Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Forty-ninth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1985

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Array Okantagan History  49th JpE0por| of the Okaijagaii Historical Society V 971.15/1985/49TH  '  -' i>"   .   HI STGRICAL   SOCIEJ  OKANAGAN   HTS^JPY:  FORTY-NINTH   REPORT   OF   T  HCANAGAN  IJQ   C.  $ 15 'Ģ 0 0  CO  CD  CD  CD    Okanagan History  FORTY-NINTH REPORT  ISSN-0317-0691  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4, 1925  COVER PHOTO  Long Lake Pattern  Pastel by Celestine de Naeyer  The Baroness Herry  © 1985 FORTY-NINTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Jean Webber  ASSISTANT EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Ron Robey  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Helenita Harvey, Salmon Arm  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  David Dendy, Kelowna  Angeline Waterman, Penticton  Aileen Porteous, Oliver-Osoyoos  Membership  The recipient of this Forty-ninth Report is entitled to register his or her membership in the  Fiftieth Report which will be issued November 1, 1986.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Buying Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the Parent  Body (Box 313, Vernon), from Branches of OHS and, as well, from most museums and book  stores in the Okanagan.  For availability and prices of back numbers see order form on insert. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Ermie Iceton  VICE-PRESIDENT  Dorothy Zoellner  2nd VICE-PRESIDENT  Jessie Ann Gamble  SECRETARY  Robert Marriage  TREASURER  James W. Green  PAST PRESIDENT  Mary Gartrell Orr  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Armstrong-Enderby: Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie  Salmon Arm: Florence Farmer, Donald Byers  Vernon: Hugh Caley, Lucy McCormick  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson  Penticton: Dave McDonald, Joe Harris  Oliver-Osoyoos: Don Corbishley, Carleton MacNaughton  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Walter Anderson (Pandosy Mission)  A. Juergen Hansen (Historic Trails)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Oliver-Osoyoos: Bernard Webber  Kelowna: Frank Pells, Dorothy Zoellner  Vernon: Don Weatherill  Armstrong-Enderby: Jack Armstrong 4  OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS  1985 - 86  SALMON ARM (MUSEUM EXECUTIVE) — BOX 1642, SALMON ARM, B.C. VOE 2T0  PRESIDENT: Helenita Harvey; VICE-PRESIDENT: David Harper; SECRETARY: Irene Olson;  TREASURER: Malcolm Drage; DIRECTORS: Don Byers, Florence Farmer; DISTRICT  COUNCIL REPRESENTATIVE: Phil Cave.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY  PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; VICE-PRESIDENT: Betty Johnson; SECRETARY-  TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone, Box 253, Enderby, B.C. VOE 1V0; PAST PRESIDENT: Wm.  Whitehead; DIRECTORS (LOCAL): Merle Armstrong, Mel Johnston; DIRECTORS  (PARENT): Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone  (Chairman), Gertrude Peel, Jean Schubert.  VERNON  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Dr. Margaret Ormsby; PRESIDENT: Hugh Caley; VICE-  PRESIDENT: Robert de Pfyffer; SECRETARY: Lucy McCormick, 10015 Kalamalka Rd., Vernon, B.C. V1B 1L5; TREASURER: Don Weatherill; PAST PRESIDENT: Doug Scott; DIRECTORS: Bud Anderson, Pat Bell, Margaret Ormsby; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Wamboldt (Chairman).  KELOWNA  PRESIDENT: Mrs. D. Zoellner; VICE-PRESIDENT: Frank Pells; TREASURER: Gifford Thomson; SECRETARY: Alice Neave, North Hwy 97, R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.; DIRECTORS  (LOCAL): Dr. W. Anderson, Cedric Boyer, Mary Bull, Bill Cameron, Joan Chamberlain, Eric  Chapman, Fred Coe, David Dendy (Chairman Editorial Committee), Robert Hayes, Robert Hobson, Jim Horn, Bob Marriage, Tilman Nahm, Ursula Surtees, Duane Thomson, Marie  Wostradowski; DIRECTORS (PARENT): Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson.  PENTICTON  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; PRESIDENT: Dave MacDonald, 118 Walden  Crescent, Penticton, B.C.; SECRETARY: Olive Evans, 131 West Green Ave., Penticton, B.C.;  TREASURER: Joe Harris, 1425 McMillan Ave., Penticton, B.C.; PAST PRESIDENT: Victor  Wilson; DIRECTORS: Jessie Allen, Joe Biollo, Molly Broderick, Hugh Cleland, Doug Cox, Bob  Gibbard, Pat Gwyer, Allan Hyndman, Mary Orr, Polly Stapleton, Jim Strachan, Angie Waterman (Chairman Editorial Committee), Pete Watson; AUDITOR: Fred Arnot.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  PRESIDENT: Ermie Iceton. R.R. 2, Oliver, B.C.; VICE-PRESIDENT: Harry Weatherill;  RECORDING SECRETARY: Nan Mabee; CORRESPONDENCE & PUBLICITY: Elaine  Shannon, R.R. I, Oliver, B.C.; PAST PRESIDENT: Carleton MacNaughton; EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE: Aileen Porteous; DIRECTORS (LOCAL): Ivan Hunter, Connie Cumine, Peggy  Driver, Joan Wight; DIRECTORS (PARENT): Don Corbishley, Carleton MacNaughton. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  During 1985 the Okanagan Historical Society has celebrated its 60th Anniversary. The record could not be more succinctly put than it has been by  Win Shilvock in his article reprinted here from the Kelowna Capital News. The  reader will find more references to our Jubilee in the pages which follow.  Okanagan History: the Forty-ninth Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society has two sections particularly designed to celebrate this very special year.  The first is a series of articles about changing land use in the Okanagan, a  phenomenon which began in 1811 when the first Europeans reached our Valley.  The section attempts to fulfil the historic function of recording and measuring  change. The second group of articles, describing everyday life in the 1920s,  will delight everyone with their specific and graphic details.  Again I must express my gratitude to the writers of all the articles in this  Report and to the Branch Editorial Committees through whom the manuscripts  reached the Editor. Anne Wight, Beryl Wamboldt, and Dorothy Zoellner have  afforded special help in bringing the articles to book form. I am pleased to  draw attention to addenda to articles in the Forty-eighth Report, two of which  will be found in the body of the Report and others in the listing of "Errata."  Through this interchange reaching over time and space we build our Okanagan  history.  During the past year many readers will have fallen under the spell of Paul  Scott's The Raj Quartet. The books illustrate the author's particular philosophy  of history which he expresses through the words of one of his characters:  To make the preparation of any account [of an action] a reasonable  task [a man] would have to adopt an attitude towards the available  material. The action of such an attitude is rather like that of a sieve.  Only what is relevant to the attitude gets through. The rest gets  thrown away. The real relevance and truth of what gets through the  mesh then depends on the relevance and truth of the attitude.1  One pauses to ask, "What is the screen of attitude through which each  of us is viewing events? Does attitude play a part in the way in which we see  Okanagan history? Do our Reports reflect the variety of attitudes one would  expect from our pluralistic society?"  Jean Webber  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 The Jewel in the Crown, Paul Scott, p. 357. CONTENTS  60th ANNIVERSARY  ANNUAL AWARD  8  HISTORICAL SOCIETY CELEBRATES ITS 60th ANNIVERSARY  (Win Shilvock)  9  OFFICERS OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY DURING  ITS FIRST 60 YEARS  11  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  CHANGING LAND USE IN THE OKANAGAN  13  CHANGING URBAN AND FRUIT-GROWING PATTERNS IN THE  OKANAGAN VALLEY (Ralph R. Krueger and N. Garth Maguire)  19  FOR FRANK STARICKA  28  THE LAND COMMISSION ACT  29  SERVING ON THE AGRICULTURAL LAND COMMISSION  1976 - 1980 (Allan Claridge)  31  TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF CENTRAL SELLING 1939 - 1964 (Gordon Wight) . 35  HISTORY OF GRINDROD PARK (Kathie Halksworth and Helen Drake)  42  GLENMORE — THE "OTHER" MUNICIPALITY (J. H. Hayes)  43  PORTRAIT OF A LADY IN AN OLD ORCHARD  47  STEAMBOATS ON THE SHUSWAP (William Alison)  48  MORE ABOUT THE FAIRVIEW MINES  54  COMMENTS  58  TWENTY YEARS AGO — February 15, 1965 (Ivan E. Phillips)  58  THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY (Harry A. Sherling)  59  ECONOMIC SPIN-OFF FROM THE KETTLE VALLEY RAILROAD  (Joe Biollo)   62  FROM THESE WATERS WAS MINED GLITTERING WEALTH — IN ICE  (Dave Taylor)  63  GREENHOUSE PIONEERS (Joe McLachlan and Bert Stent)   64  SHEEP RANCHING IN THE OKANAGAN (Alan O. Davidson)  68  ASSISTING THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED IN THE VERNON AREA:  THE FIRST 25 YEARS (Al Hiebert and Dorothy Alexander)  70  LAME WING (Evelyn Lundy) ■  78  LOCAL MUSEUMS  79  TRIBUTES AND BIOGRAPHIES  KATHLEEN STUART DEWDNEY — 1890 - 1985 (Mollie Broderick)  83  PADDY CAMERON: HORSEMAN, SOLDIER, FARMER AND  GOOD CITIZEN  84  MILDRED ISABELLE RENWICK (W.J. Ev. Greenaway)  84  SIMILKAMEEN'S FIRST PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE — 1927 - 1929  KATHLEEN SNOWDEN (Ivan E. Phillips)  85  THE HERBERT HOME IN KELOWNA (Frank Snowsell)  89  THE HERBERT FAMILY (Frank Snowsell)  92  THE BLUEJAY (Rita Campbell)  93  HUGH I. CAMPBELL BROWN DECEMBER 1901 - FEBRUARY 1982  (Elizabeth Hieronymi)  94  CHARLIE GI HONG or (CHONG) (Donald Wells)  98  THE WATERMAN FAMILY (Elizabeth Pryce)  100  STUDENT ESSAYS  STUDENT ESSAYS (J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award)   107  THE SUMMERLAND RESEARC H STATION (Tanya Hansen)  108  TRIBUTE TO VERNON O.H.S. MEMBERS  ARMSTRONG, THE "CELERY CITY" (Niels O. Kristensen)  115  THE ARMSTRONG POST OFFICES (Brian Wells)  120  BOOK REVIEWS  EAGLE VALLEY VIEWS (J. Armstrong)   125  BUNCH GRASS TO BARBED WIRE (J. Armstrong)  125 WRITERS OF THE OKANAGAN MAINLINE (J. Webber)    126  THE KETTLE VALLEY AND ITS RAILWAYS   126  SUMMER DAYS (Rita Campbell)    128  TALES AND REMINISCENCES  THE COUNTRY STORE (J. L. Monk)  129  TWO GIRLS IN A BOAT (Allison Hogarth)  131  KELOWNA SISTERS IN LONG BOAT RIDE  138  MISSION CREEK SCHOOL  139  RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY CHURCHES IN FALKLAND, GLENEMMA  AND HEYWOOD'S CORNER DISTRICTS (Edith M. Aitken)  140  THE POWER OF THE MEDIA (H. R. Hatfield)  143  RETROSPECTION (Gail Verhoeven)  144  EARLY KELOWNA RECOLLECTED (the late Mrs. A. L. Knowles)  146  EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE TWENTIES  THE KITCHEN RANGE (Alice M. Emeny)   148  REFLECTIONS OF 1929 — "Getting in the Winter's Wood" (Alice M. Emeny).. 149  WASHDAY IN THE 1920s (Isobel Simard)  150  ANOTHER WASHDAY (A. M. Mabee)  151  THE EVER USEFUL ROOT HOUSE (Cliff Lidstone)  153  THE CELLAR: "BLACK HOLE" OF YESTERYEAR (Ingrid M. Monk)  153  THE MILK HOUSE AT PARADISE RANCH (A. Waterman)  155  A COOL MEAT SAFE (A. Waterman)  156  ON KEEPING BUTTER WHERE NO ICE WAS AVAILABLE IN  TOWN (Estelle Gray)  156  ANYONE FOR TENNIS? (C. Holden and A. Waterman)  157  HOUSE PARTIES CIRCA 1925 (Beryl Gorman)  159  COUNTRY DANCES (M. E. Armstrong)  159  DANCES IN VERNON CIRCA 1925 (Beryl Gorman)  161  THE CHEERIO CLUB (Peggy Adair Landon)  162  GETTING TO SCHOOL IN THE GOOD OLD DAYS (Marian Rands)  165  DINNER AT THE INCOLA HOTEL — PENTICTON - 1920s (Estelle Gray) .... 166  WHEN MUD WAS MUD (Harley Hatfield)  167  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1986    169  MINUTES OF THE 60th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1985 ....  170  PRESIDENT'S REPORT   174  EDITOR'S REPORT   178  SECRETARY'S REPORT    179  AUDITORS' REPORT   180  REPORT OF FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE   182  REPORT TO THE BAGNALL FUND COMMITTEE   184  REPORT OF THE INDEX COMMITTEE   185  REPORTS OF THE BRANCHES  ARMSTRONG/ENDERBY  186  KELOWNA  186  PENTICTON  187  OLIVER/OSOYOOS  188  SALMON ARM  189  VERNON  189  AGENDA OF THE 60th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  190  OBITUARIES   192  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1985  200  ERRATA  208  HISTORICAL SOCIETY CELEBRATES ITS 60th ANNIVERSARY  by Win Shilvock  (reprinted with the permission of Kelowna Capital News)  This year is the Diamond Jubilee, the 60th Anniversary of the founding  of the Okanagan Historical Society. How did it come about? What has it done?  What does it do?  The official starting date for the Okanagan Historical and Natural History  Society, as it was called until the name change in 1935, is September 4, 1925.  It really began, however, in 1882 when a 17 year old Ontarian named  Leonard Norris walked from Vancouver to Priest's Valley (Vernon) and became  an integral part of the community.  As the years went by he came to love the country and people and it was  to record their stories that in 1925 he enthused several friends to form the  Society.  One of his staunchest supporters was Frank M. Buckland who had come  to Kelowna in 1904. Together, they were prolific contributors to the early editions of the Reports of the Society.  In addition, Buckland also published his famous history of the Valley,  "Ogopogo's Vigil" in 1948.  The first Annual Report, published in September, 1926, was a smaller,  rather crudely printed pamphlet of 35 pages and 24 articles. The stories ranged from Brent's Mill, to Placer Mines on Cherry and Mission Creeks, to  Humour in the Okanagan and a fairly long treatise on the Presbyterian Church  in the Valley.  The first five Reports were all similar in nature. Whether it was from lack  of money or lack of demand, only 100 to 200 copies were printed for each one.  These gradually disappeared over the years and in order to preserve them,  in 1975 they were photographed and reprinted in the original form. These too  have become collectors' items.  Although the reports were bravely published through 1931, the Depression caught up and nothing was printed again until 1935.  When No. 6 came out that year it set the tone and pace for all future  Reports. It was a masterpiece of information; it was printed on glossy paper  and comprised 309 pages.  This effort must have put a dent in the treasury for during the next 13  years only 6 Reports appeared.  It was clear sailing from 1948, however, for every year since then has seen  a comprehensive report. In all, 48 volumes have appeared in the last 60 years.  As might be expected, Leonard Norris became the first president, a position he held for 17 years until 1941. He then became secretary-treasurer until  his death in 1945.  Room doesn't allow for the names of all 16 presidents, but those who had  longer than average terms were Joseph B. Weeks, eight years; J. B. Knowles,  six years, and J. D. Whitham, four years.  An editor is a vital part of any publication so the OHS has been fortunate  to have had good people give freely of their time to produce the Reports.  Space again forbids naming all the 14 editors.  James C. Agnew started the job in 1926 and carried on for six years. Others 10  with long tenures were Major Hugh Porteous, nine years; Dr. Margaret A.  Ormsby, the noted historian, eight years, and Rev. Dr. John Goodfellow and  Carol Abernethy each four years.  Since the Society commenced operations in Vernon, that was the scene  of activity for a long time. However, as population increased stories were being missed and a need developed for representation in specific areas.  In 1948 Branches of the parent body were formed in Penticton and  Kelowna; in 1949, Oliver-Osoyoos; 1950, Armstrong-Enderby; 1963, the  Similkameen.  It's interesting to note that the inaugural meeting for this group took place  on the site of the Hudson's Bay Company trading post which had been established 103 years before. Lastly, Salmon Arm joined the group in 1982.  History is an ongoing series of events which, if not recorded fairly promptly, become lost in time. To prevent this loss and provide a knowledge of  our heritage is the function of the Okanagan Historical Society.  This it has done admirably well for the past 60 years by recording events  in its 48 annual Reports. Recording the next 60 years will depend on the young  people of today who will be the oldtimers of tomorrow.  The Diamond Jubilee annual meeting is being held in Vernon at the Vernon Lodge Hotel on Sunday, May 5, commencing at 10 a.m. Lunch will follow  at 1:30 p.m. Guest speaker will be MP Fred King.  Anyone interested in preserving the history of our heritage, whether a  member of the OHS or not, is welcome to attend.  Dr. Margaret Ormsby proposing Toast to British Columbia at 60th Anniversary of O.H.S. Mayor  L. Hanson, Pres. Mary Orr, Dr. Ormsby, Fred King, M.P., Mrs. Hanson, Bernard Webber.  Photo by courtesy Wayne Emde 11  OFFICERS OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  DURING ITS FIRST 60 YEARS  (information taken from the O.H.S. Reports)  Presidents  Leonard Norris 1925-1939  Joseph B. Weeks 1939-1949  J. B. Knowles 1949-1955  J. D. Whitham 1955-1959  D. A. Ross 1959-1960  F. O. McDonald 1960-1962  G. P. Bagnall 1962-1964  G. D. Cameron 1964-1966  Harold Cochrane 1966-1968  Kathleen Stuart Dewdney 1968-1970  Kenneth V. Ellison 1970-1972, 1974-1975  J. V. H. (Victor) Wilson 1972-1974, 1975-1976  Hume M. Powley 1976-1979  Jack Armstrong 1979-1981  Ron Robey 1981-1983  Mary Gartrell Orr 1983-1985  Secretaries and Treasurers  Max H. Ruhmann,    Secretary-Treasurer 1925-1931, 1937-1939  Secretary 1935-1936  James Coleman,           Secretary-Treasurer 1931-1932  Treasurer 1935-1936  Leonard Norris,           Secretary-Treasurer 1939-1945  (In 1946 the Society was re-organized, branches being encouraged. From  this time forward the offices of Secretary and Treasurer were separated.)  Secretaries                J. C. Goodfellow 1945-1956  Vera E. Bennett 1956-1963  Harold Cochrane 1963-1964  Everett S. Fleming 1964-1968  R. F. Gale 1968-1972  F. P. Bird 1972-1973  Angeline Waterman 1973-1976  Dorothy Zoellner 1976-1979  R. F. Marriage 1979-1985  Treasurers                H. R. Dennison 1945-1952  W. R. Pepper 1952-1954  Guy Bagnall 1954-1960  Hilda Cochrane 1960-1969  John Shephard 1969-1976  Edna Oram 1976-1979  Lee Christensen 1979-1983  J. W. Green 1983-1985  (As next year we shall publish our 50th Report we shall wait for that anniversary to list the names of Past Editors.)  13  HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  CHANGING LAND USE IN THE OKANAGAN  There is a correlation between land use and population. In a hunting and  gathering economy each family requires more land than would be needed in  an agricultural economy. Within an agricultural economy there are varying  requirements depending on the crops grown. In the early 1940s it was generally  believed that a man and his family must have at least twenty acres of land  to make a living growing apples in the Vernon area; whereas the same family  could live just as well on the proceeds of ten acres in the southern Okanagan  where a succession of soft fruits could be grown.  According to James Baker the aboriginal Okanagans, before contact,  numbered about 12,000 or 16 people for every 100 square kilometres of territory. (Baker Ms, p. 38, Okanagan Indian Learning Institute) The supply  of wild foods — fish, roots, berries, and game — determined the number of  people the land could sustain. According to Carol Abernathy Mellows this  balance was affected when the first Europeans established the fur trade and  began to buy food supplies from the Indians. "The standard fur-trader's daily  ration was six dried salmon per man." (Abernathy Ms, p. 23, Okanagan Indian Learning Institute) In 1841 John Todd recorded the arrival of 1700 dried  salmon at Kamloops from Alexandria.  How close early settlers and Indians could be to starvation even after the  introduction of agriculture is illustrated in the incidents related by Victor Casorso in his book The Casorso Story (pp. 37, 53). Early in the bitter winter of 1884-85,  the missionaries at Okanagan Mission sent food off to a band of isolated starving Indians. Towards the end of the same winter, when Casorso's stores were  depleted and no game was to be found, a Westbank Indian arrived with a cow  laden with venison, all for the starving family.  Below are excerpts from Dominion Census Reports indicating population  trends and land use patterns in the Okanagan as well as other articles related  to this subject.  Editor  Excerpt from "Pre-emption Claims in the Okanagan Valley"  by Margaret A. Ormsby  (reprinted from Sixth Report of OHS)  When land in the Okanagan Valley became valuable from 1910 on,  especially land suitable for raising fruit, some of which sold for $250 per acre  without any improvements, those who paid the high price, when informed that  lots of it cost only $1 per acre, were inclined to cavil at and rather resent the  good fortune of the old-timers. They seemed to think, too, that the Government were lax in letting it go so cheaply. It is very questionable if the early 14  settlers ever dreamt of the land becoming so valuable, and the Government  were very ready to sell it to them. The Government then, as now, had difficulty in balancing the budget, and were advertising the land for sale. No doubt  when the settler paid down his $160 for 160 acres he felt he was doing something  meritorious, something that would tend to assist the Government, much as  in latter years people felt it was a patriotic duty to buy Victory Bonds. In 1879  the Government offered for sale at auction on the 15th January, 8320 acres  in Townships 50 and 57 in the Okanagan Valley, at an upset price of $1 per  acre.  In fact, land as an investment was not highly regarded at first. Alexander  Vance, the first manager of the B.X. Ranch, was wont to say in the early  eighties that the more land a man had the worse off he was. Cattle and horses  were property and were worth something, but land; what did anyone want  land for?  Some of the early settlers who had more faith in the future of the country  than Mr. Vance, acquired large holdings and afterwards sold out for a fortune. By referring to the Land Registry Office, we are able to give the acreage  and price of some of the larger estates.  Haynes Estate. By a deed dated 14th August, 1895, H. S. Mason and  A. E. McPhillips, trustees of the estate of John Carmichael Haynes, deceased,  conveyed to the British Columbia Land and Investment Agency, 20,756 acres  at Osoyoos for $65,000, and on the 4th September of the same year this company deeded the same acreage for the same price to Thomas Ellis.  Ellis Estate. By deed dated 10th May, 1905, Thomas Ellis conveyed to  the Southern Okanagan Land Company practically all the land he acquired  from the Haynes Estate and his own land for $300,000. The acreage is not  mentioned in either the deed or the application to register it, but on applying  to Walter T. Shatford, who was managing director during the whole time the  company was in existence, he, while unable to give the exact acreage, said it  was slightly over 30,000 acres and that the Ellis holdings at Penticton were  a little less than 10,000 acres. With the land went 3750 head of cattle for which  the company paid $112,500; a total for the land and cattle of $412,500.  Lequime Estate. On the 14th March, 1904, Bernard Lequime for himself, Louise Lequime, Amenyada (sic) Lequime and Leon Lequime conveyed  6743 acres to T. W. Stirling and W. R. Pooley for $65,000, and on the 28th  July of the same year, Stirling and Pooley sold the same land to the Kelowna  Land and Orchard Company for $70,000.  Greenhow Estate. On the 9th December, 1907, Elizabeth Greenhow,  Thomas Greenhow and Mary O'Neal conveyed by deed to the Land and Agricultural Company of Canada, 8906 acres for $315,000. It is not known how  many cattle, if any, went with the land.  O'Keefe Estate. This estate was sold to the Land and Agricultural Company of Canada. The deed is dated 9th December, 1907, and the price was  $184,193. The acreage is not mentioned in either the deed or the application  to register, but by applying to the Land Registry Office we secured a list of  all the different parcels of land mentioned in the deed and a computation shows  the acreage to be, roughly, 5700. This list is with our Secretary and anyone  wishing to ascertain the exact acreage may secure a copy of it at any time.  Coldstream Ranch.     The advice received from the Land Registry Of- 15  fice, Kamloops, reads as follows: "On the 30th July, 1894, the Honourable  Forbes George Vernon conveyed to the Right Honourable John Campbell  Hamilton Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, 13,261 acres for 749,000 (agreed price  £50,000 less £1000 abatement)".  It was sometime in the fall of 1891 that the Coldstream Ranch was sold.  The Vernon News in its issue of the 12th Nov., 1891, mentions a report that  the Coldstream Ranch was sold and in the following issue of the 19th November,  1891, says that the Coldstream Ranch had been taken over by Aberdeen's agent.  Shortly after, a dispute arose between Vernon and Aberdeen as to the state  of the fences and the number of cattle on the place, and it was not until July  of 1894 that the dispute was settled, Vernon knocking $5000 off the price.  Houghton Estate. Charles Frederick Houghton sold his land at  Okanagan Landing to Cornelius O'Keefe. The deed is dated 30th July, 1883  — 715 acres for $7000. The land conveyed consisted of Lots 38, 62_, 65 and  75, Group 1, Osoyoos. It was about the time this sale was made that the now  venerable witticism "The O'Keefe of O'Kan-i-gan" was so often heard in the  land.  There is a document in the Department of Lands, Victoria, which shows  that at one time a partnership existed between the two Vernons and Houghton  and that when the partnership was dissolved the Vernons took the Coldstream  Ranch and Houghton the land the Vernons owned at Okanagan Landing, the  land he afterward sold to O'Keefe. The document is signed by the two Vernons but not by Captain Houghton. It reads thus:  "Memorandum of Agreement"  We, the undersigned, hereby consent and agree to give up all right and  title to the farm situated in the Priest Valley near the Okanagan Lake consisting of 400 acres of land (pre-empted and part purchased by us and recorded in our names in the District Registry), now occupied under lease for limited  period by Mr. G. W. Simpson — to the said C. F. Houghton in consideration  of his withdrawing from the partnership of Houghton, Vernon & Vernon, and  making over his entire interest in the Coldstream farm to us — and we further  agree and promise to afford him, the said C. F. Houghton, every facility to  enable him to obtain title to the same whenever he, from time to time, requires  it.  Charles Albert Vernon  Forbes George Vernon.  Dated at Coldstream, 24th May, 1869.  Witness: Edward James Tronson." 16  From: Report on The Fourth Census of Canada — 1901, (Vol.  1, p.2)  1901 1891 1881 1871  Population  Canada  5,371,315  4,833,239  4,324,810  3,689,257  British Columbia  178,657  98,173  49,459  36,247  1.   Burrard  42,060  24,360  8,417  2.  New Westminster  23,822  17,866  7,000  3.  Vancouver  27,198  18,229  9,991  36,247  4.  Victoria  23,688  18,538  7,301  5.  Yale and Cariboo  61,889  19,180  16,750  In 1901 British Columbia elected 6 Members of Parliament, 2 from Victoria and 1 from each of the other four districts listed above. Ontario had 92  M.P.s and Quebec 65.  From Volume 2 we learn that of the 961,883 acres in Yale which were  occupied 854,828 acres were owned, 336,314 acres were improved and 625,569  unimproved, (p. 6)  Fruit trees in Yale (p.  16)  Cherries     2,784 trees non-bearing  2,970 bearing  2,137 bu. of cherries  Other fruit    771 non-bearing trees  964 bearing  460 bu.  Field crops in Yale (pp. 30, 38)  Spring wheat  9,760 A.  Beans  34 A  Fall wheat  3,483 A.  Hay  62,431 A  Barley  1,261 A.  Potatoes  4,251 A  Oats  13,377 A.  Others  632 A  Rye  711 A.  Flax  1 A  Corn in ear  43 A.  Tobacco  61 A  Peas  969 A.  Livestock  Hops  15 A  Horses 3 years and older  15,732  Horses under 3 years  5,629  Milch cows  6,687  Other horned cattle  79,190  Swine  13,356 17  From: Report on The Sixth Census of Canada —1921 (Vol. 5, p. 21)  Value of orchard fruit in British Columbia:     1920 - $3,603,714.00  1910 - $1,022,576.00  (While the following figures are for the entire Province they include the plantings in the Okanagan and reflect the extensive plantings made in the first  decades of this century.)  1921  1911  1901  Apples  no. of trees  non-bearing  550,242  1,465,662  170,960  no. of trees bearing  1,775,577  510,763  220,684  production  1,819,994  bu.  575,377 bu.  240,012 bu.  Peaches  non-bearing  8,006  162,507  4,401  bearing  62,602  39,522  3,552  production  92,024  bu.  44,032 bu.  2,553 bu.  Pears  non-bearing  43,440  116,487  19,795  bearing  108,544  32,008  24,948  production  129,290  bu.  51,000 bu.  25,364 bu.  Plums  non-bearing  43,896  96,144  26,663  bearing  165,571  73,067  59,780  production  195,574  bu.  80,444 bu.  58,221 bu.  Cherries  non-bearing  28,015  73,090  9,477  bearing  88,626  32,697  17,322  production  109,041  bu.  27,417 bu.  14,445 bu.  Grapes  57,297  lb.  34,961 lb.  30,182 lb. 18  From Report on the Tenth Census of Canada — 1961  TABLE 6  Population by census subdivisions, 1901 - 1961  Subdivision  1921  1931  1941  1951  1956  1961  Subdivision A -  Okanagan & Shuswap,  Upper — Con.-fin:  Peachland  466  318  479  614  705  641  Spallumcheen  523  1,629  1,805  1,936  1,937  2,123  Summerland  1,892  1,791  2,054  3,567  3,893  4,307  Unorganized  9,501  8,826  12,182  18,644!  19,7484  21,8495  Indian Reserves  655  792  673  821  1,006  797  Cities:  Armstrong  983  989  977  1,126  1,197  1,288  Enderby  783  555  538  877  965  1,075  Kelowna  2,520  4,655  5,118  8,517  9,181  13,1886  Vernon  3,685  3,937  5,209  7,822*  8,998  10,250'  Villages:  Lumby  —  —  —  —  7864  8424  Subdivision B -  Similkameen River  7,743  11,059  15,840  24,163  26,123  27,843  Penticton  3,979  4,640  5,777  7  —  —  Unorganized  3,567  6,219  9,663  11,4914  9,7234  8,1324  Indian Reserves  197  200  400  225  254  330  Cities:  Penticton  —  —  —  10,5487  11,894  13,859  Villages:  Keremeos  —  —  —  —  —  5634  Oliver  —  —  —  1,0004  1,147  1,7744  Osoyoos  —  —  —  8994  860  1,022  Princeton  —  —  —  —  2,2454  2,163  Subdivision C -  Kettle River  5,797  4,802  5,459  7,078  7,432  8,111  Unorganized  3,957  3,333  3,837  4,623  4,622  4,832  Cities:  Grand Forks  1,469  1,298  1,259  1,646  1,995  2,347  Greenwood  371  171  363  809  815  932 19  Excerpts from:  CHANGING URBAN AND FRUIT-GROWING PATTERNS IN  THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  by Ralph R. Krueger and N. Garth Maguire  (Dr. Krueger is Professor of Geography, University of Waterloo; Mr. Maguire, owner  and manager of N.G. Maguire Associates, Vernon)  Introduction  The Okanagan Valley in south-central British Columbia is one of Canada's  major fruit-growing regions (Krueger, 1965; 1972). In 1981 it accounted for  21 per cent of Canada's apple acreage, 26 per cent of its soft tree fruit acreage,  and 11 per cent of its grape acreage. In apple production, it comes ahead of  any other single region in the country; in soft fruit and grape production it  is second only to the Niagara Fruit Belt of Ontario. In the context of the province of British Columbia, with its extremely restricted agricultural land base,  the Okanagan Valley is even more significant. It produces 98 per cent of the  province's tree fruits and practically all of its grapes as well as lesser amounts  of small fruits and vegetables.  The Okanagan Valley is the only major region in Canada outside of the  Niagara Fruit Belt and the Kent-Essex area of southern Ontario with a climate  suitable for commercial production of soft tree fruits and grapes. The long,  very warm, dry sunny summers of the Okanagan are ideal for fruit-growing.  The predominantly cloudy conditions of winter reduce radiation heat loss, thus  moderating winter temperatures. Because of a winter maximum in precipitation, in most winters there is sufficient snow cover to insulate tree and vine  roots from temperatures low enough to cause injury. The sloping terraces above  the valley floor provide orchard sites with good air drainage and soils well suited  for tree fruits and grape vineyards.  The Okanagan fruit-growing industry has had to face, however, some  serious climatic problems since its beginning around the turn of the century.  The semi-arid climate (only 10.9 inches mean annual precipitation at Penticton) has been overcome by an efficient network of irrigation systems. Despite  the normally moderate winter weather, periodic outbursts of polar air have  resulted in low-temperature injury to trees and dormant blossom buds on  average about once in every five winters since 1900. In addition, there has  been spring frost damage to blossom buds in some areas of the valley almost  every year. The orchard industry has coped with the low-temperature hazard  in numerous ways such as changing from the less hardy soft fruits to apples  in the northern section of the valley, better site selection, modifying orchard  management practices, using mechanical frost prevention devices, participating  in crop insurance programs, and supplementing orchard income with off-farm  'ñ∫work. Vinifera and hybrid grapes, which have been grown on a large scale  only since 1960, are only slightly more hardy than apricots and peaches and  have also suffered periodic low-temperature injury (Boyer, 1977; King, 1974;  Krueger, 1963; 1983; Rolfe, 1974).  Climatic liabilities have, of course, negative economic consequences for 20  the fruit-growing industry. Installing, modernizing and maintaining the extensive irrigation systems has been and remains very expensive. Low-  temperature injury to blossom buds results in crop loss; when the trees and  vines are killed there is the cost of replacement plus a crop loss for the number  of years it takes newly planted trees or vines to bear.  These economic problems have been exacerbated by exorbitant land prices  since the early days when promoters of the Okanagan Valley attracted settlers  with extravagant claims of idyllic climatic conditions and easy profits to be made  from orchards. The more recent demand for land for urban and recreational  purposes has further escalated farm land prices. Moreover, in the last couple  of decades, increases in prices for fruit received by the growers have not been  commensurate with the rapidly escalating costs of equipment, chemicals, fertilizers, fuel and labour. All of these things have resulted in a tight cost-price  squeeze for the fruit-growers.  Marketing has been another persistent problem for the Okanagan orchard  industry. Distance from the large central Canada market, and competition from  the State of Washington for the large United States Pacific coast market, have  forced the Okanagan orchard industry to sell in very competitive and ever-  changing markets outside of North America. This has required the production of a high quality product, high grading and packaging standards, and very  aggressive selling efforts, all of which are costly for an industry which faces  a number of other problems.  The combination of economic and marketing problems led to the formation of a central selling agency, B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. It has been very effective in maintaining the quality of fresh fruit sold, in packaging fruit attractively, in building controlled atmosphere storage facilities, in developing new processed products to use up surplus fruit, and in promoting British Columbia  apples in foreign markets. Despite the fact that the role and effectiveness of  the central selling agency is often questioned by fruit-growers, several people  who have studied the situation have credited this central selling agency with  saving the Okanagan orchard industry from economic collapse (Hudson, 1973;  MacPhee, 1958).'  The most recent threat to the fruit-growing industry has been urban growth  and related land-uses that have been spreading outward from the cities and  towns onto the better agricultural land. This poses a direct long-term threat  in that the agricultural land base is being taken out of production. There are  also numerous indirect impacts on the fruit-growing industry such as escalating  land prices and real estate taxes, subdivision of land into sub-economic sized  units, the discouragement of farm capital investment because of the uncertainty  of future use of the land, and conflicts resulting from trespassing on fruitlands  and chemical spray drifting onto adjacent residential properties (McRae, 1980)2.  Changing Fruit-Growing Patterns  The orchard industry in the Okanagan Valley reached its peak in 1961  with approximately 32,600 acres in production. This declined to 29,700 acres 21  in 1971 and to 25,800 acres in 1981. Starting in the 1960s, large plantings of  grapes began to compensate for decreases in orchard area so that the total  decrease of fruit-growing area was only about 3,300 acres (10%) between 1971  and 1981 (Table 1). Although the decrease in fruit-growing area was least in  the North Okanagan Regional District, it had the largest percentage reduction. This was the continuation of a rapid downward acreage trend that started  in the North Okanagan after the very severe freezes of the winters of 1949-50  and 1955-56 (Krueger, 1963, 1983; Boyer 1977). Field observations show some  new apple plantings in the Vernon area since 1981, indicating that the decrease  may be levelling out. The Central and Okanagan Similkameen Regional  Districts both showed substantial decreases in tree-fruit area and increases in  grapes, resulting in a net reduction of 12% and 8% in fruit-growing area respectively. Accompanying the reduction in area of fruit-growing, has been a decrease  in area of vegetables from 1,800 acres in 1971 to 1,300 acres in 1981.  *     *     *  TABLE 1:  Okanagan Acreages in Tree Fruits and Grapes  by Regional District, 1971 and 1981  1971  1981  Change  1971-81  (acres)  (acres)  (acres)  (%)  North Okanagan  Apples  1,715  1,329  -386  -23  Soft Fruits  154  133  - 21  -14  Grapes  60  52  - 81  -13  All Fruit Crops  1,929  1,514  -415  -22  Central Okanagan  Apples  9,862  8,807  - 1,055  -  11  Soft Fruits  3,237  2,403  -     834  - 26  Grapes  1,314  1,515  +   201  + 15  All Fruit Crops  14,413  12,725  - 1,688  - 12  Okanagan  Similkameen  Apples  8,032  7,614  -     418  -    5  Soft Fruits  6,688  5,492  - 1,196  -  18  Grapes  986  1,377  +   391  + 40  All Fruit Crops  15,706  14,483  - 1,223  -    8  Total Okanagan  Apples  19,609  17,750  - 1,859  -  18  Soft Fruits  10,079  8,028  - 2,051  - 20  Grapes  2,360  2,944  +    584  + 25  All Fruit Crops  32,048  28,722  - 3,326  - 10  Source: Census of Canada, 1  Note:  II  Soft fruits include pears, sweet and sour cherries, peaches, prunes and plums, and  apricots (listed in order of importance). Note that the regional subdivisions are the official  regional government districts. The North Okanagan Regional District is different from the  North Okanagan subregion used by Krueger in his previous papers on the Okanagan orchard industry. 22  Changing Urban Patterns  Between 1971 and 1981, the population of the three Okanagan Regional  Districts rose from 127,000 to 197,000, an increase of 55%. The population  of the Central Okanagan Regional District increased the most (70%) followed  by North Okanagan (60%) and Okanagan Similkameen (34%). Some of this  population increase has occurred in the cities and towns and surrounding  suburbs but much of it has spread out into the countryside throughout the length  of the valley.  The prime agricultural land in the valley just happens to be the most convenient and economic for urban development. Note that the centres of all of  the cities and towns, except Penticton, are located on prime agricultural land,  and that the one major highway runs through the centre of the prime agricultural  areas (Figure 6). The orchard irrigation systems built to a standard that  facilitates domestic water supply are attractive to those who wish to build homes  in the country. Septic sewage systems are much easier to construct on good  farmland. The orchard lands on the terraces provide highly desirable view sites  for luxury homes. People also like to have good soils to their gardens so that  they can produce fruit and vegetables for home consumption. Many also like  to take up fruit growing as a hobby. Thus, with few land-use controls, it is  not surprising that most of the scattered development has occurred on good  farmland. There are some exceptions, notably on the east side of Lake  Okanagan north of Kelowna and around Okanagan Landing (southwest of Vernon), where substantial numbers of houses have been built on land with little  or no agricultural value.  Land-Use Control  Until the formation of the Regional Districts in the mid 1960s, there was  no attempt at land-use control in the Okanagan Valley. The Regional Districts,  a limited form of regional governments, were not very successful in controlling and directing urban growth. Development beyond the borders of  municipalities was not annexed on a regular basis and so there was no unitary  control over a single urban community.  There was no organized attempt to preserve agricultural land until the  British Columbia Land Commission Act came into effect in 1973. (The name was  later changed to the Agricultural Land Commission Act). Late in 1972 the provincial government put a "freeze" on the subdivision or development for non-  farm purposes of all land zoned or assessed as farmland. The freeze remained  in effect until official Agricultural Land Reserves (ALRs) were established for  the Regional Districts of the Okanagan in 1974. The Land Commission Act  was followed quickly by the Farm Income Assurance Act which guaranteed  farmers a certain minimum income based on costs of production (Pierce, 1981;  Wilson and Pierce, 1982).  A process was established that permitted owners to apply for removal of  their land from a Reserve (exclusion) or permission to subdivide land for sale 23  or development within an ALR (subdivision). In a study of the appeal process  from 1974-1978, Pierce discovered that the applications for exclusion of land  from ALRs had a higher rate of success in the Okanagan Valley than around  the major cities of Vancouver and Victoria. He was unable to determine whether  the large number of successful exclusion applications were due to the need for  "fine tuning" of the ALR boundaries or whether they indicated an undermining of the intent of the Act. "Fine tuning" is a term used to describe adjusting the ALR boundaries resulting from a more detailed assessment of the  capability of the land or the "suitability" of a proposed development, considering the "current agricultural base and wider area concerns". Also considered in the "fine tuning" process is whether the exclusion of a parcel of  land will have a negative impact on surrounding farm operations (Pierce, 1981)4.  The net loss of designated ALR land in the Okanagan Valley between  1974 and 1982 was 4,500 acres, which is about one per cent of the original  total. We have not so far been able to determine how much of this reduction  resulted from legitimate "fine tuning" of the ALR boundaries and how much  indicates an erosion of the intent to preserve agricultural land. When the ALR  boundaries were originally drawn, enough land was designated for development to meet municipalities' needs for approximately five years. Since the five  years was up in 1979, there is likely to have been more pressure for removing  land from ALRs from that date because many of the municipalities have already  developed most of the farmland designated for development.  Summary and Conclusions  We began this investigation because field observations indicated that urban sprawl was over-running the Okanagan fruitlands in a manner similar to  that of the Niagara Fruit Belt. Our research findings confirm that this is so.  A series of maps show that low density urban development has spread over  much of the Okanagan Valley, and that the most intensive urban development  has been on the best fruit-growing land. An analysis of the degree of urbanization maps indicates that the Okanagan in 1981 was at about the same stage  in the urbanization process as Niagara was in the early 1960s. Considering  the small population base of the Okanagan, the extensiveness of urban sprawl  there is somewhat surprising.  Throughout the 1970s there was a decline in orchard area in the Okanagan  Valley, but as in Niagara, the growing demand of grapes for wine led to an  increase in area planted to vineyards. Between 1971 and 1981, the net decrease  in area of fruit-growing in the Okanagan was about 3,300 acres, or over 300  acres a year. This is greater than the Niagara annual loss of fruit-growing area  in the 1961-1971 decade. However, between 1971 and 1981, the Niagara reduction in fruit-growing area escalated to about 1,000 acres a year. (Krueger, 1982)  This may suggest that the Okanagan could be on the verge of a rapid escalation of fruitland losses.  Urbanization is only one of the numerous factors that has led to a decline  in fruit-growing area in the Okanagan Valley. Other problems that contribute  to farmer decisions to change from growing tree fruits to other crops or sell  orchard land for urban development were discussed in the introduction to this  paper: frost hazards, high land prices, an ever tightening cost-price squeeze,  and competition for markets. The fruit-growing industry has shown great 24  resilience in coping with these physical and economic problems, but the writers  have concluded that the industry cannot endure for many decades the additional pressure of scattered urban development which has been escalating since  the mid 1960s.  Of all the problems facing the orchard industry, urbanization is the most  serious because it is irreversible. So far the industry has compensated for loss  of land by planting new orchards more remote from urban development, increasing the density of plantings, and increasing tree-fruit yields as a result  of improved management practices. But there is a limit to this kind of adjustment. Moreover, although a more sophisticated orchard management has increased the production from orchards operated by full-time "professional" or-  chardists, it has not increased the production from orchards run by part-time  and hobby farmers, who comprise about one-half of the Okanagan farmers  reporting tree-fruit production.  The only large areas of prime agricultural land (CLI classes 1 to 3) still  available for expansion of the fruit-growing industry are located on the Indian  Reserves, which are outside of the planning control of the province, the regional  districts, and the local municipalities. Nor do the ALR restrictions apply to  them. Consequently, there has been considerable development of these lands  for non-farm purposes in recent years. If the ALR program is successful in  restricting urban development on farmland in the rest of the valley, there is  likely to be more pressure for urban development on the lands of the Indian  Reserves.  Until the early 1970s, there was little or no land-use control in the  Okanagan Valley. The program of Agricultural Land Reserves along with Farm  Income Assurance holds great promise, but that promise has not yet been realized. There has been a high rate of success in applications for exclusions from  ALRs and subdivisions within ALRs. It would appear that the Regional  Districts are at times not very rigorous in evaluating the overall land-use impacts of applications for ALR exclusions and subdivisions and that the provincial government's resolve to preserve agricultural land has weakened. The  legislative and administrative machinery is in place, but as of 1983, there is  insufficient evidence to prove that there is enough political commitment to make  it work. If the integrity of the Agricultural Land Reserve and Farm Income  Assurance programs remain intact, and further urban encroachment into  farmland is curtailed, there is still sufficient land base for a thriving fruit-growing  industry; if the integrity of these programs is undermined, the long-run prospects for the fruit-growing industry are not good.  Even more serious than the threat to a specific agricultural industry, is  the threat of destruction of a scarce land resource for any agricultural production in the future.  Acknowledgements  The writers wish to acknowledge the Social Science and Humanities Research  Council of Canada for a research grant which made possible the research on which  this paper is based. Acknowledgement of assistance is also made to the following: Laurie  Allen and Curt Fortowski of Okanagan College, Vernon, who assisted with the air  photo interpretation; Barry Levely, who prepared the maps, in the Environmental  Studies Cartographic Centre at the University of Waterloo; planning staff of the three  Okanagan Regional districts who answered our many questions, and particularly Senior 25  Planners Harold Thomson and Peter Tassie who made many useful comments on a  draft of this paper; and the reviewers who made helpful suggestions and posed provocative questions, some of which we hope to address in a future paper.  The Editor regrets that it has proved impossible to reduce maps to page size and  maintain their clarity.  TABLE 1  Areas in Tree Fruits and Grapes  Okanagan Valley, 1961 - 1981  Fruit Crops  1961  (acres)  1971  (acres)  1981  (acres)  Change  (acres)  1961-81  (%)  Apples  Other Tree Fruits  Grapes  19,900  12,700  600  19,600  10,100  2,400  17,800  8,000  2,900  - 2,100  - 4,700  + 2,300  - 11  - 37  + 400  TOTAL 32,200     32,100      28,700     -4,500 -14  Source: Census of Canada, 1961, 1971, 1981.  Note: These data include about 2,000 acres of orchards and vineyards  in the adjacent Similkameen Valley, which is not shown on the maps in this  paper. Other tree fruits include pears, sweet and sour cherries, peaches, prunes  and plums, and apricots (listed in order of importance). Numbers have been  rounded to the nearest hundred. (Krueger and Maguire, Ms.  1984).  TABLE 2  Okanagan Population by Regional District 1971-1981  Regional District 1971 1981 % Change  North Okanagan  34,000  54,400  + 60  Central Okanagan  50,200  85,200  + 70  Okanagan Similkameen  42,800  57,200  + 34  TOTAL Okanagan 127,000 196,000 +55  Source: Census of Canada, 1981.  Note: These three districts cover more than the Okanagan-Similkameen  Valley, but most of the surrounding plateau land has little or no settlement.  (Krueger and Maguire, Ms. 1984). 26  Opinion  TABLE 3  Opinions of Landholders About ALR Program  Sample Areas  Total  Kelowna       Coldstream   12 Areas  Good, Needed  Good, but came too late  Good for Best Land  Good, but Not for My Land  Good, but Hurts Owners  Good, but Poorly Done  Legislation Should be Strengthened  Unfair, Inconsistent,  Mismanaged, Land Poorly Classed  Caused Inflated Land Prices  er cent)  (per cent)  (per cent  34  23  43  3  6  2  5  o  9  0  1  2  10  6  6  15  17  12  3  5  2  23  24  19  3  4  1  Source: E. W. Manning and S.E. Eddy, The Agricultural Land Reserves  of British Columbia: An Impact Analysis (Ottawa: Environment Canada,  1978) Appendix D. A total of 800 landholders was interviewed in twelve sample areas. In this table only some of the opinions are recorded. (Krueger and  Maguire, Ms. 1984).  Excerpt from: a manuscript (1984) entitled The Urbanization of the  Fruitlands of the Okanagan Valley by Ralph R. Krueger and N. Garth  Maguire.  Most of the land in the Okanagan Valley with fruit-growing potential has  already been planted to trees and vines. The exceptions are areas north of  Kelowna where fruit-growing has been substantially reduced because of low-  temperature injury, and the Indian Reserves. It has been estimated that there  is approximately 12,000 acres of land on the Indian Reserves that is capable  of fruit production if irrigated. Approximately 80 per cent of this land is in  the southern part of the valley where the fruit-growing climate is superior.  However, Indian Reserves are outside of the jurisdiction of planning control  of the local municipalities, the Regional Districts and the B.C. Agricultural  Land Commission. There has been considerable urban development on the  Indian Reserve lands. For example, on Tsitsunkeptum Indian Reserve No.  10 at Westbank, between 1961 and 1981, approximately 6,900 acres were put  to industrial, commercial and recreational uses. The Reserve has plans for further urban development in contrast to the ALR designation of surrounding 27  land. Only one Indian Reserve (Inkameep, near Osoyoos) has significant  amounts of land in fruit production. In 1981 it had nearly 3,000 acres in  vineyards. In general, it would seem that not much of the land on the Indian  Reserves can be counted upon as a new source of fruit-land to replace that  being urbanized in the rest of the valley.  Winter Damage  The length of time that fruit trees remain in production is important to  fruit growers. When a tree has to be replaced, not only is capital expended,  but there is also a crop 'loss' until the young tree is in full production. This  is most serious in the case of apples (except dwarfs) which take from 5 to 10  years to start bearing and do not reach peak production until the tree approaches  20 years of age.  TABLE 1  Percentage survival of trees for different fruit crops  Okanagan Valley, B.C.  (per cent)  Apricots  Peaches  Cherries  Pears  Apples  District  (1945-55)  (1945-55)  (1935-55)  (1935-55)  (1935-55)  Salmon Arm  13  2  6  1  25  Armstrong  0  0  —  —  14  Vernon  11  7  16  20  32  Oyama  18  5  40  61  44  Okanagan Centre  43  40  34  57  46  Kelowna  36  16  35  50  47  Westbank  25  40  15  50  34  Peachland  33  35  27  33  50  Summerland  68  51  63  65  50  Naramata  57  44  50  56  50  Penticton  60  50  50  60  55  Kaleden  65  37  77  37  67  Oliver-Osoyoos  38  28  38  41  66  Keremeos  58  30  40  37  60  Note: Raw data from the British Columbia quinquennial publication Orchard Survey for 1935-55. The calculations were made for The Report of the Royal  Commission on the Tree-fruit Industry of British Columbia.  For apricots and peaches, the statistics represent the percentage of the trees  that existed in 1945 and were still alive in 1955. For cherries, pears and apples, because of the longer life span, the statistics represent the trees that survived for 20 years. Reprinted from Geographical Bulletin, No. 20, 1963. Author:  Ralph R. Krueger. 28  TABLE 2  Tree Kill and Crop Loss resulting from low temperatures  during the winter of 1949-50 in the Okanagan Valley  Percentage  reduction  of 1950 c  rop from  1946 - 9  average  Percentage of  Selected areas  trees killed  Peaches  Apricots  Salmon Arm  31  100  100  Armstrong  37  —  100  Vernon  25  100  100  Kelowna  14  100  100  Peachland  16  96  94  Summerland  9  89  99  Penticton  7  74  83  Naramata  7  74  88  Oliver-Osoyoos  28  92  75  Keremeos-Cawston  24  100  100  19  87  TOTAL Okanagan  SOURCE: R. R. Krueger, 'The physical basis of the orchard industry  of British Columbia,' Geographical Bulletin, 20 (1963)  Reprinted from Canadian Geographer.  FOR FRANK STARIHA  Achieved in a thousand years  Or was it a million?  An ecological balance.  Cancelled in days  In one of mankind's more elemental revolutions  Hunting and gathering, even herding,  Yielding to agriculture.  Surmised ten thousand years ago  Implicit in the Cain and Abel dichotomy  Observed in Shakespeare's "plough-torn leas"  And photographed by you last year at Inkameep.  J.W.  July 1985 29  THE LAND COMMISSION ACT  The Land Commission Act, "Bill 42", was presented to the British Columbia legislature in March of 1973. Writing in April 1976 about the history  of the act Dave D. Stupich, MLA, who was Minister of Agriculture during  that period, says:  In October 1972 I spoke in Rutland in support of the NDP federal  candidate and told those assembled that the NDP provincial government would move quickly on this matter of saving farmland, as it  was particularly important in the Okanagan Valley. Little public attention was paid to my remarks, but when I repeated them at the  British Columbia Federation of Agriculture Convention, in New  Westminster, at the end of November 1972, my remarks were widely quoted and discussed.  The reaction from the Real Estate community was to hasten applications for subdivisions of farmland and to urge farmers who were contemplating retirement to sell to development companies. It was obvious that a significant amount of the most important areas of  farmland would be lost for all time if government did not act quickly. In December of 1972, under the authority of the Environment  and Land Use Act, passed by the previous administration, the Cabinet  passed two Orders-in-Council which " froze" any further development of land, two acres or more in size, that was zoned as farmland  or, in the absence of zoning, was classified as farmland from a property tax point of view.  With proclamation of the bill and the naming of the Land Commission, the detailed work actually started.  One by one Agricultural Land Reserves were established in the  Regional Districts of the province. The Legislation does allow for appeals, and the "fine tuning" process has been, and will be, a continuing one for some time to come.  The Land Commission, in Bill 42 was charged not only with the preservation of agricultural lands but also with preserving green belts near urban  centres, establishing land banks suitable for industrial purposes, and preserving parkland and land for recreational use. Environmental organizations as  well as agriculturalists were engaged in policy decisions. In subsequent legislation, Land Commission Amendment Act, 1977, Bill 88, and Agricultural Land  Commission Act, 1980, all responsibility for other than agricultural land has  been taken from the Commission. The Environmental Land Use Committee  of Cabinet has final say on appeals.  Editor 30  From B.C. Land Commission publication Keeping the Options Open  Class 1 land is capable of  producing the very widest range of  vegetables, cereal grains, forages,  berry fruits and numerous specialty  crops. Soil and climate  combinations are optimum.  Class 2 land is capable of  producing a wide range of regional  crops as above with some  differences in variety due to minor  restrictions of soil or climate.  Class 3 land is capable of  producing a fairly wide range of  regional crops under good  management practices. Soil and/or  climate limitations are somewhat  restrictive.  Class 4 land is capable of a  restricted range of regional crops  such as hardy cereal grains, hardy  vegetables and forages. Soil and  climate limitations demand special  management considerations.  Class 5 land is capable of  production of perennial forage  crops only. Soil and/or climate  restrictions severely limit the land's  capability.  Class 6 land is natural rangeland.  Soil and/or climate limitations  preclude cultivation but the land  may be important in its natural  state as grazing land.  Class 7 land has no agricultural  capability whatsoever. 31  SERVING ON THE AGRICULTURAL LAND COMMISSION  1976 — 1980  by Allan Claridge  In October 1976 all members of the Agricultural Land Commission were  replaced with the exception of the Chairman, Mr. G.G. Runka.  The newly appointed members were: C.F. Cornwall, a retired district  agriculturist from Williams Lake; R. Kerr, a cattle rancher from Kamloops;  S.M. Singh, a vegetable grower from Surrey; and Allan Claridge, a fruit grower  from Oyama.  The controversy surrounding the termination of the appointment of the  members of the Commission and the appointment of the new occupied considerable space in the newspapers of the province for some time following. Radio  and television also gave extensive coverage and there was much conjecture about  the future of the Commission and of the suitability of those appointed.  During a rather difficult period of adjustment the Minister of the Environment, Hon. J. Nielsen to whom the Commission was responsible, was most  understanding and considerate, as well as being knowledgeable about the problems with which we were faced and as a result the Commission was able to  carry out its duties in an orderly manner even though it seemed as though  there was an assortment of controversies regularly being given high profile status  by various groups and much of the media.  The publicity concerning the erosion of the extremely limited agricultural  land base in British Columbia and particularly the Okanagan Valley was enormous and often inaccurate. Many public meetings were held throughout the  province for public input and the differences of opinion among the public frequently surfaced in a most forceful manner. The members of the Commission  had a responsibility to hear all sides of the issue pertaining to Regional plans  and then sort out the realities to the best of their ability, without regard to  pressure from any source.  The responsibilities of the Commission made the work most interesting  as we held public meetings as and when required in many regions and held  application hearings for exclusion from the Agricultural Land Reserve usually  four times a year in many areas, depending on the number of applications from  each area. An effort was always made to have the hearings in the most central  area for each region, to best accommodate applicants, because sometimes considerable travel was involved for those appearing before the Commission if the  number of applications for a given area didn't warrant a hearing in their exact  location.  Over and above these responsibilities the Commission dealt with applications for conditional uses within the Agricultural Land Reserve on an almost  weekly basis in Burnaby. In these cases the applicant did not appear, as they  did with exclusion applications, but each application had a documented file  prepared by a staff person from information supplied by the applicant, the  Regional District and others who may have had a legitimate concern.  Perhaps some idea of the volume of work to be handled is given by the  fact that throughout the 1976-80 period the Commission was considering approximately 2,000 applications per year and giving individual consideration  to each one. It was most important that general judgments were not rendered, 32  but that specific attention was given to each application, because it can truthfully  be said that no two were identical.  The fact that Commission representatives came from different areas of  the province and that the needs of each area varied made the overall responsibility possible because each Commissioner had some background knowledge  concerning areas or issues that had to be viewed in different ways. Clearly what  may be appropriate in the Peace River region may be inappropriate in the  Okanagan or Fraser Valleys.  Some changes took place among Commission membership during the  1976-80 period, as some members were unable to continue for personal or  business reasons and one member, S.M. Singh, passed away in 1978. New  members who came during the 1976-80 period, besides those already mentioned were: A.C. Kinnear — Chairman 1979-80; Jim Plotnikoff 1979-80; W.S.  Ritchie 1978-79; Dr. M.J. Clarke — Chairman 1980 to the present; C.E.  Framst 1980 to the present; J.A. Rogers 1980-84; Walter Redel 1980; John  Rogers 1978-82; R.P. Murdoch — General Manager 1980 to the present. During those four years under review there were three chairmen: Mr. G.G. Runka,  Mr. A.C. Kinnear and Dr. M.F. Clarke.  The differences of opinion were many, the responsibilities were heavy and  the resolve to do the task with which we were all charged, to the best of our  ability was a strength. The freedom from political interference was most encouraging and during the 1976-80 period, Mr. J. Nielsen, Mr. R. Mair and  Mr. J. Hewitt were at various times our minister of responsibility.  The fact that appeals could be made to the minister responsible and if  agreed to by him to the Environment and Land Use Committee of Cabinet  (ELUC) caused some people to believe that the Commission's position was  being eroded and that we were politically influenced. This was not correct and  the Commission was given the appropriate scope to carry out its duties. Appeals were necessary sometimes and on occasion these were granted but certainly I did not feel that we were at cross-purposes, because sometimes a Commission decision was overturned.  Did our methods work? Was the land preserved as might reasonably be  expected? Let's look at the figures and draw our conclusions.  We have substantial statistical information to prove that during a decade  1971-81 which includes the period under review, that British Columbia was  the only province in which the number of farms increased significantly compared to a drop in the number of Canadian farms, which showed a reduction  of 13% compared to an increase of 9% in British Columbia. Dollar figures  for these periods can be statistically documented but I have not included them  because in this period of rapid inflation they are not really meaningful unless  outlined in terms of constant dollars. Gross returns of course rose rapidly but  farm costs increased in many cases even more rapidly, thus meaningful comparisons are not always possible.  Perhaps the most significant figures involve the number of hectares in the  Agricultural Land Reserve at the time of designation and what happened to  those hectares. Date of designation of A.L.R. plan generally 1974-75-76:  B.C. designated hectares - total 4,721,295.3 hectares  Total in A.L.R. April 1, 1982 4,687,997.6 hectares  (All hectarage approximate.) 33  Bear in mind that a considerable portion of land excluded from the A.L.R.  in this period was voluntarily excluded by the Commission as a result of soil  surveys, etc. which indicated that the original designation was often too general  and included pockets of land unsuitable for agriculture. There were of course  times when areas were included that had been missed, but generally it shows  clearly that there were no wholesale releases of land suitable for agriculture  in this period.  Perhaps it would be appropriate to focus on some interior Regional  Districts for figures over the same period.  Number of Hectares  North Okanagan — date of designation 70,283.4  March 15, 1974  hectares in reserve, 69,679  April 1, 1982  Okanagan Similkameen       — date of designation, 86,477.7  February 13, 1974  hectares in reserve, 85,973  April 1, 1982  Central Okanagan —date of designation, 33,076.9  July 24, 1974  hectares in reserve, 32,351.5  April 1, 1982  Refining or fine-tuning the lands within the A.L.R. at the request of the  Commission as well as dealing with exclusion applications and inclusion requests were an on-going responsibility and full of challenging variations. There  are those who do not appear to be aware that the additions to the reserve were  significant in some areas and this to some degree affected the fine-tuning and  exclusion deletions. Of overall interest to all British Columbians is the fact that  almost half of all the cultivated land within the A.L.R. in British Columbia  is located in one Regional District, Peace River Liard.  Another responsibility of the Commission was the responsibility, through  the Property Management Branch, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, for the properties that had been purchased prior to the 1976 change of Commission  members.  Some of these properties were leased to farm operators in the respective  areas. Some were retained in other ways in the public interest, such as the  substantial acreage in the Vernon area, purchased and leased to the City of  Vernon for a token fee for the growing of forage crops through the use of spray  effluent. Whenever practical the Commission resolved to make available for  purchase, again through the Property Management Branch, as many of the  previously acquired properties as possible, with the leasor in many cases acquiring the properties previously leased, after appropriate appraisal.  The separation of philosophy and fact was an important aspect of our work  and one which was not always fully understood by those who felt that the Commission was straying from the original concept. What had to be kept in perspective was that, however popular the notion that every acre in the A.L.R. had 34  to be preserved, the practical aspects of this being usefully or fairly done had  to remain in the forefront. Emotion or sentiment could not rule the day.  The possible damage to agriculture in our province of various forms of  development on agricultural land, development that might not be compatible  with farm operation, had always to be considered and carefully weighed. At  the same time consideration had to be given to those requirements of agriculture  that would be compatible and could most properly be located within the A.L.R.  The development of subdivisions outside the A.L.R. that required extensive road widening and greatly increased traffic flow, were often of great concern to the Commission and we had to be aware to the greatest degree possible  of the effect, if any, on the agricultural land through which the increased traffic flow had to be accommodated. At the same time we had to be objective  and fair in any judgments pertaining to such developments.  You may wonder what jurisdiction the Commission had where  developments were outside the A.L.R., but it should be borne in mind that  government as well as the individual had to apply to the Commission for various  changes within the A.L.R., such as road widening, power lines, etc. and the  Commission agreed to or refused such applications, exactly the same as they  would for an individual. Land of agricultural capability located on Indian  Reserves is not subject to the regulations pertaining to the Agricultural Land  Reserve. I was pleased with the fact that all applications were considered seriously and big or small were treated as fairly as our judgment allowed us to.  It should be borne in mind when looking at the record of farmland preservation during this period that a significant number of applications had the status  of "substantial commencement," by which is meant that a project or development was underway at the time of designation. The land was placed in the  A.L.R. because the original designation was, as previously stated, a broad brush  approach. The A.L.R. protection was put on some land that had been developed  to a state where it was logical and fair to allow the developer to proceed.  Therefore some of the acreage which appears as having been released in the  period under review was actually committed to a given use prior to designation.  While the Commission was not permitted to take financial matters into account in deciding whether or not to allow an application, this matter was often  stressed by applicants. The agricultural viability of a given parcel of land  sometimes depended on the operator as well as many other factors. Therefore  emphasis had to be placed on the capability of the land.  Throughout my term on the Commission I retained the belief that the  only effective long-term solution to the preservation of our small area of  agricultural land in British Columbia was through the preservation of the farmer  on an on-going basis and true recognition that those who farm the land require the support and understanding of the rest of society, in whose name the  land is being preserved. Farm organizations alone cannot preserve the land.  The responsibility rests with those who are benefited — all the people of our  province. 35  TWENTY-FIVE YEARS OF CENTRAL SELLING  1939 - 1964    by Gordon Wight  Report of the Board of Directors, B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. to the 75 Annual Convention of  the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association, 21, 22, 23, January 1964 - Kelowna, B.C.  Looking back over the 25 years that B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. has been  established, and the many problems that have arisen, puts the current problems into their proper perspective. We have overcome some, adjusted to some,  and learned we must live with others.  Like any other competitive business, the Okanagan fruit industry started  out with certain basic advantages and disadvantages over other areas which,  despite the many changes brought by the years, have remained constant. Our  advantages are that as a producing area we have the potential for growing  economically many varieties of fruit of the finest quality. We can do so because  of the high production per acre that is possible; the constancy of annual crops;  and a survival record of over 70 years in spite of several instances of winter  damage.  Our basic disadvantage has stemmed from our ability to produce more  fruit than the easily accessible markets could absorb and the resulting additional costs of transportation and packing that our products have had to bear  in competing against other areas. As a result our growers over a period of 50  years have, quite rightly, concentrated their attention and discussions on  marketing. These marketing disadvantages forced us into Central Selling in  1939 under a certain set of conditions. They have changed so much and so  rapidly over the intervening years, that the 25th anniversary of B.C. Tree Fruits  Ltd. seems a fitting time to examine those changes and the ability of Central  Selling to cope with them.  In the late 1930s we had 37 selling agents among the shipping organizations of the industry, ranging from the Associated Growers with over 50% of  the tonnage, to small grower-shippers with only a few carloads. All of those  selling agents were endeavouring to sell perishable products whose volume far  exceeded the capacity of the readily available markets, and no matter how competent an organization was, its efforts were ruined by the suicidal internal competition. More distant markets, cold storage, and market development were  beyond the capacity of smaller shippers to service, so that even the markets  in which the Industry had an advantage were ruined by our own chaotic selling practices. The United Kingdom bought about 50% of our apple crop during this period, and offshore sales ranged from two million to three million  boxes a year. Many of you will remember that our main topics of conversation  at that time were policy claims, secret rebates, consignment sales, overgrading,  etc., which were the only tools a selling agent could use to move fruit in a crowded market.  In 1939 B.C. Tree Fruits was designated as the sole selling agency for  the domestic crop as the result of an overwhelming vote by the growers for  Central Selling. The domestic marketing showed some improvement that  season, but as the United States and export sales were still in the hands of shippers, the Agency was loaded down with poorer sizes and grades and varieties,  the better ones being held by shippers for sales in the United States or export  markets. In 1940 U.S. sales were placed in B.C. Tree Fruits' hands and in  1941 export sales were included. 36  Dean E. D. McPhee's comments from the Royal Commission Report  referring to the beginning of Central Selling and grower control vs. private  enterprise were:  As is probably well known, the Commissioner is, personally,  a believer in private enterprise, with a minimum of compulsory control, and has required clear evidence that the existing and generally  accepted philosophy was the correct one for this industry; tree-fruit  growers, too, entered into co-operative marketing with reluctance,  and it was not until 1923 that any considerable number of them felt  that they must participate more directly in the marketing program.  They were prepared to deliver their goods to a packinghouse or to  sell the fruit from their orchards in whole or in part. The majority  believed at the outset that the marketing function was not theirs, and  that it should be left to specialists in that area.  It is abundantly clear, however, that private enterprise failed to  realize the ultimate dimensions of the job that had to be done. They  tended to work in too local an area and without adequate information. There were too few of them or they were too small to handle  the total crop, even at an early date, and they did not grow with the  growth of the industry. Their marketing methods were inefficient,  or at least ineffective. The gluts they created on the market with such  disastrous results were not necessarily deliberate, because under the  circumstances nobody stood to gain.  What was needed was some group that would catch a vision of  the scope of the problem, and this, in the long run, became the cooperative organizations.  With Central Selling in effect we entered the war period and in 1943 the  Wartime Prices and Trade Board was established, with ceiling prices and imports by permit only, into Canada. Incidentally, Mr. E. J. Chambers went  to Ottawa as Chairman of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Division of the Board,  with Mr. J. B. Lander as his assistant, and their experience with orderly  marketing was utilized across Canada. The domestic market being protected  and buoyant, our sales in Eastern Canada jumped during this period from a  few hundred thousand boxes to almost two million in heavy crop years. With  the exception of 1942, Western Canada sales remained in the two million range  as at present. Along with the good domestic market came restrictions on offshore export such as lack of ships, currency restrictions, bulk purchasing by  governments. B.C. Tree Fruits personnel began developing the fundamental  sales policy that is in effect today, of continually probing for domestic and worldwide markets in order to meet the erratic marketing pattern caused by government regulations. To illustrate this erratic market pattern, we sold to the United  Kingdom, 657 boxes in 1940, 1,200,000 in 1941 and nil boxes in 1942; in the  years 1943, 1944 and 1945 the United States purchased 150,000 boxes,  2,500,000 boxes and 41,000 boxes; Brazil sales varied from 250,000 boxes per  year to nil during the same period.  For the first time the Industry, with Central Selling, could provide  reasonably accurate records of what varieties, sizes and grades there were to  sell, which facilitated selling under the Wartime Prices and Trade Board regulations. Bulk purchases of up to two and a half million boxes were negotiated 37  with foreign governments. Central Selling was proving its worth in these years,  but more important to us today, the Sales Desk learned how to move into new  markets fast, when regular markets disappeared. The distant markets usually  returned less than our closer markets, but they always add to the total pool  return for a crop by maintaining orderly markets closer to home and often by  disposing of sizes and grades not acceptable domestically.  Effective in 1947 the Wartime Prices and Trade Board disappeared, but  was replaced immediately with the Austerity Program covering the late forties, which restricted imports even more rigidly than previously. There were  a few citrus fruits allowed in, but no bananas, grapes, lettuce, tomatoes, etc.  were imported to compete against our products. Our production of soft fruits  increased rapidly in the late forties and the domestic market was receptive to  practically everything that we could produce.  The 1940s were the most prosperous years of the Industry's history and  BCTF deservedly received full credit for their contribution in these first formative years. However, certain factors had crept into the Industry which affected us for a number of years to come. During the time of ceiling prices Cee  Grade apples sold for practically the same price as Fancy and Extra Fancy,  and although the Apple Pooling Committee wisely used the spreads between  grades that had existed in the five years prior to the War, these spreads were  still small enough that it paid growers to fertilize heavily and grow for volume  crops. Government currency restrictions in foreign markets were still being  applied periodically and the erratic market pattern still existed, with the result  that no one knew which export markets would be available to us, and in turn  which varieties of apples would have a ready market. Because the market pattern was so unstable, the Pooling Committee maintained the yardstick method  of pooling with modifications. In retrospect we can see that certain varieties  and grades were protected from the harsh realities of the market place too long,  and our growers did not start the conversion of orchards to more economical  varieties and grades soon enough. One built-in fault of Central Selling is that  growers and shippers are isolated from the day-to-day dealing with buyers and  their requirements; and with the problem of rising orchard and packinghouse  costs being closer to them, they did not start adjusting to the market demand  for higher grade and quality soon enough.  The large apple crop of 1950 came along just at this time. All the helpful  government regulations of the postwar period had disappeared, and the major  offshore markets were closed to us because of currency problems. The U.S.  market had been developed in the late forties, but with Eastern Canada lost  to us because of freight rate increases approaching 100%, and increased local  competition, we were left holding heavy supplies of export sizes. The "gift to  Britain" and the subsequent government payment was arranged which moved 1,500,000 boxes to the U.K. This arrangement with the Federal Government was only possible under the Central Selling system because of the Government's confidence in our records and our ability to meet their conditions. Other  areas were not able to participate in it.  The winter damage of 1949-50 set the Industry back for many years in  more ways than just the loss of trees and production. Costs rose during the  1950s throughout the Industry and with the loss in production, overhead costs  were further exaggerated. The replanting to new varieties was limited to some 38  orchards that had been killed out. Most of the trees that survived, though injured, had to be nursed along to maintain some production. The Industry's  conversion to market requirements was thus seriously delayed.  Soft fruits which had enjoyed all of the benefits of the wartime and postwar government regulations, entered the 1950s to face winter injury and the  loss of tariff protection. As the Industry limped along it was further plagued  with spring frosts that limited production, and in 1955 the fall freeze concentrated its effect on new plantings. It has taken thirteen years for the crop volume  from converted plantings to become significant and it has not been an easy  adjustment.  During these difficult years the concept of Central Selling and the operation of all parts of the Industry, including BCTF, were questioned by many  growers. It was a period of unrest and disappointment which culminated in  the Royal Commission Report of 1958 by Dean E. D. McPhee.  Dean McPhee's qualifications as Commissioner to conduct such an intensive inquiry are unquestioned, because he is recognized as one of the world's  top industrial consultants. His findings, conclusions, and recommendations  are well known but some bear repeating in an historical survey of B.C. Tree  Fruits. His comments on Central Selling and BCTF's operations and personnel were very favourable and the only major criticism was the Agency's inability to get facts and information through to the individual grower on the  operations of the Sales Agency. Some further steps have been taken to accomplish this, but no one has solved the problem of presenting a picture of  the complex and changing conditions and operations of the Selling Agency to  individual growers. Grower delegates receive the most concentrated flow of  information through the Convention, monthly District Councils, and from being  on the mailing lists for BCTF Bulletins, but even they find it difficult to keep up.  Pricing is the most important function of BCTF Sales Desk, along with  movement of fruit, and is the ultimate basis of assessing its efficiency. Unfortunately, "prices" are often confused with "grower income," which is actually much more closely related to individual volume of production and quality.  After an extensive review of pricing, Dean McPhee states:  (1) B.C. Tree Fruits are conscientiously endeavouring to obtain the maximum prices for the products of the growers of these  Valleys, and are successful in their effort. The growers may have had  some doubts on this matter in the past, but to me the evidence collected and submitted here is conclusive.  (2) In this search for maximum prices, the Sales Agency runs  the risk of not disposing of their crop. The Commissioner, therefore,  has watched closely for records, reports, and comments that might  indicate whether the prices were too high and whether the prices were  being maintained longer than was beneficial. My observations are  that, with the possible exception of Vancouver, this is not so. In the  statistical reports published by the International Apple Association,  the amount of fruit not accounted for in United States, either by way  of fresh fruit sales on cannery and process sales, was greater than  would be tolerated in this area. Again, I hope the growers will  recognize the competency of their Sales Agency in this direction.  (3) The most serious problem raised by these data is that the 39  growers cannot expect relief from higher f.o.b. prices; he is now obtaining both from the fresh-fruit market and from the cannery market  as high prices as he can expect in competition from year to year. If  he is to turn an unprofitable operation into a profitable one, it must  be by providing a very much larger percentage of better grade fruit,  more marketable fruit, of acceptable varieties, and do it at lower costs.  This may not be a very palatable statement, but I think I would be  wrong not to be as blunt on this issue as possible.  Looking at orchards today, it is quite obvious that most growers took the  Commissioner's blunt advice and are replanting very extensively. There is still  a prolonged adjustment period ahead due to the setbacks in the 1950s, but  the job is being done. It is easier to notice changes that are taking place in  other areas than your own, but there is a major revolution taking place in our  orchards today. Our growers' ability to produce good quality fruit is still the  best insurance for an economic operation in the future.  If it is accepted that our advantages lie in our ability to produce, and we  are adjusting in that area, and that our basic disadvantage compared with other  areas lies in our distance from markets, then we should look at our marketing  set-up to make sure it is still designed to do the best job possible. Tree plantings of apples throughout the world indicate the potential for a major increase  in production in the near future, which means a more difficult marketing job  ahead.  Let us look at the marketing tools we have developed over twenty-five  years to do the big job ahead, compared with those of competitive growing areas.  Our own Sun-Rype Products Ltd. has developed primarily as a "balance  wheel" concept, and is producing returns on all unwanted grades and sizes,  that otherwise would be a cost to us. No other area has a comparable  organization.  Our packing houses have kept up with the best of our competitive areas  in equipment and efficiency and our packs compare with the best without frills  or over-grading. The Pacific Northwest has lost much of its advantage in packing compared with twenty-five years ago because of improved packing techniques in the East and in Europe, but the Pacific Northwest still has the best  fruit and pack.  The acceptance and practice of Quality Control by growers and shippers  in the recent years reflect their awareness of the market requirements for both  fresh and cannery fruit. There was some "slippage" in the program this year,  (1964) in certain cases, but by far the greatest proportion of the fruit was handled  better than it has ever been in previous long crop years. Quality fruit well handled, is the last to lose its position in crowded markets; and our future production pattern still indicates that, with at least four main varieties, we will have  an advantage over areas having only one or two varieties which must be picked within the optimum maturity period.  For most of the past twenty-five years, Central Selling with its pooling  of returns equally, was unable to compensate growers and shippers for good  handling and the segregation of more mature fruit. However, the Quality Control program of the last few years has made great strides in this direction and  further refinements of the program should prove to be both economical and  beneficial, and will give us another competitive edge. 40  Historically, rail freight rates for our produce have been much higher than  for produce in other Provinces and the Western States. The increases of about  100% in the late forties contributed heavily to the drop in sales to Eastern  Canada from as high as 1,900,000 boxes to a few hundred thousand. However,  due to continual pressure from the Traffic Department of BCTF, we now have  parity with Washington shippers to U.S. markets, and the same class rate as  Eastern Canada. The most encouraging picture on freight costs is on our Prairie  market, where substantial adjustments have been made to the growers' advantage, with a reasonable expectation of further savings and competitive  advantages.  Private cannery production has developed over twenty-five years to where  all of the fruit canned in B.C. at that time, could be handled by one medium  sized canner today. Canners are the largest single group of customers for our  soft fruits, buying close to half of our peaches and a quarter of our pears and  cherries, as well as apricots, prunes and apples. BCTF's policy of one price  to all, appears to have enabled more smaller canners to stay in business than  in other regions, but we must continue to consider the canners' competitive  position with other areas in our dealings with them.  Canada and the U.S., our largest and most consistent markets, have changed from markets of many buyers to markets of few buyers, each of whom requires large quantities of produce. Few producer groups, and no apple growing area other than B.C. have been able to keep up with this significant trend.  Although there were sound reasons for adopting Central Selling in 1939, the  reasons for maintaining it under today's conditions are even more important.  Twenty-five years ago there were about 175 buyers of our produce in Western  Canada. Today 85% of the volume is sold to three buying groups, and the  pattern is the same in the rest of North America. Small producers have not  only lost alternative buyers that allowed them to bargain for price, but few  even have sufficient inventories to meet the large buyers' requests for quantities of one grade or size. Much as producers may complain of this buying  trend, it exists and is still growing. BCTF is designed to meet this trend much  better than any of our competitors.  BCTF's advertising is completely co-ordinated with Sales and to advertising must go much of the credit for Western Canada maintaining the highest  per capita consumption in North America of the fruits we produce. Effective  consumer advertising also gives us considerable leverage on the buyer for retail  stores who is wondering about getting his supplies from another area, but knows  he must carry our advertised products. There are producer groups that spend  more on advertising than we do, but none are as effective, because they are  unable to co-ordinate sales and movement with their advertising as we can.  The development and operation of this Industry and of Central Selling  has depended upon people. Growers, delegates, committee members, elected  officials, shippers, government workers and BCTF staff have all made their  contribution. However, special mention should go to three men whose influence  has been greatest. Firstly, Mr. A. K. Loyd, who in 1939 was the man who  brought together the conflicting groups to launch Central Selling, and as the  first President and Manager of B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. developed it as an  organization. Secondly, Mr. A. R. Garrish, whose wise counsel over many  years has influenced basic policy, especially in the area of grower participation 41  and control of Industry policy. Thirdly, Mr. R. P. Walrod who, in addition  to his contribution through the development of Sun-Rype, has built up loyal  and efficient staffs in both grower companies who are the envy of all other producer groups, and our main asset in meeting the problems ahead.  It is difficult for us in the Industry to assess our position, but Dean McPhee,  in reporting to the Washington State Horticultural Association, said:  THE CO-OPERATIVE PROGRAMME, WITH COMPLETE CENTRAL CONTROL OF MARKETING IS THE BEST  PLAN YET DEVISED FOR HANDLING THE TREE FRUITS  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.  I had not expected to arrive at this conclusion. I have spent 20  years in private industry and instinctively resented compulsory  marketing boards. After reviewing a great body of evidence I was  forced to conclude that orderly marketing under British Columbia  Tree Fruits, operated by a Board of Governors democratically elected,  was achieving better results for the grower and the consumer. I was  convinced further that profitable processing of fruit required participation by the growers themselves if full utilization was to be made  of the production. This heresy may not appeal to you, but I am now  satisfied that it is best for British Columbia.  May I add this note of warning. The programme works because  both the board and management continue to be sensitive to growers'  comments and complaints. If a dictator were to appear the plan might  fail. If a grower wants to produce a product not wanted by the market,  he is allowed to do so at his own peril. It is most important that regulation be applied only where it is needed, viz., in grading, labelling  and marketing where the interests of all growers and all consumers  are involved.  The tree fruit industry of British Columbia is a very important  part of our agriculture, not adequately measured by acreages. It is  becoming highly technical and skilled; full of uncertainties and hazards; it requires a high degree of intelligence and knowledge, but it  must be a personally satisfying one for few people make a fortune in it.  In a current three-year study of the fruit industry in Canada by Professor  R. Kreuger of the University of Waterloo for the Federal Government, he points  up marketing as the major problem facing producers. He states that central  selling agencies are the producers' greatest need, and speaks highly of B.C.  Tree Fruits Ltd. as an example. Secondly, he stresses Quality Control and  reports that B.C. apples bring the highest prices, for their premium quality,  of any in the world.  A good marketing record is something to be proud of, but only part of  the picture of making a living in the fruit business. We are faced with two factors which we must accept as beyond our control — competitive world production and weather. In the area of government regulations, such as tariffs  and access to markets, we can only continue to try to influence their course.  But in matters that we can control — our orchards, our packinghouses and  our marketing — we must continue to exploit the competitive advantages we  have developed. This industry has developed in a very competitive field for  75 years, and is preparing itself to survive for another 75 years. 42  HISTORY OF GRINDROD PARK  by Kathie Halksworth and Helen Drake  The Grindrod Park was a large piece of cleared land situated on the west  side of the Shuswap River, owned by William Tompkinson, father of Arthur  Tompkinson, well known garage and radio man.  Realizing the community needed a park, a group of residents decided to  sell shares and buy the property. Thus it became owned and operated by the  shareholders.  Enthusiasm ran high. Volunteers made all the improvements. A fence surrounded the park with bleachers. Then a large red building was situated inside the gate as a lunch and ice cream booth. Later this building was moved  down to the river to serve as a change room for swimmers and in winter for  skaters. An open air rink was soon an addition also. Mr. Tomkinson strung  electric lights from his garage, providing light for night skating and hockey  games.  There was an annual field day on June 3rd for many years with a long  program of varied sports and plenty of entries. Children's sports, which included running, jumping, bicycle races, were run off in the morning. Men's  events were sawing logs, chopping, tug-o-war and so on. The greasy pole and  greasy pig were popular events. There were also many horse events — horse  racing, bucking horses, trick roping. All the horse events were organized by  Dick Blackburn. Sometimes Gypsies in colourful costumes would attend. The  attendance some years would reach 2,000. It was a lot of work for the volunteers  but everyone enjoyed meeting people as well as watching or participating in  the sports.  Interest seemed to fade after the mortgage was paid off. Then World War  Two broke out and there were few people to use or operate the park. The taxes  were adding up so the park was rented out to McEwen Farms for pasture.  After the war some interest was again taken in the park grounds. The well-  known Grindrod Elks baseball team was formed. Also a skating rink was built  and the Grindrod Elks hockey team organized. In 1967, the Centennial year,  a committee was formed and a complete revitalization and seeding down to  new grass took place. As the years went by interest dropped again and taxes  and some debts were owing, the shareholders feared the park would be lost  to the government for resale. A meeting was held by the shareholders and they  decided to personally pay off the debts and donated the Park to the Regional  District Administration, thus the park is owned by the residents of the district  and operated by the Grindrod Recreation Commission.  The last few years it has been a very active part of the community. It is  a very popular park for visiting ball teams as well as local games. Many tournaments are held there. Local volunteers take care of the ball diamonds and  general maintenance.  In 1980 volunteers from all the community and Grindrod ball clubs built  a new concession and washroom building and there are many ideas for more  improvements as it is now one of the most active parks in the area. 43  GLENMORE — THE "OTHER" MUNICIPALITY  by J. H. Hayes  Possibly many residents who have moved to the City of Kelowna during  the past fifteen years are unaware another autonomous local government besides  the City Council flourished in the area. It was 'The Corporation of the District  of Glenmore', more affectionately known as just 'Glenmore'. According to early  Land Title Office maps 'Glenmore', before incorporation, bore the uncomplimentary name of'Dry Valley', presumably so called because of the arid  condition of the land prior to the advent of irrigation. Also, many people probably don't realize that the former Bankhead and Pridham Orchards on which  the commercial development, including the Capri Shopping Centre complex,  is built, and which are now part of the downtown core, were within the corporate limits of the Municipality of Glenmore.  This municipality, encompassing some four square miles, included the  area east of Glenmore Street, the east boundary of the old City of Kelowna.  Glenmore's boundary ran south on the Old Vernon road (now Sutherland  Avenue), to Burtch Road, to Bernard Avenue, thence northeast on Glenmore  Drive (Bernard Avenue extension), and along the south side of the old Kelowna  Cemetery, thence following a meandering line north along the edge of Dilworth  mountain, by Rifle Road, Long Hill Road, to Sexsmith Road. The north  boundary followed roughly along both sides of High Road to Glenmore Drive,  thence north on both sides to approximately the existing City Sanitary Land  Fill site.  Early Glenmore municipal records reveal the first council meeting was  held November 11th, 1922, with Reeve A. R. Drysdale presiding. P. A. Lewis  was appointed the first Municipal Clerk on November 22nd, 1922 at a salary  of $500.00 per annum. Subsequent Chief Magistrates elected were Reeves J.  H. Cushing, E. W. Ferguson, G. C. Hume, G. H. Moubray, S. Pearson,  Chas. Henderson, C. M. Lipsett, Andrew Ritchie, and P. R. Moubray. On  March 25th, 1925, R. W. Corner succeeded Mr. Lewis as Municipal Clerk,  and continued until retirement February 9th, 1955, when the writer was appointed to that position effective the next day. It is interesting to note the  municipal office was for many years a room in Mr. Corner's residence, until  a building for that purpose was constructed in 1955. The structure is currently  utilized by Glenmore Irrigation District.  The Corporation of the District of Glenmore had for many years only a  predominantly orchard/farm land use. The municipality continued to flourish  and provide the services required in a rural community. The following comparative mill rates for property taxation purposes may be of interest and reflect  a marked increase from the early days as a rural/farming community to the  time when it became urbanized:  Year 1924  Mill Rate for School Purposes  Mill Rate for General Purposes  Total Mill Rate  Year 1960  Mill Rate for School Purposes  Mill Rate for General & Debt Purposes  Total Mill Rate  3.00  in  6.00  m  9.00  m  21.40  m  20.00  m  41.40  in 44  Glenmore really started experiencing 'growing pains' at the conclusion  of World War II, precipitated initially by the creation and registration of the  'Bankhead Subdivision' by the Veterans' Land Act administration in July 1946  under registered plan No. 3329, O.D.Y.D. The subdivision comprising seventy  lots, each one to two acres in size, was designated 'small holdings'. All lots  were sold to veterans to build homes thereon, and provide for large gardens,  small orchards, vineyards, etc. The influx of young families spelled the beginning of the end for Glenmore as a predominantly orchard/farming area. Soon  other agricultural lands were rezoned, cleared, and subdivided into residential lots, each about 9,000 square feet in area. The rapid expansion is confirmed by the fact the population increased by 177% between 1941 and 1951. According to the 1956 census the population stood at 1,287.  The residential building boom together with the Capri Shopping Centre  development presented Glenmore Council with serious servicing problems, particularly in the areas of fire protection, policing, sewer utility, expanded  domestic water facilities, increased equipment, and the need for a larger administrative staff. The staff up to this point comprised only a Municipal Clerk,  who doubled as treasurer and collector; a Public Works Superintendent who  also carried out the duties of assessor and building inspector; a waterworks  foreman; and a part time administrative clerk.  It is a rule of thumb to have a viable tax base there must be a preponderance of industrial and commercial development on the assessment roll. Except for the Capri development and several other small commercial entities,  Glenmore was still almost exclusively rural and residential in land use. Such  an unequitable tax base coupled with the prospect of a formidable capital expansion program to provide necessary services called for investigation into alternatives to that of arbitrarily raising the mill rate to the point where the cost  to the taxpayer would be prohibitive. While Glenmore was experiencing a residential housing construction boom, City of Kelowna building figures were  dropping farther and farther behind simply because vacant land within its corporate limits was virtually NIL. Ergo! — if Kelowna were to accommodate  future building development, it had to expand its boundaries in order to secure  more land. It must be remembered that, in 1956, Kelowna had a population  of 9,181, but occupied an area only one-half'that of Glenmore whose population  was a mere 1,287.  It can be readily seen that a real municipal conundrum confronted Glenmore and Kelowna Councils! Here was Kelowna with virtually no vacant land  for future building development, yet having services and facilities in place  capable of accommodating a larger area, while Glenmore had plenty of land,  and was experiencing building expansion far beyond its capacity to offer adequate servicing required in a residential community.  At Mayor R. F. Parkinson's instigation, and with qualified approval of  Glenmore Council, a "Boundary Extension Steering Committee" was struck  to investigate the feasibility of Kelowna extending its boundaries to include  Glenmore. Alderman Arthur Jackson was selected chairman, with Glenmore  represented by Reeve P. R. Moubray, Councillors B. M. Baker and V. Had-  dad. Staff resource persons were City Assessor J. E. Markle, who served as  secretary, and the writer. It was agreed that professional expertise was necessary  to determine if the proposal was feasible from an economic and administrative 45  standpoint. Planning consultant Dr. H. Peter Oberlander, A.M.T.P.I, was  commissioned to prepare a joint study including recommendations. In August  1957, a comprehensive report entitled SHOULD KELOWNA EXTEND ITS  BOUNDARIES was presented to both Councils for indepth study. Numerous  public information meetings for both Glenmore and Kelowna taxpayers were  held, with Dr. Oberlander's report the basis of discussion.  At the onset, there was a distinct division of opinion. Some Glenmore taxpayers, particularly those with many years of residency, were reluctant to see  their identity and local autonomy disappear only to be replaced by a much  larger and possibly more impersonal local government. Others in the rural area  were concerned about higher taxes for services which they considered frills.  Many in the residential area felt the proposal was the only real means to secure  the services and utilities urgently needed at minimum cost. On the other hand,  some Kelowna ratepayers feared they might be inheriting a large area requiring utilities and services which would have to be financed through higher taxes,  contending they already had acquired, and were paying for such amenities.  At times, these public information meetings became quite heated, with points  of view polarized as allegations were bandied back and forth. It is recalled at  one such meeting, a Glenmore resident unsuccessfully tried to introduce a  resolution calling for "Glenmore to extend its boundaries to include the City of  Kelowna", rather than Kelowna extending its boundaries to incorporate  Glenmore.  The undisputable fact which finally put the "icing on the cake" so to speak,  was the conclusion that it was less expensive to utilize, and, where necessary,  0  The Corporation of the District of Glenmore. Elected and appointed officials at disincorporation  — September 15, 1960.  Front row 1 to r: Councillor L. E. Marshall; Reeve P. R. Moubray; Councillor V. Haddad; Office Assistant Mrs. M. R. Purdy.  Back row 1 to r: Public Works Supt. S. Pearson; Cuncillor B. M. Baker; Municipal Clerk & Treasurer  J. H. Hayes; Councillor Ichiro Yamamoto; Waterworks Foreman Geo. Straza. 46  to expand the City of Kelowna facilites, utilities, and services rather than for  Glenmore to acquire its own. Also the realization that there would be a duplication of such services etc. had a marked bearing on the ultimate decision.  Finally, both Councils agreed a proposal that the City of Kelowna extend  its boundaries to include the Municipality of Glenmore be placed before the  electorate for consideration.  As this was the first time in the history of British Columbia such an administrative procedure had been considered, the Ministry of Municipal Affairs confirmed that separate referenda be conducted. On June 22nd, 1960,  pursuant to By-law No. 256, the following question was put before the taxpayers of Glenmore by secret ballot: 'ARE YOU IN FAVOUR OF UNITING  THE CORPORATION OF THE DISTRICT OF GLENMORE AND THE  CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF KELOWNA?' The ballot count was  overwhelmingly in the affirmative. On the same day, the ratepayers of the City of Kelowna ratified a similar question by a large majority.  So ended a local government. It had administered much of the Kelowna  district faithfully and efficiently for some thirty-eight years. Their Letters Patent were surrendered to the Inspector of Municipalities, and the last meeting  of the Municipal Council of The Corporation of the District of Glenmore convened September 19th, 1960.  Letters Patent incorporating the boundaries of the new City of Kelowna  were issued by the Provincial Ministry of Municipal Affairs effective September  15th, 1960.  An interim Municipal Council, including former Glenmore Councillor  B. M. Baker, was appointed to administer the affairs of the new city. The  Ministry of Municipal Affairs directed that Glenmore Public Works Supt. S.  Pearson, Waterworks Foreman Geo. Straza, and the writer who held the portfolio of Municipal Clerk be retained by the new city for a minimum period  of one year to facilitate an orderly transition.  At the time Glenmore ceased to be a corporate entity, the following comprised the Municipal Council:  Reeve: P. R. Moubray  Councillors: B. M. Baker  V. Haddad  L. E. Marshall  Ichiro Yamamoto  Although this somewhat radical change in local government had far  reaching ramifications, it was not without a humorous side. Following results  of the balloting on the referenda being made public, one Glenmore resident  of long standing was heard to comment: "I won't sleep well tonight knowing  my bedroom is now in the City of Kelowna."  This was not however quite the end of the Glenmore saga. One more administrative detail had to be initiated before the union was written into history.  Those taxpayers in the farming/orchard area always maintained the services  available from the City of Kelowna were of no particular use or interest to  them, their prime concerns being good roads and a domestic water system,  the latter furnished by Glenmore Irrigation District. It had been negotiated  during deliberations that a further referendum be conducted within the new  City of Kelowna on the following question:: "ARE YOU IN FAVOUR OF  REDUCING THE AREA OF THE CITY OF KELOWNA TO EXCLUDE 47  AND REVERT TO UNORGANIZED TERRITORY THAT AREA COMMONLY KNOWN AS 'NORTH GLENMORE'?" On October 26th, 1960  the referendum was voted on and passed by a large majority, resulting in that  area north of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints seceding and  reverting to unincorporated status under Provincial Government jurisdiction.  When the City of Kelowna boundaries were extended in 1973, this area again  became part of the municipality. The official minute book and copies of Glenmore by-laws are in the custody of the City of Kelowna, and kept for posterity. The corporate seal reposes with the Kelowna Centennial museum.  PORTRAIT OF A LADY IN AN OLD ORCHARD  She is my friend  This little Indian woman —  Old and brown is her face,  And purple her silk head shawl,  And soft and gentle the fall of her little feet  Down the green and brown of the old, old orchard path.  These are her own hills rising beside us,  On yonder blue mountains the trails that her forefathers knew.  But her I shall always remember  Coming so softly down  To her tall log house,  With the green fir trees  On either side of the little gray gate.  She is my friend,  this little Indian woman —  She is very old  and straight as a fine fir tree —  And I think that I'll never forget  The welcoming grace of her smile,  And the soft dark light of her eyes,  And her little silent footsteps  Over the green and brown of the old, old orchard path.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton 48  STEAMBOATS ON THE SHUSWAP  as told to Helenita Harvey  by William Alison, late of Seymour Arm, now of Salmon Arm, B.C.  This is a rough outline of steamboating on the Thompson and Shuswap waterways from 1866 to the late 1930s when the last steamboat, the Whitesmith was  dismantled. There were 22 boats altogether. Most of the steamboats operating  on the Thompson River and Shuswap Waterways were built and gone long  before I was born in 1908, so I do not know much about them except by stories  told me by the old-timers when I was young and some of the books I have read.  When the gold rush to the Big Bend country on the Columbia River started  in 1864, there was no means of transportation east from Cache Creek except  pack horses, so the Government let contracts to build a road from the Cariboo  Road at Cache Creek to Savona on Kamloops Lake and a contract to build  a sternwheeler steamboat to carry freight and passengers to Seymour City now  known as Seymour Arm at the head of Shuswap Lake where trails over the  mountains led to the gold strike on the Columbia River.  The first steamboat, the Martin, was a sternwheeler built on the Little  Shuswap in 1866 by the Hudson Bay Company from handsawn lumber. When  the boat was finished her machinery was at the end of the road at Savona so  they launched her and floated down the Thompson to Savona where her boiler  and engines could be installed. She made her maiden trip to Seymour City  in 1866.  The Big Bend gold rush turned out to be a failure and the Martin was  tied up at the Hudson Bay Company Fort at Kamloops and finally sold to some  businessmen. But they had bad luck with her as she ran onto a rock in Kamloops  Lake and was damaged beyond repair, so she was hauled up on shore where  she rotted and fell apart.  The next steamboat was the first Kamloops, a small boat with a one-man  crew built in 1872 that ran a service from Savona to Fortune's Landing, now  the town of Enderby. By this time settlers were moving into the Okanagan  Valley from the United States and into the Thompson Valley and the south  end of the Shuswap Lake so there was enough business to warrant the building  of more sternwheeled steamboats to service the area. They were the Spallumcheen, the Lady Dufferin, a sidewheeler, the Peerless and the second Kamloops as  the first Kamloops had been scrapped, and the Red Star, a small sternwheeler  built to operate between Sicamous and Enderby in 1888. The Skuzzy was used  by the contractors building the Canadian Pacific Railroad to haul supplies between Savona and Sicamous during the construction. When the C.P.R. was  completed in 1885 it took away a lot of the steamboat business. But there was  still a lot of the area that required service by boat so steamboating carried on  for many more years until the last steamboat was dismantled in the late 1930s.  The growing lumber industry needed sternwheelers to haul supplies and  tow logs on the Thompson River and the Shuswap and Adams Lakes as large  sawmills were built at Kamloops and Chase and also at Kualt now called Tap-  pen. Another one was built at Annis Bay a few miles west of Sicamous. The  first Maud Annis was built there, a tug to tow their logs. One of the new steamboats was the Queen, built at Kamloops in 1894. She caused some excitement  when her boiler blew up later in the year killing two of her crew and destroy- TtaEikil R»«* jn4®«.k S«iw,  ing the boat. Two more new boats were built in 1895, the Thompson and the  Selkirk which was top-heavy and capsized on the Thompson River but was  refloated and finally shipped on two flat cars to Golden where she ended her  days on the Columbia River.  By 1897 only two sternwheeled steamboats, the Thompson built in 1895,  and the Ethel Ross, which was built in 1897 were still in service. The next sternwheeler was the Ripple built in 1902 for the Lamb Watson Lumber Company  for a tow boat. Then the Florence Carlin was built in 1906 for the Columbia  River Lumber Company and the C.R. Lamb in 1907 for the Arrow Lakes  Lumber Company.  In 1908 Captain Ward built the Silver Stream but it was not altogether profitable by that time so in 1910 he sold her to the Arrow Lakes Lumber Company and she was renamed the Andover. In 1909 the Adams River Lumber Com-  The Florence Carlin. 50  The Andover.  pany had two new sternwheelers built to tow logs and haul freight for logging  operations: the A.R. Hellen and the Crombie for service on the Shuswap Lake.  In 1912 the last and biggest sternwheeler was built at Kamloops. She was the  Distributer and was 143 feet long built to haul railway supplies for the construction of the Canadian National Railway which followed the North Thompson  River north from Kamloops. When the railway was finished, so was the  Distributer. She was dismantled at Kamloops and the hull was towed up to the  Shuswap Lake where she was used as a barge to haul lumber from a sawmill  at Albas, after which she was abandoned and finally ended up on the beach  at Seymour Arm where people cut up a lot of the hull for firewood. However,  there are still some parts of the old hull visible up there. The Hudson Bay Company bought her machinery and boat plans for a new boat for service on the  McKenzie River.  When land was opened for settlement at Seymour Arm by a development  company, Seymour Arm Estates, the mail and freight service was by small  gasoline powered motor boats. Later on the government arranged a subsidy 51  to run a regular service. The Arrow Lakes Lumber Co. with offices in Kamloops  got the contract and the first steamboat used was the Maud Annis, the steam  tug originally owned by the sawmill at Annis Bay and used for towing their  logs. In the winter they pushed a steel-clad barge ahead of the tug to break  a channel through the ice until they came to a stop. When the ice was too thick  to push through they would back down the channel and get up a full head of  steam and charge into the ice until they came to a stop and keep repeating  this process until they reached their destination. If it was not possible to keep  the channel open in this way, they loaded horses and sleighs on the barge and  unloaded them onto the ice and hauled the freight over the ice.  Later on the sternwheeler, Andover, was used during the ice-free time of  the year, and when it came to the end of its days, the C.R. Lamb was reconditioned and used on the ferry service until 1929.  The first Maud Annis was finally replaced by the second Maud built at Albas.  It was just a steel-clad barge with the machinery out of the first Maud Annis  and was used as an icebreaker in the winter.  Sometime in the late 1920s the Arrow Lakes Lumber Company gave up  providing transportation on the Shuswap Lake and the Shuswap Transportation Company was formed by Captain J. J. Smith and a partner, Frank  Whitehead. With government assistance, they had a new boat built, the  Whitesmith, an icebreaker built at Sicamous in 1929. She was not really a good  icebreaker because of her two decks and could only push through the ice if  it was not too thick as she could not back up and ram through the ice for fear  that this would damage her high superstructure. I do not know if it was poor  materials or poor design, but by 1937 she was in need of extensive rebuilding  for which there was no available money, so she was tied up at the west end  of Sicamous and that was the end of steamboat days on the Thompson Shuswap  Waterways.  Capt. Smith bought a gasoline engine powered boat and continued a service between Sicamous and Seymour Arm until he fell overboard and drowned. His son, Frank, continued the service and later with government assistance,  Thought to be the C.R. Lamb on the left and the Andover on the right. The C.R. Lamb had  two stacks. 52  had a diesel powered boat built which he sold to the Mackie brothers at  Sicamous who still operate the ferry service on Shuswap Lake with the addition of another diesel powered boat.  Capt. J. J. Smith operated boats on the Thompson and Shuswap waterways longer than anyone else and was well known to all the settlers around  the lake as a good friend as well as the Captain. If in need of anything, all  you had to do was to write a list and he would shop around in Sicamous or  Salmon Arm for you.  I made many trips on the steamboats and spent most of the time either  at the steering wheel or helping loading and unloading freight or loading wood  as all the steamboats burned cordwood in four-foot lengths. This was a source  of income to the settlers around the lake. Of course, I never paid any fare either.  The settlers and camps all kept a long pole with a flag of white cloth attached to the top of it which they would wave on the beach if they wanted the  boat to call at their landing. We all felt very sad when the last steamboats were  gone as they had been part of our way of life for so many years and our only  contact with the rest of the world as, of course, there were no roads to the head  of the lake in those days. On boat days everyone was there to meet the boat  and get their mail and supplies and while waiting for the boat to arrive, which  depended on how many stops it had to make on the way, everyone had a chance  to talk to their neighbors.  On the main lake, the store at Sorrento operated a store boat which  delivered mail and supplies to the settlers on both sides of the lake and picked  up orders for their next trip until new roads replaced the service.  After the Whitesmith was built in 1929, the C.R. Lamb, the last of the stern-  wheelers, was taken to Kamloops and in 1933 was bought by Captain William  Louie, better known to all of us old timers as Billy Louie. He worked as mate  under Capt. Smith and got his own Captain's licence. He operated the C.R.  Lamb between Kamloops and the Shuswap Lake hauling wood for his woodyard  in Kamloops and whatever other freight and passengers were available including  excursion parties. Then the boat was used as a dwelling during the War years  and later beached at Kamloops. Her machinery was removed and sold to a  sawmill in northern B.C. Her hull still lies at the bottom of the Thompson  River at Kamloops.  Bill and Betty Alison 1984. 53  Another well known man was Bill Malcolm who was the engineer under  Capt. Smith on the first and second Maud Annis, also the Andover and the C.R.  Lamb from the early 1900s to the late 20s.  In the early years steamboats tied up at Seymour Arm between trips so  I spent a lot of time on these boats with the crews. Sometimes they would go  a few miles down the lake to load up with wood and we boys would go along  for the ride which was a big event in our lives.  When the Crombie, the Adams River tow boat, showed up at Albas four  miles down the lake all us boys would go out in row boats to meet her and  Capt. Laird would stop that big boat while the crew loaded us and our boats  on board and we were all set for a great day. The first thing was to head for  the galley where the Chinese cook would stuff us with pie and cake and then  to the pilot house where Capt. Laird would put us up on a high stool and with  some assistance from him we would be captain for a little while. Somehow I  find it very hard to imagine things like that happening in this world today.  Most of the steamboats were dismantled and burned at Kamloops except  the Red Star which was tied up at Enderby after the railway branch line was  built to Okanagan Landing in 1892 and it fell apart there.  The remains of the first Maud Annis were burned on the beach at Albas  and the second Maud sank in the bay at Canoe Point where it was tied up when  the Whitesmith was built and it is still there machinery and all according to skin-  divers who have gone down to look at it.  The remains of the Whitesmith are sunk at the west end of Sicamous. The  remains of the A.R. Hellen lie on the lake bottom at the lower end of Adams  Lake. The Crombie was dismantled at Chase. The Florence Carlin was dismantled at the south end of Tappen Bay called Kualt at that time.  All that is left of that 70-year era now are some small parts of the C.R.  Lamb in the museum at Kamloops.  The "Red Star"  Photo courtesy of the Interior Photo Bank 54  MORE ABOUT THE FAIRVIEW MINES  Bob Iverson, whose article "Fairview Mines in the 1930's" appeared in the 48th Report, has recently been corresponding with Philip  Rossiter who worked at the Morning Star Mine. Doug Fraser of  Osoyoos, a friend of Phil Rossiter since their school days in Oliver,  had sent a copy of the Report to Mr. Rossiter in Florida. Mr. Rossiter  offered to share some of his recollections with Bob Iverson if Bob was  interested. He was.  Bob tells us that Philip Rossiter took a job at the Morning Star  Mine after his graduation as an electrical engineer from the University of British Columbia because he could find no work in his own  profession during the 1930s. Bob says: "I obtained his address from  Doug and in my letter I suggested that he write up his recollections  for the Historical Society himself. I felt that he could do a much better job than I or anyone else. I think the letter proves my point."  The letter follows.  April 4, 1985  Sarasota, Florida  Dear Robert,  Well, at last, I am getting around to answering your letter of March 10th.  Some time ago I wrote to Mrs. James Hallett, known to her old friends as  "Sparky", and got a run down on her recollections on the Morning Star. I  would suggest you get in touch with her.  When Clothier started up the Morning Star in 1933, after "squeezing"  Steve Mangott out of the property, he brought Jim Hallett over from Lightning Peak to run the Compressor and Hoist House. Later, Jim was joined by  Bob Howse on the shift. Jim ran the Compressor House until 1935 when the  mine was shut down temporarily while the mill was being built. (When the  mine started up again in late summer of 1935, I think he took over the Compressor House again).  I started at the Morning Star in December of 1933 as a "mucker" at $3.75  per day. The operation at that time consisted of "development" work and piling of the ore outside — the "high grade" was sorted out and shipped to Trail,  quite successfully at times.  Clothier was very much the promoter; he was given to raising money by  incorporating the company and selling stock. To do this he got involved with  a firm of stockbrokers in Vancouver who obtained an interest in the Company.  The stock was "manipulated" by reports of high assay values, which was quite  true, but for small pockets of ore only. Anyway, in the spring of 1934, Clothier  himself was "squeezed" out by his partners in Vancouver and he and his  foreman departed very abruptly. Norm Brooks, assayer and engineer, replaced Clothier as manager, and Ole (Hansen?) became mine foreman. At this  time the "highgrading" was going quite well. We were "raising" between  levels, doing "sub drifts" and generally just going where we thought the ore  was. I remember working with Dick McKay and Joe Gray, Dick and Joe were  both from Oliver, and good friends and also competent miners. Anyway, the  order of day was to select the likeliest place to drill and blast. This was at 7  a.m. By 8 a.m. we were well on our way doing what the foreman, Ole, had 55  instructed. Somewhere shortly after that Norm would show up, with an assistant engineer and alter the position of the work. So, tear down the machine  and start over again! This didn't go down very well with Ole and there were  some bitter confrontations over the matter. Ole's position was that if Norm  wanted to decide where the drilling was to take place, he should get to the face  at 7 a.m. He didn't and the net result was the "management" in Vancouver  stepped in and fired both men. So, Norm lasted as manager for about 2 or  3 months, I would think.  Cecil C. Camp, a metallurgist, was assayer and he was promoted to  manager with Chris Lemberg as foreman. Things settled down and mining  proceeded much more effectively. The stock pile of low grade ore kept increasing, and the "high grade" was going to Trail with quite satisfactory results.  The local story was the "high grading" paid off to the tune of better than  $100,000. This is not fact, just rumour.  So then, the "management" got the bright idea of dewatering (7,000,000  gallons extracted) the old Stemwinder and "sampling" it. So they made a deal  with Fairview Amalgamated to buy air from them and dewater the mine with  a #6 Cameron air driven sinking pump. They sent an "expert" from Vancouver to run the operation. First we installed 2,000 or so feet of 2 inch boiler  tube pipe, with 2 inch Victaulic Pipe ends welded onto the tubes, down the  power line right of way from the Fairview Amalgamated to the Stemwinder.  First problem: the grooves for the Victaulic Coupling were about one sixteenth  of an inch too far from the end of the pipe and a slice had to be cut off every  pipe end. Our "expert" decided we should gather up the piping and truck  it down to Emerick's Garage in Oliver. Emerick himself cut a slice off every  pipe end, the pipe was trucked back up the hill and relaid and properly connected with the couplings and the air flowed down to the Stemwinder. The  pump was hooked to the cable, paid out by an old hand wrench and lowered  down the shaft until it reached the water. Air hose connected to pump, fire  hose connected to 4 inch discharge pipe, etc. The pump didn't work well and  in any event wasn't big enough to take the water level down fast enough. The  "expert" was fired and the #6 pump was exchanged for a #9 Cameron pump.  In the meantime Cecil Camp had hired a couple of fellows, Johnny and  Aldo, he had heard of and they took over. Between the new pump and the  new supervision, the water started to gush out of the mine and finally, in a  month or so, we pumped the mine out to the bottom level, about 350 feet down  from the collar as I remember it, but not without some problems! I can  remember wrestling alone with a 4 inch pipe, boiler tube with welded threaded ends, down in the shaft and bringing it up and threading it into the pipe  already in place. A change every 20 feet was required. The 2 inch air pipe  was easy, also the 4 inch fire hose.  After the mine was dewatered we started to explore the stopes and drifts  of the old mine. The stopes were awesome: in some places there was 40 feet  or so between the foot wall and the hanging wall; we could see great slabs hanging, so it seemed, above our heads. After a while we got used to them and  didn't bother about them. As I remember, there were two main stopes, above  the first level and the second level. The stope above the bottom level was much  smaller. The floors of the stopes were planked, with pockets leading down to  the drift below, with chutes dropping the ore into the mine cars. Cars were 56  pushed to the shaft and dumped into the bucket and hoisted to the surface and  fed into the 48-stamp mill.  An approximate Cross Section of the mine looked something like this:  Hoist  O Collar  Surface  Road  48-Stamp mill  level outside,  also road  100'  100'  100'  The waste seemed to have  been utilized for shoring up the  floors and for creating a level  surface for the mill.  Sorting  Floors  Drift  Sump  After the dewatering, we sampled  the faces of the main stopes; the  assays showed no values.  Our management had secured an option from Federal Mining Co.  (owners) to sample the Stemwinder. Apparently the mine records showed exactly what we found — nothing! this sampling of the Stemwinder was a costly  and useless diversion which weakened the Morning Star's financial position  with regard to building a mill.  Anyway, it was decided to go ahead with the building of the 100-ton-a-  day mill at the beginning of 1935. A new company, Medco was formed to build  and operate the mill. The financial wherewithal came from a Vancouver  brokerage firm which in effect became owners of a larger part of Morning Star,  thus diluting the other stockholders' interests.  The Morning Star was shut down at the beginning of the year and the  mill construction staff arrived on the scene. A Mr. John Swartz was the mill  designer, and was in overall charge of construction. "Slim" Monore was  responsible to John for the actual work. Medco obtained a ball mill, a classifier  and a flotation machine from the old Queen Mine in the Slocan and purchased a filter and other necessary equipment new. A large water storage tank was  installed at the Morning Star, redwood stave tank on a concrete base, and an  electric pump installed in the Stemwinder, which had filled up again, and thus  become a source of water. 57  Some of the locals employed were: Fred Hardy, Bert and Frank Collett,  and Bob McNeil. Bob worked on the mill construction.  A buried 2 inch pipe was installed between the Stemwinder and the Morning Star. An interesting sidelight was the installation of the "floating" electric pump, which could deliver as much water as the #9 Cameron Air Pump  at a fraction of the cost. A 2200 volt line was brought down from the Fairview  Amalgamated to the Stemwinder and on to the Morning Star by West Kootenay  Power Co.  I became the electrician responsible for installing the "electrics" in the  new mill. After the mill was completed I became the only operator. The mill  was started up every morning and shut down every evening, quite an unusual  situation and a very trying one for me. The Morning Star mill handled several  tons of Dividend ore to assist the Dividend in developing a suitable milling  process. The ore was very hard, very difficult to mill. Crae Dawson and Ken  Plaskett hauled ore from Osoyoos to Morning Star.  A digression: in the fall of 1934 the management appointed H. L. Batten  as the managing director of the Morning Star mine. Mr. Batten had at one  time been the mine manager at Britannia. Anyway, the moment Chris Lemberg  found out that Mr. Batten was in charge he walked into the office and quit.  Chris had worked at Britannia under Batten.  When Medco came into the picture, Major Cowles became the manager  director of that operation. The mill proved to be very successful, obtaining  about 94% recovery on 100 tons per day of the ore from the Morning Star  dump. The mine was not operating when the mill started up but did resume  operations later in 1935. Mr. Camp was now out of the mining and acting  as Mill Superintendent. In a series of management maneuvers, Mr. Batten  and Mr. Camp left the scene and Major Cowles assumed overall charge of  both the mine and the mill and J. McKenzie became the local mine and mill  manager.  The mill finally went on three shifts in the fall of 1935 and I became the  mill foreman. Things went along quite well until December of 1935. I had an  offer to go to a mine in the Bridge River area as an electrician about this time,  so I went to Vancouver to ask Major Cowle's advice. He advised me to take  the job, "as the Morning Star is in a shaky financial condition." I had no  sooner returned to Oliver and handed in my resignation to Mr. McKenzie  than the West Kootenay Power lines went down in January of 1936. So I moved my family to Vancouver and took off for the Bridge River, thus ending  my direct association with the Morning Star.  My wife, Olive, and I, visited Oliver for Christmas and New Years in  1937 and I remember going up to the mine and talking to Eugene Bartlett,  a mill operator. He was in my class at university  Jim Hallett was back in charge of the compressor room after the mine  started up later in 1936. According to Mrs. Hallett, he was in charge of shutting the operation down in 1939.  That is about it. Do hope this will help you.  Phil Rossiter 58  COMMENTS  On reading over the above, I must admit that I'm not too  satisfied with what I have written. I just put things down as they occurred to me.  Obviously I spent too much time on the Stemwinder "adventure," but I must admit it made a great impression on me. Wrestling that pipe alone in that shaft was no picnic; furthermore, I came  within a hair's breadth of being killed by a flying airhose.  After leaving British Columbia, I acquired considerable  "management" experience and I must say in looking back on the  whole experience, I am still amazed by some of the "management"  decisions made. It wasn't until Major Cowles came into the picture  that a good course of action developed. I admired J. McKenzie too,  although I only knew him for a few months.  I don't know what you are going to do with the above: it could  hardly qualify for publishing in its present form. Let me know what  the editor thinks.  Phil Rossiter  TWENTY YEARS AGO — February 15, 1965  by Ivan E. Phillips  A hush falls over the crowd as the "Ensign", almost like a wounded bird,  flutters slowly down from the mast.  Why have they come, these people both young and old, some of them  very old? Is it to cheer, or perhaps to keep a tryst with a host of phantom friends?  Maybe it is to join with them in this act of silent communion and re-dedication.  An act of re-dedication to vitalize the memory of friends, some of whom lie  in the far and distant places of the earth or whose bones are scattered on the  floors of the oceans. What mystic influence and power has this piece of bunting over the thoughts and lives of the people assembled here? This colourful  piece of cloth is certainly of no intrinsic worth.  Why is it that men and women brush away an unaccustomed mistiness  from their eyes as the flag is lowered? Through the mistiness do places, scenes  and the associations of years long past appear?  Let us be thankful that such visions are vouchsafed us for much of our  country's honour, history and heritage is bound up in that simple piece of  bunting.  At last the Ensign is down and is reverently and almost lovingly folded  away.  All eyes turn intently to the new flag as it climbs to the top of the mast  head. Almost at once it breaks loose and is free. May it preserve in honour  all things that were worthy in its predecessor is the common thought twenty  years ago. 59  THE GREAT NORTHERN RAILWAY  by Harry A. Sherling  Molson had the first railroad and the second telephone line in Okanagan  County. The Royal Bank of Canada built a telephone line from Rock Creek,  B.C. to Loomis in 1900. It was completed in time for the election of President  McKinley. Railroad men have told me that the rail line from Kettle River to  the Okanagan was the roughest on the whole Great Northern system. From  Midway, B.C. where the track left the Kettle to Molson was 30 miles, 28M>  of it in Canada. There were trestles and rock cuts, two tunnels, a )4 mile Vi  circle trestle across Myers Creek Valley at Myncaster, which was Chesaw's  shipping point. They had to curve the trestle to keep it from crossing into the  U.S. At Bridesville 4 miles east of Molson by rail, there was an "S" track  to help the train climb to that station. Besides these hazards it was nearly a  2000 foot climb to Molson, highest depot in Washington State.  Construction started early in 1905. The railway was built with pick and  shovel, wheel barrows, hand cars, horse drawn carts and scrapers. After the  steel was laid steam shovels came in to load hopper bottom cars with gravel  for ballasting. We were coming from school one day in May 1906, and here  was the track laying crew just coming into Molson. It consisted of a locomotive  pushing 2 or 3 flat cars loaded with ties and rails and a lot of men. Two men  would grab a tie and run to place it, two more men right behind them. Then  several men would bring a rail. Just a few spikes were driven. Then the engine  would ring the bell, toot the whistle and move ahead a few feet. Bolting the  rails and most of the spiking was done behind the train. It was a fascinating  sight for us kids.  There were only 1 Vi miles of level track along Molson Lakes then the  railway had to plunge down the mountain from a 3700 foot elevation to 900  feet at Oroville, a drop of 2800 feet in 27 miles. The wagon road was 13 miles  long.  The west side was about as rough as the east with many rock cuts, trestles  and heavy grading. There was a 1000 foot tunnel and an 800 foot trestle across  Tonasket Creek Canvon near Oroville.  This freight engine could pull 11 cars or 400 tons up Molson hill. 60  The Chesaw-Myncaster stage run by Jack Thorp of Chesaw for about 20 years.  For rock cuts tunnels as small as a man could work in were single jack  drilled and were called "coyote holes". These little tunnels were loaded with  tons and tons of black powder. Black powder would explode slowly and lift  a lot of rock right out of the cut.  The passenger speed limit down the hill from Molson to Oroville was 15  miles per hour with a 20 minute stop at Circle City to cool the brakes as they  would get glowing red. Passenger trains would leave Spokane and Oroville  each week day morning and arrive at the other station that evening. Oroville  train left at 6:15 A.M. After burning ten tons of coal and making three water  stops at Mt. Hull, Circle City and Nine Mile the train, if on time, arrived  at Molson at 10:00.  The dining car was left on the wye at Molson to lighten the load. Dinner  was served before six in the evening and breakfast after 8 in the morning. I  delivered milk to the dining car and the darky employees gave me good things  like bananas and oranges. In 1900 the Great Northern brought the Spokane  Falls and Northern from Spokane to Marcus, then extended the track to  Republic in 1902 and Oroville in 1907. This line, for many years, was called  the Spokane Falls and Northern though officially the name was incorrect. The  first train carrying passengers came into Molson on November 2nd, 1906. The  freight ran one way each day Oroville to Curlew. The engine could pull 400  tons or 11 cars up the Molson hill. Seldom was there a doubleheader. Sometimes  they had to go back down to Oroville for a second load. They might also have  to back 4 miles down the hill from Molson to Porter Bros. 1-mile-long sawmill  spur. For some years Molson was the biggest shipper.  From Oroville to Spokane freight consisted mainly of lumber, railway ties,  cordwood, livestock, timothy hay and grain. When they logged with horses  sawmills were close to timber. There were many mills in the hill country but  none in the Okanagan Valley. Cars and trucks started taking the railway's  business. In 1927 the passenger trains were replaced by mixed trains and by 61  1932 the track from Oroville to Molson was abandoned. In 1935 the track was  pulled to Curlew.  There was only one bad wreck. A rock had rolled onto the track and a  work train coming down struck it, knocking out its air brakes — the crew  jumped. The train miraculously made the turn into Oroville. The crew of a  From a 1914 timetable of the Great Northern Railway for Spokane, Eastern Washington and  the Kootenai.  &M%r.- SPOKANE,"MARCUS, GRAND FORKS* AND OROVILLE."V* _  *  TG^St:   BXA.O DOWN            • .<      >-                              "   -.'.«»■,....•    .•       •  •                   WiD VT *£ .    •}  ^i  No. 252  No. 258  1 JNo:256  1 "3  •  t.    .,                  1 Ku-255 : Nu.257  *iu 2fil  •ruT  TSuadxy  •Oolv  JEx. /Ju.  Daily  Ex. Bu  z  Pacific Tim* 3 /  !    DttLy  Ex. Bu.  !   pikity  1 Ex. Su.  Euouay  -Onlv"  adixuvi  Ex. 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The collision threw the throttle wide open on this engine, away it went down the track "Hell Bent for Election" slamming into a third train, its cars partially wrecking the roundhouse.  The railroad yards were a mess. Wreckers had to come from Spokane but luckily  no one was hurt.  The 5 tracks and wye and Molson railroad yards are now grown over with  weeds. However, there is a beautiful new sign, soon to be erected in the old  railroad yards at Molson in memory of a colorful early railroad: "The Spokane  Falls and Northern."  Note: Dolly Waterman of Osoyoos adds the following  information:  The Great Northern was extended into Canada, reaching  Keremeos and Hedley in 1909, and was a boon to those mines wishing  to ship gold ore. The same can be said of its arrival in Princeton in  1910 where coal was being mined. The Great Northern continued  its construction through to Brookmere. Hence the big ice cutting  operation at Tulameen on Otter Lake 1915 to 1925.  ECONOMIC SPIN-OFF FROM THE KETTLE VALLEY RAILROAD  by Joe Biollo  When the Kettle Valley Railroad yards were established south of Hastings  Avenue in Penticton the tracks cut through an orchard. In those days the KVR  passenger trains drew into the yards in south Penticton and then proceeded  down the spur to the Lakeshore Station.  During the early days of hot, old-fashioned summer we boys hatched a  splendid money-making scheme. It started beside the tracks where the passenger  trains paused to change locomotives and water cars, and where the first half-  ripened cherries were being closely observed by interested KVR employees  as well as by greedy boys. Not only were my barefoot entrepreneurs hungry  for the first juicy fruit but also we were anxious to try our plans to market it.  In those days a boy had to rustle to make pocket money. So, until we  acquired a few cents capital, we manufactured paper cones to hold the fruit  by twisting a square of paper, pinching the peak of the cone firmly and folding  the top over the fruit. Eventually with a little cash we wheedled a supply of  small paper bags from Butler's grocery store.  I'm afraid the passengers who eagerly bought the first bags of half-ripe  cherries at south Penticton got no bargain at 10* a bag. But as one hot summer day followed another we picked and sold apricots, peaches, plums and  apples to fruit-hungry travellers. True, the fruit from neglected trees was not  of fancy quality but the passengers had no fancy standards and by fall their  nickels and dimes had our piggy banks bulging. Those were the fine old days  of unrestricted capitalism! 63  FROM THESE WATERS WAS MINED GLITTERING WEALTH — IN ICE  by Dave Taylor  owner and editor of Similkameen Star  reprinted with permission of writer  Before the days of refrigeration gadgets huge quantites of ice were "mined"  from Tulameen Lake and shipped hundreds of miles.  The ice harvest was a skilled operation. This source was chosen for its  quality, purity and freedom from silt.  Weather conditions had to be just right; the desired thickness was between 14 and 16 inches. This usually came in January.  Starting at the loading point, blocks were sawn, about 50 by 100 feet,  and these were floated shoreward down the channels thus made. They were  then cut into smaller blocks and loaded into cars on the railway skirting the  lakeshore. At first hooks and cable were used, later conveyors.  Special trains ran round the clock, carrying the glittering cargo through  Princeton to Oroville, Washington, where it was distributed to serve Great  Northern Railway facilities and a ready market.  Up to 60 men were employed; in 1921 a total of 2300 cars were shipped.  Sam Roper, from the Oroville divisional staff usually supervised, with Alex  McRae of Tulameen local foreman.  In 1915 a specialist, Pipe, was brought in from North Dakota to install  a plant with a capacity of 3,000 tons a day.  Modern refrigeration "obsoleted" this picturesque technique and the last  ice train ran in 1925. It had been a major activity from the time the railway  reached Tulameen in 1910. Ice for local use was harvested and stored from  various waterways well into the 30's.  The railway was planned, and built beyond Tulameen, as part of the international system of Jim Hill, "the empire builder." But he failed to continue through the Coquihalla to the Coast, and part of his local lines were taken  over by the Kettle Valley route, part pulled up.  The station, built by the G.N. can still be seen, now converted to a summer home.  Tulameen was a camp for the Indians, where they left their women and  children on hunting expeditions. It was from 1846 a camp on the fur traders'  Brigade Trail. Also known as Otter Lake, otters were at one time plentiful. 64  GREENHOUSE PIONEERS  by Joe McLachlan & Bert Stent  Early comers to the Okanagan Valley could be roughly divided into two  classes: the delighted who thought it was the Promised Land and the disappointed who wondered what all the fuss was about.  When Alf McLachlan with his wife Ida and three children first arrived  in Summerland in the fall of 1912, he was one of the latter. Fired by the enthusiasm of his friend J. L. Hilborn, who had come three years earlier, he had  sold his flourishing market garden in Leamington, Ontario, to make a new  start in the West.  What he found was a settlement of young orchards and vacant lots, scattered houses, a dry climate where little but bunch-grass, cactus, and sagebrush  would grow without irrigation from flumes snaked about on wooden trestles,  and no towns of any size within 200 miles. Where was there a market for the  vegetables and small fruits which he had hoped to grow? It was all so different  from the thickly-populated East. In disgust he left Summerland to spend the  winter with his family in Vancouver where he tried selling real estate.  Back in the spring, Alf went to work for the Summerland Supply Company in what town there was, down by the lake. Summerland then was almost  wholly a rural area. There were few cars or telephones. The company sent  round a man on horseback to solicit orders and then Alf would drive around  with a horse and democrat (buckboard) to deliver them.  But vegetable growing was his profession, and in 1914 he bought property on Fosbery Road, north-east of the present town but in the same level area,  then called "Siwash Flat" because Jim Ritchie had bought some of it from  Indians.  Here Alf built a greenhouse to start plants for himself and for sale to others  (owners of young orchards grew vegetables between tree rows for cash crops)  and planted out 12 acres, half to vegetables and half to cantaloupe, which he  and Hilborn had grown in Ontario.  As his crops ripened he picked and packed them, with hired help, and  shipped crates of them to Vancouver, Victoria, Edmonton, Calgary, and other  prairie points. He had local sales too, though not without some competition.  There was a bit of minor poaching from passing schoolboys snitching cantaloupe  here or there to split with a chum at recess or noon!  He must have prospered pretty well, for in 1915 Alf bought one of the  famous Ford 'tin Lizzies' — 30" x 3 Yz " tires, metal running boards, no starter,  folding top, gas tank under the seat. Both his business and his family expanded. Two more sons were born and more room for both family and vegetables  was needed. In 1920 Alf bought his neighbor Hilborn's farm on the higher  flat or 'bench' above and adjacent to his own. Hilborn had run a sort of a  miniature experimental farm, with government aid, before the present Research  Station was established in 1915, and this gave Alf five more acres, planted to  fruit trees, four more greenhouses, though small ones, and a much bigger house.  This house still stands in good repair at the edge of the hill on Logie Road  overlooking 'Siwash Flat.'  By the early 1920s Summerland orchards had matured enough that supplementary cash crops were no longer needed, but a new market for vegetable 65  Alf McLachlan shown in one of his greenhouses on Logie Road in the 20's. Note the large overhead  water pipe.  plants to set out developed in Oliver, then opening up as a soldier settlement  area, and Alf supplied their orchards-in-waiting for years, replacing the small  Hilborn greenhouses with larger ones to keep up with the demand. Many a  would-be canteloupe grower also got valuable advice from him on growing that  tricky crop.  In time Oliver growers built their own greenhouses and no longer required  many plants from McLachlan's.The resourceful Alf turned to growing early  cucumbers and tomatoes — 'cukes and toms' — under glass, and was so successful that he increased the number of his greenhouses to eight.  Outdoors he grew both fruit and vegetables, and the price list he mailed  to potential customers in 1925 shows a tremendous variety; currants, gooseberries, both sweet and sour cherries, three kinds of plums, many varieties of apples, cantaloupe, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, corn, marrows. All sold at  prices that now seem absurdly low; Bing cherries at $3.50 for 20 pounds, winter  apples at $1.40 for 45 pounds, ripe tomatoes at $.85 for 20 pounds, green 'toms'  at $.60 for 40 pounds.  In his new big greenhouses Alf's tomato plants grew as tall as a man, The  Summerland Review reported, and were loaded down with fruit. Heat for the  greenhouses was supplied by wood stoves, and it was a winter's work in the  woods to cut the 150 cords required and haul it home. Some time in the '20s  Alf replaced the stoves with a big central boiler and piped hot water heating.  A lot of fuel was still needed, though some coal was burned too. Then someone  invented a sawdust burner for stoves and furnaces; Alf had a big one built for  his boiler and switched to sawdust fuel obtained from the local sawmill. His  big burner used a truckload a day, but there was no more wood-cutting and 66  the saving in cost was considerable. Sawdust being a waste product, a load  cost only 50 cents!  Alf operated a thriving business until January 1942 when he subdivided  his property, sold the big house to a Mr. A. E. Hickson and the gardens and  greenhouses to sons Joe and Russell, and he and his wife retired and moved  to live in the town then called West Summerland.  Their family of two daughters and five sons were then grown up and on  their own, and Alf and Ida could relax, visit, and undertake more of the community work which they both enjoyed. They were both very active in the United  Church, Alf had been on both the municipal council and the school board,  and played a part in many other community affairs. These contributions were  publicly recognized when the Summerland Board of Trade chose Alf McLachlan  as Good Citizen of the Year in 1947.  Meanwhile McLachlan Greenhouses not only continued but expanded.  Russell McLachlan left the business after a year to join the RCAF and was  killed overseas, but Joe carried on with the greenhouses, growing tomatoes  and cukes through spring and summer, and after the war he started growing  flowers in the fall and winter in order to make it a year-round operation.  His chrysanthemums and carnations sold so well, especially around  Christmas time, that Joe added more greenhouses until he had thirteen, all  heated from a single large gas-fired boiler, sawdust having become costly and  hard to get. He supplied florists from Kamloops to Osoyoos, also in Vancouver,  and for a time shipped as far afield as Calgary and Prince George. Besides  working exhaustingly long hours himself, Joe kept three men employed all year  round. Besides he needed part-time help and unstinting aid from his wife Doris.  His business grew to become the biggest greenhouse flower-operation in British  Columbia.  Every year some 17,000 carnations were grown. Fifty thousand spring bulbs  imported from Holland were forced, and some 500 Easter lilies. And the  The Joe McLachlan Greenhouses taken by aerial photo in 1964 indicates how large the industry  became. The property with the big home on Logie Road with 8 large (30' x 115') and 2 smaller  greenhouses was farmed from 1923 to 1939 and in the next 15 years — 1 large and 3 smaller  greenhouses, a new boiler room, packing room and cooler were added, also a bulb forcing cellar. 67  chrysanthemums boggled the mind. Huge blooms five inches or more across  — 1000 of them in one greenhouse alone — brought gasps of admiration from  all who saw them. Organized tours of the greenhouses, both McLachlan's and  those of his friend and fellow flower-grower Bill Gallop, became a regular  November treat for their customers from 1966 on.  Another McLachlan brother, Don, started a greenhouse business on the  northern edge of the town of West Summerland in 1937. It was a smaller operation, only three houses, but he raised tomatoes and cucumbers, and bedding  plants for local gardeners. When he went off to the war his father looked after  the business, but after he returned Don and his wife Florence carried it on  until his death in 1969. His widow sold the land and their home and greenhouses  disappeared to make room for a supermarket, first the Overwaitea and now  the Shop Easy.  Of the other two McLachlan brothers, Ross became a teacher in Penticton and Robert has been with Craigmont Mines in Merritt. Their sister Laura  married Chuck Bleasdale, manager for years of the B.C. Shippers fruit packing house in Summerland, now retired. The other sister, Ruth, married Harvey  Wilson, who became administrator of the Summerland Hospital. Of these six  McLachlan children, five have presented their parents with two grandchildren  apiece, Don and Florence broke the pattern wide open with five boys.  Alf— father, grandfather, and founder of the greenhouse business lived  to celebrate with Ida their 60th wedding anniversary in 1964. He died in 1969.  Mrs. McLachlan lived in Parkdale Place, Summerland until her death in 1975.  The glory days of their greenhouses as far as flower raising was concerned ended in 1975 when Joe and Doris sold out. However, under other owners,  the greenhouses still produce quantities of "cukes and toms." Joe and Doris  still live nearby, retired with many happy memories of the time when  "McLachlan Greenhouses" was a name to conjure with in the provincial flower  and vegetable world.  Armstrong Fair Activities in the 1920s.  Photo courtesy of the Armstrong Museum 68  SHEEP RANCHING IN THE OKANAGAN  by Alan O. Davidson  With the exception of a few farm flocks, the sheep business in the Okanagan  did not become viable until the late twenties. R. A. Davidson was a pioneer  in using alpine areas for summer grazing, thereby making possible the existence  of large flocks. The alpine areas are usually between six and eight thousand  feet, and are snow free from about July 1st to September 15th.  Davidson started in 1925 when he was living at Pritchard. A prospector  friend, a Mr. Sinclair, had told him of the grazing possibilities of alpine ranges  and in particular had recommended Crowfoot Mountain which is directly north  of Copper Island in Shuswap Lake.  Without checking out the area, he started out with about one thousand  sheep and headed for the top of Crowfoot Mountain. This meant herding them  along the roadway to Sorrento, and then taking them across Shuswap Lake  by ferry. This was a government ferry and arrangements were made with a  Mr. Poole who operated it to start at daylight. After four trips the sheep were  all across the other side safely although, on one trip, high waves threatened  to capsize the ferry. This was all done before the daily ferry run began. Once  across from there it was back to herding the sheep on the road to Celista where  the trail started.  There was a hunting and berry pickers' trail from Celista up the mountain for about four miles, to a place referred to as the "Pinnacle". From there  for another four miles to the top it was only a prospectors' trail marked with  blazes. This meant cutting this part of the trail with saw and axe so the sheep  could navigate it. Several days elapsed before the sheep reached the top, and  then what a glorious sight. Alpine vegetation was so high one could hardly  see the sheep in it.  When people saw the advantage of this historic trek, many went into the  sheep business in a big way to take advantage of alpine areas on the same or  other mountains. It became so popular that lambs which went to market from  these areas were referred to in Western Canada as "Alpine Lamb".  In 1927 Davidson moved from Pritchard to Vernon and in 1928 took sheep  to Hunters Range in the area east of Enderby and Mara. He pioneered the  use of Hunters Range, but this time he had the help of the B.C. Forest Service  who helped cut the trail and built corrals. The remains of some of those corrals are still there today. At that time Davidson bought what was then known  as the Davidson Range immediately across Vernon Arm from Okanagan Landing (now known as Thorlakson Range). The centre of operations was a camp  wagon (prairie schooner) which rested for many years in the exact location  where Ted Strother's house is today, the local name for that part being "Sunset  Bay". R. A. Davidson remained in the sheep business until the early 1950s  when his son Alan took over the business until 1958 when the entire flock was  sold off.  Other areas the Davidsons opened up were Queest Mountain and Griffin  Mountain on opposite sides of the valley at Malakwa. These also were lush  alpine areas and were filled with game of all kinds including grizzlies and black  bear, deer and cougar. Most of the time, grizzlies paid little attention to the  sheep but once in a while they attacked, an action which necessitated shooting  them. 69  Other sheepmen who became involved in alpine grazing were Blanc Bros,  from Turtle Valley (near Salmon Arm) and Eric and Emil Anderson from Chase  Creek. The flocks were joined for summer grazing on the mountain.  In those days the only way to get sheep to these mountains was by herding them along the roads. A normal day's travel would be about ten miles.  Once on top of the mountain the sheep were cared for by one herder and one  packer, it being the packer's responsibility to take a horse pack train down  the mountain once a week for supplies. One day down and one day back. The  hardest burden for the horses was salt. The sheep ate much more salt in these  alpine areas than they did down below on their home range. A normal load  for a horse would be about 150 pounds.  As motor vehicle traffic increased the task of herding along the highway  became more difficult every year until it was almost impossible for sheep and  vehicles to share the same road. On one occasion R. A. Davidson was twice  run over by motor vehicles suddenly coming around a bend in the road and  finding it blocked by anywhere between 1,000 to 2,000 sheep.  Trucking and travel by rail was tried but both were too expensive with  the practical result that travel to summer ranges became almost impossible and  the sheep business as a major enterprise began to fade. In addition, the cost  of land in those years became so expensive that it was not economic to own  sufficient land to run the sheep on, when they were not on the mountain.  Tom Thorlakson of Vernon had the last large flock of sheep and the reason  he lasted so long was because to took his sheep over the Monashee which meant  taking the back roads from Vernon to Lumby, then to Cherryville, and from  there he grazed the B.C. Hydro R/W to Lightning Peaks, thereby avoiding  most road traffic. With Tom's untimely death (a tractor rolled on him) came  the end of the large flocks in the Okanagan.  Some of the other sheepmen from the Vernon area were D. C. Crerar,  Walter Schweb, Thomson Bros., Watson Bros., and W. A. Palmer and Son.  The Palmers grazed Silver Star. Crerar and Schweb grazed East Hunters, which  meant going from Enderby, up the Mabel Lake road to Kingfisher Creek and  up the mountain. Their supply trail from this area was from Sicamous, using  a B.C. Forest Service trail from Sicamous up to their lookout on Mara  Mountain.  From the Kelowna area, Joe Casorso, M. P. Williams, Alistair Cameron,  Ron Wilkinson, John Anderson and the Reiswig brothers were prominent  sheepmen. From the Penticton area, Don Brent and the Crowe brothers were  well known as local sheepmen, and from Keremeos came Messrs. Grahame  and Willis.  It is unlikely that the Okanagan Valley will ever see a major sheep industry again. There is only one large flock left in British Columbia, and that  belongs to Jack Moilliet and Son of Vavenby (on the Thompson River). The  Moilliets run about 1,000 sheep. 70  ASSISTING THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED IN THE VERNON  AREA: THE FIRST 25 YEARS  by Al Hiebert and Dorothy Alexander  1980 marked the 25th anniversary of the Vernon and District Association  for the Retarded and of My School, the school for mentally handicapped  children in Vernon. Prior to 1955, the educational and social needs of the mentally handicapped were neglected, in Vernon as elsewhere in Canada. Significant progress in the area of social policies was made before WWII and Harry  Cassidy, an expert in these matters, after a thorough study of social welfare  policies in Canada, claimed that such policies in British Columbia were the most  advanced in the country. (Harry M. Cassidy, Public Health and Welfare  Reorganization, p. 160) Some examples he listed: from 1907 treatment was  available at Tranquille Sanitorium for victims of tuberculosis; in 1913 the provincial hospital for the insane was opened at Essondale; deaf and blind persons  could attend school at Jericho in Vancouver from 1920. British Columbia was  also a leader in the public health field. The Department of Health and Welfare  was established in 1946. Public health districts were formed, the North  Okanagan Health Unit being one of the first. A government report claimed that  "modern and adequate local health services" were available to "all the area in  the north end of the Okanagan Valley". (B.C., Sessional Papers, 1948,IJ26)  But some were overlooked. In his book, Dr. Cassidy described a need that  remained: "a training school for mental defectives." (p. 160). Such a facility, he  said, had already been recommended by the Royal Commission on Mental  Hygiene as long ago as 1925. (p. 160). Even earlier, Clare Hincks, a University  of Toronto psychiatrist, had been telling educators that perhaps 2% of school  children had "inferior intelligence and required special classes and training."  (Sidney Katz. "The Amazing Career of Clare Hincks", Maclean's, August 1,  1954, p. 36.) Hincks had come by this figure after introducing the IO_test to  Canadian Schools.  It took time to agree on what terms should be used. A 1925 survey of the  B.C. school system contained a section on retardation. (British Columbia, Survey  of the School System, J.H. Putman and G.M. Weir, Comm. Victoria, King's  Printer, 1925.) At that time the term "retarded" meant "overageness",  students in particular grades who were older than their classmates. Causes given  for such "retardation" included "inability and low IQJs", (ibid). Val Adolph  claims that the term "mentally retarded" as it was later understood was not used even at Woodlands, a provincially funded residential facility for the handicapped, until 1936. The term "feeble minded" had been used before that  time. (Val Adolph, Woodlands, 100 Years of Progrss, Victoria, Ministry of Human  Resources, 1978, p. 33)  By the early 1950's, as health and social services expanded, the realization  grew that the needs of the mentally handicapped were not being met in an adequate way. Specifically, the mentally handicapped were being denied an education that was suited to their needs. In 1950 Essondale and Woodlands were included as part of the Provincial Health Service and it then became possible to  place for diagnosis and treatment children under six years of age. The social  responsibility for some education and training at Woodlands of the mentally  handicapped was recognized by the School for Mental Defectives Act of 1953. 71  The effect was to remove some of these children — there never existed room for  all — from their homes and to permanently institutionalize them. The organization of the British Columbia Association for Retarded Children in 1952 indicated an increasing public concern over this whole issue. Also about this time  interest arose in Vernon for a school to serve the mentally handicapped of the  area. The Department of Education defined those children with an IQof 50 or  less as "Trainable Mentally Retarded". Such children were unable to benefit  from the academic pursuits of the regular school system and therefore they were  to be excluded from regular classrooms.  This means that the trainable mentally retarded had nowhere to go for any  schooling whatsoever. Some practical steps were then taken. A group known as  the Vernon and District Slow Learners Association had a brief existence and  raised some funds. With Woodlands as a model, there was talk of a residential  school in Coldstream but this plan fell through. (S. Fraser, p. 1). The conviction  grew that what was needed was a day school. Mrs. Alleyne Tull and Dr.  Michael Lattey are mentioned as early leaders. {Lumby Logger, Dec. 16, 1954).  Some people were determined; some were skeptical. Stewart Fraser writes that  "at that time mental retardation was more or less kept in the dark. So much so  that we had difficulty getting names of likely pupils from people who were in a  position to know of their whereabouts." (p. 2) In the meanwhile, schools for  mentally handicapped children were begun in both Kelowna and Penticton. On  February 21, 1955, a small group of parents and interested persons met together  and organized the Vernon and District Association for Retarded Children. In  1966, as its responsibilities extended beyond only children, the Association  changed its name to the Vernon and District Association for Mental Retardates  and finally in 1970, the Vernon and District Association for the Retarded. The  local Association affiliated with the Association for Retarded Children of British  Columbia in 1955. It is perhaps understandable that most of those who have  been active in the Association over the years have been, themselves, parents of  handicapped children. In any case, the Association quickly became the chief  driving force in efforts to provide educational and training opportunities and,  later, a sheltered workshop for the mentally handicapped of the Vernon area.  Within a year the Association had over 50 members (VN Feb. 23/56). Stewart  Fraser was elected the first president and Marion Saunders, secretary. The  Association was incorporated under the Societies Act in 1955 and stated as one  of its objectives "to promote the education, training, development and welfare  of all mentally retarded children at home, in institutions, and in public and  private schools".  The Association soon found that meeting the educational needs of the mentally retarded was not a simple task. There were three major problems: the location of a facility in which to hold classes; finding a teacher with some knowledge  of the implications of mental retardation; and raising money that would be  needed to make it all possible. No government funding was available at this time  and donations were slow in coming since the Association was new and unproven  (S.F.,1).  A teacher, Pearl Hooper, was hired. She was sent to Woodlands, New  Westminster, for a special six-week course. She was assisted by Kay Peters and  some volunteers signed on as well. The first building obtained by the Association for use as a classroom was a small yellow house located east of 30th Street 72  on 34th Avenue. It was rented from the Vernon Golden Age Club. Three  pupils, ranging in age from 14 to 23 were enrolled. School opened on June 20,  1955, for a two-week trial period. The trial period was to determine if Trainable  Retarded Children could benefit from a school experience. By the end of June  there was no longer any doubt in anyone's mind that the need did exist for this  type of training and that the objectives decided upon by the Association were  valid and should be pursued. During their short time at school, the students  referred to the school as "My School," and so this became the name the  Association adopted for their new school.  In September of 1955, with from five to eight pupils in attendance, school  opened in the basement of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints  located on 28th Street. In fact the school moved four times in fifteen months in  an effort to find better facilities, but, according to Stewart Fraser, "all of them  [were] poorly equipped and poorly located." (p.l) Two rooms above the Music  Centre on Barnard Avenue (30th) were located by the Association and rented  for $30 a month. Besides a classroom and washroom the facilities included a kitchen, but everything was upstairs and there was no access to a playground. The  number of pupils increased to 13 and the 15 foot square classroom became overcrowded. In the fall of 1956 My School moved to Gateby Manor Annex, located  at 30th Street and 33rd Avenue. This location also was inadequate as it was  cramped for space and cold in winter but it did have a playground which was a  welcome addition. Kay Cumming, an instructor at the time, tells of having to  chop wood to light a fire so the children would have a warm room to gather in.  Those same early mornings she would make a pot of soup on the old wood-  burning cook stove so the children could have a warm dish on arrival. (Interview with Kay (Cumming) Peters).  Many times the doors of My School were nearly closed for lack of funds  and there were many appeals for money through the newspapers and other  means. At first the school depended totally on donations, rummage sales, tea  and bake sales. In the fall of 1955 a fee of $5.00 per month per student was  charged and this was subsequently raised to $10.00. In May of 1956 it was announced that a government grant per student per month would be paid for  children 6 to 18 years of age in schools such as My School. In his first annual  report Stewart Fraser stated that the" government grant would cover about half  of the $4000 needed to operate My School for one year and this meant that community support remained vital. (VN Oct. 4, 1956).  An impressive example of community cooperation and support was the  achievement of a more permanent location for My School. Hall and Seymour,  a Vernon business firm, donated a vacant building to the Association for use as  a school on condition that the building be moved to another location. This  building had once been the Women's Institute Hall. The All Saints Anglican  Church generously agreed to have the building placed on church property  behind the church on 26th Street. Residents of the area protested and petitioned  City Council not to permit the school to be located in that area but the Association was authorized to proceed with the move. (VN Mar. 29, 1957 and Apr. 11,  1957). Anticipating adequate and permanent facilities, My School opened in  September, 1957, in the All Saints Parish Hall. The new facility, also called My  School, was officially opened on February 13, 1958. The school consisted of a  large classroom, a kitchen,  and two bathrooms. The building was slightly 73  damaged by fire (VN May 2, 1957) just before being moved but was renovated  and equipped by the service clubs of Vernon at a cost of over $5,000.00. The  work was coordinated through the "Joint Service Club Committee" chaired by  A.C. Wormull and money was raised mainly through a Bingo night and public  donations. (VN Feb. 10, 1958 and Feb. 17,'l958).  With the question of facilities settled the Association for Retarded Children  and the staff of My School turned to other areas of concern. Financial needs remained pressing and the school continued to rely heavily on donations. A break-  in occurred early in 1958 and some much-needed equipment was stolen (VN  Jan. 23, 1958). Considerable controversy surrounded the question of what  should be taught in the classroom and the issue, of more significance, as to what  should be the staff qualifications. Pearl Hooper, the first teacher emphasized  academic work and the students tackled the regular elementary curriculum.  (VN Mar. 8, 1956). She resigned in 1956 and Kay Cumming became head  teacher with Marjorie Donovan hired as assistant teacher. The emphasis now  switched more to practical training — cooking, gardening, carpentry, etc. This  change was challenged by a number of parents and in the ensuing controversy  some personality conflicts became apparent. (VN June? 1958). By June of 1958  attendance was down to 5 pupils and Wynne Goepel, executive-secretary for the  British Columbia Association for Retarded Children, was called in to investigate. Goepel's view was that "retarded children cannot absorb academics  sufficiently to warrant full time instruction in the three R's, but are usually quite  capable with their hands." (VN - ibid). She recommended one hour a day of  academic work. A new instructor, Peggy Zemla, was placed in charge and Kay  Cumming became her assistant. Several years later Peggy Zemla spelled out the  objectives of My School in some detail:  1. To help the child make a successful adjustment between home and school  life.  2. To help the parents accept his child's limitations and build on his abilities.  3. To help the child work and play as a member of a group.  4. To develop in the child courtesy and good manners.  5. To teach the child good health habits.  6. To develop the child's muscular coordination.  7. To train the child in neatness and cleanliness of person and place.  8. To train the child to be helpful at home.  9. To develop the child's confidence and self expression.  10. To teach the child to speak as clearly and correctly as possible, and to  enlarge his vocabulary as much as possible.  11. To train the child in the use of words and numbers that will be useful to  him in his everyday life.  12. To train the child to keep himself busy so that he does not just "sit". (VN  March 5, 1962)  In 1965, a newspaper reporter, Mabel Johnson, recorded her observations  of what went on at My School:  The curriculum emphasizes socialization, self-care, economic  usefulness and such academic teaching as each individual can handle.  Because many of the pupils have physical as well as mental handicaps,  emphasis is placed on instruction which increases motor skills and muscle and finger dexterity. Much of the training is usual. The children are 74  taught to recognize the importance of traffic signs; how to behave in  public; how to get along with each other; respect for authority; the importance of always being neat and clean. Older girls are taught cooking, sewing, and home management. Boys learn to keep the grounds  neat. (VN Aug. 19, 1965)  By this time the credibility of the school and staff was established. Every teacher,  Peggy Zemla reported, had upgraded his/her qualifications. (VN March 5,  1962). Dorothy Alexander came on staff in 1962 and was named head teacher at  My School in 1966, a position she still holds.  In 1959 the provincial government made it possible for schools for the mentally handicapped to operate from a solid and permanent financial base. The per  student grant was considerably increased and policy changes made it possible for  school boards to take over schools such as My School and to provide the  necessary buidings and facilities. The establishment of a chair of special education at UBC made further teacher upgrading possible. The Minister of Education announced that "this is the first time in Canada that the education of this  group of handicapped children has been recognized as a public school responsibility". It was also the first time the Vernon and District Association for the  Retarded could make new and grand plans.  For My School, this new direction meant a new modern building at a new  location. Led by Dr. H.W. Inkster, the Association worked diligently and persuaded Vernon School Board (S.D. 22) to take advantage of the new amendments. The School Board agreed to take on this responsibility and included the  costs of a new building in a school referendum. On October 20, 1961, the new  My School was officially opened at the east end of West Vernon Elementary  School grounds. The cost of the new buiding was $20,000.00, two thirds of  which was paid by the Ministry of Education. The local association was responsible for furnishing the building and paying the additional costs. The facilities  included two classrooms, an activity room, a kitchen and a covered play area.  The Association believes that My School was the first school built in British Columbia under the new cost sharing legislation. School District No. 22 had helped  My School before, and had been providing a bus since 1959. A new activity  room was added to My School in 1970, financed by monies raised in a local  'March'. Later, an additional classroom was constructed out of the covered play  area and in 1980 extensive renovations resulted in a better library and staff  room. The school operated under the Vernon and District Association for the  Retarded until 1972 when it became the full responsibility of School District No.  22. The district agreed to keep the existing staff.  The recent emphasis in the education of mentally handicapped children is  on integration, as much as possible, with the regular school system. The severely handicapped and autistic children are now the main beneficiaries of the environment at My School.  As the pupils of My School grew older the people of Vernon began hearing  about retarded adults. The question arose as to what could be done to improve  their situation and the Vernon and District Association for the Retarded began  to apply its energies to the creation of a sheltered workshop. This meant a  carefully supervised environment in which the workers would learn basic skills  together and use them cooperatively to produce goods that could be sold, thus  contributing to their own upkeep a well as to that of the workshop. My School 75  existed for children and the government grant only applied to those 18 years of  age and under. Dr. Art Sovereign referred to the needs of the older group at the  dedication in 1958 of the My School building at All Saint's Church:  Older children, past school age, need to be assisted and prepared for  sheltered employment where possible. Their sheltered job opportunities  need to be explored, he declared, so that these youngsters can take advantage of them and contribute to their own welfare and become productive members of society. (VN 1958 - Feb.)  The possibilities of using sheltered workshops to help the mentally handicapped  came to Canada about 1950 but the workshop concept itself was not new. Other  groups in British Columbia already were served by such workshops: these included the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society and the Canadian Institute for the Blind. By 1959 there existed in Canada 24 special vocational  facilities for retarded adults and a conference on sheltered employment was held  in Ste. Adele, Quebec, in 1962 (footnote). Alice Howsam claims that  knowledgeable people in B.C. were pioneers in the development of such  workshops. (VNOct. 7, 1965).  One of the knowledgeable people in the Vernon area was Edna Oram. The  idea of a sheltered workshop here, says Stewart Fraser, was her 'brain child', (p.  3). A social worker and member of the Vernon and District Association for the  Retarded, she began collecting material on sheltered workshops. She says, "We  wrote to every source we could discover for information about the workshop."  (EO papers). She collected material from the First Conference on Mental Retardation held in Calgary, September, 1958, at which sheltered workshops were  discussed. The local Association for the Retarded formed a sheltered workshop  sub-committee on which Edna Oram served and the push was on.  The sheltered workshop concept was new everywhere and there was considerable hesitation in the Association to begin too quickly lest mistakes be  made. When the workshop idea was first discussed "the Association said a  workshop could not be started with less that $5,000. cash on hand, and they had  no idea when or where they would get this sum." (note). It was also considered  essential to employ professionally trained staff. But the Association did have  $1,000 and after months of visiting workshops, researching and planning, the  Venture Training Centre and Workshop opened in October 1962. The first  facility was an old rented house located at 2800 - 35th Street (since demolished)  and was furnished with two borrowed tables, six borrowed chairs, a few pencils  and scissors. (EO P.) Bishop Sovereign was more critical, describing the place  as "three little, mouldy rooms in a slum shack". (VN Feb. 24, 1966). The  name 'Venture' was suggested by A.C. Womull (S.F. 3) (See also VN Oct. 29,  1962). 'Training' and 'Workshop' appeared in the name to represent the two  areas of service provided by Venture. The first staff consisted of one part-time  paid person and there were three and soon four workers. (VN Oct. 29, 1962)  In September, 1963, Alice Howsam took over as manager from Mrs. Essie  Ford and remained in that position for the next thirteen years. By 1964 10  trainees were attending Venture and it was apparent that the Centre was a success, both in enrollment and in the amount of work coming in. The Association  began to plan for larger premises.  In September, 1965, the Vernon News announced that Venture was to acquire new buildings on Old Kamloops Road on property donated by the 76  Kinsmen. The Kinsmen also provided voluntary labour and money. Their contributions along with those of other interested individuals totalled $40,000. A  government grant covered 1/3 of the cost of the new building and Venture was  left with a mortgage of only $11,000. Necessary workshop and other equipment  was donated by many local organizations — the Lions Club, for example,  donated Kitchen equipment worth $1,400. (VN June 20, 1966, p. 11) — and  the new Venture Training Centre was officially opened February 21, 1966.  Venture Training Centre and Workshop was intended for people in the  North Okanagan and not only Vernon. It attracted more and more workers.  They came from all over British Columbia and even from out of the province. A  screening committee was established and workers were admitted on a 6-month  trial basis. To remain permanently the workers had to demonstrate an acceptable level of emotional stability, self care and productivity. (Venture, Mimeo,  1965, p. 1). The over 20 trainees in 1966 grew to 30 by 1970 and to over 50 by  the mid 1970's, and to about 75 by 1980. Building expansion again became  necessary. The building was enlarged by {A in 1971. Much landscaping and  fencing was done in 1973.  A sheltered workshop needs to be financially subsidized. "Although income from earnings is increasing each year, the principal emphasis has always  been and continues to be service to the handicapped. For this reason it is very  doubtful if the operation will ever become totally self-supporting". (Venture,  Mimeo, p. 4) The Association for the Retarded has constantly sought out  sources of funding but even so Venture has been constantly hampered by a  shortage of funds. As with My School, voluntary donations from the community  were vital at first and have remained important. When United Appeal started in  Vernon the Association joined and became a major recipient of United Appeal  funds, much of which was given to Venture Training Centre. In 1973 about  $5,000 was received in this way and in 1978 $4,400. In 1968 the Association  sponsored the March for the Retarded — an idea of the Harold Fosters — and  the results were so good that the March has been continued every year since.  Monies raised in this way enabled Venture to pay off its mortgage and to  finance two building extensions. One of the best years was 1975 when the  March netted $14,500 for the Association. From time to time monthly levies  have been charged to the trainees, as in 1969, when they were assessed $10 per  month "until the financial situation is improved." (69 Ann. Report). From the  beginning government funding helped with buildings but over the years more  and more reliance has been placed on government funding for operating costs.  By 1979 the government grant covered more than 50% of the total expenses of  $159,000. (1979 report).  A variety of work projects was attempted, some on Venture premises, and  some elsewhere. Local bowling alleys used Venture labour for pin setting in the  days before this process was automated. Another outside contract involves bottle  sorting for Wometco. At Venture there is routine office work — stuffing  envelopes, folding and collating printed material. Party favours and decorations  for Christmas and other occasions are made. Vernon Winter Carnival decorations provide annual work. Packaging in plastic bags has been attempted. Much  space is given to woodwork and carpentry. In 1971 Venture began to produce  Rustic Furniture and according to Alice Howsam, the manager then, this  resulted,   "From a business angle,  (in) the best year we have ever had." 77  (Report, 1971). From its early days on, Venture paid allowances to the trainees,  to give them some of the satisfaction, responsibility and incentives of regular  workers.  In Venture's early days Bishop Sovereign referred to it as the "High  School of My School". This comment is indicative of a certain ambivalence in  the purpose of the place and a clear and single statement of objectives has not yet  emerged. Is the place a 'workshop' or a 'training' place? Are the people there  workers or trainees? For example, a few workers have left Venture and entered  the regular work force. Objectives are usually stated in broad terms:  1. To provide useful life experience for the retardate outside his family setting  in which he can continue after his parents pass on or are no longer able to  care for him.  2. To increase socialization by learning to work in co-operation with one  another and by taking part in community activities.  3. To seek out and increase latent abilities and interests and provide work  within the capability of each worker to successfully accomplish. This work to  be of value to the community.  4. To increase verbal communication and word skill which enable the workers  to express themselves with confidence in the workshop, at home, socially and  in the community.  5. To provide training in specific skills leading to employment in the community for those capable of becoming self-supporting; to provide permanent  sheltered employment for those incapable of competing in a competitive  work setting. (Venture, Mimeo, 1965, p. 1)  The overall emphasis in Venture continues to be on the "workshop" concept  and a real effort is made that all contribute to production. At the same time  practical and academic training are included. Since 1966 time has been taken  for academic work for the trainees. Teaching and experience is also given in  shopping, cooking, and mending clothes. Often Friday afternoons are times of  recreation and entertainment. Some feel there could be a greater emphasis on  efficient organization for production. Edna Oram feels that often parents and  members of the Association for the Retarded object to a businesslike approach  because they envisage anything connected with business as being hard-headed  and cold. She writes that the Association does not "find it easy to accept the difference between operating a school and a workshop . . . The old concept of  retardates being 'eternal children' dies hard". (EO papers). Oram also feels that  to gain more perspective the opinions of concerned parents and a few of the professional staff need to be supplemented by the involvement and ideas of others in  the community. (EO papers)  Despite the ongoing debate the sheltered workshop concept has been  generally accepted and Venture has been praised as a good example of one. Early in its history it was recognized for the "outstanding work being done with the  handicapped in centres of 10,000 population ... It has been proven that a  sheltered workshop can operate and fill a need in other than large centres of  population". (EO papers). In 1964 Alice Howsam reported that at a national  conference on workshops she had attended Venture had been lauded "as an example of an ideal workshop in a smaller community". (VN Oct. 7, 1964 [?]).  Later she also stated: "From the early concept of an activity centre where people 78  put in time to learn a few social skills we have progressed to the degree that  training is given in actual work skills, and the situation at Venture is as near as  possible to a normal work situation." (VN Aug. 25, 1976 p. 17)  In the late 1970's Venture survived a major financial crisis. The management decided to push Venture's products more aggressively and a new storage  shed was constructed to meet the anticipated demand, especially in furniture.  This enterprise failed and Venture was left with a large debt. This experience  resulted in a shake-up in the staffing and some difficult years until the debt was  cleared up. As the Venture staff has gained in experience it has leaned less on  the Vernon and District Association for the Retarded. Sale and production decisions need to be made quickly and cannot wait months for a volunteer organization to reach a consensus. The Association remains important and has looked to  other ways of assisting the handicapped in living a more meaningful life. As in  the past, the Association recruits volunteers and raises funds for Venture and for  special projects involving the handicapped. It also has been instrumental in  establishing a Boarding Home Program, and in helping some of the adults get  established in their own apartments.  HEAD Teachers of My School  1955 - 56 Pearl Hooper  1956-58 Kay Cumming  1958-66        Peggy Zemla  1966 - present Dorothy Alexander  Managers of Venture Training Centre  1962-63  1963- 76  1976-78  1978-79  1979-80  Essie Ford  Alice Howsam  Hugh Allison  Claudette Everitt  Joe Brown  1980 - present Brian Kelly  Presidents of the Vernon and District Association for the Retarded  1955  56  Stewart Fraser  1957  Aubrev Reed  1958  59  A. E. Sovereign  1960  61  H. W. Inkster  1962  C. M. Hamiltor  1963  Jack Arrand  1964  65  Stuart Phare  1966  Jack Arrand  1967  68  Olive Finlayson  1969  70  Fern Stutsky  1971  72  R. J. Barry  1972  Steve Makarenko  1973  74  Cecil Schmidt  1975  77  Gary Hobelman  1978  79  John Ramsdale  1980  Ken Altina  1981  82  Ronald Usher  LAME WING  He can flutter now, and is  the old man to the goslings.  Alone on the rock  A goose with a broken wing  At the water's edge.  Evelyn Lundy 79  LOCAL MUSEUMS  When the Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society was founded  September 4, 1925 it was the first community organization devoted to the understanding, recording, and preservation of both our natural and social environment. Since  that time other societies have been formed which serve particular aspects of those functions: the Naturalist Clubs, the Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Association, the Heritage  Associations and the Local Museums and Art Galleries to name a few. Projects have  often been facilitated because members serve, at the same time, in several of these  organizations. But, perhaps more importantly, the new societies have attracted the  interest and energies of whole new groups of people to the cause of preserving our  heritage, a development in which the Okanagan Historical Society rejoices.  Below is a listing of Local Museums in our region. Some have achieved stability,  permanence, and professionalism. Others are on their way.  Salmon Arm Museum, under the direction of the Salmon Arm Museum  and Heritage Association, Box 1642, Salmon Arm VOE 2T0. (President: Mrs.  Helenita Harvey, phone 832-3033). Local and travelling historic and art exhibits. Permanent collection includes pictures and documents related to Salmon  Arm and Shuswap life and business. Museum hours to be announced as this  year museum is dependent upon a volunteer roster. The Association is currently busy preparing a heritage property 3 miles east of town to receive bed  and breakfast guests during the summer.  Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum, corner of Bridge and Railway Streets  near Armstrong City Hall. The museum, long a dream in the hearts and minds  of local organizers, had its physical beginning in June 1983 when the City of  Armstrong offered space in the former Armstrong Machine Shop, itself an  historic site. The Municipality of Spallumcheen made a cash donation. An  orderly plan for development was worked out and successful applications made  for a N.E.E.D. grant from the Federal Government, for a Lottery Fund Grant  from the Provincial Government and for a Canada Works Grant. The building  was ready for an official opening October 29, 1983. Donation of artifacts by  local citizens as well as hours of devoted volunteer work throughout the project made it possible to hold the formal opening of the museum July 4, 5 and  6, 1984. The museum will concentrate on local history. Displays include replicas  of the old Railway Station, Henry Hope's Blacksmith Shop, an old-fashioned  General Store and a Schoolroom. The Society plans to keep the museum open  to the public on a full time basis from mid-May each year until after the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  Greater Vernon Museum and Archives in the Museum-Library Complex, (3009 - 32nd Avenue, Vernon V1T 2L8. Phone: 542-3142.) Curator:  Judith Gosselin. Museum mounts rotating displays some of which are travelling exhibits. Permanent collection includes a photograph collection, documents,  relating to North Okanagan and Shuswap history, copies oiThe Vernon News  since its inception in 1891 (also on microfilm and indexed to 1906), Indian  arrowheads and baskets, mounted birds and animals, local rocks and minerals,  1909 town coach, ethnic collections, pioneer artifacts, 1906 Metz car, 1869  square grand piano. Complete set of O.H.S. Reports. Under a Cultural Services Grant, the museum hires an educational coordinator who spends three  days a week in the schools of the area. The museum is open six days a week  from 10:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m.  O'Keefe Ranch and Interior Heritage Society, 12 km North of Ver- 80  non on Highway 97B. P.O. Box 955, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M8. Phone  542-7868. Manager: Mike Osborn. Operated by City of Vernon. Ranch includes restored original structures and reconstructions of the ranch settlement  — church, log house, bunkhouse for Chinese cook, O'Keefe home with pictures, clothing, business records of the Okanagan family. Admission charged.  Open daily 9:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. from May 15 to Sept. 15. Off-season  tours available.  Emergency Services Museum, Vernon, governed by Ambulance  Employees' Union of B.C. Collection includes photographs, uniforms, vehicles  and equipment used by the Ambulance Service of B.C. before 1974 when the  Provincial Government assumed responsibility for this service.  Kelowna Centennial Museum and National Exhibition Centre, 470  Queensway, Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 6S7. Phone 763-2417. Curator: Ursula  Surtees. Rotating displays. Permanent displays: reconstructed pit house (Interior Salish winter home), a 1910 street scene, a Chinese store. Collection  includes fossils, pioneer and Interior Salish artifacts, material relating to fur  trade, a considerable Chinese collection, documents related to fruit industry.  Museum artifacts catalogued; archival holdings in process of being catalogued.  Some local newspapers on microfilm. Complete set of O.H.S. Reports. Open  July 1 - August 31: Monday-Saturday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Sunday 2:00  p.m. to 5 p.m. September 1 -June 30: Tuesday - Saturday 10:00 a.m. to 5:00  p.m. No charge.  Father Pandosy Mission, Benvoulin Road, Kelowna. Several restored  and furnished log structures which present the early days of the Mission founded  in 1859. Outdoor collection of agricultural and other equipment. Open Spring,  Summer and Fall from 9:00 a.m. to Dusk. No charge.  Westbank Museum and Arts and Crafts Society, 2736 Solloun Road,  Westbank. Besides offering facility for those interested in the arts and crafts  the centre provides a heritage repository. Society tries to keep centre open from  9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. during summer months.  Peachland Museum, 5890 Beach Avenue. Eight-sided structure built as  a church 1919. Has since served as the Municipal Office (1963-65), Parks and  Recreation Hall (1965-1973), Fire Brigade Hall and Office (1973-1981) and  since 1983 as a Library downstairs and a Museum upstairs. Displays present  early days in Peachland and are prepared by the Peachland Historical Society, Box 244, Peachland V0H 1X0. President: Richard Smith. In the summer  of 1984 the Society was able to keep the museum open Tuesday - Friday from  9:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.  Summerland Museum and Arts Society, 9521 Wharton Street. (Mailing address: Box 1491, Summerland, B.C. V0H 1Z0.) About twenty-one years  ago a small group of citizens decided that a museum was a must in Summerland.  Their work and perseverence came to fruition in 1983 when the Municipality  received a grant from the Federal Government to construct a building for  museum use. Collection includes items to do with history of Summerland and  its pioneer families. A recent acquisition was the pillars and picture panels used by the Dominion Department of Agriculture at exhibitions across Canada  in the late 1920s and early 1930s, a unique item. Open Tuesday - Saturday,  1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. No charge. Curator: Ursula Richardson.  The R.N. (REG) Atkinson Museum, Penticton, Community Arts Cen- 81  tre, 785 Main Street, Penticton, B.C. V2A 5E3 (Phone: 492-6025). Museum  began with R. N. Atkinson's private collection displayed on the beached S.S.  Sicamous with Mr. Atkinson as curator. Collection moved to Community Arts  Centre in 1965. After Mr. Atkinson's death in 1973, Joseph G. Harris was  appointed curator and served until his retirement in 1984. Mr. Harris's extensive knowledge of the area fitted him well to serve also as Chairman of the  first Penticton Museum and Archives Advisory Committee in 1971. Museum  was given its present name in 1974. Director of Museum and Archives from  November 1, 1984: N. L. (Bill) Barlee. Museum plans for the immediate future  are to gradually become a "theme" museum with an emphasis on the B.C.  Interior and the South Okanagan in particular. The acquisition and exhibition of local artifacts will remain a priority and the Interior Salish, the Hudson's Bay Company, Militaria, Natural History, Placer and Hard Rock Mining, Ranches, Sternwheelers, Kettle Valley Railroad, Early Settlers and other  collections will remain as the nucleus of the museum's thrust. Complete set  of O.H.S. Reports.  Okanagan Falls Heritage & Museum Society are restoring 1909 house  which will serve as a museum.  Oliver Heritage Society Museum and Archives, Oliver at 6th St. and  2nd Ave. Museum had its inception in May 1979 when Arthur McCuddy spoke  to June Phillips about his desire to have his family history preserved. The preservation of family histories remains a priority of Archivist Don Hamilton. The  idea of a local museum received enthusiastic support of citizens like Sue Morhun  (Society's first chairman) and Don Corbishly. An anonymous donor gave $500.  The Society leased the old R.C.M.P. building from the B.C. Building Corporation, a building which has since been turned over to the Village for museum  use at a minimal cost. The museum has had the support of the Village of Oliver  and of the Regional District, the latter passing a referendum for "a grant in  aid" in 1984. Projects have benefited from B.C. Heritage Trust grants and  the Katimavik program. Marilyn Simmons, Curator from 1980, has overseen  a Public Extension Education Program for both adults and children, travelling displays, the preparation of a vacation guide for visitors to Oliver, a  children's paper called "Muse News," and the creation of a video "The Ditch  — Its Life," a history of the South Okanagan irrigation system from 1919 to  the present. Student employment programs of both Federal and Provincial  Governments have eased the burden on volunteer docents. Besides preserving  the district's heritage the Society points out that in its four years of existence  it has employed 23 people and brought into the community $220,000 of outside money. Open weekdays.  Osoyoos Museum, located beside the Gyro Community Park at the south  end of Main Street and operated by Osoyoos Museum Society with support  of Town of Osoyoos. (President: Doris McDonald, Secretary: Andrea Dujardin-  Flexhaug). Museum had benefited from Winter Works Program and Student  Employment Programs. Collection includes: antique fire engine; a democrat;  a dugout canoe raised from depths of Osoyoos Lake; an old log cabin which  has served as government house, jail and schoolhouse; a Victorian diningroom;  Indian artifacts — arrowheads, pestles, soapstone pipes; Indian artwork by  children of Osoyoos Band (Inkameep); papers of the Society for the Revival  of Indian Arts and Crafts; Photos, newspaper clippings and objects belonging 82  to pioneer families including Kruger and Haynes, nature collection including  butterflies of area. The Katie Lacey Memorial Library includes early O.H.S.  Reports as well as other books, some of which are now rare, about the South  Okanagan. The library is named in honour of Katie Lacey (1900-1964) whose  enthusiasm for the community's history was largely responsible for the opening of the museum June 15, 1963. Open daily during summer months. Society members very generous in accommodating researchers at other seasons.  South Similkameen Museum Society, Keremeos, at 6th Ave. and 4th  St. (President: Doreen Smith, Box 135, Keremeos. Phone 499-5746). Collections includes photos and artificats relating to Indians and pioneer families of  Keremeos, Cawston, Olalla, Hedley and Similkameen. Summer hours dependent on grants. Society supports Grist Mill project.  Keremeos Grist Mill, on Keremeos Creek a few miles northeast of  Keremeos. The 3-acre site is delightful. The mill was built by Barrington Price  in 1877. It and the adjacent log building in 1974 were designated an Historic  Site under the British Columbia Archaeological and Historic Sites Protection  Act. In 1979 the British Columbia Heritage Trust acquired mill and 3 acres  and restoration is in progress.  Hedley Heritage, Arts and Crafts Society (Secretary - Miss Helen M.  Moore, Box 218, Hedley VOX 1K0). Museum being planned to be located  in log barn on Society's heritage property, Daly Ave. and Haynes St. Emphasis to be Hedley, mining and social history. At present mini-displays arranged in Hedley Heritage House on Society property. Open daily during summer as a Tourist Information stop.  Princeton and District Museum and Archives, Museum and Library  Building. (Mail: Box 281, Princeton VOX 1W0). The museum began as a  Centennial Project in 1958, spear-headed by a small group of enthusiastic and  hardworking citizens who had cash assets of $100. In 1970 they moved to the  present building built by the town of Princeton. First exhibits were of local  and pioneer items but, later, displays of more general interest have been  mounted. Collection includes pioneer memorabilia, Indian artifacts and arrowheads, Chinese and other Eastern articles, special collections of china, textiles, leather and laces. The museum holds a large fossil collection. Curator:  Helen Coyle (Phone: 295-7569). Archivist: Margaret Stoneberg (Phone:  295-3362). Open 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. during the summer and at other times  for special projects. Archival and historical material available on request.  Silver Lake Logging Museum. On Brenda Mine's road from Peachland.  Indoor, outdoor and hands-on exhibits of logging industry. All year camp  grounds. Outdoor education programs. For more information: Canadian  Forestry Ass. of B.C., 2417 Hwy. 97N, Kelowna V1X 4J2. 83  TRIBUTE & BIOGRAPHY  KATHLEEN STUART DEWDNEY — 1890 - 1985  by Mollie Broderick  Webster states a Mentor is "A wise advisor," "a teacher," "a coach."  Kathleen Dewdney was indeed my "Mentor." But she was more than that  — she was my friend and inspiration. And she was just that to countless others  within the ranks of the Okanagan Historical Society. She served as both President and Secretary of the Penticton Branch of the Society and from 1968 until  1970 she was President of the Parent Body. In 1978 Mrs. Dewdney was elected  a Life Member of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Kathleen Dewdney died in her home in Penticton on February 7, 1985  at age 94. The large group of friends who attended the funeral service at St.  Saviour's Church in Penticton bore eloquent testimony to the value placed on  the life of this noble and gracious woman whose idea in living was to be of  service to others.  Born in Calgary, Alberta on October 17, 1890, Kathleen Stuart Ferguson  came to Midway when the family moved to that small British Columbia settlement in 1898. After attending school there and graduating from teacher training in Vancouver, B.C., she returned to the Boundary country to teach in the  little log schoolhouse on Ingram Mountain near Kettle Valley.  In 1912 she married Walter Robert Dewdney, Government Agent at  Greenwood, acquiring a name significant in our country's history. Proud of  her own pioneer background and that of her husband, Kathleen "lived and  breathed history."  Predeceased by a son, Walter Ferguson Dewdney in 1955, her husband  in 1956, and her only daughter, Kathleen Rose Davis in 1961, she is survived  by two sons, Edgar Dewdney, a barrister and solicitor in Penticton and Harold  Stuart Dewdney, a civil engineer in Pasadena, California. There are nine grandchildren and five great grandchildren. 84  PADDY CAMERON: HORSEMAN, SOLDIER, FARMER,  AND GOOD CITIZEN  Gilbert Douglas Cameron was born in 1892 at Edgeley, Assiniboia Territory. He came to Kelowna in 1903 when the family purchased part of the  Guisachan Ranch owned by the Earl of Aberdeen, Governor General 1893-98.  On his father's death in 1910 he returned from school in Victoria to manage  the farm before his 18th birthday. He enlisted in 1914, serving with the B.C.  Horse, the Strathcona Horse and later the 27th Battalion. Promoted to commissioned rank in 1917, he was wounded in France and awarded the M.C.  In peacetime and during World War Two he commanded a militia company  in Kelowna.  In 1919 he returned to the Guisachan property and occupied the original  Aberdeen house until shortly before his death in December 1984. He and Mrs.  Cameron ran a mixed farm which included for a time a Grade "A" Guernsey  dairy licensed to sell unpasteurized milk delivered door to door. Paddy's range  of interests was wide and dedicated to the community. While farming he found  time to be a militia officer, secretary of the Guisachan Water Users District,  a founding member of the riding Club, president of the Interior Provincial  Exhibition and president of the O.H.S., chairing the Pandosy Mission Restoration committee for many years. However, his first interest was undoubtedly  horses and he was known as a champion rider in jumping events, etc. He was  also noted for his reluctance to put down a horse no longer useful, often keeping the animal as a pensioner.  Mr. Cameron was predeceased by his wife Elaine in 1978 and by two  brothers: Ian, in France in 1917, and Alister, in Kelowna in 1970. He is survived by one son Bill of Kelowna, four grandchildren and three greatgrandchildren. His long, active and useful life should be the subject of a comprehensive biography in a future O.H.S. Report. (In 1978 Mr. Cameron was  made a life member of O.H.S.)  MILDRED ISABELLE RENWICK  Contributed by W. J. Ev. Greenaway  Born in Miami, Manitoba in 1897, Miss Renwick came with her family  to a farm in Benvoulin in 1906. She attended the nearby Mission Creek School  from its opening in January 1908 until completing Grade 8. After high school  she took teacher training. Her career began in the one-room schoolhouse at  Bear Creek and continued in four different elementary school buildings near  downtown Kelowna before she retired in 1962.  She was a member of the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association from  its inception, sang in the choir of First United Church for many years and  was a keen golfer, being awarded the Captain's Trophy in the ladies' section  of the Kelowna Golf Club in 1934. Growing up in the early years of the  automobile age, she drove a car until failing eyesight forced the surrender of 85  her license. In retirement she was able to satisfy a life-long ambition to travel  to several countries overseas.  Miss Renwick was predeceased by her brother Harold in Vancouver and  her sisters Jessie and Alice (Mrs. Karl Munro) in Kelowna. She continued to  occupy the family home, a large pseudo-sandstone house built in 1912 at 987  Glenn (now Lawrence) Ave., until moving to an apartment shortly before she  died in 1983.  SIMILKAMEEN'S FIRST PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE 1927-1929  KATHLEEN SNOWDEN  by Ivan E. Phillips  Many impressions made in early childhood remain indelibly imprinted  on the mind. Kathleen Snowden remembered that at the age of seven she had  decided to become a nurse. She had listened spellbound as her mother related  to friends the routine of a trainee nurse in St. Bartholomew's hospital, London, England, around the turn of the century.  Kathleen grew up in the foothills of Alberta. But she had decided that  her training must be in the hospital of her own choosing — the Royal Jubilee  at Victoria.  In those early training days she was often disturbed by what she saw and  heard. On one occasion she overheard two doctors talking: "What a pity,"  said the first, "that we did not see this patient sooner." "Yes, indeed," the  other replied. "We might have done something for him. Now it is too late."  As graduation time approached, it was the custom of the Victorian Order  of Nurses to publicize the work that their Order was doing in the province  and in Canada as a whole. The purpose of this publicity was the improvement  and maintenance of public health which meant the need was for more and more  nurses. Thus demonstrations, talks and lectures were staged for the graduate  nurses. Kae's goal was to serve in rural areas. She had no love for city life.  She became interested in the V.O.N, which, she knew, carried on much of  its work in country districts.  However, in 1927 Dr. N. E. Young, the Deputy Minister of Health, was  re-organizing the Public Health Service. He, too, needed nurses urgently. A  healthy competition developed between the services.  In order to encourage more graduates to take the Public Health Nursing  Course offered by the University of B.C., Dr. Young inaugurated six week  courses at Duncan or Saanich. After completing one of these courses the class  was expected to go "all out" for the U.B.C. Public Health Nurses Course.  It was an eventful year for Kae. Beginning in May, 1927 she slogged her  way through these courses. Then with trepidation she awaited her first appointment. Given a choice of four districts, she chose Keremeos and Cawston. Young  and inexperienced, the first trained public health nurse appointed for the district,  she knew she could expect to encounter some prejudice and opposition.  Past emphasis had been bedside nursing. This had been performed by  Kae's predecessors, notably Mrs. Pat Clark. Now in different days there would  be different ways. On this point the Public Health Department was adamant.  A preventive program was essential. However, in practice, and over a period  of time, it was found there was still much of the old type of nursing needed.  And it was difficult to bypass this if one had a conscience. 86  One of Kae's first duties was to support the continuance of a school program. At the time of her appointment the population of Keremeos and Cawston  was approximately 500. To ease expenses, Kae suggested that the Olalla and  Hedley schools be included and that the Indians be covered in the health arrangement. She realized that her appointment had meant additional expense  and times were tough. There was the threat of codling moth in the orchards,  the pressing need for improvement of the water system, and poor returns from  fruit.  Kathleen Snowden  with her car  Kathleen Snowden  1928  At first Kae managed to make her rounds on foot or on horseback but  she soon realized that she must have a car and with a loan of $300 from the  Department she bought a two-door Ford sedan. With one front seat folded  forward and an apple box between the seats plus a single mattress it served  in an emergency as an ambulance.  It was not long before she found that running a car was an expensive  business. Even though the Women's Institute gave her ten dollars for gas and  maintenance the car remained a constant drain on her small salary. On one  occasion an oil cock, accidentally knocked open, resulted in the loss of oil and  a burned-out engine. The bill was for $70. The following year she traded her  Ford for a Chevrolet roadster. This proved a poor exchange. In the cold weather  it was exasperating to start it and the number of times it became stuck in drifts  defied memory.  Kae remembered her first lesson in diplomacy. Inadvertently she had stirred up a hornets' nest. Thinking it might be of interest, she wrote a report  of the unusual aspects of her work in the two villages. Rather than quoting  statistics she had taken what she considered a more interesting approach and  sent it to the Public Health annual. A number of people thought otherwise,  vehemently declaring that she had held them all up to ridicule. Some raised 87  voices in the young nurse's defence, but a vociferous faction demanded she  be called upon to resign. Eventually the storm subsided. Kae harboured no  resentment realizing she still had a lot to learn.  There were times when Kae was actually frightened. Once, while the  teacher with whom she was sharing a small house was away on vacation, Kae  was startled out of a deep sleep by a thunderous hammering on her door. It  was 2 a.m. and black outside. "Open the door," a man's voice cried. "Open  the door!"  Quaking she debated whether to unlock the door. Again the frenzied demand, "Open the door!" She turned the key. Two men stood on the step.  "We have a man hurt bad in the car. Will you help us bring him into the  house? We don't want a fuss." Kae peered into the car. A man lay on the  floor. At first glance it looked as if it was too late. They carried him into the  house and put him on the couch.  "It was a sight I shall never forget" said Kae. "The man's clothing was  a sticky mess of yellow yolk and broken egg shells from a crate of broken eggs  and the reek of liquor filled the house." As the man's shirt was opened large  blobs and clots of congealed blood slithered to the floor. Kae quickly contacted  the provincial police constable who could establish communication with the  outside world by instructing the telephone operator to open the switchboard.  The roads were in bad condition. Snow blanketed the pass and two icy  ruts made the journey between Pentiction and Keremeos hazardous. Yet Dr.  Roy Walker eventually made it, though he ripped off a tire and had to leave  his car in Keremeos. They were able to transport the wounded man to Pentiction in Kae's emergency amubulance. The examination revealed that one knife  thrust had penetrated the man's lung.  As to the cause of the quarrel, Kae learned later that it was a demonstration of cousinly love. A disagreement arose between the cousins which could  only be settled by a fight with knives. The fight occurred on the flats of the  old Horn Silver Mines, now known as the Utica Mines. The third man had  acted as a second to both antagonists. When the injured man recovered, all  was forgiven and the cousins resumed their normal relationship.  Another incident occurred in the same family shortly afterwards. This time  the patient was a girl with a broken arm who was in pain and suffering from  shock. Only by persistent questioning did the girl tell how, after a drinking  party, men and women had crammed into an overloaded car and ended up  with the car hitting a telephone pole.  Throughout her stay of two years Kae not only became accepted but literally graduated as maid of all work. This was particularly demonstrated by the  Indians who came to her with their troubles. When the Chief of the Band died  of T.B. they asked Kae to fumigate his cabin. Another instance was that of  a very young mother with a doll-like daughter who had a perisistent cough.  The mother pleaded for help. These repeated requests led Kae to consult Dr.  Young, urging him to make representation to the Department of Indian Affairs on the Indians' behalf. This he did, and the facilities of the Public Health  Service were made available to the Indians on the Reserve.  Early one morning someone was pushed against Kae's door with a crash.  She recognized the man as the little Chinese laundry-man, beaten and bleeding  profusely. He was scared and embarrassed finding himself with the young nurse 88  clad only in a dressing gown. It seemed that three or four of his customers  had forcibly expressed their displeasure with his service. Although his wounds  were superficial the doctor had to be called. The cost was $35 for the doctor's  service and 50' for the dressings provided by Kae. The Chinese's gratitude  took practical and, at times, embarrassing forms. He insisted that he alone  would do Kae's laundry and became quite angry if by chance he saw her taking her uniforms elsewhere. From time to time roasted chickens garnished with  fresh, scrubbed vegetables would be on the table when Kae returned.  During the two years Kae was in Keremeos and Cawston the general health  of the population progressively improved. Only one outbreak of an infectious  disease was experienced — measles. Much of this improvement was due to  the people themselves maintaining a close watch on contacts and, whenever  possible, tracing outbreaks to their source. A few mild cases of polio were  reported after Kae left.  A program was designed for the schools. If at all possible each school was  called every day and information collected about absentees. These children  were visited. In addition, every month, each school child was weighed and examined and his or her teeth inspected. Besides this, once a year the medical  health officer visited the area.  Mothers and children received regular care by the Department through  the P.H.N. Every baby was examined and weighed each month and "Little  Mothers' Classes" were organized in Keremeos for one year and in Cawston  the next. Mothers and expectant mothers were taught the basic rules of child  health care. This knowledge was often sadly lacking among some of the Indians.  Some projects had to be abandoned due to the inadequacy of the government grant. For instance, it was impossible for a young dentist, in spite of  his dedication, to continue his clinic for children. He could not meet his expenses. And an eye specialist examined those children in need of his attention.  But, due to a misunderstanding he submitted bills to the parents who were  in no position to pay. The Women's Institute came to the rescue.  The whole area was saddened when Dr. McEwan, the Medical Health  Officer, died. He was widely esteemed. Following his death Kae was appointed  acting M.H.O. by young Dr. Young until a replacement could be found. She  was also appointed secretary to Dr. Francis, the M.H.O. for the Hedley Mine  and the coroner. Then came a federal appointment; Kae was named acting  Medical Health Officer for the Indians.  "Of course," Kae said with a laugh, "there was a snag in this. Believe  it or not, although it was a federal post, I received no pay. But then I didn't  get called upon to do anything — much!"  Kae married Clarence R. Adams and spent her married life in Summerland. Her interest in nursing continued throughout her life. "It's true,"  she said, "once a nurse — always a nurse." THE HERBERT HOME IN KELOWNA  by Frank Snowsell  The fine old house, which was the home of the Herbert family for forty  years, stood on the north-west corner of Harvey Avenue and Ethel Street until, in 1982, it was bulldozed down to make room for the six lanes proposed  for Highway 97. The address was 1684 Ethel Street.  The house had been built early in the 20th century for the Morrison family  who owned a hardware business in Kelowna. It was later owned by a Mr. Latta.  When Mr. Latta died, his estate offered the property to the tenants, Gordon  and Gladys Herbert. The Herberts had, September 1931, opened Herbert's  Business College, upstairs in the Casorso Block on Bernard Avenue.  The purchase price of the house and lot in 1932-33 was $5,000 with an  extra acre on the west side for an additional $500. The lawyer for this transaction was Mr. H. V. Craig.  The Herberts lived in this home until 1971. Gladys said: "I shed no tears  over leaving it. It was a grand old home for nearly forty years, but it demanded a lot of work."  Gladys Herbert provided the following information in 1982, twelve years  after Gordon's death.  It was a large house: downstairs — kitchen, living room, dining room  and spacious reception hall, as well as another good sized room which served  as an office. On the second floor were three generously sized bedrooms, and  the family bathroom. The north bedroom opened onto a porch, which was very  convenient for shaking rugs. (Few vacuum cleaners in the 1930's.) This porch  was later to become the bathroom for a second floor suite.  It happened that when Glady's father, George S. Morris, had come to  visit the Herberts the two younger boys, Douglas and Ralph, had been oblig-  1684 Ethel Street house after major alterations. Portion of new attic window at upper right. 90  ed to share a sleeping space on the glassed-verandah which stretched along  the south side of the house. This was rather cold in winter and, Doug, who  was about sixteen at the time, especially wanted a room of his own. Grandpa  suggested opening a linen closet on the second floor, which would allow a stairway access to a rough, unfinished area stretching the full length of the house,  thus making possible a large room on the third floor. Doug and Ralph were  delighted with this prospect. The room was wired for electricity and an opening with a metal grate allowed heat from a second floor bedroom to warm the  new attic room.  Who could have imagined that the old house could provide even further  possibilities. But, such was the case. In 1943, with the war effort receiving so  much attention, living space was at a premium in Kelowna. The city made  an urgent appeal for people with larger homes to offer accommodation to  teachers. The attic was available, but there was no bathroom there! The  Herberts sought the advice of a good builder who observed that there was  another unfinished space under the eaves that could be utilized.  This meant raising the roof over this area and extending the west wall  of the house to accommodate a stairway that would provide a private entrance  from Harvey to a projected self-contained suite. The original upstairs 'porch'  became the bathroom for the suite, which extended from north to south across  the back of the house.  As all three Herbert sons were away from home in war service, accommodation was available for three teachers. The attic provided a bedroom for  two, and the suite provided the necessary living arrangements for all three.  In this way, complete privacy was achieved for all concerned.  A further improvement was the enlargement of the living room at the front  of the house. Originally there had been a large bay window which provided  the only natural light for the living room. The window and the outside wall  were removed and the room extended to take in the front part of the large verandah, which extended around two sides of the house, and which served as a  sleeping porch. The bay window became a part of the new outer east wall and  was set in at right angles and flush with the old verandah roof.  Perhaps the most extensive and most difficult improvement was the  removal of the old lath and plaster and its replacement with gyproc. There  had been trouble with falling plaster ever since the house was purchased by  the Herberts. Apparently because the space between the old, wooden laths was  too narrow, there was not enough "key" to anchor the plaster. The very high  ceilings downstairs were replaced with "Donnaconna" a trade name for a  popular wall board in common use at the time. On the second floor, gyproc  was used for both walls and ceilings, as the ceilings were not so high.  Mrs. Herbert has some fascinating reminiscences about the remodelling.  In the early 1950s, Mr. Art Janz, who did the gyproc work, discovered that  the entire original ceiling in the north bedroom was held up only by the wall  paper. When he disturbed that, the entire ceiling crashed down. Fortunately,  no one was underneath.  In this same bedroom, when the paper was stripped from the walls, a  chimney-hole was discovered, with no protection except the wall paper! How  the house escaped burning down was a mystery, for the stoves downstairs all  had stove pipes leading to this main brick chimney. The new wiring for the 91  electric power was done by Mr. Elmer Crawford. Ernie Winter did the plumbing which made possible an extra toilet and basin as well as a laundry room  off the kitchen.  During the early days of the CCF/NDP, the Herbert House was known  affectionately as the Herbert Hotel. Despite family duties, teaching, business  and club duties, etc., Gladys was actively involved, as was Gordon, in the  Socialist movement. Their home provided bed and breakfast for many famous  speakers over the years. Guests included; Dr. Norman Bethune who established  fame for his "blood-bank" in the Spanish Civil War and, later, as a surgeon  with the Chinese Revolution; J. S. Woodsworth, first national leader of the  CCF; Grace and Angus Maclnnis; Stanley Knowles; Laura Jamieson, graduate  of Toronto University in 1908, Judge of the Juvenile Court in Burnaby and  in 1952, MLA for Vancouver Centre; David Lewis, MP, for a long time  secretary of the CCF and National Leader succeeding T. C. Douglas; Mildred  Osterhout Fahrni, pioneer CCFer, member of the Vancouver School Board,  instrumental in founding the International Fellowship for Reconciliation, the  Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and the Coalition for  Disarmament; Dorothy Gretchen Steeves, vigorous castigator of the capitalist  system and graduate of the University of Amsterdam, also one time MLA for  North Vancouver; E. J. Garland, M.P., of the United Farmers of Alberta;  Harold Winch, MLA, MP for Vancouver East who, with his father Ernest  Winch, established a record for the longest father-son membership in the B.C.  Legislature or in any legislature in the Commonwealth; and many international leaders of the Socialist parties from elsewhere in the world.  There were great discussions in the Herbert living room following the CCF  sponsored meetings in the old Scout Hall which stood on Bernard Avenue,  north side, about where Woolworth's store now is, or in the hall of First United  Church. Gladys Herbert recalls the emphasis placed on research and study  and the constant search for further information and understanding. J. S.  Woodsworth gave careful instruction on how to organize and conduct study  groups that would consider the evolution of the political and social life of the  English-speaking peoples. Two books considered essential for reference were  (1), "Social Planning for Canada", a joint publication by certain distinguished scholars: i.e., Frank Underhill, J. King Gordon, Eugene Forsey, Leonard  Marsh, Graham Spry, J. F. Partinson, and F. R. Scott (Head of the Department of Constitutional Law at McGill Unviersity for many years); and (2)  "Social Purpose for Canada", edited by Michael Oliver, which included articles by such well-known people as George Grant, Stuart Jamieson, Kenneth  McNaught, and even a short section by Pierre E. Trudeau.  With the disappearance of this old house, a home that played a significant part in Kelowna's history has vanished. The living-room has vanished  without a trace. But the results of the discussions held there, and the  achievements of the men and women who gathered and debated there remain;  achievements which affected not only Kelowna but the development of social  progress all across our nation. 92  THE HERBERT FAMILY  by Frank Snowsell  The Herbert family contributed in many ways to the history and development of Kelowna. Gladys and Gordon founded the Business College which,  from 1931 until they retired in 1960, developed effective typists, bookkeepers,  and shorthandists, hundreds of whom still recall their training upstairs in the  Casorso Building.  The Herberts had five children. The second son died in infancy. Garnet,  the eldest son, was born on the Herbert farm near Ninette, Manitoba. He  became a flight sergeant in the RCAF and was killed in action in an air raid  over Kassel, Germany. Ralph also joined the RCAF and remained in the permanent services until his retirement in 1971, with the rank of Major. During  his military career, he was honored with the Distinguished Flying Cross (DFC)  and Bar. Douglas' last assignment before peace was declared was a six months'  course in Combat Photography in New York City. His bedroom in the attic  at 1684 Ethel Street was set up, following his discharge from the services, for  his newest hobby, photography. In 1945, Doug entered the service of the City  of Kelowna and, by his retirement in 1978, was Administrator.  The Herbert's only daughter, Mona, graduated from the University of  Toronto in 1948 with the degree of Bachelor of Commerce. Mona married  Robert Brian Emslie, son of a pioneer builder in Kelowna. The young couple  lived for several years in Toronto, where Bob completed his course in Dentistry in 1951. Mona worked for the School of Social Work at the University.  The Golden Wedding Anniversary of Gordon and Gladys Herbert, with their children and grandchildren, June 14, 1965. Back Row: Diane Ellen Herbert (Mrs. Wim Van den Eerenbeemt); Nora  Lynn Herbert (Mrs. Barry Johnson); Joan Haldane Herbert (Mrs. Dale Crockford); Colin M.  Emslie, LL.B.; Robert B. Emslie, D.D.S.; Robert James Emslie, M.D.; Katherine E. Herbert.  Front Row: Douglas B. Herbert; Douglas Jr.; Nora Herbert; D. G. Herbert; Gordon Daniel  Herbert; Gladys Ellen Herbert; Mona Ruth Emslie, B.Com.; Major Ralph Gordon Herbert, CD.,  D.F.C. and Bar. 93  After graduation, the Emslies returned to Kelowna where Bob set up his dental practice and the Emslies continued the families' tradition of community  service. Mona died in 1983 of cancer.  When I interviewed Gladys Herbert on May 2nd, 1982, she was living  in the Joseph Benjamin residence, mentally alert as ever. She reads widely and  is better informed on propsects for the Space Age and the Computer Society  than many half her age. She intends to keep right up-to-date on what is going  on in the world. A short time before, Grace Maclnnis had visited Kelowna  and she and Gladys were able to meet. It was an inspiration to hear these two  pioneer spirits, after lifetimes of involvement with politics, recalling incidents  of the past and looking to the future with hope and vision. Grace, badly crippled  by arthritis; Gladys, comparatively vigorous after nearly nine decades of an  extremely active life; both lively in debate, often in significant disagreement,  eagerly encouraging those who falter, fear and doubt. Both women are true  examples of the spirit of which another great woman, Pearl Buck wrote:  "Idealism and enthusiasm are not the same thing. Enthusiasm may be only physical,  the youth and strength of the body making the spirit gay. But idealism may live on,  though the body be aged and broken, for it is the essential quality of the soul which  has it."  THE BLUEJAY  Mist pressed its grey face  on my window  imprinting its mood  on my own  The day stretched ahead  in its sameness  like the mist  without color or tone  As I turned from the day —  away from the grey —  a flash of deep blue  caught my eye  Like a jewel caught in lace  it brightened the space  the bluejay that swiftly  flew by  If only such moments were  locked forever within  a clear crystal case  to be gently opened whenever  our mood and the day  must be faced.  Rita Campbell 94  HUGH I. CAMPBELL-BROWN  DECEMBER 1901 - FEBRUARY 1982  by Elizabeth Hieronymi  On a rocky outcropping high above Kalamalka Lake, there is a memorial  plaque in memory of Hugh Ivy Campbell-Brown. Hugh first came to the area  as a youth of eleven years in 1912 when his parents retired to Canada and  purchased the land that is now Crystal Waters Resort and surrounding lands  including Campbell-Brown Ecological Park. The Campbell-Browns called their  home "Amory".  They had milk cows on the rangeland, orchard on the lower levels, and  hay fields in the gullies. Hugh loved this piece of land. In his youth, he climbed all over it bringing in cows and hunting and killing rattle snakes for his  pocket money. In his working years he found peace there from his hectic medical  practice, by working to improve its grazing value and fighting the Russian  Knapweed which had invaded it years before. In his retirement years, he spent  many happy hours bulldozing access roads over its steep sides to facilitate spraying the weed.  Hugh's parents, Colin and Louise Campbell-Brown had come to Canada  after serving for many years in China as missionaries for the Presbyterian  Church. Colin had had a problem with recurring dysentery for years and it  had finally forced his retirement. They filled their retirement years with the  farm and travelling by horse and buggy every Sunday to preach to small outlying church congregations. Despite distance, Colin usually managed to visit at  least three a Sunday. His last parish was in the Nanaimo area where he  ministered to the North Wellington Presbyterian congregation during a time  of extreme shortage of ministers. Hugh was in Victoria at high school during  this time and travelled up to visit his parents by bicycle. Colin died in 1924  and was buried in North Wellington by his mining parishioners.  Hugh attended grade school in Winfield and high school in Victoria. He  almost didn't get to high school because his father, shocked to the core at his  failure in a grade 8 exam, took him down to the local blacksmith to discuss  an apprenticeship! Luckily for his future patients, the blacksmith wanted  nothing to do with the scrawny young son of the Oxford educated preacher!  One of the highlights of his years at Amory (named for Louise's family  farm near Hampsted, England) was a friendship he developed with a group  of workers who were camped nearby while they worked on the railroad along  the shores of Kalamalka Lake. (Signs of their tent platforms still can be seen  above the cattle railway underpass just north of Crystal Waters.) Part of the  road from Vernon to Oyama passes right through the camp. Hugh found these  gentlemen fascinating. They spoke gaelic, a language his scholarly father would  never allow him to learn, and they were veterans of the First World War in  which his brother, Robin, had been killed. They were rough and ready individuals, just the kind of people he found fascinating all his life. This same  penchant of Hugh's for hanging around workmen led to the loss of his front  teeth when he stood too close behind one who was working with a pick axe!  Skating in winter on the frozen lakes, Woods and sometimes Kalamalka,  developed into a passion for Hugh and he won a number of medals for his  figures. Later while attending university, he represented McGill at Lake Placid  Figure Skating Championships. 95  Dr. and Mrs. Hugh Campbell-Brown.  Hugh's love of people, his athletic bent and his need to earn his way  through school led to some very interesting summer jobs. One summer he spent  travelling through the farming areas of Manitoba on a bicycle selling encyclopedias. In later years, he loved to tell of the hospitable farmer who invited him to partake of a little potato wine and then watch him endeavour to  bicycle through the freshly turned sods. This enterprise came to an abrupt stop  when his sample books were stolen.  Another summer he worked as a labourer on a crew installing the Oliver  irrigation system. He also worked one summer ploughing on the Goldie Orchards in Okanagan Centre. He even obtained a fourth class steam ticket in  order to be a caretaker and maintenance superintendent for a dormitory at  the university in return for his keep. He also spent one summer washing dishes  on the boats sailing up the Pacific coast from Vancouver to Alaska which he  said was not interesting as all he got to see was the inside of the galley.  Hugh graduated in medicine from McGill University in 1929 and, after  obtaining further training in surgery from the Montreal General Hospital,  started to practice in South Vancouver. Practicing medicine in South Vancouver in the early depression years was quite an adventure for a minister's  son. Once, delivering a baby in "Hogan's Alley" almost got him arrested for  assault by a passing policeman and he was often called upon to administer to  working girls in "Houses of 111 Repute"! An interesting memory of his from  this time was that there were more doctors than midwives in those days and  young doctors were often called to sit with a patient until the midwife arrived  to help with the delivery. 96  Dr. Hugh Campbell-Brown.  In 1935, Hugh married Mary Agnes Knox of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan,  whom he had met at the Vancouver General Hospital where she was a nurse.  They moved to Vernon where Hugh bought the late Dr. Williams' practice.  They lived in a little house on Mission Hill for about a year and then in 1936  bought a lot at a tax sale for $200, and built a house for $8,000 on Lakeview  Street, now 2700 - 22nd Street. In 1949, they built a house on the site of the  old Van Antwerp house beside the present Texaco Gas Station at Okanagan  Landing. Hugh and Mary were among the first "town people" to move out  to the Landing on a year-round basis and felt it necessary to buy a jeep to  navigate snow drifts on Old Okanagan Landing Road (now Okanagan Avenue).  Hugh had many interests through his life but paramount was his interest  and caring for people. He had a great capacity to enjoy people from all walks  of life. Politics was an active interest from his university days up to his retirement. During his early years, he developed a strong admiration for Dr. Norman Bethune, and would have gone to China with him if family ties had not  held him at home. His involvement with the early CCF (the forerunner of the  present NDP) led to the termination of one of his "people" projects — a boys'  club in the early forties which the local police shut down because he was a "bad"  influence.  Religion was a life-long quest in his life. He spent years searching for what  was 'right' for him. He was very active in the Trinity United Church for a  number of years and finally in 1953 he joined the religious Society of Friends  (Quakers) and he remained actively involved with Friends until his death. He  served on committees with Pacific Yearly Meeting from 1954 to 1967 when  he was a delegate to the World Conference of Friends from the Canadian Yearly  Meeting. A year later he travelled to Cambodia for the Canadian Yearly  Meeting Service Committee to help establish a system of medical aid and 97  surgical kits for Vietnamese civilians. In 1970-72 he served as Clerk for the  Canadian Yearly Meeting.  In 1938 Hugh, Dr. Hugh Alexander and Dr. Frank Pettman, formed a  partnership and founded the Vernon Medical Clinic. Both the Canadian and  the British Columbia Medical Associations awarded him honorary membership in his later years.  His interest in humanity never ceased. He served on the Vernon Social  Planning Committee, was on the Board of both the Venture Training Centre  and the United Nations Friendship Centre during their formative years. He  was always interested in the welfare of the members of the Okanagan Reserve,  as patients and as friends. He was deeply committed to and served as a Board  member and President of the North Okanagan branch of the John Howard  Society and Howard House. He also supported Amnesty International.  In 1963 he retired early from his medical practice in order to follow up  a life long interest in anthropology. Hugh enrolled at the University of B.C.  The following summer he and his wife participated in an archaeological dig  under Dr. David Sanger in the Lytton-Lillooet area, and later, while returning  to Canada from India via Kenya, the two visited with Dr. and Mrs. Mary  Leakey at Olduvai Gorge. Hugh and Mary Campbell-Brown had been in India visiting their daughter Linda and her husband, David Kennedy, at a United  Church Mission Hospital where David was stationed as a doctor for five years.  While in India Hugh did a six month surgery stint at the hospital temporarily  relieving the regular surgeon.  Hugh said his primary concern in life was for the continuing process of  human evolution. He was a man who was interested in all segments of human  nature and never lost his zeal for discovery.  A few years before his death, after he had been seriously ill in hospital,  a friend asked him about his views on death. He answered her and I quote  from his letter, "Such is my confidence in the loving rightness of the entire  creative process, that I expect death to be an adventure. If individual awareness  carries over, I would expect it to be as exciting an adventure as I have found  life. It may be limbo or it may be a further stage of schooling. I do not find  speculation profitable, I am confident that it will be right for me."  He had a strong artistic streak as shown in his portfolio of photography,  both black and white as well as coloured, and in his love for woodworking.  He also had some very basic farming instincts and spent many happy hours  tinkering with trickle irrigation, grafting plants and growing unusual trees and  grasses. He carried out an almost twenty year battle with Russian Knapweed  on his land above Kalamalka Lake. In 1975, he donated this land to the people of British Columbia as an ecological reserve in memory of his parents.  In his youth and middle years, he was an avid hunter and for a period  of time from 1958 - 63, he developed and bred hunting dogs as a hobby. He  wanted a dog of moderate size which was an affectionate family dog, a good  retriever, a good pointer and a water dog. Before retiring and travelling, he  achieved moderate success with a Labrador-German pointer cross.  Other sports were of particular interest to this man of many facets. In  his boyhood he had developed a fascination for horses and riding which he  revived in his retirement years. During his time as a Vernon Kinsman, he was  very active with the Annual Rodeo and Vernon Days. Later, during the early 98  days of the North Okanagan Regatta, he served as Commodore and won the  "Fastest Boat on the Lake" Trophy with his boat 'Escape', so named because  it was his way of escaping the demands of the telephone.  One of the stories he loved to tell on himself was when, as a boy, he rode  a particularly flashy gelding into Vernon one Saturday. He was going down  the main street at a mad pace when the horse slipped and fell in the mud on  the corner right in front of where all the old cowboys he especially admired  gathered to view just such antics. (The corner where the present Bank of Montreal stands.) (I don't remember too many lectures on pride — this story said  it all.)  Hugh first took up skiing while in Montreal and he continued this sport  on Silver Star when he moved back to Vernon. At first he and a group of avid  skiers used to hike up and ski down. Then they tried an old army surplus stripped bren gun carrier and finally a portable tow. He was one of the original  share holders of Silver Star Sports Ltd., and spent many happy years skiing  (until he was well into his seventies) at Silver Star and photographing the  "gargoyles" as he called the strange shapes the trees take on in winter.  Hugh had so many interests that it is hard to cover them all. Some people  remember him as a doctor, some as a photographer, others as a boater and  hunter and in his later years as a very active member of the Religious Society  of Friends. A man of social conscience, his many activities never interfered  with his concern for people.  (Mrs. Hieronymi is the daughter of Hugh and Mary Campbell-Brown.)  CHARLIE GI HONG or (CHONG)  by Donald Wells  Charlie Chong first had a Market garden at North Enderby on property  that he rented from Dick Blackburn. From these gardens he supplied logging  camps in the area. For these deliveries he had an old model A Ford truck.  In 1934 he left North Enderby and came to Grindrod where he rented  more suitable ground from Bill Monk and our farm, the Wells farm. On our  property he built his house and gardening sheds. He hired many local young  people to assist him. His truck gave up and Jack Hull converted it into a buggy  which Charlie's faithful horse Polly pulled. He and Polly were well known from  Mara to Enderby delivering his produce.  When he finished delivering he curled up on the seat and went to sleep  and Polly took him home.  I have fond memories of Polly as she became the Monk Road school bus  in the winter and we used to ride her to school. Not being very big and the  horse large, the only way to get on was to put a carrot on the ground and when  she reached for the carrot I sat on her head and was elevated onto her back,  this was repeated down Monk road until we had a full load. Charlie supplied  the carrots and when the carrot supply ran out the last guy walked.  I have heard different people along his vegetable delivery route say that  when they didn't have enough money to pay Charlie he would still leave a  box of tomatoes or sack of potatoes saying they could pay him the .50c in two  monthly installments. Charlie was a most generous and kindly old gentleman.  Whenever a new baby was born on his route he always gave it a silver dollar. 99  He enjoyed tossing nickels and dimes into the river for young swimmers to  dive for.  Charlie's generosity became very well known and imposed upon. The local  churches always needed contributions to keep operating so the respective  ministers came to ask Charlie for contributions and with his usual generosity  he donated to the Baptist minister, then came the Catholic Priest, then the  United minister, finally on the day the Anglican minister arrived Charlie rebelled with, "What's a malla you? What's a malla you? Jessy Cli all time bloke!"  At Christmas he always gave a turkey and oranges to his close neighbours  and  in  turn the ladies gave him Christmas baking,  which he enjoyed.  I  Charlie, the Chinese vegetable man at the Folkard farm, Ben Folkard near the house.  remember one Christmas that he overdid his generosity and gave all the men  a Christmas drink of loganberry wine mixed with Sam Suey. This made  everyone ill. That was one Christmas when there were no men in evidence  at the dinner table.  Charlie was an avid hockey fan and would go great lengths to persuade  someone with a car, to quote, "Truck me to the Yokey game."  Charlie filled a need in the district with his vegetables and was missed  when, due to ill health, he gave up and moved to Enderby. He passed away  in the fall of 1943.  I feel Charlie deserves a place in the history of our district as he was an  honourable old gentleman and a true friend to many. 100  THE WATERMAN FAMILY  by Elizabeth Pryce  A story told in an Indian legend is of a great volcanic crater filled with  warm water, once located in the southern part of the Okanagan Valley. Its  outer rims touched on eastern boundaries of the benchlands of McLean Creek  and Shuttleworth Creek passages, on the west by flatlands known today as  McLellan Flats, with northern and southern boundaries of Waterman Hill at  Okanagan Falls, and the Vaseaux-Mclntyre Bluffs near Oliver.  The legend tells us that the river flowing from this lake moved in a northerly direction, emptying into the Shuswap drainage system, and that, in the  aftermath of a giant glacier's thrust southward, the natural course of the river  was abruptly altered to a southerly flow. In the emptying out of the huge crater,  in the Okanagan Valley, enormous deposits of clay and lime surfaced. One  of the areas in which lime was left behind is the triangular piece of land from  Skaha Lake to Waterman Hill. And indeed, as late as 1920, small pieces of  sea shells and fossilized marine life were dug from the bottoms of sink-size basins  by the Waterman children, who with their parents, came to live on the property below the hill.  It is not everyone, without reaching some degree of recognition, who leaves  his name to a town, or street, or some other notable site, but W. J. Waterman  did. He left it to the hill which was the north-western boundary of the crater  filled with mineral water, of the Indian legend.  William John Waterman was born in Sheffield, England in 1867. At age  twenty-five, with his brother Ernest, W. J. emigrated to North America, landing in New York in 1892. While Ernest Waterman chose to go on to California, where he would study farming, William decided on a move to Canada,  and consequently arrived in the Similkameen country a year later. Eventually  Ernest joined his brother in British Columbia, and together the Watermans  had a considerable influence on the development of the town of Princeton  (known first as Allison's and later as Vermilion Forks).  A mining engineer, W.J. Waterman became the consultant for Vermilion  Forks Mining and Development Company, an English company formed to  mine Princeton coal. Ernest Waterman was the company's manager. The property of S. D. Sands, under management of the brothers, became the Princeton  townsite. In 1896 W. J. Waterman went to England on holiday to visit his  mother. When the brief visit was ended and he had arrived back in Canada,  he remained with his brother, who was then batching in Vancouver. It was  during this period that W.J. was introduced by Ernest to a very beautiful young  lady, Florence Baker Warren.  Born in Cyprus in 1879 to Col. Falkland and Annie Matilda Warren,  Florence was thirteen years old when she arrived in Canada with her mother  and sister, Edie. Col. Warren had journeyed earlier with his eldest daughter,  Maud, to join the Warren's three sons, Falkland, Victor and Willie, who  were homesteading in the Salmon River area, near Armstrong. Once the family  was together again and a home life established, the matter of educating the  girls loomed before the Warrens. It was decided that the three daughters should  move to Vancouver; and there they were separated again, into different homes  to board while attending school. But, scarcely a year later, feeling the winters 101  too rigorous and worrying over the girls so distant from them, the Warrens  themselves moved to Vancouver in 1894, and as Victor Waterman-Wilson puts  it: ". . . rented a house on Georgia Street and collected the girls under one  roof.''  But the Colonel loved the country and had grown to enjoy farm life. Having inherited a reasonable sum of money, he returned to the Salmon River,  sought the services of a Mr. Charles Loewen to undertake the management  of the Warrens' financial affairs, and took up land in what is now Falkland,  a small village in the North Okanagan which bears his name. Later, with the  marriage to Col. and Mrs. Warren's daughter, Edie, Charles Loewen became  a son-in-law.  After the marriage of Maud to Cecil Smith and her move to Agassiz, and  Edie's marriage to Mr. Loewen, Florence was the only daughter left at home  with her mother. A social life for the lovely and popular young girl began in  Vancouver, and in November 1897, Florence was allowed to attend the Navy  Ball, escorted by Mr. Ernest Waterman. It was at this ball that Florence Warren met her future husband.  From Victor Wilson's records, we learn that his parents were married on  February 2nd, 1898. Victor says: "... after a whirlwind courtship Florence  and Mr. Waterman were married in Christ Church Cathedral . . . the afternoon ceremony allowed time enough for dinner, then a quick change for travel  by Canadian Pacific Railway to Montreal, boat to Liverpool, and on to Sheffield where they stayed with W. J.'s mother." Waterman's mother was by  this time married to Col. Hutton. When the lengthy and, doubtless, exciting  honeymoon was over, Mr. and Mrs. Waterman returned to Vancouver in May.  The Vermilion Forks Mining and Development Company in Princeton  became demanding of Mr. Waterman's attention about this time. To reach  Princeton Mr. and Mrs. Waterman travelled by train to Spences Bridge, rode  by stage to Nicola, stopped the night at the ranch of Mr. and Mrs. Jack Thynne,  near Granite Creek, then rode on to Princeton.  The summer of 1898 was spent living in a tent, cooking and carrying out  housekeeping chores outdoors. Although Mrs. Waterman had been, so far in  her young life, accustomed to greater comforts and considerations of home,  she nevertheless, adjusted well to the harsh situations and conditions which  were suddenly thrust upon her in the country life of the Similkameen mining  area at the turn of the century. However, a cold Similkameen winter spent  housed in a tent was not to be reckoned with, much less endured, so the Water-  mans returned to Vancouver. There, in March of 1899, their first child, a  daughter Helena, was born.  Developments in Princeton called Mr. Waterman back to the Similkameen and, accompanied by Mrs. Warren, the family returned to Princeton,  travelling the Spences Bridge route. Later that year, Mrs. Warren returned  to Vancouver, visiting Maud Smith along the way. Florence, with baby Ena  then went to visit her sister Edie Loewen in New Denver, while Mr. Waterman saw to the construction of a log cabin for the family. And in this little  cabin, their second daughter, Ruth, was born in July of 1900.  The see-saw life of business and travel took Mr. Waterman back to the  coastal city in 1901, and with him went his wife and young Ena. Baby Ruth  was left in the care of the Parsons in Princeton. It was on the return trip in 102  May that a colourful story unfolds.  As the mining town of Princeton lacked the benefits of milk cows, the  Watermans bought two nanny goats in the Fraser Valley. With no adequate  transportation available for the shipment of these animals, the Watermans were  forced to travel over the Hope Trail in order to get home again. Accompanied  by a wrangler and pack-horses, Mrs. Waterman set out on the four day trip  with her husband riding horseback beside her and young Ena on her lap, as  she struggled side-saddle upon her own horse over the rough, mountainous  trail from Hope to Princeton. In tow were the two nanny goats to furnish fresh  milk and one billy goat, tied by a picket-rope around her waist. This experience  taught Florence Waterman that, although ladies of her day did not ride astride  their horses, it seemed more sensible and comfortable to do so. Following the  example of the local Indian women who rode, she abandoned her side-saddle.  Further, when it was necessary to "tow" her goats around the farm, Mrs.  Waterman used the horn of her saddle for dallying the rope and not her trim  waist.  The little cabin in Princeton was located seven miles from the main  townsite. Settled once more in the small, but comfortable log home, Mrs.  Waterman gave birth to a son, Guy, on a wintery day in February 1902.  While the Watermans lived in Princeton, W.J. journeyed frequently from  the Similkameen through the Okanagan Valley to Rossland and Trail, and  often to Spokane on mining speculation trips. A keen interest in geology kept  W. J. Waterman constantly in search of new mining areas, and it was during  these passages through the South Okanagan that he met Mr. W. J. Snodgrass  of Okanagan Falls. The enthusiasm and plans of Mr. Snodgrass easily caught  W.J. up in the future of the Okanagan Falls link with the rest of the valley  to the north and its extension into the United States. Consequently several  lots on the new townsite were bought in Florence Waterman's name, as W.  J. felt it prudent not to cause an insecurity of property should his investments  in mining fail in an industry which fluctuated and could be very shaky at times.  But, while the Watermans owned lots in the "booming" town at Dog  (Skaha) Lake, Mr. Waterman still pursued his mining interest and travelled  the south-west continuously. During his absence from Princeton in the summer of 1902, a friend of Col. Warren's, Judge Spinks, on a visit to the Similkameen, looked in on Mrs. Waterman and her family. Alarmed by what he found.  "Here was this courageous, young mother with three small children living entirely alone seven miles away from the village . . . (she) was running out of  funds and had obtained some food at Mr. Bell's store on credit . . . was at  the end of her resources . . .", Wilson records. Judge Spinks hastily arranged  for the family to be picked up by the stage and taken to Spences Bridge, then  on by train to New Denver to stay with the Loewens. Her possessions, except  the personal belongings which had gone with her, were unavoidably left in the  cabin to be stolen or destroyed. When Mrs. Waterman had had time to  straighten matters out somewhat, she then moved to reside temporarily with  her parents in Vancouver.  When Mr. Waterman returned to the Similkameen that summer, he found  that his family had moved and that the cabin was empty. He then decided  to try land development and farming instead, and to enjoy geology as a hobby. With this in mind, he moved his family to Okanagan Falls in 1903. With 103  their children Ena, Ruth and baby Guy, the Watermans occupied a house put  together from two small buildings on one of their lots on the townsite and called it home. When they later relocated on property on the east shore of Dog  Lake, this house was moved from the flats to what we know today as Hody  Road. But the family's stay there was only a temporary one, for soon the Watermans sold that property to Mr. Reginald Hody in 1906, having purchased land  on the west lakeshore below the hill. One of the loveliest locations in the area,  this hill site had, running through it, a full stream of crystal clear water, the  source of which was a natural spring above the farm beside the steep hill which  today bears the Waterman family name.  Pre-empted first by a Mexican in 1894, the hill site, purchased by Mr.  Waterman in 1904, had on it only a small cabin and a barn near the creek.  Of a triangular shape, the land sloped down from below the steep hill from  the Gillespie Ranch, with green pastures sweeping out onto a small flat at the  shore of Dog Lake. With its abundance of water and facing south-east, it was  ideally situated for mixed farming.  The Waterman family lived in the little white cabin until a new house  was assembled over a proper cement basement. Jack Petley now owns the property, and the cottage which the Petleys built in the 1950s was constructed  over the old basement that had supported the new Waterman home. It is interesting to note that this Waterman house arrived as a unit to be assembled  over the basement and was transported down Okanagan Lake on the S.S. Aberdeen. Portions of it were brought separately from the Penticton warehouse near  Okanagan Lake, by the freight teams and wagons of Dick Bassett, who, one  year later, purchased a prefab home from the T. Eaton Company. (In  Okanagan Falls today it is referred to as "The Bassett House" and on April  1st this year, was moved from its location on the south side of Shuttleworth  Creek across to the original lot on which it was first assembled.)  Much activity soon developed around the Waterman farm. The road had  been built above the house, across the creek, then up the very steep hill to the  Gillespie Ranch. The Waterman farm became a stopping place for freighters  and travellers. Fred and "Top" Bassett used to stop at the creek, unhitch their  horses in order to double the teams to pull the freight up the long hill, then  return to get a second wagon to the top. All the teamsters hauling that route  stopped and watered their horses at the stream, sometimes remaining overnight. The large barn beside the creek could stable sixteen horses and the door  of the Waterman home was always open to travellers.  Signs of hard times in those early days were indicated on the logs of the  barn. As the Watermans were known to be generous people, word of their  hospitality was noted by tramps, in their slash marks along the logs of the barn.  At one point the messages were so numerous that the Waterman children were  instructed to take the axes and chip them off the logs. Cautionary directions  between the tramps were given by marks on a certain tree at the top of the  hill, which meant: "Don't stop at the barn — the dog will get you!"  Thornton John (brother of the famous English painter, Augustus John)  worked for Mr. Waterman, taking care of the teamsters' horses as well as Mr.  Waterman's herd. Over thirty head of horses had been purchased by Mr.  Waterman from Edward Bullock-Webster in Keremeos. Many of the Waterman's horses were sold to the Canadian Army for use in World War I. Such 104  horses had to be of a consistent height and weight to meet the requirements  for the cavalry and artillery. Some of these animals bearing the Waterman OK  brand, were found in France.  The Watermans' interest in farming was not limited to the breeding and  selling of horses. Along the hillside above their house the family planted a large  area to grapes. They also produced the first asparagus in the Okanagan Valley  from a large cultivated patch beside their home near the lake. The first asparagus  seeds were obtained from SUTTON'S and raised into seedlings. The mature  asparagus was picked and tossed into a pool of cold, clear water at the creekside,  where the girls of the family, Ena and Ruth, did the sorting and boxing. For  several years the Canadian Pacific Railway bought the Watermans' entire  asparagus crop.  During cultivation of the asparagus patch, a number of Indian arrowheads  and artifacts were found. Mr. Waterman spoke Chinook and was able to talk  with the Indians and learned much of their interesting history. In the early  1900s, Nez Perce Indians from the Colville Reservation in Washington travelled  in cavalcades past the Waterman home, en route to pick hops in Vernon. Ena  Smith recalls hiding with her sister Ruth behind the cottonwood saplings beside  the road as the Indians passed by, sometimes stopping to talk with her father.  As a stopping place the Waterman farm had many visitors. The vital  transportation link in the valley which Okanagan Falls provided seemed to be  a positive thing; consequently, many people knew the Waterman hospitality,  as their home was located beside the roadway. Ena remembers Jim Monteith  (who was provincial constable and assessor in Vernon) and his brother John,  Mrs. Mary McLean, the Shuttleworths (who trapped and brought their pelts  to Mr. Waterman for payment), McLellans, Arnotts and Bassetts, and stage  drivers Arthur McCuddy and William Snodgrass.  A blacksmith shop, at one time operated by the Brents, was located on  the townsite at the spit from where the railway bridge now crosses Okanagan  River at the Falls. It was available for anyone who cared to use it and many  did, including Mr. Waterman. Mrs. Smith also recalls knowing Tom Partington  of White Lake (J. Bork property now), Billy Crook (Leir range near Roadhouse  Hill), and Hiram Inglis (the original White Lake Ranch, now owned by the  McHaffie family). When time permitted, these ranchers, farmers, lumbermen  and all, gathered at the Alexandra Hotel or General Store to chat and keep  up to date with things.  During the bitterly cold winter of 1909-10 the well-known photographer,  G. H. E. "Huddy" Hudson stayed with the Watermans, and so was on hand  to witness the accident in which the Bassett freight teams struggled to survive  their breaking through the ice on Dog Lake. As Warwick Arnott and Dick  Bassett fought to get the traces free, hoping to save the teams, the excited  photographer failed to notice their arms beckoning him, or heard their calls  for help. Instead, he continued to photograph the incident. Unfortunately the  Bassett Brother Freighting lost a very fine lead-team of horses in the icy waters  of the lake.  The education of the Waterman children in those early years was at  Okanagan Falls. The first Waterman name (that of Ena) appeared on the  register in 1904. By 1906, as several families in the district had moved away,  only the Waterman and McLellan families were left to keep the school register 105  open with the required seven students. The McLellans were Leslie, Florence,  Harvey, Jessie and the Watermans — Ena, Ruth and Guy (whose age had  been advanced from four to six years to accommodate the registry). During  the Christmas holidays of 1911, Ena remembers well that most of the children  at the Falls had "... come down with the measles, but Mr. Hyslop, our teacher,  and Mr. Arnott kindly gave us a community tree at the Alexandra Hotel."  Some of the students present were Angus and Ellis Matheson, Gertrude Brent  (later Mrs. Detjen), the Bassett children, and Edith and Ken Hyslop.  While the Watermans lived on Hody Road, Ena says: "The mail was  brought as far as McLellans, but after that it had to be picked up at Mr. Craig's  store on the lakeshore." South Okanagan mail was brought down from Penticton by regular mail stage and delivered to Okanagan Falls, Fairview and  Oroville. Contracts during those early years were held by Warwick Arnott,  Arthur McCuddy and a Mr. Snow.  In 1910, the Watermans' eldest child, Ena, was stricken with polio. Consultation was sought by the family in Vancouver, but when no positive diagnosis  could be offered to the parents, it was decided to take Ena to England and  seek aid there. On their way, the family stopped off at the Rockefeller Institute,  where Ena was diagnosed a victim of polio.  The farm on the hill at Okanagan Falls had been let to Alfred G. Pryce,  who had moved from Penticton to the townsite that year. The Waterman family  remained in England a little less than a year, while Ena underwent treatment  for her crippling illness. Then, following the birth of a son, John (Victor) in  March 1911, Mr. and Mrs. Waterman brought their family back home to  Canada. Two years later, at the farm in Okanagan Falls, another daughter,  Edith (Pixie), was born. Following this confinement, Florence Waterman  became very ill. Mrs. Nell James, sister of Hugh Leir, arrived at the Waterman farm to care for Florence, but it was several months before she recovered  from the complications and was, once again, her old self, filled with energy,  if not optimism.  At the outbreak of World War I, Mr. Waterman joined the Canadian  Army. A tedious life began thereafter for independent and hard-working  Florence Waterman, as she struggled to keep the heavily mortgaged farm  operating and her family of five growing children fed and clothed. But selling  asparagus, watercress, grapes, eggs and butter (at Lapsley's store in Kaleden)  never quite provided the necessities the large family required. Her resources  once again at an end, reminiscent of her life in Princeton, Mrs. Waterman  gamely decided that she must seek employment beyond the boundaries of the  farm. When Matthew Wilson of Naramata offered her work as housekeeper  at Paradise Ranch, north of Naramata, she accepted the position and, in 1916,  with her three daughters and two sons, moved to live and work at Paradise  Ranch.  The farm on Waterman Hill was assigned to Mr. Alfred Pryce when both  Mr. Waterman and Mr. Pryce returned from World War I. The original  Waterman pre-fab house was later destroyed by fire, but a new one was built  by Mr. Pryce where the Derek Salter residence now is.  At the end of World War I, William John Waterman returned to Vancouver to follow his profession as a consulting mining engineer, occasionally  returning to the Okanagan for brief visits with his children. He died in Van- 106  couver in the fall of 1935.  The ranch in Naramata offered a combination of activities for the Waterman children — swimming, boating, fishing, horseback riding, hiking mountain trails, and hunting in the fall seasons. Mrs. Waterman and her family  were very happy at Paradise Ranch, a place which truly lived up to its name.  In 1923 Florence married Matthew G. Wilson and they lived at Paradise  Ranch where Matthew died in 1946. Florence continued to live there for a  few more years until she moved to Osoyoos to reside with her daughter, Ruth  Craig. Florence Baker Warren Waterman Wilson died in Osoyoos in November  1971.  Three of the children of the Waterman family still remain in the Okanagan  Valley. Helena Hoy (Ena) married Arthur Smith from London, England and  now resides in Osoyoos. Ruth Gair married Jack Craig of Summerland and  lives in Penticton. Guy Victor married Angeline Connor of Penticton. He was  killed during World War II in Holland in 1944. Angie Waterman returned  to Penticton to retire. John Hyde (Victor) married Kitty Haverfield of  Okanagan Mission. They live at Indian Rock, north of Naramata. And Edith  Eleanor Maud (Pixie) married John Acland. Mrs. Acland died in July 1953.  The Okanagan Valley remains their home today as it was in their youth.  Their vivid memories of life in Okanagan Falls and Naramata are lively  chronicles of history. Participation by the Waterman family members in  historical events and historical, museum and heritage societies has been continuous and productive.  When one travels down Waterman Hill into the community of Okanagan  Falls, part of the lime deposit from the legendary times is still visible along  the banks of the Old Kaleden Road. Located on the land now are the buildings  of a government fish hatchery, the Salter home and cottage, surrounded by  spacious lawns and gardens, the Jack Petley residence on the lakeshore nestled  among the shady cottonwoods and willows, enhanced by natural shrubbery  and flowering plants. In the lush pastures below the highway, horses graze  contentedly in the shelter of the "crater's" rim.  But, for the imaginative person, perhaps a vision of the land and life as  it used to be is still there — the enormous beds planted to asparagus; trellises  along the hillside of clay and limestones upon which grew a variety of grapes;  the large log barn on the bank above the lake, the Bassett and Gillespie freight  teams watering at the creek's edge; then the tinkling sounds of re-harnessing  as the horses were doubled up for the long, tedious pull up steep Waterman Hill.  Note: Miss Dolly Waterman of Osoyoos is the daughter of Ernest Waterman, who, in 1902, was made the first Justice of the Peace in the Similkameen  District. In 1899 he had married, in'California, Miss Mabel Hunter whose  family had emigrated from Scotland. Dorothy Mable "Dolly" was born in  December 1904 and a son, Frederick Charles Ernest, was born in October 1914.  F. C. E. Waterman married Miss Naomi "Betty" Henies in England during  World War II. He died in November 1983. 107  STUDENT ESSAYS  STUDENT ESSAYS  by J. W. B. Browne / CKOV Award  We have made changes in the conduct of the OHS Student Essay Contest this year.  The contest has been limited to students in the public school system, a Senior Prize  of $100 being offered for students in Grades 10 to 12, and a Junior Prize of $50 for  students up to and including Grade 9. Furthermore, the date of prize presentation  has been moved up. The generosity of Okanagan Broadcasters Ltd. has made possible this latter change. Below is the letter which our Society received from Mr. Jamie  Browne.  Editor  March 29, 1985  The Okanagan Historical Society  c/o Mr. Hugh Caley  2101 - 12th Street  Vernon, B.C.  V1T 3S5  Dear Hugh:  As we discussed this morning, CKOV would be happy to sponsor the  junior division of your historical essay contest. We are almost as old as your  Society and feel the same sense of history for the Okanagan as you and your  members.  My grandfather, J. W. B. Browne, was recently inducted into the Canadian Broadcasting Hall of Fame as a pioneer in our industry. Perhaps we could  call this annual bursary the "J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award," as a reminder  of our history.  Best wishes to you and the Society and a sincere thank you for offering  us this opportunity which we are happy to accept.  Sincerely,  Jamie Browne  Vice-President & General Manager  OKANAGAN BROADCASTERS LTD. 108  First Prize: Senior Division  THE SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  by Tanya Hansen  Summerland Secondary School  Over the years, the Summerland Research Station has supported and aided  agriculture, mainly in the Okanagan, but also in other areas of the world. In  this essay, I shall discuss the need the agricultural industry had for scientific  and developmental support, the history and structure of the research station,  and some examples of major discoveries and inventions of the scientists working there.  In the Okanagan's early years, almost the whole economy depended on  orchards. The first commercial fruit tree plantings in the valley were undertaken by James Gartrell on Trout Creek Point in 1890.' In 1904, there was  an upswing in orcharding, and by 1915, most of the valley was planted in fruit  trees. The demand for an experimental station kept increasing2 because growers  were unable to deal with the diseases of unknown origins and nutritional deficiencies of their trees. Up until this time, existing research stations had not  succeeded in solving.these problems3. Pear blight appeared in the Okanagan  Valley in 1912, and it caused a lot of destruction, especially in the northern  parts of the valley4. This and other diseases such as drought spot and corky  core made growers realize that they needed specially trained people to help  them.5 These diseases seemed to be on the increase, and they didn't respond  to changes in pruning, cultivation, irrigation, or fertiliztion.6 Losses from corky core were putting some orchardists out of business.7  As the number of culls increased and economic returns diminished, growers  had good cause for worry. They wanted to have the best scientific advice on  varieties, pruning, pests, diseases, irrigation, spraying, and other problems,  which were constantly facing them.8  In response to these problems, the research station was founded, and people  in the municipality were happy to encourage this new establishment in their  neighbourhood.9  The Agriculture Canada Research Branch had its beginnings in 1886 as  the result of an Act of Parliament, which organized the experimental farms'  system.10 The first experimental farm was set up in Ottawa.11  The Branch has designated certain stations to specialize in particular  areas.12 Some stations serve not only their own region, but also the whole of  Canada.13 Summerland carries out programmes of local, national, and  worldwide importance, such as improvements in irrigation, food processing,  codling moth control, sprayer design, growth regulation, and tree fruit virus  research.14  As the Branch expanded westward, experimental farms were built across  the prairies. By 1912, it had become obvious that there was a need for specialized  agricultural research in the interior dry belt of British Columbia. Westbank  and Summerland were considered as possible locations.15 By 1914, the decision had been made to build the necessary facilities in Summerland on four  hundred acres of land that had been part of the northern section of the Penticton Indian Reserve, and the first experiments were carried out in that beginning year. 109  The station is located at the approximate centre of the B.C. southern interior fruit industry,16 on the southern boudary of Summerland in the Okanagan  Valley, about fifty miles north of the Canadian-United States' border. This  region is characterized by hot, dry summers and fairly mild winters.  In the fall of 1914, R. H. Helmer, the first superintendent, arrived and  began construction with eight horse teams and forty local men to clear land,  plough, and remove rocks.17 Access to the new farm was by means of a bridge  across Trout Creek and by the original high road to Penticton.18 By 1916, the  beautiful ornamental grounds had been laid out, and twenty-five acres had  been planted.19 The trees grew quickly, and by 1922 they were already yielding  significant crops.20  In 1920, a boarding house was built to house summer students. This was  later torn down.21 R. H. Helmer lived in a cottage in Trout Creek since a  superintendent's house wasn't built on the farm until 1924.22  Between 1921 and 1923, the laboratory of plant pathology was built and  opened, other buildings were constructed, the irrigation system was improved, and the famous Jersey herd was started with six foundation cows.23 In 1929,  the fruit and vegetable processing laboratory was added to the farm, and the  soils lab was built in 1932.24  By 1931, a substation at East Kelowna, which is now used for studies in  nutrition, irrigation, pest and disease control, was established to study drought  spot in apples.25 The year 1933 marked the end of a water scarcity for the experimental farm. A press release jubilantly announced:  "A dream has been realized. On Saturday Reeve Powell of Summerland pressed the electric button to start the pump to raise water  from Okanagan Lake to irrigate the Dominion Experimental Station.  Within ten minutes water was flowing merrily into the delivery tank  400 feet above lake level.26  In the past, the farm had secured its irrigation requirements from the same  watershed as the municipality of Summerland.27 In dry years, the supply was  inadequate for both users.28 To solve this problem, all rights on the Trout Creek  watershed were turned over to the municipality along with a grant of $10,000,  provided that the town would construct a pumping plant that could raise the  farm's water requirements from Okanagan Lake.29 Orchardists in Summerland  were overjoyed since this meant a sufficient water supply for everyone.30  By 1945, the Dominion Entomology Laboratory, that had been established  in Vernon in 1919, had moved to Summerland. A substation was built in  Creston in 1949 to carry out research on the little cherry virus.31  Although the Summerland station was located in an area where fruit growing is the major industry, the farm didn't confine its research to horticulture.  During its early years, the station conducted successful experiments in beekeeping, sheep, chickens, landscaping and cattle. Around 1950, some of these  things were no longer considered to be of main importance, so work in these  fields was discontinued to leave more room for experiments with cattle and  fruit.32  Then, in 1959, the experimental farm, plant pathology, and entomology  were consolidated under one superintendent, and the new unit became known  as the Department of Agriculture Research station.33 In 1974, it was decided  that efforts should be concentrated on tree fruits and grape research, and so 110  the animal research section was transferred to other establishments.34  G. C. Russell has been the director of the station since 1975. Over the  seventy years of the farm's and station's existence, the centre has become a  world leader in the field of tree fruit research.35 Many new varieties of fruit  have been bred, and numerous methods of combating orchard and garden pests  have been discovered.36  Twenty five years of planning have now culminated in the construction  of a new building, which will house all sections under one roof.  According to the official definition, the function of the research station  is to solve, through basic and applied research and through development, the  problems faced by producers of tree fruits and grapes and by processors in the  utilization of these fruits.37 Another function is to maintain agriculture, particularly in the Okanagan valley and other interior areas of B.C. at a high level  of economic production so that consumers can have a supply of good quality  food at all times.38  Under this general aim, each section has its own objective. The present  structure of the research station combines scientists into five small groups of  people with similar interests. These five sections are: entomology, food professing, plant pathology, pomology, and soil science.  Entomology, also known as insect control, has the task of developing control methods for insects and mites, which can cause severe economic damage  to fruit crops.39 Since there usually are many insects and mites (which have  often been introduced from other areas) in the orchards, it would be impossible to produce high quality fruit without good entomological research in Summerland and elsewhere.40 Chemical and biological methods are used to curb  pests.  Food processing has the role of expanding market outlets for all our fruit  and vegetable crops by means of inventing new or better processed products.41  Its most outstanding achievement was the development of ways to produce  vitaminized apple juice.42 This product uses culls, which would otherwise go  to waste.43  The plant pathology section deals with the control of any type of disease  affecting tree fruits and grapes.44 Since the B.C. fruit industry virtually depends  on high production efficiency and excellent fruit quality to remain economically  competitive, keeping disease occurrence at a low level is vital.45  The pomology section concerns itself with a wide range of projects, including breeding, testing and introducing new fruit varieties, research on  rootstocks, growth regulators, pruning methods, and the handling and storage  of crops.46  Soil science deals with all soil problems connected with irrigation and tree  nutrition, including minor element deficiency diseases of fruit, finding methods  for overcoming deficiencies in local soils and in irrigation techniques.47  Although construction of the new building will probably bring changes,  there are apparently no plans to alter the current section structure.  The Summerland Research Station staff has made many discoveries of  local and international importance.  One of the first major discoveries was made by Dr. H. R. McLarty. At  the time, drought spot and corky core diseases were ruining the fruit industry  in the Okanagan. By 1932, McLarty was convinced that the troubles, with Ill  which he was dealing, were caused by the inability of the trees to obtain a properly balanced mineral supply.48 In 1933, he injected 128 trees with many different elements, and in 1934, three of these were free of drought spot and corky core.49 All three had been injected with the same compound, boric acid.50  More extensive experiments involving injecting trees were successful, and soil  applications on experimental plots were made.51 By 1937, it was apparent that  most of the irrigated orchard land of the dry interior of British Columbia was  quickly becoming deficient in boron.52 Growers were advised to mix one half  pound of boric acid (per mature tree) into the soil around each tree.53 Since  that time, there have been no serious losses from corky core, drought spot or  die-back.54 Orchardists had been saved incalculable amounts of money, and  the fruit industry could continue to grow.  Bloat was once a major problem in sheep and cattle. Striking without warning, it killed animals of all ages and of both sexes. Since there were many  herds in the Okanagan hills and throughout the province, this problem had  to be solved. Pasture bloat was traced to its source through discoveries made  by two scientists at Summerland.55 The cause of trouble was found to be a  specific protein in legumes.56 Scientists found that this protein formed highly  elastic gas bubbles that wouldn't burst; therefore, the animal couldn't eliminate  its gases and soon became bloated.57 This particular protein had never before  been associated with bloat, so the discovery represented a real breakthrough  of international importance.58 Based on this discovery, fodder plants are being  bred which do not have this bloat protein or are very low in it.  The processing section at Summerland developed the quality control  methods used for analyzing vitamin C in clarified apple juice, and food scientists also made major contributions to the development of a commercial production of canned opalescent apple juice.59  During the Second World War, Summerland's expertise in dehydration  was of great value in providing technical aid to the Canadian food industry.60  Dehydrated fruit and vegetable production was increased many times to supplement the food supply for both the military and civilian populations in Great  Britain.61 Superior methods for making fruit leather, (delicious dried fruit pulp),  without sugar or preservatives were also developed in Summerland.  In 1933, a disease called little cherry was ruining the sweet cherry industry  in the Kootenay. This disease makes cherries small, tasteless, and pale so that  they are unmarketable. Scientists in Summerland traced little cherry to Japanese  ornamental cherry trees that had been brought into the Kootenay. Little cherry  spread to the Okanagan by 1969, and growers were losing much of their crop.  Scientists at the Research Station looked at patterns of spread and decided that  little cherry was a virus carried by insects. In 1980, researchers checked a large  number of insects to see if they could transmit the disease. They found that  aphids and leaf hoppers couldn't while apple mealy bugs could.  In the early days before insecticides, orchardists had to destroy infected  trees. Now they can spray against the mealy bugs that transmit the disease,  thereby saving a lot of money and time.  Station scientists also tried to find trees that were resistant, or tolerant,  but this was unsuccessful. However, advances in controlling little cherry greatly  helped Canadian and European growers.  An important invention at Summerland was the breeding of self-fertile 112  cherry varieties. This was especially helpful for the Okanagan, for Ontario,  and parts of Europe or other areas with poor spring weather. Usually bees  pollinate trees from one variety to another, but in cold spring weather (a major problem in the Okanagan), most bees don't fly. If few flowers get pollinated,  there will be only a meagre cherry crop. Station breeders developed varieties,  such as "Stella", which would pollinate themselves.  Another notable project at the Research Station was that of codling moth  control by releasing sexually sterile males.62 (Females mate only once in a  lifetime.) Codling moths were laying eggs in apples early in the season. A worm  would emerge from the egg, make a ruinous tunnel through the apple, and  thereby spoil the fruit for commercial marketing.  For the control program, large numbers of larvae were artificially reared.63  When the males reached maturity, they were sterilized by exposing them to  a low dosage of gamma rays. Some of these males were released three times  a week from May to the end of September in sufficient numbers to maintain  a ratio of at least fifteen sterile males to one fertile female moth.64 This experiment was done in 1963 in a semi-isolated orchard. Results revealed that less  than 0.3 per cent of the total crop had been affected by codling moth larvae.  It was demonstrated that this pest's population could be virtually wiped out  within three years. But unfortunately, this method of biological control isn't  being used on a large scale because it costs much more than spraying with  chemicals.  Another great accomplishment was the virus free budwood orchard, which  was made possible in cooperation with local nurseries, and with stations in the  U.S.A. and England.  In order to grow a uniform orchard, root stocks must be budded with commercial varieties. This is done by putting buds from commercial varieties into  rootstocks, thereby letting the buds grow into new trees. In this way, an orchard of completely one variety can be established. Previously, many buds used to be infected with virus diseases which caused the trees to be sickly and  to produce small yields and blemished fruit. To avoid this station plant  pathologists worked to identify these viruses in the 1950s. Then methods were  developed to eliminate these pathogens. The first method was heat treatment.  Small trees were put in a 37¬∞ C. chamber for three weeks and healthy young  buds were taken from these plants. The second way was chemotherapy. Trees  were sprayed with a chemical that stops virus multiplication. A virus-free collection of tree fruit varieties was built up, and buds were (and still are being)  sold to nurseries and growers around the world. Today, ninety per cent of the  fruit trees planted in the Okanagan are made with buds from the budwood  orchard.  Over the last seventy years, the Summerland research station has grown  and changed in response to demands of the industry. Soils and irrigation, fruit  breeding, diseases and pests, and food processing have received major emphasis.  The earlier work with poultry, pigs, sheep and cattle was gradually phased  out since these industries were no longer of major importance.  The station staff has solved many problems such as codling moth and little cherry control, the need for new fruit varieties and virus-free budwood, and  the correction of soil deficiencies.  The new building should further aid the research scientists in their daily 113  work and help stimulate cooperation between the sections. Still, it is mostly  because of the enthusiasm of the past and present staff that the Summerland  research station has grown to be one of Agriculture Canada's largest  establishments65, one which continues keeping the fruit industry vital and efficient.66  FOOTNOTES  F. W. Andrew, "The Summerland  Experimental Station," Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, (1948), p.  172.  F. W. Andrew and Others, The  Summerland Story, p. 40.  F. W. Andrew: op. cil.  F. W. Andrew and Others: op. at., p.  41.  ibid.  ibid.  Bill McPhee, "Summerland Research  Station," 47th Annual Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, (1983), p. 59  F. W. Andrew: op. at., p. 172.  F. W. Andrew and Others: op. cit., p.  40.  Anon: First Agriculture Canada  Research Station pamphlet from  Summerland, B.C., May, 1974.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  "1912 Fires Decided Site," Penticton  Herald, May 30, 1964, p.  12.  ibid.  op. cit., pamphlet, (See previous page.)  "1912 Fires Decided Site," Penticton  Herald, May 30,  1964, p.  12.  ibid.  Bill Fleming: Agriculture Canada  Research Station article, special 75th  anniversary edition of the Summerland  Review, (1981).  ibid.  Anon. A history of the research station,  (unnamed pamphlet), 1932.  ibid.  Bill Fleming: op. cit.  ibid.  Bill Fleming: op. cit.  "In 1933 Research Farm Got  Irrigation," Penticton Herald, op. cit. p.4.  op. cit., Penticton Herald, p. 4  ibid.  ibid.  op. cit.. Summerland Review, special  75th anniversary edition.  ibid.  op. cit., Summerland Review, special 75th  anniversary edition.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  Herbert Simpson: "Dominion  Experimental Station," (1984),  mimeographed page from the  Summerland museum.  Anon: Agriculture Canada Research  Station pamphlet, June,  1978.  op. cit., pamphlet, June,  1978  ibid.,  p. 6.  ibid.  ibid.,  p. 7.  ibid.  ibid.,  p. 8.  ibid.  ibid.  op. cit., p.  12 (Agriculture Canada  Research Station pamphlet.)  ibid., p. 13.  Bill McPhee: op. cit., p. 59.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  Bill McPhee: op. cit.. p. 59.  "Station Scientists Trace Bloat  Cause," Penticton Herald, May 30,  1964, p. 8A.  ibid.  ibid.  ibid.  John O'Keefe: "Summerland  Celebrates 50 Years of Food Processing  Research," Food in Canada, XXXIX  (May, 1979), No. 5, p. 7. 114  ibid.  ibid.  "Codling Moth Control Plan Under  Study," Penticton Herald, May 30.  1964,  p.  10,  op. cit., Penticton Herald, p.  10  "Sterile Moth Program Continued at  Station," Penticton Herald, May 30,  1964, p.  12A.  Bill Fleming: op. cit.  Anon: Fifty Years of Pomology. Canada  Agriculture Research Station,  Summerland, B.C., Queen's Printer,  Ottawa, (1966) p.  1.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Anon. A History of the Research Station, (unnamed pamphlet, 1932?)  Anon. Fifty Years of Pomology. Canada Agriculture Research Station, Summerland, B.C., Queen's  Printer, Ottawa, (1966), p. 1.  Anon. Agriculture Canada Research Station pamphlet from Summerland, B.C., (May, 1974).  Anon. Agriculture Canada (Research Station) pamphlet, (June, 1978).  Andrew, F. W. "The Summerland Experimental Station," Report of the Okanagan Historical Society,  (1948), p.  172.  Andrew, F. W. and Others. The Summerland Story, published by the Summerland Ladies' Hospital  Auxiliary, p. 40.  Fleming, Bill. Agriculture Canada Research Station article, special 75th anniversary edition of  the Summerland Review, (June, 1981).  McPhee, Bill. "Summerland Research Station," 47th Annual Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, (1983), p. 59.  Penticton Herald.  The following articles were all taken from the May 30, 1964 Penticton Herald.  "Codling Moth Control Plan Under Study," p. 10.  "In 1973 Research Farm Got Irrigation," p. 4.  "1912 Fires Decided Site," p. 12.  "Station Scientists Trace Bloat Cause," p. 8A.  "Sterile Moth Program Continued at Station," p.  12A.  Simpson, Herbert. "Dominion Experimental Station," (1984?), a mimeographed page obtained  from the Summerland museum.  The Presbyterian Ladies Aid of Zion Church in Armstrong, 1920. Left to right - seated: Mrs.  Wm. Stott, Mrs. H. Meade, Mrs. N. Cary, Mrs. F. Marshall, Mrs. A. Adair, Mrs. Geo. Murray. Kneeling - Mrs. Mills, Mrs. L. Graham, Mrs. Stan Cary. Standing - Mrs. N. E. Landon  and ?.  Photo courtesy Peggy Landon and Armstrong Museum 115  First Prize: Junior Division  ARMSTRONG, THE "CELERY CITY"  by Niels O. Kristensen  Len W. Wood Elementary School, Armstrong  Most people in the Okanagan know that celery is a crisp, crunchy, green  vegetable that they may or may not like to eat. What many people do not know  is that Armstrong was once known as "Celery City", and as the "Celery Capital  of Canada".  HOW IT STARTED  It all started when a Mr. E. R. Burnett brought some seeds back from  his home town of Kalamazoo, Michigan. In around 1900 to 1901, he planted  the seeds on his Spring Lake farm. On this plot of peat or bog land he, after  two years of planting, found that this was what his farm was best suited for.  Because of the large amounts of money and labor required to underdrain and  ready the land for farming, and to secure a market for the celery output, it  was 1905 to 1906 before any considerable quantity was produced.  The celery market grew, and more and more white vegetable growers  became interested. But the success of this early 20th century aspect vegetable  growing was largely the result of over 500 Chinese Market Gardeners working  their mainly leased land in a meticulous way.  The Armstrong area owes much to Chinese who worked 18 hours a day,  keeping their crops immaculate and productive. Some of the people who greatly  participated in the local agriculture were the Lee Back Bongs, the Louie Chins,  the Jong Hughies, and the Wong Chogs, as well as many single men.  Three Chinese men working in a celery field  CELERY GROWING CONDITIONS  Armstrong has practically everything celery needs. Cool, moist, fertile  ground, bright warm days and cool nights. Another positive factor is that Armstrong, in the base of the valley as it is, has that bottom "muck" soil that celery 116  tends to grow so well in. This, and the fact that the area was free from disease  until 1940 when blight carrying gunny sacks were imported from the United  States, were important helpers in the growing of Armstrong celery.  HOW IT IS GROWN  The Chinese Market Gardeners used to generally plant two crops — one  in the spring and one in the fall. These were usually known as the "early"  and "late" crops.  In the spring, hotbeds were made ready for the seeds that were yet to come.  The dirt in the beds was leveled out and marks or grooves were drawn in  the soil. The seeds were planted in these marks. The hotbeds were then buried  in the ground, often surrounded in manure for extra warmth, and, to absorb  and sustain sunlight and heat, up to 10 - 12 frames of glass were placed on  top. On top of the glass was a roll of tarpaper, cut twice, once down and once  back. This was done so that excess water could be drained and heat was kept  in at night. On top of the tarpaper were gunny sacks and on top of the sacks  were sticks to hold everything down. All of this was taken off in the morning  (all except the glass unless it was very hot), and replaced again at night. This  laborious chore was often done by children, before and after school, according  to Alderman Ben Lee of Kelowna, son of Lee Bak Bong. A lot of work indeed!  But this is not all! While the seedlings were in the hotbeds they had to  be taken care of. When they were about K of an inch high, they had to be  thinned out by hand, and sometimes even with tweezers!  When the seedlings were ready for planting this was also done by hand.  The Chinese planters would go into the fields with sticks and strings. After  lining up the sticks with the string, they would use a double row, wooden  stamper (see page 117) to make the holes in which the seedlings would be  planted. The stamper was an apparatus made of two pieces of light board  separated by coil bed springs. Holes, an inch across, were bored in the lower  »*&*>  Rows of planted celery near Armstrong 117  board. The upper board had twelve pegs attached to the lower side, point down.  On the top side of the upper board was a bar handle. The device was laid parallel  to the string while a man stepped on it, pushing the pegs through the holes  into the ground. The seedlings were planted in the holes in the ground that  the pegs made. The string would then be moved over 16 inches for another  row. This was done in March - April, and then again in the fall, except with  a single row stamper.  bu. w^^wifO  Diagram of a Celery Stamper  THE HARVEST  Throughout the growing season, the celery was weeded by hand. And when  the harvesting time began, it was done by hand too. A heavy knife, handled  in a curving motion, was used to cut off the celery just above the root system.  Then the outer layer of the celery was peeled off and the good part was sent  to one of the seven major packing houses in large 400 pound boxes. In the  packing house the celery was washed and sorted. If it wasn't sent to the packing house it was washed with a hose at home and shipped independently. From  the packing house the celery was shipped in smaller boxes to market.  And what distances some of these markets were! The famed Armstrong  celery was shipped as far east as Toronto, and as far west as Hawaii! The only  problem was that celery is a perishable vegetable and therefore has to be  harvested and sold when it is ready, whether the selling prices were good or  not. Any excess celery from the first crop was plowed under and any excess  celery from the second crop was stored in trenches outside.  THE CHINESE  Though it was the Chinese who did the greater part of the work, they  were not very much respected for it. Often they lived in groups, and shared 118  Armstrong celery and other vegetables on exhibit in 1942  the expenses of the building they occupied. In the fields, it was almost always  manual labor, except sometimes using rented horses during the blanching period  of the Utah, or white celery. The hard working Chinese sometimes produced  up to a boxcar-load of celery a week! But they didn't grow only celery. Often  smaller farmers sold celery on foot, as far as the Larkin area and Grandview  Flats! That's a long way to walk! In Armstrong they also grew lettuce and some  potatoes. And all along the Swan Lake area the Chinese grew tomatoes, peppers, melons and more. While the Chinese were growing all these things for  the white man, the white man still piled heavy immigration taxes on them and  restricted their living rights, for fear that the Chinese would turn the area into  a Chinese settlement. The immigrant taxes rose from $25, to $50, to $100,  and then, in 1920, to $500! Then, since the Chinese immigrants still kept coming, an exclusion act was passed in 1923. That lasted until 1947, the same year  that the Chinese achieved the ability to vote. Also, before 1947, Chinese were  excluded from working as miners, and in the fields of law and teaching. Women  were not allowed into Canada — period.  WORLD WAR I AND II — THE DEPRESSION  In World War I, there was a massive population increase in Armstrong.  Over 900 Chinese came but celery growing went down. Why? Because they  switched to growing potatoes for the large dehydration plant in Armstrong.  This plant closed after the war. During the Depression prices went down but  there was still a lot of celery being sold. But in the 1940s prices went down  to 5 cents per dozen head of lettuce and Vi cent per pound of celery! No wonder  the Chinese were living frugally.  THE DECLINE  It's not surprising that the celery industry petered out. The Marketing 119  Board wasn't bringing up a competitive price, and during the 1950s and 1960s  farming wasn't bringing any return. A person couldn't make a living. As older  people retired, the newer generation just didn't find it tantalizing enough. There  was not enough money in it.  THE CONCLUSION  The celery growing in Armstrong was a major contribution in the building  of a firm foundation for the industry of the area. The hardworking Chinese  market gardeners were another important factor in putting Armstrong on the  map. Now, though the celery is gone, various facets of farming are worked  on. As well, we have a lumbermill, and a cheese factory. And though Armstrong is yet to be a town of any considerable size, it is a truly wonderful place  to be.  Student Niels O. Kristensen and Alderman Ben Lee of Kelowna on February 16, 1985  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Fisher, Agnes "Armstrong Sixty Years Ago", 16th Report Okanagan Historical Society, 1952, pg. 83.  Interview with Mr. Ben Lee on Feb. 16, 1985.  Serra, John, "Armstrong Packing Houses", 28th Report Okanagan Historical Society, 1964, pp. 42-46.  Serra, John,  The History of Armstrong, British Columbia, 1967, pp. 42-46.  Wolfendon, F.C., "Ambitious Armstrong", Vernon News Special Holiday Number, 1912, pp. 5-6. 120  Honourable Mention  THE ARMSTRONG POST OFFICES  by Brian Wells  Len W. Wood Elementary School, Armstrong  Armstrong-Spallumcheen has had three post offices and nine postmasters  in the past century. It has seen postal train cars come and go. With the absence  of this industry, communication in Armstrong would have been expensive and  scarce.  Armstrong-Spallumcheen's first post office, the "Spillamacheen Post Office", was started in Lansdowne on May 1, 1881, as a small one-room shack.  This building was one of only 57 post offices in British Columbia at that time  and it housed three postmasters. They were: G.J. Wallace from May 1, 1881  until May 1, 1894, W. B. Paton from July 1, 1894 until January 24, 1896,  and Dr. E.J. Offenhaus from April 1, 1896 until its closure on May 18, 1908.  Armstrong's 1st Post Office, the "Spillamacheen" Post Office  Sixteen years before the Spillamacheen Post Office closed, Mr. Wood and  Daniel Rabbitt built a post office in the new town of Armstrong. Over a span  of 52 years, three men worked as postmasters. They were: Mr. Daniel Rabbitt from July 1, 1892 until 1897, Mr. J. M. Wright from 1897 until October  14, 1937 and Mr. George Dunkley from October 16, 1937 until it was closed  in 1939. All of the sorting and actual work was done by two clerks and a  postmaster. To keep all of the money earned as well as all the stamps from  being stolen, inner and outer doors were locked and everything valuable was  placed in a large heavy safe. Stamp prices for a first class letter were 2 and  3 cents. In 1948, Mr. George Dunkley installed Armstrong's first automated  crank wheel cancelling machine, a device that cancels stamps by turning a hand  crank. 121  Along with this new post office came the use of the railroad. The Canadian National Railway's baggage car arrived at 8:25 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. to  drop off mail. The Canadian Pacific Railway's passenger train was also introduced. On the C.P.R., a baggage car was converted into a sort of travelling post office and a man on board would sort and cancel mail. It arrived at  11:30 a.m. and 6:13 p.m. The Canadian government took mail off the tracks  on September 27, 1954 because they figured that trucks would be faster and  cheaper. They were wrong. Trucks take two to four times longer than the train  used to.  The C.P.R. coming in to drop off sorted mail  The first rural routes were started around 1920 with a horse-drawn buggy  or sleigh. Rural routes are still used today in Armstrong, only with cars instead.  Petitions in 1935 and 1936 were sent to the government asking for a new  post office because the Wood and Rabbitt one was getting old and decrepit.  A new Post Office was built in 1939 and the old one has become the building  for first drivers' tests, a shoe store, a cafe, a Chinese restaurant, a Realty office, an Insurance agency and is presently a vacant building between MacLeod's  and Bumper to Bumper.  All across Canada buildings like Armstrong's present post office were  designed by government architects. This Post Office had a Postmaster and three  people running it. Stamps went up from 5 cents at the rate of about 1 cent  a year. The Armstrong Postal Workers belong to the Postmasters Association  and they have never gone on strike. When the Canadian Postal Union, an  association for larger cities, went on strike, there was no incoming mail although  local mail was still circulated. The first telephone in the Armstrong Post Office was installed in 1965. The Postmasters were Mr. George Dunkley for the  beginning in 1939 until October 6, 1955, then his son Mr. Melvin Dunkley  until 1975. Next was Mr. Stan Hammond till November 1980 and Mr. J. H. 122  -*   'T      *»      - j.    . . " " a ...  - i.  j-*"5-*-*•" :«r--*    . •* ~?..       ."-;:»-.:^.;i..v^:4;"-.- *..-..  The Post Office built by Wood and Rabbitt.  All photos by courtesy of Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum  ■ —   *  The present post office as it was in 1948 PLATfoftfl  ( Hoofs b)  MAIL  ROOM  MENS  L&DlES  Rural  routes  cases  i  ii  3MS  HACKS °yj  rrrn  WOl racks  TARiF\ ' ^'^K^     /GrEti/EHrU.  IAt$Lt\ i mdmLUiESAkEZl  PARCELS  SCAUJ  L0CKJ0X55  I L  13  pOB/JC  /U056/  123  L£7TP/?  Diagram of the 1939 post office as described by Melvin Dunkley.  Student Brian Wells with Ex-Postmaster Melvin Dunkley 124  Stoll from November 1980 until the present time. Postage meters came into  use in Armstrong around 1970. These were machines that allowed large  businesses to have large amounts of stamps in their own office without having  to go to the post office constantly.  A clock was installed on August 10, 1950, eleven years after the post office was built. There is a master control in the basement which synchronizes  both the office clock and the outer clock. Also in the basement, there is a battery that will keep the clock running for four hours in case of a power outage.  Last year, in 1984, a piece broke. Since the clock was so old, the new part  must be specially made. The clock should be in working order sometime in  March of 1985.  On June 3, 1975, renovations were completed. They added extra work  space and more locked boxes. In 1982, more locked boxes were added.  As you can see, the Armstrong-Spallumcheen post offices have seen many  changes. Things have been added and removed. The government and postal  workers should be praised for a job well done.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interview with Melvin John Dunkley on February 21, 1985.  Murray, Mrs. George, "Lansdowne and Armstrong, 1891-1892", 16th Report Okanagan Historical  Report, 1952. page 75.  Parker, Haidee, Historic Armstrong and its Street Names. Skookum Publications, Ltd., 1982. Pages  17-19 and pages 92-94.  Serra, Johnny, The History of Armstrong. Wayside Press, 1967. Page 163.  Student Essay Winners. (L. to R.) Art Langdeau (1984), Niels O. Kristensen  (1985), Tanya Hansen (1985).  Photo by courtesy Wayne Emde 125  BOOK REVIEWS  EAGLE VALLEY VIEWS (Friesen Press 1984)  Hard Cover. $24.95. 387 pages  Reviewed by J. Armstrong  Eagle Pass Landing? Where is that you say? Well it doesn't exist anymore.  After its boom days, when it had a population of 3000 and the construction  of the C.P.R. was completed, it gradually moved to the other side of the Eagle  River to become Sicamous, taken from the Indian word Schickmoos, meaning 'meeting place of the Indians.'  This delightful book which is mostly pictorial, will give you an interesting  insight into the town and area, which was a key point in the development of  transportation that was so important to this Valley.  The Book was put together by a Committee of local folks under the Chairmanship of Mr. Gordon Mackie supported by the residents of Sicamous and  the other communities of Eagle River Valley through to Taft.  It is very much a "people" book and traces lives and lifestyles from pioneer  days to the present time, and is enhanced by a tremendous display of pictures.  It lacks a map of Eagle River Valley showing the location of the communities  and it would be better with more indexing. Nonetheless it is an excellent addition to the recorded history of the Interior.  (Available at the Waterworks Office in Sicamous.)  BUNCH GRASS TO BARBED WIRE (Friesen Press)  Hard Cover. $25.00.     226 pages  Reviewed by J. Armstrong  A most interesting book on the development of the Rose Hill, Beresford,  Knutsford, Edith Lake and Anderson Creek districts of the plateau area from  Kamloops south, compiled by the Heritage Committee of the Rose Hill Farmers  Institute.  This group is to be complimented for producing a well organized history,  very readable with many pictures and adequate maps showing the original  owners' names.  Most of the stories and family histories are written by descendants of the  original homesteaders who settled there just after the turn of the century. Only sixteen of the original families are represented by present owners.  It is very much a "people" book and is a welcome addition to the written  history of the Interior.  (Awarded Certificate of Merit from B.C. Historical Federation). 126  WRITERS OF THE OKANAGAN MAINLINE  Published by Senior Writers and Publishers' Ass.,  1368 St. Paul's Street, Kelowna.  Editor: John C. Dubeta. $14.95  Reviewed by J. Webber  Writers of the Okanagan Mainline is the dreamchild of Dr. John C. Dubeta  of Kelowna. Dr. Dubeta regards the project as an outgrowth of the 61st Annual Conference of the Canadian Authors' Association which was hosted by  the Okanagan Branch in 1982. With the help of a committee of assistants drawn  from the various communities of our area the Editor-in-chief has gathered  biographical information about the samples of the writing of almost two hundred writers in the Okanagan Mainline region. The work has been facilitated  by generous grants from The New Horizons Program, Department of Health  and Welfare, Ottawa and from the Heritage Trust of British Columbia.  Readers will be interested in the number of people engaged in writing,  some as full-time professionals others as amateurs who publish occasionally.  One has little trouble in thinking of people who have not been included in the  book either from their own choice or because they were unknown to the assistant editors. Some writers of the past have been included but there are many  more who might have been. The reviewer naturally thinks of those who have  given their time so generously in writing for Reports of the Okanagan Historical  Society. Information about this particular group of writers will be much more  easily come by once the Society has completed its Index. The book, however,  as it stands is a strong statement to the effect that the written word is by no  means obsolete in our multimedia world, McLuhan notwithstanding. The  biographical notes will prove a useful resource for future researchers.  The text was prepared for printing by members of the Word Processors'  Guild and the Senior Writers and Publishers' Association, the book printed  and bound in an attractive cover by Ehmann Printing Ltd., Kelowna. The  text is pleasantly readable with only occasional errors such as the index reference  which places the late George Fraser in Oliver rather than Osoyoos. Perhaps  the most serious criticism is regarding the division of writers into three groups,  a feature which makes names more difficult to find and results in some inaccurate assessments, a difficulty which could so easily have been avoided. Any  attempt to divide Canadian artists into professionals and amateurs or, in this  case, published and unpublished, must run into difficulties as few of our serious  artists can make a living from their art.  THE KETTLE VALLEY AND ITS RAILWAYS  by Hal Riegger  PFM Publications, Edmonds, Washington, n.d., 289 pages  A Review: by Bernard Webber  This is an exuberant book, written with dash — sometimes, slapdash —  and gusto. It is also a picture book. No less than 214 of the 289 pages are filled  with pictures. Many of the remaining pages contain at least one picture. Most  of the pictures come from the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, but 127  substantial numbers are from other museums and collections like the Grand  Forks museum, the Vancouver Public Library, the Vernon museum, the  Osoyoos museum, the Canadian Pacific Archives, the Interior Photo Bank.  Mr. Riegger has gathered photographs from individuals and has taken a  number himself. He is careful to give credit to the source of all the pictures.  The pictures provide a chronology of locomotives from the early ones with coalscuttle smokestacks to modern diesel locomotives.  This book is the joie d'esprit of a railroad buff, called a "railfan" consistently by Mr. Riegger. He knows his locomotives. The least he will tell you  is, "Built by Baldwin in 1889, the engine later became GN's #479 in 1907  . . . Another photo shows the S. F. & N. passenger at Phoenix Station with  engine #6, a 4-4-0 on the point." The engine might be identified as a  "Mikado", a "Consolidation", or whatever. Mr. Riegger does not explain  this arcane information but he knows, and he presumes you know, what he  is talking about.  Without much effort, you can pick up all sorts of information from Mr.  Riegger. I had no idea that the Kaslo and Slocan Railway was a narrow gauge  line (3', 45 pound) winding its way to, among other places, Sandon. The pictures are frightening enough. The life of a railroader in those early days on  the mountain lines must have been uninsurable.  If you, like me, are the son of a railroader (or a daughter) and can look  at pictures of locomotives till the cows come home, this is the book for you.  You will learn much about all the early railroads, including the "Hot Air Line",  that criss-crossed the interior, many of them moving north from the United  States in recognition of the prevailing direction of commerce. You will learn  about the pitched battles between the VV & E men (Vancouver, Victoria and  Eastern, an alias for Jim Hill's Great Northern) and the CPR men just west  of Midway, but you will not get the scope nor detail that you will about the  same incident in Barrie Sanford's McCulloch's Wonder.  Sanford's book was published in 1977; Riegger's, if internal evidence is  to be believed for the book does not carry a date, in 1981. Riegger's book does  not supplant Sanford's although to some degree the one complements the other.  Sanford's book is much more closely researched, more thorough, and hence  more authentic. At the same time it must be said that Mr. Riegger has gathered  an enormous amount of information in the ten years that he seems to have  been preparing this book.  The early chapters of the book deal with the numbers of little railroads  of the Southern Kootenay and the Boundary country. The later ones move  from Midway to Hope. There is a considerable section on the VV & E as it  progressed from Curlew to Midway to Bridesville to Molson to Oroville.  Another section deals with the Great Northern through Nighthawk to Chapaka  to Keremeos to Hedley to Princeton. One of the few unifying threads in the  story is the continuing vendetta between Jim Hill and the CPR. The complexities of the entire narrative of the book is fixed in the mind by the generous  selection of simple and good maps that Mr. Riegger provides.  So far as I can tell, Mr. Riegger's history of the railroads is reasonably  accurate. Where I have checked Reigger's book with Sanford's, the two authors  seem to agree on the facts, even if Mr. Riegger is more discursive and superficial. When it comes to Canadian history, or the use of the Canadian idiom, 128  Mr. Riegger is not so sure of himself. On page 12, he speaks of the "Dominion's center of government at Quebec City" . . . although he later gets our  capital back to Ottawa. You may be as mystified as I was when he wrote about  "British Jacks" in Nelson. Luckily, he provides a picture of an early Nelson  open-sided tram with numbers of children waving Union Jacks. He seems amazed that "Phoenix did have 17 saloons, all open 24 hours a day, yet it was one  of those rare places where nobody felt it necessary to carry a gun." (p. 99).  Not, perhaps, so rare in Canada. On page 159, he has a picture of an early  automobile on a street in Penticton (I said he digressed) and comments "an  automobile with right-hand drive of obvious foreign manufacture." Not really so obvious. At that time all British Columbians still drove on the left with  right-hand steering wheels (until 1921, indeed). Maybe Mr. Riegger meant  it was an American car. These, and others like them, are minor peccadilloes  that only serve to make one smugly self-satisfied. Still, by an accumulation  of incidents and attitudes and assumptions, the book makes one realize how  nearly this province came to being absorbed by the United States.  The book ends with a section for railroad "modellers" and a rattling good  index.  SUMMER DAYS  Summer days once lingered on  as Time stood waiting  in the wings  Summer plays whose  actors now are gone  as are the gentle  quieter things  Moments passed  like endless hours  as we played our childish games  till evening winds  soothed dusty flowers  lusting cooling rains  Birds thrilled the early dawns  false heralds of the rising sun  or filled the lingering nights  of days that seemed but one  Sunsoaked we lay on arboured lawns  in drifts of foolish dreams  until the mellow months  moved on  and curtains closed upon  youth 's summer scenes  Rita Campbell 129  TALES  THE COUNTRY STORE  by J. L. Monk  In advancing years we tend to recall with nostalgia, the highlights of our  youth. What happened to the 12th of July Orangemen's parade, the community  picnic and the annual school Christmas concert? Where is the outdoor skating  rink, the ice house, the root cellar, the coal-oil lamp, the wind-up gramaphone  and the hand-turned ice cream freezer? These and many other events and  facilities have gone the way of the dinosaur and the dodo. A few still exist in  remote communities but are almost as hard to find as the ogopogo.  To me, the greatest loss is the old-time country store. That forerunner  of today's department store or "one-stop shopping" was the very soul of the  community. It was the political, social and general activity centre. Here, all  problems great and small were discussed at length. Wonderful solutions resulted  but few ever came to fruition as there was seldom common agreement.  Physically, my uncle's store in Grindrod was typical of the country store  everywhere. There was a box-like central room crammed with merchandise  and leanto additions on two sides and the rear. The community post office  occupied one addition. Another served as a feed shed for bran, shorts, rock  salt and other animal necessities. In the cool seasons, the rear addition was  a cold room for meat, frozen fish and dairy products. In warm weather it housed  anything that wouldn't fit in the other storage areas. The main building had  an upper story in the form of a meeting hall. This was used primarily by the  Women's Institute and the Church Guild, and on occasion, by other groups.  The outstanding feature inside the store was a long wooden counter with  "Ye olde hand-cranked coffee-mill" at one end and a full round of Ontario  Cheddar at the other. The latter was cut, on demand, by a garotte-like wire.  On special occasions, crumbly cheese was served with soda crackers and two  percent beer to "the Hot Stove Gang''. Under the counter were the usual open  bins of beans, split peas, tapioca and sundry nails, wire staples and other small  hardware. A large wood stove supplied heat. Small windows at the front only,  allowed maximum wall storage. The shelves nearest the stove held an interesting  array of groceries, tobacco and non-prescription medicines. Further from the  stove, the walls were hung with horse collars, bridles, gum boots, winter jackets  and many other items so necessary in a farming community.  It was in the main room that the daily 11:00 a.m. crowd awaited the mail  delivered by train from Sicamous. An hour or two of tardiness by Engine 500  was of little concern. Such delay permitted more lengthy and enjoyable discussion of world and local problems and the latest community gossip. Late arrivals at home for the noon meal were common despite lunches of cold shoulder  and hot tongue. Over-cooked food and disruption of the housekeeping schedule  were indeed irksome to conscientious wives.  Working hours in the store were from 9:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. but the store  remained open to 10:00 p.m. six days per week. At 6:00 p.m., the peanut barrel was placed behind the stove and covered with a heavy cardboard Winchester 130  ammunition sign. Out came a well-used deck of cards and the evening bridge  game commenced. Both store and post-office became self-serve operations for  the next four hours. Even the unsought advice of numerous kibitzers failed  to disrupt the concentration of uncle and his fellow players. Customers bagged their own groceries, purchased stamps, picked up their mail and made appropriate entries on their monthly grocery bills. The game went on. Uncle's  son-in-law usually played. Against his chair leaned an air rifle. On hearing  a rattle on the shelves, he would solemnly inform the patrons that it sounded  like Matilda or Jennifer. When the little varmint reached the shelf front, there  would be a quick snap-shot. It was a toss-up as to whether this would result  in a dead mouse or a broken bottle of cough medicine or catsup. Any necessary  clean-up waited until morning as the game must go on. Warm weather and  long evening light permitted a change of pastime. It was then that the horseshoe pitch across the street furnished evening entertainment.  The picture would not be complete without some mention of the meeting  hall activities. The two ladies' groups met regularly. As the Guild and Ladies'  Institute grew in numbers and personal body proportions, the store ceiling  developed a disturbing sag. This was remedied by the erection of an 8" by  8" fir post in the centre of the store to support the ailing ceiling. To the ladies'  dismay, a large sign  "The Ladies' Aid" was firmly affixed to the post.  Increased frequency and length of the women's meetings gave rise to a  rather imaginative men's organization. The "Neglected Husbands' Club" was  founded with a distinguishing symbol of a square of overall cloth pinned to  the chest of each member with a three inch nail. Even the school principal wore  his badge with manly pride. For some reason, the upstairs meetings became  shorter and less frequent. At last, one of those practical solutions proved  practical.  Thus it was that life continued and good health was enjoyed despite lack  of refrigeration, plastic packaging, pasteurization, homogenization or regular  government inspection. A warm and wonderful community institution has given  way to impersonal specialization, sanitation and computerization with an accompanying cold and sterile atmosphere. 131  TWO GIRLS IN A BOAT  by Allison Hogarth  Note: A copy of the following article in the handwriting of Allison  Hogarth was given to the Okanagan Historical Society by her son,  E. J. (Ted) Foot, a well-known former Kelowna resident now living  in North Vancouver.  Ted Foot writes, "Allison (my mother), Janet (Netta in the story) and  Dorothy came from Ardrossan, Ayrshire, Scotland. I am not sure when they  arrived in Kelowna (or why) but I suspect it was early in 1911. Allison and  Janet Hogarth purchased a furnished two-storey house in the 1400 block, Ellis  Street. I have a copy of an Agreement of Sale prepared by Burne and Temple  dated October 21, 1911. The original was signed by James Middleton of  Kelowna as vendor, M. Allison Hogarth and Janet S. Hogarth as purchasers  and witnessed by Anthony Temple. Legal description of the property was Lots  7 and 8, Plan 800. The youngest sister, Dorothy, bought a lot on Cadder  Avenue, Lot 3, Plan 1195."  The house on Ellis Street became a boarding house and Ted Foot adds,  "Allison and Netta called their boarding house 'The Garth' after the family  home in Ardrossan. They operated it for at least four years, 1911 to 1915. I  do know they were back in Ardrossan in 1917; their mother came out to collect them! In 1915, Allison would have been 29 and Netta 28."  In her account of the journey, Allison Hogarth mentions meeting Matt  Wilson at Paradise Ranch who, on hearing where they came from asked, "Surely you are not relatives of Hogarth the shipowners?" In fact, the owner of the  shipping line was Hugh Hogarth, a cousin of the girls.  While in Kelowna, Allison met Frank Foot who had arrived in that community 1909. Both had a love of aquatic sports and in the 1912 regatta Allison  Hogarth won the ladies' diving event. Art Gray's "Kelowna Tales of Bygone  Days" has the comment, "They dived from the springboard, 4 foot and even  the 12 foot stand." That was daring for mere females in those times; in fact  just appearing in public in a bathing suit was still a bit daring of them in 1912.  After WW1, Allison Hogarth married Frank Foot in May, 1919 in Ardrossan, Scotland and they returned to Kelowna to take up fruit growing. They  had two sons, Ted and Stewart. Allison died in 1937, Frank in 1953.  A. D. MacDonald  Allison Hogarth's Story  On Wednesday, July 14, at eight in the morning we set off from Kelowna  in our boat. It was a cloudy morning, with a stiff breeze blowing, but we worked  steadily, one with the sculls, and the other with a paddle, changing places every  hour, and in the evening were within about three and a half miles of Peachland.  We worked harder that first day than we ever did afterwards as we were not  content until we had left Kelowna well behind. Our first excitement was, when  within a few yards of shore, seeing three strange and beautiful animals come  down to the water's edge. Later we found out that they were skunks, our failure  to recognize them being due to the entire absence of any odour, although we  landed and tried to follow their track. It seems that they only give out their  stink as a protection when they are startled and probably they did not see us. 132  We sat down for dinner among some small trees, at the edge of a hay field  where a man was working. Presently he passed close to us and much to our  surprise we recognized Mr. Hayman and had a chat with him. A little further  on we stopped to look for some boards to make a back for the stern of the boat  and there, on the boundary of Mr. Gellatly's place we found any quantity of  wild raspberries which we enjoyed for supper and breakfast the next morning.  Towards evening it blew quite a gale and we struggled on looking for a  camping place for the night. Finally we landed on a shady beach and climbed  up a very steep bank looking for some deserted shack or barn where we might  shelter if necessary as there were heavy clouds blowing up. On enquiry, an  empty tent was pointed out to us, but after we had gone down to the beach  again, rowed back to a nearer landing place and struggled up the bank with  our blankets, it was almost dark. It was quite a new experience, groping about  in the dark in a tent full of rubbish looking for a corner in which to rest our  weary bones! To our great joy we found an old spring mattress which only  required propping up to make a fairly comfortable bed.  In the morning we had a chat with Mr. Greata, whose tent was on the  little beach, backed by trees, and bounded on each side by rocks on which we  had left our boat, up-turned over our stuff. Afterwards we heard more of this  Mr. Greata whom everyone seemed to know. He had sold his beautiful ranch  some miles further down the lake and evidently now just lives the simple life  in his little corner. In his tent were a gramaphone and a victrola and also a  small organ. His tent door closed in some mysterious fashion showing no sign  from the outside.  At a house a little further on, to which we had been directed, we called  to buy some cherries. Mrs. Davidson came back to invite us in, as her husband wanted to "chew the rag" with us. So in we went and were entertained  to a dinner of cold beef, green peas and new potatoes, followed by selections  on the victrola. We had quite a long chat with them and on leaving were  presented with the cherries and cordially invited back on our return journey  and offered a tent to sleep in.  We reached Peachland on the same afternoon, but as it was Thursday,  could do no shopping and found nothing particularly interesting. In the evening we slung our hammocks by Deep Creek, a mile or two beyond Peachland.  The weather was still unsettled, but we escaped with a slight shower of rain  and were awakened in the morning by the meowing of a cat-bird just above  our heads. We found our hammocks very comfortable to sleep in in spite of  warnings that they would give us a "kink in the back". We slung them as  level as possible and put cushions in the middle. At first it used to take us a  long time to get comfortably settled for the night, but soon we became quite  expert.  Next day we reached Summerland, again pulling against the wind, having a brief respite for an hour or two in the morning. We did some shopping  and rowed on to select a camping ground. We found an ideal spot, thick trees  on a sandy beach but alas! Heavy clouds were coming our way so again we  sought a roof to shelter us. There was an empty cottage not far off but we  selected what seemed to be an unfinished, or half pulled down grandstand by  a race course on which oats were flourishing. It had an excellent roof (with  only a few small holes) and a large pile of alfalfa, out of which we soon made 133  Allison and Netta Hogarth's boarding house, "The Garth", on Ellis Street, Kelowna.  two ideal beds in stalls made by the beams. All this luxury was within a few  yards of the shore, just behind a row of trees. We had a splendid sleep until  awakened before six by the sound of a song which turned out to proceed from  a man cycling along a farm track close by our bedroom. So we thought it time  to get up.  At last the water was still and the sun shining and at about eleven o'clock  Saturday morning we entered Penticton in triumph. After replenishing our  stock of provisions and depositing some of our stuff with Mr. Grant at the  Aquatic Club, we started off again to go down the Okanagan River to Dog  Lake, at the other end of which are the Okanagan Falls and the village of the  same name.  The river is pretty swift in some parts and we had quite an exciting time  in navigating it safely. We soon decided that we would not try to row up again.  We were both enchanted with the greenness of the river banks, although the  piles which mark the channel take somewhat from the beauty. Although only  four miles across from lake to lake, it took us from two to three hours by the  river.  The weather was now quite settled and on Sunday morning a fresh breeze  took us very quickly the remaining ten miles down to Okanagan Falls. The  camp of the night had been uneventful except for the falling of Netta out of  her hammock which requires very careful balancing. Another time she steadied  herself by a rotten branch and in a twinkling disappeared from view.  After dinner we took a walk to view the Falls and although we had been  told that there was nothing to see beyond the Falls, we found the scenery so 134  beautiful that we walked on up the hillside for several miles until we came to  a flat where there were one or two farms at the summit of the road. We called  at one of these to ask for a drink and to our great surprise and joy ice was  produced. I think I never had such a beautiful drink after that long pull up  the hill in the scorching sun.  Farther on we came to a little lake, very aptly called Green Lake, in which  were mud-turtles sitting basking in the sun on logs which floated at the water's  edge. At our approach they tumbled off and swam away. We waited quietly  and watched and now and then one would swim up and put its head above  water; it was very comical to see them scuttle away whenever they spied us.  We climbed a hillock and had a wonderful view of rolling wooded hills with  a lakelet in the midst. This part reminded us of the Highlands as it is not nearly so dried up as the country around Kelowna.  We started up the lake again the same evening as we were afraid we might  miss the motor launch which was to tow us up the river. On board the  "Mallard" we were introduced to the editor of the Penticton Herald who was  much interested in our mode of travelling and asked for permission to put a  note about it in his paper.  We found a good camping-ground at the foot of a cliff not far out of Penticton. It would have been much easier to take a room in town for the night  but both of us hated the idea of sleeping indoors on such a lovely evening.  We had to be up before five a.m. to have time to deposit our boat at the Aquatic  Club and catch the six-thirty train which was to take us to the railway summit.  Our greatest adventure was to find on alighting at Carmi siding and enquiring for the Wardlaw's place which we understood was only a short distance  Allison (1) and Netta Hogarth repairing the roof of their boarding house in Kelowna. 135  off, that we should have gone sixteen miles further on to a depot called  McCulloch. There we were, stranded on the track; no house, no road, thick  woods all around, no train till the next evening, and only a few men working  on the line. We were told that perhaps the gang might be moving on next day  and, if so, we could go on their train. However, it turned out that the gasoline  Fire Patrol speeder would be along in less than an hour and it might be able  to take us. When it arrived, our hearts sank as it was nothing but a little frame  about three feet from the ground with a narrow seat along one side and we  did not see how it could possibly hold us and our baggage. But it was wonderful how much could be packed on it and we were soon speeding along at twenty-  five miles an hour.  It was a splendid way of seeing the country and we rejoiced that we had  made the mistake as that part of the line is particularly wonderful, running  over deep ravines and along the face of a precipice, one of the bridges being  two hundred feet high. The vibration of the speeder was very great and so  prevented any conversation, for which we were sorry, as we had not heard  of the Fire Patrol before and were very much interested. It follows about an  hour after every train to put out any fires which may have been caused by  sparks. The bridges are all made of timber and on them all are barrels which  are kept filled with water.  The Wardlaws, mother and son, are the first and still the only settlers.  They say it is their right to have the station named after them and will probably get it changed. We had some meals with them and slung our hammocks  on the edge of their clearing. We ate in the kitchen with the two men and had  one plate for fish, jam, etc. and one tea spoon with which to stir our tea, eat  an egg, and help ourselves to jam. Nevertheless, we thoroughly enjoyed our  suppers, hardly noticing such trifles.  The son, Wardlaw, remembered Netta as he had been plastering at the  Mantle's house when she was there. There was quite an interesting and good-  looking young Englishman called C working for them for his board. It seems  he failed to find a job in town and asked if they would keep him. Mrs. Wardlaw  says he drinks heavily when he has the chance; probably that accounts for his  being in this country.  We were in as wild a country as I could desire, almost on the tops of the  mountains but we dare not leave the trails as the whole country is so densely  wooded that it would be dangerous to do so. However there seemed to be  numbers of trails — just narrow alleys cut straight through the woods and  sometimes not even cleared. We walked past the South Kelowna Lake Company's dam and on through a lovely wood until we came out on a lake from  which we caught glimpses of the country round about. While I walked around  the lake, and up a small hill not quite so densely wooded as the rest, Netta  sat and watched chipmunks playing within a few inches of her. We saw leeches  and a pool at the edge of the dam was black with millions of tadpoles. The  crazy laughter of the loon sounded very weird and almost human as he splashed and dived in the water. I half expected to see a bear peering through the  trees and it seems that if I had any luck I might have seen one. The Wardlaws  have seen them sometimes.  The whole country is beautifully green, the woods are carpeted with flowers  and shrubs, looking so cool and fresh after the brown dried-up hills lower down. 136  Allison Hogarth in her 'daring' bathing suit, Kelowna, c. 1912.  Of course they have much more rain up there than we do down in the valley.  In the evening we had a game of rummy with the two men.  One great drawback to the place was the number of insects. There are  three kinds of flies, which all bite, besides mosquitoes. One very tiny fly, called the "no-seeum", draws a large spot of blood. There is one very like the  housefly, whose bite is something like a mosquito's. Finally, an immense fly  called the "bull-dog", which is sufficient explanation.  We felt that in two days we had seen all that we could see and wondered  what Miss Hall and her friend, who had spent a week there, had found to do.  We got back to Penticton at ten on Wednesday night and spent our first  night indoors, at the Imperial Rooms, which are kept by Germans and are  very clean and comfortable. Thursday morning was spent in doing business  of various kinds. In the afternoon we took a motor run to the Green Mountain  Pass on the road to Keremeos; so now I think we have explored the district  pretty thoroughly.  We spent the night at our old camping grounds outside of Penticton. About  5:30 a.m., behold, a man walking up and down, stopping to inspect us and  our boat, and finally talking to us. He was a foreigner of some kind and seemed very curious about us, but he took the wrong way of having his curiosity  satisfied. He had a place on the cliffs above and was looking for some straight  branches with which to make a ladder, he said. It was the first time we had  been discovered. Usually we got up about 6 a.m. so we felt pretty safe. We  slept in our bathing suits, ready for the morning swim, except when we thought  there was a danger of discovery when we kept our dresses on!  We made good use of a calm morning and were glad that we did, as by 137  the time that we reached Naramata there was quite a gale blowing against us.  In Naramata, which seemed to have no life at all, we had the greatest  difficulty in buying milk and bread, and then had to climb up to the bench  to look for fruit, as there was none whatever to be had in town (sic). Finally  we got as many apricots as we could carry, for twenty-five cents. The woman  told us she did not like charging for fruit in this way and had never done it  before, but this year things were so bad that "five cents was five cents".  Several miles north of Naramata we were storm-staid, or chose to be, for  a whole day. We saw signs of cattle near the shore, and on following their tracks  up a long steep bank, I came to a road, and so had good hopes of finding some  milk for breakfast. But after walking some distance toward Naramata and seeing no sign of a house I had to content myself with filling my pail with a kind  of blackberry, a cross between a bramble and a rasp, which is very good to  eat. Later on I had another try to find a house in the other direction, but with  no better success, although I followed the road for three or four miles. However  I was very pleased with the walk as I came upon a beautiful little creek coming  tumbling down the rocks and through a deep gorge, in truly Highland fashion.  In the evening, after rowing a few miles I found the farm to which my  road led. I had been within a mile of it before. After not having seen a living  soul all day, "Paradise Ranch", with its comfortable-looking house and neat  and flourishing surroundings, was a very welcome sight. We visited the house  and when the owner, who was a Scotsman from Glasgow named Wilson, heard  where we came from he said, "Surely you are not relations of Hogarth the  ship-owner? I see I am entertaining angels unaware."  In the morning, at 5:30, while we were still in our hammocks, he brought  along a present of fruit and eggs and butter.  At our next place of call we were presented with some newly-caught trout,  nicely filleted, which we ate with great relish at our next meal. Everyone seemed  to think that we made a great mistake in not fishing, as fish are very plentiful  in some parts. But neither of us had any desire to fish; our time and attention  were fully occupied without it.  The donor of the trout, who was another hospitable bachelor, had informed  us that his mother lived four miles further on, so as the sky was very cloudy,  we hurried on, hoping to find a roof under which to pass the night.  We found a dear old lady who wanted to take us into the house, but we  preferred to hang up our hammocks across each other in a tent by the shore,  half of whose roof was gone. The old man came along to nail up the covering  for us and to offer us wood or anything which we might require. At this place  rattlesnakes are quite numerous and a large one which they said had been eating  their chickens had been killed the day before, which made us feel glad that  we did not sleep on the ground.  By this time we had passed Peachland on the opposite side and partly  because we wished to avoid the Mission, which we were ever nearing, but chiefly, I think, as we wanted to call on our acquaintances of the outward journey,  the Davidsons and Mr. Greata, we crossed to the other side. We found Mr.  and Mrs. Davidson busy in their packing-house and on our enquiring about  milk, they directed us to Dr. Buchanan's house nearby. There, to our surprise, we met Mr. Hansen, who regretted that he could not entertain us at  his own place. We had a pleasant chat with the Buchanans, who are Scottish, 138  and took our departure, accompanied to our boat by Mr. Hansen and laden  with milk and fruit and bread for which, of course, they would take no payment. The Davidsons had given us tomatoes so we were well supplied.  In the afternoon we arrived at Gellatly's place and, the sky still looking  very threatening, we decided that it was not safe to leave shelter behind, being  influenced also perhaps by curiosity as to the Gellatlys. We talked with Mrs.  G. and arranged that we should sling our hammocks in the loft of their packinghouse, which is quite a large building. She invited us to the house, of course,  but did not press us, thinking, rightly, that we would prefer to carry out our  program of sleeping in our hammocks. However, soon came the rain and after  having a second supper with the family, Mr. Gellatly would not hear of letting  us go out to the packing-house. After all, we were not sorry to make sure of  a dry bed as it was a wild and thundering night and rained in torrents. The  house is very large and well-built, but not finished in keeping. In the evening  we were entertained by, or rather, entertained a number of the family — six  or seven of them — Netta reciting and I attempting to play the latest popular  ditties on a small organ.  In the morning we had a very interesting walk all around the ranch with  Mr. Gellatly and one of the girls, through fields and fields of tomatoes and  cucumbers and all kinds of fruit and vegetables; then up behind to a lovely  spot where the creek comes through a very deep canyon.  We found the whole family most kind and hospitable. Our fruit supply  was again enlarged with apples, apricots and peaches and we started off very  unwillingly on the last lap.  The day was now calm and fine so we decided that we would not hurry  home; but alas! in the afternoon up came the clouds again and we reluctantly  made Kelowna about four o'clock just in time to escape a heavy shower.  .  .  . from the Penticton Herald of Thursday, July 22,  1915.  KELOWNA SISTERS IN LONG BOAT RIDE  Misses Hogarth Row to Okanagan Falls from up the Lake City.  There are very few women in the valley who would strike out on a holiday trip such as that now being undertaken by the Misses Hogarth, two  Kelowna young women who have come down to the southern end of the lake  to explore the water reaches and roads of the South Okanagan. The two young  women left Kelowna on Wednesday in a small fourteen foot rowboat. Coming  down the lake in easy stages, they reached Penticton on Saturday. They slept  Wednesday, Thursday and Friday nights on the lakeshore in their hammocks  slung under the trees. One night was spent in a hay mow on Trout Creek Point.  Arriving here they spent a day looking over the town and then ran the  river in their boat and proceeded down Skaha (sic) Lake to Okanagan Falls.  They came back to Penticton by boat on Monday and on Tuesday set out on  the K.V.R. to Carmi. Upon their return they will probably take a walking  tour to Keremeos or Fairview, having been greatly impressed with the appearance of that portion of the southern country they saw in a Sunday walk  south from Okanagan Falls. 139  The intrepid sisters are enjoying life in a somewhat novel way for women  of the Okanagan at any rate. Their week outdoors has made them brown as  berries and they are pictures of health.  "We have had a splendid trip in our boat," they declared here, "and  except for rain off and on the weather has been all that one could expect. We  have seen a lot of new country and one must certainly admit that the Penticton and Skaha (sic) Lake section of the Okanagan is its prettiest part."  Misses Hogarth propose to row back to Kelowna some time this week.  They will have gone 100 miles by rowboat in addition to several long tramps  on foot and railway ride on the K.V.R.  (Editor of the Herald was R. J. McDougall)  MISSION CREEK SCHOOL 1930 - 1937  by J. A. Campbell, B.S.A. (retired in 1971 after 40 years' teaching)  To whom it may concern:  I have just finished reading the account by Joan Chamberlain on Mission  Creek School from the 48th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society.  It's a very good report but unfortunately leaves out the period from 1930  to 1937. Perhaps I can fill in with information about that period because I was  principal then and taught with Audrey McLeod (1930-1931) and Lillian Hunt  (from 1931 on).  Between Miss Hunt and myself we taught 100 pupils in two rooms. To  accommodate these pupils Miss Hunt taught Grades 1, 2 and 3 inclusive with  52 pupils and I taught Grades 5, 6, 7 and 8 with 48 pupils.  Up until Christmas I boarded in a local home without the conveniences  of a furnace, bath, electricity or mail delivery. One night I was given a candle  to retire. One morning I awoke suddenly almost overcome with smoke from  the Quebec heater that had parted company from its pipes down below. I paid  $40 a month (depression and all) at that time from Monday morning till Friday night. Finally I developed a severe case of appendicitis from an overbalanced  starch diet. My doctor put me on a strict diet which my landlady claimed she  was unable to provide. As a consequence I was forced to live at home in  Rutland, some 4 miles from the school. I commuted from our home till 1936  when I took seven months' leave of absence to attend U.B.C. Inspector A.  S. Matheson very kindly found me a substitute in the person of Tom Aldworth.  That last year I taught September, May and June.  I resigned in June 1937 to complete my studies at U.B.C, graduating  in Agriculture and Biology in 1938. I believe that when I left in 1937 the school  was enlarged to three rooms and Mr. A. H. Hooper became principal.  The students during my stay at Mission Creek excelled athletically,  musically and academically. They came very close to performing in the  Okanagan Musical Festival in Kelowna (unfortunately their conductor could  not bring himself to conduct in public), won several times the Track and Field  trophy for two-room schools and, except for one year, all passed their Grade  8 Entrance-to-High-School exams. Mr. Hooper took over from me in 1937. 140  RECOLLECTIONS OF EARLY CHURCHES IN FALKLAND,  GLENEMMA AND HEYWOOD'S CORNER DISTRICTS  by Edith M. Aitken  Church services in Glenemma, were first held in the Glenemma Hall which  was built by volunteer labour and completed March 9, 1900. This large building  served as a general meeting place for dances, concerts, church services and  gatherings of all kinds. A huge stove and later an organ were purchased from  ladies' collectings, concerts and box socials.  On Sunday, March 11, 1900, Rev. Powell of Enderby held the first church  service during which he christened four children. Soon Mr. Kenny, the  Methodist minister from Chase, was riding horseback to hold services. A succession of student ministers from the Methodist and Presbyterian colleges held  services. Messrs. McMurty, Beetham and Martin were some that I recall. (All  the students stayed at the home of my parents, Rose and Jabez Kneller.)  Rev. Martin had a passion for photography and threw his developing fluid  on Mrs. Kneller's garden. No flowers grew there for years, the land was so  poisoned! Another student, John L. Hughes, from the New Westminster College, had a marvelous voice. (Welsh, of course!) Each Sunday he closed with  a hymn or sacred song. "The Bird with the Broken Pinion," never soared  so high again. It was indeed a treat to hear such a voice. At several meetings  before he left, the new barn at Morgandale (now Heywood's Corner) was filled. One hundred and fifty people, including all the mill workers, came out.  This enthusiasm was repeated at the Glenemma Hall services.  For fourteen years Rev. Akitt from Knob Hill drove his faithful horse,  fair weather or foul. Father and Mother persuaded him to ask the congregation not to venture out should it be below zero weather, in compassion for all,  including the horse.  Mrs. Emma Sweet and Mrs. Rose Kneller were the first Sunday School  teachers. Once a month, Mrs. John Freeman drove some eight miles to the  Hall to hold Scripture Union Sunday School and to give the children a delightful  lunch, all prepared by herself. (Mr. and Mrs. John Freeman were passengers  on the "Lusitania" that was sunk in 1915 by a German submarine.) Early  organists were Mrs. Sweet and Mrs. W. Petrie. Some years later a young girl,  Edie Kneller, played at Glenemma Hall for church services only. Her father,  Jabez Kneller, and his nephew, Will Hoath, always commenced with, "Oh  God Our Help in Ages Past."  Rev. Reg Redmond from Vancouver, held his first parish at Morgandale  and Glenemma. Arthur Heywood gave great assistance with his good voice.  Miss Marjorie Freeze (now Needoba), was the organist.  Sunday was a day for folk to meet at the church to worship and to visit  together, then have a lunch before returning home to do chores.  Falkland United Church  As far back as 1890, Presbyterian and Methodist services were being held  in the Falkland area.  Falkland United Church was built by the Salmon River Land and Cattle  Company in 1911, as an office and later for a school house. With the outbreak 141  of World War One, their mill closed and this building was hauled to its present site. The building was rented for ten dollars a year. Pews were purchased  from the Knox Presbyterian Church at Knob Hill (which closed and their congregation moved to Armstrong). Workers soon had a little meeting place for  several denominations.  The "Plymouth Brethern", were one of the first denominations to use  the facility with Mr. and Mrs. John Freeman and Mr. Wilfred Fisher holding  services. In 1912 regular Methodist services were held and in 1923 the  Methodists and Presbyterians joined forces and met under the leadership of  Rev. Chas. Addyman. The year 1929 marked the real formation of the United  Church as the first board of stewards was elected.  A small cabin was built for the Manse. After a lengthy search the deed  was finally obtained and the buildings and property were purchased for a grand  sum of fifty-nine dollars forty cents in 1933. (Fifty-five dollars actual property  price, four dollars forty cents for locating the deed.) Everyone in the community  who was interested was issued a certificate for one dollar to pay for the price  of the property.  The church has been active since then with one of the first weddings on  record solemnized in January 1931, that of Thomas Ruckle and Agnes Mae  Hoath. On December 23, 1931, Christopher Columbus Bailey was married  to Eva Margaret Gemmill. There have been many baptisms, weddings, funerals  and summer bible schools. For a year it also served as a classroom taught by  Miss L. Sugars and Mrs. R. Coulpier.  Mrs. Wm. McClounie Sr. started a cradle roll where all new babies received a certificate and were recorded in a book, a gathering being held for the  mother. Mr. Wm. McClounie was the first elder, followed by his son, Bill.  His daughter-in-law, Ethel, has been secretary-treasurer for many years, a position she still holds. Local organists were the Misses Queenie and Frebi Phillips  and Mrs. Edith Aitken. Mrs. M. Phillips organized a, "Ladies Aid," to raise  money for the church. Early members were, Mrs. D. Millar, Mrs. J. Dent,  Mrs. C. Kent, Mrs. H. Beddoes, Mrs. Wm. McClounie, Sr. and Jr., Mrs.  H. Phillips, Mrs. T. Aitken, Mrs. F. Tarry, (Mr. and Mrs. Frank Tarry held  a Sunday School for all denominations for many years.)  Some of the earlier ministers were Rev. J. R. Butler, Rev. D. Allan, Rev.  T. A. Saddler, Rev. Evan Fullerton, Rev. Adam Crisp, Rev. B. Black, Rev.  Wm. Selder and Rev. Rowland. Rev. Allan had been an actor in England.  He would lecture on, "gossiping," and often imitated some of the congregation. This proved embarrassing, at times! Rev. Rowland, a confirmed bachelor,  often visited members of his congregation. One day, a little four-year-old girl  who quite liked him, climbed on his knee and asked with great concern, "Have  you broken your neck?" "Why, no, my dear, why ever do you ask?" Her  reply, "Cause you've got your collar on backwards." He found this very amusing and appreciated the child's concern.  In later years, A. Boundy, an Australian student, while driving his ancient car up the Bolean Lake road to visit Mr. and Mrs. J. Hambrook, got  stuck. While he climbed halfway up the mountain to get help, his lady companion, left waiting in the car, selected a hymn for next day's service, <£I to the  hills doth lift up mine eyes from whence doth come my aid." 142  The Anglican Christ Church  The Anglican Church was built in 1929 by the Wallace brothers, Bill and  Andy. They were assisted by Wm. Warren, Chas. Parker, George Edgcombe,  and Jack and Bert Pearse. A lady in England donated greatly to the financial  cost for the building and pews. Beautiful gifts which included altar linens, Bible and bell were received from England. The site was given by Manitoba Gypsum, Lime & Alabastine Company whose quarries were located in Falkland.  The church opened for services August 11. Rev. G. Stewart from Chase  rode horseback every two weeks to Falkland to celebrate Holy Comunion at  11:00 a.m. Rev. L. King would come from Armstrong. On October 27, 1929,  the Bishop consecrated the new building in the name of Christ Church, with  a congregation of sixty-six. Some of these early members who helped greatly  were, Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Warren, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. Parker, Mrs. Ths.  Currie, Mrs. Perrault, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Lynes and Mrs. W.J. Ferguson,  whose youngest son rang the first bell for church service. Mrs. A. Wiseman  was the organist.  A lot of weddings, baptisms, confirmations and funerals have taken place  in this church over the years with many different ministers serving. Some of  the early vicars being Rev. Kersey, Rev. Turnbull, Rev. Salter, Rev. Wright,  Rev. Lonsdale, Rev. Hague and Rev. Abbott.  In later years a lot of volunteer labour was done by Mr. and Mrs. Edgar  Arnold. A pair of butane candles were donated by the Arnolds in memory  of their son. A Communion set was given by the Anglican Guild which was  active at that time. Other supportive members were Mr. and Mrs. Stuart Lynes,  Mrs. Levett, and Mr. and Mrs. H. Culling. Herb Culling still lights the fire  and keeps the grounds in order.  St. John's Roman Catholic Church  It was in 1930 that Father A. D. McDonnell, Parish Priest of Armstrong,  decided the time had come to build a parish centre in Falkland and the following year the church was completed. Since the building of the church a total  of seven priests are listed in the parish records as having ministered to the  spiritual needs of the Parish — Father O'Connellan having the longest tenure,  from 1940 to 1965. Others who served were Father Donally and Father Roche.  For years Mrs. Wm. Wilson from Rocky Point was organist.  There were many personal touches. In 1927, a child, Gracie Blais, died  on Boxing Day. It was one of the coldest days recorded. A neighbour, John  Brown, kindly offered to take the casket to the station. He nearly perished,  freezing both his ears and his hands.  Another Catholic funeral was held for the Falkland-Armstrong mail  courier, Dan Pement, who died very suddenly. So many friends attended that  the Armstrong church was full and overflowing. The Father, on seeing so many  Protestant friends, held the complete service in English, explaining to all the  form of service and the meaning of the symbols.  Mrs. Jas. Churchill, Mr. and Mrs. A. Timmers, Mr. and Mrs. A. Van  Hoof and Mrs. L. Harvey were ardent church workers.  In 1979 a day of Thanksgiving and celebration for the Christian faith was  held in Falkland to commemorate the 50th anniversaries of the Anglican, United 143  and Roman Catholic churches. Tribute was paid these early parishioners for  their undertakings.  I hope these memories will be of interest to many. I regret some names  will undoubtedly be omitted, but these stand out in my memory.  God bless them all.  THE POWER OF THE MEDIA  by H. R. Hatfield with thanks to W. A. Roadhouse who was there.  Among the men of the Kettle Valley Railway in the early days a dry, wry  sense of humour was prevalent. Perhaps it was the result of working together  at jobs often hard and frequently dangerous. It no doubt had unconscious encouragement from the boss, Andy McCulloch, Chief Engineer and Superintendent with his dry wit, long to be remembered by all who knew him.  Oldtimer Allan Roadhouse who fired on the road for a number of years  has some good tales, some printable. One in particular appeals to my sense  of humour.  For some years between 1923 and 1931 the branch line to Oliver was  operated with a water link on Skaha Lake. At the north end of the lake the  train was loaded on a barge which was pushed by the tug York to Okanagan  Falls from where it resumed travel by rail. The service was freight only.  One black stormy winter night sometime after midnight, with Captain  Otto Estabrooks in charge, they approached the car slip at the head of Skaha.  The slip had no protection and its location at the northwest corner of the lake  was then and still is a particularly violent spot when storms come from the  south. The barge, listing to the side the locomotive was on, was icing up and  getting lower in the water as the extra weight increased. The front end train  crew, engineer, fireman and brakeman were in the loco cab with some shelter  and warmth but not enjoying the general situation.  It was obvious to Estabrooks that with the following gale any attempt to  put the barge against the slip could only end in disaster. To run it alongside  the dolphins and cable it there until conditions improved seemed the only thing  to do. But in several attempts each time the wind and waves drove the barge  and attached tug with such force that the steel cables broke and he had to back  out promptly to keep from going ashore.  It is necessary to divert here for the moment to remind you that in those  days Penticton, like other Okanagan towns, had a weekly paper. Its name was  as now the Penticton Herald. It was the common, and practically the only local  news media and it came out every Thursday.  To get back to the group in the engine cab, dodging the flying spray and  looking out on the wild waves with some apprehension. The engineer, Frank  Odorizzi, remarked to the others, "You know boys if this thing was to sink  nobody'd know where we was till the Herald comes out next Thursday." 144  RESTROSPECTION  by Gail Verhoeven  How often when our elders say,  "Young folk sure are fortunate today.  They've got things so easy, have time for fun.  Boy, things were different when I was young!"  We shrug our shoulders and off we run,  No time to listen to stories of yesterday.  B.C.'s Centennial has now arrived,  A time for memories to be revived.  But when I began to think at last  Of things that happened here in the past  I was faced with questions, so I asked  Old friends for facts. This history we contrived.  The steamer "Red Star", much in demand,  Brought many new citizens to our land  Until the spring of '91  When the CPR made its maiden run  From Sicamous to Enderby. From  That day on new developments would be planned.  Timber was cut and hauled to the river.  High water the logs to Mara booms would deliver.  The cleared land was settled. Early fathers and mothers  Were Emeny, Monk, Weir, Lambert and Handcock. Soon there were  others:  Peacock, Crandelmire, Wells, McEwen, Skyrme and Halksworth  Brothers.  Tales of hardships they faced can cause one to shiver!  May 3,  1909 is recalled by most,  When tragedy caused damage of untolled cost.  Several brush fires had been set that day,  Due to a sudden wind they got completely away.  Flames jumped the river, causing destruction all the way  To Mara. Fortunately no lives were lost.  The wind blew the flames in every direction.  From such a fire where does one find protection?  Several took refuge in a shed built by Waddel.  Some were saved by crawling into their well.  During the long night they lived through pure hell,  Fighting to save all they could from destruction.  By 1910 the farmers were keen  To build a new bridge 'cross the Spallumcheen.  A survey was made of Carlin's land.  In order for a government bridge to stand  A townsite must be close at hand.  The new town of Grindrod had come into being. 145  The school was located on Glen Stickland's land  Until the bridge was completed, then to be close at hand  Volunteers built a log school house for local accommodation.  Soon it was too small due to large immigration.  Classes were held in any available location  Until another new school could be planned.  The stores in Grindrod totalled exactly one,  Owned and operated by Harry Tompkinson.  The post office was in Enderby, so Mr. Monk decided  To open one in Grindrod, right where he resided.  By 1911 local postal service was provided.  In 1922 he opened the new store of J. Monk & Son.  The seasons determined the hours of labour,  But each farmer had time for helping his neighbour.  They gathered together from miles away  To build a new barn or put up the hay.  Threshing and silage crews met at break of day,  While mother provided food for all to savour.  Her day began early. Without modernization  She'd tackle her chores with great determination.  No electrical gadgets to make her life grand.  Nothing frozen, or instant, or pre-mixed or canned.  Food, clothing and cleaning were all done by hand.  She was devoted to her family — not to women's liberation!  In winter many chores could be neglected,  But next summer's refrigeration must be collected.  If the supply of ice on the river was low,  Then to the nearest lake the teams would go  To saw huge blocks of ice — 200 pounds or so!  The precious supply by sawdust was protected.  For all social events the school was the place.  To church, meetings, and dances the people would race.  On entertainment little money was spent.  People made their own fun — they were content.  On large Sunday gatherings countless heads were bent  Round the dining room table while father said Grace.  Often families were large, though incomes were small,  But no one complained — all for one, one for all!  Father paid taxes by hauling gravel with care  Using his wagon and team for road repair.  To take a trip or vacation was indeed very rare.  To take a trip using drugs was not dreamt of at all.  As time progressed onward, there came to attention  New equipment and methods. Here we must mention  That Tom Skyrme's new tractor was the latest on wheels,  While the Weirs and Ernie Skyrme drove automobiles!  A speedster from Mara caused local appeals —  Cars going 20 mph. must be the Devil's Invention! 146  A young man with interests ahead of his day  Tinkered with wires and tubes. Someone did say  That a voice could be heard ever so low  Coming from Arthur Tompkinson's radio!  It was the first in the North Okanagan, you know.  He'd have the first T.V. too — yet three decades away.  'Til '24 all phone calls were made from the CPR station,  You rang your own numbers, though it took concentration.  The original wire was strung through the trees.  By the early 20's the Tompkinson and Skyrme families  Were generating their own power from large batteries.  Electricity came in '36 — bringing changes beyond imagination.  To go on any further is not my intention.  I hope to this point I have not caused dissension.  Time has brought improvements to our lives, indeed.  But many good things have been lost in the speed,  Such as caring and sharing without envy or greed.  Let's take time for living, and drop all pretension!  Spring 1971  EARLY KELOWNA RECOLLECTED  I recently ran across some notes of Mother's early days in Kelowna. They are  written word for word as she detailed it except for the names of a few new buildings  which have been inserted.  Bill Knowles  By the late Mrs. A. L. Knowles  In 1906 when I came here Kelowna was very different to now. 600 population. No electric light, water or sewage or any of the conveniences we take  as a matter of course today. The town proper was from the Lakeview Hotel  (Caraval), opposite what is now the park up to Willits' Drug Store. A few  wooden sidewalks there but farther up for a few blocks 3 planks ran lengthwise  and one had to watch for protruding spikes, or you were on your nose. Fire  was the worst hazard. A bucket brigade was formed if the fire was near the  lake. Later we got an old fire engine which was later in the park and eventually returned to San Francisco, its original home.  As for the park there was none. It was privately owned but by the foresight  of a few, was purchased by the city. Your Dad was on the council and the  park was under his jurisdiction. It was very hard to get money for that dept.  as streets, etc. came first but eventually the old sloughs were filled in, roads  laid out, trees planted and over the years we have a wonderful park.  Everyone in 1906 had a pump and we got to know when our neighbors  arose by the squeak of each particular pump. Cold mornings the pump had  to be primed and woe to the ones that had forgotten to have extra water in  the house. Our first city lights were gas lamps from the Lakeview to Willits' 147  corner. We felt we were really coming on. Next year we got electricity but  the plant burned down within the year, so back to oil lamps and lanterns for  our social life at night.  Dances were held in Raymer's Hall which was the mecca for all social  events, lodge meetings, dances etc. Our music consisted of Jim Wilks at the  piano and Mr. Whitehead, violinist. The former had to be "primed," ever  so often with a good stiff scotch. At the end of the evening he could still keep  time. Later he was drowned off Manhattan.  The big event of the year was the Bachelors' Ball, when they repaid their  social debts. We had a goodly number of "remittance men," as they were called, who owned or were on ranches nearby. It was amusing to see them riding  in a day or so before the ball with chickens hanging from their saddles, unpluck-  ed, on the way to the Lakeview where the chef cooked them for the banquet.  Things were quite formal in those days. Ladies had their, "at home,"  days. Callers would appear with their fancy card cases and leave one for the  hostess and 2 for her husband. Regret to say I completely forgot my "day"  once and went off to something else. We used to compare notes to see who  had the most callers. I remember returning a call of Mrs. J. F. Burne and  from Pandosy Street bridge for two blocks the path was through bush. Gradually  things began to improve but we really enjoyed life in the dark ages altho who  would return to them?  We spent my first summer at Manhattan which was not then subdivided.  Frank DeHart invited a group of us to camp. Think there were 18 including  3 children — Guy and Bay DeHart and Clarence Jossely, the three Reekie  girls who afterwards moved to Vancouver. Also 3 bachelors, Alec McKay, Billy  Lloyd Jones and Ernie Wilkinson. We sewed their pyjamas up one day and  for revenge they stole a nightgown which eventually went up to Mrs. Dave  Lloyd Jones in the laundry. She was shocked and asked me what went on at  the camp. I explained and righted things for Billy.  We had to use boats for transportation so men got lunch in town. We  had a Chinese cook for awhile. One morning when the men went in for breakfast  he was all packed up. Jim said, "What's matter Sing?" He said, "I go home.  Too many damn women."  At close of summer Frank DeHart said, "You sand rats, as we were  known," may have your choice of lots for $50.00 each," and I believe we are  the only originals of that wonderful summer.  Mr. Millie installed the first phones in Kelowna about 1905. The switch  boards were in a house on Ellis Street where Leather Person dry cleaners are  located. In 1913 while camping at Manhattan he ran a line to his place and  nailed a phone to a cottonwood tree for the campers to use.  In 1907 the steamer Okanagan took us on a trial run to Westbank. Everyone  just locked up their stores. However, the boat kept on through to Penticton  picking up passengers at Westbank, Peachland, Naramata and Summerland.  Couldn't show any favoritism. As there was no food on board and everyone  was starving the men raided the stores in Penticton. Even dry soda biscuits  were acceptable. When we got back the country people were wild as they  couldn't do any shopping with all the stores locked up.  One little note of interest. Whenever there was a bride aboard the steamers  the Captain would blow the whistle a certain way to let the town know of her  arrival. 148  EVERYDAY LIFE  IN THE TWENTIES  EVERYDAY LIFE IN THE TWENTIES  THE KITCHEN RANGE  by Alice M. Emeny  Once the job was complete the hungry men eagerly looked forward to the  home cooked meal awaiting them in the farm kitchen; which of course had  been prepared on the wood burning kitchen range.  The pride of every woman's kitchen was her cook stove. The shiny steel  surface, and the polished nickel-plated trim depicted the care it was given. Some  of the most common makes of ranges in 1929 were the Home-Comfort,  McClary, Enterprise and the Moffat — to mention a few. A top quality stove  could be purchased for less than $50.00.  Across the top of the stove was a warming oven — where food was placed  to be kept warm, once it was dished up. On one side of the stove would be  a copper reservoir for hot water. This would hold about five gallons of water.  A long handled dipper hung on a nail nearby and was used to remove the water  from the reservoir.  A nickel-plated tea pot stand, gave an ornamental decor to the back wall  of the stove. This would fold down to accommodate the large family tea pot,  keeping the tea hot without boiling it.  The fire box usually opened from the front of the stove and the cooking  surface had two or four lift out stove lids. It was commonplace to see a large  kettle of water steaming merrily away on the stove. Monday, which was always  considered to be wash day, would see the old copper wash boiler filled and  placed on top of the stove. Usually the stove lids were removed for faster heating.  The cooking oven on our family stove was on the lower right hand side  with the oven door opening from top to bottom. Some ovens had thermometers  on the door, but many did not; but a housewife knew her oven well and could  tell the correct heat for a cake merely by placing her hand momentarily in the  oven. The range ovens were used not only for cooking but also to heat the  kitchen. I well remember how good it felt to come downstairs on a cold winter  morning and sit on the oven door to warm my back! Real 'Home Comfort'  believe me!  Beneath the fir box grate was the ashes pan. How quickly it seemed to  fill up — because of course it was the children's job to empty the ashes.  The old kitchen range was a multi-function appliance — even serving as  an 'incubator' for new born infants, as most babies were born in the home  at this time. 149  No. 7. Royal Alexandra, reservoir and high  closet, 8/18. six 8-inch covers, wood, $42.75;  duplex grate, coal or wood, $44.75. 9/20, six  9-inch covers, woodr $46.75; duplex grate,  coal or wood, $49.25.  Today, in 1985, as other fuel costs soar in price we see a return once again  to wood burning stoves. A 'reproduction' of these lovely old kitchen ranges  used in 1929 costs close to $1200.00 today. But I'm sure the stories these 'old  beauties' have to tell, can never be matched by their modern counterpart!  REFLECTIONS OF 1929 — "Getting in the Winter's Wood"  by Alice M. Emeny  The affluent society in which we live today has done much to change man's  attitudes about life. In 1929 there was a deep sense of appreciation of the 'dignity  of labour' and the 'blessing of work.' At no time was this more evident than  when it came time to get out the winter's wood.  I remember well my father hitching up the team to the bobsleigh, loading  the necessary equipment which consisted of a crosscut saw, an axe, sledge hammer and wedge and perhaps a file, and heading to the back acreage of our  property to fall trees. Even the family dog got in on the act, and enjoyed bounding through the snow on a late February day. My father always cut the next  winter's wood in February or March, so that it would have the summer to dry.  There were no chain saws to ease the work, so a crosscut saw was used.  A crosscut saw could be either a 'one' or 'two-man' saw. As we had a good  supply of birch on the property, that was the preferred wood. However fir was  also used as a good alternate. Spruce was hard to split, and did not give off  quite as much heat. Cedar burned very quickly and so proved ideal for kindling.  Once the tree to be cut was selected, an undercut was made in the base  of the tree, to determine the direction the tree would fall. Then one or two  men with the crosscut saw, would saw from the opposite side to the undercut.  A skilled bushman was able to fall the tree exactly where he wanted it to fall.  The branches were then cut off with an axe, a job which required a good strong  back.  If conditions in the bush were such that the horses and sleigh could be 150  'Ģ  .rife-  brought in, the tree would be split and piled on the spot. Otherwise a horse  would be brought in to skid the fallen trees out to a more suitable location.  As children, it was great fun to take our hand sleds and toboggans and have  a sleigh ride on these skid trails.  The tree length was cut into four foot lengths (cordwood length) again  with the crosscut saw. Then each four foot length was split with a wedge and  sledge hammer and piled to dry. A pile four by four by eight feet long was  calculated to be one cord of wood.  It was great fun to ride with dad on the load of wood as it was brought  into the home site for 'buzzing' into stove wood lengths. Everyone had a large  wood shed that would store up to ten cords of wood as this was an average  amount used to heat a home in winter.  'Buzz sawing' the wood was a job often shared by two or three neighbours.  The buzz saw outfit, consisting of a saw on a wooden table frame, a one-cylinder  engine (a one-lunger) and a drive belt, was usually owned by one family but  served the neighbourhood. I can still recall the 'sound' as the buzz saw cut  piece after piece into sixteen inch lengths (stove wood length). The wood was  thrown on the pile, ready to be meticulously piled into the wood shed. The  artistic traits of a man were obvious by the neatness of his wood pile.  While the above was the method used in a wood cutting 'bee' I must mention that many men cut their own wood single handedly, cutting cord wood  lengths into stove wood lengths with a swede-saw and a saw horse.  WASH DAY IN THE 1920s  by Isobel Simard  Monday morning. Time for the weekly wash. First chore: heat lots of water  in a large copper boiler or tub on the wood stove. Next bring into the kitchen  or onto the back porch, the stand, with or without wringer attached, plus two  galvanized tin tubs, one in which to wash the clothes, the other for the rinse 151  water. Bring also the scrub board — a very necessary item. If unable to remove  the grime using the scrub board rub the clothes with soap and put them into  a pan of water to boil for a few minutes on the stove.  Next get the little cake of bluing to dip into the rinse water or the starch  solution, just enough to help whiten the clothes. Get out the box of laundry  starch, mix four tablespoons of it with a little cold water, then stir it gradually  into about a gallon of boiling water. This was used for the tablecloths, aprons,  or whatever else needed to be stiffened, including men's shirt collars. The items  to be starched were dipped into this, wrung out thoroughly, rolled into a towel,  then ironed while quite damp.  When the washing was done the clothes were hung on the line outdoors  to dry. If it rained the clothes had an extra rinsing or they might be taken into  the house to dry on racks, chairs, or whatever. Next they were folded, dampened  if necessary, ready for tomorrow's ironing. The back-bending job of laundering during the 1920s, and before that time, was over until next Monday  morning!  ANOTHER WASHDAY  by A. M. Mabee  Washday in the thirties before the advent of indoor plumbing was a very  busy day. In the winter the washing was done in the kitchen and it was my  mother's claim that the minister always chose to make his duty call on washday. Summer was better because the whole operation moved outdoors, away  from the heat of the stove and the necessity of carrying out the buckets of dirty  water. 152  On winter laundry days my father would hitch the horse to the stoneboat  and haul a 45 gallon drum of water up the hill from the lake. Once the horse  objected to the smell of the neighbours' pig-killing work and bolted home  without the water! Summers were easier because the irrigation water could  be used.  Mother would heat the water in an oblong boiler (also used as a canner)  on the wood stove, then transfer it to the zinc washtub . . . hankerchiefs were  actually boiled in the washboiler to kill the germs . . . What an improvement  throw-away tissues are! The clothes were rubbed clean on a corrugated glass  washboard, wrung out by hand (no wringer), rinsed, wrung again and hung  on the outside line. Of course, in winter they froze and had to be broken free  and hung around the kitchen to finish drying.  The favoured laundry soap was either Sunlight or Fels Naptha, both of  which came in bars which were shaved into the hot water to help them dissolve  better. Washing soda was added to soften the water. Many women used blueing in the second rinse to brighten the white things but my mother wanted  to save Dad from hauling extra water so she rinsed once and skipped the blueing.  Towards the end of the 30s there was a big improvement — we got a hand-  operated washing machine. The tub was semi-circular in shape with baffles  inside at the ends. The adult or child working it just swung the handle from  side to side, tipping the tub and contents back and forth. After ten to fifteen  minutes of this rhythmic activity the clothes were fed through the attached  wringer by one person while another turned the handle. If further scrubbing 153  was needed the lid was ridged and could be lowered into the tub at a 45 degree  angle for this purpose. It was a very simple machine, practically nothing could  go wrong with it, and it was much better than the old zinc tub. It even had  a drain plug to which a hose could be attached.  The installation of indoor plumbing simplified things considerably but the  little hand washer continued in use until the arrival of electricity after the war.  STORING THE FOOD  THE EVER USEFUL ROOT HOUSE  by Cliff Lidstone  "Mary will you please get the vegetables for supper and bring in ajar  of fruit for dessert."  "Yes, mother," replied Mary as she skipped gayly outdoors to return soon  with the potatoes, carrots and a turnip, plus a quart of preserved raspberries  and a few fresh crunchy apples.  And why had Mary gone outdoors for the supplies? Why to the roothouse  or root cellar — a most necessary part of every farm and many town homes.  And what was this root cellar which gave such excellent storage before the days  of refrigeration?  In many cases a cellar is still used on farms with success. The average  roothouse was usually 8' x 10', sometimes a little larger. It was built of log  walls set into a sidehill. Logs, about a foot in diameter, were saddle and notched at the corners to form walls of about 7' in height. A ventilator rose through  the roof of logs covered with a good 10 inches of earth — seeded to grass making a sod roof. Double doors provided an entrance through two walls about  2' apart. Inside, shelves were laden with preserved fruits, vegetables and meats,  and crocks of eggs in waterglass. Bins were piled with vegetables and fruits.  Properly constructed, the root cellar was frost free and kept produce in  excellent condition equal to anything that our modern refrigeration can produce. No wonder many of these buildings are still in use today.  THE CELLAR: "BLACK HOLE" OF YESTERYEAR  Ingrid M. Monk, from memories  of Mrs. Blanche (Monk) Finlayson  The concept of storage beneath the family dwelling likely originated in  Europe, its function there being to keep valuables safe from thieves or contraband from the constabulary. In Canada a rude fur-accumulation space, possibly  floored with cedar boughs, served to hold air-dried furs, layered with preservatives, under the floor boards of trappers' or fur-traders' log cabins until sale  time. Homesteaders, actual settlers of the land, adopted and adapted to their  own particular needs a "black hole" under kitchen floor boards, with access  through a trap door reminiscent of the hatches leading to the holds of sailing  vessels. Some of us may remember, as does Blanche (Monk) Finlayson, preserved fruits, jams, pickles, potatoes, root vegetables and apples appearing from 154  the dark recess under the hinged lid.  The original log house on the William Monk Sr. farm at Grindrod was  built just prior to the turn of the century. Its hatch, a square cut in the floor  boards, with a reinforcing "Z" of scantling on the underside, was hinged along  one side. It lifted to open position by an iron ring about four inches in diameter  secured to the lid by a ring-bolt. In repose the ring lay in a shallow circular  depression gouged from the boards, countersunk so as not to trip the unwary.  In its closed position the hatch lid rested on projecting edges of the floor support stringers, on two opposite sides. On the other two sides reinforcing cross  strips were placed and firmly nailed beneath the floor, so as to expose matching ledges. A steep stairway led down to the earthen floor. This was built  of two parallel planks suitably notched to accommodate narrow treads spanning the space between them. Sufficient warmth penetrated from the kitchen  to keep frost at bay, yet the air was moist and cool enough in the cellar to prevent withering of the root vegetables in its bins. The cellar provided ample  storage space for the farm produce required to meet the family's immediate  needs, precluding too-frequent opening to winter temperatures of the farm's  large outdoor underground root-house.  Although Mr. Monk Sr. was usually a very patient man Blanche  remembers his telling a particularly noisy youngster who was visiting that he  would be sent down to the cellar to "cool off." In reality children were  discouraged from playing near the open hatch. The trap in trap door was no  misnomer. Families utilizing one were fortunate indeed if some member did  not tumble down into the dark, sustaining varying degrees of damage to dignity  or anatomy. Mr. Monk himself suffered such a fall, but luckily emerged topside with just a few scratches about face and neck. He'd landed upon the family cat. She, too, was fortunate. After having broken father Monk's fall, she  survived to age fifteen. For his part, Mr. Monk Sr. lived to add two sons to  the family of three daughters he and his wife had at the time, and then on  to celebrate with their mother their golden wedding anniversary in his seventy-  ninth year.  When Blanche married Doug Finlayson in 1924 she moved to the house  Doug had built in Sicamous. He'd had a cellar excavated under what was to  be kitchen-pantry space on the main floor. This cellar was cribbed with planks  spiked to posts spaced along the four walls of soft earth to prevent the soil from  sliding. The floor was of loose planks laid on the earth without stringers. Direct  access was possible from the garden down a sloped ramp to a low entrance.  There was a sloping wooden cover from door top to garden level and through  this approach apples and vegetables were moved into storage. Shelves were  installed on one cellar wall to accommodate preserves and pickles "put up"  of their own produce during summer and fall. In winter, when snow covered  the outside entrance, their trap door through the pantry floor was used. From  the upper level a stout ladder of timber reached downward.  One afternoon in fall, Blanche lifted the trap door, flashlight in hand.  Luckily she glanced down before making her descent. A shiny pair of animal  eyes stared back at her. In the weak beam of her flashlight she noted white  stripes upon a black background and was inspired to lower the hatch very,  very carefully albeit somewhat hastily. She ran to the M. J. Finlayson store  to inform Doug of the intruder in their cellar. A neighbor, George Weddup, 155  also heard her tale of woe. He told her not to worry, he'd remove the unwelcome  one. He wired a steel trap to the end of a long pole and tastily baited it. He  eased the trap into the cellar darkness through the outside covered access, being very careful to keep the trap high. He wished the skunk to stretch upward  to its fullest extent in order to reach the bait. The animal could not resist the  aroma. When the trap snapped, the pole was lifted immediately. The skunk  was carried a block on the end of the pole to the Channel where it was drowned. George knew that a skunk must have both hind feet on solid ground in  order to mount its liquid gas attack. Without his expertise it would have been  impossible to dispatch the little "stinker" without the cellar suffering its forever-  fragrant revenge.  Proximity to the Channel was not always so lucky for Blanche and Doug.  Some years a few inches of water seeped into the cellar at the peak of high  water. Occasionally there was enough to float the plank floor for a day or two.  In 1928, which was a flood year, everything in their cellar was of necessity  removed to the main floor. They had an indoor swimming pool under their  house, and the trap door remained a water trap until the flood waters receded.  They decided to build their permanent home on higher ground. In the garden  some of the various trees they planted experimentally in the early twenties still  survive and bear fruit in spite of roots waterlogged in other more recent flood  seasons.  The advent of rural electrification, refrigeration, home freezers, central  heating in partial or full concrete basements all contributed to making cellars  obsolete. Basement space now provides recreation and extra living room, as  well as work and storage areas. Indications are that the next century will see  innovative building methods, perhaps utilizing pre-formed modules, cast of  space-age ceramic materials, ordered to suit your own color preferences. These  interlocking units could be dropped into prepared excavations and perhaps  stacked to provide another level. Or it is possible they could be inserted horizontally into slot-like excisions in hillside sites. Solar energy or wind power, where  constant enough, might well produce power for all utilities. These exciting concepts could well render today's modern home as passe as the "black hole"  of yesteryear. How we live, what we live in and how we make our living today  will be a part of tomorrow's historical interest and research.  THE MILK HOUSE AT PARADISE RANCH  by A. Waterman  Pine creek was screened from the direct rays of the sun by willow and  alder and in summer the filtered sunshine sparkled on the creek's riffles as it  chuckled its way to the lake.  In this shade on the near1 side of the creek the milk house was built about  20 yards from the lake. Imagine the frame for a 10' x 6' walled tent with mosquito netting substituting for canvas and with a wooden tar-papered roof. A  screen door opened inward on the bank side of the milk house onto a floor  1     The milk house was built on the west side of Pine Creek and 25 yards further west  the wharf jutted south into the lake. Abutting the wharf on its west side the house  grew in its haphazard charm. 156  about 3 feet wide. Beyond and below this floor flowed creek water which entered  and left through short lengths of pipe set in holes in the end walls. Thus the  flow of water was controlled through spring freshet and low fall flow.  Planks were fixed below the water level, beside and below the floor level.  On these planks in the cold creek water sat the churn, buckets of skim milk  and pitchers of cream or big bowls of whole milk depending on whether milk  was being separated or skimmed. Some of the food you'd find in today's  refrigerator was cooled there in a variety of containers.  In the cool fall weather pheasant and grouse hung from the roof joists till  ready for cooking. Later, venison and quarters of beef hung until they were  more toothsome than any store-bought meat.  In 1941 when the big slide on Paradise Ranch created a four-foot tidal  wave, the milk house was lifted by the backwash and flung askew out into the  lake. Resettlement on its site was not altogether satisfactory but the milk house  served its very necessary purpose until the end of World War Two when  kerosene refrigeration and a cold storage locker replaced it.  A COOL MEAT SAFE  by A. Waterman  The old wharf house at Paradise had grown as need demanded. Rooms  were added and rooms built within rooms at different levels connected by a  step up or down. And off the big kitchen a north-facing, screened, mouse-proof  pantry refrigerated food in winter but it was only relatively cool in summer.  Arthur Schultz, a German working at Paradise remodelled the current  meat safe. (Meat safes were screened boxes approximately 2' x 2' x 2' with  a shelf and a door.) He covered the roof with galvanized tin projecting a couple of inches but not over the door. On three sides of the meat safe he built  another screen box about 4" larger than the meat safe. A galvanized tin floor  slightly tilted backwards was fixed to the outer frame. The meat safe was placed inside the outer screen box and the space between them was filled with coarse  rock about 1" in diameter. A hose gently flooded the tin roof and water trickled through the rocks causing steady evaporation and cooling. When the water  drained from the tilted tin floor, it was "flumed" to the garden under the Cottonwood trees.  So long as it was needed the safe was called the "Schultz" and functioned  efficiently. With the first frost the water was turned off. In spring, the water  was turned on. Hard to beat for maintenance.  Yes, of course, the two front panels between the meat safe and the screened box were closed with netting so that the rocks did not fall out!  ON KEEPING BUTTER WHERE NO ICE WAS AVAILABLE IN TOWN  by Estelle Gray  In the early 1920's in the northern part of the Okanogan Valley at Oroville,  Washington, an ice-box was almost unknown except in commercial butcher-  shops or dairies where they had big "walk-in" ones. Oh, here and there, an Wood Lid  Pillow of Shredded Paper  Stuffed  Paper  Bucket of  Water with  Lid  Cardboard  Stuffed  Paper  157  orchardist or cattleman cut his own ice out of Lake Osoyoos if the winter cold  was prolonged enough, but for the ordinary town household, this seemed an  over-supply as "root cellars" were very prevalent, which kept most vegetables  such as potatoes, carrots, fruit and all canned goods in fine shape all winter,  and served also for butter and eggs in summer. The thermos bottle had "arrived" and kept the milk fresh for the day.  However in very hot weather, butter would still stay soft and not always  too "Palatable-looking" for the table, especially if one had guests! And since  Oroville's water supply came from deep wells, it  was always fairly cold, so I devised a homemade  cooler for my butter. I started with a big wooden  bucket and lid. What it amounted to was putting  a small aluminum bucket with lid into a big empty wooden candy bucket, in such a way that it was  surrounded on top, bottom and sides with shredded newspaper for insulation. Many items came in  "bulk" in those days — vinegar came in barrels,  candy in buckets of wood about 18 inches high by  about 18 or 20 inches in diameter, so it was easy  to secure one from the "General Store." I made a  small round pillow case to hold about four inches (depth) of shredded newspaper  and put that on the bottom of the big wood candy bucket, then I set the smaller  aluminum bucket on top of it, surrounded the aluminum bucket with several  thicknesses of thin, bendable cardboard and fastened them together. Then I  filled in between the cardboard and the inside walls of the wooden bucket with  tightly crushed newspaper. This made a sort of small "well," so you could  take the smaller aluminum bucket in and out with ease. Then another pillowslip  of shredded paper was placed on top.  The butter of course went into the cold water I put in the aluminum bucket  which was kept secure by a tight-fitting lid. Since you needed butter every meal,  you could change the water in the small bucket every mealtime, so it kept solid  and nice. And of course you kept the big wood bucket (with its inside cargo)  down in the fruit or "root cellar." It all was much simpler to construct than  it is to write out how it was done, so I've drawn a small picture. The only  thing was you ended up with un-salted butter, for the water drew the salt out  of the butter, but it was the lesser of two evils and my family didn't mind.  Rather no salt than soft oily butter!  Pillow of Paper  FUN IN THE TWENTIES  ANYONE FOR TENNIS?  by C. Holden and A. Waterman  When orchard or other work permitted, players made up sets on warm  summer evenings on the Brunswick street courts. But the event of the week  was the Saturday tea served according to a roster by two different ladies each  week. 158  Soon after lunch on Saturday, club members arrived in battered Fords  and Chevies. Before play, nets had to be raised to the correct height (a vertical  tennis racquet on end plus the width of another at the centre of the net). White  was de rigeur. Men wore slacks and open-necked shirts creating a dashing air  of virility.  Through the '20s women magically lengthened their waists. This resulted  in rather brief skirts. No one had thought of discarding stockings so white lisle  was worn with neatly whitened tennis shoes. Hair was shingled or bobbed and  the Lenglen1 bandeau was popular with those who wore long hair. A few of  both sexes wore green-lined eyeshades.  At the Saturday tea even the most hopeless "pat-baller" could be sure  that some gentleman would invite her to make up a four at least once. Ardent  players who wished to engage in competitive singles chose less crowded times.  After some hotly contested sets of doubles the players gathered on the broad  steps of the grandstand behind the centre court (there were three) mopping  brows and repairing make-up. On the top level of the grandstand there was  room for a table on which cups and saucers awaited the tea brewed from water  heated on a hot plate. Delectable sandwiches and delicious cakes waited to accompany the tea. No pop, no ice-cream: only hot, steaming tea . . . much more  refreshing, my dear.  Senior club members (Bert and George Routh come to mind) played with  and coached juniors who learned good tennis and assimilated correct tennis  manners by osmosis. There was no unseemly shouting or horseplay — at least  not when seniors were about.  Round-robin tournaments were played during the summer as practice for  the annual club tournament. On some week-ends representatives of the Penticton club accepted invitations to play against clubs in Grand Forks, Summerland or Kelowna. Invitations for return matches were eagerly anticipated  with a thirst for revenge or concentration to maintain top scores.  At one time Inspector R. L. Cadiz, R.C.M.P. — fondly known as the  Jig — was president. It was rumoured that Corporal Reilly of his staff beseeched  the Inspector's opponents to let him win or the detachment "took it on the  chin" until the memory of defeat had faded.  Times were hard and new tennis balls an infrequent treat. In fact it was  said that one member produced balls so light from wear that when served into  a strong wind they floated back to the server.  Occasionally tennis dances were held in summer at the Aquatic Club. They  were open to the public (50c admission including refreshments). Billy Emmerton  played the piano accompanied by Tim Sallis's violin and sometimes joined by  Otto Gaube with his clarinet or saxophone and Jack Grigor with his drums.  Club members wore the same white clothes they wore on the courts. Without  doubt they enjoyed themselves fox-trotting, doing the Charleston or waltzing  as the cool evening air wafted in from the lake.  On a summer evening, if you stroll along Brunswick Street past the site  of the old courts and listen carefully you might just hear a faint echo of, "Service!"  1     Suzanne Lenglen dominated women's lawn tennis from 1919 to 1926. 159  HOUSE PARTIES CIRCA 1925  by Beryl Gorman  Parties and social gatherings within the homes were probably more  prevalent in the 1920s than at any other time before or since. Radio had not  become a form of home entertainment and anyone who could produce 'live  music' was a very welcome guest. House parties became very popular. Carpets  were rolled up, furniture moved back and the phonograph wound up to provide the music. Because 78's didn't run for long each dance was of short duration. Things might be different if an accomplished pianist happened to be on  the guest list. Ivo Henderson, son of G. A. Henderson who was manager of  the Bank of Montreal, was one of these. Ivo also had his own small orchestra,  'The Vogue,' which was much in demand. As a matter of fact, house parties  were held in the Bank House upon occasion as well as over the Bank of Montreal, where the young bank clerks had their living quarters.  Dancing was not always limited to the popular dances of the day such  as the foxtrot, two-step and waltzes. It was the 'Flapper Age' and no doubt  many young people practiced the Charleston and Black Bottom in the privacy  of their homes.  Equally popular were the Scottish and Country Dances. Mr. and Mrs.  Jas. E. Henderson opened their home to young people to learn and practise  the Scottish reels, Schottische and quadrilles. The Roger de Coverley was a  popular dance, also.  Old-timers will remember the wonderful country hoedowns held at the  home of Tug Wilson on Kedleston Mountain. Tug played a banjo, his daughter  Hattie, the organ or piano, and Nellie, the violin. The rafters rang and the  floor rocked with the music and the country style of square dances which went  on until the wee small hours. An eight-mile drive in a Model T Ford over a  mountain trail was well worth the effort in order to enjoy the fun and hospitality  of an evening of dancing in the Wilson home.  COUNTRY DANCES  by M. E. Armstrong  My mother, Mrs. B. M. Bell, often told me about the country dances  she remembered as a girl growing up in the Commonage area of Vernon and  the Rosehill area near Kamloops around the turn of this century.  They began at get-togethers with the neighbours at whoever's house had  the biggest living room. They usually started out as a sing song and ended  up with dancing. Pianos were scarce but there was someone in each area who  had a violin, a concertina, an accordian or a mouth organ and occasionally  a Victrola gramophone. The early settlers were very resourceful and made do  with what they had available.  With the advent of schools, the school house became the centre of social  activity and concerts, box socials and dances were held to celebrate holidays,  birthdays and anniversaries. Most of these affairs ended up with dancing, which  lasted at times till nearly daylight. The children were always brought along  (baby sitters were unheard of) and the bigger ones soon learned to dance while 160  the smaller ones, as they tired out were rolled up in a coat or blanket and parked  in a spare room or in a corner out of the way.  People worked hard for long hours and when they got together to play,  they played hard. They travelled by horse and buggy or democrat and when  snow came it was by horse and cutter or sleigh. The women wore fur muffs  to keep their hands warm, with hot rocks or bricks to keep their feet warm  for the long rides — maybe 5 miles or 10 miles. Quite often on the long ride  home the horses were given free rein while everyone slept. The horses knew  the way home quite well and were quite anxious to get back to their own warm  barn. Quite often they got home in time to do their chores, milking the cows  by hand and feeding their animals.  The kinds of dances they did were pretty well the same as the Old Time  Dances we have now, Waltzes, Two Steps, Jersey, Quadrilles and so on.  Everybody danced — old and young — and everybody mixed. Country dances  were the big form of entertainment for everyone, and they had rip-roaring good  times. Remember, there wasn't any radio, T.V. or movies then!  The dances often included what were called Box Lunches. Each lady would  make up a lunch for two and decorated the box with pretty paper and fancy  ribbons. Before lunch time an auction of the boxes would be held with the men  bidding for them, the proceeds going to a worthwhile project, there was much  competition among the young men as they tried to guess the box that had been  brought by the girl they were sweet on, and they would hopefully bid up. You  see you got the lady who brought the box, as your supper partner. Sometimes  they got well fooled and ended up with an older married woman, who made  the fancy box, and sometimes the sweet young thing found herself with an old  bachelor. The young school teachers were very much in demand and never  lacked for partners. Most of them ended up as ranchers' wives. Drinking liquor was taboo though occasionally there might be a bottle hidden in the back  of the buggy.  As communities developed and the country dances became a little more  formal and they had Spring Balls, Christmas dances and so on, put on by the  Fraternal organizations and Charitable societies. The dances were a little more  sedate, still no liquor. The ladies had dance program cards and dressed formally. The men were in formal attire, bow ties and white gloves. These dances  were well organized and the program called for 20 or 25 dances. The ladies'  programs listed the dances of the evening and the men asked the ladies (in  advance) for certain dances. If they were accepted, the man marked the lady's  card for that dance. Again there was much competition among the men to book  dances with their favorites. The pretty or popular lady got hers filled early.  Girls were usually in short supply, so the men had to get their dances lined  up quickly.  I remember one story my uncle told me about a logger who came to a  country dance, not a formal one. He told my uncle he was having trouble with  the ladies. He said he was a good dancer but the lady would ask to be taken  to her seat before the dance was finished. Uncle asked him if he changed his  socks before he came. Apparently he had not and he headed out the door, coming back shortly after. He asked another couple of partners with similar results.  My uncle talked to him again, and he said he had changed his socks. One lady  had told my uncle that that fellow was worse than before. He was asked when 161  he did with the socks. "Gee, I put them in my coat," so the aroma was still  with him, but closer!  Mentioning dance programs recalls an incident that took place about 1948.  We had taken my mother to an Old Time Dance in Armstrong, she had enquired about names on her old program card of a Ball held in the old Okanagan  Hotel in Armstrong about 1905. One of the partners just happened to be at  this dance and believe it or not, he came and asked her for the same dance,  a Jersey, after 40 years.  Old fashioned dances still flourish in this part of the Interior. The Old  Time Dance Club in Salmon Arm is still going after about 60 years. The  Armstrong-Enderby Club just celebrated its 40th anniversary and there is an  active Old Time Dance Club in Vernon. The dances are still "dry." Hundreds of happy miles have been danced in this form of entertainment and it  looks as though it will continue for a long time to come.  DANCES IN VERNON CIRCA 1925  by Beryl Gorman  One of the social highlights in Vernon was the annual New Year's Ball  sponsored by the 2nd C.M.R. Regiment in the Vernon Armory. New Year's  Eve, December 31, 1924 was no exception. Indeed, it was considered 'one of  the best held here for many a day.' (Vernon News, January 5, 1925.) The spirit  of jollity pervaded the dance. Music was supplied by Abbott's Orchestra. The  Armory was decorated in conventional green and red.  Coloured hats augmented the formal attire of the day. For the ladies this  could be either long or short sequined gowns, which fifty years later became  collectors' items. Each lady wore or carried elbow-length kid gloves. Bands  of velvet ribbon often encircled daringly-shingled hair, although many retained their unshorned crowning glory.  The gentlemen donned tuxedos or tails with stiffly starched white shirt  fronts. Dancing pumps in patent leather with gros-grain ribbon bows on the  instep were the order of the day. Dress uniforms lent a military appearance  to the dance floor. Promptly at midnight, Trumpeter Mattock sounded the  'Last Post' followed by 'Reveille' after which dancers formed circles and sang  'Auld Lang Syne.'  After refreshments were served in the room adjoining the rear of the hall,  dancing continued until the wee small hours. The strains of 'When You Come  to the End of the Day' and 'Three O'clock in the Morning' terminated this  evening of pleasure.  Later in the month, a less formal but no less enthusiastic gathering met  in the Alhambra Hall to celebrate the anniversary of the birth of Robert Burns.  Three hundred Scotsmen and admirers of the Scottish Bard assembled  for an evening of sociability and strenuous dancing. The programme lists dance  numbers consisting of waltzes, foxtrots, one-step, quadrilles, eightsome reels,  Circassian Circle, Highland Schottische, lancers, polkas and others. The versatile Abbott's Orchestra again provided the music augmented by Piper Rankin  on the bagpipes. The further entertainment included solo dances by a Miss  McEwen and well-known dancer Jas. A. Henderson, who also taught Scottish 162  dancing. Vocal selections were presented by soloists Mesdames J. White and  G. E. MacDonald and Miss Jean Robison, accompanied by Miss Ella Richmond (Mrs. Gaunt-Stevenson).  During the evening the Rev. F. W. McKinnon gave a well-prepared oration on Burns. The Haggis Ceremonial March was led by Piper Rankin, the  Haggis being carried aloft by T. Collie escorted by a guard in Highland  costume. R. Robinson delivered the time-honoured address to the 'King of  Puddin's.' Generous refreshments of 'Scottish Goodies' followed.  The hall was specially decorated with Scottish and Canadian flags and  pictures illustrating incidents in the life of Robbie Burns. Highland costumes  added more colour to a successful evening which closed with the singing of  'Auld Lang Syne' followed by 'God Save the King.' (Vernon News, January  29, 1925).  Many other less formal dances were held throughout the year, by the  Fraternal Orders such as the Oddfellows, Masons, Pythians and Rebeccas.  These were held in the Oddfellows' Hall next to the Empress Theatre in the  present 3200 Block on Barnard Avenue.  Other dances were held in the Agriculture Hall on the second floor of the  present Court House. The I.O.D.E. as well as the Military sponsored many  of these. This was a very attractive but smaller hall often used by the Boy Scouts  Association prior to the construction on 30th Street and 29th Avenue of the  now demolished Scout Hall.  Two other popular dances were held annually. First, the May Day, sponsored by the Women's Institute for the children of the community. This took  place in the evening in the Armory following the crowning ceremony in the  Park, children had free admittance until 9:00 p.m. after which the adults had  their turn. Then in July or August the Elks sponsored Elks' Flag Day which  entailed a parade to Poison Park followed by Field Sports. Free treats went  to all the children who also attended a free dance in the Armory in the evening. This, too, was followed by an Adult Dance.  SERVICE  THE CHEERIO CLUB  by Peggy Adair Landon  "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine"  This was the motto chosen as their rule of conduct by a little group of  women who were living in Armstrong, B.C. in the early nineteen twenties.  It all started when Mrs. F. Simington, a very warm and kindly person, with  a twinkle in her eye, asked two or three friends if they would go with her to  cheer up Mrs. F. Sugden who was ill. The idea spread like wild fire and a  small group of women decided to form a club to be called the Cheerio Club.  Miss Acheson, a victim of rheumatoid arthritis, confined to a wheelchair for  fourteen years, agreed to draw up a charter and they were in business as an  organized group. This hand-written document still has an important place in  the group's memory book. 163  Lillian, (Mrs. Art Marshall), age 96 and the only living Charter Member of the Cheerio Club  in Armstrong, B.C. Picture taken May 2,  1985.  For over sixty years now, the Cheerio Club has been meeting once or twice  a month, and this in itself must be something of a record for a local group  not affiliated with any Church or fraternal organization. This continuous record  of fellowship and good deeds is carefully preserved in the Club's minutes and  annual booklets.  To quote the Constitution, "This shall be known as the Cheerio Club,  having as its object the bringing of cheer and pleasure into lonely, shut-in,  and otherwise restricted lives." At first the meetings were held fortnightly at  the homes of the members but this bylaw was changed to monthly so that each  of the twelve ladies would be hostess once a year. The executive at first consisted of Honourary President, Active President and a Secretary but this too  was changed to Secretary-Treasurer when the bylaw, "There shall be no fee  nor any monetary obligation of any kind," was found to be unrealistic if they  were to carry out their objectives. The fee was first set at forty cents a year  but for obvious reasons it has increased and now stands at one dollar.  The first minutes, if indeed there were any, have been lost so we do not  know exactly what happened at their meetings but by 1928 a little handmade  booklet appeared which set out the programs for each month — date, hostess,  roll call response, and topic for discussion. The programs were prepared by  the three ladies who formed the executive that year and were distributed to  each member at the January meeting. The executive was formed alphabetically and you took your turn without protest. Once when I announced I was  secretary again, my husband complained, but I informed him it was not my  fault that his name began with the letter 'L'! These booklets are still made  each year by the current executive and we have a very interesting collection  of programs through the years. There is only one missing since the first appeared in 1928. On two or three occasions the little booklets achieved fame.  They were made and printed professionally by the Armstrong Advertiser — due  no doubt to the fact that the editor's wife, Mrs. John E. Jamieson was in charge  in those years!  The original and charter members of the Cheerio Club were Mrs. Fred  Simington, President, Miss B. Acheson (my aunt), Secretary, Mrs. Don Camp- 164  bell, Mrs. A. Adair (my mother), Mrs. Wm. Stott, Mrs. H. Best, Mrs. Norman Ferguson, Mrs. Blake Stokes, Mrs. Stan Cary, Mrs. Long, Mrs. Frank  Sugden, Mrs. Art Marshall and Mrs. Homer Meade. Of this group, Miss  Acheson, Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. Best, Mrs. Ferguson, Mrs. Stokes do not appear in the 1928 booklet, their place being taken by Mrs. Creighton, Mrs.  John E. Jamieson, Mrs. J. D. Shepherd and Mrs. Vance Young.  An important part of every meeting was the selection of people the ladies  felt would enjoy or benefit from a cheery message. In the early days the message  usually took the form of fresh flowers from someone's garden in the summer,  or from the flower shop in winter, which were delivered by one of the members.  As time went on it was decided to send cards expressing sympathy, congratulations, get-well messages or just thinking of you, through the mail. The secretary  writes the names of the members on each appropriate card. The idea is to let  the recipients know that a number of women are thinking of them and wishing  them well. From the many thank-you notes, we feel that the purpose of the  club is achieved.  I do not know just when the tradition of holding a picnic on the regular  meeting day in July was started. For many years it was held in the Armstrong  Present Cheerio Club Members  (front, left to right)  Lillian Fraser,-Nellie Parkinson (born in Armstrong in 1895), Charter member Lillian Marshall,  Hope Noble, Gudrun Cain  (back, left to right)  Doris Hassard. Jessie Fraser, Nan McKinley, Author Peggy Landon. Hilda Howard and Millie  Eckhoff  (missing from picture)  Winnie Stewart (daughter of Armstrong's first Mayor, James Wright), Margaret Nordstrom and  Minnie Proutv. 165  Memorial Park, but as the years went on it became our habit to avoid the ants  and rain by holding the picnic at Nellie Parkinson's spacious home in the country. The setting there is park-like, rain or shine. A picnic gives us the opportunity of sharing with old friends as our guests.  Another happy time is still repeated at the Christmas meeting when we  exchange gifts and enjoy all the Christmas dainties. At first the price of gifts  was restricted to 25 cents but that amount is difficult to use effectively in 1985.  The celebration of birthdays within the club started around 1950. Each  member is assigned a different name each year and she brings a gift for this  member on the month in which her birthday falls.  The August meeting is always hosted by Lillian Marshall, so the whole  club accepts the kind invitation to have lunch in Vernon, at the home of either  Mildred or Louise (her daughters).  An amazing thing in this rapidly changing world is that the Cheerio Club  seems to have escaped the ups and downs to which so many small groups are  prone. We are proud to report that we still have a charter member active in  our group. Mrs. Lillian Marshall (Mrs. Art Marshall) now in her 97th year  has been attending regularly since Mrs. Simington had her kindly idea over  60 years ago. For the last 20 years Mrs. Marshall has been commuting from  Vernon on the first Thursday of every month and aside from being a bit deaf  she brings a keen mind and a merry heart to every meeting. She has even had  perfect attendance for the last three years. Of course this record is shared by  her two devoted daughters who have made it possible.  Perhaps it isn't really amazing when you remember that the Cheerio Club  has never lost sight of its objective through the years.  TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION  GETTING TO SCHOOL IN THE GOOD OLD DAYS  by Marian Rands  Like most farm kids of this era my two sisters and I had no heated bus  to take us to school. However, we did have a variety of ways of getting there  throughout the different seasons.  During the fall season, we tied our boat at Fred and Evelyn Bramble's  and rowed across the Shuswap River at the Water-Wheel. Then we walked  past Von Borstel's dairy farm, crossed Mrs. Reiter's hay field to the skating  rink and across the railway tracks to the red brick schoolhouse. Going to school  was fine, as we all went together, but coming back across the river was a bit  of a trick to all be there at the same time and not get stranded on the wrong  side of the river with no boat! On the golden days of autumn this was very  pleasant, but on cold foggy mornings everything was icy and miserable to touch  and sit on.  Then there was our two wheeled cart, with high buggy wheels and a high  seat on which we perched and bounced our way to school. It was very good  at getting through the spring mud but how we hated it! We felt it was way  beneath our dignity to have to ride on that contraption. However, our Dad  was having none of that kind of nonsense, so ride we did with mud flying from 166  hooves and wheels. We always hoped that no one would see us, especially our  school-mates who lived in town.  By horse and cutter we travelled during the winter months. This was the  time we loved the best! We often picked up a little passenger, Eleanore  (Lidstone) Bolton along the way; or would meet up with Eleanor (Mack) Skyrme  heading to school also with her horse and cutter. I don't recall ever staying  home because of cold weather. After all, if you can walk a half-mile to Carbert's  Lake to skate all evening with the temperature hovering around 10 degrees  below zero Fahrenheit well . . .  Our horse, Puss, we kept at the tie-shed in Enderby. After covering her  with a blanket and giving her some hay, we would walk the two blocks to school.  At noon hour she had to be fed again and was so glad to see us that she would  whinny when she heard us coming, going home was the best part. After we  got over the bridge the snow would fly and the race was on to see who had  the fastest horse. I know no feeling like it — speeding along over the crusty  snow with a horse that was eager to get home.  If I could turn back the pages of time for just one day, this would be my  choice — a sparkling winter day with my sisters and our horse and cutter slipping along on the snow. With God in His Heaven all "was" right with the  world!  DINNER AT THE INCOLA HOTEL — PENTICTON - 1920s  by Estelle Gray  Dinner at the Incola Hotel in Penticton was a real treat. We usually went  up only for a "Celebration Day," such as a wedding anniversary or when we  were "showing off" what the West could "produce" (in luxury) to our visiting  "Eastern relatives."  The big hurdle, of course, was to get to Penticton from Oroville, looking  presentable enough to go into a nice hotel dining room. There were only sand  and dirt wagon trails for roads with occasional intervals of sharp-cut gravel  here and there, and the so-called leather curtains you buttoned on to the carriage frames of the old Model T Ford were useless as to keeping out dust. We  wore duster coats, but if it was too hot for those, we carried our nice clothes  along with us in suitcases — and stopped to "change" and "wash up" under  some small bridge by a stream — just before we got to our destination. This  was quite possible for "travel" on the roads was quite sparse.  The dining room at the Incola was on a second storey level, so as to give  you a lovely view of the lake, so you went up quite a broad flight of steps to  reach the entrance in those days. The room was quite large and impeccably  furnished with white linen-covered tables, high-back chairs, lovely shining silver  and glassware, as well as imported English china, in some instances, as for  "tea." And of course there were the equally impeccably dressed men waiters.  They managed to convey a dignified "hush-hush" atmosphere with the help  of nice thick carpeting.  One wonders whether that would work today with our more exuberant  half-dressed young people! In those days, a gentleman didn't dare come into  a hotel dining room without his suit jacket and tie. 167  The food was delicious and served in leisurely fashion. There were English  meat pies, seafood, and of course, always "Roast Beef with Yorkshire Pudding." And for dessert there was a wide variety, especially of tarts and pastries  usually wheeled in on a tea cart, from which you could "choose your pick."  It was the "upper-crust atmosphere" they managed to produce, however, which  left you with the glorious feeling of "being somebody" that was the highlight  of the occasion, and was such a delightful contrast to the more rough and tumble atmosphere on the American side. I can't entirely remember the prices  of the various dinners but it could not have been more than $3.00 plus a  generous tip to the waiter, which he depended on for part of his salary. In  those days you could get a Sunday dinner of chicken with soup and dessert  for $.75 in restaurants or small hotels so $3.00 was "snooty." And of course,  there was the lovely Penticton Beach and a boat ride if you wanted it, so it  all made for a resort atmosphere even in those early days, quite making the  fifty-mile trip there worthwhile!  WHEN MUD WAS MUD  by Harley Hatfield  When cars (automobiles) were first becoming common those responsible  had a tough time trying to keep up. It is still fashionable to complain about  roads but looking back a short fifty to sixty years or so ago it is a far cry from  our present highways to what the road maintainers and motorists had to put  up with then.  The lakeshore road between Penticton and Summerland was a prime example. Built on silt, and without the knowledge or equipment for special compaction, in the spring it often seemed to have no bottom. Brush and sticks cut  along the way and what shale or gravel could be found and hand-loaded into  the wagons or small trucks of the day were used to keep traffic more or less  afloat.  Fortunately in those days the art of rolling steel almost as thin as paper  had not reached the ultimate. Cars were tougher, had more places suitable  for hooking and more clearance between the "mudguard" (fender to you young  folk) and the tire. Also the wise motorist carried a shovel, axe and length of  stout rope, and a really fussy one en route to a dance a pair of rubber boots.  I recall, somewhere about 1930, coming to a mudhole where a long light  steel wire rope (cable) was stretched on the ground beside the road. A car or  truck was waiting at the far end and the driver shouted to you to hook on and  signal when ready. With this pull to boost you through you then put the cable  back and waited in your turn to help the next vehicle going your way. I don't  know how long this went on but suppose only for a day or two until the road  crew managed to get enough brush and gravel in the worst part. Ingenuity  and co-operation were the watchwords of the day.  After the first draft of this little piece our branch editor, a most logical  person, wanted to know what if you were going north and the next car was  also going that way? I had thought to leave it vague and let everyone figure  it out for themselves.  Anyway to be more explicit if A was headed north, waiting on the south side, and B also drove up to that side and maybe C as well, if there was still  no D on the north side, drivers got out and swore about the maintenance crew  and the weather and examined the mudhole. In those days they would all know  each other.  When D finally appeared on the north side, perhaps a half hour later,  he turned his vehicle around and boosted A and B across to that side. A went  whistling on his way like shoes from Geddes'1. C then pulled D to the south  side, B pulled C to the north side then went on his way. And behold C on  the north side and D on the south side patiently waiting to help the next brother  motorist to come along.  I hope that this is now as clear as mud. Obviously it was a mistake to  let B and C come along. They should have been left far down the road.  The trucks of the maintenance crew were coming and going all the daylight  hours and helped out as occasion arose. After dark the road would be closed  but even in those days the worst condition would last only a day or two. Incidentally if you do not believe the above sequence of events take four bits of  paper, mark them A, B, C and D and figure it out for yourself.  1       H. M. Geddes established a shoe shop in Penticton in the '30s.  Ladies on Armstrong Consolidated School — Elementary Staff — 1925-26. Back row (L to R)  - Miss Adair, Miss Charlton (nurse), Miss Calbeck, Miss Ford, Miss Heywood, Miss Forbes.  Front row (L to R) - Miss McTavish, Miss Dill, Miss Stokes, Miss Anderson.  Photo courtesy Peggy Landon and the Armstrong Museum  * f  Armstrong Consolidated School skating rink in the 1920s, located adjacent to Rosedale Avenue.  Photo courtesy of Peggy Landon and the Armstrong Museum 169  BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES  OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE  of 61st Annual Meeting  of  Okanagan Historical Society  1986  Business and Activities of the Society  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 4, 1986  at 10 a.m.  Luncheon 1:30 P.M.  at  Elks' Hall, Osoyoos  All Members are Welcome 170  MINUTES OF THE 60th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  HELD IN VERNON,  Sunday, May 5th, 1985  President Mary Orr called the meeting to order at 10:00 a.m. welcoming  140 members and guests. A minute of silence was observed in memory of those  who had died since the last annual meeting.  1 NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary and agenda presented  by the chairman.  2 MINUTES of the 59th Annual Meeting as printed in the 48th Report  were adopted on motion by H. Peterson, seconded by J. Armstrong.  3 BUSINESS ARISING out of minutes: nil.  4 CORRESPONDENCE Letters from Mrs. Levins of Kamloops (possible reprints of Reports No. 13 & 19), Wilbur Hallauer of Oroville (possible  group membership of Okanagan County Historical Society — to be dealt  with at next Executive Meeting), J. H. Harper of Islington, Ontario.  (Regimental flag of 31st B.C. Horse), Boundary Historical Society (Annual picnic June 16th) and Greenwood Board of Trade (Founders Day,  July 14th) were read and filed.  5 REPORTS OF OFFICERS these will be printed in the 49th Report and  were delivered by the named officers:  President    Mary Orr  Editor  Jean Webber  Secretary   Robert Marriage  Treasurer  James Green  Mr. Green moved adoption of audited financial statement and recommended that the Branches once again consider advancing payment to  the O.H.S. Treasurer for the 49th Report to the limit they see fit. Seconded by J. Armstrong. Carried.  6 REPORTS OF BRANCHES AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES to be  printed in the 49th Report.  Pandosy Mission Committee   W. Anderson  Wilderness Trails   A. J. Hansen  of the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society gave a short address re  Cascade Wilderness "swap" proposal. A letter addressed from O.H.S.  to various cabinet ministers was read and the secretary moved that  this meeting endorse the presentation "Values and Options of the  Cascade Wilderness" made by the Okanagan-Similkameen Parks  Society in March of this year to the Cabinet Committee on Economic  Development, seconded by H. Powley. Carried.  Hudson Bay Brigade Trail   P. Tassie, verbally.  Moved by H. Hatfield, seconded by J. Humphreys that this meeting  go on record as supporting the future efforts of the Executive in preservation of the Brigade Trail. Carried.  "Bagnall Fund"     S. Fleming, read by J. Armstrong  Index    D. MacDonald 171  *       .-£.■   "'  Reports at Business Meeting. Jack Armstrong of Enderby presenting Branch  Report for Armstrong-Enderby. Seated: Pres. Mary Gartrell Orr and Sec. Bob  Marriage. Photo by coutesy Wayne Emde  Some Executive Members of OHS Parent Body. Front (L. to R.) J. W. Green,  Ermie Iceton, Mary Gartrell Orr, Bob Marriage. Back: Dr. W. F. Anderson,  Jessie Ann Gamble, Dorothy Zoellner, Jean Webber.Photo by courtesy Wayne Emde 172  Publicity   B. Wamboldt, verbally.  Promotion     H. Caley, verbally.  Branches  Armstrong-Enderby  J. Armstrong  Kelowna   D. Zoellner  Penticton    D. MacDonald  Oliver-Osoyoos     E. Iceton  Salmon Arm    H. Harvey  Vernon   D. Scott  MOVED by E. Blackburn, seconded by D. Waterman that the Branch  reports be accepted. Carried.  7 UNFINISHED BUSINESS Nil.  8 NEW BUSINESS Various field days being organized by Branches.  9 ELECTION OF OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL Past President Ron Robey, chairman of nominations, presented a complete slate. After the customary call for further  nominations to each position the following were declared elected by  acclamation:  President    Ermie Iceton  1 st Vice-president   Dorothy Zoellner  2nd Vice-president  Jessie Ann Gamble  Secretary   Robert Marriage  Treasurer  James Green  Editor  Jean Webber  Asst-Editor    Dorothy Zoellner  Directors at large: Walter Anderson (Pandosy Mission Committee)  Branch directors to parent body: separate note to Editor re this item.  10 ELECTION  OF  PARENT  BODY  EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE  Elected by Branches. H. Harvey, R. Lidstone, B. Wamboldt, D. Dendy, A. Waterman, A. Porteous.  11 ELECTION OF AUDITOR MOVED by J. Green, seconded by H.  Cleland that Lett, Trickey and Co. be re-appointed auditors. Carried.  MOVED by J. Riley, seconded by M. Broderick that the necessary signing officers be authorized by the new Executive Council. Carried.  12 COMPLEMENTARY RESOLUTIONS MOVED by C MacNaughton, seconded by several that the complementary resolutions follow  the usual format. Carried.  13 ANNOUNCEMENT OF BANQUET 1:30 p.m.  14 SETTING DATE AND PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL MEETING  MOVED by J. Harris, seconded by H. Powley that the invitation of the  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch to host the 61st Annual Meeting be accepted.  Carried.  ADJOURNED BUSINESS SESSION 1:00 p.m.  R. F. Marriage, Secretary 173  Lee and Vi Christensen (Lee is one of four newly named Life Members).  Photo by courtesy Mary Orr  President Elect Ermie Iceton (left) receiving gavel from Retiring President Mary Gartrell Orr.  Photo by courtesy Molly Broderick 174  Addendum to Minutes of O.H.S. 60th Annual General Meeting  Held May 5th, 1985  (i) The Branch Secretaries are requested to supply the O.H.S. Secretary  with the names of all their branch officers and the mailing addresses  of all those delegated to parent body Executive Council, at or before  the Annual General Meeting.  (ii) As per Executive Council instructions of February 10th, Life  Members are listed:  Berry, Mrs. A. E. Fleming, E. S. Lidstone, Ruby  Buckland, D. S. Galbraith, H. W.        MacNaughton, F. C.  Cawston, A. H. Hatfield, H. R. Ormsby, Margaret  Christensen, S. L. Hunter, Ivan Porteous, Hugh  Cleland, Hugh Jamieson, J. E. Robey, Ronald  Cochrane, Hilda Lewis, Dorothea Waterman, Dolly  Wilson, Victor  (addresses being supplied to O.H.S. Treasurer)  PRESIDENT'S REPORT TO THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  The Okanagan Historical Society has reached another milestone. On  September 4, 1925, sixty years ago, the founders, a group of concerned Valley  citizens, inspired by Leonard Norris of Vernon, formed the Okanagan  Historical and Natural History Society. We are fortunate to have one charter  member left in the person of Horace W. Galbraith and we hope he will be  with us today to help us celebrate. By 1935 the Natural History part of the  name was dropped.  Of those at the inaugural meeting all but one has passed on, but some  of their descendants have been and are leaders in this organization showing  the same concern for and dedication to preservation of our heritage. We think  the founders would be happy with the outcome of their efforts, the growth of  the membership, the annual publication and other projects.  How well I remember the 50th anniversary meeting and program hosted  by the Vernon Branch at Okanagan Landing on May 4, 1975 and the special  events held throughout the Valley. It is inevitable that in the intervening ten  years we have lost through death many valued members but we remember  them for their contributions which enabled our organization to continue. We  appreciate those who have joined us since, keeping the enthusiasm glowing  and giving of their time and talent — it takes many people to keep the work  of this organization running smoothly.  It behooves me on this special occasion to take an overall look at the  O.H.S., what we have accomplished and what we have yet to fulfill. In studying the proceedings and reports of the Annual General Meeting ten years ago  it is evident that many of the concerns at that time have been alleviated. For  instance Museum and Heritage Societies have become strong as have Regional  Districts, Parks Societies and Naturalist Clubs, complementing our work at  the local, provincial and even Federal levels. We are now aware of our heritage 175  Life Members. Front (L. to R.) Margaret Ormsby, H. W. Galbraith (Charter  Member of OHS), Mrs. A. E. Berry. Middle: Dorothea Lewis, Carleton MacNaughton, Dolly Waterman. Back: H. R. Hatfield, Ivan Hunter, D. S. Buckland,  Ronald Robey. Missing: A. H. Cawston, S. L. Christensen, Hilda Cochrane,  Hugh Cleland, E. S. Fleming, J. E. Jamieson, Ruby Lidstone, Hugh Porteous,  Victor Wilson. Photo by courtesy Wayne Emde  Auld Lang Syne. (L. to R.) Jean Webber, Margaret Ormsby, Jim Green, Audrey King, Mary  Orr, Fred King, Bernard Webber, Kay Green, Bob Marriage. Photo by courtesy Wayne Emde 176  and keeping up with the rest of Canada. Yet, perhaps a word of caution is  timely — let us not dilute the strength of our Branches!  Concern was expressed ten years ago for the Armstrong Branch — since  then it was reactivated, becoming the flourishing Armstrong-Enderby Branch.  The Cawston-Keremeos Branch has not rejoined us as hoped but the Salmon  Arm Branch has been welcomed as our sixth. Several years ago we had a  representation from Peachland. They have not joined us as a group but have  been very busy with their Museum and publication of "Peachland Memories."  Some of the dreams of ten years ago have not yet come true in spite of  continuing and great effort on the part of many people — I refer to the preservation for posterity of the historic trails in the Cascade Wilderness and the  Okanagan Brigade Trail. As for the former, the O.H.S. secretary has sent on  your behalf letters in support of the latest appeal from the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society to the Provincial Government. We hope for good news  soon. Regarding the Okanagan Brigade Trail, Peter Tassie of the Vernon  Branch is concerned about the subdivision taking place north of Fintry and  is watching the situation closely. We need to make a concentrated thrust in  this area.  ACCOMPLISHMENTS  The founders would be proud to know that in 1982 the American Association for State and Local History saw fit to present the Okanagan Historical  Society with an "Award of Merit for more than fifty years of publishing  Okanagan history and stimulating heritage preservation." The Reports are  recognized as foremost on the Continent.  Our members are in demand as guest speakers in general and as lecturers  for Seniors' Courses on historical and natural history topics.  Those active with the O.H.S. Student Essay contests are happy now that  more emphasis is being placed on local history in the schools, as a result of  the Department of Education's new curriculum and increased interest of  teachers.  The last two years have shown considerable growth at the Father Pandosy Mission. The Kelowna Branch committee responsible for it on your behalf  has formed six sub-committees. The area was enlarged to four acres by extension of a lease accepted from Bishop Doyle, Diocese of the Kootenay. The Mission was designated a Provincial Historic Site by the B.C. Heritage Conservation Branch at the ceremony, August 7, 1983 — one of my first official functions as your President. The exciting news came of the finding of the old (lost)  cemetery and Father Pandosy's grave on the adjoining property.  The account of my activities during my first year as President, as printed  in the 48th Report, reflects the privilege and joy it has been to serve this  organization. It also gives you an idea of the routine I set up for myself on  your behalf.  My second year commencing with the A.G.M. hosted by the Armstrong-  Enderby Branch has also been a memorable one. On that same weekend in  Vernon during the B.C. Historical Federation Conference I was elected a  member-at-large of that body, which has added new responsibilities and an  extra dimension to my life. I attended and reported at two of their Council  Meetings — Vancouver last October and Victoria in February. I have been 177  asked to allow my name to stand for re-election. Unfortunately their A.G.M.  being held on Galiano Island has coincided with ours.  While in Victoria in February I had interviews at the B.C. Heritage Conservation Branch re the section of Brigade Trail being subdivided, with the  B.C. Heritage Trust re the request for an Index Grant and at the B.C. Provincial Museum gift shop re sales of our Reports.  This last year I have presided over three regular executive meetings in  Kelowna and a special one in Summerland. Three new committees have been  formed: Index, Publicity and Promotion. Our grateful thanks are extended  to each of you for all the diligence and additional labor this has entailed. Mr.  Stuart Fleming is proceeding with what we refer to as the Bagnall Book.  Our compliments are extended once again to the Editor and all others  involved in producing, printing and distributing the 48th Report. We thank  Nancy Burns for her photo "Casorso Road," a fine choice for the cover.  Our acknowledgement and gratitude goes to the anonymous donor of  $1500 toward the Index, to B.C. Heritage Trust for a summer student grant  to work on the Index, to the donors of money to the O.H.S. in memory of  the late Kathleen Dewdney, and to Hugh Caley for getting the first private  company donation of an annual sum of money to cover Student Essay Awards  — a major breakthrough, in memory of the Pioneer Voice of the Okanagan,  J. W. B. Browne, founder of CKOV. All these since our last Executive Meeting.  We enjoyed the Field Days last June at Jewel Lake hosted by the Boundary Historical Society and at MacNaughton's "Tamarac" hosted by the  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch.  I attended the Annual General Meetings of five of the Branches this year  and was so happy to get to Vernon's — I even walked on the Brigade Trail!  My thanks to Peter Tassie. This time I missed Salmon Arm, but saw several  of their members at Enderby, including their President Helenita Harvey who  was returned to that office after a year's absence. The other change of Branch  President is at Vernon where Doug Scott has been succeeded by Hugh Caley.  We have encouraged the Okanagan Falls Museum and Heritage Society  in their efforts to save the Bassett House, and have rejoiced with the Central  Okanagan Heritage Society over the restorations taking place on the Benvoulin  Church.  The project of permanent name tags met with considerable success, about  sixty having been purchased and ten more ordered. It is my hope that they  will serve the pu