be dug up and the hole replanted." This was his answer in declining the nomination for a tenth term as president of the fall fair. It  was apparent to family members that he felt he was letting the rest  of the executive down if he didn't help with the physical work of  building fences and barns into the late hours of the evening. Nevertheless, there was little evidence to point to a decline in his energy, or his ability to get things done. However, he had left the  impression that he was tired. His 1963 New Year's message also  contained a plea for younger people to run for civic office.  The apathy of the younger generation in offering itself for  public service is appalling. The council is not really "An Old Folks  Home." Local government is a necessity in our way of life. If you  wish that way of life to continue it is time to take a hand in some  of the work.  For the first time in over 40 years Art could place himself  and his family before the community. He and Ollie always had a  large garden and with son George's help they propagated a small  cherry orchard. Those carefree days lasted but three short years;  Ollie, who had given Art unfailing support for so many years, lost  her hold on life July 14, 1966.  Despite his directness, Art Ritchie was kind, compassionate  and ready to defend the underdog, but he had no patience with  "whiners." His friends came from all walks of life; religion or nationality was immaterial to him. His honesty was never in question. Ernie Burton commented that he found it surprising that there  wasn't a government tool on Art's farm, given the opportunity to  obtain them.  One of the highlights of his retirement years took place in  1967 when he and good friend Jack Moir attended the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge.  34 ARTHUR BROWN RITCHIE  Art was chosen to turn the first sod for Salmon Arm's new  Legion building in 1973, and then he cut the ribbon when it was  completed. Unable to muster for the Remembrance Day parade  during his 90th year, he nevertheless attended on the sidelines and  was given an "eyes right" by the passing marchers.  His life encompassed a time when some of the Trans-Canada  Highway through B. C. was little more than a path. Salmon Arm's  town core was just starting to develop. Roads in the municipality  were trails that were only passable when the weather co-operated.  There was no rural electrification and few areas had piped water.  Art Ritchie improved conditions in his community and province  through hard work and perseverance.  He died on April 20, 1977, in his 92nd year. He was never  financially rich, but left a large legacy of friends and accomplishments.  35 CAMP FAIRVIEW,  THE FAIRVIEW TOWNSITE  AND THOMAS ELLIS, 1887-1905  By P. M. Koroscil  Large-scale gold mining in the South Okanagan Valley began  in 1887 when Fred Gwatlin (Fred Gawtkins) and George  Sheehan staked the Stemwinder property, which became  known as the discovery claim. In the same year George Wilkinson  and Joe Bromley secured the Brown Bear claim and over the next  decade a number of other valuable claims would be staked in an  area known as Camp Fairview. It was located 2 1/2 miles west of  present-day Oliver on the east flank of a low range of mountains  separating the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, 500 feet above  the Okanagan River.  Throughout the 1890s Camp Fairview would act as a magnet  for all types of individuals, partners and syndicates who would not  only stake their claims and establish mining companies with hopes  of gaining a profit, but who would also invest in building and promoting a townsite. The purpose of this paper is to identify and  analyze the leading claims that were staked at Camp Fairview and  the role that Thomas Ellis played in establishing the Fairview  townsite.  CAMP FAIRVIEW  After the initial Fairview claims were filed in 1887, many  others followed. However, the following table indicates that 64  Crown-granted leading claims were reported by the Mining Recorders for Osoyoos Division, Yale District, between 1887 and 1901.  During this time there were two peak periods—1892-93 and 1896-  97—when claims changed ownership.  Professor Paul M. Koroscil, Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, is the author of British. Columbia: Geographical Essays, and has also published  numerous articles on emigration and settlement in the Okanagan Valley.  36 CAMP FAIRVIEW  1. Silver Bow  2. Wynn M.  3. Stemwinder  4. Brown Bear  5. Silver Crown  6. Western Girl  7. Comet  8. Ontario Fraction  9. Morning Star  10. Evening Star  11. Rattler  12. Columbia  13. Comstock  14. Atlas  15. Joe Dandy  16. Daisy  Selected Mine Claims Camp Fairview 1887-1897  In 1892 the  Strathyre Mining  Company was established after G. A.  Attwood and E. D.  Reynolds were sent  out from London,  England, on behalf  of a syndicate to examine the claims at  Camp Fairview. The  resulting good assays prompted the  syndicate to raise  $125,000 in capital  stock and the following year capitalization was increased to $500,000. The company, with Sir Charles  Tupper, the Canadian High Commissioner in London and future  Prime Minister of Canada (May 1, 1896-July 8, 1896), and T G.  Shaughnessy, vice-president of the CPR, as directors, was able to  raise the necessary capital with ease. Undoubtedly, these two notable individuals, especially Tupper, played a major role in influencing potential British investors.  In 1893 the company was very aggressive in purchasing five  claims, including the Rattler and its mill site (Table 1). Prices for  claims at this time varied from $3,000 to $25,000. In total, the company spent $112,000 purchasing claims, property, developing the  mines, construction of a new 10-stamp quartz mill (Figure 2), an  assay office, dwelling and boarding houses and the construction of  branch roads to the workings. The Strathyre Company was the most  dominant player during this period of mining activity, although  two other reported claims, the Morning Star, owned by Steve  Mangott and Danny McEachern (1892) and the Victoria, owned by  George Wilkinson and D. A. Carmichael (Table 1), were in operation.  The second peak period of 1896-97 was the most active in  claim purchases and new prospects were also being reported at  Fairview Camp. The two leading parties in terms of acquisitions  were W A. Dier and A. A. Davidson, and the Fairview Consolidated  Gold Mines Company (Table 1). The former party purchased 16  claims in 1896 and in 1897 the two partners purchased the Tinhorn  Gold Mining Company, which included three claims. In 1897 the  Fairview Consolidated Gold Mines Company purchased seven  claims from W. A. Dier and A. A. Davidson and secured a further  37 CAMP FAIRVIEW  five claims. At this time claims commanded between $200 and  $75,000. There were four other companies actively involved in the  hunt for mineralized properties. In 1896 the British Columbia Development Company purchased four claims and in 1897 sold them  to the Fairview Gold Mining Company of London, England. The  third company, the Smuggler Gold Mining Company, purchased  five claims in 1897 and the fourth company, the Winchester Gold  Mine and Mining Company, obtained one claim in the same year  (Table 1). Apart from the exchange of ownership during this boom  period, there were also eight registered claims in operation.  The gold-bearing quartz veins at Camp Fairview occur in granites and in schists and quartzites. In granite the veins are very limited and uncertain. On most of the claims located in granite the  exposures of quartz are isolated and can only be traced a short  distance along the strike. In such cases J. R. Brown, Mining Recorder in 1897 (Figure 3), reported that very little was being done  other than sinking shallow shafts on the exposures. However, on  other claims such as the Columbia (Figure 1) a traced quartz vein  extends continuously for the length of the claim.  The most valuable veins in the schists and quartzites lie in a  belt northwest of the  Fairview townsite.  Here the initial discovery claim, the  Stemwinder, and the  adjoining Brown Bear  (Figure 1) were staked  in 1887. In this belt  there are a number of  veins; for example,  the Stemwinder could  trace five. The veins  in this belt can be delineated continuously  for several thousand  feet and they will vary  from a few inches to  30 feet in width and  can run as deep as 60  feet. Another small  belt that had some  quartzose schists extending    into    the  38  Fig. 2 Camp Fairview 1890 - 1896  PartofTwp. 54, Sections 1, 2, 11, 12, 25, 25  Land Ownership - Acres  J.C. Haynes 1890 / Tom Ellis 1895  Mining Claims  Crown Grant  Battler Mining Co.  S Stamp Quartz Mill 1891  Strathyre Mining Co. 1893  10 Stamp Quartz Mill CAMP FAIRVIEW  quartzite is south of the townsite where the Smuggler and Tin Horn  claims were located. (Figure 2).  Although the Fairview camp had an extremely large quartzite base, J. R. Brown argued that in the peak period of production  in 1897 the realistic average price of gold per ton (APGPT) should  range from $4 to $7, despite the fact that he reported the Morning  Star yielded an $11 average that year. The Morning Star return was  similar to the averages (APGPT, Table 1) that were reported for the  years 1892-93, with the exception of the Victoria, which posted an  average of $37.38.  By 1903 all of the reported leading mines had closed, except  the Stemwinder, which yielded an APGPT of $3.60, and the Morning Star. The irony of the closures is that Brown's predicted estimate of the APGPT was nearly correct and that the discovery claim,  the Stemwinder, turned out to be the most valuable producer of  the many reported and unreported claims staked between 1887  and 1899.  During 1892-93 the influx of miners, entrepreneurs and mining companies established their dwellings, outbuildings, businesses  and mill sites on or near their claims, or on properties purchased  Table 1  CAMP FAIRVIEW. 1887-1901  Gold Mining Claims, Ownership, Mining Companies,  Stamp Mills, Average Price in Gold Per Ton (APC  Capitalization,  PT)  1887  Stemwinder  1887  Brown Bear  1892  Slraihvrc  1892  Morning Star  (Figure I)  (Figure 1)  Minimj Co.  (Figure 1)  F. Gwatkin and  G- Wilkinson  Capitalization  S. Mangott and  G.Shcchan  and J. Bromley  $125,000  D. McEachern  1892  APGPT $8-$50.00  1892  APGPT $S-S50.00  1893  Increased  1892  APGPT $8-$50.00  1896  Stemwinder Bonded  189!  Rattler  Capitalization to  1893  APGPT $13,14  Lo Messrs. Rhodes  (Figure 2)  $500,000  1894  Lease Strathyre  and Co.  H. Mankin  1893  Purchased Claims  stamp mill  1897  APGFr $7.00  Rattler Mining Co.  Rattler from H.  1895  Using stamp mill  Stemwinder sold to  5-Slamp Quertz  Mankin  Return ol'S30.000  1898  Winchester Gold  Mill (Figure 2)  Brown Bear from  Acquire Black  Mining Co.  1892  APGPT $8-S50.OO  Wilkinson and  Diamond Claim  APGPT $9.00  Bromley  1896  APGPT $15-$20.00  Stemwinder sold to  The Wide West  1897  APGPT $11.00  1899  Fairview Corporation  from J. Stevens and  1898  APGPT $10.00  Ltd. President-Judge  M. Hodder  1901  Still owned by  Spinks, Vernon  (Figure 1) Wynn  original owners  Managing Direcior-  M. from H.  1893  Victoria  R. Russell (Figure 3)  Simpson (Figure 1)  (Figure 2 and 3)  Mine idle-lack of  Ontario Fraction  G. Wilkinson and  capital  from D. Carmichael  D.A. Carmichael  Injection of capital  (Figure 1)  APGPT $37.38  from Goodcrham-  Rattler Mill Site  Blackstone-Toronto  (Figure 2)  Syndicate  1893  The Wide West  1900  Fairview Corporation  Purchases abandoned  Tin Horn and Joe  Dandy Stamp Mills  1894  1894  APGPT $11.52  Brown Bear  APGPT $5.00  Company suspends  1901  and other claims  APGPT $5.00  Only important mine  in Fairview Camp  1897  1901  operations  Company reopens  The Wide West  APGPT $11.00  Company closed  39 CAMP FAIRVIEW  Gold Mining Claims (Continued)  Joe Dandv  1895  The Smuggler  1896  W.A. Pier and  1897  Fairview  (Figure 1  and 2)  (Figure 2)  A.A, Davidson  Consolidated Gold  T. Davies and  T. Elliot (Figure 2)  (Figure 2)  Mines Co.  E. Hammond  1896  T. Elliot and  Purchase following  Capitalization of  British Colum  ria  J.M. McDougall  claims:  $2,500,000  Development Co.  Purchase Buckhorn  California  W.S. N. Wills  J.R. Mitchell-General  Claim  Ironclad  Superintendent  Manager  1897  Snuggler Gold Mine  Fannie Morris  Purchase following  Purchase Joe Dandy  Mine and Mining  Nightingale  claims from W.A.  Group of Claii  Co.  H.H. Dewarl-  Sundown  Dier and A.A.  Joe Dandy  Presidenl, Toronto  Elmore (Figure 2)  Davidson:  Atlas (Figure 1)  and G.H. Maurier.  Shamrock  California  Daisy (Figure  1)  Manager, Fair\  iew  Highland Chie  r  Ironclad  Belmont  Purchase the  Snowbird  Fannie Morris  Fairview Gold  Smuggler and  Winchester  Nightingale  Mining Company  Revenue,  (Figure 2)  Sundown  Ltd. London,  Vancouver. M  Silver Bow  Silver Bow  England purchase  Side and Skylark  (Figure 1)  Rob Roy  Joe Dandy Group of  Claims  Mammoth  Secured following  Claims from B  ritish  Lease Strathyr  mill  Gold Hill  claims:  Columbia  1899  No work done  Rob Roy  Reco  Development Co.  1901  Construct 10-stamp  Grey Eagle  Standard  Joe Dandy  mill, cost S21.000  Iron Mask  Ocean Wave  Property closed  Mine and mill  1897  Purchase  Quartz Queen  Mill sold to  closed  Tin Hom Gok  White Swan  Stemwinder  Mining Co.  1897  Winchester Gold  including Tin Hom  Mine and Mininy  (Figure 2) Big  Horn  Co.  and Fortune cl  urns  Purchase  1901  Tin Hom closed  Winchester claim  mill sold to  from W.A. Dier and  Stemwinder  A.A. Davidson  1897  Silver C  rown  1S98  Oro Fir  oGold  1S99  Dominion  (Figure 1)  Mining  Co.  Consolidated  T. Davi  s, Fairvit  Oro Fii  Mines Co.  1901  Messrs,  Hammond  Independence  Dominion purchased from  and Bluett  APGPT S10.00  Cascade Mining Syndicate  Mine closed  Evening Star  (Figure 1) and  1898  Cascade Minin  i  A.D.A.  Black Hawk  Flora  1897  Svndicate,  Vancou  vcr  August  Fraction  Own following  Virginia  J.F. Ste  ens and  claims:  1900  Western Hill  H. Rose  Empress of India.  APGPT $10.35  1897  The Co  (Figure  E. Morr  umhia  1)  China.  Russia  Domin  apan.  1897  Last Chance  Gold Kettle  T. McAuley  Jubilee  1897  ComM<>  ;k  British Standard  W. Dalrymple.  Fairview (Figure  1)  1897  Comet and Western  Girl (Figure 1)  J.C. Ste  Kens  from landowners in the area. In Township 54 (Figure 2) most of the  land was owned by Judge J. C. Haynes, except for 299 acres in the  hands of D. M. McDougall and 150 acres belonging to G. H. Sproule.  Apart from the miners who built homes and outbuildings in the  area, businessman F. R. Kline constructed the two-storey Golden  Gate Hotel, J. Moffat built a saloon and T. Elliot established a general store and post office. All of the construction activity during  this period at Camp Fairview resulted in a disorganized and dispersed settlement pattern.  FAIRVIEW TOWNSITE AND THOMAS ELLIS  North of Camp Fairview, Thomas Ellis, the major rancher and landowner in the area, was undoubtedly benefiting from the mining  activity taking place in the South Okanagan, as it increased the  40 CAMP FAIRVIEW  market for his cattle. However, Ellis became interested in expanding his business activities beyond cattle ranching. In 1890 he took  his first step after listening to Captain T. D. Shorts's argument that  freighting from Okanagan Landing at the head of Okanagan Lake  was less expensive by boat than running pack trains. Ellis subsequently became an owner-partner with Shorts in the twin-screw  70-foot steamer Penticton. The Penticton became the first really successful steamship on the Okanagan.  Two years later, with the completion of the integrated rail  and water transportation system that would open the Valley for  settlement development, Ellis saw the opportunity to take the next  step in expanding his business ventures—real estate speculation.  He realized that the south end of Okanagan Lake would be an ideal  location for a townsite to act as a natural bulk-and-break point for  moving people and goods. After failing to convince the CPR to invest in his proposed Penticton townsite, he decided to sell a parcel  T. Ellis Upper Townsite  Registered by F.H. Larimer D.L.S.  March ISth. 1897  Part of Ellis Subdi  SW 1/4. Section 12 and NW 1/4  Section 1, TWP. 54  Blocks B 8, 9, 10,11,15,16,17  114 Subdivided Lots, Average size 66'xl6S  Dr. R.B. White House  Presbyterian Church  Mining Office  W T. Shatford House #  Lower Townsite  Registered by W.A. Dier  and A.A. Davidson  June 9,1897  -z*-  1  Dier. David  Ft. Russell 1899  B14  Store*  I       *  son t897and  Mining Office  B13  •  Hotel Fairview  1698-99  B12  Bll  BIO  B9  BS  Store*  B15  B16  B17  B18  B19  B20  B21  Source: N.L Barlee 1970, P. Koroscil J!  Fairview Townsite  41 CAMP FAIRVIEW  of land at the south end of Okanagan Lake to a syndicate of Vancouver investors who established the Penticton Townsite Company,  which was incorporated September 7, 1892. As the company promoted the sale of its newly-acquired Okanagan property, Ellis participated in the scheme by constructing the Penticton Hotel. It would  be another five years before Ellis would venture again into real  estate development.  During the intervening period he would expand his ranch  holdings to secure the distinction of being the dominant cattle baron  in the South Okanagan. On August 14, 1895, the John Carmichael  Haynes estate of 20,756 acres and 2,350 head of cattle, acquired by  Haynes over the previous 20 years, was conveyed to the British  Columbia Land and Investment Agency for $65,000. On September 4, 1895, the Agency deeded the acreage to Ellis for the same  price and he purchased the cattle at auction for a few dollars a  head. Ellis now controlled some 30,756 acres, along with 3,750 head  of cattle. The Haynes acquisition not only proved that Ellis was an  opportunistic and shrewd businessman, it also revealed another  facet of his personality that related to business ethics: he was unscrupulous.  When the second period of heightened activity occurred at  Camp Fairview in 1896-97, it provided another chance for Ellis to  become involved in real estate development. Since he now owned  the majority of land in the Camp Fairview area he decided to establish a planned townsite. He hired the notable Okanagan surveyor  F. H. Latimer in 1897 to lay out a townsite on part of Township 54  (Figure 3). The site that was chosen was on a flat below a narrow  gulch, which led up to the initial staked claims in the area. It was  also situated at the intersection of the stage road, 28 miles south of  Penticton, 29 miles west of Camp McKinney and 12 miles from  Osoyoos and the offices of the gold commissioner for the southern  portion of Yale District.  Here Latimer surveyed 17 blocks of land, subdividing them  into approximately 314 lots with an average size of 66 by 165 feet.  In the same year Ellis sold an adjoining piece of property to mining developers W. A. Dier and A. A. Davidson who had the parcel  divided into 21 blocks (Figure 3).  After the Ellis upper townsite and the Dier and Davidson  lower townsite were registered there was a considerable amount of  building activity to accommodate the approximate population of  400. New businesses, government offices, stores and hotels, including the spectacular three-storey Hotel Fairview constructed by Dier  and Davidson, arose to service the mining population. However, at  the end of the year the boom began to subside and although there  were some new claims registered in 1898 (Table 1) numerous mines  42 CAMP FAIRVIEW  were coming to the end of profitability and had begun to close. By  1901 all the mines had ceased operations, with the exception of the  Stemwinder and the Morning Star, which had a direct effect on the  viability of the Fairview townsite, as businesses closed and miners  left their homes.  Tom Ellis's second real estate venture was undoubtedly not  the success he had envisioned. From the probate papers filed after  his death in 1918 it was revealed that he still had title to 114 lots in  Blocks 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17, and 168 lots in Blocks 1 to 7 and  12, 13 and 14, which had no monetary value (Figure 3). Also, he  held a valueless mortgage on Lots 13 and 14. Out of a total of 314  lots, he sold approximately 32 lots in Blocks 1 to 7 and 12 to 14 and  did not gain any substantial return from the sale of lots in the remaining surveyed blocks.  While playing a major role in establishing the Fairview  townsite, Ellis also participated in mining speculation. His choice  for investment was the Stemwinder, eventually holding 2,564 preferred and 128,334 common shares. In 1918 the par value of both  issues was listed at 25 cents each. However, the real value was nil  and amounted to a stated investment loss of $32,724.50. This figure may not be correct since Ellis was a preferred shareholder and  most probably would have increased his stake over a period of time  at discounted prices when further shares were issued.  The early 1900s saw the decline of gold mining at Camp  Fairview and the end of a viable townsite there. This, coupled with  the fact that large cattle ranches in the Valley were giving way to  orchards, led Tom Ellis to sell his ranch in 1905 to L. W. and W. T.  Shatford, of the Southern Okanagan Land Company, for $412,500  and retire to Victoria.  In conclusion, this research paper has attempted to examine  an aspect of the settlement history of the South Okanagan between  1887 and 1905 that takes into account the relationship between  mining and the development of townsites.  PRIMARY SOURCES: British Columbia Reports of the Minister of Mines, 1887-1905; Public Archives of  British Columbia, GR 1304, Probate Papers, File 240/18 Thomas Ellis and Will of Thomas Ellis, GR 1052  British Columbia, Supreme Court (Victoria), copies in Penticton Museum and Archives; Surveyors' maps,  Penticton Museum and Archives. SECONDARY SOURCES: Fairview and Thomas Ellis Files, Penticton  Museum and Archives; N. L. Barlee papers on Fairview. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: At the Penticton  Museum and Archives I would like to thank Randy Manuel and S. Haverkamp for their helpful assistance. I would also like to thank Paul DeGrace, Cartographer, Department of Geography, Simon Fraser  University.  43 HARRIS & CLARK  AND THE CATHEDRAL LAKES  By Joe Harris as told to Doug Cox  The majestic Cathedral Lake Park is situated on British  Columbia's southern border southwest of Keremeos. The jagged  peaks of the Okanagan Range form a backdrop to sparkling  alpine lakes.  Joe Harris (1910-1994) and Herb Clark (1914-1979)  formed a partnership in 1939 that resulted in the development  of what is now Cathedral Lakes Resort.  The following is a recorded conversation with Joe Harris  in 1984.1 have edited the conversation for brevity. I also talked  to Herb Clark about his experiences in the area. Both men left  a superb photographic record of their early trips and  development of a "dude camp" and eventually an alpine  resort.—D. C.  The first time that I went to the Ashnola was when I was 16  years old. I went up with Frank Richter, Hal Tweddle and  Mr. Tweddle Sr, and R. P. Brown and Dave Ring, one of Mr.  Tweddle's oldest hired men.  Frank Richter and I met as youngsters in 1920, but got to  know one another when we both attended Vancouver College in  1925. The summer of 1926 Frank invited me to go over for a holiday at Keremeos. Going up to the Ashnola was part of that holiday.  We left Keremeos with our saddle and pack horses and rode  up to the mouth of the Ashnola River. The Ashnola bridge across  the Similkameen River had deteriorated to such an extent by then  that you couldn't take your horses across it. They had carried the  big siphon for the irrigation system over, but you had to ford the  river. We finally ended up at the old cabin, pre-emption or what  Doug Cox is a retired teacher in Penticton, freelance historian, author and popular guest speaker. He and his wife Joyce operate an ostrich farm, raise Dalmatians, enjoy horse-related activities and publish books through their company,  Skookum Publications.  44 HARRIS & CLARK  Herb Clark packing boat lumber into the Cathedral Mountains, late 1939 or '40. The pack  has been adjusted to avoid having lumber hit the horse's head.  has been known as the Hargraves place. Hargraves were long gone,  but the reason it was called that was because the Hargraves cabin  still remained.  The cabin, with all of us, was quite crowded, so Frank and I  slept outside under a little lean-to of poles and saddle blankets to  keep the dew off us. I can remember waking up in the middle of  the night with a pack rat nibbling above me and droppings hitting  the straw near my face!  The first day we were there, Frank and I were sent with a  pack train of salt up to Joe Lake, about 15 miles on the east side of  the Ashnola. When we got up on top there was hardly a sign of a  cow, and yet when we got the pack horses unloaded the cows were  turning up from all corners. We had three pack horses loaded with  salt—nine blocks in all. After a brief snack and leaving the salt, we  headed back to the cabin.  I remember going down the hill that night. By four o'clock I  was starting to get hungry and by five I was sure I was going to die.  When we could see the smoke coming up from below, we figured  Papa Tweddle was getting supper ready for us. It was another three-  quarters of an hour before we got there and it was a relief that we  didn't have to cook our own meal.  Papa Tweddle was quite a cook. I still remember his "world's  best baking powder biscuits." He had his own way of doing it. He  would take a 25-pound bag of flour and fold the top back, then  make a little puddle space in the middle of it. He'd put in a little  baking powder, some sugar and bit of salt and mix the dough right  there in the puddle in the top of the flour. He'd get the stove just  the right heat to suit him and throw a dab of dough right onto the  45 HARRIS & CLARK  stove, and they were just the nicest baking powder biscuits you  ever tasted. When he got done with it, he'd just tie the sack and  that was it till the next time. There was no dirtying dishes and table  and so on when he needed a few biscuits for supper. Along with  those biscuits we had brook trout, bacon and eggs.  The next day we all went up to a crater. We moved the cattle  up from Hargraves, further up to get them up  on the higher pastures.  Of course, the higher we  got the better the view.  Pretty soon we could see  over the Upper Ashnola  and Cathedrals. There,  in the middle of August,  it was pure white over  there and hot where we  were. It looked like a different world. I suppose  it was about nine or ten  miles away. At 16,1 was  quite intrigued by all  that.  tv      A A\       l    j J¬∞e Harris and Cliff Leslie (right) at the Hargraves pre-emption  cabin in 1932. The cabin was used by the Tweddle Ranch while  COW up there With a call  checking on cattle grazing in the Ashnola Range.  and she was just the  most ornery critter you ever saw, a real troublemaker. He decided  that she had to be butchered that fall and in order to get some beef  on her, we had to take the calf away from her. We ran the cow and  the calf into the corral. They left Frank and I up there to take care  of the calf. Well, the old cow had the most uneven disposition of  any cow I'd ever seen. She only had one speed; to put her head  down and dive for the fence. And if you were on the fence she'd  climb the rails and chase you off.  We couldn't get into the corral to rope the calf, so we had to  rope over top of the fence. Finally, we were lucky enough and got  a loop around the calf and Frank said: "Now, you take down the  bars." So I went around to the side where the bar gate was and I had  the gate about half down before the cow noticed it. She headed for  the hole in the gate and I headed for my horse. When she came out  through the gate she was going places and I was right on her tail  and kept her going. I took her on down the mountain. By the time  I got back Frank had butchered the calf.  46 HARRIS & CLARK  We couldn't load the calf right away. We had to let it cool off.  You can't move beef in hot weather until it's cooled a bit. Just as  the sun was going down we decided the beef had cooled enough.  We wrapped it in a tarp and put it on the pack horse. About that  time the old cow showed up looking for it.  That was my introduction to the Ashnola and Cathedrals.  Cliff Leslie, a local boy, and I went up again in 1932 with  pack boards. It was our first experience at backpacking, so we had  to do a lot of changing around to figure out the best way to cut  down on weight. I remember somebody advising us to keep it down  to three pounds a day and that was good advice. We had enough to  eat, at three pounds a day.  The trail in those days was just that—an indication that it  was the right way to go. About every 300 feet you'd see a blaze. The  main trail up the creek was a forestry trail from the pole bridge and  had just been completed a couple of years before. Charlie Richter  and some chaps were paid to put a  trail up the main river, and it went  onto Flattop. Now, the trail that we  were following was a sheepherder's  route. Graham and Willis ran sheep  up on the Cathedrals. This trail that  All photographs in this  article courtesy the author.  Herb Clark with a log boat and a fine catch offish on an alpine lake in the Cathedral Mountains.  47 HARRIS & CLARK  Joe Harris on Big Red, his favourite horse, somewhere  in the Cathedrals in the late 1930s.  we used was more or  less a service trail. They  brought the sheep up  and down this trail and  used it also to transport  supplies to sheep camp.  It wasn't a well-  marked trail, but we  had no trouble with it.  We found that Lindsay's  Meadow showed up  where it was supposed  to be on the map. The  little eight-by-six cabin  was there. The two Lindsay brothers had spent all of one winter  there. Many years after when I was in Okanagan Falls visiting with  Margaret and George Lindsay, I asked them by chance if the meadows were named after them. Indeed, they were. George told me  that "those times were tough and us two boys didn't want the old  folks feeding us all winter. We had 20 dollars, so we bought some  supplies and went up there on the side of the mountain all winter.  We trapped enough furs to pay our expenses."  Cliff and I made ideal camping partners because we weren't  very communicative, and if one guy started making the fire, the  other one knew he was supposed to make the bough bed. He would  go and cut the fir boughs and start the bed. We didn't carry a tent;  just had a tarp to go over a little bit of a frame. By the time one  fellow had the bed made the other had supper ready.  We took canned sausages, back bacon, spaghetti and macaroni. We didn't take a lot of eggs because they were too heavy. We'd  spoil ourselves with only taking about six; and we carried them in  a can with the oatmeal. As you used the oatmeal, the eggs showed  up and you'd have an egg with your porridge. We carried flour.  When we ran out of bread, we made our own bannock. We figured  a pound of butter apiece for a week.  On our backpacking trips into the mountains we ate to live,  not be a gourmet diner. Nothing goes to waste; what's left over  from breakfast makes your lunch and what's left over from supper  you cleaned it up for breakfast. We did discover how to cook beans  properly. Canned pork and beans are fine, but they're heavy. It's  much better to take along dried beans. We found one way we could  handle the beans was to soak them overnight and in the morning  pack them away in a sealed container, wet. By supper time there  was enough moisture in the beans that they were nearly popping  the lid off and were softened enough that you could make a stew  48 HARRIS & CLARK  for supper. In those days there were lots of fool hens and grouse  around, to which you could add bacon. We were never short of  meat. We always caught fish.  On the way down the hill we ran into Phil Cooper (an electrician) and Bill Blair, two Penticton boys who were going up to the  Cathedrals. They were going in on the Twin Buttes trail rather than  the Noisy Creek trail. Below us about a mile off the trail a forest fire  was burning. We were very happy to get by that. A couple of days  later it crossed the trail and burnt the whole darn table out, which  caused the table to be abandoned for about 10 to 15 years.  A fellow named Meausette had a pre-emption and cabin on  what is now Meausette Creek. Just above the Ashnola forest at  Ewart Creek there's a creek coming in from the south and that's  Meausette. He was a prospector who worked out of Princeton  mostly, all through that country. Just how he worked it to have a  mineral claim on the American side of the border, I'm not sure. He  was very interested in what is known as the Tungsten mine across  the border and it seemed like the easiest way to get the ore out,  which had to come out on stone boats or sledges, and they had a  trail built right down to the Ashnola bridge. This was before WWI.  In talking to his daughter later, I learned that he had the mine sold  for $80,000, even had the cheque for it, but when war broke out he  couldn't cash it. There went his dream of being a successful and  rich miner.  Mrs. Billie Estabrooks from Summerland went in there with  friends in 1921. The mine had never functioned after the war, but  they still had a caretaker looking after everything. Even at that late  date they seemed to have something there.  In 1938 Cliff and I arranged with Mr. Tweddle to take a party  into the Cathedral Mountains. There was Cliff and his sister Mary,  and his girlfriend Mary Kerr, and Betty Hughes and myself. I rented  seven horses from Tweddle, two for packing and five to ride. Quite  a few folks were beginning to use the Cathedrals; mostly local people. At the Keremeos end the trail was quite visible, but it was still  very primitive up above —still open campfires, still using pack  horses. We considered ourselves living in the lap of luxury as we  were able to take a couple of tents. Five of us spent a whole week  up there and including the horse rental of a dollar a day, it cost  $100. It was one day up and one day back, with five days on top.  While we were up there, Herb Clark showed up with some  dudes. He was a little younger than I. He worked for Tweddle and  was a real good mountain man and excellent with horses. He'd  worked on the local ranches and was very practical in the mountains.  49 HARRIS & CLARK  One night Herb and I went out on the raft fishing, and in the  middle of the lake of that year, 1938, the basics of our partnership  were thought out while drifting on the raft.  In those days we had no boat or anything. You did all your  fishing from the shore. Since our trip in 1932, the lakes had been  stocked. Doug and Bob Parsons took the fish up. It was quite a  chore stocking lakes in those days. Some of the fish were brought  in from the Coast and you had to stop every half hour and change  the water. You couldn't just dump it out and take it in. You had to  take it out by the cup and put a cupful of fresh water in, so that  there was a gradual change. When you arrived at the base to start  up the hill, these wooden pack boxes that were watertight were put  on top of the horses and every half hour you still had to change the  water. The mortality wasn't too heavy. A lot of the mountain lakes  got stocked that way. It was a time-consuming job.  Our partnership took shape in 1939. Herb had ajob at the  Mascot mine in Hedley and I had an orchard in Penticton. I became the financier of the outfit and Herb carried out the work.  The Forks cabin was very much an involvement for me, because I  had to pack all the lumber in from Penticton to put on the roof and  the floor. I built all the doors and windows, while Herb did the log  work. The Forks cabin was the kingpin of the whole deal. That was  where we kept all our saddles, a supply of groceries, so it became  our base headquarters.  The road in, in those days, particularly from the pole bridge  up to the Forks, was real hairy. There were lots of places where the  inside track was a foot higher than the outside track. We always  carried a crowbar, a pick and a shovel, and each trip in we took a  few more boulders out of the middle of the road. Pretty soon we  had it built so well that we could come out of there at 15 to 20 miles  an hour without hitting anything. We were the original road builders for that part of it.  In the meantime Herb and his wife Helen took four months  off during the summer from the Mascot mine. We decided on an  allowance for Herb of five dollars a day and his board. He put in  five dollars of labour and I put in the cash. We gradually got the  horses, dishes, tents and everything else needed up there. After  two or three years we had built ourselves up a pretty good stake. By  this time, of course, we were getting dudes coming in and the business just naturally evolved. The first few years, if Herb wasn't busy  with guests, he was cutting trail or making a better campsite and  doing a little exploring. I kept the camp supplied with groceries.  We bought fresh meat in Keremeos, had it frozen, took it in and put  it in the snowbank, so we had fresh meat all the time.  50 HARRIS & CLARK  Pyramid tents preferred by Harris and Clark.  Lad in front is Frank Richter Jr.  I picked up our guests  from the train in Penticton  and took them in. They  would tell me when they  wanted to come back out  and I would go up and meet  them. I did all the bookkeeping. I was the outside man  and Herb looked after the  camping end of it, and did  that very well.  A part of Cathedral history  that should not be overlooked is its formation as a  park. Herb and I had only  been in there a very short time when we considered that the Cathedrals should become a park, but kept pretty much as it was  then. We hoped to obtain a lease and the right to maintain a camp  there. We got a lukewarm response from the government in Victoria, but strangely enough the most opposition came from Keremeos.  The sheepherders didn't want us up there. The cattlemen didn't  want us; thought we would ruin the country entirely.  Finally, pressure was put on Victoria and they started to renege. I reminded them they could not have it both ways; if they  weren't going to let us in as a park, they should sell us some land.  So eventually we ended up getting two 40-acre parcels of land on  top. We developed it ourselves, with considerable help from the  Parks Branch. Chess Lyons went in there on his original trip in  1940, and we mapped it all on a contour map and took a lot of  photos. The chief forester at Kamloops became quite interested,  but politics being what they are, it was determined there was no  place for Harris and Clark up there. However, we stayed anyway.  One 40-acre block was below Glacier Lake just above the timberline.  The next block was on the north shore of Quinesco Lake where it  took in our campgrounds and ran right back into the timber with a  quarter mile of shoreline.  Because we now owned the land, we built a permanent camp  at the lower site. We brought in a cookstove and put up large tents  with board floors. The original tents were made to order by Jones  Tent and Awning in Vancouver. Pyramid tents is the proper name  for them. They were seven feet high with the door on one side and  the floor sewn in. With a central rope to pull them up and a tripod,  you could yank them up in a hurry. The idea of them was that  when you took them down you folded them into three and a half  51 HARRIS & CLARK  by seven, which gave you the top of your pack. You would put all  the pack on your horse, then load the tent on last. The side that  went next to the ground was on top. The two worked in reverse:  when you arrived in camp and it was snowing or raining, the wet  side went down. You could throw anything, everything inside the  tent without putting it up. If you had time to pull the centre up, at  least the stuff that came off the horse was still dry. Seven by seven  was ample for two people to sleep in. We had four of those tents.  The long tents were nine by fourteen feet with six-foot  sidewalls, and there were two of them. There were extra-long tarps  for covers over them. There was a board floor right through, like a  runway. One end was dining and sitting in the evenings near the  heater, with a radio for news. In the other tent was stored the groceries and the cooking was done there. With two large flys over the  ends, the whole thing was very weatherproof. There was a six-foot  alleyway between them.  A canvas camp fit for well-heeled dudes. This was the custom-made tent used to prepare  and serve meals on Harris & Clark outings.  It was left to me to buy the saddles. We never bought new  ones that I can remember. If the price was right, I bought them. I  had a workshop in my home basement and carried out repairing  during the wintertime. We started off with three manufactured pack  saddles and from then on we made our own. You had to buy the A-  frame (wooden part), but all the rigging and the breast straps we  made at home. There were certain things we didn't like about the  manufactured ones, so we converted them to suit ourselves. We  used coal-oil boxes for pack boxes mostly. If we had a chance to get  a cowhide for nothing, we put an outer wrap around the box, which  made them practically indestructible.  Pack horses are not like city horses, or park horses. Unless  you got big men working for you, you don't want a horse that's too  high, but one that's very wide in the chest with a good round rump.  If they haven't got a wide, heavy chest they haven't got strength  and lungs. And you want a short back to carry that load all day. You  52 HARRIS & CLARK  don't want them too heavy in the legs. They must have good sound  feet. Quarter horses are good strong mountain horses with lots of  lung power.  We were careful horse buyers. The time to buy horses is in  the fall after the work's all over, facing a long winter with the price  of hay going up. Sometimes we'd stock up on horses. I had a ranch  at Green Mountain and it wasn't unusual for me to winter 15 to 20  head.  Old Red was my saddle horse; part blood horse, a real sorrel  and built like an Irish hunter. He rode like a rambling boxcar; not a  gentleman's horse to ride, but he was all horse—excellent with a  pack train. He would break, where others will hesitate. I only needed  to nudge him lightly and he'd go down over a bank, through a bog  or creek without question. Breaking is just peeling off and getting  back to the other horses fast if there is trouble along the line.  We had a runaway one time, in a hailstorm, coming down off  Skookumchuck. It was very heavy hail and panicked the whole  outfit during which one of our dudes lost control of her pony. I got  in alongside with Red, reached over and grabbed her by the belt  and gave a yank. I spun her around behind me, doing it on the  dead run and Red never batted an eye. We got the runaway stopped  by taking the lead horse and winding them around a bunch of fir  trees until they settled down.  While in camp the horses were turned loose in the evening  with bells. We had a couple of drift fences to keep them in. On a  trail ride we always hobbled them at night and there were bells as  well. Even at that the beggars would sometimes travel three or four  miles during the night and we'd have to track them in the morning.  The first year of World War Two didn't affect us too much, but  the second year the lack of guests was noticeable. Then Herb was  called into the army and we had to move the camp out. When he  returned, I sold my share of the partnership to him and his wife.  Herb built his first cabin and gradually expanded until now a lodge  is there—present-day Cathedral Lakes Lodge.  (For more information on the people and events mentioned in this interview, attention is  drawn to the following Reports: Nos. 40 and 59 (Joe Harris); No. 45 (Herb Clark); No. 52 (Hal  TWeddle); No. 28 (Cathedral Lakes).  53 BUILDING THE  KELOWNA-NARAAMTA ROAD:  1936-1939  By Hume  CPR tug MV Okanagan breaking ice in Kelowna Harbour, January 1956.  (Bill Guttridge photograph)  For the early inhabitants of the Central Okanagan, crossing  Okanagan Lake created a problem that has reared its head  many times since they made the trip in boats, canoes and  even on rafts. In the mid-1880s the McDougall brothers, Eneas and  David, built a 16-foot scow equipped with oars. As the population  increased the means of ferrying included power-driven boats, towing scows and large rafts. In the period 1906 to 1927 the provincial  government tendered annually for the running of a ferry across  the lake. In 1927, the Department of Public Works built and operated the MS Kelowna-Westbank ferry. It was 90 feet long and had a  capacity of 15 cars. This eased the ferry problem for several years,  but after that the service ran into difficulties. The number of car  crossings increased steadily and this caused holdups at both terminals, especially on public holidays. Adding to the problem was the  cold weather in the early to mid-1930s. Ice greatly reduced the  number of trips and on extremely cold days no sailings took place.  When the SS Sicamous was making its daily return trip from Okanagan Landing to Penticton it would open a path through the ice with  its steel-clad hull. By 1936 this service had ended and the ferry was  on its own as far as ice-breaking was concerned; it only had a wooden  hull and could not take the pounding. This created many inconveniences for people on both sides of the lake. Mail service was  54 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  disrupted badly, stores couldn't get their supplies and the travelling public had trouble getting across the frozen expanse; some  walked and others got a ride in horse-drawn sleighs. Around this  time the ferry took on the appropriate name "MS Hold Up."  The Kelowna Courier and Orchardist, now called The Daily  Courier, in its March 5, 1936, weekly issue ran a scathing editorial  deploring the ferry situation. The editorial went on to back a suggestion by five prominent Kelowna citizens that a road be built on  the east side of Okanagan Lake from Kelowna to Naramata to connect with the Penticton-Paradise Ranch road already in use. If built,  this new road would help to relieve through traffic on the ferry and  provide an alternate route when the ferry was delayed or shut down  due to cold weather, and to a lesser degree when the ferry was out  of service for its annual overhaul and inspection. In the spring of  1936 the Honourable F. M. MacPherson, Minister of Public Works  in Victoria, came to Kelowna. A strong case for the Kelowna-  Naramata road was put before him and he promised to keep it in  mind in the event any road construction was undertaken. However, in July 1936 when the highway appropriations were announced, his memory must have failed him, as no money was allotted to help with the construction of any road on the east side of  Okanagan Lake south of Kelowna. With no support whatsoever from  the provincial government it clearly showed there was no resolve  on the part of Victoria to even help start the road project or put a  second ferry—or larger vessel—in service.  A movement by Kelowna citizens to build the road by volunteer labour sprang up, spearheaded by five men: Sam Miller, president of the senior Board of Trade, H. V. Craig, lawyer, Reg. G. Rutherford, chartered accountant, Frank Groves, surveyor, and I. V.  Newman, manager.  I  Kelowna-Naramata  Okanagan Bank of Community Service  ONE SHOVEL SHEKEL  IK PULL FOR ORE SHIFT  Copy of a Shovel Shekel  55 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  The idea caught on  quickly and the town was  abuzz with enthusiasm.  The next thing was to find  the most suitable route.  On July 1, 1936, the five  organizers drove up to  Chute Lake. This road, incidentally, had been built  by volunteer labour some  years back. From Chute  Lake they hiked a route  "On the count of three, heave. " Swamping out  right-of-way on Kelowna-Naramata Road.  along the West Kootenay power line to Paradise Ranch. They found  very little rock work, but after a couple more investigations the  group decided there would be too many heavy grades following  the power line. The alternate route that more or less followed the  Time out for lunch and a smoke.  old Penticton Trail was the path chosen, even though it was fully  realized that a lot of heavy rock work would be encountered. Finally, on Sunday, September 27, 1936, 33 volunteers armed with  picks, shovels, rakes, axes and crowbars started work on the section from near Cedar Creek south to link up with the Penticton  Trail, which had been used very little for many years.  The trail was originally built by native Indians in the mid-  1850s and was used in 1859 by Father Pandosy and his party to  reach LAnse au Sable, where Kelowna is today. It was also used by  miners, trappers and others. Traffic on the trail increased considerably in 1871 when the Brent flour mill was established on Mill  56 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  (Kelowna) Creek near the site of the present government weigh  scales. Many settlers came from all over the Okanagan to have  their grain milled, some from as far away as Osoyoos.  In the Courier edition of October 1, 1936, a front-page headline read, "First Mile of East Side Road is Complete —On to  Naramata." In the accompanying story the reporter wrote, ". . . it  was a hearty sight to see the young and the older pick and shovel  into the hillside and fashion out a road of sorts eight feet wide."  Shortly after 3 p.m. the grade had been completed and Sam Miller  drove the first car over the new stretch to the corrals constructed  in earlier times.  The volunteers fully realized that they would not make such  progress on every outing. A lot of heavy slugging lay ahead, but  nevertheless it was a grand start. Deep Creek beckoned and it would  prove very difficult in places. Two miles from Deep Creek is Horse  Creek and the section between these two was to become the most  trying and time-consuming of any on the project. From Horse Creek  it would take approximately 16 miles of construction to reach Paradise Ranch, which included the big canyon, also called the Wild  Horse Canyon.  After the first success, the senior and junior boards of trade  made an appeal for more volunteers to help on the road on Thursday afternoons and all or part of Sundays. The response was great: nearly  90 people showed up at the next work  party. As well, three teams of horses  arrived with scrapers and they, along  with other workers, fashioned a good  grade on the northern end. Overall  progress was slowed, however, when  the crews working farther south encountered increasing rock stretches.  Around this time the organizers incorporated the Okanagan Highway Association under the B. C. Societies Act and  donations started to be received by association secretary Reg. G. Rutherford.  The money would be used to buy necessary supplies such as blasting powder and detonation caps. Each Thursday afternoon and Sunday saw an increasing number of men turning out,  as well as some women who provided  tea and coffee to the workers.  Can you picture building roads  this way today? Typical 1936  volunteer crew included Ian  McFarlane, Dick Parkinson,  Harry Witt, Reg Rutherford,  Russel Scrim, Edwin Harvey,  Bill Embrey.  57 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  Another innovation introduced to volunteers during the  road work was the Shovel Shekel.  Two shekels were issued for each  day's work, one for the morning  shift and one for the afternoon and  a weekly draw was held for donated prizes. Shekel number 55159  was the first lucky ticket drawn  and the winner took home a large  glass bottle of tobacco put up by  George McKenzie "The Grocer."  The shekel was designed along the  lines of a sweepstake ticket and entitled "Okanagan Bank of Community Service."  For men not used to physical labour, the demands of the  project were extremely tiring and  many volunteers suffered various  aches and stiffness on Monday and  Friday mornings. One Sunday,  some excitement was created  when Hugh Dunlop and his team of horses up-ended a hornets'  nest with their scraper. Fortunately, he and the team and other  men nearby were able to make a hasty retreat before much damage could be inflicted.  The Naramata volunteer road project began to draw favourable editorial comment in papers in throughout B. C. and across  Canada. Issuing Shovel Shekels drew excellent reviews in the Halifax Herald and the Toronto Globe and Mail.  The 16-mile project fell into three sections: 1) From Cedar  Creek to the big canyon, six miles. 2) Through the canyon on an  old logging road, five miles. 3) From the end of the logging road to  Paradise Ranch road, five miles. It was decided to build a bridge  across Deep Creek on a flat near its mouth, then swing away from  Okanagan Lake on a rising grade to get around the head of the  deep canyon of Horse Creek and connect with an old logging road  that led to the big canyon. It was hoped that 200 men would turn  up on Sunday, October 25, 1936, to try to finish the section near  Deep Creek. Instead, only 75 volunteers presented themselves but  a good day's work was accomplished. A log cabin was built near  Deep Creek, complete with windows, to store supplies, and a sign  Part of Kelowna-Naramata Road  "open " to traffic, but easy does it.  58 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  bearing the name Kelata was proudly hung over the door. The  weather turned colder the following week and for all intents and  purposes work on the road for 1936 closed down November 5.  With the arrival of spring 1937, efforts to rejuvenate interest  in the Naramata road project resulted in proclaiming April 12 to 17  as "On To Naramata Week." On April 22 a well-attended banquet  was held at the Royal Anne Hotel to promote the road. Okanagan  Lake having frozen over two months before, the fact there was no  ferry service served to keep the Naramata road project on centre  stage.  Sam Miller reported to the banquet that he and Cliff Renfrew  had flown over the remaining gap and had got a fine perspective of  the route and the obstacles to be faced. Work resumed in early May  and again there were good turnouts. Vic De Hart took a team and  scraper to improve the grade and fill on both sides of Deep Creek  and also improved the section down to the Kelata cabin. A crew  from Winfield improved and finished the bridge over Deep Creek;  appropriately it was named the Winfield Bridge. Steep and rocky  terrain greeted the road builders heading for Horse Creek, slowing  progress and calling for much powder work, but the stream was  finally reached. Wet weather didn't help the cause, either, although  spirits remained high amongst the volunteers. J. R. Campbell, "The  Bicycle Man," took crews out on several Thursday afternoons to  improve bad corners and widen some narrow parts to enable two  cars to pass.  Sunday, October 10, 1937, proved quite an eventful day for  approximately 30 volunteers out on the road. At lunchtime we—  including the writer—decided to eat on the south side of a small  bay, as we had been told to stay well off as some blasting was going  to be done over the noon hour. While eating our lunches a big blast  went off and within a very short time a large, dark object appeared  on the surface of the water below us. It was travelling at a great  speed towards the middle of the lake where it disappeared below  the surface. It was faster than any boat and much larger than any  locally-known bird or fish, but the wash made it impossible to make  out its shape. We all felt it was the famed denizen of Okanagan  Lake, Ogopogo. Everyone had a good view and unanimously  vouched that all we had to drink with our lunch was tea or coffee—  nothing else.  Work in 1937 was carried out in different areas. Some crews  were in the vicinity of Horse Creek and beyond, while others made  improvements along the road itself. There was a good turnout on  Thanksgiving Day and this pretty well finished the schedule for  1937.  59 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  The year 1938 started out on the right foot for the Naramata  road project. In early April the annual meeting of the Okanagan  Highway Association drew a packed house. A Plymouth car was  raffled off, swelling the funds for the Association and the road  project. Winners of the car were Harry Broad and Jack Dunlop, co-  owners of the Royal Anne Hotel. Applause was spontaneous when  it was revealed that the successful raffle was due to the efforts of  three women, Mrs. J. N. Cushing, Mrs. J. B. Knowles and Mrs. P. B.  Willits. Dr. W. J. Knox and Dave Chapman Sr. picked the winning  ticket.  When work resumed on April 24, 1938, it was found that the  road had come through the winter and spring runoff with flying  colours. However, in June the public works department in Victoria  announced that tenders would be called for a new and larger ferry  to replace MS Holdup. It would handle 30 cars and passengers and  offer faster service. This was great news for the people of Kelowna,  but it did not stop the idea of building the road to Naramata; even a  new steel-hulled ferry could still be prone to severe winter conditions.  By the end of 1938 the road was completed beyond Horse  Creek and up to entrance of the big canyon where a big slough  posed the threat of flooding if high water occurred in the spring of  1939. Either some form of drainage or a large fill would be needed  to keep the road intact.  1937 Naramata road committee: Standing: H. V. Craig, John Cushing, Percy Harding,  Sam Miller, James Campbell. Seated: Harry Witt, Mrs. J. B. Knowles, Mrs. John Cushing,  Mrs. P. B. Willits, J. B. Knowles. On floor: F. W. Groves, Reg Rutherford.  (Photograph courtesy Stan Miller)  60 KELOWNA-NARAMATA ROAD  Old Logging Rds.  Park Boundaries  Gellatly Point  PEACHLAND  ...-■■■'~\ Cedar Creek  On May 10, 1939, H. V. Craig outlined to the third annual  meeting of the Okanagan Highway Association the progress made  so far. The road was complete to the big canyon and it was hoped  that in 1939 the volunteers could reach Good Creek. It would be  tough going in spots from Good Creek to Paradise Ranch, but Craig  was sure they were up  to the challenge.  As it turned out  not much work was  done on the land link in  1939, for in June the  new ferry MS Pendozi  was placed in service.  Moreover, hopes of continuing the project  ended when rearmament preparations for  WWII made it impossible to obtain dynamite  for such low-priority  causes as the Kelowna-  Naramata road.  In retrospect, if  the road from Kelowna  to Naramata had been  Squally  OKANAGAN MTN  PARK  Paradise Ranch  SUMMERLAND  ^^T<11 ilUIS  completed by the highways department and brought up to  proper standards would the Okanagan Bridge have been built and  in use by 1958? Would the Okanagan Connector have been opened  in 1990, assuming the Coquihalla Highway was built when it was?  Nobody has the answers, but it does give one something to think  about. I feel it will be a good many years before a highway is built  from Kelowna to Naramata, if ever There is neither the money  available nor the necessity for such a link at this time.  I would like to list, besides the individual volunteers, the various groups and  companies that also took part in the Naramata road project: Kelowna Senior and Junior  Boards of Trade, Vernon Junior Board of Trade, Canadian Canners, Canadian Legion,  Chapmans Transport, Kelowna Rotary Club, Modern Foods, Elks Lodge, The Sons of England and the Industrial and Agricultural Workers Association. There were many volunteers  from Winfield, Rutland, Ellison and areas adjacent to Kelowna. If the writer has missed any  group, please accept his apologies.  Names were given to locations along the route as a means of identification. These  included Cathers Cut, Meikle Meadows, Winfield Bridge, High School Heights, Junior Board  Boulevard, Aylmer Avenue and Handings Hollow.  Sources for this article included the files of the Kelowna Courier, 1935-1939. All  roadwork photographs and Shovel Shekel courtesy Dorothy Zoellner.  61 THE ARMSTRONG  WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  By Faith Hall  The role of the local Women's Institute is best examined in  connection with the entire organization: the provincial body,  the Federated Women's Institute and the Associated Country Women of the World. The local Institute contributes to each of  these umbrella groups and can attend the meetings of all. The  Women's Institute began in Canada and is now worldwide.  More than 100 years ago, a young mother named Adelaide  Hoodless was distressed to learn that the death of her 18-month-  old infant was caused by bacteria carried in impure milk, and that  this death could easily have been prevented. Adelaide began a campaign for pure milk in the City of Hamilton, Ontario, where she  and her family lived. She met with indifference, discrimination  and resistance, even though she was the wife of a prominent businessman, who was also the chairman of the Hamilton board of  education. It was then that Adelaide Hoodless realized the vulnerability of women, particularly those in less fortunate circumstances,  such as young mothers living in rural areas who needed information and advice about sanitation, child care and nutrition. She believed that if a Farmer's Institute could help to grow better crops, a  Women's Institute could grow healthier families.  As a result of Adelaide Hoodless's campaign, the first Women's Institute was formed on February 19, 1897. It proved so popular with the women of Ontario that the movement spread rapidly  to other provinces. In 1909 Miss Laura Rose, an instructor in dairying at Ontario Agricultural College at Guelph, came to B.C. and  organized 15 branches. The Women's Institute was given the support and approval of the Department of Agriculture, and a provincial body was established under The Agriculture Assistance Act of  1911 with W E. Scott, deputy minister of agriculture, being the first  Provincial Superintendent of British Columbia Women's Institutes.  Faith Hall was born and raised in Saskatchewan, where she resided for most of  her life. She worked for the provincial health department in Regina for 25 years.  On moving to Armstrong in 1991, she became active in the Women's Institute and  assumed the function of unofficial historian.  62 WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  This provincial group of  Women's Institutes started  a campaign that forever  changed the medical treatment of crippled children  in B. C. with the establishment of the Othoa Scott  Fund, together with a  building fund for a hospital for crippled children in  Vancouver and the Queen  Alexandra Solarium at Victoria for the care of children with long-term illnesses. Both hospitals  opened in 1927 and over  the years have been expanded and rebuilt. All  Women's Institutes in B. C.  continue to give financial  and other support to both  facilities.  In February of 1919,  representatives of Women's Institutes from all  provinces met in Winnipeg to form the Federated Women's Institute, with the approval of T. A. Crerar, Canada's Minister of Agriculture.  The moving force behind any large organization, however,  lies with the members of the local branch, and this is definitely the  case with the Armstrong Women's Institute. Armstrong W. I. was  granted a charter on December 10, 1919 and it first met on January  28,1920 in Armstrong City Hall with 31 women present. Later minutes indicate that the old city hall was the Pringle house on Railway Street, approximately where the Price is Right bulk foods store  is now situated.  At this first meeting Mrs. Jane Ball was elected president,  Mrs. R. Inglis secretary-treasurer and Mrs. N. Michner vice-president. Other members of the first executive were Mrs. Amelia Becker,  Mrs. Hannah Gamble, Mrs. Kate Perry, Mrs. L. Buck, Mrs. A. Buckley  and Mrs. Margaret Phillips. Their objectives were set forth as ". .. in  clause 78 of the Agriculture Act of 1915, and to help the local Cottage Hospital and to promote a community spirit and help any good  cause as the need arises."  Mrs. Dorothy Rees, an early member of the  Armstrong Women's Institute, admires quilt entries  at the 1969 Interior Provincial Exhibition.  63 WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  Within 11 years the  Armstrong W I. had 99 members. Their first project was to  obtain much-needed equipment for the Armstrong Hospital and over the years they  continued to support it, as well  as becoming part of other community projects. At the invitation of the Agriculture Society,  they became involved in the  fall fair in 1921 by assisting  with the exhibition of children's work. Thereafter, they  provided assistance to the fair  directors and offered prizes of  money and books for women's  and children's exhibits. They  sponsored 4-H exhibits, contributed prizes and helped  with judging wherever  needed. In 1920 the  Armstrong branch sent the  best Women's Institute exhibit  to the Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver.  In September of 1920 the Armstrong Women's Institute set  up a program to provide hot soup and hot chocolate to 170 children  in Armstrong schools.  In 1921 the Institute campaigned to have a fourth year (Grade  12) added to the high school curriculum to make it easier for students to qualify for university or normal school. W I. members  purchased a wheelchair for the new hospital and equipment for  the operating room. They distributed Christmas hampers, put on  flower shows, supported 4-H clubs in the district, provided playground equipment, first aid kits and soft rubber balls for the primary school. They helped to establish well-baby clinics and vaccination programs for infants, and provided flowers for the high school  graduating class.  A significant achievement took place in 1922 with the opening by Armstrong W I. of a community hall on Railway Street. As  well as providing a permanent place for the Institute to conduct its  business, the premises were available at nominal rents to other  organizations. Another welcome feature was a public washroom  supervised by a competent matron, a comfortable refuge where  travellers could rest, feed their babies and freshen up. The register  Mrs. Sheila Schultz, the IPE's 1961 "Jam Champion"  for receiving the most points for her jams, jellies and  marmalades. She went on to become a president and  life member of Armstrong W. I.  64 WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  contained many grateful entries from far-away places. The hall was  also used, free-of-charge, for baby clinics and First Aid classes, while  later in 1922 it became the home of an Institute-sponsored lending  library.  In October of 1924 Institute members committed their organization to provide travel costs for the Armstrong public health  and school nurse. The Institute also worked closely with doctors  and social workers to give financial aid and other assistance to unfortunate families in the district.  Much patriotic effort was expended by this busy Institute during the Second World War.  At present (1999) there are 15 active members in Armstrong  Women's Institute, three of whom are life members, namely: president Sheila Schultz, member for 35 years, trea: irer Barb Grimshire,  33 years, and vice-president Marg Kirk, 25 yea "s.  Although small in numbers, Armstrong W I. has been very  successful in fundraising, enabling it to continue to support B. C.  Women's Institute projects such as Children's Hospital, Queen  Alexandra Solarium and the Memorial Scholarship Fund, which  subsidizes students in the faculties of agriculture and home economics.  Recently, Armstrong W I. purchased equipment for the hospital day surgery, contributed to an appeal for Jaws of Life rescue  equipment and assisted victims of the Princeton flood and the  Salmon Arm forest fire. Substantial support was made available to  A gathering of Armstrong Women's Institute members. Left to right: Ruth Drennan, Barb  Grimshire, Faith Hall, Zelpha Peeling, Minnie Prouty, Ella Meis, Helen McKinty, Em  Hughes, Marg Kirk. Standing in the background shadows are Olive McKay and Sheila  Schultz.  65 WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  the "Adopt-a-Room" campaign of Vernon Jubilee Hospital and to  the McMurtry Baerg Cancer Centre. Each year the Institute gives  financial aid to Kindale, Community Services, and provides one  pager for the RCMP Victims' Assistance Program. Assistance is given  in individual cases as the need arises and as funds permit.  For years Armstrong W I. conducted a program called "Ag in  the Classroom" to give children hands-on experience with such  events as growing grain from seed or watching baby chicks hatch.  The Institute continues to move forward with changing circumstances. Technological advances and the resulting restructuring and downsizing have made the challenge to Women's Institutes much greater. In 1897 women had to contend with isolation,  lack of communication with neighbours, poor transportation and  sparse medical aid. Today's women drive cars and buses on paved  highways, fly long distances, communicate by telephone, fax or e-  mail. However, the foundation of our society is still the home.  Women of today need support, encouragement, advocacy and education to help them cope with our changing world, and to help  them and their children achieve a healthy and happy life in this  stressful environment.  The Institute of today must be prepared to meet that need.  66 THE MISSION CREEK  GREENWAY:  HISTORY IN THE MAKING  By Jodie Sexsmith  PREAMBLE  When we started writing this article it seemed almost too  soon to include it in an issue of Okanagan History. To most  of the members of the Friends of Mission Creek, the Mission Creek Greenway project is still in progress and it doesn't really feel like history yet. But, as Brenda Thomson, president of the  Friends of Mission Creek, said, "In 20 or 30 or 200 years this will  seem more historic. Mission Creek will continue to be part of our  community and local history. For now, let's just say we're making  history."  BACKGROUND  Mission Creek has always been an integral part of the Kelowna  community. Before the arrival of European settlers the creek was  used by First Nations people for their traditional fisheries. The creek  meandered down from the Greystoke Mountains in a series of oxbows and each year camps were made next to the creek so the  kokanee salmon could be harvested and preserved for the winter.  In the nineteenth century European settlers came to the area,  and the city, as we know it, grew along the creek banks at the  Father Pandosy Mission. Homesteads were established in the Mission area and the first crops were planted in the fertile soils next to  the creek.  Jodie Sexsmith graduated from the University of British Columbia with a BA in  geography and a B Ed in primary education. She has been a community relations  co-ordinator (parks) with the Regional District of Central Okanagan since 1995  and acted as liaison between that body and the Mission Creek Greenway Project.  67 MISSION CREEK GREENWAY  As more settlers came to stay in the area permanently, the  seasonal flooding of the creek was viewed as problematic. Mission  Creek was dyked and its water used for irrigation and later drinking water. The creek still supplies water for Rutland Water Works,  Black Mountain Irrigation District and the South East Kelowna Irrigation District. Further dyking completed in the 1950s straightened and deepened the channel, giving it the shape it holds today.  For many years the residents in our area have used sections  of the dyke along Mission Creek for recreation and appreciation of  the creek corridor. Only parts of the dyke were accessible to the  public since much of the land was privately held.  THE FRIENDS OF MISSION CREEK  A number of local residents recognized the creek's importance and the need to preserve it now for generations to  come. They decided that something had to be done before the  stream was lost entirely to development and other urban  pressures.  An informal group with  representatives from the Central  Okanagan Naturalists Club,  Kelowna Running Club and  equestrian community formed  in 1990 and called themselves  the Friends of Mission Creek.  They were invited to have a  voice in a number of projects  including the Mission Creek  Policy, which now dictates building restrictions near Mission  Creek, and the Mission Creek  Master Plan and Concept Plan  that was completed by Forecon  School District No. 23 students aid  Greenway cleanup.  Consulting in 1992. The Friends of Mission Creek disbanded in  1993 expecting that the Greenway would proceed within two years,  as was proposed by city council at the time.  When the Greenway did not go ahead as quickly as first  thought the group reconvened. They recruited new members to  represent various interest groups and areas of expertise. With the  68 MISSION CREEK GREENWAY  Mission Creek trail under construction.  help of past City Councillor  Elise Clark, and staff from the  Regional District of Central  Okanagan Parks Department,  the Friends of Mission Creek  formalized and registered as a  society in September 1996.  The society's executive  slate listed the following  members: Brenda Thomson  as president, Harald Hall as  vice-president, Suzanne  Anderton as secretary, Kathie  Jones as treasurer, Marie  Heywood, Joan Burbridge,  Marilyn Foster, Eileen  Chappell, Jennifer French,  Gary Gilbert, Jane Ritchie and  Dorothy Mills as members at  large.  The members of the  Friends of Mission Creek came from every area of Kelowna and  the Westside and worked together to create the following mission  statement to guide their actions.  The Friends of Mission Creek will facilitate preservation, restoration  and enjoyment of natural ecosystems and cultural heritage of the Mission Creek corridor through land acquisition and public education.  In October 1996, the Friends kept their mission statement in  mind and decided to take on a project of momentous proportion.  They envisioned a campaign that would raise enough money to  acquire land and build a multi-use linear trail along the north side  of Mission Creek for seven kilometres from Lakeshore Road to  Ziprick Road. It was felt that by providing this land, the creek corridor could be conserved and used for passive recreation.  THE CORPORATE FUNDRAISING CAMPAIGN  The Friends realized that they could not do the project alone.  They hired a professional fundraiser named Mary Krupa. An official appeal for money started in November 1996 and a five-way  partnership was formed to include The Friends of Mission Creek,  the Regional District of Central Okanagan, the City of Kelowna,  69 MISSION CREEK GREENWAY  the Ministry of Environment (Fish and Wildlife Branch and Dyking  Branch), the Westbank First Nations and the Central Okanagan Parks  and Wildlife Trust.  Krupa co-ordinated these organizations and a host of other  volunteers for a fundraising campaign that raised over a million  dollars for land acquisition and trail construction on the Greenway.  The campaign was broken into corporate, public and land donations.  A corporate fundraising campaign was launched in order to  secure major sponsors under the chairmanship of Dr. Barry Urness.  The members of this committee included Dr. Bill Arkinstall, Brian  Boechler, Cathy Comben, Ross Fitzpatrick, Don Folk, Dr. Fred  Froese, Gordon Geddes, Dr. Ralph Hawkins, John Hindle, Geord  Holland, Al Horning, Barry Lapointe, Jim Mills, Larry Salloum,  Tom Smithwick, Al Stober, Jim Stuart, Allen Tozer, Wayne Waters  and John Weisbeck.  The corporate campaign ran from November 1996 to February 1997 and raised $475,000 in cash and in-kind contributions.  Donors were recognized for contributions of five, 10, 25 and 50  thousand dollars. The Greenway project was successful in receiving contributions of design, printing, media, equipment rental and  a host of other much needed services as well as cash.  THE PUBLIC FUNDRAISING CAMPAIGN  With the corporate campaign complete, the public campaign  commenced in February 1997 and Greenway fever swept through  Kelowna. The public crusade involved members of the commu-  The interpretive kiosk at Mission Creek Regional Park.  70 MISSION CREEK GREENWAY  nity on all levels and reached the hearts of many in Kelowna who  understood the need for the project. At every turn there was some  reminder that the Greenway campaign was in full swing.  A series of events and fundraising activities raised over  $226,000. The most successful was the buy-a-metre campaign,  which raised over $183,000. A metre of trail was sold for 50 dollars  and the names of all those who donated are listed on the interpretive kiosk at Mission Creek Regional Park. An office was set up at  Parkinson Recreation Centre and the BC Tel Pioneers accepted  donations by telephone.  Other events included a kick-off breakfast at the Grand Okanagan Lakefront Resort, Mission Creek in the Mall at Orchard Park  shopping centre, a raffle of playhouses donated by local builders,  Green Day at the fire hall and a dessert evening at the Eldorado  Hotel. In addition displays were set up at local shopping centres,  supplemented by advertisements on city transit buses and signs at  local businesses.  Lastly, the teachers and students of School District No. 23  had an active and important role in the project. Field trips and  creek clean-up days were scheduled and hundreds of students took  part. An art contest was completed and all the artwork on the trail  signage and trail guide was gathered from the entries. The students  also raised funds for the buy-a-metre campaign. Many more individual volunteers and organizations were involved and their efforts have not gone unnoticed by the organizing committee.  LAND DONORS  Some land along the creek corridor was held privately and  had to be purchased, but over 16 acres valued at $305,000 was also  donated. Owners who contributed land included Georg and Rhonda  Schurian, the Estate of Margaret Greening, August and Muriel  Casorso, Fred P. Demofsky, Mr. and Mrs. Herman F. Ecker, 99.9 FM  The Bullet and OLDIES 1150, MKS Resources Inc., Westbank First  Nation, and Bill and Jean Yuros.  THE FINAL PROJECT  The Mission Creek Greenway officially opened to the public  with a ceremony on October 19,1997. The ribbon was cut by representatives from the five project partners and by donors who gave  more than $50,000 toward the project. These included Shaw Cable,  71 MISSION CREEK GREENWAY  the B. C. Real Estate Foundation, the Urban Development Institute, Georg and Rhonda Schurian, the estate of Margaret Greening  and Orchard Park shopping centre.  Although work was still in progress at the time this article  was written, most of the major tasks have been completed. Land  for a multi-use trail seven kilometres long was purchased and the  trail constructed on the north side of Mission Creek between  Lakeshore Road and Ziprick Road. Encompassing approximately  49 acres, the trail has been resurfaced and is suitable for bicycles,  walkers, runners, wheelchairs and horses.  In addition, there are four interpretive kiosks acknowledging  donors as well as providing information on environmental and  cultural features along the creek. A viewing platform was constructed between Casorso and KLO Road, which allows for a unique  view up and down the creek. Trailheads and gates have been installed at each of the entrances to the Greenway. Washrooms have  been provided along the route and, lastly, a trail guide was developed and has been distributed to the community.  The Regional Parks and Recreation Department co-ordinated  all construction for the Greenway project. The labour segment was  a combination of regional parks staff, grant employees through the  Provincial Environmental Youth Team Program and volunteers from  local businesses that donated services and equipment.  FUTURE PLANS  The Friends of Mission Creek are thrilled with the accomplishment of the Greenway project and with the support provided  by the community. The group is still active and although the membership has changed slightly, Brenda Thomson and Harald Hall  remain as president and vice-president respectively.  The Friends of Mission Creek are now hoping to complete a  second phase of the Greenway starting at Ziprick Road and building upstream to Scenic Canyon Regional Park. The next campaign  will most likely start early in the new millennium and the Friends  of Mission Creek are looking forward to another great success.  72 THE LIME QUARRY  ON WATERMAN HILL  By Steve Arstad  During the 1950s there was a mining operation located beside the Kettle Valley Railway (KVR) tracks at the south  end of the Fish Hatchery (Old Kaleden) Road, between  Kaleden and Okanagan Falls. Although there is little evidence remaining today to indicate it, a lime quarry once existed on this  piece of property just below the sharp curve on Waterman's Hill.  An Indian legend tells of a great volcanic crater that once  stretched from the benchlands of McLean and Shuttleworth Creeks  on the east, to McLellan's Flats to the west, north to Waterman's  Hill and south to the Mclntyre Bluffs near Vaseaux Lake. Legend  also has it that the river that rose out of this basin, which was filled  with warm water, flowed northward towards the Shuswap until the  glacial period, when the watercourse was altered to the south.  Members of the Waterman family (OHS Report 49) recollected finding seashells and fossilized marine life in the lime deposits at the  base of Waterman's Hill early in  this century.  Originally pre-empted by a  Mexican in 1894, William John  Waterman purchased the property  in 1904. A steeply sloping hillside  facing southeast, the property was  well suited to agriculture. In addition, a natural spring rose on the  upper reaches of the property  (now cut by Waterman Hill on  Highway 97), and flowed to the  lake past the Waterman home beside Dog (Skaha) Lake.  f  Waterman Hill lime quarry on the former Pryce  property, circa 1950. (Elizabeth Bork)  Steve Arstad resides with his family in Kaleden and publishes Inside Kaleden, a  successful monthly newsletter distributed in Kaleden and surrounding area. Two  of his interests are writing and history.  73 WATERMAN HILL  The original road junctioned on the rise above the house; to  the north went the Old Kaleden Road and to the west lay the route  up the steep grade to White Lake and Fairview, and the Marron  Valley route. To the south was Okanagan Falls at the end of Dog  Lake. It was at this junction that teamsters used Watermans' as a  rest and watering stop, sometimes overnighting. The huge barn  could accommodate 16 horses. Here the teamsters used to double-  team their rigs for the steep climb on the Fairview route.  The Watermans cultivated asparagus and grapes along the  steep hillside. Their crop of asparagus was sold to the Canadian  Pacific Railway and dairy products were supplied to Lapsley's Store  in Kaleden.  W. J. Waterman, who was in the mining business, quickly  noticed the lime deposits on his property. He dug up some of the  crumbly rock and tried to dry it in a kiln. Unable to produce quicklime, a product then in great demand in the building trade, he was  never able to turn the discovery into a commercial operation. W J.  left the area for England, later participating in the Great War of  1914-18.  The property was left in the stewardship of Alfred Pryce of  Okanagan Falls. However, Mr. Pryce also enlisted to serve in the  war and his wife, Elizabeth, was left to manage the place. As had  the Watermans, she sold asparagus and other produce, and those  teamsters still travelling through watered-up, double-teamed and  housed their horses in the barn as they always had.  Ernest Pryce at the lime deposit site in 1949. (Elizabeth Bork)  74 WATERMAN HILL  When the Watermans returned from England, W J. moved to  Vancouver, leaving the place to his wife, Florence. As she was unable to maintain sufficient income to keep the land, she moved her  family to Naramata where she obtained work as a housekeeper,  and the hill property was purchased by Alfred Pryce. A new house  was built alongside the highway on the knoll after the original dwelling burned down.  Mr. Pryce died in 1939 and the property passed to his son,  Ernest, who held it until his demise in an industrial accident near  Cranbrook in October 1950, when it was acquired by Hugh Leir.  The building of the KVR extension along the west shore of  Skaha Lake in 1933 saw a renewed interest in the lime deposit on  Waterman's Hill. The Okanagan Lime Company secured mineral  rights on the property and issued debentures in 1948—$10,000  worth, in $100 denominations, bearing six percent interest. The  mineral body contained 96 percent calcium, a fact that was proved  up during the operation of the property by Ernest Pryce, Ralph  Overton, and W J. Norrie-Lowenthal of South Africa. Betty Bork of  White Lake Road remembers Freddie Lang of Osoyoos (who later  made a name for himself on Don Messer's Jubilee as a fiddler) and  David Clarke of Penticton as a couple of local men who worked at  the mine.  In time, a siding was developed below the site and a large  hopper with a "grizzly"—a set of steel bars that helped to break up  the chunks of lime as they were bulldozed into the hopper—was  constructed. An improved conveyor system was also set up to make  the loading of rail cars more efficient. Ralph Overton's brother Russ,  who resides in Okanagan Falls, remembers that "a few carloads of  lime were shipped out, but it wasn't too profitable." He says the  product went to the Coast "to sweeten up the peatbogs of the lower  Fraser Valley." Some of it was also used as a fertilizer base.  The present owner of the property is Derek Salter, who remembers: "They loaded rail cars and bagged some of it. Hugh Leir  was quite upset about the fact that when the Okanagan Lime Company developed the deposit, they stripped all the topsoil off and  sold it in Okanagan Falls. The elementary school is built on top of  the soil they took."  Some of the lime was trucked to Okanagan Falls by Jim  Sinclair, who dropped it at a siding just east of where the highway  bridge crosses Okanagan River today. Ray Edmonds filled in for  Jim sometimes. This lime was shipped to Buckerfields, possibly in  Alberta. Others who hauled from the quarry were Les Clarey and  Punnett Quesnell.  75 WATERMAN HILL  Ray Edmonds of Okanagan Falls recalls the operation running for about seven years until 1957. "Some of the lime was loaded  onto rail cars at the quarry, some of it was hauled by truck to Okanagan Falls and either shipped by truck locally or loaded onto rail  cars there."  The lime quarry on Waterman's Hill did not survive the decade. Other large, more economical deposits of lime were available  throughout the world. The lime at Waterman's Hill was about 80  percent in makeup, more properly known as marl, which is actually an impure form of lime.  "The Okanagan Lime Company operated on a government-  funded subsidy," Derek Salter explained. "When the subsidy disappeared, the quarry's days were numbered."  Very little remains on this idyllic piece of property on the  hillside above Skaha Lake. Grassy fields and a U-Fish trout pond lie  on the quarry site today. Only a few scattered outcroppings attest  to the mining operation. The deposit was never mined out and  lime boulders lie scattered around the Salter property. The loading  conveyors, hopper, warehouse and railway siding are long gone.  Nowadays, it would be difficult for a passerby to recognize the site  of the Okanagan Lime Company quarry at all. But for the memories of a few local long-time residents, the venture has faded into  history.  76 A COMMUNITY AFFAIR:  THE NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  AT VERNON JUBILEE HOSPITAL  1904-1931  By Daphne Thuillier  When Vernon Jubilee Hospital celebrated its 100th anniversary in July 1997, it paid tribute to several hundred citizens and thousands of staff members who, throughout the  century, had laboured—often against seemingly overwhelming  odds—to make the hospital into the very fine health care facility  that it is today. Among all those people was a wondrous succession  of nurses, some totally inexperienced, many highly qualified, without whom there would have been nothing to celebrate.  Vernon Jubilee Hospital has trained nurses in one aspect or  another throughout its existence but, from 1904 to 1931, there was  an actual Training School for Nurses that, especially in its later  years, became a great source of interest and pride throughout the  community. It started in the time of Miss Henderson and Miss  McKay (whose given names were never revealed), two members  of the Victorian Order of Nurses sent to Vernon from England in  1899 by Lady Aberdeen to replace Mrs. Edwin Pratt, the first matron at the "Cottage Hospital," whose qualifications were suspect.  Both Henderson and McKay became well-known in the community, a motion having been passed by the board of directors that  they were "at liberty" to nurse outside the hospital when not engaged there. Nurse McKay became involved almost entirely in district nursing, but Miss Henderson soon became invaluable and,  after being appointed "Superintendent" in 1901, took part in the  decision approved by the board in 1902 that a "training school for  Nurses be organized in connection with the Hospital and that the  rules as read be adopted." No copy of these rules remains and it  appears that the necessary approval from the Ministry of Health  Daphne Thuillier settled in Vernon in 1962 and worked in the real estate industry until retirement. She has been involved with a number of community organizations and her interest in the history of Vernon Jubilee Hospital began when she  served on the VJH board from 1982 to 1991.  77 NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  was a lengthy process,  as the first advertisements for probationers  in the Vernon News and  the Vancouver Daily  Province did not appear  until January 1904.  The first probationer arrived in September 1904, for a  three-year period of  training starting at a salary of $5 per month, rising to $15 per month in  the third year. Three  other young women ar-  rived the following  month. By 1905, the  nursing staff consisted  of five "graduate"  nurses and four probationers. The number of  trainees at any one  time remained at four  until 1912, when the community was shaken to its core by the resignation of the entire nursing staff, consisting of the Lady Superintendent, seven graduate nurses and four probationers, after Dr.  Gerald Williams used "Profane and Abusive Language" while attending to a maternity patient. The story of the event made a considerable stir in the community, full details being published in the  Vernon News of March 28,1912. The nursing school was closed temporarily, but the staff was soon replaced by six graduate nurses and  two probationers. However, as the onslaught of World War One  claimed the experienced nurses, many of whom joined the Canadian Army Medical Corps, the hospital was forced to take in more  probationers than before. By April 1917, there were 11 nurses-in-  training and only one graduate and the arrival of several thousand  troops at Vernon Military Camp kept the "Hospital on the Hill" filled  to capacity. The young pupil nurses (as they were referred to in  records from 1912 on) were, for the first time, forced to take regular  ward shifts and to keep up their studies as well: no mean task.  The work of these young women was exacerbated not only  by the influenza epidemic that swept the nation in the fall and  winter of 1918, but also by the arrival of invalid soldiers. Fortu-  Staff of the first Vernon Jubilee Hospital, or "Cottage Hospital, "  circa 1905. Standing: Dr. Osborne Morris, Miss Woodland, Lady  Superintendent (wearing pointed cap), Richard John Davies,  secretary-treasurer, and graduate nurses Peters, Manstead,  Thompson and Clarke. Sitting: Probationers Tunstal, Lye, Corbet  and Ridsale. (Nurses and probationers not necessarily in order stated).  (Courtesy Vernon Archives)  78 NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  nately, Vernon experienced only a mild form of the flu, but in October 1918, 56 patients were admitted to VJH, three of whom died,  and a number of the nursing staff were struck down ill. It was reported that the hospital had "proved of great service to the city and  district" and that "the manner in which the nurses had performed  their work was an inspiration." The first of a total of 39 invalid  soldiers arrived at the hospital in January 1918 and occupied the  second floor until the summer of 1919. When forecasting the first  arrivals, the News claimed that "a trained staff of nurses could place  their services at the disposal of the patients" but, in fact, it was the  pupil nurses whose services were utilized. Two graduate nurses  did not arrive until later in the year and it was not until June 1919  that the directors authorized a staff of six graduate nurses, despite  the complaints of the Lady Superintendent, Miss Scott, that some  trainees were too tired to attend lectures. Apparently at least one  of these young women was not too tired to socialize with the soldiers (strictly forbidden) and became the subject of a newspaper  report describing her "bob-sleighing" activities with the invalids,  which led to a "Committee of Inquiry" and the posting of stringent  rules and regulations in the Nurses' Home.  In September 1919, two of the new graduates left without  notice and the other four resigned, along with Miss Scott. Once  again, the VJH nurses' training school was closed temporarily. Fortunately, the following month Miss Elizabeth E. Clark from Nelson  took over as Lady Superintendent. She had been night supervisor  at Vancouver General Hospital and was to become one of the most  respected Lady Superintendents in any provincial hospital. The  school was reopened immediately with five students under the direction and instruction of a graduate nurse, Miss Dorothy  Mickleborough, and thus began its brightest period, which continued until both Miss Clark and Miss Mickleborough left in 1930.  The board of directors was able to leave all training matters in the  hands of Miss Clark, and received the reflected glory when the  graduates topped the lists in the provincial exams, which happened  frequently and was advertised widely. The Vernon school became  sufficiently well thought of to attract students from outside the province, even from the United States and England. By 1925, there were  17 nurses-in-training and in January 1926 Miss Clark reported a  "fairly long waiting list."  The life of a probationer or pupil nurse was what might be  called todajr "a hard slog." Conditions were spartan and discipline  was strongly enforced. Mrs. Lillian Thom, who was Matron at VJH  from 1949 to 1961 (the title of Lady Superintendent having been  discarded by then), was in training from 1926 to 1929 and had this  to say about her experiences:  79 NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  We didn't get any pay for three months . . .  we were given our caps and aprons at the end of  three months and then we were juniors. We also  had long white cuffs that we had to wear when we  went into the dining room . . . We had to have a  napkin ring for our linen serviettes. We had an awful  lot around our middles with the apron hands and  the heavily starched foundation belts. And the celluloid collars—you could see the girls going around  with absorbent cotton underneath the collars because they scratched the neck.  In the first year, we went to class every day.  We each had a little basket with all the necessities  for making a patient comfortable: alcohol, powder,  hair-brush and comb, nail brush, etc. We learned to  make beds, rub backs, give enemas and take temperatures . . . You can imagine what a shock it was  to a lot of 18-year-old girls, having to do preparations for the men. It was a shock to the men as well.  We used maggots to clean up wounds and hot  fomentations for infections. I was never in the Isolation Building. The nurses were there for the full  term. One was there for six weeks, and when she  Lady Superintendent Elizabeth Clark and the 1926 VJH graduating class. Rear: Buddy  Large, Frances Doherty, Kathleen Blakey, Norma Oxley, Priscilla Kerr. Front: Alta  Jones, Miss Clark, Jean Evans. (Courtesy Vernon Archives)  80 NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  came out she had to wash her hair and have a bath  in a special solution. We did six weeks' days and six  weeks' nights for our maternity training under Miss  Wilson. We had to be up and ready for breakfast by  twenty minutes to seven. If you were late, you lost  your late leave which was until 12 o'clock one night  a week. We were paid $10 a month after our three-  month probation period, $15 a month in our second year, and $20 a month in our third year We  were luckier than girls in other hospitals.  When I think of it now, they sure got cheap  labour. We worked from 7 a.m. to 7p.m. with two  hours off each day, and four hours off on Sundays.  Much of our time was spent going to lectures.  A "Schedule of Classes" shows that "Junior" pupil nurses were  required to take classes in Anatomy, Nursing, Nursing Ethics,  Materica Medica (the drugs and other remedial substances used in  medicine), Bacteriology, Fever Nursing, Hygiene and Sanitation,  and Bandaging. "Intermediate" pupils took, in addition, Surgery,  Dietetics, Urinalysis, Obstetrics, Medicine, Obstetrical Nursing,  Gynecology, Surgical Technique and X-Ray. "Senior" pupil nurses  put their new-found knowledge to work in the wards.  Throughout their training, the pupil nurses must have been  very aware of the interest and support given to the nursing school  by the community. Each year in May the "Commencement Week"  activities for the graduates were well publicized and attended, and  the third-year nurses were given the responsibility of acting as hostesses at a dinner party in the Nurses' Home. The week started with  a service at the Central United Church with a special sermon, and  featured a number of supper parties, a garden party, a theatre party  at the Empress Theatre, Convocation at the Vernon courthouse, a  luncheon (hosted in 1926 by Mrs. K. C. MacDonald, the wife of the  Provincial Secretary) and a wind-up dance at the Foresters' Hall  hosted by the VJH board of directors and Women's Auxiliary. Over  the years, the convocations were addressed by prominent citizens,  such as Dr. Malcolm MacEachern, the general superintendent of  Vancouver General Hospital. In 1925 A. O. Cochrane, MLA, declared, "It is a grand thing for a man or woman to live a life of  81 NURSES TRAINING SCHOOL  usefulness ... It is truly the 'life that satisfies.'" The Vernon News  reported the week in detail, with a headline describing the 1926  convocation as AN INSPIRING SPECTACLE.  When Miss Clark left VJH in 1930 to accept the position of  Superintendent of Nursing at Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, she was replaced by Miss Susan McVicar, who became  another superintendent to earn much respect. Unfortunately, 1930  was the year in which hospital revenue started to decline and, at  the annual general meeting of 1931, director Joe Harwood moved  that the nursing school be discontinued, saying, "I have always been  proud of the school and it has been a great credit to Vernon. But  you can't do big things if you haven't got the money . . . And the  hospital must cut its cloth accordingly. I would be sorry to see the  school go, but I think it would be more economical without it."  Major E. H. Cunliffe, president of the board from 1927 to 1930,  pointed out that it was becoming necessary to discourage the training of nurses in small hospitals, and Miss McVicar concurred. The  decision was left to the incoming board and in March 1931 a motion to abolish the school was carried. Three nurses graduated at  the last commencement exercises in April 1931. The remaining 14  students were placed in other hospitals. It was a sad, but necessary, decision.  (Extracted from A Century of Caring by Daphne Thuillier. 357 pages. Published by  the Vernon Jubilee Hospital, 1997)  82 MAIL SORTED AND STEAMED  ON THE OKANAGAN  By R. F. Marriage  For more than half a century the Okanagan depended on railways for the transport of mail to and from the rest of the  country  The railways held two types of contracts to carry mail on  passenger or mixed trains: RPO (Railway Post Office), in which a  car or a partitioned section thereof was equipped to sort mail in  transit by postal clerks, and BCS (Baggage Car Service) carrying  closed mails between post offices and handled by the train crew.  A closed mail consignment was not opened for sorting before arrival at the office named on the label. BCS in the United  States was titled CP (Closed Pouches).  Soon after completion of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway  in 1892, the growth of settlement and business in the Valley warranted use of a postal car to make up mail for local exchange on the  line and for dispatch south via the steamer Aberdeen. In 1894 an  RPO was established between Sicamous and Okanagan Landing.  At that time the term MC (mail clerk) was still in use to designate  such an office. About 1899 a new dater was issued reading Okanagan Landing & Sicamous RPO.  William Finlayson was the first clerk employed on the line.  His wife ran the general store and post office at Sicamous and  members of the family held the position of postmaster there until  1954, when son Doug retired. At Okanagan Landing other members of the family held the same position from 1908 to 1969.  Early in the century it became obvious that the closed mail  service on the lake steamers was inadequate and Ottawa was urged  to supply an RPO type of service.  In 1911 the Aberdeen and Okanagan were fitted with mail  rooms on their freight decks. A deckhand exchanged mails with a  side-service courier at each landing, similar to the way it was handled at railway stations. Although it was a water service, the route  was designated Penticton & Okanagan Landing RPO.  R. F. Marriage is a director of the Kelowna branch, Okanagan Historical Society,  and a life member of the parent body.  83 MAIL SORTED AND STEAMED  Plans of the SS Sicamous, launched in 1914, included a mail  room. The combined operation of the trains and boats with clerks  re-sorting mails enroute offered a quality of service that has never  been equalled. This arrangement lasted until the end of 1934. The  highways of the day, albeit crude, forced the CPR to withdraw the  Sicamous from service, incurring a loss of $14,000 a month—a large  sum at that time.  The wooden-hulled Okanagan was laid up to rot on the beach  at the Landing. The Aberdeen had been abandoned in 1916.  Already holding running rights over the CNR line from Vernon  to Kelowna, the CPR extended its mixed passenger run to Kelowna,  and soon abandoned the branch from Vernon to Okanagan Landing. A new RPO—Kelowna and Sicamous—was established on January 1, 1935, and a contract made with the D. Chapman company to  haul closed mails between Penticton and Kelowna.  In the 1940s this service was augmented by a BCS on the  CNR from Kamloops to Armstrong, Vernon and Kelowna, southbound only. In 1954 the Post Office cancelled its contracts with the  railways to establish highway services between Kamloops and the  Okanagan, hauling closed mails. The writer was employed on trains  708 and 707 the last day they operated—September 30, 1954.  From 1915 to 1957, BCS on the Kettle Valley line carried mail  to and from the RPO, which terminated at Midway and a similar  service west of Hope or Ruby Creek. Penticton was a busy forwarding office catering to that large area. Overnight service to and from  Vancouver was an accepted routine for 40 years.  84 RELIEF CAMPS OF THE  GREAT DEPRESSION  By Dorothy Smuin as told by Jack Rainbow  My brother-in-law, Jack Rainbow, was a miner. He entered  the workforce in the mid-1920s, just as mining was beginning to die out in British Columbia. Metal prices were  down, some of the older mines were worked out, and it was an  uncertain way to earn a living. The Great Depression began in 1929  with the stock market crash and Jack, with so many other men,  was soon unemployed. As things got worse, the government set up  relief camps where idled men could live. They were paid a small  wage, for which they did a little road work and carried out necessary tasks around the camp.  Jack spent quite a bit of time in the camps and he had some  great stories of the goings-on. As the years went by many of the  stories were forgotten, but one evening in the early 1980s we got  talking about the camps and I set up my typewriter and told him to  keep talking. What follows is his story, just as he recounted. He  jumped around quite a bit and I have changed the order a little, but  apart from the addition of a few words (in parentheses) for clarification, it is exactly as he told it.  "To go back to about 1927, I was working in the Kootenays.  They were starting to lay the miners off in the various mines. I had  been demoted to part-time miner and part-time mucker. I received  a letter from home in Hedley saying they were going to work at the  Nickel Plate mine through the winter, so I thought I might as well  go home. I came back and they were still talking about working in  the mine all winter and using the big steam plant for power. [While  this was going on] I got ajob at the Horn Silver mine at Similkameen;  worked there five days. Elwood Bromley was the foreman. They  were to put more men to work, but nothing happened. After a week,  I got a chance to go back to Hedley to fire boilers, expecting to  Dorothy Smuin is retired in Penticton, where she has been a long-time resident.  She enjoys several hobbies, writing among them, and recently published her first  book. She was employed for several years at the Penticton museum.  85 RELIEF CAMPS  work all winter. Cold weather came and they shut the mill down  and that was the end of that. The mill was closed every winter in  the cold weather. Winter work at the mine was cancelled so I hung  around all winter. The Princeton coal mines were doing very little.  The Hedley mine started again the next spring, but I had rheumatic fever and was in bed three months. Dr. McCaffery told me  not to go back into the mines.  The Hope-Princeton road was being started, and as my brother  Frank was working there, he advised me to try for ajob. Bert Thomas from Princeton was the foreman. I was put to work driving a  Cletrac tractor, pulling stumps on the right-of-way. I did various  jobs, sawing wood for the cookhouse, etc., and eventually wound  up doing the blasting. The first winter on the Hope road was spent  at the Sunday Creek camp and we worked as the weather permitted.  The depression hit in 1929. We had a real good Conservative  government at the time, and [when things got really bad] they developed relief camps on the Hope-Princeton road. All the single  men were moved away from there, and I went back to Hedley where  I was considered a transient. They built another relief camp by the  Sterling Creek bridge for the local single men, but for some reason  this camp fizzled out. In the meantime, they had the camps going  on the Hope-Princeton road, staffed with married men only. Frank  was still up there driving a cat. Anyone with ajob like that stayed.  They had divided the camps into groups of three. They were  paid $4 a day. Copper Mountain took over for two weeks, then the  Allenby bunch for two weeks, and Princeton; then they started all  Similkameen Falls relief camp. (Courtesy Mrs. M. E. Rainbow)  86 RELIEF CAMPS  over again. This went on pretty well all summer. We (the single  men) were in the camp at Sterling Creek, working around a bit on  the road with shovels and rakes, etc.  The scheme of $4 a day was abandoned and the married men  were paid $13.20 a month all over the province. Then they came  out with a new idea and built the Falls camp on the Hope-Princeton.  All camps were filled with people on relief, $13.20 a month. They  came from Oliver, Penticton, Summerland. [By around 1931 or 1932]  the relief was cut down to $6.20 a month, plus board, clothing and  tobacco.  The camps were very rough. The Copper Creek bunkhouses  were constructed of logs cut on the site. The cookhouse was a frame  building, also the commissary. There was the cookhouse, about  five bunkhouses [which were] just one big room, known as "the  Ram Pasture," and the wash house—the "dry."  The bunks were just iron-frame cots—possibly 20 to 25 men  to a building. One year there were about 80 men there for the winter. The staff lived in separate quarters. There was a lighting plant  powered by a gasoline engine. It was shut off at 10 p.m. and we all  went to bed. My brother Frank started the Copper Creek plant in  the morning and I shut it off at night.  We were supplied three meals a day; some of the food was  very good. Fred Bacon was one of the cooks. He was wonderful. He  had been operating boarding houses and he knew that by having  cake, pie and sweet stuff for the men he could feed them for a lot  less than the places where there were no sweets. He fed them for  56 cents a day for three meals. The camps were all very similar.  Some had excellent food, some very poor.  We worked six hours a day when we could. For recreation,  we played cards, checkers, etc. At one time there was a big pile of  Coast 2x4s there for some reason. The men had a lot of idle time  and there was lots of snow, so one by one the 2x4s disappeared as  the men made them into skis.  Other camps were developed farther up the Hope-Princeton.  Fred Taylor from Twin Lakes was one of the foremen. He ran what  they called the UMGOOLA camp. This was one of his favourite  names from Africa, which he left about 1900 to come to B. C.  About 1932 I went up to Any ox and worked there for 21  months. The price of copper went down to three cents a pound  and they couldn't sell it, so it was stockpiled on the beach. Piles of  copper ingots several hundred feet long were stacked on the beach-  tons of them.  87 RELIEF CAMPS  The mine was getting pretty shaky and I had a chance to  work at Oliver, so I left and came to Morning Star mine. The Nickel  Plate had been taken over by the Kelowna Exploration [company]  and they were doing a lot of development work. In 1934 I moved  up to the Nickel Plate and worked there until 1942."  (Jack Rainbow and his family moved down to Keremeos, where he took up farming and  later worked on the road crew as designated powderman, until retirement).  Naramata Gave Shelter  to the Unemployed  The relief camp at Naramata consisted  of eight bunkhouses for the men and a cookhouse. There was also a building to store the  wheelbarrows, shovels and other tools used  by the men who worked on roads in the area.  The buildings were constructed of shiplap  and, judging by the  length of the icicles, not  insulated. Some buildings had vents on the roof  to supply fresh air for the  men sleeping inside.  Apparently the men  were paid very little —  food, accommodation,  cigarettes and 25 cents  per day. (The average  weekly industrial wage  on the eve of the financial crash was $29.20).  Many of the young men were from England,  and Naramata boasted a top soccer club while  they were there. Many stayed on after the  Depression, working for orchardists and  some even acquired orchards of their own.  The buildings of the Naramata relief  camp were later auctioned off, moved and  used in and around the village of Naramata.  (We are grateful to Doug Cox and Phil Rounds for this  short account of a 1930s transit camp in the South  Okanagan).  Naramata relief camp. (Courtesy Doug Cox)  88 LORD'S DM ALLIANCE OPPOSES  SUNDAY TRAIN SERVICE  By Robert Cowan  From the inception of train transportation into the Okanagan  Valley in 1891, the public had been critical of the level of  service provided by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The first  train was given the nickname "OP Molasses" because it was so slow.  It seemed schedules were created to be ignored.  By 1911 train service had improved greatly. Instead of a passenger car being added to a freight, there was regular passenger  service daily, except Sundays, connecting the CPR mainline at  Sicamous with the lake boats at Okanagan Landing. A person could  catch the morning train south at any point along the line and return from Vernon the same day. No doubt much of the improved  service was due to increased demand from an expanding population.  The CPR responded to public pressure and instituted a Sunday passenger train in the fall of 1911. H. W Brodie, superintendent for CPR passenger service in Vancouver, explained the reasoning behind the move: "In arranging this service I was of the opinion that we were making a change that would be welcomed by  every person in the Valley, realizing as I could not help doing, that  it was very unsatisfactory to compel passengers to remain over at  junction points when within a few miles of their destination, or  compel them to lose twenty-four hours at the commencement of a  very long journey, as in most cases it is, when passengers leave the  Valley." [Enderby Press and Walker's Weekly, November 16, 1911)  Mr. Brodie said that he had been strongly lobbied by the  Vernon Board of Trade to make the change. "They pointed out to  me, quite properly I thought, that it was a serious inconvenience  for passengers arriving from far eastern points, and also from Vancouver and Victoria, on a Sunday morning to be held up for twenty-  four hours at Sicamous junction. As an example, a passenger from  Vernon doing business at the Capital of the province is obliged to  leave Victoria Friday afternoon in order to be home on Saturday.  Then again, returning passengers from the far east, after complet-  Rohert Cowan is branch editor of the Society's Armstrong/Enderby Branch and  chair of Enderby and District Museum Society.  89 SUNDAY TRAIN SERVICE  ing their journey of several thousand miles, find themselves obliged  to remain over within a few miles of their destination for twenty-  four hours. In view of the representations made, I decided to recommend to our management to furnish the facilities asked for . . .  It will take but a short time to demonstrate whether or not the  service is actually required ..." (Ibid. November 16, 1911)  Not everyone was happy with this new arrangement. Various clergy, mostly through the Lord's Day Alliance, mounted a  strong campaign in the pulpit and through the newspapers to enlist public support to discontinue Sunday train service. Their argument wasn't only religious.  The Lord's Day Alliance, a lay organization, was founded in  1888 under the aegis of the Presbyterian Church. It was concerned  with the increased secularization of the Sabbath. Railways, which  often ran on Sundays, were a particular concern. By the turn of the  century, this organization was one of the most effective lobbies in  Canada. Organized labour joined hands with religious folks to pressure the federal government into declaring The Lord's Day Act,  which became law in March 1907. It required, however, provincial  authorization in order to be enforced. (The Canadian Encyclopedia.  Vol. II [Edmonton: 1985])  Rev. Mr. Campbell, pastor at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church  in Enderby, was one of the spokesmen for the Lord's Day Alliance  in the North Okanagan. He made it clear that the Alliance wasn't  only a church organization: "It also has the sympathy and support  of almost every labour organization in the Dominion, and the support of the large number of sane businessmen. The Lord's Day Act  has the support of every government in the Dominion, federal and  provincial, except the Government of British Columbia. And anyone who considers honestly the purpose and character of that law  can hardly find reason of talking about the 'suppression of man,  bigoted and narrow intolerance.' The question before us is, that  from fifty to a hundred men in the Valley are bound to seven days  work a week in the name of what is called public convenience. Nor  is it sufficient to say that they may quit the job if they are not  satisfied. According to your position the public makes the demand  which puts those who serve them in an unfair and unjust position." (Enderby Press and Walker's Weekly, November 16, 1911)  The CPR workers were the ones who were being asked to  make the greatest sacrifice in the name of public convenience. They  had a choice: quit or work every day of the week. They went to  work.  How did the public react? W H. Walker, the editor of Enderby's  newspaper, reported: "If we are to judge from the number of passengers taking advantage of the Sunday train in and out of the Val-  90 SUNDAY TRAIN SERVICE  1920 southbound CPR train arriving at Enderby station.  (Enderby Museum)  ley, even at this  time of the year  when travel is  lightest, it is apparent that Mr.  Brodie, superintendent of the  passenger service, knew better  than the rest of us  as to the need of  such a service.  Last Sunday the  coaches were comfortably filled, both south-bound and north-bound.  The first-class coach was occupied largely by parents and their children." (Ibid. November 16, 1911)  The clergy in Vernon did not feel that the public pulse had  been accurately gauged. They prevailed upon the mayor to hold a  public meeting and examine the pros and cons of Sunday train  service. The first speaker proposed a motion to condemn the Sunday train service. The next speaker offered an amendment that" .  . . commended the service and thanked the CPR most heartily for  inaugurating the Sunday service." (Ibid. December 7, 1911)  "The meeting was a stormy one if we are to believe the reports. It is generally held by men of the cloth that citizens do not  express themselves on matters which are forced upon them by such  organizations as the Lord's Day Alliance, and speaking generally,  this is no doubt true. But such a complaint cannot be laid against  the citizens who attended the Vernon meeting referred to. The  question before the meeting was very warmly discussed and at the  conclusion of the discussion, the amendment endorsing the Sunday service carried by a large majority." (Ibid. December 7, 1911)  The public obviously wanted train service that provided a  greater measure of convenience to travellers. In an era when rail  transportation represented the highest level of travel achievement,  such a public reaction will come as no surprise. Would opposition  to such an obvious improvement in the mobility of the population  later play a role in the decline of church membership?  W H. Walker believed that it was entirely possible: "The matter will probably get into court through the operation of the Lord's  Day Alliance . . . We hope a person may be privileged to hold a  contrary opinion. We believe in this striving for temporal power  the Church of to-day is doing the very thing that has driven men  from it in ages past and will drive men from it in the present day."  (Ibid. November 9, 1911)  91 SPRING STATION AT  WHITE LAKE  By Elizabeth Pryce  The alkali-fringed shores from which White Lake got its name  spread out from a bowl in a sagebrush-covered basin between  Okanagan Falls and Kaleden on the west side of the South  Okanagan Valley. White Lake's recorded history stretches back to  1820 when the Hudson's Bay fur brigades (OHS Reports 13 and 57)  passed through on their long and arduous trips between Fort St.  James in northern British Columbia and Fort Okanogan in Washington State. This activity ceased when a new route through the  Tulameen country to Hope was chosen, and the last fur train through  White Lake was in 1848 when the Canada-U. S. border was established.  During the 1850s the trail was used as an alternate route to  the Cariboo gold fields by miners and cattlemen. By 1890 homesteads appeared on the scene and freighters turned the trail into a  road. Today, it is a secondary paved highway between Kaleden and  Oliver, known as the White Lake Road. Beside the lake, the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (OHS Report No. 30) is located  and continues its activities with dish-shaped antennas; however,  the forest of poles that facilitated earlier monitoring is now abandoned. As in earlier times, cattle still range the brown hills.  The Prather family arrived in the White Lake area in 1892, settling  on the Junction Ranch. John Thomas Prather had moved his wife,  Miranda Jane, and family, Laura, James and Louis from Kansas in  1880 by covered wagon over the Oregon Trail to Spokane. Another  son, George, was in the sawmill business there. At Deep Creek,  near Spokane, twins Earl and Pearl Jean1 were born. Laura took up  teaching in the little settlement of Oroville. However, when her  father moved everyone up to Fairview, Laura moved with them  and there she met Richmond Travis2 whom she married in Vernon  in 1896. Mr. Travis was employed at Fairview mine and Camp  Elizabeth Pryce, with husband John Bork, resides at White Lake, an area she has  researched and written about. Her grandfather, Harry Wolstenholme, purchased  land from Dave Burns and cattle ranched during the 1940s and '50s where the  Dominion Observatory is now located.  92 SPRING STATION  Miranda Jane and John Thomas Prather  at Spring Station, White Lake.  McKinney until they  ceased operations, after  which the Travises  homesteaded at White  Lake. The hill near their  farm is still referred to by  old-timers as Travis Hill.  From the Junction  Ranch the twins, Earl and  Pearl, and their sister  Evelyn rode horses daily  to school in Okanagan  Falls.  Up the long hill  from Junction Ranch to  the flats of White Lake, a  sawmill, from which the  hill took its name, was in  business. The White Lake  Ranch purchased by Gilbert Taylor in 1903 flourished. Later, from that  ranch, Herbert Guernsey  grazed sheep and cattle  on the grassy slopes and  raised horses and apples. A post office had been established in 1895  with Hiram Inglee as postmaster. It was later closed and a large  tree at the top of Sawmill Hill, to which a coal-oil can was attached,  became the mail drop on the route from Marron Valley through the  Billy Crooks property (now Leir Ranch). The courier was possibly  a man named Parker.  A coal mine (OHS Report No. 38) was in production by 1901,  with the coal used for blacksmithing in Fairview and, for a short  time as well, by the Hotel Alexandra in Okanagan Falls.  When the Prathers moved up to White Lake, freighters were  hauling everything from mine machinery to cigars through the  White Lake basin to Fairview and Camp McKinney. It was the main  north-south thoroughfare for drivers Tom Roadhouse, Alec Gillespie  and Warwick Arnott. John Prather set up his station near a spring-  fed pond in a draw beside the present lodge located on what is now  the southern property of St. Andrews Estates.  Built of logs, there was the Prather home of several rooms,  which served as a stopping house where passengers could remain  overnight, and a stage barn for the accommodation of relay teams.  93 SPRING STATION  Orchard at Spring Station  It was called Spring Station and known as the Prather Place. For a  time John Prather hauled freight while son James and the women  of the family looked after the station. Bells on the harness of the  teams could be heard at Spring Station from quite a distance; the  women would then know when to have the meal prepared and  related duties attended to. One of those related jobs was to polish  the silver to a high shine, and to accomplish this the silverware  would be pushed and turned in the sand outside, then washed thoroughly in soapy hot water and rubbed and dried to a sparkling  state. An exceptionally good cook, daughter Evelyn Prather became  chief cook at the station, her meals praised by family, friends and  all who overnighted there.  At Spring Station the Prathers grazed cattle as well as horses.  Their brand was 44 with the second 4 reversed. It was later transferred to Dave Burns's name and used on his place.  Mr. Prather also planted a small orchard consisting of quince  and nectarines, as well as the general varieties of mixed fruit. There  are still trees to be seen on the site, albeit derelict, but standing  nonetheless after nearly a century.  For a time Spring Station served as a post office. One of two  postcards saved by the Burns family is addressed to "Mrs. Prather,  White Lake, B. C"; the other to Mrs. Prather, White Lake, via  Penticton, B. C."  James Prather built on his pre-emption east of Spring Station  (near the fossil beds on White Lake Road). One room in his house  was used as a school for five days of the week; also as a church.  A creek on the north side of the basin bears the Prather name,  as does the lake near the station. From a hill behind Spring Station,  called Parker Mountain (Ring Mountain by the Prathers because of  a prominent wildlife trail around it), one could look down and see  94 SPRING STATION  the two holes that give rise to the name Spectacle Lakes. Also, during the dry season, the water sometimes receded, leaving two small  ponds connected by a strip of land. During the winter skating parties were held there. Jock Ure from Kaleden took ice for his cold-  storage house from Prather Lake, as did Mary Walker from White  Lake and Roy Ripley from Myers Flats south of White Lake. In the  summertime campers enjoyed the countryside around the shore.  Some other residents of the area were August and Babe Kruger,  Harry Lush, Berkley Noad, Thomas Thynne, Cecil deB. Green and  son Vince, at Horn Lake, "Highland" Mary Walker and Dave Burns.  David William Burns arrived first at Myers Flats in 1912. He  married Pearl Jean Prather on October 28, 1914, in her brother  James's house, which was the church at White Lake. Their eldest  son, Robert (Bob), was born at Spring Station on August 29, 1915,  delivered by his father, after which event Dr. H. McGregor3 of  Penticton arrived. Distance and mode of travel in those early days  were not conducive to speedy house calls.  Deciding that life in Ontario might be better financially, Mr.  Burns moved his family East, living first in Toronto, then in nearby  Craigville. A second son, John (Jack) was born on February 2,1920,  in Craigville. Again, the doctor arrived after Mr. Burns had delivered his son. After two years of life in Ontario, the Burns returned  to White Lake. Their only daughter, Jean, was born in the Penticton  hospital on June 30, 1925.4 While  Bob got his education by correspondence, Jack and Jean received  theirs by home schooling.  Change came to White Lake and  Spring Station when, after 1920,  Seaman Hatfield of Kaleden started  a passenger and mail run through  the area with his four-cylinder  MacLaughlin car. When folks could  travel from Penticton to Fairview  in one day there seemed no need  for a stopping house mid-way. As  well, there was little use for horses  as the mines had closed and  freighting waned. Dave Burns, who  Pearl Jean and Earl Prather, age four. had loCated his h¬∞me in a dmW 0n  (Photographs appearing with Spring Station the east Side Of White Lake Road,  story courtesy Jean Stainton) raised Cattle and hay.  95 SPRING STATION  Richmond and Laura Travis continued to reside at White Lake,  where they brought up their family. When the Travis property was  sold to Mary Walker they lived at Spring Station with Laura's brother  James, who had also sold his place. Miranda Jane Prather died in  1924, predeceasedby her husband, John Thomas Prather, the previous decade. The property was traded by James and Laura about  1932 to John McWhinnie for an orchard on Carmi Road in Penticton.  There, tragedy struck when James died in a house fire in 1937.5  When Dave Burns died in 1962, Pearl Burns remained at White  Lake for a while, but later lived with her daughter and son-in-law,  Jean and George Stainton, in Kaleden, until her death in 1973.  In 1944 Mrs. McWhinnie died and her husband moved to  Mission. However, their son Dave stayed on the property until it  was sold in 1946 to Harvey Ross, a butcher from Oliver. Mr. Ross  spent most of his time in Oliver, leaving the Prather place abandoned except for occasional use as a feed lot for his calves and pigs.  In 1956 it was sold to Lloyd Moore of Vancouver. A lodge  overlooking the lake was built in 1958. It changed hands again, to  Chandelor Resources, then later was purchased by International  Park West Financial Corporation. On June 23,1979, St. Andrews by  the Lake was officially opened, offering a golf course, horseback  riding and hiking in a strata development with a lodge for guests  and restaurant service.  Spring Station was an important stopping place for travellers  and freighters during the opening years of the 20th century. Little  is known of it today, as only a few orchard trees and a hole in the  hillside left by a collapsed root cellar remain as testimony to its  existence. The illustrious past of freighting, mining, orcharding,  cattle ranching and mixed farming has faded into history. Where  the Okanagan Indians once dug speet-lum (root of the rock rose),  gathered berries and hunted deer in yet an earlier time, the area  around the arid sagebrush-covered basin of White Lake is becoming a modern residential neighbourhood.  Editor's note—An article in OHS Report No. 38, "White Lake Coal Mines," contained  several errors concerning names and events. Author Pryce, a lifelong friend of the Burns  family, has therefore chosen to correct certain errata through footnotes appended to this  story.  1 Pearl Jean was David Burns's wife, not James Prather's wife. James was Pearl's brother.  2 Richmond Travis, not Traviss.  3 Dr. H. McGregor arrived after Robert Burns was born. John (Jack) Burns was born at  home, delivered by his father in Craigville, Ontario, not at White Lake, as previously recorded.  4 Pearl (Prather) Burns was the mother of Robert, John and Jean, not their grandmother.  5 James Prather died when his home on Carmi Road was destroyed by fire, not at Grandoro  mine (correct spelling).  96 THE PRESBYTERIAN  CHURCHES OF SALMON ARM  1898-1998  By Dilys Hanna  The first synod of British Columbia of the Presbyterian Church  in Canada was held at Vancouver on the twentieth and  twenty-first of July, 1892. It included the presbyteries of  Calgary, Kamloops and Westminster. The Presbytery of Kamloops  listed congregations at Donald, Nicola Lake, Spallumcheen,  Kamloops, Vernon, and Nelson, all with ministers. Revelstoke, Kaslo  and Ashcroft had a student or catechist. Ducks, Salmon Arm,  Shuswap, Grande Prairie, North Thompson, Tappen Siding, Columbia River, Pilot Bay, Watson, Ainsworth, Balfour, Kettle River, Boundary Creek and Rock Creek were listed as vacancies.  Yes, missionaries had  been in the Shuswap area for  a number of years, but it was  not until the railway was  opened that more regular  services were held. The Canadian Pacific Railway station at Salmon Arm was used  in 1895 for services and an  interdenominational Sunday  school. The Orange Hall,  built in 1895, was shared for  Sunday services by the  Methodists and the Presbyterians on an alternate basis  from 1896 to 1898.  Needless to say, it was  Harris Street Presbyterian Church,    with great rejoicing that the  photographed about 1915 by Rex Lingford.   Presbyterians  dedicated  (Courtesy Clifford Ainsworth)    their first building On May 8,  Dilys Hanna is a member of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, Salmon Arm,  and plays an important role on its historical committee.  97 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  Pedalling preacher W. F. Gold used this unique conveyance to get around the Salmon Ann  district while he was minister at St. Andrew's in 1901-1902. Photograph taken by his son,  W. H. Gold, who later had a studio at Youbou.  1898. Ministers from the surrounding area attended. Reverend R  C. Pollock was the missionary here at the time. Reverend George  Wilson, Vernon, conducted the dedication and preached at both  morning and evening services. In all, three services were held on  that day and entertainment was provided on Monday evening when  nearly all of the musical talent of the community took part.'  The church was a frame building 24 by 40 feet and was calculated to seat 150.  Ministers came and went in those early times, usually staying only one or two years. Reverend W H. Gold ministered in  Salmon Arm in 1901 and 1902. He is remembered for his mode of  travel-a tricycle (velocipede) that could be pedalled on the rail-  98 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  way track. Rev. Gold's son, Wilmer, visited Salmon Arm in 1981.  He was 88 at the time and in an interview published in the Shoppers' Guide recalled carefree days spent in the Shuswap area. He  remembered helping around the manse when it was being built. It  still stands on Beatty Street on the north side of the tracks. Wilmer  Gold remembered that his father's church had no choir, but Billy  Murray played the violin for the hymn singing. Some Sundays Billy  didn't show up. It meant that he had been busy celebrating the  night before. These were the years of Sunday school picnics, which  in most cases were all-day affairs at the beach.  In 1907 the first issue of the Salmon Arm Observer was published and from then on church affairs were well publicized. In the  first edition the Presbyterian notice read:  PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH  Bible Class 10 a.m.  11 a.m. and 7:30 p.m. services  Christian Endeavor Society and Prayer Meeting  fortnightly at 8 p.m., Wednesday  Notch Hill Thursday fortnightly at 8 p.m.  John G. Duncan, M. A., Pastor  It is known that Reverend Duncan kept chickens and at an  agricultural meeting in the spring of 1908 he spoke on poultry  matters. He was very much against "hopper feeding," believing it  to be "a lazy man's way of managing."  At the annual meeting in February 1909 a motion was passed  to request Presbytery to give the name Saint Andrew's Presbyterian to the church.  Reverend J.  G. Reid became  minister in 1911.  His wife did not  come until repairs  were made to the  manse, but when  she did settle in  she held an "at  nome       on     ine     First gt Andrew's Presbyterian church and manse. Church  third Thursday of    was dedicated May 8, 1898, while the residence was built  each month. soon after the turn of the century.  99 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  J*  Some members of the congregation were finding it difficult  to get across the tracks to services—especially in the evenings—  and so it was decided to hold Sunday school at 2:30 p.m. and the  evening service at 7:30 p.m. in the Eureka Hall, on the south side  of the tracks. Attendance improved and this led to talk of finding a  more suitable church site.  The first session, or governing body, was formed in 1912.  Elders elected were R. J. Glasgow, R. B. Matthews, Albert Bedford  Sr. and W R. Brett.  Plans went ahead  and the second  Presbyterian  Church was built at  the foot of Lyman  Hill (2nd Avenue  SE). It was dedicated on May 10,  1914, with Rev. Dr.  McKay, principal of  Westminster College, Vancouver, in  charge. Reverend  Peter Henderson of  Armstrong assisted  at the service.  Activities of  the early years included boat excursions on Shuswap  Lake, all-day picnics, sleigh rides,  and not the least of these, the annual Saint Andrew's suppers and  Burns Nights. On at least one occasion the menu for the St. Andrew's  gathering was printed in the Observer. Once, a church fundraising  sale was held at the home of Mrs. C. C. Johnston, at the rear of the  telephone office, offering "baby bonnets, corset covers, collars and  jabots, and other articles too numerous to mention."  Church-related organizations included a Young People's Guild,  Ladies Auxiliary, Sunbeam Class, Brotherhood Club, Trail Rangers  and Canadian Girls in Training (founded nationally in 1915).  In 1918 Reverend M. D. McKee of Grand Forks was appointed  minister at St. Andrew's; J. R. O'Brien was the resident minister at  Notch Hill. Special services were also held at this period to welcome returning soldiers. Reverend A. Campbell took over ministerial duties here in 1923.  ■1^'AWNIVJIggAHI  Salmon Arm Presbyterians mark their J00th anniversary.  Officiating at the cake-cutting ceremony were (left to right):  Alice and Howard Vander Hoek, Rev. Douglas Swanson,  Caroline Marriott.  100 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  The movement to join Presbyterians, Methodists and  Congregationalists began to gather strength early in the second  decade of this century. A vote was taken in 1925 and those in favour of Union held the majority. The United Church of Canada  was formed and took over the property owned by the Presbyterians. In Salmon Arm some of the Presbyterians wished to remain so  and held meetings in the Baptist church until their property was  returned to them, along with a $600 mortgage. Mrs. R. A. Ferguson,  later of Vernon, assisted by Reverend David Smith, then acting  Superintendent of Missions for B. C, sparked the reorganization in  Salmon Arm. Two services were held each Sunday with a total attendance of around 50.  Presbyterians at Canoe built their own church in 1926 and  Salmon Arm, Canoe and Armstrong became a three-point charge.  In 1930 Reverend J. F. Bell, an Australian, became minister. Salmon  Arm's share of Rev. Bell's stipend was $30 a month and this was not  always paid on time. He eventually moved to Cranbrook and later  to Ontario, where he founded the popular musical group, the Bell  Singers.  In 1932 the Presbyterian church was rented to the Salmon  Arm school district to be used weekdays as a school because of a  classroom shortage. The building was eventually sold to the school  district for $1,050 and a third Presbyterian church was built on 3rd  Avenue (now 3rd Street SE).  The president and the secretary of the Ladies' Auxiliary were  on the building committee for the third church, which was built to  hold 150. It was dedicated on September 7, 1941, by the then Moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Canada, Reverend J. B. Skene,  with some 100 people in attendance.  Reverend Sydney Barber, who was minister from 1937 to 1943,  had moved to Vernon and was conducting services in Vernon,  Armstrong and Salmon Arm. This was wartime; membership had  dwindled, but the women of the church stepped up their activities.  They arranged services and money-making projects. They did hospital visiting and acted as home helpers. They formed a Welcome  and Welfare group to aid newcomers. The membership roll of 16  included the names Smith, Irvine, Stone, Richards, Burrell and  Carroll.  At the annual meeting on February 12,1946, Reverend Russell  Self presided. A highlight at this assembly was the burning of the  mortgage.  Catherine Foote, the first female student minister in Salmon  Arm, served from 1955 to the fall of 1956, when she gave up plans  for the ministry in favour of marriage.  101 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  The Salmon Arm congregation continued to share ministers  with Armstrong and Vernon for $25 to $35 a month but the congregation was dwindling and finally with fewer than 10 households  remaining the church was closed in November 1962, and remained  so until January 1965.  The mid-'60s saw a rise in population for Salmon Arm and  with it renewed local interest in the Presbyterian Church. Around  1965 Reverend Ivan Gamble of Kamloops was named interim moderator. Reverend Howard Kerr accepted a call to Vernon and with  the efforts of these men and such people as Albert Mudiman, Mrs.  Allan, Keith Shearer, Caroline McClelland (Marriott), Howard  Vander Hoek and Peter Jans, services were once again held regularly. A request went out from the Salmon Arm congregation for a  full-time minister. This appeal resulted in the appointment of Reverend Rex Krepps.  Rev. Krepps and family arrived in December 1971 to begin a  10-year residency. This was the longest ministry in the history of  the Presbyterian Church in Salmon Arm. Rev. Krepps became involved in minor hockey and in the Alcoholics Anonymous groups  in the community. He and his wife, Trudy, also guided the reorganization of various groups within the church itself, which placed  demands on existing space. Also, the congregation had grown to  nearly 100 households and it was apparent a larger building was  required. Plans were drawn and with the blessing of the Presbytery  and financial aid from the church at large a fourth place of worship  was built on the corner of the Trans-Canada Highway and Turner  Road (now 20th Street). Many members put in long hours on the  project, but for them it was a labour of love. The first service was  held on April 4, 1976, followed by a dedication service on April 6,  conducted by the Presbytery of Kamloops. Rev. Krepps was Moderator of Presbytery at this time and he was assisted by the Clerk of  Presbytery, Reverend George Peters, and by Reverend Daniel Firth  of Vernon.  Rev. Krepps and family served in Salmon Arm until August  1981. They were followed by Dr. W P. Janssen who, along with his  wife Marilyn and family, were very active both in the spiritual life  of the congregation and the community at large. As a marriage  counsellor, Rev. Janssen helped many. During his ministry St.  Andrew's became self-supporting once more.  The present minister, Reverend Douglas Swanson, a graduate of the Vancouver School of Theology, took up his duties in  Salmon Arm in June 1989.  102 PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES  At the time of writing (1998), the congregation had just completed renovations to the church, making it completely handicap-  accessible by way of ramps and an elevator to the lower floor. Centennial celebrations in May 1998 took the form of a fashion show  and tea at which costumes depicting styles from 1850 to 1926 were  modelled. Among those in attendance were three members of the  pioneer Laitinen family. Sisters Senia Howard and Mamie Maki  had attended Sunday school in the first Presbyterian church in  Salmon Arm, while Oliver Laitinen had been baptized in that  church. Another old-timer, Mrs. Nellie Mathieson (Honey), attended  class in the second church when it was pressed into service following the 1917 elementary school fire. Guest preacher at the centennial Sunday service was Reverend George Peters of Kamloops, who  had assisted at the dedication of the present church.  The following weekend the Moderator of the Presbyterian  Church of Canada, John Congram, and his wife paid a visit to Salmon  Arm. Rev. Congram, who has been the editor of the Presbyterian  Record since 1988, spoke Saturday on "The Church in the New Millennium." He spoke again at the worship service the next day.  Reflecting on achievements during the past century, Rev.  Swanson said in his recently published Presbyterian Churches of  Salmon Arm: "It is my pleasure to serve in a congregation which  has kept the faith for one hundred years. Such an enduring witness  is indeed praiseworthy and commendable."  Newly remodelled St. Andrew's church awaits 1998 centennial observance.  103 HERITAGE LOST  By Sherril Foster  Although it has been 10 years since the residents of  Summerland watched grand old "Lady Morton " wind her way  down from her seat on Giant's Head Mountain and along  Highway 97 to Penticton, the sting of the loss is still a vivid  memory. Summerland's heritage buffs are closely watching the  rest of their town's historically-significant buildings, hoping they  will never be "sold down the road" again.  Moving day for the Somerset Inn, which started life as the Okanagan Baptist College.  It was said that having to climb the steep hill to the Okanagan  Baptist College was one of the factors that led to its demise.  Although nothing but memories remain of this institution, for  eight years in the early part of this century Summerland had a  college in its midst. Summerland developer and promoter James  Ritchie donated a site on the north side of his pre-emption on Giant's Head Mountain and, along with his brothers William and Thomas, raised some $26,000 for the building of a Baptist college. The  Baptist Convention of British Columbia had decided that a college  was needed for young men and women who were living in areas  Sherril Foster's interest in local history began shortly after she arrived in the  Okanagan and was commissioned to write "The Summerland Review" for the  Summerland Singers and Players Society. She developed a special interest in the  House on the Hill, as her husband, Gareth Young, was one of the three "young  entrepreneurs from Jasper" who had big dreams for Morton Hall 20 years ago.  104 HERITAGE LOST  with no post-secondary facilities (which was anywhere outside  Vancouver or Victoria) and it chose Summerland. Not only was the  community considered of "high moral tone," but the Baptist contingent was strong here with residents such as the Ritchies and J.  M. Robinson (promoter of Peachland, Summerland and Naramata)  who reportedly had been the president of the Manitoba and Northwest Baptist Foundation before arriving in the Okanagan. He had  influenced many of that faith to relocate in the Okanagan Valley.  Classes began in October 1907 at a brand-new Ritchie Hall  with 26 students and three professors. By year's end 72 were registered. The structure was three and a half storeys, had a concrete  basement, classrooms, chapel, library and study, college office, plus  accommodation for 100 boarders. The first college classes, however, had been held in Empire Hall on the lakeside's Shaughnessy  Avenue while awaiting the completion of the new facility. Okanagan College offered high school courses, commercial (stenography  and typewriting) and music courses (pianoforte and vocal), and  two years of university, leading to a bachelor of arts degree in affiliation with McMaster University in Ontario. Tuition fees were  $48 per year and room and board was $20 per month.  Many locals attended and the college was very much a part  of the community. The "Bean-Eaters" (residents) would take on the  "Hill-Climbers" (locals) in various sports activities, and the choral  society and literary society, which published a newspaper, the  Lyceum, were enthusiastically supported by the town.  The popularity of Okanagan College increased so much (almost tripling in the second year) that it was having to turn away  potential students due to the lack of housing. Principal Dr. E. H.  Sawyer went to work soliciting funds and three years later, thanks  to many donations and the  fundraising efforts of students,  a gymnasium  was erected on  property donated  by Thomas Dale  at the foot of "College Hill" on Giant's Head Road.  During its lifetime this building  variously served  as     a     packing      Okanagan College as it first appeared. (Courtesy Addie Williams)  105 HERITAGE LOST  house, furniture manufacturing plant, and youth centre until its  demolition in 1995. The other addition in 1910 was a women's residence, Morton Hall, situated a few hundred yards from Ritchie Hall  on the north face of Giant's Head Mountain.  World War One affected yet another aspect of Okanagan life  and student enrolment at the college declined. June of 1915 produced the last group of graduates and also much speculation about  why the institution had not made it. A lot of blame was placed on  the "impractical site which was only accessible to hardy citizens  and strong horses"1 and also the fact that Summerland was a small  town, not a large centre with a corresponding population from which  to draw. Yet, this was part of the original philosophy of why the  community had been chosen, because it was thought students could  better concentrate away from the alluring social events of a big  city.  Other factors blamed were trying economic conditions, lack  of support from Baptists elsewhere, a meagre college endowment  fund and talk of more colleges opening in Vancouver and Calgary.  The University of British Columbia did open that year.  Following the closure of OBC, James Ritchie purchased the  two vacant buildings from the Baptist Convention for $3,000 and  they sat idle for many years. Ritchie Hall did serve briefly as temporary digs for Summerland's high school students in the 1920s  while they awaited completion of the new elementary facility, which  would make the old central school available to them. In 1931 Ritchie  sold the college buildings for a reported $6,000 to a group from  Winnipeg—the Home of the Friendless.  This organization had been formed "to rescue those from the  lower strata of life and those who through misfortune had lost  hope."2 The religious sect, under the leadership of evangelist Laura  West Summerland showing Morton Hall on Giant's Head.  BiOESva  tSSHLv ~4  "£?&& HERITAGE LOST  Crouch, arrived and set up an institution for elderly people, orphans and people with illnesses. A printing press operated by the  group turned out a religious publication, The Messenger of God, to  supplement income. However, after a while young girls who lived  at the Home of the Friendless were showing up on the doorsteps of  residences in town claiming that they were being mistreated. "Weird  stories of strange happenings in the building, lights blinking at night  and other phenomena calculated to stir up rumours gave the big  white [sic] building the aura of a 'ghost house' for some time until  the matter was cleared up by a government investigation."3 An  article in the Winnipeg Free Press in 1995 explained the story of  Mrs. Crouch and the Home of the Friendless, as it had been operated in Winnipeg before moving west, "... it was billed as a refuge  but was actually a workhouse and prison."  University of Manitoba social work professor Len Kaminski  stated: "The home used classic indoctrination techniques employed  by modern-day cults including fear, intimidation, starvation, long  hours of work with little rest, being cut off from family and community and being forced to participate in religious services for hours  on end." It was never disclosed if such tactics were practised here,  but there was enough evidence to instigate an investigation, resulting in legal action. There were concerns that some of the inmates  suffered from tuberculosis, that the younger ones were not receiving a proper education and that the establishment could become a  charge on the municipality in the midst of other financial difficulties.  Reported the Vancouver Province in 1982: "Complaints about  conditions at this [Summerland] and another Home for the Friendless in Burnaby sparked an investigation by a royal commission in  1937 that resulted in legislation calling for licensing of all private  welfare institutions in B. C." Mrs. Crouch died during the inquiry  and things were left for Reverend William Pike, an ordained minister in the United Missionary Church and spiritual teacher at the  institution, and his wife to sort it out. They sent the children elsewhere and many of the older girls found positions in private homes.  After Rev. Pike died, his widow and their daughter carried on with  the institution.  When Ritchie Hall was destroyed by fire in 1941, the Home  of the Friendless operated solely from Morton Hall, and about 30  people stayed on, surviving on their pension cheques, taking work  at the canneries (those who were able) and growing garden produce for extra income. In 1943 Summerland's municipal council  accepted an offer from the provincial government to provide medical aid, and both governments chipped in to help the pensioners.  107 HERITAGE LOST  Morton Hall, named after prominent Baptist Ruth Morton,  had a longer and more interesting history than did Ritchie Hall,  yet would meet the same fiery fate 50 years later. It was built especially for schooling "young ladies" with accommodation for 40 students and resident teachers. "Morton Hall was designed in a vaguely  Tudor Revival style with a series of gabled protrusions masking the  hipped roof. Mock timbering completed the picture."4 During the  1950s exterior renovations would see all of the half timbering removed and lower wooden portion refinished with white stucco,  thereby adding to its "ghostly" countenance.  After serving as the Home of the Friendless, Morton Hall  became known as Mountain View Home, a licensed residence for  the elderly. In the 1950s the institution functioned under aboard  of four Summerlanders, and the 30 residents—about half of them  pensioners—helped with household duties and were given an allowance. In 1958, the Hlavacs of Vancouver purchased the business, running it as a residence for Christian senior citizens. Then,  for a short while it became an orphanage under the management  of Mr. and Mrs. (Ma) Whyte, but it was not long before this group  made plans to move on and before departing they held a sale of  children's clothes and toys. Apparently Ma Whyte and 25 of her  children had appeared on The Gary Moore Show in New York and  the orphans had received numerous toys as gifts.  The Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement purchased the  building in 1967 and ran it as a school and study centre for children  in the elementary grades. In Summerland's Canada Centennial pamphlet (1967), the facility was referred to as the Mountain View Missionary Centre, which two years later was granted permission by  the local government to operate a bakery from the premises as a  home occupation. But this group decided to move on as well, feeling it would better serve its people from a more central location in  the province.  In 1973 one of the church's members from Oliver bought the  building with the idea of starting the Giant's Head Rock Training  Centre, a non-profit organization that would teach "everything natural" like cooking, horticulture, ecology and carpentry. "People will  be taught how to work and obey," said owner Steve Zakall.  Obviously this was only a pipe dream because later that year  Bev and Gerry Niessen bought the house and remodelled the lower  floor for their family's living quarters. They planted an orchard on  the approximately 2 1/2 acres, while shipping fruit to the Prairies  from their other concerns. There was talk of Niessens developing a  Disneyland-type haunted house attraction or refurbishing Morton  Hall for a fine dining and dancing facility, but until 1978 the former  108 HERITAGE LOST  women's residence was just their home. Mr. Niessen had previously refurbished an old mill in Okotoks, Alberta, and sold it for a  "handsome price."  At that time the "House on the Hill" was purchased by three  young entrepreneurs from Jasper: Gareth Young, Bert Van Asten  and Vern Byers. Plans were drawn up and government assistance  sought to restore the heritage building as it stood and to construct a  2,000-square-foot addition. This would include a large dining room  and kitchen, laundry and staff areas on the main floor, a roof terrace on the second floor and a tavern and guest sauna in the basement. The exterior was given a complete facelift to emulate its  original Tudor Revival architectural style, and the prospective hotel, to be operated as Ye Olde College Inn, the House on the Hill  Resort, was furnished with English antiques. Unfortunately, it did  not open its doors under the ownership of these men and fell into  receivership. There were just too many unforeseen costs.  As it stood empty in 1981, a contingent of interested  Summerlanders toured the property with an eye to giving it a use  in the community. Some of them saw an opportunity for a cultural  centre, still bitter after their losing battle to obtain the Century  House (Summerland's former hospital) for the arts five years earlier. There was also talk of a community centre and a school of fine  arts.  However, before any serious deliberations began a new owner  was found and Mary Otte of Westbank finished the renovating job  and launched the Somerset Inn. Within three years the business  once again went into receivership, blamed this time on a deteriorating economy. Then in 1985 Brian and Karin Noseworthy of Sardis  decided to take on the 18-room facility, but lost it to creditors before it was open a year. Whether it was the fault of the alleged ghost  in the attic, the apathy of the town in not supporting the business,  the horrible gossip, or some kind of jinx, it seemed that no one  could make a go of it.  When the receivers tried to keep the hotel open, the Ministry  of the Environment found that the building's septic system was  inadequate. Interestingly enough, it was that same ministry that  had come up with a solution to the sewage disposal question when  the renovations had begun in 1979. The system, which used six  35,000-gallon tanks and two 300-foot wells, was the first of its type  to be installed in B. C. In theory, the procedure was to pressurize  the effluent for dispersal in the wells after it was processed, filtered and chlorinated; but as time went on, the residents at the  foot of College Hill were the first to become aware of the system's  109 '■'■■ ■■,■.■.:■        ■ ' ..■■■■.■■■■.-  »       ■ , ...  '«:;Sr.S::^  Mountain View Home, later known as the Somerset Inn, in the 1950s.  shortcomings. When offers to purchase the hotel resumed, many  potential buyers were discouraged by the excessive cost of sewage  disposal.  Nevertheless, the House on the Hill did not deserve the treatment it was about to receive. In 1988 Ted Udzenija, a businessman  from Penticton, and Summerland's Eldon Peacock (only the first to  be mentioned in a long line of Udzenija's partners) purchased the  building, but plans did not involve leaving it on its visible roost on  College Hill. The Somerset Inn would be given a new address and  a new life—in Penticton.  Many doubted the feasibility of such an undertaking, but sure  enough, after a few delays in the spring, moving day came about  July 6, 1988.  The convoy of a tractor towing the inn (now split into three  sections) on numerous 16-wheel supports, some 100,000 pounds of  steel girders supported by a hydraulic jack system and front-end  loaders attached behind to take some of the momentum off the  load, began its trip south. The specialized moving company transported the structures down Milne Road onto Giant's Head Road  and along Prairie Valley Road to Highway 97 with overnight stops  no HERITAGE LOST  at Summer Fair Shopping Centre and then again at Channel Parkway  and Hastings Avenue in Penticton; but not without some uneasy  moments.  The Summerland Review surmised that "the elegant lady was  reluctant to leave" when the original gabled section (36 by 70 feet,  40 feet high) got caught up on a rock corner at Milne and Giant's  Head Roads. The main power lines had to be taken down and because the building was held at the corner for so long, the power  was out in Summerland most of the day—9 1/2 hours to be exact.  Rain didn't discourage the anxious onlookers as Lady Morton made  her exit. A large crowd of Summerland residents and folks from all  over the Valley lined the streets to watch, many because they just  could not believe it was happening, and others because their work  had been halted by the power outage.  Nevertheless, the Penticton Herald reported that "despite opposition from local [Penticton] businessmen and the threat of lawsuits, the monumental task of moving the three-storey Somerset  Inn from atop Summerland's Giant's Head Mountain to its Skaha  Lake Road site in Penticton was completed this morning [July 12]."  The beautiful old building stuck out like a sore thumb in its  new location, yet Udzenija's claims included grand opening celebrations for September of that year. However, nothing much happened until almost three years later when Morton Hall met its ultimate fate. Before the restorations were anywhere near completion,  the former House on the Hill mysteriously burned to the ground  in the wee hours of February 11, 1991. No one was ever made accountable for the loss.  Back in Summerland, the barren site on College Hill was sold  to local developers and new houses now surround the spot where  Lady Morton perched for 78 years, royally greeting all those returning home or visiting the town of Summerland.  1 Imayoshi, K. (1953). The History of Okanagan Baptist College. A thesis submitted to the  Faculty of Divinity School, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.  2 Andrew, Dr. F. W. (1945). "The Story of Summerland." Penticton; Penticton Herald.  3 Lyons, C P. Updated by L. Cook. (1957/1970). Mileposts in Ogopogoland. Surrey: Foremost  Publishing.  4 Hobson, R. & Associates (1988). Okanagan Similkameen Resource Inventory. Penticton:  Regional District of Okanagan Similkameen.  Ill CASA LOMA ORIGINS  By Alice Zdralek  The Casa Lorna district is located on the west side of Okanagan Lake and south of the bridge linking Kelowna and  Westbank. The first permanent building in the area close to  what is known today as Zdralek Cove, was a one-room cabin constructed from very large logs, the likes of which are not seen in the  area today. The cabin was built by John and Susan Allison, the  original settlers on the west shore, who went on to found Princeton  and be forever remembered by Allison Pass on the Hope-Princeton  Highway. Two more cabins—or small houses—were erected by the  Allisons, one at Gellatly Bay and the other at Sunnyside, which is  still in use by the present owner. The cabin at Zdralek Cove served  as a stopover for cattle drives from the  United States to the  Cariboo. When Mr.  and Mrs. Engelbert  Zdralek and their two  sons, John and Heinz,  moved in in 1930, the  modest dwelling had  grown into a large  house by the appearance of regular frame  additions on all sides.  In later years  John and Heinz decided to tear down the  house and while doing so found newspapers stuffed between the  logs, one of which contained an article by Winston Churchill when  he was covering the Boer War for the British press.  The house now occupied by Louise and Tom Francis was built  by the Campbell family (Campbell Road) about 1925. The Campbells  came out from Winnipeg around 1912 with a drove of horses and  ran them in this area. J. R. Campbell later had a bicycle shop in  John and Heinz Zdralek setting out to attend Westside  Indian school circa 1930.  Alice Zdralek was born in Weyburn, Saskatchewan and came to the Kelowna  area in 1927. She and her husband owned and operated the Casa Lorna resort  from the mid-'60s until 1980.  112 CASA LOMA ORIGINS  Casa Lorna irrigation flume early 1940s.  Kelowna. Bob Campbell built a ferry called Aricia and operated it  on alternate years with Captain Len Hayman. A third-generation  descendant, Jim Campbell, still lives in Kelowna.  The third house belonged to the father-in-law of A. H. Povah  (Mr. White). It was originally a summer place. Heinz Zdralek practically rebuilt it on all sides, plus top and bottom, when he married  Elsie Fehr in 1948. It was the house with the willow trees south of  their present home that was taken down when part of the land was  sold in 1989.  In 1947 Jim Blackman bought his land just south of the Indian reserve on Campbell Road. He cleared the holding by hand  and planted it to strawberries, later adding fruit trees: apricots,  peaches and cherries. Knowledge gained from employment at the  Summerland Experimental Farm was put to good use by Blackman  in his fields and orchard. As of this writing (March 1998), ill health  has confined him to a home on Rose Avenue, Kelowna.  The next residence was that of Fred and Betty Waterman,  with their two children, Peter and Diane. It was built just south of  the Blackman place. Fred, an air force veteran, worked for the Veterans Land Act (VLA) project that became Lakeview Heights. When  the Okanagan Lake bridge was being built in 1958, gravel to construct the spit on the west side was trucked from Heinz Zdralek's,  near what is now Casa Grande. Blackman and Waterman were given  the option of changing the haul road, which at the time went straight  through. They opted to have it jog up and around, hence the nar-  113 Part of Casa Lorna lands about 1940, Kelowna visible in the background.  row, awkward road we have today. Another aside: The author and  her family were told that blasting rock for the fill destroyed many  rattlesnake dens, putting a permanent dent in the reptile population in this vicinity.  The Elis were the only Native people living near the bridge  at that time.  Prior to coming to the west side from Germany in 1930 with  his wife, Enni, Engelbert Zdralek had been taking care of a place  on Benvoulin Road for David Leckie (see OHS Report No. 38), who  was also growing tomatoes here. When it was revealed that Mr.  Zdralek was a trained machinist, he was asked to take care of the  irrigation system consisting of a 12-horsepower diesel motor that  had been bought from the Rutland packing house for $600—then a  great deal of money. It had a five-foot flywheel and a 12-inch piston. There were also two other smaller pumps powered by converted car motors.  Heinz and John went to school on horseback, up the hill and  across Lakeview Heights, then over the highway where the industrial area is now. It was a one-room Indian school with about five  white families represented—the Zdralek boys, the Lewis boys,  Wilsons, Walkers and Isabel Bartley, now married to Bert Longley.  When Mr. Leckie died in 1936, Mr. Zdralek purchased the  land under his management, grew tomatoes and retired the debt  with crop payments. The warm hillside, with lots of rocks to draw  and store nature's warmth, together with the good soil, made for  sweet, tasty tomatoes that soon became popular. Everything had to  be trucked across the lake on the ferry, which provided hourly  trips from early morning until 11 p.m. As befits a more leisurely  114 CASA LOMA ORIGINS  time, a lot of visiting with neighbours went on during those lake  crossings. Mr. Zdralek also sold to the local grocery stores such as  Cap Capozzi's on Bernard Avenue.  Further improving the operation, greenhouses were built to  raise seedling tomatoes, whose survival meant that heating fires  had to be constantly stoked in the cold weather. The Zdraleks also  produced greenhouse tomatoes and cucumbers for the local trade.  In 1942, two years after John married Alice Tree, they bought  a truckload of 6,000 seedling peach trees from Sardis Nurseries in  the Fraser Valley. The nursery had over-estimated demand and  then had to keep the seedlings over for an extra year. The result  was that the trees took off in the rich Okanagan soil. Nutrients had  leached into the subsoil because of the effect of ditch irrigation and  in four years a good crop of peaches was being harvested, joined by  apricots, pears, prunes and cherries. In between all this John was  serving overseas in the armed forces.  There was no telephone or electricity until after World War II  when Lakeview Heights was established as a VLA project. When  they got those benefits, lines were strung down to Casa Lorna and  we joined the modern world. We had no sooner discarded our old  Aladdin lamps than they became antiques.  During spring breakup our dirt road became impassable; a  WW2 Jeep was a must—our first four-wheel drive. For emergencies, or just for fishing or fun, the Zdraleks had a 12-foot lapstrake  Peterborough boat with a 12-horsepower motor. When our sons,  Louis and Dan, started school they had the choice of correspondence lessons, or we could provide our own transportation to class.  John elected to take them by boat to Strathcona Avenue by the  hospital and they walked from there to Raymer Avenue school.  After a couple of years they went by foot across Lakeview Heights  to catch the one-and-only bus to Westbank. The prevailing theory  was that the bus was meant for the high school; another theory  held that the young ones were supposed to have an elementary  school near them. The reality was that coming home they had to  wait until the high school got out, and after about three bus runs—  to Glenrosa, MacDougal Creek and a few other Westbank stops—  they were dropped off with the Lakeview Heights children. In winter it would be in the dark and they often had to break fresh snow  trails. With no waterproof clothing like we have now, they were  often wet to the bone before they got to the bus in the morning. I  think I remember that after one bad winter I convinced the school  district to do the Lakeview run first.  115 CASA LOMA ORIGINS  At some point we were able to buy water from Lakeview  Heights and instead of the old irrigation system we had Rainbird  sprinklers. Instead of scything and the old-style weed cutters, we  had orchard mowers, like oversized lawn mowers. Heinz invented  a new method of thinning peaches by filling the old tank sprayer  with plain water and bumping up the pressure to 800 to 1,000  pounds. The force knocked off 80 to 90 percent of the blossoms,  but there still remained hand thinning to break up the clumps and  to deal with missed branches. Zdraleks also brought in pneumatic  King-size domestic/irrigation water pipes prior to installation at Casa Lorna in early 1970s.  pruning machines—another time-saving device. The air pressure  also raised the operator's cage up into the tree, instead of having to  place ladders and, of course, you could use it for picking, although  some ladder work was still required.  In the 1960s, with the bridge to Kelowna encouraging homes  on the west side, Engelbert Zdralek started sub-dividing, beginning  at the point. Gradually other land went to housing and with the  116 CASA LOMA ORIGINS  added finances Heinz and John built cottages for summer rental.  Heinz built Casa Lorna Village, John the Casa Lorna Resort. Another large project undertaken at this time was the Casa Lorna water  system.  When John and Alice retired in 1980, they sold the resort  and the new owners moved the pool and added a large building.  We have been asked where the name Casa Lorna originated.  We have in our possession a plan for a subdivision, dated July 1921,  showing roads and lots from Lakeview Heights to the lake. There  was set aside a portion to the south marked Casa Lorna Park. We  think it was so named because of the castle-like rock seen from the  nature trail. The Zdralek family took the name for Casa Lorna Orchards and it was afterwards picked to identify a residential subdivision. The original designation was forgotten when Kalmar Park-  named by Lakeview residents—was formed.  As for the 1921 proposal, it didn't materialize and I guess the  land reverted to the government, later being handed over to the  World War II veterans.  Some of these words are my memories of things told to me  over the years by the family. Elsie and Heinz have added to these,  and I have talked on the phone to Jim Campbell several times.  Although I am open to correction, this is basically much as it happened. There are a lot more stories in the family, which don't apply of course, but are still part of our own history. Some of them  are very funny and some are scary, but all worth remembering.  117 THE INCOLA HOTEL  By Elizabeth Pryce  The grand tourist hotel of which Reeve Edwin Foley-Bennett  spoke at the sod-turning ceremony of the Kettle Valley Railway in Penticton on July 1, 1911, was to be called Incola.  The reeve alluded to the coming prosperity for the town through  advertising that would bring hundreds of visitors to enjoy the beauty  of the Okanagan. The Incola Hotel would be the drawing card for  those who wanted to holiday in the Valley or explore Penticton's  possibilities. It was an exciting time and fabrication of this luxurious inn was soon begun by the Canadian Pacific Railway.  One of the first public announcements stated: "This hotel  will be one of the finest in British Columbia. The total cost of construction and interior fitting will be at least  $100,000. Nearly four acres  of prop- -X,  Frame construction on a grand scale: the 1911-12 Incola Hotel project.  Elizabeth Pryce-Bork is a retired City of Penticton employee and lives at White  Lake, Kaleden, stretching an already busy volunteer schedule with the duties of  Penticton Branch's editorial chair.  118 THE INCOLA HOTEL  Penticton's hospitality centre circa 1935.  erty will be utilized by the syndicate which is putting through the  scheme. Three acres will have a lakeshore frontage of 366 feet  Messrs. McGraw and Winnott, managers of the Queen's Hotel in  ioronto, have been approached with the idea one of them will come  out to Penticton to manage the hotel." Indeed, the Incola's first  manager was W J. Richardson from the Queen's.  The Incola was built on a 1.23-acre site by the Okanagan Land  Cc¬a with the CPR as its chief stockholder. Local contractors  McDougall and Gough also shared in the construction. The foundations were commenced on August 2, 1911. The building was of  black and white half-timber pattern, surrounded by a veranda and  decorated m fashionable mock Tudor. Guests would recline in furniture made of rich, solid oak upholstered in leather.  Four floors, situated well above ground because of the high  water table housed 62 rooms (14 with private baths), five public  baths travellers' sample rooms, a large sun parlour, a "ladies'" parlour, dining room, reading room, a large fireplace, billiard room  and music room with a grand piano. Perfect views of Okanagan  Lake were afforded by the front rooms, which opened onto balconies. The large entrance rotunda was used for receptions, concerts  and dances. From either side of the reception desk rose magnificent twin staircases.  The Incola opened for business on August 19, 1912 but even  before it was built a liquor licence had been granted on December  i-6, 1911.  119 THE INCOLA HOTEL  The end comes in 1981. (All photographs for this article courtesy Doug Cox)  At the outset, trade was slow at the Incola. However, with the  arrival of the first passenger train in Penticton came tri-weekly rail  service. Commemorative festivities were held at the hotel on May  30, 1915, when the passenger pulled into the CPR-KVR railway station at the foot of Martin Street on the Okanagan lakeshore. It signalled an exciting period for the hotel and for the city.  By 1928 lawn bowling was taking place on the hotel grounds.  During the 1930s the band of Saxie De Bias played there. Guest  pianist Florence (Flossie) Manuel accompanied visiting orchestras.  The Incola was considered a "high-class" place, where five to six  hundred guests in gowns and tuxedos danced until six a.m. at New  Year's. Other events held at the Incola included Board of Trade and  Canadian Club dinners, Gyro, Kiwanis and Rotary luncheons, private parties and weddings. One of Penticton's special social events,  the annual Snowball Frolic, was hosted by the hotel. The Incola  became the centre of community life and remained so for several  decades. It had prestige, luxury and romance.  An anxious time came during Jackson Allerton's managership  in 1935 when a Dominion Day dance was being held in the hotel.  Nearby Penticton Creek, laden from heavy rains in the eastern  mountains, quickly rose and overflowed its banks. Water surrounded  the Incola, and for awhile remained up to the steps of the big staircase leading to the lobby.  The decline of the beautiful Incola Hotel began in 1948. The  opening of the Hope-Princeton Highway greatly enhanced  Penticton's role as a resort and convention centre and had a direct  effect on railway transportation. Newer hotels were built and the  120 THE INCOLA HOTEL  motel concept became popular. The Incola began its run of four  ownership changes between 1966 and 1975 and its original appearance disappeared under modification and extension. In 1953 the  stucco exterior was finished and the ground-floor porch was enclosed in 1955. A mural on the cabaret wall made its appearance in  1976. By then, only essential upgrading was carried out.  There was the addition of the Peach Lounge, a licensed drinking establishment that had provided a much-needed source of revenue. However, gradual neglect led to safety hazards, and in 1963  the top floor was ordered closed by the fire marshal. Two fires occurred in the building during 1978, one of which left a hole in the  roof that was never repaired. Broken windows were boarded up  and the outside walls began rotting, due to the absence of drain  pipes.  By late 1970s the Incola's clientele had changed. It was frequented by bikers and minors hung around the entrances, lending  credence to suspicions that they were being supplied with liquor.  The premises were also believed to be part of the local drug scene.  Regular performances by strippers added to the run-down reputation.  The once grand and gracious tourist hotel had lost all its dignity and romantic atmosphere. It closed its doors on August 27,  1979. In March 1981 the Incola Hotel came down. All that remains  today is the vacant lot on Lakeshore Drive.  121 We are gladdened to see the reappearance in this issue  of an estimable winning entry in the Student Writing Contest. Given the feast-or-famine nature of the competition,  there was the added pleasure of seeing so many junior participants vying for honours. The downside was that only one  entry was submitted in the Grades 9-12 category. In composing the best essay, Ayla Fortin, 11 years old and a top Grade 5  student at Peachland Elementary School, drew on her own  curiosity, which arose while frequently crossing Okanagan  Lake to visit her grandmother. It also helped that her father  was only too happy to recount his youthful crossings by ferry.  Essay chair Enabelle Gorek, on behalf of the Society,  once more recognizes the financial support of Jamie Browne,  in memory of his father, J. W. B. Browne, the founder of  radio station CKOV, Kelowna. — Ed.  EARLY FERRY TRANSPORTATION  AND THE OKANAGAN LAKE  FLOATING BRIDGE  By Ayla Fortin  There are many people in the Valley who complain about the  traffic on the Okanagan Lake Floating Bridge. They say it is  too slow, especially during rush hour. What most people don't  know is that there was no bridge before 1958, and getting across  the lake took much longer.  Back then everyone had to use a ferry to cross the lake from  Kelowna to Westbank. In 1885 the very first boat used as a ferry  was a 16-foot "scow" built by Eneas and David McDougall. Webster's  Dictionary describes a scow as "a large, flat-bottomed boat with  square ends." It was about 10 to 12 feet wide and could carry up to  five pack horses, or three heavy horses. It crossed the lake at the  narrowest point, which was about 9/10 of a mile wide. The boat  122 WINNING ESSAY  didn't have a motor in those days, so it was powered by men and  women passengers who used pine sweeps for oars. A plank in the  middle of the boat was removed, so the passengers could put their  feet in the hole while they rowed.  The ferry was not easy to use because neither of the  McDougall brothers lived close to the ferry dock. The closest brother  was Eneas, who lived about four miles away on the Westside. If  someone wanted to cross the lake they had to find the trail to his  house and walk there. If Eneas wasn't at home then, that person  had to make his horse swim across the lake instead. They needed  two men and a rowboat to do it; one man rowed the boat, while the  other man held a rope attached to the horse.  Some days the winds were very strong and the ferry would  fill up with water and start to sink, so the handrail had to be taken  off and the horses let go into the water. They hoped the horses  would swim back to shore.  There were many other ferries over the years.  In 1906 the first official ferry was called the Skookum. It was a  30-foot-long motor boat. Passengers were charged 25 cents each to  cross, and a dollar for a horse.  In 1907 a steam boat named Clovelly ran as a ferry from  Kelowna to Westbank and Bear Creek. It carried lumber, feed and  fruit.  The Aricia was brought here in 1916 by L. A. Hayman. It was  a 50-foot motor boat and the best ferry so far. It weighed 12.6 tons  and had a passenger cabin, engine room, pilothouse, and carried a  lifeboat. A stable was built on the west side of the lake for the public to use while they waited to travel. It even had a feed locker for  the horses.  By 1921 people were using more cars than horses, and a car  ferry was built. It could carry eight cars at one time.  On one very windy night in 1924, it left Kelowna with six  cars and 19 passengers. The wind was so strong that it spun the  boat around and sent it heading for the rocks. It hit the rocks three  times, then got stuck. It came loose and was carried down the lake  by the wind. The scared passengers were taken to shore in the  lifeboat, and the ferry was towed in by motorboat. But the passengers could not drive their cars off the wharf right away because the  wind had knocked some trees down.  Between 1927 and 1940 the provincial government helped to  build two more ferries. The Kelowna-Westbank was built in 1927. It  was 90 feet long and weighed 104 tons. It could carry 15 cars. In  1939 the Pendozi was built. It was the first steel ferry. It was 147  feet long and weighed 237.5 tons. It could carry 30 cars.  123 WINNING ESSAY  As more and more people kept coming to the area they needed  to carry more cars, and another ferry was added in 1947. It is the  most famous ferry that we know, called the Lequime. Today we call  it the Fintry Queen. It has been renovated inside, and a paddle wheel  has been added at the stern. Instead of carrying cars, it is now used  as a restaurant and for Okanagan Lake cruises.  My dad, Pat Fortin, was a young boy back then. He remembers taking the Lequime many times with his family. One time they  missed the last run of the ferry at night, and his brother, his mom,  and his dad and he had to sleep in the car at the docks. When it  came to 7 o'clock in the morning, the first ferry came and, not  surprisingly, they were the first in line.  In 1950 the last ferry was added. It was called the Lloyd Jones.  It could carry 35 cars.  The ferries transported 534,373 cars on the last year they  were used. By that time the crossing only took about 10 minutes  once one was on the ferry.  The Okanagan Valley was very excited in July 1958 when the  Okanagan Lake Floating Bridge was finished being built. It was  called the Okanagan Lake Pontoon Bridge then. The official opening ceremonies were on July 19, 1958. It was a big event. There  was a crowd of several thousand people. Four thousand seats were  saved for school children who came from all over the Valley. That  weekend there were two parades, several dances, swimming exhibitions and a long-distance swim.  The most famous person who was there was Her Royal Highness Princess Margaret, who conducted the opening ceremonies  with W A. C. Bennett, who was the premier of the province at that  time.  The pontoon bridge was special, because it was the longest  floating bridge of its type in the world. It was 4,585 feet long. There  were two other pontoon bridges at the time, but the Okanagan Lake  bridge was the longest, and the only one with a lift span. The lift  span raises up to let tall boats or sailboats under.  The bridge was made of 12 concrete pontoons that were joined  together. A pontoon is a flat-bottomed float or frame used in building floating bridges. Each pontoon took six weeks to build, then  was attached to heavy anchors that weighed 70 tons and were buried 20 feet beneath the lake bed. The anchors were connected to  the pontoons by thick cables. The cables are long and curved so  that the bridge can move up and down safely if the level of the lake  changes.  124 WINNING ESSAY  At first the city engineers were going to build a suspension  bridge, but the ground was not stable enough to support the bridge  and the towers on it. They also worried that if there was an earthquake it would all come crashing down.  Building the bridge began in January 1956. It cost 7.5 million  dollars and the public had to pay tolls at first to help with the cost.  Pedestrians and bicycles were free, motorcycles were 10 cents, or  20 cents if they had a sidecar. Cars were 50 cents, and commercial  trucks were 75 cents to two dollars. In 1963 the tolls were removed.  The bridge has changed over the years. It started out as one  lane, then soon after that the second lane was finished. Then in  1991 a third lane was added.  Even though getting across the bridge is so much easier now,  the population of the entire Valley is over 200,000 people. Many  tourists also use the bridge.  In the past several years there has been discussion about adding a fourth lane to the bridge, or building a new bridge altogether.  One idea was to have a new bridge cross over the lake and go over  Kelowna City Park. The idea of a new bridge over the park would  cost about 120 to 130 million dollars. Adding a fourth lane would  cost a lot less, but it would still cost about 65 to 70 million dollars  just for the extra lane itself.  The extra lane is probably what will be decided. The three  lanes would be changed back into two lanes, and the new part will  have another two lanes. There would no longer be a lift span, which  makes some sailors angry because some of their boats won't be  able to go under. What they might do is put in a new "higher-level  crossing" on the Westbank side for tall boats. It would be about 18  metres high.  The city [province] might have to make it a toll bridge again  in order to pay for the fourth lane, or use something like taxes, or  gasoline taxes to pay for it. They haven't decided yet.  I think they should ask the Okanagan community if they want  to pay the toll or more taxes, or maybe they should not even be  doing it. People who use the bridge will also have to drive through  a lot of construction for a long time. But I don't think anyone would  complain if they knew how long it used to take to cross the lake.  SOURCES: Ross Coates, the Okanagan Lake Bridge project director, with the Ministry of  Highways and Transportation; Okanagan Historical Society, Tenth Report, 1943, L. A. Hayman  article; Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna and Peachland; Inland and Coastal Ferries, Ministry of Transportation and Highways brochure, 1991; Pat Fortin, my dad; old Kelowna Cou-  rier newspapers; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1974.  125 MR. BYAM'S BONES  By Jo Jones  In the final decade of the nineteenth century, Vernon resident  Alice Barrett Parke played a pivotal role in solving a poignant  mystery that played itself out between the fall of 1894 and the  following June. Alice's husband Harold was a provincial constable  at the time and it was his duty to investigate a gruesome discovery  made in the mountains near Cherry Creek by miner Bill  Hollingsworth. One day late in 1894, Hollingsworth brought an old  flour sack to the government office; in it were the remains of a  human skeleton, some tattered clothing and a small notebook. The  journal that Alice kept from 1891 to 1900 gave full details, so let us  permit her to speak for herself:  1st November 1894  I have been very much interested over a little book Hal brought home to  me. A man brought it in to the government office having found it on the hills,  about 9 miles up the North Fork of Cherry Creek—he found it beside a little pile of  human bones—also he found a pair of spectacles and a few camp utensils beside  it. It is a note book very much spoiled by the weather. The leaves were stuck  together, the pages torn & in many places the writing undecipherable, but we  have made out a good deal. The writer was evidently lost on the mountain, &  slowly starved to death—some of the entries are very pitiful. I cannot get it out of  mind. He has tried so hard to leave word for someone—but we cannot quite make  out the name, though an address is written in three separate places. It is Miss  Agnes -1 think Byam, or Blyam - then the name of the town is indistinct, Sussex,  England. We are going to look at the list of P. O. in Sussex, & if we can find one at  all like the word we fancy, write to the Postmaster. The poor man was evidently  well educated. He tells of losing his way - evidently he had a companion with  Jo Jones, a former teacher-librarian, accepted the task of transcribing the luminous journals of Alice Barrett Parke, wife of an early provincial constable, later a  Vernon postmaster. This article was prepared as a companion piece to "Little-  Known Pioneers: The Parkes of Vernon," which appeared in the 1998 issue of  Okanagan History.  126 MR. BYAM'S BONES  him, though no signs of another man were found - for he always writes "we". One  entry is "Had to kill Willie, the dog" - then "Found a few berries" - "Weaker &  weaker" - "Ate last of dog - the end must come soon - but God is good - something  may turn up". It begins while they were in camp with a lot of others - then where  they tried to get over the mountain and so on, gradually getting sadder. I wish I  could make it all out. It is dreadful to think of someone waiting & watching for  news that never comes - at the last is "Love to Agnes" - "Visions of food are constantly before us" - "Weaker" - & the last I can make out is "Cold".  Hal Parke, knowledgeable in matters involving place names  from his earlier work in the Vernon post office, wrote to the English postmaster in Cuckfield in the hope that the Parkes could learn  more about the dead man and his family. Jack McKelvie, editor of  the Vernon News and a good friend of the Parkes, was most intrigued  by the story, and made sure to write about the Parkes' role in the  matter in the News.  15th December 1894  We heard yesterday - or rather Hal did - from Cuckfield. He wrote on Nov.  10th to the postmaster of that place to know if there was any Miss Agnes Byam  there - we made out in the book "Miss Agnes B" & we thought "yam", C-ck ,  Sussex, Eng " and finding there was a place named Cuckfield in Sussex Hal  thought he'd risk a letter to the postmaster. Yesterday he heard both from the  postmaster and Miss Agnes Byam herself. I think I'll just copy the letters. The  postmaster's was this  Post Office  Cuckfield, Sussex  26th Nov. 1894  Sir,  I beg to acknowledge, with thanks, the receipt of your letter dated the  10th inst intimating that a human skeleton had been found on the mountains  near Vernon. There are two Miss Byams (sisters) residing at Cuckfield, where  they have been now some years. The family having formerly, I believe, an estate  in Hertfordshire. I called on them on Saturday, with your letter which, after they  had read they said they had not the slightest doubt that the bones found were the  remains of their brother, from whom they have not heard since May 1893, when  he then stated that he was going up to British Columbia. They wished me to  thank you very much for your kind offer to send the memorandum book which  they would like to have, as the handwriting would probably prove that it has  belonged to their brother.  As Miss Agnes Byam intends herself to write to you it will be unnecessary  127 MR. BYAM'S BONES  for me to write more except to give you their address in case the latter should  fail to reach you, viz (The Misses) or Miss Agnes Byam . . . Woodlands,  Cuckfield, Sussex.  Again thanking you for your trouble, and kind letter.  I remain, Sir Your obt. Servant   Edward Auscombe.  The other letter is written in an old-fashioned, rather tremulous hand, as if  the writer might be an old lady, & is as follows  Woodlands  Cuckfield (Near Hayward's Heath)  Sussex, England  November 26th 1894  Dear Sir,  The Postmaster of Cuckfield brought us your letter of Nov. 10th on the  24th, & it seems very probable, from my name being mentioned in the  memorandum book found with the remains, that they were those of my brother,  Arthur M. Byam, especially as my last letter from him was dated April 25, 1893  from Spokane Bridge Washington State, where he had spent the winter with a  friend, T W. Galbraith, and intended starting thence for Lake Kootena June 1st  since when I have written several times to him to the c/o Mr. Galbraith.  Therefore would you kindly forward to me as soon as possible the  memorandum book, that we may be able to identify our brother's writing, & if  there should be anything else, or any other clue you could give us, we should be  truly grateful. My brother's hair & beard were dark, thick & abundant, if that  remained.  And would you kindly let me know if the remains were reverently interred, and if  we are indebted to you for that, or any other expenses, & if we could give any  reward to the miner Hollingsworth, who brought them in. And also if the man,  Jim Stevenson should have survived, and ever turn up at Vernon and you could  gain any further information about my brother's death (supposing always it  should have been him) we should feel still further indebted to you. And now  thanking you much for the kindness which prompted you to write in such detail,  & so very sympathetically, believe me  Yours very sincerely, Agnes W. Byam  P. S.  Would you also kindly tell me where abouts Nakusp and  Vernon are, as to the mountains & near rivers, as the maps we  have give so few towns in British Columbia, except along the lines  of Railway or the large rivers, & I can find neither place marked.  128 MR. BYAM'S BONES  Hal Parke reacted with his customary kindness and sent Miss  Byam a package of information on the interior of British Columbia  and she was effusive in her thanks. Thus, we learned that the dead  man, her brother Arthur Merrick Byam, was the third son of General Byam of the 18th Hussars and Elizabeth Augusta, daughter of  Sir Grenville Temple, Bart., and was about 55 years old when he  died.  30th January 1895  Hal got another letter from Miss Byam today. I will copy it here, as all who  have read the story so far of her brother's death will be interested in it. Hal told  her that I had done most of the work in deciphering the writing in the little book  that was found. This is her letter -  Woodlands,  Cuckfield  near Hayward Heath  Sussex, England  January 15th '95  Dear Mr. Parke,  You & Mrs. Parke have indeed been kind & thoughtful in this sad matter,  you in writing so fully & sympathetically, & your wife in having taken so much  trouble in deciphering my name in the memorandum book. Yes, it is indeed my  brother Arthur Byam's hand writing -just the clear neat hand he always wrote  since his boyhood - it never altered since then although he would have been 55  years of age Nov. 30th '93, & although his right hand was fearfully burnt 13  years before - the fingers being all crumpled up together, &for some time  powerless - even after having been straightened out in Guy's Hospital, still he  told me he had recovered the use of that hand after his return to Canada, &  wrote as well as ever with it, but would signs of those once distorted fingers still  be visible ? They have done their work in sending me kind messages while he  could write. The great comfort to be found in those touching entries is untold -  there is not a word of complaint throughout and the words "God is good" are  most consoling.  I have copied all I could decipher, but it is very difficult and makes me  feel the more grateful to Mrs. Parke for having done so first for me, & I do thank  her most sincerely for her kindness, & you also, for telling me all you possibly  could. It seems to me now that there is no doubt, but I leave it to your judgment  whether it would be better to wait until the miner, Hollingsworth, returns next  Spring, in case he may have found the other remains, & the identification be  complete; & then I should indeed be grateful to you if you would have the bones  interred reverently, & a stone cross erected to my brother's memory.  129 MR. BYAM'S BONES  Meanwhile I have written again toT.W. Galbraith, J. P., Spokane Bridge,  from whom I also heard a few days ago, & have asked him about the teeth, as  Arthur had a fine set 13 years ago, when I last saw him, & he would know how it  was in the winter of 92-93 when they were together, & he might also identify the  coat? - & he told me in his letter that he had given my brother a case for his  spectacles - a thing I should not have known he possessed as he had remarkably  good sight, but perhaps you may have heard from Mr. Galbraith himself before  now. Captain Fitz Stubbs has also written, saying that he last saw my brother in  the summer of '93 when he obtained employment for himself at Nakusp, but  enquiring for him there that he had gone North.  These two were old friends of his, of long standing, & you may have  heard from both enquiring further particulars, and now I must again thank you  & Mrs. Parke for all you have done for us in every kind way, &for the map you  so thoughtfully sent in your letter. I will write what I would wish inscribed to my  brother's memory, whenever you feel a certainty about the matter, & trust you  will let me know all & every expense incurred - & with many best wishes for you  and Mrs. Parke, for many happy New Years.  Believe me, Yours very gratefully  Agnes M. Byam  The inscription for the stone is to be as follows  In loving memory of  Arthur Merrick Byam  third son of General Byam 18th Hussars  of Warblington, Hants, England  and of  Elizabeth Augusta  daughter of Sir Grenville Temple, Bart.  Departed this life in the Woods  between Vernon & Nakusp  October 1892 - Aged 55 years  "But God is Good"  In May 1895 Reverend T. Williams Outerbridge officiated at  a Christian burial for Arthur Byam in the old Vernon cemetery, just  west of Old Kamloops Road. Byam's name is among those listed  on the bronze plaque adorning one of the ornamental lamp stand-  130 MR. BYAM'S BONES  ards at the entrance to the old burial ground. There is no record,  however, of any headstone for his grave and Alice doesn't mention  one; indeed, she made no further reference to the Byam affair in  her journals, and when, in 1904, the cemetery was closed and the  graves relocated to the new site on Pleasant Valley Road, it appears  that Mr. Byam's remains were not exhumed. It is probable that he  still lies in his old resting place. After Agnes Byam's next letter  communication ceased, except for an occasional card at Easter or  Christmas.  3rd June 1895  On Saturday we heard again from Miss Byam. I think I'll copy out her letter, as it  is an interesting one.  Woodlands, Cuckfield,  May 15th 1895  Dear Mrs. Parke,  Very many thanks for your letter of April 26th and for so kindly sending  me two pamphlets on British Columbia which are most interesting, as showing  something of the beauties of the country where my brother wandered for so  many years, for he first went to Vancouver Island in '61, & then crossed to the  mainland, & we lost sight of him for many years until one of our cousins Sir A.  Musgrave became Governor ofB. C. & he found him out, & sent him home but  only to stay a few months, & then off again. So he really knew more of Canada  & British North America than of England where, he said, "people lived in  bandboxes "; & so you will see, it is well his remains should rest in the country  he really preferred, & I shall indeed be thankful to hear that through your & Mr.  Parke's great kindness they are then laid at rest & shall ever feel most grateful  for all the friendly interest you have both taken about this. In one of the  pamphlets you so kindly sent there is a photograph of the N. W. Mounted Police  and I wonder if our cousin Granville Temple may be in the group, & whether  you may ever meet him. He has been now four years in that force, having run  through his fortune, & thus been obliged to leave the English Army, & take up  duties in the Canadian D. Q. which seems to suit him, fortunately, & apparently  he enjoys the rough life so we hope he will either continue in the force, or find  some other opening in the colony, for truly there is none in England now.  You will see that our family are great wanderers. One sister resides in  Los Angeles, S. California, & another is Lady Superintendent of the English  Hospital for the Malagasy at Antanamarico where she has been for nearly eight  years, much loved by all her nurses and patients, but just now the French are  131 MR. BYAM'S BONES  cutting off communication with Madagascar, & we have had no news from there  for over six weeks, &feel very sorry for that poor Queen and her people, who  have so little chance of resisting disciplined foreign troops, unless the Malagasy  fever comes to their aid, as it did the last time the French tried to occupy the  country, but that time they remained near the coast, where the swamps  generated malaria and therefore now they intend to press on quickly to the  capital, which stands very high, only they will have to make roads thereto, as at  present there are none, & Europeans have, as yet, always been carried up the  precipitous paths by bare footed natives in palanquins - an impossible thing to  do with a number of troops or artillery either.  But I am writing you a long letter! - & have not alluded to Mrs.  Buckwell, but perhaps you may have heard ere this, that she returned to Canada  in March or April - at least she intended to do so, when I saw her in February,  and doubtless she is feeling warm now, for even here it has been oppressively  hot for the last week, & coming suddenly after the bitter cold winds makes one  feel it the more.  But now I must say good-bye, & with very kindest regards to yourself &  Mr. Parke remain  Yours very sincerely,  Agnes D Byam  While I was working at the Vernon Museum, and on the very  day in the fall of 1996 that I was transcribing the correspondence  between the Parkes and Miss Byam, by an astonishing coincidence  archivist Linda Wills received a letter from Eric Lawson, who owns  Ship Research Services on Bowen Island. Enclosed was a copy of a  prize-winning essay written by a 14-year-old Falkland Islands student, Andrea Poole, whose subject was the history of islands of  Falkland Sound, in the South Atlantic. Her article appeared in the  1996 Falkland Islands Journal, and from it we learned that our Mr.  Byam had been manager of Speedwell Island there before moving  on to British Columbia—a wanderer indeed! Ms. Poole obviously  knew all about the crumbling diary that Alice Parke had deciphered.  She wrote  From a crumbling and decayed memorandum book found in his coat  pocket it was gathered that he was related to Agnes Byam... she was  able to be informed of his death.  132 MR. BYAM'S BONES  But how could Ms. Poole know all this? Was she a descendant  of the Byam family? Was that old, crumbling memorandum book  by any chance now located in the Falklands?  Through Professor J. McAdam, of the University of Belfast in  Northern Ireland, and the editor of the Falkland Islands Journal, I  was able to contact the essay's author, and in June 1998, was finally able to solve the mystery. Ms. Poole is not a descendant of  the Byam family with personal knowledge of the incident (as I  had, somewhat romantically, imagined), nor is the original diary  there. Instead, I learned from her that she, too, had read of Byam's  death—in the pages of a Falkland Islands church magazine published in 1897, and she enclosed a copy of the article. It read, in  part, "Miss Byam writes that about the end of November 1894, the  postmaster of Cuckfield heard from Mr. Parke, postmaster of Vernon,  British Columbia, that the skeleton of a man with a memorandum  book in the coat pockets had been found in the mountains by a  miner."  So Miss Byam evidently conveyed the news of her brother's  death to someone in the Falklands, and a hundred years later, with  intriguing synchronicity, two people living in two widely separated  countries, unknown to each other, wrote about that same long-forgotten man.  Indeed, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio ..."  133 NEW LIGHT ON THE  1909 OKANAGAN HOTEL FIRE  By Pat Bayliss  In the early hours of August 10,1909, Constable Bailey was standing in the doorway of the Majestic Cafe on Vernon's Barnard  Avenue with the cafe's night manager, Lawrence King. A few  minutes into their conversation Mr. King pointed out to the policeman that flames were coming from a building farther along the  avenue. They were soon running to call the fire brigade to the  Okanagan Hotel, a three-storey wooden building at Barnard Avenue and Vance Street, now 33rd Street. The firemen arrived quickly  and rescued many of the hotel guests. Other townspeople were  also involved in pushing ladders onto the burning building. The  Okanagan's owners, the Sigalet family, were rescued by H. H. Deane,  proprietor of Dreamland, the moving picture theatre in Vernon. C.  C. McRae of the Royal Bank also gave life-saving aid at the scene.  The hero of the Okanagan Hotel fire was a young Englishman  named Archie Hickling, who occupied one of the rooms as a boarder.  He, too, helped others to safety, despite the extreme hazard of doing so. He saw one of the young waitresses screaming for help  from a third-floor window and exclaimed, "I'll get her out or I will  die doing it." Archie did get the woman out and others helped her  to street level. Unfortunately, Archie Hickling was overcome by  the fire and died with 10 other men.  The full magnitude of this terrible fire, which some felt at  the time was not accidental, was not realized until daylight came.  In the charred remains of the building the 11 victims were found,  including the body of an unknown man who was thought to have  been inebriated. Constable Bailey had found him asleep the night  before on the sidewalk outside the hotel and had put him in the  back hallway of the Okanagan. In addition to Hickling, other victims included Wilbur Smith, carpenter-foreman for W. E.  Cryderman, James Anderson, who drove J. W Glover's bakery  Pat Bayliss became interested in the Okanagan Hotel fire tragedy while indexing  Vernon and Kamloops newspapers published between 1880 and 1923, a task she  began 10 years ago as a Vernon centennial project. More often than not she can be  found in the archival section of Vernon Museum compiling a data base of vital  information such as births, marriages and deaths.  134 OKANAGAN HOTEL FIRE  wagon, J. J. Funston, labourer; George Gannett and George McKay,  both concrete workers, M. Chabrie, labourer, George Seltgast,  painter, William Cook, prospector and ranch hand and Julius Fuerst,  the hotel's bartender.  Some of the men were local people, but most were transient  and single. George Gannett and George McKay had arrived in the  Vernon area from Calgary the day before the fire to work on the  construction of the  Catholic church.  Seven of those rescued were in hospital: Patrick Hanna,  Thomas Hall,  Samuel Seal, Thomas Abbott, Robert  Feathers, Michael  Struger and William  Nicholls. Mr.  Nicholls was employed by the Crozier plumbing company. He was the father of Grace  Nicholls, who still  lives in Vernon.  Three days after  the fire, at Campbell  Bros, funeral parlour, Dr. Osborne  Morris, district coroner, enrolled as jury  members for the inquest Messrs. C. C.  McRae (foreman), J.  Speer, W H. Smith, J.  W. Glover, W. G.  McKenzie, S. A.  Shatford and J. C.  Agnew.  One recommendation brought up at  the inquest was to  employ night watch-  (Pat Bayliss photograph)    men or night clerks  135 OKANAGAN HOTEL FIRE  at local hotels, especially ones that were overcrowded. Another  thought was to disallow switching electric lights off in hotels at  midnight. During the Okanagan Hotel fire guests were groping  through hallways in darkness. It was also suggested that fire escapes and ropes from guest rooms be mandatory.  During the inquest suspicions were raised that the fire was  deliberately set by one Alex Smith and a $500 reward was offered  by Vernon City Council for his capture. The Government of British  Columbia added a further $500 reward money, but Smith was never  found.  The Okanagan Hotel was built in 1892 by Gideon Milligan.  He sold it about 1907 to Messrs. Albers and Sigalet for $20,000. On  the ground floor were H. P. Lee's real estate office and J. A. Stewart's  barbershop.  In early September 1909, N. Sommerville proposed to Vernon  City Council that a public memorial be erected in honour of Archie  Hickling. Council agreed with this suggestion and donated $300 to  a public fund organized by the Vernon Board of Trade. Local citizens could donate to the fund a maximum of 50 cents each. By  mid-December 1909, $521 had been raised and a granite memorial  to Hickling was dedicated by Mayor Allen near City Hall.  Almost three years later, much to the local people's horror,  the Hickling memorial was removed to the Vernon cemetery. The  Vernon News of the day condemned moving the memorial from  public view, claiming all should remember Archie Hickling and  the greatest loss of life to befall Vernon. Sometime in 1913, the  memorial was placed in Poison Park at the 33rd Street entrance.  FOOTNOTE: The Society has learned that Ms. Bayliss has taken it upon herself to  commission a bronze plaque inscribed with the names of those known to have died in the  Okanagan Hotel blaze. The 11 th man has never been identified. The plaque will be mounted  on the Hickling memorial. 'Ģ<**"  136 THE CREMATION OF  SAM MCGEE, OH REALLY!  by David Gregory  There are strange things done in the midnight sun  By the men who moil for gold;  The Arctic trails have their secret tales  That would make your blood run cold;  The Northern Lights have seen queer sights,  But the queerest they ever did see  Was the night on the marge of Lake Lebarge  I cremated Sam McGee.  These are the opening lines of Robert Service's poem The Cremation of Sam McGee, one of the most beloved and financially successful poems of the twentieth century. And it has  an Okanagan connection.  Robert Service was born on January 16, 1874, in Preston,  Lancashire, England. At the age of 22 he left home and emigrated  to Canada. He worked in various locations along the west coast of  Canada and the United States. His first poem, titled The Song of a  Wage-Slave, was published in a Los Angeles newspaper in 1898. In  October 1903 Service was hired by the Victoria branch of the Canadian Bank of Commerce. One year later, his family left England  and moved to Canada, eventually settling in Vegreville, Alberta.  The Commerce transferred Robert Service to several B. C. communities including Kamloops and in the fall of 1904 he was posted to  Whitehorse.  There really was a Sam McGee as mentioned in the poem.  He was born on August 28, 1868, in Fenelon Township, Victoria  County, Ontario. The youngest of four brothers, McGee left home  at age 15 and like Robert Service travelled to the West Coast and  San Francisco. With the news of the Klondike gold rush, in 1898  Sam McGee headed to the Yukon. He owned a log cabin in Dawson  City and worked primarily as a construction engineer building roads  and bridges.  David Gregory heads the Society's Historic Trails Committee and is a member of  the Summerland Branch executive.  137 CREMATION OF SAM MCGEE  Sam McGee and Ruth Warnes wedding  portrait, 1901.  In 1938 McGee wrote, "I  went to the Yukon in the fall of  1898, and that winter freighted  the steamer Glenar from the  White Pass to the head of Lake  Bennett. When we got through  with that job we took horses to  operate the tram road around  Miles Canyon and White Horse  Rapids on the Yukon River the  summer of 1899. In July 1899,1  staked copper property some  miles from White Horse Rapids."  The following year  McGee returned to Ontario  upon learning of his mother's  death. On June 5, 1901, while  at home, he married 18-year-old  Ruth Warnes (1882-1956) and  left for Dawson City that same  year. Sam continued with the development of the copper mine and  acquired a partner, Robert Lowe, who would later become mayor  of Whitehorse.  There is some controversy as to the relationship between  Robert Service and Sam McGee. Service wrote that he "only saw"  Sam McGee once. He explained that while working at the Canadian Bank of Commerce in Whitehorse, "I happened to be turning  over the bank ledger and I came across the name of Sam McGee,  and it seemed a good name to use. It sounded well and it rhymed  well." There is evidence to support this claim. An early draft of the  poem (probably written in the fall of 1904) exists using a different  name: Sam McKlot. Part of the draft follows.  There are strange things done after half past one  By the men who search for gold  The arctic histories have their eerie mysteries  That would make your feet go cold  The Aurora Borealis has seen where Montreal is,  But the queerest it ever spot  Was the night on the periphery of Lake McKiflery  I cremated Sam McKlot  138 CREMATION OF SAM MCGEE  Sam McGee had a different explanation. He recalled in 1938  that Robert Service was "always looking for material to weave a  story or poems as at that time he was writing in a small way as I  was doing a lot of freighting across Lake LaBarge (McGee's spelling) in those days in the winter time, and, as there was a little  steamer called the Alice May beached on an island in the center [of  the lake] and as Service was always roving around in his spare time,  he got this inspiration for the poem when he ran across this Alice  May and myself freighting on the lake in the bitter cold weather."  Whichever explanation is correct, the meeting of these two  men produced two outcomes. Firstly, Robert Service included the  poem about Sam McGee in his 1907 publication, Songs of a  Sourdough, which became a best-seller. (Sourdough was a term used  to describe a prospector or miner who had spent at least one year  in the Yukon). The second consequence was that after Sam McGee  realized his name was in Robert Service's poem, he transferred his  bank account to the Bank of British North America!  In 1909 Service resigned from his position at the Canadian  Bank of Commerce. After visits to the family farm in Alberta and to  a publisher in Toronto, by 1913 he was in Paris, France. With the  exception of some holidays in British Columbia, Hollywood, and  one visit to the Yukon, Robert Service spent the rest of his life on  the Continent. He died in 1958.  As for Sam McGee, he also left the Yukon in 1909 due to his  wife's poor health. In 1910 he purchased 191.33 acres of orchard  land in Summerland and one acre of residential property in  Balcomo, a new townsite in Prairie Valley. His orchard was located  in Paradise Flats (District Lots 1073 and 3194) located on the east  side of Trout Creek canyon. The residential property was located  at the most westerly portion of Prairie Valley (District Lot 474, Block  31, Lot 19) at the corner of present-day Dale Meadows Road and  Lister Avenue.  Ruth McGee had four sisters, two of whom, Ella (Nell) Warnes  (1891-1942) and Mildred (1893-1981), moved to Summerland at about  the same time as Sam and Ruth McGee.  James Ritchie, the son of Summerland pioneer Will Ritchie,  helped Sam McGee to get his land ready for fruit production. At  that time the Summerland irrigation system had not extended fully  to McGee's orchard, so he fabricated a pulley system that was able  to draw water from Trout Creek. After only one year in Summerland  the McGees sold their orchard to the Southern British Columbia  Orchard Limited, which in turn sold it to the Okanagan Commercial Orchard Company. Today, McGee Street commemorates  139 CREMATION OF SAM MCGEE  Summerland's tenuous connection with the celebrated Yukon char-  RuthMcGet011 FlatS' Albem' W¬∞uldbe the new home of Sam and  According to the Summerland Review (1942), Nellie Warnes  TZt Jfk LfWlGr in,19U- JaGk Lawler Played an important role  m the fruit packing industry in Summerland and Nellie was active  in the local hospital and many sports clubs. Sister Mildred married  James Ritchie on November 4, 1919, in Vernon and they eventually moved to Keremeos.  Robert Service at his Dawson City cabin. (Yukon Archives/Gillis Collection)  140 MEMORIES OF THE  S&O RAILWAY  by Lois Roberts  These are a few memories that my two sisters and I have of  trains. Our parents, Kathy and George Halksworth, ran the  store and post office in Grindrod so our lives revolved around  the arrival and departure of the train making its daily run on the  CPR's Shuswap & Okanagan branch line. Every morning at 11 and  every evening at 7 the train had to be met.  There were times during the winter that the train was late.  The station had a small waiting room with an old stove, a bench  and no lights, so the  mail carrier spent  many long hours in the  dark waiting for the  evening train.  The carriers included most members  of our family, starting  with our grandfather,  John Monk, our uncle  Bill, his wife Nora, our  dad and mother and my  two sisters, Joan and  Betty (I wasn't allowed). The only non-  member of the family  was William Folkard, a  Boer War veteran.  The most important part of the service  was the locked bag that  contained first class and  Waiting for the train at Grindrod station, 1940s. Rear:  Joan Halksworth, Alma Wolf, Betty Halksworth. Front:  Edna (Eiko) Uyeda, Joyce (Kimiko) Uyeda, Lois  Halksworth, May (Yoshiko) Uyeda, Bob Andersen.  (Enderby Museum)  registered mail. Betty remembers one morning when Dad discovered he had left the bag back at the post office, just as the train  appeared in the distance. He dumped Betty very unceremoniously  into the truck and drove like mad to get the bag. At this point he  141 John Monk & Son general store and post office, 1937. Operated from 1922-28 by John Monk; from  1928-68 by Kathleen and George Halksworth. (George Meeres photograph, Enderby Museum collection)  jettisoned Betty out of the truck, grabbed the bag and headed for  Enderby, as the train had already pulled away from Grindrod station. Somehow he managed to beat the train and handed the bag to  the mailman. At that time the road wasn't paved and was washboard all the way, so this was quite a feat.  The railway station was the gathering place for all the young  people. We never seemed to tire of watching the old engine come  puffing into the platform. There was usually a baggage car, the mail  car, a couple of passenger cars and a freight car. Tuesday was pig  and cattle day, so there were cars loaded with pigs and cows. You  could not only see the train coming, you could smell it too. About  twice a year the CPR superintendent would come through, so a  special passenger [business] car was put on for that occasion. It  had an observation platform on the back. I can remember going to  Sicamous to see the King and Queen. They were riding in a car like  that and they were standing on the observation platform giving us  the royal wave.  It was most interesting at night when we could look into the  lighted coaches and see who was on board. It was like looking into  another world. Entertainment was very limited in Grindrod. Sometimes we would go to the station early and read all the graffiti on  the walls. We learned a few things our parents didn't appreciate.  Betty and I spent a lot of time playing on the boxcars that  were spotted on the siding. We would have conversations through  the brake hoses and when we got home we'd have dirt around our  ears and mouths. Betty was a bit of a daydreamer and she and  Isabel Lowes would spend hours sitting on top of the cars speculat-  142 S&O RAILWAY  ing about all the wonderful things they were going to do in their  lives and how they were going to travel. They had a great view of  Grindrod from that vantage point.  Joan remembers one day when Roy Tomkinson fell out of a  boxcar and landed on the ground between the car and the loading  ramp. He lay on the ground, not moving, and some of us stood  looking down at him until he could finally breathe again. He sat up  and declared, "I'm dead!" Perhaps they should have given him C.P.R.!  We remember the troop trains. They had a different whistle.  When we heard that whistle down by the river bend the cry would  go up, "Troop Train" and we'd all run to the station to wave to the  soldiers. It made our day when they would lean out the windows  and whistle and yell, "hubba hubba" at us. Betty and I always hoped  it was us they were whistling at, but I was only eight or nine and  Betty was very shy and hid behind the station most times, so I  guess it was our beautiful blond sister Joan who caught their attention.  One evening a bunch of young people were waiting for the  evening train when we spotted two tiny children walking down the  middle of the track with a train approaching right behind them.  Thank goodness Louise Hyam raced down the track and snatched  them off just in time. Their mother had been running toward them  too, so Louise handed them over to her and she promptly administered a spanking. I suppose some psychologist today would declare  that she had scarred them emotionally and physically for life, but  I'm sure they never walked on the tracks again.  Another exciting event was when the passenger train derailed  at Grindrod station. Of course, all the passengers got off and wandered around Grindrod while a work train was sent to right the  engine. It took quite awhile, so when they finally got on their way  one group of ladies had wandered a bit too far and the train left  without them. But Domonic Miletto came to their rescue and drove  them to Enderby to catch the train. It must have been quite a ride  because Domonic always drove with the windows down and his  head stuck out the side. He didn't seem to like looking through the  windshield.  We remember a car being hit at the crossing. The engineer  blew the whistle over and over again—a long, mournful sound. It  was the distress call. I'm not quite sure the purpose of it except  anyone within earshot knew there was trouble on the line.  On one occasion we can remember the evening train being  met by a grave group of people. When it came to a stop a coffin was  taken out of the baggage car and loaded onto a waiting truck; I  believe it was one of the Mikalishen boys.  143 S&O RAILWAY  There were quite a few happier occasions when newlyweds  boarded the train to start their honeymoons. There was much merriment then. Our parents were one of those couples. Of course, we  weren't there, but we have a newspaper clipping stating that"...  after the wedding supper the bride and groom left for a short honeymoon to Vancouver ... To the accompaniment of jubilant whistling by the passenger engine the couple were given a great send  off by their friends and relatives as well as by the train crew on the  main line as Mr. Halksworth was an employee of the CPR. It is  reported he is still shedding confetti."  We had to meet the train even on Christmas day. On that  special day Grandmother always baked a batch of mince tarts for  the crew. They looked forward to them every year.  One of the very convenient things was that you could order a  roast from the butchers in Enderby and it would be on the evening  train. You could send a letter on the morning train to Vernon and  receive a reply on the evening run. All our supplies for the store  were delivered to the station either by the passenger train or by  freight. In those days things could be left on the station platform  and nothing was ever stolen.  Saturday night you could always expect the train crew to be  very merry on their way back to Sicamous. The town drunk always  fell off that train and spent the night in a ditch.  Bill Bailey, who finally married our beautiful blond sister,  remembers when in winter he and his brother Alan would grab the  last car of the train and ride it as far as the crossing, then jump off  and slide down the road on the ice.  We were very skilled at walking on the rails and putting pennies and nails on the tracks to be flattened. I was surprised to learn  from an engineer last summer that you can feel those pennies on  the big diesels of today.  Sometimes if there was trouble on the main line, the trains  would be rerouted on the S&O branch. They were never sure of  the condition of the rails and track so they would just creep along.  During the Depression our grandmother told us of the hobos  who rode the rails. They were just poor fellows looking for work  and were usually very hungry. When they came begging at the  door, Grandmother would put them to work chopping wood while  she cooked them a nourishing meal.  I can't remember the date when the first diesel came through,  but I can remember my dad always sat at the dinner table with the  newspaper propped up in front of him. On that day, when the first  diesel blew its horn at the crossing, Dad dropped the paper and  stood bolt upright. I can remember what he said, too: "What the  hell is that?"  144 THE END OF PENTICTON'S  ROMANCE WITH THE  PASSENGER TRAIN  By Mollie Broderick  Eighty-four years ago the first passenger train steamed into  Penticton station on the Okanagan lakeshore over the Kettle  Valley Railway (KVR) and caused a stir of excitement not  seen before.  Ladies in billowing skirts and fashionable hats, gentlemen in  top hats and "tails," children in varying garb, working men in overalls, and women leaving their washtubs to wave from screened  porches were all out to greet the long-awaited arrival of the first  passenger train with its luxurious first-class sleepers and day  coaches.  There was excitement, hope and jubilance. It signalled a challenging and romantic era in transportation.  Passenger business flourished. Eastbound and westbound-  Vancouver to Medicine Hat—through the scenic Coquihalla Pass  with its many tunnels, steep grades, deep gorges and often treacherous winter snows. Through the Similkameen and Okanagan Valleys, over to the Kootenays and on through the Crowsnest Pass to  make connection with Canadian Pacific's main line.  Over the years traffic increased until a further daylight run  was added, making the number of passenger trains in and out of  Penticton each day grow to four. At one time there were 11 crews  based on the Penticton terminal, working both freight and passenger services.  However, it was not to last. Eventually, improved highways,  private cars, bus service and even faster service by plane spelled  the demise of Kettle Valley passenger trains. When the end came  all that was left was a single dayliner Budd car. Engineer Joe Collett,  Mollie Broderick lives in Okanagan Falls. A Life Member from Penticton Branch,  she continues to serve on the parent body executive and was instrumental in  getting Okanagan History into talking-book form. Her husband, George, died on  Labour Day 1990 at the age of 86, after having had a 40-year connection with the  KVR.  145 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  trainman Joe Bennett and conductor George Broderick (Geordie)  and crew hauled the last load of ore out of Copper Mountain in  1957. Collett, Broderick and Bennett were also on the last Budd car  into Penticton when the service closed on January 17, 1964.  The line from Penticton to Midway was then put under the  control of Nelson; that from Penticton to Brookmere came under  Vancouver, and the Penticton yard and the south run to Osoyoos  were operated from Revelstoke.  Almost 20 years pass and it is May 1983. The wail of a whistle—of necessity from a diesel unit, for there are no more water  towers or coal chutes to provision steam engines—is heard from a  real passenger train! The Okanagan Express, brought in to celebrate  Penticton's 75th anniversary, featured first-class coaches with plush  CP engine 5178 leads passenger train at Penticton's lakeshore station in the 1930s.  (Photograph courtesy Doug Cox)  seats, club car with open observation deck, day coaches with  wooden-slat seats and iron arm rests, all rolling majestically behind two engines down the West Bench tracks and into Penticton  station.  Shades of the past. A stir of excitement once again buzzes  around the old railway station on Hastings Avenue. As of yore,  ladies in flowing skirts and fashionable hats, gentlemen in top hats  and tails, children, workmen and housewives are all out to wave  welcome to 370 travel-weary but happy passengers.  On May 22, 1983, a day trip was scheduled to Princeton and  return for lucky ticket holders. How can one adequately describe  and so share with others the joy and exhilaration of having—even  for one short day—something we felt sure we would never experi-  146 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  ence again? A trip by  PASSENGER TRAIN on  Kettle Valley rails!  What to wear? Period  costume, of course.  And for Geordie, one  more chance to don his  conductor's uniform,  still pressed and stored  for posterity.  The day dawned  clear and bright. Departure was at 9 a.m. Our  family arrived with a  boutonniere for Geordie and corsage for me,  together with money  for our tickets on this  our wedding anniversary. What a wonderful  way to celebrate. We  From the annals of the  Kettle Valley Railway  Employee roster on the initial  runs —First train from Midway to  Penticton, May 31, 1915: Conductor,  J. H. Henry; brakemen, Angus  Campbell, C. A. Yule; engineer, W. L.  Nott; fireman, P. Weir; baggageman,  D.A. McLean. First train from Merritt  to Penticton, May 31, 1915: Conductor, G. M. Thom; brakemen, J. G.  Ferguson, L. B. McNully; engineer, Sid  Cornock; fireman, W. H. Stevenson;  baggageman, J. R. Donaldson.  The first ticket bought on the  KVR out of Penticton, No. 0, was sold  to T. McKenzie of the Canadian Consolidated Rubber Co. It was from  Penticton to Princeton.  waved farewell at the  station while greeting old friends as they boarded.  As the train rolled over the beauteous sun-drenched countryside, lush and green from spring rains, we listened to the old familiar sound of steel wheels pounding out the rhythmic click, click,  clack. People waved from every porch, trail, fence rail and car top.  There was laughter and happiness.  Our train climbed high above Okanagan Lake, leaving  Penticton receding into the background. We crossed the famous  high trestle over Trout Creek Canyon at Winslow, then entered the  pine-covered hills where sunflowers bloomed in profusion. Up, up  through Faulder, Crump, Kirton, Altamont and Thirsk to the wild  welcome of a crowd at Osprey lake. Then the summit, where we  enjoyed a 15-minute stop.  "All aboard" called conductor Cable Freeman, and we were  on our way once more. But no. Two blasts on the whistle signalled  a halt and tail-end trainman Dave Coates was obliged to let two  youths disembark with a shout of mischievous delight. They had  somehow managed to board and evade detection by our watchful  crew for those first few moments. One crew member was heard to  say: "I wonder if they realize that stop cost us at least fifty dollars."  147 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  On our way again, now into the beautiful open range country of Jellicoe, Erris, Jura and Belfort, where we saw the prize  Herefords on the lush pastures of Wayne and Freda Sellers's Cross  L Ranch. As our train wound its way through the Jura Loops  (Andrew McCulloch's skilful solution to maintaining the 2.2 percent grade down to Princeton) we could see in the hazy distance  the snow-clad peaks of Three Brothers Mountains and the Valley of  the One Mile, once my home, to the north. Memories and scenery  that defies description for such as I.  A stop and lunch break at Princeton for passengers and crew,  where more old friends and citizens of the town were out to greet  us. Then promptly at fourteen o'clock we head back to Penticton.  Settling down a bit now,  we were able to catch up  on some reminiscing. . .  Ruth Rice, whose  husband was a KVR engineer, showed us a spot  just before Osprey Lake  where her family used to  camp. "We used to load  our camping gear on No.  12, climb aboard and the  engineer would slow  right down at Osprey to  allow us to get off the  train for a happy holiday."  At Jura the Sellers  family waited at the fence line to greet us and the crew agreed to a  short stop. Trainman and conductor Joe Collett pointed to a spot  below the track. "There's a patch of rhubarb down there some place  that fed me and my family for years. When we had a stop here, I  always gathered an armful." It might still be growing there.  Joe, the only surviving KVR man holding a gold pass awarded  for 50 or more years' service, also recalled a time when his father  had a homestead near Jura. "I worked with him on that homestead  for a couple of years, then lit out in 1916, looking for ajob. I ended  up in lake service on CPR boats, then went firing on the KVR."  "Tubby" Moore, who made his first pay trip with conductor  George Broderick, recalled a time when grasshoppers were so thick  on the rails they were like grease and almost stopped a freight on  Jura Hill. "I was firing for Frank Williams and "Fat" Nagle was con-  "Okanagan Express" at Jura Loops on special run in 1983.  (Courtesy Mollie Broderick)  148 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  First Engine Arrives  In Penticton  The Clang Of The Bell And The Sound  Of The Whistle Is Heard At Last  MRS. WARREN PULLS FIRST BELL  Locomotive Will Be Used For Conveyance  of Material lb Construct K. V. Ry.  The clang of a bell on Saturday evening  caused alarm to many, whose first thoughts were  of fire, but gladsome tidings met those who turned  out to discover the reason for the clamour and  the whistle. The first locomotive engine that has  ever appeared in Penticton awoke echoes from  the surrounding hills. Of course it was not a passenger train, it is only for the purpose of moving  and shunting freight and will be used to draw  material for building the Kettle Valley from the  wharf, as construction proceeds east and west of  the town.  The engine which has been shipped in  from Midway, was brought down from  the Landing by the Castlegar,  along with 16 carloads of  First locomotive arrives at Penticton October 26, 1912.  149 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  steel and building material. Under her own steam  she left the barge. On landing she was boarded  by Mrs. J. J. Warren, who blew the first whistle  and rang the bell. On board the engine and caboose were also Miss Lorna Warren, Masters  Jeffery and Fred Warren, Miss Bach, Mrs.  Kirkpatrick, Miss Kierstead, Mr. C. Gordon, Mr.  Graham, Mr. C. Morgan, Mr. Robin Hood, Master  D. Estabrook and H. Carr.  With engineer George Nadon in charge of  the lever the party took a trip over the line as far  as the Hotel Incola.  The engine has been busy all week shunting and has been an object of curiosity to the  townspeople. Singular as it may seem, several  people in the district had never seen an engine  in their lives before and one man who stood contemplating the new arrival, said he had not seen  one for twenty years.  With construction proceeding at full speed,  Penticton appears to be at the end of the long wait for  adequate transportation facilities. (Penticton Herald,  November 2, 1912)  ductor. When she started to slip we cut off five cars, wiped the rails  with waste, threw on a little sand and finally got moving. We made  a drop at Jura and backed down for the rest of the cars."  George Broderick recalled that on Labour Day 1926 he was  called to deal with a wreck in which Bob Marks, an engineer, had  been killed when the ore and fertilizer freight he was driving left  the rails in the Coquihalla section. When he arrived at the scene,  George found that his brother-in-law, Ray Letts, had jumped from  the runaway train to safety.  Geordie was hired as a wiper in 1929, which meant that he  had to rid the engine of the coating of coal and oil picked up during  a run. He also remembered cooking some of his meals on a shovel  held over the hot coals of the engine firebox. A man of quiet humour and honest stories, Geordie told of "call-outs" at any time,  day or night, in all kinds of weather from the very warm to a freezing 30-below, and the big snow of January 1935 when his crew was  caught between slides after a bridge west of Princeton went out.  Over seven feet of snow had fallen, leaving nothing moving. Eventually, they broke into a supply car for food, then walked out to  Brookmere.  150 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  Will Cut the First Sod for the  Kettle River Valley Railway  Dominion Day 9.30 Fixed For The Ceremony  Reeve E. Foley-Bennett Requested by President  J. J. Warren to Perform the Historic Function  — Spot Selected is Yard Site on the Meadows  Near New Mill.  The arrival of Chief  Engineer A. McCulloch of  the Kettle River Valley  Railway, in town Wednesday, gave rise to various  rumours with respect to  the probable date when  the first sod will be cut.  All doubt was set at rest  on Thursday morning,  when Reeve E. Foley-  Bennett received the following communication from the president of the company, Mr.  J.J. Warren. (Penticton Herald, June 1, 1911)  Penticton, June 28th, 1911.  Dear Mr. Bennett:  While we technically started construction under the agreement  with the municipality  when we began work on  the dock, etc., we have  not yet turned the first  sod in connection with  the construction of the  railway. It would please  me very much if you  would attend at the yard  Turning the first sod for the KVR, Penticton, July 1, 1911.  Inaugural passenger run to Penticton, May 31, 1915.  151 ROMANCE WITH THE PASSENGER TRAIN  site of the railway on Saturday, July 1st, and  turn the first sod.  I am glad that the day is so appropriate  for the occasion.  Yours very truly,  JAMES J. WARREN, President.  (Penticton Herald, June 1, 1911)  E. Foley-Bennett, Esq., Penticton, B. C.  The historic event will take place at 9:30  in the morning, so that the Domion Day sports  will not he interfered with. The site is about  five minutes' walk from the race track.  Mr. McCulloch has brought his gang of  surveyors from Kelowna, where their headquarters have been, and it is understood that  Penticton will be made the center from which  all surveying for the track ivill be carried o|| in  the future. \  Kettle Valley Railway yards, Penticton, 1912-1913.  (All Penticton KVR photographs and research courtesy Claud Hammell)  The crew and popular conductor Cable Freeman, who always  wore a smile and had a cheerful word for all, were joined for this  special trip by Barrie Sanford (who had arranged it all) and with his  assistant Terry Ferguson was supervising the run. Tail-end  brakeman, congenial Dave Coates with neatly trimmed red hair  showing under his cap, was as pleasant as he was handsome in his  pressed navy uniform. Young Bob Hanes, on head-end, looked smart  and obliging. Our engineers, Gary Kirkham and Bob Hanson, provided a safe, enjoyable and smooth ride—no jerky starts, nor rough  stops.  It was a great day, a nostalgic day and a wonderful trip for us  all. Memories are made of such as this.  152 ONTARIO JOURNALS REVEAL  MORE ABOUT THE "TERRIBLE-  TEMPERED MR. IRWIN"  By Joan Adams  A case of an extraordinary coincidence has projected  new light on Joseph Irwin, the divisive school principal whose  meddling and strictness in the classroom absorbed the fledgling community of Salmon Arm in 1895. The following was  submitted by Joan Adams of Kelowna, a former teacher herself, who, as it turns out, has a tenuous connection to the  Irwin story that reaches hack 125 years. And, as will be seen  below, it seems Irwin's teaching decorum was plainly evident from the beginning of his career. — Ed.  Recently I went to the Kelowna naturalists' banquet. I have  never won anything in my life, but that night I got one of the  door prizes—a number pulled out of a hat. It was Number 62  Okanagan History. The first article I came upon was "Just or Unjust? The 1895 Dismissal of School Principal Joseph Irwin."  I couldn't believe my eyes, for the name Joseph Irwin was  very familiar. When my grandmother (Mrs. H. H. Miller) died in  1946 in Kelowna, a tin box of hers ended up in one of our cupboards. In the box was my grandmother's journal, set down when  she was Mary Ellen "Nellie" Armstrong. The entries are recorded  in six half-scribblers with black ink, sometimes illegible, faded,  erased and torn. The dates were between January 1875 and December 1878.  The first entry was made January 5, 1875, at Brook Farm,  Blanchard, Ontario. Relatives from Ontario visited us in 1984 and  one of them offered to transcribe the journals. The typewritten  result is about 11/2 inches thick and covers a goodly portion of  Nellie Armstrong's life in great detail. She was 16 years old in 1875,  attending Science Hill Academy, a one-room school, and thinking  of becoming a teacher.  On February 2, 1876, she wrote: "I have been so busy since  school started. I don't like our new teacher Mr. Irwin very well.  He's pretty cross and whips a good deal, but it isn't for that exactly.  153 TERRIBLE TEMPERED MR. IRWIN"  He isn't a bit agreeable. We have started Euclid again. At the first, none of us have books  and we all study out of Joe's—Mr. Irwin I  mean."  And again, "Mr. Irwin threatened to  send me home on Friday. The circumstances  was (sic) this. I was parsing a word, it was  "youth" in Bell's Mary Queen of Scots. "She  thought of all her blighted hope—she dreams  of youth's brief day." I first called it a common noun and then an abstract noun. When  I had finished he asked me which it was. I Joseph Irwin.  said "Abstract." He then said it was not abstract but common. I said  in an undertone that I could not see that it was, he asked me if I  said anything. I did not answer, he then asked me again and I said  yes. He asked me what I said. I did not tell him. He then said he  would not have anybody there that wanted to have their own way,  and of course I did not relish being sent home, so I replied "I said I  did not think it was common, that's all." He said anybody would  think so that knew anything about it... "  And again, "They have re-engaged Joe Irwin at an advanced  salary. I think it's a shame. He kept the boys in after school for  calling him names. One boy was asked what BB.I. stood for. Big  Buck was the reply. Another said T stands for Irwin. He said he  would expel them if he ever heard it again."  There are several other references to J. Irwin, but then Mary  Ellen Armstrong becomes a teacher and continues about her life  as a country school marm in a Catholic (German and Irish) community called Gad's Hill.  Not a great deal more on Irwin is found in the ensuing pages,  except that much later she confides she would like to "study philosophy and grammar for three weeks with Mr. Irwin!! (in the summer)."  Finally, there is an entry mentioning that he is leaving the  area.  As for Mary Ellen Armstrong's journal, it ends when she  marries a local young man, Henry Miller, and moves to Hanover,  Ontario. Miller later became an MP for Grey County under Sir  Wilfred Laurier. And so the unsophisticated country girl finally stops  writing in her diary.  154 TERRIBLE TEMPERED MR. IRWIN"  Yvonne Sturhahn's dissertation on the controversy surrounding  Joseph Irwin provoked interest among many Okanagan History readers, leading to further details about the peripatetic educator's career. For example, while researching the files of The Vernon News, a  member of the OHS found that on January 26,1899 it was reported:  "Public school at Short's [sic] Point has again been opened, with J.  Irwin formerly of Salmon Arm, as teacher."  iDers  A RICH and FRUITFUL LAND: The HISTORY of the VALLEYS of the  OKANAGAN, SIMILKAMEEN and SHUSWAP. By Jean Webber. Jointly  published by Okanagan Historical Society and Harbour Publishing. The  Society celebrates 75 years of compiling history with this sweeping anthology inspired by stories from its annual Reports. $35.95. Available  through the OHS treasurer, Box 313, Vernon, B. C, V1T 6M3.  OUR FAIR—The First 100 Years of the Interior Provincial Exhibition: By  Shirley Campbell. Researched and published by Armstrong Spallumcheen  Museum & Arts Society, this is the definitive record of an agricultural  showplace known to generations as the Armstrong Fair. 174 pages containing more than 200 photographs. $20.00, plus shipping and handling.  Available from the publisher, c/o Box 308, Armstrong, VOE 1B0, telephone  (250) 546-9416.  ACCORDING to the GIANT: By Sherril Foster. A spirited history of  Summerland and the Okanagan Valley. The book also includes vintage  photographs from the archives of the Summerland Museum and a listing  of all Summerland streets with information about those pioneer families  after whom they were named. $19.95 (add $3.80 for mailing). Available  from the publisher, Okanagan Annie Productions, Box 1343, Summerland,  V0H 1Z0, telephone (250) 494-1742.  REVELSTOKE - HISTORY and HERITAGE: By Ruby M. Nobbs.  Revelstoke's pre-eminent historian deals with all aspects of the rail centre's development, beginning with the early exploration and fur trade, Big  Bend gold rush, construction of the CPR and the development of Revelstoke  as a city. This hard-cover edition contains more than 350 photographs.  $39.95 (add $5 for mailing). Available from Revelstoke Museum and Archives, 315 First Street West, or write Box 1908, Revelstoke, VOE 2S0.  155 SUE LEE PING WONG  By Tun Wong  My mother, Sue Lee Ping Wong, was born October 10, 1911,  in the village of Ging Hong in the district of Gin Ning,  Canton, China. She died in Kelowna November 11, 1997.  Her mother thought there were better opportunities in  Canada, so at the age of seven Sue Lee Ping arrived in Vancouver  with an aunt. The aunt became seriously ill shortly after and returned to China, leaving her niece  with the family of Wing Sang, with  whom she would fill the role of a  child servant for many offspring.  The young Sue Lee Ping was  never given the chance to have an  education. About 1930, in an arranged marriage, she wed a successful merchant, Wong Bat, who  owned and operated a general  store in Kelowna. He was 24 years  her senior and she was one of a  very few—maybe the only—Chinese woman in the Okanagan city  at that time.  They had two daughters before Wong Bat was robbed and  murdered on November 1, 1932.  The crime remains unsolved.  Since she had no understanding of  her late husband's business and no knowledge of English, Sue Lee  Ping did not know how to handle her husband's estate, which was  believed to be substantial. Unscrupulous individuals she trusted  Sue Lee Wong, 1980.  Tun Wong was born and raised in Kelowna. He became a chartered accountant  and is now employed by the City of Kelowna as Special Project Manager.  156 SUE LEE PING WONG  stole the assets, and eventually the property on the south side of  Harvey Avenue between Abbott and Water Streets was lost for nonpayment of taxes.  One cannot comprehend how the young widow carried on  for the next five years, caring for and raising her two daughters in  a foreign setting, with no grasp of the language, no means of earning an income, no education, and often being subjected to racial  discrimination. It is believed the Chinese community lent assistance, but she would never talk about this; it was probably a period  in her life that she wished to forget.  On June 26, 1937, she married Wong Ying, who had entered  Canada at Vancouver, then journeyed to Montreal and San Francisco, before ending up in Kelowna in 1936 or early 1937. He, too,  was reluctant to talk of his past. He was 15 years older than Sue  Lee Ping and over the next 14 years she bore him nine children-  five sons and four daughters. Wong Ying earned a living by working in orchards and on farms in the area. He also operated a restaurant on two occasions.  Beginning in 1937, the family lived in what was termed  Kelowna's Chinatown at 245 Leon Avenue. The original house contained about 700 square feet, with a living room, bedroom, bathroom and kitchen. Yes, all 13 members of the family slept in that  single bedroom, which was wall-to-wall beds. A few years later another room of approximately 200 square feet was added, containing a wood-heated wok and deep fryer, a large granite millstone  and a sink measuring three by eight feet. More about this room  later.  A midwife delivered Sue Lee's first two children. Her husband, Wong Ying, assisted in the births of the last nine at home.  When it was time to deliver a new baby, all the kids were told to  leave the bedroom and a gold drape was drawn across the doorway. Wong Ying would boil water on the wood stove and rush back  to the delivery room with a steaming pan. Later, he came out and  told the other children they had a new brother or sister. When she  was asked why she didn't go to the hospital and have a doctor perform the deliveries, Sue Lee said with a shrug that she couldn't  afford it, and that giving birth really wasn't any big deal.  Wong Ying died on September 25, 1960, leaving seven children who had not yet completed Grade 12. Mrs. Wong, ever mindful of the advantages an education could bring, made it clear to her  brood that they had to at least attain high school graduation. After  that they could find work and contribute financially to the upkeep  of their brothers and sisters. Of course, it would have been a lot  easier for Mother to have the older ones quit school and get ajob; it  157 SUE LEE PING WONG  was quite acceptable in those days. But she wouldn't hear of it. In  fact, she encouraged her children to continue their education beyond high school, always believing more learning was beneficial.  Sue Lee Wong promised her second husband that she would  take care of his orphaned grandson in Hong Kong, a descendant  from a previous marriage and the sole relative left in China. Before  Wong Ying passed away, he was able to get his grandson off the  mainland and into the home of friends in Hong Kong. Wong Ying's  widow kept her promise, ensuring that her step-grandson got an  education and learned a trade. She finally met her adoptee in November 1990 when she flew to Hong Kong. He had become a tailor,  using a sewing machine purchased with money sent by Mrs. Wong  more than 30 years previously. When she visited his home he  proudly showed her the machine that had enabled him to make his  way and raise three children.  After Wong Ying's death, Mrs. Wong supported her family by  making and selling tofu long before it became a popular "yuppie"  food. She would sometimes rise at four or five a.m. to begin grinding the soya beans, the first step in a long and physically-demanding process that required about two hours to make eight dozen tofu.  In particular, one of the final chores was to squeeze the liquid from  the bean curd. To do this, she had to lift a 30-pound rock set in a  wooden box and place it onto racks containing the bean curd. It  meant extending one's arms to their fullest length, then leaning  forward to gently deposit it on a plank pressing down on the curd.  This, by a woman slightly over five feet in height!  Sometimes it would take her all day and into the evening to  make enough tofu to satisfy the demand. However, she always found  time to do all the household chores and tend to her family's needs.  An average day saw her make meals for 12 people, nurse her children when they were sick, listen to their problems, give advice,  prepare individual meals for anyone who had to get away early for  extra-curricular activities, do the laundry and tend a large vegetable garden; and the list goes on.  One of her largest customers was the Goon Hong restaurant  in Vernon, which was good for 24 to 30 dozen tofu cakes a week.  Delivery was by RCMP highway patrol, no less. A certain constable  would come to her back gate in Chinatown in his cruiser, and pails  containing eight dozen tofu each would be loaded in the trunk for  the duty run to Vernon. The constable was the only RCMP officer  trusted and respected by the Chinese community in Kelowna at  that time. Kelowna citizens of Japanese ancestry also found Mrs.  Wong's tofu to their liking.  158 SUE LEE PING WONG  When the house on Leon Avenue was sold, the prized grindstone, imported from China, was donated to the Kelowna Centennial Museum. A curator from London, who specializes in grinding  stones, a few years ago pronounced it to be in the finest condition  of any he had seen world-wide. He was very envious of the Kelowna  museum having it in its collection.  Sue Lee Wong was a compassionate and generous person.  She always felt sorry for the Japanese people living in Kelowna  during World War II who were restricted in what they did and  bought. When it was possible to do so, she would obtain forbidden  items for her Japanese friends. As poor as she was, Mother could  not turn away anyone in need. In her possessions was a little book  in which she recorded small loans to needy people. Needless to  say, most were never paid. A few years ago she mentioned with  pride how an elderly Japanese man tracked her down to repay a  loan she had given him over 40 years ago. He said he was going  back to Japan to spend his last days and wanted to clear his conscience before he left.  Mother used to tell us not to participate in sports, because if  we got hurt she couldn't afford the medical expense. But her children were like any others—they disobeyed her and took part in  sports. They thought they were invincible and would never get  hurt, but they suffered the usual cuts, bruises and sprains. We tried  to hide them from her, not because we were brave, but to avoid her  home remedies. The treatments were usually more painful than  the injury itself and were not the most pleasant-smelling. The foulest  had to be her fried hair and vinegar ointment.  For sprains she had a potion called "Het Dai Oin," which was  comprised of shavings from a secret solid wrapped in wax and mixed  with gin or rye whisky. She would strenuously massage this potion  on the sprained area. As the patient screamed with pain, she smiled  and said "the more it hurts, the better it is for you." We always  thought it was her way of getting even with us for disobeying orders. However, the treatments worked.  She was always friendly and welcomed her children's pals  into her home, invariably extending an invitation to stay for lunch  and/or supper. They always remember her as the tiny, happy lady  who smiled and laughed a lot even though she spoke little English.  We always suspected that she understood more English than they  gave her credit for, as somehow she was always able to communicate with non-Chinese-speaking people, including her in-laws and  grandchildren.  159 SUE LEE PING WONG  Though she had no formal training or any normal upbringing, she seemed blessed with the ability to determine proper values and conduct and to be able to communicate those attributes to  her children. To them, her word was law and worthy of the utmost  respect and trust. A major principle she instilled in us all was the  strength and unity of the family unit; all members were to stay in  touch and assist one another when required to do so.  She was a wonderful cook. She had no written recipes and  rarely measured. She used ingredients that were considered garbage at the time and which today command premium prices. Felix  Sutton and John Arthur of Sutton's Meat Market on Bernard Avenue were always very generous. They bestowed free of charge  soup bones, turkey and chicken feet, fish heads, tails and fins, which  became delicious meals when combined with vegetables from her  garden. She also raised her own chickens, pigeons and occasionally ducks, geese and turkeys.  She was always happiest when her children and their families were around. Maybe she was reflecting her triumph over all  the hardships and challenges she faced for so long and pride at  accomplishing goals she had set many years ago. She was content  to be rewarded with the same trust and love from her family that  she had so generously given to them.  160 THE GIBBARD GARDENS  By Vi Gibbard as told to Fern Gibbard  Daffodil garden eventually grew more than 43,000 blossoms.  In 1954 Les and Violet Gibbard bought 23 acres of wild land  below Arawana Station on the Kettle Valley Railway m  Naramata. Working evenings and weekends, they finished their  new home by November 1956 and moved away from Penticton.  Violet Gibbard had gardening in her blood. Her grandfather  Hoskins had been a gardener in Kew Gardens, England before  emigrating to Canada, where he became head gardener at the girls  reformatory in New Westminster. "Nice grounds" were a high priority for government institutions in those days. Thomas Hoskins  passed his love of gardening on to his daughter Florence McLean,  Fern Gibbard is married to Bob Gibbard, younger son of Les and Violet. She  retired in 1998 after 23 years as RN at Penticton & District Retirement Centre  Bo n in Penticton, she is the daughter of Emil Morgenstern, who arrived in 926  to operate an orchard on Middle Bench and Tupper Roads. Her mother, Lois Bhnco  Morgenstern (nee Dye) came as a child to Cawston m 1919.  161 THE GIBBARD GARDENS  and Violet, while still a girl, gardened with her mother. When Violet McLean married Les Gibbard in 1930 and moved to Penticton,  she brought along her zest for growing things. Violet and Les bought  a lot "away out of town" at 511 Braid Street (now in the middle of  the city) and started to build.  During this time they rented a small house next door and  almost immediately Les had his vegetable garden outback and Violet had planted a narrow bed of flowers along the front fence and  down each side of the lot. After their house was completed, gardening began in earnest. Returning from visits to her family at the  Coast, Violet brought many plants and shrubs to her Penticton garden, including descendants of wild English cowslips from Grandfather Hoskins's garden.  Now, 26 years later on Arawana Road, she was again faced  with starting a garden where little but weeds and pine trees grew.  The Gibbards' famous daffodil displays started with a total failure.  One hundred daffodil bulbs were planted in the fall of 1955; but  without water, they were all dead by the following spring.  Lack of water was a constant problem requiring innovative  solutions. At first there was only a well and Violet's dream for a  garden of tulips and daffodils. She planted a few small beds of tulips and daffodils and transplanted a few other plants from her  garden in Penticton, including some other grandfather's cowslips.  She irrigated these pockets with used laundry and dish water and  cut the weeds with a scythe. Deer, gophers, voles, chipmunks and  squirrels feasted on the tulips, but ignored the daffodils, which are  poisonous in all their parts. The native grass returned between the  planted sections and made green areas. Violet also planted native  shrubs such as flowering currant, vine maple and saskatoon, hoping they would grow without water. The daffodils multiplied, the  transplants survived, more garden pockets were developed and the  "lawn" of native green grass, which followed the natural contour of  the land between the pocket gardens, increased in size.  By now the Gibbards had a cistern that was filled once a year  by the Naramata Irrigation District. Flood rights on Arawana Creek  gave them water during the spring and sometimes as late as July  or early August, at which time they would start using water from  the cistern, for Les also had a vegetable garden that needed watering. It was then that Les and Violet began collecting flat rocks to  build walls between the various levels of their garden. They gathered these rocks from the McMannus orchard across the road and  also spent many weekends scouring the Kettle Valley Railway right-  of-way. Les moved the large base rocks into place in the evenings  and Violet took over from there during the day while her husband  was at work.  162 THE GIBBARD GARDENS  Meanwhile, they had been clearing and burning brush on  the north end of their property when they discovered beautiful  native plants such as lady slipper and blue-eyed grass growing  among the weeds and dead brush. They experimented with pool-  building to add to the natural look of the grove of poplars growing  there.  At last a domestic water connection allowed them to expand  the gardens around the house. Daffodils had always thrived and  multiplied in their garden and Violet began to order bulbs from an  Ontario firm. Choosing from dozens of available strains, Violet was  laying the foundation for a daffodil garden that several years ago  numbered 83 named varieties and more than 43,000 blossoms,  which continue to multiply.  Les retired from the firm of Cooper and Gibbard Electric in  1970 and the Gibbard Gardens came into their own. The lawns  increased to such a size that a ride-on lawn mower was required.  Les had a penchant for roses and several beds of these were added.  A profusion of azaleas and rhododendrons joined the few that had  been transplanted from Braid Street, or bought as unnamed seedlings. A rock garden ran down the slope from the house to Arawana  Road. The vegetable plot was moved away from the house and peonies and daffodils took its place. Gems such as wild ginger, dog  tooth violets and jack-in-the-pulpit could be found growing under  dogwood, magnolia, cascara and chestnut trees, and under shrubs  such as beauty bush, snowball, weigela, tamarisk and smoke tree.  Christmas roses, jasmine and early spring bulbs competed with  the last of the winter snows. Lilies, heathers, iris and other perennials as well as climbers such as clematis and trumpet vine added  their colour to this informal country garden.  The outer edges were planted with evergreens, mostly grown  from seed. North of the house is a highly-prized unique golden  flecked cedar, which was given to Violet as a seedling by a family  friend. The parent tree was the only known golden flecked cedar  growing in Vancouver. In 1967 a wandering peacock adopted the  Gibbards, and for 17 years this setting was home to him and his  descendants. Their beautiful plumage was an added attraction for  visitors to the Gibbards' garden. Less spectacular, but just as appreciated, are all the native birds, either in their own nests or in one of  the 83 boxes that Les erected. Violet has been an avid birder since  the 1940s when she began to contribute nest record cards to the  University of British Columbia. She co-ordinated the Nest Record  Scheme for 23 years, and many of the contributors have visited  their earden.  163 THE GIBBARD GARDENS  Family, friends and even total strangers began to ask, "Why  don't you open your gardens to the public so other people can see  your beautiful daffodils?" The first opening, minus Violet who was  undergoing tests in the Kelowna hospital, was a fundraising tea  held by the South Okanagan Naturalists Club in 1982.  Since then, with support from their two sons and their families, the Gibbards have opened their floral display to the public for  three Sunday afternoons in late April and early May. Donations  received during the first few years following the naturalist club tea  were given to the March of Dimes and to the CKOK Radio Sunshine  Fund. Then the difficulty faced by the Penticton hospital in acquiring equipment was brought home to the Gibbards by personal experience. The solution was to charge a $2.50 admission fee to the  garden, coffee included, with proceeds going to the Penticton Regional Hospital. Anna Mason undertook advertising and publicity  and contacted media outlets from Kelowna to the U. S. border. Garden lovers came to visit, not only from the Valley, British Columbia and the rest of Canada, but from as far afield as the eastern  United States, Britain, Europe and Australia.  There is a plaque of thanks hanging on the wall between family portraits recognizing "the outstanding efforts of Les and Violet  Gibbard in providing specialized medical equipment for the  Penticton Regional Hospital Medical Foundation." These outstanding efforts have raised over $19,000 to date.  Except for employing their granddaughters to rake pine needles, Les and Violet did all their own garden work until 1993 when  Les was forced by the onslaught of arthritis to have one knee surgically replaced, followed in 1994 by the other knee. Undaunted he  would go about the grounds on his garden tractor accomplishing  his daily tasks. A stroke in July 1995 even brought an end to this  and Les died in December 1996.  The garden was not open to the public in 1996 when Les was  ill, nor in 1997 when Violet herself underwent knee-replacement  surgery. In 1998 the family again welcomed visitors to the garden.  As Violet says," I could never have done all this alone. Les worked  with me; it was our garden. I also give full credit to all the help  from my family for hosting the garden openings and to the public  for coming."  She describes her showplace as "only a pleasure garden, a  country garden where nothing was really planned. In the beginning we couldn't afford to have the ground levelled, so the lawns  just follow the natural levels where the weeds used to grow. My  daffodils are only garden daffodils in a country setting; they do not  grow in rows and the bulbs are not for sale, as I don't have a licence  164 THE GIBBARD GARDENS  to do so. Neither are the blossoms for sale, or there would be nothing left for viewing. My garden is always moving and changing, the  lawns increasing and decreasing. Sometimes a whole bed will die  from winter kill and something else will have to go in there." One  of the most noticeable changes occurred in 1991 when, fearing that  several huge ponderosa pines growing close to the house might  wreak havoc during a storm, Les and Violet sought a quote for their  removal. The figure of  $1,000 per tree added up  to a fortune. The solution  came when they sold all  their largest trees, including the ones they wanted  removed, as timber. The  neighbours were shocked,  the debris was incredible  and the daffodils loved  the extra sunlight.  At this writing in  early 1999, Violet is just  short of 89 years old and  still does most of her own  gardening with help from  a son and granddaughter.  She is still moving things,  changing the garden  around and setting plants  that won't mature for 15  years. She is also planning  to have her garden on  Arawana Road in  Naramata open to the  public this Spring. Violet and Les Gibbard, April 1986.  165 BERT ANDERSON: TRAPPER  AND TUGBOAT OPERATOR  ON SUGAR LAKE  By Ruth Sihlis  "T"^ lack Maria, here I come." One can almost be certain those  r^L were the words forming in Bert Anderson's mind the many  I J mornings, lunch kit in hand, he went off to keep a work engagement on Sugar Lake.  Sugar Lake lies some 30 miles east and north of Lumby, a  gem in the Monashee Mountains; in actuality it is a widening of  the Shuswap River.  Black Maria was an old scow-type tugboat, so named because  of her black-tarred hull that contrasted sharply with her light gray  upper deck. She was eight feet wide by 18 feet long and was powered by a V-8 flathead Ford motor. This craft being awkward to  steer, Bert coined a few choice words that have yet to find their  way into our dictionaries.  Bert was born Robert Walker Alexander Anderson on June  16, 1906, at Bella Coola. It is believed he was the first white male  born in that community. Making his way to Sugar Lake in 1925, he  met George Gates (not to be confused with the George Gates who  ranched in the Richland district of Cherryville in later years) who  introduced him to the fur-trapping business. That meeting was indeed a streak of luck for Bert.  Bert and George hit it off immediately. They became partners in a trapline until George's death, after which Bert was sole  owner until he sold it to two locals, who trapped it out, much to  Bert's disgust. In contrast, he believed in "farming" a trapline so  there would be furs for future generations. Wally Zeolkowski owns  this trapline at the time of writing—1998.  Ruth Sihlis, when not competing in seniors' swim meets, finds she is spending  an increasing amount of time recording the everyday lives of people she knew in  the outlying forest communities of the North Okanagan.  166 BERT ANDERSON  Animals taken were otter, marten, mink, fisher, muskrat, lynx,  wolverine and beaver. Trapping for furs is always done in the winter. A knowledgeable trapper must take these animals when the  pelts are in their prime in order to command top prices.  Bert's mode of travel was by snowshoe; he hated snowmobiles.  They were noisy, smelly beasts, they frightened the animals and  they were definitely out of tune with Mother Nature. The peace  and quiet of the woodland setting was what Bert loved.  Typical small Interior logging show in the 1950s. Kalke & Lawrence of Salmon Arm used  jammer-caterpillar combination to load three-ton single-axle truck. B1 aek Mari a prepares t.  It was said he could survive For c\-c   s i w eeks, on nothing  more than a supply of beans, rice, flour, coffee and small game,  such as grouse—if luck was with him. Some trappers also included  raisins to satisfy a sweet tooth, but Bert thought they attracted bears,  thus creating a dangerous situation. So no raisins on the trapline  for him.  Bert was reputed to make the best-ever bannock—in a cast-  iron frying pan, over an open fire, ashes and all.  He had a favourite island in the lake. He made plans to build  his dream home thereon, in a secluded spot where he could enjoy  nature's bounty to the fullest, especially the wildlife. His plans had  only partially materialized when World War Two interfered. On  returning home he found his heart was no longer in the project,  hence his dream was never fulfilled.  Vandalism and "cannibalism" took their toll. Today, there remains only the concrete foundation and part of one wall of that  unfinished building, the cement for the foundation and the lumber  for the forms having been hauled in by horses and stoneboat over  the winter's ice.  But trapping was certainly not a summer activity, so Bert  spent those months working at the Merritt Diamond sawmill that  was situated at the Sugar Lake outlet. He had the reputation of  being an excellent boom man in spite of a game leg. A boom man  BoOlJhm:?!   &:•:.-■ /:.--?:   -■} ■'ifi\ fM<:yfi^fj^mmxz SOf;^ftiW:Winif&£i:  ■-    .        Kv BERT ANDERSON  needs to be quick on his feet, jumping from one floating log to  another. Round logs in the water have a nasty habit of rolling and  many a boom man has received an unexpected dunking.  Bert also operated the company tugboat, the aforementioned  Black Maria. He would tow booms of logs from various parts of the  lake to the sawmill where they would be held in readiness for  processing into lumber at a later date.  Then there is the story of Bert bringing a boom down the  lake late one night. The tow hung up on Sigalet's Point and the tug  sat there churning, churning, churning for three hours before the  skipper realized he wasn't moving.  Trapper George Gates admiring his catch of otter pelts.  Note homemade bearpaw snowshoes.  The tugboat was also used to drag a barge across the lake to  take part in a pole operation. Poles produced on the east side of  Sugar Lake were hauled by truck to the water's edge at Sitkum  Landing and the load was cautiously driven on to the barge and  secured. The tug was then lashed alongside the barge to stabilize  the entire assembly; otherwise the undulating effect of the wake  would gradually cause the top-heavy barge to take up a rocking  motion. The result could be disastrous. If the rocking motion were  allowed to increase, the entire cargo of valuable poles, as well as  the truck, could topple into the lake.  Once towed to Tillicum Landing on the opposite side, the  truck removed from the barge, bypassed the Merritt Diamond mill  and proceeded to Lumby, where it was unloaded in the Bell Pole  yard.  169 BERT ANDERSON  Load of poles being eased onto barge at Sitkum Creek landing.  While tin one of his forays into the hills surrounding Sugar  Lake, Bert believed he had discovered the richest deposit of molybdenum in B. C. Molybdenum, commonly known as moly, is a silver-white transition element of the chromium group used to harden  steel. Surveying the situation, Bert felt the area was inaccessible  and nothing further came of this supposedly great discovery.  Bert was never seen without a pipe in his mouth; he and the  pipe were one. For tobacco, Old Chum, coarse-cut, in tins, and Dixie  Plug were his favourites. With his jackknife he would shave off the  required amount of Dixie Plug, crumble it into the palm of his hand,  then tamp it into the bowl of his pipe.  Legend has it that Bert once dropped his pipe into a deck of  logs. The lost briar had to be retrieved before work could resume,  consequently the deck was torn apart and valuable time was lost.  The boss didn't take kindly to this delay and extra cost. He fired  Bert on the spot. Unperturbed, Bert is reported to have said, "Well,  I didn't like that job anyway."  In 1952 Bert Anderson acquired a wife, Norma Dickinson of  Vernon. Norma's father, Ben Dickinson, had once sold Rawleigh  Products door-to-door in the Cherryville area using horse and buggy  as his mode of transportation. Norma had worked 10 years for the  postal department delivering mail on RR2 to Lavington.  Having a wife necessitated a home. Bert purchased a floating  cookhouse, already on the lake, from Dan Rottaker. In the early  days of logging an entire camp was sometimes built as a floating  unit, all on one raft made of logs: cookhouse, bunkhouses and any  other ancillary buildings. When required to move camp a tugboat  simply hooked on to the log platform and towed it to its new location. In later years Bert gave his son a first-hand account of this  now almost forgotten aspect of logging on Sugar Lake.  170 BERT ANDERSON  Choosing a site at the lower end of the lake, Bert converted  the newly-acquired floating cookhouse into a dream home by placing it on pilings and securing it solidly to the shore. A short gangplank facilitated entry and exit. This new abode consisted of three  rooms, two bedrooms and a combined kitchen-living room.  Norma doesn't remember any human falling from the gangplank into the lake; however, her mother's little dog, Chico, experienced a few unsolicited immersions. Her son Tommy did have an  unplanned dunking once when he was still quite young. He had  been in bed suffering from a nasty cold and, feeling the urge to  vomit, rushed outside to the railing. Somehow he lost his footing  and pitched into the icy waters of the lake. Norma fished him out,  poured hot rye down his throat, and behold!, Tommy's cold was  gone the next morning.  Norma unhesitatingly says the happiest days of her life were  spent on that houseboat.  Tommy began his formal education in Cherryville, daily riding the school bus operated by local resident Bill Schafer. About  this time Bert Anderson took steps to legally adopt Tommy, and  with all the legalities completed Tommy Winterbottom became  Tommy Anderson.  It was an amiable relationship.  Tommy and Bert had many happy  times together. Bert taught Tommy  to snowshoe and even took him  out on the trapline when school  and weather permitted.  In 1956 Bert and Norma welcomed a second son. Nanied  Robert for his father, he was affectionately known as Robbie. Robbie  obtained his schooling in Lumby  and Kamloops. Later, while living  in Vancouver, he died at the young  age of 36.  The Andersons and other families in the area lost their means of  livelihood when the Merritt Diamond mill at Sugar Lake suffered  a fire. Fortunately, Bert was offered a scaling job with the com-  Bert Anderson on the porch pany's Lumby division and he  ofSchunter's cookhouse,   moved the household there to be  171 BERT ANDERSON  closer to his workplace. His new job subsequently took him farther  afield; Kamloops became home base. There, Tom grew to manhood  and a friend got him ajob with the CNR. He eventually became an  engineer and is presently on a permanent run between Vernon  and Kamloops. He knows what time he will leave for work each  evening and what time he will be home each morning. None of  this "waiting for a call," as is the custom with so many railroad  employees. Now living in Vernon, he has been with the CNR for 34  years and is presently looking at three years to retirement. When  that day arrives he and his wife Sharon plan to do some RVing,  with Sugar Lake uppermost in their minds.  Bert Anderson died in Kamloops in the early 1980s. His ashes  were to be scattered on his beloved island in Sugar Lake, but Tom  was not able to reach that area due to the deep snows; therefore,  they were strewn on the waters at the lake's outlet near the site of  the Andersons' halcyon aquatic home.  Norma has been a resident of Alexander Extended Care in  Vernon for the last six years. When you talk with Tom today you  will readily observe that he refers to Bert Anderson as "my dad"  with pride.  FOOTNOTE: Tbm Anderson was a most willing participant in the recording  of this historical report.  172 SAM McCALLUM: LAST  MANAGER OF THE STEPNEY  RANCH  By William J. Whitehead  Down through the centuries the horse has made an immense  contribution to the development of civilization. It has carried the rider, drawn the carriage and pulled the plough.  There are many breeds and sizes, but it is the Clydesdale that is  prominent in this narrative. The subject of this story spent the  greater part of his life in learning to care for, train, improve and  finally to show the finished product at many of our western exhibitions.  Sam McCallum was born in Northern Ireland in the County  of Colerain May 24, 1884. Throughout his infancy and early childhood his mother  strove with great  difficulty to provide him with a  home and an education. When he  was 12 years of  age they moved to  Scotland, his  mother's native  land, to be near  her family. This  brought an end to  further formal  education for Sam.  He was placed out  to work with a lo-  Last Stepney Ranch manager (1923-1928) Sam McCallum  and wife Mabel, with Sam Junior, Mabel and Richard.  cal landowner, a common practice for those times. The employer  operated a stud farm and raised Clydesdale horses. This was the  beginning of Sam's affection for the breed that would continue  throughout his life.  William J. Whitehead is a life member of the OHS and has been active in both  the Kelowna and Armstrong-Enderby branches.  173 SAM MCCALLUh  Sam McCallum with Marcellus Jr., grand champion stallion at the 1909 World's Fair held  in Seattle. Taken on the Armstrong Fair grounds, landmark railway trestle in the  background.  He was to stay put for the next 12 years, steadily improving  his care and understanding of horses. During this period he also  gained the experience of showing the animals under his charge at  exhibitions in Glasgow and Edinburgh.  In 1906 he decided to emigrate to Canada. He and his friend  Bob Arthur went to Northern Ontario during the winter of 1906-07,  where they temporarily found work, Sam as a powderman for a  swamper building logging roads.  During the summer of 1907, McCallum and his chum were  drawn farther west, arriving in Calgary at harvest time. Following  the harvest season, they continued to British Columbia, past  Revelstoke to the Three Valley Gap area. Bob Arthur worked in the  bush and Sam was hired as a teamster by a local sawmill. In the  spring of 1908 the pair moved on to the Pacific Coast, where Sam  was engaged by the Guichon family of Ladner fame. The Guichons  raised Clydesdale horses and Sam McCallum was soon showing  them for his new employer at Vancouver and Victoria exhibitions.  The following year heralded Sam's arrival in Armstrong and  the start of his career at the Stepney Ranch, then at the height of its  prosperity. (See OHS Report No. 50). Bob Arthur went to Salmon  Arm and stayed there the rest of his days.  Sir Arthur Stepney owned a famous Clydesdale stallion,  Marcellus Junior, which travelled at stud for three or four months  between Larkin and Mara. In the second year it was reported  Marcellus Junior had something like 120 mares in foal, and at a  stud fee of $20, that meant quite abit of money—especially in those  days.  174 SAM MCCALLUM  McCallum would relate that at this period in his career he  knew the Stud Book by heart; you had only to mention the name of  any registered animal and he could supply the pedigree with no  trouble at all.  In due course Sam purchased a small farm in the Mountain  View area east of Armstrong, later known as the George Fowler  place. He farmed and rented other land in that area for three years  and this was the period when he met Mabel Levina Gwalter, who  had come to Canada as governess for Lord Kitchener's son. After  the Kitcheners returned to England in 1915, Mabel Gwalter and  Sam McCallum were married in New Westminster on April 4 of the  same year. The couple soon took up residence in Armstrong, first  staying with Jack McLeod, an early school bus driver, and then  renting the Snesby farm on the Back Enderby Road for the next  three years. A son, Samuel, was born on March 7, 1916. In later  years the district distinguished between father and son as "Old Sam  and Young Sam." A daughter, Mabel, arrived on July 11,1918, and a  second son, Richard, was added to the family on April 20, 1924.  In 1920 the McCallums surprised their friends by moving to  England, where Sam had an arrangement to work property belonging to Mabel's old employers, the Kitcheners. This adventure proved  unsatisfactory and when Mabel expressed a desire to return "home"  to Canada, they found themselves back in Armstrong in 1922. Upon  arrival, Sam was offered the position of manager of Stepney Ranch  and served in that capacity from January 1923 until the final disposition of the ranch in 1928. The property was subdivided and sold  off to several families of Ukrainian descent, including the names  of Woronchak, Marchuk, Tkachak, Smaha, Paras, Spelchan and  Shumay, many of whom are still prominent in the district.  Sam next purchased property on the southeast side of Stepney  Road in northern Spallumcheen. It was already partly cleared, but  he erected the buildings and developed his ranch. This included  good quality horses, plus the addition of a herd of Shorthorn cattle.  Throughout the years McCallum stock garnered honours at  fairs and shows throughout the province, and his Clydesdales in  particular were a source of both pride and income.  McCallum played a prominent part in the life of the community, serving as a member of Spallumcheen council from 1934 to  1938, and standing for director of the Interior Provincial Exhibition  for many years. He was legendary as the superintendent of the  exhibition's livestock parade, recognized as one of the largest and  finest in Western Canada. The Armstrong Advertiser of September  21, 1950, summed up his contribution best with these words: "A  Deserving Tribute—As the cream of the Interior's livestock pass in  175 SAM MCCALLUM  review year after year and the crowd thrills to its magnificent spectacle, in the background is a man who has played an important  role in its annual success. For as many years as we can recall and a  lot more, Sam McCallum has been the organizing master mind behind this highlight of the exhibition. As Livestock Superintendent.  . . Mr. McCallum commences his work weeks before the show lining up everything into a smooth running machine. And the parade  is one of his major duties, but not the least. As soon as the stock is  back in the barn he is busy arranging for the orderly removal as the  deadline is reached for completion of the show ..."  Sam officially retired from his livestock superintendent's  duties in 1956 and was honoured with a life membership by the  IPE in 1960. He always counted Mat Hassen, Sr. and James  McCallan, Sr. among his closest friends.  The time to leave the land came in 1953 and the farm was  sold to a member of the Smaha family. Sam and Mabel built a cottage on Moray Street in Armstrong where Sam took up the hobby  of growing roses, a sharp contrast to a life devoted to the improvement of animal husbandry. They were together until Mabel's passing in June of 1960.  Sam continued on in the little cottage for a few more years,  until moving to the Willowdale Guest Home. He died on October  27, 1975 in his 92nd year.  Of Sam and Mabel's children, "Young Sam" died in Langley in  1988; daughter Mabel Bulman lives in Claresholm, Alberta, and  son Richard resides in Armstrong.  Growing roses became a retirement hobby for Sam McCallum, pictured here at his Moray  Street home in Armstrong about 1962. (Photograph courtesy Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum  Archives)  176 A WOMAN IN A MAN'S TRADE  By Jean Sansum  When I graduated from Salmon Arm High School, WWII was  in its second interminable year and all the young men  had long ago signed up, leaving no one to begin an apprenticeship in the local print shop. Recommended by my high  school principal for "neatness, practicality and methodicalness," I  was given a job by Peter Campbell and his son, Don, who owned  the small weekly newspaper, the Salmon Arm Observer.  During the year it took for the last apprentice to finish his  time and become a journeyman, I did odd jobs—everything from  sweeping the shop floors and the sidewalk in front to sending out  the bills, with the occasional reporting of a Women's Institute meeting or rewriting a submitted account of a wedding or afternoon tea.  One of my most trying assignments was to listen to the senior  Campbell, a delightful old gentleman, tell stories of his youth in a  brogue so thick that I could only pretend to understand.  At the end of the year I became the first woman apprentice  anyone in the trade in British Columbia had ever heard of. I was  duly sworn into the International Typographical Union (ITU), "the  biggest and best union in North America." Like the old hot metal  printing practices it upheld, that union has gone the way of the  dodo.  My starting wage was $7 a week. Every six months for the  next five years I received another $2, so that by the end of my time  I was earning $25 a week. Those were less expensive years, but if I  had not been living at home I could not have survived on my stipend.  It was a good thing I was built low and sturdy, because the  work was heavy and dirty. We worked with hot metal, an alloy of  lead, tin, antimony and bismuth, an echo of the early days in the  trade when the average lifespan of a printer was 28 years.  Jean Porterfield Sansum and her sister spent some of their childhood in isolated Shuswap area logging camps where correspondence schooling was the only  option. While still a teenager, the author entered the printing trade and was a  linotype operator for 31 years, at which point she decided to became a school  librarian. After official retirement, the Internet offered her the opportunity to  satisfy a long-held dream of becoming a publisher in her own right.  177 A WOMAN IN A MAN'S TRADE  Much of the  type that went into  the newspaper was  cast on the Linotype, a machine  with so many moving parts that people would stand  and watch, fascinated by its complexity. Those composing machines  are museum pieces  now, but then it  was the fastest way  of setting type, and  over the next few  years it became my  special domain.  A number of  sizes and styles of  type were housed  in magazines that  fitted onto the top  of the Lino, and  while most type  was the size that  appears in news  columns still, there  were headlines to  set and different types for advertisements and printing jobs, which  entailed changing the magazines. They were heavy and awkward,  but it never occurred to anyone—me included—that someone else  should change them for me.  The Linotype was not infallible, and if the interface where  the lead was forced into the type molds was not tight, molten metal  would squirt out of the lockup, often splashing the operator before  he could move out of the way. Cleaning up one of those messes  meant chipping off the solidified lead that had coated all the moving parts. Because no small newspaper could afford to carry a machinist on the payroll, we had to cope with all manner of problems  ourselves.  Jean Porterfield about to enter the printing trade. The outfit  she is wearing is that of the Girls' Brigade, an organization  for young people sponsored by the United Church.  178 A WOMAN IN A MAN'S TRADE  In addition to operating the Linotype, we "set" type by hand  from a variety of trays holding fonts of all sizes and designs, from  large wooden letters to tiny styles for business cards or wedding  invitations. The worst part of hand-set type was putting it away  after use, and we avoided it for as long as we could. Type assembled for a "standing" job would be tightly wrapped with string and  stored until needed again, but eventually there wasn't enough to  go around for another job and we would have to sort it into the  appropriate compartments. (Font: a complete set of type of one  size and one style).  Oversize headlines and larger advertising type for the Observer were also set by hand, but the body of the news items was  set on the Linotype. The "lines of type" were lead slugs with a re-  versed-type face, assembled in the composing process. (This is  where we learned to read upside down and backward, a sure way  to tell a printer). These slugs were cast in order to form columns,  which were made up in iron frames called chases to become the  familiar newspaper pages. This mass of type and spacing was locked  into the frames so tightly that the whole thing could be lifted and  carried downstairs to the press. On rare occasions an improperly  locked-up page of type fell to the floor in complete disarray, giving  rise to the expression "printer's pi."  Four pages could be printed at one time on the Observer's  flatbed cylinder press. Feeding the press one sheet at a time was a  dreary task, and sometimes a very hot one. After a second time  through the press, the sheets went through an automatic folder,  which turned out about a thousand eight-page newspapers every  week.  Then, of course, the papers had to be delivered to the local  stores, or wrapped, addressed and mailed. After an issue was completed, the inked type was washed with gasoline, Linotype material was collected to be re-melted in a wood-fired furnace, and handset type returned to its proper drawer. For the rest of the week,  which was 44 hours long, we worked on other jobs—letterheads,  envelopes, hand bills, business cards, invoices, invitations—anything and everything that local business people needed. We were  the only printers in town.  Toward the end of my apprenticeship the paper was sold,  and when I completed my time the new owner told me he could  not afford to keep two journeymen on staff full time, and I could  not afford to work only three days a week. So ended my six years  spent in that little shop. This was 1946 and I was now a full-fledged  member of the ITU, albeit without a job; I was also engaged to an  electrical engineer, John Sansum, who, upon graduating from the  179 A WOMAN IN A MAN'S TRADE  University of British Columbia, was offered a job by Canadian Industries Limited in their Quebec plant. John's getting ajob and my  losing one suggested that it was a good time to start a new life  together.  Three years of high-school French had not prepared me for  setting French-language material. However, after I got a part-time  job on the night shift in a Quebec shop, I soon adjusted to the new  arrangement of the 90 keys on the Linotype keyboard, which were  laid out to accommodate the accented letters. It was confusing at  first, but not nearly as confusing as the French I was setting. Most  of it was of a religious nature and had many unfamiliar words in  the text; it became necessary to set the words by letting them pass  from my eyes to my fingers without trying to understand them.  John was transferred to Hamilton and I continued to work  nights, this time in a commercial plant with rats for company. One  night at the end of my shift I headed to the washroom to clean up.  There was a rat in the doorway: I decided I didn't really need to  wash my hands before catching the bus.  At the end of three years, John was appointed maintenance  engineer of a new C-I-L plant in Edmonton. Having completed our  family of three children, I worked all the time we were there at the  Edmonton Bulletin setting government publications and telephone  books.  When we were finally sent back to Vancouver we found it  necessary for me to work again after John decided to go into business for himself—always an iffy proposition. I started as a Linotype operator at Pacific Press and before I left the trade we went  from Linos to teletypes, to primitive computers, and finally to more  sophisticated machines that used typewriter keyboards.  We had been in Vancouver only a few years when John died  of diabetes, which he had developed when he was 18.1 was now 40  and my dependants consisted of my children, my mother who had  come to live with us, two dogs and a bird. At this point I was faced  with another 25 years of setting mostly classified ads, seven hours  a night, on a machine that was no longer a challenge. Again, words  were passing from my eyes to my fingers with no thought in between; I was completely bored; I looked around for an alternative.  The answer lay in combining my love of books with a new  career, and after taking a correspondence course in English 101 to  make sure I could still study, I started at the age of 43 on my university studies. At first I took only a couple of courses while continuing to work. After completing the first year I signed up for full  180 A WOMAN IN A MAN'S TRADE  time, going to university for seven months and working five months  at Pacific Press for the next two years. At the age of 49 I received  my teaching certificate and became a school librarian.  Thus ended 31 years of printing. The trade was good to me,  supplementing our income during our marriage and supporting  my family while I qualified for my new career. During all those  years I met only one other woman who had gone through an ITU  apprenticeship, although there were others who had learned in  small, non-union shops. Nowadays, printing has become a white-  collar occupation, and while it is far easier, cleaner and faster, I  still remember nostalgically when printing was a craft, not just a  job.  FOOTNOTE—After retirement, Jean Sansum was drawn back  to the newspaper fold, only this time as editor of Tale Spinner, an e-  mail journal produced from her New Westminster home. "Anyone  who has ever worked for a small newspaper has dreamed of owning one," she admitted to an interviewer from CARPNews, the national newspaper devoted to seniors' activities. Some years ago she  wrote to CARP asking for e-mail correspondents. Subsequently,  she received 40 replies. Not being able to write to so many people  individually, she started sending them a newsletter on the Internet  asking for contributions from readers and including stories of her  own. Tale Spinner, a collection of humour, whimsy and reminiscence, now has a mailing list containing more than 200 names. She  can be reached at Jean_Sansum@mindlink.bc.ca  181 THOMAS AUDREY BAIRD  * 1923-1998  On August 6, 1998, Enderby and district lost one of its foremost builders. Audrey Baird was not a builder with a hammer and saw; he built with entrepreneurial talent and as a  skilled operator of heavy equipment.  Audrey's father, Andrew, had arrived in Enderby in 1892 on  the sternwheeler Red Star from Sicamous. He came from Shawville,  Quebec. By 1905 he had purchased the brick-making operation at  the foot of Baird Street. He was also involved in the construction of  many brick buildings in Enderby, Salmon Arm and Vernon. He  homesteaded the ranch where the present Baird Brothers Ready  Mix plant is located.  Audrey was born in Enderby on April 30, 1923, to Andrew  and Isabella Baird. He was the second youngest in a family of seven  that included his brothers Robert, Wes, Ossie and Doug, and his  sisters Ella and Ruby. Only Ruby remains. (See Rosa Baird, "The  Bairds of Enderby" Okanagan History No. 58).  Audrey Baird, 1948, clearing the airstrip at Mabel Lake. (Photograph courtesy Rosa Baird)  182 TRIBUTES  During the Great Depression the family suffered hard times  like so many others. Andrew became quite ill. The older children  had left home. Audrey and his younger brother, Doug, were left at  home to help out and to finish school.  By the age of 13, Audrey was already in the bush doing custom work making cordwood. Soon, he was sleigh-hauling logs to  the Shuswap River from up the Glen Mary Hill. Later he went into  land clearing with his horses and a horse-powered winch to pull  stumps.  In 1941 Audrey began to drive log truck for Tom Malpass.  Audrey married Rosa Ludwig, the love of his life, on September 22, 1943. They were blessed with five children: Tom (Corine)  of Enderby, Vern of Vernon, Diane (Art) Norlin of Armstrong, Opal  (Doug) McManus of Salmon Arm, and Margaret (Ray) Smith of Mara.  Soon after his marriage, Audrey bought his own truck and  began hauling cedar poles for the B. J. Carney Pole Company.  When his brother Osburne, or Ossie, as he was known locally, was discharged from the RCAF after World War II, he joined  Audrey in a partnership that was a resounding success for 27 years  until Ossie's untimely death in a plane crash in western Idaho in  1972.  In 1952 Audrey's brother, Robert, and his brother-in-law, Joe  Ludwig, joined the firm and Baird Brothers Ltd. was created. The  company grew and became a diversified logging, hauling and land-  clearing operation. Later, the company went into gravel products  and ready-mix concrete.  Road construction was Audrey's specialty. Over the years, he  was never happier than when he was operating one of his large  bulldozers building road for one of many forest companies or the  Department of Highways. He had the ability to engineer the project  from the seat of the machine he was operating. He built many  miles of road in the North Okanagan/Shuswap area. He borrowed  the motto of the U. S. Navy Seabees: "We will do the difficult jobs  immediately; the impossible ones will take a little longer."  During his working life Audrey remained a devoted family  man, even if he did not have much time to share with them. He  was also devoted to his community through such organizations as  the Fish and Game Club and the Lions Club, but mostly by always  being ready to donate cash or equipment to many local worthy  projects and charities.  Audrey was a founding member of the Interior Logging Association (ILA). He firmly believed that the independent contract  loggers needed an association to have a strong voice in negotia-  183 TRIBUTES  tions with big government and large forest companies. He was a  director and a past-president. In 1990 he was honoured as the "Member of the Year." In 1996 he was given a life membership in the ILA.  Throughout his busy life he always found time for his recreational passions of fishing and big-game hunting, and put the same  vigour and determination into pursuing game animals as he did in  everything else in life.  During the last few years deteriorating health forced him to  slow down a little. In the early 1990s it appeared to him that there  was a shortage of retirement accommodation in Enderby, so he  commissioned a condominium complex at the corner of Granville  and George Streets. He and Rosa resided there ever since, except  for their winter holidays in Palm Springs. They also built a beautiful summer home for their family at Swansea Point on Mara Lake.  I first met Audrey when I was sixteen. In March of 1952 I  went to work for him in his logging camp up Cooke Creek east of  Enderby. In the spring of 1961 I returned to work for him in a  logging camp at Noisy Creek on Mabel Lake. We were arch-truck  logging. We put the logs in the lake where they were boomed, towed  to the south end and then hauled to the Lumby Timber Company  sawmill. I came to fill in for a log scaler who was sick, but I stayed  until I retired 32 years later.  During that time Audrey was many things to me. At first he  was The Boss. Later he became a good friend, business partner and  hunting buddy.  He will be missed by many. - ROBERT DALE  ROLAND ALEXANDER JAMIESON  * 1914-1999  Rollie Jamieson feared he would not live long enough to get  all his stories on paper. He was right, for he died February  16, 1999, after almost five years of enduring the after-effects  of a stroke that cruelly clogged a matchless memory and creative  talent.  But between retirement from his plumbing and heating business in 1979, and the 1994 illness, he passionately pursued a latent  urge to record as much of Salmon Arm's past as he could.  Born in Calgary, he came to the area as a boy of 10 years and  grew up the eldest child in a convivial setting populated by his  parents and six brothers and sisters, all of whom made it a point to  184 TRIBUTES  Rollie Jamieson in the 1980s.  look on the sunny side. After Rollie's  birth, his father Douglas, considered  a wit in his own right, had attended  a Portland chiropractic college and  practised in Victoria, Vancouver and  Revelstoke before settling on  Salmon Arm.  Curiosity also entered Rollie  Jamieson's life at a tender age and  one pictures him "looking through  the fence" plumbing details and  conversations from the town's cast  of characters. Along the way his outgoing personality led to stage parts  and recitations, and he did odd jobs  around the Empress Theatre auditorium, in addition to running the projector at the Rex Theatre.  When he began recounting those events six decades later, he  touched responsive chords through articles in this and other publications.  Jamieson was thrust into the role of historian by the 1986  death of Ernest Doe, author of the History of Salmon Arm, who  struck up a friendship with Rollie in 1924 that continued through  their lives. Margaret Doe decided that Jamieson would be the custodian of her husband's historical papers and photographs, and from  that moment he knew how he was to spend his retirement. Where  Doe had been understated and precise in his approach to writing,  his successor drew on a receptive ear and a down-to-earth touch in  his take on the past. With characteristic enthusiasm Jamieson enrolled in creative writing classes, re-writing and polishing until he  felt his stories were ready to share.  The stroke literally stopped him in his tracks, as he was putting  the finishing touches on the first of a series of articles about early  settler families on The Limit, now identified as Broadview.  He was a champion of human rights and defender of working people and the poor. His first job was folding newspapers by  hand at the Salmon Arm Observer. Obliged to leave school in Grade  10, he was hired as a plumber's apprentice at $20 a month by M. M.  Carroll, who also owned the community's only movie theatre and  filled the sombre garb of the local undertaker. In 1945 Jamieson  took over Carroll & Co., plumbing, heating, sheet metal works, a  calling that left a great deal of the town transparent to him, although this is not to say he ever used that knowledge in a discred  itable way.  185 R. A. Jamieson's "customized" company truck in 1949. Left to right: Frank Critchley,  Rollie Jamieson, Jack Jamieson, Jack Phillips, Ted Morton.  Rollie and his first wife, the former Marjorie Critchley, who  died in 1977, raised five children: Sue Ward, Mary Paul, Nancy Burke,  JoAnn Gollan, Larry Jamieson. In 1979 he married another  soulmate, Jean Davies, and found himself with more grandchildren and great-grandchildren to charm.  — DENIS MARSHALL  CHESTER PETER (CHESS) LYONS  * 1915-1998  Chess Lyons, a former Penticton resident and well-known  writer, died peacefully on December 20, 1998, while on vacation in Hawaii.  Chess is probably best remembered for his popular field guides  on the plants of British Columbia and Washington State. These books  have appeared in several editions since 1952 and have been used  by a wide range of outdoor enthusiasts, as well as by students and  professionals—or as Chess once said: "By Boy Scouts and grandmothers."  186 TRIBUTES  Born near Regina on September 13,1915, Chess was four years  old when his family moved to Penticton to begin fruit farming. He  attended Penticton schools and despite his inclination to pursue  some of his "studies" in the great outdoors, he managed to complete high school with little difficulty. Following high school graduation and senior matriculation, he went on to the University of  British Columbia where he studied forest engineering, graduating  in 1939.  As a fellow student in Penticton, I remember Chess as a high-  spirited teenager, very fond of practical jokes. Above all, he was an  all-round outdoorsman and a keen observer of natural history. He  took every opportunity to hike and camp in the hills surrounding  the Okanagan Valley. Even in his late teens he was recognized as  an expert on the geography and trails of the local mountains. On  one occasion Chess was called into the high school principal's office (which was not unusual) and obliged with a more or less relaxed manner; however, when he saw the local game warden waiting for him, he became a little apprehensive. It turned out that a  hunter had been lost in the snow-covered hills east of town and  Chess was needed to help track him down. After an all-day search,  Chess returned to report no tracks were seen crossing the height of  land. A few weeks later the missing man was located in California.  He had hopped a freight train going east out of Penticton, then  made his way south across the U. S. border.  Whenever Chess felt the need for a break, he would pack a  couple of old blankets, a lard pail for cooking, his fishing rod and  perhaps a .22 rifle, then tell his mother he would be gone for a few  days. Mrs. Lyons would simply ask: "Which side?" meaning "which  side of the Valley are you going to this time." It was usually the east  side, which was closer to his home and he could follow one of several good fishing creeks. That way, too, he could avoid crossing  through town with all his gear, where he might by chance meet his  old friend the game warden. (Those were the days before conservation officers).  Soon after graduating from UBC, Chess joined the B. C. Forest Service where he was engaged in surveying, reforestation and  engineering. His home base was Victoria where he resided until  his death.  In those days provincial parks came under the jurisdiction of  the Forest Service and Chess was soon transferred to the Parks  Branch, where he carried out exploration and planning of new parks.  These included Manning, Tweedsmuir, Wells Grey and Bowron Lake  preserves. Near Bowron Lake he also worked on the restoration of  the famous gold rush town of Barkerville and was responsible for  187 TRIBUTES  the acquisition of many of the artifacts that bring such realism to  this popular heritage site. These were huge areas to explore with a  great variety of plant communities. The challenge to record even a  small part of this natural wealth led to the publication of Chess's  first field guide, followed by an increasing interest in photography,  particularly filmmaking. His skill as a plant illustrator was well  demonstrated by the artwork in his first field handbook.  To pursue his many projects in nature interpretation, Chess  took early retirement from the government service. He spent many  years making films and lecturing for National Audubon Screen Tours  and producing and presenting nature programs for television, both  in the USA and Canada. Readers may remember his shows on the  CBC series Klahani—the Great Outdoors. Chess also produced several travel guides in the Milestones series on different areas in B. C,  including Ogopogoland, The Mighty Fraser; and Vancouver Island. In  more recent years he guided nature-oriented tours to many parts  of the world.  The summer before his unexpected death, Chess was outdoors doing what he enjoyed most: checking out new wildflower  locations and photographing  plants in Washington and southern B. C. His sister, Florence  McCarthy of Penticton, said  Chess carried several manuscripts to Hawaii with him last  December. One or two of these  were first drafts for books on  wildflowers, so we may soon see  new contributions from this man  who gave so much to our knowledge of natural history in his  home province and surrounding  areas.  Chester Peter Lyons is  sadly missed by his many friends  and his family, daughter Susan in  Vancouver, sister Florence  McCarthy and brother Ed of Chess Lyons in his younger years.  Cranbrook. — STEVE CANNINGS (Photograph courtesy Bob Broadland)  188 TRIBUTES  ART 'SKINNY' PETERMAN  * 1912-1998  A dedicated member and reader, as well as collector of the  Okanagan Historical Society Reports, Art "Skinny" Peterman  died October 8, 1998, at his home in Oliver at the age of 86.  His collection of OHS Reports is complete and up-to-date.  Arthur Nelson Peterman was born, raised and educated in  Kelowna and moved to Oliver in 1936 where he was employed by  the Mac and Fitz packing house for some 40 years.  During the Second World War he served with the Canadian  Army in Kingston, Ontario. Skinny and his wife, Anne, also owned  and operated Peterman's Campsite just north of town for 25 years  before building a house and moving into town at 11127 - 348th Avenue.  His memberships included the South Okanagan Amateur Radio Club, the Royal Canadian Legion and French's Square Dance  Club. Besides square dancing, he and his wife enjoyed camping,  the outdoors and spending time with their family. In 1965 and 1966  he was president of the Oliver-Osoyoos Historical Society.  Anne and Art Peterman  189 TRIBUTES  A service of remembrance was held on October 13,1998, from  the United Church with Reverend Ron Jeffery officiating. Eulogist  Greg Norton paid tribute to Art's woodworking skill when he made  toys for the children of friends.  His family included Anne, his wife of more than 57 years,  daughter Vicki (Dave) Fujibayashi of Kelowna, grandchildren Amie  and Bryce, and his sisters Ethel Kliewer and Kay Arthur. He was  predeceasedby son Gordon in 1983, son-in-law David Andrews in  1986, as well as brother Wilbert. - ERMIE ICETON  JAMES DAVID PETTIGREW  * 1886-1967  My father, James David Pettigrew, was a strong, gentle,  thoughtful man. Born in Winnipeg in 1886, he was the  eldest of a large family. At the age of 13, upon the death of  his father, he was apprenticed to a goldsmith and watchmaker.  In 1906 he brought his mother, Hannah, four brothers and  two sisters to Kelowna. His brother Ernie had offered glowing accounts of the Okanagan, and J. B. Knowles, Kelowna's first jeweler,  had offered him ajob. Two years later Dad built a large two-storey  house at 1818 Richter Street, now on the list of city heritage buildings.  Dad soon started a local baseball team and lacrosse team, at  the same time excelling in regatta war canoe races. He was a founder  of Kelowna's volunteer fire brigade in 1909 and served as its chief  for 25 years, celebrated for courageously attending to duty on roofs  of packing houses going up in flames.  His skill in designing and making beautiful jewelry and engraving was outstanding; his "apple" trademark became well-known.  My mother, the former Ethel Kerr, met Dad in an orchestra  where she played the piano and he the mandolin. They courted on  horseback around the back of Oyama and Wood Lakes. When they  married in 1920 the garage now at 1951 Abbott Street was a stable  where they kept their two horses.  Dad was a charter member of the Kelowna Gyro Club and  was made a life member of the Kelowna Board of Trade "in recognition of over 40 years of active support and interest in the work of  the Board."  190 TRIBUTES  While Mayor of Kelowna in 1945-46, after being an alderman  for eight years, he welcomed the B. C. Dragoons Regiment when  they came marching home from World War II. Amongst the returning men was Will Stiell, who became J. D. Pettigrew's son-in-law.  Also while he was mayor, Dad's framing of a zoning by-law was a  very far-sighted accomplishment.  His fondness for gardening led to grape arbours all around  our house, a cherry tree with a tree house, apricot, peach and transparent apple trees. I would wake up to the sun shining outside my  window on clusters of dusty purple grapes. Prize-winning dahlias  enhanced our garden.  My love of the outdoors was instilled in me by my father. We  camped at Sugar and Mara Lakes, but the most exciting holiday  was spending two weeks at McKinley's Landing. Quite isolated,  and without a car, we walked to Kelowna via Paul's Tomb, stayed  overnight and walked back to camp the next day. A half-moon beach  called Agate Bay was a treasure trove of agates and arrowheads.  A cabin at Joe Rich where Dad taught me to fly fish was another favourite haunt, as was a tent in August at the mouth of Mission Creek. Camping was not my mother's style, but in her good-  natured way she went along with it. We camped on Mt. Ranier, at  Emerald Lake and on the Big Bend Highway when it opened. During this trip our car broke down and Dad hitched a ride with two  men, one of whom had a gun in his pocket. He returned with a  new transmission and installed it while we were being swallowed  by mosquitoes. Not surprisingly, Dad's favourite hobby was taking  our old Chevy apart under a single light bulb hanging in the winter  garage, a Popular Mechanics by his side.  No matter how busy he was with civic affairs, he would play  cribbage with me every night and then read the encyclopedia.  Six years after Mother's death in 1950, he married Marie  dePfyffer, who had lived next door for many years. I grew up with  her sons, Bob and Charles, and daughters Alice Lundy and Marie  Faber. He and Marie had 10 happy years together sharing their  love of gardening and walks. - MARGARET PETTIGREW STIELL  191 Indicates Member of the Society  ABERCROMBIE, Annie Dorothy, b. Warwick, Queensland November 16, 1903; d. Vancouver January 21, 1999. Predeceased by husband Alexander in 1965. Survived by daughter  Teressa Coomes. After fulfilling nearly four decades as an elementary school teacher in 1970,  she spent the next 15 years completing a prodigious history of the Eagle Valley, Sicamous,  Mara to Three Valley: Gateway to the Okanagan.  ACKERMAN, Alfred William, b. Strathcona, NWT (now Edmonton) April 5, 1905; d.  Oliver November 17, 1998. Survived by wife Thelma; son Edward; daughters Alma Upsdell,  Muriel Schoenfelder, Jean Neisen. He was a ham radio operator since 1936. Moved to Osoyoos  in 1937 and worked as box-maker in Oliver and Osoyoos packing houses, started a radio shop  in Osoyoos in 1945. Member of Pacific Coast Militia Rangers in WWII. Lived in Kettle Valley  and Beaverdell before returning to Oliver in 1993.  <H3^ ANDERSON, Catherine, b. Philadelphia 1904; d. Kelowna December 1, 1998. Predeceased by husband Dr. Walter Anderson in 1992. Survived by daughters Marietta Lightbody,  Genevieve Finnigan, Cynthia Ray. Growing up on the Prairies as the daughter of a Canadian  National Railway station agent she learned Morse code and became a telegraph operator at  many CN points from Winnipeg west. As Catherine Anderson she moved to Kelowna in 1938  and soon was in demand for her musicianship. In the 1950s she wrote a column for the Kelowna  Courier under the byline "Katie Kourier," and few knew who the author really was until her  death.  ATKINSON, Veo. b. Salmon Arm; d. England April 9, 1998, age 78. Survived by husband Philip McM. Atkinson, Toronto; son Reverend Chris Atkinson, Suffolk, England. Born  Veo Darrell, her parents were early members of Salmon Arm's expatriate fruit-farming community.  BAIRD, Thomas John Audrey, (see tribute Page 182)  BARNAY, John. b. Buk-Aranyos, Hungary February 12, 1907; d. Oliver October 1, 1998.  Predeceasedby wife Elizabeth. Survived by sons John, Frank. He worked at Hedley and Fairview  mines prior to purchasing an orchard south of Oliver in 1939.  BECK, Ralph William Albert, b. Vernon August 12, 1940; d. Vancouver May 18, 1998.  Survived by wife Glenda; son Jason; daughter Hilary. Growing up in the Grandview Flats area  he found an outlet for his love of music in the Beck Brothers Orchestra. After serving as a  volunteer he became a professional firefighter in 1962 and was appointed a fire inspector in  the mid-'70s. Retiring in 1995, he became involved in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Endowment  Foundation and Vernon Restholm.  BERTEIG, James Albert, b. Vanguard, Saskatchewan July 27, 1922; d. Kelowna January 16, 1999. Survived by wife Rita; sons Laurence, Paul; daughter Faye Krawchuk. Beginning  in 1951, he spent 27 years at Winfield elementary school as teacher and principal, later becoming principal of schools at Wood Lake, Oyama and Okanagan Centre  BIRD, Frances May. b. Birmingham, England January 30, 1915; d. Salmon Arm October 21, 1998. Survived by husband Walter; sons Geoffrey, Clive; daughter Faith Brace. A voracious reader, for more than 50 years she borrowed the maximum number of library books  every week. Not surprisingly, she became a volunteer library worker and later an employee,  retiring in 1980 as head of the Salmon Arm branch.  BLAKEBOROUGH, Mary. b. Vernon February 9, 1918; d. Kelowna August 4, 1998.  Survived by brothers Harry, Ron; sister Joan Jenner. She was an ambulance driver in WWII,  and the daughter of Harry Blakeborough, the Kelowna city engineer during the 1950s who was  instrumental in bringing about the Okanagan Lake floating bridge.  192 LIVES REMEMBERED  BOND, Joan Kathleen, b. Millbrook, Ontario August 17, 1922; d. Armstrong December  1, 1998. Survived by husband Kenneth; son David; daughter Ann. She served in the British  Women's Royal Naval Service during WWII. Contributed to the Enderby community on city  council, school board, hospital board, regional library board and arts council. For a number of  years she operated the Enderby Examiner newspaper.  BONE, Leo George "Windy." b. December 23, 1924; d. Oliver April 1, 1998. A local  cowboy, he lived most of his life in Oliver. Moved in with Mike Gallagher's family at age 12 and  worked most of his life on the Gallagher Ranch. Hunter, tracker, rancher, mentor, artist, bronc  rider. A participant in many rodeos, he won a silver buckle at the Calgary Stampede.  BRADBURY, Ivy. b. Peachland June 23, 1907; d. Peachland September 2, 1998. Predeceased by husband Edgar in 1997, and by daughter Eva in 1990. Survived by daughter Sue  Milum; son Ralph. She helped compile Peachland's written history.  BRODLAND, Olof "Olie." b. Dummer, Saskatchewan May 7, 1916; d. Enderby July 20,  1998. Survived by wife M. Dorothy; sons Ronald, Rodger, Bob, Lenard; daughter Betty Holtskog.  Predeceased by daughter Patsy, son Gordon. He worked for Pete Stewart and Bell Pole in  Lumby, Hoover Sawmill, Pioneer Sash & Door and Vernon Box and Pine.  BUCHENAUR, Peter, b. Yugoslavia April 23, 1923; d. Vernon October 4, 1998. Predeceasedby wife Margaret. Survived by daughters Janice Moored, Jacque Hagen, Susan Wareham,  Cathy Schaefer. He resided in Vernon for 68 years, many spent operating a trucking business.  BUTLER, Doris, b. Kamloops May 4, 1895; d. Kelowna October 2, 1998. Predeceased  by first husband Bertie Butler in 1948; second husband Ivan Crossley in 1966. Survived by  daughters Nancy Gray, Barbara Sharp, Constance Pearson, Brenda Thomson; son Stephen.  Born to Albert and Edith Duck of Holmwood Ranch, near Kamloops, she married Bertie Butler  and they farmed at Westwold until retiring to Okanagan Mission in 1945. (see OHS Report No.  60).  BUTTERWORTH, Harold David, b. Victoria June 6, 1917; d. Oyama May 29, 1998.  Survived by wife Marjorie; sons Douglas, Donald. An orchardist and resort operator, he was  instrumental in the formation of Oyama fire department and Oyama irrigation system.  <*HP¬a   CARY, Floyd Thomas Kilborn. b. Armstrong May 8, 1917; d. Salmon Arm January 15,  1999. Survived by wife Mary Josephine; daughters Norma Pasechnik, Judy Davis, Wendy  Brunwald; son Allan. His father, Norman Cary, operated the Armstrong Advertiser between  1912 and 1924, and it was there when he was no older than four that son Floyd got his first jolt  of printer's ink while sitting on the feed board of a newspaper press. Moving to Alberta, Norman Cary eventually started the Bassano Recorder, by now assisted by 17-year-old Floyd, who  learned well the father's skills of linotype operator and machinist. After discharge from the  RCAF in WWII, Floyd joined his uncle Sid Cary at the Revelstoke Review. In 1951 he began a 25-  year association with the Salmon Arm Observer as production foreman, and then operated his  own business, Cary Printing, until retirement in 1982.  CHAMINGS, Henry "Harry." b. Fort Steele June 28, 1905; d. Vernon December 22,  1998. Survived by second wife Louise; daughter Joan Ferguson; son Alan. He came to Lumby  in 1930 and operated the Lumby-Vernon Coachlines for 23 years. Later he operated school bus  for District 22 for several years, attaining a perfect driving record. He received a 50-year membership certificate from the Knights of Pythias in 1998.  CHAPMAN, David Vernon, b. Vancouver April 19, 1932; d. Vernon July 19, 1998. Survived by wife Bev; daughters Barb, Deb Leenders. He worked for Imperial Oil, then the City of  Vernon. Active member of Vernon Lions Club.  COLLINS, Patricia (Craib). b. Vernon November 23, 1905; d. Vernon November 23,  1998. Predeceased by husband Percy in 1969. Survived by sister Jean Humphreys. She was a  veteran of the RCAF in the original Women's Division and a life member of the Royal Canadian Legion and was similarly honoured by other organizations including the Vernon Jubilee  Hospital Auxiliary. Belonging to a pioneer Coldstream family, she was Vernon's Good Citizen  in 1995.  COMMET, Doris, b. Horsham, England June 25, 1908; d. Kelowna October 18, 1998.  Survived by daughters Gladys Mason, Irene Reiger, Shirley Cox. She spent part of her childhood in Armstrong and settled in Kelowna in 1930. She was a certified hairdresser for 65 years,  many of those at the "Bob Inn Beauty Parlour," a Kelowna fixture in the '30s and '40s.  193 LIVES REMEMBERED  COOK, Archibald Gall. b. Douglas, Scotland September 12, 1918; d. Kelowna February  4, 1999. Survived by wife Anne; daughter Judy Reimer. He came to Winfield in 1928 with  parents Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Cook and spent most of his adult years in the fruit industry.  CORBETT, Jessie Annabelle. b. Vernon September 12. 1914; d. Vancouver February 2,  1999. Predeceasedby first husband Clarence Simpson, second husband Thomas Percival Corbett  (Smith-Corbett). Survived by sons Kenneth Simpson, James Corbett. Her grandfather, Alexander Ferguson, moved to Grande Prairie in 1887.  COUSINS, Beatrice (Polly) (nee Tbpham). b. Winnipeg July 8, 1908; d. Kelowna December 1, 1998. Predeceasedby husband Dan in 1993. Survived by daughters Beatrice Lucier,  Kathleen Penner, Shirley Greig, Karen Martin; son Clifford. At the age of three she came with  her family to Peachland and prior to marriage in 1928 worked at the Greata Ranch.  CREED, Aubrey Alexander, b. Johannesburg August 30, 1902; d. Vernon August 9,  1998. Survived by wife Leslie; sons Deo, Kim, Ingvar; daughters Erica, Nyl. Predeceased by  daughter Lyn. He was active in two communities: Coldstream where his home was, and in  Kitimat where he served as fire chief. Awarded the American Bronze Star (WWII), and a knighthood by the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem for his work with St.  John's Ambulance Society.  CULL, Dorothy Evelyn (Winchester), b. Vernon September 7, 1913; d. Vernon April 4,  1998. Survived by husband Ron; son Fred, daughter Barbara Home. She was an active (life)  member of the hospital auxiliary and the United Church Hi Lo Circle.  CULL, Ronald Hugh. b. August 15, 1911; died Vernon February 8, 1999. Survived by  daughter Barbara Home; son Fred. From the age of 16 he worked for NOCA dairy co-operative,  retiring as its manager 43 years later. He was an active Rotarian and Kinsman, and started  skiing at age 48 at Silver Star, where the family owned one of the first mountain chalets.  CURRIE, Luella Ruth (nee Cross), b. Rutland January 27, 1918; d. Westbank September 10, 1998. Survived by husband Archie; daughters Marjorie Milroy, Callie Basham, Donna  Holland, Connie Husband; son Lloyd.  DALZELL, Edward Jacob, b. Salmon Arm January 12, 1904; d. Victoria March 25, 1999.  Predeceased by wife Florence in 1991, and by son Murray in 1950. Long-time resident of  Kamloops.  DENDY, Betty, b. Kelowna May 3, 1913; d. Kelowna January 1, 1999. Survived by  brothers D'Arze and John.  DERBY, Stanley, b. Lumby May 11, 1915; d. Vernon April 3, 1999. Survived by wife  Eleanor; son Jim; daughters Elaine Gudeit, Kathy Funke. He was well-known in the Lumby/  Vernon districts as a farmer and logger and belonged to a pioneer Lumby family.  DRAKE, Helen Muriel (nee Monk), b. Grindrod August 31, 1901; d. Enderby January  25, 1999. Predeceased by husbands George Henry Wells (1943) and Richard Henry Drake  (1971). Survived by son Don Wells. Member of the pioneer William Monk family of Grindrod,  and for a number of years worked with her first husband in the CPR hotel in Sicamous where  he was assistant manager and she the head waitress.  ELLIOT, Douglas Francis, b. Kelowna March 17, 1927; d. Kelowna December 30,1998.  Survived by wife Jean; sons Trevor, Jim; daughters Lois, Jane. He was involved with the fruit  industry for many years as an orchardist and employee of Agriculture Canada. His forbears  included Elisha Monford and E. R. Bailey, while George Elliot school in Winfield was named  after his father.  EMERY, Charlotte Reid. b. Paulson, B. C. July 19, 1914; d. Penticton March 18, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Fern. Survived by daughter Lynda Ross. She lived in the Carmi area,  Midway, Osoyoos and Okanagan Falls, moving to Oliver in 1968. She worked for many years at  the Haynes packing house, was a member of the Women's Institute and wrote articles for the  Boundary Creek Times.  ENQUIST, Walter Edwin, b. on the Enquist homestead in Cambie, B. C. February 4,  1916; d. Salmon Arm November 11, 1998. Survived by wife Helen; son Neil; daughters Fay,  Sally Handley. A lifelong resident of the Eagle Valley, he was known primarily as a logging  contractor and sawmill operator.  194 LIVES REMEMBERED  FESTERLING, Arthur, b. Grand Forks October 17, 1937; d. Prince George October 9,  1998. Survived by wife Sue; son Jason. He and his wife moved to Oliver as owners of Eastside  Grocery. Later they opened Periwinkle Gifts (1990) and then in 1993 purchased Stedmans  with partners Larry and Linda Larson.  FINDLAY, Iva Muriel (nee Simpson), b. Gagetown, New Brunswick June 10, 1896; d.  Penticton May 7, 1998. Survived by sons Alfred, Raymond, Lome, Kenneth; daughters Shirley  Carley, Evelyn McWhinnie, Marie Loftgren. Predeceasedby husband Judson in 1989. Arrived  in Kaleden in 1910.  FOLLMER, Elisabeth, b. Jecsa Mare, Hungary April 7, 1901; d. Kelowna December 1,  1998. Predeceased by husband Josef in 1966. Survived by daughters Elizabeth Moscoso, Margaret  Wort. After emigrating to Canada and Kelowna in 1929 the Follmers became owners of the  Northern Rooms on St. Paul Street until 1945 and also the Ellis Rooms and the Sugar Bowl until  the 1960s. In addition they operated a 30-acre orchard in Rutland until semi-retirement in  1964.  GEEN, Betty (nee Snowsell). b. England September 21, 1909; d. Kelowna August 23,  1998. Predeceasedby husband Percy in 1985. Survived by sons David, Mervyn; daughter Sheri  Wood. She spent the greater part of her life on a farm in the Belgo area, after training and  nursing at Kelowna General Hospital.  GILLESPIE, Ada Lillian, b. Saskatoon January 20, 1908; d. Kelowna July 25, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Archie. Survived by sons Keith, Don; daughter Ruth Johnson. Her  father, A. C. Poole, trained as a confectioner/baker, came to Canada with the Barr Colonists in  1903 and six years later brought his talents to Kelowna.  <SI^ GRAHAM, Glenn G. b. Summerland July 4, 1912; d. Delta February 3, 1998. Survived  by son Lyle; daughter Mary-Anne Schaefer; stepsons Doug and Bruce Chambers. Predeceased  by wife Dorothy in 1983 and wife Violet in 1995. He moved to Oliver in 1936 where he and his  father built the original Graham Funeral Home.  <IS^ GRIGOR, John (Jack) Edward, b. Vancouver April 12,1910; d. Penticton April 28,1998.  Survived by wife Nina. Arrived in Penticton in early 1920s. Active in Okanagan Symphony and  other Penticton musical groups.  HALL, Gordon William, b. Kelowna November 11, 1910; d. Vernon June 6, 1998. Survived by son Gordon. A brilliant scholar, he taught in high schools at Oyama, Calgary and  Edmonton. During WWII he worked in the meteorological service at various RCAF stations.  HAMILTON, Elizabeth Mary. b. 1921; d. Oliver February 1, 1998. Predeceasedby first  husband Robert Earle in 1944; and by second husband James Hamilton. Survived by son Bruce;  daughter Bobbie Suen. She was the daughter of Fairview pioneers Charles and Isabella Jones  and her career spanned many facets, including the SO Supply Company, Bank of Commerce,  government agent's office, School District No. 14 and the Office of Human Resources.  HAMMOND, Stanley James, b. Vernon December 1, 1919; d. Vernon April 14, 1999.  Predeceased by first wife Susan in 1985 and by his second wife, Iris, in 1992. Survived by wife  Lois; son Jack, daughter Patricia Moore; also five stepchildren. After serving with the Westminster Regiment in WWII, he worked at the Vernon post office and later was appointed  postmaster at Armstrong, retiring in 1980. He was a past president and life member of Royal  Canadian Legion Branch 35 (Armstrong).  HANSEN, Frede Kurt. b. Aarup, Fynne, Denmark November 16, 1926; d. Vernon March  5, 1999. Survived by wife Elsie; daughters Beth VanderVoort, Lisa Conway, Kirsten; sons Lawrence, John. He came to Canada as a CNR Special Agricultural Nominee in 1950 to work on  Saunders' dairy farm in Lumby, then began falling trees for various sawmills. He worked for  the Department of Highways prior to purchasing his own gravel truck, followed by a logging  truck and continued to haul until 1998.  HARWOOD, Jessie Cameron, b. Vernon April 14, 1916; d. Vernon March 3, 1999. Survived by husband Don; daughters Katherine, Nan Bristow. She was an active member of All  Saints' Anglican Church, Vernon, and had pioneer roots in the community.  HAWRYS, Ksenia "Kay." b. Vanefaith, Saskatchewan March 28, 1917; d. Enderby October 21, 1998. Survived by husband Joseph; son Lome, daughter Leanne. Arrived in the Stepney  Crossroad area with her parents Damian and Mary Smaha in 1927. A resident of Enderby  since 1951, she was active as a life member of Ladies of the Shrine, and Daughters of the Nile.  195 LIVES REMEMBERED  HAYES, Janet Margaret, b. Coonoor, India 1913; d. Kelowna April 10, 1999. Predeceased by husband Darby in 1992. Survived by son Eric. She came to Kelowna about 70 years  ago and was employed by Occidental Fruit Company as a stenographer. It was there that she  met her husband, who was a prominent member of Kelowna's fruit-growing industry.  HEARD, Richard Keith, b. Revelstoke April 26, 1910; d. Vernon March 25, 1998. Predeceased by wife Louise in 1991. Survived by daughter Cathy Goldie; sons Dave, John. He was  employed as a bookkeeper by Commonwealth Construction, which built the W. L. Seaton  School and the "100 Homes." He later worked for Pioneer Sash & Door and David Howrie Ltd.  HERALD, Arthur Dundas. b. Salmon Arm 1909; died New Westminster November 3,  1998. Survived by wife Eileen; daughters Jan, Fran, Dora; son Douglas. His father practised  medicine at Quesnelle Forks at the turn of the century, and in 1906 he established a farm,  Bonnie Bray, on Shuswap Lake opposite Canoe. With the aid of creek-driven machinery fashioned by sons Arthur Dundas and James Barclay, the isolated farm became virtually self-  sufficient. In 1975 the property was purchased by the provincial government and developed  as Herald Park.  HOLLAND, Reinhold (Rienie). b. Mabel Lake July 28, 1925; d. Vernon February 26,  1999. Survived by wife Lee; sons Ken, Dennis; daughter Diane Bowers. He worked for B. C.  Hydro for 35 years and whole-heartedly supported Vernon minor hockey and baseball for a  quarter century. His proudest moment came recently when son Ken, general manager of the  Detroit Red Wings, brought the Stanley Cup to Vernon for a backyard celebration with family  and friends.  <¬ßn& HOWARD, Senia Wilhelmina (nee Laitinen). b. Griffin Lake, B.C, January 31, 1902; d.  Salmon Arm February 4, 1999. Predeceasedby husband Robert; son David. Survived by daughter Mary Zoretich; son Louis. She was the last surviving charter member of the Girls' Hospital  Aid, formed in 1918 and since the 1980s, amalgamated with the Shuswap Lake Hospital Auxiliary. She was charter president of the first unit in the B. C. & Yukon division of the Canadian  Cancer Society in 1938 and later served as campaign chair for several years. For these and  other contributions, the CCS granted her an honorary life membership in 1987.  HOWLETT, Alfred William, b. Hendon, England January 2, 1904; d. Vernon February  12, 1999. Predeceased by wife Ollwen. After a 45-year career with the Royal Bank he moved to  Vernon where he served for nine years as a director of Vernon Jubilee Hospital Society and  one term as president of Vernon Rotary Club (1953-54).  <SI^ HYNDMAN, Allan Wylie. b. Winchester, Ontario March 18, 1909; d. Summerland February 1,1998. Survived by wife Rosie; sons Eric, Rae; daughters Mary Ellis, LoisTougas, Frances  Van Santon. Long-time resident of South Okanagan and judge in B. C. horse circles for more  than 20 years.  JACKSON, Charles, b. Kelowna June 29, 1919. d. Kelowna October 21, 1998. Survived  by wife Megan; son Bruce; daughter Carole. His family owned the Lake View (later the May-  fair) Hotel across from Kelowna City Park.  JACKSON, Charlotte "Lottie." b. Vernon February 10, 1910; d. Vernon October 24,1998.  Predeceased by husband Ben. She first worked at the Edgar Electrical Company in Vernon,  then at Shield's Store in Lumby. Returning to Vernon, she was employed by A. J. Parks &  Company until her retirement. She was a 50-year member of the Pythian Sisters.  JAMES, William George Manning, long-time resident of Tappen. b. Carlinville, Illinois  October 1, 1911; d. Salmon Arm September 12,1998. Survived by wife Evelyn; sons Ken, George;  daughters Margaret Thompson, Evelyn Tasko, Pat James.  <sE^ JAMIESON, Roland Alexander, b. Calgary 1914; d. Salmon Arm February 16,1999. (see  tribute page 184)  KERNAGHAN, Thomas Earl. b. Salmon Arm September 8, 1923; died Penticton January 18, 1999. Predeceased by wife Velma in 1996. Survived by sons Doug, Dennis. He was the  grandson of pioneer CPR building contractor John Kernaghan, who left his mark at Revelstoke,  Glacier and Banff, and later (1907) established a sawmill and box factory in the Salmon Arm  area.  196 LIVES REMEMBERED  KLATT, Herman Reinhard Michael "Harry." b. Esk, Saskatchewan July 10, 1919; d.  Oliver February 26, 1998. Survived by wife Anne-Marie; daughters Carmen Zachary, Susan.  Moved to Black Sage district, Oliver, in 1930. Worked as a logger and in the family-operated  Klatt sawmill.  KLETTKE, Albert William, b. Eastonia, Saskatchewan December 25, 1925; d. Oliver  November 18,1998. Survived by wife Betty; son Duan; daughter Shirley Anne Hickeson. Moved  to Oliver in 1928. Operated a spraying service and backhoe business; involved with flood  control, orchardist and cattle rancher. Known as the "Corn King of Oliver."  KOSKI, Eric Elmer Gabriel, b. Salmon Arm January 9, 1912; d. Vernon January 26,  1999. Survived by wife Eileen; sons Merv, Ted; daughter Bev McCulloch. A resident of Lumby  and Vernon since 1959, he was the son of Ahto and Hilma Koski, who had a homestead orchard on Shuswap Lake between Salmon Arm and Canoe.  LaBOUNTY, Frank Joseph, b. Olalla August 11, 1930; d. Vancouver June 30, 1998.  Survived by wife Dorothy; son Ken; daughters Debbie, Diane, Cindy. Worked at Fairview and  Silica mines before establishing one of the first commercial vineyards in the Okanagan.  LAIDMAN, David John. b. Vernon November 10, 1927; d. Vernon October 14, 1998.  Survived by wife Betty; daughters Elizabeth Fenson, Carolyn Laidman-Betts. He taught at W  L. Seaton School for 25 years, was a past president of the North Okanagan Naturalists Club and  an active member of environmental and ecological committees. Kal Lake Park was created  due partly to his efforts.  LAMBLY, Charles A. R. "Spud", b. Fairview, B. C. December 23, 1906; d. Delray Beach,  Florida November 9, 1998. Predeceased by wife Helen; father C. A. Lambly; mother Hester  (Haynes) Lambly White; stepfather Dr. R. B. White; brothers Wilfred, Dr. Bill White, Jack White.  Survived by daughters Joan Wilson, Sharon Lambly. Lamblys and Whites were notable pioneers of Fairview.  LANE, Florence Adella. b. Drayton, Ontario April 12, 1900; d. Kelowna March 24,  1998. Predeceased by husband Maurice in 1961. She served as secretary-treasurer of First  United Church, Kelowna, for 49 years. Shortly after arriving in Kelowna in 1917, she worked in  the box office of the Empress Theatre.  LENG, George, b. Flamborough, England October 22, 1913; d. Kelowna March 8, 1999.  Predeceased by wife Frances (Simms) in 1985. After serving as a radio technician with the  RAF, he arrived in Vernon in 1948 and went to work at Okanagan Electric, then later at Wright  & Thorburn, eventually opening his own business, G. L. Electronics.  LEWIS, Frederick, b. England January 31, 1898; d. Kelowna March 25, 1999. Predeceased by wife Margaret. Survived by sons Gary, Clive. In 1913 Mr. Lewis pioneered with his  family on an orchard in the Glenmore district.  LIDSTONE, James Raymond, b. Sault St. Marie May 22, 1902; d. Vernon June 28, 1998.  Predeceased by wives Lela and Verna; son Gordon; daughter Helen Halwas. Survived by daughter Edna Eckhart. He resided in Salmon Arm, Enderby and Winfield and his interests were  horses and cattle.  LIDSTONE, Mary "Marguerite." b. Vancouver 1904; d. Salmon Arm September 6, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Allen in 1973. Survived by daughter Gail Thiel; son Ken. She completed high school by correspondence in Westbank and went on to Victoria Normal School,  eventually holding teaching certificates from B.C, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Her last professional years were spent in classrooms at Tappen and Grandview Bench.  LISTUG, Jorgen. b. Froland, Telemark, Norway March 13, 1900; d. Oliver May 30,  1998. Predeceasedby wife Elsie; daughter Janet. Survived by daughter Thelma Christison. He  settled in Oliver in 1936 and worked on construction of the old Oliver Sawmill. For 30 years he  built houses from Okanagan Falls to Osoyoos and in retirement became an orchardist.  LITTLEJOHN, John Bain. b. Saskatchewan June 28, 1915; d. Penticton May 2, 1998.  Survived by wife Edna; daughter Judy Matheson. Moved to Naramata in 1923.  LOCOCK, Nora. b. Manchester, England, May 15, 1902; d. Kelowna August 7, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Rex. Survived by daughters Fenella Munson, Jessica Gee. A resident  of Kelowna for more than 70 years, she will be remembered for her career in the admitting  department at Kelowna General Hospital.  197 LIVES REMEMBERED  LOUIE, Arnold David, b. Oliver; d. Oliver March 21, 1998 at age 35. Survived by wife  Rose; sons Evan, Charles, daughters Amanda, Sanci. Former member of the Osoyoos Indian  Band Council and administrator of the Okanagan Tribal Council. He was the main organizer  for the Oka crisis "Run for Peace," as well as the Okanagan Indian Band destination casino bid.  He sought a resurgence of the strong traditional Okanagan values revolving around family and  the land. He was a prolific writer of editorials and poetry and had many articles published.  LUND, Stanley Edwin, b. Canoe August 21, 1917; d. Salmon Arm August 7, 1998. Survived by wife Anna; daughters Lorraine Vigue, Barbara Dorish, Patricia Mar. Except for five  years' overseas service in WWII, he resided in the Shuswap area all his life. His grandparents,  Johan Cornelius and Aline Lund, were Canoe's first settlers.  LYONS, Chess (See tribute page 186)  LYSTER, Sarah Edith, b. Preston, Lancashire January 20, 1905; d. Vernon January 12,  1998. Predeceased by husband John in 1996. Survived by sons Ronald, Dennis. She resided in  Armstrong from 1940 to 1972 and spent the rest of her life in Vernon.  MCALLISTER, Lome. b. Winnipeg April 15, 1907; d. Vernon July 30, 1998. Survived by  sons Bruce, Phil; daughter Coralie Forster. He taught English for many years at Vernon Senior  High School.  McMECHAN, George Archibald, b. Red Deer January 26, 1915; d. Vernon October 10,  1998. Predeceased by wife Ada Evelyn in 1990. Survived by sons Corky, Christopher. Archie  McMechan operated Craft Metal and Heating for more than 25 years. He was a member of the  Vernon Senior Backyard Band, a life member of the Canadian Power & Sail Squadron, past  president of Vernon Lions Club, a member and chancellor commander of the Knights of Pythias  and an active supporter of the Vernon Science Centre and Daybreak Adult Centre workshop.  <S¬£^ LIFE MEMBER. MacNAUGHTON, Frederick Carleton. b. Winnipeg January 3, 1910;  d. Oliver January 27, 1999. Survived by wife Maude Isabel Christie (known as Buddie); daughters Sheila Ireland, Patricia Borkwood, Heather Frank; son Jim. He came to Oliver in 1922  with his family and they built their home on the West Lateral among the district's pioneer  families. In addition to being a life member of the OHS, he was a member of the United  Church of Canada, naturalist society and participated in the Scout movement for 56 years. He  attended both Oliver and Okanagan Falls United churches, serving 28 years as Sunday School  superintendent, and was a lay preacher and public speaker. After a successful orcharding  career, he and his wife created a wildlife park known as the Grey Sage Museum in the early  1950s. Honoured with Oliver's Good Citizen Award, Carleton MacNaughton's community endeavours included being a charter member of both the Oliver Rotary Club, and Credit Union  and active participation in the affairs of Oliver Co-op store and packing house.  MACK, Dr. Gordon James, d. Vernon October 9, 1998. Predeceased by wife Norma,  son Doug. Survived by sons Bruce, Bob, Dave, Alan; daughters Barbara McVeigh, Heather. He  gave up a general practice at Fort Nelson to take surgical training in Ottawa and Montreal,  followed by appointments in Zweibrucken, Germany, Kitimat, Kathmandu and, finally, Vernon.  MEEDS, Wayne Andrew "Red." b. Coalmont August 17, 1924; d. Oliver December 3,  1998. Survived by wife Grace; sons Cliff, Howard, Gary; daughters Linda Ryan, Virginia Roper.  Came to Oliver at age seven and lived on family farm on Island Way from 1931 to 1998. Entered automotive repair business after WWII and opened Red's Repair Shop in 1960. Member  of Southern Okanagan Sportsmen's Association; lifetime member of the PITA.  MELLISH, Beatrice Harriet, b. Montreal April 24, 1896; d. Armstrong August 21, 1998.  Predeceasedby husband Richard in 1972; son Richard while on active service in 1942, daughter Marjorie Glaicar in 1998. Survived by daughters Noreen Battersby, Lorna Carter; son Bert.  She came to the Armstrong area in 1906 and lived on her farm until 1993. She was a fixture at  Remembrance Day services as a Silver Cross Mother, active in the Red Cross and long-time  successful exhibitor at the Armstrong Fair.  MORI, Yemiko "Amy." b. Armstrong April 10, 1924; d. Vernon July 16, 1998. Predeceased by husband Yoshio. Survived by daughters Penny Margetson, Candy Anfield. A member of a pioneer North Okanagan family, she was an active and contributing member of the  Vernon community.  <H¬£^  NICHOLSON, Norman Gordon, b. Penticton May 7,1909; d. Penticton March 17,1998.  Predeceased by wife Eva in 1994.  198 LIVES REMEMBERED  NITCHIE, Stanley John. b. Moosomin, Saskatchewan July 3, 1920; d. Vernon November 12, 1997. Survived by wife Evelyn; sons Robert, Terry, Brian. This long-time Armstrong  resident was a WWII veteran, a carpenter and a volunteer fireman. He was a member of the  executive of the Fish and Game Club and Royal Canadian Legion Branch 35.  NORDSTROM, Margaret, b. County Tyrone, Northern Ireland April 3, 1906; d.  Armstrong October 24, 1998. Predeceasedby husband William in 1993. Survived by sons Eric,  Tom and David. A resident of Armstrong since 1935, she was a committed member of the  Rebekahs, Cheerio Club and Zion United Church.  OGASAWARA, Norman Neil. b. Vernon July 22, 1936; d. Vernon March 19, 1999. Survived by wife Shirley; sons David, Doug, Derry and Dwayne. An accomplished athlete in his  youth, he excelled at lacrosse, fastpitch Softball and hockey. For 25 years he was the proprietor  of Bella Vista Grocery. He was a charter member of the Okanagan Landing Volunteer Fire  Department and remained an honoree fireman after his retirement in 1988.  ORAM, Edna May. b. London, Ontario November 30, 1909; d. Vernon September 3,  1998. After a distinguished career with the Department of External Affairs, she arrived in  Vernon in 1957 as a social worker. She operated her own gift shop, Boutique Canadiana, and  managed O'Keefe Ranch from 1976 to 1981. She was a member of the Vernon City Advisory  Planning Commission and the Vernon Museum and Archives, a founder of Friends of History  and Venture Training Centre and was president and provincial member of the Canadian Mental Health Association. In 1985 she was Vernon's Good Citizen and in 1990 was named a Freeman of the City, Vernon's highest honour. The Canadian Mental Health Building and the Edna  Oram Centre are named in her honour.  OUCHI, Robert Yoshimitsu. b. Vernon December 29, 1944; d. Vernon March 13, 1999.  Survived by wife Connie; sons Brad, Jamie. He worked in the family-owned Kal Nursery for 20  years, then with his wife operated Ouchi Nursery for three years until his illness made it  impossible to continue.  PALFREY, Bertram Thomas, b. Vernon November 29, 1920; d. Vernon March 25, 1999.  Survived by wife Frances; sons Tbm, Brent, Randy; daughter Rena. He was a member of a  pioneer Vernon family and was a long-time farmer in the North Okanagan.  PEACHER, Marjorie Dorothy (nee Kent), b. Vernon December 13, 1917; d. Enderby  September 11, 1998. Predeceasedby husband Franklin Leslie in 1977 and son Cyril in 1990.  Survived by son James; daughters Lillian, Lynda, Lucille, Loreane and Leola. She was a resident of the Trinity Valley area from 1937 to 1990, when she moved to Enderby.  PETERMAN, Arthur Nelson "Skinny."b. Kelowna December 9, 1911; d. Oliver October  8, 1998. Prdeceased by son Gordon. Survived by wife Anne; daughter Vicki Fujibayashi. (See  tribute page 189)  <«ItF» PETERSON, Hjalmar. b. Canoe October 13, 1918; d. Vancouver October 23, 1998. As  one of the "Peterson Brothers," he had been associated with Salmon Arm's orchard industry  since 1939, building on an undertaking begun by his father in 1911. Hjalmar Peterson amassed  a large photographic collection, became an historical resource and belonged to an old-time  dance club for 52 years. Survived by brothers Alf, Floyd, Hubert; sisters Margaret Wren, Ingrid  Landers.  <IE^ PIDDOCKE, Mary Mitchell (nee Fisher) b. Kelowna June 7, 1913; d. Winfield May 15,  1998. Predeceasedby husband Len in 1982. Survived by daughters Pennie Powell, Joan Craig,  Margaret McConnell, Mary Ellen David; son Morris. Active member of Ellison parks board,  PTA and the Father Pandosy Mission committee.  POPOWICH, Daniel, b. Yorkton, Saskatchewan; d. Armstrong September 19, 1998 at  the age of 86. Predeceased by wife Frieda in 1996. Survived by daughters Sharon Ramirez,  Carol Sager; sons Wes, David. A resident of Armstrong since 1939, he formerly owned Armstrong  Motors Ltd. and also was public works foreman for the Township of Spallumcheen. His lifelong hobby was restoring farm tractors and equipment.  POPOWICH, William, b. Springside, Saskatchewan July 23, 1916; d. Armstrong October 31, 1998. Predeceasedby wife Elma. Survived by sons Alvin, Lome, Duane. He was one of  the first employees of Armstrong Sawmill and Box Factory, joining the company at age 15 and  199 LIVES REMEMBERED  remaining there for more than 49 years. Served as trainer with the Armstrong Shamrocks in  the 1950s and volunteered many hours making ice in the "old" Armstrong arena. Member of  the IPE, O'Keefe Historical Society, Armstrong Baptist Church.  PORTER, William George, b. Chiselhurst, England July 5, 1910; d. Kelowna March 21,  1998. Survived by wife Ivy; sons Brian, Alan; daughter Denise Morrison-Porter. A resident of  East Kelowna since 1913, he started work with the Kelowna Land and Orchard Co. (KLO) and  later managed Keloka Orchard Ltd. from 1937 until it was sold in 1977. He was a life member  of the Kelowna Trap Club and instrumental in obtaining park land for East and South Kelowna.  POWELL, Henry Dennis, b. England May 18, 1905; d. Kelowna November 23, 1998.  Survived by wife Amy; son Dennis. Arriving in 1928, he was a pioneer in the Kelowna vineyard industry.  PROUDFOOT, Dorothy (Munson). b. Durham, England September 4,1894; d. Kelowna  May 20, 1999. Predeceased by first husband Fred Munson in 1952, her second husband Jim  Proudfoot in 1963 and son Stan in 1997. Survived by daughter Gwyn Taylor; son Bob. She came  to Kelowna in 1912 and four years later married Fred Munson. She remained on the family  farm in Benvoulin until 1987.  RAWSTHORNE, Stephen, b. Vernon April 12, 1916; d. Salmon Arm August 4, 1998.  Survived by wife Zemphra. He farmed in Oyama most of his life, where his parents, Mr. and  Mrs. Stephen Rawsthorne settled in 1914, having originally gone to Vernon in 1911.  REED, Ernest G. b. Success, Saskatchewan January 6, 1913; d. Salmon Arm August 9,  1998. Predeceased by wife Florence; daughter Joan. Survived by sons Gary, Don, Phil; daughter June Stoner. He farmed for many years in the Mount Ida district.  RICE, Ellwood Charles, b. Vernon June 28, 1909; d. Vernon June 4, 1998. Predeceased  by wife Magda in 1995. Survived by son Will; daughter Madeline Kerr. In his early years he was  a school teacher, then a landscape architect with a keen interest in organic and "easy" horticulture, hosting a gardening program on C JIB radio for 46 years. He became Mayor of Vernon and  was mainly responsible for the complex of buildings that is known as the Civic Centre.  RITCHIE, Joanne, b. Glasgow November 4, 1904; d. Summerland May 11, 1998.  Summerland resident for 90 years and veteran municipal administration employee. Survived  by nieces Louise Atkinson, Isobel Jensen; nephews Edward and Jim Newton.  RIVETT, Ellodie Fern. b. Minneapolis November 19, 1908; d. Armstrong September  24, 1998. Predeceased by husband Cecil in 1982. Survived by daughters Evelyn Green, Joan  Brewis, Shirley Larsson. She was a 51-year member of the Pythian Sisters and a consistent  award-winning member of Vernon Garden Club.  <ffi^ ROBINSON, Donald Baker, b. Calgary April 3, 1922; d. Sooke October 15, 1998. Survived by wife Barbara; daughters Carol Smith, Anne Robinson, E. Louise Christensen, Peggy  Lynn Maslen. He moved to Oliver with his parents in 1927 and graduated from Oliver High  School in 1940. Following a career as a university professor and in chemical engineering, he  retired to Oliver in 1994, serving as chairman of its 75th birthday celebration in 1996. He was  president of the Oliver and District Heritage Society, instrumental in the restoration of the  Fairview jail, opening of the archive facility and arranging a dependable source of funding for  Oliver Museum's future operation.  ROSE, Margaret, b. Wolsingham, England; d. Vernon March 16, 1998 age 77. Predeceased by husband Calvert and daughter Bonita Gray. Survived by sons Geoffrey, Anthony;  daughter Shannon Walton. She was a member of the Powerhouse Theatre and host other own  radio show.  RUTHERFORD, Elsie, b. Armstrong October 14, 1899; d. Kelowna January 24, 1999.  Predeceased by husband Reg in 1963. Survived by daughters Betty Weddell, Jean Cave, Sheila  Peebles, Aileen Headen. She spent her entire life in the Okanagan, including 70 years at  Kelowna.  <QEE¬a SHILVOCK, Winston Agnew. b. Vancouver November 8, 1908; d. Kelowna September  18, 1998. Survived by wife Maggie; daughter Elizabeth Hackett. Predeceased by first wife Marie  in 1968. He achieved bachelor of arts and bachelor of commerce degrees at UBC in 1931-32  and after WWII worked in the business/investment sector, lastly as manager of Investors Syndicate for the interior of B. C. From 1969 to 1998 he researched and recorded the history of the  Okanagan, resulting in the authorship of 254 articles.  200 LIVES REMEMBERED  SHULLDES, Pauline (Goldie) (nee Werner), b. Vernon December 4, 1913; d. Vernon  February 6, 1999. Survived by daughter Dixie Clowry. She spent the better part other life in  the Okanagan, gaining a reputation as a peerless gardener.  SHULTZ, Leonard Vernon, b. Vernon; d. Vernon August 15, 1998 age 85. Survived by  wife Pauline; daughters Beverley Pauquette, Cathy Shultz. His working years were spent at  the Vernon Box Factory, as a foreman in Vernon Steam Laundry and as a steam engineer at  Consumers Glass plant, Lavington.  SHULTZ, Norman Elwin. b. Vernon November 1, 1909; d. Vernon November 14, 1998.  Survived by wife Helen; son Howard; daughter Carol Dyck. He worked at several packing  houses in the Vernon area: B. C. Fruit Shippers, Unity Fruit and MacDonalds. He also worked  on various local building projects including an addition to the old Vernon Fruit Union.  SHUMKA, Ann Louise, b. Sifton, Manitoba July 9, 1907; d. Vernon March 17, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Peter in 1977. Survived by sons Bob, Don. A resident of Lumby since  1941, she was along-time community worker and founding member of the Old Age Pensioners' Association. She started Lumby's first hot-lunch school program in the '40s. In 1958 she  returned to teaching and retired in 1972.  SIMPSON, Albert Patterson (Pat), b. Vernon January 24, 1921; d. Vernon August 17,  1998. Survived by wife Betty; sons Don, Bruce. He worked for Canada Post from 1948 to 1978.  He was a 53-year member and former zone commander of the Royal Canadian Legion. Also  associated with the Vernon Tigers lacrosse team as a player/manager.  <SS^ SIMPSON, Clarence Malcolm, b. Vernon October 26, 1910; d. Hedley January 21, 1999.  Predeceased by wives Jessie (Ferguson), Lyslie (Hickman). Survived by wife Evelyn; sons  Kenneth, Lawrence; daughter Cordelia. The prospecting life took him to many parts of B. C.  He was a fourth-generation British Columbian, the great grandson of Jonathan Simpson, who  arrived in Esquimalt on January 6, 1853.  «*inj» SKINNER, Gordon, b. Winnipeg July 4, 1910; d. Vernon September 12, 1998. Predeceased by wife Sheila. Survived by daughter Leslie; son Bob. He came to Vernon in 1940 as a  manager for the Hudson's Bay Company store and opened his own business, Skinner's Men's  Wear in 1945. In 1967 he and his family began what proved to be a successful thoroughbred  horse-breeding venture.  SLINGSBY, Howard Bruce, b. Calgary September 28, 1910; d. Osoyoos July 4, 1998.  Predeceased by daughter Jean Mullin in 1994, son John in 1997. Survived by wife Esther; sons  Howard Jr., Robert; daughter Judy Bennett. He came to Osoyoos in 1947, operating Slingsby's  Garage for many years. He was past president of both the Board of Trade and Gyro Club and  founding president of Osoyoos Golf and Country Club.  SMAHA, Michael Damian. b. Spallumcheen November 21, 1927; d. Vernon August 3,  1998. Survived by wife Doris; sons Barry, Brian, Glenn, daughter Gayle MacGowan. He farmed  in the Stepney district for a number of years and was also employed by the Township of  Spallumcheen, retiring in 1991. Active in several organizations, he was a life member of the  Armstrong Fish & Game Club and a trustee for the water districts of Fortune Creek and Stepney.  SMITH, Mary Brooks, b. Kelowna about 1911; d. Victoria September 8, 1998. Predeceased by husband Edgar Philip (Kikie). Her father was the pioneer Kelowna druggist P. B.  Willits. Her mother was the former Ellen Carrier Bailey, daughter of Kelowna's first postmaster, E. R. Bailey.  SNOWSELL, Jack. b. Sedgewick, Alberta in 1911; d. Kelowna December 17, 1998. Survived by wife Reba; daughters Kaye Benzer, Judy Ohs, Val Moore, Sue Wolfe. He came with his  parents to Glenmore at an early age and resided there until his death.  SPENCE, Eugene Rae. b. Lumsden, Saskatchewan in 1915; d. Revelstoke October 27,  1998. Survived by wife Ruth; sons Gary, Howard, Colin, Stewart; daughter Anita. He began a  40-year career with Canada Post with the Railway Mail Service on the Kelowna-Sicamous run  and served as Salmon Arm postmaster from 1946 to 1972. Actively involved in the community, he joined the board of the Salmon Arm Community Association (Salmar Theatre) in 1953  and served as its president from 1954 to 1967. He was also a Salmon Arm alderman and village  commissioner.  201 LIVES REMEMBERED  STEWART, Albert John. b. Salmon Arm July 31, 1920; d. Salmon Arm July 7, 1998.  Survived by wife Gladys; sons Gordie, Gerry, Kevin, Trevor; daughters Charlene Hillson, Linda  Stenquist, Cathy Hosier. He was the son of pioneer parents, Maude (Kernaghan) and Albert  Stewart.  STEWART, Lynette (Dawe). b. Maidenhead, England August 27, 1918; d. Vernon February 16, 1999. Survived by husband Arthur; daughter Marjorie; son Arthur. Her father lived  through overseas insurgency in WWI and brought his family to Vernon on the first troopship to  return to Canada, settling in Vernon's BX district.  STIELL, William Metcalfe, b. Glasgow October 8, 1920; d. Deep River, Ontario March  25, 1999. Survived by wife Margaret; daughter Jennifer; son Ian. Will Stiell was three months  old when his father, David Gilmour Stiell, came to Kelowna to be a fruit rancher. A love of  nature fostered by the Okanagan woods led him to the University of B. C, where he began  studying forestry in 1939. His studies were interrupted for five years while he served with the  9th Canadian Armoured Regiment (B. C. Dragoons) during the Second World War. A foremost  expert on tree planting, his methods for tree spacing and thinning became protocol worldwide. After almost 50 years with the Canadian Forestry Service, he continued to work at the  Petawawa Research Forest under a Canadian Research Scientist Emeritus, one of only two  Canadian forest researchers so honoured. He was the author of more than 40 publications and  several books on plantation forestry and pine management.  STURGESS, Roy William, b. Clive, Alberta November 20, 1917; d. Saanich July 22,  1998. Survived by wife Ella; son Jim; daughter Bonnie White. He founded and operated Roy's  Grocery on South Main Street for 32 years. Life member of Oliver Volunteer Fire Department  and town alderman.  SWALES, Leonard Herbert, b. Penticton June 1, 1928; d. Penticton May 13, 1998. Survived by wife Rose; son David. Operated Kaleden garage business owned by family since 1937  after he left the B. C. Police force in 1952.  THOMSON, Hilda Rose. b. Wales December 6, 1903; d. Kelowna August 15, 1998. Survived by sons Neville, Alan. She and her late husband Leslie operated a jewelry store in Kelowna.  THORNLOE, Francis, b. Okanagan Mission November 5, 1913; d. Kelowna May 18,  1999. Survived by wife Mary; daughters Jean O'Brien, Anne Neid; son Robert. His family  moved to East Kelowna in 1929 and he spent 50 years there as a fruit grower. He was a key  member of both provincial and federal centennial committees, headed the project to build a  community skating rink and tennis court and served on the board of East Kelowna Community Hall Association. He helped build St. Mary's Anglican Church 1937-1938, acting as its  treasurer for 25 years. He was president of Growers Supply Ltd. from 1968 to 1978.  THORP, Esther, b. Esk, Saskatchewan February 3, 1917; d. Oliver April 18, 1998. Survived by husband Jack; sons Gordon, Richard, Brad, Greg; daughter Hillair. She moved to  Oliver in 1930, where she and her husband developed an orchard on Thorp Road and Oliver  Readi-Mix. While residents of Kelowna, they established Kelowna Brick and Block, OK Mobile  Villa; also Dolowhite Mines in Rock Creek.  TOMIYE, Thomas, b. Kelowna 1919; d. Kelowna October 19, 1998. Predeceased by  first wife Dorothy. Survived by wife April; daughters Diane Katz, Lori McLeod, Kellie Planedin,  Tracy Beckman; son Reg. He was one of the first three Japanese-Canadians to join Kelowna  Golf and Country Club in 1948, later serving as its president. When he was elected president of  Kelowna Rotary Club in 1958, he was the first person of Japanese descent to hold such an  office in Canada. A businessman (Kelowna Nurseries), he often acted as a cultural broker by  helping Japanese immigrants to become established in the Valley.  TOWNROW, Thomas, b. Saskatoon January 15, 1916; d. Oliver October 8, 1998. Predeceased by daughter Bonnie Mae in 1991. Survived by wife Sophie; son Tom; daughter Juanita  Hofley (deceased October 12, 1998). His parents moved to Vernon in the late 1920s and ran  the Vernon Lodge for some years. In 1947, the Tbwnrows moved to Osoyoos, where Tom built  and operated a tire shop. He later spent 30 years with Canada Customs, was the first customs  officer at the Nighthawk border crossing and was town building inspector. He was the first  chairman of Osoyoos Cherry Carnival and a 50-year member of the Gyro Club.  202 LIVES REMEMBERED  TUCKER, Wilfred, b. Wiltshire, England October 29, 1912; d. Kelowna March 1, 1999.  Predeceasedby wife Emily in 1980. Survived by daughters Maryanne Henschel, Diane Tucker,  Jo-Anne (Kaspar) Moser. An employee of Canadian Canners, he had the distinction of being  the Okanagan Valley's first label machine operator. After retiring at age 55, he and his wife  travelled extensively throughout Canada.  TUTT, Hilda, b. Lancashire, England October 10, 1898; d. Kelowna April 1, 1999. Predeceased by husband Fred. Survived by son Keith. She was the last surviving member of the  founding choir in Kelowna's First United Church and member of the Rebekah Lodge since  1935.  TUULARI (TULARI), Victor Sulo. b. Kualt, B.C. February 10, 1911; d. Salmon Arm May  13, 1998. Survived by wife Mavis; daughters Vickie Barron, Carol Scott, Margaret Reynolds,  Terri Blair; son John. He made his living in the Shuswap lumber industry with Blanc Brothers  and at the Adams Lake sawmill, having taken over the family farm at White Lake in 1948.  WATSON, Sybil Ethel (nee Denison). b. Vernon May 20, 1919; d. Vernon March 2,1999.  Survived by husband Frank; sons Jim, Allan; daughter Nancy Udy. A member of a pioneer  Creighton Valley family, she was active in many Lavington community groups.  WATT, Herbert Joseph "Jim." b. Enderby March 31, 1929; d. Enderby June 3, 1998. He  worked for 30 years for the City of Enderby, first on the works crew and later as city clerk,  retiring in 1979. He sat on the board of Enderby Hospital Society, the Parkview Place Society  and Enderby Credit Union. For his contribution to the community, he was named Enderby's  Citizen of the Year in 1985.  WHITE, Violet (nee Dillon), b. Kelowna March 15, 1903; d. Kelowna May 7, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Dunbar in 1953. Survived by son Terry.  WILMOT, Agnes Lillias (Nancy) (nee Stiell). b. Kelowna November 27,1913; d. Kelowna  May 19,1998. Predeceased by husband Doug. University-educated in Alberta and Ontario, she  was a member of the staff of Kelowna branch, Okanagan Union Library, when it opened in  1936. (See OHS Report No. 19).  WILSON, Gladys Ada. b. Winnipeg November 4, 1910; d. Parksville April 20, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Earl in 1975. Survived by sons Bud, Bryan, Terry; daughter Lois  Wanke.  WOODLEY, Olive Mildred Lumley. b. Rosthern, Saskatchewan February 5, 1916; d.  Coldstream June 16, 1998. Predeceased by husband Bob. Survived by daughters Kathleen,  Tish, Janet. Moving to Vernon in 1960, she became very active in the community as founding  member and later president of the Vernon Community Music School. She also served as president of the Social Planning Council, chair of the Okanagan Conference on International Affairs (1963-71) and chair of the Vernon Housing Association (1971-80). In 1985 she was named  Vernon's Good Citizen and in 1993 she was awarded Canada's Commemorative Medal for her  far-ranging contributions to her community and country.  ZANDEE, Johannes Adrian "John." b. Netherlands October 13, 1920; d. Oliver January 22, 1998. Survived by wife Mina; son Richard. John and Mina Zandee came to Oliver from  the Netherlands in 1952 and operated orchards in Osoyoos and the Testalinda area. He served  with the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District board as well as on the executive of the  B. C. Fruit Growers' Association and Oliver Co-operative Store.  203 MINUTES  74th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  of the OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Capri Hotel, Kelowna, May 2, 1999  President Denis Maclnnis called the meeting to order at 10:05 a.m.  with a request for a minute's silence in memory of those OHS members who  had died since the last annual meeting. Sixty-five members and guests present.  Secretary Helen Inglis read the NOTICE OF CALL, welcoming all to  the 1999 Annual General Meeting as declared May 3, 1998.  MOTION: Moved Lionel Dallas, seconded Alice Lundy that the agenda  be approved as distributed. Carried.  Minutes of the 73rd Annual General Meeting  MOTION: Moved Hume Powley, seconded Mary Ellison Bailey that  the minutes be adopted as printed on pages 194-200 of Okanagan Historical  Report No. 62. Carried.  BUSINESS ARISING from the minutes: None  CORRESPONDENCE to the Annual General Meeting: None.  FINANCIAL REPORT: Treasurer Elizabeth lassie presented the 1998-  99 Financial Report. MOTION: Moved Elizabeth Tassie, seconded Jack  Morrison that the Financial Report be accepted as presented. Carried.  COMMITTEE REPORTS  The Best of Okanagan History  Jean Webber, editor of A Rich and Fruitful Land, reported that the manuscript is with Harbour Publishing. Howard White advises that fall release is  preferable for serious publications. One of the closing details was a request  for photographs of notable early citizens mentioned in the text. Chair Dave  MacDonald reported that his committee dealt with distribution of the 1,200  copies the Society will purchase. The main points include: Enderby Museum  Society handling mail orders as it does with our annual reports; branches will  determine own arrangements with bookstores; since the branches must actively sell the book, terms of supply need to be established before fall; once a  price is established and supply policy set, a sales and promotion committee  will carry us into the next stage—selling 1,200 copies of A Rich and Fruitful  Land. Mr. MacDonald warned that we can expect competition from several  other books aimed at the historical market.  204 OHS BUSINESS  Finance  Gifford Thomson reported that only one meeting was held, the principal matter being directors' liability insurance. He requested a show of appreciation for Treasurer Libbie lassie's thorough management of the Society's  financial affairs.  Historian  Robert Marriage recommended that his replacement be computer-literate—making 74 years of the Society's own history more easily compiled.  He announced a donation of a collection of back issue Reports by Joe Neid of  Blind Bay; sales to benefit the Society. MOTION: Moved Robert Marriage,  seconded Joan Chamberlain that a letter expressing our thanks be sent to Mr.  Neid. Carried.  Talking Books  Jessie Ann Gamble [and Mollie Broderick] briefly reviewed the project,  its origins and goals; the Lions/Lionesses participation; Fred Broderick speaking to B. C. Historical Federation AGM at Merritt May 2. Report No. 60 completed; 62, 61 and 59 in production. Marketing and sales are proving to be a  challenge. The project is in jeopardy if sales do not improve.  Sales and Promotion  Lionel Dallas requested each Branch supply him with 1999-2000 executive lists for updating our website; he suggested that each Branch establish an Internet contact to enable quicker communication within the Society.  Writing Contest  Enabelle Gorek reported submissions from all but two branches. However, only one entry was received in the Grades 9-12 division. In every case  winners at the branch level received high praise from the adjudicator for the  quality of their essays. Ayla Fortin, a Grade 5 student from Peachland Elementary School, is this year's winner. Her topic was "Early Ferry Transportation on Okanagan Lake and the Floating Bridge." Ms. Gorek thanked co-chair  David Gregory and the individual branches for assisting in the organization  of the contest.  Fintry Park  Jack Morrison reported that the Okanagan Region of B. C. Parks has  undertaken a drive to raise $250,000 in public money to spend on Okanagan  parks. The campaign is being contracted to Lyn Berard of the Morning Star  Company of Kelowna. B. C. Parks proposes to spend the biggest portion of  money raised on Fintry Park, in particular the heritage buildings. Mr. Morrison  is the OHS representative on Ms. Berard's organization committee.  Unfinished Business - None  205 OHS BUSINESS  New Business  MOTION: Moved Carol Abernathy Mellows, seconded Betty Holtskog  that back issues of Reports owned by the Parent Body that are available for  sale [such as the recent Neid donation] be offered to branches on a highest-  bidder basis. Carried.  Lionel Dallas described the well-attended memorial service for Carleton  MacNaughton as a "pleasant" experience. He announced that the family had  suggested donations be made to the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of the OHS, and  to date approximately $2,000 has been received.  Mollie Broderick suggested that in future when we observe a moment's  silence for those members who have died since the previous AGM there be a  list of names collected from all branches to be printed on the agenda, or read  aloud. There was general consensus to this proposal.  Appointment of Auditor  MOTION: Moved Gifford Thomson, seconded Basil Collett that Leonard  Miller be appointed as auditor. Carried.  COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTION: Moved Robert Marriage, seconded  Jack Morrison that the Complimentary Resolution follow the usual format.  Carried.  2000 Annual General Meeting: Carol Abernathy Mellows of the Vernon  Branch announced that the 75th Annual General Meeting of the Okanagan  Historical Society will be held May 7, 2000, at O'Keefe Historic Ranch. [Ms.  Abernathy invited suggestions and assistance, since this marks a very special  year in the Society's history].  MOTION TO ADJOURN: Alice Lundy.  Eighty-five OHS members and guests enjoyed a buffet luncheon prepared by the Capri Hotel staff. Host branch president Hugh McLarty introduced the head table and called upon Enabelle Gorek, chair of the student  essay committee, to present the 1999 winner, Ayla Fortin, with her certificate  and a cheque for $150.  Outgoing president Denis Maclnnis presented Life Memberships to  Denis Marshall [Salmon Arm] and to Joan and Victor Casorso [Oliver-Osoyoos].  Duane Thomson, OUC History Faculty, Kelowna campus, was guest  speaker. As befitting the coincident approach of our 75th anniversary and a  new millennium, Dr. Thomson, assisted by his wife, Carol, ably illustrated  how the OHS got "on-line," the Living Landscapes project today and tomorrow, and what this means for the Society in the future.  President's Report  It is indeed a pleasure to welcome you today at our Annual General  Meeting.  206 OHS BUSINESS  I am pleased to report that the Best of the OHS is in the printer's hands  and should be on the market this fall. A great deal of credit is due our editor  Jean Webber and committee for the hard work and dedication in seeing to the  completion of the task.  I am also pleased to report that directors' and officers' liability insurance is now in place. This covers the parent body and all seven branches.  More thanks to the effort of Jessie Ann Gamble and her committee for  their foresight and hard work in launching the Talking Books project. It seems  to be off to a great start.  The Father Pandosy Committee is an integral part of our Society and is  managed well by our chairman Basil Collett and his committee. We are pleased  the parent body has again been able to help the committee to reach the 50  percent funding required to apply for matching funds from Heritage Trust for  necessary construction on the Mission site.  We have put in place a new committee, chaired by Peter Tassie, to look  into the future of the OHS as we move into the new millennium. Work shops  and study groups no doubt will be the order of the day, enabling us to better  understand how we fit in the ever-changing world of historical book publishing and the restoration of historical sites. This is what we are all about and we  must stay the course.  I have come to the end of my term as president of this venerable society and I am pleased to pass the gavel to the incoming president with a clean  slate and a strong society.  - DENIS MacINNIS  Secretary's Report  Minutes of 1998-1999 Executive Council meetings were taken and distributed. I wish to thank Bob Marriage for performing that duty in my absence from the October meeting. Each committee handled most of its own  correspondence, leaving me with filing reports, composing press releases,  writing letters of appreciation and, regrettably, sending notes of condolence.  With the addition of FAX, websites, e-mail, etc., keeping track of incoming  correspondence is more complicated.  - HELEN INGLIS  Editor's Report  It hardly seems possible that this accounting deals with my fourth year  as your editor. Preparations for the 63rd edition have been particularly satisfying, thanks in large part to Penticton's branch editor Betty Bork, who made  it a point to put the south end of the OHS back in the picture by "collecting a  lot of stories ... instead of letting writers get away with the 'next-year' thing."  I might add she included herself in that determined action; all branches might  consider following that lead! My appreciation and admiration continue to  grow for all those who accept the responsibility of collecting articles for the  Report and unfailingly carry out every request from the editor. Bob Broadland,  207 OHS BUSINESS  who spent 20 years in the Parks and Heritage Conservation Branch, recognizes the OHS as the premier historical organization in the province, and this  assessment is certainly borne out by our efforts.  The cost of printing the Report continues to be a bright spot. Hucul  Printing has more or less held the line for four years, while improving and  adding technology that enables it to complete the whole production process  "in-house." By assuming all the type-setting, including the membership list,  your editor has also effected savings. It is fortunate to be able to work with an  obliging printer in one's own town.  And now we turn to our 75th anniversary and the year 2000. Notwithstanding the longevity of the OHS, the beginning of a new millennium might  well be an occasion to reinvent ourselves and to remind the public what we  do so effectively. What better way than an expanded, specially-prepared 64th  Report? Since this will be my last edition, I welcome the assistance and input  from my successor, with the suggestion that branch editors meet in conjunction with the July and October executive meetings to plan the 2000 issue. The  proposal that we "theme" No. 64 by concentrating on people and events in  our communities during 1925 has generally met with favour and I urge you  all to start tomorrow on this great project.  BRANCH ACTIVITIES REVIEWED  KELOWNA—In May of last year we began to make plans for today, and  it is a real pleasure to see so many out for this meeting and lunch.  In 1998 we hosted two bus tours: the first in April to Douglas Lake  country, with the second tour in September to the South Okanagan-  Similkameen country. Both of these tours were fully booked and had waiting  lists. At this time, because of insurance costs, further bus tours are on hold.  We hope this problem can be resolved so we can continue with this very  popular activity.  A number of members attended the 40th anniversary of the restoration of Father Pandosy Mission in June. It was a breezy day but worth the  effort. As well as guests from the Catholic Diocese, some of the students of  Immaculata School presented a re-enactment of the early days at the Mission. More work is needed to ensure that this historical site is preserved.  Kelowna Branch has committed funds to support this project.  Our Fall Lecture Series saw a drop in attendance this past year. We  have decided to suspend this programme for a year and reassess the need.  Our branch supported the efforts of the Okanagan Military Museum  Society and were gratified to hear that quarters have been granted the project  for 10 years in the upper floor of the Memorial Arena.  Our quarterly newsletter is well received by our members. Jack Ritch  has retired from the position of newsletter editor after many years, but two  other members, Kay Benzer and Rhoda Weisgarber, willingly came forward to  take this responsibility.  208 OHS BUSINESS  This past year we also purchased a display board to publicize our Society at various functions throughout the area.  Three hundred members of our branch attended the annual meeting  this March. This is an excellent event including dinner and a guest speaker,  and a highlight of our year. Tradition dictates that those born in Kelowna, and  then those who have lived in Kelowna over 40 years are asked to stand. It is  surprising to see over half of the group stand when called upon. This year our  speaker was Randy Manuel, who showed slides and spoke about the early  boat transportation and the beginnings of the Kettle Valley railroad.  Discussion at several of our board meetings this year have been about  our aging executive. We need to encourage younger people to be actively  involved in our Society. New ideas and new directions to serve our members  will ensure the continuance of our Society.  - HUGH McLARTY, president.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY-At our November 6th general meeting it was  decided to give the Enderby and Armstrong museums $500 each to go to  archival work. The sale of Reports at Askew's supermarket was also planned.  We also discussed marking the Lansdowne townsite.  After the business meeting three speakers gave a very interesting history and account of the Armstrong Co-op.  Report sales went well this year, with some 250 copies being sold.  At our February 2 executive meeting it was decided to give the Enderby  and Armstrong libraries and three seniors' homes in our area copies of our  first Talking Book.  Our annual general meeting was held April 17 at the Enderby seniors'  complex. A great potluck supper was served before the meeting. Guest speaker  was "Moose" Donald McPherson, who gave a well-received talk on the history  of his family.  The branch put a table in the Enderby Community Pavilion at Trade  Fair on May 1. We sold a few books and had many people view our display.  - ROBERT DALE, president  PENTICTON—The City of Penticton moved towards developing a Heritage Conservation Strategy by calling a meeting on September 18, 1998. Ms.  Sue Morhun, a facilitator co-sponsored by B. C. Heritage Trust and the City,  attended and workshops were held the following day.  The Penticton Branch fall meeting was held October 29. Dave Gamble  of Summerland spoke on the history of wine making in the Okanagan. He is  a former newspaperman who publishes a magazine serving the wine industry.  Our annual fall book sale was held in the Cherry Lane Shopping Centre on November 6th and 7th.  209 OHS BUSINESS  A new event in Penticton entitled OLE—Okanagan Literary Expo-  was held on the Penticton campus of Okanagan University College on the  weekend of November 21-22. This book fair featured local authors and publishers and workshops were also held. Our branch attended and shared a  table with the Penticton Museum.  The branch winter meeting was held February 25. The speaker for the  evening was Dick Cannings of Naramata. He based his talk and showed slides  on B. C. Natural History. Mrs. Molly Broderick gave a demonstration of a  talking book. Randy Manuel presented a plan for a new gate for the Fairview  Cemetery. We expect that the city parks department will install the new gate  shortly.  The Penticton City Heritage Advisory Committee has been appointed  and has started work on an inventory of heritage sites. John Ortiz is the branch  representative on the committee.  Our branch spring meeting was held April 29. The guest speaker was  Chris Weicht, author of Jericho Beach and the West Coast Flying Boat Stations,  who presented a slide show based on his book. Branch executive meetings  were held September 22, February 2 and April 6.  - T. C. HAMMELL, president  OLIVER-OSOYOOS-The Oliver-Osoyoos Branch held three executive  meetings and two general meetings over the past year. I have enjoyed my  term as president, and thank all those who were so supportive and helpful.  Our branch has initiated two new projects: To preserve a significant  portion of the old irrigation canal, commonly referred to as the "Ditch," seen  by the Town of Osoyoos as an alternative landfill site. A committee from our  branch met with members of the Osoyoos Town Council May 10 in an attempt to protect a large portion of this historic structure. Osoyoos Business  and Community Development co-ordinators are developing a trail alongside  the Ditch, support us, and were present at the meeting.  The other project is to create an inventory of historic buildings and  sites of the Osoyoos area. We are open to any ideas for planning and funding  this project.  Our branch has donated 17 copies of Okanagan Historical Reports to  Oliver Secondary School, and 15 copies have been set aside for the En'Owkin  Centre in Penticton..  At our semi-annual meeting in Osoyoos November 8, 1998, Marlin  Clapson, Project Manager for the new Desert Interpretive Centre in Osoyoos,  explained their plans to develop this facility, one that will edify the unique  natural history of this area, the northern extension of the Great Sonoran Desert.  Alex and Dolly Gough received the 1998 Pioneer Award for Oliver,  while the Pendergraft family received the 1999 Pioneer Award in Osoyoos.  The repairs to the Fairview kiosk remain to be done, and Richard  Kendrick will begin to plant indigenous flora in the kiosk area this spring.  210 OHS BUSINESS  The Branch has received $2005 in memory of the late and long-time  OHS member Carleton MacNaughton. The funds are earmarked to refurbish  his original kiosk at the Fairview site as a tribute to his memory.  Our annual general meeting was held on March 7, 1999 at the Oliver  United Church. Grant Bott, acting president of the Oliver Heritage Society,  spoke to us on "The Importance of Heritage."  I look forward to working on some of these projects in the coming  year, and congratulate Vic and Joan Casorso, our new Life Members.  - GAYLE CORNISH, president  SALMON ARM—The year 1998 marked the publication of Fleeting Images of Old Salmon Arm, our most ambitious project to date. So far about 1,250  copies have been sold out of a total run of 2,000, meaning our finances are  once again in a healthy position. Another noteworthy achievement for the  Salmon Arm Branch was originating and co-sponsoring a retrospective exhibition in the art gallery of the works of photographer Donovan Clemson. It  was one of the most well-attended events ever staged in our local arts centre.  Our annual general meeting and potluck supper took place April 18.  Honored pioneers were Neil and Naomi Campbell and family, who figured  prominently in the community of Silver Creek. Guest speaker Robin Huth  took his audience back to pre-World War I days in Salmon Arm when his  father, Merlin, tried his hand at fruit ranching. Merlin Huth later settled in  Manitoba after serving with the Imperial Camel Corps in the Mideast. Our  Christmas party at the art gallery drew a good turnout to hear guest speaker  Les Ellenor recount the History of Christmas.  After launching Fleeting Images in July at Salmon Arm Savings and  Credit Union, which underwrote part of the project, we held book sales at the  Fall Fair and later at three shopping malls to market Okanagan History. Sales  of the Report were down from the previous year, but we hope to rectify that in  1999.  Members of Salmon Arm Branch approved the purchase of two seats  in the new civic arena at a cost of $400, and a four-drawer filing cabinet for  storing research papers and photographs.  Our main effort for the coming year will be photographing and cataloguing vintage houses in the Salmon Arm area. Under the guidance of Florence Farmer, a professional photographer has volunteered his services to record  the designated subjects.  - JOAN IDINGTON, president  VERNON—In reflecting on the activities of the Vernon Branch during  this past year, I have mixed emotions of pride and concern. The Vernon Branch  has had five very successful meetings this year. Two meetings featured very  interesting guest speakers. Two others were writing workshops, focused on  helping our members get started in writing local history. A week ago, we had  211 OHS BUSINESS  a very successful AGM at the O'Keefe Ranch, featuring stagecoach rides, historical treasure hunts and an address by Jessie Ann Gamble on the centennial of the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  Both our local street names book, Pioneer Routes, and the parent body's  Okanagan History have sold well. As a result, we are not financially embarrassed, but have a small surplus on hand. Our small executive has worked  well together. All of these things are a source of pride.  At the same time, this year has seen a further thinning of our ranks, as  more of our members passed on. We have yet to see an influx of younger  members to fill the vacancies left by them. There are fewer people available  to fill the executive positions, leaving several significant gaps. I am finding it  difficult to give the Vernon Branch the time it deserves, yet there is no one to  whom I can hand the responsibility. We have had a number of excellent suggestions as to how to better market our organization, yet even these require a  greater effort from us. Next year, the OHS will reach its 75th birthday. What  shape will it be in at 100?  I understand that these concerns are not unique to the Vernon Branch,  but hear them echoed by other branch presidents and at the parent body  executive table. The incoming president, Peter Tassie, has proposed that we  hold a "think tank" day to seriously consider the future direction for this organization. I urge him to do just that and strongly encourage as many members as possible to attend after having given serious thought to these matters  over the summer.  - CAROL ABERNATHY, president  Best of OHS Committee  The Best of OHS Committee was asked to continue during the past  year to deal with several matters. The editorial and publishing aspects of the  project have been handled by Jean Webber and Harbour Publishing while the  committee mainly dealt with matters of distribution of the 1,200 copies which  the Society has agreed to purchase. Some of the points we discussed are:  1) The Enderby Museum Society has agreed to handle the mail order  distribution of these books in a similar manner as they distribute our Reports.  2) We can distribute our copies through book stores with whom we  currently deal. Branches will have to decide if they and the local book store  wish to do this. This should be decided this summer.  3) Branches must be actively involved in selling the book. So we need  to establish the terms on which books are supplied to the branches. There are  a variety of opinions on what these terms should be.  4) Once a firm price is established for the book and points two and  three above are settled, then a sales and promotion committee can carry us  into the next stage. A lot of sales and promotion can be done at the branch  level, but some things might be more effectively done at the parent body  level. Example: We might establish a gift order program with the branches  and Parent Body soliciting the orders and the Enderby Museum doing the  mailing.  212 OHS BUSINESS  We encourage every member to get behind this project and really make  it a success.  - DAVE MacDONALD  Historic Trails  At the last directors' meeting I suggested that we examine heritage  protection through our Heritage Conservation Act.  Section six titles: Heritage Protection subsection 2(d) provides provincial protection to sites that are older than 1846. Sites that are newer then 1846  require municipal or regional district support.  The earliest settlement in the Okanagan Valley (non-native) was St.  Joseph's Station, settled in the summer of 1846.  Therefore, the only sites that would be affected by this section of the  Act would be the Brigade Trail and its encampments.  The most well defined encampment site in the Okanagan Valley is  Priest Camp. I presented this information to Patrick Frey, director of the provincial heritage program. In his opinion "hard evidence must exist" in order  that this Act applies (i. e. archeological evidence).  In an effort to begin to preserve portions of the Brigade Trail, archeological evidence is needed.  MOTION: The Okanagan Historical Society requests that the provincial government provide funds to permit an archeological assessment of Priest  Camp and, if necessary, Nahun.  - DAVID GREGORY  (Motion subsequently passed by annual general meeting).  Father Pandosy Mission  In this my second report I am pleased to state that events at the Mission are looking bright, in fact very bright, God willing.  In June 1998 we celebrated the 40th anniversary of the restoration of  the Mission, the aim of which was to recognize the work and dedication of  volunteers over the 40 years and to bring to the attention of all levels of government the desperate need of financial support.  Following this, in co-operation with Steven Thorne (City of Kelowna),  a heritage restoration project was developed for submission by this body (OHS)  to the B. C. Heritage Trust. The objectives of this project are: 1) Fire protection: Install a fire alarm system in all buildings. 2) Security: Install a new  period-appropriate split rail cedar fence. 3) Barn stabilization: Raise the barn,  permitting the installation of a concrete footing. 4) Restoration of both  McDougall and Christien houses. 5) Archeological assessment.  The estimated cost is $76,000, of which we must raise 50 percent. To  date we have $34,000 (regional district and city $10,000 each, Kelowna Rotary  Club $5,000, Father Pandosy Committee $4,000, OHS $4,000, Kelowna Branch  213 OHS BUSINESS  OHS $1,000). We need $4,000 more. I ask you, in particular the Kelowna  Branch, to help close the gap. We must do it now and when successful in our  application it will be the first major restoration since 1958.  For this summer, with the great help of the federal government's summer career placement program and the Okanagan University College, we  expect to have four students employed as guides as well as loading on the  Internet all documents from the Father Pandosy Mission early history.  With a great deal of work by volunteers, in particular Henry Johnson,  the Mission is in good shape. Those of you who have visited the Mission will  be glad to hear that with a generous donation from the Oblate Provincial in  Vancouver the mannequin of Father Pandosy has been replaced with a new  model standing six feet tall, correctly dressed as an Oblate. Further improvements will be made to the mannequin this year by Maureen Lyle of OUC.  As a fund raiser, an antique truck, tractor and car show will be held at  the Mission May 29 and 30. If successful it will become an annual event.  - BASIL COLLETT  Fintry Park  The Okanagan Region of B. C. Parks has undertaken to raise $250,000  of public money to be spent on Okanagan parks. The campaign is being operated by a company called Morning Star whose office is in Kelowna.  The largest portion of money raised will be spent on Fintry, in particular the heritage barn, manor house and a wharf.  The kick off for the campaign will be a picnic to be held at Fintry  June 6. Tours of the heritage site will be available. Shorts Creek will be in  full flow and canyon and falls should be beautiful. A carnival atmosphere is  planned.  - JACK MORRISON  AUDITOR'S REPORT  To the members of the Okanagan Historical Society  Attached are the Financial Statements of the Society for the year  ending December 31, 1998. These statements include the General  Account, the Savings Account, the Bagnall Trust Account, and the  Father Pandosy Mission Committee Account.  This audit procedure covered the examination of the following: All  pertinent banking records and statements, receipts and disbursement vouchers, the synoptic journals and the written statements  as presented by the Society's financial officers.  214 OHS BUSINESS  These records have been verified as a true and correct accounting  of the affairs of the Society for the year 1998 as received from Mrs.  Elizabeth Tassie and Mr. Gordon Thomas.  The Reconciliation Statement includes the amounts owed to the  Society at the close of the business year and is represented by the  Accounts Receivable.  Leonard G. Miller, accountant  April 17, 1999  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  For the Year Ending December 31, 1998  RECEIPTS  Membership & Sales  2,956.00  Kelowna  3,605.00  Oliver-Osoyoos  540.00  Penticton  1,440.00  Salmon Arm  1,560.00  Vernon  3,801.50  Treasurer's Report Sales  2,318.38  16,220.88  Other Revenue  Postage & Handling  384.97  U. S. Exchange  150.73  Liability Insurance  405.00  Essay Contest  400.00  Audio Tapes  80.00  Donations  4,245.00  G.S.T. Rebate  388.91  B. C. Historical Society  700.00  * Interest  1,526.65  Miscellaneous  31.00  G. I. C. Transfer  3,000.00  11,312.26  Total Receipts  $27,533.14  215 OHS BUSINESS  *The Society has $10,000 on deposit with the Central Okanagan Foundation, with the interest going to the OHS. In 1998 this interest amounted to  $730.00 and is included in this statement.  DISBURSEMENTS  President's Expense  165.25  Secretary's Expense  269.09  Treasurer's Honorarium and Expense  420.41  Auditor's Fee  355.00  Reimbursements:  Kelowna  110.00  Oliver-Osoyoos  740.00  Salmon Arm  1,100.00  Vernon  3,000.00  4,950.00  Directors' Liability Insurance  775.00  Trip Insurance  1,200.00  Okanagan Similkameen Park Society  20.00  B.C. Historical Federation  62.00  Executive Meeting Expense  90.00  Registrar of Companies  25.00  Report:  Editor's Honorarium  4,000.00  Printing Expense  11,542.46  Distribution  609.36  16,151.82  Essay Contest  400.00  Audio Tapes  827.26  Living Landscapes Web Site  1,200.00  Best of OHS:  Publishing  5,000.00  Special Editor Expense  1,181.41  Honorarium  3,000.00  9,181.41  Miscellaneous Expense  684.07  Total Disbursements  36,776.31  Less Total Receipts  27,533.14  Excess of Disbursements over Recef]  3tS  $9,243.17  216 OHS BUSINESS  62ND REPORT  page 157   Line 13—Should read June 16, 1950  61 ST REPORT  page 27     Ella Baird listed as being on left side, rear, of photograph accidentally deleted.   Girl left rear remains unidentified.  page 30     Ken Stowards should read Dick Stowards  page 33     Stanley Davison should read Michael Davison  page 106   Line 24—should read creek flowing north  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1999  LIFE MEMBERS  Broderick, Mollie, Okanagan Falls  Casorso, Joan, Oliver  Casorso, Victor, Oliver  Cochrane, Hilda, Vernon  Cowan, Robert, Enderby  de Pfyffer, Robert, Vernon  Ellison, Kenneth V, Oyama  Gamble, Jessie Ann, Armstrong  Hatfield, Harley R., Penticton  Iceton, Ermie, Oliver  Lewis, Dorothea, Osoyoos  McCormick, Lucy, Vernon  MacDonald, David, Penticton  Marriage, Robert, Kelowna  Marshall, Denis, Salmon Arm  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, Vernon  Tassie, Elizabeth, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, Vernon  Thomson, Gifford, Kelowna  Wamboldt, Beryl, Vernon  Webber, Bernard, Victoria  Webber, Jean, Victoria  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong  Zoellner, Dorothy, Kelowna  MEMBERS  Abernathy, Carol, Vernon  Abel, Don, Westbank  Adam, Charles, Kelowna  Agar, Maryanne, Vernon  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver  Allan, Olive, Kelowna  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley  Allen, Jessie A., Kaleden  Allen, Marian, White Rock  Ambil, Diane, Salmon Arm  Anderson Dr. C.B., Westbank  Anderson, Eric & Irene, Salmon Arm  Andrews, C E, Burnaby  Appel, Hilary, Kelowna  Arens, Janet, Vernon  Armstrong, Ray, Sydney, Australia  Andringa, Jantje, Enderby  Argue, Lois, Osoyoos  Armstrong, Julia & Dick, Enderby  Arnold, Gilbert, Winfield  Arsenault, Laura, Salmon Arm  Arsenault, Theresa, Westbank  Arychuk, Daryl, Salmon Arm  Ashton, Wayne & Janet, Armstrong  Askew, David, Vancouver  217 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Askew, Dorothy, Salmon Arm  Atkins, Fay & David, Vernon  Atkinson, Betty, Armstrong  Atkinson, Louise, Summerland  Attlesey, Thursa, Enderby  Ayotte, Dr. Brian, Salmon Arm  Bailey, W. J., Vernon  Bailey, Mary Ellison, Armstrong  Baird, Rosa, Enderby  Bark, Elizabeth, Kaleden  Barkwill, H. J., Summerland  Barman, Dr. Jean, Vancouver  Barney, Marylin & John, Penticton  Bartman, Ralph & Tina, Salmon Arm  Basham, Betty & David, Creston  Baumbrough, Shelley, Armstrong  Beames, T B., Ladysmith  Beaton, Peggy, Cache Creek  Beck, Doreen, Armstrong  Beckett, Ray, Victoria  Bedwell, Sid & Marg, Salmon Arm  Beenen, L. & D., Armstrong  Behncke, J., Armstrong  Bell, John, Kelowna  Bennett, Alf & Beth, Armstrong  Bennett, Dorothy, Salmon Arm  Bennett, Edna, Armstrong  Bennett, Paul & Brenda, Salmon Arm  Benzer, Kaye, Kelowna  Bird, Geoffrey, Vancouver  Blackburn, Mary, Williams Lake  Blair, Bruce & Rosemary, Salmon Arm  Blower, Alan, Kelowna  Bolton, Bruce & Eleanore, Enderby  Booth, Marg, Salmon Arm  Borden, A. & S., Armstrong  Bork, Elizabeth, Kaleden  Bos, Ruth, Enderby  Bosomworth, Ruth & Neil, Armstrong  Boss, Rawleigh & Lydia, Armstrong  Bott, Grant &" Maureen, Oliver  Braun, Sandra, Kelowna  Braund, Marg, Westbank  Brennan, John, Enderby  Brennan, Terence, Montreal  Brent, Frederick, Burnaby  Brett, Phyllis, Armstrong  Briscall, Miss C M., Vancouver  Broderick, Fred G., Kelowna  Brodland, Dorothy, Enderby  Bromley, Theodore, Enderby  Brooke, Gary, Salmon Arm  Brown, Lil, Armstrong  Brown, S. & L., Spallumcheen  Bulach, Eleanor, Kelowna  Bullock, J., Kelowna  Bullock, Peg, Penticton  Burns, Donna, Prince George  Burns, R. E., Armstrong  Burtch, A. H., Winfield  Buyer, Robin, Armstrong  Byers, Ted, Salmon Arm  Caley, Hugh & Ruth, Vernon  Caley, Margaret, Kelowna  Caley, Michael & Pat, Osoyoos  Caley, Robert & Penny, Kelowna  Cameron, W. J. V, Kelowna  Campbell, Don & Patsy, Armstrong  Campbell, Jas. & Nellie, Kelowna  Campbell, Shirley & Kevin, Spallumcheen  Cannings, Steve, Penticton  Carbert, Gordon, Penoka  Carbert, M., Enderby  Carew, P. H. C, Kelowna  Carson, Elaine, Enderby  Carter, Lorna, Armstrong  Casorso, Victor & Joan, Oliver  Catchpole, Diana M., Delta  Chamberlain, Joan, Kelowna  Chamberlain, Trevor, Guelph, Ont.  Chapman, Eric W, Kelowna  Chapman, E. Ian, Kelowna  Chapman, K. D., Armstrong  Charles, Walter, Summerland  Charman, Barbara, Kelowna  Child, Marg, Salmon Arm  Christensen, D. B., Vernon  Christensen, K. L., Vernon  Christensen, R. G., Fanny Bay  Christien, Melanie, Vernon  Clarke, Ken, Kelowna  Claughton, Dale, Kamloops  Claughton, K. C, Bruderheim, Alberta  Cleaver, Wm. H., Kelowna  Clemson, Doris, Sorrento  Clemson, Jan, White Rock  Clemson, Max & Veronica, Armstrong  Cochrane, Patrick, Vernon  Coe, Ernest & Rita, Kelowna  Coell, David & Norma, Victoria  Coldwell, John, Prince Rupert  Collett, Brenda & Basil, Kelowna  Constable, Mrs. Y. M., Kelowna  Cooper, Innes & Vivien, Armstrong  Corner, John, Vernon  Cossentine, H. John, Penticton  Couves, C. S., Kelowna  Cowan, Joan, Enderby  Cox, Doug, Penticton  Craig, Kathy, Lumby  Cran, Sheila & Bob, Salmon Arm  Crane, Percy, Vernon  218 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Cretin, Bill & Isobel, Kelowna  Cretin, Harry W, Kelowna  Crosby, Mrs. Beryl C, Parksville  Cruickshank, Forbes & Beth, Kelowna  Culling, Genevieve, Calgary  Cummings, EL & L., Armstrong  Currie, Jenny, Armstrong  Currie, Kay, Salmon Arm  Currie, Ron, Mission  Dale, Rob & Marion, Enderby  Dallas, Lionel & Judy, Osoyoos  Delcourt, Diana, Kelowna  Delcourt, Glenn, Kelowna  deMontreuil, John & Gay, Kelowna  Denison, Eric & Betty, Vernon  Denison, Janet, Vernon  Dennis, Bill, Williams Lake  dePfyffer, Charles, Kelowna  Derkaz, Cindy, Salmon Arm  Deuling, Leslie, Lumby  Dewdney, Jim & Connie, Penticton  Dickson, Stanley, Oliver  Doeksen, Rijn Sr Bessie, Kelowna  Dohler, Miss Anna, Toronto  Donnelly, John, Vernon  Dornian, Mike, Kelowna  Douillard, Leo, Kelowna  Draper, Arnold, Kelowna  Drennan, Ruth, Armstrong  Dryer, Amy N., Sicamous  Dunkley, Melvin & Nicolette, Kamloops  Duyvewaardt, Mr. & Mrs. E. E., Kelowna  Ehlers, Hugh & Shirley, Sorrento  Eichinger, Paul, Armstrong  Ellenor, Les & Joan, Salmon Arm  Ellington, Jean, Enderby  Emerson, Marybelle, Kelowna  Englesby, Ralph & Mary, Osoyoos  English, Rick & Maureen, Kelowna  Enns, Dr. D., Kelowna  Farmer, Florence, Salmon Arm  Farmer, Pat & Joy, Enderby  Favali, Marg & Mike, Kelowna  Ferguson, Ann, Vernon  Findlay, Raymond & Win, Kaleden  Fisher, Donald V., Summerland  Fisher, R. R., Kelowna  Flatekval, Laura, Kamloops  Flatekval, Vern, Armstrong  Fleming, John & Mary, Vernon  Flexhaug, Andrea, Osoyoos  Foley, Mrs. Ruby, Vernon  Forbes, Ken & Norma, Oliver  Forster, Beryl, Summerland  Franck, Ian C, New Westminster  Frederick, Mildred, Enderby  Freeze, Russell & Jessie, Armstrong  Fridge, Mrs. D., Oliver  Friebe, Uli, Enderby  Froehlich, S., Summerland  Frolke, Charlotte, Salmon Arm  Frost, Wayne, Armstrong  Fulkco, Tom & Myrna, Nakusp  Gaddes, Mrs. Joyce, Victoria  Galloway, Margaret, Dugald, Manitoba  Gamble, Bruce, Appleton, Wisconsin  Gamble, Jennifer, Montreal  Gamble, Len, Armstrong  Gates, Sandra, Armstrong  Gerlib, Russ, Enderby  Gerlib, Shirley, Enderby  Gillard, D. A., Ottawa  Gilmour, Mr. & Mrs. W. A., Summerland  Glaicar, J. & C, Armstrong  Glanville, Jas. &'ñ† Alice, Grand Forks  Golley, Gordon, Armstrong  Gooch, Laura, Salmon Arm  Goodfellow, Ruth, Princeton  Gordon, Jim, Abbotsford  Gore, Robert, Kelowna  Gourlie, Michael, Edmonton  Graham, Beatrice, Chase  Graham, Glenn & Vie, Penticton  Gram, Gordon D., New Westminster  Gray, Tom & Olive, Enderby  Greenwood, M. C, Armstrong  Gregory, David, Summerland  Grieve, Elizabeth, Winnipeg  Grieve, Dr. Kim, Salmon Arm  Grimshire, S. & B., Armstrong  Griswold, Harry & June, Enderby  Guttridge, Bill, Peachland  Hack, Myrna, Salmon Arm  Hagardt, Elinor, Enderby  Hall, Barbara, Salmon Arm  Hall, Dennis R., Osoyoos  Hall, Donald, Kelowna  Hall, Mabel V, Kelowna  Hall, R. H., Kelowna  Hallam, Rose, Armstrong  Hamanishi, Vivian, Kelowna  Hammell, T C, Penticton  Hanet, Alf & Sally, Kelowna  Hanna, Dilys, Salmon Arm  Hanna, Tom & Gail, Armstrong  Hardy, Monica, Kelowna  Harkness, Percy, Salmon Arm  Harper, Reba, Salmon Arm  Harrington, Mary, Salmon Arm  219 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Harris, Elizabeth M., Lumby  Harrison, David, Armstrong  Hassen, Rose & Mat, Armstrong  Hatch, Myrna, Salmon Arm  Hatfield, Harley R., Vancouver  Hawrys, L. & D., Grindrod  Hawrys, Nora & George, Grindrod  Hay, Mrs. A., Armstrong  Hayes, Jas. H. & Wilma, Kelowna  Hayes, Robert M., Kelowna  Headey, Cyril &'ñ† Eva, Oliver  Henderson, Harold, Kelowna  Henderson, Dr. John, Salmon Arm  Heslop, Margaret, Kamloops  Hickman, Cheryle, St. Lazare, Quebec  Higgins, Lois, Salmon Arm  Hitt, Ruby, Armstrong  Hobkirk, Erin & Bruce, Armstrong  Hobson, Marjorie W, Kelowna  Hoefer, Rolph, Armstrong  Holloway, Jim, Salmon Arm  Hope, Marion E, Armstrong  Horn, James T. E, Kelowna  Hornby, Del & Eric, Armstrong  Horth, Fern, Kelowna  Hucul, Nancy, Salmon Arm  Huggins, Allan & Bev, Burnaby  Humphries, Reg, Salmon Arm  Humphrey, Agnes, Vernon  Hunter, Elsie, Surrey  Hurst, Theresia, Vernon  Hyam, Lewis, Sicamous  Idington, Joan, Salmon Arm  Imredy, Doreen, Vancouver  Ingles, Mrs. M. E., Kelowna  Helen Inglis, Vernon  Inglis, M., Armstrong  Ingraham, Janet, Vernon  Inselberg, Diana, Enderby  Irving, J. &" J., Armstrong  Jackson, H. W., Vancouver  Jackson, Sheilagh, Winfield  Jahraus, K. & G., Armstrong  Jamieson, Ken & Pam, Salmon Arm  Jamieson, Jean, Salmon Arm  Jean, Feme, Kelowna  Johnson, Dr. G. A., Kelowna  Johnson, Robert S., Armstrong  Johnson, Stan, Salmon Arm  Johnston, Hugh W, Summerland  Jones, Kathy, Victoria  Joyce, W. Russ, Kelowna  Karran, D. & M., Armstrong  Karras, C, Enderby  Kasnik, Barbara, Vernon  Katzuk, M. & M., Armstrong  Keith, B. & B., Armstrong  Kelly, Carol, Salmon Arm  Kendall, Arvid & Judy, Salmon Arm  Kernaghan, Bill & Peg, Salmon Arm  Kernaghan, Ralph & Marilyn  Keswick, Janet & Jack, Osoyoos  Kettles, Faye & Andy, Vernon  King, Daphne E., Penticton  King, Rosemary, Kelowna  Kinloch, Col. D. F. B., Vernon  Knowles, C. W. (Bill), Kelowna  Kurta, Nancy, RR1, Tappen  Kyllo, Myrtle & Martin, Salmon Arm  Laine, Ellen F, Enderby  Landon, Richard, Toronto  Latrance, Ethel, Armstrong  Latten, Gisela, Armstrong  Lawrence, Mrs. George, Keremeos  Laws, Frances, Salmon Arm  LeDuc, Mrs. B. E., Kamloops  Lefler, Dorothy, Armstrong  Legg, Pauline, Vernon  Leitch, Dr. M. J. R., Kelowna  Lesosky, Kirstin, Westbank  Lidstone, Doris, Salmon Arm  Lindsay, Sandra, Armstrong  Lloyd, Anne, Salmon Arm  Lockerby, Audrey, Salmon Arm  Lockhart, Ralph & Jean, Armstrong  Lodge, Terry, Vernon  Loken, Dr. J. D., Kelowna  Louttit, Blanche, Armstrong  Lucas, J. & M., Salmon Arm  Lundy, Alice C, Kelowna  McCallum, Richard M., Armstrong  McCann, Leonard G., Vancouver  McClelland, Don, Kelowna  McClure, Dave, Armstrong  McComb, Margaret, Kelowna  McCoubrey, Mrs. P. I., Winfield  McDonald, Brian, Grand Forks  MacDonald, Donald J., West Vancouver  MacDonald, Elvie, Penticton  McDonald, Dr. Sheila, Kelowna  McDonald, Yvonne, Salmon Arm  McFarlan, Edward P., Calgary  McFarlane, Oliver & Audrey, Kelowna  McGrath, Aaron, Monte Lake  McGrath, Carol, Kamloops  McGrath, Trevor, Pinantan Lake  MacHaughton, James, Armstrong  Maclnnis, Alison, Port Coquitlam  Maclnnis, Denis, Kelowna  220 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Maclnnis, Lee, Langley  Maclnnis, Rob, Surrey  Maclnnis, Tom, Cold Lake, Alberta  McKechnie, Dave, Rainbow Lake, Alta.  McKee, Ken, Salmon Arm  McKeen, Carol & Ray, Armstrong  McKeever, J. L., Vineland Station, Ont.  MacKenzie, Sr. Carmelita, New Westminster  MacKenzie, Juanita S., Mission  McLarty, R. Hugh, Kelowna  McLaughlin, Kathleen & Del, Princeton  MacLean, Joan, Calgary  McLennan, D. M., Kelowna  McLennan, Mary & Don, Kelowna  MacLeod, Len, Vernon  McMechan, A. D. & M. L., Summerland  McMechan, Paul & Lynette, Winfield  McPherson, Locke, Calgary  McPherson, Stan & Barb, Penticton  MacQuarrie, Dan, Salmon Arm  Mackie, Dr. Richard, Victoria  Mail Boxes Etc., Westbank  Maki, Richard, Salmon Arm  Mallory, Margaret, Summerland  Malpass, George, Vancouver  Manson, Rev. & Mrs. A., Burnaby  March, L., Sicamous  Marr, Dr. Brian, Salmon Arm  Marshall, Alma, Armstrong  Marshall, Joan, Salmon Arm  Marton, Louis, Westbank  Marty, Art, Kelowna  Mason, Gladys, Vernon  Mathieson, Nellie, Salmon Arm  Maw, Glen, Armstrong  May, John & Velma, Enderby  May, Ken, Vernon  Mayhead, Mr. & Mrs. J. W, Auckland, NZ  Mersington, Zem, Salmon Arm  Metcalf, John & Helga, Salmon Arm  Middleton, Doug, Kelowna  Mills, Celia, Armstrong  Mills, Monica, Armstrong  Mills, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna  Moffatt, Doug., Kelowna  Moffit, Nel, Enderby  Monford, Ken, Grand Forks  Monford, Lome, Kelowna  Moore, Gary, Armstrong  Morgan, H. & B., Kelowna  Morris, Brian, Salmon Arm  Morrison, Duncan, Castlegar  Morrison, Fran & Jack, Vernon  Morrison, John, Vernon  Morrison, Lisa, Vernon  Mottram, Clara, Peachland  Muir, Jerry, Victoria  Muir, Michael, Victoria  Munson, Fenella, Kelowna  Murdoch, Edgar, Enderby  Musgrave, John B., Oliver  Nahm, Gerry & Irene, Vernon  Nahm, Tilman & Mae, Grindrod  Nakagawa, Harry & Ann, Salmon Arm  Naylor, Miss E. E., Victoria  Neave, Carney, Stump Lake  Neave, Greg, Ashcroft  Neave, Len, Edmonton  Neave, Paddy, Lethbridge  Needham, Joan, Kelowna  Needoba, Les & Elsie, Armstrong  Neid, Joseph & Eileen, Blind Bay  Nelson, Jim & Muriel, Armstrong  Newton, Jim, Summerland  Nitchie, Ryan, Armstrong  Nixon, Doreen, Armstrong  Nordstrom, Judy, Vernon  Norman, Doug, Vernon  Norman, Walt, Armstrong  North, Ab & Helen, Kelowna  Oberle, William, Armstrong  O'Brien, Daniel T, RR1, Sorrento  Ortiz, John E., Penticton  Osborn, Bill & June, Vernon  Osborn, C. D., Vernon  Oswell, Michael G., Victoria  Painter, Michael E, South Surrey  Pakka, Ray & Mary, RR1, Sorrento  Palmer, Glen, Salmon Arm  Paslauski, Philip, Penticton  Parson, M. J., Duncan  Paul, Leny, Salmon Arm  Paull, Glen, Armstrong  Peebles, Jack, Fulford Harbour  Peterson, Alf, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Floyd B., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hubert, Salmon Arm  Philpott, Vesta & Elden, Armstrong  Picou, A., Armstrong  Pizzey, Martha E., Enderby  Podesser, Heidi, Enderby  Polichek, V. & D., Vernon  Poison, Gene & Wendy, Armstrong  Pound, Gladys, Enderby  Pound, Larry, Enderby  Powell, Eileen, Kelowna  Preston, Mrs. Mary, Scottsdale, Arizona  Price, Alex, Kelowna  Price, Harry A., Kelowna  Prouty, Barry, Armstrong  221 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Prouty, Minnie, Armstrong  Punnett, Margery, Penticton  Raber, Joye & Howard, Vernon  Raddatz, Helen, Enderby  Radomske, Eveline, Kamloops  Rands, Marion, Enderby  Ratcliffe, Pat, Armstrong  Redman, Fred, Armstrong  Reese, Myrtle, Salmon Arm  Reid, Dennis, Quesnel  Reiter, Iris, Enderby  Rendell, Madeline, Vernon  Risso, Alan, Kelowna  Ritch, Jack, Kelowna  Roberts, Mary & E. Dan, Oliver  Roberts, Peter, Enderby  Robertson, Georgie, Enderby  Romaine, Patrick & Margaret, Armstrong  Runacres, Malcolm, Kelowna  Russell, Robin, Salmon Arm  Ruth, Lilian, Salmon Arm  Ruth, Douglas, Victoria  Saddler, Mrs. Delta, Vernon  Salter, Rev. Derek, Okanagan Falls  Sanborn, Kathleen, Grindrod  Sansom, John, Salmon Arm  Sargenia, Lawrence, Kelowna  Scales, James, Salmon Arm  Scheltens, Jim & Loretta, Pritchard  Schierbeck, Elizabeth (Fewtrell), Kelowna  Schley, Robert, Vernon  Schmidt, Laura J., Vernon  Schneider, Jacque, Kelowna  Schubert, Trevor & Jean, Kamloops  Schuetz, Louis, Armstrong  Schultz, Elmer & Marg, Chase  Segreto, Ralph, Salmon Arm  Sengotta, Bill &'Ģ Toni, Vernon  Sengotta, Gerry & Dorothy, Vernon  Sengotta, Grace, Vernon  Serra, Nan, Armstrong  Shannon, Elaine, Oliver  Shannon, Larry & Jan, Oliver  Sharman, Jim & Sybil, Enderby  Sheardown, Mrs. S. M., Osoyoos  Shepherd, Jean, North Vancouver  Shepherd, John F, Armstrong  Shipmaker, Earl, Grindrod  Sidney, Tom, Armstrong  Sieg, Jeanne, Armstrong  Sihlis, Ruth, Vernon  Silver, Louise, Salmon Arm  Simard, David, Enderby  Simpson, George, Keremeos  Sinkewicz, Ella, Kelowna  Skelhorne, Glen, Salmon Arm  Slater, Jonathan K, Kamloops  Smith, Cameron, Princeton  Smith, Clare, Kelowna  Smith, Dorothy, Armstrong  Smith, Mrs. Myrtle, Kelowna  Smith, Neil, Abbotsford  Smith, Nelson & Velma, Salmon Arm  Smith, Pam, Edmonton  Smith, Thomas, Salmon Arm  Southward, Norma, Kelowna  Spendlove, Mr. & Mrs., Ottawa  Sperle, Elizabeth, Kelowna  Sternig, Evelyn, Cranbrook  Stewart, Griselda, Armstrong  Stewart, Dave & Mary, Terrace  Stickland, Irene, Enderby  Stiell, Rosemary, Kelowna  Stirling, Peter, Kelowna  Stocks, Peter A., Victoria  Stoneberg, Margaret, Princeton  Sturt, Arley, Armstrong  Sturt, Herbert, Quesnel  Sullivan, Sheila, Victoria  Sutherland, Doug., Kelowna  Swales, Ted, Kaleden  Swarbrick, Dick & Ruth, Kamloops  Swenor, Ruth, Salmon Arm  Tailyour, Joan, Kelowna  Tait, Doreen, Summerland  Tanemura, Anne, Salmon Arm  Tapson-Jones, Mary Lou, Salmon Arm  Tassie, Mary, Vernon  Terlesky, Verna, Salmon Arm  Thomas, Gordon, Kelowna  Thompson, Gordon & Verla, Armstrong  Thompson, Sharon, Okanagan Falls  Thomson, Brian & Joyce, Oliver  Thomson, C, Kelowna  Thomson, Carol & Duane, Oyama  Thomson, Donna & Jack, Kelowna  Thomson, Gifford, Kelowna  Thorburn, Herb & Lorna, Kingston, Ont.  Thornloe, F, East Kelowna  Tidball, Bill, Summerland  Tily, Bill & Ethelyn, Penticton  Tipple, Judy M., Saturna Island  Tjaden, Bob & Marg, Armstrong  Tobler, Mrs. Evelyn, Victoria  Todd, Janet D., Vernon  Tomlin, E. V, Oliver  Trenholm, Marlene, Penticton  Trueman, Beatrice, Vernon  Truswell, Byron, Wenatchee, WA.  Turner, Ronald, Salmon Arm  Turner, Tom, Quesnel  Tutt, Brian, Kelowna  222 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Tutt, C. H., Trail  Tutt, David & Ethna, Kelowna  Tutt, Michael, Kelowna  Tweeddale, Elsie, Salmon Arm  Udy, Annie, Armstrong  Unterschultz, Dan, Salmon Arm  Vaines, Peter, Victoria  van Vreumingen, Peter, Kelowna  Vaskovic, Ivan O., Westbank  Von Niessen, John, Oyama  Waddington, J. D., Richmond  Waddington, Kathleen E., Vancouver  Walker, Harvie L., Vancouver  Walker, W. John D., Victoria  Walsh, Jean, Kelowna  Wardrop, J. R., Victoria  Watson, Jean, Salmon Arm  Watt, Mr. & Mrs. A. W., Summerland  Weatherill, A. G., Vernon  Weatherill, Bob & Lil, Vernon  Weatherill, Brian &- Lilo, Calgary  Weatherill, David & Joanne, Vernon  Weatherill, Don &" Doris, Vernon  Weatherill, Gary & Monika, Vernon  Weatherill, Gordon & Shelagh, Vancouver  Weatherill, S., Osoyoos  Webber, Christopher, Ottawa  Webber, Norman, Devon, England  Weddell, E. A. H., Barriere  Weddell, Edith, Kelowna  Weddell, James M., Kelowna  Weisgarber, Rhoda, Peachland  Welker, Joe & Natalie, Vernon  Wellbourn, William, Sidney  Wells, Don, Grindrod  Weninger, George, Armstrong  Weskett, Bob, Armstrong  Westie, Andrew, Kelowna  Wetherill, Jean, Vernon  Wetherill, Mary, Vernon  Whalley, Dave, Oliver  Whetter, Elsie, Enderby  Whitaker, B. C, Armstrong  Whitehead, Frank, Kelowna  Whitting, Ivan & Maud, Kent, England  Whitham, J. Gordon, Calgary  Whyte, Stuart & Betty, Nanaimo  Wiebe, Greg, Grindrod  Wiebe, V J., Abbotsford  Wight, Joan L., Osoyoos  Wilcox, E. F, Kelowna  Wilson, Allan, Tappen  Wilson, C. J., Vernon  Woinoski, Janet, Kelowna  Wong, Yung Kai, Armstrong  Wood, Ann, Salmon Arm  Wood, James & Lucy, Terrace  Woodd, Henry S., Vancouver  Woodworth, Robin, Victoria  Wooldridge, Kay, Enderby  Wort, Margaret, Kelowna  Wostradowski, Maria, Kelowna  Wylie, Carl & Flora, Vernon  Wylie, Doug & Shirley, Coquitlam  Yandle, Anne, Vancouver  Zdralek, Alice, Kelowna  Zoellner, W J., Okanagan Mission  223 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS  Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne, Indiana  Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum & Arts Society  Blackwell North America Inc., Blackwood, New Jersey  B. C. Archives Library, Victoria  Burnaby Public Library  Charles Bloom Secondary School  Cherryville & Area Historical Society  Clarence Fulton Secondary School, Vernon  Douglas College Library, New Westminster  Enderby District Museum  Family History Library, Salt Lake City  Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary  Greater Victoria Public Library  Harvard University Library, Cambridge, Mass.  Highland Park Elementary School, Armstrong  Kalamalka Secondary School, Vernon  Kamloops Museum Association  Kelowna Centennial Museum  Kelowna Senior Secondary School  Library of Parliament, Ottawa  McGill University Library  Metro Toronto Library Board  Muriel Ffoulkes Centre, Kelowna  National Library of Canada  Salmon Arm Museum  University Of Windsor, Windsor, Ont.  University of Victoria  Washington State University  Westbank First Nations, Kelowna  W. L. Seaton Secondary School, Vernon  O'Keefe Ranch & Interior Heritage Society, Vernon  Okanagan Mission Secondary School  Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna  Penticton Public Library  Royal B. C. Museum  Seattle Public Library  South Kelowna Elementary School  South Okanagan-Similkameen Union Board of Health, Kelowna  Spokane Public Library  Summerland Museum & Heritage Society  Summerland Secondary School Library  Tacoma Public Library  The Roman Catholic Bishop of Nelson, Nelson, B. C,  The Newberry Library, Chicago  University of British Columbia  University of Northern B. C.  Vancouver City Archives  Vancouver Public Library  Weddell, Horn & Co., Kelowna  Westminster Abbey Library  Wisconsin State Historical Society  Yale University  Berge & Company, Kelowna  Len W. Wood Elementary School, Armstrong  A. L. Fortune Secondary School, Enderby  224  m's peddling preacher


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