Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Sixty-first report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1997

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 Number 61  ARTICLES  AND  S  '/a  Okanagan History  The Sixty-first Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded September 4, 1925  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN 0-921241-65-8  1997  ©  Printed in Canada by Hucul Printing Ltd.  Salmon Arm, BC  Cover  Kelowna at War: Women of all ages alleviated 1914-18  fruit industry labour shortage. Staged photograph  was taken in the Pridham orchard, where  the Capri shopping centre now stands.  (Courtesy Kelowna Centennial Museum) SIXTY-FIRST REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  History is the essence of innumerable biographies.  — Thomas Carlyle.  EDITOR  Denis Marshall  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Jacquie Bicknell, Oliver  Elizabeth Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Lorna Carter, Jessie Ann Gamble, Armstrong  Marilyn Kernaghan, Salmon Arm  Michael Burn, Similkameen  Membership  The recipient of this Sixty-first Report is entitled to register his/her membership in  the Sixty-second Report, which will be issued November 1, 1998. For membership  registration and certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the treasurer of the  Parent Body, Box 313, Vernon, BC, V1T 6M3, from branches of the OHS, and from  most museums and bookstores in the Okanagan-Shuswap region.  Editorial Inquiries  For editorial enquiries concerning material in the Reports or for inclusions in future  issues, please contact the editor at 4910 - 16th Street NE, Salmon Arm, BC, VIE 1E1  (Fax: 832-5367). Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1997-1998  PRESIDENT  Denis Maclnnis  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Peter Tassie  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Enabelle Gorek  SECRETARY  Helen Inglis  TREASURER  Jean Lockhart  PAST PRESIDENT  David MacDonald  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Victor Casorso, Lionel Dallas  Similkameen: Richard Coleman, Wallace Liddicoat  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Elizabeth Bork  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley  Vernon: Robert dePfyffer, Jack Morrison  Armstrong-Enderby: Eleanore Bolton, Jessie Ann Gamble  Salmon Arm: Thomas Smith, Reginald Humphries  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Jean Webber, Robert Marriage, Art Marty New Books of Interest  to OHS Members  White Lake Pioneers: Milk Pails and Winding Trails. By Gwen  Koski. Text and photographs, $18.50. Order from the author, RR1,  Pakka Road, White Lake, Sorrento, BC, VOE 2W0.  Pursuit of Memories. By Wendy Stewart. A profusely-illustrated  history of the Pritchard area, including several colour photographs.  248 pages. Published by The Pritchard Historical Society, Box 173,  Pritchard, BC, VOE 2P0, telephone 577-3524.  Silver Creek RamMings. A History of Silver Creek and the Salmon  River Valley. 165 pages. $15. Available from Pat Timpany, 2461  Rocky Point Road, RR1, Blind Bay, BC, VOE 1H1.  A Century of Caring: 1897-1997. The Story of Vernon Jubilee  Hospital and of Men and Women Who Have Made its History. By  Daphne Thuillier. Published by Vernon Jubilee Hospital. $15. Available from the Vernon Museum.  Kelowna Street Names. Produced by Kelowna Branch, Okanagan  Historical Society. Second printing now available.  Business of the Okanagan Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 73rd Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  1998  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society will be held  Sunday, May 3, 1998 at 10 a.m.  on board the SS Sicamous  Penticton  Luncheon at 1 p.m.  All members and guests are welcome When Was The SS Aberdeen Launched?  Recorders of the passing scene, including the Society, have been  called to account by member M. F. Painter of South Surrey over the  launch date of the 55 Aberdeen. He writes: "The Shuswap eV  Okanagan Railway from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing was finished on May 12, 1892. To provide service down the lake, the CPR  launched the 5S Aberdeen; but when? Several sources give different dates . . .  "Frank Buckland on page 94 of OHS Report No. 12 says the  CPR launched her on May 3, 1892, and her picture on page 71 of  Buckland's 'Ogopogo's Vigil' has the caption: launched 1892.'  Northcote Caesar, who was present at the launch, says on page 53  of Report No. 13 that it was May 24, 1893. In the same issue, page  59, Joseph Weeks, who was her captain, says the Aberdeen was  launched May 1892. Percy Clement, on page 135 of Report No. 23,  says the ship was completed and launched on Tuesday, May 22,  1893. However, my perpetual calendar indicates that date was a  Monday—not Tuesday. (Buckland's date of May 3, 1892 was a Tuesday, however).  "Report No. 43 has a picture of the launch on page 67 with the  caption ' . . . being launched in 1893.' On page 209 of The Valley of  Youth C. W. Holliday has the same photo ('photo by the author')  giving the date May 23,1893. The Vernon Museum pamphlet 'Steamboats of the Okanagan' has the same photo on page 4 (but this time  'Photo by Worgan') with the date May 22, 1893. Barry Bondar, on  page 11 of Okanagan, the Story and the Sights, says 'on May 3, 1892 .  . . 55 Aberdeen fired her engines for the maiden voyage' (although  the launch and maiden voyage might not be the same date."  # * *  We turned to the Vernon museum's Linda Wills in hopes  of finding the definitive answer to Mr. Painter's search for fact.  The Vernon archives place the launching on Tuesday, May 23,  1893. Much of the confusion over the day/date discrepancy arose  when the Vernon News issue of the week in question erroneously listed its publication date as May 24, when it should have  been Thursday, May 25, 1893. This would account for the reference to the launching having taken place "Tuesday last." Apparently both Holliday and Worgan were present and each likely  took pictures from the same vantage point.  "It's fascinating that when you start looking at something  like that, you find eyewitnesses coming up with different dates,  supported by all kinds of convincing detail. It shows how unreliable a person's memory is," Mr. Painter concluded. TABLE OF CONTENTS  In Memoriam  Margaret Anchoretta Ormsby: 1909-1996  8  Feature Articles  What's What & Who's Who in Heritage, Michael Kluckner  12  Was Truth a Casualty in Vernon's 'Zombie' Protest? Peter C. Russell  18  Springbend School and Hall, June Griswold  27  Cattle Drives Through the Okanagan Valley, 1858-1868, Ken Mather  36  Priest Camp: A Typical Stopping Place on the Okanagan Brigade Trail,  David Gregory  45  Carmi Affair, Harley Hatfield  50  Memoirs of a District Horticulturist, Michael G. Oswell  52  Kelowna in World War One, James H. Hayes  73  Trout Creek's Early Libraries, Mary DeFehr  79  Haynes-Moore Story Deserves to be Told, Robert M. Hayes  80  Armstrong Hotel Fits a Dowager's Role, Devon L. Muhlert  84  BC Dragoons: Quansem Hep (Always Ready), James H. Hayes (with excerpts of an address by Honorary Colonel D. F. B Kinloch)   90  History of Kelowna City Park, Charles Jackson  96  Early Settlers in Oyama, 1893-1914, Hume Powley    101  The Fraser-Plaskett Land Company of Osoyoos, Dorothy Fraser    107  History in the Hospital, Terry Lodge   109  Rails Still Here—Where Has all the Business Gone? R. F. Marriage  Ill  Kelowna Church Marks Centenary, Arnold Draper    115  Student Essays  The 3400 Block of Schubert Street, Vernon, BC, Christopher Baryla    119  Byland's Nurseries Ltd., Melissa Kroeker  124  Nostalgia  The Bankhead Ponds, Tilman Nahm  130  The Night Ellis Creek Went on the Rampage, Mollie Broderick  137  Inside Penticton City Hall, Shirley White  140  For Auld Lang Syne: The Kelowna Scottish Country Dancers,  Marg Moisey  143 Human Endeavour  Wallensteen Actions Spoke Louder Than Words, Denis Marshall  146  Eccentric Prospector Mined Rich Vein of Knowledge, G. B. Leech  161  The Gleeds of Okanagan Centre, Sandra Bernardo  169  Charles David Bloom: An Energetic Champion of Education,  Peter Ward  174  Clem Vacher: Colourful Prospector and Inventor, Victor Casorso  176  Personalities  Max Jenkins, 1881-1972, Muriel McLeod  180  Armstrong's Hawkins Family, Shirley Danallanko   181  Carved in Stone: Story of the Andrews Family, W J. Whitehead  186  Tributes  Richard Lloyd Askew, 1920-1997, Denis Marshall  190  Eva Sheere Cleland, 1901-1996, Elizabeth Pryce-Bork  191  Eve Forrest Gulliford, 1917-1997, Yvonne McDonald  193  Jennie Nancollas, 1910-1996, Heather McConnell  197  Laura Paget, 1912-1997, Robert Cowan  198  Vivian Rauma, 1910-1995, Amy Boutwell  200  Obituaries  202  OHS Business  President's Report  209  The Best of Okanagan History  210  Index Committee  210  Fairview Kiosk  211  Father Pandosy Mission  211  1997 Writing Competition  211  Minutes of the 72nd Annual General Meeting  212  Branch Activities Reviewed  213  Editor's Report   215  Auditor's Report  215  Errata  216  1997 OHS Membership List  217 IN MEMORIAM  Margaret Ormsby: 1909-1996  BA, MA, PhD, LID, OC, OBC, Editor Six Reports  Senate Tributes Committee  University of British Columbia  December 2, 1996  MARGARET ORMSBY was a distinguished British Columbian,  Academic, Historian and individual. She was born in  Quesnel in 1909 and died at her beloved home on the  shores of Kalamalka Lake on November 2, 1996. She was a Mem-  ber-at-Large on the Senate from 1963-1966 and had served on Senate committees prior to her term.  Margaret Ormsby's parents encouraged her to be educated,  independent and liberated. She attended UBC from 1926-31 and  obtained a B.A., a Teacher's Training Certificate and an M.A. Her  master's thesis was entitled: "A Study of the Okanagan Valley of  British Columbia." She then attended Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania on a scholarship as a Ph.D. candidate in history. She received her doctorate in 1937 following completion of her thesis on  "Relationships between the Province of British Columbia and The  Dominion of Canada." During her doctoral studies she also worked  briefly as an assistant in the UBC Department of History but was  unable to get an appointment following her graduation from Bryn  Mawr College. She took her first academic appointment as the Chair  of History in a private school in San Francisco, The Sarah Dix  Hamlin School. Dr. Ormsby returned to the History Department at  UBC in 1943 and rose through the ranks to become Professor in  1955 and Head from 1964-1974 when she retired.  At UBC she fostered the development of the Doctoral Program in History; expanded the department size four-fold, and  brought the UBC History Department into a national, North American and international context. Her major work, British Columbia: A  History, was published in 1958 and republished four times. She  championed a non-Toronto and non-Vancouver view of history of  B. C. A quote from her obituary in The Globe and Mail states "For  8 Margaret Ormsby in 1965.  Vancouver and Victoria to abandon their sense of community within  the vast historical geography of British Columbia, she said, would  be for the Province to lose its soul."  Margaret Ormsby was richly honoured for her work and for  her academic and social contributions. She was a fellow of the Royal  Society of Canada and was elected president of both the B. C. and  the Canadian Historical associations. She was also a member of the  Champlain Society, Humanities Research Council of Canada and  the American Historical Society. Professor Ormsby also served as  secretary to the UBC Faculty Association in 1956-57. She received  honorary degrees from all four B. C. universities as well as from  the University of Manitoba and the University of Notre Dame in  Nelson. In 1996 she was awarded the Order of Canada.  The UBC Senate awarded her an Honorary D.Litt. in 1974  and approved the Margaret Ormsby Scholarship in 1990. She was  an outstanding academic and citizen and she was uniquely recognized as British Columbia's Historian of Record.  (Continued overleaf)  9 MARGARET ANCHORETTA ORMSBY  BC's Historian of Record  sprang from North Okanagan  MARGARET ORMSBY'S ongoing kinship with the Okanagan  Historical Society was due in no small part to its founder,  Leonard Norris. According to Robert dePfyffer it was Norris  who persuaded Ms. Ormsby to become editor of the Report, while  she, in turn, often credited Norris with getting her started on her  career.  Lucy McCormick was a contemporary of Dr. Ormsby and  knew the pre-eminent historian well: "Dr. Ormsby loved the  Coldstream area and she knew the background of every old family.  "Besides her academic honours, she was very proud of her  life membership in the OHS and of being made a Freeman of the  City of Vernon."  Margaret Ormsby's magnum opus was, and is, her denning  book British Columbia: A History. She also edited in 1976 A Pioneer  Gentlewoman in British Columbia; the Recollections of Susan Allison.  Her last work was the history of the Coldstream from 1863 to 1980,  Coldstream Nulli Secundus, published when she was 81. Okanagan  Historical Society was fortunate to have her as editor in 1935, when  she presided over the 309-page sixth edition of the Report. She was  then in her twenty-sixth year, with an MA, and pursuing a doctorate. As the newly-minted Dr. Ormsby, she returned to the OHS  Margaret Ormsby receiving one of her four honorary degrees, May 29, 1974. UBC president  Walter Gage on right, with Nathan Nemetz, chancellor of the university. (Photographs courtesy  University of British Columbia Special Collections and Archives)  10 MARGARET ANCHORETTA ORMSBY  fold by editing the eighth Report (1939), which contained a more  modest 57 pages. After gaining tenure at the University of British  Columbia, she again served as OHS editor from 1948 to 1953.  Feeling the way she did about the Okanagan Valley, Dr.  Ormsby continued to monitor the efforts of the society, constructively suggestive and willing to speak up when she found it necessary.  Margaret Ormsby was commissioned by the BC Centennial  Committee to write a book that would form an enduring legacy to  remain after the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the union  of Vancouver Island and the mainland "gold" colony in 1858.  What she accomplished in 14 months, said Stephen Hume in  The Vancouver Sun after her death, was an eloquent, literary masterpiece, astonishing in scholarly breadth and scope and yet easily  accessible to the lay reader.  John Bovey, one of Margaret Orsmby's students and now chief  archivist for the province, said it was her determination and vision  that for the first time placed BC history in a national, North American and international context.  UBC staff member Dr. Jean Barman, co-editor of BC Studies,  gave a testimony in UBC Reports in which she asserted that Margaret  Ormsby legitimized the study of British Columbia history as a scholarly endeavour.  "To a remarkable extent Ormsby's centennial history reflected  her own life circumstances. Of Canadian-Scottish and Anglo-Irish  descent, she grew up in the Okanagan Valley at a time when, so  she wrote, genteel fruit farmers 'maintained the standards of polite  society in Victorian England.' Families like hers, if only aspiring  outsiders, were similarly imbued with a sense of community and a  'feeling of cultural superiority' in the face of coastal boosterism,  American crassness, and the excesses of Canadian parochialism.  British Columbia was a special place deserving of a history all its  own."  And now George Lewis and Margaret Turner Ormsby's daughter has assumed her own place in history. She cleared the way for  female academics in the once impenetrable male historical thicket  and for women generally in the university milieu. Lastly, she was  an unfailing friend of the Okanagan Historical Society. The society  has seen fit to support the Margaret Ormsby Scholarship Fund, 1454  Begbie Street, Victoria, V8R 1K7.  11 WHAT'S WHAT <§ WHO'S  WHO IN HERITAGE?  Michael Kluckner  (Editor's note: At the request of the OHS, Michael Kluckner agreed  to write this article based on a speech he gave in February 1997 to  Okanagan heritage and historical societies).  At the risk of oversimplifying, those of us who are interested  in the past can be divided into history people and heritage  people. Both groups have to be as adept at dealing with government as they are at navigating their way through the record of  times gone by. Of the two groups, the people that are interested in  history—in finding out what was done where by whom—generally  have an easier time of it. Indeed, although records must be preserved and museums funded, and books often require a subsidy to  be published, in general the historian requires less funding, and  treads on fewer toes, than does the heritage preservationist.  Like historians, heritage people are interested in the past,  but are to a greater extent preoccupied by the preservation of the  past's built legacy and the continued use of it in the future. Because heritage preservation deals with land—and usually with the  buildings on it—heritage people have to confront all of the complexities of property rights, profit, maintenance and use. In a country such as Canada, which has never defined itself as, say, France  and Britain have, by images of buildings and "cultural landscapes,"  this is a big challenge.  Although there has never been such interest in Canadian history as during the 30 years since the country's centennial, never  has the country's distinctive fabric of buildings and landscapes been  so much under seige. Prosperity, especially in BC, has led to growth  and development that too often pays little respect to conservation;  concurrently, the growth of national retail chains and highway-  oriented commerce has reduced the viability of many traditional  towns and neighbourhoods, and made the edges of them the same,  whether they be in Nova Scotia or on Vancouver Island.  Michael Kluckner is a writer and artist living in rural Langley. Since 1996 he  has been the British Columbia governor of the Heritage Canada Foundation.  12 WHAT'S WHAT & WHO'S WHO IN HERITAGE?  Canadians Identify with Natural Landscape  To understand how all this came about, it is worth reflecting  on two issues. First, there is the relationship of Canadians to their  cultural landscape: the landscape modified by people, whether by  gardens or orchards (or, indeed, merely by the planting of non-  native trees), or individual buildings or villages or cities. A concern for the cultural landscape perhaps presents a European view  of the world—certainly, it is a different focus from that of North  America's aboriginals. At the risk of oversimplifying yet again,  Canadians have defined themselves by their relationship with the  natural landscape, and have identified with images such as those  by the Group of Seven, which only rarely contain representations  of human activity.  Second, it is important to know how the Canadian governmental pie is divided up. Land and money are the two big items,  and knowing who controls (and taxes) what is essential to understanding how heritage can be preserved, and why it often is not.  Since the passage of the British North America Act at the time of  Canada's confederation in 1867 (since superseded by the Canada  Constitution Act), the control of taxes on income has been largely  vested in the federal government, while the control of land is vested  in the provinces. Through provincial legislation—in BC, the Municipal Act and the Vancouver Charter—the provinces' power is  devolved onto towns and cities that zone land, tax it and the improvements made on it, and allow it to be developed and changed  within the limits set by the provincial government's enabling legislation.  Although municipal property taxes can seem to be a major  thorn in the side of a building owner, it is a minor one compared  with the tax levied on the capital value and the income generated  by a building. Thus, the federal Department of Finance, which as  everybody knows sets taxation policy for the country, and the Department of National Revenue, which interprets the policy and  collects the dough, have a major impact on building preservation.  In addition to tax, the federal government addresses heritage  as a cultural issue through the Department of Canadian Heritage.  Although heritage, as the federal government uses the term, encompasses just about everything from language to art to  multiculturism to patriotism to buildings, the department does include under its wing all of the federal government's sense of obligation and stewardship for the cultural landscape. Parks Canada  looks after buildings in the national parks system, and oversees  the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC). The  HSMBC commemorates historic events and sites and, occasionally,  recommends that Parks Canada purchase and manage a historic  13 WHAT'S WHAT & WHO'S WHO IN HERITAGE?  place or structure (the Gulf of Georgia Cannery on the Steveston  waterfront is a recent example). In existence since 1919, the HSMBC  concerns itself with both history and heritage, as I denned them  above. As the federal government is landlord of the largest number  of heritage buildings in the country, a committee of Parks Canada,  the Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office, advises on building  management and preservation, an increasingly complex task during government "downsizing."  Provinces Hold Key  All of these sites and structures are, or become, federal property. The one case where the feds got involved in private property  was through the Heritage Railway Stations Protection Act of 1988,  which mandated the preservation of nationally significant railway  depots. Beyond these examples, Ottawa has little involvement in  the preservation of the country's building stock. The power over  land, after all, is delegated to the provinces.  However, in the wake of the 1967 centennial, with national  pride and interest in history on the increase, the federal government sought a means to address the public's concern for its disappearing built heritage. In 1973 the Department of Indian Affairs  and its minister, one Jean Chretien, legislated the establishment of  the Heritage Canada Foundation (HCF) with the intent that it would  act as a National Trust; it was to accept donations of money and  property, preserve buildings, hold them in public trust, and advocate a conservation mentality in the country. To ensure its independence and national viewpoint, the federal government endowed  HCF with $12 million and instructed it to operate independently  with the income from this endowment, and govern itself with a  board comprised of members from each of the provinces and territories.  In the province of British Columbia, heritage matters are administered by the Heritage Conservation Branch, which currently  operates beneath the wing of the Ministry of Small Business, Tourism and Culture. As well as providing training and technical support, the branch administers the B. C. Heritage Trust, established  in 1977 and funded by provincial lottery operations, to fund restoration work and publications, among other things, initiated by  groups around the province. At one time the heritage branch managed all provincially-owned heritage properties, including  Barkerville, Fort Steele and the Keremeos Grist Mill, but some of  these have since been leased to private contractors.  14 WHAT'S WHAT & WHO'S WHO IN HERITAGE?  Advocacy on the provincial level is co-ordinated by the  Heritage Society of British Columbia, based in Victoria, whose membership consists of heritage groups and historical societies. It is  funded by membership dues and by a grant from the B. C. Heritage  Trust; it puts on an annual conference, usually in June, somewhere  in the province, and offers advice and information to the broadly  based, grass-roots heritage community.  Finally, there is the municipal level of government, the one  with the least power but, in many cases, the greatest impact on the  preservation of heritage properties. Occasionally, a municipality  may decide to buy a heritage property, restore it, and operate it as  a museum or other cultural facility, but usually heritage properties  are privately owned and have "normal," contemporary uses as  homes and businesses, and the municipality may chose to help  with the building's stewardship by controlling zoning and reducing  property taxes. To advise it, a municipal council may appoint a  Community Heritage Commission of interested and, one hopes,  informed people; it may, if it chooses, adopt a heritage management plan and use the tools provided in the provincial Heritage  Conservation Act to aid it (and influence private owners) in preserving heritage properties.  Heritage Preservation a Two-Way Street  The goal of heritage preservation is usually a heritage designation (technically, a municipal bylaw), which makes it theoretically impossible for subsequent owners to demolish a building. In  almost all cases, these designations are negotiated with owners,  either because the owner wants to preserve the building, or else as  a quid pro quo—in return for an easement, or zoning relaxation or  bonus of some sort. Almost everywhere in BC (and, for that matter,  in Canada), heritage is preserved because individual owners and  governments decide it should be. In common practice, there is little compulsion in the system, although certainly the senior governments have compulsion within their power. So the key, from  the preservationists' point of view, is to make it all seem attractive,  and to tout the advantages both financial and cultural of building  designation and secure zoning. There is really not much chance of  any Canadian government using draconian powers to enforce heritage preservation.  Some municipalities and private groups have put together  foundations that raise money and give grants to support heritage  preservation. Like the B. C. Heritage Trust and—at least in theory—  the HCF, these local foundations recognize that there is an element of public benefit in the preservation of a designated, privately-  15 WHAT'S WHAT & WHO'S WHO IN HERITAGE?  owned building even though the use of that building may be entirely private, and attempt to assist homeowners by paying a portion of restoration and maintenance costs.  Now for the big question: Is "heritage" winning the battle?  The answer is a qualified yes, depending on where you live. In  some places in the province, most notably Victoria, there is now  the same prestige in owning a heritage home as once was reflected  by membership in the Union Club. However, in other towns, individual building owners still row against the tide of thoughtless redevelopment and the indifference of town councils, planners and  developers.  In general, though, progress has been made. Area conversion—this is, zoning to preserve the character of a block or a neighbourhood—is becoming more common, and the ownership of a  heritage property within a heritage district is becoming widely  known as a worthwhile investment. A few areas in the province,  specifically Powell River, Caulfield in West Vancouver and Clayburn  in the Fraser Valley, have been designated to preserve their heritage character. Many other neighbourhoods and towns have special  zoning controls, usually through development permits, to ensure  some level of compatible new design. Rather than focusing on standalone buildings, the goal of most people nowadays is a heritage  home within a heritage neighbourhood.  An interesting sideline to area conservation is the validity of  traditional community design in these modern times. Old-fashioned  communities, designed around pedestrians, slow-moving traffic and  streetcar or train corridors, are very energy efficient and often very  neighbourly compared to the suburban, car-oriented developments  typical of the postwar world. The popularity of so-called neo-tradi-  tional town planning, where apartments and shops cluster around  a crossroad and are surrounded by low-density housing, indicates  that heritage communities have a lesson to teach future developers. Another variation on this was Main Street, the most successful  of HCF's programs, which sought to restore old downtowns as a  way of revitalizing dying communities.  Downtown Focus Needed  What is missing to promote more heritage conservation? On  a municipal level, city councils have to be willing to focus development around their downtowns, rather than along highways and in  malls, using their zoning and taxing powers, if they want to replicate the success of communities such as Nelson, Revelstoke or  Ladysmith. In addition, they must adopt alternate building codes  and building programs to make it as easy to renovate an old house  16 WHAT'S WHAT & WHO'S WHO IN HERITAGE?  as it is to build a new one. Some towns and cities have found that  using a "green door" policy to help property owners stickhandle  their way through renovation regulations, can go a long way toward stimulating economic activity. It is always worth quoting a  statistic from the Canadian Construction Association: renovation  creates twice as many jobs per dollar invested as does new construction.  On the federal level, the Income Tax Act creates problems  for owners of heritage buildings. Without descending into too many  numbing technicalities, the Income Tax Act encourages the demolition of buildings through the Terminal Loss Provision, and discourages renovation and restoration of heritage structures through  its method of determining capital cost allowances. By comparison,  in the United States the 1981 Economic Recovery Tax Act allowed  owners of old buildings to rehabilitate them and write off the total  cost in the year the money was spent—in Canada, such rehabilitation work would have to be capitalized and written off over a period of years. In one study of 243 projects, which were carried out  under the accelerated write-off program, $27.1 million of economic  activity was generated, while the loss to the U. S. Treasury was  only $1.3 million. Canada could well afford to do this, and HCF is  lobbying to change the finance department's policy.  Getting back to the heritage and history people, the volunteers that make it all happen, it is probably fair to say that there  hasn't been enough communication between the different groups.  This may change, owing to the new passion for heritage tourism,  which is recognized by both provincial and federal governments as  one of the most important reasons people have for travelling to a  specific locale. Heritage tourism requires history to be interpreted  and presented, and heritage buildings and landscapes to be preserved and accessible.  Another partnership that may in the long run prove fruitful  for the heritage movement is the natural one (no pun intended)  with the environmental movement. The development of a conservation ethic is essential for our survival as a culture and, even as a  species, so it only makes sense that the people interested in forests  and bears and whales should also be interested in preserving communities, and vice-versa. Even if they are utterly uninterested in  history or architecture, environmentalists are interested in energy  conservation, and in reusing and recycling things. Keeping buildings in use for as long as possible, whether they are restored beautifully or merely evolve slowly, seems to me to be what it's all about.  17 WAS TRUTH A CASUALTY IN  VERNON'S 'ZOMBIE'PROTEST?  Peter C. Russell  The climax of World War Two's conscription crisis was profoundly affected by radio and press reports of nearly 1,000  English-speaking home defence troops in Vernon demonstrating against the government's decision to order them overseas.  When Prime Minister Mackenzie King announced that overseas  service would become compulsory for home defence conscripts  on Wednesday, November 22, 1944, Canada looked set to replay  World War One's crisis of French versus English. For several days  the fate of King's government hung in the balance, as Quebec Liberal Members of Parliament struggled with whether to back or abandon him. By Saturday the situation had taken an unexpected turn.  The night before, the nation's papers reported, nearly 1,000 home  defence conscripts had marched through Vernon (not without violence, it seemed) to protest King's decision to send them overseas.  As nearly every paper noted, these were English-speaking troops.  Suddenly, the handful of student protests in Quebec were eclipsed  by events in British Columbia. The Vernon demonstration sparked  a half-dozen more that Saturday across the province. English  Canada, itself, was seen to be deeply divided over the issue of conscription for overseas service.  With the fall of France in June 1940, Canada became Britain's largest remaining military ally against Germany. Without major  debate, Parliament passed the National Resources Mobilization Act  (NRMA) that same month, empowering the government to introduce conscription for the defence of Canada. When Montreal mayor  Camillien Houde called upon French Canadians to resist, he was  immediately interned, and not one significant nationalist voice was  raised in his defence. If home defence conscription was not popular in Quebec, it was at least accepted as a wartime necessity.  The Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbour, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the their occupation of two tiny Aleutian islands between  December 1941 and February 1942 abruptly brought the Second  World War to BC. Canadian troops began taking heavy casualties,  first in Sicily, and then in Italy during the summer and fall of 1943.  Peter C. Russell came to teach history and economics at Okanagan University  College in 1992, after working in the National Archives of Canada and teaching at  the University of Edinburgh and the University of Birmingham in the UK.  18 VERNON'S 'ZOMBIE' PROTEST  'Zombies Strike Back.' Home Defence troops stationed in northern BC react to 1944 federal cabinet  edict that conscripts must reinforce fighting units in Europe. French-Canadian factor noticeably  absent.  Even before the Japanese had withdrawn from the Aleutians in  1943, it was clear that any invasion of BC was now a very remote  possibility.  The question that then faced the head of Pacific Command,  General George Pearkes, was what purpose did the remaining forces  serve? By the fall of 1944 his principal ground troops were the 6th  Division, the majority of whom were "Home Defence" troops, designated "HD" or "NRMA;" also popularly derided as "zombies." What  Department of National Defence officials in Ottawa wanted was a  high rate of "conversions" by individual HD troops to "general service" (GS), to provide replacements for the rising losses in Europe.  As the war proceeded and Canadian casualties mounted, "conversions" became ever scarcer. In 1942 18,274 HD troops volunteered  for overseas service. In 1943 the number dropped to 6,560. Even  19 VERNON'S ZOMBIE'PROTEST  during 1943 itself the sharp decline was evident: in December only  294 HD troops volunteered to go overseas as GS soldiers. Knowing  that the Second Front in France would be opened in the spring or  fTHESE IS STILL TIKE —  HAVE EVERY C0NF1DENC1  IN THE VOLUNTARY  SYSTEM/  AH BOH/  VIVE  LE GENERAL]  General A. G. L. McNaughton's confidence in Canadian soldiers sorely tested by Zombie protests  after Ottawa orders 16,000 Home Defence troops overseas. (Cartoon appeared in the Vancouver  News-Herald November 20, 1944) 61.28  summer of 1944, Ottawa sent out incessant calls for more volunteers from amongst the NRMA troops.  The conclusion to Canada's World War Two manpower crisis  has been recounted many times from a variety of perspectives. On  November 1 the Prime Minister replaced Defence Minister Col. J.  L. Ralston with General A. G. L. McNaughton, who pledged to raise  the necessary overseas replacements by yet another campaign to  persuade home defence soldiers to volunteer for overseas duty. By  November 22 it was evident that he could not reach his own target.  Consequently, King's cabinet issued a Privy Council Order for 16,000  HD men to be sent overseas.  20 VERNON'S ZOMBIE' PROTEST  In response to Canada's impending manpower crisis in mid-  November, Vernon's mayor chaired a public meeting that voted  unanimously that HD troops be sent to Europe as replacements.  The initiative came from the Canadian Legion, which had been on  record since 1932 as favouring conscription for overseas service.  Several school principals, a minister, and a doctor all spoke in favour. The only person reported to be opposed was the only speaker  not named.  A young woman in the audience took up the cudgels on behalf of  the zombies. "They are not having a good time," she said indignantly. "You have been satisfied to have them as HD troops for two  years; now you are kicking."  Copies of the meeting's resolution were sent to the Prime Minister,  cabinet members and British Columbia Members of Parliament.  News of the cabinet decision travelled quickly, if sometimes  unevenly, across the country to BC's army camps, preceded by a  rippling wave of rumour. The response of many HD troops came  in a series of demonstrations starting in Vernon on Friday evening,  November 24. Over the next three days there would be other demonstrations in Prince George, Courtenay, Chilliwack, Nanaimo, Port  Alberni, and—most serious of all—a mutiny in Terrace.  There are several competing versions of what happened in  Vernon on that particular Friday night, November 24, 1944. The  various military sources give several views on events, while the  civilian newspaper reporters offer other interpretations. Senior officers were determined to minimize the size of the Vernon demonstration, which contradicted their statements that HD troops were  ready and willing to serve, if only the government ordered them to  do so.  The higher one was up the chain of military command, the  smaller the estimate of the numbers that participated in the protests. The War Diary for the headquarters of Vernon Military Camp  recorded a "riot" of 200 home defence troops quelled by the military police. The war diaries of the three battalions stationed at the  camp and the Canadian School of Infantry reflect a relatively benign view of that Friday evening's events. They were described as  "a minor disturbance" with "no damage done." Even more significantly, these diaries placed the numbers participating between 500  and 1,000. In one of the battalion war diaries, however, the original  number typed in as "900" had been altered by the officer of the day  to "300."  The local press reporting of the Vernon demonstration reflects a complex interplay between the provincial and local press,  as well as between the individual reporters in Vernon and the mili-  21 VERNON'S 'ZOMBIE' PROTEST  tary authorities. The Vernon News was then a weekly newspaper,  appearing on Thursdays. Thus, its coverage of the Friday demonstration came almost a week after the event. However, local reporters filed stories of Friday's events with both the provincial and  national daily press. Two local reporters were called before the  military inquiry into the Vernon demonstration to defend their  accounts. For the Vernon News reporter, this meant that he had had  to give evidence even before his own story was published in the  local paper.  George Dobi, a News reporter, appeared before the military  inquiry, as did a Mr. Atkinson, described as a part-time reporter to  the Vancouver News-Herald. The officers responsible for the inquiry  were clearly interested as much in the origin of a CBC radio report  about the Vernon incident, as they were in what either reporter  could add (from their published accounts) to understanding the  events of that evening. Both men denied that they were the source  of the radio report. Atkinson stated that the News-Herald had given  his story to the CBC, but when asked "Do you think that the report  the radio put out Friday night was more exaggerated than your  report?", he said, "Yes, definitely." Dobi denied that his report could  have been the basis of the CBC broadcast, because he had filed his  story with the Vancouver Sun an hour after the first radio report  had been made. Thus, while the newspapers provide far more detailed accounts of the events in Vernon than even the military court  of inquiry, they cannot be seen as wholly independent sources of  information.  The first press reports that appeared in the provincial and  national daily newspapers on Saturday, November 25, are the earliest accounts, but not the fullest. The two most detailed accounts  that we have—the military court of inquiry on November 27 and  Dobi's story in the Vernon News on November 30—are in some  measure retrospective, reflecting reactions to military authorities'  attempts to control events by controlling the news. In order to reconstruct the events, we begin with the earliest reports to appear  in print, and then note the expansions and explanations of the later  accounts.  The most widely quoted early report came from the Canadian Press news service, November 24, datelined Vernon.  Vernon (CP)—Striking down a captain who tried to intervene, several hundred draftees marched through the streets of this town  Friday. . . threatening for a time to "tear down" the new Canadian  Legion hall there. . . . Home Defence troops, variously estimated  from 300 to 900 in number, gathered in the military camp here  and marched into the main streets of the town. . . . No French-  Canadian units are stationed at the Vernon camp.  22 VERNON'S ZOMBIE' PROTEST  The story went into some detail about that captain featured in the  opening sentence:  [The draftees] . . . encountered an unidentified captain and a lieutenant standing in the middle of the road facing them. The two  officers strode into the front ranks of the parade, ordering the  draftees summarily to "break it up." The captain was knocked to  the ground by one of the marchers and the lieutenant jostled to the  side of the road as the parade continued to a nearby park, where  an impromptu protest meeting was held.  The Canadian Press report concluded by stressing the restoration  of order by the authorities: "Military and city police had arrived on  the scene by this time and after a few minutes the men dispersed  quietly and returned to camp." The spark that set the movement in  motion was said to have been a radio report that these troops would  be the first sent to Europe under the government's new policy.  The military court of inquiry was convened at Vernon military camp on November 27. It sought to gain a general view of  events from officers that had encountered the march and enlisted  men that had heard about, observed, or participated in the march.  It also called witnesses to the specific incident involving the captain reportedly struck down  Vernon Army Camp during World War II. (Vernon Museum and Archives)  The most senior officers to testify, including Lieutenant-Colonel Bolton of the Prince of Wales Rangers, reported their varying  estimates of the number involved and their own attempts to exert  some control over the protest. Bolton, who arrived at the park near  the demonstration's end, estimated 100 men were involved by that  point. Other officers testified to about 150 men leaving the camp  23 VERNON'S 'ZOMBIE' PROTEST  as a group (although two non-commissioned officers offered numbers as low as 75 and 50), later collecting others in town for a total  of around 250. Civilian witnesses put the men marching in town  between 300 and 900, the police and a Legion official reporting the  lower number, the Vernon News reporter offering the higher estimate.  A half-dozen enlisted men were questioned both about their  foreknowledge of the march and their own participation. The four  that did admit participating all said that they had gone into town  on a pass to go to the movies or to go skating, and only joined the  parade for a time, before dropping out. Some were understandably  cautious about identifying themselves with what had now been  clearly defined as a breach of military discipline, and sought to  distance themselves from the other demonstrators. Lance/Corporal S. Smithers responded as follows:  Q.: You say you heard the demonstrators say "Down with Conscription." As you were a member of this parade are you sympathetic to these demonstrators?  A.: I'm not exactly for or against. It's one way of knowing  what the boys feel and how to let the Government hear about it.  Q.: Do you agree that this method of demonstrating is [a]  proper way to bring this to the attention of the Government?  A.: Yes  Private Maisonville of the Prince of Wales Rangers was somewhat  more direct:  Brig. Beattie made a statement in the paper that the boys were  only too eager to go overseas if the Government passed Conscription. They also resented the Canadian Legion and wanted public  sympathy and that this was the only way to show their feelings to  the authorities.  George Dobi's account of the previous Friday's events appeared on November 30 as almost an anticlimax. When Dobi addressed the controversy over numbers, he judiciously mixed his  report of the military estimate with a cautious defence of his own  estimate. "Military authorities ... estimated 200 men, which would  be possible in the last stages of the demonstration, but not at the  opening. At this time there were close to 500 men."  Dobi's account of the incident includes his own observations  from his first encounter with the march to its conclusion in Poison  Park. It is the most continuous narrative that we have of events  from that night. "At seven o'clock a disorderly gang of Home Defence paraders entered the business section of the city at the corner of Seventh Street and Barnard Avenue coming straight from  24 VERNON'S 'ZOMBIE'PROTEST  the camp site." (From both this account and others, some conflicting impressions arise of how orderly and organized the march was.  Some remarked on the precision of the men marching four abreast,  others have them "slouching.") After the encounter with the captain featured in early press reports, the march proceeded down  Barnard Avenue for a block, then "the men argued wildly as to  where they were going." After threatening the Legion Hall, "the  leaders changed their mind and went on with the march," ending  in Poison Park.  Here the men gathered in conference and voiced a threat to plan  for a bigger and more furious demonstration the following evening,  Saturday. At this point high ranking officers of the camp appeared  for the first time. A matter of an hour had passed since the demonstration had commenced. A camp padre mounted the side of an  army vehicle and asked the men to return to camp quietly. They  laughed his words down, but after consideration they went their  way to camp in a group. At no time was any force used to break  up the demonstration. Provincial police and RCMP members were  on hand as well as military policemen.  The Vernon HD demonstration, in one way, was more accurately reported in its initial press coverage than it has been in the  history written since. In spite of army officers' attempts to minimize the number of protesters, most witnesses saw a mass of marching men, which at its peak was well over 500 bodies, rather than  the "authorized" number of 200. This impression comes not only  from the civilian reporters and the enlisted men that appeared before the court of inquiry, but also from the several junior officers  that wrote war diaries for their units. The second salient feature of  these first press reports—the "captain struck down"—is also confirmed, although its significance is far different from what first  appeared. Captain W H. Gibson from the School of Infantry had  attempted to stop the march single-handed, by stepping in front of  the mass of men, only to be pushed aside and knocked to the ground.  He then began punching an HD soldier that was on the sidewalk  watching the demonstration. Both were taken into custody by the  military police. Captain Gibson's activities accounted for the only  violence in the Vernon demonstration. First press reports clearly  implied that he was heroically trying to restore order and had been  injured in the attempt. Evidence presented at the official inquiry  tends to confirm the Vernon News account of an officer rashly—  perhaps under the influence—putting himself in danger. Certainly,  his actions after his failure to stop the march were such as to have  the military authorities charge him with striking an enlisted man.  25 VERNON'S ZOMBIE' PROTEST  Vernon's zombie demonstration, and those that it sparked  elsewhere, showed that conscription for overseas service divided  Canadians deeply, and not just along the expected French-English  fault line. Late in November 1944 several thousand men from British Columbia's army camps—English and French alike—defied their  officers to express their opposition to being sent off to a war that  they believed was over for them.  BIBLIOGRAPHY:  Reginald H. Roy, For Most Conspicuous Bravery — A Biography of George R. Pearkes, UBC  Press, Vancouver, 1977 and his article "From the Darker Side of Canadian Military History:  Mutiny in the Mountains—The Terrace Incident," Canadian Defence Quarterly, volume 6,  number 2, autumn 1976.  Vernon News, November 23 and 30, 1944.  Victoria Times, November 25, 1944.  National Archives of Canada, Record Group 24, volume 17,332, HQ. Vernon Military Camp  War Diary, November 24, 1944; volume 16,910, Canadian School of Infantry War Diary,  November 24, 1944; volume 15,231, Royal Rifles of Canada War Diary, November 24, 1944;  volume 15,118, Midland Regiment War Diary, November 24, 1944; volume 2,655 HQS-3545,  volume 7, Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry in Vernon, November 27, 1944.  FAIRVIEW KIOSK DEDICATED  The ceremony marking completion of the Fairview Kiosk was especially gratifying for Vic Casorso, left, chair of the project, whose patience and persistence  finally had their day. Retiring OHS president Dave MacDonald shared the  ribbon-cutting duty.  26 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL  AND HALL  June Griswold  December 1996 marked the end of an era, when the  Springbend Community Club Society dissolved, and made  arrangements to donate Springbend Hall (formerly the  school) to the Enderby and District Museum Society. It was another victim of the times.  In the last few years there were only two new members and  they, too, were seniors. With no prospects of obtaining younger  members, and the  yearly concern of raising  funds for insurance and  hall upkeep, it became  inevitable that the matter be resolved. At a September 11,1996 meeting  a notice of motion was  made for disposition and  it gained passage the following month, when  proceedings began to  wind up the society as  well.  The name Springbend comes from a road  built in the early years  around a swampy area  where Highways 97A and  97B now join. This created a bend in the road,  and above the road was a  spring.  On October 2, 1924 work commenced on a new school north  of Enderby at the junction of Highway 97A and Emeny Road. From  a news item in the Okanagan Commoner dated November 20, 1924  we learn, "Springbend School opened on Monday with 17 pupils,  Smiling faces from 1924 (or 1925): Ella Baird, , Myra  Stickland, Hazel Andersen, Vera Steppe; Olive Fenton,  Kathleen Stickland, Frances Fenton, Ruby Baird.  June Griswold joined Springbend Community Club in 1991. Previously, she  30 involved with the Kootenay Lake Historical Society for more than 20 years.  was  27 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL &HALL  with Miss B. [Beth] Bunn, of Grindrod, in charge. The desks and  seats have not yet arrived, but the scholars and teacher are making  the best of what they have."  The Springbend School took in the area from Fenton Road to  Steve Brodoway's on Highway 97A, and from the corner of  Springbend Road to Bert Barnes and the Berry Farm. It also included the north end of Glenmary Road. In 1933 the teacher's annual salary was $800. It was raised in 1943 to $850, and in 1944, to  $960. Minimum annual stipend in 1945 was $1,000.  Teachers' transportation varied. Miss Fenton drove a Model  T Ford coupe. When it became law to have a driver's licence, she  parked her car in a garage and never drove again. Miss James rode  a bicycle to and from Enderby. Teachers that boarded near the school  came and went on foot. Mr. Nelson lived in a house on the school  property.  FIRST                  B  ;  **«                 1  TEACHER  isf      1  PASSES                   H  j  Elizabeth (Beth) Hassard  W         I ,**«*»•>  died at Abbotsford on                   I J|  m    ' Ji^S  January 15, 1997 at the  F  age of 97. As Beth Bunn,  she was the first teacher  at Springbend School. She  also taught at Grindrod,  0   , ' j.  i     ■                       i;.  and Fortune school in  T ' "    .  Enderby. She was born  .    W^jgm  November 6,  1899 in  Westbourne, Manitoba.  ■#%■  Mrs. Hassard was prede-                  Wlm  4 l  •       ■*  ceased by her husband                 j§| r*  Bert, a son, Raymond,                 f9Pp  •  and daughter, Hope. Sur-                         j  # «  viving are a son, Patrick                     r'm  f  of Abbotsford,   seven  grandchildren, and six  great-grandchildren.                1  28 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL & HALL  A Hectograph was used, to duplicate work sheets for pupils.  Springbend School teachers Charlotte Carbert, Pearl Andersen, and  Peter and Betty Ward remember using the Hectograph. A detailed  description of the printing process by Lilian Sugars, who taught  for years at Malakwa, can be found under Appendix II.  Jean (Salt) Kuchel, a pupil at the school from 1934 to 1942,  recalled that in Grade 6 Miss Andersen had the pupils produce a  newspaper. Using the Hectograph, a 10-page school paper titled  Springbend Echoes was printed. In the 1941-42 school year Jean  earned $4 a month for lighting the fire, general cleaning, and carrying water from the creek. A boy from the class was hired at $2  month to empty the pails from the outhouses. The boys' privy was  situated near the highway and the girls' version was at the lower  end of the school property. During the winter the boys would throw  snowballs at the girls while they made their way to and from the  outhouse.  Olive (Fenton) Gray and her sister, the late Frances Bartell,  were pupils at the school from Grades 1 to 8. Tb have enough pupils to start the school in 1924, Olive began attending when she  was only five. She recalled that Mrs. Twigg, who lived near the  school, taught the pupils to sing "The Maple Leaf Forever." She also  remembered her grandparents, Andrew and Jensine Andersen,  bringing an organ to school for Christmas concerts. Another experience that has not been erased by time was the trepidation felt by  the children as they awaited a visit by school inspector A. E. Miller.  Olive remembered Dr. Keith coming from Enderby once a year to  check the pupils' eyes, ears and general health. Spring and fall,  herds of sheep would pass the school coming from or going to Hunters Range.  In 1927 the school celebrated May Day with a Maypole dance,  and Olive was elected May Queen. A news item from the Okanagan  Commoner on June 2,1927, stated, "Springbend School held a greatly  enjoyed May Day on Monday. Olive Fenton was elected May Queen  by the school, and Joyce Davison and Patricia Stewards, Maids of  Honor. One of the noteworthy features of a varied program was a  procession of decorated floats exhibited by the children and representing the leading industries of the Province."  In the early years, the first thing done in the morning was to  put up the Canadian flag. When the pupils were seated, they recited the Lord's Prayer. Following prayer, the teacher went to each  pupil to inspect his/her nails, hands (both sides), elbows, neck and  teeth. Olive recalled that the teacher would award a small prize at  the end of each month to the row of pupils that had the best record  of cleanliness.  29 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL &HALL  John May attended Springbend in 1935-36. From 1940 to 1945  he supplied wood for the school furnace that was purchased in  1928 from Waterman-Waterbury Manufacturing Company in Regina.  The furnace, which is still in use, has a stamped-metal enclosure to  prevent the unwary from getting burned. Behind the enclosure was  a spot favoured by Miss Fenton's dog, Patches.  Back row: Teacher, Hazel Andersen; Joe Brodoway, John May, Art Salt, Audrey Baird, Dick  Stowards, George Salt. Centre row: Jean Salt, Betty Salt, Jean Emeny, Marjorie Salt, Annie  Brodoway, Vera Coell, Gertie Duckett, Joyce May. Front row: Harold Stowards, Jim Emeny, Art  May, David Coell, Michael Davison, Stanley Davison, Herb Duckett. (Joyce Thompson).  A couple of entries in the ledger show a cheque issued to  John May on February 17, 1940, in the amount of $14 for six cords  of wood, and on August 22, 1941, a cheque was issued for $3.15 for  repairing the woodshed and piling wood. John also worked as a  janitor at the school for two or three years.  Many schoolyard games were played at Springbend, including Run Sheep Run, Pom Pom Pull Away, Blind Man's Buff, Fox and  Geese, and Hangman.  It was reported in the June 16, 1950 issue of the Enderby  Commoner that a decision had been made to close Springbend  School. On June 1, 1955 School District No. 78 (Enderby) sold the  building and property to the Springbend Club for $1 for use as a  community hall. The Springbend Community Club Society was  formed on July 31, 1956. The first directors were Alma Fenton,  Alice Emeny, Irene Stickland, Jean Welch, Doreen Brodoway, and  Frances Bartell.  30 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL & HALL  Prior to forming a society the women of the Springbend area  held meetings in their homes. During the Second World War, when  they called themselves the "Springbend Helpers," they knitted and  sewed articles for servicemen. Over the years they held pot-luck  suppers, bazaars, bake sales, yard sales, card parties, Valentine teas,  Hallowe'en parties, Christmas concerts, birthday celebrations, bridal  showers, anniversary fetes, farewell parties, reunions, and bingos.  Work bees were organized to repair, improve and add on to the  original schoolhouse. During Centennial Year, 1967, a cloakroom  and a woodshed were constructed.  After becoming a society the group became more involved in  the community by supporting the Enderby hospital through mending and supplying furnishings and toys. Donations were made to  numerous hospital auxiliary projects. Members canvassed for the  Mothers March, the Red Cross and Canadian Cancer Society. They  raised money for the Enderby arena, tennis courts, and other worth-  1938 Springbend students. Back row: Hazel Andersen, teacher; Stanley Davison, Dick Stowards,  Jim Emeny, Jean Emeny, Art Salt, George Salt, Art May, Ray Bradford, Michael Davison. Front  row: Irene Stowards, Neil Weddick, Harold Stowards, Alice Emeny, Gertie Duckett, Jean Salt,  Betty Salt, Joyce May, Dorleen Bradford, Marion Stowards, Dawn Bradford. (Joyce Thompson).  while causes. They awarded a scholarship to a deserving high school  student from the Springbend area almost every year from 1964 to  1994. In 1976, the club named its scholarship in honour of Miss  Annie Fenton to mark her 100th birthday. The first Fenton scholarship was awarded to Louise Leader.  Another project entailed sponsoring an Enderby Queen candidate almost every year between 1974 and 1992. The first "Miss  Springbend" was Carol Danforth.  31 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL &HALL  In 1986 the club began compiling information for a book on  the families of Springbend that included interviews with former  teachers and pupils. At this time, the club extended the area outside the school boundaries: Highway 97A from Dan Forster's to  Stroulger Road; Highway 97B from Baird's gravel pit to Bert Barnes  and the Berry Farm; Springbend Hill, Hadow Road to include Ed  McClure, and Wilkinson Road. Springbend Community Recollections  was published in December 1987.  In July 1994 the club organized a "Springbend Get-Together."  Of the 69 who signed the guest book, 26 were pupils and four were  teachers at Springbend School. The remainder were former or active members of Springbend Community Club, spouses and guests.  The presence of four Grade 1 pupils, Jim Emeny, Mike Davison,  Gertie (Duckett) Bazell, Dick Stowards, and their teacher, Pearl  (Stoodley) Andersen, surely provided one of the best photographic  opportunities of  the day.  The club began holding cash  bingos at the hall  on October 29,  1979. The last-  smoke-fre e —  bingo night was  held on December 7, 1996. John  May was the  caller, assisted by  Velma May,  Jeannette Elsom,  Doreen Brodoway  and Gerrie  Danforth.  Another "final" event occurred on December 19, 1996, when the Springbend Community  Club held its Christmas supper. The event was attended by 14 members, their spouses, or guests. Velma May, president, asked Winnie  Forster to say the blessing. After the meal Kathy Watt gave a talk on  her dried arrangements and their connection with the emotions of  the people present, such as the sadness over the recent loss of a  respected member, Frances Bartell, or of the dissolution of the society. A card game with gifts was conducted by Doreen Brodoway,  and Pat Hammell organized a gift exchange. Winnie Forster read a  32 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL & HALL  Springbend Reunion, 1994. Former pupils flank teacher Pearl Andersen 'Ģ Gertie (Duckett) Bazell,  Jim Emeny, Pearl (Stoodley) Andersen, Stanley Davison, Dick Stowards. (John May)  Christmas story and Lieuwe Andringa sang one of his favourite  songs. The get-together ended with the singing of Christmas carols, accompanied by Elmer Schacher on guitar.  At the end there were 15 members: Jantje Andringa, Doreen  Brodoway, Gerrie Danforth, Jeannette Elsom, secretary; Alice  Emeny, Winnie Forster, vice-president; June Griswold, treasurer,  Pat Hammell, Velma May, president; Carolyn Schacher, Mabel  Shykora, Irene Stickland, Edith Sturt, Delores Weddick and Fay  Street.  On January 24, 1997 a small celebration was held marking  the end of the Springbend Community Club Society. Velma May  turned the keys to the hall over to Robert Cowan, president of the  Enderby and District Museum Society. The museum society will  apply for historical-site designation for Springbend Hall by the North  Okanagan Regional District. Meantime, a special fund has been set  up for its upkeep and donations are being accepted at the Enderby  museum. Minutes, other records and albums of the Springbend  School, community club and Springbend area families are available for viewing at the museum, also.  Sources:  Armstrong School District No. 21 minutes, 1946-1950  Bancroft, Jessie, Games for Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium,  Macmillan Company, New York, 1929.  33 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL & HALL  Enderby Commoner, 1934-1996  Lidstone, Ruby, Schools of Enderby and District, 1965  Okanagan Commoner, 1924-1933  Springbend Community Club minutes, 1955-1996  Springbend Community Club albums  Springbend Community Club Society, Springbend Community Recollections, 1987  Springbend school board minutes, 1924-1950  Springbend School ledger, 1924-1946  Sugars, Lilian, "The Hectograph," nd.  Interviews with Jean Kuchel, Olive Gray, Frances Bartell, John and Velma May,  Peter and Betty Ward, and Charlotte Carbert.  Appendix I  Teachers and the years they taught at Springbend School:  1924-25 Beth (Bunn) Hassard  1925-30 Susanna Allen "Annie" Fenton  1930-31 Amy G. (King) Enoch  1931-34 Gladys Pearl (Stoodley) Andersen  1934-35 Margaret E. "Bunty" (Renwick) Lowe  1935-40 Hazel (Andersen) Kellett  1940-41 Mary L.Cobb  1941-42 Frances M. James  1942-45 Harriet Adams  1945-46 Charlotte (McMechan) Carbert  1946-47 Peter Ward  1947-Dec. Agnes L. Boyd  Dec. 1947 Betty Ward  1948 Marianne Nelson (January-June)  1948-49 W W (Bill) Nelson  1949-50 Vera J. E. Barnes  Appendix II  The Hectograph  by Lilian (Sederberg) Sugars  When I started teaching in 1946 there were two ways to duplicate work sheets for children. There was the Gestetner, which  used very expensive stencils, limiting it to office records and important exams.  For everyday use, each teacher was issued three or four marvellous contraptions known as Hectographs. These amazing things  were sheets of oilcloth, about 10 inches by 20 inches, covered with  34 SPRINGBEND SCHOOL & HALL  a quarter-inch layer of a jelly-like substance. The jelly-covered cloth  pad had metal strips on each end, curved to clip over a frame to  keep it taut while in use.  A pad was clipped to the frame, then wiped with a wet cloth  to prevent paper from sticking to the jelly. Then a "Master" copy  was laid over the jelly, rubbed to remove air bubbles, and left for a  minute or two so the ink on the master could penetrate the jelly.  The master was made by writing with a special pencil, or hectograph  ink ....  To create copies, after the master was removed, the pad was  again wiped with a wet cloth. Then paper was laid over the inked  surface, rubbed, and removed. As it came off the jelly, the paper  would curl into a tight scroll, and had to be unrolled and placed  under a heavy book until it stayed flat. I never understood why,  but this chore was one that youngsters of all ages fought over.  When the school was in financial straits, newsprint was used  for copying. This was most unsatisfactory, as the sheet would often  stick to the jelly, causing damage to the surface. And newsprint is  very absorbent, so sucked up too much ink. Only about 15 copies  could be made before a new master had to be made. Bond paper  was a treat, and allowed 30 or more copies. After use, a pad was  covered with a sheet of oilcloth and put away for about 48 hours to  permit the remaining ink to sink to the bottom of the pad. If a pad  wore out, from paper sticking, or inquisitive little fingers, or from  absorbing too much ink, it was discarded.  School boards did not replace pads during the year, but instead issued each of us with a recipe to create our own. We bought  several jellyroll pans (cookie sheets with half-inch sides) and into  each we poured a mixture of glycerine, gelatin, and water; I have  long since forgotten the proportions. This concoction was left for a  few days to set well before use. It was usually thicker than the  commercial version, so absorbed more ink. If it became damaged,  we could heat it up, melt it, and pour it back into the pans for  another go.  These, both commercial and homemade, were called  hectographs by the authorities, but were commonly known as "Jelly-  Pads." We actually used jelly-pads until the late '50s (those of us in  rural schools) when the Spirit Master came into use.  35 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE  OKANAGAN VALLEY-1858-1868  Ken Mather  The origins of the British Columbia cattle industry can be  traced directly to the gold rush years of 1858 to 1868. During  that time, more than 22,000 head of beef cattle were driven  into BC to feed the huge mining population of the Fraser River and  Cariboo goldfields. By the time the rush for gold was over, the colony  of British Columbia had been established, roads and trails constructed and the valleys of the southern half of the colony populated. And, in the process, the British Columbia cattle industry came  into being.  The gold rush was the inevitable result of the northward thrust  of the American mining frontier into the Pacific Northwest. Beginning in California in 1849, prospectors and miners had explored  the rivers and creeks north and east, eventually discovering gold  in the Fort Colville district of Washington Territory, just south of  the 49th parallel, in 1855. It is now generally acknowledged that  gold was first discovered in what is now British Columbia along the  Thompson River downstream from Fort Kamloops in the late 1850s.  By that time miners had penetrated into the Okanagan Valley from  the south, using the Brigade Trail developed during fur trade times.  Once word reached the more populated areas of Western North  America, particularly California, there was a rush to the British  territory known as New Caledonia. The British government, largely  as a reaction to the influx of Americans, quickly established the  new Colony of British Columbia in the spring of 1858. That same  spring, some 25,000 men and women converged on the new colony.  Gold in paying quantities was found on the lower Fraser River  and, for those that were adventurous enough to work their way  through the Fraser Canyon, more lucrative deposits of placer gold  were found. By 1859 the focus of gold mining activity was above  the Fraser Canyon and on the creeks and rivers of the Cariboo  country. Over the next few years, thousands of men flocked to the  Cariboo in search of riches. The need to supply these miners with  the necessary provisions was not lost on the colonial government.  Since the Fraser Canyon was virtually impassable for anything larger  than a person on foot, the government spent considerable time  Ken Mather has been involved in heritage site research and administration since 1973. He  has been manager/curator of the Historic O'Keefe Ranch for the last 13 years.  36 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  and money on developing a route by way of Harrison Lake to the  goldfields. This route, however, was extremely costly for the transport of supplies, requiring the transfer of goods from pack horses  to paddle-wheel boats several times. At the end of the Harrison-  Lillooet trail, the Cariboo Trail proceeded into the heart of the  Cariboo.  It was apparent to those familiar with the country that a more  efficient route to the upper Fraser River was along the old Hudson's Bay Company Brigade Trail. This trail, which had been used  regularly from 1826 until 1848, started at Fort Okanogan where the  Okanogan River entered the mighty Columbia. It proceeded north  through our Okanagan Valley to Fort Kamloops, reaching the Fraser  River north of the formidable canyon. During the summer of 1858,  several parties set out on this overland route. But the native people, who were unhappy with the American government and resented the intrusion of white miners, prevented the passage of  smaller parties. In July, a large party under the leadership of David  McLoughlin, was attacked entering a canyon along the Okanogan  River. Several miners were killed and, after negotiations with the  native leaders, an agreement was reached to allow passage of mining parties, pack trains and cattle in exchange for tribute paid to  the Okanogan people.  Most notable of the travellers by this route was Joel Palmer,  who, in late July, set out with 13 heavily-laden wagons pulled by  ox teams and a small herd of cattle from Walla Walla on the Snake  River. The party, which also consisted of about 200 miners, crossed  the Columbia at Fort Okanogan and followed the Brigade Trail to  Fort Kamloops, eventually reaching the forks of the Thompson and  Fraser rivers. There the cattle and trade goods were sold at a profit.  For the next three years, Palmer returned with supplies to the gold-  fields, following this route with the intention "to impress upon our  people [the people of Oregon] the importance of making efforts to  acquire a market in these districts for a portion, at least, of our  surplus products." In a lengthy letter to the Oregonian newspaper,  published on January 28, 1860, Palmer described the route and the  country passed through on the way to the "Upper Frazer and  Quenelle Rivers mining districts," the term "Cariboo" to designate  the gold region being as yet unheard of. Palmer pointed out:  [The territory] possesses likewise, extensive agricultural districts east of the mountains, which have hitherto been considered  by many as barren wastes. The valley of the Okinakane itself is  capable of sustaining a population equal to two counties, producing all the fruits and vegetables usual in that latitude. It is well  37 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  watered and a large portion is timbered. For grazing purposes it is  excellent. The Si-mil-ka-meen Valley also contains considerable fine  agricultural land and timber.  News of the trail, the excellent grazing along the way and the  ready market at the end attracted the interest of the cattlemen of  western Oregon. At the time, there was a surplus of beef cattle in  the valleys of the Willamette, Rogue and Umpqua rivers of Oregon.  These cattle were descendants of those driven over the Oregon  Trail from the Mississippi Basin since 1843, including a few purebred shorthorns or Durhams, mixed with "California" cattle, some  of which were the small Spanish "black" (but not necessarily  longhorns). They had prospered in the fertile valleys of western  Oregon to the point that there was a surplus of stock. Oregon cattlemen were not blind to the potential market that British Columbia represented. Once they found that their animals could be successfully wintered in the Yakima, Klickitat and Walla Walla districts  before driving them north to the mining areas, they began a major  movement of cattle across the Cascade Mountains to the eastern  side. During the spring and summer these cattle were driven north  across the border and into British Columbia where the fabulous  wealth of the Cariboo was attracting thousands of stampeders.  During the years 1858 tol868, there was a steady flow of cattle across the border at Osoyoos Lake and up the Brigade Trail. The  colonial government of British Columbia was aware of this inland  route and its potential for revenue. A customs duty of $1 per head  of cattle was established and, in 1859, William George Cox was dispatched to Fort Kamloops to intercept livestock and merchandise  and charge appropriate duties. In 1860 the colonial government  moved Cox to the boundary area, where he set up a customs house  just across the line at Lake Osoyoos. From here he could keep a  closer eye on all goods crossing the border and also visit the gold  mines at nearby Rock Creek. A "Drover's Fee" of $50 for six months  was also established for anyone driving cattle into the country.  The government, under the able leadership of James Douglas, did not want to discourage the importation of beef cattle to  feed the hungry miners of the Cariboo. Douglas wrote Cox in the  spring of 1862:  The great number of miners now traveling by Fraser's River towards the Cariboo mines will rapidly consume the small stock of  food in the country . . . It would greatly assist if herds of sheep and  cattle could be driven into the mines. Mr. Cox is therefore instructed  to encourage as much as possible the importation of sheep and  cattle from the Southern Boundary and to be careful not to permit  any obstacle to be thrown in the way of persons driving in cattle  from the U. S. territory for the purpose of being sent to Cariboo.  38 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  Two to three thousand head of live cattle driven into the mines  would effectually relieve us for the present year and I expect that  number of cattle at least.  In order to further encourage drovers, the government began to inspect the trails used for the transport of cattle with an eye  to making improvements or constructing new routes if required.  James Carmichael Haynes, who had assumed the position of Cus-  Cattle Drive Routes in British Columbia  Fort Alexandria ls>  toms Agent at Osoyoos, was asked to make a thorough examination of trails and make recommendations to the Colonial Secretary. His report stated:  39 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  . . . the trail leading from this to Kamloops on the west side of  Okanagan Lake is the one on which improvements should first be  made as it is a road that from its position can be travelled in all  seasons—herds of cattle belonging to drovers named White and  Cox were to my own knowledge driven to Kamloops by this road  during the winter of 1861—besides it is the most direct and the  least expensive to construct... I am confident that one good road  on the west side of Okanagan Lake would for the present be sufficient for the accommodation of the public.  The trail continued to be the main cattle thoroughfare throughout the 1860s, sometimes to its great detriment. As might be imagined, the continual trampling by animals made passage almost  impossible during wet weather. In 1864 Haynes wrote to the Colonial Secretary that the trail along the west side of Okanagan Lake  was "the principal (sic) route . . . leading from the boundary at this  point to the interior and a way much complained of as to its condition by importers." He reported travelling over the "very bad trail,  a portion of which is so much cut away by cattle and obstructed by  fallen timber, that it is scarcely passable for either herds or pack  trains" and recommended that a "trifling outlay" would improve  the trail.  Competition to control the increasingly lucrative beef market in the Cariboo became quite heated. Supply and demand caused  considerable fluctuation in prices and cattle in the Cariboo were  being sold for prices ranging from $50 all the way up to $150. This  latter figure was realized in the spring of 1862, after a devastating  winter in Washington Territory reduced the cattle available for export. Obviously a fortune could be made for those that had the  cattle available at the right time. In March of 1861 Cox was to report that "a Mr. Jeffries is approaching with 800 head [of cattle], I  understand and will if possible control the beef market in the upper country." Drovers like Jerome and Thaddeus Harper and John  Jeffries obtained land in the Bonaparte River area where they could  winter their cattle and hold them until prices farther north were at  their best.  In late 1862 the US government, as a Civil War measure, placed  an embargo on cattle leaving the country. While this embargo was  not strictly enforced in the Pacific Northwest and was modified in  September 1863 to permit the export of "stock raised in a state or  territory bordered on the Pacific Ocean," it did discourage many  drovers from heading north. The number of cattle imported along  the Brigade Trail in that year dropped to about 1,300 from a high of  4,343 the previous year.  40 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  During the mid-1860s conditions of travel over the route to  the Cariboo were much improved. Ferries were established at the  crossings of the Snake and Columbia and at the western end of  Kamloops Lake, where the operator was an ex-Hudson's Bay man,  Francois Savona. These ferries carried men and horses across the  rivers, while the cattle were swum across. The trail joined the  Cariboo Road at Clinton and from there regular roadhouses were  encountered. Many of the stopping places, like 70 Mile House, 100  Walla Walla  Cattle Drive Routes  South of the Border  Mile House and 150 Mile House, were named in the earliest years  of the gold rush by their distance from Lillooet, the original start of  the Cariboo Trail.  Once regular butcher shops were established in the mining  district, cattle droves were met along the trail by butchers or their  agents, who purchased the animals and drove them themselves to  the Barkerville area. Some trail drives, however, pushed right on to  41 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  Barkerville where the cattle were left to graze on Cow Mountain  while two slaughterhouses were kept busy supplying meat to the  mining population.  Because photography was in its infancy, no visual records of  these historic cattle drives are available. Fortunately there are several first-hand accounts by those that drove cattle over the trail.  These give an insight into what life was like on the trail for the  hands, who, in later life, would always refer to themselves as "cowboys" even though the term was not in use during the 1860s when  they travelled the Cariboo Trail. One of the best accounts is that  written by Andrew Jackson "Jack" Splawn, who drove cattle over  the trail in 1861 with Major John Thorpe. Splawn, then a boy of  sixteen, later recounted his adventures in Ka-mi-akin The Last Hero  of the Yakimas. While Splawn's account is retrospective, the diaries  of Myron Brown, who kept daily records as he travelled the trail,  have an immediacy that makes them interesting and informative  in spite of their sometimes cryptic entries. Brown made three drives  up the trail in 1867 and 1868 and left behind two diaries. These  journals, together with Splawn's account, provide us with a sense  of the adventure and daily hardships connected with herding uncooperative animals up the Brigade Trail.  In the case of the outfits that Splawn and Brown were with,  the party consisted of a mix of native Indians and white drovers.  Brown's first drive of 1868 consisted of five whites and five Indians  in what Brown calls "with all a rather agreeable crowd all things  considered." Splawn's party also included Major Thorpe, "Paul, a  half-breed, and the Indians, Ken-e-ho, Eliza, his squaw, and Cultis  John." This even split of white and Indian drovers was typical of  the drives in the 1860s. The Indians, aside from being wonderful  horsemen, also knew the country well and could converse with  most Natives encountered along the way.  Hazards were many. Cattle were frequently lost crossing rivers, especially the Columbia at Priest's Rapids and at the mouth of  the Okanogan. Splawn's group travelled up the opposite side of the  main river to avoid the two difficult crossings, but were instead  faced with precipitous cliffs where only one animal could pass at a  time. He recounts:  Along the shore below us were many canoe loads of Indians, all  eager and expectant. They were waiting in the hope that some of  the cattle would stumble and fall. The year before, it seems, a  band of cattle had passed that way and many had fallen over the  bluffs, the Indians getting the carcasses.  42 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  There were also steep slopes at the south end of Okanagan  Lake where cattle were lost. One of the major gold rush drovers,  Ben Snipes, lost several head on this stretch, watching in dismay as  his valuable cattle bounced down the slope and landed with a splash  in the lake.  A common problem encountered by drovers was having cattle wander off during the night. Most herds were allowed to drift  and graze on their own from dusk until dawn, drovers having not  yet realized the necessity for herders to circle the cattle through  the night and thus contain them. Myron Brown's diaries make frequent reference to finding cattle missing at the morning "gather"  and having to hunt for them before proceeding. Sometimes most  of the morning—or even a whole day—was lost while a search was  conducted for strays.  Certainly the oddest difficulty encountered on the trail was  one that Brown relates as he moved north from Lake Okanagan  towards Kamloops:  Wednesday October 7, 1868: After driving a mile or two, 3 camels  came up behind and took possession of the drove, as our horses  became unmanageable. I then changed horses and drove them off.  We then went on without further molestation and arrived in camp  a little below Duck's Lake having come 12 miles. Day cold and  smoky.  These camels were originally imported from the southern  USA for use as pack animals on the Cariboo Road. While they were  capable of carrying huge loads, they soon proved to be impractical,  as their feet were cut up by the rocky trails and roads. They had  the added disadvantage of spooking any cattle or horses that they  encountered, causing stampedes and runaways. The camels were  pronounced a failure and turned loose in the Grande Prairie (modern Westwold) area where Brown ran across them in 1868.  Life on the trail was far from glamorous. The drovers had to  put up with extremes in weather, dust raised by the hooves of hundreds of cattle, mosquitoes in clouds, and the tedium of day-after-  day in the saddle. Progress was slow, as most drovers preferred to  move at a leisurely pace and let the cattle graze as they travelled.  An average day saw about 12 miles covered. Given the fact that the  journey from The Dalles or Walla Walla to Barkerville was more  than 900 miles, the drives took up to 2 1/2 months to complete.  Having finished the drive, the drovers found themselves in the  middle of the British Columbia wilderness where the costs of even  the barest necessities were high and accommodations practically  non-existent. The only alternative was to turn around and start the  43 CATTLE DRIVES THROUGH THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  long trek home, either retracing their steps or travelling via the  Fraser River or Harrison-Lillooet route to the Coast, where a steamboat could be boarded for Oregon.  In spite of the hardships, the drovers' accounts and diaries  reflect a clear delight in the country and the lifestyle. For young  men, some away from home for the first time, the life was full of  interest and excitement. Brown frequently praised the beauty of  the countryside. As he waited to cross the Columbia River he remarked in his diary "This is a romantic place: high hills, rocks,  sand & water all in sight at once & when the wind blows, the sand  is the most prominent." Later on, as he travelled up the Okanagan  Valley, he was to write: "This is a nice place, mountains covered  with snow all around & beautiful valley covered with grass & flowers all in sight at once." His favourite spot seems to have been at  the head of Lake Okanagan: "Travelled over beautiful country.  Reached the head of the lake. Of all I have seen, I love this the best.  Tis the land of my choice. Oh here let me rest."  Many of the young men did stay to establish their own ranches  in the lush bunch grass areas of the Okanagan Valley and Thompson  and Bonaparte rivers. The cattle they brought to British Columbia  became the foundation herds for the province's beef industry. In  fact by 1869, with the declining market in the Cariboo, few cattle  were trailed into BC, the local ranchers being able to supply the  needs of the mining population. While drovers continued to bring  cattle into the province, primarily for the new mining centres in  the Kootenays, the era of the large-scale drives had passed into  history.  44 PRIEST CAMP: A TYPICAL  STOPPING PLACE ON THE  OKANAGAN BRIGADE TRAIL  David Gregory  The earliest known recorded history of the Okanagan Valley  describes the arrival of David Stuart of the Pacific Fur Company in the fall of 1811. Hence, while acknowledging that  the Valley's oldest cultural sites are aboriginal, its oldest "historic"  sites are those of the Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail and the encampments used by the fur traders.  Through the research of Harley Hatfield, F M. Buckland, Bob  Harris, Peter Tassie, Margaret Ormsby and others, a number of articles describe the location of the Brigade Trail. This article will  attempt to describe one of the resting places known as Priest Camp,  also known as Campement du Pretre, and Priest.  The Brigade Trail encampments often shared similar characteristics. They were picked for the shelter they afforded, with an  abundance of grasses (bunch grass) for the horses. They were usually within good hunting areas, often just off the main trail and  always close to water. Generally, overnight stops were made about  18 miles apart—one day's journey.  Priest Camp was located in the centre of the Okanagan Valley near the northern edge of present-day Summerland at Garnett  Lake. This site lay at the junction of two trails: the Garnett Valley  Trail and the Shingle Creek Trail. When this bivouac was in use,  two lakes existed, Garnett and Darke (both were named after settlers that arrived in the area between 1887 and 1900). Garnett Lake  is primarily fed by groundwater, ensuring a constant supply year-  round. The creek that drains Garnett Lake and flows into Okanagan  Lake was once called Nicolas River or Nicola River, after High Chief  Nicola (Hwistesmexqu'en). Today it is called Eneas Creek. Darke  David Gregory practises dentistry in Summerland and wishes he had more time  to pursue Okanagan history.  45 PRIEST CAMP  Lake was creek-fed. Early this century, Darke Lake's tributary was  diverted into Trout Creek and the lake no longer exists, though  another body of water nearby is known by the same name.  Some of the earliest maps of the Okanagan Valley show Priest  Camp. It was described on a draft map prepared by Hudson's Bay  Company chief trader Samuel Black titled "Thompson's River District" dated 1833. Black's map described the route of the Fur Bri-  "/  41 d/,.  Site of Priest Camp  A. Approximate site of Priest Camp  B. Garnett Lake  C. Darke Lake  D. T. J. Smith Mountain  E. Eneas Mountain  F. Trail to Shingle Creek  G. Lower Garnett Valley Trail  H. Upper Garnett Valley Trail  46 PRIEST CAMP  gade Trail, and also showed some of the encampments between  Fort Okanogan and Alexandria. Alexander Caulfield Anderson, also  employed by the Hudson's Bay Company, produced three maps  that described Priest Camp, two of which are quite similar. One is  untitled and the other is named "Map of a Portion of the Colony of  British Columbia between the years 1832 and 1861." Map number  two shown here is a modified (easier to read) version of the  Anderson original.  Anderson Map 1850-1860  Showing the Brigade Trail (dotted lines)  A. Campement du Petre (Priest Camp)  B. L'Arbre Seul (Lone Tree)  C. Prairie de Nicholas (now Summerland)  D. Riviere a la Truite (Trout Creek)  E. Riviere aux Serpens (Shingle Creek)  F. Riviere de Trepanier (Deep Creek)  G. Riviere de Jacques (Trepanier Creek)  H. Okanagan Lake  47 PRIEST CAMP  An interesting landmark on Anderson's map is LArbre Seul  (Lone Tree), following the practice of using distinctive trees as  markers along the Brigade Trail. LArbre Seul appears to be such a  marker on the route along Okanagan Lake before reaching Riviere  de Trepanier. Another tree that served as a reference point was at  Sunnyside (Westside). According to Garnett Valley pioneers, about  two-thirds along the Garnett Valley trail towards Garnett Lake was  the Meeting Tree, which was used by the Natives as a rendezvous  spot.  In May 1858 A. C. Anderson was commissioned to produce a  map titled "Showing the Different Routes of Communication with  the Gold Region on Fraser's River." This map was used by the California miners on their journey to the Cariboo gold fields. The document described many of the rivers of the Okanagan Valley, but  only one campsite was mentioned: Priests Encampement. The majority of the California miners used the Fraser River route to reach  the Cariboo, while a secondary route described on the Anderson  map utilized the Okanagan Brigade Trail. Californians such as John  Callbreath picked the Okanagan link and it is estimated that up to  500 treasure-seekers came this way. One additional map produced  by the United States government refers to Priest Camp. Also, an  1860 survey of northwest America included the southern portion  of present-day British Columbia, but the only Okanagan feature  mentioned was "Priest."  Two theories exist explaining the origin of the name Priest  Camp. When David Stuart and the Pacific Fur Company traders  first travelled up the Columbia River they encountered near Yakima  a series of seven rapids. Here, the fur traders witnessed a ceremony  being conducted by a native holy man. The ceremony resembled a  Roman Catholic service, suggesting the place be named Priest's  Rapids. The possibility exists that a similar holy man resided at  Garnett Lake.  A second theory claims that the Okanagan stopover was  named after Catholic priests that served in the area. Because this  site predates the arrival of Father Pandosy and the Oblates, these  priests must have been from the Society of Jesus (Jesuits). The  first Jesuit priest in the interior of British Columbia was Father  Giovanni Nobili (1812-1856). He also went by the name Jean or  John Nobili. He was given the responsibility for the New Caledonia Mission from 1845 to 1848. At least one of those three years  was spent primarily in the Okanagan Valley. Certainly on his journey through the Okanagan he would have stopped at Priest Camp,  and there is some speculation that Father Nobili started a mission  at that locality. Father Nobili founded the Okanagan's first mission,  that of San Jose (St. Joseph's), in May 1847. Father Anthony Goetz  48 PRIEST CAMP  arrived to assist Father Nobili in November 1847. The location of  the San Jose Mission continues to be locked in controversy. D. A.  Ross, writing in the 1960 Report, lays out a strong case that places  the mission near Head of the Lake. Other evidence points to a more  southerly location, perhaps Priest's Camp.  Following the gold seekers in 1858-60, a new settlement was  started by Father Pandosy—Okanagan Mission. Priest Camp continued to be used as a stopping place during cattle drives, both to  the north to supply railway construction camps, and to the west  along the trail to Vermillion Forks (Princeton) to provide victuals  for the Granite City miners. By now the Brigade Trail was an anachronism; settlement was spreading along the lower benches and lake  transportation, coupled with the development of wagon roads, was  condemning Priest Camp and its like to obscurity.  (The author extends special thanks to Harley Hatfield and Bob  Harris)  ON GOLDEN GROUND  An added attraction during the Society's annual deliberations at Osoyoos was  the dedication of the Fairview information kiosk on land that was once part of  the mine townsite.  49 CARMI AFFAIR  Submitted by Harley Hatfield  Around the turn of the century, when times were leisurely and  formal entertainment scarce, people made their own fun. Sometimes this took the form of practical jokes on their neighbours and  friends. The policeman with his innumerable duties reaching everyone in one way or another, was an obvious victim of the practical joke, particularly if he showed any sign of arrogance or self-  importance. The enclosed copy of one constable's report regarding  an incident in the small mining settlement of Carmi, is a good  illustration of how a lawman's leg could be pulled at times. This  report of a Carmi affair follows.  Provincial Constable's Office  Penticton, B.C.  24th December '07  E.C. Simmons Esquire.  Chief Constable,  Vernon, B.C.  Dear Sir: Re CARMI AFFAIR  In this case as you ordered, I went over there, and got what  information I could. I found that at one time in 1901 there were  140 people living there in about 40 buildings. When I got there,  there was not a solitary person in the place; the two remaining  inhabitants being away. So we went on down to Beaverdell five  miles, and found Mr. Smith and Dale. The following afternoon we  came back to Carmi and found there had been 5 cabins broken into  and nothing taken - in Mr. Smith's cabin (the post office) they had  upset things generally and some $14.00 was left in such a condition that Mr. Smith would know the persons who were in the place  and had seen it. From Mr. Dale's cabin they took some 9 plugs of  tobacco and left it in Mr. Smith's cabin; and so on. As far as I could  learn the only things gone were a pair of German socks and an old  jack knife, and I doubt very much that Mr. Smith or Dale are quite  sure that these things are really gone. There are just 10 people  living in the district. That is Messrs. Smith and Dale at Carmi, Mr.  Holmes 2' miles from Carmi, Mr. Collier one mile from Beaverdell  and Wheatley, Keith, Ketchum, McAulay, Smith and Cropley in  Harley Hatfield is a life member of the OHS. Of a Kaleden pioneer family, he  is a noted historian, speaker, author, and has worked tirelessly for the exploration  and preservation of the fur brigade trails.  50 CARMI AFFAIR  Beaverdell; and some 16 men working at the Sally Mine above  Beaverdell. These men at the prospect, had nothing to do with this  affair; they were all working - and these other people are all neighbours and good friends and not one of them would give me even a  hint that he suspected another except Mr. Smith who suspects  Wheatley and Holmes and all the others were just as sure that  Holmes and Wheatley had nothing to do with it.  There were 3 men from Phoenix, Matheson Bros, and Jackson  on a hunting trip. They camped at Collier's cabin one mile from  Beaverdell about this time. There was also 5 Indians came through  to here on 28th Nov. and may have camped at Carmi overnight.  Dale thinks the Indians may have done it. I doubt it. But they  were all so close mouthed that there was a small chance of getting  at the truth. Dale was away at Greenwood at the time and Smith,  who is a trapper, was away hunting. What I suspect, it was by way  of a joke and that Mr. Smith has made too much of it. Mr. Smith  thinks it was someone looking at his land records, etc. If it was,  why did not they apply to the Govt. Agent. Had they wanted to  take anything there was the money - rifles - clothes - tobacco or  grub, etc. Yet nothing was taken. This man Holmes, who Smith  suspects, is a thorough gentleman - an Englishman. I can't see nor  could I find out what object he could have in doing it.  These three campers from Phoenix may have done it for a  joke. One of the Mathesons is the postmaster and mayor of that  place and Jackson is a prospector and well known to both Dale and  Smith and the others and they all tell me that these men did not do  it.  When I say there was nothing taken I mean that I doubt if  Smith or Dale are really sure that anything is gone. Dale had $19.00  worth of chewing tobacco. He says there is 7 or 9 plugs gone and 2  boxes of 22 cartridges and an old pair of German socks. There was  3 rifles and all sorts of grub, blankets, etc. in his cabin, also in Smith's  and the other places. Yet nothing taken. Smith says he misses a  piece of clothes line, etc.  It may be these Indians know something. They live at  Westbank and were over there trapping for 6 weeks. I will as soon  as possible, report to you on what I can find out from them.  The Prov. Constable at Midway was there some days before  me. He may be able to give some further information.  Your obedient servant (signature missing).  Note: Carmi came under the jurisdiction of the Penticton provincial police office. The constable in April 1901 was J. A. Nesbitt. In May of 1906 he resigned and was replaced by  Jonathon Tooth, who was still serving there in December 1907, and I think for some years  more. In February, 1912, he was stationed at Kelowna. I believe he was killed in WWI.  Constable G. H. Aston seems to have been stationed in Penticton early in 1912, barely weeks  before he was murdered on board an Okanagan Lake steamboat. It therefore seems likely  the writer of the Carmi Affair was Constable Tooth.  51 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT  HORTICULTURIST  Michael G. Oswell  The Horticulture Branch of the British Columbia Department  of Agriculture no longer exists within the framework of the  present Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The  branch had a long history of service to the horticultural industries  of the province going back to 1892 when the Provincial Horticultural Board Act was passed by the legislature with the subsequent  establishment of the Horticultural Board. In the United States a  number of jurisdictions had created horticultural boards primarily  to help prevent the accidental importation of new insect pests and  diseases, and it appears BC had similar concerns. The act provided  for the appointment of an inspector of fruit pests that was to enforce the regulations of the board to check the spread of fruit pests  and diseases of trees and plants, and to provide pertinent information to horticultural producers.  Five districts were named in the act, but only three had significant horticultural production—Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland and the Upper Interior Mainland. The last district encompassed  the fruit-growing areas of Lytton, Spences Bridge, Kamloops, Salmon  Arm, Spallumcheen, Vernon/Coldstream and Mission Valley (all  lands from Kalamalka Lake in the north to the mountains south of  Okanagan Mission). Thomas G. Earl of Lytton was appointed to  represent the interior district. Other board members included R.  M. Palmer from Victoria and Thomas Cunningham from New Westminster. The Minister of Finance and Agriculture, J. H. Turner,  and the collector of agricultural statistics, J. R. Anderson, were respectively chairman and secretary. The board held its first meeting on June 24, 1892 in Victoria, at which time Ernest Hutcherson  was appointed Inspector of Fruit Pests. It appears Hutcherson was  expected to carry out his duties alone, as there is no mention of  any assistance.  Michael G. Oswell was born and raised on a farm in Rutland. After service in  the Royal Canadian Navy he graduated from the University of British Columbia  with a degree in agriculture. He joined the BC Department of Agriculture in 1950  and carried out the duties of a district horticulturist until 1966. After serving in  various other capacities, he was transferred to Victoria and retired in 1985 as an  assistant deputy minister.  52 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  On February 10, 1893 Hutcherson made a submission in the  1892 Department of Agriculture Annual Report. He indicated that he  had travelled extensively in the fruit-growing areas, bringing to the  attention of the growers the need to control insect pests. He said  there was also a need to provide information to growers on all aspects of fruit production. Hutcherson stated that he attended exhibitions in Kamloops and Vernon and undertook experimental work  in test Bordeaux mixtures on apples and pears for the control of  fungus. He set out plantings to test the suitability of various fruit  varieties which included Russian and new, hardy apple strains.  Tiny New Zealand played a big role in revolutionizing the Okanagan orchard industry. In 1957  the BCFGA sent a delegation Down Under to investigate bulk bin fruit gathering and other innovative practices, and it came home convinced it had seen the future. Within three years almost  every BC grower had adopted the new method. From left: Vern Ellison, Oyama, Stan Porritt,  Summerland, Don Sutherland, Kaleden, Frank Morton, district horticulturist at Kelowna. (Ellison  Collection, courtesy Vernon Museum & Archives)  The Department of Agriculture Act was passed in 1894 to  administer a number of acts affecting the farm population. Chief  among these were the Horticultural Board Act and the Contagious  Disease Act. The aims and objectives of the department were all-  encompassing, namely to encourage and promote agricultural development through the provision of advice, consultation, investigation, protection from insect pests and diseases and marketing.  The department had no staff except for J. R. Anderson and two  inspectors, and had to rely on individuals and farm organizations  to supply information on crop production and growing conditions.  53 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  The 1895 annual report showed that some changes had taken  place in the Provincial Board of Horticulture. Hutcherson had resigned and was replaced by R. M. Palmer as Inspector of Fruit Pests.  Quarantine officers were appointed and those in the Okanagan  included Herbert Francis Denison of Vernon and C. A. R. Lambly  of Osoyoos. The annual report stated that progress was being made  in providing instruction in practical orchard work and that a great  deal of interest had been aroused. A concerted effort continued to  be made to prevent the introduction of codling moth and San Jose  scale. Inspection of nursery stock coming into the province was a  high priority.  In 1898 Palmer reported that he visited the fruit-growing areas of BC where the presence of insect pests and diseases of fruit  and fruit trees were noted and treatments advised. Advice was given  on pruning, selection of varieties, cultivation and fertilization. His  report commented on the growing conditions, including frosts, rainfall and conditions at blossom time, which affected fruit set and  the size and condition of the crop.  R. G. Tatlow became Minister of Finance and Agriculture in  1903 and commenced to reorganize the agriculture branch "with a  positive policy." Farmers' institutes had been organized in 1897 and  became closely associated with the activities of the department.  With the passage of the Farmers' Institute Act in 1897, institutes  were established in farming communities throughout the province  to promote agriculture and identify needs that would contribute  toward a viable agricultural industry. Each year delegates from the  various institutes would meet as an advisory board with Anderson,  who had been appointed deputy minister. Resolutions from the  institutes would be presented and discussed and from these deliberations advice on legislation and related matters of concern to  the farming community would be referred to the minister.  In the 1905 Sessional Papers there are lengthy reports from  the farmers' institutes and from the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association. Among the many resolutions that made up the  reports was one from James Evans of Salmon Arm, who asked for  additional inspectors in the Okanagan. Evans argued it was impossible for one man to cover the province, particularly with newcomers from the Prairies taking up land, planting fruit trees and not  having any idea of orchard management. Another resolution was  directed to the Dominion government requesting the establishment  of an experimental farm in the upper country known as the Dry  Belt. This resolution passed unanimously, but there was some disagreement on where the station should be located.  54 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  In the years up to 1909 instruction to fruit growers continued  under the leadership of Palmer and experienced growers. Subjects  covered included insect pest and disease control, conservation of  soil moisture, marketing, suitable varieties and practical orchard  management. In 1910 a new deputy minister, William E. Scott, was  appointed and as a result of constant pressure from the farming  community, the department increased staff. R. M. Winslow was  appointed Provincial Horticulturist with a staff consisting of Ben  Hoy, Thomas Cunningham, W H. Lyne and M. S. Middleton. By  1915 the horticultural branch in the interior had grown to a staff of  seven, including M. S. Middleton, Nelson; Ben Hoy, Vernon; H. T.  Thornber, Kamloops; P. E. French, Salmon Arm, and Edwin Smith,  Summerland, as a cold storage and pre-cooling investigator. The  work of the horticulturists was primarily educational—visiting orchards, conducting practical demonstrations, advising growers on  suitable orchard sites, varieties to plant, cultural practices and the  packing and grading of fruit. There were 10 demonstration orchards  of five acres each, and six experimental orchards established  amongst the fruit-growing locales. Branch employees were responsible for collecting horticultural statistics and crop reports, and  preparing circulars and bulletins dealing with all phases of horticulture. In co-operation with Thomas Cunningham, Inspector of  Fruit Pests, the horticulturists spent a great deal of effort in reducing the chance of infection from outside the Okanagan Valley  through inspection of nurseries and imported stock. Orchards were  monitored to reduce the incidence of fire blight, which could be a  very destructive disease. Ben Hoy conducted a tomato production  survey, as it was believed the Okanagan Valley held good potential  for large-scale tomato cultivation.  The horticultural branch continued to expand after the First  World War as new land was developed for fruit production, particularly in the South Okanagan where irrigation water had been made  available in the Oliver and Osoyoos areas. In addition, returning  veterans short on fruit-growing experience sought assistance from  the branch. Additions to staff, transfers and resignations were noted  during this period. Middleton became Provincial Horticulturist for  a short period, later to become district horticulturist at Vernon. W.  T. Hunter, who was district horticulturist in Vernon, resigned in  1923 to become the second director of the newly-established Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland. Other appointments  included E. C. Hunt, Nelson; H. H. Evans, R. A. Newman, Vernon;  C. R. Barlow, Salmon Arm; Ben Hoy, T. M. Anderson, Kelowna;  John Tait, Summerland. A. J. Mann, Penticton, subsequently resigned to join the Dominion experimental farm and was replaced  by R. P. Murray. Other personnel included H. S. French, Penticton;  55 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Paul Black, Grand Forks, and C. B. Tvvigg, Creston. This complement remained in place throughout the 1920-40 period, except for  one or two resignations. W T. Baverstock, a former branch technician, became district horticulturist at Vernon in the 1940s.  Between 1920 and the 1940s the activities of the branch continued to serve the needs of the province. In spite of vigilant attention the codling moth gained a foothold in the Okanagan and rapidly became a major apple pest. Considerable time was spent in  inspection and pest control work. Pruning and packing schools,  demonstrations, lectures to farm organizations and orchard visits  took up most of the time. Preparation of semi-monthly district newsletters and crop estimating started in the 1920s. Other duties for  the field staff included inspection of potatoes for export, tree-fruit  nursery inspection, horticultural crop demonstrations, judging at  fairs and flower shows and writing technical bulletins and newspaper articles.  As the 1940s drew to a close, many members of the horticultural branch staff had served for 30 to 40 years and were now retired or approaching superannuation. In a five-year period from  1946 to 1951 the "old guard" had either retired or moved to supervisory positions in Kelowna or Victoria. Newcomers, many of whom  were veterans of the Second World War and recent university graduates, were appointed to fill the vacancies.  Off to Penticton  I was appointed assistant district horticulturist in Penticton  December 1, 1950, after spending the summer with the branch in  the Fraser Valley. I reported to the Penticton office and met Bob  Murray and his assistant, Graham Comley. The Penticton district  included the fruit-growing areas of Naramata, Penticton, Kaleden,  Keremeos and Cawston. The Cawston benches prior to 1950 had  been rangeland and for the most part covered with sagebrush. Under  the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act water from Similkameen River  was brought to the benches and the land was opened for applicants  under the Veterans Land Act (VLA). This resulted in a large number  of new farmers in the area, most of whom planted orchards.  The winter of 1949-50 was considered to be the coldest in 50  years and the low temperatures killed large numbers of fruit trees  throughout the Okanagan-Shuswap regions. The loss of production  was a concern of both the industry and the Department of Agriculture, with 31.8 percent of the apple trees and 33 percent of the  peach trees wiped out. Mortality for other species ranged between  five and 11 percent. The Lytton-Chase area, which lost 54 percent  of trees per orchard, was the most heavily damaged, with other  losses running from 11 to 37 percent. At the time I joined the hor-  56 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Mike Oswell (left) demonstrating the DeWitt wetness recorder to the late Ivor Moen, after the  device was installed in the Moen orchard on North Broadview, Salmon Arm. (Vernon News photograph)  ticultural branch, the fruit industry was overcast with a pall of pessimism, as orchardists tallied up their losses and contemplated what  replacements to plant.  My introduction to field work was to go with Bob Murray one  cold December day to give Dick Stocks, a Kaleden orchardist, a  pruning demonstration in his young apricot orchard. We were shown  various pruning and shaping techniques and Bob then turned the  pruning equipment over to Dick and me and we spent the next  hour shaping trees under Bob's keen eye. Several days later we  visited George Darters at Naramata where there was a lot of winter  injury, together with many old Northern Spy, Common Delicious  and Stayman apple trees that were bringing poor returns. We spent  the afternoon going over a replanting plan that would eventually  make the orchard more profitable.  During the following weeks I helped Graham Comley spread  fertilizer on plots that were set out in three prune orchards in different parts of the district. Many growers were having problems  sizing Italian prunes and it was assumed the cause was nutritional.  Several chemical fertilizers and large quantities of organic matter  57 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  in the form of sawdust and manure were applied to blocks of eight  trees. These plots were in the Barker orchard in Keremeos, the  Harris orchard in Penticton and the Orr orchard in Naramata.  My first year passed quickly. Besides meeting with office visitors and making orchard calls, I assisted in some demonstration  work. One project was with Dr. Don Fisher, from the experimental  farm, conducting apple blossom thinning trials in Naramata and  Penticton. There were also some trials utilizing colour set sprays  on Mcintosh and Delicious blocks in several orchards. I also conducted a lima bean variety trial on Charlie Finch's farm in Cawston.  Other assignments included inspecting potato fields in the  South Okanagan-Similkameen looking for the Colorado beetle. This  was a serious economic pest in the United States. We wanted to  ensure that it did not become established in the province. After  three weeks of visiting every potato field regardless of size, I found  one adult beetle near the US border in Osoyoos. If a beetle was  found the grower was obliged to spray the field with DDT and have  it re-inspected.  In 1951 the staff changeover had been completed. The following table provides the names, designation and location of staff  during this period.  Kamloops, Bob Wilson, DH; Salmon Arm, Maurice  Trumpour, DH, (transferred to Penticton in 1951); Vernon, Bill  Baverstock, DH; Ian Carne, A/DH, (transferred to Salmon Arm in  1951), Kelowna, Ben Hoy, supervising horticulturist, (promoted  Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, in 1950); John Smith, DH; Frank  Morton, A/DH; Summerland, Alex Watt, DH; Penticton, Bob  Murray, DH, (promoted supervising horticulturist, Kelowna, in  1951); Graham Comley, A/DH, (transferred to Vernon and subsequently resigned in 1951); Mike Oswell, A/DH, (transferred to  Vernon in 1951); Oliver, Don Allan, DH; Nelson, Ted Swales, DH;  Creston, Gordon Thorpe, DH. (DH denotes district horticulturist;  A/DH, assistant district horticulturist).  In 1952 A. C. Carter was appointed assistant horticulturist in  Penticton and in 1953 E. M. King was named vegetable specialist  and posted to Kelowna.  Research-Extension  As my first year with the horticultural branch came to a close,  I began to appreciate that we served through a spirit of co-operation with research agencies and the industry.  58 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Summerland Experimental Farm had been established many  years, undertaking innovative research into all matters affecting  the Okanagan fruit and vegetable industries. It was the responsibility of the district horticulturists to take the results of research and  extend them to the horticulture industry. The methods used to  impart this information embodied various techniques, including  field scale demonstrations, group meetings, personal consultations,  field days, radio and television broadcasts and articles for magazines and newspapers.  One of the major points of interaction between the research  station and the horticultural branch was through meetings of the  Okanagan Agricultural Club, which brought together several times  a year all the professionals working in agriculture in the Okanagan  and Kootenay regions. Reports on current research and the status  of specific projects were presented at these meetings. The agricultural club did most of its work by committee, which resulted in  recommendations to the industry. The BCFGA was represented on  most committees, including those for the spray calendar, tree fruit  variety, reclamation, vegetable crops and the Chautauqua. The spray  calendar committee, of major importance, convened meetings with  entomologists, plant pathologists, the BCFGA and the chemical industry to assemble information that would be the basis for the following year's tree fruit spray program.  Transfer to Vernon  I was transferred to Vernon in December, 1951. Our offices  were in the south basement of the Vernon courthouse. Bill  Baverstock was the district horticulturist and I shared an office with  district agriculturist Jack Caplette. Eve Forrest was the stenographer. Across the hall, Chet Neilson, provincial entomologist, and  John Corner, provincial apiarist, along with stenographer Margo  Skene, had their offices. The Vernon Horticultural District included  Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon-Coldstream, Oyama, Winfield-  Okanagan Centre, west side of Okanagan Lake to Nahun, and the  north Arrow Lakes to Nakusp.  My first assignment was to undertake a tree-fruit survey. It  had been the policy of the horticultural branch since 1920 to conduct a survey of all orchards in the fruit-growing areas every five  years. The last survey was held in the winter of 1949-50, but because of the tree loss during January and February of 1950, a new  survey was initiated in November 1951.  At completion there were 687 growers and 6,879 acres of orchard recorded in the Vernon Horticultural District. There were  quite a number of orchards changing hands, as many of the older  59 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  growers were either selling to their sons or to newcomers. Many of  these newcomers bought their orchards through the VLA and although most of the new growers had some previous orchard experience, there were some that were very green.  Grasshopper Control  In the spring of 1952 many Vernon ranchers were becoming  increasingly concerned over the buildup of grasshopper populations.  The department of agriculture had a program whereby funds could  be made available to a local group to undertake grasshopper control measures. These funds were administered through the entomology branch under the direction of Chet Neilson. However, a  member of our department had to be secretary of the Grasshopper  Committee and I was given the job. Tierney O'Keefe of the O'Keefe  Ranch was chairman, with Bill Osborne from the Coldstream Ranch,  Phil French, a rancher in the BX, and Henry Rottacher, from  Okanagan Landing, as members of the committee. Bud Anderson  was hired to spray the heavily-infected areas. He used a wartime  Jeep fitted out with a tank and nozzles to navigate the roughest  terrain. I went with him on several occasions and it was rather a  hair-raising experience driving down steep hills with a full 200-  gallon tank behind and not knowing the mechanical soundness of  the old Jeep. This program lasted only one year, as the grasshopper cycle began to enter its waning stage.  The Fruit Growers  As in most other areas of the Okanagan there was a mix of  age groups, with many young people taking over their parents' orchards. Most producers relied on the district horticulturist for a  wide range of advice, particularly during the growing season.  The district was blessed with many leaders, not only in the  adoption of new technology, but also with those that served in various positions in industry. Names that come to mind include Tom  Towgood, Jim Kidston, Sid Land, John Kosty, Bill Osborne, Mel  Kawano, Allan Claridge, Harry Byatt, Jim Davidson, Fred Marshall,  Louis van Roechoudt, Doug Glover and, later, when the Salmon  Arm district came under the Vernon office, Jim Campbell, who  was a long-time chairman of the BC Fruit Board. Although the average orchard was around 10 acres, there were a number of large  operations, including Vernon Orchards Limited, Coldstream Ranch,  Allinghams in Oyama and the Marshall family, with extensive acreages in the Winfield-Okanagan Centre area.  60 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Orchard tour, Summerland Experimental Farm, 1965. Persons in the foreground, from left: John  Kosty, Coldstream, the author, Dr. Charlie Strachan, director of Summerland Experimental Farm,  Charlie Carter, provincial horticulturist, Victoria, Dr. Jack Wilcox, head of soils and irrigation at  the research station. (Canada Agriculture)  There were many able individuals that served the fruit industry for many years. Attending the B. C. Fruit Growers' convention one could not fail to be impressed by the oratory skills of the  delegates and the searching questions that were put to the staff of  B. C. Tree Fruits Ltd. and B. C. Fruit Processors Ltd. At my first  convention in 1951, Ivor Newman was head of the BCFGA, to be  succeeded the next year by Arthur Garrish, who held this position  until 1965. It appeared to me it was a real test of Garrish's chairmanship skills to keep the meeting on track and on time. With  some delegates glued almost permanently to the floor microphone  the rhetoric seemed to go on forever, until Garrish would finally  interject and usually say, "This is all very interesting, but it seems  to me that you have made your point and gone far beyond and I  am now going to ask for the question." If anyone ever challenged  his ruling he would look over his glasses perched on the end of his  nose under bushy eyebrows and tell the intervener he was out of  order and to sit down, as the question had been called. And that  was that.  I also remember J. B. (Babe) Lander, sales manager of B. C.  Tree Fruits, rolling his eyes at a packed meeting as he gave an  optimistic report on sales, even though it was not a good financial  year for the growers. He was a master at disarming the "lynch mob"  with his oratory and facial expressions. At the end he got a standing ovation from the delegates, some of whom had been after his  blood. In 1965 Garrish resigned as chairman and Allan Claridge  61 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  was named to succeed him. Claridge was totally dedicated to the  industry and was often away from his orchard for long periods attending to fruit-related affairs.  Tree Fruit Production  I recall that one of the major grower concerns was the matter  of orchard renovation. In the 1950s many orchardists were faced  with having large Mcintosh trees in excess of 30 years of age producing fruit of which only a small percentage would qualify as extra fancy. Similarly, there were old Common Delicious trees, many  showing winter injury, producing poor fruit, as well as other varieties such as Duchess, Wealthy, Stayman and the common strains of  Rome Beauty and Winesap, which did not find favour on the market. Consumers preferred the red strains of Mcintosh, Delicious,  Rome Beauty and Winesap—along with Spartan and Golden Delicious—and paid premium prices for high-quality fruit. In the 1950s  a few growers were showing interest in the use of dwarfing root-  stocks which would ultimately produce a smaller tree. The root-  stocks were the East Mailing and Mailing Merton series that were  used extensively in Europe and had been tested by the experimental farm at Summerland. Most Okanagan apples were grown on  standard rootstocks that produced a tree in excess of 20 feet high,  averaging 30 to 40 trees per acre, which were costly to manage in  terms of pruning, thinning, spraying and picking.  During this period growers undertook orchard renovations  and many considered planting semi-dwarf rootstocks that were  budded to the red strains of Mcintosh, Delicious, Rome Beauty,  Winesap, Spartans and Golden Delicious. Okanagan Centre's Louis  van Roechoudt, who had had orchard experience in Belgium, pioneered the planting of dwarf rootstocks. He used the East Mailing  (EM) II, IV, VII and IX rootstocks. He planted the EM IX rootstocks,  which were budded to Spartan, Red Delicious and Golden Delicious varieties, and were trained on an espalier system attached to  wires and posts. Three years after planting the EM IXs were producing fruit and by five years full production was being achieved.  Another pioneer in the planting of dwarfing rootstocks was Jim  Kidston, in the Coldstream.  The downside of orchard renovation was the cost and loss of  income. The usual practice was to interplant amongst the old trees  and still take a crop off while the young trees were coming into  bearing. In order to do this the orchardist had either to remove  every other row or prune the old trees back heavily, both ways, to  get sufficient sunlight to the young trees. However, if dwarfing root-  stocks were to be used, interplanting was not feasible as the spac-  62 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  ing distances were quite different. EM lis, for instance, were planted  20 feet apart, requiring over 100 trees per acre; the planting density on the other dwarf rootstocks was much higher. This necessitated the removal of blocks of old standard trees with the subsequent loss of income while waiting for the new trees to bear. Those  who "bit the bullet" came out best in the long run, producing high-  quality fruit at lower cost. The red strains of Mcintosh and Delicious, as well as Spartan and Golden Delicious, were the varieties  generally planted; most would be on EM II rootstocks. While waiting for their orchards to mature growers found jobs as packing house  workers, fruit inspectors, drove school bus, sold real estate and generally performed any work that might be available.  Information on insect pest and disease control was the most-  frequent request during the growing season. Codling moth was still  a major pest, but with the introduction of DDT in the late 1940s,  damage from this insect was greatly reduced by following a rigid  spray schedule. There are generally two broods of codling moth  each season, with the first occurring in May and June and the second in late July. The sprays were called cover sprays and generally  applied three times, 10 days apart. Two applications were made for  the second brood. Although DDT was effective for codling moth, it  killed a lot of beneficial insects, many of which preyed on other  harmful insects. Other insects which were difficult to control were  the green aphid and various species of mites. To combat these, a  group of chemicals known as organic phosphates was introduced  as control agents. The first of these went under the generic name  of Parathion, followed by Malathion. The spray committee of the  Okanagan Agricultural Club recognized the serious danger of poisoning to anyone working with the agents within 24 hours of application and concerted efforts were made to warn users of the potential danger of Parathion, with the admonition that gas masks, rubber gloves and protective clothing must be worn.  Vegetable Production  The Vernon district produced a wide range of vegetable crops.  These crops were sent to the fresh market by packing houses or  through one of two canneries—Bulman's in Vernon or Canadian  Canners in Penticton. Packing houses around Vernon in the early  '50s included Vernon Fruit Union with divisions in Vernon, Oyama,  Woodsdale and Winfield; British Columbia Fruit Shippers in Vernon  and Oyama; MacDonald and Sons, Unity Fruit, Vernon Orchards,  Coldstream Ranch and Dolph Browne. The Winoka packing house  was located in Okanagan Centre.  63 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Most of the vegetables were grown by farmers of Japanese  descent, having their fields in the Bella Vista area, with many renting additional land on the fertile North Okanagan Indian Reserve.  Other growing areas included the BX, Coldstream, the west side of  Swan Lake and parts of the Armstrong district. Large blocks of organic soils were located just north of the City of Armstrong and  were cultivated by Chinese farmers. This productive land yielded  lettuce, celery, bunching onions, beets and parsnips. Many of the  Japanese farmers had greenhouses in which they grew hothouse  tomatoes and seedlings of cabbage, cauliflower, peppers and tomatoes for setting out in the spring.  The vegetable growers largely depended upon information  as to what varieties to grow, based on market demand, from Jack  James, fieldman for the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board. Don  Weatherill, fieldman for Bulman's Cannery, arranged contracts to  supply various crops for processing. The Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, whose chairman was Vernon's Bernard Pow, would  hold information meetings in January of each year in the vegetable growing areas of the Okanagan.  A significant part of the province's asparagus acreage was  cultivated in the Armstrong area under dry-land farming conditions with the total crop going to processors for canning. During  the 1950s an acreage expansion was taking place with plantings of  the Mary Washington variety. Getting sufficient picking labour was  an ongoing problem. Walter Johnson, who farmed north of  Armstrong, had 30 acres of asparagus and built a moving platform  on which six pickers lay prone while being pulled by a tractor over  the field. He soon found that he had no problem with pickers that  did not have to bend over to snap off the stalks hours at a time.  The branch was doing some demonstration work in the  Vernon district on vegetable crops, including fertilizer trials on  onions at the Harry Uigye farm in the BX and on asparagus at Walter  Johnson's and at the Woodcock farm at Okanagan Landing. Potato  variety and fertilizer trials were conducted on the Calder  Goodenough farm in Lavington and on the Rusty Freeze farm at  Heywoods Corner. Extensive testing of different herbicides on asparagus fields to control annual weeds was undertaken for several  years.  Maurie King was named vegetable specialist in 1953, and with  this appointment greater effort was made to provide answers to  the many cultural problems facing the industry. One of the first  problems tackled was tomato production. There were canneries in  Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton and Summerland. Historically, tomatoes made up the greatest volume of vegetables processed by the Okanagan-Mainline canneries. However, production  64 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  was beginning to decline in the 1950s and had reached the point  where canneries were scrambling to get sufficient volumes to process. The decline was attributed to disease—primarily verticillium  wilt—unsuitable varieties, poor cultural practices, high production  costs in relation to the low returns and competition from lower-  cost production areas in Canada, namely Ontario.  If tomato production was to continue in the Okanagan a concerted effort by industry, government agencies and growers was  needed. Without going into details, the approach taken was to demonstrate the effectiveness of recommended cultural practices such  as crop rotation, use of green manure and fertilization. In some  earlier demonstrations established in the 1950s on the farm of Mits  Ikeda in Bella Vista and elsewhere, it was shown that prescribed  management techniques would work. The industry provided funds  to hire a summer student and generally underwrote the project. In  spite of these efforts it was economics that finally killed large-scale  tomato production in the Okanagan-Mainline.  Potatoes constituted another important crop. The Coldstream,  Lavington, Armstrong and Salmon River Valley were the major  growing locales. Grandview Flats, a dry farming area, produced  early potatoes as well as watermelon and canteloupe. The Lloyd  Rittenhouse farm on Otter Lake Road produced many vegetables,  including spinach, carrots and beets for Bulman's cannery.  Innovations  In the early 1950s many technological advances were being  adopted at the orchard level, perhaps the greatest number in a relatively short period since the start of fruit growing in the Okanagan.  Labour costs were an important concern to the orchardists and ways  and means to reduce the time and effort required to operate an  orchard were of paramount interest. Sprinkler irrigation had taken  over from the furrow method by 1950 and proved to be a much  more efficient way to distribute water. However, the science of water  application and the amount needed for the various soil types were  notbeing adhered to, with the result—in many cases—that too much  water was being applied. Dr. Jack Wilcox of the Summerland Experimental Farm did a lot of work in association with the district  horticulturists and members of the Soils Branch, particularly Craig  Brownlee, in making the orchardists aware of the proper way to  irrigate.  Another technological advance rapidly adopted by the industry was the automatic spray machine. Previous to this innovation  orchards were sprayed by hand using long hoses attached to a 400-  gallon tank equipped with an engine to run the pump and the tank  65 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  agitator. It was generally a three-man job—two on the hoses and  one on the tractor—and it was a slow, dirty business. Through the  work of Dr. Jim Marshall, head of the entomology laboratory at  Summerland, the automatic air blast concentrate sprayer was developed. It could be pulled by a tractor, having the advantage of  being operated by one man and could cover an orchard in a fraction of the time it took the conventional handgun setup.  It seemed to me Dr. Marshall did more to stimulate new ideas  in the orchard industry than anyone else. On a visit to New Zealand around 1955 he observed orchardists were gathering apples  into large bins, rather than bushel boxes, as was the custom in North  America. He convinced the BCFGA to send a delegation to New  Zealand to look at orchard practices with a view to adapting superior methods to the Okanagan. Frank Morton, district horticulturist at Kelowna, was selected to represent the branch and along with  several fruit growers he spent several weeks Down Under touring  orchards and processing facilities. As a result of this trip the delegation felt that New Zealand ways of doing things had a direct  application in British Columbia. One immediate result was the fabrication of prototype bulk bins designed to hold 1,000 pounds of  apples. In order to efficiently handle the large containers growers  had to install a hydraulic forklift on their tractors and the packers  had to adapt their dumping table on the grading and packing line.  Within three years the whole industry had turned over to the bulk  handling of fruit. Bins were used not only for apples and pears, but  also shallower models were built for soft fruit. The New Zealand  delegation also came back with innovative ideas for the packing  houses. One was the dumping of fruit into a water bath at the beginning of the line, which resulted in far less bruising.  Pesticide Concerns  It was the mid-1950s when the codling moth began to show  signs of being resistant to DDT. Dr. Marshall recognized that insect  tolerance to DDT had become a problem in other parts of the world,  too, and with the evolution of pesticide-resistant insects a new  method of control must be developed. With respect to the codling  moth, he proposed using the male sterile technique that had been  tried successfully on similar insects. It is interesting to note as I  write this in 1996 that 40 years after Dr. Marshall's proposal and  subsequent experiments, the technique is now being applied in  the South Okanagan.  About this time a new movement emerged, particularly in  North America, which voiced deep concern on what was happening to the environment. One of the early warnings was sounded  by Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring, in which she deplored  66 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  the excessive use of pesticides. After reading her book one could  not help but look around and see we were indeed living in a chemical world and harmful things were happening. Pesticides such as  aldrin and dieldrin that were directed against wireworms, cutworms  and other pests were showing up in the crops that were planted in  the treated soil. Many of the pesticides that were being used in the  orchards had a wide spectrum of control, not only curbing the target insects, but destroying the beneficial ones as well. There was a  loss of birds throughout the Valley, notably pheasants. Beekeepers,  many of whom provided hives in the orchards, also suffered losses.  Integrated Pest Control  From that point on, a new approach to insect and disease  control was initiated by introducing pesticides that were more specific, and growers "learned to live" with an insect population until  it reached a threshold where economic damage would occur. This  resulted in a lot more orchard visits by the district horticulturists,  since a concerned grower was not sure whether an insect had  reached the economic threshold and a spray had to be applied.  This new approach reduced the number of spray applications and  still produced a crop free from insect damage.  Apple scab figured prominently in the North Okanagan, affecting most varieties, but especially the Mcintosh. Traditional lime  sulphur sprays were applied, tied into tree bud and blossom development that coincided with maturity and release of scab spores.  Lime sulphur was a protectant applied before infection could take  place. In the late 1950s new products were developed, viz. Diclone  and Cyprex, which acted as an eradicant and a protectant against  apple scab. These products were tested by the district horticulturists and proved effective. Now fruit growers need only apply a fungicide if an infection took place after a rain. This decreased the  number of sprays required to check this disease. Most offices installed a rain gauge and an instrument called the DeWitt Wetness  Recorder for measuring the duration of a rain to determine when  an apple scab infection period had taken place.  Television - Okanagan Farm and Garden  Television arrived in the Okanagan in September 1957 and in  the spring of 1958 Roy Chapman, general manager of CHBC, offered 15 minutes of broadcast time to the branch each week. John  Smith, the supervising horticulturist, asked me to host the program.  TV was live in those days, with no opportunity to correct errors  67 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  and inappropriate choice of words. The program was called  Okanagan Farm and Garden, so as to appeal to a wide audience,  and it was televised Friday evening at six.  The format initially gave current insect and disease control  information, which would take seven or eight minutes, and for the  time remaining a guest would be interviewed on a specific subject.  The first three segments went well, causing CHBC to request that  we expand the show to 30 minutes, which I agreed to do. The program must have been saleable as we now had a sponsor. I was able  to use 35 millimetre colour slides projected on to the screen and  these provided most of the visuals.  Guests discussed such diverse subjects as dwarfing rootstocks,  the home vegetable garden, care of lawns, soils, landscaping, sheep  production, the 4-H program, weed control and orchard renovation. We brought animals into the studio. Dr. Jim Miltimore was  doing research into the causes of bloat in cattle and came with a  dairy cow from the research station at Summerland that had a fistula (window) installed in its side. Live chickens, sheep and goats  were also featured at one time or another.  I hosted Okanagan Farm and Garden for the first year, after  which it was taken over by Bob Wilson, who had been transferred  to Kelowna from Salmon Arm. This became a full-time assignment,  along with having a similar weekly television program at Kamloops.  When Bob Wilson was relocated, the Salmon Arm district was assigned to the Vernon office.  Television proved to be a good way to reach a wide audience  efficiently. Historically, meetings and field days were the methods  used to disseminate information. The annual winter chautauqua  meeting played a key role in branch-grower relations. Two teams  consisting of two speakers made two appearances daily, commencing in Osoyoos and Oliver and finishing 10 days later in Salmon  Arm and Kamloops. In 1963 the chautauqua program came to  television and was called the Chesterfield Chautauqua and it met  with good response. Growers could phone in questions and have  them answered on the air. The following year it was repeated under a similar format and called the Sunrise Chautauqua; again it  was well received.  Fall Fairs and Flower Shows  Another duty of the district horticulturist was judging exhibits at fall fairs and summer flower shows. Flower shows were staged  in many parts of the Okanagan by local garden clubs. I participated  in the judging of fruit and vegetable exhibits at Armstrong, Salmon  Arm, Grindrod, and many other locales.  68 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Sam Hamilton operated a farm on the Commonage Road,  south of Vernon. He specialized in growing gladioli and in the summer his fields were alive with colour. In the winter he would sort,  package and ship the corms in many varieties to market. Sam was  the resident gladioli expert and he was always in demand as a judge  at fairs and flower shows. I accompanied him to many shows each  summer, when we would share the judging duties.  Each year I was invited to judge the Nakusp Women's Institute summer flower show. This required an overnight trip, but on  the way I would stop at Edgewood, Needles, Fauquier, Arrow Park  and a number of other communities where there were orchards  and I could do some extension work. Many of these farms are now  history and in the name of progress most disappeared with the  construction of the High Arrow Dam.  Chris Spicer and his family moved to Nakusp in the mid-'50s  and developed a thriving vegetable farm on some peat soils near  the town. The Spicers immigrated from England and after looking  at various locations in Canada discovered this piece of land. They  grew a variety of vegetable crops and marketed not only locally but  throughout the West Kootenays. Chris was always ready to seek  information on all aspects of vegetable production. I visited him  twice a year, once in the early spring and again in August at the  time of the flower show. Unfortunately, the Spicer farm was flooded  by the High Arrow and this productive land was lost forever.  By the early 1960s the department made a policy that staff  was to no longer judge at flower shows and fairs. To fill the void,  the horticultural branch put on judging schools and before long  there was a list of qualified persons upon whom the fall fairs and  flower shows could call upon.  Staff Changes  When I came to Vernon in 1952 Jack Caplette was district  agriculturist. He resigned the following year and was succeeded by  Dick Berry. After several years Rod Bailey came to Vernon as district agriculturist, to be succeeded by Jim Ryder. In 1953 Herb  Gasperdone was appointed poultry specialist and Jack Arrand joined  the entomology branch in 1957. Both worked in the Vernon office.  John Moisey was appointed plant pathologist in 1960 and was stationed at Kelowna. Dr. Jim Clapp was named district veterinarian  at Vernon in 1962 and in 1964 Ken May was transferred from Victoria to assume the role of regional agricultural engineer. In 1962  Chet Neilson was transferred to Victoria.  69 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  In 1958 Bob Murray retired as Provincial Horticulturist to be  succeeded by Charlie Carter. In 1959 Bill Baverstock retired and I  was appointed district horticulturist. Next spring Brian Hodge, recent graduate from the University of North Dakota and a native of  Winnipeg, was appointed assistant district horticulturist at Vernon.  With the inclusion of Salmon Arm, there were an additional  150 tree-fruit growers and over 1,000 acres of orchard and some 25  growers of strawberries and raspberries to serve. A routine was  established whereby Monday and Friday were set aside as office  days and for attending to farm calls in the Vernon area. Tuesday  and Thursday were the days scheduled for Oyama, Winfield and  Okanagan Centre where requests for orchard calls would be routed  through the local packing houses. Wednesday was scheduled for  Salmon Arm where requests for farm calls were handled by the  office of district agriculturist Des Hazlette.  Small Fruit Production  In the late 1950s the small fruit industry in the Salmon Arm  area was languishing. Most of the fruit was produced under dry  farming conditions. The standard strawberry variety, British Sovereign, was badly infected with viruses and, coupled with the ravages of strawberry root weevil and to some extent red stele, the  growers were having a difficult time. Berries that were historically  grown in Salmon Arm and Magna Bay were shipped to the prairie  market by overnight train service. This production had declined to  the point where there was barely enough fruit to meet the local  demand. Many growers were now using some of the new varieties,  such as Puget Beauty, which were coming from the virus-free program initiated in the Lower Mainland. Variety trials were established and the use of sawdust and/or straw along the rows to retain  moisture was tested. Farms owned by Mike Nakagawa, Chris  Jesperson and Leo Ricks were utilized for these demonstrations.  The strawberry root weevil continued to be a problem, as there  was not satisfactory chemical control. I was able to locate a grower  that was willing to raise virus-free plants, so there was now a local  supply. Field days were held annually and there appeared to be  increased interest from Sorrento to Sicamous in growing strawberries. Acreage gradually increased to the point where the growers  formed an organization to ship their berries to Calgary by refrigerator truck. This lasted several years, until it reached the point  where freight costs exceeded sales returns. And as there was no  quality control, many flats reached Calgary in poor condition. By  the mid-'60s all the Shuswap berries were being sold locally, mostly  on a you-pick basis. Most of the Magna Bay farms reverted to forage.  70 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  Names and location of the staff of the horticultural branch in  the Okanagan in the 1960s:  Kelowna, John Smith, supervising horticulturist; Frank  Morton, DH; Gerry Geen, A/DH, (resigned in 1963); John Price,  A/DH; Bill Peters, A/DH; Maurie King, vegetable specialist, (appointed to the Crop Insurance Branch, Victoria, 1966); Bob Wilson,  media specialist; Vernon, Mike Oswell, DH, (appointed supervising agriculturist, Prince George, 1967); Brian Hodge, A/DH, (became assistant to Maurie King in 1961, subsequently resigned in  1963); Summerland, Alex Watt, DH; Penticton, Maurice Trumpour,  DH; Eric MacDonald, A/DH; (transferred to Creston in 1963);  Oliver, Don Allan, DH; Creston, Ted Swales, DH, (transferred to  Penticton as DH in 1963).  This short account of my time with the horticultural branch  in the North Okanagan during the 1950-66 period does not do justice to describing all the activities in which I was involved. I have  many happy and satisfying memories of those 16 years working  with the horticultural producers.  ACREAGE OF SELECTED VEGETABLE CROPS IN  THE OKANAGAN DISTRICT  (In acres)  1958 1994=  Asparagus  462  290  Cabbage  79  79  Carrots  44  48  Corn (sweet)  1290  525  Cucumbers  62  72  Onions  347  121  Peppers  73  106  Potatoes  1959  415  Tomatoes  1202  196  Total all veeetables  7397  2226  * Includes the Kootenay region.  71 MEMOIRS OF A DISTRICT HORTICULTURIST  TREE FRUIT PRODUCTION IN THE  OKANAGAN DISTRICT  (In Pounds)  1961  Apples  Crabapples  Pears  Plums  Prunes  Cherries  Peaches  Apricots  178,439,227  1,588,032  29,847,309  191,051  9,639,536  8,646,620  26,414,260  13,244,716  1994**  373,564,800  108,000  12,052,800  163,000  8,675,000  10,814,000  13,200,000  2,849,000  **1994 production information provided to the author included the Kootenay region. The  production noted reflects that approximately 90 percent of the total production can be attributed to the Okanagan. Source: BC Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food.  TRADE   MARK  REGISTERED  72 KELOWNA IN  WORLD WAR ONE  James H. Hayes  Because 1995 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the end of World  War II, our thoughts naturally turn to Canadians—especially  those from the Kelowna area—who sacrificed their lives.  As Remembrance Day approaches, most of us appreciate, yet  tend to forget, that this observance was initiated as a perpetual  memorial to those who gave their lives in World War I, supposed to  be the "war to end all wars." On the eleventh hour of the eleventh  day of the eleventh month, in 1918, Germany surrendered and an  armistice was declared. To give some idea of the toll in human  lives, at the height of the conflict in 1916 there were 1,519,745  members of the British Expeditionary Force serving on the Western Front, of whom 104,538 were Canadians. This was an achievement second to none, considering that Canada's population was  only eight million. Armistice Day has been recognized by all members of the Commonwealth, and in Canada redesignated as Remembrance Day, which seems more appropriate.  Few Canadians serving in World War I survive, or, for that  matter, anyone that can tell us what communities such as Kelowna  were like at that time; one has to rely mostly on available records  and other documentation.  Canada's social fibre in 1914-1918 was somewhat different to  what exists today; ties with great Britain were still very strong. This  was indicated by Prime Minister Sir Wilfred Laurier who, in the  House of Commons in 1910, stated, "When Great Britain is at war,  Canada is at war."  Following the declaration of war August 4/5, 1914 by Britain,  many English emigres were "called to the colours" by their former  regiments, and because of patriotic fervour quite a number paid  their own way to England. As an example, in February 1915, Tom  Leader of Kelowna left for England to serve with the North Irish  Regiment. Such action was not exclusive to the English. In January  of that year Richard Delavou, a French army reservist, was recalled  for active service.  James H. L. Hayes is a long-time resident of Kelowna, a veteran of World War II  and a director of the Kelowna Branch of the OHS.  73 KELOWNA IN WORLD WAR ONE  Just what was the reaction and attitude of Kelowna residents  following the outbreak of hostilities with Germany? The following  comments would be, we are sure, but a "tip of the iceberg" regarding Kelowna's involvement in the war. Considering that its population was only about 2,200 at the time, there can be no doubt that its  record of achievement would have been hard to emulate by any  other Canadian community of like size.  Shortly after August 5, 1914, Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Bott,  commanding the 30th BC Horse Regiment, was ordered to have all  ranks stand by for mobilization at short notice. Several days later  the order came and the regiment camped at the old Exhibition  Grounds in Kelowna. At the same time a company of Rocky Mountain Rangers training in Kelowna was ordered to leave for Kamloops. City council instructed that letters be sent to the two regiments, expressing appreciation for the willingness with which their  members enlisted, and assuring their commanding officers that  "no fear is held but that wherever they served the honour of the  British Empire will be upheld." A full parade of enlisted men, led  by Kelowna and Penticton city bands, paraded through the community, while loudly-cheering citizens gave them a rousing send-  off.  On August 14, 1914 Kelowna city council unanimously  adopted a resolution confirming a willingness to guarantee that  the families of those on active service would not want for the necessities of life. This action was borne out when financial assistance was given to F. H. Davis—then in uniform—to look after his  four children when his wife required medical treatment in New  Westminster.  As has always been the case, some entrepreneur or business  will take advantage of any situation, no matter how serious: A half-  page advertisement was inserted in the Kelowna Courier by W E.  Tait Limited, shoe merchants, with the caption "WAR HAS BEEN  DECLARED," referring, of course, to drastically-reduced footwear  prices.  R. H. Parkinson, father of the late mayor, R. F. (Dick)  Parkinson, enlisted with the 30th BC Horse, and wrote a number of  patriotic poems, which appeared in local newspapers. He later transferred to the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles (Forerunner of the British Columbia Dragoons), was wounded in France, and settled in  England after the war. (His wife and family remained in Canada).  By early September, 1914, council was informed that some 177 men  from this area were in military service.  City council continued to take a leading role in war-related  matters when it agreed to contribute financially to the cost of providing a local special war news service. Another way of expressing  74 KELOWNA IN WORLD WAR ONE  Women's Service Corps parade down Bernard Avenue during WWI (Kelowna Centennial Museum)  support for the war effort came from the local lodge of the Sons of  England, which took out life insurance on behalf of enlisted members.  Officials from the Remount Department, Ministry of the Militia, visited the Okanagan Valley to look for horses that were suitable as reinforcements for the Canadian cavalry regiments. Representatives of the British Ministry of Enquiry also came to Kelowna  to ascertain the labour situation, with a view to signing up particularly skilled tradesmen for work in armament factories.  Mayor J. W Jones discussed with military authorities in Ottawa the feasibility of opening an internment camp for enemy aliens. His Worship's offer was apparently declined. However, council endorsed a resolution, adopted by the City of Nanaimo, requiring senior governments to intern all enemy aliens forthwith.  Between 150 and 200 citizens attended a Board of Trade meeting to initiate the formation of a volunteer reserve or Home Guard.  Drilling commenced on July 9, 1915. This same volunteer reserve  later hosted "smokers" to welcome returned veterans.  Kelowna found many other ways to express its patriotism: St.  John's Ambulance Association embarked on a campaign to recruit  noncombatant citizens. A number of shipments of surgical dressings were sent to the Canadian Red Cross. The many activities of  the Women's Institute included a continuing drive for funds to send  tins of jam to local troops overseas. At the mayor's instigation, the  Polish Relief Committee was supported in its efforts to assist those  made destitute as a result of the war. Periodic "days of prayer" were  75 KELOWNA IN WORLD WAR ONE  held by the local churches, invoking divine assistance for a successful conclusion to the war and an early peace. The Suffrage Society was also active in the war years. At one meeting the subject  of discussion was "The Causes of War." To conserve transport space,  local fruit and vegetable shippers were ordered to ensure that freight  cars were loaded to at least 90-percent capacity.  Kelowna branch of the Canadian Patriotic Fund generously  subscribed to the parent body, as well as financially aiding local  responsibilities. As an example, dependents of troopers M. C. Dick  and H. G. Hillar received help. Money was also raised through concerts in the Opera House and sizeable donations were made by  organizations such as the Farmers' Institute.  Meanwhile, Doctor H. R. Keller was appointed interim medical officer, replacing Benjamin deFurlong Boyce, who was on active service.  Kelowna Royal Orange Lodge requested that a public park be  named Cavell Park, in memory of nurse Edith Cavell, recently executed by Germany. It was suggested that the matter be referred to  a ratepayers' meeting, but there is no record of any positive action  having been taken.  Not all war-related matters, however, received automatic support from city council. It did not endorse a resolution from the City  of Armstrong that an Okanagan Valley battalion be raised, contending that further recruitment could only reduce the available manpower for the harvesting of fruit and vegetable crops.  On the home front, the effects of war were experienced by  every family. Sugar rationing was a serious inconvenience, particularly in the fall. With no quick-freezing available at that time,  fruit for the winter had to be canned without sugar. Similar problems existed in WWII, when sugar, butter, meat and liquor were  rationed.  Even in early 1918, when there seemed to be cautious optimism that the end of the war might not be too far off, fund-raising  was still in full swing. For instance, a patriotic dance held at the  Ellison school under the auspices of the Ellison Girls' Club, raised  money for the Prisoners of War Fund. A February masquerade was  held in Morrison's Hall, sponsored by Kelowna fruit shippers, canneries, and dehydrators, with proceeds going to the same fund.  A meeting of returned soldiers held in the Board of Trade  office laid the framework for the formation of a branch of The Great  War Veterans' Association, the forerunner of The Royal Canadian  Legion.  76 KELOWNA IN WORLD WAR ONE  A service of remembrance and intercession, commemorating the fourth anniversary of the declaration of war, was held in  City Park, with more than 800 attending. The Venerable Archdeacon Thomas Greene, Reverend E.D. Brayden and Reverend Arnold  Bennett officiated.  It was announced for the period May 1 to August 31, 1918  that $2,372 was raised by Kelowna, Benvoulin, East Kelowna,  Ellison, Glenmore, Rutland, and Okanagan Mission for the local  branch of the Canadian Patriotic Fund.  On August 5, 1918 Kelowna city council passed the following  resolution, which was sent to the British Columbia Provincial Secretary: "That on the fourth anniversary of the British peoples to  take up arms in defence of liberty and justice, we the representatives of the citizens of Kelowna, on their behalf, solemnly pledge  ourselves to maintain unflinchingly, our attitude of rendering the  fullest measure of assistance in the task of prosecuting to a victorious conclusion the struggle in which the British Empire and her  Allies are engaged."  Looking ahead, city council was asked to furnish the Soldier  Settlement Board with a list of properties suitable as homesites for  returned veterans. Some veterans, including those seriously  wounded, began to return to Kelowna, individually and in small  groups. In every instance they were given a rousing welcome. His  Worship the Mayor and Alderman Knowles always responded to  special boat signals that indicated there were veterans on board.  The mayor requested that council investigate an alternate welcome  to blowing whistles, as the noise could be painful to those in delicate health, and also to those mourning the loss of loved ones.  On November 11, 1918 Kelowna went wild when news of the  armistice was received. The first information came over the  telephone about 7:30 a.m., and was met with some skepticism.  However, when the CPR telegraph office opened at 8:30 a.m., with  official confirmation, business and other activities were forgotten  for the day. The mayor and J. W Jones, member of the provincial  parliament and former mayor, climbed to the roof of the Kelowna  Courier office, displaying a Union Jack, while the assembled gathering below rent the air with roar after roar of exuberant cheering.  About 2:30 that afternoon hundreds of citizens massed in front of  the Courier building. Archdeacon Greene offered a prayer of thanksgiving, followed by a heartfelt rendering of God Save the King. Some  allied countries were recognized: Mr. Carruthers represented Belgium; Mr. Casorso, Italy; Mr. Fasciaux, France; Mr. Iwashita, Japan,  and Mr. Hughes, the USA. Led by Private George Reith, bearing a  Union Jack and followed by returned men, representatives of community organizations, decorated automobiles and the fire depart-  77 KELOWNA IN WORLD WAR ONE  ment paraded through the city. Later, a committee of ex-servicemen was appointed to continue the work of raising funds for a  permanent war memorial.  December 24, 1918 city council adopted a resolution calling  on the government of Canada to set aside tracts of land in Kelowna  and district for more than 2,000 enlisted men that might wish to  settle down upon their return. The resolution was sent to the Minister of the Interior, having been endorsed by the Great War Veterans' Association. Arrangements were initiated by the Peace Celebration Committee for a final victory parade, to be held on August  14, 1919, travelling from Central school to the city park. Some 1,000  bronze medals were presented to the children that participated in  these celebrations.  Meantime, all citizens were encouraged to continue buying  Victory Bonds, as it could be a long time before the majority of the  servicemen would be coming home to Canada.  Whenever one thinks about war, the needless loss of life always becomes paramount. Naturally, we seldom assess our community in terms of its involvement, but at the same time, those of  us that follow should be forever proud of what our predecessors  accomplished 80 years ago. The names of local citizens that paid  the supreme sacrifice appear on the cenotaph in City Park. One  hundred and thirty-four names are inscribed thereon, but there  are indications that others were inadvertently omitted. Considering our city's population at that time, that number is indeed a sad  commentary on the loss of young lives. On November 11, as we  silently stand in tribute at the local memorial services, in the solitude of our home, with friends and relatives, or wherever we might  be on that day, WE WILL REMEMBER THEM!  78 TROUT CREEK'S EARLY PUBLIC  AND SCHOOL LIBRARIES  Mary DeFehr  Summerland's first public library opened in 1933 in the Herb  Dunham family home beside their orchard, in what is now  Dunham Field. A four-shelf bookcase was built in the living  room by the Dunham's son, Herb, to hold the 150 books donated  by local residents. The library was open whenever someone in the  family was home, but closed on weekends.  In 1936, thanks to a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, the  Okanagan Union Library, forerunner to the Okanagan Regional  Library, opened branches in many rural communities, including  Summerland. The Dunham library was subsequently closed and  the Union Library opened in a one-room former primary school  situated where Jubilee Road now cuts through the school grounds.  The library was later moved to a building where the fire hall now  stands and in 1958, to the current health unit building on Kelly  Street. In 1981 the municipality built the current library building.  The Trout Creek library began in the late 1940s with regular  visits by the bookmobile. Service was offered to rural areas that  could provide a volunteer librarian and a spot off the road where  the bookmobile could park. The Parrot family was building a house  north of the recently demolished Esso gas station, and permitted  the travelling library to park in the front-lawn area. Mrs. Dorothy  Davis volunteered to serve as librarian. The Parrots later offered  the use of their son's bedroom closet and this served as the book  repository for two years. It was then moved to the basement of the  Gladwell home, two doors west of the church on Johnson Street.  When Trout Creek School was built in 1956 the regional library used shelves in the staff/supply room. Then in 1965 the room  was added that now houses the Regional Library, Learning Assistance and computers, and was also the school library until 1985.  When the school was built in 1956 no provision was made for a  library. Teachers purchased their own class library books. When a  library was opened with the 1965 addition to the school, books were  ordered by the principal and processed by the school secretary.  Mary DeFehr was librarian for Trout Creek Elementary School, Summerland, in  1989 when she presented a unit on the history of the regional and school libraries  in the Trout Creek area. This article was subsequently forwarded by the school to  Penticton Branch for inclusion in a future Report.  79 HAYNES - MOORE STORY DESERVES TO BE TOLD  However, records were not kept and volumes were not catalogued.  Students signed out books only if they wished to take them home,  not for in-school use.  Trout Creek's first school librarian was Mary Swain, hired in  1974 as half-time librarian and half-time principal relief. Ms. Swain  undertook the major task of discarding old or unsuitable books and  cataloguing the rest. These were then shelved according to established library rules. The card catalogue now provided access to the  library's growing collection. In 1985 the school library moved down  the hall into a classroom. Mary Swain retired in 1988 and was replaced by Mrs. Mary DeFehr.  HAYNES —MOORE STORY  DESERVES TO BE TOLD  Robert M. Hayes  The Haynes name is well-known in the South Okanagan; it  has been carefully researched and written about, in documenting the story of pioneer Judge John Carmichael Haynes  and his family. However, it is important to note that there was a  Kelowna branch of this Haynes family, and their story has yet to  be told. The Moore family, too, has not been given its rightful place  in history, for its members contributed much to the early development of our community.  Judge John Carmichael Haynes, a native of Ireland, came to  British Columbia in 1858. After a number of government appointments, he became Collector of Customs at Osoyoos in 1862. It has  been recorded that Judge Haynes was twice married: in 1868, to  Charlotte Moresby (who died in 1872, shortly after the birth of their  first child, Fairfax Haynes), and in 1875, to Emily Josephine  Pittendrigh, and they had six children: Valentine Carmichael, 1875;  Hester, 1877; William Barrington, 1879; Irene, 1880; John Sherman,  1883, and Susan Jane, 1886. Judge Haynes died unexpectedly in  1888 at Princeton while returning home from Victoria.  It is important, however, to realize that Judge Haynes had, in  fact, three families. As with a number of the early settlers, Haynes  originally had a Native wife. Her name was Julia (or Julie) Abraham.  Robert M. Hayes is a director of the Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society.  80 HAYNES - MOORE STORY DESERVES TO BE TOLD  It is sad to note that Julia and her family were not protected by the  bonds of matrimony, for she and Judge Haynes did not legally  marry; rather they lived "according to the custom of the country,"  which meant that at any time they could part. This did happen,  when the judge chose to marry Charlotte Moresby (in the same  year that his son, John Carmichael, was born). It was all too common for the native wife to find herself on her own—often with  young children—when her white husband brought a white bride  into the area. Often,  these native families  were reduced to poverty, unable to claim  any financial support.  Their sole legacy was to  carry the surname of  the white pioneer. As  well, Indian women left  their own families to be  with a white man, and  when their husbands  deserted them they  found that they (and  their children) did not  really belong in either  society.  Julia bore John  Haynes two children:  Marianne/Mary Anne  was baptized in July of  1866 (aged three months) in the Okanagan Mission. Her brother,  John Carmichael, was baptized on March 8, 1868 at Osoyoos Lake,  having been born at Osoyoos on February 27. Both baptisms record  the children as "illegitimate," the father being "Mr. Haynes" and  the mother "Julie, Indienne." (Records were in French, hence the  spelling).  What became of Judge Haynes's first family? It is not known  what happened to Julie. Mary Anne married Charles William Hozier  (another pioneer; born in Ireland about 1855) in 1882, and they  lived in Vernon, where Hozier was the head cattleman at the  Coldstream Ranch. About 1894 the Hoziers pre-empted land 11 or  12 miles from Camp McKinney, on the old stage road between the  Okanagan and Boundary areas.  John Carmichael Haynes Jr. left the South Okanagan. He was  sent to New Westminster, where he was educated by priests, then  moved north, to Okanagan Mission. The 1891 census (Central  John and Christina (Moore) Haynes.  81 HAYNES - MOORE STORY DESERVES TO BE TOLD  Okanagan) lists John Haynes as being 22 years old, unmarried,  born in BC, and working (as a rider) on the Lequime ranch at the  Mission.  Eventually the younger John Carmichael Haynes married.  His wife might well be described as being a pioneer of Kelowna  and district. Christina Moore was born on her family's 320-acre  farm near present-day Reid's Corner on June 15, 1872. She was the  only child of John Beckford Moore, an American gold miner and  trapper, who was born February 16, 1833 and came to this area in  1868, and his native wife, Catherine, born in British Columbia about  1846.  In 1874 John Moore formed a partnership with George  Whelan, who was then mining on Mission Creek, and they took  over a trapline that had earlier been worked by Tronson and Brewer,  which ran from Okanagan Mission to Fort Shepherd in the  Kootenays. Moore and Whelan apparently did well in this venture,  which they operated until 1877, when Whelan settled in the Ellison  district. In 1880 we find John, Catherine and daughter, Christina,  settled and farming on what was later known as the Barlee Stretch  (Orchard Park). John B. Moore, by 1891, was with another native  woman, Mary, born in BC about 1851, Catherine having died about  1881. In 1891 John Moore was placer mining on Mission Creek.  The Vernon News (1892) reported that he was also trapping on the  creek, and that he had recently shot a cougar measuring no less  than eight feet in length! John B. and Mary Moore remained in the  Kelowna area. In 1901 and having reached his sixty-eighth birthday John was still working as a gold miner. It is appropriate that  this pioneer was interviewed by historian Frank M. Buckland for  his book Ogopogo's Vigil. Moore Mountain at the headwaters of Mission Creek is named after John B. Moore and family.  The October 3, 1907 edition of the Kelowna Courier brought  its readers the grim news that the body of John Moore, "an old  placer miner," had been found southeast of Hepburn's Flat, at the  junction of two trails, about 11 miles east of Kelowna. Moore had  been dead three or four weeks, apparently because of heart failure.  He had been checking his coyote traps when death overtook him,  leaving behind his widow and daughter, Mrs. John Haines (sic).  His body was buried where it was found, but two weeks later the  Courier ran an article describing how local residents T. Orchard, A.  Wilds and F. Bouvette were circulating a subscription list among  the old-timers for the purpose of having Moore's remains exhumed  and given a "decent interment in the Cemetery." It is not recorded  if these gentlemen were successful in this plan (cemetery records  only go back to 1911), or if John Moore's mortal remains still lie in  a remote grave.  82 HAYNES - MOORE STORY DESERVES TO BE TOLD  Christina Moore attended the Okanagan Mission School in  Benvoulin, which was situated on land that had recently been purchased from rancher William John Smithson. By 1891 she was living on her own. She was confirmed at the Mission on June 28,  1891. On July 27, 1891 she married Nelson Turner, and on August  6, 1892, they had a son, Nelson Theodore. Christina had been cruelly misled by her husband, for it turned out that he was already  married. The Moore-Turner marriage was annulled, and it is not  known what happened to young Nelson Theodore.  Happier times awaited Christina Moore. About 1892 she married John Carmichael Haynes Jr. and they were together 56 years,  all of that time spent in and about Kelowna, other than the three  years when John was overseas in World War I. John and Christina  farmed for many years in Benvoulin and there they raised five  children: Nelson, born 1892, moved to Vancouver; John Walter, 1895;  George William, 1897, married Orma Cook and lived in California;  Norman Thomas, 1901, of Rock Creek; he did not marry; Mary  Catherine, 1902-1974, of Kelowna. She married Daniel Edmond  Saucier, a descendant of the pioneer Saucier and Laurence families.  In the late 1960s Christina (Moore) Haynes looked back on  her early years. With the death of her mother, Christina and her  father had resumed gold mining on Mission Creek. John Moore  had a set of scales and he would weigh his gold before taking it to  Lequime's store to exchange for groceries. Mission Creek was still  being actively panned by Chinese, Natives and whites, all attempting to eke out a living.  Christina Haynes was one of the last persons to have clear  memories of Father Pandosy, the beloved Oblate priest. She described him as wearing a leather belt around his black cassock,  with a large crucifix hanging from it, and moccasins on his feet,  over white socks. For some time after her mother's death, Christina  lived with various local families, including the Frederick Brents  and the Norman MacDonalds. Entertainment in those days included  horse racing and rodeos (at the present-day site of the baseball stadium), and parties at the homes of Joe Christien (Ellison) and John  McDougall (Guisachan Ranch).  John Carmichael Haynes died in Benvoulin March 7, 1948,  nine days past his eightieth birthday. Christina continued to live in  her home on Haynes Road in Benvoulin. Her unmarried son,  Leonard, lived with her, while her daughter, Isabelle Saucier, lived  next door. Eventually, Christina had to move out of her home. Her  long life came to a peaceful end on August 14, 1968. At 96 she was  Kelowna's oldest native-born resident, and her passing brought to  an end a very early part of Okanagan history.  83 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS  A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Devon L. Muhlert  Like a dowager bemused by the excesses of her offspring, the  Armstrong Hotel has presided at its present location since  1892. In that time, it has seen travel by democrat give way to  the belching motor car, played a leading role in the drama of Prohibition, seen 400 men off to war, and been the recipient of several  facelifts.  The dowager image is not too far misplaced, as the hotel has  been notable—among other features—for some of its strong women  proprietors. In 105 years of life it has put up with 16 owners, and  four times it has been owned exclusively by women.  One, Florence Drage, owned it for about 11 years in the 1930s—  an unusual circumstance for the times. Even when jointly held by  a couple, it was often the wife that managed the hotel on a daily  basis.  The Armstrong Hotel was built in 1891 by George Patchett,  who had just finished his own home in Armstrong near the location of the present fire hall. He managed a crew of 22 men for  Thomas William Fletcher, who supplied the lumber from his sawmill for this the second building erected in Armstrong. The hotel's  earliest owner would be Hughey Keyes.  The large crew built a 15-room building. While they slaved  over its construction, Mrs. Patchett, the first female resident of the  still-unincorporated community, cooked up a storm in her new  house to feed the hungry workers.  By 1892 they had finished the building, and the Shuswap &  Okanagan Railway had come into being, bringing with it many  people. Settlers were relocating from Lansdowne, as well as from  outside the area.  Fire ripped through the hotel in 1893. Not to be fazed, Fletcher  quickly had it rebuilt.  Bea Mellish, now 100 years old, arrived as a girl of twelve in  1908 and remembers staying at the Armstrong Hotel while her father developed his homestead at the bottom of Knob Hill, where a  Devon L. Muhlert is an award-winning photo-journalist who has contributed to  regional publications such as Okanagan Life, as well as to Home Business Report  and other national journals. She also translates articles from German in the International Choral Bulletin.  84 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Armstrong Hotel: Still going strong at 107. (Devon L. Muhlert)  deer farm stands now. She remembers that a Mr. Gourley ran the  hotel then. The entrance was located on the Okanagan Avenue  corner, and she recalls a big staircase.  "You went in the door, and the stairs went straight up. The  kitchen was on the other side." She tells about trying to play with a  small bear cub that someone had found. "He was chained to the  outside of the hotel. If you got too close, out would come the paw!",  she said, motioning as if to deliver a left hook. Bea Mellish can still  picture the waitresses running up the stairs with the cub, exercising him. "Mrs. Frank Clayton, who was married to the blacksmith,  and Mrs. Teddy Mace; that's how they would take him for a walk."  At this time there were two other hotels in the area. The dowager outlived them both. E. M Furstineau had built his version in  1885 by an important road junction named in honour of Lord  Lansdowne, the Governor-General. The settlement that grew  around the junction adopted the name of the hotel to become  Lansdowne.  Lansdowne Hotel did well, having 12 rooms and a lobby, as  well as a dining room and bar. It also boasted the notorious Bullpen,  which held the more exhuberant carousers.  A few miles away, the lowlands, site of the future Armstrong,  were surrounded by water. The area was known as the Island, because it sat on a sandbar in the middle of a swamp. Furstineau  probably never dreamed it would prove his undoing.  85 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Nevertheless, in 1887 the highly-unlikely scheme of draining  the low-lying land began. By 1892 the S & O and the Armstrong  Hotel were running and the community of Lansdowne—though  protesting—was moving to the new town. As a business, Lansdowne  Hotel was sunk, though the building still stands.  The other hotel was called the Okanagan. Old-timers agree it  was the most elegant of the public houses. If it had lasted, it might  have become the grande dame. It boasted a turret and was well-  appointed, but burned down in 1933.  The Armstrong Hotel early-on had a wraparound verandah  and decorative posts and also housed a grocery; it was perfectly  sited to attract patronage from the railway.  In 1902 the Armstrong Advertiser reported that the Armstrong  was keeping up appearances by applying fresh kalsomine to the  interior, "and otherwise improved by papering and painting which  give it an air of cleanliness."  More paying guests were assured when, in 1904, the "Trade  Committee" (forerunner of the chamber of commerce) successfully  lobbied for a municipal grant to promote the area. People fully expected that the northern end of Okanagan Valley would be the  first area to be developed. After $1,400 was collected, a promotional brochure was printed, proclaiming "We Want Neighbours,"  and describing the bounty that settlers had already discovered. It  brought enquiries from overseas and many newcomers came to  the area on the strength of the brochure. An increasing number of  "agents" (salesmen) arrived by train to service the burgeoning community, providing hotels with more guests.  In the years surrounding 1906 a stubborn epidemic of glanders disease, a fatal horse affliction, broke out. Animals that carried it had to be shot and cremated to prevent its spread, causing  Armstrong citizens to send impassioned letters to the BC government decrying the harsh directive. Now there was a shortage of  available transportation. A male hotel guest lamented in the  Armstrong Advance, "Often livery and a rig are not to be had!"  The Armstrong Hotel played several roles in the life of the  community. In 1906 the Advance reported that Gordon French of  Deep Creek was brought to town suffering from an injury sustained  when a log rolled on him while he was working at the Deep Creek  Sawmill & Gristmill. "Upon examination, Dr. Van Kleeck found the  patient's spine to be quite badly crushed." The paper went on to  say that French was recovering slowly at the hotel, "able to walk  about with the aid of crutches."  In 1919 John Hamill constructed a small brick building for  the hotel, known as the Sample Rooms, in which agents could display their wares.  86 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Archival tax records extant at Armstrong City Hall run from  1909 to 1923, then 1928 onwards. Oddly, the Armstrong Hotel does  not appear until 1928, when it is shown to be under the ownership  of one George C. Lembke of Vancouver. This was the year that  liquor laws were eased, but old-timers say the hotel's basement  was the drinkers' conclave during the "dry" period.  The hotel lot was valued at $4,800 in 1928, improvements  (i.e. the buildings) were assessed at $14,500, for a total taxable value  of $19,300. Lembke's tax bill for that year was $368.70.  Mrs. Florence Drage began an 11-year tenure as owner in  1930, after an A. D. Renaud had owned it for about 12 months. Mrs.  Drage sold out to Gladys M. Clauda and Charles Stanley Clauda,  joint tenants, in 1941 when city taxes amounted to just over $300.  Phillips and Whitehouse bought the hotel in 1946 and operated a  grocery in what is now the Branding Iron pub. Henry Bielech also  shows up on the tax roll for a year or two, but by 1950 the title is  registered in the names of James W Phillips and his wife, Jean  McQueen Phillips.  Jean Phillips managed the hotel side, James being busy with  the food store. She was criticized in some quarters for running the  establishment, especially as it contained a bar, and women were  still expected to keep a low profile. Jean Phillips did, however, do  some of the more womanly things, such as being a staunch supporter of the United Church, and adding her beautiful voice to the  choir. "She certainly had a presence about her. There was no mistaking she was a lady, but she was a strong woman, too. People  didn't really hold managing that business against her," was how at  least one female acquaintance put it.  87 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Meantime, the passing years had not been kind to the  Armstrong Hotel. It was not the best place to stay; the heating and  lighting left much to be desired. Often, transients or others down  on their luck made it their home.  The hotel welcomed another kind of guest in January 1950  when fire raced through the new Armstrong Co-op building. The  co-operative society had just finished a new section to accommodate the "groceteria" (self-serve) style of store then coming into  fashion across Canada. Unfortunately, the co-op also stored coal  on the premises, and gasses generated by the damp fuel ignited,  razing the store only 36 days after it was completed. "A spectacular  fire," it was called; workers in another portion of the complex had  to run for their lives.  So the co-op moved into the now-vacant brick sample rooms,  where they did business until the following year.  By 1954 city taxes on the hotel had almost doubled, to $642.  Soon after, ownership changed twice, until Jack and Julie Medhurst  bought it in 1964 and held sway until 1980. Son Rich Medhurst,  current mayor of Spallumcheen, remembers growing up there: "My  mother reserved the top floor for seniors. There really were no  facilities for them then, so they were long-term residents and Mother  provided room and board." (Willowdale Guest Home would not be  built until 1970).  During their tenure, Medhursts bought the neighbouring  Phillips & Whitehouse building, which had become an IGA, and  turned it into the Branding Iron drinking and eating establishment.  They also added the dining room that now adjoins the sidewalk,  calling it the Rose Swanson Room, and changed the main entrance.  The next owners were the Kupsers, who soon ran into financial difficulty. They sold the Branding Iron and re-established a  pub in the lower section of the hotel building. Hence, the answer  to the riddle of two pubs neck-to-neck in a small place like  Armstrong. By 1983 Kupsers quit the hotel and it stood empty for  some time.  Another chapter opened in 1985, when two enterprising  women, Noni Anderson and Patti Nadeau, from Falkland and  Westwold respectively, bought the hotel and energetically spruced  it up. They attached the curved nameplate on top of the building  bearing its year of origin, 1892, and changed the dreary, bleached  brown facade to a cheery blue and white, adding white filagree  trim and window shutters. They began restoring the interior, redecorating both dining areas. One became the Schubert Room, for  a fine-dining experience, complete with gourmet chef and white-  lace curtains at the windows. The coffee shop was turned into the  88 ARMSTRONG HOTEL FITS A DOWAGER'S ROLE  Watching a town grow up. Armstrong Hotel has witnessed some strange sights since 1892, including this "tractor-pull" demonstration. (Photograph courtesy Armstrong Hotel)  Whistle Stop Cafe, a hangout for the local arts community. Guest  rooms were given a thorough cleaning and one was completely  redone.  However, the restoration project, which required extensive  updating to the electrical and heating systems, became a relentless  drain on finances. "We knew we needed a bar," said Noni Anderson,  "because that's where your money is made." Casting around for a  name, someone commented on the L-shape of the lower room: "It  looks like a parlour." So Rosie's Parlour was born. It was named  after the baby that was born to Catherine Schubert, of Overlander  distinction. Rose (Schubert) Swanson's descendants were asked if  they minded their mother's name gracing a pub. They didn't, and  her daughter, Jessica, then in her 80s, came to the grand opening  for tea. When Anderson and Nadeau sold, it was to another woman,  Kitty Fisher.  Today the wooden dowager still stands brooding over the town  that she helped create. Currently owned by Gwyn and Sam Evans,  there the tradition of hospitality continues, while preserving highlights of the past. The Armstrong Hotel is, after all, an integral part  of Spallumcheen history.  89 BC DRAGOONS:  QUANSEM ILEP (always ready)  James H. Hayes  A historic event that took place in Kelowna on January 19,  1946 has, regrettably, almost been forgotten. Yes, it is 50  years since the British Columbia Dragoons (BCDs) returned  from overseas service in World War Two, under command of native  son Lieutenant-Colonel H. H. Angle, DSO. The regiment was formally dismissed as a wartime unit by Regimental Sergeant-Major  Bob Hodgson, following a parade through the city. Dignitaries in  attendance included Mayors David Howrie of Vernon, J. D.  Pettigrew of Kelowna and Reeve R. J. McDougall of Penticton.  Sad to say, many members did not return. However, those  who survived, together with others who followed, were enrolled in  a distinctive group known affectionately as Whizzbangs. The designation was adopted from a World War One commanding officer,  Lieutenant-Colonel G. C. (Whizzbang) Johnson, DSO. (A Whizzbang  was a German shell that gave a "whiz" sound after leaving the barrel and a "bang" on impact). I have been unable to confirm how or  why Colonel Johnson acquired the nickname, although it is understood that at times he had a short fuse.  From June 7 to 9, 1996, BCD Whizzbang Association reunions took place in Kelowna and Vernon. Mayors James Stuart of  Kelowna and Gordon Harris of Peachland inspected the regiment  in Kelowna, while Mayor Wayne McGrath reviewed the troops in  Vernon. A highlight was the dedication on June 9 of a monument  located on 25th Avenue opposite Lincoln Lane in Vernon, the birthplace of the regiment 88 years ago. This beautiful memorial was  jointly unveiled by retired Regimental Sergeant-Major Ray Colley,  and the incumbent RSM, Chief Warrant Officer Jim Stecyk.  Okanagan history buffs are urged to read Sinews of Steel by  Major (Dr.) R. H. Roy, retired associate professor of history at the  University of Victoria, and Vimy, by Pierre Berton, both books being available at Okanagan Regional Library.  As early as 1884 attempts were made to form a mounted militia unit in the BC interior—memories of the Riel Rebellion and of  the U. S. Alaska boundary dispute were still on the minds of early  James H. Hayes is a director of Kelowna's OHS branch, a World War Two veteran, and was a postwar BCD officer, retiring as Deputy Commanding Officer.  90 BC DRAGOONS  A permanent reminder for future generations that Vernon is the birthplace of the BC Dragoons  was bestowed at the regiment's 1996 reunion. Mrs. Lucy McCormick (left) participated in the  unveiling and dedication ceremony, representing her late brother, Paddy Hill, who was the last  president of the regimental association to represent WWI veterans. Also pictured are Colonel and  Mrs. David Kinloch, Lieutenant-Colonel C. D. Stef Lieutenant-Colonel and Mrs. B. J. Finestone,  and Lieutenant-Colonel and Mrs. Dick Gunoff.  Okanagan settlers. In 1898, raising the Vernon Mounted Rifles was  authorized, but never became a reality. On April 1, 1908 an independent squadron of Okanagan Mounted Rifles was authorized by  the Ministry of Militia and Defence, with Major H. A. Perry in command. Members were expected to furnish their own saddles and  mounts. In 1911 other squadrons in Armstrong, Coldstream,  Kelowna and Lumby were consolidated, forming 1st B. C. Horse  Regiment with headquarters at Vernon. In 1913 the present Vernon  armoury was opened, a permanent home for the regiment, later  designated Brigadier Murphy Armoury, after a World War Two  commanding officer. The regiment was again redesignated as  30th B. C. Horse. Following declaration of war in 1914, authority  was received on November 7 to recruit the 2nd Canadian Mounted  Rifles (2 CMR) as an infantry battalion, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. L. Bott. The battalion fought with distinction as  part of the Canadian Corps in engagements as far as the Somme,  and to the south as far as Vimy Ridge. According to Sinews of Steel,  at the conclusion of the war 4,534 had served, with 1,872 men coming from BC. Casualties numbered 732 killed and 2,276 wounded.  The decorations awarded speak for themselves: one Victoria Cross  (VC) to Captain (later Lieutenant-Colonel) John MacGregor; one  91 BC DRAGOONS  Order of the British Empire (OBE); four Distinguished Service Order (DSO); 35 Military Cross (MC); 40 Mentioned in Despatches  (MID); eight French Croix de Guerre; four Belgian Croix de Guerre;  one Russian Order of St. Stanislas; one Russian Cross of St. George.  The following Battle Honours bestowed upon the battalion  by King George V were emblazoned on the Regimental Colour:  Mount Sorrel; Flers Courcelette; Passchendaele; Pursuit to Mons;  Somme 1916; Vimy 1917; Amiens; Hindenburg Line; Cabrai 1918;  France and Flanders. The Regimental Colour was laid away in All  Saints' Church, Vernon, but with the exception of the Laurel Wreath  was later lost in a fire.  The deeds and exploits by members of 2 CMR are many. However, a single incident comes to mind, regrettably with a tragic ending. It is chronicled that Lieutenant Geoffrey J. A. Britchta, 2 CMR,  attached to the Royal Flying Corps and acting as observer to pilot  2/Lieutenant Gerald Maurice Gosset-Bibby, was shot down and  killed over Vimy on March 6, 1917 by none other than the commander of the German Luftwaffe's Flying Circus, Baron Manfred  von Richthofen, dubbed the Red Baron.  On April 9, 1919, 2 CMR stood down.  The British Columbia Dragoons performed as an element of  the Non-Permanent Active Militia from 1920 to 1939. Equipment,  training aids and money were in short supply, so improvising was  often the norm. Training consisted of evening parades and an annual summer concentration at Vernon. Still a cavalry regiment,  members were expected to furnish their own horses and saddles.  In the early 1930s the school at the corner of Richter Street and  Lawrence Avenue was acquired and converted to an armoury, at  last providing the Kelowna squadron with a permanent home. Later  the building was named Brigadier Angle Armoury.  When World War Two was declared, the regiment, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel G. C. Oswell mobilized as 5th Canadian Motorcycle Regiment (BCD), CASF, remustering in February  1941 to 9th Canadian Armoured Regiment (BCD), AF, and became  part of the 2nd Canadian Armoured Brigade of the 5th Canadian  Armoured Division. The regiment served with distinction at such  points as the Liri Valley, Hitler Line, Gothic Line, Coriane Ridge,  Comacchio, Arnheim, Loppersom, Appingda and Delfzijl. Following close association with the city of Veendam in Holland, a postwar sister-city relationship flourishes with Kelowna. Prior to returning to Canada at the conclusion of hostilities, an affiliation was  initiated and promulgated with the 5th Royal Iniskilling Dragoon  Guards, a Royal Armoured Corps regiment of the British Army  92 BC DRAGOONS  whose origin goes back to 1685. This close association flourished  with exchange visits until the Iniskillings were merged with another regiment to form the Royal Dragoon Guards.  It is recorded in Sinews of Steel that the BCDs sustained 294  casualties in World War Two, of which 82 were fatal. One commanding officer, Lieutenant-Colonel F. A. Vokes, paid the supreme sacrifice. Decorations awarded were numerous: two DSOs; one DCM;  five MCs, five MMs; one OBE; five MID. The following Battle Honours were bestowed upon the regiment: Liri Valley, Melfa Crossing, Gothic Line, Pozzo Alto Ridge, Lamone Crossing; Conventello-  Comacchio; Italy 1944-45, Ijsselmeer, Delfeijl Pocket, North-West  Europe 1945. These together with the Battle Honours awarded in  the First World War are reproduced on the Guidon ( a swallow-  pointed standard) presented to the British Columbia Dragoons by  HRH Princess Alexandra of Kent on May 19,1967. To preserve continuity, the Laurel Wreath part of the original colour saved from a  fire now reposes on the staff of the Guidon.  In April 1946 BCD commenced training as part of Canadian  Forces Primary Reserve with evening parades, weekend exercises  and summer concentration. The regiment succumbed to defence  budget cuts by losing Penticton's C Squadron in its entirety, leaving A Squadron in Vernon, Headquarters and B Squadrons in  Kelowna. The regimental pipe band and brass band were also disbanded as a cost-saving measure. In spite of cuts in equipment and  funding the regiment continues to recruit and train young citizen-  soldiers that are a credit to our nation. At time of writing (1996)  nothing official has been received to indicate further cuts or change  in status of the Okanagan's Own Regiment. It would indeed be a  travesty if such became the case. BCDs have become an integral  part of our history and contributed so much to the progress of this  valley.  The regiment continues to sponsor Army Cadet Corps in  Penticton, Vernon and Kelowna, with accent on discipline and citizenship training. This regiment is proud to have had one of Canada's most distinguished soldiers and statesmen as a member, Major-General, The Honorable G. R. Pearkes, VC, CC, PC, CB, DSO,  MC, CD. General Pearkes enlisted as a Trooper in World War One  upon leaving the Royal North-West Mounted Police and concluded  his public service as Minister of National Defence and Lieutenant-  Governor of BC. He was appointed Honorary Colonel of the BCDs  in 1962. Tangible evidence of the community respect and esteem  the regiment holds is reflected in the conferral of Freedom of the  City by Vernon, Penticton, Kelowna and the District Municipality  of Peachland. Freedom of the City of Kelowna was also granted  Lieutenant-Colonel (later Brigadier) H. H. Angle, and Major-General G. R. Pearkes.  93 BC DRAGOONS  There have been 25 commanding officers from 1908 to the  present. Lieutenant-Colonel Carl Stef, CD, is the incumbent.  In 1948 Brigadier Angle was again sent overseas as chief military advisor to a UN mission dealing with an India-Pakistan border  dispute. He was killed in a plane crash July 15, 1950.  Excerpts from the address given by Colonel D.F.B. Kinloch,  CD, Honorary Colonel, The British Columbia Dragoons, at  the 1996 dedication in Vernon of a monument erected to  commemorate the birthplace of the regiment.  On behalf of the British Columbia Dragoons and the  Whizzbang Association, I hereby present this monument to the City  of Vernon, the place where the Regiment was born, on April 1,  eighty-eight years ago. The monument is symbolic of all phases of  the Regiment, from birth to the present day, and hopefully far into  the future.  It is here to remind us of the gallant, high-spirited young horsemen who started it all back in 1908; really just for the fun and  excitement of belonging to a cavalry regiment. It will remind us of  those same horsemen, and many more, who went overseas in 1915.  They suffered the mud of the Salisbury Plain while they were issued saddles, but no horses, and then horses but no saddles. And  they eventually had to give up their beloved animals and their cavalry lifestyle and were hustled into the mud and blood of the  trenches of France and Flanders, where they fought bravely as infantrymen until the war's end.  We must also remember the next generation of young men  of the Valley who came to fill the ranks when, in 1940, the Dragoons were mobilized as a motorcycle regiment. They, too, lost  their beloved machines when the Regiment converted to armour,  and they fought with their tanks in Italy and Northwest Europe as  an armoured regiment. Today we honour the men who came home  from that war, 50 years ago. Later this afternoon at the Cenotaph  we will hold the service of remembrance for all our comrades who  did not come home on that happy day.  On the reverse side of this monument you will see a list of  the Battle Honours conferred on the Regiment in the two major  wars. It is an impressive list and we are proud of it. However, one  must realize that of the 88 years of the life of the Regiment, only 11  have been spent at war.  This monument stands for the Regiment, in peace and in  war, therefore we must always remember the contribution made  by those loyal, dedicated soldiers, whose peacetime service enabled the Regiment to go to war. There are so many of them who  94 BC DRAGOONS  served and are serving before, between and after the wars. Theirs  is perhaps the hardest task, and they have kept the Dragoons alive  in spite of budget cuts and indifference and neglect on the part of  the Government and the general public. They receive some compensation for their service, but essentially they carry on for sheer  love of soldiering, and of the Regiment. I want them to know that  this monument belongs to, and honours, every person who has  ever worn the BC Dragoons badge.  The postwar Regiment, besides training soldiers, has supplied  personnel to the Regular Force, the RCMP and the diplomatic corps.  It has also supplied its share of peacekeepers to the trouble spots of  the world, such as the Golan Heights, Bosnia and Somalia. It has  also assisted many young men to get a university education, through  various officer training plans.  Until now I have spoken mostly of the men in the Regiment,  but nowadays women also play an active role, and I can tell you  that we have some female soldiers who for loyalty and devotion to  duty, would measure up to any soldier in any regiment, anywhere!  We have tried today to represent all facets of the Regiment in  this ceremony. You will note that Mrs. Lucy McCormick cut the  ribbon on behalf of her brother, the late Paddy Hill, who served in  both the 30th BC Horse and the CMR and was the last First War  president of our regimental association. Also note that the monument was unveiled by our senior retired Regimental Sergeant Major, Ray Colley, who was in the Regiment before World War Two  and for many years after.  On parade you "will note the ranks of our war veterans who  have come from all across Canada and the United States to take  part in this ceremony. We are not as young and spry as we used to  be, but believe me the spirit is still there. And if it isn't, we will  soon find it!  Also on parade are our present-day soldiers, of whom we are  very proud. They are a bit thin on the ground today, but that is  because many are away on military courses or jobs in various parts  of our country.  And finally, and just as important, are members from our  Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton Cadet Corps, who, we hope, will  one day carry on our regimental traditions.  95 HISTORY OF KELOWNA  CITY PARK  96 Charles Jackson  The original Kelowna townsite of some 300 acres was surveyed for landowner Bernard Lequime, with official registration of the plan as Map 462 at Victoria on August 13, 1892.  This survey extended east from Abbott Street to Richter Street and  **        II;;;:  'City Park has long been a local point of isure a  occasion ii was the 1914 (or 'if;   ~ .. 'fhc children is  are Matilda Oakes and Caihi;   \kroyd. (hciowna Centennial \  97 HISTORY OF KELOWNA CITY PARK  north from Mill Creek to Bay Avenue. Thus, the future city park  area of about 41 acres lying west of Abbott and north of Mill Creek  to Okanagan Lake was excluded from the first townsite—with good  reason at the time. This land was characterized by the presence of  swamps, wild grasses, bush, black cottonwood and lodgepole pine  trees, and a high groundwater table, which rose and fell seasonally  with lake levels through a sandy base.  Okanagan Historical Society author J. P. Clement (Report No.  23) recorded that Bernard Lequime had built a small warehouse  and a pier to dock the passenger-freight vessel Penticton, which had  been acquired by Lequime Bros, in the spring of '92. The docking  facility was located halfway between the future Abbott Street and  the northwest point (aquatic centre). Lequimes' lake service was  discontinued after the May 1892 launching and operation from  Okanagan Landing of the CPR's SS Aberdeen. However, the Lequime  building and pier "by 1898 with the addition of a spring board at  the end and a board wall on the east side served as a men's bathing  house. There was no mixed bathing then and the male swimmers  disported themselves in the nude," Clement wrote.  Situated on Abbott Street opposite the northeast portion of  the future city park, the Lake View Hotel was coincidentally opened  on the thirteenth of August 1892 by Archie McDonald. This community-minded person in 1895 provided a bandstand in the "Park"  for band concerts. He next placed a gated low picket fence along  the west side of Abbott Street, probably because the higher ground  was being used by squatters that did not recognize the Lequime  property as private. In 1904 a recreation area was cleared opposite  Kelowna's first hotel.  Okanagan Lake rose to an exceptionally high level in 1903  and crested slightly lower the following year, to the extent the west  end of Bernard Avenue was under two feet of water and the park,  in general, was submerged.  Flooding complaints were lodged in Victoria and by 1908 BC  public works at Penticton was directed to clear trees and other debris from the lake outlet, and from the Okanagan River for a distance of two miles down to Dog (Skaha) Lake, thereby accelerating  outflow and making the river navigable. This was achieved by 1911.  However, public pressure was again growing after Okanagan Lake  wharfingbecame progressively higher and dryer from 1908 to 1914.  Thus, the lake level had to be raised at Penticton and piles were  driven in 1914 to anchor the first control dam.  Charles Jackson was born in Kelowna, where he received his secondary education. He has returned to the Central Okanagan as a retiree.  98 HISTORY OF KELOWNA CITY PARK  In the early 1900s Kelowna citizens, supported by the local  newspaper, promoted the purchase of the 41 acres for a city park.  This issue was voted upon whereby 146 were in favour, with 43  opposed, leading to the passage of city bylaw No. 54 in 1909 authorizing acquisition of the site. The major portion of 36 acres was  purchased from David Lloyd-Jones for $29,000, but the smaller four  to five-acre northern strip relating to the Lequime warehouse, inherited by Miss Dorothy Lequime, was not acquired until 1923.  Land-use pressure arose after the city held its park referendum, first to allow for a fair building and next, in 1912, for a hotel,  but both proposals were rejected.  Pedestrian entrance to Kelowna City Park during the 1930s. (Kelowna Centennial Museum)  The Kelowna Regatta was first held in August 1906, with the  water sports area extending east from Lequime's warehouse to the  west end of Bernard Avenue where the CPR wharf was located, as  was the original scow-system ferry dock that was in operation from  about 1906 to 1927.  Following the establishment of the Kelowna Aquatic Association in 1909, the northwest point eventually was developed to include a rowing shell building and float, a main building with a large  verandah, dance hall and restaurant on the upper level and change  and storage areas below. The complex also included a large grandstand, a three-sided lake pool, plus a separate diving platform, which  was later replaced by the Athans Tower. Mid-June to mid-September was the active period. The annual regatta grew to an international event of several days' duration until the aquatic buildings  and equipment were destroyed by fire on July 13, 1969. The regatta carried on with another format, but water events were sharply  99 HISTORY OF KELOWNA CITY PARK  curtailed. Then, because of mob violence in 1986 and 1987, the  famous event was discontinued, currently replaced by the one-day  Family Regatta. (See "A Short History of the Kelowna Regatta," Report No. 58).  It must have taken quite a few years to add soil depth to the  park. One instance was the filling-in of a large slough and other  smaller ones in the southwest area with sawdust. This eventually  created the base for an elongated oval running track centred by a  large grass-covered field designed for field lacrosse, baseball, softball,  cricket and track meets. By 1955 this facility was re-worked and  named the Jubilee Bowl honouring the city's 50th anniversary. A  few acres along the northwest bank of Mill Creek were taken for  the access route to the 1958 Okanagan Floating Bridge. Currently  under consideration are expansion options to add a fourth lane or  replace the old bridge with a four-lane pontoon and park overpass  structure extending from Harvey Avenue, and restoring the old  route to parkland.  The two tennis courts have been in place for many years and  the bowling green opened later on May 30, 1940. The promenade,  rose, and other gardens and the recent Children's Waterpark are all  noteworthy, as are the cenotaph projects and the well-sited shade  trees.  We are heavily indebted to the early citizens for the acquisition and development of this civic feature. Among the key initial  role players were city councillors Frank DeHart and J. B. Knowles,  as well as long-time City Park gardener Donald Balsillie.  100 EARLY SETTLERS IN  OYAMA: 1893-1914  Hume Powley  Before the first non-native settler arrived in Oyama in 1893,  there is plenty of evidence to suggest that this area had long  been inhabited by humans. A complete skeleton, believed to  be that of a native Indian, was uncovered by workmen installing a  water pump on the Rayburn property on the south end of Long  (Kalamalka) Lake. Found also were five arrowheads and pounders.  It appears that this site had been an Indian burial ground, as many  skulls were also uncovered. Many fine aboriginal relics have been  found on the high ground north of the present Oyama school and  also at Rattlesnake Point. At the latter site the remains of a kekuli  dwelling were found, as well as half a tomahawk head made from  green stone not found in this area, but indigenous to Alaska and  Mexico. When and how this artifact got here is a mystery.  "The Railroad" lives up to its name as navvies lay track across the strip of land separating Long  and Wood Lakes. (Vernon Museum and Archives)  The first white settler in Oyama was Frank Bouvette, who  took out a pre-emption in 1893. It consisted of land on the west  side of Wood Lake from the north end stretching nearly two miles  Hume Powley was born in the Winfield area. He is a life member of the Okanagan  Historical Society and a director of its Kelowna branch.  101 EARLY SETTLERS IN OYAMA  south, and the west side of Long Lake to the area known as  Rawthorn's Ranch, roughly three miles north of the isthmus that  separates the two lakes. He built a stopping place near the north  end of Wood Lake to service the horse-drawn stage that ran between Vernon and the Mission. It was a long, narrow building containing a number of small bedrooms. He named it Deer Lodge, but  it was not a success, due mainly to the lack of a good water supply.  It operated only a short time and then stood empty, occasionally  used as a venue for church services. Frank Bouvette sold his holdings from Deer Lodge south to Fred Gillard, a pioneer of the Kelowna  area. In 1900 John Lloyd and family came out from England and  purchased land from Bouvette north of the lodge. Lloyd, in turn,  sold some lakeshore property to George Goulding, who lived many  years at this location. In 1904 Dr. W H. Irvine arrived in Oyama  from Pilot Mound, Manitoba and bought 40 acres from Fred Gillard.  A year later Irvine went back to Manitoba and shortly after returned to the Okanagan with his family, including his mother,  brother and sisters. Irvine built a fine home, planted an orchard  and acquired more land, which he then subdivided into orchards.  Some who purchased a fruit ranch, hoping to make their fortune,  were William Heddle, Stewart Heddle, Major John D. Quine and  Mr. and Mrs. Alfred F. Adams, the writer's maternal grandparents,  who came from Oxford, England with their daughter, Gladys.  Frank Bouvette later sold the rest of his holdings on the west  side of Long Lake to Mat Howard, who claimed he had been a scout  for the American government during some of the Indian upris-  m                "*                *  ?  s    t     0%         j  m  iu      ■  i nmflL  *  ■      ..,..     ,       :                .        :                """     "  i  -I2SS^>  OL  i "^BB  _.  -   .  M^-WM]  /'- :'-':M^:  rtlMHTnnflr *  Oyama newcomers A. S. Towgood and family and Robert Allison spent their first winter of 1907-  08 living in tents by the shore of Wood Lake. When spring arrived Towgood and Allison planted  the first orchards on the east side of the lake. (Vernon Museum and Archives)  102 EARLY SETTLERS IN OYAMA  ings. Howard had ridden up from Washington State with the Prather  and Rice families, who eventually settled in the Winfield area. Mat  Howard set about splitting his newly-obtained land into lots and  built a stage depot at 11 Mile, a small log cabin with a lean-to that  stood until the early 1980s below Highway 97. The stage paused  Lowering Wood Lake made it possible to build new stretch of the Kelowna-Vernon road. (Vernon  Museum and Archives)  every day to change horses and to enable passengers to have a  meal. This stop became known as The Half Way House. It wasn't  halfway between Vernon and the Mission, but the drivers considered it took about half the effort required by the horses to pull the  stage up and over the Commonage to milepost 11—about equal to  the effort needed to make the run from 11 Mile to the Mission.  103 EARLY SETTLERS IN OYAMA  When my father and Sydney Hillyard arrived in Oyama in  1904, they were so taken with the area that they decided to stay.  Hillyard bought lot 12 from George McCauley and my father bought  lot 11 from Mat Howard. When he discovered that the halfway house  and its operation went along with the sale, my father wanted to  cancel the deal. However, stage driver Walter Pritchard persuaded  him to accept the challenge. Some of the other stagecoach drivers  from that period were Bob Hall, Gideon Thompson, Robert Munson,  Mike Healy and William Scott. Instead of horses, Scott carried out  his duties with a new red McLaughlin car. It was much faster than  horses, to be sure, but many anxious moments and delays resulted  when it had to share the road with its four-legged rivals. After rolling his McLaughlin just north of Rattlesnake Point, Scott settled for  a Model T Ford. He died in May 1916, the same month Jack Wyatt  was given the contract for the Vernon-Kelowna mail run, which he  retained until 1931.  Development began on the east side at the south end of Long  Lake. Here, the early settlers included the Bovie brothers, who arrived just after the turn of the century. They started a cattle ranch  on the hill above Long Lake and named it the V Bar V. In time they  sold to Henry Furnass, who later sold to Jack Hayton, a remittance  man who went off to Australia in 1914. In due course the ranch was  purchased by Vernon Ellison, who named it Kalwood Farms and  there raised purebred Herefords.  Sam Young first settled on the west side, later moving to the  isthmus, where the family's younger generations made their homes  for many years. Various people joined the community at this time  and land changed hands quite often. Tom Williams first owned the  Point, the larger peninsula at the end of Long Lake. He in turn sold  it to Winfield pioneer Sid Edwards, who was succeeded by a couple  with the surname Ensor. The Ensors lived in a dugout at first, later  replaced by a shack. It seems that wherever Mr. Ensor went he  always took along his wheelbarrow. When he went to Vernon for  groceries he would row to the north end of the lake, then push the  barrow to town, load up his purchases and return home. He also  drove a one-horse democrat and when his wife accompanied him  she would sit in an armchair securely placed in the back of the rig.  Although amused by the couple's antics, neighbours were sorry  when the Ensors sold out and left to work on a Cuban pineapple  plantation. Frank Rayburn eventually came into possession of this  land and held it for many years. Reverend A. V. Despard moved to  what is now known as Jade Bay and lived there for nearly 40 years.  In 1907 W A. Dobson bought ranch land from Richard Lloyd, who  had obtained acreage on the west side soon after coming to Oyama.  104 EARLY SETTLERS IN OYAMA  In 1906 Mr. and Mrs. Egbert Trask drove a team and democrat from Cashmere, Washington. Upon their arrival in Oyama it  started to rain and did so for five days. They had set up a tent and  despite the inclement weather found the countryside much to their  liking, so purchased what was then known as Sam Young Point  from Albert Greer, who also owned land below the V Bar V, down  to the lakeshore. The Trasks renamed their promontory Iris Point.  Wood Lake Land Company was formed in 1907 to develop a  large portion of range on the east side of Wood Lake purchased  from Tom Wood. The land was subdivided and sold to future fruit  growers. This was the beginning of the influx of settlers on the east  side. Among the early ones were A. S. Towgood and Robert Allison  in 1907. Towgood came from California, while Allison came straight  from the Yukon. In 1908 more families arrived, including the  Griffiths, Whipples, Hicks, Lowes, Townsends, Bowshers, Gettys  and Dewers. They were followed by the Nelsons, Wynnes, Phillips  and Saddlers. In 1913 W R. Powley sold his property at Rattlesnake  Point to Reverend and Mrs. Colin Campbell-Brown, who had been  missionaries in China.  Hfhr J^ifiJl  6f" fe*'  iftffcff  Horses had the last laugh when William Scott came to grief with his newfangled McLaughlin stage  on the Kelowna-Vernon Road, just north of the Half Way House. (Hume Powley)  105 EARLY SETTLERS IN OYAMA  A post office was established in 1908 in Dr. W H. Irvine's  home, with Henry Irvine as postmaster. A name had to be chosen  for the community and Dr. Irvine's mother suggested Oyama, after  a Japanese military leader who had fought in the Russian-Japanese war of 1905. Prior to being recognized by the postal department as Oyama, local people referred to the area as the "Railroad,"  because the strip between Wood and Long lakes resembled a railway right-of-way, which is what it became when the CNR line from  Kamloops to Kelowna was built across this land in the early 1920s.  In 1908 a canal about eight feet deep by 40 feet wide was dug  to connect the two lakes. When it was completed the water level of  Wood Lake dropped about four feet, while Long Lake rose by nearly  two feet. When Wood Lake dropped it left a ledge along the west  shore, making it possible to build a new road between Oyama and  Winfield, where Highway 97 is today.  The canal was a great boon to the early settlers. Produce could  now be shipped by boat from Wood Lake area farms to the north  end of Long Lake, thence by wagon to the railhead at Vernon.  Johnson and Carswell operated the steamboat Maude Allen, which  provided transportation for passengers and freight to the end of  Long Lake. The partners also had a logging camp on the south end  of Wood Lake, so they were now able to tow log booms through the  canal. Before the waterway was opened, there used to be a small  creek flowing south roughly where Oyama Hall now sits.  In the first days of apple production each grower packed his  own fruit, hauling it by wagons to Vernon for shipment. Until the  young trees came into bearing, many growers planted tomatoes  and canteloupe between the rows. A cannery to process the tomato crop was constructed on the north end of Wood Lake and  later used as a fruit-packing house. In 1912 the Vernon Fruit Union  built packing facilities and soon an independently-owned packing  house was built by Stirling and Pitcairn in the same area. Later,  B. C. Fruit Shippers operated a packing house with a cold storage  plant.  Today, Oyama is still mainly a farming district and called by  some of its residents The Gem of the Okanagan, and I find it difficult not to agree with them.  106 THE FRASER-PLASKEJT LAND  COMPANY OF OSOYOOS  Dorothy Fraser  The 50th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society has an  account of the founding of Osoyoos Orchards Company and  its successful development of all the fruit land on the east  side of Osoyoos Lake, south of Highway 3.  Not all developments succeeded. George J. Fraser, the moving spirit of Osoyoos Orchards, had earlier thought there might be  possibilities north of the highway, also on the east side of the lake.  A land boom was then in the making, and so in 1910 Fraser bought  200 acres of raw land from Francis X. Richter at $65 an acre, with  the intention of selling irrigated orchard lots. To raise capital, Fraser  formed a company and promised rich returns. A good deal of the  money came from relatives, including Fraser's brothers, and from  his wife's family, the Plasketts.  A good number of those relatives lived in either Eastern  Canada or the eastern United States. Some of them never saw the  land they invested in, either before or after the purchase.  Financial details and names of the shareholders are available  in G. J. Fraser's account books, although an expert is needed to sort  out the various inter-related deals made on behalf of the enterprise.  Unfortunately, the land boom collapsed. Then came World  War I. Not until 1922 was an irrigation system put in for about 50  acres. Land was sold to veteran George Crookston through the Soldier Settlement Board; to Reverend George Paull, a retired Baptist  minister who specialized in purebred Holstein cattle, which Paull  wished to graze on the wild range land, and to the promoter's brother,  Frank Fraser.  Suitable plots were planted to standard trees and water was  to be supplied by a centrifugal pump—driven by a gasoline engine—wooden pipes and flumes. The three landowners, however,  were unable to run the irrigation system successfully. They could  not decide on how to share start-up costs, didn't bother to pre-soak  the wood components and often failed to apply the first watering  at the right time. Subsequent applications were just as erratic. Within  three years they all walked away from their orchards, leaving Fraser-  Plaskett Land Company holding the bag.  107 THE FRASER-PLASKETT LAND COMPANY OF OSOYOOS  For his part, George J. Fraser never gave up. Twelve years  later he put in a new irrigation system, using steel pipes, and the  land was bought by Kenneth A. Plaskett, Captain E. A. Titchmarsh,  R. D. Fraser and D. P. Fraser. For a time other growers, the Elliotts,  and later the Goodmans, also had land there. Each place has had  several owners since.  Meanwhile, the area now known as Motel Row had its dunes  levelled on both sides of the highway and lots were sold for $100,  or, at best, $200 each, thus returning a small part of the capital to  the unlucky enterprise.  The last piece of Fraser-Plaskett land, a picturesque site at  the southwest corner of Vaseux Lake, was finally sold to a local  rancher as late as the '50s. George Fraser had been paying taxes on  it since 1910. He had also made a conscientious attempt to repay  shareholder loans down through the years from his own earnings.  G. J. Fraser later summed up the ill-fated scheme in an unsigned, undated note to the shareholders: "The Fraser Plaskett Land  Company was a small company formed in 1911 by a few friends for  the purpose of pooling their investments in real-estate mostly on  Osoyoos District. Operations of the company were confined to real  estate and there were no returns of either capital or interest up to  Dec. 31st/45. There was a 25% return of capital made in 1947 and  it is expected there will be a final return of about 17%. The property was non-revenue producing and the carrying charges over the  long period of years rendered it an unfortunate investment."  Historically-rich Windsor Avenue Park in Penticton has a new marker commemorating the area's  first white settler, Tom Ellis. Participating in the official unveiling in June 1997 were Canon Randy  Wood, Randy Manuel, Mona Ante, a resident of Fairview subdivision for 51 years, and Enabelle  Gorek (right), second vice-president of the OHS. Ellis arrived in the Okanagan Valley in 1865 as a  19-year-old and built up his holdings until he had amassed 30,000 acres of the best bottom lands  between Naramata and Osoyoos. He also created Penticton's first town lots. (Dave MacDonald)  108 HISTORY IN THE HOSPITAL  HISTORY IN THE HOSPITAL  Terry Lodge  Early in 1995, Vernon Jubilee Hospital turned over to the  Vernon Museum 26 volumes of admission records. The museum already had one small volume that recorded admissions from 1899 to 1908. Approximately two years, worth of records  prior to this time were lost as a result of re-binding. Besides the  patient's name, age, doctor and diagnosis, these early records gave  the place of residence. Because Vernon had one of the earliest hospitals in the interior of BC, people came from far and wide to be  treated here. In the bigger registers, the nationality, religion, occupation and "person (or society) responsible" were also usually recorded, along with a column for "cured," "incurable" and "died."  Most often these were left blank. In fact, it is known that many  entire entries were missed. The reason for this is pure conjecture.  Was the registrar too busy?  From 1899 the records show that patients came from a wide  area of the province, including such larger centres as Fairview,  Greenwood, Revelstoke, Summerland and Grande Prairie, as well  as stops along Okanagan Lake, such as Nahun, Ewing's Landing,  Fintry, Carr's Landing and Rainbow Ranch. Many of these places  and post offices no longer exist. There were several interesting place  names in the vicinity of Cherry Creek, for example Camagna, named  after a family of gold-seekers. Blue Springs is still on some maps  today. Reiswig and Hilton, Richlands, Alvaston and CowDale are  other settlements that lasted only a few years beyond the turn of  the century.  These records of admissions were entered by the matron of  the hospital and for a time, by the secretary. As far as accuracy is  concerned, we are at their mercy. For whatever reasons, they missed  some names, certainly misspelled others, and wrote in the florid  handwriting style of the day—a challenge for anyone to read. A  woman's identity is further clouded by the fact her name is usually  entered as "Mrs. John Doe," never Mary or Jane Doe. Of interest,  too, is the fact that the address of a next-of-kin could be in England,  Eastern Canada or the United States.  Terry Lodge, RN, graduated from St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, in 1956. After  taking time out to raise a family of six, she re-entered the nursing field in 1980  and retired from Vernon Jubilee Hospital in 1994. She belongs to Vernon Museum's Friends of History and this is the second article she has written for the OHS.  ( See Report No. 47)  109 HISTORY IN THE HOSPITAL  In 1908 the first of new, larger registers is used, which has  columns for far more information, although these were not always  completely filled out. Under nationality, the prejudices of the day  become apparent. Up until 1920 the nationality was usually British, or Dutch/German, and French, plus quite a few "Chinks" and  "Japs," with their religion listed as "heathen." Native Indians were  "Siwash," and often from "Blacktown," which was supposed to be  on Okanagan Lake near Six Mile Creek. Several German and eastern European names are noted just prior to the 1914-18 war years,  usually in conjunction with the asylum, or the internment camp  where McDonald Park is now situated. There must have been quite  a self-contained community there, with guards and staff living on-  site. Several babies were recorded as having been born to families  at this address, as well as the usual admissions that required surgery and/or nursing care.  About this time there are several admissions from various  members of the Sigalets. This was a group of about seven or eight  families that emigrated from the Scandinavian town/province of  Sigalet. They were apparently not related, except by the fact they  were all from the same place. They were nearly all located towards  Mabel Lake, along the Shuswap River and at Sugar Lake. There  were very few Ukrainians, Poles or Russians until about 1920, when  some started to show up in the registers.  Most admissions were for accidents and infectious diseases,  especially typhoid fever. There were cases of phthysis and erisipalis,  and in season, frostbite, "poisoned ivy" and sunstroke. Many women  came to the hospital to give birth, but many came after a home  delivery for repairs of the birth canal: perineorrhaphy. There were  also quite a few admissions for alcoholism, or "alcoholic nerves."  One woman was admitted with the diagnosis of "kicked by a horse."  Horse was crossed out and "husband" written in above.  Because Vernon was a major training centre for the army,  many returned men were admitted for recuperation from war  wounds. In 1916 "J" Unit was set up to accommodate soldiers that  had diseases of the chest and lungs, no doubt established in the  North Okanagan because of the area's dry climate. Some of these  men had been gassed, but many had chronic chest conditions such  as asthma and bronchitis. They were gathered from regiments and  battalions all over Canada, brought to Vernon for treatment, and  remained patients for anywhere from three weeks to a year or more.  After the war, the name of this centre was changed from J Unit to  the 11th Depot District, thus serving the military well into the 1920s.  The original group numbered about 35 men, and others came as  beds were available. A special women's auxiliary unit was set up to  look after their needs, sewing and knitting for them, as well as  110 RAILS STILL HERE - WHERE HAS ALL THE BUSINESS GONE?  entertaining them with card parties, lantern slides, picture shows,  dances and outings and picnics. Several patients settled in Vernon  after discharge, marrying and raising families.  A procedure that was prevalent at this time was Diarsonal  Treatment. After many enquiries, it was found that the di meant  two, and arsonal referred to arsenic. Thus, two salts of arsenic, used  in combination, were injected for the treatment of syphilis. This  injection was given on an out-patient basis, as, according to the  records, none of the patients was admitted to hospital. Most patients received only one dose, although a few had two or three.  Very few people were admitted with syphilis, which could have  been a problem given the large numbers of returning service personnel. For reasons of confidentiality, only the names have been  indexed with the date of admission and residence to help identify  the patient.  The index has already been used by genealogists researching  family history. Often, the only evidence that a person lived in this  area was that they were admitted to Vernon Jubilee Hospital. Another major user is the Okanagan Indian Band, in establishing status rights for its members.  It has taken two years to index the first 25 years of these  registers, amounting to three volumes with about 10,000 carded  entries. There are 23 volumes yet to be indexed.  RAILS SHLL HERE—WHERE HAS  ALL THE BUSINESS GONE?  R. F. (Bob) Marriage  Early in this century, Canadian Pacific enjoyed a railway monopoly in the southern interior of the province anywhere it  was not competing with its arch rival, the Great Northern.  This situation prevailed in the Okanagan until 1910, when  MacKenzie and Mann, of the Canadian Northern Railway, began  construction of their main line from Yellowhead Pass to tidewater  at Vancouver. That same year, they also projected building a branch  from Kamloops to Kelowna, later to be extended to Penticton, and  eventually east to Lethbridge.  R. F. Marriage has worn several hats in a long association with the OHS, currently as a Kelowna branch director and the Society's official historian. As an  employee of the Railway Post Office service, he developed an abiding interest in  the transportation world surrounding him.  Ill RAILS STILL HERE - WHERE HAS ALL THE BUSINESS GONE?  However, trouble was on the horizon for MacKenzie and  Mann, and the CPR was to enjoy another 15 years unchallenged in  the Valley. In 1911 MacKenzie and Mann defaulted on a minor bond  issue and were soon in serious difficulty. But in 1912, with main  line construction still far from complete, Canadian Northern was  authorized to build the Kelowna and Lumby branches.  In 1913 Kelowna city council arranged the sale of lots to Canadian Northern for its yard and waterfront facilities. The line from  the junction at Kamloops was to cross the CPR on an interlocked  diamond and climb to Duck's Meadow and Monte Lake on a one-  percent grade.  Once at Monte Lake, the route proceeded to Grande Prairie,  the Salmon River and over the height of land to the Okanagan basin. From the vicinity of Grandview Flats, it would descend to Deep  Creek, then climb to a low divide and proceed via the west side of  Swan Lake to Vernon. The survey from there to Kelowna followed  the line still in use today. A spur to Okanagan Landing was also  considered.  With the outbreak of the First World War, the Okanagan plans  were suspended indefinitely, but work on the main line continued  and the last spike was driven at Basque, near Ashcroft, January 23,  1915.  By then Canadian Northern, Grand Trunk Pacific and several  other roads were bankrupt, leading to the formation of Canadian  National Railways.  In 1919, CN bridged the South Thompson River and built a  spur to downtown Kamloops. For some years passenger trains  backed in from the main line. The year 1920 saw revival of plans  for the Okanagan branch via a somewhat revised route. CN was to  obtain running rights over the CPR to Campbell Creek, and then  climb to Duck's Meadow on a two-percent grade.  This required the branch line's only tunnel, 475 feet long  (143 metres) at Mile 20.4. The established location would be followed to Grandview Flats, where it would swing north and descend  to Deep Creek and a junction with the CPR at Armstrong, where  running rights were provided to Vernon.  From there the original survey was followed to Kelowna, with  provision for CP to operate freight trains to the central Okanagan.  These joint track agreements are still in effect (1995). Grading was  completed in 1924 and track laying in 1925, when the first train  arrived in Kelowna September 14. The Lumby branch opened a  month later.  A passenger and freight dock and a barge slip were built in  the vicinity of the present-day Lagoon Tower. In 1926, the MS  Pentowna, built by CN's Prince Rupert shipyard, was launched to  112 RAILS STILL HERE - WHERE HAS ALL THE BUSINESS GONE?  compete with the CPR's SS Sicamous to all points on the lake as far  south as Penticton. The Pentowna was withdrawn from passenger  service and converted for use as a tug in 1937.  CN chose to ignore the old standard station plans of the Canadian Northern and instead erected a "special" depot in Kelowna  in 1926. The solid brick and stone building, no longer used by the  railway, still stands and is believed to have been the first structure  in Kelowna with automatic oil-fired heat.  The first passenger service on the line was a gas-electric, self-  propelled car dubbed the "Galloping Goose." The Valley press  records numerous complaints and petitions made at that time about  Freight train departs Rutland on a cold winter's day c. 1950 with a load of Okanagan apples.  the infrequency and poor quality of this service. Eventually, service was established to include day coach, cafe-parlour and a  "through" sleeper to Vancouver six nights a week. When surplus  equipment became available, a through sleeper ran thrice weekly  to Blue River, Jasper or Edmonton, as might be practicable on the  prevailing schedule.  Traditional passenger service was replaced October 28, 1961  by a rail-diesel car on a speeded-up schedule, but this did not attract the anticipated short-haul traffic and the schedule was with-  113 .RAILS STILL HERE - WHERE HAS ALL THE BUSINESS GONE?  drawn entirely about two years later. With improved highways and  the new Okanagan Lake bridge at Kelowna, freight volume declined  and lake barge service was abandoned in 1973.  The CPR, always enjoying the lion's share of the business,  had seen fit to pull out in 1972.  In 1962, CN historian G. R. Stevens wrote of the Okanagan  subdivision: "This trackage proved to be profitable and remains in  operation to this day." But as the railways concentrate on the profitable parts of their business—long haul and big tonnage—branches  such as the Okanagan subdivision lose more traffic to the trucks.  The original CPR yard in Kelowna, along with its customers,  has disappeared entirely. For newcomers to town, the plan displayed at the Laurel Building at Ellis Street and Cawston Avenue is  an intriguing relic of that yard and its era of operation. The CN  yard, operated jointly with the CPR, continues to shrink. Both railways have disposed of their waterfront property to the City of  Kelowna for redevelopment.  It remains to be seen if the encouraging 1962 report by  Stevens can be made again in the next century.  — This article first appeared in the Kelowna Daily Courier  as a contribution from Kelowna Branch of the OHS.  Interior view of St. Michael and All Angels used on 1915 Christmas greeting  card from The Rectory. (Both photographs courtesy Anglican Diocese of  Kootenay Archives)  See following article, "Kelowna  Church Marks Centenary"  114 KELOWNA CHURCH  MARKS CENTENARY  Arnold Draper  (With grateful thanks for information supplied by Betty Rennie, in  her 1956 article for the OHS, and to Peter Stirling, grandson of  Archdeacon Greene).  On Trinity Sunday, 1995, the Cathedral Church of St. Michael  and All Angels celebrated the centenary of the first Anglican service held in Kelowna. That service took place above  Lequime's store on Bernard Avenue on May 27, 1894, and was conducted by Reverend Thomas Greene.  Greene, the much-loved pioneer priest, came to Qu'Appelle,  NWT (Saskatchewan), in 1890 from his native Ireland. In 1893, on  the invitation of Tom Ellis, he moved to the new church of St. Saviour's in Penticton. The church was on the Ellis ranch and Reverend Greene tutored the Ellis children. At that time, St. Saviour's  was the only Anglican church south of Vernon.  The first suggestion of building a church in Kelowna came  from a Mrs. Crichton of Hereford, England, whose two sons were  ranching in the district. On receiving Mrs. Crichton's enquiry, sent  through the Bishop's Commissary in England, the rector called a  meeting of the congregation on December 22, 1894. There was a  good attendance and a committee of eight was appointed.  First St. Michael and All Angels Church in 1895.  Arnold Draper is organist and choir leader at St. Michael and All Angels. He is  a member of the Okanagan Historical Society.  115 KELOWNA CHURCH MARKS CENTENARY  The first church wardens, J. L. Pridham and Charles Mair,  were chosen. By Easter 1895, subscriptions amounting to $1,181  had been promised and there were liberal donations from Britain.  The Lequime brothers gave two large building lots for the site. Work  on the church structure began at once and the builders, Messrs.  Curts and Blair, had it ready and furnished early in the fall.  Bishop John Dart consecrated the church to St. Michael and  All Angels on October 5, 1895. Prior to this, monthly services of  worship had been held in the old schoolhouse on the north side of  Mill Avenue (now Queensway). Reverend Greene continued to  commute from Penticton until 1897, when the bishop divided the  district, appointing Greene to the charge of Kelowna with Trout  Creek (Summerland).  By 1906 the congregation had increased to such a degree that  the question of building a new church was discussed. In 1908 a  committee recommended building on a new site. With great foresight, approximately 11/2 acres of land was purchased on Richter  Street and the design of a local architect, W A. Peters, was chosen.  It was decided that the building would be of stone, Gothic in style,  consisting of nave with clerestory, supported on arches and pillars,  with choir and chancel. There would also be a vestry, organ chamber and furnace room and there was a proposal to build a rectory  on the grounds.  Laying the cornerstone July 30, 1911.  116 KELOWNA CHURCH MARKS CENTENARY  Second St. Michael and All Angels second building, soon after construction, 1913-1920.  By spring of 1911 work was well underway. Martin Band was  foreman-mason, and Henry William (Harry) Raymer was in charge  of carpentry and joinery. On Sunday, July 30, 1911, the cornerstone was laid by F. A. Taylor, with Reverend H. A. Solly of  Summerland as guest speaker for the occasion. On June 13, 1913  the undertaking was completed.  With parish work ever increasing, the rector was made rural  dean, and in 1916, archdeacon. Although he resigned as rector in  1925, Archdeacon Greene continued to assist in the ministry of the  church until his death in 1935. He was succeeded as rector by Reverend Charles Davis, who had been his assistant priest.  Reverend Davis, a fellow Irishman, had taken his degree at  Trinity College, Dublin, and had been precentor and librarian of  Waterford Cathedral. He was an accomplished musician and organist and he trained the famed St. Michael's Boys' Choir. He was  also responsible for the building of St. Aidan's and St. Mary's  churches in Kelowna. During his incumbency the magnificent oak  reredos and altar were installed in memory of those who died in  the First World War.  To our good fortune, he acquired a large pipe organ from the  Wesley Methodist Church in Vancouver. He was responsible, too,  for a considerable enlargement of the parish hall. After his retirement in 1942 he continued as choirmaster until his death two years  later.  117 KELOWNA CHURCH MARKS CENTENARY  The beautiful stained glass east window is a major feature of  the church and is a memorial to the life and ministry of the Venerable Archdeacon Greene. It was dedicated on May 12, 1946 by Archbishop Adams, together with a chalice, paten, and two large cruets  in memory of those who fell in WWII.  There are two other memorial stained-glass windows. One,  showing St. Cecilia, patron saint of music, was dedicated on Christmas morning, 1948, in memory of Reverend Charles Davis. The  other, dedicated to William C. Cameron, an early people's warden,  was installed when the church was built and depicts Christ holding  a chalice. The carved oak pulpit was given by Mr. and Mrs. William  Hughes-Games in memory of their son, Flying Officer Norman  Hughes-Games, who died while on aircraft operations in 1944. In  1948 new oak seating was completed and given to the church as an  offering of thanks for the safe return of wartime personnel.  The rectory (now the diocesan synod office) was completed  in 1956 on the site planned by Archdeacon Greene and his committee in 1911.  Steeped in history, the Haynes house at Osoyoos is the centre of attention for  members attending the OHS annual meeting. John Carmichael Haynes built  his dwelling between 1878 and 1882 from lumber cut at Postill's mill, Winfield,  and floated down Okanagan Lake and River to Osoyoos. Haynes died in 1888  and Tom Ellis ended up with his property. Subsequent owners have been Leslie Hill, George Fraser and lastly, Doug and Dorothy Fraser. (Denis Marshall)  118 With an introduction by  Enabelle Gorek, Contest Chair  The response to the student writing competition for 1997 was good  and the quality of work was extremely high. Thanks must go to  the various Historical Society members around the Valley that took  the time and trouble to conduct local competitions and then forward the winning entries for adjudication at the parent body level.  I also want to thank Art Holmes, who did the final adjudications,  for his time and the trouble he took to critique each entry. Mr.  Holmes has a love affair with the English language, as I think the  recipients of his comments will appreciate.  The format of this year's competition followed that of some  previous years, with students selecting, researching and writing  on their own topic. The field of choice was wide, with the only  provisions being the piece must relate to the Okanagan-Shuswap  region and have a cap on the number of words. The subject matter ranged from biographies to aspects of Native culture before the  coming of the Europeans. It was gratifying to see the broad use of  reference material, from the Internet to personal interviews.  I thank all entrants for their efforts and congratulate the two  winners whose work is published in this Report. I hope we will see  more of the writing of all of this year's competitors. As Mr. Holmes  remarked to me, "from such writers come the future Booker Prize  winners."  Essay Winner 'Ģ Junior Division  THE 3400 BLOCK OF  SCHUBERT STREET, VERNON, BC  Christopher Baryla, Grade 9, Vernon Secondary School  In the year 1912 there was a small stable situated at Vernon's  216 Schubert Street. The property had been bought by E. G.  Thomas, so that he would have a place to keep the few horses  he had during the winter. The property and stable were appraised  at $25. Mr. Thomas kept his horses on the property for four years  until he moved on in 1916. At this time the stable was demolished  and the property remained unoccupied for seven years.  119 STUDENT ESSAYS  In 1923, while Vernon was quite steadily expanding, the property was purchasedby C. G. McPherson. Mr. McPherson also bought  an old, outdated "gaol" and had it moved onto his new property to  be converted into a residence. The gaol, or jail, was made purely of  logs, because steel was not available when it was built. Just as in  the old westerns, the jail consisted of a single cell as well as an  open jailer's office. When it was purchased by Mr. McPherson it  was located beside what was then the Hudson's Bay store. If it was  still there today it would be in the middle of the Eaton's parking lot  on 30th Avenue. Once Mr. McPherson had brought the small log  building to its new location he began building an extension on the  back, as well as an upper level. By the time the renovations were  finished the property with the house on it was appraised at approximately $600.  Mr. McPherson lived in his house for only three years until  he sold it to Percy L. Topham in 1926. Mr. Topham continued the  renovations to suit his own liking. He did things such as turning  around a staircase in order to create more room, as well as moving  doors and putting plywood panelling on the inside walls over the  logs and support boards. The plywood panelling is of some importance, due to the fact that it was some of the first plywood introduced to the area. Some other notable renovations are in the dining and sitting rooms, where there are wooden picture hook mouldings at a height of eight feet, on the nine-foot walls. These mouldings were the standard fixtures used to hang portraits around the  rooms. Another feature was the addition of chair rails, varnished  wooden mouldings that were installed around the room at a height  of approximately three feet. Their purpose was to protect the walls  from being damaged by the backs of the chairs. When the house  was bought, the back yard included what was called a summer  kitchen. It was a building that somewhat resembled a shed or garage, and just as its name implies it was used as a place to cook in  the summer. The reason for it being there was that without air  conditioning or good insulation the house would get very hot in  the summer any time the woodstove was lit. By having a separate  building in the back, the family was able to make hot, or cooked  meals, as well as keeping the house as cool as possible. However,  by the time Mr. Topham bought the house, simple single-element  electric burners, used to boil a kettle or potatoes etc., were available, and so the summer kitchen became obsolete. Realizing that  there was no longer a use for the building in its current state, Mr.  Topham moved it across the yard and renovated it into a garage. By  the time all of the renovations were complete, in 1927, the house  and property were appraised at $800.  120 STUDENT ESSAYS  Percy Topham lived in the house on Schubert Street with his  wife—and high school sweetheart—Charlotte Topham, whom he  had married in England while fighting the First World War. After  the war, Percy and Charlotte moved to British Columbia and eventually to Vernon, where Percy had received his army training. He  worked at the Hudson's Bay in the shoe department at Vancouver  and came to Vernon after requesting a transfer. He worked at the  Vernon Bay for a few years after he arrived in the North Okanagan  before he decided to start his own shoe store, which was located on  what is now 30th Avenue. He quite appropriately named his store  "Topham's Shoes." Percy and Charlotte had only one child, a girl  named Evelyn. When the family moved to Vernon Evelyn was only  four and she was just about to start school.  During the time that Evelyn was a child, there were many  changes made to the Topham house and some newly-invented  things were added, such as an indoor washroom. When the Tophams  moved into the house the only bathroom was a small outhouse in  the back yard, and when Mr. Topham installed an indoor washroom in 1928 it was a major luxury, after having to run through the  snow at night in minus 20 degree weather to relieve yourself. The  house received electricity by way of a pole in front of the house,  the same way most houses do today. The wires ran through a large  metal box hung beside the door on the porch. The electricity  powering the houses in this part of town came either from the  Shuswap Falls dam, or the power house in the middle of town along  the railroad tracks. The power house has since been converted to a  theatre appropriately named the Powerhouse Theatre.  Heritage House Salon, built in 1992 to match original building on this site.  121 STUDENTESSAYS  The telephone line was strung from the same pole as the  electric cable, and into the Topham's kitchen. The telephone was  about four feet off the floor and consisted of a black box, 14 inches  square, with the speaker in the middle and the receiver on a short  cord to one side, which, when not being used, was placed on a  hook which disconnected the line. When you wished to make a  call the receiver was taken off the hook and placed by your ear, the  operator would come on the line and say "number please." You  would tell the operator the number and she would connect you.  When a call was incoming to your house the phone would have a  distinct ring, such as two long rings and then two short ones. Each  house had a different ring; the Tophams' number was 585R.  While growing up Evelyn obviously had no TV, but she did  have a radio that she listened to in the evenings, as this was the  only time that most of the stations broadcast. There were three  stations that Evelyn's radio picked up—CKOV Kelowna, KSL, Salt  Lake City, and KPO, San Francisco. Her radio was able to pick up  the stations much better than today, due to the lack of interference  that we have between the different cities now.  As you can see in the picture of Evelyn and her dog, there  was no sidewalk or paved road, just weeds, and dust on the road  piled up two to three inches. During the summer Evelyn would  run barefoot on the road, letting the dust squish between her toes.  In Vernon, around the early 1900s, there were no postmen,  so no one would deliver the mail directly to your house. The procedure for getting your mail was, when the mail train came into town  at approximately nine a.m., the workers at the post office would  immediately start sorting the letters and parcels. It would usually  take until two in the afternoon to finish the sorting and after that  you could go and pick up your mail. Most households and businesses had a mailbox at the post office, which is the small old brick  building opposite the Kalamalka Hotel on what is now 30th Avenue. All of the boxes were clear glass, with the number painted on  the front, and on the bottom were the larger boxes used for the  town businesses. The Topham household had box number 422, and  every day one of the Tophams would go to the post office to check  for mail. Evelyn, being so small, had to step up on the foot ledge  and stand really tall in order to see in her box. Owing to the size of  the boxes, the mail had to be inserted on an angle, and magazines  and newspapers had to be rolled up.  Sadly, in 1938, only three years after Percy opened his own  shoe store, he died of war injuries. Now a widow, Charlotte Topham  was left with Evelyn, although her daughter was now 17 and quite  able to look after herself. After Percy's death title to the house was  placed in Charlotte's name and she immediately bought another  122 STUDENTESSAYS  Evelyn (Topham) Shaw at 3405-32nd Avenue, her family's home since 1925.  20 feet of land on the east side of the house. Charlotte and Evelyn  lived at 216 Schubert Street until just after the Second World War,  when their address became 3405 32nd Avenue.  Charlotte and Evelyn lived at 3405 for a couple more years  until Evelyn got married in 1947. Evelyn married a carpenter,  Lennard Shaw, who worked for the BC government. Evelyn and  Lennard had a baby girl that stayed with her grandmother while  her parents were forced to live all over the place because of  Lennard's job. In 1955 Charlotte's house and property were appraised again, this time at $1,100.  Then, in 1968, Charlotte Topham died while living in the home  on 32nd Avenue. Her granddaughter lived in the house until 1972,  when Evelyn and Lennard had a chance to move back to the Vernon  area and so they took possession of the house from their daughter,  still exactly the same as it was when Evelyn was growing up.  Lennard, now retired, lived there with Evelyn until he passed away  in 1992.  Now, in 1997, Evelyn Shaw still lives in the very same house  that she grew up in. Her family has owned the house since she was  four, and after all her life travels she is back to live with her two  cats and her dog (not the same dog in the picture!). Born in 1921,  Evelyn has sure seen a lot for someone "thirty-nine and holding."  During the time that the house at 3405 32nd Avenue was in  possession of the Topham/Shaw family, there were many other  interesting bouses on that street. These include the Swift family  house situated at 3401. Their house was built before Evelyn's. To  begin with, the Swifts owned the three lots that are now 3401, 3403  123 STUDENTESSAYS  and 3405 and the man that originally put the stable on 3405, Mr.  Thomas, bought the property from the Swifts. From that time in  1912 to 1938, when Charlotte Topham bought the extra 20 feet, the  property lines stayed the same. The reason that Charlotte bought  the property was to give the Tophams more space between their  house and where another house could potentially be built beside  them. Charlotte made the purchase from the Swifts, and not long  after that the Swifts moved out and the property belonged to the  McNaughton family. Then in 1950 Mr. McNaughton, who owned  3401 and 3403, gave the property at 3403 to his daughter as a wedding gift when she married Marcel Gallon. Mr. Gallon then built a  house on his property and he and his wife lived in it until 1992,  when it was bought by Mr. and Mrs. G. Paul Baryla. The house was  converted to an office, keeping many features of the home intact.  In early 1992 the house at 3401, formerly the McNaughton house,  was dismantled bit-by-bit in hopes of saving most of the original  structure. But in the end it was found that none of the old structure  could be saved, thus the house was taken down and rebuilt to meet  the "specs" of the original. Today it is the Heritage House Salon.  Around the 1920s, 32nd Avenue was semi-filled with homes or other  buildings, but today there is not a space to be found, and the street  is known as Doctors' Row. It has been given this name because the  buildings on the street are tenanted by medical doctors, dentists,  foot doctors, eye doctors, hair doctors, and money doctors. A lot of  Vernon's heritage is on 32nd Avenue, and one hopes some of this  heritage can be preserved for generations to come.  Essay Winner - Senior Division  BYLAND'S NURSERIES LTD.  Melissa Kroeker, Grade 10, Mt. Boucherie Secondary School  When thinking of history, Okanagan history, many places,  people and businesses come to mind. One very interest  ing business that has been located in the Okanagan since  1956 is also family-owned and operated. Byland's Nurseries Ltd.  has grown from a small plot of land near Gellatly Bay to a 250-acre  area, which has often been recognized as one of Canada's most  successful nurseries and family businesses. From a "business" that  was operated before Adrian Byland left to work a sawmill graveyard shift, to a provider of jobs for over 100 people during peak  124 STUDENTESSAYS  times, this essay will show how Adrian Byland and his family, with  the help of loyal clients and devoted employees, built their own  piece of Okanagan history.  Adrian Byland left Holland for Canada in 1953, leaving behind quite a family tree. His family had been growing nursery stock  since the 1700s. When Adrian began looking for work it was natural that he would desire a job in the agriculture field. One of his  first jobs was at the present-day Traas Nursery, clearing land for  John Traas Senior in Langley. He was eventually employed at a  sawmill in Kelowna, working the graveyard shift. This gave Adrian  the opportunity to work on his own nursery near Gellatly Bay during the day. This routine continued until 1954 when his budding  nursery required his full attention.  Adrian soon met Katie, an immigrant from Yugoslavia. In 1956  they married, the same year that the Bylands bought 12 acres of  land along Highway 97 south. Some locals were skeptical, as the  plot contained many rocks, but the purchase proved extremely wise  as the present-day, successful nursery now occupies the same space.  Adrian and Katie also realized the importance of being near the  highway, even though the Okanagan Lake bridge was yet to be  built. Easy access would encourage business.  Byland's Nurseries took part in another Okanagan tradition  by planting a 10-acre apple orchard in its first year. This was supplemented by two acres of nursery stock. In the early years, Byland's  Nurseries was primarily a small retail nursery complemented by  the selling of fruit trees to local farmers. The nursery continues to  sell fruit trees at the present time.  1958 Eventful Year  In 1958 many aspects of the Byland family and nursery began to develop rapidly. Until then they had lived in a small pickers'  cabin on Paynter Road in Westbank. In 1958 they began building a  house on the same plot of land as their nursery. Adrian and Katie  had their first child, John, the same year. The Bylands lived in the  basement of the house until 1964, when it was finally finished.  The house did not feature indoor plumbing until 1963. Another  major development in 1958 was the opening of the original Garden  Centre, which encouraged retail sales.  With the completion of the Okanagan Bridge in 1958, many  more clients were introduced to Byland's Nurseries. It was no longer  as much of an adventure to go from downtown Kelowna to Westside.  When the Rogers Pass was opened in 1962, the wholesale market  became a larger portion of Byland's business. Access to potential  markets was significantly easier. Because the climate on the Prai-  125 STUDENT ESSAYS  ries is poor for growing, Byland's began shipping to many areas  across the Prairies, primarily in Alberta, increasing their wholesale volume considerably.  Early in 1967 the Bylands had a second child, Anita. Children  had little direct impact on the family business. An aunt came to  stay with the Bylands to assist with the cleaning, cooking and the  general raising of John and Anita. This enabled Katie to remain  working at the nursery with Adrian. As a child, John spent weekends working at the retail store as well as helping with budding  and grafting, driving the tractor, and making deliveries. Anita made  cuttings, helped with budding and grafting, and worked at the store.  Working at the nursery was mandatory for both John and Anita,  the only exception was for homework. John Byland remembers  times when he really wanted to participate in other activities, but  couldn't because of work.  During the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, Byland's Nurseries went through an important change. The idea of potted plants  was introduced to the nursery business. Plants changed from being sold bare root, to being sold in pots. The Bylands were quick to  see the advantages of this new trend and implemented it earlier  than most other nurseries. Potted plants allowed the Garden Centre to sell plants year-round, not solely during the spring season.  These plants were also easier to transplant, giving gardeners a better success rate. This is still considered a very significant development in the history of Byland's Nurseries.  Debt Kept To Minimum  Byland's Nurseries continued to prosper and grow throughout the next decade. In order to stay out of debt, Adrian expanded  the nursery on a pay-as-you-go basis. The Bylands never spent  money they didn't have, because they didn't know how profitable  sales would be the next year. This proved a wise business tactic, as  Byland's Nurseries has never faced great debt, while continuing to  expand effectively throughout the changing times. "Slow but steady  wins the race," would be an accurate way to describe the overall  business plan of the Bylands.  With the help of better trucks and refrigeration, plants began  being transported by road, as opposed to railroad, during the 1960s  and the '70s. Improved refrigeration also allowed plants to be kept  dormant for longer periods. The use of irrigation, fertilization and  pesticides also began during this period, greatly enhancing the  quality of the plants. This, in turn, further increased their markets,  both in distance and volume.  126 STUDENTESSAYS  Adrian decided to grow ornamental container stock in the  early 1970s after a few poor years with fruit trees. This important  decision proved fruitful, as the plants grew nicely in the Okanagan  climate. The Rogers Pass continued to help, as it provided a direct  route for these plants to the Prairies. In 1974 the Garden Centre  doubled in size to permit more retail sales. In 1978, prior to marrying John Byland, Maria began managing the retail store. She has  continued to do so and the successful Garden Centre now employs  up to 20 percent of the nursery's workers during peak times.  Employees Valued  Byland's Nurseries has always treated its employees with a  "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" mind set.  The Bylands appreciate their employees very much and fully realize that they wouldn't be where they are today without them. The  nursery has remained a non-union company from day one. Unions  are not very common in the agriculture business, or in family businesses. The Bylands also try to make their employees'jobs as pleasant as possible, as they believe that happy workers make productive workers.  In 1982 the Byland family and their nursery suffered a major  loss with the death of father and founder. Adrian Byland left behind a flourishing business and a blossoming family. Byland's Nurseries had grown from 12 to 100 acres and there were now 80 people  employed at the nursery during peak times, as opposed to the early  days when Adrian was the only one. The wholesale department  had grown from nothing to 75 percent of the nursery's business.  Adrian Byland had done very well.  Statistics show that of all family-run businesses, over 70 percent fail to make a successful transition to the next generation.  Byland's Nurseries persisted and lies clearly among the other 30  percent.  Determined to keep the family business going, Katie Byland  took over as president of the company and John became general  manager. Due to a lack of experience, John appointed a board of  directors that is still in place today. Anita held many non-supervisory positions at the nursery, and just generally helped out. Maria  continued to manage the Garden Centre.  John and Maria had their first child, Michael, on January 13,  1984 and their second, Melanie, on September 19, 1985. Mike and  Melanie's duties are very similar to those that kept John and Anita  busy as children. Melanie helps her mother at the Garden Centre  and makes cuttings. Michael primarily works in the wholesale de-  127 STUDENT ESSAYS  partment potting, spacing and moving plants. The biggest difference is the time that is now spent on potting, reflecting the shift in  methods over the previous generation.  Anita became accounts payable and safety manager in 1995.  Prior to that, she attended modelling school and worked in a retail  clothing store. She is still kept busy with many non-supervisory  jobs at the nursery.  Technology To The Fore  With help from many major technological changes, Byland's  Nurseries has been able to double the size of the nursery without  doubling the size of the work force. Technology has been able to  make the staffs jobs easier and safer. Since opening in 1956, the  nursery has improved by introducing: better digging equipment,  fogging systems for propagation, computer controls for irrigation  and the greenhouses, planting machines, a floor heating system  that improves rooting; planting machines, and racking and storage  systems for improved space utilization. The biggest improvement  continues to be the process of potting plants, as opposed to bare  root.  Plants are now healthier and more uniform, due to improved  practices and greater knowledge of plants and genetics. There are  many new varieties of plants and those that were hard to propagate in the past are much easier now, because of improved technology and knowledge. Technology has also kept the cost of plants  down. Plants are very similar from season to season, except for  woody ornamentals, which are sold primarily in March and April,  and bedding plants which are sold throughout May and June. In  1988 Byland's Nurseries began selling Christmas trees, which now  make up a significant amount of December's business.  Many people can speculate regarding what has caused  Byland's Nurseries to succeed. A former employee, Mrs. Pauline  McCabe, attributes their success to the excellent quality of their  product and their commitment to improve and advance their business. They continually reinvest money back into the nursery, which  keeps Byland's Nurseries one of Canada's top agricultural businesses. At the present, a new greenhouse is in the process of being  built.  Five Ways To Success  John Byland attributes their success to five simple things,  each important in its own way. Firstly, the family enjoys working  at the nursery. They love the agriculture business and the closeness that a family business provides. Byland's employs a very capable and dedicated staff that make up the second reason for the  128 STUDENTESSAYS  nursery's success. Thirdly, the Bylands give credit to the loyal clients that have continued to utilize the nursery's products. Fourthly,  Bylands put a great deal of their profits directly back into the company. The final reason for success is that Byland's management is  very accessible. Katie, Anita, John and Maria Byland are all very  capable and willing to be involved in any aspect of the business  such as working directly with customers. Customers often feel a  welcome, personal touch.  The Bylands are proud of the fact that over the years they  have continued to do the best they can to accommodate the environment. The nursery recycles water and used old chipped-up lumber as mulch.  The Bylands have been honoured with many awards and certificates of achievement for their nursery since opening in 1956. At  the present time, they are most proud of the small business award  that was given to the nursery by the Chamber of Commerce in  1991, and the Jaguar Achievement Award for Family Enterprise of  the Year, which was awarded to Byland's Nurseries this past year.  John Byland was "surprised and honoured" to have received the  award "because of the excellence of other businesses that were contending." He feels that one of the reasons that Byland's Nurseries  received the award was due to the technological progress, where  they continue to be leaders.  The Okanagan Valley has a lot of history. Every person, place  and business has its own story to tell. When Adrian Byland began  growing plants in 1954 and selling them in 1956, he had no idea  that his name and family would grow to make up such a large piece  of Okanagan history. With the success, adaptations, attitudes and  progress that Byland's Nurseries has had in the past 40 years, there  is little doubt that the nursery will still be operating effectively  after another 40 years.  PRINCIPAL SOURCES: Dorothy Brotherton, "Byland Family Shares in National Award."  Westside Weekly, November 6, 1996; John Byland, personal interview and letter; John and  Maria Byland, personal letter; John Keery, "Entrepreneurs Honoured." The Kelowna Daily  Courier, October 25, 1991; Pauline McCabe, personal interview; "Profile: Byland's Nurseries," Hortwest Magazine, September/October 1992; "Who's the Boss," Okanagan Valley Business, September 1992.  PERSONAL SUPPORT FOR STUDENT  WRITING CONTEST RECOGNIZED  The Society gratefully acknowledges the financial support  received from the late J. W. B. Browne,  and currently from Jamie Browne, in the interest of  fostering historical awareness among our younger citizens.  129 THE BANKHEAD PONDS  Tilman Nahm  Residents of the Bankhead area of Kelowna maybe surprised  to learn that the house or apartment they live in, or the park  they play in, are sited on a vanished geographic feature: one  of the Bankhead ponds.  During my childhood—in the 1930s and '40s—Bankhead was  a rather sparsely settled area of farms, orchards and sandhills. Nestled in the low-lying spots among the sandhills where there were  springs and water seeps, were a number of interesting ponds that  have now disappeared, victims of City of Kelowna residential expansion.  Some of the ponds, by virtue of lying in a bowl surrounded  by high ground, captured snowmelt and spring runoff. Others were  spring-fed to some degree, with water levels supplemented by the  sumping of surplus irrigation water. It must be remembered that  prior to 1950 all irrigation in Bankhead was supplied by open ditches,  prior to the development of pressurized pipeline systems. Ditches  and furrow irrigation were very wasteful and created a lot of seepage, a situation that also enhanced the ponds' being.  Most of the ponds were filled in during the rampant housing  expansion in Bankhead during the 1960s. They were a convenient  place to dump mill waste, as well as tree stumps from the orchards  that were being removed to accommodate the residential developments. Some ponds were filled in with sand and dirt when bulldozers knocked off the tops of sandhills to make the terrain more amenable to urbanization.  During my youth the ponds provided many a happy recreational hour. There was rafting and angling for fish, frogs and turtles  in summer, skating and ice hockey in winter, and, before settlement took place, duck hunting in the fall. They were a unique  feature of the Bankhead landscape and I, for one, regret their demise. I dare say that if the Bankhead area was being developed  today, more of the ponds would have survived. During the past  few years society has become much more enlightened as to the  Tilman Nahm was born and raised in Kelowna. He worked for CNR Telegraph  and later was a full-time orchardist. In the 1980s he moved to Grindrod, where he  operates a mixed farm.  130 NOSTALGIA  value wetlands have in the environment. Indeed, I notice that recently some controversy was generated when ponds were filled in  and built over in the Okanagan Mission area.  For the benefit of readers that moved to Kelowna after the  Bankhead area was built up, here are a few details of the main  ponds as I remember them. They were often named to distinguish  them from each other and usually took the name of the owner of  the acreage upon which they were situated. When the property  changed hands, so, too, did the name of the pond.  STIRLING POND  Stirling Pond was the most important catchment in the  Bankhead area, for it was the centre of a commercial ice-cutting  operation for about 30 years. It was named after Commodore T. W  Stirling, who built a large house on the Bankhead Estate. This house  Bankhead Ponds paid the price of urban growth. Stirling (Burtch's) Pond, photographed c.1940 by  Karl Nahm, was the most significant; it even had fish.  still stands, having become the Bankhead Apartments at the corner of Highland Drive South and Edgewood Drive. The pond, approximately two acres in area, lay in what is now the 1300 block of  Lawson Avenue. The Lombardy Park Apartments are located right  on top of where Stirling Pond used to be.  After Commodore Stirling moved away and Henry Burtch  commenced his ice business, the pond was also called Burtch's Pond.  Henry, and later his son Arthur, had winter crews cutting ice blocks  and storing them in a large wooden icehouse facing Bernard Avenue just above where Richmond Street runs today. The stored ice  131 NOSTALGIA  was covered with a thick layer of sawdust and withdrawn as needed  during the warm months, when it was cleaned, trimmed and delivered to customers' iceboxes. Ice was also sold to the railway for  fruit express "reefer" cars.  As well, Stirling Pond was used as an irrigation reservoir for  the extensive Bankhead Orchards that once occupied the present  Lombardy subdivision. This depression was partly spring-fed and  topped up by water from the Lower Bankhead irrigation ditch, which  originated at the Old Town Dam on Mike Johnson's Willowbrook  Farm, now the site of the Parkinson Recreation Centre. The practice of topping up the pond with creek water for irrigation and ice-  making also introduced fish to the picture and some of the local  kids used to wet a line there. Long-time Kelowna resident Bill  Knowles recalls that prior to being used as a source of ice around  1921, it was a favourite spot for skating parties from the downtown  and surrounding area. It was also a popular swimming hole and  even boasted a diving board. Stirling Pond had springs along the  south shore and I well remember breaking through the ice there  while skating one night in the mid-'50s.  Henry Bunch (on sleigh) loading ice blocks in the 1920s.  THE PIG POND  This circular little pond in a deep bowl covered an acre or so  at the corner of Bernard Avenue and Elm Street. Now the site of  Duggan Park, it got its curious name from the fact that the Bankhead  Farm, abutting its western shore, used to free-range pigs on the  hillside above, the pens extending to the pond itself. It was bordered by a two to three-metre band of thick reeds along most of its  shore. The water was only about one metre deep, with little seasonal variation and the bottom consisted of thick, smelly mud, to  which I can attest, having fallen from a raft a couple of times as  boy.  132 NOSTALGIA  The water surface was covered at all times by a thick mat of  duckweed. The presence of the weed and numerous bits of driftwood precluded the Pig Pond from being a good skating surface in  the winter. The only time that it was used for skating was when  chinook-like winter thaws melted enough snow cover so that a  smooth glazing would result from the next hard freeze.  The shoreline beyond the reeds was generally bare except  for the south side below the Bernard Avenue road fill. Here grew a  thick grove of aspen poplars, elderberry and wild rose bushes, level  with the road height. This bush was a winter roosting place for  owls and hawks, enabling them to hunt mice, ringneck pheasants  and California quail. During the ice-free months the pond was home  to a couple of breeding pairs of American coots (mudhens), as well  as to red-wing and yellow-headed blackbirds. Along with many frogs  were large numbers of painted turtles that sunned themselves on  the driftwood; alas, great sport for young boys throwing rocks from  the roadway above.  Given the depth of the bowl, it took quite a few years before  it was filled with mill waste, tree stumps and soil up the level of  Duggan Park.  FIGURE 8 POND  This was a most interesting pond, with a name derived from  its obvious configuration. It was situated in the present vicinity of  Athans Court, 1400 and 1500 blocks of Leaside Avenue and Elm  Street.  At times of extreme low water—usually in early spring—it  actually became twin ponds, each about an acre in area, with a  small strip of land between. Water levels in the Figure 8 Pond var-  Rotary ice saw powered by gasoline engine replaced whipsaw method on Glenmore Road pond.  133 NOSTALGIA  ied considerably throughout the year. It was often used by the Upper Bankhead Water Users' Community to dispose of excess irrigation water. A couple of adjacent farmers had irrigation licences on  this source and used gasoline and electric pumps to water their  fields prior to development of the pressurized Bankhead Irrigation  District in 1951.  The Figure 8 basin was partially fed by springs, which made  for a good ice surface. It was the favourite of all the Bankhead ponds  for skating parties and pickup hockey games during my youth.  Along with the usual frogs and turtles, it contained coarse fish and  trout, and during the fall it was a resting place for migrating waterfowl, offering good shooting to local nimrods.  WORMAN POND  Worman Pond sat where Elm Street and Leaside Avenue intersect. It was named for Ernest Worman, a pioneer fruit grower  who owned the land surrounding. Later, in the 1940s, it was called  Wasyliuk's Pond, after Peter and Anna Wasyliuk, subsequent proprietors of the property. Worman Pond covered about an acre, with  a swampy portion at its eastern end where excess irrigation water  from the Mike Johnson (later Karl Nahm) orchard found an outlet.  It was partly enclosed by bulrushes and covered with a thick mat  of duckweed, which would disappear from time to time, making it  a fair skating pond some winters. The water level fluctuated because it was also utilized for irrigation tailings drainage. Worman's  Pond was also somewhat higher in elevation than the nearby Figure 8 Pond, and a diversion ditch served to top up the latter.  COSENS POND  Cosens Pond was situated a few hundred feet north of the  railway overhead bridge along the east side of the CNR tracks and  was named after the owner of the original orchard on the property,  Sidney Cosens. After the Cosens cherry grove froze out during a  series of cold winters in the 1930s, the Honorable Herbert Anscomb  of Victoria developed a vineyard. The two-acre pond then took on  the names of succeeding managers, becoming Senger's Pond, Weiss's  Pond, and Wiig's Pond over the years. Early photographs show a  grassy shoreline, but I recall it was surrounded by a thick waist of  bulrushes. It, too, was spring-fed and was used for supplemental  irrigation of the Anscomb crops.  134 NOSTALGIA  A family tragedy threatened one fall in the late 1940s when  my younger brother, Gerret (Gerry), nearly drowned while trying  to recover a shot duck from a leaky punt. Gerry became tangled in  some weeds while trying to swim ashore after the boat capsized.  Fred Karren, who was picking apples nearby, heard his cries for  help and heroically rescued him in the nick of time.  Cosens Pond was ideal for skating and very popular, but you  had to be careful as there was often thin ice above the springs. It  was filled in during the fifties/sixties period and is now an alfalfa  field.  Plank chute connected pond with ice storage building above.  JACK ROBERTSON MEMORIAL PARK POND  This playground and park is roughly equal in size to another  onetime pond that occupied a depression in the shape of a figure  eight. I have been unable to find anyone that can remember this  pond having a name. Nor was it used much for skating, probably  because it was fed by a number of free-flowing springs and had a  heavy growth of rushes. It also seemed to be somewhat out of the  way. It was filled in about the time the VLA homes were constructed  in the area, probably with surplus material from cuts made during  road building.  About 1953 Jack Robertson was killed by a ditch cave-in while  doing volunteer labour on the park that now bears his name.  135 NOSTALGIA  GOLF COURSE POND  The Golf Course Pond is one of two left in the Bankhead district that have not succumbed to land-shaping and development.  As late as the 1940s it was scenic and interesting, with its convoluted shape and thick growth of bulrushes along its shores; rustic  wooden bridges crossed both the north and south ends.  During the 1930s and '40s the golf club ran a public skating  concession in the winter months. There was a change shack with a  wood-burning stove and benches just below the old clubhouse and  an electric floodlight hanging on a big ponderosa pine for night  skating. The ice was cleaned and flooded, and coffee, pop and hot  dogs were vended by the concession operator. Boy, we were sure  getting modern! This was where I went to learn to skate after receiving a pair of new blades for Christmas in 1937.  In later years, when the golf course switched from sand to  grass greens and irrigated fairways, the pond became a reservoir.  REDLICH (TAYLOR) POND  Redlich Pond is the other surviving Bankhead pond. It was  originally called Taylor Pond, after Lionel E. Taylor, who lived close  by and was president and director of the Bankhead Orchard Company for many years.  In the 1950s A. H. Redlich bought an adjoining property and  recorded an irrigation water licence on the pond. It has a circular  shape, covers about one acre and appears to be spring-fed.  While driving by during a visit to Kelowna last winter, I was  happy to see a crowd of youngsters skating and playing shinny  hockey, bringing back many pleasant personal memories from over  half a century ago.  136 NOSTALGIA  THE NIGHT ELLIS CREEK  WENT ON THE RAMPAGE  Mollie Broderick  In 1940 my husband George and I, with our two small children,  moved into an unfinished house on the east side of Fair ford Drive,  Penticton, built by George Broderick Sr. It was a short street, connecting Huth and Okanagan Avenues, through which Ellis Creek  gently flowed on the north side where willow and poplar lined its banks.  Passing under a footbridge, it flowed westward to join Okanagan River.  The storage dam east of Penticton on Ellis Creek had been raised during  the term of Reeve Charlie Oliver to provide more irrigation water to the  benchland and flats south of Ellis Creek. There was a wooden flume  along the south bank suspended some six or eight feet above ground  supplying irrigation water to the area. We owned 100 laying chickens  that were housed along the north strip of the creek. On the southwest  portion of our lot was the garage and house. Bordering us to the east  were the orchards of John Birch and Les Wyles. lb the south near  Okanagan Avenue lived my parents, George and Ethel Batstone.  Ellis Creek, 1941  George was employed by the Kettle Valley Railway and the  evening of May 13,1941 he had gone to work on a westbound freight.  The children and I had been lulled into a peaceful sleep by the  gurgling little creek, when later we were awakened by our neighbour, Winnie Loundes.  "Mollie, the creek is rising fast," she shouted, and advised me  to call my parents about it and let all the chickens out of their  houses. She said she had heard rocks rolling and trees crashing up  the draw and a frightening, roaring sound.  I quickly took the car from the garage and drove to Mom and  Dad's place—thus, as it became evident later, I saved our precious  vehicle. As Winnie and I rushed to get the children out safely we  could hear people calling: "Hurry, hurry, the water's here!" Indeed,  water was already swirling around our home.  Soon all residents in the area were out trying to learn what  was happening. My father and Jack Baptist patrolled the water's  edge with lanterns. Three men on horseback, Alan Hyndman and  his two sons, came to offer help, riding through water now raging  Mollie Broderick is an avid historian and long-time active member of the OHS  at both branch and parent body levels. Born and raised in Tulameen, she married  George Broderick and has lived in the Okanagan ever since. She is also a founding  member and first president of Okanagan Falls Heritage & Museum Society.  137 NOSTALGIA  down Okanagan Avenue, the torrent having divided east of Main  Street. Our route of escape was now blocked at both ends of the  street. Alan Hyndman and his boys continued to patrol the area on  horseback, making certain that everyone was safe.  Arriving at Brookmere, George heard reports of houses being  swept away on Fairford, and frantically tried to reach us by telephone. It was not until daylight that I was able to re-enter our  house to receive his call and assure him we were safe. He had, of  course, spent an anxious night. When he returned from work, the  only route of access to his home was by going around on Main  Street, then walking down the wood irrigation flume, for the footbridge had gone the way of our garage and other outbuildings.  During the morning hours noises were heard from the vicinity of our garage—squeaking nails and cracking boards. Soon, in  the faint light of dawn, the building toppled into the stream. By  late morning the water began to recede; our house remained, but  with a basement full of water and mud, and the gardens and lawn  left covered in silt. The cleanup was horrendous. We had loads of  soil hauled in to replace part of the lost garden area and the City of  Penticton reimbursed us for the loss of the garage and contents.  The flood was the result of a combined heavy rainfall and  spring freshet. The core of the earth-filled dam on Ellis Creek had  gone out, sending a 12-foot wall down the draw, terrifying all that  lived in its path. Just east of Main Street the rushing water had  found its original course and roared through the Wyles and Birch  orchards west of Main and down Okanagan, leaving a trail of waste  and destruction.  Mollie Broderick and her father, George Batstone, survey damage caused by 1941 Ellis Creek flood.  Behind them is collapsed garage and Broderick house near the stream bank.  138 NOSTALGIA  Appointed to assess damages were Andrew McCulloch for  the municipality and R. N. Atkinson for the property owners. There  were 41 claims, some ranging as high as $600.  Ellis and Penticton Creeks, 1942  As though it were a sequel to the activity in 1941, Ellis Creek,  swollen by a heavy spring runoff, flooded again on May 23, 1942.  The eddying action of the water deposited silt and mud once more  over our property, this time filling up the gouge cut the previous  year, to level the whole place off.  While visiting friends in Kelowna, we received a frantic telephone call from my mother, which brought us quickly back home  to find both Penticton and Ellis creeks overflowing their banks.  Crews were out sandbagging both creeks, but despite their efforts  many city streets sustained damage. Again we were unable to reach  our home, other  than by walking  the irrigation  flume.  It was not long  before we came to  the conclusion  that we had had  enough of flooding, silt and mud,  so sold our little  acre of land at cost  and moved to a finished home in  town. Since 1942  both Ellis and Penticton creeks have been prepared by the city to  contain any spring freshet that may develop. Ellis Creek was cleaned  out and widened, while Penticton Creek was widened, lined with  concrete sides and given baffles at intervals to control water flow.  There has been no flooding by either creek since.  Today I live in Okanagan Falls, having moved here in 1973.  From my home near Skaha Lake I can look west across the water  toward Waterman Hill, a lovely view. The countryside is blanketed  in snow. Trees are laden with it, their branches bending gracefully  with the weight, rooftops glistening beneath a brilliant winter sun.  However, while I love the snow and derive a secure and happy  feeling from it on this lovely December day, the destruction it  helped cause in 1941 and 1942 is brought sharply to mind.  Huge tree uprooted by swollen Ellis Creek tests clean-up efforts by  Jack Baptist, George Batstone and George Broderick.  139 NOSTALGIA  INSIDE PENTICTON  CITY HALL  Shirley White  Looking back on my life before I was married in 1937, I suddenly realized that I was likely the only member of our municipal office staff during the 1930s still living in Penticton,  or anywhere else for that matter. In recalling the staff, their duties,  the equipment with which we worked and municipal government  as it was then, I decided it might be of interest to the present generation if I were to write a bit of how it was in those days.  The municipal office consisted of two small buildings joined  together by a covered verandah. It was situated on the southwest  corner of Martin Street and Nanaimo Avenue with entrances facing on Martin. This site is now occupied by the Penticton Inn, formerly the Prince Charles Hotel, which, among other amenities,  housed the Greyhound bus service. The north building was the  municipal office and council chamber. The south building was occupied by the BC Provincial Police. Behind the municipal office  and facing on Nanaimo Avenue was the fire hall.  As you entered the office you faced an L-shaped counter,  behind which stood the desk of William Patterson, assistant municipal clerk. Mr. Patterson was in charge of land matters and records  regarding city properties, their assessed value, lot sizes, registered  owners, liens or mortgages and taxes. Updating tax rolls, the issuance of assessment notices and other tax matters were also his  charge. Ledger and records entries were all done by hand and mental  calculation. Only one adding machine was available for use by the  entire staff, and it was never immobile for long.  West of Mr. Patterson's station was a "stand-up" desk with a  high stool that was principally used by the cashier, Miss Billy Beatty.  There was no cash register; only a drawer under the counter. After  the office was closed at 3 p.m., accounts receivable and payable for  the day were entered according to the various departments such as  utilities, building permits and taxes. Then, if the accounts balanced,  the cashier could go home. It almost goes without saying that some  days supper would be a bit late.  Shirley White has been a resident of Penticton since 1918. She was employed at  City Hall from 1932 through 1937. Her late husband, Jack White, was descended  from Osoyoos's pioneer Haynes family.  140 NOSTALGIA  Behind the upright desk was a stenographer's desk, with a  very old Underwood typewriter on it. The typewriter had a double  carriage that was very heavy to operate. I was the clerk-stenographer. My salary was $65 a month, from which I paid a small amount  into a superannuation fund. There were no other benefits. After  working for five years my cash surrender value of the fund was  $125.  In the northwest corner of the office was a big walk-in vault  where all city documents and records were kept. Also in this building was a room where the Addressograph machine was kept. This  machine stamped out metal plates bearing names and addresses of  persons and firms having business with the city. The plates for the  monthly utility bills were filed alphabetically; those for tax and  assessment notices were filed by roll number. Ronnie Gibbs was  the junior clerk and it was his job to keep the plates up-to-date, to  print duplicate copies of the utility bills each month, plus copies of  tax and assessment notices when they were due to be filled out  and mailed. He also made out the monthly utility bills—light, water, garbage, scavenger service. These bills were printed in duplicate on bright pink bond and kept alphabetically on wooden-backed  files. The utility information was obtained from the meter reader's  booklet. Adding the bills up, separating the copies, folding and envelope-stuffing, stamping and sealing, was ajob for all staff when  mailing time approached. Stamps were bought in rolls of 500 in  two denominations—two cents to cover the postage for city delivery, and three cents for rural routes and out of town.  Jimmy Clarke walked the town once a month to read the  electricity meters. George Robinson was the electric light superintendent and Mr. Murfitt was in charge of the water department.  The council chamber was located in the south half of the  building, as was the office of municipal clerk B. C. Bracewell, who  ran a very efficient operation and later became deputy minister of  municipal affairs at Victoria. The council chamber doubled as a  courtroom for Magistrate George F. Guernsey when needed.  My tenure with the municipality was during the depression  years of the 1930s and we considered ourselves fortunate to have  employment. Staff was not unionized. There was no such leisure  as coffee time, nor was there any pay for overtime. People that  were on government relief were required to work for the municipality for the number of days related to their relief allowance, which  was based on the number of dependents. Nearly everyone did their  job when called and only one or two presented a problem.  One of the rules regarding personnel was not to hire married  women. When Billy Beatty left to be married in January 1937, I  was promoted to her job as cashier, but was not paid the same sal-  141 NOSTALGIA  ary, as I was engaged to be married. I felt that this was very unfair,  especially since I had to teach the man that was to take the job  after me everything I knew about the position. Ronnie Gibbs succeeded me and Bill Cooper was hired as junior clerk. Ronnie later  transferred to North Vancouver municipal office and Bill became  Penticton city administrator.  Old Penticton municipal office, council chambers, police station, court house and pound—torn  down to make way for Prince Charles Hotel. Picture taken about 1955. (Penticton Museum)  Penticton was a small town in my time and when you worked  in the municipal office you knew most everyone. All residents came  in to pay their bills and talk about the weather. Occasionally an  argument would ensue over utility charges; however, most people  were happy with the way things were in Penticton. I recall one  unhappy time when a family went slightly over the $1.25 minimum charge for electricity and were positive the meter was out of  order, so refused to pay the $5 testing charge. Most arguments had  to do with a 15-cent per tree charge for codling moth spray applied  in the downtown area. The number of apple and pear trees on  each lot in town had been noted and the owners were billed accordingly. In spite of the protests the owners could not win, because any unpaid spray accounts were added to that year's taxes.  142 NOSTALGIA  FOR AULD LANG SYNE  THE KELOWNA SCOTTISH  COUNTRY DANCERS  Marg (Ritch) Moisey  The Kelowna Scottish Dancers can trace their origin to about  75 years ago when a group gathered in the home of Mr. and  Mrs. Billy Murray on Cadder Avenue to dance for their own  pleasure. There are, however, no records available and many of  the members are no longer with us.  Billy Murray was anxious to keep the traditional dances alive  and so he encouraged, taught and played the fiddle for the-many  Scots in the area. Within a short time the gathering had grown sufficiently to hold dances in the Morrison Hall, upstairs in a building  on Lawrence Avenue between Water and Pandosy streets. This  building burned in the 1970s and has since been replaced.  Musicians at the time were likely two fiddlers, Bill Murray  and his teenage daughter, Isobel, a gifted musician, and a pianist, a  Mrs. Davidson, from Vernon. In later years Isobel moved on to  further her musical studies. Later, she married Alistair Campbell  and again played with the small Kelowna orchestra until her husband was transferred elsewhere. By this time there were other  changes to the orchestra with the addition of Alec Marr and Mrs.  Alec Milne of Winfield as the pianist. Oh how she could make that  piano sing!  Now, the venue had changed to the Orange Hall, a small building situated at the back of the old library, later Barr and Anderson,  and Divino's Restaurant (1995) on the northwest corner of Bernard  Avenue and Bertram Street. This hall could host four sets comfortably on the floor—five sets maximum.  At one time dances were held every Saturday night, later going  to every two weeks. During the Second World War, with many of  the men away, several families started to bring their teenagers. As  I understand, most of these people were from the Glenmore area.  They were brought together by Charlie Henderson, a former piper  with the Legion Pipe Band, and included his own two daughters,  Jeanine and Sheilagh, who were highland dancers. This group was  known as the Glenmore Community Dancers.  Marg Moisey is a long-time Kelowna resident, member of the Okanagan Historical Society, and a current member of the Scottish society.  143 NOSTALGIA  Some time after WWII changes occurred at the Orange Hall  and it was no longer available. So, the group moved north on Bertram  to what was the old Toe H building, which had been moved from  the CPR wharf at the foot of Bernard Avenue near the present-day  sails. This small building was later taken over by the Kelowna Little Theatre and dubbed "The Bijou." Eventually it was taken down  to make way for the Sunnyvale Workshop.  Throughout the years certain patterns were followed by the  Scottish dancers. There was usually an emcee for the evening that  called each dance, and while the sets were being formed the musicians played the music of the dance until all were ready. For some  20 years the emcee was Bob Caldow, Senior. Among the most popular dances for the evening were the Edinburgh Quadrilles, the Eight-  "The moment is all time! Kelowna Scottish Country Dancers from the 1950s whirl to the strains of  The Glasgow Highlanders. Left foursome: Bill and Eve Miller, Margaret Ritch, Jamie McFarlane.  Right: Dave Jeffrey, Marietta Anderson, Ernie and Betty Ivans. (Marg Moisey)  some Reel, the Lancers, the Circassian Circle and the Dashing White  Sergeant. Couple numbers, which would bring non-Scottish dancers to the floor, were the French Minuet, the Seven Step, the Gay  Gordons and the Call of the Pipes, as well as the waltz. For tea  break the women provided and set out the food; afterward the men  did the dishes.  In 1952 the AOTS men's club of First United Church held its  first Burns Night supper and concert in the church hall and this  continued annually for close to 15 years. This event was always  well attended. The chairman of the program portion of the evening  for all the years was the late Harry Mitchell (of BC Tree Fruits), an  AOTS member and a Scot.  144 NOSTALGIA  At Burns Night, interspersed with the traditional toast, was  entertainment which varied according to the talent available. There  were Scottish vocals, both male and female, but always featuring  Ernie Burnett, community singing led by Peter Ritchie and presentations by the highland dancers from the schools of dance and the  display team from the Scottish Country Dance Club. At the end of  the program the tables and chairs were cleared away for the Grand  March to lead the way into the dancing of the Circassian Circle,  followed by the rest of the evening's merriment.  In the quadrilles, you could really "scoosh" down the hall! In  my recollections, January 25 (or the nearest Friday) was among  the coldest nights of the year, with the temperature ranging from -  10to-20F.  Throughout the years the Toast to the Immortal Memory was  given by many good speakers, but in all probability the best of the  lot was proposed by NDP leader Tommy Douglas.  Both the Scottish dance club and the AOTS Burns Night began to peter out in the early 1960s. The musicians were aging, as  were many of the dancers, not to mention the AOTS members. As  well, many of the younger dancers had grown up, married (often  to non-dancers) and had families of their own, and no longer came  to the country dances. A limited number of get-togethers were,  however, held following the club's demise, but people danced to  records. These gatherings were held in the private residence of  Archie Hardie—just as they begun almost 50 years earlier.  During some of this period groups were formed for display  purposes and for participation in the dance section of the Okanagan  Music Festival. Here, the Scottish dancers earned very high marks  in winning the Silver Rose Bowl in Penticton.  In the 1950s the group consisted mainly of adults, among  them a couple of young foresters out from Scotland. Over the May  27, 1995 weekend this group held a reunion, with a dinner and  musical evening hosted by Betty (Caldow) and Ernie Ivans. A Sunday brunch was hosted by Wally and Marietta Lightbody at the home  of Mrs. Lightbody's mother, Mrs. Catherine Anderson. Among those  attending from out-of-town were Eve Millar, Victoria; Jim and  Shirley MacFarlane, Duncan; Neil and Judy Paterson, Thornhill.  Ah yes, Scottish country dancing is ever to be remembered  in Kelowna, for in the calendar of memory the moment is all time.  Or, as Robbie Burns would have said: "For auld lang syne."  145 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  WALLENSTEEN  ACTIONS SPOKE LOUDER THAN WORDS  Denis Marshall  Author's note: It was not uncommon to find "Wallensteen" misspelled in various  early reports; newspaper articles often didn't get the initials right either. With  one or two exceptions these errors have teen overridden for obvious reasons.  Elsa Mary Wallensteen, 1898-1992  Karl Gustav Wallensteen, 1887-1969  When Elsa Wallensteen asked to have her ashes placed on  Granite Peak with those of her husband, Karl, it symbolized both a nostalgic reunion and a final acceptance of the  only rivals she faced in their 50 years together: the forests and  mountains of British Columbia.  And so when she died in 1992 the family "had coffee with  Mum and Dad" on a windswept rocky outcrop at the height of land  in the Fly Hills where the senior Wallensteens shared a forestry  lookout vigil in the late fifties. The chain-sawed mosaic below enfolds the setting of Karl Wallensteen's induction by the Shuswap  lumbering fraternity almost 75 years ago.  Karl Gustav Wallensteen entered a privileged Swedish life  June 10, 1887 and before long it was evident he would excel at  sports and would have a decidedly independent nature. His favourite pursuits were skiing, pole-vaulting and running. Approaching  adulthood, he revealed an adventurous side by spending a year  living and working with the resourceful Laplanders.  A strong attachment existed between Karl and his mother,  sadly strengthened by the premature death of his father and then  the loss of his only sibling, sister Karin, when she was 32. In the  meantime, Nanna Amelia Wallensteen had molded a successful  career as co-owner of a women's newspaper published in a Stockholm suburb, in which her creative talent found an outlet through  writing fictional romance.  Karl Wallensteen's fate was sealed when he chose to study  forestry at a Swedish university. After graduation and compulsory  military service he headed straight for Canada, and 1912 found him  in Kamloops as a "forest assistant." There is the possibility he was  enticed to this country by the Canadian Pacific Railway, which  employed a goodly number of men in its timber operations, but in  146 HUMA N ENDEAVO UR  any event he soon joined the Dominion Forest Service, then administered by the Department of the Interior, Ottawa. He came  with an able command of the English language.  It is one of the ironies in the story of the North American  lumber industry that hard-working, skilled Scandinavian immigrants, with a tradition of forest stewardship, performed a major  role in the devastation of trees from Atlantic to Pacific. Then, when  it was realized the old growth was in fact finite, both Canada and  the United States looked to Europe for salvation.  H. Wallensteen, (sic) the trail expert of the forestry department  will, with his assistants, spend a considerable portion of the winter in the Fly Hills timber reserve. Their work will be to classify  and estimate the timber, which is very valuable. Amongst their  equipment they will bring skis and snowshoes. Mr. Wallensteen,  who is a Swedish gentleman, is an artist in either form of amusement. He considers that with the amount of snow that falls in this  country, skis should be used much more than they are at present,  as it is a very swift and easy method of locomotion. (Salmon Arm  Observer, December 1914)  Author Ken Drushka, in HR, a Biography ofH. R. MacMillan,  tells us that the evolution of professional forestry in Canada lagged  a decade or so behind the United States. As was the case in the US,  initial measures were attempts to limit the outright destruction of  forests or their conversion to agricultural uses and settlement. The  first undertakings in Canada were the creation of Rocky Mountain  and Glacier national parks in the late 1880s. The next step was to  establish forest reserves, some of which were designated as parks,  for the protection of water and timber supplies. Lands acquired by  Canada from BC (Railway Belt) for railway construction were also  set aside and Yoho Park was dedicated in 1901. "Even then," continues Drushka, "there was the expectation we were running out of  timber." The Fulton Commission tendered its report on the state of  BC forests in 1910, calling for the creation of a provincial forest  service and government fire protection measures. The B.C. Forest  Service emerged in 1912.  The idea of forestry—as a scientific approach to timberland  harvesting and as a profession—was unheard of in North America  pre-1880. The lumber industry was generally considered to be a  transient enterprise that flourished while the forests were being  cleared, and then moved on. Forest management theories were  imported from Europe in 1876, just as a conservation movement  started to sweep North America. By 1904 much of Ontario's woods  had been devastated. "Forestry was seen as an enlightened form of  public service," Drushka states.  147 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  As an educated forester, with few, if any, preconceptions about  how things were done here, Wallensteen would have been a welcome addition to the slim ranks of Canadian silviculturists.  His abilities "on the ground" produced scores of forest trails  from Lytton to the Rockies and his survey training and legible hand  turned out innumerable maps for various employers. As might be  expected, he also kept an eye out for suitable open ski terrain as he  passed through higher localities.  While his courteous demeanour and shyness ruled out taking to a public platform, Wallensteen was concerned initially about  the lack of reforestation and later by the wasteful practice of burying valuable timber during road construction. By the time BC assumed full control of its forests in 1930, a great deal of money had  been spent in the Railway Belt on fire lookouts, trails and telephone  lines, and it was evident to people like Wallensteen that the provincial forestry department lacked sufficient allocations to keep the  infrastructure in good order.  Wallensteen took to the Canadian wilderness like an otter to  a glazed snowpatch. He had the stamina to belong in the natural  world and didn't mind his own company, which explained why he  Home again. Karl and Elsa Wallensteen (couple on right) during lengthy return visit to Sweden.  Others in this 1922 photograph are Karl's sister, Karin, and her husband, Hilding Nataniel  Danielson.  liked travelling alone in the bush. Even-tempered, interested in  people, Wallensteen was the quintessential Swedish diplomat. He  lived life with a sense of fun.  It is not the intent of this article to over-play Wallensteen's  contribution and character. The daily routine of pioneering called  for feats today's coddled descendants cannot fathom. When we write  148 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  about Karl Wallensteen's life, specific parts could apply to countless early trailblazers and settlers. But taken together his experiences add up to a story worth telling. Unbounded energy and a  restless spirit took him to special destinations, but he also had many  of the commonplace weaknesses most humans possess to one degree or another. Was he a loner? In the words of a daughter, "he  was, and yet in another sense he was a real social person, because  he liked people. Dad did pretty well how he pleased; but he was a  loving person you could depend on. We had a happy growing-up  period; always felt secure.  "But he did like to be off on his own. He could live happily for  months that way. Mum taught herself to read and write English.  She was a remarkable lady, too. She was a private person and kept  a low profile."  TRAPLINE PROVED INDISPENSABLE  IN THE 1930s  The outdoors came with another bonus—abundant wildlife—  with which a resourceful person could set the table and pay the  bills. Indeed, many photographs depicting Wallensteen's active early  years feature cabins draped in furs, and a trapline in the 1930s  would prove indispensable to a man with a family of six to support.  In a 1962 interview with historian Helen Akrigg, Wallensteen  told of coming across an old trail 20 miles north of Lytton in 1914  that eventually led to the scene of the 1865 gold strike on the Columbia River. The path bypassed Cache Creek on its way to the  Karl Wallensteen (left) and party at Hat Creek ranger station in 1913.  149 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  North Shuswap, then ascended Crowfoot Mountain, where easy  grazing could be had for pack animals. Thence the route tracked to  the source of Blueberry Creek and down to Albas on Seymour Arm.  Eight miles from the old location of Seymour City the trail swung  east along Ratchford Creek before cresting the height of land above  the Columbia trench.  Wallensteen invariably stuffed a camera in his pack and thus  we are able to glimpse his far-ranging activities. One picture places  him at Bridge River in 1915; another at Wolverine Pass, near the  headwaters of Kootenay River; yet another freezes a 1916 winter  survey on the top of Tod Mountain, northeast of Kamloops, where  it is evident somebody in the party—likely Wallensteen—couldn't  resist a ski run. A photograph taken in 1913 shows Wallensteen and  crew packing out from lookout trail construction at Hat Creek. One  sublime discovery amongst family papers is a snap—dated 1917—  showing Wallensteen soaring on skis from an improvised jump on  Granite Peak. His derring-do would fit today's term, "extreme skier."  Messrs. Wallensteen, Smart and Whiting have gone up into  the Fly Hills Timber Reserve to spend the winter. (Salmon Arm  Observer, December 17, 1914)  One of Wallensteen's first assignments had him in charge of  a forestry party in the Fly Hills whose personnel included James  Smart, later commissioner of parks for Canada. The men ventured  in by way of China Valley and set up a tent headquarters near the  lake that now bears the leader's name. Here they spent the winter  cruising timber, at the same time pioneering four-season work in  the field.  It was no walk in the park. Wallensteen said 1917 was the  coldest winter he ever experienced. It coincided with a large request for Fly Hills timber (unsuccessful) by Kernaghan brothers  for their sawmill in the Salmon River valley. At several million feet  it was Wallensteen's first big sale application (berths on the order  of half-a-million MBF were average). The forestry crew awoke under canvas one morning to a temperature of 53 below zero.  While making the necessary examination preliminary to disposal under timber sale, the crew commenced a scientific investigation of sub-alpine coniferous trees on the summit of the Fly Hills.  This study had far-reaching implications, since a Department of  the Interior report pointed out similar conditions existed over a  large part of BC's interior plateau.  Forest reserves in the Railway Belt comprised some 523,000  acres, consisting of isolated plateaux or table lands between 3,500  and 6,000 feet. The reserves generally formed the headwaters of  major drainage areas and it was for this reason they were valued.  150 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Indeed, watershed protection rather than timber conservation was  the main reason for establishing these reserves. In 1913 some  1,100,000 additional acres were put aside in the Railway Belt. Larch  Hills east of Salmon Arm remained at the 1911 figure of 16,000  acres, however, 143,200 acres were added on the Fly Hills and a  new reserve was created on Mount Ida encompassing 29,000 acres.  A Wallensteen-led survey demarcated 250 million feet of  merchantable spruce and "alpine fir" timber in the Fly Hills tract.  Wallensteen was singled out by the 1914 Department of the  Interior Forestry Report for advocating and proving cruising could  be carried out efficiently in winter on skis and snowshoes.  A winter reconnaissance party was put in the field on the  Long Lake* [Forest] Reserve (Kamloops division of the Railway  Belt) last December in charge of Forest Assistant K. G. Wallensteen.  The object of this survey was to find out whether a fairly intensive  reconnaissance could be carried out in winter as economically as  in summer If the experiment proved successful, it was thought a  solution would be found for utilizing the time of permanent employees in the winter when the ordinary reserve work slackens off  considerably owing to the depth of snow and general impassibility  of the country. The experiment was not altogether a success from  the point of economy, owing to the lack of experience in handling  the problem of transportation of supplies and outfit. During the  winter, however, methods were developed for solving this problem,  so that it is expected that next winter a party can be operated with  comparatively little extra cost over summer work. These methods  include the packing in of the supplies and caching at convenient  points in the district to be surveyed before the snow comes in the  fall. The actual work of surveying is done on skis and snowshoes,  depending on the character of the country. Where the former can  be used they are much more efficient than the latter. The fact that  the men are urgently needed in other work during the summer,  and are not available for this work justifies their use in winter  reconnaissance even at an increased cost of 10 to 25 per cent.  Interesting data were obtained by this survey in connection  with silvical types in the forest. The lodge-pole pine, which is at  present practically in complete possession, is only a temporary  fire-type. It will be replaced under natural conditions by Douglas  fir on the lower levels and Englemann spruce on the higher. Both  of these species are of much greater commercial importance than  the lodge-pole, so that the future of the reserve from an economic  point of view is very bright.  151 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  (Excerpt from the Annual Report of the Department of the  Interior for fiscal year ending March 31, 1913 (Volume 2) Sessional  Paper No. 25; Report of the Director of Forestry).  *Long Lake in this instance refers to a forest plateau south of  Kamloops.  Once, on a whim, Wallensteen decided to make a 700-mile  exploratory trip by saddle horse to northern British Columbia. He  spent the entire summer of 1915 on the trail and in the fall he and  a partner acquired a trapline in the Terrace district. A photograph  from this interlude shows a 30-foot dugout canoe on Ootsa Lake,  Wallensteen notes they obtained from a "self-styled chief," Skin-  Tyee of Skins Lake, in exchange for a battered 350 self-loading Winchester rifle.  Towards the end of WWI, Wallensteen was still in the Railway  Belt—as a Game Guardian in Yoho Forest Reserve. We have a film  record dated 1917 showing his base at Marble Canyon, 17 miles  west of Castle Mountain. "This cabin was built by an old trapper by  name of Anderson," says a note on the back. "His nickname 'Sunshine' was a joke, as he never even cracked a smile." However, "as  an axeman, he was hard to beat." Another notation in Wallensteen's  scrapbook states that bears were "too plentiful" when he arrived.  Four outstretched hides curing on an exterior wall show little time  was lost coping with the imbalance.  *   *   *  Some time in 1918 Karl Wallensteen went to Sweden to visit  his mother. But, as events would soon reveal, the main reason for  going home was Elsa Mary Sweden, who was now a striking woman  of 20. Elsa was not exactly a stranger in the Wallensteen household. After the death of her own mother, she had spent several  summer seasons as the guest of her future mother-in-law, the two  becoming close friends in the process. Early in 1919 Karl returned  to the Rockies; in May he and Elsa were married in New York City  at the home of a Swedell relative.  Game Guardian Wallenstein, (sic) stationed 17 miles west of  Mt. Castle, returned from a short leave last week with a brand  new wife. The bride came from Sweden and as she is not conversant with the English language it was necessary that the groom  meet her in New York city. (Banff Crag & Canyon, May 1919)  Karl commandeered a horse and buggy to carry his bride in  style from Banff station to the rustic Yoho honeymoon setting, where  a ready-made "family" of 17 Airedale dogs was waiting to add congratulations. Despite the canine company, Elsa's stoic outlook was  soon put to the test by her husband's frequent absence on patrols  and by the constant awareness that wild animals were her only  152 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  neighbours. On the other hand, for a young sophisticate from Stockholm the experience had a storybook flavour, and in the end she  regarded it as one of the happiest times of her life.  Why so many Airedales? Karl Wallensteen's interest in dogs  apparently did not begin in Sweden, but he may have thought that  they would be a good sideline in his adopted country. It is believed  one was kept for show, while at least three others were conscripted  for sled duty, along with "two mongrels." Still others, if not all, were  probably used for hunting. Wallensteen's interest in Airedales diminished after his favourite show animal, Beaubelle Scrapper, sustained a serious injury, although "Pelle" was a constant companion  on many rambles. And we can't ignore the fact that Elsa's presence  was now a consideration.  Marble Canyon was folded into Kootenay National Park and  as late as 1931 its tiny ranger refuge was identified as the  Wallensteen Cabin.  The Wallensteens moved to North Kamloops during the winter of 1919-20, when Karl got the notion of homesteading on a sandy  point on "Hum-a-milt" Lake. Neighbours in this bachelor kingdom  included Matt Pederson and Andy Berg. Berg, who had a trapline  in the area and worked off-and-on for timber kingpin R. W. Bruhn,  had been around those parts at least since 1914, when the remote  valley known locally as Celista Lakes was ill-advisedly thrown open  for pre-emption. Humamilt is the easternmost link of a four-lake  chain between Shuswap Lake's Seymour Arm and Adams Lake.  Agricultural possibilities notwithstanding—Berg was reported  to have planted an acre of potatoes—Wallensteen was probably  thinking happy hunting ground when forming plans for a Celista  Lakes residency. According to one of his children, "there was no  way he'd ever farm that area. After one winter, and now with an  infant son, Henry, to care for, [soon to be two] Mother said, 'that's  enough.'" For Elsa the breaking point may have been reached when  a cougar killed their milch goat while Karl was on the trapline,  forcing her to walk through the deep forest to borrow canned milk  from a neighbour. "It got so Mother hated us even mentioning it"  (Humamilt).  After wintering over at Humamilt and the birth of their second boy, Ake, the Wallensteens accepted a grandmotherly invitation to visit Sweden. There they spent the next four years enjoying  a pampered existence, with a maid to help Elsa, summers in the  country and plenty of skiing for Karl. When they returned to Canada,  the boys could speak only Swedish, much to the merriment of the  other pupils at the one-room school they attended.  153 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Septuagenarian Karl Wallensteen on Banff ski outing.  In 1923 the Wallensteens bought a cottage and quarter section on Shuswap Lake under the ramparts of Bastion Mountain in  the enclave of Sunnybrae. Half the property was under water and  154 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  the other half was mountain side, is how the family describes it.  The south-facing beachfront served briefly as the summer home of  well-to-do Englishman G. R. Merton during his seven-year stay in  Salmon Arm. Sheltered completely from any northern nastiness  and basking in stored heat from Bastion's rock mass, the shaley soil  made up in bounty what it lacked in area.  Sunnybrae welcomed four Wallensteen daughters: Karin  (MacAuley), who now lives in Banff; Elsa (Hacking) of Boswell; Dagny  (Fochuk), Salmon Arm, and Astrid (Rivers) of Parksville. Ake died at  Vancouver in 1977 after a long, debilitating illness.  Reaching to the landmark Bastion slide, the easterly portion  of the property was useless for agriculture, but its exposure and  location made it ideal for summer homes. Virtually waterfront, most  of the sites were subdivided in the thirties and forties. Even after  "adjusting for time," the prices obtained by the Wallensteens (as  low as $1 per front foot) mirrored the fact that personal financial  gain trailed in their list of priorities.  Sunnybrae was an idyllic place to grow up in for the  Wallensteen children and it remained the family's home until 1957.  But, "Mum was never really happy by the lake, because of growing  up in the city and the fact she had the responsibility of raising six  children. During the summer, alone and trying to can preserves,  she'd have to go out on the porch and count heads in the lake. Dad  taught us all to swim as soon as we could walk, because he knew  that was important to do by the lake. He did go away a lot, because  that's where the work was. And so she had to manage on her own,  left with all the responsibilities a lot of the time."  As a freelance forester, Karl Wallensteen could never count  on year-round employment. He worked "on call" for Shuswap Lumber Company, owned by R. W Bruhn, and successors Harris Lumber Company and Federated Co-operatives Ltd. After passing official retirement age, Wallensteen continued in part-time service with  Federated until he was 72.  "My memory of Karl Wallensteen is of a man who was a true  gentleman and who had a deep reverence for the forests in which  he lived and worked. He was a prime example of the 'work-boot'  forester who was familiar with every part of his wooded terrain,"  recalled Fred Stinson, a former Federated Co-op official. "Shortly  after I arrived at Shuswap Lake in the mid-'50s to supervise the  forestry and logging side of the business, I asked Karl to cruise and  map the timber berths for the company. He came back from retirement, carried out the assignment and his report formed the basis  for submissions to the Department of Lands and Forests in Victoria  155 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  and withstood the test of time. His courteous approach to personal  and business relationships will always remain a fond part of my  recollections of Karl Wallensteen."  The Depression hit the interior lumber industry hard and  Karl Wallensteen was among the casualties. He shared in a relief  project on the Tappen-Sunnybrae Road, hauling wagonloads of rock  from the Bastion slide to provide a foundation for the lakefront  roadbed still shouldering traffic today. Garden produce—especially  succulent tomatoes and canteloupe—Elsa's rich homemade Jersey  butter, plus some selective home logging, provided a few dollars,  but it was trapping that made the difference in the worst years,  thanks to a fashion commodity that continued to command good  returns. "He made some pretty good money then," Henry said.  Wallensteen's fur concession lay above Taft and the Crazy  Creek drainage, partly in the spectacularly beautiful alpine area  around Eagle Pass Mountain, elevation 7,713 feet. If the winter ice  would support him and a heavy pack, he could shortcut across the  Surveying Tod Mountain in 1916. Wallensteen identified men in picture as "Archibald and Martin."  lake to Canoe and catch an eastbound CPR passenger train to Taft.  From trackside he knew he had three easy miles along an abandoned logging railway grade to an overnight stop at a forestry cabin;  by daylight he'd be starting for the pass following the pack trail  that led to the Eagle Pass fire lookout. With Henry's help he later  built a south-facing line cabin around the 4,500-foot level, thus providing refuge on both sides of the divide. After two weeks tending  traps he would head for home.  156 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Some 1930s employment was provided by the provincial highways department and Wallensteen is credited with establishing the  location of the original Canoe-Sicamous road. He commuted daily  to Salmon Arm by rowboat—five miles each way—taking about an  hour per crossing, weather permitting. "He was in good shape,"  Henry wryly noted. Later, while negotiating for timber with settlers in the North Shuswap, he would travel to and fro by BICYCLE.  Hum.-a-M.ilt Lake cabin 1921 . . . trappers'Utopia, but noplace for a woman with a young family.  Still later, and approaching his 55th birthday, he made a weekly  100-mile round trip by pedal power to a highway job at Campbell  Creek.  Physical well-being and monetary considerations aside, another reason Karl Wallensteen relied on his own strength to get  somewhere arose from his impractical side. He never denied he  was uncomfortable around machinery. He tried to make peace with  the combustion engine by going in with his old friend Alf  Westerberg on a Model T, with a coal oil lantern for a headlight,  and together they learned the rudiments of driving on the frozen  lake in front of their homes. When Henry joined the Canadian Navy  in WWII he left his 1928 Model A Ford coupe in his father's care  and urged him to use it, if only as a last resort.  In the 1930s Karl Wallensteen was taken on as a supervisor  by the provincial Young Men's Forestry Training Plan whose  enlistees were mostly Vancouver boys and who were used mainly  for trail maintenance. As a 17-year-old, Henry worked one season  clearing trail between Pillar and Wallensteen lakes, Granite Peak  157 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  lookout and down to Gleneden. In September (it was 1939) father  and son came out from a camp at Wallensteen Lake to learn Canada  was at war.  Following service on corvettes on the Atlantic and in the Gulf  of St. Lawrence, Henry began a forestry career swamping behind a  cat for Tappen Valley lumberman George Blanc. Then he was hired  by the BC Forest Service and was assigned to a fire suppression  crew at Princeton. It was truly a baptism of fire, for it was during  construction of the Hope-Princeton Highway and burning slash piles  were continually getting out of hand. From there he obtained his  scaler's ticket and hired on with Gibson Brothers at Tahsis as scaler,  timekeeper and sometimes tugboat operator at a float camp. When  the Gibsons' mill was put out of commission by a fire in '48, one of  the brothers told Henry to take a month's holiday, then look him  up in Vancouver. When Wallensteen showed up at the Gibson office his former employer was on a whale hunt. However,  Wallensteen senior knew there was ajob open at Federated Co-op  and Henry soon found himself working at a live-in camp on  Seymour Arm. He ended up as Federated's logging superintendent, walking out of the bush for good in 1985.  Before the Shuswap lumber industry reached the highball  notch, obtaining sawlogs was a much simpler proposition. In Karl  Wallensteen's time, and to a lesser degree in Henry's, mills combed  much of their timber from a fringe along the lakes and rivers. When  those easy pickings were cleaned out truck logging took over. Buying wood was a pretty casual affair, too, often firmed up by a handshake over a farmer's kitchen table. Even when Henry started with  Federated he regularly bought logs and scaled them right on the  beaches around Shuswap Lake.  Today, at least six grandchildren work in forest-related jobs-  four in the Shuswap area— making it almost 85 years since a  Wallensteen first sized up a BC tree. Karin Wallensteen MacAulay's  daughter started on a fire-watch tower and now has a key communications job in Alberta's BowCrow forest district.  * * *  Skisport Sweeps the Shuswap  At a meeting held in the office of C. R. Barlow . . . arrangements were made to stage a demonstration of ski-jumping here  next Saturday. The meeting was representative of the various interests of Salmon Arm and it was felt that with every natural condition favourable for sking it would be in the best interests of the  district to encourage this sport, both so as to enable residents to  enjoy to the full the splendid winter climate and with a view of  building up eventually a winter carnival in conjunction with those  158 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  held in other nearby cities. . . so that visitors from a distance might  come here and leave a dollar or two in exchange for thrills and  sport. . . V. T. Moberley (sic) spoke to the meeting of the fortunate  fact that there are at present two exponents of ski-jumping right in  our midst in the persons of  K. G. Wallenstein and V.  Hillstrom . . . both men are  internationally known as  jumpers. (Salmon Arm  Observer, January 29,  1925)  The demonstration of  ski jumping last Saturday  was a sucess in every way  . . . Uno Hillstrom and K.  G. Wallensteen were able to  show some pretty work to  the more than 600 people  who turned out to see the  first exhibition of this sport  to be staged at Salmon Arm  . . . The people were well  satisfied with the way in  which Messrs. Hillstrom  and Wallensteen came  down and, taking off gracefully at the jump, sailed  through the air for some 70  feet and after taking the  snow skilfully glided to a  hurried stop... (Observer,  February 5, 1925)  The general population of Salmon Arm and environs "discovered" skisport in 1925 coincident with the arrival of Karl  Wallensteen's opportunistic friend Uno Hillstrom. The Finns of  Gleneden—including Fowler Maki and Eddy Aro—Ed and Ivor  Peterson, Max Bedford and others had pioneered skiing on the orchard benches, but when the local business leaders became convinced Salmon Arm could rival Banff as a year-round playground,  winter took on a whole new meaning. As well as being an active  participant, the self-assured Hillstrom's lobbying efforts generated  much enthusiasm for ski jumping in the community at large. (Aro  and Maki became ski instructors in the Lake Tahoe winter sports  area and even starred in a 1936 MGM movie short entitled  Snowbirds').  "'    ' '''  Fly Hills timber survey camp, winter of 1916-17, on the  shore of Wallensteen Lake.  159 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  In the mid-1920s Hillstrom and Wallensteen seemed to be everywhere competing in and promoting skisport, coaching, overseeing  construction of community jumps, even leaping for the benefit of  Calgarians from a spidery trestle erected on one side of a downtown  hotel. It was the era of Nels Nelson, who put Revelstoke on the map  with his world distance jumping record of 240 feet.  Hillstrom, for one, wasn't too impressed by the Nelson accomplishments, claiming they had done much to "cloud the real  sport of skiing. [Nelson's] jumps were made at great personal risk .  . . a great publicity stunt..." Hillstrom advised Salmon Arm take  the high road in developing skisport. The more reticent  Wallensteen's feelings on this point were not recorded.  As he approached his 40th birthday, Karl Wallensteen was  alternately competing with Hillstrom on the jumping circuit and  overseeing formation of ski clubs around Salmon Arm.  . . . Wallensteen made a trip to Meek's ranch [in the South Canoe  area] Tuesday to inspect the possibilities for a [jump] hill there. He  did not think it would be one that could be cheaply built, and was  afraid it is a little far from town . . . a number of pairs of skis have  come into the district recently and will be used before the snow  goes. On TUesday Wallensteen was wearing a pair of hickory skis  that had been planed narrow for racing, and on which a jump of  205 feet, at that time an unbeaten record, had been made. (Observer, February 19, 1925)  Organized in February 1925 under the leadership of George  Wilcox, Ed and Ivor Peterson, Broadview Ski Club set to work building a jump one mile south of Canoe station. The club, said the  Observer, "was hoping to put Salmon Arm on the map as a ski centre." Inconsistent Shuswap winters and failure to attract enough  devotees dashed hopes for a winter tourism industry, but many  youngsters were introduced to skisport, and some, such as Roy  Farrell and Max Bedford, became proficient nordic competitors.  Karl Wallensteen's interest in skiing never flagged. When the  Vancouver Sun ran a series of illustrated lessons in the 1950s, Karl  and Henry learned the latest alpine techniques from those printed  columns. "We'd study them at home, cut them out and go outside  to practise," Henry said. The senior Wallensteen continued to enjoy skiing well after his 70th birthday.  Thanks to Estelle and Laura Heron, mother and daughter, who ventured beneath the National Archives in Ottawa to bring to light and research files of the Department of The  Interior pertaining to the Railway Belt. DPM.  160 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  ECCENTRICPROSPECIORMINED  RICH VEIN OF KNOWLEDGE  JOHN R. THORNTON  1869-1943  G. B. Leech  John (Jack) Thornton was perhaps Salmon Arm district's only  full-time prospector. Others who prospected for and developed  mineral claims did so in addition to, and sometimes at the  expense of, another occupation. John Thornton divided his time  between mineral claims on Mount Ida and summer work on claims  on high ground north of Shuswap Lake.  Many residents knew by sight this tall, bearded, reserved man  who descended to town with his packsack only when necessary  and did not linger. Some knew him as a business associate, because  his prospecting and claim development was financed mostly by  local syndicates or companies. I was fortunate to be accepted, taught  and usefully influenced by him during my high school years in  Salmon Arm. I remain grateful. Regrettably, the following reminiscences are bolstered by only minimal documentation.  John Thornton—he pronounced it "Thawnt'n"—was born in  England December 16, 1869 and came to Canada in 1891, according to census records. He told me that he took courses in chemistry  at a technical school in Liverpool. He was in the Donald, BC area  when it was still a CPR divisional point in the nineties. He knew  Mrs. Elizabeth Jordan there, before she took up land at Salmon  Arm upon Donald's virtual abandonment. Thornton told me that  he set out for the Klondike from Donald via the Rocky Mountain  Trench, following it northward past Tete Jaune Cache and Finlay  Forks and up the Finlay River. He said that after wintering on the  Finlay he gave up his quest and worked his way back south. I cannot vouch for this story, but such a journey was feasible and literally scores of men did winter on the Finlay. He said that he later  (before 1910, I believe) did carpentry work at Revelstoke, but left  Geoffrey Bosdin Leech, Ph.D., was reared in Salmon Arm and went on to  become a geologist. He was director of the Geological Survey of Canada (1949-82).  Among his long list of achievements were investigations concerned with the mechanics and origin of the Rocky Mountains. He is the author of more than 30  articles in scientific journals. Dr. Leech resides in Ottawa.  161 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  under the following circumstances: Persons he had fallen out with  spread the rumour that he was responsible for a young woman's  need to get married and, though he claimed innocence, it was easier  to leave than to prove it.  Thornton worked underground at Sandon in the Slocan silver-lead mining area. He described the working conditions, attempts  to unionize, and the town, with the creek beneath its main street,  but I do not recall whether it was from Sandon that he went to  Salmon Arm.  The earliest record I can find of John Thornton at Salmon  Arm is in the final report of the Munition Resources Commission,  Canada (1920). Platinum was a strategic metal in World War I (and  again in WWII), required for plants supplying acids for munitions  manufacture, instrumentation in heavy artillery and signalling  mechanisms. The supply became critical in 1917, when the flow  from Russia, by far the largest producer, dwindled and then became inaccessible to the Allies. W F. Ferrier, a geologist engaged  by the Commission to search for new sources of strategic minerals  in BC, recorded that  On my return to Kamloops . . . at the end of August, 1918, I received a letter from Mr. John Thornton of Salmon Arm, B.C., stating that he had detected by qualitative chemical analysis what he  called "palladium", in ore from some claims on Mt. Ida in which  he was interested. He forwarded samples of the ore . . . "  Thus arose events that drove and complicated much of John  Thornton's life thenceforward.  Ferrier had two portions of Thornton's samples assayed at  the Dominion Assay Office, Vancouver, which reported the presence of platinum, though not palladium (a closely-related member  of the platinum group of elements). In October 1918 Ferrier and  BC's district mining engineer, guided by Thornton, examined the  White Cliff and Mountain View claims on the northeast corner of  Mount Ida, from which the samples had been taken. They also  visited the "Miller tunnel," south of Salmon Arm, named for soon-  to-be-bankrupt hotelman Alex Miller. Ferrier had six samples assayed at Toronto, which led him to conclude  platinum is present, but apparently in small quantity and irregularly distributed . . . On account of the associated gold the area is  worthy of a more detailed study.  Thornton's faith in those claims and their platinum was now  unshakable.  He was justifiably proud of having detected the platinum  group by his own chemical ability. In succeeding years he made  qualitative analyses that sustained his faith, despite the opinions  162 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  of others. I do not know what laboratory facilities he had established in 1918. In 1933, when my visits began, he still had various  pieces of glassware and some acids, but seemed to be doing little or  no analysis. Certainly, he soon spoke sadly of being unable to afford chemicals. His confidence in his qualitative analyses had led  to unfortunate bitter wrangles with the BC Department of Mines.  When samples he submitted as platinum-bearing yielded nii or no-  trace assays, he branded the departmental assayers incompetent.  (It maybe noted that the geology of that part of Mount Ida does not  resemble the geology of any economic source of platinum).  Thornton's main interests beyond Mount Ida were the Cotton Belt area, northeast of Seymour Arm on Shuswap Lake, and  the Adams Plateau, east of the south part of Adams Lake. Mineral  deposits in both areas have enticed sweat and dollars from individuals, small syndicates and large companies through the decades. A number of deposits have been outlined and their content  measured to various degrees, but virtually all remain in the ground.  The geology of the Cotton Belt is described in Bulletin 80  (1987) of the British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, from which the information in this paragraph  is taken. Two zones of sulphide-magnetite mineralization with values in lead, zinc and silver occur as layers in sedimentary rocks  that have been folded and intensely altered to calc-silicate gneiss.  These parallel zones, named Cotton Belt and McLeod-Complex,  belong to a single mineralized layer that is repeated by folding.  The Cotton Belt zone, to which most attention has been devoted,  contains geological reserves (a term not synonymous with economically mineable reserves, which fluctuate with prices and costs) of  approximately 725,000 tonnes containing six percent lead, five percent zinc and 50 grams/tonne silver. The McLeod Complex zone  contains similar sulphide minerals, but more magnetite and is less  well measured. A third mineralized zone, Copper King, a quartzite  layer containing copper sulphides, is of less economic interest.  Tales about the earliest recognition of mineralization in the  Cotton Belt vary—one puts it in the days of the Seymour Arm route  to the Columbia gold placers—but 1905 appears to be the first record  of formal staking, six claims of the Cotton Belt group. F. A. McLeod  and J. H. Lund of Salmon Arm and Canoe were involved in the  area from this beginning, later concentrating on the Camp McLeod  group, which included the Camp McLeod and Steeplejack claims.  John Thornton's name does not appear in the records I have seen,  but he began work there at least as early as the 1920s. When he  talked about the Cotton Belt area Fred McLeod's name commonly  came up, but I do not know to what extent Thornton was variously  his partner, an employee and an independent prospecting neighbour.  163 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  It is easy to appreciate the prospecting lure of the Cotton Belt  area; beautiful country to be in, after the struggle to get up there  with supplies. Attractive ore-grade mineralization could be found  Prospector to the core. John Thornton at his Mount Ida mine portal. (Geoffrey Leech)  in outcrops and under only shallow cover and, because the zones  are relatively tabular, it could be traced and projected for considerable distances. Furthermore, the topography is such that some of  the surface showings could be intersected and tested at depth by  hand-mined crosscuts and drifts from points downslope, without  needing shafts.  The Adams Plateau was easier to reach but harder to prospect: Good exposures fewer, rock structures more complex, mineral deposits more irregular and discontinuous.  164 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  John Thornton's interest in the Adams Plateau developed in  the twenties and he continued work there later than in the more  expensive Cotton Belt area. By 1930 he was working particularly  on the Speedwell claim group, at the northwest corner of the plateau, where it drops to Spillman Creek. Fred McLeod was involved  in the neighbouring King Tut group and so, I believe, was Thornton  from time to time. Thornton's Adams Plateau work was drawing to  a close by the mid-thirties. I wanted to accompany him there but  his response was that he could not risk my being injured in a blasting accident. The truth probably lay in his calculation of gain via  pick and shovel, minus loss via knife and fork.  My acquaintanceship with Mr. Thornton (he was always Mr.  Thornton to me) began thanks to P. A. Ruth, at whose office he  generally called. Percy Ruth knew my interest in rocks and minerals and my desire to meet Thornton, not easily approachable by an  unknown schoolboy. Percy Ruth agreed to introduce me. Things  went well. Thus began a sort of discipleship that changed my wish  to be a geologist into a resolve.  The six or eight claims on the northeast corner of Mount Ida  were then known as the Sunset Group (Sunset Mines Ltd.).  Thornton's cabin was in a local area of only gentle slopes in the  upper part of the claim group. Sometimes, even in winter, he lived  in a tent down by the lower adit.  On my first visit, by invitation, Thornton made it clear that  what I might see or hear regarding the claims was private, not to be  talked about off the mountain. I never did talk about them, though  I spoke about geological facts and ideas he exposed to me, especially with my rather and sometimes with teacher William Grant at  high school and my best friend, Glenn Jordan (grandson of Elizabeth Jordan).  Terms like "hangingwall" and "footwall" came easily but some  troubled me. Thornton spoke right off the bat about "acid rocks"  and "basic rocks." Mr. Grant's teaching about acids and bases seemed  understandable, but how could a rock be acid or basic? Experiments  with powdered rocks, dry and in water, certainly didn't turn litmus  paper red or blue, even after a week. I was still too shy to question  Mr. Thornton, especially because of the implication that in differing from Mr. Grant he might be wrong. By watching and listening I  came to know what sorts of rocks he called "acid" or "basic," but  learned only after the Mount Ida days that he was using well established geological jargon.  Eventually, Thornton thought it worthwhile to talk about  wider aspects of geology, such as the make-up of the countryside,  origins of rock types and theories on the formation of mineral deposits. I came to recognize something of the breadth of his interest  and the depth of his thinking.  165 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Potential investors or curious friends? Prospector John Thornton (rear, second from left) receives a  visit c. 1913 at his Mount Ida claim from a group of Salmon A rm men, including Ned Tweeddale,  on Thornton's right, and Percy Ruth, far right. The reason for the show of arms is unclear. (Douglas Ruth)  One day he remarked that there must be a reason for BC's  mountain chains being generally parallel to the coast. Maybe the  Pacific was somehow pushing against the continent. I decided not  to swallow that—but never forgot it. Not until I was well along in  university did I learn about Wegener's (1924) theory of continental  drift, along with reasons for its untenability. Now we have lived  through the revolution in geological thought that calls on plate tectonics and the jostling of oceanic and continental plates to explain  many features of global geology, including various mountain ranges  and types and distributions of mineral deposits.  How did Thornton's speculation of 1935 arise? This is an intriguing question. Was it his own idea or was it based on something  he or Fred McLeod had read? Thornton had subscribed to Scientific  American and still bought the odd copy when he could afford it.  McLeod subscribed to Engineering and Mining Journal (I bought a  stack of them at the auction of his belongings in 1935). The question remains.  My visits to Mount Ida were almost all by prior arrangement,  the date for the next chosen when the present one drew to a close.  Quite understandably, he could be upset by surprise visitors, more  so with each passing year. I looked forward to all but one thing  about those visits—the almost ritual welcoming tea. The pot at the  166 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  back of the stove held tea as black as the ace of spades and this  greeting came in an enamel mug that seemed to hold a gallon. It  seemed improper not to empty it, though I avoided tea everywhere  but on Mount Ida.  Rocks, ores and geological ideas and mining lore weren't the  only topics, especially in winter in that dark cabin. Thornton held  strong opinions and could speak heatedly on some subjects and  about certain people. I never heard him use coarse language, though,  in the cabin or in the bush. He was a socialist, in his earlier days at  least, but did not discuss current politics. He appeared to be a free  thinker in religious matters. He never spoke of his childhood or  family, nor did I ask.  I was fortunate to meet and be accepted by Mr. Thornton at a  good time. He later became increasingly guarded and suspicious,  partly for a logical reason but partly because of unfortunate turns  of mind.  Claims were held "by location," which in practical terms meant  held on a conditional yearly lease from the Crown. The ownership  of Crown-granted claims, on the other hand, was secure as long as  a small annual acreage tax was paid. To retain the lease, the holder's free-miner's licence had to be renewed annually and a stipulated value of "assessment work" per claim done and recorded each  year (the total required to hold a group of claims could be concentrated on part of it) or an equivalent dollar payment made to the  mining recorder in lieu of work on the ground. There were fees for  the licence and for recording assessment work. To be in arrears on  work or fees meant forfeiture, whereupon, after a grace period for  redemption, the ground fell open to new stakers.  Thornton depended on local syndicates or companies of backers, not all of whose members wished to be acknowledged publicly. Periodic assessments per share were raised from them. In  the Depression, finding recruits became increasingly difficult and,  at assessment time, so did maintenance of a faith in the ultimate  rewards that approached Thornton's. Cash became so short that  claims would fall from good standing and Thornton had well-  founded worries about the word getting out before arrangements  could be made. As money dwindled he became seized by thoughts  of conspiracy and attempts to freeze or squeeze him out.  Disappointing assay results made matters worse. Thornton  became convinced that a person in the Salmon Arm post office in  league with his adversaries notified them when he brought in parcels of ore. They substituted inferior material, Thornton believed,  before the parcel went forward. This would account for the disappointing assay results. Their objective could only be to discourage  Thornton and at some point they could take over the ground. To  167 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  circumvent them, he more than once carried his samples to the  Grindrod post office. That he set out on such a walk on an absolutely scorchingly hot day indicates his desperation.  Mr. Thornton's trust in me to hold confidences about the status of claims and certain people he suspected was impressive. It  was exciting, too, being privy to important information and  cloakand-dagger affairs, though I just could not believe the accusation about the Salmon Arm post office where a stamp collector was  treated so kindly. This came in my last year of high school, after  which I was seldom home. On the few times we managed to meet  he did not speak of these concerns and I did not raise them, so I  never knew how or to what extent he resolved them. I hope that  talking to a safe ear gave him some comfort at the time.  Mr. and Mrs. Percy Walmsley, who had lived at the foot of  Thornton's trail, held mail for him and kept a kind eye on his  comings and goings. At the beginning of May 1943, concerned that  he had not come down to pick up mail they knew he expected,  Walmsley went up to investigate. John Thornton had died. Thanks  to the good sense of the local officials, he rests where he wished to  be, in his Mount Ida ground.  Two photos have kept company over my various desks through  more than 50 years: George Dawson, father of geological understanding of BC and the Shuswap in particular, and John Thornton,  prospector. They would have gotten along well.  Former treasurer Elizabeth (Libby)  Tassie joined husband Peter as a life  member of the Society at the 1997  annual meeting. (Jessie Ann Gamble)  168 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  THE GLEEDS  OF OKANAGAN CENTRE  Sandra Bernardo  Introduction  The three Gleed siblings, Harry, Sarah Alice and James Alfred, came  separately to Okanagan Centre between the years 1906 and 1908. They  were born and raised in Westbury on Severn in Gloucestershire, England. The term "on Severn" was used to distinguish Westbury on the  Severn River from other English towns of the same name. When the  Gleeds arrived in BC they all worked at various jobs until settling into  more permanent work. Harry and Sarah Alice eventually built and ran  the Westbury Hotel, while James Alfred opened a general store, as well  as becoming postmaster, in Okanagan Centre. James Alfred also worked  as a carpenter and stonemason. As the years passed, the Gleeds became prominent members of Okanagan Centre.  Harry Gleed  Harry Gleed was born in 1878. He sailed from England in  1907 and arrived at St. John's, Newfoundland, on March 27. He  travelled across Canada by train to Vernon, finally reaching  Okanagan Centre by lake steamer. Initially, he worked for the  Okanagan Centre Irrigation and Power Company, building the pipeline from the intake on Vernon Creek. By 1908 Sarah Alice had  arrived and the two began work on the Westbury Hotel on present-  day Okanagan Centre Road West.  Before coming to Canada, Harry Gleed taught school in London with Grace Baker and a romance blossomed. They were married in England on July 13, 1912 and some years later moved to  Okanagan Centre with their three children.  Alice and her husband, Noel Rheam, had been running the  Westbury since its completion in 1908, but in 1914 they left  Okanagan Centre in order to find a more promising means of making a living. They returned in 1919 to again operate the Westbury.  Sandra Bernardo hails from Lake Country and has entered the final year of a  science degree program at UBC. In 1997 she spent her third season as a student  employee at the Lake Country museum in Okanagan Centre setting up a proper  archives directory.  169 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  From 1914 to 1919 the hotel was closed, because during the war  there were few people travelling. Then in 1925, Harry and Grace  Gleed moved to West Vancouver and became cafe owners.  Harry and Grace had four children: Frances, Ida and Robert  were born in England and Phyllis was born in Canada. Frances  lived in Vernon before her death. Ida Graves now lives in Boise,  Idaho. Robert sustained a crippling back injury as a youngster, later  contracted tuberculosis and died in his thirties. Phyllis also lives in  the United States.  In the late 1930s Harry and Grace returned to Okanagan Centre. In 1940 the Westbury Hotel was sold to the Okanagan Valley  Land Company. The building was used as a boarding house for out-  of-town employees of the fruit industry, under the management of  Harry and Grace Gleed. Mrs. Gleed also ran the "dorm" at Okanagan  Centre. Some of the girls who used to live in the dormitory during  the peak season remember Mrs. Gleed enforcing the "No Boys Allowed" policy. She would also clean the common area of the dormitory and is remembered as being very good to her roomers. The  Gleeds ran the boarding house until it burned down on Halloween  Day, 1947.  Shortly after the fire Mr. and Mrs. Gleed moved back to West  Vancouver. Following the death of her husband, Grace, by now in  her nineties, spent her final days with Ida at Walnut Creek, California.  Sarah Alice Gleed  Sarah Alice, the eldest Gleed child, was born in 1867. Before  coming to Canada she was the head housekeeper for a wealthy  Cheltenham family. On June 6, 1907 she set sail from Liverpool on  the SS Lake Manitoba accompanied by a cousin named Annie  Walters. Alice, as she preferred to be known, took along the pet  parrot her brother had brought back as a gift from West Africa.  They travelled all the way to Victoria and found work at the Dominion Hotel. In 1908 Alice moved to the Okanagan to join her  brother, Harry.  The Maddock brothers were building the Beaver Lake dam  and Alice was hired as camp cook, while Harry worked on the dam  project itself. That same year brother and sister began constructing the Westbury Hotel. They asked their brother, James, who was  still in England, to invest in the new venture.  On September 1, 1910 Alice Gleed married Noel Rheam, a  remittance man from Liverpool. He is remembered by his niece,  Ellen Baldwin, as a "nice, quiet man who liked to bird-watch." After  closing the Westbury in 1914 the Rheams spent the next five years  170 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  working on the KLO Ranch and then reopened the hotel in 1919.  When the hotel was acquired by the Okanagan Valley Land Company, the Rheams received in exchange a house and lot on Maddock  Road. Noel died about 1952. Alice was 92 when she died November  21, 1959.  James Alfred Gleed  James Alfred Gleed, the last of the three siblings to come to  Okanagan Centre, was born October 9, 1872. He worked for the  British government in Nigeria for three years as a railway surveyor  and photographer before coming to Canada. During his time in  West Africa he contracted malaria, which dogged him throughout  his life. Because of that illness James Gleed was sent back to England and once recovered he decided to join Harry and Alice in  Canada.  He became a partner in the  Westbury and helped plan and develop the community as a self-  employed carpenter and stonemason. In 1910 he journeyed to Montreal to meet and marry his fiancee, Edith Eliza Morgan, also from  Westbury on the Severn.  It was during this period that a  Mr. Ekins owned the Okanagan  Centre post office. He also owned  and managed the Grandview Hotel. James Gleed bought the post  office and a little house from Ekins  in 1910. Mr. Gleed ran the postal  service together with a general  store in part of the house. Some Okanagan Centre residents had  said it would be nice to have a few of the basics available locally,  instead of having to order everything through the mail. So James  and Edith Gleed started in business with $50 worth of groceries  and it wasn't long before they enlarged the premises. The store  was named J. A. Gleed General Merchant and over the next 38  years many additions took place. Ellen, the elder daughter, recalls  that her father was always digging up the basement in order to add  on to the building.  Mr. Gleed was postmaster from 1910 to 1948. The Gleeds were  the first family in Okanagan Centre to have a telephone, meaning  the store quickly became the community's communications cen-  James Gleed, storekeeper, postmaster, from  1910 to 1948.  171 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Gleed family 1942.  tre at any hour of the day or night. James Gleed also worked as a  carpenter and was frequently away from home building houses  with E. D. Hare and Charles Devlin Carter in Carrs Landing. This  meant that Edith had to take care of the post office and store, and  later on their two daughters, Ellen and Doris, as well. She also found  time for activities outside home and business, including tending  Okanagan Centre Hall, which, in the beginning, meant she had to  carry her own cleaning water. She was also the coffee-maker for all  hall functions, occasionally "nurse" for Okanagan Centre school  and a founding member of the Anglican Church Guild.  Edith Eliza Gleed was born in 1888. Her family moved to  London when she was a young girl, but Edith stayed in Westbury  with an aunt and uncle because a doctor said she wasn't healthy  enough to live in the city. Just before her twenty-second birthday  she sailed from Bristol on the Royal George. Another passenger was  the notorious Dr. Crippen, who was wanted in England for murder  and whose shipboard arrest was aided by one of the first long-distance wireless transmissions.  James Gleed helped draw the plans for the Okanagan Centre  All Saints Anglican Church, which was to be built on land he donated at the end of Maddock Road. The church was started in 1910  and completed by 1911, but was never consecrated, so it became  Okanagan Centre Community Hall around 1920. Mr. Gleed served  as president of the hall association for more than 25 years and when  he gave up the position in 1945 he was made honorary president  for life. On June 9,1985 the Okanagan Centre hall was dedicated to  James and Edith Gleed in recognition of their contribution to the  community.  172 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  In 1948 James was seriously ill with an undiagnosed ailment  until his wife pointed out his previous bouts with malaria. That  same year James retired and sold the store to C. A. Gabel. In 1950  Mr. and Mrs. Gleed moved into their newly-built house at 11071  Okanagan Centre Road West, where their younger daughter, Doris  Phillips, still lives. James Alfred Gleed died August 6, 1958 at the  age of 85. Edith Gleed was 95 when she died March 14, 1984.  James and Edith Gleed's first daughter, Ellen, was born at  home July 9, 1911. She attended school at the old Presbyterian  church (the original school in Okanagan Centre) and then went to  boarding school in Vernon, run by Miss Maud LeGallais. She enrolled in the University of British Columbia in 1928 and graduated  with a degree in education in 1932. She returned to Lake Country  and began teaching at Winfield elementary in January, 1934. She  next went to Oliver in September 1943, where she remained on  staff until moving to Burnaby in 1956. There she first taught at  Burnaby North, eventually transferring to Burnaby Central where  her sister, Doris, was also teaching. The other staff members at  Burnaby Central didn't know Doris and Ellen were sisters until  much later, because Doris went by her married name. Ellen retired  in 1966 at the age of 55 and married John Baldwin in Burnaby.  They now live in Cumbran, Gwent, Wales.  Doris was born in Vernon Jubilee Hospital September 26,1918.  She went to school in the old church until Grade 8 and since there  was no high school in the area in 1931 she took Grade 9 by correspondence. Grades 10 to 12 were provided by Kelowna High School.  In 1937 Doris went to the University of Manitoba to study home  economics. She graduated from the program in 1941, then took a  year of education at UBC as a member of the second graduating  class in the Faculty of Education.  She joined the Kelowna teaching staff at the junior high school  on Richter Avenue and often helped out at her parents' store. In  1948, after the Gleed store was sold, she and her husband, Chris  Phillips, moved to Burnaby. Christie Burnell Phillips was born in  Burnaby in 1915 and came to Okanagan Centre in 1938 with Don  Reynolds. He worked in the orchards, at Woodsdale packing house,  and for the irrigation district as a water bailiff. He returned to  Okanagan Centre from overseas service with the RCAF in 1945  and the following year he and Doris Gleed were married.  The Phillips had one son, David, born in 1957. Doris retired  from teaching in 1978 to Okanagan Centre, where her husband  and son had been living for two years previously. Chris Phillips  died in 1990.  173 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  CHARLES DAVID BLOOM -  AN ENERGETIC CHAMPION  OF EDUCATION  Peter Ward  Author's note: Some of the material in this essay was provided by  Doreen Bloom Elliott; much more is from my memory. Our families were neighbours from before my birth in 1926 until 1945. My  father, my brother, Steve, and I all worked for Mr. Bloom for a  number of years: Dad, as bookkeeper, Steve as a welder, and I as  a pump-jockey.  Charles David Bloom was born in Monte Vista, Colorado, the  son of Burton Bradley Bloom and Ettie Stansfield.  The year was 1915 when Charlie Bloom travelled to California to visit his father. There he met and fell in love with a young  woman who was serving in his father's house, a Miss Evalyn May  Born. Before he returned home to Lumby, Charlie courted this  young woman and proposed marriage. She accepted. He then returned to British Columbia and she followed after making the necessary arrangements for her wedding, and to leave California. Unfortunately, the day of the bride's arrival in Vernon was a long and  nervous one for Charlie, and when Evalyn's train finally puffed  into the station, the nervous groom-to-be had tippled a bit too much  Dutch Courage. His betrothed was not amused and as she said later,  "I would have caught the next train back to California if there had  been one to catch."  In spite of the tension of  their first reunion, July 3 ended  happily and by one o'clock on the  fourth of July they were married  in the Coldstream Hotel. The following day they travelled to  Lumby and took up residence on  the Lavasseur ranch. The couple  then moved to Richlands, an internationally-promoted land development about 20 miles east of  Lumby. After one year, they  moved back to town where  Charlie operated the Lumby-  Vernon stage.  Charlie and Evalyn Bloom  174 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  In 1921 Charlie and Antoine Andre formed a partnership to run  the Bloom and Andre Garage. This partnership dissolved two years  later, when William (Bill) Sigalet bought out Andre and the now well-  known Bloom and Sigalet Garage came into being.  By 1927 the business was doing so well that Charlie and Evalyn,  with their newly-adopted daughter, Doreen, moved to Vernon to open  a second branch of the business. Then the depression of 1929 hit and  the ensuing slump made it necessary for the company to close the  Vernon shop and for the Bloom family to move back to Lumby. They  took up residence on Shuswap Avenue between Miller and Glencaird  streets in a house that had been built about 1912 by Charlie's step-  uncle, J. O. Deschamps. That beautiful house was to be the Bloom  family home until Evalyn died in 1961. It has since been renovated  inside, the square turret has been removed from the roof, and Mrs.  Bloom's lovely garden has become a parking lot for patrons of the  new tenant, the Bloom Medical Clinic.  In 1943 Charlie bought the Christian, Genier, and Copeland  ranches. He must have enjoyed great satisfaction owning the Copeland  property, because, as the Levasseur ranch, it was the first home for  him and his bride 28 years before.  Charlie Bloom loved the outdoors. He took every opportunity  to escape to the family cabin on Mabel Lake and in the autumn he  liked nothing better than to accompany Raymond Ward to Rawlins  Lake for the "night flight" of ducks.  With Raymond Ward as partner, Charlie constructed Lumby's  first community water line c.1935, which served a relatively large  section of the town for many years. From a creek-well and pumping  station by Jones (Duteau) Creek on Highway 3 east of the townsite,  the line passed through the properties of Imperial Oil, Arthur Bessette  (later Chamings), William Shields and William and Betty Shields (later  Pat Duke). From there the line continued to Bloom's Garage and the  Ward home on Shuswap Avenue, then down the Miller Street lane,  across Glencaird to Maple Street on the north edge of town. Antoine  Andre dug the ditch with pick and shovel—a formidable task.  Charlie Bloom had very little education. Perhaps that is why he  was a great supporter of schools and learning. After his first nomination to the Lumby School Board, there were few years in his active life  when he did not hold the office of board chairman or secretary. A  later incident might demonstrate the esteem in which this man held  education. One night Charlie went missing. His family was frantic  and everyone in town turned out to look for him. Then a friend had  an inspiration. What was Charlie's favourite interest? Of course, the  school. That is where they found him, quietly sitting alone in a darkened room. Only he would know why.  It is most fitting that Lumby's high school is named Charles  Bloom High School.  175 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  CLEM VACHER: COLOURFUL  PROSPECTOR AND INVENTOR  Victor Casorso  Clem Vacher is a little known historical character who, nevertheless, played an important part in mining in the Okanagan,  Merritt and Boundary regions. He could also be hailed as  the inventor of spray irrigation.  Vacher, a Catholic lay brother from France, was sent to missions in the wilds of British Columbia. I do not know when he  arrived in Canada, but I was to see a lot of him during my boyhood,  learning about his escapades first-hand, or from my folks. He was  trained in agriculture, had an inventive mind, was keenly interested in prospecting and mining and when he was staying on the  Casorso Ranch in Kelowna he and my grandfather, John, became  fast friends and mining partners. And great things happened when  he got together with the Chinese labourers who did the ranch irrigating.  Vacher was a very devout man, but he could not stand the  confinement of mission life, so he asked for and was granted leave  of absence to fulfil his wanderlust. He was also a dreamer and had  no idea of finances or how to handle money. He took to prospecting, wandering around Kamloops and Merritt where, I am told, he  made some worthwhile discoveries which later turned into lucrative mines. Buoyed with success, he prospected in Fairview, Camp  McKinney, Osoyoos, Rock Creek, Midway, Greenwood, Beaverdell  and Carmi, again claiming positive results. Instead of holding on to  his claims, Vacher just drifted on to the next promising prospect,  taking with him only enough money to keep up the search, leaving  others the dreary job of raising development capital. Time has  proven that rich mines emerged in those areas that the talented  Frenchman first prospected. But he just needed to be alone in the  wilderness to enjoy the surroundings—nothing more.  Earlier I mentioned the uncertain time of Clem's arrival in  BC, but in Hester B. White's story "On Okanagan Lake in 1888,  Four Days in Captain Shorts' Boat," (Report No. 18), she tells how  her mother, six children and a nurse were jammed into Shorts'  vessel, the Mary Victoria Greenhow.  Victor Casorso is a long-time resident of the Okanagan. Brought up in the  Kelowna area, he has lived in Oliver since 1946.  176 HUMAN ENDEAVO UR  Captain Shorts in overalls and jacket, a peaked cap over one  eye, was smoking a very strong corncob pipe—held to one side of  his mouth. All this and his tobacco-stained beard made him a  typical "pop-eye, the sailor-man."  The roustabout was Clement Vachie (sic), who was now loading luggage, camp equipment, etc. on to a scow drawn up beside  the boat.  Harry Tilliard and a 'ty-hee' (boss) Chinaman were passengers and, together with Captain Shorts and Vachie, occupied the  stern of the boat. With the engine in the centre, little space was left  to accommodate Mother, Connie, Matilda and six children in the  bow  I believe Clem must have come to BC earlier, about the same  time my grandfather took out his homestead in 1883. When the  isolation got to him, Clem would show up at the Casorso Ranch.  Around the campfires and kitchen table he was often the topic of  conversation in accounts told by himself or an acquaintance.  Sometime around 1905 Vacher built a cabin at Central Camp,  near Phoenix, and used it as a home base until he died in 1934.  When he tired of those surroundings, he would travel to Kelowna  for extended visits with my grandfather, when he would tell his  stories to me and any others who would listen. Eventually Central  Camp closed and Clem did assessment work for Margaret Johnson  of San Francisco, owner of the City of Paris mine. He also maintained the Jack of Spades and other claims. For 15 years he lived by  himself and searched for minerals in the Boundary area. He would  pack down to Carson or Danville, Washington for supplies and visits. In 1927 the New Jack of Clubs group of claims was granted to  Clement Vacher.  Boundary Creek Times, September 3, 1986: . . . The Central  Camp on the International Border has been the scene of mining  activity since the 1890s.  The grave of one of the early mining pioneers is located in the  Camp . . . The first record of Clement Vacheux (sic) is in 1899,  when he was granted the Excelsior claim L997 in the Osoyoos  Mining Division. In 1905 he was the superintendent for Boundary  Development and Mining Co. at the Sally Mine in Beaverdell.  The City of Paris Mine was working in the 1890s and shipping ore by packhorse and wagon to the smelter at Northport,  Washington. The mines in the Central Camp worked more or less  continuously until the start of the First World War in 1914.  Ill HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  Like most prospectors, Clem would run mining jobs, take contracts, do assessment work, trap fur or do whatever else was needed  to support his activities in the field.  Clem told me he built his cabin in 1905 and 20 years later  decided to add on to it. While excavating a quartz outcropping on  the site he found gold! Feverishly he ground the ore down with a  mortar and pestle, but when this method proved too slow he purchased an arrasta (a hand-driven crusher that rolled a steel wheel  over an iron plate). With this small machine he extracted $32,000  worth of gold. Today that would be worth over half a million dollars. Enough was enough. Clem thought he'd go out for a visit to  the city. Without benefit of fancy clothes, he packed his poke to  Spokane, the sin city of the south. He spent the winter in Hilliard,  a famous red-light district that catered to Idaho mining and railway  camps. Back home, friends relayed Clem's tales of limping back  minus the poke, with memories of champagne baths, wild parties,  women and song. The next year he took out another $10,000 from  under his cabin.  Sometime in the early 1900s Vacher began concentrating on  another child of his inventive mind, irrigation technology.  Portions of this account first appeared in my book The Casorso  Story and the following passages are adapted from that earlier work.  Some of the Chinese who found their way into the Okanagan  were raised on the rice paddies in their homeland and were experts in handling water, a fact duly noted by Clem, who had become knowledgeable in hydraulics while engaged in mining activities.  When his friend and associate John Casorso was contemplating irrigation for 150 acres of hillside land, Vacher, Charlie and  Pete Casorso went into the high country to locate a site for a dam.  They found a suitable location, but the trip almost ended in tragedy. Pete Casorso became violently ill from eating spoiled food  and lay motionless for three days before he was fit to travel. Meantime, Clem had gone for help but had lost his way in the dense  bush. Charlie and Pete made their own way out and later found  Clem.  South East Kelowna Irrigation District was formed about this  time and John Casorso signed up soon after. However, Sing Lee,  Hop Sing and Clem Vacher brought water to the 150 acres of sloping land with an open-ditch system.  Vacher was also an inventor and felt he could develop a sprinkler system that would conserve water and labour. So strong were  his convictions that he convinced John and Rosa Casorso to join  him in financing the scheme. Their revolutionary vision of having  178 HUM A N ENDEAVO UR  150 acres under sprinkler irrigation brought smiles and sarcastic  remarks from other farmers, but Clem devised a portable sprinkler  mounted on two-wheel carts, with old hay rake wheels as carriers.  Connected to water pipes, gravity-fed under natural pressure, the  system functioned satisfactorily.  Clem then developed a "wheel-move" system, embodying a  two-inch pipe run through the hubs of old buggy wheels and this  modification was successfully used on ground crops on the Casorso  farm. The invention was patented in Clem Vacher's name, but the  concept failed to interest Kelowna farmers—the ideas were too advanced for the time.  In Santa Barbara, California, a Spaniard remembered by the  family as "Burma" was said to be willing to pay $50,000 for the  manufacturing rights to a satisfactory "sprinkler" system. Clem had  a brother who was involved in the deal and, together with John  Casorso, they entered into an agreement with the California man  in 1915. The product gained popularity and was a forerunner to  today's efficient counterpart.  The Vacher sprinkler system was used on the Casorso farm  for many years. The spray heads, beautifully tooled from bronze,  weighed about five pounds each and after Clem left temporarily  for California were difficult to replace. It was never possible to install them throughout what became the Casorso vineyards and  during the years of World War I they fell into disuse, finally to be  abandoned. But Clem produced acceptable later models.  Clem always told us he wanted to be buried on his claim, and  so had blasted a grave in the bedrock. In February 1934 he came to  a lonely death. When he hadn't been seen for some time, a party  that included Father Cragg, John and Steve Kleman and two other  men, hiked to his cabin and found Clem lying on his bed—dead  and frozen. Sitting on a table were burial instructions and a map of  the gravesite. The body was wrapped in a blanket and carried to  the tomb, which had to be cleared of snow and ice before a simple  Catholic service could be held.  The last time I saw the grave it still had "Clement Vacher RIP"  marked on the headboard.  179 PERSONALITIES  PERSONALITIES  MAX JENKINS -1881-1972  Muriel McLeod  My father, Max Jenkins, was born in Vernon Bridge, PEI, in  1881, the sixth child in a family of eight. He was a diligent  student and upon completion of his education his ambition was to study medicine. His father, a religious man, insisted on  the ministry, but Dad refused to even consider the possibility.  After learning  cheese-making, he left  home in 1901. The  next two years were  spent wandering the  country and in 1903 he  arrived in the  Okanagan. He spent  some time in Vernon  before settling in  Kelowna.  His farthest journey after arriving in  Kelowna was a trip to  Vernon to serve as a juror.  In 1906 he, along  with James Bowes,  Frank DeHart and W.  Armstrong, bought the  Sunset Ranch. Two years later Bowes bought out his partners  and Dad joined the staff of Collett Brothers, a livery and cartage  business located at the corner of Lawrence Avenue and Abbott  Street.  By 1910 Dad, with partners George Ritchie and Archie  Johnson, were able to buy out the Colletts for $6,999.99 and  thus was born the firm of Jenkins and Company. And, yes, the  price quoted is correct; it was undoubtedly another case of my  father's celebrated sense of humour.  Max and Bessie Jenkins, 1961  legendary.  His feats of strength were  Muriel McLeod is a lifelong resident of the Okanagan and daughter of Max and  Bessie Jenkins. She is also a member of the Kelowna Branch, Okanagan Historical  Society.  180 PERSONALITIES  Elizabeth "Bessie" Jardine came to Kelowna in 1907 and soon  caught Dad's eye. They were married May 12, 1909 and built a  house on Lawson Avenue beside the city's first cottage hospital.  For more than 50 years their life revolved around their home. They  raised five daughters: Muriel, Eva, Mabel, Dorothy and Wilma.  Kelowna's first fire brigade was formed in 1903. Dad, an original member, was elected chief in 1909 and held the position until  1917. During that time the brigade brought fame to Kelowna in the  war canoe races. Dad, the able captain of the team, could not swim  a stroke!  During the early '20s—1922, if memory serves me correctly—  a fire destroyed the company building. The business then moved  to the southwest corner of Water Street and Leon Avenue.  In 1926 George Kennedy joined the firm and later that same  year bought out Dad's interest. About this time Dad began raising  silver foxes on Knox Mountain, with Harry Blair as a partner. In  1923 my father bought property on Black Mountain, continued raising foxes and also grew vegetables. That property was located across  the road from the present-day Black Mountain School.  In 1930 he disposed of the ranch, gave up his life as a farmer  and joined the city public works department. After retirement in  1943 he spent his time gardening and hunting.  Through his younger days, Dad was considered to be the  strongest man in Kelowna—an invaluable attribute in the moving  business. He was known to have lifted a piano single-handed. People who experienced his handshake would attest to his strength  and wonder if their hands had just been removed from a vise-grip.  His expression never changed as he shook your hand, and those  who didn't wince won my father's approval.  Mother died May 20, 1966 and Dad followed her on February  12, 1972 at the age of 91.  ARMSTRONG'S HAWKINS FAMILY  From the memoirs of Denis Hawkins and Joyce Terkelsen  Compiled by the late Shirley Danallanko  William Hawkins came to the United States from Worcestershire, England in 1878, landing in New York with a shipload of Hereford cattle. From there he worked his way to  Manitoba, where he started farming near Dauphin. He was joined  by his brother, Henry, and sister, Frances, who was later known as  "Aunt Fanny." Every time the family moved Aunt Fanny was sure  to follow.  181 PERSONALITIES  After nine years of farming at Dauphin, the Hawkins packed  a covered wagon and headed west to Alberta. The first year their  grain crop was hailed out and the second year it was frozen out.  After three years, they packed up once again and headed farther  west to Armstrong, arriving in 1894.  William, commonly known as Will, with his brother Henry  (often called Harry), built a small butcher shop between what is  now the Co-op Garage and Margarieta's Restaurant on Okanagan  Street. Customers could place their order for the coming week; Will  would then do the butchering and deliver the meat with a team  and sleigh in the winter, or with a democrat in the summer. The  slaughterhouse was situated on Wood Avenue where apartments  now stand. It was later used as a dwelling by some of Armstrong's  Chinese population and later still as a storage shed. The butcher  shop was torn down when McLeod's Hardware store was expanded.  Will and Henry carried on the meat business until 1905, the approximate date of Henry's  marriage to Alice from England.  The following paragraph  appeared in the July 1904  Special Illustrated Edition of  the Vernon News:  Messrs.     H.     and     W.  Hawkins, like so many of our  business men, are from the  Province of Alberta, N.W.T,  where, previous to coming out  to British Columbia, they had  been engaged in ranching.  They came originally from  Worcestershire,  England.  Reaching Armstrong in 1898,  (sic) and seeing an opportunity to open up a good business in the bacon and ham  line, they started out in this  special branch of the butcher's  trade, later on extending its  scope to comprise everything that is dealt in by a general meat  store. In connection with their business at its inception, they had  a small ranch with a range for a number of hogs and a few cattle.  As the business has grown and extended, the shipments have be-  Children of Will and Edith Hawkins in 1976. Denis  (left), Frank, Joyce and Madge.  182 PERSONALITIES  come larger and are now almost as important a part of the business as the local trade. Messrs. Hawkins Bros, also make large  shipments of poultry and game.  Henry Hawkins was one of the organizers of the Armstrong  Fair, holding the position of president from 1915 to 1919. He was a  faithful church member and lay reader in St. James Anglican Church  for many years. When the church was moved down from Lansdowne  to its present site on Patterson Avenue in Armstrong, Will Horsley  (Will Hawkins' future brother-in-law) and Harry Harding used their  two teams of horses to haul the building down the steep, winding  Jake Laur's Hill. Horsley's team was in front of the church and  Harding's held the load from running on the front team. They were  paid $115 for doing the job! Henry Hawkins also served on  Armstrong city council. He died in 1923 of sleeping sickness, predeceasing his wife by 11 years.  Edith Horsley, destined to wed Will Hawkins, came to Canada  in 1904 from England to keep house for her brother, William, who  owned a cattle ranch on Otter Lake Road. She had a rough passage  and an eventful trip. First, one of the shafts that turned the ship's  propellers snapped. Not wanting to alarm the passengers, the captain stopped the vessel at night for repairs. They arrived in Halifax  two days late, covered with ice.  When Edith was travelling through New Brunswick by train,  the locomotive ran into a snowdrift and rolled on its side. The crew  had to clear a path across a field through very deep snow to a farmhouse, where the passengers went for meals until the engine was  once again on the track. It was a hectic time for the farm wife and  passengers alike.  Edith's brother, Will Horsley, met her in Salmon Arm with a  team and sleigh, as the train from Sicamous was not running that  day. On the return trip, they got as far as Enderby, when one of the  horses got sick, and they had to spend the night on the road.  Edith Horsley and William Hawkins were married in St. James  Church on February 20, 1906. They acquired a ranch in the Nicola  Valley, where they raised horses—mainly Clydesdales—for seven  years. Edith called the homestead "The Hermitage." (In 1975 the  buildings were still being used, as a fishing lodge).  Soon after settling at Nicola they were visited by police searching for the famous train robber Bill Miner, who had just staged a  holdup near Kamloops.  Will and Edith's first child, William Denis, was born January  13, 1908 at the ranch. Two years later the family came to Armstrong  and stayed with relatives, the Pellys, and on the 28th of June 1910,  a second child, Joyce, was born. She is now Joyce Terkelsen of  Armstrong.  183 PERSONALITIES  In 1912 the Hawkins sold their Cold Spring Ranch in the Nicola  Valley, except for 160 acres of range land back in the hills. They  homesteaded another piece of bush and meadow, built a log house,  barn and sheds at the north end of what is now called Glimpse  Lake. In the fall of 1912 the Hawkins family returned to England  for a visit, where Marjorie was born on February 20, 1913. She is  now Mrs. Arthur Weeks of Vernon.  Will and Edith Hawkins had a few adventures bringing their  children back from England by ship. Joyce, a two-year-old, threw a  soft-boiled egg the length of the elegant linen-covered table. That  was all it took for many passengers to leave the dining room, because of pending seasickness. Then, Joyce went missing while her  mother was caring for the new baby. Joyce was finally found by a  female passenger, hanging over the edge of the deck with only her  feet showing. Upon disembarking, the infant's diapers were mistakenly put on another train. When the family got to Winnipeg,  they had to buy more. After that rough trip, Denis Hawkins always  said that he did not want to be anything but a farmer.  On their return to BC in the spring they cleared much land  and had two meadows for hay and pasture. They were 17 miles  from the Quilchena post office and 30 miles from the nearest school  at Nicola.  Will took advantage of abutter shortage during the First World  War. Having good pasture, he bought 10 milch cows and the family  sold homemade butter to the Quilchena store. The cows were wintered in the valley, but the horses stayed out on the range. The  Hawkins also raised eight or nine colts a year, which were brought  in and fed hay, then halter-broke. After the war, the price of butter  dropped, and three-year-old colts then fetched about $40 to $50  each.  In 1917 Francis (Frank) Pelly Hawkins was born in Kamloops.  When he was just two years old the family sold the homestead and  moved to a rented farm in the Marron Valley near Kaleden. Here  they sold veal calves and cream.  Will Hawkins died at Kaleden in 1922, leaving his wife with  four children, aged six to 13, and with very little to live on. She sold  most of the cattle and horses for what she could get, keeping a  team and two saddle horses and an old buggy animal, plus 15 head  of dairy cows and heifers. Edith's brother-in-law in Spallumcheen  thought she could get abetter price for the cows in Armstrong, as a  new dairy was starting up there. So the Hawkins family moved to  Armstrong in 1923. The Pelly boys, Conway, Ralph, and their uncle, George Pelly, drove the remaining stock from Kaleden up the  west side of Okanagan Lake, taking eight days to get to Armstrong.  184 PERSONALITIES  However, they had the wrong breed of cows, as Holsteins and Jerseys were in favour, making it extremely difficult to sell the little  herd.  Edward Pelly, Edith's uncle, asked her to stay at his farm to  look after him, as he was then in his eighties. After school was out  in June, Edith and her four children drove to their new home in  Horsley's Model T Ford car. Edith received tremendous support  from her Pelly relatives as she struggled to raise her young brood.  In time, she and her family went to live on the Dick Pelly  farm at Otter Lake. She worked hard at both the household and  outdoor chores, as life for her and her children was never easy.  When son Denis was old enough he started to buy Uncle Dick Pelly's  farm. Edith lived on that farm until her death on August 20, 1976.  Denis farmed on the same place all his life, and his Otter Lake  farm was always considered home by the Hawkins children.  DENIS HAWKINS was the oldest son of William and Edith Hawkins.  He never married. He was a faithful member of St. James Anglican  Church and sang in the choir for many years. "Back then," his  mother would bundle up the children and drive by horse and sleigh  to worship every Sunday, no matter what the weather. After his  mother died, Denis stayed on the farm until his death May 27,  1988.  JOYCE HAWKINS TERKELSEN was born in Armstrong June 28,  1910. She married Ernest Terkelsen in 1934. They had one son,  Bruce, who has had a long, successful career with the RCMP. Joyce  has also taken care of mentally-challenged children and adults for  many years. Bruce is married to Kay Vickers and lives in Victoria.  EDITH MARJORIE "MADGE" HAWKINS WEEKS was born February 20, 1913 in England. She married William Arthur Weeks in  1935 in St. James Anglican Church, Armstrong. They lived between  Kelowna and Monte Lake, depending on work in orchards and packing houses in season, and logging in the winter. Their family included Grace Helen, Marjorie Ruth and William Lloyd. In 1944 Art  Weeks joined the BC Police and the family moved to Prince George.  They moved to Penticton when the provincial force was absorbed  by the RCMP. Art became ill in 1958, the year he was transferred to  Duncan, and he was not able to work much thereafter. He died in  1959 in Penticton. Helen is married to Norman Paull and lives in  Armstrong. Ruth is married to Marvin Peterson and lives at Rocky  Mountain House. Lloyd is married to Judy Crerar and lives at Otter  Lake.  185 PERSONALITIES  FRANK HAWKINS was the one that drove the team for the annual church Christmas party. The sleigh would be full of laughing,  singing children, playing games and having snowball fights as they  travelled along the country roads. Frank went overseas with the  Canadian Forestry Corps and later earned a commission in the Canadian Armoured Corps from Sandhurst Military College. He eventually joined the Canadian militia and in 1962 was battalion commander of the Rocky Mountain Rangers. Frank married Alexina  Tocher on April 12, 1942 in Scotland and they have six children:  Margaret, Francis, John, Virginia, Alastair and Robina.  CARVED IN STONE:  STORY OF ANDREWS FAMILY  William /. Whitehead  The Andrews family, consisting of George, his wife Henrietta,  son Bill and daughters Hilda and Vera, migrated to Canada  from Devon, England in 1913. A third daughter, Cora, was  added in 1915.  They made the move to this country  as a result of the economic depression  affecting their homeland during the  early part of this century, after learning about the opportunities advertised  in the new land. Settling first in Winnipeg, they built a cottage in the west  part of the city and embarked on their  new life.  George was a stonemason by trade.  He, together with his father and several brothers, had grown up in the construction industry. Each member of  the firm of G. B. Andrews & Sons (his  father's name, and his grandfather's  before) were trained in some particu-  George and Henrietta Andrews, 1932.      lar line ¬∞f the building trade. This included stone and wood carving, stone  and brick masonry, carpentry, architecture and design. George was  expert with the use of split rock and brick. Nothing less than per-  William J. Whitehead is a life member of the Okanagan Historical Society and  a resident of Armstrong.  186 PERSONALITIES  fection was acceptable in his eye. Many examples of his work may  still be seen in homes constructed in Kelowna during the 1930s  and 1940s.  They had just nicely settled in their new home when World  War I broke out. Soon, construction work almost came to a halt,  and George had to find other employment. He took up the baking  trade, working for the Timothy Eaton Company. His oldest daughter, Hilda, also secured work as a clerk in Eaton's ladies' wear department. The next four years were not easy. To add to their problems, Mrs. Andrews was troubled by poor health and her doctor  recommended a move to a milder climate. George's older brother,  Tom Andrews, had settled in Armstrong and as a result of his encouragement, George came out to scout the area during the winter  of 1920. The new consolidated school in Armstrong was under construction and he was able to secure some work for a short time  laying brick.  He returned to Winnipeg, sold their home, and moved to  Armstrong in the summer of 1921. The economy was at a poor  level and work was not very plentiful. The Andrews lived for a  short time on Yankee Flats above Salmon River, but later purchased  a small holding about two miles down-river from Heywood's Corner store, where they tried to develop a chicken ranch. Their neighbours included the Heywoods, who operated the country store as  well as a farm, the Schweb, Hardwick, Wilson and Freeze families.  Cora and Vera attended school at Heywood's Corner. George managed to find odd jobs in the community and at the T. K. Smith  sawmill, but very little related to his calling.  In 1922 Hilda married Clifford Hardwick and moved to Vancouver Island. Son Bill had stayed behind in Winnipeg, then moved  to California. Vera Andrews eventually settled in Pennsylvania. Cora  remained at home and in 1940 she and I were married in Kelowna.  Fortunes were just beginning to improve for the Andrews in  1928, when disaster struck. There had been a heavy snowfall that  winter and when the snow started to melt in the mountains the  Salmon River flooded out of control and they lost their home and  outbuildings. They had to dispose of what could be saved and move  very quickly.  Felix Sutton, a well-known butcher in Kelowna for many years,  was at that time operating a store for the Pat Burns company in  Vernon, and he bought all the chickens George was so proud of.  The Andrews were faced with finding another home, so rented  a small house in Armstrong, next to the cemetery. Difficulty in  securing work led George to consider a move farther south. He  was encouraged in this by Bert Bostock, a young friend he had met  at Salmon River, who had moved to Kelowna in 1925. Bert was a  187 PERSONALITIES  painter and he introduced George to some of the local contractors.  Two well-known builders of that period were Andy Patterson and  Billy Black. They were in need of someone with George's skills, so  in 1929 the move to Kelowna took place.  Two of the Andrews daughters found seasonal work in the  packing houses. Cora was only 15, but the labour codes were not  strongly enforced in those days. However, the depression of the  1930s was soon in full swing and once again the family experienced difficult times.  About 1935 they were able to purchase a partly-finished house  on Martin Avenue. It sat in the centre of a large lot planted to pear  trees. George continued work on the house as funds and material  became available. He managed to build a well-insulated chicken  house in order to carry on with his poultry hobby. The eggs and  fruit supplemented their sparse income.  Gradually times started to improve and George could once  again follow his trade more regularly. Patterson and Black were  successful in obtaining some fair-sized contracts and needed George  more frequently.  George Andrews had a hair-trigger temper and an absolute  demand that concrete and mortar be mixed as he directed. The  person receiving orders was often Cliff Hardwick, who had moved  Massive cobblestone chimney nears completion at the Willow Inn Tea Rooms.  to Kelowna and frequently acted as George's helper. Quite often,  too, Cliff found the demands of his father-in-law difficult and somewhat unreasonable, but nevertheless they managed to construct a  lot of concrete and stonework during those years.  Among the buildings of note that bore the mark of their workmanship was the Willow Inn Tea Room on the Okanagan lakeshore.  This was a beautiful log structure with cobblestone fireplace and  chimney. Unfortunately, in later years the powers-that-be saw fit  188 PERSONALITIES  to demolish this building in the name of progress. Other buildings  that provide examples of George Andrews' skill include the  Guisachan Dairy barns, the log residence for Alister Cameron (now  used as a play school), and several of the homes along Maple Street  and in the older parts of Kelowna. He did stonework for Gordon  Finch at his summer cabin on Okanagan Lake north of Kelowna,  Fred Duggan at Winfield and others too numerous to mention.  Patterson and Black were prominent Kelowna building contractors, whose list of jobs included the  Willow Inn. Here the crew included, from left, Billy Black, George Andrews, Bob Bond, Cliff  Hardwick, Doug Black.  As Mrs. Andrews had not enjoyed good health for some time,  the couple decided to retire and moved to Victoria in 1946. This  move did not prove satisfactory and they returned to Kelowna in  1948, choosing a cottage on Cawston Avenue. George continued to  do a bit of fireplace building, and although he was well advanced in  years, his ability was not impaired.  When Mrs. Andrews died in 1951, George sold the cottage  and made his home with Cora and me in Winfield. He took up his  old hobby of raising chickens once again until we moved back to  Kelowna in the fall of 1953. While visiting a niece in Victoria in the  summer of 1955, he passed away in his 85th year.  189 TRIBUTES  Richard Lloyd Askew 'Ģ 1920-1997  Denis Marshall  The unexpected death of Richard Lloyd Askew at Salmon Arm January 3,1997 elicited a community-wide sense of loss for a native son  who became a home-grown success story. He simultaneously possessed the attributes of successful businessman, practising Christian, pragmatist and a willingness to share. He will also be remembered for his steadfast resolve, long service to the Liberal party, for  an active 47 years as a Rotarian, and, above all, for the fact he was  indissolubly  connected with  his beloved  Salmon Arm  and its betterment. He could  also take credit  for being co-  founder of the  area's first ambulance service.  Lloyd Askew  was the oldest of  eight sons and  daughters born  to Dick and  Mary Askew. He  left school at the  age of 16 to  work in the family meat and  grocery business, but legend has it he had already been helping out since the  tender age of six. By the time he was eight he was behind the wheel  of the old company truck transporting foodstuffs from the train  station. One of his jobs as a teenager was selling meat door-to-door  throughout the countryside and in doing so he formed lifelong  friendships with his customers.  Lloyd and Dorothy Askew  190 TRIBUTES  After military service in WWII, Lloyd Askew returned to  Salmon Arm and married Dorothy Brown in 1945. When Dick Askew  died in 1951, his oldest son assumed overall charge of the retail,  abbatoir and meat-packing operation then known as Salmon Arm  Meat & Produce Co. Ltd. The firm somehow managed to deal with  rising fortunes in cramped quarters on Alexander Avenue, with  meat-processing facilities in the basement and retail store at ground  level. A well-known Askew product was Kurosweet hams—alas, no  longer around. They also introduced Salmon Arm homemakers to  the then-popular convenience of rental frozen-food lockers. Under  Lloyd Askew's management the firm continued to grow. In 1967 it  took the bold step of opening Askew's Shop Easy in Shuswap Mall,  followed eight years later by a branch at Armstrong. Then and now  Askew's Foods has managed to survive and thrive in an industry  normally dominated by vertically-integrated giants, as well as preserving a personal flavour in its business approach.  Retirement and declining health took him away from the  firm's day-to-day affairs, but he retained contact with the community, circulating among shoppers, curling, singing in the United  Church choir and attending Rotary meetings. Local Rotarians made  him an honorary life member and he received a similar honour  from a grateful Salmon Arm Downtown Improvement Association  for his efforts to keep the central business core vital and relevant.  His wife said his approach to life could be summed up by the Rotary Four-Way Test: Is it the truth? Is it fair to all concerned? Will it  build good and better friendships? Is it beneficial to all concerned?  Also surviving Lloyd Askew are three children, David, Vancouver; Colleen Davis, Abbotsford; Karen Angove, Salmon Arm.  Eva Sheere Cleland • 1901-1996  Elizabeth Pryce-Bork  A special dedication took place in Penticton on July 16, 1995 when  the Penticton Community Theatre was renamed the Cleland Community Theatre for Performing Arts, to honour Hugh and Eva  Cleland. A much loved and respected couple, the Clelands were  remembered for their participation and hard work, especially in  the arts community, and for their determination to see projects  through. This was not the first time an honour had been bestowed  on Eva Cleland. Nominated by the Penticton Arts Council, on June  4,1988 she was awarded the Diplome d'honneur, Canada's most prestigious arts award (OHS Report No. 53).  191 TRIBUTES  Eva Sheere was born in Moosomin, Saskatchewan on May  12, 1901, the last of five sisters. Trained as a teacher, she worked in  smaller community schoolhouses until becoming advance agent  for the Dominion Chautauqua team in 1924. Sixty-three years later  the Moose Jaw Chautauqua named her "honorary superintendent"  in its attempt to preserve some of Canada's past. It was as a  chautauqua superintendent that she came to Penticton in 1928 while  travelling throughout Western Canada bringing performances to  rural audiences. Hugh Cleland was a member of the committee of  sponsoring businessmen and became her guide while she was in  Penticton. Six years later, in 1935, Eva Sheere became his bride in  New York City, where Eva was employed by the National Music  League in the booking department. They returned to Penticton  where Hugh was secretary, and later chief clerk, to railroad builder  Andrew  McCulloch of  the Kettle Valley line. The  Clelands operated an orchard  on the east  bench.  In less than a  year in  Penticton, Eva  became secretary of the  Okanagan Valley Music Festival, which set  in motion 60  years of community participation in the arts. With great determination—steel,  perhaps, when a principle in which she believed was at stake—and  enthusiasm for music, her impact quickly became felt as organizations to which she belonged flourished. The Penticton & District  Community Arts Council, Okanagan Mainline Regional Arts Council, The Community Concert Society, Okanagan Symphony Orchestra (OHS Report No. 41); the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts  (OHS Report Nos. 46 and 47), the Penticton Academy of Music and  the Glengarry Figure Skating Club felt her efforts to broaden community life in the Valley. As well, she helped establish the Penticton  Arts Development Fund Society, Penticton Junior Strings and Adult  Strings and most recently, the Penticton & District Foundation, a  community support group.  Hugh and Eva Cleland  192 TRIBUTES  Some of these societies and groups she helped reorganize,  such as the Okanagan Symphony, served on their executives and  helped establish others, while encouraging budding musicians and  artists. She was an achiever where no obstacle was allowed to stand  in the way, and in this light she assisted others into chosen careers  and productive futures.  "Everything we did," Eva said, "we did it because we wanted  to."  A gentle, elegant person, Eva Cleland always looked for and  brought out the best in all those with whom she had contact and  she was regarded as a loyal, caring and supportive friend. These  many friends and associates turned out to celebrate Eva's 90th birthday and the Clelands' more than 60 years of service to their community, when the City of Penticton and the Penticton & District  Community Arts Council, along with arts organizations throughout the Okanagan Valley, honoured Hugh and Eva in 1991 with a  reception in the Leir House Cultural Centre, Penticton.  Eva Cleland came from a farm background and to this heritage she was always true, for she was ever the sower of seeds that  blossomed in many hues and forms and contributed greatly to the  significance of life in the community she loved so passionately.  Eva Sheere Cleland died in Penticton on February 4, 1996 at  the age of 94. She is survived by a son, Hugh John Charles Cleland,  and a daughter, Marylin Eva Barnay. She was predeceased by her  husband in 1992, a founding member of the Okanagan Historical  Society's Penticton branch, and archivist for St. Saviour's Anglican  Church.  Mrs. Bonnie Ross, herself involved with the Okanagan Symphony and Penticton Arts Council, said of Mrs. Cleland: "She was  an outstanding person and has left an immense legacy to future  generations." — With thanks to Bev and George Gay, Rory Mclvor,  Marylin Barnay.  Eve Forrest Gulliford •1917-1997  Yvonne McDonald  With the death of Eve Forrest Gulliford on March 9, 1997, Salmon  Arm lost a well-loved doctor, an outstanding citizen, a friend, and a  remarkable personality.  Her storybook life began in 1917 in a floathouse on Annacis  Island on the Fraser River. "My sister, my brother and myself were  all born in the tent. Nobody went to a hospital in those days. New  Westminster was a frontier town, with board walks." Her father  193 TRIBUTES  had come out to the West Coast in 1910, logging in the Mary Hill  district on the fringe of New Westminster, and operating a small  tugboat on the Pitt River.  Both Eve and her brother Harvie were forced to leave school  early, Harvie after Grade 6 because of an injury resulting in the  loss of an eye, and Eve after Grade 7 because her father did not  believe girls needed to be educated beyond elementary school.  The next few years were difficult for the family. Eve helped  by working at odd jobs and by assisting her father and brother with  the tugboat business. She managed  to fit schooling by  correspondence  from the Department of Education,  Victoria, into her  routine.  When her father became ill with  cancer, Eve became  his care giver, as her  mother, too, was ailing. Dr. Atkins from  Vancouver "... a  wonderful man . . .  " prescribed morphine shots, and  when Eve protested  that she could not  do that, he said, "Of  course you can,"  and showed her  how to heat water in  a spoon, drop in a  morphine pill and  administer the injection. "I would  give him his shot, then we'd have so long to go down to the river  and back again, then I would have to give him his next one."  Her father died in 1935, and she and Harvie took over the  business, which numbered two tugboats. With the help and advice  of a few good friends, the tug Old Faithful, which her father had  been building, was finished. The head of the booming department  at Fraser Mills gave them a contract to bring logs down from Pitt  Eve Gulliford, MD  194 TRIBUTES  Lake, and business picked up enough to get their operation out of  debt. Eve was now caring for her mother, also ill with cancer, who  died a few years later in 1940.  In 1941 a third tug was put into service, the Wayfarer, which  was built to their own specifications. "We went to the Stanley Park  [Coal Harbour] shipyard. All the other shipyards were busy with  military orders at that time. It was $2,800, the total price for the  Wayfarer. Imagine!" This amount did not, of course, include the  engine.  During the years of running the tugs, a licence to operate  them was not necessary, because they were below a certain tonnage, but later regulations changed and Eve and her brother were  required to obtain Master's papers. Eve Forrest became the first  woman in British Columbia to become a tugboat captain. She also  officially became a log scaler, one of only two BC women to have  this ticket. Asked once if she was planning on a career as a tugboat  operator, she replied, "I liked it on the boats once in a while, but  was never planning this as a career. Well, it sure became my career  for seven years."  By now Eve was sure of her goal to become a doctor. Undaunted by her lack of formal education, she went once a week to  a commercial school in New Westminster, which also offered academic courses. Here she was coached in Latin by a Mrs. Steiner.  She went to Duke of Connaught High School to pick up other courses  needed for matriculation, and within a year had all but 10 of the  credits necessary. In the end she was allowed these credits for the  studies she had undertaken to obtain her Master's certification. The  next step was a year of pre-medicine at the University of BC, and  then on to Queen's University in Kingston.  It was here that she met fellow student Campbell Gulliford,  from Newfoundland. They met, married, and had their first child,  Anne, while still studying at Queen's.  After graduation in 1950, they went to Vancouver, where  Campbell did a year of internship while Eve had another baby,  Lynne. In 1951 they moved to Oliver, Campbell to join Dr. Norbert  Ball's practice, and Eve to have the rest of her family, Sandra, Gordon and Stewart. Her original goal was to have a family of six, but  in the end she settled for five children.  In 1957 they moved to Salmon Arm, and Eve was at last ready  to start her hard-won career as a medical doctor.  They bought a large house on Shuswap Avenue and set up an  office in one section of it. It was a difficult time for the young family. Money was scarce, and often their doctoring services would be  195 TRIBUTES  paid for with produce, or work, or whatever would be of use. After  a few years Campbell left, and Eve was faced with another challenge, that of raising and supporting her offspring.  Dr. Eve practised medicine in a manner all her own. She made  house calls to elderly patients and became their friend as well as  their physician. When time permitted, she would visit over a cup  of tea when the check on their well-being was completed. A good  diagnostician, she was sensitive to aspects of a patient's life other  than just the physical complaints. Treatment might range from an  old-fashioned mustard plaster—an order on a hospital patient's chart  that would send the incredulous young nurse scrambling for a  recipe, and a request to the kitchen for some flour and mustard—to  advice and help for someone struggling with an abusive relationship, or a young person with a problem, not necessarily physical.  She railed against the paperwork that became part of a doctor's routine when the little country hospital grew and sought accreditation. She considered it blackmail when she was threatened  with loss of admitting privileges if she did not get caught up on her  forms. A friend and colleague, Dr. Barry Lipsett, remembers that  Eve's admitting diagnosis was often "sick." Dr. Lipsett also remembers with a chuckle, "Benny," the pony she used to ride to the hospital and tie up at the back door when she came in to do her rounds.  Eve Gulliford loved music, especially country, gospel, and  good old-fashioned hoedown, and was happy when she could take  her accordion and play at gatherings for a singsong around a camp-  fire, or be part of the festivities at a picnic, or an old-time dance.  She and Benny were often seen in the annual fall fair parade.  Salmon Arm's first woman doctor was also a strong voice in  the community, protesting issues that she felt were detrimental to  the common good, or harmful to the environment. She attended  meetings and wrote many letters to the editor regarding affairs that  aroused her indignation. She served as a school board trustee, and  in 1964 a term as president of the medical staff. In this capacity she  attended the hospital board meetings when the issue of the future  of McGuire Lake was discussed, and with other groups in the community helped shape the decision that was made to keep the little  lake as hospital property. In so doing, she helped preserve forever  this beauty spot as a park, at the same time giving Shuswap Lake  General Hospital one of the most beautiful settings in the province. Strip development along the highway leading into Salmon  Arm was another of her windmills. If she could have prevented it  there would have been no waterslide, no bumper boats, no  McDonald's, nor any of the other fast-food outlets lining the entrances to town.  196 TRIBUTES  Failing health finally brought about retirement, and the doctor, tugboat captain, log scaler, mother, grandmother, settled into  the routine of life at "Happy Acres," a farm she had bought some  years before. Here she enjoyed visits with her children, walks with  her grandchildren, and caring for her horses and her much-loved  aging donkey, Molly. A few very elderly patients continued to come  to her, unwilling to let go of their Dr. Eve and 40 years of devoted  attention.  Jennie Nancollas • 1910-1996  Heather McConnell  Jennie Nancollas was born in 1910 to Robert and Emmaline Miller,  who came to Salmon Arm from Elstow, Manitoba, two years previously. With her two brothers, Sam and William, she grew up on a  farm in the Salmon River valley. She completed matriculation and  had hoped to train for nursing, but when her mother was invalided  by arthritis, Jennie, being the youngest child and only daughter,  stayed home to care for  her mother and the house.  Over the years she  worked picking and thinning fruit at Wilcox's WX  Ranch. It was hard work,  but a bit "like a picnic," because there was usually  time for a swim in nearby  Shuswap Lake, and travelling by barge between the  ranch and Salmon Arm  gave the opportunity to  visit with co-worker  friends. Jennie also  worked at the Salmon  Arm Farmers' Exchange  part-time and at the S-A-  F-E Ltd. department store,  where she met a dapper  young Englishman, Victor  Nancollas, who was soon  smitten with her. It seems  that as he packed her purchases he would hide treats—like chocolates—until she succumbed, and they were married in 1934.  Jennie Nancollas  Nelson Riis, MP.  arts and museum stalwart with  197 TRIBUTES  Vic and Jennie lived in a tiny house in the valley where their  three daughters, Joan, Barbara and Mary, were born. In 1947 they  moved to the house by McGuire Lake, which remained the Nancollas  home for just shy of 50 years. Jennie designed the house herself  and it must have been very beautiful and spacious for that era. For  many years she took in boarders to supplement their income.  Shuswap Lake was an integral part of Jennie's life. She had  many wonderful stories of camping trips to the Narrows and of  summers at Pierre's Point.  Viv and Jennie loved Salmon Arm, and gave generously of  their time and talents to the community. As a civic politician's wife,  she endured many lonely evenings when her husband was at meetings, but she enjoyed the public events, opportunities to travel,  and especially the privilege of meeting the Queen.  Jennie was a founding member and long-time supporter of  the Salmon Arm Museum and Archives organization, as well as an  active member of the arts council, horticultural society, Good Cheer  unit of the United Church, a church young peoples' group and a  community choir.  She was artistically creative and remained so all her life. She  and her friend of long-standing, Kathleen Collier, established a pottery club in 1956 and a sketch club in 1958. For years, members  met regularly in the Nancollas home. They sponsored workshops,  travelling exhibitions, arranged instruction classes and organized  field trips. Jennie played a key role in fostering art awareness in  her community and inspired others to develop their own art interests and talents. She was quite matter-of-fact about her own talents  and never stopped trying to improve or learn some new technique.  Her love of nature was reflected in her subjects - flowers, birds,  trees and especially Shuswap Lake and Mount Ida.  Laura Paget 'Ģ 1912-1997  Robert Cowan  I met Laura Paget in the summer of 1996. She wished to donate  several articles to the Enderby Museum, since she was moving from  her apartment in Vernon to Restholm. Her sharp mind and interesting stories caused me to abandon my plans for the afternoon  and interview her. I was well rewarded.  She was born in Moose Jaw on February 15, 1912, and grew  up in the community of Biggar, Saskatchewan. In 1936 she moved  to the Kootenays and married Frank Rouleau, who had operated  198 TRIBUTES  the newspaper in Kaslo since 1922. In 1940 they sold their Kaslo  holdings and hoped to settle in Summerland. Unfortunately, they  couldn't locate a suitable building for their publishing business there.  Instead, they purchased the Walker Press building in Enderby, along  with the town newspaper. According to Laura, "Mr. Walker then  moved into the Anglican Church manse and never again set foot in  the newspaper building he had operated for so long."  As with many newly-arrived newspaper people, the Rouleaus  relied on knowledgeable locals as correspondents. Laura Paget remembered Gurtie Jones, a school teacher, as a very good writer,  along with teacher Ruby Lidstone. Hedley Stevenson, the insurance man who had lost his sight in an accident, she remembered  as a very accurate reporter.  Laura recalled with pride the  fact that the Enderby Commoner under Rouleau guidance took several  prizes for layout and editorials.  During the summer months  Frank enjoyed fishing on Mabel Lake,  and they often rented a house from  Mr. Large. In Kaslo, Frank had built  speedboats and he had plans for doing the same thing in Enderby. Unfortunately, ill health took over. They  sold the paper in 1945 and he died a  year later.  After Frank died, Laura's parents, Robert and Florence Dale (not  related to the pioneer Dale family of  the Enderby area), moved to Enderby.  They lived in the house on the northwest corner of Regent and Belvedere. It had been burned on the  inside just before they bought it. Jack Hull did the renovations for  them.  Laura had worked in the Kaslo post office and once again  sought employment as a postal clerk in Enderby. When the head  postmistress, Mrs. Harvey, suffered a heart attack, Laura took over  her job. She hoped to be Mrs. Harvey's replacement, but alas, it  was not to be. Perhaps because she didn't have the connections she  was passed over in favour of Pat Farmer, a World War II veteran  and son of a prominent Enderby family.  After this episode, she went to work as a bookkeeper for Jack  Smith, owner of Armstrong Sawmills, with operations in Enderby,  Armstrong and Vernon. She worked for Smith part-time first in  Laura Paget, 1994, receiving an honorary membership in the Vernon Lawn  Bowling Club. (Jack Gordon)  199 TRIBUTES  Armstrong, then Vernon. When he opened a lumber store in Lumby,  she worked there three years. Enderby remained her base until  her mother died in April 1963. Her father had died in 1960.  She then moved to Vernon. She did volunteer work for a  number of organizations, including Canadian Mental Health. She  was treasurer of two United Church women's units and also treasurer of the Project Fund for Trinity United Church. In 1994 she was  honoured by Vernon Lawn Bowling Club with a life membership  when she retired after 30 years as its treasurer.  As Eleanore Bolton of Enderby has observed, "... although  she was able to retire at an early age she preferred to work and did  so until retirement age; after that she volunteered her time in many  worthwhile organizations ..." Laura's comment to me was, "I was  not one to sit and do nothing, it would drive me wacky."  She died in Vernon on January 16, 1997.  Vivian Rauma 'Ģ 1910-1995  Amy Boutwell  With the exception of recalling how hungry she was during World  War I, Vivian Rauma could look back on an idyllic life in her native  Finland with parents who had a  summer home in the country,  sailed in Helsinki's harbour and  skied in the winter.  All that changed when her  electrical engineer father rebelled  against paying high taxes, decided  to emigrate to Canada and settled  in Sicamous, whereupon he  urged his wife and daughter to  join him. What a shock they received on stepping down from a  Canadian Pacific passenger coach  on August 27, 1928! The contrast  between city life and a cabin in  the centre of a vast forest, with  coal-oil lamps and outdoor  plumbing, was unbelievable.  Slowly they became accustomed to the new surroundings and  local practices. Fortunately, Vivian had learned English in high  school. She met her future husband at one of the community dances  and after a three-year courtship they were married in Salmon Arm  200  Vivian Rauma. TRIBUTES  on February 6, 1933. With no work available during those depression days, they decided to purchase 40 acres of land and begin  farming. Their holding was covered with a solid stand of trees and  clearing it was a formidable task. They built a house, barns and  sauna from some of the logs and gradually the forest retreated and  fields emerged to feed growing herds and flocks.  Their first daughter was born in 1935 and her sister arrived  four years later to complete the family. There was much work for  everyone, but there were also many fun activities. On Sundays families went to skating parties on Eagle River during the winter and to  picnics at the lakeshore in the summer. Cultural functions were  not forgotten, either. Often Vivian was at the hub of these events,  as she was an accomplished actress and musician.  When the Raumas received hydro power in 1948, it was like  joining the present century. Their work load was alleviated with  the arrival of running water, a milking machine and an electric  cream separator. It was indeed miraculous to have a refrigerator,  electric stove and a washing machine.  During those early land-clearing days, it was necessary to  use stumping powder on some of the larger roots. Dynamite was  distributed in the community by the Sicamous Women's Institute  and so Vivian Rauma became a member. During the '30s, '40s and  '50s the Institute arranged most of the social activities in Sicamous.  The most popular events were the Christmas concerts and the May  Day celebrations. Vivian's nimble fingers knit hundreds of items  for hospitals and sewed many quilts and dresses for the Children's  Hospital.  Vivian and Andy Rauma were active in the "Finns of the  Shuswap" and were life members of the Finnish Rest Home Society in Vancouver. Being bilingual, Vivian translated for members  of the Finnish community and she would also liaise with visiting  artists from her homeland.  Active participation in the old age pensioners' organization  brought her a life membership in 1989, following a similar honour  from the Women's Institute in 1975. She also belonged to the Eagle  Valley Museum and Heritage Society and the Sicamous Choristers.  Sicamous Chamber of Commerce, in 1994, named Vivian Rauma  as its Citizen of the Year.  201 LIVES  REMEMBERED  <2JT£>  INDICATES MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY  ACRES, Elizabeth (Lilly), b. Ireland 1902. d. Vernon October 12, 1996. Predeceased by sister  Dorothy; survived by brother, William Acres and sister Eileen Pointer. She was a resident of  Vernon for more than 75 years and a life member of Coldstream Women's Institute.  ALIMONTI, Rosa. b. Casarsa, Italy December 25, 1899. d. Kelowna April 21, 1997. Predeceased by husband Joe; survived by daughters Katherine Klein, Gina Yarrow; son D. Nick.  ANDERSON, Brior (Elof). b. Jarsvo, Sweden June 2, 1911. d. Kelowna August 10, 1996.  Survived by wife Caroline; daughters Glenys Karin, Susan deVore. A 67-year resident of  Kelowna, he initially worked at the S. M. Simpson sawmill, later switching to the fruit industry as a cold-storage engineer at the Cascade Co-op, later Okanagan Packers Co-op.  ASKEW, Richard Lloyd, (see tribute page 190)  BARTELL, Frances (nee Fenton). b. Enderby 1917. d. Enderby November 26, 1996. Survived by husband Harry; sons Gordon, Richard. She was one of the founding members of  the Springbend Community Club.  BEASLEY, Alec C. b. Leicester, England October 8, 1902. d. Penticton January 18, 1997. He  came to Oyama with parents Mr. and Mrs. Arthur J. L. Beasley in 1914. In 1920 they moved  to Winfield, clearing the property that is today Beasley Park. Alec Beasley farmed the land  until well into his eighties. In 1990 he sold the property to Central Okanagan Regional  District for a park. He will be remembered for the free use of his beachfront on Wood Lake  for more than 30 years.  BELL, Marcella Ellen, b. Kaslo July 30, 1909. d. Kelowna December 18, 1996. Predeceased  by husband Dr. F. C. Bell. Survived by stepsons Gordon and Dr. John Bell. Her father, Colonel Walter Hill Moodie, did location work for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. In 1909-10 he  surveyed and helped build the Canyon Creek irrigation project in East Kelowna.  BERNAU, Winnifred Kathleen, b. Vernon January 19, 1908. d. Kelowna April 10, 1997. Predeceased by husband Hugh in 1994. Survived by daughters Daphne Tapping, Anne Sheppy.  Winna Bernau was the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Northcote Caesar, early residents of  Okanagan Centre.  BROWN, Marjory Maude, b. Winnipeg August 24,1899. d. Kelowna October 20,1996. Predeceased by husband Reginald in 1966. Survived by sons Rondeau and Bruce. Her lifelong  association with the Kelowna district began in 1907 when her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas  Bulman, purchased the historic Cloverdale Ranch at Ellison, which was established by George  Whelan in 1880.  BURNS, Margaret Dorothy (nee Burtch). b. Kelowna February 9, 1909. d. Winfield February  21, 1997. Predeceased by husbands Percy Smith in 1968, and by John L. Burns in 1980. She  was the daughter of Henry and Gertrude Burtch and attended Victoria Jubilee Hospital  school of nursing, graduating with the top award for obstetrics.  BUSH, Martha (nee Cook), b. Marion, Ohio, December 1, 1904. d. Vancouver August 30,  1996. Predeceased by son Arthur in 1931; survived by husband Ardent; daughter Violet;  sons Jack and Walter. She was a charter member and first president of the Ladies Auxiliary  of Enderby Legion Branch 98. She also served as regional representative for the Old Age  Pensioners from 1965 to 1979.  BUTTERS, Myrtle Lucille, b. Fleetwood, Saskatchewan December 29,1905. d. Vernon October 1996. Predeceased by husband Herbert, son Thomas, daughter Mrytle. Survived by sons  Ernest, James, Richard. She resided in Vernon for 62 years; life member of the Royal Purple  of Vernon, charter member of the Ladies Auxiliary of Vernon Royal Canadian Legion.  CHATHAM, Laura Mary. b. Odessa, Ukraine August 15, 1894. d. Kelowna April 8, 1997.  Predeceased by first husband Phillip Morrow in 1929, and by her second husband, George  Chatham, in 1984. Survived by sons Leo Morrow, Stan and Larry Chatham; daughter Mardi  Foster.  CIANCONE, Laura Maria, b. Campatargaino, Italy August 27, 1905. d. Kelowna February 9,  1997. Predeceased by husband Alex and daughter Gloria. Survived by son Mario, daughter  Vilma. She came to Kelowna in 1922 to join her parents, Mr. and Mrs. L. Guidi, who settled  in the Okanagan in 1906.  202 LIVES REMEMBERED  CLAXTON, James Joseph, b. Ireland August 22, 1910. d. New Westminster May 24,1996. He  lived in Kamloops, Kelowna and Salmon Arm before moving to the Coast.  CLELAND, Eva. (See tribute page 191).  COLLINS, Thomas John. b. Montreal August 10, 1915. d. Vernon March 11, 1997. Survived  by wife Mary; son Peter; daughters Ann Row Collins, Vanneau Neesham. Also survived by  former wife Mary Cecelia Malms. He divided his energies between a Vernon Certified General Accountant's practice in Vernon and a farm in Lavington. His was the first dairy operation in the Shuswap-Okanagan to ship one million pounds of milk in one year.  CONSTABLE, Frank Lorance. b. Nottingham, England June 17, 1914. d. Kelowna December  24, 1996. Survived by wife Yvonne. As the only son of early Winfield residents Mr. and Mrs.  Lorance Constable, he spent his working life in Okanagan Centre/Kelowna, mostly as a  cold-storage engineer.  CULLEN, Trevor Earl. b. Vernon April 7, 1923. d. Calgary June 3, 1996. Survived by wife  Sherry; sons Don, Jim; daughters Dallas, Elizabeth. He was associated with the steel industry.  DANAL, William Henry, b. Stettler, Alberta January 14, 1910. d. Vernon January 15, 1997.  Survived by wife Polly; daughter Jeanette Goldenthal. Coming to Armstrong with his family  in 1925, he worked variously as a building contractor, sign painter and building inspector.  DAVIDSON, Alan Ogg. b. Stettler, Alberta June 24, 1914. d. Kamloops May 15, 1996. Survived by sons Ian, Robert, Bryan, Brent; daughters Sheila Statham, Joni. He began a radio  and television broadcasting career at CJOR, Vancouver, moved to CJIB, Vernon, and later to  Kamloops. Growing tired of the irregular hours found in media employment, he led up to  retirement by taking a job with BC Forest Service at Birch Island.  dePFYFFER, Alice Mary. b. Norwich, England July 31, 1907. d. Kelowna August 10, 1996.  Survived by son Ralph, daughter Helen. Predeceased by husband Max in 1976. She was the  second daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W J. Palmer, who came to the Okanagan in 1909. As a  resident of Kelowna for almost nine decades, she took an active part in the United Church,  Kelowna Badminton Club, IODE, Kelowna Aquatic Association, and Kelowna Golf Club.  DOBSON, William Kenneth Alan. b. London, England October 13, 1907. d. Kelowna January 11, 1997. Predeceased by wife Una. Survived by sons Philip, David, Donald; daughter  Wendy Hampson. He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. W A. Dobson, who came out from England to the Enderby-Grindrod area before settling on an orchard in Oyama. He was a mining  engineer, a naturalist, and anthropologist. His career took him to many foreign countries  and included service with the Royal Corps of Engineers in WWII. He served with his wife in  CIDA, in Ghana, from 1967 to 1970. They returned to Canada by driving across the Sahara  Desert to Morocco. His last assignment was that of manager of Vernon Irrigation District.  DUMONT, Joseph Theodore, b. Molson, Washington May 25,1920. d. Penticton October 15,  1996. Survived by wife Hilda; sons Dan, Ken; daughter Judy. A Bridesville resident from the  age of seven days, he farmed and ranched on his family's original homestead. He served the  Rock Creek Farmers' Institute as secretary-treasurer for many years and represented the  West Kootenay in agricultural dealings with Victoria.  DUNN, Elizabeth Saima (nee Hill), b. Salmon Arm June 2, 1905. d. Salmon Arm May 13,  1996. Predeceased by husband Willard; daughter Lenore Newnes. Survived by daughter  Joan Oben.  ECCLESTON, Mary Elizabeth, b. Brompton, England October 9, 1889. d. Kelowna February  10, 1997. Predeceased by first husband Charles Henry Murray 1932, and by second husband  Edward Eccleston 1989. Survived by daughters Kathleen Daniel, Judy Casorso, Betty Munro.  She emigrated to Kamloops as a war bride in 1919 and following the death of Mr. Murray  moved to Kelowna. Up to her passing, she was Kelowna's oldest resident.  EVANS, John David, b. Kelowna April 24, 1915. d. Kelowna June 15, 1996. Predeceased by  wife Arleen Faye in March 1966. Survived by sons Larry, Gerald; daughter Connie. He operated an Okanagan excavating, road-building and trucking business for many years.  FISHER, Frances Beatrice, b. North Dakota August 6, 1911. d. Calgary October 13, 1996.  Predeceased by husband George Herman. Survived by sons Phillip, Charles, Paul; daughter  Ann. A resident of Lumby since 1942, she served on the board of School District 22, was  prominent in the Catholic Women's League, and was chair of Saddle Mountain Place until  1994, after figuring prominently in its initial fund-raising. She was Lumby's Citizen of the  Year for 1987.  FORD, Christina Cameron, b. Vernon October 17, 1907. d. Vernon February 5, 1997. Survived by brother William Ford. She trained in nursing at Queen Victoria Hospital, Revelstoke, graduating in 1932. During WWII she was a Nursing Sister with the Canadian army in  203 LIVES REMEMBERED  Holland, France and Germany. In peacetime she was employed in hospitals at Vancouver  and Victoria before becoming a public health nurse at Fort St. John. She retired in 1967  while on the staff of Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  FOSBROOKE, Harold John. Emigrated to Canada from England in 1919. d. Calgary December 18, 1996, age 99. Survived by wife Florence; son Douglas. After managing fur-trading  posts in northern Alberta, he entered the retail hardware business at Salmon Arm in 1935.  He moved to Vernon in 1939 and later acquired half interest in Campbell Brothers furniture  store, retiring in 1956. During WWII he held a position with the Wartime Prices and Trade  Board. He was a past Rotary district governor and first president of the BC Chamber of  Commerce.  FRENCH, Marjorie Irene, d. Kelowna July 23, 1996 at the age of 52. Survived by husband  Dale; daughters Catherine Holden, Susan McLean; son Dale.  GABEL, Fred Edward, b. Saskatchewan December 20, 1916. d. Kelowna May 20, 1996.  Survived by wife Irene; sons Wayne, Marc. An early employee of the S. M. Simpson veneer  plant, he spent 63 years in Kelowna.  GAMBLE, Elsie Helen (nee Masur). b. Melville, Saskatchewan January 10, 1913. d. Vernon  March 25, 1997. Predeceased by husband Harold Everett in 1985; son James in 1962. Survived by son David; daughter Marilyn Wodinsky.  GARDNER, Ronald Walter "Bunny." b. Enderby April 11, 1922. d. Enderby March 9, 1997.  Predeceased by wife Dorothy in 1987; survived by daughters Sue Furlong, Sheila O'Neil;  sons Ken, Bruce, Glen, Jim. He was involved in the logging industry throughout his working  life and was a long-time supporter of the Enderby Museum.  <3E£> GAWNE, Douglas Haig. b. near Eston, Saskatchewan September 16, 1918. d. Penticton  April 14, 1996. Survived by wife Mabel; sons Gerald and Sidney; daughter Arlene. A resident  of Naramata since 1921, he worked for Canada Customs & Excise from 1948-75. He also  operated an orchard on West Bench, Penticton.  GAWNE, J. E. (Bud), b. Madison, Saskatchewan July 21, 1915. d. Naramata June 7, 1996.  Survived by sons Buddy, Bill and Geoff; daughters Jeanne Lamb and Nancy Brosseuk; predeceased by wife Kit in 1993. An orchardist and rancher, he also worked for Inland Natural  Gas from 1958-76. An interest in antiques led him to turn his farm into a working museum  and accept commissions to collect Canadiana for the National Museum of Man.  GORDON, John (Jack), b. New Westminster May 1, 1916. d. Kelowna November 30, 1996.  Survived by sons Jim, John and Ross. Predeceased by his wife Mary in 1971. In 1951 he  opened Gordon's Super Valu in Kelowna, the first supermarket outside BC's lower mainland. His multiple community interests embraced Kelowna airport expansion committee,  the Packers hockey club and Kelowna Home Support Society. For 17 years he served as a  referee on the appeal board of the Unemployment Insurance Commission.  GRAY, Gordon H. b. Winnipeg August 13, 1915. d. Kelowna February 5, 1997. Survived by  wife Agnes; daughters Janet Emerson, Barbara Swankey. He won the Distinguished Flying  Cross while serving as a navigator in the Pathfinder Force, RCAF, during WWII. He was a  founding member of the Air Cadets in Kelowna and Dawson Creek.  HARDING, Douglas Raymond, b. Kelowna September 16, 1929. d. Calgary May 19, 1996.  Survived by wife Anice; daughters Leslie, Lisa; sons Brent, Craig. He was the son of Kelowna  hardware merchants Mr. and Mrs. Percy Harding. At age 30 Douglas Harding moved to  Calgary and later co-founded Harding & Hall, one of the largest independent insurance  brokers in Western Canada.  HARFMAN, Mary Marguerite (nee O'Hara). b. Molson, Washington, March 20, 1916. d.  Kelowna January 29, 1997. Predeceased by husband Jacob February 13, 1995. Survived by  sons Arthur, Harold, Herbert; daughters Beatrice Van den Eerenbeemt, Mary Hauberg, Alice  Kim. Marguerite and Jacob married in 1939 and spent most of their lives ranching in the  Bridesville area.  HARRIS, Frank Rogan. b. Fort William May 6, 1914. d. Vernon April 8, 1997. Survived by  wife Gwen; daughter Lynne Wickett. Predeceased by son John in 1967. His father, W S.  Harris, was employed by the Ellison interests in 1925 as publisher and editor of the Vernon  News. Frank Harris assumed the double role in 1943 on the death of his father. By now,  ownership of the News was in Harris hands and under the son's innovative leadership the  paper assumed prestige among the ranks of Canadian weeklies. Seven years after he sold  the News to Thomson Newspapers in 1969, Frank Harris was involved in the purchase of  the Salmon Arm Observer, although he remained in the background of that operation. A  central participant in community affairs, he was a former president and member since 1943  of the Vernon Rotary Club.  204 LIVES REMEMBERED  HAWKEY, Caro. b. Mudge Island, BC. d. Kelowna December 26, 1996. Predeceased by husband Frank in 1988. Survived by sons Gordon, Noel, Jock, Alec, David; daughter Fran. She  was the daughter of 1907 East Kelowna settlers O. S. Jones-Evans.  HEIN, Bertha Gertrude, b. Prussia June 23, 1907. d. Vernon September 11, 1996. Predeceased by husband Gus; son Robert. Survived by son Doug; daughter Marilyn Sofiak. She  was a resident of Vernon for more than 70 years.  HENDERSON, Ernest John Campbell, b. Belfast May 12, 1925. d. Armstrong June 20, 1996.  Survived by wife Elinor; sons Bill, John, Joseph; daughters Colleen Brockhoff, Rachel Quast.  He was known as "Mr. Lacrosse" and spent most of his life involved with sporting activities  in the Armstrong area.  HOOVER, Nora Anne (nee McKinnon). b. Marlboro, Alberta November 21,1915. d. Armstrong  September 7, 1996. Predeceased by husband Arthur in 1961. Survived by daughter Carolyn  Noble. The McKinnons were early Deep Creek residents.  HOWARD, David Gordon, b. Salmon Arm March 6, 1929. d. Victoria January 17, 1997.  Survived by wife Joan; sons Robert, Richard; daughters Patricia (Carin) Viala, Susan Davis;  also by Fran Grieve, the mother of his children.  HUHTALA, Toivo Alexander, b. Squilax, BC, April 23, 1907. d. Salmon Arm November 3,  1996. Predeceased by wife Hanna in 1995. He resided at Shuswap, Solsqua and Revelstoke  and completed his working life with the CPR as a locomotive engineer.  HUNT, Elizabeth Muriel, b. Salmon Arm October 21, 1907. d. Vernon January 5, 1997.  Prdeceased by husband Cecil in 1991. Survived by son John.  HYDE, Joyce, b. Plymouth, England November 11, 1917. d. Kelowna November 11, 1996.  Survived by husband George. She came to the Mission area when she was one year old  when her father returned to his orchard after serving in WWI. She was the first woman from  the Kelowna area to enlist in the RCAF in the Second World War. A noted sportswoman, she  won the interior senior tennis championship at age 14. After returning to the Mission in  1983, she became prominent in local senior citizens' activities.  <•££> JAMIESON, Evelyn (nee Patten), b. Armstrong June 21, 1904. d. Armstrong September 18, 1996. Predeceased by husband James in 1987. Survived by son Jim; daughter  Marion. She was the daughter of pioneers Charlie and Sophie Patten, Sophie being the first  white child born in Spallumcheen.  JOHNSTON, Walter Melvin. b. Enderby April 22, 1917. d. Enderby August 5, 1996. Survived  by wife Marjorie; daughters Cheryl Gautreau, Patrice Johnston; sons Chuck, Bert. From a  pioneer family, he owned and operated a butcher shop/grocery for many years. He served  Enderby as both councillor and mayor.  <£a£> JORDAN, Patricia Jane (net: Laidman) b. Vernon 1932. d. Kelowna February 24,  1997. Survived by husband Dr. L. T. Jordan; sons Jamie and Pip. After pursuing a nursing  career in the United States, she returned to Vernon in 1960 and became increasingly active  in local affairs. She won a seat in the provincial legislature in 1966, gaining re-election in  1969,1972, 1975 and 1979. She was a high-profile cabinet minister under two Premier Bennetts  before leaving office in 1982. Despite deteriorating health, she pursued a fine arts course at  Okanagan University College, Kelowna, where she had lived since 1992.  KARI, Lillian Mary. b. Canoe, BC January 9,1914. d. Salmon Arm December 3, 1996. Predeceased by husband Matt in 1996. Survived by sons Howard, Ken.  LADD, Ruth Irene (nee Rowcliffe). b. Kelowna October 4, 1905. d. Kelowna March 25, 1997.  Predeceased by husband, Kelowna mayor Jack Ladd, who died in office in 1957. Survived by  son John; daughter Nancy Birch Jones. She was the second child of George and Louise  Rowcliffe and was the last survivor of that family.  LANSDOWNE, William, b. Cheltenham, England July 15, 1902. d. Kelowna December 12,  1996. Survived by wife Emma. A resident of Kelowna since 1907, he spent his working life  in the orchard industry.  LATRACE, Ernest William, b. Hamilton June 15, 1907. d. Vernon June 18, 1996. Survived  by wife Ethel. He earned a reputation as a hard worker on road crews and while railroading  and gardening for BC Pea Growers.  LUDWIG, Henry, b. Kemicheid (Trier) Germany September 26, 1902. d. Vernon February  11, 1997. Survived by wife Madeline; daughters Eileen Ward, Shirley Barlow. He farmed in  the Mara district for more than 50 years, and at one time was known as the unofficial veterinarian for the area.  LUPTON, Reginald (Rex), b. Kelowna May 23, 1913. d. Kelowna April 14, 1996. Survived by  wife Claire; daughters Stella, Shannon; son Brock. He was a well-known Kelowna realtor  and developer.  205 LIVES REMEMBERED  LYSTER, John Gordon, b. Milestone, Saskatchewan March 23, 1903. d. Vernon May 16,  1996. Survived by his wife of 67 years, Edith; sons Ronald, Dennis. He settled in the Hullcar  valley in 1940, quickly establishing a reputation for raising superior purebred Hereford cows.  For this and time spent with support organizations at all levels of the cattle industry he was  named to the Canadian Hereford Honour Roll in 1979. Other accomplishments: president  of the Interior Provincial Exhibition; life member of the Armstrong-Spallumcheen Chamber  of Commerce; school trustee, and alderman for the Township of Spallumcheen for 16 years.  <UU¬a> MALPASS, Olive (nee Huggins). b. Armstrong April 24, 1912. d. Enderby June 6,  1996. Predeceased by husband Thomas 1991. Survived by daughter Cleo Jones; son George.  From a pioneer Armstrong family (OHS No. 45), she supported the work of her husband in  his companies, including Malpass Lumber and Pole Ltd.  MARANDA, Ozilva Mary. b. Kelowna September 3, 1914. d. Kelowna April 9, 1996. Survived by brother Ted Maranda. Parents Hector and Justine Maranda came to Kelowna the  year of her birth.  MARCHUK, Louise, b. Kelowna November 7, 1919. d. Kelowna January 30, 1997. Survived  by daughters Barbara Smith, Joanne Loos; son Douglas. Predeceased by husband Michael.  She was one of 10 children born to Giovachino and Enfrosina Lanfranco, who settled in  Kelowna at the turn of the century.  MAJOR, Sadie, b. Canmore July 16,1896. d. Lumby May 28,1996. Survived by sons Howard  and Gordon James; George, Edwin, Melvin and Harold Major; daughter Edythe Haycock.  Predeceased by first husband Ealter Charles James (1925) and by second husband John  Edward Major (1960). Almost from the day of her arrival in 1919, she was one Lumby's most  community-minded residents.  McAMMOND, James Haron. b. Provost, Alberta April 19, 1916. d. Enderby December 19,  1996. Predeceased by daughter Shirley; survived by wife Georgie; daughters Lanie Feser,  Debbie Vergo; son James. A resident of the Enderby area for more than 50 years, he was  active in the logging and sawmill industry  McGREGOR, Donald Harold, b. Big Valley, Alberta July 15, 1932. d. Armstrong January 24,  1997. Predeceased by Paula McGregor and Robbie Robbins. Survived by sons Larry, Peter,  Robert, Michael. His 35-year teaching career in Vernon included a period as first principal  of Okanagan Landing School.  McGREGOR, Herbert Badgley. b. Penticton January 3, 1911. d. June 1, 1996. Survived by  wife Ruth; son Kenneth; daughter Josephine, and two stepchildren. Predeceased by first  wife, Asenath, in 1988 and eldest son, Gordon, in 1986. Dr. McGregor was the son of early  Penticton physician Dr. Herbert McGregor and his wife, Zella.  McINNES, Edwin, b. Kelowna April 15, 1936. d. Kelowna October 19, 1996.  McMECHAN, Harold Victor, b. Red Deer December 3, 1912. d. Vancouver June 22, 1996.  Survived by wife Gwen; son Daryl; daughter Colleen Dube. He joined the City of Vernon  waterworks department in 1937, retiring as its foreman in 1976. His contribution is commemorated by McMechan Reservoir.  McMILLAN, Margaret, b. Edinburgh March 4, 1894. d. Armstrong July 12, 1996. Predeceased by husbands Norman Gregory and Daniel Colin McMillan, she immigrated with her  family in 1912 to Grand Prairie and then moved to Armstrong in 1914. As a young widow  (her first husband died in WWI) she worked for the Foreman and Armstrong general store.  With her second husband, she moved to California and worked for Douglas Aircraft during  WWII. In 1970 she returned to the North Okanagan.  McMURTRY, Alice E. b. New Westminster October 19, 1915. d. Vernon January 24, 1997.  Survived by husband Dr. T S. G. McMurtry; son David. Predeceased by son Dr. T. J. McMurtry.  She was a graduate of Vancouver General Hospital School of Nursing and a Vernon resident  since 1949.  McMURTRY, Dr. Thomas John. b. Vancouver March 23, 1943. d. August 7, 1996. Survived  by wife Dr. Sharon Dougan; son Sean, daughters Lynn, Donna. He established a medical  practice in Vernon in 1975. Head of the department of medicine at Vernon Jubilee Hospital,  he taught medical students and worked intensively with cancer patients from Vernon, Salmon  Arm and Revelstoke.  MERVYN, J. G. (Gil), b. Kaslo. d. Kelowna April 21, 1997 in his 91st year. Predeceased by  wife Helen in 1992. Survived by sons Douglas, Glen, Hugh, daughter Marcia. After moving  to Kelowna in 1945, Gil Mervyn operated a grocery and apartment block. In 1949 he bought  a service station, then became an automotive dealer, successively representing Morris, Kaiser-Willys and Volkswagen, retiring upon the sale of Mervyn Motors in 1963.  206 LIVES REMEMBERED  MONK, Belinda Maud (nee Pritchard). b. Eastham, England May 30, 1908. d. Salmon Arm  May 1,1996. Predeceasedby son Brian; survived by husband Bill; daughter Eileen Kernaghan.  After many years of dairy farming in Grindrod, she moved with her husband to Enderby  and then to Salmon Arm, where they resided for the last 30 years.  MURRELL, Holly Madeline (nee Berry), b. Vermillion, Alberta May 21, 1911. d. Kelowna  April 3, 1996. Predeceased by husband Harry in 1980. Prior to marrying her forest-ranger  husband, she managed a hotel at Vancouver. After they retired in the Valley she became a  charter member of Rutland Hospital Auxiliary, serving as president in 1968, 1973 and 1977.  NANCOLLAS, Jennie, b. Salmon Arm October 9, 1910. d. Salmon Arm August 3, 1996. (see  tribute page 197)  NEEDOBA, Jean Irene, b. Glasgow July 28, 1917. d. Saanich Peninsula Hospital, Sidney,  October 21,1996. Survived by sons Wayne, Jack, Richard; daughter Roberta. Predeceasedby  husband Alfred in 1979.  NEWTON, Peter Windle. b. Kelowna April 19, 1926. d. Kelowna November 18, 1996. Survived by wife Lois; daughters Barbara Hoy, Brenda Veller, Margot Newton; son Bruce. An  underwriter with Canada Life since 1963, he served 36 years as a volunteer fireman, six as  chief of the North Glenmore department; life member of Capri Rotary Club and of Kelowna  Kinsmen Club.  NORTH, Violet Annie, b. Oak Lane, Manitoba June 22, 1906. d. Kelowna December 17,  1996. Survived by daughter Lorna Corbin; son Elwood Smith. She worked for B. C. Tree  Fruits from its conception in 1939 until retirement in the 1970s.  co i fc» ORMSBY, Margaret Anchoretta. (see tribute page 8)  PERRET, George Hugh. b. Duck Lake, Saskatchewan February 23,1919. d. Kelowna April 4,  1997. Survived by wife Gwendolyn. He returned to Kelowna after retiring as a district superintendent with the Department of Indian Affairs.  PODMOROFF, Samuel, b. Brilliant, BC September 13, 1923. d. Kelowna April 11, 1997. Survived by wife Nellie; son Gary; daughter Lorri Rowland. "Captain Sam" spent 44 years on BC  marine vessels. He was employed by the CPR in its BC Lake and River Service, including 20  years on Okanagan Lake between Kelowna and Penticton until abandonment in 1972. He  finished his career with the BC Ferry Service on the Arrow Lakes between Needles and  Fauquier.  RABIE, George, b. Carlin, BC October 21, 1906. d. Salmon Arm August 17, 1996.  Survived by wife Louise; sons Arthur, Allan; daughters Anna Rabie, Kathleen Mellish, Clara  Anderson. Predeceased by son John in 1966.  <flH»ROADHOUSE Eileen R. b. Winnipeg, d. Penticton March 29, 1996 at age 89. Survived by sons Bob and Rich. Predeceased by husband Allan in 1992 and son Don.  SCARROW, Barbara (nee Ritchie), b. Kelowna August 25, 1927. d. Westlock, Alberta December 30, 1996. Survived by husband Hubert; daughters Debbie, Sandra, Sue; son Bill. Her  mother's father was William Haug, who came to Kelowna in 1892.  SCHWEB, Carl Archibald, b. Schwebs Bridge February 3, 1922. d. Schwebs Bridge December  31, 1996. Survived by wife Alice. As a member of a pioneer Salmon Valley family, he never  lived more than one-half mile from where he was born. He was a rancher and farmer and a  forest warden for more than a quarter-century.  SCREEN, Annie Marie, b. Mara December 10, 1916. d. Enderby November 14, 1996. Predeceased by husband Len in 1975; survived by daughters Beverley Huclack, Bernice Sylvestor;  son Kenneth.  _ >SHANNON, Eric Gower. b. Vancouver July 2, 1921. d. Oliver June 9, 1996. Survived  by wife Elaine; sons Larry, Gordon, Norman; daughter Patricia Shannon Robb. During WWII  he served with the British merchant navy and the Canadian Scottish Regiment in the European theatre. Following the war he returned to Oliver, where he planted an orchard and  worked as a carpenter. He later worked with the Ministry of Highways and on the Okanagan  Flood Control Project. In 1959 he purchased a second orchard and began farming full-time.  He was a past branch president of the Royal Canadian Legion, director of the Rural Fire  Protection District and charter member of Oliver Kiwanis Club.  SMUIN, Lorenzo (Ren), b. Magrath, Alberta July 2, 1904. d. Penticton October 21, 1996.  Survived by wife Dorothy; sons Joe, Ron and Lyle; daughter Maureen Mason. Predeceased  by first wife Evelyn in 1942, and sons Ren Lynn in 1979 and Gerald in 1994. He was a  locomotive engineer with the Kettle Valley Railway until 1947, when he became a fruit  grower.  207 LIVES REMEMBERED  SPALEK, Frances Barbara (nee Spencer), b. Kelowna October 25, 1916. d. Kettle Valley June  29,1996. Predeceasedby husband John in 1993. Survived by sons Bill, Allan; daughters Kay,  Alyce. Her parents were the former Maggie Huston and William Spencer of Ellison. She was  instrumental in the building of the new St. Aidan's Anglican Church on Leathead Road.  STIRLING, William Richard Andrew, b. Kelowna October 18,1935. d. Kelowna December 8,  1996. Survived by wife Bonnie; sons Darren, Michael; daughter Terry. He started and then  operated Interior Septic Tank Service for 40 years.  <38B>SUGARS, Marjorie Edith, b. Penticton January 15, 1910. d. Kelowna July 6, 1996.  Predeceased by her first husband, William E. Foulkes in 1968, and by her second husband,  Roger Sugars, in 1981. Survived by son John Foulkes; daughter Margot Kaye, both of Montreal. She was a charter member of Sunshine Theatre, Okanagan Symphony and Friends of  the Library.  TUTT, Ken. b. Kelowna October 12, 1932. d. Vancouver October 5, 1996. Survived by wife  Sharon; daughters Susan, Barbara Jane; son Bruce. Predeceased by son Alden. The son of  pioneer Kelowna tailor Fred Tutt, he was the owner of a Vancouver roofing firm for 30 years.  WATSON, Jean Madelyn (nee Blewett). b. Hartney, Manitoba April 18, 1905. d. Salmon Arm  December 11, 1996. Survived by daughters Dorothy Rolin, Anita Stevenson, Jackie Nichols.  Her father, Jack Blewett, operated a feed store at Summerland after settling in Peach Orchard in 1905.  WELLS, Irene, b. Armstrong February 6, 1917. d. Vernon October 19, 1996.Survived by husband Lawrence; sons Bill and George Allison; daughters Marion Morris, Jean Sage. Predeceased by daughter Edith Wattle.  WEEKS, Charles Bernard, b. Brandon May 23,1901. d. Kelowna October 2, 1996. He was the  son of Charles and Ruth Weeks, who settled in Kelowna in 1906.  WILLETT, Austen. Born Isle of Wight December 25, 1900. d. Kelowna January 7, 1997.  Predeceasedby wife Madge. As the older son of Victor and Marjory Willett, he came to the  Vernon area in 1905. After WWII service with the Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles and later  in a tank corps, he returned to Okanagan Mission, married Madge Crichton, and settled in  on an orchard.  WILLIAMSON, Ross. b. Delburne, Alberta January 30,1917. d. Armstrong February 7,1997.  Predeceased by first wife Marjorie in 1974, and son Allan James in 1956. Survived by his  second wife Jean; son Larry; daughters Beverly Out and Joan White. He farmed the old  Vance Young place on Young Road.  ZDRALEK, John. b. Germany November 2, 1918. d. Kelowna December 22, 1996. Survived  by wife Alice; daughters Louise Frances, Valerie; son Daniel. After first engaging in fruit  growing, he started Casa Lorna Resort and ran it until he retired in 1980. He was a charter  member of Westbank Rotary Club.  208 OHS BRANCH OFFICERS - 1997-1998  Armstrong-Enderby  PRESIDENT: Donald Wells; VICE-PRESIDENT: Robert Dale; SECRETARY: Sybil Sharman;  TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton; DIRECTORS: Pat Romaine, Kathy Fabische; EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE: William Whitehead, Robert Cowan, Jessie Ann Gamble, Lorna Carter.  Kelowna  PRESIDENT: Peter Stirling; VICE-PRESIDENT: Hugh McLarty; SECRETARY: Kaye Benzer;  TREASURER: Gifford Thomson. DIRECTORS: Dorothy Zoellner, Pat Carew, Bob Hayes, Jim  Hayes, Bill Knowles, Stan Miller, Denis Maclnnis, Bob Marriage, Fenella Munson, Hume  Powley, Jack Ritch, Rhoda Weisgarber, Marie Wostradowski.  Oliver-Osoyoos  PRESIDENT: Joan Casorso; VICE-PRESIDENTS: Terry Sarell, Victor Casorso; SECRETARY:  Elaine Shannon; TREASURER: Fran Allan; DIRECTORS: Stanley Dickson, Aileen Porteous,  Blaine Francis, Joy Overton, John Musgrave, Danny Roberts, Gail Cornish. HONORARY  DIRECTORS: Cyril Headey, Isobel MacNaughton; Jean Webber, Best of OHS publication.  Penticton  PRESIDENT: Claude Hammell; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Bob Elder; DIRECTORS: Louise  Atkinson, Marylyn Barnay, Joe Biollo, Betty Bork, Randy Manuel, Bob Gibbard, Dave  MacDonald, Molly Broderick, Patricia Clark, Art Hinchcliff, John Ortiz, Don Sutherland,  Grace Sutherland, Ted Gane.  Salmon Arm  PRESIDENT: Joan Idington; VICE-PRESIDENT: Reginald Humphries; SECRETARY: Rosemary Wilson; TREASURER: Denis Marshall; DIRECTORS: Florence Farmer, life position;  Hjalmar Peterson, Hugh Ehlers, Marilyn Kernaghan, Barbara Hall, Mary Wetherill, Irene  Anderson, Sheila Cran.  Similkameen  PRESIDENT: John Armstrong; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Wallace Liddicoat; DIRECTORS:  Dick Coleman, Ed Minshull, Dorothy Clark, Charles Finch.  Vernon  PRESIDENT: Carol Abernathy Mellows; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Betty Holtskog; DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Pat Collins, John Corner, Bob dePfyffer, Jean Humphries, Paddy Mackie,  Lucy McCormick, Fran Morrison, Elsie Wilson, Jack Wilson.  OHS BUSINESS  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  As I complete my second year as president, I would like to thank the Society for the  opportunity to hold this office. Looking back, two years seems a much shorter period of  time than when you look ahead.  The Society survives and prospers in its own inimitable way. I have enjoyed the  opportunity to visit most of the branches and I value greatly the friendships made throughout the valleys. I have made the comment at every branch meeting I visited that the strength  of our Society lies in the strength of the branches and I make no apology for repeating that  comment today. We look forward to hearing about the activities of the branches later in the  agenda.  I chaired three executive council meetings this year, all very well attended by branch  representatives. May I publicly thank Hume Powley for faithfully arranging for our meeting  place at the seniors' centre in Kelowna.  Our 60th annual Report has been a great success thanks to the leadership of editor  Denis Marshall. I cannot over emphasize how important this publication is, for in many  ways it is the glue that holds our Society together throughout the Shuswap, Okanagan and  209 O.H.S. BUSINESS  Similkameen valleys. This year we contracted out the handling of mail orders for our Report  to the Enderby Museum Society to relieve the treasurer of a heavy load.  Let me list briefly some of this year's activities: our annual picnic at Pandosy Mission last June; the display kiosk at Fairview; student writing contest; CHBC Weather Bear  campaign; our association with the Living Landscapes project at OUC Kelowna; the marketing survey done by students at OUC Vernon. The Best of OHS Project has made great strides  this year.  I would like to make a comment about the financial health of our Society. It was not  so many years ago that we were leading a rather hand-to-mouth existence. Thanks to the  efforts of a number of our members we are now in what I believe is good financial health.  But a word of caution. There is going to be, if there is not already, increased pressure on  fund raising for heritage projects. Government funding has virtually disappeared. I would  like to suggest that we continue to take care to allocate our funds wisely to achieve the  objectives of our own society.  I would like to thank the executive members for their support during my term.  Finally, just a reminder. This is the 72nd annual meeting, so keep in mind that the  75th annual meeting will be coming up soon. • Dave MacDonald.  THE BEST OF OKANAGAN HISTORY  The manuscript for The Best of Okanagan History is now complete and is in the  hands of the Reading Committee, which is made up of members from each of our branches.  They will pick up any errors in style and substance.  There is still much to be done. Pictures, with their texts and maps, must be planned.  The business of printing must be carefully considered. Can we find grant money to aid us?  Do we assume total responsibility for production and distribution ourselves, or do we seek a  commercial printer? At what time of year do we present the book for sale to the public?  Jean Barman opens her article in the 60th Report with the following comment:  "The annual reports of the Okanagan Historical Society, now Okanagan History, are unequalled for their commitment to keeping the local record. For 70 years, ever since 1926,  long-time residents and newcomers have shared their knowledge and insights in print. No  other area of British Columbia has received so much attention for so long a period as has the  Okanagan Valley."  I am sure we all want The Best of Okanagan History to do justice to that record. •  Jean Webber, special editor.  INDEX COMMITTEE  The 60th Report has been indexed and merged with preceding indexes. You will  recall that in previous committee reports I mentioned that we were not sure if we could  create an index of Nos. 1 to 60, but in fact it proved to be quite an easy task. A copy of this  complete index has not been printed out, but it is estimated that it will run to 275 pages.  In January of this year we received a proposal from Living Landscapes, a co-operative project of Okanagan University College in Kelowna and the Royal BC Museum. Coordinator of this project is Carol Thomson of Kelowna. It is "a research and public education  project that is exploring and documenting the human and natural history of the Thompson-  Okanagan region, and posting this information on a web site on the Internet."  They had posted some OHS articles on the site and, to quote Carol Thomson further, "We have had a great deal of interest expressed in these OHS articles, and also requests  for better access to the information in the Reports and Okanagan History. I am interested in  making the index [to the publications] available on the Internet."  At the February executive meeting approval was given to look into this proposal, so  I met with Carol and discussed our participation. I then provided her with a computer disc  containing the data on our index.  There are some technical difficulties. Our disc is simply a storage disc from which  we can print an index. For the website, it would be desirable to create a data base from our  material that people could search directly. These difficulties can be resolved, but there is a  cost in computer programmer's time at the college and Carol is currently seeking funding  within her budget to do this.  The Society would receive full recognition for the index, and website users would  be advised where they could obtain copies of our Report. There are two main benefits from  this project that I can see: 1) wider publicity for our publication and 2) a method of updating  our index each year. Incidentally, you would not have to be an Internet user to benefit from  this. An up-to-date copy of the index could be printed from the computer file at any time.  At this stage there is no cost to the Society. However, in the future we may wish to  contribute to the cost of upgrading, rather than spend the money on publishing.  210 O.H.S. BUSINESS  At the moment the project is on hold, due to end-of-term pressure at the college, but  Carol has every intention of pushing forward with it. • Dave MacDonald, committee chair.  FAIRVIEW KIOSK  The Kiosk is finished, except for the landscaping. It has been a pleasure working  with artist Glenn Clark, and we are pleased with the quality of his work.  This has been an interesting project and has earned the respect of the community.  It has created a lot of interest throughout the area. People seem to have a hunger for an  understandable history that is concise and visible. From the feedback we are receiving, this  is part of the answer, and the Okanagan Historical Society is the benefactor, as well as the  South Okanagan. It has taken a lot of research and hard work to accomplish this, and I  appreciate the help and co-operation received from the parent body, the Town of Oliver, the  Regional District, museums and the many people who donated time, money and advice. It  has truly been an enlightening experience. My wife Joan has been a pillar of strength during the whole thing, reading and editing hundreds of manuscripts.  I would like to commend Harry Weatherill for his support in the beginning by pledging  money to lay the concrete slab. When the provincial government let us down, many other  individuals and organizations came to the rescue. The help and co-operation has been terrific.  The finances are in good shape. We still have to install a permanent metal plaque on  one of the pillars bearing the names of all the donors, and complete the landscaping, keeping the area in its natural state as much as possible. Total revenue has amounted to $10,118.39,  as compared to expenditures totalling $8,343.25, leaving a bank balance of $1,775.14. o V. R.  Casorso.  POSTSCRIPT: Since the 1997 OHS annual meeting on May 4, when several members simultaneously expressed concerns that the kiosk was vulnerable to defacement, see-  through plastic overlays have been installed on the interpretative panels, thanks in part to  spontaneous offers of assistance from branches and individual members.  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  Once again we have experienced a successful year at the Mission. The number of  visits remains steady, along with donations. We started the year with preparations for the  annual OHS picnic, repairing picnic tables and building new ones. Our focus this year was  to complete Father Pandosy's bedroom, along with some changes in the Brothers' House.  We completed renovations and painting inside the Christian House, but much work  is still required regarding displays and decorating. A weather-protected information board  was installed at the gate, along with a donation box.  This report concludes my sixth year as your chairman and I thank you for the  opportunity to be of service. I am pleased to report that Art Marty has agreed to be the new  chairman of the Father Pandosy Mission committee.  I wish to thank all the committee members who have provided their time and skills  over the many years. I believe we leave the site in much better condition and with a strong  financial base. I wish to extend a special thank you to our caretaker, Judy Toms, for her  dedication and her interpretation of the site, given freely to those seeking further information. • Denis Maclnnis.  1997 WRITING COMPETITION  The 1997 student writing contest saw eight essays submitted to the committee for  final judging. They came from Enderby-Armstrong, Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton and Oliver-  Osoyoos. The quality of the work was extremely high and judgments were not easily made.  We were fortunate to have Arthur Holmes of Summerland do the adjudicating. Mr. Holmes  is a retired superintendent of schools, a teacher of English and a writer himself. He was  impressed with the students' work in all areas, from their choice of topic to their handling of  the format and bibliographical material. Of note was the one essay on Native Culture, which  he was pleased to see included. The committee is sorry that not all entries could win.  Thanks go to Mr. Holmes, to Mrs. Maggie Ricciardi for her help on the committee, to  the various adults who encouraged the students and made regional selections and, finally,  to all the students at all levels who entered their work in this competition. To them I say  "keep on writing." Rejection slips are disheartening to receive, but you are the future writers  of our history and we need you. • Enabelle Gorek.  211 O.H.S. BUSINESS  HIGHLIGHTS of MINUTES  72nd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  of the OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Seniors' Centre, Osoyoos, May 4, 1997  President Dave MacDonald opened the meeting at 10 a.m., with approximately 70  persons present. He requested observance of a minute's silence in memory of those members of the OHS who had died since the last annual meeting. In particular, he noted the  passing of Dr. Margaret Ormsby, honorary president of the OHS and one of Canada's foremost historians.  NOTICE OF CALL for our 72nd Annual General Meeting was read by secretary  Helen Inglis.  AGENDA distributed in advance of meeting. The president requested that motions  arising from any of the reports be held until the New Business portion of the meeting.  MINUTES of the 71st Annual General Meeting adopted as printed in the 60th Report  on motion of Enabelle Gorek, seconded by Alice Lundy.  BUSINESS ARISING out of minutes: None.  CORRESPONDENCE: Letter from Arthur Marty, chair of the Father Pandosy Mission Committee, submitting resignation effective April 28, 1997, for personal reasons.  Reports of Officers  Dave MacDonald reviewed the highlights of his second term as OHS president, (see  complete report elsewhere in this section).  Secretary Helen Inglis recorded and distributed Minutes of the Executive Council  Meetings to all members of the parent body. Correspondence included communication regarding the use of historical names at the new Fintry Provincial Park; responding to a variety of letters of inquiry from individuals researching early Okanagan residents and events;  and, regrettably, sending cards of sympathy.  HISTORIC TRAILS: Peter Tassie (still a one-man committee in spite of efforts to  retire two years ago) reported there is no representative from the South Okanagan to watch  over trails in that area. One is needed!  SALES and PROMOTION: In Carol Abernathy Mellow's absence, the president presented the OHS Market Research Study done by three OUC students, submitted April 21,  1997.  Committee Reports accepted on motion by Bob Marriage, seconded by Hume Powley.  New Business  a) Arthur Marty resignation. Moved by Jack Morrison, seconded by Alice Lundy,  that we accept with regret Arthur Marty's resignation as chair of the Father Pandosy Mission  Committee. Carried.  b) Financial matters. Moved by Gifford Thomson, seconded by Joan Idington, that  the finance committee come up with an improved financial statement format, clearly showing all OHS assets. Carried.  c) Pandosy Mission's future. Moved by Dorothy Zoellner, seconded by Lionel Dallas,  that we strike a valley-wide committee to review the future course of the Father Pandosy  Mission. Carried.  d) Voice (Talking) Books for the Visually Impaired. Mollie Broderick suggested that  the OHS liaise with the CNIB, libraries, etc., to have selected entries from the Okanagan  Historical Society Annual Reports recorded on tape. Although the idea has merit, it was  decided that the Kelowna library branch should look into the proposal before the OHS proceeded further.  ELECTION of OFFICERS for 1997-1998: Past President, David MacDonald; President, Denis Maclnnis; First Vice-President, Peter Tassie; Second Vice-President, Enabelle  Gorek; Secretary, Helen Inglis; Treasurer, Jean Lockhart. Editor, Denis Marshall. Branch  Representatives: Oliver-Osoyoos, Lionel Dallas, Vic Casorso; Similkameen, Richard Coleman,  Wallace Liddicoat; Penticton, Mollie Broderick, Elizabeth Bork; Kelowna, Hume Powley,  Gifford Thomson; Vernon, Bob dePfyffer, Jack Morrison; Armstrong-Enderby, Eleanore Bolton, Jessie Ann Gamble; Salmon Arm, Tom Smith, Reginald Humphries.  APPOINTMENT of AUDITOR: Moved by Gifford Thomson, seconded by Peter Stirling, that Leonard G. Miller be appointed as auditor. Carried.  212 O.H.S. BUSINESS  COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS: Moved by Bob Marriage, seconded by David  MacDonald, that the parent body of the OHS thank the Oliver-Osoyoos branch for such a  fine job in hosting the 72nd Annual Meeting; moved by Bob Marriage, seconded by Jean  Webber, that the Complimentary Resolutions follow the customary format. Carried.  ANNOUNCEMENTS: Joan Casorso, president of the host branch for the AGM, required hospital treatment May 3. Members in attendance sent a get-well card. — May 4 was  the 102nd birthday of Doris Duck Crossley, who was featured on the cover of the 60th  Report. A congratulatory card was signed by members and sent to the recipient via Gifford  Thomson.  1998 ANNUAL MEETING: Approved for May 3, 1998 on the SS Sicamous, hosted by  Penticton branch.  Following the business portion of the 1997 AGM, there was an opportunity to visit  the Osoyoos Museum. At 1 o'clock a buffet lunch was served, with Lionel Dallas as master  of ceremonies. A Life Membership was presented to Libby Tassie of Vernon.  BRANCH ACTIVITIES REVIEWED  VERNON — This past year we made some important strides forward in several  areas. We had a successful field trip to the Kettle Valley Railway last spring, and an old-time  dance in November. We have had a number of excellent speakers at our monthly meetings.  We have established a small writers' group, which has been meeting monthly, and is  beginning to produce some interesting articles for the Report. In addition, a very hardworking and dedicated group of writers, under the able direction of Terry Hurst, has made  an impressive start on a book detailing the street names of Vernon. In the area of student  essays, our submission in the Junior Category succeeded in winning first prize. Thanks are  due Bill Seaton and Betty Holtskog for their efforts in this regard.  In the area of book sales, we have done especially well this year. A vote of thanks  goes to Jack Morrison for his efforts in organizing our sales.  Active members of the Society continue to be needed for service on the executive,  special committees, and as writers. They are needed to continue the work of extending the  written record of Okanagan History, and to pass on their interest in local history to the next  generation. We especially need a vice-president, and additional members for marketing,  membership and publicity committees.  It is the intention of the executive to continue to support the growth of the Writers'  Group, and to promote the student essay contest. The Vernon Street Names book will probably reach the publication stage this year. • Carol Abernathy Mellows.  SIMILKAMEEN—The Similkameen Branch held four meetings during 1996, including local speakers on the agenda. Wally Liddicoat talked about water rights on Keremeos  Creek. Wally is now our secretary-treasurer.  No student essays were submitted, largely because of conflict with another contest  within the school at that time.  Future plans include a meeting at the Grist Mill, and a picnic trip to the Molson  Museum in August. Thanks are extended to Michael Burn for being president and branch  editor. • John Armstrong.  PENTICTON—Penticton enjoyed an active year with a membership of approximately  70. We are sad to report the death of one member, Rita Desauliniers.  The branch held three regular meetings and three executive meetings. Each regular  meeting featured a guest speaker. Prior to each meeting, members received a notice in the  form of a newsletter, courtesy of Dave MacDonald.  Book sales went well. We have a number of local retail outlets, while Joe Billo and  Dave MacDonald sparked sales of the 60th Report at meetings. They also reduced our stock  of back issues. Members manned a booth at Cherry Lane mall for book sales and to try to  bring our group to public attention and perhaps gain new members. To this end, we also set  up a display in the museum during Heritage Week. In May we held the annual strawberry  social. Inclement weather drove this event inside the Sicamous and reduced attendance, but  we are grateful to the Sicamous staff for their co-operation. In October, in conjunction with  the museum, we had an information booth at the Seniors' Symposium.  The membership voted money to help fund the microfilming of back issues of the  Penticton Herald. However, alternate funding was forthcoming, so the Fairview Kiosk was  given a grant, as was the SS Naramata Restoration Society.  Our aim for the coming year is a drive for new and younger members. • Enabelle  Gorek.  213 O.H.S. BUSINESS  SALMON ARM—In reviewing our activities for the year past, it is with regret we  note president Yvonne McDonald was forced by ill health to step back from full participation in branch activities.  Salmon Arm recorded record sales of the 60th Report and commissioned a second  printing of its street names history. Work is well advanced on a more ambitious publication,  Fleeting Images of Old Salmon Arm, which will be a pictorial salute to early community  photographers, plus a compilation of pictures from private albums.  Profits from the sale of Historic Routes enabled us purchase microfilm files of the  Kamloops Sentinel and the Vernon News from inception to 1907, the year Salmon Arm got its  first newspaper. These files have been placed in the local Okanagan library branch on a loan  basis, until such time as Salmon Arm's archival facilities have their own microfilm reader.  We also donated $1,500 to Salmon Arm Museum to assist in updating record-keeping equipment and during the past year spent approximately $1,200 copying old photographs.  Another current project concerns erecting a bronze plaque on the Salmon Arm  Savings and Credit Union building commemorating the beginning of the district's orchard  industry. The credit union, besides providing a site for the plaque, donated half its cost.  Pioneers feted at the branch AGM were May and Clair Morrow, while Florence Farmer  was honoured by being named our first Director for Life. Another highlight of the year past  was the Christmas social meeting, hosted by Hubert and Hjalmar Peterson. • Joan Idington,  vice-president.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS—The Oliver Pioneer Award was presented to the Pioneers of  1921 at the 75th Birthday Banquet on June 14, 1996.  The semi-annual meeting of the Oliver-Osoyoos branch was held on November 3,  1996, with Mrs. Barbara Robinson as our guest speaker. She presented slides on "Oliver then  and now," spanning the years from 1921 to the present.  On January 25, 1997 at the Osoyoos Chamber of Commerce annual meeting, Lionel  Dallas, on behalf of the Oliver-Osoyoos branch of the OHS, presented the Osoyoos Pioneer  Award to Frank Western Smith, for his outstanding contribution to the Town of Osoyoos and  for his untiring work in the local museum. Mr. Smith has been the live-in artist and curator  of the "best little museum in BC" for the past 17 years.  Our annual general meeting was held on March 9, 1997. Guest speaker Dr. Ken  Tapping of the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory gave us an insight into the solar system  as it applies to the earth and the formation of the Okanagan Valley, and what it does for us  as humans. Dr. Tapping is also interested in the restoration of the Kettle Valley Railway in  Summerland.  Well on the top of our AGM agenda was the upcoming OHS annual meeting in the  Seniors' Centre in Osoyoos under the able direction of Lionel Dallas. History Comes Alive,  with the dedication of the Fairview Kiosk to the pioneers, would form a major part of the  proceedings. Vic Casorso worked tirelessly toward the kiosk's completion, in close collaboration with artist Glenn Clark, while raising funds to finish this worthwhile historical project.  Jacquie Bicknell, our editorial chair, had 18 entries for the student writing contest  from Oliver and Osoyoos schools. Winners were as follows: First, Sharon Roberts; second,  Aidan Buckland; third, David Bauman, Robbie Gill, John Wilson. • Joan E. Casorso.  KELOWNA—Over the year we offered three bus tours to our members. All sold out  with wait lists. Our branch held five lectures in October at the KLO school library. These  proved to be popular, with an average attendance of 50.  The weekly articles in the Kelowna Courier have b