Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Sixty-second report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1998

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 Articles about people and events  from Similkameen to Salmon Arm  NUMBER     6 2  Okanagan History  The Sixty-Second Report  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded September 4, 1925  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN 0-921241-68-2  1998  ©  Printed in Canada on Acid-Free Paper  by Hucul Printing Ltd.  Salmon Arm, BC  Cover  Dream Forest, August 1952, on Shuswap River near Mara.  Donovan Clemson photograph  Awarded a certificate of merit  at the 1958 Brussels Universal and International Exposition SIXTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  History wears a mask - Anonymous  EDITOR  Denis Marshall  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Jacquie Bicknell, Vicky White, Andrea Flexhaug,  Oliver-Osoyoos  Elizabeth Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Cowan, Enderby - Armstrong  Marilyn Kernaghan, Salmon Arm  Michael Burn, Similkameen  Membership  The recipient of this Sixty-Second Report is entitled to register his/her membership in  the Sixty-Third Report, which will be issued November 1, 1999. For membership  registration and certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the treasurer, Box 313,  Vernon, BC, V1T 6M3, from branches of the OHS, and from most museums and  bookstores in the Okanagan-Shuswap region. You may also arrange to receive future  issues by mail by contacting the book committee c/o the office of the treasurer.  Editorial Inquiries  For inquiries concerning material in the Reports, or for inclusions in future issues,  please contact the editor at 4910 - 16th Street NE, Salmon Arm, BC, VIE 1E1.  Fax: (250) 832-5367; email: pugrinz@shuswap.net Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1998-1999  PRESIDENT  Denis Maclnnis  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Peter Tassie  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Enabelle Gorek  SECRETARY  Helen Inglis  TREASURER  Libbie Tassie  PAST PRESIDENT  David MacDonald  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Victor Casorso, Lionel Dallas  Similkameen: Richard Coleman, Wallace Liddicoat  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Claude Hammell  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley  Vernon: Robert dePfyffer, Jack Morrison  Armstrong-Enderby: Eleanore Bolton, Robert Cowan  Salmon Arm: Thomas Smith, Allan Wilson  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Jean Webber, Robert Marriage, Basil Collett, David Gregory New Publications of Interest  to OHS Members  Vernon and District PIONEER ROUTES: The Stories Behind Our  Street Names. By Theresia Hurst. Published by the Vernon Branch,  Okanagan Historical Society. Capsule histories of Vernon residents  who attracted geographical mention, with photographs and maps.  156 pages. Available at the Vernon Museum.  FLEETING IMAGES of OLD SALMON ARM. Published by Salmon  Arm Branch, OHS. 200 pages, containing more than 300 photographs depicting life in and around Salmon Arm from 1890 to 1950.  $23. Available from the branch, c/o 4910 16th Street NE, Salmon  Arm, BC, VIE 1 El.  "I'M A BIT HARD OF HEARING ..." The Life of Frank Sorge in  Keremeos. By Dorothy (Sorge) Smuin. Written with a wry humour,  this detailed account of life in a small interior farming community  mainly in the first half of this century will evoke many memories  among readers who have lived in similar locales. 204 pages, $16.  Available at the Penticton Museum.  Business of the Okanagan Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 74th Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  1999  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society will be held  Sunday, May 2, 1999 at 10 a.m.  Coast Capri Hotel  Kelowna  Luncheon at 1 p.m.  All members and guests are welcome Some comments on Jean Webbers book  and the Sixty-second Report  Release of the annual publication we now call Okanagan History is  a traditional late-fall event eagerly awaited by a loyal readership  that hovers around the fourteen-hundred mark. We confidently  predict this captive market will soon be joined by a much wider  constituency when Jean Webber's long-awaited book is published  by the OHS.  Originally conceived as a celebration of "The Best of Okanagan History," Author Webber has instead drawn on and expanded  the Society's print legacy to craft a work that will stand as the definitive historical reference of the Okanagan-Shuswap.  Ending a prolonged study as to how best to produce the book,  the OHS has selected Harbour Publishing of Vancouver as a joint-  venture partner. Harbour Publishing, founded by West Coast writer  Howard White, has championed BC history since it introduced the  acclaimed Raincoast Chronicles series, and has since grown to a leading position among Canadian book publishers. Harbour will see  the project through to completion and handle distribution to established outlets throughout Canada and abroad. For its part, the OHS  has reserved the right to make the book available to members and  others in the traditional manner.  Date of publication is targeted for Spring 1999.  #     #  As will soon become evident to readers of the 62nd Report, its  tone and content have a decidedly human flavour; you might say it  is a People Issue. This is not by design, but the result of serendipity  that unfolded as material came in from OHS branches. A preponderance of social history may not sit well with our critics who like  their historical papers prepared within a dispassionate framework.  But, we are reminded, history is people, and, in this purview, this  volume fits that description comfortably.  For anyone with connections to the interior lumber industry, Ruth Sihlis's first-hand account of life in bush sawmill camps,  "Ferguson Bros.," brings to mind scenes that were common throughout Okanagan-Shuswap forests. The number of accompanying archetype photographs breaks with tradition, but it was impossible  to resist them, because they are so typical of log/lumber operations in the pre-consolidation era. TABLE OF CONTENTS  Feature Articles  Two Views of the World: Photographer-Author Donovan Clemson,  Yvonne McDonald 8  Black and White, Jan Clemson 18  Little-Known Pioneers: The Parkes of Vernon, Jo Jones 20  The Preventorium, Dorothy Zoellner  34  Enderby Lions: The First 50 Years, Peter Roberts 37  Just or Unjust? The Dismissal of School Principal  Joseph Irwin, Yvonne Sturhahn 44  Joseph Irwin: A Postscript, Reg Humphries 54  Salmon Arm Elementary School, 1898-1998, Reg Humphries 57  The History of Sun-Rype Products Ltd., 1946-1996, Ian Greenwood .... 67  Enderby's Rocky Road to Incorporation, Robert Cowan 77  Kelowna Branch Marks 50th Anniversary, Hume Powley 85  Seymour Arm School Faces Long Recess, June Griswold 88  On Becoming an Information Society 89  Father Giovanni Nobili, David Gregory 90  Oliver Theatre—Great Expectations Ushered in Success,  Jacquie Bicknell 98  Kelowna Centennial Museum, James H. Hayes  103  The Store in Okanagan Centre, Sandra Bernardo   106  My 42 Years with the Summerland Research Station, D. V. Fisher  109  Nostalgia  The Holdup of Steve Margott of Fairview, Russ Overton  121  Premier McBride Feted, Submitted by Jessie Ann Gamble 125  Picking Up the Pieces, Charley Adam 127 Human Endeavour  Percy Ruth's Seed Business, Douglas Ruth 129  Ferguson Bros. Sawmill, Ruth Sihlis  141  'Where Apples and Herefords Help Each Other to Perfection,' Mary  Ellison Bailey 148  Personal History  The Rendells of Vernon, Mada Rendell 154  Native Elder Mary Thomas, Barbara Brouwer  158  BC Police Inspector Mansell, Joseph I. Brown 163  The Samuel Smith Family, William J. Whitehead 164  The Ernest Norman Family, William J. Whitehead 169  Tributes  Dorothy Mabel (Dolly) Waterman, 1904-1997, Betty Goodman 174  Dr. James Marshall, 1903-1996, A. W. Watt 175  Frances Mary Allen Bartell, 1917-1996, June Griswold 178  Obituaries    181  OHS Business 193  Minutes of the 73rd Annual General Meeting 194  Branch Activities Reviewed 194  Committee Reports 196  Auditor's Report 199  Errata 201  1998 OHS Membership List 201 Two Views of the World:  PHOTOGRAPHER  AUTHOR  DONOVAN  CLEMSON  Yvonne McDonald  In the spring of 1924 a lad of  16 left his home in Torquay,  England for the Canadian  West, full of dreams of adventure  especially vivid for a young romantic with an urge to explore,  and having the soul of an artist.  He had some training in art as  part of his education, thinking that  one day he might be interested in  a career as an illustrator, and had  also picked up some knowledge of  photography. "... modest skills, but  they served me faithfully in making photography a lifelong hobby."  Donovan Clemson's life in Canada began as  a chore-boy on the farm of Dr. William Boyd McKechnie, in the  small North Okanagan town of Armstrong. Although he found farm  life and the scenery and climate of the area rather dull and uninteresting—he envisioned this new country to be an exciting place  Yvonne McDonald, a past-president of the Salmon Arm Branch of the OHS,  particularly enjoyed writing this article since she has made a hobby of black-and-  white photography, as well as being an admirer of Donovan Clemson's way with  words.  8 DONOVAN CLEMSON  of snow-capped mountains, roaring rivers and erratic weather—it  was in this quiet rural environment that he got his first exposure to  the possibility of indulging his artistic bent.  Here it was that a journalist came to write an article about  the farm, which was the site for many years of a Federal Field  Crops Illustration Centre, where new methods of farming were being  tried. Donovan writes, "This man confessed that he knew nothing  about taking photographs, and, handing his camera over to me,  told me to get a few pictures to go with his article. I did, and subsequently had the dubious pleasure of seeing my work reproduced  in a magazine." It would be some years before he had another photo  published, but this time "I was rewarded with a kind note from the  editor and a cheque." A happy day, indeed. It was the late thirties,  the country was emerging from the Depression, and son Jan remembers his dad's excitement with this windfall. Don's wife Doris  recalls the $3 thus earned being spent on groceries, which included  some longed-for bananas.  After a few years in Armstrong on the farm, and the constraint of having to be there every day of the year to milk cows,  Don decided to strike out and seek a more stimulating and adventurous life. With a friend, George Stephens, he headed west. Travelling on foot, Clemson was amazed at the diversity of the country  he passed through. In the desert-like Thompson Valley he saw  sagebrush for the first time, and marvelled at this dry-belt country  that covered hundreds of miles of interior BC. His romantic spirit  was stirred by time spent in the Cariboo, where he worked for Jim  Bishop on the Bonaparte Ranch near Clinton. From here he continued west across the Fraser River into the Chilcotin, where he worked  for two years, first on a small ranch in the remoteness of Big Creek,  then for a year at the Chilco Ranch. He notes that this work was a  great improvement over dairy farming. "I now had a working day  of only 10 hours . . . with no work at all on Sundays."  It was while working on the huge Chilco Ranch that he and a  friend, Deane Munro, were hired by a scout from the Consolidated  Mining and Smelting Company to prospect in the Bridge River area  of the Coast Range. As always, his camera was an integral part of  his gear. What a joy it must have been to this artist-photographer to  be working in the midst of such grandeur. Here he observed the  variety and beauty to be found in stones, which later led to his  becoming an amateur mineralogist, or rockhound, adding another  dimension to his forays along the back roads.  With the Depression deepening in 1932, Don returned to  Armstrong and used his earnings to buy a farm. Land being cheap  at the time, he was able to purchase 80 acres not far from the DONOVAN CLEMSON  McKechnie farm where he worked as a lad. He proceeded with  great purpose and diligence to become a farmer, seeing to the acquisition of chickens, cows, some acres of hay and grain. Later he  purchased more acreage and expanded the farm to include growing seed potatoes. Now he had his own cows and was back to milking, but, "with the advantage that I could ignore their feelings about  being milked regularly now that I was the boss."  A trip to  Torquay in 1928 to  fulfill a promise made  to his mother for a  return visit on his 21 st  birthday gave Donovan the opportunity  to renew a friendship  with his sister's best  friend. The friendship blossomed with  the exchange of many  letters, and in 1932  Doris travelled by  ship and rail to be met  at Sicamous by her  husband-to-be —a  brave undertaking for  a woman alone in  those days. They  were married the following day in  Armstrong and Doris,  in true pioneer fashion, settled in to make  a home in this place—  a crude cabin with no  running water, no  electricity, none of  the amenities a bride  might hope for. A son,  and later two daughters rounded out the family.  The farm was soon an efficient, well-organized operation,  giving Don the maximum amount of leisure time to pursue his  avocation of photography. He had honed his "modest skills" and  was taking pictures and selling his work to a number of rural publications, sometimes with an accompanying article. As well, he  10  A QUOTE from Len Workman, reviewing The Writers of the Okanagan Mainline, 1985 (published by  Okanagan Mainline Senior Writers  and Publishers Association) — Donovan Clemson: He wrote one  novel, The Lost Mine, and was the  author of numerous articles in  magazines and papers on life in BC.  The most important of the publications, in the opinion of the present  writer, is his book Outback Adventures Through British Columbia. So  calmly and so appreciatively did he  describe life and scenery in the vicinity of Armstrong, the Cariboo  country, and the Trout Lake-  Kootenay area. He was also a photographer, and his illustrations are  ideally appropriate. The only good  way to describe what he saw is to  quote his very words. He was a beautifully frank and simple writer. DONOVAN CLEMSON  How one fire-watcher filled his spare hours. Joe Hambrook, lookout man on Tuktakamin Mountain near Falkland, hooked rugs when not on duty for the BC Forest Service.  entered photo contests such as The Newspaper National Snapshot  Awards sponsored for years by the Vancouver Province, and was a  consistent winner. These winning photos subsequently qualified  for entry in The International Snapshot Contest, and in 1947, '48  and '49 he won major awards in the finals at Washington, D. C.  The early years were devoted to black and white photography, a medium that gave Don complete control over the developing and printing of the film. He eventually earned enough money  11 DONOVAN CLEMSON  thing excemru. ?** t0 ^°^Y equip a H, v  kitch§enCsglmn^^er; he cxSffl ^& ^h every-  ^ later years he w ash h^ Pnnts at the  do  with8 fTeS' rTMed, -nLSSuK' tdrrin§ °^ of  Donovan said   ,  What Would you  of that friend,  "His files contained    only  saleable stuff,  and he was remarkably successful ... But  he had no farm  t° Ml back on  rf   sales   de-  dined.      He  could not afford the luxury  of taking pic.  tures just to  please    him-  self-"    When  Don's photos  began to sell to  Publications  he realized the  value  of his  faTM,        and  wrote,    "The  farm, a place of  refuge... A little kingdom of  which I was  the boss, organized to provide me with  food, shelter,  security, and    <<".•«■.,■,■",,,;,,.,. <    ■"-•■.  UTOSt important Of   11   ■ uonovan Clemson be-  ^^r'*ft tots* paid the **. i  SH^^SsSSSSSg! DONOVAN CLEMSON  Over time his skills with a camera and in the darkroom continued to increase. The early haphazard efforts, produced with little knowledge of technique, had met with only limited success, but  it was enough to encourage him to continue, "... with considerable waste of film and darkroom materials, until I had learned one  of the basic requirements for successful scenic photography: to be  there at the right time."  Picnics were the favourite family activity. On a pleasant summer day they would hurry through the chores, pack a lunch and  take to the road. Don wrote, "We began seriously to explore the  valley and its precincts, and in ever-widening circles sought out  the beautiful, the picturesque and the unusual ..."  Early explorations were limited to a distance from home that  could be covered by a team and democrat and still be back for the  evening chores. The purchase of a 1925 Dodge Brothers touring  car in 1940 enabled the family to venture farther from the farm,  and many fine photographs of favourite destinations, such as  Shuswap and Mara lakes, were the result.  Some of these pictures would grace the covers of rural journals such as The Winnipeg Free Press, The Family Herald, the Western Producer, or the Farm and Ranch Review. A photo essay, published in the Family Herald in 1958, "In the Wake of the Stephanie,"  tells of former days on Shuswap Lake. The feature took shape when  Don and the family made a day trip on board the tug Stephanie as it  made its run pushing a barge from Sicamous to Seymour Arm, delivering supplies to outlying homes along the shores.  In 1963, with the family "grown and flown," Don and Doris  sold the Armstrong farm and moved to Sorrento on Shuswap Lake.  Now the trips ranged farther afield, and the writing began to catch  up with the photography. Editors wanted articles to run with the  stunning photos. The range and variety of the photo essays were  remarkable. Don visited and photographed the Skeena and Nass  valleys; ghost towns in the Arrow Lakes country; old mining towns  that died when the ore ran out. He immortalized buildings and  farms soon to disappear under the waters of the Arrow Dam, such  as the old Union Hotel at Arrowhead, and the beautiful vegetable  farm of C. R. Spicer on the shore of Arrow Lake at Nakusp. Travelling on dirt roads, many of which would eventually lose their charm  to pavement, he explored the Lardeau and Trout Lake—many trips  to Trout Lake City, which Don described as "... a place that you  suddenly want to go to—it attracts me like a long-remembered homeland."  13 DONOVAN CLEMSON  His first book, The Lost Mine, published by Macmillan of  Canada in 1967, was the only novel he wrote. An adventure story  written primarily for young readers, it was based on experiences  Don had when he spent several summers prospecting in the Bridge  River area. There are no photographs in this book, but it is rich  with vivid descriptions of the locale, starting from Lillooet, travelling the Cariboo Road to Williams Lake, then into the Chilcotin and  the Coast Mountains.  Living With Logs was published in the mid-70s and went  through three printings. It has more than 100 photos of log houses,  barns, fences and corrals. The pictures were taken in the 50s, 60s  and 70s of structures built in the past 100 years by ranchers and  farmers. The accompanying essays describe the different techniques  used in building with logs, from the isolated dirt-floor cabin of the  trapper or cowboy or sheepherder, meant as a seasonal shelter, to  the sturdy homes built by immigrants from Scandinavian countries. These homes were to be found from near Bella Bella on the  West Coast, across interior BC to Revelstoke and the snow country  of the Columbia Valley, and into the Kootenays.  Old Wooden Buildings, similar in format to Living With Logs,  was published in 1978, and also has about 100 photos of wooden  buildings, landmarks on the back roads of interior BC that are fast  disappearing, many destroyed by fire, others deserted and sinking  into the earth as nature takes over with trees and undergrowth.  Churches, grave markers, relics of native villages, abandoned buildings; all these were visited, photographed and written about with  artistry and sensitivity.  Backroad Adventures Through Interior British Columbia was first  published in 1976, erroneously titled Outback Adventures. A second  printing in 1981 had the correct title. This gem of a book explores  again the quiet back roads and describes the work and lives of some  of those special people who choose to live in isolation. Don accompanies Bill Palmer up to the summer sheep camp on Hunters Range  and writes about the life of a sheepherder. He visits forestry lookout towers, at Aberdeen (Silver Star) Mountain, Terrace Lookout  on the west side of Okanagan Lake, Tuktakamin Mountain near  Falkland, and learns about the solitary life of these "mountain watchers." He writes about the small ferries that used to reach across the  inland rivers and the lonely lives of the men who operated them.  With good humour, he tells of a number of trips to the crossing at  Big Bar Creek on the Fraser River, hoping to be there when the  sheep from the Hayward Ranch were on the move between summer range and the home pasture on the other side of the river.  14 DONOVAN CLEMSON  Reaction ferry crossing the mighty Fraser at Big Bar during annual sheep drive: One of Donovan  Clemson's favourite haunts.  After one fruitless trip he was told by the ferryman to come  back the following Monday. "... which I did, having got up at 2  a.m. and driven the 175 miles to arrive on the scene shortly before  dawn. But the sheep had outfoxed me. They'd crossed the previous  day and were now leisurely browsing through the sage as they  climbed out of the canyon." Persistence paid, he notes, "... and I  at last witnessed a day-long crossing of the sheep." The result was  striking photographs of an operation that was to cease within a  year, and a good story.  15 DONOVAN CLEMSON  There are still back roads in the interior of BC, along which  one can find a few large historic ranches, in the Thompson Valley,  the Cariboo and the Chilcotin. Sadly, many of the old churches, the  sturdy homes—even a native village at Lillooet—have become victims of fire. Other landmarks have fallen prey to natural disasters,  like the flood at Sandon, or summarily erased by so-called "progress,"  such as the building of the High Arrow dam. Some of the old log  buildings are still to be found. Picturesque fences built by pioneers  from materials at hand in ranching country stand yet, without benefit of nails, or staples or wire. Back roads once visited by the  Clemsons still lead to isolated farms and ranches on the high plateaus where natural meadows and pristine lakes are surrounded  by jackpine forests, reaching west to distant snowy mountain tops  where the air is brisk and clean.  Donovan Clemson died in 1986 at the age of 78, leaving a  legacy of photographs and literature, a priceless portfolio of a colourful time and place in history. His books, photographs and many  articles are rich with images and stories of people and places he  found moseying along the back roads of a province, which not so  long ago had vast stretches of open land. Some of this land can still  be found, but unless it has been saved as parks, it will be fenced.  Many of the old wooden buildings have disappeared, and the itinerant photographer will have a hard hunt to find the ghosts of BC's  early days.  "I have a feeling," Clemson wrote, "for isolated places and  admiration for the backwoods dwellers, especially the prospectors,  the away-back ranchers, the lonely fire-watchers in their remote  mountain-top eyries, and the sheepherders who spend their solitary summers in the high mountain pastures. All these have been  subjects for pen and camera, and have lured me into many out-of-  the-way places in interior British Columbia."  For much of the time spent with a roving lens, Donovan had  an able helpmate in the person of Doris, whose quiet support and  considered point of view were taken into account before the shutter was released. Said Jan Clemson: "My mother accompanied him  on all his trips, which helped to make up for her "darkroom widow"  status at home. She was able to share in the rich and varied subjects that he searched out; which included some of the most interesting eccentrics one could imagine, or breathtaking scenery usually reserved for the most adventurous and daring."  Doris, now in her 90s and recovering (in mid-1998) from a  serious fall, until recently gamely stayed on in the small retirement house at Sorrento. What she no doubt feels was a greater  misfortune was the recent death of her beloved companion, an  16 DONOVAN CLEMSON  aging dachshund named Grindle, who shared her afternoon tea  time from a special chair in the living room. Like the farm home in  Armstrong, this one is ornamented with Don's trim of hearts, maple seed, birds and chicory, in bright yellows, blues and red around  the window frames; a scenic lake painting on the outside wall near  the entrance. The fireplace in the living room is a smaller version  of the one crafted in the Armstrong farmhouse of stones Don had  gathered over the years. There are old bottles and other relics, and,  of course, walls lined with books and pictures. Friends drop in,  enjoying her bright conversation tinged with humour, and marvelling at her accounts of putting the run on the odd bear that wanders into her yard from the hill above.  A final note: In September 1998, Shuswap Art Gallery Association staged a retrospective featuring more than 50 Donovan  Clemson photographs. The exhibition was inspired and co-sponsored by Salmon Arm Branch of the OHS.  For the record — (From the Armstrong Advertiser)  1947, August 28: D. Clemson Again Winner in Contest — D.  Clemson, Armstrong's gifted camera fan, carried off two prizes in  the sixth week result in the Newspaper National Snapshot A. There  were more than 6,000 entries received, coming from all parts of  B.C. and from several points in other provinces.  1947, September 11: Clemson Photos Win Grand Prize in Contest  — Don Clemson of Hullcar, was one of the four winners of $50  grand prize awards in B. C. participation in the $10,000 Newspaper  National Snapshot awards. The contest in B. C. was sponsored by  The Vancouver Daily Province. In addition to the $50 Mr. Clemson  won one first, two seconds, and a third prize in the fifth week and  a first and a second in the sixth week.  1948, September 16: Donovan Clemson Qualifies in International  Snapshot Contest — For the second consecutive year Donovan  Clemson has qualified in the International Snapshot Contest which  will be judged in Washington D.C. Mr. Clemson won this honour  with his picture titled "Farmyard Love." It portrayed his little daughter Grizelda hugging a favourite white duck . . . The picture was  taken with a Thornton-Pickard reflex camera, using Eastman Super XX filmpack, l/50th second at f-8. Last year his top picture also  won a $100 third prize in Washington. He has won many of the  weekly prizes this year. 1949, September 8: Clemson Wins Grand  Prize in B. C. Contest — "His First Offence" took top place in Class  D (Animals) and with it the $50 grand prize in addition to the $10  17 DONOVAN CLEMSON  regular first prize. (Picture taken on a miniature Speed Graphic,  Super filmpack at f-16 and 1/100th of a second snap). The local  camera enthusiast had the distinction this year of winning more  prizes than any other contestant. Mr. Clemson won a $210 second  prize in the 1948 International contest at Washington.  Black and White  DONOVAN CLEMSON - HIS  CAMERAS AND TECHNIQUES  Jan Clemson  Before Donovan Clemson emigrated to Canada in 1923, his  brother-in-law gave him a folding Kodak camera, which loaded  postcard-sized film (three by five inches) No. 130. He used  this camera all during his farmhand days in Armstrong; his ranching days in the Cariboo-Chilcotin; his prospecting days in the Bridge  River Country, and uamm^^setw^^^  his farming davs at  Armstrong. This According to his son, Jan, Donovan Clemson  camera was lost af- carried through life two great aversions: One  ter it was passed to was an "incredible distaste" for the British caste  me in 1953—stolen system, and the other, not surprisingly, con-  in a car break-in cerned crowded places epitomized by "houses  three years later. cheek-by-jowl."  In    1940,    a '  used     Thornton-  Pickard reflex camera with lots of light leaks and a film pack adapter  (three by four inch negative) arrived on the scene from England,  this time a gift from Donovan's father-in-law.  Both cameras were employed: the Kodak mainly for scenics  and medium shots, the Thornton-Pickard for close-ups and portraits. Since he had no access to electricity in the beginning, all  printing was by the contact process (prints were negative-sized)  using coal oil or gasoline lanterns as the light source. His simple  materials list was off-the-shelf Kodak papers and chemicals. This  was standard procedure throughout his photographic career. After  turning professional in the early 1950s, he did send directly to Kodak  wholesalers for supplies, but he stuck with the mainstream tried-  and-true chemicals and papers. Kodak SuperXX was his favourite  film and he bemoaned the discontinuance of this film in favour of  the "inferior" Tri-X.  18 DONOVAN CLEMSON  Incidentally, my father found the subject of photographic  equipment and processing techniques boring, and avoided entering into discussion with other camera enthusiasts whenever possible.  Since the Kodak required such large-format film, which was  becoming more expensive and cumbersome, together with the fact  that the bulky Thornton was continually plagued with light leaks,  Donovan investigated other cameras that could give him sharp pictures and be versatile enough for both portraiture and scenic photography. This search led him to a used Graflex Speed Graphic with  a 2 1/4 by 3 1/4-inch format. The cost of film per unit decreased,  but more photos resulted.  Rural electrification came to the Clemson farm in 1948. This  revolutionized Donovan's photography, as he purchased a four-by-  five-inch enlarger. This meant that the smaller negatives could be  easily blown up for prints acceptable to a much wider range of  farm publications, which were quick to recognize the appeal of his  subject matter.  In the early 1950s he moved towards "professional" status,  building a studio in which to photograph wedding parties, family  groups and babies. The advent of a studio greatly enhanced his  income, but it never gave him the satisfaction of freelance subject  matter, which he continued to pursue with greater vigour and enthusiasm. His technical needs were kept starkly simple and he was  never seduced by trade magazines and adverts promising a brave  new world of photographic advancements.  Only in 1956 he bought new cameras, at the urging of his  new-found friend, Richard Harrington, a well-known Canadian photographer based in Toronto. Richard used Rolleiflexes, which gave  optimum negative size of 2 1/4 by 2 1/4 inches, and were great  field cameras as they were light and sturdy. They accepted 120 roll  film—12 exposures per roll—that could easily be developed in a  small tank with small batches of chemicals. Father carried the Rolleis  for all his field work, but kept the Graflex busy in the studio.  As publications began to clamour for colour photos, it was  easy to load the Rolleis with colour transparency film. The only  snag was the processing. Since at that time colour developing was  relatively complex, Donovan sent all his colour work to a professional lab.  Black and White always remained his first love, however, allowing his artistry to flourish and further develop. Colour was more  or less a good source of income with a few dashes of aesthetic triumph.  19 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS:  THE PARKES OF VERNON  Jo Jones  Most often we remember and celebrate those pioneers who  worked the land, developed the industries, ran the businesses, or were elected to public office. We are all familiar  with names such as Girouard, Lumby, O'Keefe, Greenhow, Ellis,  Lequime and Dewdney; the less prominent are not found in the  pages of history. There were two unsung pioneers, however, who  lived in Vernon during the final decade of the 19th century whose  lives were recorded day after day in minute detail by one of them.  They were Alice Barrett Parke and her husband, Harold Randolph  Parke. The index to Okanagan Historical Society Reports contains  scant reference to them. Neither important landowners nor wealthy  business people, they were widely loved and respected by their  contemporaries in the Valley. How do we know? Alice began a  journal in March 1891, which like Topsy just growed—until it filled  31 volumes. When she made her final entry in May 1900, she had  written nearly half a million words and a century later it became  my privilege to transcribe them all.  It was in August 1996 that a distinguished-looking man delivered to the Vernon Archives a box filled with old and fragile scribblers, wondering if they might be useful for the collection. His name  was Harry Bemister Barrett, of Port Dover, Ontario, and he was the  great-nephew of Alice Barrett Parke. Archivist Linda Wills was delighted with such a rare acquisition and wanted the transcription  to begin right away, so I agreed to take on the task. I had no idea  that I would be keyboarding for the next 15 months. I was told that  the journals were written by "a Vernon postmaster's wife" (I didn't  even know her name) and that they covered the years from 1891 to  1900. I expected the process to be lengthy and not a little tedious,  (surely the entries would be in the usual note form, such as "Got  up at 6:30, made breakfast, washed the dishes, baked some pies"  and so on) but the opposite turned out to be true. By the end of the  second volume I found myself captivated by the life and personality of this exceptional woman whose words, still so alive, spilled  from the sometimes crumbling pages. I could hardly wait to finish  Jo Jones is a former teacher-librarian with degrees in modern languages and  education. She is currently working on a book with the working title The Land  Was Then New, based on the Alice Barrett Parke journals.  20 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  one volume and move on to the next. I became convinced that  here was a book in the making, so as I went along, I footnoted  carefully all the people, events and places she mentioned; there  are now more than 1,600 citations.  The journals were intended for a wider readership—her family at home in Port Dover—and in them Alice displayed a literate  prose style and the vocabulary of a well-educated woman. The firm,  confident, dense and steeply slanted Victorian handwriting covered hundreds of pages. The paper in the scribblers she used varied widely in quality from one volume to another; some entries  Harold Randolph Parke and Alice Barrett Parke. (Vernon Museum and Archives)  were written on paper that has withstood their time travels in almost pristine condition, others were on pages that threaten to crumble at the slightest hint of rough handling.  Alice Butler Barrett was descended from a long line of Irish  warriors and aristocrats who settled in Ireland in 1170. Her branch  of the Barrett family (motto Omnia virtute non vi - All by virtue,  not by force) came originally from Normandy and is believed to  have been among Crusaders who accompanied Richard the  Lionheart to the Holy Land. Barretts fought alongside Dillons, Poers,  Altons and Butlers—the last numbered the Earls of Ormond among  their descendants. (An alternate version of the Barrett family lineage showed them of Latin descent, with the name "Barretti";  21 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  indeed, all of the surviving Barrett siblings had black hair, dark  eyes and swarthy features). Alice Barrett's forebear, Phineas Barrett,  lived in County Down and during the 1750s purchased land near  Clonmel known as Castle Blake. In 1790, his grandson Quintin  (Alice's great-grandfather) married the Honourable Emma Massey,  daughter of the first Baron Massey.  Alice's father, Theobald (Toby) Butler Barrett, was born at  Banagher, Ireland, in 1817, and was 13 years old when the Barretts  sailed to Canada on the Bolivar and settled in Sorel, Quebec. Eventually there would be 16 children. Upon Toby's marriage in 1850 to  Emily Langs, of Pennsylvania Dutch stock, he moved with his new  wife to Port Dover, where he found a position in Her Majesty's  Customs Service. Between 1851 and 1869, Toby and Emily had eight  children, of whom Alice was the fourth and youngest daughter.  Born on November 5, 1861, she received an excellent education,  which included a solid grounding in Latin, and "Fa" Barrett insisted  that all his children read widely and diligently. He also spoke enough  French to be able to pass that language on to his children. Since the  father was a founder-member of St. Paul's Anglican Church and a  lay reader, the whole family was required to attend church twice  Members of the Conservative party's Vernon Pansy Club pre-1900. The woman on the left is  believed to be Ida Birnie, a friend of Alice Parke. Flora Bell and Aida Gould are also thought to be  in the group. (Vernon Museum and Archives)  22 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  on Sundays. Alice was thus raised in a large, loving, devout, intellectually lively and close-knit family that included uncles, aunts  and cousins.  When, in March 1891, the 29-year-old Alice Butler Barrett  made the journey by train and ship from Port Dover to the interior  of British Columbia, she had no idea what to expect. Slim, of medium height and with piercing brown eyes and black hair, she considered herself a confirmed spinster. She had come to the Okanagan Valley in response to a plea from her beloved younger brother,  Harry, who had travelled west five years earlier to help their uncle  Henry run the 320-acre Mountain Meadow Ranch (the north half  of Section 36, Township 7), which lay north of Otter Lake in the  Spallumcheen. The two bachelors needed Alice to take care of domestic duties so that they could concentrate on the ranch operation, and she made a commitment to try the arrangement for a  year. After an uncomfortable five-day Canada crossing, during which  she found herself confined in a railway car with many "very common" people, Alice finally emerged at Sicamous to a rapturous  welcome from the brother she had not seen for several months.  Her thoughts on reaching the primitive living quarters on the  ranch—a three-room cabin known variously as "the cabin" or "the  house"—can easily be imagined; her introduction to pioneering life  would prove both daunting and rewarding.  She began the journals at the urging of brother Harry, who  wanted the "home ones" to learn about the life they were leading  in the West. Despite an extremely heavy daily regimen of housework and food preparation, she agreed to begin the writings that  would go on for 10 years. Soon after her arrival she wrote:  I have been much struck with the kindliness and real politeness  of the men here to a woman. Men who talk atrociously, ungrammatically,  who have dirty hands, and dirtier clothes, seem to take quite a courtly  air, and more real chivalry of manner than many so-called polished  gentlemen, when they address a woman, and there seems to he no limit  to their kindness of heart. (Journal of Alice Barrett Parke, Volume 1,  March 22, 1891).  There is no doubt in my mind that woman's sphere is, as a rule,  in the house. Of course, genius may force her out of it, or dire necessity  drive her forth to soar—or to struggle in higher flights or harder paths,  but the quality of a house maker is essentially woman's, and perhaps if  she did her work better in this line, men might he stronger and nobler.  One can see that, at the very first, her presence is almost an impossibility in a new country. It needs a hardier stock of womankind — both  23 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  physically and mentally—than is often produced by our eastern civilization to stand the loneliness and hardships of this western life, but oh!  how the country needs women strong in character, gentle in words and  ways, to soften while they strengthen the rougher manners of the men.  (Ibid)  Alice Barrett had arrived in the Okanagan Valley at a crucial  period in its development. Settlers were pouring in and the whole  area was in a state of flux. The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway was  being constructed to link Sicamous with Okanagan Lake (before its  completion, Alice would make several trips on the tiny six-passenger steam car Kalamazoo); stagecoach service at the northern end  of the valley would soon disappear; sternwheelers would begin to  ply the lake from Vernon to Penticton; cattle ranches, sawmills,  flour mills, brick kilns, dairy farms and grain farms were springing  up as men pre-empted land and hastened to do the work necessary  to obtain deeds to the property. There was an air of tremendous  excitement and optimism and settlers believed that they had found  their Eden and that they could achieve anything.  Alice entered enthusiastically into the social life of her neighbours in the Spallumcheen area, learning to ride a horse and going  to Lansdowne, Armstrong and Enderby for socials and balls. During one memorable outing she became the first recorded white  woman to make an ascent of the Enderby Cliffs. She was quickly  accepted, and before long found herself taking young women like  Lucy Crozier and Nonah Pelly into her home for "readings" of history, literature and politics to broaden their outlook and to improve  their minds. Rebecca Julia Pelly, (nicknamed Nonah, a shortened  form of the Chinook word "Winonah" meaning eldest daughter),  was a near neighbour and became a particular favourite. Alice was  delighted when, in 1894, Nonah married Harry Barrett. Tragically,  Nonah would die in 1898, six days after giving birth to her third  child; she was only 22 years old. Her tombstone still stands in the  tiny private Pelly burial ground on the west side of Otter Lake.  Alice's suitor, Harold Randolph Parke, was a man of many  accomplishments. Throughout his life he turned his hand to whatever job presented itself. Born on the twenty-fifth of January, 1846,  into a well-to-do London, Ontario, family, Parke was one of four  lawyer sons of the Honourable Thomas Parke, an architect and  builder. (The firm of Ewart & Parke had built the old Ontario Parliament Buildings in Toronto and the courthouse in London, and  Thomas Parke had been Surveyor-General in the Baldwin-  LaFontaine administration). Young Hal attended Upper Canada  College and as a teenager ran away to join the Confederate forces  24 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  during the American Civil War. He was wounded in action and  eventually retrieved by an irate father. Parke tried to settle down  into respectability, and after completing his training in law, worked  for a time at his brother Ephraim's London law firm. But he longed  for greater adventure, and became the one hundredth man to enlist in the North-West Mounted Police. He remained a member of  Barnard Avenue, Vernon, with the post office of Harold Parke's tenure on the left. (Vemon  Museum and Archives)  the Force for two years and while at Wood Mountain Fort took part  in a memorable encounter with Sitting Bull. After leaving the Force,  he remained in the West.  Hal Parke first saw Alice a month after her arrival, while she  was visiting friends in Enderby. He was 45 years old and operating  a business hauling freight between Vernon and Enderby. He was  also partner with Robert McDougall in a Vernon sawmill and brickworks. He said nothing to Alice then, but was obviously interested  in learning more about her, because he arranged privately with her  25 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  brother to make Mountain Meadow Ranch the overnight stopover  for his freighting team. Thus began a persistent and dedicated courtship. In May 1891, Alice wrote:  Mr. Parke got here quite early Monday, & came in before tea to  get warm & dry. I did not much care for his appearance—a short, fair  man, partly bald & evidently over forty. I was half sorry Harry had let  him come, but at tea time I knew he was a gentleman. One can always  judge pretty well of a man's place in the social scale by the way he eats,  & in the evening I found by his conversation that he was an educated  man as well. (Ibid., Volume 1, May 24, 1891)  Parke became devoted to Alice and the journals demonstrate  his delightfully wry and gently tweaking sense of humour, and his  immense kindness, thoughtfulness and caring temperament. He  was energetic, steadfast and accomplished at almost any task—even  cooking—and pursued his love doggedly. Alice found it agonizingly  difficult to make the choice between loyalty to her family at home  and marriage to him.  Mr. Parke asked me quite a long time ago to marry him and I said  no—a good many times—because I could not bear the thought of ever  coming so far from home. But at last I have written home about it, and  this mail brought an answer from Mother and Wese—I am afraid it has  made them unhappy, and that grieves me terribly. I don't love him well  enough to marry him unless they are perfectly willing at home. I cannot imagine any woman loving one man so well that it dulls her love  for those who have been near & dear to her all her life. (Ibid., Volume  3, October 21, 1891)  Alice returned to Port Dover as planned at the end of her  promised year, and finally, after several refusals, Hal followed her  to Ontario and was at last rewarded with her hand in marriage. The  wedding took place in Port Dover in January 1893. In marrying  Harold Parke, Alice took a huge step up the social ladder, and one  wonders if it was the prospect of belonging to such an illustrious  family that finally tipped the scales in Hal's favour after so many  refusals.  After a three-week honeymoon, the couple boarded a CPR  train and made the western trip through the worst blizzard ever  recorded to that time. Theirs was the only train to move either east  or west, and they arrived at Sicamous two days behind schedule.  Hal returned to become assessment officer for the first elected coun-  26 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  cil of the City of Vernon. He later became unappointed assistant  postmaster to help his former partner, Robert McDougall, who had  succeeded Luc Girouard as postmaster. Hal then took a series of  government positions: provincial constable and jailer, superintendent of roads and finally postmaster in his own right. He also spent  a two-year period as manager of the BX Ranch, from 1896 to 1898.  He even made entries in the Parke journals at the behest of "The  Boss," as he called his wife, while she was away visiting.  Alice became a devoted, loving and loyal companion, revelling in her position as the wife of a government servant and leading citizen of the town. From their home on Schubert Street, she  undertook a regular schedule of visits, widening her circle to include the wives of all the other leading citizens throughout the  Valley, as well as those who were less fortunate. A member of the  Anglican Church, she possessed impressive qualities of genuine  compassion and empathy, and was frequently to be seen carrying  a pot of beef tea here, or a light milk pudding there, in times of  need. She never forgot a birthday or an anniversary and was always ready with a little bouquet of flowers to help celebrate a new  baby or a marriage, and to offer condolences to families of the dead.  She loved watching the delight in the eyes of her little Sunday School  pupils as they received their holiday gifts from the huge Christmas  tree set up in the church. Yet at the same time, she was racist in  many of her attitudes. I cringed to read of "darkies," "Chinamen"  and "Japs" as I made my way through her pages. But she was willing to learn and change, and through close contact with Loo-Yee,  the Chinese cook at the BX, she gradually adjusted her attitudes;  by the end of the journals she actually paid a formal call on the  new bride of Kwong Hing Leung, Vernon's wealthiest Chinese  merchant.  Her friendships were for the most part firm and enduring,  and she nurtured them carefully. She quickly became the centre of  attention for three young "cavaliers" who called upon her frequently  and became her devoted admirers. They were government agent  Leonard Norris (later one of the founders of the Okanagan Historical Society), John Armstrong McKelvie, editor of The Vernon News,  and Forbes Murray Kerby, a young surveyor who worked for  Burnyeat & Coryell. She had a delightfully coquettish yet motherly attitude towards all three. She took the newly-arrived 24-year-  old Dr. Osborne Morris immediately under her wing, and before  long he was pouring into her ear not only his own troubles, but  details of the medical condition of many of his patients.  27 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  She grew to admire, love and respect pioneer women such as  Clara Cameron (formerly Chipp/Dewdney), Kate Martin, wife of  pioneer businessman William Martin, Addie Cochrane, married to  flamboyant lawyer Maurice "Pa" Cochrane, Sophia Ellison, the  American-born wife of leading citizen Price Ellison, Gertie  Costerton, married to the feckless Charlie Costerton, brother of  Clem, and Jessie Maclntyre (Kate Martin's sister and later the wife  of Jack McKelvie). All of these women were active in organizations  that helped those in need, such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union, the Ladies' Aid Society, the committee to establish a  cottage hospital, and a local branch of the Women's Council. Alice  had a horror of organizations, and preferred to perform individual  acts of kindness.  Lord Aberdeen, Canada's Governor-General at the time, regularly brought his family to visit their two large ranches in the Okanagan, Guisichan in Kelowna and Coldstream at Vernon. Alice had  never met anyone like the energetic, autocratic early feminist Ishbel  Aberdeen, and was bemused by the forcefulness of her character,  while admiring her ability to get things done.  . . . Lady Aberdeen wants to get up some Women's Council here .  . . I don't know, of course, what they want me to do, but I won't take any  leading part, for a good many reasons. First, I have sense enough to  know that I have no executive ability—I mean for business meetings  and organizations, & managing & leading others. Then I really haven't  time to give to any public working—I have my house to look after—  Harry and Nonah to help sometimes—a frequent neighbourly kindness  to do, many little calls on my time which I don't think it would be right  to neglect... I suppose if I were to see Lady Aberdeen I'd listen meekly  to all she has to say, & never air one of my old fashioned notions—but  I'd "scissors" to myself just the same. I think she is a good woman, with  an honest desire to improve & help those she is among, & I wouldn't  want to discourage ever so little (for of course my opinion would be  "ever so little") any thing she may attempt. So I was not sorry I had  rheumatism in my shoulder, which, for the present, makes a simple &  conclusive excuse for taking no active part in her efforts. (Ibid., Volume 15, September 19, 1895)  Of course, Alice was drawn into their circle and, against her  better judgment, reluctantly allowed herself to be talked into becoming the first corresponding secretary of the Women's Council.  Lady Aberdeen continued to solidify support for her project.  28 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  About five I had a visit from Lady Aberdeen. She drove up in  great style, with her coachman and footman, and paid me quite a long  visit. Of course it was all about the Women's Council, but Hal laughs at  me & says I'll be very puffed up after 'bob nobbing" with a Countess. It  really is a pleasure & a privilege to be associated with a woman like she  is—but oh! she is large! I felt quite like a pigmy beside her. She is so tall,  & stout as well. (Ibid., October 25, 1895)  Alice Barrett Parke offered delightful vignettes of many of  the best-known pioneers of the time.  I was introduced to old Girouard on the way out, a queer old  Frenchman, with a beard he braids up and tucks under, a queer, wild-  looking old fellow with just one front tooth in his upper jaw, which  hangs down so far and makes him look like Red Riding Hood's wolf—  but he is very kind, & has a lovely orchard . . . (Alice Barrett, letter to  her sister, April 29, 1892)  She would grow to love "The Old Man"—as everyone in town  called him. Old Mrs. Catherine Schubert, too, would become a firm  favourite. The only woman among the Overlanders who trekked  from Winnipeg in 1862, she recounted her amazing adventure to  Alice over coffee one day—the account fills six pages in Volume 4  of the journals. Alice had an affinity with the elderly, and they  were among those to whom the most frequent visits were paid.  Price and Sophia Ellison quickly became close friends, though  in the early days Alice had not appreciated Price's efforts as a matchmaker.  Mr. Ellison is an inveterate match-maker, and has taken it into  his head that Harold and I are to make a match, and that he is going to  help on, so he was trying to scheme, around to get Harold to take me  home. I would not listen to that however. Mr. [Robert Storey] Hall took  me up, and I wasn't going to be rude to him, so I said to him when he  came in "I am afraid Mr. Ellison has been talking some nonsense to  you—I am going to hold you to your promise of seeing that I get back  safely." (Journal of Alice Barrett Parke, Volume 4, February 23,1892)  Before her marriage, Alice had not been above playing one  man off against the other; Englishman Bob Hall drove the stage  past Mountain Meadow Ranch every day, and often paused for a  29 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  conversation when he picked up and delivered Alice's mail, and  she had been greatly impressed by his gentlemanly manner and  bright, piercing blue eyes. Despite Price Ellison's interfering ways:  Mrs. Ellison was very nice to me. They are so kind and good. I  think I never saw a more truly generous man than Mr. Ellison, & Mrs.  Ellison seems to agree with all he says & does. It does not seem kind to  say it even here (though none but the home ones will ever see this) that  it is a terribly shiftless household. If they were poor it would be very  much on the Micawberplan—as they are rich it is better, but there is no  system, or order, or even tidiness. Mrs. Ellison is a tiny sweet-tempered,  smiling little body, who thinks that everything which "Pawpa" does is  perfection, & who lets said "Pawpa" arrange & do almost everything,  cooking included, now that they have no Chinaman. (Ibid.)  The contrast was great between the rambunctious Ellison  household and the staid home of the Fortunes in Enderby, where  decorum was of the greatest importance.  Both are comfortable homes, with evidence of easy circumstances, but theirs [the Ellisons'] is a happy-go-lucky, disorderly place  where good temper & extreme generosity reigns—three little children,  who do exactly what they please, tear the house upside down—while  there are no children, Mrs. Fortune is exceedingly prim, order reigns  supreme, no mat is awry, no speck of dust to be seen. The sudden jump  from one to the other almost takes away one's breath. I'm afraid I enjoyed the disorderly establishment most. (Ibid., Volume 4, February  25, 1892)  She had distinctly unflattering things to say about C. W.  "Billie" Holliday (author of Valley of Youth), who was an immature  20-year-old when she met him.  Truly his cheek is colossal. The last time he was here Hal almost told him that we didn't care to have him come, but evidently he  couldn't or wouldn't understand and more still he left his camera here,  as he "didn't want to carry it into Vernon, but could come for it tomorrow". I told him we would see that it was taken in to him. I really feel  guilty at having to say such uncourteous things to anyone in my own  house, but in self defence one cannot be hospitable to a little creature  like Billie. (Journal of Alice Barrett Parke, Volume 24, January 9,  1898)  Almira McCluskey, the widow of one of Hal's predecessors  at the BX Ranch, also came in for her share of criticism:  30 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  Just as we were ready to leave the chicken house Mrs. McCluskey  came—she came in & stayed ever so long. She wanted all sorts of things,  to get feed for her cow, or else to have us keep her cow and give her milk  all winter—then she wanted something about calves and was hinting  around to get onions & apples—altogether Hal is afraid she will be a  great nuisance. One feels sorry for her little children, but really we dare  not help her much, or there would be no end to her demands. She is  never satisfied, andis so bold. (Ibid., Volume 20, November 18,1896)  Alice was deeply religious, though she detested the effete  Anglican, Reverend T. Williams Outerbridge, and so she usually  attended Methodist or Presbyterian services. She needed to be uplifted by the sermon, but was frequently disappointed.  I was sorry the sermon was quite lacking in interest. It seems  strange to me that with such a subject men can be so dull. It is a pity  that men who have not the gift of preaching are sent out as preachers—  surely there must be some other work they could do better. (Ibid., Volume 11, June 26, 1894)  Throughout their marriage, Alice and Hal shared a comfortable and welcoming home, which was the centre of their lives,  though Alice was evermore ready to go out visiting than her husband. She rationalized matters to herself thus:  I know Hal does not care for going out, & sometimes I feel very  selfish in wanting to go—then again I feel that it is really better for both  of us to get shaken out of our jog-trot now & then. It is a very happy  contented jog-trot I will allow, but the social instinct should be encouraged out here. I am sure we are too apt to look for all our happiness just  inside our own home—and it isn't fair to ourselves or our neighbours to  narrow joy down to that one spot. No doubt a life cannot be a happy  one unless home is the fountain of its peace & refreshment, but we don't  want to keep all the waters of a fountain shut up in their source—it  would be of little use then, and so I think a happy home ought to  strengthen and beautify our character that its influence may be more  wide spread. (Ibid., Volume 11, November 26, 1894)  The journals came to an abrupt end—in the middle of a  sentence in the middle of a page—in May 1900. The cessation coincided almost to the day with the conception of the Parkes' only  child, Emily Louisa, who was born on Valentine's Day in 1901. Tragically, the baby died nine months later, on November 13. Little Emily  31 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  Parke's funeral procession was the largest ever seen for a child in  Vernon up to that time. She was buried in the old cemetery near  Old Kamloops Road, but her remains were transferred to the new  location on Pleasant Valley Road when it opened it 1904. Her grave  in the pioneer section of the cemetery is marked by a tiny white  marble cross.  Alice did not resume her jottings while she remained in the  Okanagan. During their final years here, the Parkes' influence lingered and they were held in the highest respect, witness the large  crowd that turned out at the station in the fall of 1905 when Hal  retired from the post office and the couple left for Port Dover. Jack  McKelvie wrote in his newspaper:  A pleasant surprise awaited them at the station. Just before the  train pulled out, G. A. Henderson, W. R. Megaw, S. C. Smith and other  gentlemen called the popular postmaster and his wife apart from the  group of friends who had assembled to bid them farewell, and, on behalf of the people of Vernon, presented Mr. Parke with a handsome gold  chain and diamond ring, and Mrs. Parke with a gold watch and chain.  The accompanying address expressed appreciation of the unfailing courtesy, untiring attention and the manner generally in which Mr. Parke  had conducted the business of the Vernon post office during the past six  and a half years, and also of the way in which Mrs. Parke had seconded his efforts, and of her kindly manner which always made business with the office a positive pleasure.  The Parkes returned to Vernon the following spring to sell  their property and to settle their affairs, which they left in the capable hands of lawyer Fred Billings. He acted as their agent in the  purchase of several mortgages in the Peachland area, which provided them with a steady income. Then they left Vernon for good.  Alice and Hal spent a few years in Ontario, but by 1912 had  moved to Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, where they developed a small  market garden. Hal's health soon began to fail, and by the fall of  1914 Alice was desperate to get him back to Ontario. With her sister's help, she was able to do so, and Hal died six weeks after their  return, on November 30, 1914, from thrombosis and myocarditis.  He was 68 years old. Alice went back to Alberta the following spring  to settle their affairs and then went back to Ontario for the last  time. She survived her husband by 38 years and lived on, cherished and contented in the bosom of her kin in the Barrett family  home in Port Dover. She died on December 8, 1952, aged 91, after  suffering a massive stroke.  32 LITTLE-KNOWN PIONEERS  The Barrett papers are housed in the archives of the Vernon  Museum. They include:  • The original journals, 31 scribblers covering life in the  Okanagan, and a single five-year volume giving notes on life at  Fort Saskatchewan 1912-1915. (Most of the entries in the latter are  by Harold Parke).  • A full transcription of the Okanagan volumes.  • A history of the Barrett family compiled by Alice Parke's  great-nephew, Harry Bemister Barrett, the journal's donor.  • Barrett family letters dating from the 1850s.  • Photographs.  • Harold Parke's account of a dangerous, but hilarious, encounter between Major Walsh, Sitting Bull and himself while he  was in the N-WMP at Wood Mountain.  • Genealogies of the Barrett and Pelly families.  • A transcription of the diaries kept by Alice's brother, Harry  Barrett.  • Other supporting documents.  As Harry Bemister Barrett wrote from Ontario, "I keep wondering what Aunty Alice would think of the stir she has created. I  expect she would be amazed and a bit shocked, but secretly pleased."  In a short article such as this, it is impossible to paint a complete  portrait of the Parkes; Alice's work is too massive and wide-ranging. That I have been able to rescue such an engaging and remarkable pioneer couple from the century-long twilight in which they  have lain hidden, and introduce them to OHS readers, is a source  of genuine satisfaction.  Without documents there is very little history, and the women  of that time left behind very few papers. But Alice Parke has bequeathed to us a superb social history of her place and time—the  interior of British Columbia during the final decade of the 19th  century. In a world where History is the story of men writ large,  Alice Barrett Parke's journals cast a shining beam on the lives of  the women of her era. Their pioneer spirit sustained them as they  worked punishingly long hours to establish homes, raise children,  co-operate with their neighbours and make their voices heard in  community affairs. It is the very "dailyness" of the journals that  gives them their extraordinary power. As a human being, Alice  proves to be a stimulating companion. As a chronicler of her time  she has much to teach. As a social observer, she is without peer.  33 THE PREVENTORIUM  Dorothy Zoellner  (This article was first published in The Daily Courier as a column in  the series on Okanagan History contributed by the Kelowna Branch,  OHS. It is reprinted here with the kind permission of the Courier's  editorial page editor).  All the cities in the Okanagan shared a great sense of accomplishment when the Gordon Campbell Valley Preventorium  opened its doors September 8, 1932.  Named for Dr. Gordon Campbell, well-respected Kelowna  physician who had died in December 1931, the Preventorium was  to serve the Valley's undernourished children and those with pre-  tuberculosis symptoms, or other threatening diseases.  Throughout the spring and summer of 1932, Dr. G. A. Ootmar,  Regional Medical Health Officer, Kelowna, launched an appeal to  Valley citizens to provide help. Donations and support came from  Women's Institutes, Rotarians, Gyros, Daughters of England,  Rebekahs and Native Daughters of Canada. Consequently, a building was constructed at the foot of Knox Mountain. In describing  the structure, Dr. Ootmar likened the Preventorium to a lighthouse—  a symbol to warn of danger. For this reason, the Preventorium building incorporated a tower, to represent the lighthouse aspect of the  institution's splendid work.  A Preventorium Society was formed with W H. H. McDougall  as chairman of the executive committee. Mrs. O. L. Jones looked  after housekeeping details, and Mrs. A. J. Cameron was secretary-  treasurer. Membership in the society was set at 50 cents a year-  less than one cent a week.  Nurse-in-charge was Grace Angus, RN. While there was accommodation for 12, the Preventorium opened with four children  in residence. Dr. Ootmar was the admitting officer, receiving referrals from family physicians all over the Valley. Here was a place  where the undernourished child could be cared for at the lowest  possible cost.  Dorothy Zoellner, a past president and life member of the OHS, has made a  significant contribution to the published history of the Okanagan Valley as an  author, editor and newspaper columnist.  34 THE PREVENTORIUM  Photographic memories from the 1930s of the Gordon  Campbell Valley Preventorium at the base of Knox Mountain, Kelowna. (Courtesy of the late Grace Angus Corbin,  who appears with the children in the top picture.)  35 THE PREVENTORIUM  In 1935, it was decided to move the Preventorium from its Knox  Mountain site to higher ground. The society then purchased the  southwest corner, Section 29, Township 28, Plan 1381, Lot 2-6.408  acres of what had been Bankhead Orchard Company property. Today (1998), the area would be off Pinecrest Lane via Lambert Avenue. Indeed, the steep hill on Mountain Avenue was always referred to as Preventorium Hill.  With much volunteer effort, a long L-shaped building was  raised, featuring screened windows and awnings, to take advantage of the fresh air and sunshine. A dormitory, furnished with  single cots, ran east and west—boys at one end, girls at the other.  There was also a swimming pool on the property.  Frank Jenaway still remembers his time at the Preventorium,  with two rest periods during the day and wonderful, nutritious  meals. A feature was goat's milk, brought from the Wilfred Ireland  family farm nearby. So successful was the rest and diet that Frank  gained pounds in ONE WEEK.  Through the years, the society executive changed. Names  associated with the organization included Stanley Mclvor Gore,  Finlay McWilliams and Doris Leathley. One of the very capable  cooks on staff was Mrs. Minnie Flintoft.  Pasteurization of milk became compulsory, and modern  methods of child care became general. The need for the Preventorium diminished. With the advent of World War Two, the land and  buildings were sold to L. E. Marshall in the early 1940s. A nursing  home operated in the buildings for several years. Latterly, it was a  residential duplex.  In 1955 the buildings were destroyed by fire, thus erasing the  last vestiges of an important facet of our history. Into the past went  the story of the Gordon Campbell Preventorium, a worthwhile venture that enjoyed the heartiest support from all over the Okanagan  Valley.  The author gratefully acknowledges the help of the late Grace  (Angus) Corbin, who shared her pictures and memories of the Preventorium, and Frank Jenaway, for his reminiscences. Thank you also to  Fred Marshall, Joy (Snowsell) Stone and all those who contributed material for this article.  36 ENDERBY LIONS—  THE FIRST 50 YEARS  The following story is taken from a speech by Peter Roberts to  the Armstrong/Enderby Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society on April 8, 1997.  My purpose tonight is to tell you about the Enderby Lions  and why I believe they embody the ideals of community  service, but first I'd like to give a bit of background on our  parent body.  About 50 years ago Lions International delegated a group of  men to organize affiliated clubs throughout North America. Vernon  was the first to be targeted in this area, in 1945, followed two years  later by Lumby, Armstrong and Enderby. The Armstrong club folded  shortly afterwards, but in the late 1980s was re-chartered. The original Lions club was started in 1917 in the United States by Melvin  Jones, but it didn't take too many years to spread abroad. Today,  there are a million and a half members in 182 countries.  Sponsored by the Vernon organization, Enderby Lions first  met in a room in the basement of the Enderby Hotel and received  their charter there on September 22, 1947. We then had a big social  evening up at the Drill Hall on November 3. It was quite a gala  event, and a lot of trouble was taken even to make up the program.  The entertainment that night included an acrobatic display by Tena  Skelly. That was when she was a mere tyke and we'd never ask her  to do it over again. There was also a vocal duet by Shirley  McAmmond and Marion Pritchard, a military tap dance by Hedley  Stevenson and, of course, dancing afterward to the Enderby  Swingsters.  The first president was Alvin Woods, and there were 28 charter members. The secretary was barber Johnny Pow and the treasurer was Pat Farmer.  Regular meetings were held in the Enderby Hotel until 1955.  Around that time they got a new cook in the kitchen and John  Pritchard decided that he was going to donate moose meat to the  Lions' menu. When it came out on the plate with the blood running that was the end of our meetings there. We next met at  Litzenbergers' Dew Drop Cafe and then had somewhere between  37 THE ENDERBY LIONS  25 and 30 years with the Anglican Church Women in the parish  hall. We were served excellent meals and it was a good place to  meet. For the last few years we've met at the Legion.  We soon found we needed funds and our first fund-raiser was  a raffle for a brand-new 1948 Dodge sedan, probably worth around  seventeen hundred dollars. Lawrence Finnan bought the winning  ticket, but I don't think he ever got behind the wheel.  One of our first projects was the Enderby Queen Contest,  introduced in 1948-49. At that time four or five girls were picked as  candidates and the winner was determined by the sale of tickets.  Mary Field of Vernon was the first to wear the crown.  In 1950 Enderby Lions Club embarked on its biggest project—  the building of the swimming pool in Barnes Park. We had decided  that swimming in the Shuswap River was too dangerous for kids,  and besides half of them couldn't swim that well. So we undertook  to build a pool. It was a big job in those days; all the work was done  by hand. Harry Danforth started the hole with his small bulldozer  and the rest was dug with horses and a Fresno slip scraper.  The concrete was batched on site, with a mixer at each corner, and placed in the forms by wheelbarrow. The official opening  took place in 1953 and we continued to operate the pool until 1965,  when it was taken over by the City of Enderby.  One of the main tasks associated with running the pool was  the annual filter maintenance. Each year the filter tanks at the  north end of the change rooms had to have their sand replaced.  Barnes Park swimming pool was built between 1950 and 1953, mostly by hand-labour.  38 THE ENDERBY LIONS  The only source of desirable material was Sandy Point Resort, west  of Salmon Arm on an Indian reserve. We borrowed a dump truck  and a bunch of us went with shovels and loaded the truck by hand.  All that sand had to be shovelled through a hole in the end of the  filter enclosure. In 1972 the city carried out major reconstruction  work on the  # HEALTH CENTRE  Community Health Centre, spearheaded by the Enderby Lions, opened  in 1955.  pool, which  included a  new liner and  new filters.  The Lions  Club donated  $5,000 toward  the cost, plus  $2,000 later.  When  the need arose  for a health  centre in  Enderby, the  Lions Club got  busy, and with  the help of government grants got the job done. Eric Olson, then a  Mara resident, was head carpenter on the project. That health unit  lasted until they built the Red Basket and the current centre was  opened on Cliff Street. Also at that time we joined forces with another club to help furnish a ward at the hospital.  Most of the money for all these things was raised at sports  days: logging competitions, log-rolling and various similar activities. Who can forget Dick Blackburn with the foghorn? Audrey Baird  and Harry Danforth did most of the organizing for these shows, but  they kind of came to an end when Casmir Felix and Adrian Alexander got too old to roll logs. It finally came to the point where we  had to pay people to come and do it and it got so we couldn't afford  it. I don't remember what year it was, but one celebration featured  a boxing contest. Ken and Mel Dale, George Reiter and Billy Edwards  made up the card.  One of the staunch supporters of Enderby Lions Club was  Mrs. Towers. She and John Pritchard didn't always see eye-to-eye,  but she remained one of our best helpers. One of her contributions  was a majorette drill team trained by Pat Scott. They took part in  parades all over and were popular Enderby ambassadors.  39 THE ENDERBY LIONS  Another big project came along in 1956—a community ambulance service. The first vehicle was a 1952 Chevrolet van, purchased by John Pritchard at the Coast. He fitted it out with a  stretcher and various on-board equipment. It was a little bit on the  small side and once we had to go to Mable Lake to pick up a gentleman who was about seven feet tall—one of the Fleurys. We had to  do a bit of folding to get him in there. The going fee then for a ride  to the hospital was $1.  In 1966 we bought a new ambulance. It was all volunteer  work; remuneration was still years away. Lots of times we'd get  called out to a car accident at one or two in the morning; you'd take  the injured to the [Enderby] hospital and would often have to transfer them to Vernon or Kelowna. You didn't get back home until  seven or eight o'clock in the morning, so it interfered with work.  In 1973 the government took over the operation and purchased the  ambulance two years later. That was the end of it for us.  The next noteworthy Lions project, that of marking street  names and instituting a house-numbering system, took shape in  1960 under the direction of Anglican minister Des Holt. Scores of  four-by-four signposts were purchased and painted white by members, leaving Pat Scott to add the street, some requiring names on  all four sides, a chore that took considerable time to complete. Next  came the job of digging them in. As for the house addresses, a lot of  preparation was required before we even started to put up the numbers.  Looking back, I think the 1950s and 1960s were the hard-  work days of Enderby Lions Club, but there was a lot of fun, too.  It's a little different now; you don't get the volunteer labour that  we had in those days.  I am reluctant to single any one member out, but there are  two men who really helped keep us together in years when the  club could have gone down, as the membership list dipped as low  as 12 names. The first Lion I'll mention is charter member Harry  Danforth. His theory was: if a two-by-four was big enough, he'd  spike another to it to make it that much stronger. A testimony to  his work was the entryway to Barnes Park, erected sometime around  1956, and these timbers were still good when they took it down last  year. The little sawmill across the way made lumber out of them.  About 30 years ago the whole Danforth family came to Enderby to  witness the dedication of a plaque in honour of Harry's contribution.  The other dominant member was John Pritchard, who served  as president for a record eight terms. Although he had his own way  of doing things, he was the right man to keep the club rolling. I  40 THE ENDERBY LIONS  don't know how many members he brought into the Lions, but a  lot of us are still there. It was under his leadership that we won the  Lions International District 19 Inspiration Award, which was conferred mainly for the work done on the swimming pool and on the  health centre.  There are not too many old-timers, or anybody else in Enderby  for that matter, who have not been to one of our Pancake Breakfasts. After Enderby fire department staged the first one in the centennial year of 1967, we have held them ever since, joined 20 years  or so ago by the annual Mother's Day pancake breakfast.  Enderby Lions Club teamed with the Armstrong Kinsmen in  the 1960s to raise funds for Kindale School, participating in  walkathons, and finding other ways to make the school a reality.  Among the big boosters and backers of the Lions Club was  Baird Brothers. I once went out to Bairds to get a used part for a  component of the merry-go-round we were making for Barnes Park.  We thought we  could build the  rest of it ourselves, but Ossie  Baird said, "Well,  what    do   you  want a truck hub  for?" After I explained what we  were going to do,  he replied,  "Don't get in too  big a rush, I'm  going down to  the Coast in a  few days. There's  a guy who owes  me some money  and I think I can  get a merry-go-  round." About  two weeks later I  got a phone call  from Ossie to  come out to the  shop and pick up  the merry-go-  round.  John Pritchard (left) served eight terms as president of the Enderby  Lions. For this and other meritorious contributions he received a life  membership in 1983 from Lions International representative Bill  MacKenzie of Vernon.  41 THE ENDERBY LIONS  Lions onparadejuly 1,1997, topublicize their 50th anniversary. John Harrison and John Brennan  (driver) are in the front seat, accompanied by past-president Bob Egley (right) and Willem Roell.  Fund raising is harder now. When I joined the club if you  made one or two hundred dollars for a project it was pretty good  money. Now, of course, you need two thousand dollars to do the  same thing.  In later years we turned to cutting cordwood to make money  and also, at John Pritchard's instigation, we grew potatoes. Together  with Armstrong Lions Club and the Hunters Range Snowmobile  Association we have raised $120,000 over the last 20 years with  SnowArama. Those funds went to the Easter Seal Campaign and to  Timmy's Telethon, but also some of the money is kept here.  We've had some comical times, too. In the early 60s bank  manager T. K. Smith decided we should take a pig along on our  inter-club visitation to Kelowna. So we bought a 10-week-old piglet  weighing around 20 pounds. Naturally, the pig didn't take too kindly  to riding in a car—I won't say what the car was like by the time we  got to Kelowna. We had the pig in a pen with carrying handles and  when we marched up the front steps of the Royal Anne Hotel, the  doorman said, "You're not coming in here with that." We argued  with him for a while and then we drove around to the back alley  and came in through the basement. We got the pig into the ban-  42 THE ENDERBY LIONS  quet room and turned it loose. There was a guest speaker from one  of the airlines on the podium that night talking about Kelowna's  new airport, but the pig got the better of him.  Enderby Lions Club, like all other members of the family,  contributes not only to local causes, but to Lions International charities. One such Lions aid organization helps to provide sewers and  water systems to developing countries, while another aids disaster  victims, such as those affected by the Edmonton tornado.  I would like to say that all this work that we do depends solely  on the generosity of the community. I think that the people of  Enderby have always been good backers, but like I said, it's getting  harder and harder to raise money, and we have to come up with  new ideas all the time.  POSTSCRIPT-1 joined in 1955. On September 20, 1997, we  held our 50-year celebration at the arena. There were 130 local and  visiting Lions and guests present. Also, to mark our anniversary,  we planted a commemorative tree in Belvedere Park and buried a  concrete capsule with Lions newspaper clippings, pictures and  memorabilia, to be opened in 2022.  Pancake breakfasts have been an Enderby Canada Day tradition since 1967. Enderby Lions Club  has staged the event for 30 years, including this gathering on July 1, 1997 at the Enderby arena.  43 Just or Unjust?  THE 1895 DISMISSAL OF  SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  Yvonne Sturhahn  Slighted pride, corporal punishment, a poisoned well: this article investigates the circumstances leading to the dismissal of  Salmon Arm principal Joseph Irwin in 1895. The author believes Irwin's dismissal was unjust and that political clout overruled the democratic wishes of the electoral majority. An examination of-the Annual Public School Reports in the 1894-96 Sessional  Papers, archival records of correspondence to and from the Minister of Education, and the Kamloops Inland Sentinel accounts of the  time exposes the true picture of who made the final ruling in this  case and why. Further examination of the Public School Acts of  1872 and 1892 verifies the injustice of Irwin's dismissal and reveals  that the elected trustees were forced to give Irwin 30 days' notice  of dismissal under threats of school closure by the Superintendent  of Education.  In August 1890 the small, rural community of Salmon Arm  built its first log schoolhouse. Joseph Irwin, his wife and their four  children arrived in Salmon Arm in the fall of 1893, at which time  Irwin took on the principalship of the school. Because Irwin had a  First Class teaching certificate, the community correspondent made  prideful mention of him in the Inland Sentinel in February 1894.  "We have a school house situated two miles from the station, provided with an excellent Teacher in the person of J. Irwin." It was  understandable that Salmon Arm, with a population of only 200,  Yvonne Sturhahn teaches Grade 6 and 7 students at Crofton Elementary in  Cowichan School District, having previously gained classroom experience in Africa and Mexico. She is interested in natural history and has been involved in  historical preservation activities on the Island. As part of her research activity in  a History of Education course at Malaspina University College, Ms. Sturhahn came  across the Irwin controversy, prompting her to write this article for presentation  at MUC's 1995 BC History Day.  44 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  would consider it prestigious to retain someone of Irwin's qualifications, since only 26 out of the 305 teachers in all of British Columbia who made application for certification in 1894 received a  first-class standing.  Three prominent citizens, Algernon Judson Palmer, farmer  and justice of the peace, Thomas Shaw, storeowner, and J. Stace  Smith, farmer, were the school trustees who hired Irwin in 1893.  Pupil enrolment was 31 and a harmonious, supportive relationship  existed between Irwin and the school board until the night of the  annual election of trustees one year later on June 30, 1894. Irwin  had canvassed for another citizen, Samuel Rumball, to join the  nomination slate for trustee. When he heard opposition voiced at  the meeting, Shaw withdrew his name as a candidate, and as soon  as the results of the voting were known Palmer (Shaw's son-in-law)  resigned. By the conclusion of the meeting, Salmon Arm had three  new school trustees: Messrs. Rumball, Davis and Miller.  This event initiated a series of threats and illegal activities in  the community directed against Irwin and the new trustees. Irwin  wrote Superintendent S. D. Pope one week later:  I beg to call your attention to certain matters that are being  agitated here just now, by one or two of the residents, they having  for their object my expulsion from this School District. These parties were very forward in expressing their appreciation of my work  in the school on Friday last.  They stated the same thing on Saturday before the election for  trustees commenced ... I was surprised to have Mr. T. Shaw call  our place yesterday and notify me that unless I resigned and get  out of here they would try to influence the Government to cancel  my certificate.  The new trustees also wrote Pope the same day including in  their letter the signatures of 40 citizens, representing 75 percent of  the adult population, who supported Irwin:  We . . . have heard with regret that certain parties who were  friendly with our teacher until the day of the school trustee election are now boasting that unless he leaves the district they will  influence the Educational Department to have his certificate broken. We beg to state that we know of nothing Mr. Irwin has done to  disgrace himself, his family, or the school children over whom he  presides, and we believe he has worked for the interests of the  children since coming here.  45 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL OSEPH IRWIN  Three days later Superintendent Pope made his reply to Irwin:  "Of course, the matter of dismissal of teacher is one to be dealt  with by the Board of Trustees." This statement acknowledged that  the elected trustees had the authority to make the decision regarding a teacher's dismissal. Six months later, in January 1895, the  signatures of the former trustees, Shaw, Palmer and Smith, were  among five names on a petition sent to Superintendent Pope requesting that Irwin be let go.  We, the undersigned parents of children attending the Salmon  Arm school, beg to request the removal of our teacher, Mr. Joseph  Irwin, by authority given to the Council of Public Instruction under section 50 of the Public School Act. We are dissatisfied with the  general condition of the school, and believe a change of teacher to  be necessary in the public interest. We consider our dissatisfaction  sufficient proof of the unsuitability and inefficiency of the teacher.  No justifiable reasons for dismissal were stated, other than  personal dissatisfaction with Irwin. The petitioners recognized that  lawful grounds for dismissal could include "inefficiency" as legislated in Section 50 of the Public School Act in 1891: "The Trustees .  . . select and appoint. . . properly qualified teachers . . . and may  remove and dismiss such teacher . . . upon giving at least thirty  days' notice to the teacher . . . and the reasons therefore. The Trustees shall, upon notification from the Council of Public Instruction  of the inefficiency or misconduct of the teacher... give such teacher  thirty days' notice of dismissal."  The Public School Act authorized trustees to make decisions  regarding the hiring or firing of teachers. However, in the latter  case, lawful dismissal of a teacher had to be substantiated with  evidence proving his or her inefficiency or misconduct. In this case,  Shaw, Palmer and Smith requested Pope to order the elected trustees to dismiss Irwin without justifiable cause. When Pope received  further correspondence informing him that the complainants had  barred their children from attending school, he responded, "Allow  me to say that Salmon Arm School District will be visited by an  official from this Department as soon as the weather and the roads  will permit." Consequently, Pope appointed William Burns, Inspector of Schools, to investigate the charges against Irwin.  Before Burns arrived in the spring of 1895, Irwin informed  Pope of illegal activities being instigated by Smith and one of his  cohorts named Harris. Irwin mentions that Smith propositioned  Shaw to give Irwin "a thrashing" for $10—something Shaw refused  to do; that Harris solicited transient Canadian Pacific Railway work-  46 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  ers to sign petitions against Irwin; and that Davis's dog was killed  and thrown into his well, which poisoned the water and caused a  young Davis daughter to become seriously ill for an extended period. Harris boasted that Davis would have to drink "dog soup" and  told intimate friends that he knew who put the animal in the well.  These activities were indicative of the serious discord in the community at the time of Inspector Burns's arrival.  On March 11, 1895, Joseph Irwin, the elected trustees, and  approximately 60 citizens crowded  into the  Salmon Arm  schoolhouse  for a meeting  with the inspector. Of the  four charges  read against  Irwin by  former trustee Shaw, one  was not discussed, because it was  unrelated to  matters affecting the conduct of the  school, and  two lacked  conclusive  evidence to  uphold their  validity. The  remaining  charge, that of  the misuse of  corporal pun-  i s h m e n t,  which  prompted the      Alice Ann Woodward of Nicola Valley on the day of her marriage in 1882  withdrawal Of      t0 JosePh Irwin. The groom was following in the footsteps of his brother,  Archibald, who had previously wed Alice's sister, Eleanor. For a time the  Irwins also led parallel lives in their teaching careers. (Photo courtesy  John Metcalf)  47 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  the dissidents' children from the school in December 1894, was  thoroughly investigated. Palmer's 14-year-old daughter, Mamie, testified that,  . . . she had said to another girl in school that the teacher  favoured his own daughter, Beattie. When the teacher heard of  this, he had called her up and given her five strokes with a stick  (about 18 inches long and the size of a pencil), three on one hand  and two on the other, that the stick was broken by the last stroke,  her thumb slightly cut and swollen, so that she could not use the  hand that day.  Further testimony by Messrs. Scadden and Harbell was heard.  Both said that "they saw the girl's hand on her return home that  same night, and noticed a severe mark, with the skin slightly  cracked, as if cut with a whip." The Public School Act of 1872 stated  under the heading Duties of the Teacher, "To practice such discipline in School as would be exercised by a judicious parent in the  family, avoiding corporal punishment, except when it shall appear  to him to be imperatively necessary."  Corporal punishment, although cautioned to be used sparingly, was an acceptable and allowable form of discipline in this  era. The adage "spare the rod and spoil the child" was both condoned and recommended by the Church. Superintendent Pope's  own comments regarding corporal punishment in the 1890 Sessional Papers read: . . . use this mode of punishment as a last resort,  and only after calm and mature deliberation. No punishment should  be inflicted on the hand or the head as in the former case it might  lead to the deformity of one of the most useful members of the  body ... a switch or suitable rod is certainly the most natural instrument to be used in administering corporal punishment."  The contentious issue was not that Irwin had used corporal  punishment, but that his opponents believed he had used it excessively. The comment by Mamie Palmer that Irwin favoured his  own daughter was made as a result of the teacher placing four students back a reading grade, while others, Beattie included, progressed a grade. Irwin's testimony "explained on what grounds promotions had been made, and that the others were deficient in their  work from frequent absence." He also testified that Mamie "did her  work the rest of the day as usual, that he had punished others equally  without harmful results, and that he had used no particular violence."  At the time of the incident the elected trustees concluded  their investigation of Mamie's punishment thus: "We the undersigned trustees of Salmon Arm school, having heard the charges  48 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  and evidence against Mr. J. Irwin, teacher, have decided unanimously that said teacher was justified in punishing Mamie Palmer,  and that the said teacher did not brutally punish Mamie Palmer.  We also agree that the teacher did not abuse his authority."  The trustees' decision was supported by the testimony of one  of the other students present in the classroom at the time of the  alleged offence. During Burns's fact-finding meeting a student by  the name of W Rumball testified, "the whipping was 'just middling.'"  In his report to the superintendent, Burns had this to say  about the corporal punishment issue: "The trouble arose by Mr.  Irwin's having put back four in the fifth reader to recommence it  with those just promoted, instead of pushing them on for an entrance examination. This caused the remarks which led to the whipping received by Mamie Palmer, as Mr. Irwin's girl was one of those  promoted; but the teacher asserts that the frequent absence of the  others rendered this a necessity."  Since Burns neither addressed the issue of the choice of punishment selected by Irwin, nor the manner in which it was administered, he inferred that Irwin did not act inappropriately. However, in his report, Burns clearly identified the true underlying cause  for the discord within the community—Shaw's wounded pride.  Burns to Pope:  The first trouble arose from Mr. Shaw being opposed, and Mr  Rumball taking his position on the Board. Mr. Irwin appears to  have canvassed in this matter. When Mr. Rumball was elected,  Mr Palmer (Mr. Shaw's son-in-law) resigned, and his place being  filled by Mr. Miller. Mr. Shaw, as an old resident, feels himself  slighted by this change.  Burns's report further acknowledged the elected trustees'  strong support of Irwin by stating that they had found no fault with  him as their teacher. He then admitted to Pope, "the subjects of  dispute are really aside from school matters altogether." These statements vindicated Irwin of any alleged "inefficiency or misconduct"  as charged earlier by the dissidents when they cited section 50 of  the school act as justifiable grounds for dismissal. Ironically, however, instead of upholding Irwin and the new board, Burns concluded his report by recommending Irwin's dismissal.  . . . there can be no harmony in school matters while the  present teacher is retained. The children of several families are  debarred from taking advantage of the school, and the only apparent  49 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  remedy is to change the teacher . . . It is therefore in the educational interests of this district that there be a change of teacher,  especially as there is a large number of children who will not attend the school while under his charge.  By withdrawing their children from school and undermining  community harmony, the ex-trustees had created a sufficiently  serious dilemma that Inspector Burns saw sacrificing Irwin as the  only way the conflict could be resolved, despite the fact that Irwin  had not committed any professional infraction according to the  Public School Act. Before Burns submitted his report to his superior, the elected board asserted their authority by sending Pope a  directive on March 15, 1895, proclaiming unanimous support of  Irwin, backed by the signatures of 43 members of the community.  We, your humble petitioners and ratepayers of Salmon Arm,  pray that, acting in an official capacity, you will find it a duty to  sustain the decision of our School Trustees in the charges made  against our present teacher, and that he may be allowed to continue as teacher, having given entire satisfaction, and brought the  school to a standard never attained before.  Two months later, on May 11, 1895, Palmer wrote Superintendent Pope, stating,  There are ten children . . . that cannot possibly attend school  while he [Irwin] is here and have been absent for five months  now, and I believe the Trustees make the boast they will be compelled to attend as soon as the six months are up (by law), so if the  Department will take no action in the matter, will you kindly advise me of the fact as we will be obliged to hire a private teacher, a  thing we are ill able to do."  Since the pupils had been removed from school in December  1894, Palmer informed Pope that the six-month legal absentee period was ending, at which time they would be forced to undertake  the expense of retaining a private teacher, or be subjected to penalties. Palmer also appeared to slander Irwin when he wrote,  Regarding the trouble in the school. . . caused by the actions  of Mr. Irwin, the present teacher ... I take the liberty of writing  you, and asking that some action be taken whereby Mr. Irwin be  50 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  enabled to take another field of labour as it is a continual source of  trouble in the neighbourhood and greatly to the disadvantage of  the children to have him retained as teacher here.  The residents of Salmon Arm waited anxiously for Superintendent Pope's decision. Surprisingly, in a letter to the Minister of  Education, James Baker, on June 10, 1895, Pope recommended  Irwin's dismissal based on reports of great dissatisfaction regarding  the management of the Salmon Arm school; Inspector Burns's report and recommendations; several letters received from parents;  the fact that children were prohibited from attending school as long  as Irwin was teacher; and Pope's recommendation to give Irwin 30  days' notice of dismissal.  The superintendent's letter to Baker sealed Irwin's fate. Pope  distorted the situation in Salmon Arm by putting Irwin in a completely negative position. The strongly-supported petition in favour  of Irwin was not highlighted; the express intention of the new board  to retain Irwin was also omitted; and the basis of all the trouble,  Shaw's slighted pride, was not mentioned.  The day following Pope wrote Irwin, "From the report of the  Inspector as well as from information received from other sources,  it is deemed to be in the interests of the school in your district that  there be a change of teacher made at the end of the present school  year. Acting under instructions, I have written to the Secretary of  the Board of Trustees to give you 30 days' notice of dismissal."  Superintendent Pope's only mention of the reasons for dismissal to both Irwin and the trustees was that the action was deemed  to be in the best interests of the school district. But were the best  interests of the school truly served by unjustly firing a man many  believed was an efficient, highly-qualified, popular teacher? In a  boldly-defiant clash with the superintendent, the sitting trustees  immediately informed Pope that they had no intention of dismissing Irwin: "We beg to state that we are perfectly satisfied with Mr. J.  Irwin as teacher . . . You have papers in your possession which  show that a large majority of the ratepayers are also well satisfied  with him. This being the case, we have no intention of giving him  30 days' notice."  However, Pope stood by his decision and challenged the board  to uphold their obligation to perform their subordinate duties according to the school legislation. "Permit me to point out that the  duties of Trustees are prescribed by the School Act, and they are  required to perform their duties in conformity with its demands,"  the superintendent emphasized, referring to the school act of 1872.  51 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  It was also noted that the act "shall release the School Trustees of  the District in which such Teacher may be employed from any  obligation to continue to employ him."  In a final attempt to secure justice, the Salmon Arm trustees  bypassed Superintendent Pope and wrote directly to the Minister  of Education, reaffirming their unanimous support of Irwin and  stating that "matters must have been badly misrepresented to the  Council." It was obviously both shocking and inconceivable that  the ministry had ordered them to dismiss Irwin since they, themselves, had found no fault with him throughout the entire proceedings. Indeed, the board believed that Pope had seriously misrepresented the facts in the case to the minister. As well, almost the  entire community of Salmon Arm was incredulous over the ministry's edict. The Kamloops Inland Sentinel reported, "The majority of  the residents of Salmon Arm and Canoe Creek deplore the action  of the Provincial Government in dismissing from their service as  teacher, Mr. Joseph Irwin. Mr. Irwin, during his residence in the  valley, has won for himself a large number of friends on account of  the manly and independent stand he has taken in local and provincial matters."  After receiving Pope's notice of dismissal, Irwin wrote an  impassioned appeal directly to the Minister of Education, which  expressed the hardship he and his family would suffer as a result of  the decision.  If I were a young man without a family I could get up and  leave the Province, but I have a family of five children, one of them  being an infant. I have taught in British Columbia since 1882.  During that time I have held a First Class Certificate, and I consider it unfair to be moved about at the whim of the Government,  when the Trustees, and at least 75% of the people, are anxious for  me to remain ... I beg to point out that the attendance has been  higher this year than ever before . . . Trusting you will reconsider  this matter according to the wishes of the large majority of the  people.  Irwin's appeal elicited this reply from Minister Baker:  "I. . . beg to inform you that the Council of Public Instruction  arrived at their decision . . . after due consideration of all the facts  bearing upon the case, and that they cannot reconsider their judgment in the matter."  52 SCHOOL PRINCIPAL JOSEPH IRWIN  Baker conveyed the impression that he had all the facts, but  if he did know everything about the case, how could he, as an appointed representative of the people, ignore the opinion of the  majority of the electorate? How could he order the dismissal of a  teacher with whom no fault could be found regarding "inefficiency  or misconduct." For Baker to order Irwin's dismissal, the case must  have been badly misrepresented to him by Pope, just as Irwin's  supporters suspected. This coincides with the distortion of the facts  provided by Pope to Baker when he recommended that Irwin be  discharged.  On July 10, 1895 Pope issued an autocratic ultimatum that  battered the defiant trustees "into reluctant submission." By threatening to close the school if the 30-day dismissal notice was ignored,  Pope left no alternative but to sacrifice Irwin for the sake of education in Salmon Arm.  The Inland Sentinel recorded the Irwin family's departure with  the following entry: "Mr. J. Irwin ... is moving his family to New  Denver, in the Kootenay District, he having taken a position as  bookkeeper with the Slocan Trading Co." From a prideful, joyous  welcome to a disgraceful departure 2 1/2 years later, such was the  Irwins' unfortunate plight in Salmon Arm.  In retrospect, the stand taken by the trustees appears to have  been strengthened by passages in the School Act of 1892 that stated,  "Of all the duties devolving upon trustees, by far the most important is the selection of teacher . . . frequent change of teachers is  injurious to the pupils . . . hence a competent and faithful teacher  should be retained as long as possible in the same school."  Unfortunately, when the elected trustees attempted to carry  out these important responsibilities to uphold Irwin, Superintendent Pope intervened. Whose interests were really served by those  actions? What kind of an example was being shown to the pupils-  bullies get their way? It can be argued that the superintendent  abused his authority by blatantly disregarding the democratic wishes  of the majority and by undermining the trustees' authority.  The injustice of Joseph Irwin's dismissal of 1895 was indicative of a turbulent period in British Columbia's history when government employees experienced a high degree of vulnerability and  instability, due to the lack of a central, supporting body such as the  British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Teachers 100 years ago were  often without recourse in the face of malicious accusations, slander, and the all-powerful opinions of appointed officials.  53 JOSEPH IRWIN - A POSTSCRIPT  Reg Humphries  Turbulent times and controversy in educational matters were  not unique to the period of the 1890s when Joseph Irwin  taught in Salmon Arm's first school. Controversy, whether  over amalgamation, curriculum changes, replacement of senior administration, or myriad other issues, has been a feature of the educational landscape in the Shuswap and beyond from the earliest  years up to the present.  Certainly, the dismissal of Joseph Irwin as teacher at the  Salmon Arm West school in 1895 was the earliest controversy in  the district. But a reading of additional research in the early years  of education in this province—including material published since  the Sturhahn article in this issue—indicates that Joseph Irwin was  no stranger to controversy, both before and after his arrival in  Salmon Arm. His older brother, Archibald, and Archibald's wife,  Eleanor, had been embroiled in a controversy at the Cache Creek  Provincial Boarding School almost 20 years earlier. There, criticism  of the sleeping arrangements for the boy and girl boarders and alleged forays into the sleeping quarters of the opposite sex by the  students led to a demand by the trustees of the school for the resignation of the Irwins. Despite the intervention of Robert Clemitson,  the deputy superintendent of schools, who accused the trustees of  acting from expediency without exercising "sufficient independence  of thought ... to discharge successfully the duties of their position," the resignation of Irwin and his wife became a fait accompli.  Later, in the last years of its existence, Joseph Irwin, who,  like his older brother, had earned his teaching certificate in Perth,  Ontario, was hired to teach and to oversee the boarding school from  September 1887 until it closed in September 1890. Joseph Irwin  followed in his brother's footsteps by marrying into the Woodward  family of the Lower Nicola district when he exchanged vows with  Eleanor's younger sister, Alice Ann. Besides being mother and wife,  Alice undertook the duties of matron at the school.  Edward L. Affleck, in his article "The Terrible Tempered  Joseph Irwin," published in 1996, chronicles the history of this controversial educator. Joseph, born in Ontario on Christmas Day 1856,  began teaching in British Columbia in August 1882 at a one-room  schoolhouse in Yale.  54 JOSEPH IRWIN - A POSTSCRIPT  Of Irish Protestant descent, Irwin seems to have inherited  a potent Irish temper. His experiences with the rough, tough kids  in Yale over a period of five years likely encouraged him to develop  a somewhat summary approach to meting out punishment.  After the Cache Creek school Irwin taught for a term on Lulu  Island before accepting a teaching post in the Lower Nicola, a position he held until he left for Salmon Arm in August 1893. Irwin  quickly became involved in the small community of Salmon Arm  as a "new-comer." He joined the Orange Lodge, the local baseball  team, and the temperance movement, but it was his interest and  interventions in local politics that led to the furor that will always  be associated with his name. He felt that there was a need to have  an alternative trustee to offset the influence of A. J. Palmer and  Thomas Shaw, who made up the majority of the three-man local  education board.  The aftermath of Irwin's decision to play politics and the  events that followed are recounted here by Yvonne Sturhahn.  Affleck cites a series of problems that arose following the  change of trustees that reflect badly on Irwin and his place in the  community.  Among complaints levied against Irwin were abusive language; fisticuffs with C. B. Harris, a parent; closing the school to  attend a shooting match.  Allegations of improper corporal punishment and favouritism in promoting children were also made against Irwin. In his  examination of the issues of the Salmon Arm dispute, William S.  Burns (later the first principal of Vancouver Normal School) found  Irwin "to be violent in his words and quite unconciliatory in his  manner."  After his termination at Salmon Arm West school in 1895,  Irwin was hired as a teacher in the new school district of Upper  Salmon Arm (Dolan's Corner) commencing in August 1895. Controversy followed him (including the "dead-dog-in-the-well" incident) and on March 31, 1896 he was ousted from his position. It  was at this stage that Irwin lost his First Class Teaching Certificate,  following a hearing, and one month later the family left Salmon  Arm for New Denver, where Irwin worked as a notary public.  While employed as a notary, Irwin lobbied to get his teaching  certificate reinstated, and when he was successful in this in 1899  he moved his family to Shorts Point at modern-day Fintry on the  55 JOSEPH IRWIN - A POSTSCRIPT  west side of Okanagan Lake. In succession Irwin taught at New  Denver, Pilot Bay on Kootenay Lake, Nelson and Ymir. At age 50 he  left teaching for ajob as a freight clerk at Nelson city wharf. At the  outbreak of WWI, Irwin returned to teaching in Erie, southwest of  Salmo, and then concluded his working career in Perry Siding in  the Slocan Valley. Joseph Irwin's life came to an end in Nelson in  1918.  One is left to wonder how much hard evidence exists to make  a judgment on Joseph Irwin's character or ability as a teacher.  Though his certificate was lifted, he did regain it several years later.  While it may appear that Joseph was less than ideal when it came  to certain criteria, was he a victim or the cause of his own downfall? The reader can only surmise, but after reading "Just or Unjust? The 1895 Dismissal of Salmon Arm Principal Joseph Irwin"  consider this opinion quoted by Edward Affleck following an interview with Mrs. Mabel (David) Fay, a student at Pilot Bay during  Joseph Irwin's "reign of terror."  The passing years had not impaired Mrs. Fay's memory of  the 'reign of terror' that ensued with Irwin's arrival. His paroxysms of fury, which prompted him to lash out with a heavy hand  and a fiery tongue, vitiated his teaching ability.  References—Affleck, Edward L., "The Terrible Tempered Joseph Irwin," BC Historical News,  Summer 1996. Norton, Wayne, "The Cache Creek Boarding School 1874-1890," ibid; Reflections: Thompson Valley Histories, Wayne Norton and Wilf Schmidt, editors. Plateau Press,  Kamloops, 1994.  BRITISH COLUMBIA  HERITAGE TRUST AWARD  Okanagan Historical Society is pleased to  acknowledge the awarding of a $2,000  grant by British Columbia Heritage Trust  to assist in placing signs at the Fairview  Kiosk near Oliver. These signs depict the  history of the old mining town of Fairview  and the surrounding area.  56 g     SALMON ARM  ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  1989-1998  Reg Humphries  The early years of education in Salmon Arm are examined in this article. A  particular focus is on the first 25 years in the history of Salmon Arm Elementary, which completed its first century of operation in the 1997-1998 school  year. Articles and excerpts from the Salmon Arm Observer, published for the  first time on October 10, 1907, serve to give a portrait of education, personalities and issues of the decade from 1907 to 1917.  The "Station School," Salmon Arm East, Salmon Arm Village,  Salmon Arm City, City Public School, Salmon Arm Central  School, "The Elementary," and Salmon Arm Elementary-  all names for one school that has been continuously providing education to the children of downtown Salmon Arm over the last century. Population growth, economic need, and a disastrous fire have  resulted in this school being in different locations in the downtown core, but it has remained a distinct entity throughout the period.  When staff, students, former students of Salmon Arm Elementary, and community members gathered in September, 1997 to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Consolidated High  School, the present home of "The Elementary," they also marked  the start of the hundredth year of public education in these parts.  Other schools in the Shuswap had opened at an earlier date, but no  other school in the Salmon Arm municipality has offered 100 continuous years of service to the community.  Reg Humphries, who came to Salmon Arm in 1969, spent 25 years in the teaching and administration fields, including the principalship of Salmon Arm Elementary from 1987 to 1991.  57 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  Public education in Salmon Arm began several years after  the completion of the CPR. The first settlers cleared land in the  Salmon River valley, which had been surveyed in 1887, and the  original farmer, A. J. Hedgman, was on the scene the following  year. In late August 1890, the first school in the Salmon Arm area  was established at Hedgman's Corner, west of the present town. In  its first year there were 10 pupils, increasing to 18 in 1892, 31 in  1893, and by 1894 there were 40 boys and girls enrolled, some coming from as far as five miles.  This school was known as Salmon Arm West and had its own  board of trustees. A. J. Palmer, Thomas Shaw and J. S. Smith were  the first citizens elected to oversee local education. In fact, each of  the early schools had its own trustees, a situation that existed until  municipal merger took place and a single school board came into  existence on April 12,1906. Teacher hiring and firing had also been  the responsibility of each board.  Early records show that a number of teachers were "terminated" and little in the way of explanation was forthcoming. However, as the Joseph Irwin incident recounted in a separate article  in this Report would indicate, local politics and personal grievances  played a large part in teacher employment practices.  In 1895 another school was opened at Dolan's Corner, six  miles up the valley. This facility was known as Upper Salmon Arm  or Dolan's Corner and was situated on property owned by John  Dolan. The building, essentially a cabin, had a sod roof with an  addition containing living quarters for the the teacher. The Public  Schools Report of 1895-96 indicates that this school was closed because of a teacher's "resignation," and did not reopen until 1902.  Next to appear in October 1897 was Canoe Creek School east  of town. This school was sited on the Cummings property on Harper  Road (20th Avenue NE). It, too, had a short existence, as it was  closed in March, 1898, "owing to the small attendance." It reopened  in 1902 and remained in operation until 1906, when it was replaced  by two schools—one at North Canoe and the other at South Canoe  Creek, to be known in 1916 as South Canoe. These schools, built by  the firm of Jackson and Parker, were constructed at a cost of $1,700  each.  The first school in what was to become downtown Salmon  Arm pupil catchment area opened in August, 1898. It began under  the tutelage of Miss S. Fenton in a building on the north side of  Front Street in the vicinity of the Saan store parking lot. Constructed  in 1894, it had been used as a store by a merchant named John  Bunyan.  58 --—     —■■ - •■ •  - - g» arr  ^'•;—  SALMOrJLXrOlJXL  IL>   Aitt SCHOOL  *  "  1 :.:.  ■•;.•'.■  /ohn A. Tolmie counted a one-year (1896-97) teaching position at Salmon Arm West in the beginning stages of his distinguished contribution to BC education. Tolmie succeeded Miss B. Dolan,  who took over from Joseph Irwin in 1895 and was herself dismissed on June 30, 1896.  In an education role, the Bunyan building was known as the  Station school. Located on CPR property, it faced the tracks on  ground that was lower than the present level. It was used for classes  over 1898-99, then sold and turned around on the same site, becoming the R. J. Glasgow store until 1908. It was then moved to  become a part of the West End service station on the opposite side  of Front Street.  During the years 1898 and 1899, the Station school was considered to be part of Salmon Arm West school district, with S. J.  Rumball as secretary and Joseph Harbell and Robert Turner as trustees. In September, 1900, the children and their teacher, Miss G. M.  Glover, moved to temporary accommodation in a small building  known as the "Chinese Shack" on the north side of the tracks. It  had been given this name for being the home of immigrant CPR  construction workers. Miss Glover continued to be the teacher  through the end of the 1900-01 school year. The trustees were A. B.  Currie, secretary, John D. Cameron and Robert Turner.  59 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  The 1901 Public Schools Report stated that a new building had  been erected in Salmon Arm East, on Shuswap Avenue adjacent to  the Anglican church property. At most, it was 200 metres north of  the present elementary school.  Following Miss Glover, later Mrs. H. H. Stevens, were L. T.  Spragge (1901), Miss E. S. McCully (1901-02), L. V Redmond (1902),  Miss E. M. Carson (October 1902-1905) and Miss M. A. Currie (1905-  06). Miss A. E. Gammon was hired for the 1906-07 school year and  continued as teacher of the First Division in 1907-08. An increasing number of children meant that an additional teacher was hired.  Ernest Doe in his Centennial History of Salmon Arm, states that "Miss  M. Smith conducted a class in the building next to the Canada Hotel [on Hudson Street] while Miss A. E. (Agnes) Gammon taught in  the regular school building." However, Doe also cites a footnote  from the Enderby Progress of September 6, 1907, "The trustees of  the school board have rented rooms above S. H. Lawrence's store  to accommodate the lower classes. Miss Murray of Armstrong has  been appointed assistant teacher."  A roll call of many of the pupils from that era can be found in  a report of the closing of schools for the 1907 summer recess in the  Observer's July 3, 1907 issue.  The public schools of the district closed on Tuesday morning for the summer holidays. The occasion was marked by fitting  exercises, speeches by parents and trustees, and the rendering of  songs, etc, by the scholars ... A concert was given by the scholars  of Miss Gammon's room, the programme of which was as follows:  Chorus by School, "Britannia"; Recitation, "Flo's Letter," Winnie  Hill; Song, Gertie Mackay and Eva Miller; Reading, "That Hired  Girl, "Ruth Wilcox; Recitation, Harry Maxwell; Chorus by the Boys;  Recitation, "The Alarm Clock,"AlidaMiller; Chorus, "Haste, Schoolmates, Haste," By the Girls; Recitation, Arthur Bolton; Chorus,  "The Sugar Maple"; Recitation, Mary Maki; Song, Ruth Wilcox  and Effie Scales; Chorus, "The Maple Leaf" "God Save the King."  At the close of the concert a very pleasing incident took  place. Miss Gammon being presented with a camera and an address. The presentation was made by Harry Maxwell, and the  address which was as follows, was read by Miss Effie Scales:  "Dear Miss Gammon — it is with sincere regret that we  learn that you are about to leave us. Throughout the year, your  faithful attention to your duties has been a constant example to  us, and if we have succeeded in our examinations, we feel we owe  60 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  it to your earnest efforts for our achievement. We cannot let you go  without some token of our love and respect, and would ask that  you accept this Camera, hoping the pleasure you derive in using it  may recall bright pictures of the pleasentest hours you have spent  with us in the old school at Salmon Arm."  On August 24, 1908, a new four-room school was opened on  the site of the present municipal hall on Harris Street (2nd Avenue  NE). Some controversy raged in the local paper over the fact that  though the school was completed in May, 1908, it was not occupied until the start of the new term. Murdoch MacKay, secretary of  the board of school trustees, replied in the Correspondence column of the Observer of May 28, 1908,  You state that want of seats is the reason for the delay in  opening the new school; but I might mention, for the benefit of all  concerned, that this is not so. If we had the seats here at the present  time we could not use them owing to the fact that the school has  not yet been turned over to the Board of Trustees; and until this  has been done we cannot very well occupy the building, much as  we would like to.  The Salmon Arm Observer described the new school in its  edition of May 22, 1908, as follows:  The new school is a one-storey frame building, lath and  plastered inside and is situated upon rising ground to the east of  town. The site is an admirable one, and from the porchways in  front a fine view of the lake is obtained . . . the building being of  the Mission style of architecture, ornamentation is not lavish, but  the design is pleasing and it is not wanted (sic). Dormer windows  relieve the roof, and add to the general appearance of the front.  The roof and base are painted maroon, the walls crown green,  and trimmed with cream. This combination presents a very striking effect, and gives the building a striking appearance.. the school  will be heated by stoves and has five chimneys . . . The local firm  of Jackson and Parker were the contractors, and the building reflects credit upon them. J. Day did the painting and A. Fulton the  plumbing. The contract price was $6,750.  An additional comment of interest, particularly since this  school was destroyed by fire less than 10 years later, is worth repeating.  61 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  There is one feature of the building that is open to adverse  criticism, and that is the heating arrangements. Instead of stoves,  a building of this size and design should most decidedly have a  furnace. The arguments in favor of the latter are too well known  and overwhelming to need recital here; and for the small additional cost, one would have thought that the comfort of the children and teachers would have been considered.  The increase in pupil population and size meant that a larger  staff was needed, and on opening day, August 24,1908, three teachers commenced instruction. The principal who had been selected,  instead accepted a position in Ladysmith shortly before classes  began, so A. H. F. Martin filled the position until the arrival of  Arthur File from Kamloops on September 19. File had taught at  Knob Hill in the late 1890s and had gone from there to Kamloops,  where he ran a business until accepting the Salmon Arm position  in September 1908. Subsequently, he worked at R. K. Scales's store,  the Farmers' Exchange and the S-A-F-E Ltd. In April 1914 he secured the position of clerk for the district municipality, a post he  held until his unexpected death in 1917.  The year 1908 saw Salmon Arm placed "on a level with older  communities in the matter of educational advantages," meaning it  now had a "graded school" consisting of senior, intermediate and  junior divisions, and possibly a high school department. A. H. F.  Martin, who was to become one of the longest-serving teachers in  the pioneer era, took charge of the intermediate room and Miss M.  Smith, the junior room.  Letters to the editor and editorial comments in the Observer  pointed to the need for a high school in the community. The Fraser  brothers, publishers and proprietors of the town newspaper, presented their case for higher learning in the "Observations" column  in May, 1907.  If there ever was an ideal location for a high school, it is  Salmon Arm, and, although we understand that there is the probability of such being established in the fall, no harm will be done  by presenting the arguments in its favor.  Throughout this Province educational needs have always  had foremost attention, and it is therefore only necessary to point  out that this portion of the Interior will soon need—if not immediately—high school facilities, than such requirement will be filled.  62 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  Former "Upper Salmon Arm" (Dolan's Corner) school as it appeared in 1901. Classes were first  held here in 1895-96. Addition on right was made to accommodate the Joseph Irwin family.  This state of things is due in main to the rapid increase in  the past of population, and there is every prospect of such conditions maintaining in the future.  Included in this district are seven schools—Salmon Arm,  West Salmon Arm, Dolan's Corners, Canoe Creek, Silver Creek,  Tappen, and Notch Hill—and Salmon Arm, with its up-to-date  and commodious school building, is the place for a high school,  which should be established to enable those pupils attending the  above-mentioned schools, who so desire, to continue their studies  after finishing the public school work.  We trust that the municipal school board and the Education Department at Victoria will keep the educational needs of this  district before them.  Six high school students were taught in the elementary classes.  In the following year, the fourth room in the new building was  used as a high school under the direction of Miss F. Moule. With  the completion of the new school, the old schoolhouse on Shuswap  Avenue became the city hall. Much later, in 1950, history repeated  itself when the city administration moved into the former elementary school on Harris Street. The present playground known as  Fletcher Park was the school yard in those early years.  63 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  The relationship between the press and education was one  of interest and involvement. After publishing the monthly teacher's report from West Salmon Arm School in May, 1908, the Observer editor asked all teachers in the district to submit regular reports for public scrutiny.  A poem entitled "The Boy Who Didn't Pass" from the Michigan Christian Advocate was reprinted on the Observer's leading page  in May, 1917—probably an incentive to last-minute scholarship  before final exams!  A sad-faced little fellow sits alone in deep disgrace,  There's a lump arising in his throat and tears stream down his  face:  He wandered from his playmates, for he doesn't want to hear  Their shouts of merry laughter since the world has lost its cheer,  He has sipped the cup of sorrow, he has drained the bitter glass,  And his heart is fairly breaking; he's the boy who didn't pass.  School closing in June, 1909, occasioned a front-page article  in which praise was bestowed upon A. H. F. Martin and the teachers and students. As the teacher in Division II, Martin was  to be congratulated on the splendid work of his scholars, and to  him does not belong all the credit for the splendid showing made.  Three different classes were up for reading exercises, and showed  careful training. But what most attracted the attention of the visitors was the exercise in addition and the recitations. To see little  boys and girls, some of them scarce twelve years of age, add up  figures almost as fast as their teacher could mark them down, was  a sight worth seeing.  The recitations were from the readers, and were given [to]  the classes to memorize, and as almost no time was devoted to  their learning in school hours, showed a willingness to study.  In Division III, Miss Smith, the teacher, examined the pupils in reading, writing and arithmetic, and the result was creditable to both the little tots and the teachers.  Arthur File continued as principal to the end of the 1910 school  year. Among the pupils receiving proficiency awards before the  summer break was Senia Laitinen, now Senia Howard, currently a  member of the Salmon Arm Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society. When Principal File left the employ of the school district,  64 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  A. H. F. Martin was named to succeed him and continued in that  role for most of the decade. Teachers on staff in 1911 included a  Miss Ellis from Oshawa, Miss Berry from Langley and Miss Moule,  the first high school teacher.  In March 1917 the death was reported of William Drone, 72,  who had served as caretaker of the public school after his retirement from the CPR in 1906. He would certainly be among the first  employees who undertook non-teaching roles in the schools of the  community.  As recounted earlier in this article, Arthur File died in January, 1917, and at the end of that month the public school was destroyed by fire. It was not a disaster in the sense that lives were lost  or that the school lacked insurance, rather that most of the records  from the early years were lost.  The fire struck the City school on the extremely cold morning of January 31, 1917, and despite the best efforts of the town fire  brigade, the structure burned to the ground.  :-'"i:,"i-::'0 O  CITY SCHOOL COMPLETELY  DEMOLISHED BY FIRE  No Injury to Life Sustained—Coolness of Teachers  Highly Commended—Loss Covered by Insurance  A disastrous fire broke out yesterday morning in the basement of the City Public School and spread so rapidly that,  despite the untiring efforts of the Fire Brigade, what was  once the Hall of Learning is now a mass of ruins.  The fire alarm was turned in shortly after 10 o'clock and  within a very short space of time the members of the  Brigade were upon the scene and had the hose playing  on the building in full force. In the meantime Principal  A. H. E Martin and the other members of the teaching  staff, with a coolness which is to be highly commended  on such an occasion, had all the scholars marched out of  the burning premises with the result that there was no  65 SALMON ARM ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  loss or injury to life. Many of the scholars, in fact, gathered up all their books and utensils and saved them from  the wreck but others, we understand, were not quite so  fortunate. Particular praise is due to the lady teachers  for the assistance they rendered during the conflagration and for the coolness which they exhibited. Such conduct on their part was an excellent lesson to the scholars  present which will not be easily forgotten by them.  The premises, which have been completely gutted,  are fully insured and the damage caused by the fire is  estimated at $6,500. We are informed that quite a lot of  books, etc., valued at several hundreds of dollars have  been burnt and that only part of the school records were  secured from the fire. (Salmon Arm Observer news story)  In the aftermath, classes took place in buildings all over town;  space was rented at $10 per month in the Baptist, Methodist and  Presbyterian churches, in the Finn Hall on Front Street and  Jacques's store. Temporary "long desks" were made for the students  by Alex Lester. The rents were raised to $15 in 1918, and the class  in the Methodist Hall was transferred to City Hall on Shuswap Avenue. Pupils there had a holiday whenever a prisoner was incarcerated in the attached police jail.  A Notice to Contractors requesting tenders "for the erection  and completion of a four-room school at Salmon Arm ..." by the  Public Works Engineer in Victoria was published in August, 1917.  However, the new school on Harris Street was not completed until  January, 1919. The delay in rebuilding was a result of higher construction costs than the provincial government was prepared to  pay. Eventually, H. J. Davies of Kamloops completed the school  for $13,650. When the class moved back from City Hall in September, 1919, the high school students were forced to move to new  quarters.  Just three years later, on September 22, 1922, the new Consolidated High School—the first major public building in Salmon  Arm—was completed. A significant increase in the number of students attending the public school meant that for some time children did some of their schooling in the new high school. A link  between the two buildings, the school on Harris Street and that on  Shuswap Avenue, serves as a physical connection in the 100 years  of education history in the District of Salmon Arm.  66 ':'"V;::>--0.  SUM1  aBWrWE    PP^P"  tW; " ■"  SUN-RYPE i  —ijjl^ H i sto ry of  Sun-Rype Products Ltd.  1946-1996  law E Greenwood  Commercial fruit growing in the interior of British Columbia  dates back to the turn of the century. Because of the soil,  the climate and the growers' expertise, top quality fruit is  produced. Dessert varieties have been planted over the years for  the fresh fruit market. Apples have been marketed domestically,  but also exported. In the early years, the major export market was  the United Kingdom, but since World War II many other markets  have been developed, including the Pacific Rim countries, Scandinavia, the Philippines and many more.  In order to provide the markets with only top quality, careful  grading is required to separate the poorer coloured fruit, the small  and the misshapen and those with insect or hail damage. The fruit,  however, is sound and suitable for juice. For dehydrated apples,  apple sauce and pie filling, larger defect-free apples are required,  but colour is not a factor as it is for the fresh market. Until the  formation of Sun-Rype—the grower-owned processing company—  in the mid-forties, disposal of the cull apples was a major problem.  Ian F. Greenwood received his schooling in Nelson and graduated with a bachelor of science in agriculture degree from UBC in 1949. He joined B.C. Fruit Processors Ltd. (later Sun-Rype Products Ltd.) in 1952 to develop new products for the  company. He spent the next 30 years with Sun-Rype as general manager. In 1969  he assumed the added responsibility of managing B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd., the fresh  fruit marketing arm of the industry.  67 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  In those days mountains of culls were  left to rot and many  tons were dumped  into Okanagan  Lake. Not only was  this dreadfully  wasteful, but it was  costly to the grower  and resulted in him  getting no income  from up to one third  of his crop.  Finally, in the  late thirties, several  small apple juice  operations commenced production. The Louis  Deighton plant, adjoining the co-operative fresh packing house in Oliver,  commenced in  1938. Similarly, the  Fruit Union in  Vernon, a co-op  packing house, began packing apple  juice on a trial basis  in 1937, and the  next year it shifted  the  operation  to  Sun-Rype trade show display from the late 1950s/early 1960s.  (Kelowna Museum)  Woodsdale. That year the Fruit Union processed 300 tons of  Mcintosh culls into apple juice under the OK brand.  In Kelowna in 1937, a group of entrepreneurs including W A.  C. Bennett, formed a company called Modern Foods Ltd. to produce mainly dehydrated apples and dried apple chips. This plant  was located on Ellis Street at the north end of the city adjoining the  S. M. Simpson lumber mill. A large controlled atmosphere cold  storage building is now located on the site of the original plant.  After only one year in operation, the Modern Food plant was  about to fold. Bill Vance, manager of the Kelowna Growers Exchange  co-operative packing house, was approached regarding purchase  68 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  of the plant. He agreed to buy it for $25,000, with $500 down, which  amount he covered with his own cheque. When he sought approval  from his board of directors, they were cool to the idea of entering  the processing business, but they finally agreed on the proviso that  Mr. Vance would manage the operation. R. P. (Tiny) Walrod joined  the company and became a leader in the fruit industry over the  next 20 years. By 1941, Modern Foods was producing about a dozen  products including 100,000 cases of clear apple juice, apple concentrate, cider vinegar, apple lime juice (using pure Monserrat lime  juice) and dehydrated apples.  The history of the brand name is interesting. In 1920, Mr.  Vance emigrated from the Prairies and established a small fresh  fruit packing plant at Poplar Grove, between Penticton and  Naramata. The apples were shipped under the SUNRIPE label.  Unfortunately the venture folded after one season's operation. Because he was superstitious after the first failure, it was decided to  use the brand name SUN-RYPE, and 56 years later it is recognized  in every household in Western Canada.  Sun-Rype's product line in the late 1950s. (Kelowna Museum)  69 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  About this time a privately-owned juice company, Okanagan  Fruit Juices Ltd., was founded. Principals included James Dole (who  used to fly from California to his fishing lodge on Pennask Lake),  Larry Kelly of Rowcliffe Canning Co. and O. St. Pat Aitkens of the  Okanagan Loan Co. A cloudy apple juice, utilizing a similar process and equipment used in the production of pineapple juice, was  packed initially at Rowcliffe Canning Co. under the KEL brand. In  1946 an up-to-date plant was built on Ethel Street—the site of the  present Sun-Rype operation.  By the mid-1940s there were four co-op juice operations, plus  the privately-owned Okanagan Fruit Juice Ltd. Together they were  handling about 50 percent of the Valley culls. With some 50 packing houses in the Okanagan and Kootenays, those growers who  were not benefitting by having their culls processed were obviously unhappy, as they were having to pay to have their culls  dumped.  The 1945 British Columbia Fruit Growers Association convention was a very important one for the future of apple processing in the interior. A motion was passed to form a new company to  be known as B.C. FRUIT PROCESSORS LTD. Its purpose was "to  utilize every pound of usable apples, and to distribute the net proceeds equitably to all growers on the basis of the quantities of fruit  delivered to all the packing houses."  This new grower-owned company was incorporated May 13,  1946 with its head office in Kelowna. Tiny Walrod was the first  general manager. In the late 1950s the company name was changed  to SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS LTD. to incorporate the brand name,  which was now becoming a consumer byword.  The company acquired the four grower-owned juice plants  and a cherry brining operation in Summerland for a total of  $275,000. (The Summerland plant burned down shortly afterwards).  The Okanagan Fruit Juice Co. encountered serious quality problems and the company was subsequently sold to B.C. Processors  for $150,000. Banking history was made when the company was  able to arrange a $3-million loan (at three percent) with very minimal assets for security.  The plants outside Kelowna produced vitaminized apple juice  in 20- and 48-ounce cans. The operation on Ellis Street—the former  Modern Foods plant—produced a number of products. Lines of apple  peeling and coring machines prepared the apple rings and chips  for the dehydrating tunnels, and then they were packaged. Larger  peeler apples were required for this operation compared to the culls  for fruit juice. Apple concentrate from pure juice was manufactured in the concentrator. A 20-ounce canning line packed clear  apple juice.  70 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  Apple-peeling contrivance, circa 1955. Fruit was supplied by flotation and each operator was  expected to operate two peeling heads. (Kelowna Museum)  There was also a cherry brining operation at the plant. Royal  Anne cherries were a variety with very little red colour. They were  dumped into large wooden tanks containing brining solution that  would bleach and preserve the fruit. After some months, the cherries and brine would be transferred to wooden (later steel) barrels  and shipped to companies that produced glace and maraschino cherries.  The technology and the production of all these numerous  products was made possible through the services of the Fruit and  Vegetable Processing Laboratory at the Dominion Research Station  at Summerland. The head of the laboratory was F. E. (Ted) Atkinson  and his technical director was Dr. C. C. Strachan. Together they  made a great team and should be credited for the healthy canning  industry in the interior in that era. At one time there were some 50  canneries in the province processing fruits and vegetables, including a number of tomato canning operations. Sadly, there is not one  cannery left in BC today; with most of the product coming from  the United States or from offshore. None of the companies had  budgets for research or development and it was the Processing Laboratory that supplied these services; they designed and improvised  machinery for the processing. One example was the sawdust-fired  cookers for the smaller canners to sterilize the canned tomatoes  71 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  and other products. (Sun-Rype fired its large boilers with sawdust  from the local sawmill until the late 1950s, when natural gas reached  the Valley and the company installed new boilers).  The Summerland team pioneered the clear apple juice process and also developed a cloudy or opalescent apple juice using the  Mcintosh variety. This was patented by Sun-Rype and marketed  under the red label. It was discontinued some years later due to a  shortage of Mcintosh culls and the need to blend those that were  available with Delicious for clear juice.  A line to pack the opalescent juice was installed at the Ellis  Street facility that was formerly occupied by Okanagan Fruit Juice  Ltd. Hence, there were three apple juices and these were sold in  the four western provinces through food brokers. In the early 50s,  the brokers were replaced by the establishment of a sales organization with representatives in the major centres across the West. J.  A. Riddell, a food broker, represented the company in Ontario.  By 1952 growers of apricots, peaches and prunes were urging  the company to expand the product line to include a portion of  their crop. Ian F. Greenwood was brought into the company to develop, produce and market new products. He eventually spent 30  years with the company, many as general manager.  By working closely with the Processing Laboratory, a family  of fruit pie fillings was developed and marketed, including apple,  apricot, peach, prune, sour cherry and loganberry. This required  researching and installing special equipment such as pitters, cookers, a lye peeler and a filling and packaging line.  Cherry pie filling is produced not from the sweet cherry, but  from the Montmorency sour cherry. Since none was grown commercially in the Valley, pails of frozen fruit were imported from  Oregon, Michigan and Spokane. A major grower in Spokane supplied the company with freshly-pitted cherries in bulk bins rushed  to our plant by truck. After several years, this grower planted a  number of acres outside Kelowna and he eventually moved here.  It was the beginning of an at-home sour cherry industry and also  the first time that tree shakers were used for harvesting this crop.  Other new products launched were an apple sauce using the  Wealthy and Duchess varieties, and an apricot nectar. These were  followed by two other popular nectars—applecot, a blend of apple  juice and apricot nectar, and orangecot, a blend of orange juice and  apricot nectar.  The company also packaged the three apple juices and the  two nectars in six-ounce cans for lunch buckets and for juice breaks.  A juice variety "handipak" with a small can opener was a first in  72 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  Canada and was a real hit. The can supplier later developed an  easy-open feature that eliminated the need of an opener. Millions  of these single-serve juices and nectars have been produced over  the years.  Around the mid-1950s, the research station successfully developed a sparkling cider with an alcohol content of eight percent.  In England, cider has been produced for decades, but from varieties high in tannin, whereas ours are all dessert types. Until this  time it was assumed that a suitable cider using our varieties could  not be developed. The Liquor Control Board had very rigid regulations regarding marketing a new product, but we were able to obtain permission to test market the cider in the Kelowna LCB store.  Each week the Processing Laboratory would ferment a vat  filled with apple juice and pack the result in 10-ounce cans. Since  they did not have a carbonater, they would drop a small piece of  dry ice into each can before sealing and this would produce the  gas. The cans would then be labelled, transported to the Kelowna  outlet and in an hour they would be sold out, and customers would  have to wait until the next week's batch! It was a crude form of  market research and as we were to find out to our dismay later, it  did not measure the curiosity factor.  That fall arrangements were made with Princeton Breweries  to ferment, carbonate, bottle, label and case the product, the apple  juice being trucked over from our Oliver plant. Much thought was  given to the container. We wanted the cider to be consumed more  frequently than champagne, and yet we did not want it to be treated  as beer. At that time the major breweries bottled their ale in an  attractive tapered green bottle and we ordered carloads of this glass.  We were so optimistic on the sales potential that almost every available warehouse from Princeton to Abbotsford was rented for storage. Two serious problems arose. Firstly, the major breweries discontinued the green bottle and switched to the tall tapered amber  container, then to the stubby amber. As a result, bottle collection  depots would not pay a refund on the empties. Secondly, we were  over-optimistic on sales, and, as a result, it took nearly five years to  move the inventory. Beer usually goes "skunky" in six months, so  we were extremely lucky that the quality of the cider did not deteriorate over that period. It was only towards the very end that some  of the cork liners inside the crowns turned black. We decided that  the alcohol field did not fit into our family of products and Growers  Wine in Victoria purchased the name and related assets. They are  still producing apple cider, along with pear cider and other beverages.  73 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  By the early 1960s, increasing sales necessitated faster processing lines and additional warehouse capacity. When this expansion  was completed, the company had the ability to store the equivalent of 300 carloads of canned product.  Most canned citrus juices are produced by reconstituting the  concentrate. When management approached the board of directors for permission to enter this market, the board was initially  against the concept. This is understandable now, as they were apple growers and treated other juices as competition. In time, we  were able to convince them that somebody was going to pack it in  our marketplace, and, providing it was profitable, it should be Sun-  Rype. Their approval came with the understanding that the juices  would be top quality—similar to the other Sun-Rype products. The  citrus juice operation proved successful and profitable, with carloads of drummed orange and grapefruit concentrates being imported from the United States and Mexico. Currently, the concentrate is transported from Florida in tanker trucks.  A contract was negotiated with the H. J. Heinz Company in  Leamington, Ontario to pack an infant apple juice under their label using our opalescent juice. This was a real feather in our cap  because it was the first time that Heinz had allowed its label to be  packed outside its Leamington operation. Quality control technicians were with us while their product was being packed and this  continued for some years until they switched to clear apple juice,  which they processed in their own plant.  In the mid-60s, the federal government named the Okanagan  Valley as one of the areas of Canada to qualify for Area Development grants and write-offs due to the high unemployment. (Initially we were referred to as a depressed area and this caused a lot  of anger with city councils and chambers of commerce). In 1968  our container supplier, American Can Company, purchased property to the north of our plant and built a manufacturing plant, with  an overhead conveyor to transport cans over the street and railway  tracks to Sun-Rype. Our can purchases were in the millions of dollars and prior to then all cans were produced in Vancouver, forked  by hand into rail cars and forked out at our plant. It was a win-win  situation for both concerns.  In order to have our apple juice in the dairy cases of the grocery stores, arrangements were made with Dairyland Foods in  Burnaby to pasteurize and to package the clear apple juice in Pure  Pac cardboard containers, and to distribute it on their milk deliveries and on their home delivery routes. The raw juice was tank-  trucked from the Oliver plant and packaged under the Sun-Rype  label and this arrangement continued for many years.  74 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  Gradually, there was a rationalizing of our production facilities, leading to closure of the old Modern Foods plant and those at  Woodsdale and Creston. In the 1980s, the final outside plant, Oliver,  was closed, leaving all production and shipping at the large Ethel  Street operation.  Even though the can company was manufacturing across the  street, the cost of the containers was increasing annually—as high  as 16 percent in one year. With the cost of the container being  higher than the value of the juice inside, in 1975 Sun-Rype actively  investigated alternate packaging being used elsewhere in the world.  The Tetra Brik container, developed and produced in Sweden, appeared to be a viable alternative to the tin can. It is formed with  seven layers of paper and foil, is preprinted and shipped in roll  form. At the user's plant, highly specialized machinery fashions  the container while at the same time filling the pre-pasteurized  and pre-chilled juice aseptically. At the outset there were only two  Tetra Brik machines in Canada, one outside Quebec City and the  other in Vancouver. Both were packaging long-keeping milk.  This was to be one of the biggest risks that the company had  taken up to that time. It was a radical change for Sun-Rype, which  had the major share of the juice market in Western Canada. The  company would be pioneering a new juice container in North  America and three factors concerned us: the quality of the juices,  the graphics on the container and opening it. Quality was the least  concern, as instantly pasteurizing and pre-chilling should result in  improved flavour retention, and indeed this is what occurred.  The company had built its reputation from the very beginning by having "clean" and attractive labels, and a great deal of  effort and expense were spent on image, as we believed it was a  powerful marketing feature. Samples of graphics on Tetra Brik containers from Europe were very poor and would not meet our high  standards. Fortunately for us, and for the container company, a  new process using rotogravure printing on a special clay-coated  paper was developed just as we were negotiating and the resultant  graphics met our requirements. The third concern was whether  consumers would discard their can openers after 30 years and switch  to scissors. At the time, plastic milk bags were being introduced to  BC and scissors were required to open them, so this helped in the  transition.  In 1979 the company made the decision to convert to one  litre and 250 millilitre Tetra Brik containers. This involved removal  of the can filling and capping lines and installing the whole new  packaging line. We led the way in North America and fortunately  our customers accepted the innovation. Since then, many compa-  75 THE HISTORY OF SUN-RYPE PRODUCTS  nies have changed to the 250 millilitre Tetra Brik. Whereas the initial rolls of containers were shipped from Sweden, a manufactory  was built in Ontario shortly afterwards to supply the Canadian  market. American Can subsequently left Kelowna after a profitable association with Sun-Rype.  In 1996 Sun-Rype celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. There  have been many changes. The enterprise is no longer a co-operative, but a public company listed on the Alberta and Toronto stock  exchanges, with the growers still holding 60 percent of the voting  shares. An expanded research and development department—the  lifeblood of any company—has done an outstanding job with half  of the current products having been produced in the last five years.  As one looks back over Sun-Rype's progression, its survival  and success can largely be attributed to three factors.  1. The vision and dedication of the charter directors. These  included Gordon Butler, Gordon DesBrisay and Walter Powell, all  of whom contributed a great deal in getting the company underway.  2. The first general manager, R. P. (Tiny) Walrod, who was a  visionary and who headed the company for more than 15 years  and built a strong team around him. The high standards that were  established, whether it was for product quality, graphics on all the  labels, the limited advertising the company could afford, the customer service or employee relations, were due to Tiny's insistence  on only the best.  3. The third major contributor was the Fruit and Vegetable  Processing Laboratory at Summerland. The team of Atkinson and  Strachan and their technicians greatly influenced the whole provincial canning industry. Sun-Rype was fortunate to have had this  resource at its doorstep, as we had no budget for research and development. With their pilot plant and a willingness to work with  our company and the other processors, they were able to innovate,  as none of us could afford the expensive equipment. The laboratory deserves credit for developing processes for the clear and opalescent apple juices, the pie fillings, the sparkling cider, cherry  brining and glace cherries, and for designing the vacuumizing equipment for apple segments used in pie filling, to mention a few contributions.  From very humble beginnings the company has grown and  expanded and it has been prepared to adapt to the ever-changing  marketplace. It is known and recognized in every household in  Western Canada for its product excellence and we are certain it has  a bright future.  76 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD  TO INCORPORATION  Robert Cowan  With a strong industrial base and a population that had doubled to 500 in 1904, it appeared that it was only a matter  of time before Enderby incorporated as a district municipality or a city. The reason was simple: a growing community required infrastructure such as roads, sidewalks, or a water system.  These capital improvements would benefit all property owners,  and it was commonly felt that everyone should share in their costs.  In 1904, the province collected property taxes for such things as  roads or schools, but there was no correlation between the amount  collected and the amount returned to the community.  The first public meeting to discuss incorporation was held in  the Town Hall on June 18, 1904. Previous to the meeting, H. M.  Walker, editor of the Edenograph, wrote that, "The meeting should  be attended by all who have the welfare of Enderby and the surrounding district at heart. No question is of greater importance.  The time is short in which to act, and whatever action is taken  must meet with ready response from all classes if the matter is to  be carried through this year and letters of incorporation are to be  issued on the 1st of January next. No dissenting voice is heard on  the straight question of incorporation. Everybody is in favour of it,  for it is recognized as a step in the right direction. But all are not of  the same mind as to the limits of incorporation. Some are inclined  to stop at District Municipality Incorporation. Others want to go a  step farther, and argue that Enderby should be incorporated as a  city." (Edenograph, June 15, 1904)  At the meeting, Frederic Billings, a lawyer from Vernon, was  invited to outline the advantages and disadvantages of a district  municipality. In his analysis, the central problem for Enderby becoming a district municipality was the Spallumcheen Band Reserve:  "The roads through this would have to be kept up by the township,  and yet no taxes could be levied by the township against the land."  (Ibid. June 22, 1904)  Robert Cowan, who edited Okanagan History for seven years, now devotes his  attention to recording Enderby's past and saving its heritage architecture.  77 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  _  i ■¥.: ': »i :::•''"• " :; *s::.T :::; :  •  George Bell, owner of the Enderby Trading Post and one of  the major movers behind incorporation, reported that the total tax  assessment for the town and district amounted to about $350,000,  of which about half came from the latter. The problem as he saw it  was that money raised through  taxation at present went to the  province and only a small fraction of it was returned to the  area in the way of improvements.  The owner of Harvey's  Mercantile, H.W Harvey, believed there wasn't enough tax  revenue to incorporate as a city  or a township. He made a motion not to incorporate, and it  was seconded by Fred Barnes,  a local carpenter and businessman. One has to wonder what  Henry Harvey, from The Vernon News  1912. (Enderby & District Museum)  rules the meeting was operating under when George Bell  made an amendment to the  motion that they do incorporate. The amendment was seconded by Web Wright, the proprietor of the Enderby Hotel.  With Messrs Harvey and  Barnes in the negative, the  amendment carried.  As there were property  owners from the rural area as  well as from the town, the next  motion—moved by J. Johnson  78  Fred Barnes, mayor of Enderby 1914, 1918-21.  (Enderby & District Museum) ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  and seconded by William Tomkinson—was to incorporate as a township. Mr. Bell made an amendment that they incorporate as a city.  Itwas seconded by F. V Moffet, manager of the Columbia Flouring  Mill. The amendment carried 22 to 9 on a vote of property owners.  Enderby was on the road to incorporation.  At that meeting a committee was struck to work on the details of incorporation. It consisted of Messrs Harvey, Bell, Moffet,  Hale and Bradley. The meeting then adjourned.  Editor Walker commented in print about this historic town  meeting: "If anything is to be regretted in connection with the  meeting, it is the fact that so few farmers were present. It is evident that they did not consider themselves interested in the matter and were willing to abide by the decision of the meeting. There  is much wisdom in their action ... It is not fair to burden the  farmer with the cost of improvements in a town nor is it fair to  compel a town to confine its improvements, in the way of public  utilities, to what the farmer thinks it should have. In the broader  sense the interest of each are identical but in a practical sense they  are not." (Ibid., June 22, 1904) A few years later, for precisely the  reasons outlined by Walker, Armstrong broke away from  Spallumcheen and became a separate municipality.  Within days of this meeting, the dissenters were organizing.  Their great fear was that with incorporation would come increased  taxes, which they opposed. Walker attacked the dissenters in his  newspaper: "It is doubtful that a more unprogressive feeling could  take hold of anyone than this fear of taxation. There is not any  reason to believe that it will be any higher than it is at the present  time. The town will have the fixing of its own rate." (Ibid., Aug. 3,  1904)  Meanwhile, Billings continued to collect signatures from property owners on a petition to incorporate as a city. He appeared to  have little difficulty with this task. Obviously, the dissenters were  outnumbered by ratepayers who shared the editor's sentiments.  The building boom continued in Enderby throughout the  summer and fall of 1904. "In addition to fourteen cottages and dwellings that are being built by the Kamloops Lumber Co., Wm.  Hutchison is getting lumber on the ground for a restaurant building adjoining the furniture store, and George R. Sharpe will start  work in a few days on a brick block on his property back of the Bell  block. He will fit it up as a modern butcher shop with ice house  and cold storage rooms." (Ibid., Sept. 28, 1904)  In the meantime, the Columbia Flouring Mills and the  Kamloops Lumber Company began to extend their power lines to  businesses that had been clamouring for services. "This week the  79 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  .:llli  LADIES  ADYTQ1EAR600DS,  CLDTHiSWStCAPS S,'Äû,  DRESS GOODS, 100TS&SH0ES 118  FANCY GOODS. iUI8EIS&SHflEPttlS. CF  CARPETSailHatlUMS. BAKP SUPPLIES Etc.   f-  .[ CINS&M1LLINERY,  Enderby Trading Co. in the Bell Block on Cliff Street, 1904. (Enderby & District Museum)  mill company will wire the Enderby Hotel and in a short time this  old-time house will step from the coal oil stage to that of electric  lights." (Ibid. Oct. 5, 1904)  On the corner of Maud and Cliff, the Bell Block neared completion with Chris Hanson in charge of the brickwork and Mr.  McDonald doing the interior finish work. The downstairs portion  housed the Enderby Trading Company and the Enderby Pharmacy.  Between these businesses a stairwell led to the upstairs offices of  the newspaper and Dr. R. I. Bently, while the remaining rooms  were used by the Loyal Orange Lodge. (Ibid. Oct. 12, 1904)  By early October, Frederic Billings, as legal adviser, had met  with the incorporation committee and presented it with the petition, together with plans and papers necessary to complete the  matter. It appeared that property owners were in favour of incorporation by a ratio of more than two to one. The committee awaited  word from the province on matters such as schools, drainage, and  revenue before submitting the formal application. It seemed' that  the matter was settled and Enderby would become a city by the  first of the year. (Ibid., Oct. 12, 1904)  The opposition to incorporation was not prepared to give up  easily. It revolved around Fred Barnes, Noah Kenny, Andy Paul,  Johnston and Walter Truesdale. They continued their campaign by  erecting a scarecrow and labelling it "taxation."  80 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  In 1904, the average property tax on a residence in Enderby  was $7 per year. The charge on a vacant lot was about half that  amount. The Kamloops Lumber Company paid $245.11 for its industrial site beside the river. (Enderby and Dist. Museum Archives,  City Hall Papers, 988-159-07). The total amount collected by the  province from Enderby was $1,283.63, which included licensing  fees as well as property taxes for 1904. (City Hall Papers, 988-154-  105)  A letter from an irate property owner in Enderby appeared  in the Armstrong Advertiser complaining about the editor of the  Enderby paper and noting that "... our respected editor is perfectly well aware of the fact that about one-half of the property  owners in Enderby are opposed to incorporation, but who believe  that under existing circumstances a rural municipality would best  meet our requirements. Among these, I might add, are those who  are more interested in the permanent welfare of our town than the  editor of the Edenograph, who does not possess one square inch of  real estate in or near Enderby, but who can, when taxation becomes too high, quietly pack his carpetbag and hit away to 'greener'  pastures." (Edenograph. November 2, 1904). Walker promptly labelled the author "a snake."  On October 31, 1904, the incorporation committee formally  announced their application for the creation of the City of Enderby.  They had secured the signatures of property owners representing  H. W. Harvey, general merchant, and Enderby post office, c. 1904. (Enderby & District Museum)  81 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  more than $60,000 in assessed value out of a possible $80,000. "Others representing $10,000 in property have expressed their readiness to sign the petition but are out of town, so the committee feel  the decision is as near unanimous as it is possible to get it." (Ibid.  Oct. 31, 1904)  The opposition wasn't through yet. By January, 1905, just  when it seemed Enderby would become a city, Walker lamented,  "The most unfortunate thing that could befall Enderby at this time  would be the success of the disgruntled few to block town incorporation . . . Every string that could be pulled they have secretly  tightened until it is learned from Victoria there is much uncertainty about the Enderby petition being granted." (Ibid. Jan. 11,  1905)  In mid-February, Walter Truesdale wrote a scathing letter to  the editor attacking Walker's numbers on the assessment available  in Enderby for taxing purposes. Walker had reported a tax base of  $280,000, but Truesdale had looked up the assessment for 1905 and  discovered it was merely $123,975. He accused Walker not only of  misleading the public on this issue, but also on school costs relating to a small municipality. He referred to the community of Slocan,  which was having difficulty covering its school costs, and had received a letter from the Superintendent of Education"... in which  he plainly advised the town to disincorporate, and then the government could look after its schools. He also hinted that other small  towns were undergoing similar troubles." (Ibid. Feb. 15, 1905) The  message was plain: Enderby lacked a tax base for providing the  municipal services including schools that would come with incorporation.  Even in the dead of winter, economic activity continued  unabated. Much to the relief of business people who had been clamouring for financial services, the Bank of Montreal announced it  would open a branch in the Enderby Hotel. Teamsters were bringing up the pilings for a new bridge across the Shuswap at Enderby.  Meanwhile, the CPR began to survey north of town for a possible  spur line to a coal mine in the Enderby Cliffs. (Ibid. Jan. 25, 1905)  On March 1, 1905, Enderby was officially proclaimed incorporated by the province. There was also a notice of an election call  to fill the newly-created positions on council.  It appeared that in a spirit of co-operation, an election would  not be necessary. In an agreement amongst the property owners,  George Bell would become mayor, while the aldermen would be  Messrs Lawes, Hancock, Evans, Bradley and Sharpe. Bradley even  withdrew to insure that Noah Kenny might become an alderman.  When nominations were officially opened, however, "Geo. R. Lawes  82 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  Enderby, looking east 1904. (C. W. Holliday photograph courtesy Enderby Museum)  was nominated for mayor, and he accepted. This broke the slate  agreed upon by all parties and nominations came thick and fast.  Geo. Bell for mayor, and Sharpe, Smith, Hancock, Evans, Bradley,  Hutchison and Harvey for aldermen." (Ibid. March 22, 1905)  An election was held and George Bell became the first mayor.  The aldermen included G.R. Sharpe, E.T. Smith, J.W Evans, R.P.  Bradley, and N.H. Kenny. At their first council meeting they selected Graham Rosoman, who had worked most recently at the  Columbia Flouring Mills as a bookkeeper, over H. Worthington and  W T. Broderick for the post of city clerk. After that decision, tax  collections and by-law creation took up the remainder of the meeting that lasted until 11 p.m.  The second council meeting was held in mid-April. At that  session they retained Basil Gardom as their policeman and established fees and licences: $500 every six months for establishments  selling intoxicating liquor; $50 every six months for every person  except a chemist or a druggist who sells opium; $25 every six months  for every hawker or pedlar; every private banker, $100 per year.  The list was endless as they tried to cover everything under the  sun including charging $5 per day for ". . . every person exhibiting  wax works, circus riding, rope walking, dancing, tumbling, or other  acrobatic or gymnastic performance, wild animals or hippodrome,  sparring boxing, etc., exhibited elsewhere than in a theatre or other  building duly licensed ..." (Ibid.. April 19, 1905)  83 ENDERBY'S ROCKY ROAD TO INCORPORATION  While the circus wasn't coming to town in the near future,  teamsters and drivers came every day. They resented the new  charge on their movements that included ". . . every drayman or  omnibus owner, $2.50 for each vehicle; every livery stable, $5; every  pack train, dray, etc., employed in transporting goods within a distance often miles of Enderby, $2.50 ..." (Ibid., April 19, 1905)  Such was the protest that one of Graham Rosoman's first tasks as  clerk was to write to other recently-incorporated communities to  find out how they dealt with fees on teamsters.  Council also enacted a pound by-law. They had already received complaints from the manager of the sawmill that horses  had been wandering through his yards breaking boards and causing a nuisance. Previously, it had been the responsibility of property owners to fence animals out; now, they had to fence animals  in. A poundkeeper was immediately employed. He enjoyed a fee  of 50 cents for every horse or cow impounded plus 50 cents per  day to feed them. He received half that amount for pigs and sheep.  "Any poundkeeper neglecting to provide animals in his charge with  food, water and shelter will be liable to a fine of $10 and dismissal  from office." (Edenograph, June 7, 1905)  The other, most immediate, task of the new council was to  purchase a permanent recreation ground. Originally, it appeared  that they might buy Web Wright's 20 acres for $200 an acre. It had  been the site of outdoor recreation for a number of years and came  with a grandstand, stables and fencing, which Wright estimated to  be worth about $4,000. At a total cost of about $8,000, Wright's proposal seemed a bit rich for a young city. Fred Barnes offered four  acres for $1,200, with $200 down and terms of $200 a year for five  years, plus six percent interest. This more modest proposal carried  the day. (Ibid. May 3, 1905)  By mid-June, council had passed a Sunday Rest by-law. No  one could work within the city limits on Sunday for money. Also,  no one was allowed to sell anything except drugs, milk or medicine  on that day. The maximum penalty for contravening this by-law  was a $50 fine or 30 days in jail. The new council took the Sabbath  seriously. (Ibid. June 14, 1905)  Thus, within their first three months of work, the new council had imposed fees, observed the Sabbath, and were prepared to  impound wayward animals. Still left to be dealt with were the big  questions of providing water, storm drains, and electricity to the  residents of this new city.  84 KELOWNA BRANCH MARKS  50TH ANNIVERSARY  Hume Powley  The 50th anniversary of the Society's Kelowna branch was  celebrated at our annual general meeting and dinner March  16, 1998, with 304 members attending, at the Immaculata  Conception Centre. The interior of the hall had been decorated  and pictures from the 40s era were on display, while parked outside near the main entrance were two 1948 automobiles. The guest  speaker was the always-entertaining Bill Barlee, who was ably introduced by Mike Roberts of CHBC Television.  Kelowna branch of the Okanagan Historical Society was  started when a group of 15 interested people from the city and  district met in the Royal Anne Hotel (later destroyed by fire) on  February 25, 1948. Named to the first executive were Frank  Buckland, president; J. B.  Knowles, vice-president; L. L.  Kerry, secretary. The four directors chosen were E. M.  Carruthers, H. C. S. Collett,  Dorothy Gellatly and W. R.  Powley. Other newly-constituted members present included Percy Dunn, David  Gellatly, Mrs. Charles  Henderson, Len Leathley, Mrs.  R. A. McKee, Georgina  Maisonville, F. T. Marriage,  Geoff Walburn and Don  Whitham.  From this small group  our branch has grown steadily  in membership and undertakings, all the while gathering  and writing the history of the  Central Okanagan. Today, we  have more than 300 members  and are involved in several  projects to enable the people  of the area to read and see our   Frank Auckland  85 KELOWNA BRANCH MARKS 50TH ANNIVERSARY  past history. Owing to the small membership in the early years,  the main aim of the branch was to get stories dealing with local  history and to submit them to the parent body for publishing in  future Reports.  As the membership grew and more interest was generated,  the branch started to take part in other historical ventures, such as  helping to restore the Father Pandosy Mission site. Until the mid-  1950s, the site was sadly neglected and rapidly reaching the point  where restoration would be almost impossible. H. C. S. Collett spearheaded the task, and with help from the Knights of Columbus, the  immediate restoration was completed by 1958. However, as we all  know, constant care and attention are necessary in any project of  this nature.  In the 1960s, a spurt in membership led to an increase in  branch activities. Annual meetings previously held in the afternoon were now held in the evening, with a dinner and guest speaker  added. This led to more members and interest, and the trend continued into the 1980s. A lecture series of five different speakers  was introduced in the months of September-October, dealing primarily with local and Okanagan history. These proved very popular and are still being held with good turnouts. Recently, the lectures have been held in the library room of the KLO Senior Secondary School.  Another well-received project was the day-long bus tour series—two in the spring and two in early fall. These soon became so  popular that tickets sold out almost immediately, even resulting in  a waiting list. These tours are done with the co-operation of the  Kelowna Centennial Museum.  The Buckland family turned over to the branch all unsold  copies of the book Ogopogo's Vigil, written by Frank Buckland, which  is an excellent account of the early days of Kelowna and district.  The branch was given the right to reprint if necessary. From the  sales a special account was set up and with the interest received,  the $500 Buckland Bursary was established to support a worthy  student who is planning to further their studies in history at a college or university.  In the late 1980s and early 1990s, other projects were undertaken. A biannual newsletter was made available to all members,  bringing them up-to-date on branch happenings and upcoming  events. When space is available, vintage photographs add to the  newsletter's appeal.  A project that has had its ups and downs was the undertaking  to reach an agreement with the Daily Courier to publish stories  collected and edited by a branch committee. However, many good  accounts have been shared with Courier readers.  86 KELOWNA BRANCH MARKS 50TH ANNIVERSARY  Perhaps one of our most time-consuming projects was a videotape presentation on the early days of Kelowna. The committee in  charge spent many hours and weeks collecting old pictures and  composing a running commentary to accompany the visual portion. After several months of collecting and checking facts, the firm  Multi Grafix handled the final taping. It was certainly not a Hollywood production, but we sold quite a few copies and people seemed  happy with our effort. We had planned to do a second video, but  after the experience of the first one, the project has been put on  hold.  Another project that created widespread interest was the  publication Kelowna Street Names—Their Origins, put together by a  branch committee in 1994. The first printing sold out and a second  edition was released to meet the demand.  We, like other branches up and down the Valley, would like  to see more young people join our ranks and take over from the  older members when they are no longer able to attend. It will be a  serious problem a few years down the road, as most of our members are in their senior years.  NOTE BY LORD STRATHCONA  Mr. Redmayne has put together clearly, concisely, and in a  practical manner the chief points of information required by those  who contemplate taking up Fruit Culture on the "Dry Belt" of British Columbia. His little book should be of considerable interest to  those who, attracted by the magnificent results achieved by this  industry, are thinking of investing British Capital therein, or of  becoming Fruit Farmers in the Far West.  The nature of this industry—small holdings often acres with  intensive culture—tends to promote "close settlement"; in other  words, it is conducive to the establishment of small Fruit-Farming  townships with all the social advantages attaching thereto; and, in  consequence, it is interesting to note that, as I am informed, a considerable number of young men from our English Public Schools  having, as they regard it, no prospects on this side beyond the office desk without expectations, on leaving school, are being set up,  after some training, as Fruit Farmers on the "Dry Belt" of British  Columbia.  (signed) STRATHCONA  From Fruit Farming on the "Dry Belt" of British Columbia, published by the Times  Book Club, London, 1912.  87 SEYMOUR ARM SCHOOL  FACES LONG RECESS  June Griswold  The first Seymour Arm school opened in 1911 and education  on this remote shore of Shuswap Lake has seen many  changes since, involving location, openings and closures.  Okanagan History No. 54 has an article by Alice Hucul on the rebirth of the school in 1989. This short article deals with the school's  most-recent demise.  On June 14,1997, four of the teachers, several teachers' aides,  many of the students, one of the custodians, along with the district  superintendent, a director of instruction, and some of the board  members of School District 83 met at Seymour Arm for a reunion  and a farewell to the community's school.  The teachers attending the affair were Julia Armstrong, Dave  Saunders, Jeff Abbott and Jae Susoeff.  In September 1986, Julia Armstrong, as a Section 19 teacher,  helped the children of the area with their correspondence courses  and provided students with music, acting, art, gym, games and  Historic Seymour Arm is once again without its own school. Students, teachers and support staff  held a reunion in 1997 to mark the closing. Standing, left to right: Dave Saunders, Jae Suseoff  Dustin Cichon, David Axley, Devon Cichon, Jonathan Morrison, Erin Bates, Kate Erlam, Alexis  Carter, Anna Novosel, Willow Amann, Ulya (Mike) Novosel, Jennifer Kabele, Jason Rivette, Tristan  Bradley, Oggie Bates, Shanna Reid, Tamzyn Bradley, Marcus Schrott, Julia Armstrong, Pat  Morrison. Sitting: Holly McKenzie, Sue Kyle, Natalie Abbott, Jeff Abbott, Lindsay Abbott, Casey  McBryan, Nick Kabele, Kristina Rivette, Jessie Loney, Derek Rivette, Meghan Amann, Tiffany  Rivette, Rebecca Morrison.  June Griswold lives in the Springbend area. Her interest in the Seymour Arm  school can be linked to her daughter, Julia Armstrong.  88 SEYMOUR SCHOOL FACES LONG RECESS  sports. Her efforts helped to establish a full-time school in 1989.  Previous to Ms. Armstrong, Lee (Hanson) Gillespie, also a Section  19 teacher, assisted the children with correspondence lessons from  January to June 1986.  The teachers and the years they instructed are: Dave Saunders  and Anita Fletcher, 1989-90; Jeff Abbott, 1990-91; Denise Klinge,  1991-92; Margaret Coates, 1992-94; Jae Susoeff, 1994-97.  Sue Kyle, Holly McKenzie and Pat Morrison were teachers'  aides, Gloria Kabele was secretary, Alan Bates and John Gidinski  were custodians.  The decision to suspend classes came about as the projected  attendance for the 1997-98 year was too low. The few children now  living in the Seymour Arm area have returned to taking their schooling by correspondence.  On Becoming an Information Society  Okanagan Historical Society is moving into cyberspace. Two  current projects will take advantage of modern technology,  placing our organization at the disposal of interested persons worldwide. One project involves the comprehensive index of  our annual Reports, which we began to compile 12 years ago. Initially, the index was published in book form, first as a reference to  books 1 to 50, and then as a supplement covering books 51 to 55.  Since Report No. 55, the index has been kept up-to-date but not  published.  Two years ago we were invited to place our index on a website  on the internet. The site name is Living Landscapes - Thompson-  Okanagan: Past, Present and Future, and is a joint project of Okanagan  University College and the Royal British Columbia Museum. Living Landscapes is a research and publication education project that  is exploring and documenting the human and natural history of  the Thompson-Okanagan region. The index currently on this site  covers OHS Reports 1 to 61 and will be updated each year.  The address of the site is: http://royal.okanagan.bc.ca  The second project is the development of the Society's own  home page on the internet. Jessie Ann Gamble of the Armstrong/  Enderby Branch and Lionel Dallas (Oliver/Osoyoos) have assembled and produced a home page with the excellent technical assistance of Robyn Buyer, a student at Pleasant Valley Secondary School  in Armstrong. Our home page includes information about the Society and its activities throughout the Okanagan, Similkameen and  Shuswap valleys.  The address of the OHS website is:  http: / /www. domain-fx. com/ ohs/  89 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  David Gregory  'ñ†  Father Giovanni Nobili was the founder of the Jesuits' New  Caledonia Mission (1845-1848). As part of that mission he  established the first station, which he named the Rezidenza  di San Guiseppi (St. Joseph's Station). St. Joseph's was the first non-  Native settlement in the Okanagan Valley. The establishment of  New Caledonia Mission and St. Joseph's Station, therefore, are important events in the written history of this locality.  The study of the life of Father Nobili is difficult, affectionately described by John McGloin in 1953 as the "field of Nobiliana."  Most of the information on Nobili is derived from Jesuit letters.  The handwritten copies of his letters are in Latin, Italian and French,  and are arduous to read.  Although no paintings or photographs of Father Nobili exist,  two contrasting descriptions of him appear in the literature. The  Oblate priest Father A. G. Morice, in his 1904 text The History of the  Northern Interior of British Columbia, described Nobili as very modest in stature, with a timid disposition. According to Morice, the  natives called him "Petit Pere," adding the comment that he demonstrated "extreme uneasiness on the waters of their large lakes  where on he hardly ventured being girdled with an appliance intended to keep him afloat in case of accident."  According to Father Morice, Nobili was not effective as a priest,  particularly during his time at Fort Stuart [Fort St. James] and Fort  Kilmars [Kilmaurs] with the Carriers and the Babines. One additional description of Father Nobili's appearance exists: A Mrs. Poso,  a member of St. Joseph's Church in San Jose, California, described  Nobili as "tall and thin and curly haired."  From Jesuit records and those persons involved with the fur  trade, we learn that Nobili worked well with the natives, and with  the fur traders. His own native baptismal records bear this out, and  as to his relationship with the traders, a letter from John Tod to  George Simpson dated March 20, 1846 stated, "Unlike Mr. Demers,  he [Nobili] has hitherto been very accommodating in regard to his  spiritual intercourse with the natives, never attempting to withdraw them from their hunting grounds without previous consultation with myself."  In a letter of April 16,1846, it was stated, "The attention shown  Father Nobili in the trading posts of New Caledonia is beyond all  praise."  90 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  As was often the case with the other Italian Jesuit priests of  that time, Father Nobili had a talent for linguistics. His expertise  lay in the Latin language, particularly Latin poetry, but he was also  fluent in Italian, Spanish, French and English. He quickly learned  native languages; within 12 days of his arrival at Fort Babine, for  example, he had created a few hymns in the native dialect. However, according to an 1850 account by Father Michael Accolti (1807-  1878), Nobili's English pronunciation was "not all that might be  desired."  Three distinct phases mark Nobili's short life: his early Jesuit  training and teaching in Italy, his missionary work with the natives of New Caledonia and, finally, his administrative and educational efforts in California.  Early Training and Teaching  He was born on April 8, 1812 in Rome and was baptized 20  days later as Giovanni Pietro Antonio Nobili. At the age of 16, he  began his training as a Jesuit. As a student his special talent for  Latin poetry emerged and his compositions were read at public  exhibitions. Six years later, in 1834, he was teaching at Roman College, at that time one of Europe's most important educational centres. He became a professor of the humanities at Roman College  and at the colleges of Loretto, Placentia and Fermo. Professor Nobili  published several articles on physics and mathematics in the Annuals of the Society of Jesus. In 1843, Father Peter John De Smet  (1801-1873) of the Jesuits' Oregon Mission requested assistance from  members of the order in Europe. Father Nobili's ordination took  place that same year and he asked to become a missionary in Oregon. On January 9, 1844, Nobili left Italy on the ship L'Infatigable.  Also on board were Fathers De Smet, Michael Accolti, Anthony  Ravalli and Louis Vercruysse. They arrived at the mouth of the  Columbia River July 31, 1844.  New Caledonia Mission (1845-1848)  Father Nobili wasn't the first Jesuit to provide religious services in the Northwest. The first Jesuit priest was Father Modeste  Demers (1809-1871). On November 11,1838, Demers arrived at Fort  Okanogan at the junction of the Okanogan and Columbia rivers,  returning in 1839 and 1840 for short visits. Father Demers conducted the area's first baptisms on 10 native children and the four  children of Jean Gingris and Charlotte Skialks. In May 1842 Father  De Smet also visited Fort Okanogan and journeyed as far as "Lesser  Okanagan Lake" (Osoyoos Lake). From 1842 until the spring of  1843 Demers, on behalf of the Jesuits, was given the task of explor-  91 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  ing New Caledonia, primarily using the Hudson's Bay Company  Brigade Trail. According to Demers, most of the native bands received him with "open arms." Travelling in New Caledonia was very  onerous, and upon his return Demers was pictured as "much exhausted by the labours he had undergone, and the privations he  had suffered during his journey."  In 1844 the Jesuits divided the Territory of Oregon into eight  dioceses, three of which were within established British lands: Vancouver's Island, Princess Charlotte and New Caledonia. Initially,  Demers was given charge of all the episcopal districts within the  British territories, but in August 1845 De Smet assigned Demers to  Vancouver's Island and gave Nobili "the difficult task" of establishing the New Caledonia Mission.  Following his arrival at Fort Vancouver, Nobili spent nearly  10 months providing religious services and learning to converse  with the aboriginal residents. In the early 1840s the Native population was severely reduced by a disease called at the time "the bloody  flux" (probably smallpox or measles). In 1845 Nobili estimated that  approximately one-third of the natives around Fort Vancouver died  in the epidemic. In July 1845, Fathers Nobili and Ravalli left Fort  Vancouver for New Caledonia. Before reaching Fort Wallawalla  [Walla Walla], their boat capsized and Ravalli injured his hand and  almost drowned. Nobili left  Fort Wallawalla accompanied by a guide who was a  Hudson's Bay Company  agent, and a Metis named  Battiste. Before reaching the  Okanagan Valley, the Bay  man abandoned the party,  taking with him their three  horses, provisions and tent.  Without the guide, they  were lost. After several days  without victuals they were  rescued by two natives,  whom Father Nobili had  met at Fort Vancouver. Finally, they arrived at Fort  Okinagane [Okanogan] and  were met by the chief of the  Sioushwaps, or Shuswaps, a  nephew of the Grand Chief  Nicolas. Together they trav-      A portion of the Jesuits' Oregon Territory  1846, according to Father P. J. De Smet.  92  (Map 1) FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  elled north with the annual HBC fur brigade. During his journey  through the Okanagan Valley, Father Nobili met three natives whom  he estimated to be over 100 years of age.  On August 11, 1845 the brigade arrived at Fort Sioushwaps  [Thompson's River post] where Nobili was warmly received by all  the chiefs of the surrounding area. There, a small cabin that doubled as a church was built by the natives. According to Nobili, the  current population of the "Sioushwaps" numbered 583, and of the  Okinaganes, 685.  Nobili's first year in New Caledonia was difficult. He survived  by adapting to the native diet of roots and meats, which included  horse, dog and wolf. When Nobili returned to Fort Sioushwaps in  October 1845, the natives had built three more chapels, hoping  that a "nepapayattok" (priest) would settle with them. The winter  of 1845-46 was spent at the Stuart Lake post and at the home of A.  C. Anderson at Fort Alexandria. Nobili journeyed to Fort Colvile in  May 1846 to report on his activities to his superior. For his part,  Father De Smet completed Oregon Missions, Traveles Over the Rocky  Mountains in 1845-1846, in which he used some of Father Nobili's  information. (See Map 1).  The Superior General of the Society of Jesus in Rome, John  Roothaan, wrote the Oregon Mission's new head, Father Joseph  Joset (1810-1853), concerning the welfare of Father Nobili while  working alone in New Caledonia. In response, when Nobili left  Fort Colvile for his post in the summer of 1846 he was supplied  wth several labourers and a dozen horses, "loaded with implements  of agriculture and carpentry." The party went as far north as the  Great Okanagan Lake. It was here that the "Residenza di San  Giuseppe" was established. The labourers and supplies remained  and Nobili alone continued the journey north, reaching Fort St.  James in September. Most of the autumn of 1846 was spent in the  Fort Alexandria area. By February 1847, Nobili was dividing his  time between Fort St. James and Fort Kilmaurs on Babine Lake. By  now the "bloody flux" was widespread. Nobili wrote, "I instructed,  baptized and gave the other sacraments to one thousand and three  or four hundred Indians, many of whom had the happiness of dying soon after, including about five hundred children carried off by  the measles."  According to Jesuit records, by 1847 there were 14 missions  and stations within their Oregon Mission territory, including St.  Joseph's Station by the Great Okanagan Lake.  Father Nobili wrote at least four letters from St. Joseph's Station.1 In correspondence dated April 25, 1847, he gave the co-ordinates latitude 50 degrees and 40 minutes, longitude 120 degrees, 8  93 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  minutes. Some mystery exists as to the exact location of this station, because if one uses Nobili's co-ordinates they place the site  farther north and west of Okanagan Lake. If we assume that the  longitude is wrong, the latitude places the station close to Bradley  Creek. (See OHS Twenty-Fourth Report: "St. Joseph's Mission in the  Okanagan" by D. A. Ross). Assuming that the latitude is wrong, the  longitude then places the site near Priest Camp at Nicolas Prairie—  present-day Summerland.  In the same letter, Nobili described the establishment of St.  Joseph's Station near Okanagan Lake. He further described the site  as "at the doors of New Caledonia." Prior to establishing the station,  Father Nobili gathered the "Tribe of the Great Lake" and proposed  that the condition for building it be the renunciation of polygamy,  at that time widely practised by the natives. Upon reaching this  agreement, Grand Chief Nicolas himself helped Father Nobili to  erect spacious quarters for the priest. The complete plan called for  a house, farm and church at this location.  By April 1847, Father Joset was considering reducing, and  perhaps terminating, the New Caledonia Mission and Father Nobili  was concerned about abandoning the natives. Father Demers, during his travels in New Caledonia in 1842-43, had promised them a  priest. Until the arrival of Father Nobili, no clergyman had been  forthcoming and the natives referred to Father Demers as "the Liar,"  for breaking his promise. Father Nobili thought that his own departure would also cause problems. In the April 25, 1847 letter from  St. Joseph's Station, he commented that when he left for Fort Vancouver he would leave behind some of his belongings, to give the  impression that he would be returning.  Nobili was also concerned that if the Jesuits abandoned St.  Joseph's Station, other religious orders could promptly take possession of the buildings and farm  Us ont determiner de fonder la, au bout de Gran Lac une  fermepour suppleer a laperte des Forts Colvile et Hall quipasseront  aux Americains.  In August 1847 Joset instructed Father Anthony Goetz to join  Nobili in New Caledonia. Goetz's role was primarily to assist in the  furtherance of St. Joseph's Station through supervising the construction of additional buildings and the development of a small  farm. Goetz did not spend the winter of 1847-48 there, but stayed  at the Coeur d'Alenes Mission of the Sacred Heart. When Nobili  returned from the north to St. Joseph's Station, all personnel had  left for the south. He acted accordingly and wintered at St. Mary's  Mission.  94 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  In the spring of 1848, work continued at St. Joseph's, but Father Joset was by now determined to close Nobili's New Caledonia  Mission. On June 6, 1848, Father Nobili communicated with Father Goetz. The letter indicated Nobili was one day's journey from  Fort Langley, where he was to meet a ship from London. He was  hoping to receive a  letter from Father  General Roothaan  concerning the fate  of his New Caledonia Mission. He  stated in the Goetz  letter that he  planned to return to  St. Joseph's Station  by July 10. Goetz  was directed on  how to distribute  food to the carpenters there, including  a Mr. Jandson. Father Nobili expected  a good harvest from  the farm and that  the house would be  completed upon his  arrival. He also  wanted to relay a  message to Jandson  that an additional  carpenter named  Vautrin might arrive to assist in the  construction. In a  postscript, Father  Nobili hoped that  Father Goetz had  planted red beets at  St. Joseph's, as he  (Nobili) was "excessively fond of  them."  Meantime,  the work on the station had stopped;  (Map 2)  The Okanagan Valley in 1858, according to  A. C. Anderson. Note the three campsites  along the Brigade Trail: Priests Encampment, Mauvais Roches, and Talle  d'Epinettes.  95 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  Father Joset had recalled Nobili and Goetz, and the New Caledonia  Mission was abandoned. Father Nobili desperately wanted to remain with his mission and continued to send letters to his superiors asking them to reconsider their decision.  With his departure in 1848, the natives were once again left  without a Jesuit priest. Fathers De Vos and Joset did occasionally  visit the Okanagan Valley in the years following, but there was no  effort made to re-establish the New Caledonia Mission. By summer  1848 Nobili was back in residence with the Flatheads at St. Mary's,  suffering from the effects of his strenuous work in New Caledonia.  On account of my impaired health, I was with sorrow snatched  Away from my dear Indians (of New Caledonia) and called south.  To the residence of the Flatheads. Here I passed the winter (1848)  In a very precarious state of health and should undoubtedly have  died were it not the will of God that Father Mengarini restored me  With the powerful medicine ofLe Roi.  An Administrator in California  In 1848 gold was discovered in California, and thousands  rushed west to make their fortune. At that time there were only  five secular priests in the entire diocese of California; there was a  need for more.  On December 3, 1849, Fathers Nobili and Accolti left Fort  Vancouver on a ship bound for San Francisco. By the spring of the  following year Nobili was posted in the Spanish section of the city,  primarily caring for the sick. After only one month in California,  Father Nobili was said by a superior to have "worked wonders."  From church records it is clear that Nobili performed marriages at St. Joseph's church in San Jose. Father Nobili and his St.  Joseph's Station companion, Father Goetz, also built a residence  for the needy in San Jose. But he continued to display his disappointment at having to abandon the New Caledonia Mission. He  expressed his regret in a letter to the former superior of the Oregon Mission, dated March 28, 1850:  My mission would not have died, and I would rather have  died with my mission. But the good God has only allowed my  mission to last three years and that I should not die, as I hoped, in  the midst of my dear Indians.  Father Nobili was eventually successful in convincing Father  General Roothaan to reinstate the New Caledonia Mission, but approval for its continuation only arrived shortly before Father Nobili  left for California.  96 FATHER GIOVANNI NOBILI  Nobili continued to struggle with poor health. A physician in  San Francisco diagnosed him with pericarditis and a blood disorder. After receiving permission to return to Italy, Nobili replied to  the Superior General that, "I was already to make sacrifice of California to the Lord, as I had already done of New Caledonia."  On March 19, 1851, Father Nobili founded the first institution  for education in California, Santa Clara College, now the University of Santa Clara. In the next five years he became well-known as  a builder and as an educational administrator. He was the first president of Santa Clara College and continued teaching the humanities, mathematics and physics.  While supervising the construction of a students' chapel at  the college February 17, 1856, Father Nobili accidentally stepped  on a nail, from which he developed tetanus. After suffering horribly, he died on March 1 at the age of 44. In just six years in California, he had become a widely-respected educator. He was considered "one of the most prominent Italians who ever lived in California." The San Francisco Herald put it another way: "A great public  calamity had befallen California."  Conclusion  Although Giovanni's life was short, he made important contributions in both New Caledonia and California. He founded the  New Caledonia Mission, the first religious mission in the province's  interior and St. Joseph's Station, the first non-native settlement in  the Okanagan Valley. After Father Nobili's departure from New  Caledonia, the Jesuits reduced their efforts to evangelize the indigenous residents. But certainly these activities did make the task  easier for the Oblates of Mary Immaculate and Father Charles  Pandosy.  REFERENCES-McGloin, John Bernard, S. J. "Founder of California's Santa Clara College:  The New Caledonia Years, 1845-1848." British Columbia Historical Quarterly, XVII, July-October 1953); Brioni Louis E, S. X. Father John Nobili, S. J. Founder of Santa Clara College: A  Biographical Sketch. Masters thesis, University of Santa Clara. March 1968; Raufer, Maria  lima, O. P. Black Robes and Indians on the Last Frontier: Introduction of Catholicism into the  Colville Country. Statesman-Examiner Publishing Colville, Washington, 1966; Carriker, Robert  C. Father Peter John De Smet: Jesuit in the West. University of Oklahoma Press, 1995; De Smet,  P. John S. J. Oregon Missions and Traveles Over the Rocky Mountains in 1845-46. Edward  Dunnigan Publisher, 1847. Special thanks to David Kingma and Gonzaga University Archives, Helen LaFrance and Anne McMahon and the Santa Clara University Archives; Duane  Thomson, Harley Hatfield. I also acknowledge the assistance of the late Bob Harris.  1 The St. Joseph Station letters were dated April 25, 1847, May 21, 1847, December 3, 1847,  and early in 1848.  97 Oliver Theatn  .  GREAT EXPECTATIONS  fhwr - Fri - Sat  of    the    new  USHERED IN SUCCESS  So*. 3, 4 & 5  :'.,,...."  as*/"  Jacquie Bicknell  No   ij03''co-;:r-i.:;.fd   r^K.'--;':  "T" L "Then Alex and Dolly Gough unveiled the Oliver Theatre  \f\f  October 31, 1946 with the movie Great Expectations, it wal  Y   T    the beginning of a new era for the community. More than  50 years in business have certainly confirmed those great expectations the Goughs had on opening night.  Alex Gough began working with the motion picture industry  m BC when he was just a lad. Living in Kimberley with his parents,  le began by cleaning the local theatre. Soon his duties grew to  include taking admissions and ordering movies. What he really  wanted was to get into the projection room and learn a thing or twqj  about that side of the business. At that time, a projectionist required  a licence to operate arid young Alex set his; sights on doing an apf  prenticeship at Kimberley's theatre. Before he finished working  there, he did indeed have his projectionist's licence.  fr     (Jijvcr   . ir    j OLIVER THEATRE     II  During the 1930s and early 40s, he travelled to mining camps  and communities in Gold Bridge, Pioneer, Minto, Bridge River and  Lillooet, showing movies in rented halls to; entertainment-starved  miners. This led to meeting up with Charlie Troughton, who eventually built the Oliver Theatre for the owners, along with Jake  Seidler, in 1946. TRE _  The original site for the theatre was at the crossroads of Higl  way 97afid 350th Avenue-today the location of the 7-Elevenstoi  Plans were sketched placing the theatre at the top of the double Id!,  ion the slope leading down to 97th Street. On the street front woulfl  be shops lined up along the block. However, when this plan proved  too costly, these lots were sold and the site of the current building  was purchased instead. «,""  The Goughs lived in a picker's cabin when they first moved  to Oliver, as there was no other place available to rent. The week  before opening night they had $5 between them. They had put  Jacquie Bicknell is chair of the Editorial Committee for the Oliver/Osoyoos  Branch of the OHS. She is a freelance writer/editor/publisher and the co-author  of Oliver Area Secrets & Surprises.  98 OLIVER THEATRE!  everything they had—and then some—into getting the theatre built  and ready to open. The building itself cost about $55,000. The 400-  odd "comfort de luxe Dunlop foam-rubber" seats cost about $7,000,  and the two Brankert-type projectors, purchased from War Assets,  totalled another $14,000. Eventually, the Goughs built an apartment at the back of the theatre. This was their home for many  years.  Opening night saw the street lined with patrons waiting for  Great Expectations. This movie was followed the next week by another hit, Samson and Delilah. The rest, as they say, is history.  During the first 13 years, Eric Bastien worked as projectionist at the Oliver Theatre, with Alex and Dolly staffing the ticket  booth and snackbar. When the age of television dawned, Eric went  into TV sales and repairs, leaving Alex to man the projection booth  and Dolly selling tickets. They gave local girls an opportunity to  earn some pocket money by helping out in the snack bar.  Alex Gough was strict with the kids who came to his theatre,  expecting them to behave appropriately, but it is evident how much  he cared for each one he came to know. He had his own methods  of discipline. The one kids hated the most was to go home and tell  their parents what they had done before they were permitted back  in to see another movie. Years later, the Goughs still have previous  patrons, now adults, come up and say, "I used to hate you ..." But  it is evident that the more appropriate interpretation was that they  hated the discipline, but respected the man.  A popular event was the Saturday matinee. One week, Alex  advertised that he would award a prize for the best-dressed cowboy  in the audience. The young man who won took his prize (a cap  gun) to church the next morning, pulling it out and pointing it at  the minister during the collection of the offering.  Dolly recalled a time when a child was abducted from the  theatre. Luckily, Dolly was observant in noticing a transient in the  audience, and watching as he brought a young boy up twice to  purchase treats. She brought this to her husband's attention, so when  the man left the building with the boy, the Goughs put their plan of  action to work. Dolly called the police, while Alex chased after the  culprit. He was not able to catch the pair, but the police did—about  halfway to Penticton. The police officer later told the Goughs that  it was a good thing their vigilance paid off. The man was a known  child molester and the incident could have had a very unpleasant  ending.  Alex introduced the annual Free Movie to Oliver. On his birthday (December 22), he opened the theatre for a Saturday matinee,  with free admission to all. The only price patrons had to pay was  99 OLIVER THEATRE  listening to Alex sing Christmas carols. The first time  he offered the free movie, the seats were jam-packed.  In later years, the Oliver Board of Trade (now the Chamber of Commerce) took over the free movie day early  in December to lead into the Santa Claus parade and  official beginning of the Yule season. Last year, the  Goughs were at an event where the free movies were  being discussed, when a grown woman walked up and  kissed Alex. She remembered attending those free film  programs when she was a kid and was expressing her  appreciation for the Goughs' kindness manyyears ago.  One of the unique features of the Oliver Theatre  was the mothers' room. Behind soundproof glass at the  back of the movie house was a small room with four  seats and a speaker. Here, mothers could take their  young or noisy offspring and still be able to enjoy the  show. Dolly remembers one young father who would  call up and ask, "Is the padded cell available?"  Alex remembers well the old sawdust-burning  furnace used to heat the theatre. The year the cinema  was opened the local sawmill shut down and Alex had  to make weekly trips to Keremeos for two months to  pick up his own supply of fuel to keep the theatre comfortable.  Through the years, the Goughs brought in all the  big-name movies. Brandishing the book Hollywood's  Golden Year, 1939, Alex notes that he has shown every  one of the releases either at the mining camps or on  the Oliver screen. A member of the Canadian Picture  Pioneers, Alex received a certificate honouring 50 years  of belonging and service in this organization.  Not only was the Oliver Theatre a popular attraction for  moviegoers, but the facility was used for many other community  events as well. When Oliver United Church was under renovations,  Sunday morning services were held there. Dolly recalls Reverend  Redmond pointing to one of the big electric clocks on the wall,  with the admonition, "Let us not watch it."  For many years, the Oliver branch of the Royal Canadian  Legion commissioned the theatre to hold a Remembrance Day service prior to the parade to the cenotaph. Much local fund-raising has  also taken place here, with the Knights of Columbus hosting a annual free movie to help the Oliver Food Bank, and speakers used  the auditorium to address the needs of the Heart Fund and Cancer  Society.  100 -  -   _ ^~r  I  "Lined Up for the Second Show" — The Oliver Theatre opened with "Great Expectations" in 1946 and still fills  the role of community gathering-place. Scott Photography was responsible for this after-dark scene between  screenings of the feature movie.  The Goughs themselves also participated in the life of the  community. Alex started the local Pony League, the predecessor of  the Oliver Minor Softball Association. He served as a trustee on the  school board for many years, was a member of the Okanagan Regional Library Board, the Southern Gate Masonic Lodge and the  Oliver Chamber of Commerce. He was chairman of the first Regional District Board for Okanagan-Similkameen, and served on  South Okanagan Union Board of Health. He was a director of the  Okanagan-Similkameen Hospital District Board 1966-67, served on  the board of St. Martin's Hospital, was a member of the executive  of the Oliver-Osoyoos Hospital Society (assisting in negotiations  and early planning for the South Okanagan General Hospital), and  101 OLIVER THEATRE  served as village council liaison officer to the South Okanagan  Health Unit. For five years he was a commissioner/alderman for  the Village of Oliver, assisted in the planning and building of the  Oliver library and original seniors' centre, and was also involved in  the expansion of both in 1980. He was a member of Oliver Industrial Development Committee.  Alex served as chairman of Oliver Chamber of Commerce  1965-66 and 1971-72, as vice-chairman of Okanagan Similkameen  Associated Chambers of Commerce in 1966 and director of the BC  Chamber of Commerce. His service on the Okanagan Regional Library Board spanned the years 1966 to 1982.  Both Goughs are still involved with the Oliver United Church,  where they have been active workers for more than 50 years. Alex  served on the Board of Stewards for five years and assisted with  expansion of the church in 1948. He is a member and supporter of  the Oliver Heritage Society and the Oliver/Osoyoos Branch of the  Okanagan Historical Society. Dolly Gough volunteered for many  years at the cancer dressing station with the Eastern Star. She worked  with the Canadian Arthritis Society, and spent long hours typing  and helping Alex to prepare letters and reports for his many committees.  Alex has worked in the mining industry since his teen years.  Drawing on his experiences as a claim-holder from the 1930s, and  further experience as a consultant, he continues to share his knowledge of mining in BC with students and community groups.  The Goughs ran the Oliver Theatre from 1946 until 1964. At  that time they sold it to the Lesmeister family, who still run it today. The Lesmeisters have replaced the old seats with fewer, but  larger, ones. There are still lineups for the big movies, there are  still Saturday matinees on occasion, and the free programs are still  a big part of the community calendar.  Alex and Dolly have fond memories of their years at the Oliver  Theatre: "We made a lot of friends and learned a lot about people."  All in all, they know it was a worthwhile endeavour. Certainly, the  community of Oliver will continue to appreciate their legacy for  many years to come. The Oliver Theatre is still a vital part of both  the business and the service sectors. The Goughs' great expectations have been achieved.  # # #  Further recognition for the part Alex and Dolly Gough have  played in the advancement of the Oliver community came recently from Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of the Okanogan Historical  Society when it named the couple to receive the 1998 Pioneer  Award.  102 KELOWNA  CENTENNIAL MUSEUM  James H. Hayes  If one was to conduct a street poll to determine when the  Kelowna Centennial Museum was officially opened, the percentage of correct answers would not be high, unless one was  sure to speak to people who have lived here more than 30 years. To  give newcomers a clue, we have to go back to 1967, and the centennial observance of Canada's confederation.  In the early 1960s, British Columbia raised a committee that  directed every community—large and small—to come up with a  project that could serve as a perpetual local tribute to the nation's  first 100 years. The project had to meet financial parameters laid  down by the BC Centennial Committee, and, in the case of Kelowna, the formula was predicated on the June 1963 census listing  a population of 13,772 persons. The following financing was available to fund a project in the central Okanagan city: a federal per  capita grant of $1, a BC per capita grant of 60 cents, and a guaranteed City of Kelowna amount of $1.40 per head, for a grand total of  $41,316.  Opening Kelowna Museum, 1967  James H. Hayes is a member of the Kelowna branch OHS executive and a regular contributor to these pages.  103 KELOWNA CENTENNIAL MUSEUM  East side of Kelowna Centennial Museum, photographed in 1996  It should be noted that 13 unincorporated areas between  Okanagan Centre and the Municipality of Peachland were invited  to participate in a single undertaking, but all declined in deference  to their own projects. Mayor Dick Parkinson was instructed by the  provincial centennial committee to set up a body to make recommendations on how Kelowna would mark the centenary. Those  selected were: chairman, C. D. Gaddes, vice-chairman, D. M. Elsdon,  secretary, J. H. Hayes (City of Kelowna staff); treasurer, D. B.  Herbert (City of Kelowna staff); directors, B. M. Baker, A. P. Dawe,  T. L. Mooney, R. M. Simpson. To the best of the writer's knowledge  only three members of this committee still reside in Kelowna.  A deadline of August 20, 1964 was set for submissions from  the public-at-large as to the form Kelowna's centennial project  should take. The following were received for consideration: acquisition of land for future park and recreation use; a boys' club; a  hospital for the chronically-ill; an indoor swimming pool; a museum; a YMCA facility. The choice was difficult, with the two governing factors being location, and available funding.  Acquisition of park and recreation land—Although seen  to be worthwhile, the concept was beyond the financial resources  available. Boys' club—Deemed to provide a public service and a  deterrent to juvenile delinquency, the estimated cost ($235,000)  was excessive. Also, it was concluded a centennial project should  not be private in nature, or restricted mainly to youth. Chronic  hospital—Submissions were requested twice from the proponents  of this project, but none was received. With no construction and  operational costs available for study, this project was considered  too expensive.  Indoor swimming pool—A preliminary estimate from the  supporters was $450,000. A contractor's estimate, exclusive of exercise rooms and other facilities, was $250,000, still some $208,000  104 KELOWNA CENTENNIAL MUSEUM  above the budget available. YMCA —This proposal was withdrawn,  with no brief received. Museum—This was considered to be a  timely project, since museum displays relate to history, which the  centennial of confederation was all about. Plans and specifications  submitted by architect George Barnes confirmed a structure could  be built on a specific site at an estimated cost of $45,000, only  $3,700 more than the available grants totalled. It was proposed that  the building could be expanded as additional funding became available. Accessible to all ages, proponents reasoned a museum would  be a valuable supplementary educational tool for local learning  facilities.  After further investigation, and considerable deliberation, the  committee recommended to Kelowna City Council that a museum  be built on the site of an existing log building on Mill Street (Pt. Lot  1, RP 2207, ODYD), as the project commemorating Canada's 100th  anniversary. For logistical purposes, the location of the structure  was later changed to 470 Queensway, the present site, and designated Kelowna Centennial Museum.  The facility was officially opened on June 10, 1967, by Major-General, The Honorable G. R. Pearkes, VC, the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.  Kelowna Centennial Museum has developed considerably  since 1967, with plans for still further expansion as funds become  available. This repository of local history serves as a resource for  Okanagan University College students, an interesting pastime for  visitors, and a continual source of pleasure for so many in Kelowna.  105 'THE STORE' IN  OKANAGAN CENTRE  Sandra Bernardo  The little convenience store at the corner of Okanagan Centre Road West and Fourth Street known by the locals as The  Store has been around in one form or another since 1910. It  began when James Alfred and Edith Gleed bought a small house  containing the post office from a Mr. Ekins, at that time the manager of the Grandview Hotel. The Gleeds took over the post office  and started handling a few staples after members of the community said that it would be nice to have some of the basics readily  available, instead of  having to send out for  them. Thus, the firm J.  A. Gleed General Merchant opened for business with $50 worth of  stock. The Gleeds soon  added on to the building  so that it could accommodate a full general  store, small room for  the post office and  larger living quarters.  In the early years  Mrs. Gleed often ran  things on her own while  her husband was building houses in Carr's  Landing. Over the ensuing period the business  prospered and Mr. Gleed enlarged the premises a few more times.  It was a busy life running the combined store and post office.  Mail would come in twice a day, once from the north and once  from the south. Mr. Gleed used a wheelbarrow to trundle the mail  bags to and from the lakeside drop point, in the same way as he  brought up blocks of ice to keep meat and dairy products fresh in  the meat safe. Of course, there were also the tasks of serving cus-  Sandra Bernardo portrayed the Gleed family in the Sixty-first Report and here  she chronicles the life of their store. During UBC summer recesses, Ms. Bernardo  has been a student employee at the Lake Country museum.  106  Processing a grocery order c. 1945, when personal service included use of only telephone in the community. 'THE STORE' IN OKANAGAN CENTRE  tomers, giving out the mail and stocking shelves. Doris Gleed  Phillips remembers well those busy days in her growing-up years;  there was always something to do in the store. One of her memories has to do with the stairwell that was built underneath the front  counter, leading to the basement where perishable items were kept.  When someone asked for a block of cheese, Mr. Gleed, or whoever  was clerking, would disappear under the counter and through the  floor to get the item.  The store hummed all hours of the day and night because  the Gleeds were the first family in Okanagan Centre to have a private telephone. They were always more than willing to let people  use the phone at any time and they also took messages for the  residents of Okanagan Centre. This gesture was especially important whenever there was an emergency and outside help was  needed.  In 1948, when he was 75, James Gleed decided to retire. The  new owners were brothers-in-law Carl Arthur "Art" Gabel and John  Motowylo, who changed the name to G & M Store. Art and Lydia  Gabel came to Okanagan Centre with four daughters: Louise,  Jeannette, Dianna and Mary. Their fifth child, John Charles, was  born in 1950. Gabel and Motowylo were partners for seven years  until coming to the realization profits were too small to support  two households.  Art Gabel served as postmaster from 1948 to 1979, moving to  new quarters in 1967. John Gabel held the position briefly—from  1979 to 1980—when illness forced him to step down in favour of  his sister, incumbent Jeannette Buchholz.  Meantime, the store continued to grow in size, first during  the Motowylo period, and again under Gabel management in the  early 60s. A gas pump was also installed. Gabel customers could  call in their grocery orders for later pick up, or have them delivered by the Gabel children. Lydia Gabel recalls that in the early  years a lot of Winfield people would shop at the G & M Store or  order by telephone because there was only one small store in the  nearby community. The Gabels also filled the shopping list of Camp  Kopje on Carr's Landing Road throughout the summer camp's existence.  After Art Gabel bought John Motowylo's interest, he hired  Muriel Whitehead and Venita Baker to work in the post office and  store. Jeannette Buchholz can remember that she and her older  sister, Louise, worked after school from 4:30 to eight p. m., even  though closing was supposed to be at seven p.m.  In 1969 the G & M Store was sold to a Mickie Musatto. Musatto  brought his family, including five boys, from Hollywood, where he  was said to have been a costume supplier. When they came to  Okanagan Centre, the Musattos were accompanied by a van full of  clothing, which they arrayed in one of the store's rooms.  107 'THE STORE' IN OKANAGAN CENTRE  Gleed Store, an Okanagan Centre tradition since 1910, as it looked in the 1940s.  One night, a little over a year after they purchased the store,  the Musattos packed up and left, taking most of the stock with them.  It was assumed that they went back to the States, but Mr. Musatto  was never heard from again. Since there was still money owing on  the business, the Gabels had to go back to protect their interest.  After operating the store for a couple more years they made arrangements to sell to Cathy and Ron Withem and rented an orchard. They also continued to operate the post office until 1979,  the year before Art Gabel died.  The Withem marriage broke up, however, and Mrs. Withem's  mother ran the business until it was purchased by Dick and Coreen  Young in 1975. The Youngs had the store for almost two years and  then it was closed down for a while. In 1978 Dr. Richard Baxter of  Kelowna bought the property, part of which was used to stable his  collection of heritage cars. Dr. Baxter re-opened the business as a  convenience outlet and named it The Store.  In 1981 the store was sold to Ted Fright, who still owns it  today. His companion, Eunice, opened a beauty salon on the  premises, but she no longer lives with Mr. Fright, so a stylist comes  in weekly by appointment.  On January 1, 1984 The Store burned to the ground. The insurance company was never able to determine the cause, but it  may have been faulty wiring. The store was finally rebuilt in 1987  and continues to serve the residents of Okanagan Centre.  108 MY 42 YEARS WITH THE  SUMMERLAND  RESEARCH STATION  Dr. D. V. Fisher  Since I retired in 1974, I have been asked by two publications  to put down some thoughts on the development of the fruit  industry and the role of the Research Station in that development over the last 40 years. To me it seems like yesterday that I  began my association there, but in fact I commenced employment  at the Experimental Station, as it was then known, in May 1933  under Dr. R. C. Palmer. This, of course, was in the depth of the  Great Depression and I and  another chap named F. N.  Hewetson were offered jobs.  I had just turned 19, had received my bachelor of science degree in agriculture  from the University of British  Columbia, and having  worked several previous summers at around 30 cents an  hour in a packing house, was  pleased to accept a position  at Summerland for the  princely sum of 36 cents an  hour. This, incidentally, was  for a 54-hour week—six days  of nine hours each.  When the station  started in 1914, every possible crop was tried, and we  also had sheep, swine, horses,  cows, poultry and bees. In  this age of specialization and  Dr. Donald V. Fisher is a former director of the Agriculture Canada Research  Station, Summerland. His interest in preserving the history of the station, together  with that of the fruit industry in the Okanagan Valley, has prompted him to submit several articles to the Penticton Branch, which have appeared from time to  time in OHS Reports. (This contribution was written in 1975).  109  Dr. D. V Fisher, 1972 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  with the need to conserve research dollars, we have had to concentrate our work in certain areas. Thus, we lost our last non-fruit  project, the cattle bloat program, in 1970. Today (1975), this station  is devoted to the interests of the Okanagan fruit industry. "Taking  into account fresh and processed fruit, wines, juices and frozen  products, the BC interior fruit crop represents an f.o.b. value in  excess of $90,000,000.  When I came to the station in 1933 we had none of the modern aids to fruit production, including controlled marketing. For  those today who think that the fruit industry is in tough shape, I  remind them that in the early 1930s growers often received "red  ink" from the packing houses because they actually owed money  for handling their crop! Over a long period of evolution, starting in  1908, our present central marketing scheme has evolved. The  present B. C. Tree Fruit Ltd. marketing scheme has been in effect  since 1939 and has continued to be endorsed by growers in a number  of industry plebiscites. Today (1975), we have entered the era of  Income Assurance where the provincial government, for a modest  premium, guarantees cost of production for fancy and better fruit  in apples and pears, and of equivalent grades in other fruits. Although orchard equipment, interest and labour costs are high to-  Early seeding operation tested by Summerland Experimental Station. (Courtesy Penticton Museum)  110 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  day, the cost of production formula protects the grower from being  forced out of business by inflation. We also have the Agricultural  Credit Act, crop insurance and other provincial legislation that  enables fruit growers and other farmers, with good management,  to make a success of working the land.  A 40-Year Comparison  If we were to compare the 1930s with conditions 40 years later, the  fruit grower can realize there is much to be thankful for. For example, there was no means of controlling apple pre-harvest drop except by picking fruit immature. We had in many cases inferior varieties to those available today. No leaf analysis service was available to indicate whether trees were deficient in any mineral element, or if we were applying nitrogen or minor elements in the  correct amount. We had a very inadequate arsenal of spray materials with which to control the same pests as exist today. The integrated mite control program had yet to be introduced.  We applied water by the furrow method, whereas it is now  applied by moveable pipe and/or over-tree sprinklers, and trickle  irrigation. Use of dwarfing rootstocks to control tree size and accelerate age of bearing had not been accepted. There were no spur  strains to control tree size and promote heavy early production.  We had only standard or inferior red strains of Mcintosh, Delicious  and Rome.  There were no controlled atmosphere storages. Even cold  storages in most cases were inadequate. The concentrate spray  machine was not manufactured until 1949 and up to that time growers used either horse-drawn or tractor-drawn high-volume sprayers  with two hand-operated spray guns per tank. Chemical weed killers were unknown and hand-hoeing was not only inefficient, it  was inadequate. Chemical thinning sprays were unknown and hand-  thinning of apples often went on until the end of August.  It cost money to remove cull fruit from packing houses and  dump it, whereas today (1975) all cull fruit is utilized and the money  thus earned is either paid directly to growers or used to increase  the returns for the better grades. I believe that the fruit industry  presents a fine opportunity for young men and women trained in  horticulture and modern business concepts.  Rootstock and Thinning Experiments  Dr. Palmer, superintendent of the station in 1931, had recently returned from the East Mailing Research Station in England, where  he had become enthused over the possibilities of the use of the  Mailing series of size-controlling rootstocks, and had already established very good stool beds, plus a block of two acres of Mcintosh  apples on 11 of the Mailing rootstocks. My first job was making  111 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  blossom counts on trees budded on different rootstocks. Not many  people realize that the Summerland station has been doing root-  stock research since Dr. Palmer started this work in 1931, and at  this time (1975) has the oldest trees on Mailing 9 rootstock in North  America, planted in 1938.  Soon after, Dr. Palmer put me to work analyzing the results  from a fruit thinning study on a block of trees planted in 1916,  which had been given the same differential hand thinning treatments since starting to bear. In addition, I was to carry on the experiment and expand experimental work in tree fruit thinning. The  apple varieties involved were Duchess, Transparent, Grimes Golden,  Mcintosh, Wagner, Delicious, Rome Beauty, Newtown and Jonathan.  The resulting statistical analysis indicated that no significant differences in yield of marketable fruit occurred between fruit thinned  nine, six and three inches, but that the fruit thinned at nine inches  apart had better size and colour than fruit thinned to a closer spacing.  As time went on, I was to publish results that showed that  Newtown blossom cluster thinned at the pink stage of blossom to a  spacing of nine inches, followed by some hand thinning, resulted  in conversion of trees from biennial to annual bearing, which over  a two-year period gave 50 percent more crop than biennial trees  bearing one large one-year crop in the "on" year. Still later, I became involved in a long series of chemical thinning experiments  extending over 20 years after WWII, which laid the basis for our  1975 chemical thinning recommendations using dinitro-ortho-  cresol, Amid Thin and Sevin.  Tree Fruit Breeding  Fruit breeding always has been an important activity at the Research Station. The first work was done by the late Dr. R. C. Palmer,  whose most important achievement was introduction of the widely  popular Spartan apple and Summerland Red Mcintosh. This work  continued under the direction of A. J. Mann, whose most significant introduction was the Van cherry. In 1949 Dr. K. O. Lapins  joined the staff, first through support by the BCFGA and shortly  after as a station research officer. He experimented with the use of  gamma irridation as a means of inducing desirable mutations (variations) in apples and cherries, the most interesting of which was  the Compact Lambert. Dr. Lapins's most important work was in  sweet cherry breeding where the introduction of the self-pollinating cherry varieties, Stella and Lapins, changed cherry breeding  emphasis world-wide. Cherry breeders in many countries now use  Stella as the basis of self-fertile breeding programs. This variety is  now extensively planted in the Okanagan.  112 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  The "poultry ranch" at Summerland research establishment. (Courtesy Penticton Museum)  Fruit and Vegetable Processing  There were exciting things going on in research at the station in  the early 1930s, notably the establishment of the fruit and vegetable processing lab under F. E. (Ted) Atkinson, and the later  Summerland station director, Dr. C. C. Strachan. Their initial work  was in dehydration of fruits—mainly prunes and apples—and the  work quickly progressed into sulfuring of cherries and processing  them into the maraschino product. This was an important project  at the time because there was a large volume of Royal Anne cherries that were difficult to market fresh, owing to the fact that the  skin marked rather badly. Dr. Strachan also developed the opalescent vitamin-fortified apple juice that we know today, which research formed the basis of the present British Columbia Fruit Growers Association (BCFGA) apple-juice industry, which utilized up to  50,000 tons of processed fruit in some years.  Another interesting study undertaken at this time was that  of stone fruit maturity in relation to marketing that was conducted  by J. E. Britton. I had the privilege of being associated with him for  a number of years in this work. With an enlarging peach production following the introduction of better varieties such as the Vees  (Veteran, Valiant and Vedette) and Rochester, concern was felt about  the condition of fruit reaching BC and Prairie markets. We conducted a number of studies that indicated that for best market shipment, peaches should be picked somewhere between four and six  days from full ripeness, if they were to be shipped, or held for an  extended period. I published a number of papers on this subject  and the work also was extended into study of maturity indices for  apricots, sweet cherries and prunes. All these investigations showed  that there was a serious problem in the harvesting of stone fruits in  113 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  «v  Examining cold-stored apples. Left to right: Earl Edge, Stanley Porritt, Donald Fisher.  (D. V Fisher)  order to reach market in attractive condition. Very often apricots,  especially the Kaleden variety, were picked so green they would  fail to ripen properly, or peaches were picked so small and green  they only ripened to an inferior, astringent product.  Harvesting and Cold Storage  In 1938 through 1940 I undertook an extensive series of studies on  the harvesting and cold storage of peaches in which it was shown  that the standard varieties, Vedete, Veteran and Valiant, could be  held for periods of two and sometimes three weeks in 30 degrees  (Fahrenheit) storage, but if held longer or if held at 36 and 40 degrees E, became mealy and lost their capacity to ripen. Despite  this information and the fact that this work has been repeated a  number of times, we still hear complaints of over-stored peaches  or peaches held at wrong temperatures.  As a result of these studies, much of the present practice on  proper harvesting, handling and storage of stone fruit was developed. Not only was there a problem of immature stone fruits being  shipped to markets, but also of over-ripe fruit. It often happened  that stone fruits, especially peaches, would be picked at a good  maturity, but were not handled expediently at the packing house  and then loaded hot into refrigerator cars. The result was that cooling took place very slowly in the cars and shipping temperatures  might be up in the 50 degree F. range. It was only a matter of time  before the industry put into effect regulations requiring stone fruits  114 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  to be cooled to 50 degrees before loading. Part of the problem at  this time, too, was that there frequently was inadequate cold storage capacity for rapid cooling, or even no pre-cooling facilities at  all.  One of the aspects of storage work in which I was particularly involved from 1934 onwards was the study of conditions under which fruit was handled in packing houses and cold storages.  In 1938 I conducted a survey of all the cold storages in the BC  interior, tabulating data on their size, cooling capacity and types of  refrigeration equipment. This resulted in a report the following  year that analyzed the total storage capacity of the industry and  indicated that many houses were inadequately equipped to do a  rapid cooling job on apples, especially in the Mcintosh season. The  inadequacies and suggested improvements were discussed with the  management of each facility, which led to many improvements  being effected.  In 1937 I became interested in controlled atmosphere storage, which was then a relatively new thing in Great Britain and  was being looked at seriously in Eastern Canada. On the basis of a  number of experimental trials at the station, I put together a controlled atmosphere storage room at the old lakeside plant of  Summerland Co-operative Growers, in which was stored one-half  carload of Mcintosh apples. These were held under an atmosphere  of seven percent carbon dioxide and 14 percent oxygen. The fruit  was released in February 1938 and was the first commercial shipment of controlled atmosphere storage apples in Canada. However,  the first commercial C. A. storage plant in this country was established shortly afterward in Frelighsburg, Quebec.  In 1937 I commenced graduate studies at Iowa State University, at that time noted for its work in the field of fruit storage. The  subject of my research was to determine the best controlled atmosphere storage conditions for holding Delicious apples. My thesis,  published in 1941, indicated that an atmosphere of 2.5 percent oxygen, with no carbon dioxide, gave the best results. Present research  (1975) and industry practice confirm this same oxygen level, but  indicate that a small amount of carbon dioxide will improve the  storage life of Delicious.  After completing my PhD at Iowa State, I joined the Canadian Army. It was not until 1946 that I resumed my career at the  Summerland Research Station. We continued to do cold storage studies, principally with Mcintosh, Newtown and Delicious. By about  1948 there were 55 cold storage plants in the Okanagan and  Kootenays, with a combined capacity of close to eight million boxes.  For three summers—1947 through 1949—1 had Dr. W R. F. Grierson-  Jackson, then an assistant botany professor at UBC, assist me in an  115 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  extensive BCFGA-funded survey of the air distribution systems in  cold storage plants in the BC interior. This study revealed many  shortcomings in cold storage capacities and design and the results  of our findings were published in two papers in Refrigerating Engineering Journal. Further improvements in cold storage design and  operation ensued as a result of this research.  In 1949, Dr. Stanley W Porritt joined the Pomology staff and  for 25 years has conducted outstanding work, especially in controlled atmosphere storage and operation of cold storage plants. He  published a standard reference, "Commercial Storage of Fruit and  Vegetables," and is highly regarded in the industry. He was one of  four persons sent by the BCFGA to New Zealand in 1957 to evaluate and make recommendations on harvesting apples in bulk bins,  adopted here shortly after. In this work he was assisted by Dr. M.  Meheriuk, who joined the staff in 1967.  Growth Regulators  In the late 1930s some promising experiments began to be reported  in the United States, showing that one of the growth regulators,  naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) could be used as a means of preventing fruit drop in apples. I was privileged to be involved in the  first of this work in the Okanagan, and conducted pre-harvest NAA  experiments in 1940 with Mcintosh that showed dramatic results.  However, the effect was only good for about nine days from time of  application. Along about 1950, 245TP was introduced and Dr. Porritt  and I were instrumental in doing the first experimental work in  this area with this stop-drop chemical. The results of our experiments (1975) still form the basis for the use of this material in the  BC interior fruit industry. Alar entered the scene as the miracle  growth regulator and stop-drop in 1962 and has been recommended  in this area since 1968. The work leading to the introduction of  Alar in this area was conducted by Dr. N. E. Looney, who is now  recognized internationally for his work on growth regulators.  Dwarf Rootstock  The early rootstock work conducted by Dr. R. C. Palmer resulted in  the decision about 1939 that Mailing 2 was the ideal choice for  dwarfing apple trees to about three-quarters standard size and the  recommendation that such trees could be planted as closely as 20  by 20 feet. The selection of the Mailing 2 was also influenced by  the fact that it showed good resistance to crown rot. A. J. Mann and  F. W. L. Keane set out many trial blocks in different fruit growing  areas, involving thousands of trees on different rootstocks, principally Mailing 2. Unfortunately, much of the data from these  plantings has been lost, since many properties were sold and other  plantings were not properly looked after.  116 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  Pomology Section staff, 1966. (D. V. Fisher)  No extensive commercial interest in small apple tree culture  occurred until 1950, when L. L. VanRoechoudt, a Belgian orchardist,  set up model plantings in Okanagan Centre and succeeded in demonstrating to fellow growers, much more effectively than could an  experimental station, the advantages of growing trees on dwarfing  rootstocks. From this time on, the interest in dwarfing rootstocks  gradually gathered momentum, and in 1957 new plantings were  set out at the Summerland station and in other trial plots in the  Valley.  Dr. Donald R. Heinicke joined the Pomology staff in 1961 and  between then and his departure in 1965 to work in the United States,  distinguished himself as rootstock and tree training specialist. In  connection with tree training, he stressed the importance of light  penetration into the canopy of apple trees. He engineered a mobile photosynthesis laboratory that could evaluate leaf performance in various locations on a tree and under different sunlight  conditions, relative to the manufacture of sugars. For this work in  1962, he received the Gourley Award for a paper presented to the  American Society for Horticulture Science.  The lead given by the Summerland station and the experience of commercial growers have resulted in the industry adopting universally small trees as the most economical unit for  orcharding. I doubt if there are any apple trees on standard root-  stocks being planted today, except for spur strains, popular dwarfing rootstocks now being Mailing 4, 7, 9,11 and 26. The publication  in 1966 of High Density Orchards for British Columbia Conditions (D.  117 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  V. Fisher) was a very popular publication, with 10,000 copies distributed. In the period from 1966 through 1970 I addressed nearly  every BCFGA local in the Okanagan Valley on the subject of high-  density orchards. It has also been my privilege to speak to practically every major fruit growers' meeting in Canada and the United  States on the same topic.  In 1967, as a Canada Centennial project, we introduced the  now-popular BCFGA Compact Orchard Centennial Trophy, presented annually at the BCFGA convention to a selected grower, for  excellence in dwarf fruit tree culture. Incidentally, the trophy was  made from wood from the first apple tree at the Kelowna Oblate  Fathers Mission, planted in 1862.  Another significant development that I have been involved  with is the oblique palmette system for training peaches. With this  system, trees on seedling roots are planted about 12 by 17 feet,  trained to a wire support system and kept to a height of about 6.5  feet. High early yields are attained and all operations—pruning,  thinning and picking—are done at ground level. I also introduced  the idea of dwarfing peach trees by budding on Prunus tomentosa  rootstock. Trees this size are also fine for home gardens.  High-Density Planting and New Varieties  In 1955, when I became head of the Pomology Section at the  Summerland station, we had to realign the research program to  utilize the staff to best advantage. Thus, I became responsible for  the work in high-density orchards, including rootstocks, and an  extensive fruit variety testing program. We had over 1,000 varieties  of all fruits, including grapes, under test. In 1957 I was instrumental in recommending for limited commercial trial, two new peach  varieties—Fairhaven and Triogem. After several years it became  apparent that Fairhaven was the better of these two and in 1975 it  was still recommended as the best variety to follow Redhaven. About  1956 the Tydeman's Early apple appeared promising, and as a result of our trials, was recommended for a limited commercial planting, later expanded. The Tydeman was the first good apple to mature before Mcintosh that could be handled with ease. This was  because of its excellent colour, size and firm texture. Tydeman has  filled a useful place in the industry, but probably is planted to as  large a degree as present (1975) demand dictates.  Around 1957 the search was on for the best among the new  high-colour strains of Delicious. I became very involved in this program and collected some 40 strains for testing at Summerland. The  industry needed a good strain to include in its certified budwood  program, and through the suggestion of W A. Luce of Yakima and a  personal visit to Wayne Harrold in Zillah, Washington, I recom-  118 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  mended that the  BCFGA purchase  rights on the  Harrold Red Delicious, which they  did for $2,000. Subsequently, this has  become the most  important red  strain of Delicious  to be planted in  this area.  In the early  1950s a very exciting development  took place in Delicious and Golden  Delicious, namely  the introduction of  the spur strains.  We quickly made  arrangements  with Stark Brothers Nurseries to  permit their  Starkrimson to be  distributed  through the  BCFGA Certified  Budwood      Pro-  Dr. K. O. Lapins beside compact Lambert cherry tree. gram. At trie same  (d. v Fisher) time I collected a  dozen or more  spur strains of Red Delicious for our test planting and found them  to be substantially similar, with the exception of one or two that  were inclined to be stripey.  The spur strains of Golden Delicious were introduced from  Washington about the same time. However, because of strain instability and reversions to standard Golden Delicious and susceptibility to rubbery wood virus, Spur Goldens are not recommended.  The discovery of the spur-type Mcintosh marked a turning  point in the history of this variety in the same way as Delicious  and Golden Delicious development. The first spur strain of Mcintosh  was found right in Summerland—on the Greenslade orchard in  Garnett Valley. The extreme value of this discovery was recognized  by the BCFGA, which together with Hilltop Nurseries of Hartford,  119 SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  Michigan, purchased exclusive rights for propagating this strain  named MacSpur. Summerland station undertook a rapid buildup of  the strain by budding 120 trees in late September of 1967, from  which 5,000 trees were budded in 1968. By 1969 it was possible to  distribute 250,000 buds to nurseries. At the same time, other spur  strains of Mcintosh were discovered in the Valley, namely Raikes  (Morspur), Dewar (Dewar Spur) and Gatzke (Starkspur).  Pruning and Tree Training  Over the years I have been deeply involved in pruning and tree-  training experiments. The bulletin Pruning Fruit Trees and Small  Fruits published in 1957 has been very popular, but is now replaced  by the BC Department of Agriculture bulletin Commercial Apple  Growing in B. C. (Swales). I also took part in the introduction and  popularization of the use of spreaders to increase branch angles,  especially with spur and regular Red Delicious.  I believe that future commercial production of apples in this  area will be centred on three varieties: spur and regular Mcintosh,  spur and regular Red Delicious, and Golden Delicious. The spur  types will likely be propagated on seedling rootstocks and the standard strains on Mailing 26, 4 or 7 at spacings of 7 by 14 feet to 10 by  18 feet, depending on soil type and variety. Certainly, in our experiments at Summerland, we have shown that the highest early  and consistent yields have been from spur Delicious on various  roots, and regular and spur Golden Delicious on semi-dwarfing  stocks. Author's footnote: Today, 1998, almost all apple plantings are  on M9 rootstock at spacings varying from .5 by 8 metres to 1 by 10  metres.  Grape Industry  This story should not fail to mention the recent successful development of the Okanagan grape industry. My first experience with  this crop was from 1934 through 1936 when I was in charge of the  Summerland Research Station variety testing program. At that time  we screened several hundred varieties. However, lack of interest  in the industry led the station to discontinue grape work until 1957,  when the present variety testing program was initiated. We then  planted 12 of the most promising Seibel hybrids, plus other varieties gleaned from breeding programs of many European countries,  as well as from the United States and Ontario. Out of this program  came the recommendation in 1975 to plant Seibel 9549, now the  most important variety grown in the Okanagan. A breeding program started in 1966 by Dr. Lapins gives promise of a number of  outstanding new plant types. Work in grape breeding, training and  variety evaluation was assumed by Lyall Denby in 1971 and resulted in the introduction of Sovereign Coronation, an early, blue,  seedless grape of Concord flavour.  120 NOSTALGIA  THE HOLDUP OF STEVE  MANGOTT OF FAIRVIEW  Russ Overton  When the Overtons moved to Fairview in 1923, the old mining town  was becoming a ghost of its former self. You could still get a room  at the only remaining hotel. There was a post office, a grocery store,  church, school, the government office and a jailhouse, but not much  else, as the once-booming settlement was losing out to upstart Oliver  down in the valley bottom.  Many of the miners and prospectors still lived in or near the  old town. Many still searched the hills in the hope of finding that  big vein of ore that would make them rich. One such person was  Fairview about 1914.  121 THE HOLDUP OF STEVE MARGOTT OF FAIRVIEW  The Stemwinder Mine at Fairview prior to 1900.  an American miner named Steve Mangott, a tall, handsome man  who had arrived in Canada from the eastern United States in 1897.  He was a somewhat flamboyant character, a good rider who rode a  spirited mare. The horse was fast and she could jump well. Steve  said that in the early days there was a rail fence and gate across the  mouth of the gulch to keep cattle from drifting into the village. He  never stopped to open the gate; instead, cleared the fence at full  gallop.  In 1898 Mangott took in two partners, Danny McEachern and  Thomas Woodland. Together they purchased the Morning Star claim,  a mile or so north of Reed's Creek (named for an earlier prospector  called One Armed Reed) from a Fred Gwatkins. Then they set up,  near Reed's Creek, a five-stamp mill manufactured by the Stratheyre  Mining Company.  The ore in the Morning Star mine contained free gold. That  is to say it could be crushed in the stamp mill, then run over sluices  and screens to catch the gold, which was then melted and cast into  bars and delivered to Penticton.  By 1923 the ore had run out and the Stratheyre mill sat idle  alongside the road to our ranch above Fairview. Many of the prospectors of that time, including Mangott, would stop at our place  and visit. Steve was quite deaf. The story was that he had lost his  hearing as the result of having a bottle broken over his head in a  barroom brawl. Steve liked to talk to my father, as he could understand what Dad was saying.  122 THE HOLDUP OF STEVE MARGOTT OF FAIRVIEW  So it was, warmed by a little wood-burning stove, in the glow  of a coal-oil lamp, that I sat beside my father and listened to Steve  tell of the early days in Fairview.  He told of seeing the smoke rising from the fire at the Big  Teepee—the Fairview Hotel. He thought of his girlfriend, the chambermaid who worked there. On his mare he raced down to see the  grand old hotel engulfed in flames. The chambermaid perished in  the conflagration, and Steve was to remain a bachelor for life.  On another occasion Steve told about being held up as he  carried his gold bars on horseback to Penticton. He said, "I had a  vest made of heavy canvas with two pockets on each side so I could  carry four bars at a time. One moonlight night I headed out when I  thought nobody saw me. As I was going through some tall timber a  man stepped out from behind a tree and said, 'Hands up.' I kicked  my mare in the ribs and just about ran over him."  The holdup man's aggression now quickly turned to self-preservation as he scrambled out of the way, and Steve was gone. He  told us, "I never stopped running until I got away out on the flats  and I could see nobody was following me."  Years later Steve was on a train travelling to New York to visit  a brother when he struck up a conversation with a fellow passenger. One thing led to another and Fairview was mentioned. The  other man asked, "Are you Steve Mangott?"  Digby abode around the turn of the century. The men, an international group if there ever was  one, are identified from left to right as: J. H. G. Riley of Johannesburg, G. B. McPherson Grant,  Ballindalloch Castle, Scotland, Dr. R. B. White, Fairview, G. A. C Steward, London, C A.  Skinner, Shanghai, Rayleigh Digby, Johannesburg.  123 THE HOLDUP OF STEVE MARGOTT OF FAIRVIEW  "I am," Steve replied.  The stranger said, "Do you remember the night you were  held up on your way to Penticton?"  "Yes," answered Steve.  "Well, you passed within a few feet of me, and if you had  turned back, I was to shoot you!"  #     #     #  After the heady days of easy-come, easy-go, boom-town  Fairview, Steve settled down to a quiet life at the Morning Star. He  spent his time working a small band of ore in a tunnel that had a  padlocked door. With a single jack and steel he laboriously drilled  holes in the rock face of his tunnel. Dynamite was then placed in  the holes and set off. After the blast, Steve would remove the gold-  bearing rock and, with mortar and pestle, crush it to dust. The gold  was then separated by panning.  My father was by there one day and Steve showed him the  mortar and pestle and a glass jar half-full of gold.  If you travel the road up the Fairview gulch, past what used  to be the red-light district, and on up to the old Morning Star mine  site, you can see, imprinted in one of the concrete footings, the  name Steve Mangott.  124 PREMIER McBRIDE  IS "BANQUETED"  Editor's note: While researching the history of the Interior Provincial  Exhibition, fessieAnn Gamble of the Armstrong-Enderby Branch, turned  up this verbatim account of the hospitality afforded the province's leading political figure by residents of Enderby and district. From The  Armstrong Advance and Spallumcheen Advocate, Eugene Rhian  publisher, we reprint this example of hometown reporting in BC's sky's-  the-limit era. The year was 1905, when Armstrong was a two-paper  town, with the Advertiser supplying the news counterpoint, and by  1907 having the market to itself.  Citizens of Enderby Do Themselves Proud  in the Entertainment of the Premier and Other Guests  [November 24, 1905]—In their tour of the Interior the Hon.  Richard McBride, Premier of the province, and Minister of Mines,  and Hon. R. F. Green, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,  visited the Spallumcheen the last of the week, and were entertained  at a most successful banquet tendered by the citizens of our neighbouring city of Enderby on Saturday evening.  A number of Armstrong citizens were in attendance and enjoyed to the full the festivities of the occasion.  Elaborate preparations had been made by the northern city  and everything was carried out in a manner reflecting great credit  upon not only those directly in charge, but the citizens in general.  In the afternoon a reception was held at the handsome new  hostlery, (sic) the King Edward. A large gathering of residents had  availed themselves of the opportunity of making the acquaintance  of the Premier and Chief Commissioner. Price Ellison, M.P.P., was  also gladly welcomed by his numerous friends as one of the guests  of the day, and by his genial good humour did much to give the  gathering the air of friendly fellowship not always so noticeable at  similar functions.  Nothing of a political nature was allowed to enter into the  proceedings, and the fact was everywhere evident the Premier is  held in very high esteem among the people of the province, not  only within the ranks of his own political party, but the people in  general.  About one hundred guests sat down to the banquet at the  Enderby Hotel in the evening. Landlord Wright did himself proud  in the manner in which he catered to the assembly, and the menu  125 PREMIER McBRIDE FETED  would have put to shame that of many larger centers where greater  things might be expected. The large dining room, which was tastily  and appropriately decorated, was crowded, and great credit is due  to the waitresses of the evening for the excellent manner in which  the wants of the guests were attended to.  Mayor Bell presided as chairman of the evening with all the  dignity of his office and displayed his usual grace and ability in this  capacity.  In order to avoid breaking in on the Sabbath, the toast list  was comparatively short, being as follows:  "The King," proposed by the chairman, and followed by the  national anthem.  "Our Empire," proposed by the chairman and replied to by  Sir Arthur Stepney.  "The United States," proposed by Basil Gardom, and followed  by the American national anthem.  "Our Guest," proposed by Mayor Bell, and replied to by Hon.  Richard McBride.  "Our Province," proposed by Thos. Taylor, M.P.P., and replied  toby Hon. R. F. Green, M.P.P., and Price Ellison, M.P.P.  "Our Valley and Milling Industries," proposed by F. C.  Wolfenden, and replied to by Geo. McCormick and Donald Graham.  "Our City," proposed by Geo. Heggie, replied to by Mayor  Bell and H. W Harvey.  "The Press," proposed by A. E. Taylor and replied to by J. F.  Smith, of the Vernon News, and W Fraser of the Enderby Progress.  "The Ladies," proposed by W P. Gooch, and replied to by Alex  Shields.  "Auld Lang Syne."  We are unable to give a complete report of the many excellent and interesting speeches made. However, all were teeming  with good things about the Okanagan, and foretold unbounded hope  in the minds of the speakers for the future prosperity of the valley.  Premier McBride and Commissioner Green expressed themselves  as exceptionally well pleased with their visit to the Interior of the  province. With its almost limitless resources the development of  the wealth of the province, agriculturally, horticulturally and  minerally, during the next few years will be remarkable. As Minister of Mines the Premier has a deep interest in the mineral deposits of the province and is especially enthusiastic over its prospects  in this line.  The people of Enderby were especially glad to learn that the  funds for the Mable [sic] lake road are to be provided for in the next  estimates. This is a road that is badly needed.  126 PICKING UP THE PIECES  Charley Adam  This is a story about an old car, and about my unsuccessful attempt  to become an antique vehicle collector and restorer. The automobile in question was a Napier, made in England about 1912 and  owned by Dr. Benjamin deFurlong Boyce of Kelowna. It also belonged to the lawyer, John Ford (John Fat) Burne, I think, and to H.  B. D. Lysons, at different times. It was a make similar to the Rolls-  Royce of the period.  I will begin with an incident that occurred about 1939, while  I was a pupil at Glenn Avenue school. A group of kids were pushing an old car chassis around the school ground and afterward it  apparently sat in Cretin's garage for a while. Somehow I found out  it was the Napier. Still later, while on a hike to Bear Creek, I noticed  the chassis just north of the Westside ferry wharf; it seemed like it  was being used as a Bennett buggy.  The Napier in better days — Kelowna staged a main-street (Bernard Avenue) show of automotive  affluence shortly before World War One, with Dr. Boyce's pride and joy in second position, far left.  Perhaps more aware of the significance of the event than the human spectators, horses have  assumed a scornful stance.  Charley Adam has lived in Kelowna all his life and was managing director of  Jenkins Transport, a pioneer Okanagan trucking company. He is now retired.  127 PICKING UP THE PIECES  When I started work, I found myself hauling fruit from the  Harry Oikawa orchard, behind Mori's greenhouse, where  Cottonwoods is now, and where for several years I had noticed  some old car parts lying in the bush. One day I stopped and spoke  to Satoshi Mori, who told me to help myself to the pieces, which  indeed could be linked with the Napier.  Shortly afterward I came across another key part, the radiator, hanging in the back room at Ira Graves's garage, at the corner  of Glenwood and Richter. Ira said that many years before, Lysons,  who formerly owned the Mori place, had been cutting wood with a  buzz saw that had, I believe, a Model T engine with a defective  radiator. Ira had the right replacement, so he made a trade for the  big Napier radiator, which he sold to me after all those years, and  very reasonably, too. This took place in the 1950s and by then I  had quite a pile of parts in the yard.  Also by this time, I thought there was a good chance of obtaining most of the pieces needed to reassemble the car, so I placed  an advertisement in the papers asking for leads to the parts still  missing. George Hamilton telephoned to advise that George Flintoft  had the engine at his ranch on McKinley Road. I went to see Mr.  Flintoft at Bennett's Hardware and it turned out that he was quite  interested in the idea of putting the Napier back together. He decided, however, that since he hoped to restore the automobile himself, the engine was not for sale. That being the case, I sold him the  parts I had gathered. I also mentioned having seen the chassis on  the Westside road many years before. We two went to that location,  and after receiving directions from the woman at the nearest house,  found the carcass in a little valley just above the road. George was  able to obtain it from the owner and now he had almost all the  parts.  Then another old-car enthusiast entered the picture. Somebody from the Coast was restoring a similar car. This man bought  all the pieces George Flintoft had and eventually was able to finish  his car. We saw it a few years later when it was displayed at Orchard Park shopping centre with a number of other antique automobiles. Several old pictures of the Kelowna Napier exist, and the  restored model looks just like the one in the old photographs.  Just a few years ago I heard that Glenn Patterson and Art  Would had received quite a scolding from principal F. T. Marriage  for their part in wheeling the old chassis onto the school ground.  So ended my hopes of becoming an antique automobile collector and restorer. If I had bought a number of old cars when prices  were low, and if I had a safe place to keep them, I could have made  a lot of money. But then we always say the same thing about investing in property. I think they call it 20-20 hindsight.  128 HUMAN ENDEAVOUR  PERCY  RUTH'S  SEED  BUSINESS  INTRODUCTION  The following article on a chapter of Salmon Arm history was  to be about my father, Percy A. Ruth, establishing the first  conifer seed extraction plant in the interior of British Columbia in 1927. However, when I discussed the project with my  sister, Dorothy Bennett, and my sister-in-law, Lilian Ruth, many  more aspects of my father's life and business endeavours came to  mind. Consequently, I thought it prudent to record these events as  well.  It is also important to remind anyone reading these notes that,  like most successful individuals, Father had a partner in the background  who kept things running smoothly. This would be our mother, who took  great pride in her home and family, and was very active in the United  Church, teaching Sunday School and assisting in other church activities. Although not always approving of her husband's business and  sporting activities, she had a great deal of respect and admiration for  him. This, combined with a wonderful sense of humour on both sides,  got my parents through the difficult times.  Salmon Arm residents can be proud of the fact that long before the environmental movement became popular, someone was  quietly doing his part to reforest many parts of Europe that had  been devastated by centuries of harvesting and two world wars.  129 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The only records left of Ruth's conifer seed business were his notebooks that listed the names of the First Nations people who collected  the cones, and the prices paid per sack. All correspondence with seed  buyers was either destroyed or went with the business when it was  sold. Consequently, I am indebted to the following individuals and  newspapers for supplying information relating to the venture: the late  Gordon Roche, for writing A Brief History of the Tree Seed Business in  British Columbia; The Salmon Arm Observer; Woodland World, April  1950, "Squirrels are Willing Workers" (Alixe Carter); Dobbs, R. C,  Edwards, D. G. W., Konishi, Jenji, and Wallinger, D., Guidelines to Collecting Cones ofB. C. Conifers, 1976; BC Forest Service, Canadian Forest  Service; the late J. A. B. MacDonald of Dumfries, Scotland; Dr. Remy  Claire of Monteliar, France, who is an authority on Douglas-fir, for  supplying photographs of stands of Douglas-fir in France and Scotland; Dr. Palle Madsen, Danish Forestry Commission, for reviewing  old government records of conifer seed purchases and finding my father's name therein; Don Piggot, Yellow Point Propagation, Ladysmith,  for inspiration and information about collecting cones and his observations made on the habits of squirrels; Frank Barnard, Western Tree  Seeds Limited of  Sorrento. Robert Herring of Campbell  River provided photographs taken by himself and by his late fa-  ther, Clifford Herring, formerly of  Squilax, BC. Also recognized are the people who worked in  the seed extraction  plant: Andrew  Mitchell, Charlie  Allen and my late  brother, Don Ruth. I  am also indebted to  my sister, Dorothy  Bennett, for details of  the early years, and  to Yvonne McDonald  and Denis Marshall  of Salmon Arm for  providing information and giving me a  kick-start on some-  thins that I should "Ta^ oa^s fr°m ^e acorns STOW" — Seed from the Shuswap  -i i | Lake area produced this 60-meter (197 feet) Douglas-fir giant at  nave aone long ago. cienlee, Galloway, Scotland. When this photograph was taken  in 1996, the conifer was 70 years old.  130 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  THE FIRST CONIFER SEED  BUSINESS IN THE  BC INTERIOR  Douglas Ruth  On the slopes of an evergreen plantation forest at Glenlee,  Galloway, Scotland, soars a strapping 70-year-old, 60-meter  (197 feet) Douglas-fir giant that began life as a seed in the  Shuswap Lake area of British Columbia. How it emigrated to Britain, along with millions of similar and other tree seeds to the Continent, can be traced to the entreprenurial spirit of P. A. Ruth of  Salmon Arm.  Percy Ruth first came to the Shuswap in 1907 from Carman,  Manitoba, at the age of 24, to visit his sister and brother-in-law,  Allie and Glen Warren, and his brother, John Ruth, who had  homesteaded in the South Broadview area. Father's life journey up  to then had seen him attend a business school at Brandon and take  up a homestead near Didsbury, Alberta. Once he saw BC's magnificent scenery, particularly that of the Salmon Arm area, he quickly  lost interest in the Prairies and returned there for only two or three  brief visits.  In 1908 Mr. and Mrs. A. R. Ruth and their youngest daughter,  Agnes, arrived in Salmon Arm. In addition to a boxcar load of household effects, Mr. Ruth brought five carloads of flour, hay and feed.  With these goods he established a store in the McCallum-Wilcox  Block. Later, the enterprise included the furniture business owned  by the Ruths' son-in-law, Glen Warren.  After working briefly in a Victoria shipyard, Percy Ruth doubled back to Salmon Arm to assist in the family business. Within a  year the McDiarmid family from Lethbridge settled in Salmon Arm.  Father met and subsequently married, in June 1913, the second  oldest McDiarmid daughter, Lyla Margaret. On October 13, 1914, a  daughter, Dorothy Margaret, was born, followed by Donald Frederick  on May 19, 1918, and Douglas Stewart (a fall planting) on September 11, 1932.  Douglas Ruth grew up in Salmon Arm. He trained as a watchmaker and after  several years in the trade, joined the Canadian Forestry Research Laboratory in  Victoria as a research technician. On completing 30 rewarding years, it was time  to retire to the farm in Metchosin.  131 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  At the breakout of war in 1914, Percy Ruth joined the Rocky  Mountain Rangers and became a sergeant in the Military Police,  stationed at Kamloops. Accompanied by his wife and daughter, he  later went to the Coast to work in shipyards at North Vancouver  and New Westminster. Near the end of WWI he entered a shortlived partnership in the automotive field, but although Father was  a capable carpenter, mechanics were definitely not his area of expertise.  Consequently, he decided to go up the coast to tiny Lang  Bay, where he toiled on the log booms. The family stayed there for  about a year, but after a severe winter storm blew away part of the  hamlet's only wharf, they returned to the city. Shortly thereafter  my father got his fondest wish: he acted on an opportunity to return to Salmon Arm, where ajob waited in his father-in-law's hard-  A sacked shipment of cones arrives at the seed plant in Salmon Arm in 1948, conveyed by Mr. and  Mrs. Billy August, who are accompanied by their daughter and grandchildren. On the left are  Percy Ruth, Charlie Allen and Don Ruth. (Francis Kinley photograph  132 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  ware store and apple orchard. In the mid-1920s Percy Ruth struck  out on his own by purchasing the insurance and notary public business of former mayor John Lacey.  In 1922 the Dominion of Canada Forestry Branch, Department of the Interior, established the first seed extraction plant in  New Westminster, in response to a request by the British Forestry  Commission to supply Sitka spruce and Douglas-fir, as well as other  conifer seed. The First World War had depleted the forests of Britain and the Commission wanted to initiate a reforestation program  that would ultimately supply half of Britain's wood requirements.  Four years later, the forestry office in Salmon Arm received a  request from the Dominion Forestry Branch for conifer seed, in  particular Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, ponderosa pine and  Englemann spruce. The local District Fire Banger, C. W Mobley,  apprised my father of this development, thus planting the seed of  an idea in the mind of Percy Ruth, who was always interested in  new business challenges. Ranger Mobley had been responsible for  all the machinery in the original extraction plant at New Westminster, and so was able to pass along the knowledge required for setting up such an operation. Michael Darngaard, another Dominion  forestry employee in Salmon Arm, was also of great assistance in  getting started, notably with his know-how on methods of collecting cones. With the sound advice of these two experts, and the  promise of an interesting source of extra income, Percy Ruth became a seed supplier in 1927.  The Shuswap Lake region was an excellent site for seed gathering as it had wet, transition and dry ecosystems. There were also  many species of conifers growing in the region: Douglas-fir,  Englemann spruce, western larch, western hemlock, western red  cedar; western white pine, ponderosa pine, lodgepole pine; balsam, or subalpine fir, western juniper and western yew. Salmon  Arm had the added advantage of being on the main line of the  CPR, as well as on a main highway. These, together with many  side roads and Shuswap Lake itself, made the transportation of cones  and seeds an easier task.  Footnote: In 1968 the author and his wife were guests of Mr. and Mrs. J. A. B.  MacDonald of Duscore, Dumfries, Scotland. Prior to his retirement, Mr.  MacDonald was chief conservator for Scotland and part of England. Over the  years he had purchased a lot of conifer seed from my father, and was able to  show us a stand of lodgepole pine that was grown from cones collected on  Mount Ida, a landmark behind the town of Salmon Arm. Seed was also sold to  the Manning Seed Company of Roy, Washington, and the Herbest Seed Company of New York. The BC Forest Service also turned to Father to help regenerate forests destroyed by fire.  133 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  Percy Ruth's conifer seeds had a good reputation for quality  and were especially popular in countries that had climatic conditions similar to those of the Shuswap Lake area. Orders came from  Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Austria, Sweden, Norway and  Denmark.  Once the decision had been made to start a seed extraction  plant, the next step was to obtain land and a building. This turned  out to be the easiest part of the venture, as Father owned property,  complete with a barn, on the eastern approach to Salmon Arm,  now occupied by a Ford automobile dealership. He later donated a  piece of this land for Salmon Arm's first curling rink, even taking  on the task of ice-maker. This wasn't entirely a benevolent gesture,  as Father was very fond of curling and this act placed the rink no  farther than two blocks from both his office and residence. It was  also convenient when the seed plant was operating in the late fall.  The barn was subdivided into two rooms, 20 feet square, with  sawdust-filled walls one-foot thick. Three walls were fitted with  wooden racks to support trays, three by two feet, with four-inch  sides. The tray bottoms were made from a heavy wire screen with  a three-quarter-inch grid to allow air circulation. Lastly, a large,  pot-bellied stove was placed in the middle of each room.  An addition was built to house a device for separating seeds  from the cones, at the same time disposing of the empty cones.  This equipment was a cage three feet square and 12 feet long, covered with the same screen that was used on the trays. Driven by an  electric motor, it ran on an angled shaft so that the cones would fall  to the lower end. Located alongside was a metal funnel into which  the opened cones were transferred from the drying trays, and then  fed by gravity into the revolving seed extractor. The tumbling cones  surrendered their seeds on the floor and the empty husks fell into  a chute and were then blown to a beehive burner outside.  Once the seeds were freed, the next step was to remove the  seed wing. This was accomplished by placing them in a cylindrical  steel wire screen called the "dewinger," where three revolving soft  brushes gently removed the unwanted part. It was extremely important not to damage the seed coat, as this would hinder or prevent germination. Here, we should credit Frank Buchan, an electrician and skilled mechanic, for helping to design and build the  pieces of equipment.  When the wings had been removed, the next procedure was  to clean the seed. "Seed," as it comes from the dewinger, is a mixture of wings, dust and pieces of cones that have broken off during  processing. This mix was placed in a machine with the commercial name of "Clipper Cleaner," which was manufactured by the A.  T. Ferrel Co. of Saginaw, Michigan. By rotating a crank, a series of  134 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  fine-mesh trays and a blower were activated. The trays moved back  and forth as the handle was cranked, separating the waste material  from the seed, and at the same time removing the empty seed.  The trays could be removed for cleaning and for selecting the correct mesh to correspond with the species of seed that was being  cleaned.  The processes described above were simple tasks. However,  there was great difficulty in dealing with the large volume of fine  dust that came from the cones. Even though masks were worn, I  am sure dust was a contributing factor to my brother's health problems later in life.  Once the seed was cleaned, the next step was to prepare it  for shipping. After being weighed it was placed in heavy cotton  sacks, generally holding 10 or 50 pounds,  which were then carefully sewn shut and labelled. Special forms  from the federal department of agriculture  had to be completed  before the seed could  be exported. Lots of 15  pounds or less were  sent through the mails,  larger orders by express.  Collecting Cones  After the processing  plant was ready, the  next step was to find  ways of collecting  cones. The choices  were: climbing trees  and picking the fruit,  raiding squirrel caches,  or felling the whole  tree.  Dorothy Ruth  Bennett recalled the  first cone-collecting  Pensive Percy Ruth contemplating a new venture ? Photogra-       trip:  pher Francis Kinley captured the mark of the man in 1948  from the office doorway of the extraction plant. A sack of  processed conifer seed is seen in the foreground, while random Ruth collectibles and oddities festoon the wall.  135 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  "My father loaded Mother, brother Don and I into our Model  T Ford and drove to Silver Creek. A Douglas-fir tree with a heavy  crop of cones was selected and cut down." (It should be noted here  that cone collecting must be done within a certain time frame, when  the seeds are fully developed and before the cones are dry enough  to release their prize. In the case of Douglas-fir, this would be late  August or early September).  With the tree on the ground, the task of plucking the cones  from the branches began, following which they were stuffed into  50-pound potato sacks. Most species of cones have a lot of pitch on  them and it naturally gets all over the picker's hands. This could  really try one's patience, more so if the day was warm and there  were a few mosquitoes about.  Falling trees in the pre-power saw era with axe and saw was a  lot of work, and wasteful if the tree was only to supply seed. My  father attempted this procedure but once; the most practical method  was to collect cones from squirrel caches.  Our native red squirrel climbs the tree in late summer and  early fall when seeds are mature, dropping the cones to the ground  by biting through the stem. Equipped with ultra-efficient teeth, the  animal is able to do this at the rate of one cone per second. Once  the cones are on the ground, the squirrel stores them for winter,  usually in the same spot, year-after-year.  Cones are cached near springs, small creeks or marshes,  around decaying logs, in hollow stumps, and in holes left by decaying roots or around windfalls. Cones that have been damaged by  insects are left beneath the tree and it is probable that the squirrel  is able to tell the difference by the weight. Maggots, wasps, moths  and midges cause considerable seed loss in cone crops each year.  A cache of Douglas-fir cones will fill up to eight 25-pound  sacks; two to four is the average. Amabilis fir caches have yielded  up to 12 sacks. These latter cones are much heavier and a sack  would weigh about 30 pounds.  In the mid-1930s government legislation made squirrels fur-  bearing animals. As a result, thousands were shot for their skins,  which fetched about 10 cents each. Needless to say, the slaughter  had a very detrimental effect on cone collecting and reforestation.  In 1937 Father went public over the practice, and after the BC Forest Service added its support, the legislation was repealed.  Although the Native people accounted for 95 percent of the  collecting, the Ruth family continued to go on cone-gathering outings. This custom carried on until my brother joined the army and  my sister, the air force, at the start of World War II. Dad would  scout the forest for caches, returning to the active gather-site with  words of encouragement to his small band of harvesters. "You're  136 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  doing a wonderful job; I couldn't have done it better myself," he  enthused. He would then disappear into another part of the forest  and I cannot recall him doing that much of the actual picking.  Once the decision to tap squirrel caches was made, the next  step was to find ways of obtaining the cones in sufficient numbers  to make the project viable. For many years my father had been  keenly interested in aboriginal culture and got to know many local  native citizens. He approached band members in Salmon Arm,  Squilax and Chase, including Basil Dennis, Billy August and Michael  Tomma, who responded encouragingly to the prospect of earning  some much-needed money. Locating squirrel caches would be easy,  as they were acutely aware of the natural world.  Empty sacks could be picked up in town, or they were sent to  various pickup points. Cones were usually delivered to the extraction plant by horse and buggy, a mode of conveyance that lasted  until the late 1940s. The price paid for a sack of Douglas-fir cones  was $1, for lodgepole pine, $1.25. In 1937, 5,000 sacks were purchased from Shuswap Natives.  Sacks of cones gathered in the Chase-Squilax area were usually picked up by the Vernon-Kamloops Stage Line, or by Bob  Bristow, who drove for Brown & Smith of Celista. Mr. and Mrs. C. E.  Herring, who ran the Squilax General Store for many years,  unstintingly co-operated in the enterprise by letting Father know  when a cone shipment was ready to go forward. On many transactions, instead of a cheque being mailed to the picker, credit for  same would be established at the store, and charges for goods purchased to that amount were paid by the seed firm. A similar arrangement existed with other stores in the area and remained so  until the business was sold.  Non-Natives also collected cones. Those whom I can recall  were Mr. and Mrs. Ed Shay and John Revel. Mr. Revel later became  a professional forester and had a distinguished career with the BC  Ministry of Forests in the Prince George region.  In the interval between reaching the plant and processing,  care had to be taken to ensure cones were kept in suitable condition, as they contain a considerable amount of moisture and expand and generate heat when bagged, which may damage seed  and encourage mold. The interior lodgepole pine is the only species not affected by this problem. Sacks must either standby themselves in a shaded area, with plenty of space around them, or be  laid on their sides on racks with space between each bag. On several occasions, when there were exceptionally heavy cone crops  and storage space was limited, it was necessary to use the curling  rink. Then, the cones were spread on the floor of the waiting room  and in one or two instances all three rinks were used as well. Two  137 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  or three times a week the cones would be racked to expose more to  the air and thus prevent heating. Needless to say, all this activity  took place long before the curling season commenced!  During the thirties, and until the end of WWII, Andrew  Mitchell assisted my father in operating the extraction plant in the  fall. After the war, when my brother Don returned from military  service, he and Charlie Allen looked after the cone-processing duties. I would also help when not in school.  I have given a fairly detailed description of the plant, and so  the methods used in treating the cones will be brief. After the cones  were placed in the screen trays in the two drying rooms, the environment was heated to 110 to 115 degrees Fahrenheit for 48 hours,  the actual time depending on the cones' moisture content. In order to keep the temperature up it was necessary to make at least  one after-hours stoking visit. When the cone scales flexed open it  was an indication they were dry and ready to release their seed.  Cones that have been stored for years will close and open in the  same way when alternately moistened and dried.  As a free service to Salmon Arm residents, my father made  his facilities available for prune-drying—when there was space to  spare. This service did a lot to help keep many of the local citizens  regular during the winter months. The favour came to an end in  the mid-1940s when one prune grower was sure the quantity of  fruit brought in to be dried was much greater than what he got  back.  Fluctuating Crops and Other Problems  The collecting of cones and the extraction of seed for reforestation was a satisfying and essential venture. However, it had  one great drawback—the yearly variation in yields. Heavy Douglas-fir crops occur approximately every eight to 10 years; in between, crops varied from light to medium.  Tree nutrition and weather conditions are two of the factors  that determine seed production. Because of the fluctuation in crop  size one could not rely on nature as a single source of income,  particularly in the 1930s. Collections were made from other species such as lodgepole, ponderosa and white pine, but the biggest  demand remained Douglas-fir. The uncertain tempo of the seed  business made it essential that my father devote time to the insurance and real estate office. On May 1, 1926 he became a member  of the Society of Notaries Public of British Columbia, and seven  months later was appointed coroner, a position he held until selling the real estate and insurance business to H. W Scales in 1947.  In addition to these endeavours, he grubstaked a number of local  138 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  prospectors. Millions of paper dollars changed hands in the Ruth  office, however very little actual money was made from any of the  claims he shared in.  Over the years a great deal of mutual trust and respect built  up between my father and the First Nations people. They would  come to him for money, or help when someone was sick or in  trouble with the law. Elderly band members were in the habit of  entrusting him with sums of money, which he would bank in their  names, to be used later for necessities or for a feast when they  died.  In August 1974, the Native people of Salmon Arm presented  Percy Ruth with a handsome talking stick, carved by Wally Williams.  The presentation was made by Christine Allen, a 90-year-old First  People of the Shuswap Nation  were on the ground, so to speak,  in the labour-intensive practice  of gathering seed cones for  Percy Ruth's enterprise. They  included Jack and Pauline Sam  of Squilax, photographed in  1940, and Peter Toma (left), as  he was in 1938. (Photographs  courtesy Robert Herring)  139 PERCY RUTH'S SEED BUSINESS  Nations citizen, who was also honoured at the assembly. In explaining the significance of the gift, Les Williams was quoted as  saying, "Percy has been a good friend of the Indian people in this  area for many, many years. We've wanted to give him something  for a long, long time. Finally, we thought of this."  Williams went on to explain that in addition to always being  friendly and fair with the Indian population, there was a long period of hard times when Percy Ruth was the only source of income  for area Natives. "Without him, there would not have been any  work," Mr. Williams emphasized.  Sale of the business, and other activities  The year 1947 also witnessed the sale of P. A. Ruth Real Estate and  Insurance to Harold and Myrtle Scales. My father had difficulty in  adjusting to semi-retirement, which led to an addition being built  at the seed plant where he could carry on with a few business connections, as well as running the conifer-seed enterprise.  In 1951, John Fleur de Lys, a former Swiss banker, became a  partner in the seed company, which became known as Shuswap  Tree Seeds Limited. Ruth and Fleur de Lys subsequently pooled  resources to start BC Acceptance Company, whose main source of  income came from financing consumer purchases such as farm  implements and furniture from local merchants.  BC Acceptance only lasted about two years before the banks  realized they were missing out on something, raised their interest  rates, and got into the retail finance business themselves. The Fleur  de Lys-Ruth partnership continued until Shuswap Tree Seeds was  sold to the Manning Seed Company, of Roy, Washington, in 1954.  Father, seldom seen without his trademark cigar, lived in a  time when small towns such as Salmon Arm afforded their male  denizens, if they were so disposed, boundless opportunities for  practical joking and merry-making. For many years most of the  businessmen took Wednesday afternoon off and when the weather  did not permit the customary outdoor distractions, the seed plant  office became a card-playing hangout of mythic proportions where  the tobacco smoke was impenetrable and the game of choice was  penny ante.  Percy Ruth was now 71 years old and ready to retire, if only  to devote more attention to his favourite pursuits: hunting, curling  and golf. After 35 years on the fairways, he got his first hole-in-one  at age 82 and it would be another 12 years before he gave up the  game. Retirement years looked kindly on my parents; they enjoyed  one another's company, their beautiful garden, and frequent walks.  On April 8, 1981, Percy Ruth died in his 98th year. Lyla McDiarmid  Ruth was 100 when she died in March 1993.  140 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  SUGAR LAKE ROAD, LUMBY, BC  Ruth Sihlis  Goodbye Alberta! Hello Okanagan!  Those were the sentiments echoed by the management and  crew of Ferguson Bros. Sawmill as they rolled open the boxcar  doors on a Lumby railway siding on July 31, 1944 and proceeded to unload sawmill equipment.  It was an adventure for all concerned: for the management  because they were transferring their business from one province  to another, for the crew because they were leaving home territory,  long-time friends, and seeing new horizons for the first time. After  all, in 1944, Sundre, Alberta was half a world away from Lumby,  British Columbia. Simply put, these men who held payroll status  were seeking adventure under the respectable guise of employment.  Lawrence Ferguson Emmett Ferguson  Ruth Sihlis was employed as bookkeeper and industrial first aid attendant by  Ferguson Bros, for five years and lived adjacent to the company camp for 20  years.  141 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  Aerial view of Ferguson Bros, sawmill site on Sugar Lake Road was taken in 1951 It captures  what is believed to be the first log gang sawmill in the area.  The principals in this business were two brothers, Lawrence  and Emmett Ferguson. These men had grown up in the steam age,  but by now had made the transition to diesel; from crosscuts to  power saws, from horses to crawler tractors.  Situated 60 miles northwest of Calgary, Sundre at that time  was a hamlet of less than 100 population. The Ferguson brothers  had operated sawmills there for some 10 years, mainly winter operations whereby they utilized the frozen ground as opposed to the  soft muskeg ground of the warmer months. Now, at Lumby, they  would head a summer operation on higher and drier ground and at  the same time partially avoid the problems of working in winter's  deep snow.  The availability of future timber in the Sundre area was beginning to look grim. With relocation in mind, Lawrence and  Emmett made two reconnaissance trips to the Okanagan Valley  142 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  where they looked at timber stands at Westwold, Enderby and  Lumby. Deciding on the Lumby location, they immediately made  plans to leave the Sundre area.  World War Two being on, permission had to be obtained from  Ottawa to move men and machinery from one province to another.  The boxcar on the Lumby siding yielded a new sawmill, planer,  crawler tractor and a miscellany of small parts and tools. The  Fergusons also brought along two trucks and two passenger cars,  which they drove over the Big Bend Highway. As well, six men  from their Sundre operation were involved in this move.  Their first BC set, for which they paid $1,800, was on Reiter  Creek,1 which is a tributary to the Shuswap River, approximately  25 miles to the east and north of Lumby. A vacant log cabin at the  site served as a cookhouse and, until better accommodation could  be built, the crew slept in truck boxes or whatever other shelter  they could muster. Another sawmill operator who noted the primitive conditions under which the men were living offered to sell the  Fergusons lumber with which to build a camp with more respectable quarters. To which Lawrence is said to have replied, "We're in  the business of making lumber, not buying lumber."  Camp buildings of the day were often laid out 10 by 16 feet.  The width facilitated movement along the narrow bush roads either by skidding or on a flat deck when relocation became necessary. The length was suitable for sleeping quarters for a crew, or  Ferguson Bros, sawmill crew 1947. Left to right: Henry Teuton, unidentified, Henry Phillips, Joe  Porter, Angus Davis, unidentified, Ken Wangler, Walter Perog, Frank Pedley, Mike Maykowski,  Adelard Mauchaud, Johnny Sihlis.  143 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  could quickly be made into a cookhouse or a tool shed. It was an  economical design that was used over and over again in lumber  camps.  At this time it was necessary for the Ferguson brothers to  return to Alberta for two more winters of milling, in order to fulfill  their contracts with the Alberta Forest Service. Otherwise, they  would forfeit at least part of their $4,000 deposit. This obligation  completed and their deposit refunded, they returned to Lumby and  their adopted province, where they envisioned many years of lumbering opportunities.  In 1946 Fergusons moved their milling operation from Reiter  Creek to a new site where Sugar Lake Road crosses Shunter Creek  (also known as Medora Creek), establishing their mill on the upper  side of the road. A millpond for washing logs, a circular-saw operation, and a planer completed the picture for several years. The  finished lumber was trucked 20 miles to Lumby, loaded onto railway cars and shipped to various outlets in Alberta and Saskatchewan through Atlas Lumber Company.  While the war was being fought, manpower at home was at a  premium. It is said that Lawrence partially solved this problem by  going to the Vernon courthouse, cheque book under arm, on Monday mornings to bail out any unfortunates who had been thrown  into the drunk tank Saturday night.  At one time there were nine families living in the company  camp. Reiswig School, the proverbial little red schoolhouse, was  moved from the top of Shuswap Hill to the camp, thereafter becoming known as Medora Creek School. It accommodated not only  The Reiter Creek crew, 1944 — Joe Champagne, Whit Vernon, Ray LaClare, Johnny Sihlis,  Robert Gebert, Lawrence Ferguson.  144 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  The Ferguson family and three employees about to leave Sundre for Lumby  the camp children, but those of surrounding families as well. In  the early 1950s, a school bus transported these same children to  Cherryville School. Also, a retail store that mainly stocked groceries and was privately owned, operated within the camp for a short  period.  The family dwellings, owned by the company, consisted of  two or three rooms each, were unpainted, often with sawdust for  insulation, and without plumbing, sewage facilities or electricity.  Obtaining water meant a trip to the creek with a bucket. And a  nighttime call necessitated a hike to the biffy outback with a flashlight. Fuel for stoves was firewood harvested from the nearby woods,  mill slabs, sawdust (for specially-designed units), or oil. Light was  provided by kerosene or gasoline lamps. And fortunate was the  housewife who could boast a washing machine driven by a gasoline motor.  Some folks may consider this a primitive type of living. And  indeed it was—by modern standards, that is. But in those days and  in similar locales it was considered the norm. People simply made  do with what they had, and were relatively happy.  It was a common occurrence for a new family, recently moved  from a larger centre, to be asked what they had done with their  electric frying pan and their electric toaster. "Stashed them under  the bed," was sometimes the answer.  145 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  The camp was certainly an enclave within the larger community. Several bunkhouses, 12 by 14 feet, with two men apiece,  and a cookhouse provided board and room for single men and for  those married men living "in camp."  With a minimum of privately-owned cars at hand, there developed a style of social life common to the setting and times. Wild-  game hunting (not always in season), fishing, house parties, exchange of reading material, the annual Christmas concert, and a  very successful theatrical production spearheaded by the local  teacher and presented at the Cherryville hall, were some of the  pastimes enjoyed during the winter months when the mill was  idle.  Nevertheless, the tranquility of camp life was marred on three  occasions. A young mother lost her life in a house fire, a truck  driver succumbed when he was crushed by a log rolling from the  top of his load, and a man died when an overhang of frozen sawdust gave way and smothered him.  But back to the business of sawmilling.  It was customary for Ferguson Bros, to begin its annual production on the first day after the May long weekend and run through  to late autumn when inclement weather precluded any further  profitable operation.  With WWII over, there was a great demand for lumber for  rebuilding. With this in mind, in 1950 the registered partnership of  Lawrence and Emmett Ferguson became a limited company, a move  intended to solidify their financial position. The price of lumber  was now up to the $45 per thousand range, a far cry from the days  in Alberta when they had difficulties even disposing of their lumber. The future looked bright.  With sawdust in their blood and a view to expansion, they  built a new log gang sawmill on the lower side of the road at a cost  of $100,000. It was an innovative move for the time, for it was presumed to be the first log gang in the area, all other gangs being of  the cant type. After the "bugs" were ironed out, this setup was capable of producing 40,000 feet of lumber per eight-hour shift.  So successful was this gang mill that Atlas Lumber of Calgary  arranged for Emmett to construct a replica west of Rocky Mountain House, Alberta.  The Ferguson operation was by now a major employer in the  area, with 35 people on payroll and operating two cookhouses.  The Sugar Lake side continued for a few more profitable years.  But times were changing. Lawrence and Emmett were considering  selling their business. In 1961 they made their quantum leap with  146 FERGUSON BROS. SAWMILL  the last of their holdings going to Crown Zellerbach. The last board  came off the saw on September 20, 1961; on January 24, 1962  Ferguson Bros. Lumber Ltd. ceased to exist.  Now, 37 years later, if you drive along Sugar Lake Road you  will see almost no evidence of a sawmill operation. A tramp through  the woods on the upper side of the road will reveal a large sawdust  pile, a reminder of the circular saw operation. Today, it is well hidden from view by natural forest growth. On the lower side of the  road the only remaining evidence of the log gang operation is a  mammoth block of concrete, measuring probably 10 by 10 feet at  its base. Thirteen tons of concrete went into this foundation block,  which was designed to withstand the vibration of the gang saw. It,  too, is now hidden by nature.  Lawrence and Emmett Ferguson were successful and amiable business partners for 30 consecutive years. Lawrence was vociferous to the extreme: he awed people with his ability to quote  figures and dates. Some people were intimidated by him, yet he  secretly admired anyone who would stand up to him. Emmett, on  the other hand, was assertive but less aggressive than his brother,  and no less astute. They made a laudable pair.  Emmett died December 5, 1985, leaving his widow, Marie,  an adopted daughter, Karen Martin, of Calgary, and an adopted  son, Barry.  Lawrence died July 19, 1986, survived by his wife, Anne, of  Vernon, daughter Ruth Simpson, recently moved from Nanaimo to  Vernon, son Robert, also of Vernon, daughter Jean Wetherill,  Vernon, and another son, Jack,2 of Maple Ridge.  This account was gleaned from the following sources: a) Lawrence Ferguson's autobiography, b) Tales of the Tall Timber, published in 1995 by the Sundre and District Historical  Society, compiled by Lloyd and Chester Mjolsness. c) Jean Wetherill and Ruth Simpson, d)  The few remaining crew members who were available for their input, e) Information related by the author's late husband, who was sawyer and millwright for Ferguson Bros, for  many years. Special thanks to Jean Wetherill, who encouraged and supported this endeavour and who proofread the manuscript. Without her assistance this project may never have  reached fruition.  1 Reiter Creek was named for Gus Reiter, who is said to have been a Russian sailor who  jumped ship and settled in BC's interior.  2 Jack was the first baby born in the then-new Vernon Jubilee Hospital. Date: September 16,  1949.  147 'WHERE APPLES AND HEREFORDS  HELP EACH  OTHER  TO PERFECTION'  Vernon Etherington  Ellison 'Ģ 1899-1989  Mary Ellison Bailey  He was the seventh child born to Price and Sophia Ellison,  arriving March 8, 1899, and named after North Okanagan  pioneers Charles and Forbes George Vernon, who preempted land in 1863 at Priest Valley, which would later be called  Vernon upon being incorporated as a city. Vernon Etherington  Ellison, along with his sisters, Anna, Ellen, Myra and Elizabeth,  and brothers Price Jr., Albert and Herbert, was welcomed in the  log dwelling on the Ellison Ranch near present-day Poison Park.  All seven children attended the brick schoolhouse we know today  as Park School.  In 1876, Lancashire native Price Ellison (1851-1932) came to  the Okanagan by walking over the Hope-Dewdney Trail with a bedroll on his back, after first working his way across the United States.  He was one among many gold-seekers heading for the Cariboo,  but, being late for this rush and while still at Victoria, he heard of  the new Cherry Creek find. Reaching Priest Valley, he went on to  Cherry Creek and mined gold for a short time before he said, "Boys,  I'm going no further." He settled down to become one of the prov-  Mary Bailey, horn in Vernon and raised at Oyama, returned to her roots in  1990 after 30 years in Lethbridge, where she was active in naturalist and environmental education pursuits. She and her husband now live in the Spallumcheen  municipality.  148 APPLES AND HEREFORDS  ince's leading ranch owners and for 18 years (1898-1916) served as  member for East Yale in the Legislative Assembly. A member of  Richard McBride's Conservative government, he was appointed  Commissioner for Lands in 1909 and given the post of Minister of  Finance and Agriculture in 1910.  In 1884, Vernon's mother, then Sophia Christine Johnson  (1857-1954), became the first school teacher in Vernon. Price Ellison,  attracted to this young American woman of Swedish heritage, won  her hand in marriage and they spent the rest of their lives in the  North Okanagan raising their family, extending the ranch operations and contributing to the town, the Okanagan, and British Columbia.  Their son Vernon's schooling was interrupted by World War I  when he chose to enlist while still a Grade 11 student. Even though  he and Albert joined up together, brothers were not permitted to  serve in the same unit. Albert joined a horse regiment and Vernon  saw duty as a driver with  the Canadian Field Artillery. After discharge and  with Grade 12 completed  in Vancouver, Vernon  pooled his army credits  with those of his brothers to buy land near the  present Vernon Golf &  Country Club. Then they  went to Calgary to purchase cattle to stock the  new ranch. They obtained the animals at the  going rate, but later had  to sell them at a loss, forfeiting their land in the  process. Vernon then  went to work on the  Oyama orchard property  owned by his father,  spending several years  bringing the fruit trees  back into production. In  1926-27, he planted tobacco on part of the land,  but soon returned exclusively to apples after failing to sell his tobacco  crop.  149  Vern Ellison in a field artilleryman's uniform upon  enlistment in 1916. APPLES AND HEREFORDS  Apple harvesting in the Okanagan entered a new phase  around 1957 with the introduction of bulk-bin handling.  Vernon Ellison (left), president of the Vernon Fruit Union,  and Kendrick Wynne, manager of the VFU, examine firsthand a prototype container at Woodsdale packing house.  In the 1920s, using  horses and a sleigh,  Vernon Ellison cut ice in  blocks from Long  (Kalamalka) Lake for  householders' ice boxes.  Churchills, Despards,  Lockes, Shaw-MacLarens  and Butterworths were  some of his customers.  He also provided many  families with wood and  coal. One winter Murray  Churchill, surveyor for  the CNR, ran out of wood  and asked Vernon to cut  some birch logs for him.  It was below zero, and  the ice on the lake was  heaved up by pressure  ridges. About 200 feet off  the point on the east side  of the lake, the team of  horses pulling the heavy  load of firewood was  dragged      backwards  through the ice. Vernon ran home across the ice, but by the time  he got to his shack his heavy, wet coat had frozen solid. He had to  build a fire to thaw his clothes before he could get them off. The  neighbours, many of whom he had worked for, passed the hat and  raised $300 to help offset the young teamster's loss.  In 1928, Vern Ellison bought his first truck to haul his own  apples, as well as to fill orders for coal and wood. Soon, he started  doing custom hauling and orchard work, which developed into a  full-time operation, initially with horses, later with tractors, often  requiring 12 employees during the busy harvest season.  Over the years he extended his orchards by buying other properties, including in 1943 the V-V Ranch on the east side of Oyama.  During that decade he hired both a foreman, Bradley Shore, and a  herdsman, Harold Somerset, to oversee his farm operations. It was  then that Vern Ellison built up a herd of registered Hereford cattle,  rapidly gaining a good reputation at bull sales and cattle exhibitions where major championships were won by Kalwood stock.  150 APPLES AND HEREFORDS  "Kalwood" had its origin in Kalamalka and Wood lakes—  "Where Apples and Herefords Help Each Other to Perfection," so  its owner claimed. He was referring to the practice of feeding apple pulp from the Woodsdale juice plant as winter cattle silage,  while in the spring manure from the animals was spread on the  orchard land.  Kalwood Herefords were shown at agricultural exhibitions  throughout BC, including Armstrong, Kamloops, Chilliwack,  Cloverdale, Duncan, Prince George, and the Pacific National Exhibition in Vancouver, in addition to heading the BC exhibit at Toronto's Royal Winter Fair for several years. Winning a championship  at Toronto not only brought personal rewards, it encouraged other  BC breeders to raise and enter fine stock. The successes achieved  by Kalwood Herefords were also due in no small part to the care  and devotion of Harold Somerset.  Prior to 1954, when Vern Ellison was president of the Canadian Hereford Association, certain cattle could not be registered in  the United States if their herd sire or dam was deemed ineligible.  During his term in office, this contentious issue was resolved, with  benefits accruing to breeders on this side of the border. Some 12  months before, as chairman of the Canadian Joint Breeds Association in Winnipeg, he had the satisfaction of bringing together for  the first time, the national organizations of the Angus, Hereford  and Shorthorn breeders.  A long line of prize-winning cattle were reared at Ellison's Kalwood Farm. In 1961, Kalwood  Jubilant 37N was proclaimed grand champion Hereford bull at the Kamloops provincial bull sale  and subsequently sold to Len Wood of Armstrong for $2,100. Mr. Ellison (right) is shown with  Kalwood's herdsman Harold Somerset. (Photograph by The Country Guide, Calgary).  151 APPLES AND HEREFORDS  Price Ellison, as Minister of Agriculture and as an orchardist,  was involved in the formation of the Vernon Fruit Union, an interest that passed to his son Vernon, who became a director of the cooperative in 1932. The son became even more involved in the orchard industry by serving as president of Vernon Fruit Union from  1949 to 1969. He was one of four delegates sent by BC growers on a  fact-finding mission to Australian and New Zealand apple-producing regions. On their return, they recommended the adoption of  the bulk-bin harvesting method.  Vernon Ellison held a prominent place in both provincial and  national agricultural affairs. In addition to his connection with the  Fruit Union, he was  both director and president of the Associated  Growers of British Columbia (1948-1968), a  director of the B. C. Beef  Growers Association  (1944-1967), chairman-  manager of the  Kamloops Bull Sale  (1960-1967), president  of the B. C. Federation  of Agriculture (1955-  1957), BC chairman of  the Farm Credit Appeal  Board (1965-1971) and a  member of the Agricultural Senate Club of B.  C. (1971).  On the national  scene, he was a judge at  the Calgary Bull Sale  and at the Royal Winter  Fair, along with his  leadership positions  with the Canadian Joint  Breeds Association and  the Canadian Hereford  Association. He was  made a life member of  the Canadian Hereford Association in 1954 and subsequently placed  on its Honour Roll for his efforts in the development of the Hereford breed.  His international agricultural experience grew with a tour of  orchards and packing plants in England and Italy in 1958, and in  1965 he was selected to accompany a boatload of BC Hereford cat-  152  Vern Ellison with son Ken and daughter Mary, 1942. APPLES AND HEREFORDS  tie from Vancouver to Chile, touring both Chile and Argentina before flying home. He was so busy in the 1950s and 60s that his  foreman, Bradley Shore, would tease that he returned from meetings and trips only long enough to change his socks. In 1971, having sold part of the farm, he disposed of most of his registered  Herefords. Harold Somerset continued to work on the ranch until  1994, by then a valued employee of Kalwood Farms for 50 years.  Vern Ellison met his future wife, Mabel Grayston (1901-1994),  in 1921 when she came from Vancouver to work for the Soldier  Settlement Board. He had remembered her as a young lady from  St. Mark's Anglican Church in Vancouver and asked her to meet  his family at their home on Pleasant Valley Road. After the wedding May 30,1923, they settled on Kalamalka Lake, their refuge for  the next 65 years, and where they raised a son and daughter,  Kenneth Vernon, born 1926, and Mary Elizabeth (1935). Vernon  and Mabel had eight grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren.  Kenneth served in the navy and completed his agricultural  degree at UBC in 1949, then worked as a district agriculturist in  central BC before returning to Oyama to manage the family farm  operations. He continues to reside there, pursuing interests in history and philately. Mary graduated in agriculture (UBC 1957), married Charles B. M. Bailey (UBC 1954, 1956) and lived in Lethbridge  for 30 years. During this period, she completed a B.Ed, majoring in  environmental education.  Throughout his life in Oyama, Vernon Ellison was community-minded; he was the first local Scoutmaster and he helped to  build the Anglican church. He was president of the Oyama Community Club in 1944-45, when efforts were directed towards adding the Memorial Hall and the Canadian Legion premises onto the  Community Hall. At this time, he started the first May Day, and for  several years was one of four local citizens who organized and ran  an outdoor community skating rink. By the mid-1960s, Vernon  Ellison was devoting more time to his hobbies of fishing, gardening  and curling.  Among the experiences he enjoyed most in life was that of  making things happen. When he was 77, he decided he needed a  winter pastime, so he set up the Senior B Curling Club at the  Winfield Recreation Centre. His strength was not so much in curling, which he hadn't done before, but in organizing people and  making the game fun by mixing the players on the teams each  week. He was also good at welcoming newcomers to the community and involving them in some way, often taking them gifts of  fruit. Vernon Ellison "lived until he died"; his heart failed on the  curling ice two weeks short of his ninetieth birthday.  153 PERSONAL HISTORY  THE RENDELLS OF VERNON  Madeline (Mada) Rendell  The Rendell family, originally from Clovelly in Devonshire,  England, left its pioneering mark on two BC localities, after  first emigrating to St. John's, Newfoundland, in the 1800s.  Charles Rendell, as a young man, came "Out West" with his good  friend Tom Wood to the Boundary Country, where Charles's brother,  Arthur, had settled near Greenwood. Torn Wood joined the O'Keefe  cattle drive, and later went on to take up land at Wood Lake (named  after him). Charles worked for Tbm Wood and then returned to St.  John's, where he married Florence Simms, daughter of a local doctor and cousin of Tom Wood.  A few years later the young couple moved to BC and settled  near Arthur Rendell at Eholt, near Phoenix and Greenwood. There  they farmed and welcomed three children: Alice, Hilda, and, in  1906, Ernest. The Arthur Rendells lost their only child, a son, in a  drowning accident.  Farming did not pan out and Florence found the pioneer life  extremely hard. The three Rendell children began school in Eholt,  but in about 1913 the family moved to Vernon, where Florence's  two brothers, Charlie and Jim Simms, lived.  Charles Rendell entered the military in World War I and had  the unfortunate distinction of becoming Vernon's first fatal casualty. In later years when Ernest was Assistant Scoutmaster (to  Charlie Morrow), he was handed the honour of unveiling Vernon's  war memorial.  Ernest attended Vernon Preparatory School in Coldstream  until he was 14, followed by high school in Vernon. He was keenly  interested in Scouting and sports, and excelled in swimming and  shooting, and much later in riding and training horses. The Rendell  Mada Moilliet Rendell was born in Kamloops in 1911 after her mother travelled to hospital in a dugout canoe from a homestead on North Thompson River.  Mother and daughter returned to Vavenby on the new riverboat Distributor, which  had just begun to ply those waters. After an active outdoor life, Mada Rendell now  watches over her five grandchildren, one of whom is downhill ski racer Rob Boyd.  154 THE RENDELLS OF VERNON  The three Rendells, Ernest, Mada and Molly, astride Tiny, Wings and Brownie at the 1943  Interior Provincial Exhibition.  sisters both trained for nursing; Alice was one of the original students at Vernon Jubilee Hospital, and Hilda studied at the Jubilee  hospital in Victoria, where she had gone to live with her mother.  Ernest, now known as Ren, had completed school and was  on his own. He lived at "Richmond's Boarding House" for a time  and later on the Turner place in Coldstream. Years later he bought  the Turner property.  Ren had many interesting, varied jobs—working in entomology at what were known as "Bug Camps," throughout BC, and a  stint in the 1920s on the then-proposed Hope-Princeton road under foreman Bert Thomas of Princeton. This project, on which 90  young men were employed, was abandoned, finally seeing completion in 1949. Ren spent one winter trapping with his good friend  Ray Turner near Princeton, then came a venture in raising silver  foxes on the Turner place—plus doing custom work with truck and  tractor for A. T. Howe Orchards and for Coldstream Ranch. Ren  also had a thriving firewood business. Fox farming was his introduction to horses; people would bring lame and worn-out animals  to be butchered and used as feed for the fur bearers. He hated this  part of the operation, as he had always loved horses, and, having  good pasture, he kept the best of them, bred a few of the better  mares and found himself with some fine stock. Many became the  foundation of our show horses in the 1940s.  155 THE RENDELLS OF VERNON  In November 1934 Ren married me, Madeline (Mada) Moilliet,  from a sheep ranch in Vavenby, 90 miles north of Kamloops. We  lived on the Turner place, opposite the Coldstream school, for nine  years. This being the Dirty Thirties, we survived by trade and barter—custom work, or wood traded for such things as a fine old piano, a three-piece furniture set, and a milk cow, to name a few.  Ren also traded off the odd "reconditioned" horse.  Our daughter Molly was born in October 1936, so now to our  joy we had a family. Sadly, we were not to be blessed with more  children.  Ren acquired a run-down orchard in Lavington that he was  able to return to productivity, but when the opportunity came in  1943 to buy the old Scottish Canadian Ranch east of Aberdeen Road,  between Highway 6 and Aberdeen, from J. S. Galbraith, who had  acquired the 75-acre holding at a tax sale years before, we decided  to "go for it." By selling both the Turner place and the Lavington  orchard, we were able to put a down payment on the S. C. ranch.  We later renamed this property Clovelly, after the Rendells' roots  in Devonshire. The house and buildings were in poor shape, but 20  acres of orchard, hay fields and pastures were in fine condition.  Another plus that came with the property was the Tanaka  family, living in two tiny shacks, as it was the time when Japanese  residents were relocated from the Coast to the Interior. Although  the Tanakas were fisherfolk, they soon learned to be wonderful  orchardists and field-crop specialists. At this time we began raising  onion seed, at which the Tanakas excelled. I might note here that  this exceptional family lost their home, automobile, fishing boats,  and much more, when they were evacuated from Vancouver. But  never once did we hear complaints or detect animosity. Ren soon  moved them to better quarters, a rejuvenated, spacious former  packing house, where they wasted little time in constructing their  highly-prized bathhouse. They returned to Vancouver in 1950.  We built up a small dairy herd, watched over by a man in our  employ, Arthur Warren, who lived with his family in yet another  "reconditioned" house. Ren and Arthur built a splendid little dairy  barn, using the floor bases from army tents at the battle school at  Coldstream Ranch. These were rectangles of lumber, about 12 by  16 feet, and by doubling them up with shavings between, the men  made insulated walls. Concrete floor, mangers and gutters, a paint  job and metal roof, and the luxury of drinking bowls, made a 10-  cow barn with a good hayloft. In the extreme cold of the winter of  1949-50 it was warmer than our house.  A few years later we had a chance to buy 260 acres of A. T.  Howe's range land on "Middleton Mountain" and situated less than  a mile from Clovelly. It was the perfect haven for our horses, dry  cows and young stock, plus 12 head of registered Hereford cows.  156 THE RENDELLS OF VERNON  The ranch was prospering at this stage (late 1940s); Molly was enjoying many riding activities, competing in horse shows, and showing great promise in music and art.  We were great boosters of the Armstrong Fair (IPE), spending a day before and after riding the more than 15 miles leading  mares and young stock. Ren was president of the IPE in 1949-50  and had been head of the Vernon & District Riding Club for several  years.  Looking back, I would say that life was "too good to be true."  Except for a temperamental digestive system, Ren had experienced  reasonably good health and was active, ambitious and optimistic  and gave no sign of impending tragedy. On a beautiful evening,  June 16, 1960, he suffered a fatal heart attack while saddling our  horses for a ride. He would have been 44 years old on June 29. At  least he died with his boots on, doing something he loved—small  comfort to Molly and me, or to his mother, who now lived in her  own little house on the ranch.  It seemed easier to try and carry on with the ranch than to go  through the hassle of selling out. Also, we had a reliable cow man  from Holland, Dick Gowenberg, living on the farm with his wife  and family. I stayed for more than 14 years, with the advice of good  friends and hired help, and later, after Molly's marriage to Alexander (Sandy) Boyd, his partnership. I had the land and Sandy had  The Boyd family "equestrian team" at the 1978 Armstrong fair. Left to right: Rob, Ian, Sandy,  Susan, Heather, Molly, Sandra.  157 THE RENDELLS OF VERNON  the mechanized implements, as he was doing custom work at this  time; up to this point we had relied on horses for most of the farm  chores.  My partnership with Sandy worked out well and took a huge  load off my shoulders. No more "wrestling" with the hired man,  though some I had were great, some impossible.  Happy times again, and surely they would have continued  had I not happened to hear of property for sale on Aberdeen Road  that I had always admired—a prefabricated Eaton's mail-order house  of 1908 on five acres. (The house still stands, in excellent shape,  and recently rejuvenated by the Boyds). Also around this time,  Sandy and Molly began developing their first ski area, Winterside,  on their BX property. Subsequently, we put the Clovelly ranch on  the market, disposed of our livestock and bought my present home.  A few years later the Boyds were developing the Tillicum winter  resort where so many young people discovered the joy of skiing.  The Boyds have three daughters, Heather (McLennan), Susan  (Burns) and Sandra (Bay). Both Boyd sons, Ian and Robert, have  Rendell as a second name, ensuring that their grandfather's surname lives on.  NATIVE ELDER MARY THOMAS  Barbara Brouwer  Editor's note—This article about Mary Thomas is derived from, a feature story  that first appeared in the Salmon Arm Observer, and appears here with the  kind permission of Observer management and the author  Neskonlith elder Mary Thomas has accepted yet another  award, for herself and for her people.  Thomas was appointed 1997 Indigenous Conservationist of  the Year by the Seacology Foundation, an organization founded to  preserve indigenous culture. She was flown to Seacology's headquarters in Utah to receive the award for her tireless efforts in protecting both the primeval forest of Western Canada and her indigenous culture. She stayed in a lodge owned by actor Robert Redford,  a beautiful building she says fitted right into the environment.  Barbara Brouwer was born and educated in Montreal and moved to British  Columbia in 1980. She has a background in public relations and promotions and is  now doing what she likes best—writing for the Salmon Arm Observer.  158 NATIVE ELDER MARY THOMAS  In addition, a special presentation was  made to Thomas in  Kamloops, during the  graduation ceremony  for the Secwepemc  Education Institute, of  which she is an elder.  Mary Thomas was  born on the  Neskonlith Number  One reserve in Chase  and moved to the  Neskonlith Number  Two reserve in  Salmon Arm when  she was a little girl.  Her public profile began in the early 1970s,  when she was a major  force in the creation of  the Central Okanagan  Interior Friendship  Centre in Kelowna.  She was concerned  about the native people, particularly those  who were bused in  from the north every  spring. By bringing them down for the harvest, said Thomas, employers were exposing the Natives to drugs and alcohol. Parents  were abusing the money they earned and she was extremely worried about the children who were left alone in the small cabins  used to house the itinerant workers. Also, there was no assurance  that the chemicals being applied on the farms were harmless.  Native children were being picked up and thrown into Kelowna's jail for minor offences, like drinking and falling asleep in  the park, or being rowdy.  Her concern took her to Human Resources and then to the  local churches and other Kelowna social service groups. Their support was good and in 1971 the Friendship Centre opened, a place  where people could access whatever they needed, including street  workers and a native court worker. Jointly funded by Ottawa and  Victoria, the centre is still operating today.  Neskonlith elder Mary Thomas. (Salmon Arm Observer)  159 NATIVE ELDER MARY THOMAS  At the same time, Mary was worried about conditions on the  reserves. She had already left, a response to the death of her husband, who had been drinking and was run down by a train. She  knew the hopelessness that pervaded the reserve, a hopelessness  she maintained was borne of attempts by society to eradicate the  native heritage.  The sense of security fostered by native parenting was  stripped from children as they were removed to residential schools.  There, they were put  through a strenuous ordeal, cruelly whipped for  speaking their language  and punished severely for  relating to the native culture in any way.  The children were  taken from their homes at  age six or seven, allowed  to return for three weeks  in the summer only, and  finished their education  at the age of 16, no matter what.  They were lucky if  they received three hours  of scholastic instruction  per day. The rest of the  time was devoted to domestic chores—scrubbing  floors, mending clothes  and doing laundry for the  girls; milking cows,  manual labour and gardening for the boys  "When you were 16  you were lucky if you had  an education somewhere between Grade 4 and 7," said Ms. Thomas, who figures she left school at about a Grade 4 level.  One of the lasting ill effects of this time away from family  was that the natives never learned parenting skills. Now, that is  one of the things she is trying to teach her people, and it all hinges  on self-discipline, she says. According to the native way, a pregnant woman gets the best food and care, because whatever affects  the mother affects the child. Immediately upon birth the baby is  given to the mother to further strengthen the bonding process to  160  The multi-faceted Mary Thomas in 1998 with some of  her own artifacts. ("Salmon Arm Observer) NATIVE ELDER MARY THOMAS  early infancy, and the child is carried in a laced cradle that is worn  on the mother's back. This allows mother to work unhindered, while  keeping baby close. The infants are removed and massaged regularly, explained Mary, who reflects on the importance of maintaining the close family bond.  The residential schools maintained control over everything.  When the children were home from school, parents were interrogated by missionaries and by representatives from the Department  of Indian Affairs. The latter had offices throughout the province,  with well-paid social workers and economic development officers,  but they never went out to see what social problems there were on  the reserve.  Thomas attributes her ability to overcome all the hate, anger  and frustration she felt to her love for her family, and because her  mother had taught her the old ways. This, above all, she says, allowed her to see life as it was, and what she could do about it.  Today, Thomas walks in humility, even when she looks at  her long list of achievements, which include construction of a kekuli  (winter house) at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, founder  of the Skalaow Society, formed to promote native crafts, and contributor to a book called First Nations Journal of Justice.  In 1989 she received a Distinguished Award from the BC  Museums Association, and in 1992 she was awarded the Governor  General's Commemorative Medal. The honour that gives Mary  Thomas the most pleasure was being named a Paul Harris Fellow  by Rotary International for exemplary service to the community,  after being nominated by Salmon Arm Rotary Club.  Environmental issues are of deep concern to Thomas, who is  "really focused on pollution of waters and the very air we breathe.  I know for a fact that if we all work together, already-established  departments and concerned people can come up with some alternatives to deal with our problems."  For the past seven years she has been working with Nancy  Turner, who holds a doctorate in ethnobotany from the University  of Victoria. A book on Interior Salish edibles, medicines and poisons will be published in the fall of 1998.  It is her work with indigenous culture that led to her newest  award and that gives Thomas hope for the future. The in-depth  knowledge she gained from her mother and other elders about  native plants opened her eyes to why we have dietary problems  today.  In her study with Dr. Turner, Mary Thomas discovered all  the edibles that her people ate contained antibiotic-like substances.  "We were always meat-eaters," she said, but believes the meat, eaten  in combination with the roots, protected the natives.  161 NATIVE ELDER MARY THOMAS  Crowding eighty, Mary still maintains a gentle, 20-minute  exercise routine every morning. Then, she's off and running on  one of her latest projects, all of which are intended to give hope  and meaning to her people. One such project that is giving her the  hope of renewal is the development of a cultural and educational  centre she hopes to build on the Neskonlith reserve near Salmon  Arm.  Mary Thomas and her son Louis visit local schools every year,  taking with them native artifacts and crafts. When she shares her  collection and her knowledge of the old ways, she is rightly proud  of her heritage and the fine craftsmanship that was inherent in it.  "We have a lot of values that have been lost in our culture because  of mass production," she stated. She continues to work the old way  but uses some of the new materials, proffering in defence of such  practices the rationale that she likes to mix the old and the new to  come up with something more positive.  Thomas is hoping that once the cultural centre is built, people will come there to learn about native customs. Seacology Foundation has offered to help with the fund-raising. Interestingly, $1,000  of the $4,000 award she received from Seacology came directly from  model Christie Brinkley. The money is in the bank, a strategic study  is underway and an artist's drawing depicts a cultural centre built  in the fashion of a kekuli. Many people are urging Mary to agree to  have the centre named after her. But, in her usual humble way,  she is focusing instead on one of the things she treasures most-  children born and unborn. "I would like it to be called Talkalmoowh,"  which means literally "people to come." She said her own reward  will come when her people realize there is hope. She can see that  hope now in her own family. They are looking into their own culture and the older ones are taking the younger ones in hand, teaching traditional values. They are strong, not afraid to take chances,  and, most exciting for Mary, "all her boys are sober."  She has suffered terrible losses in the past several months.  Her beloved second husband, Frank, died in October; two cousins,  whom she refers to as sisters in the native tradition, died within a  day of each other in February. One grandson was badly injured in  December and she recalls the loss of other grandchildren and a  daughter-in-law.  But, despite the pain, Mary greets the day by looking at a  photograph of her grandchildren and by reciting the following  prayer: "Oh my Creator, thank you for this beautiful day. Thank  you for these beautiful children and for the strength to build something for their future." She ends her prayer with the last few lines  from the famous Footprints — "My precious child, I never left you  during your time of trial. Where you see only one set of footprints,  I was carrying you."  162 BC POLICE INSPECTOR  MANSELL  Joseph I. Brown  Hubert Mansell, who died in 1996 at the age of 103, was the  only former member of the British Columbia Provincial  Police to be admitted to the RCMP Veterans Association of  Canada. His 37-year law enforcement career officially ended August 15, 1950, when the RCMP took over policing duties in BC.  Holding the rank of Inspector, his last posting was that of Officer  Commanding what was known as Kamloops District.  Hubert Mansell was born August 2, 1892 into a farming family on Salt Spring Island. By the time he was 14, he was able to hold  his own plowing with a team of horses. He became a member of  the British Columbia Provincial Police on August 22, 1914. He first  served at Hope, which was a busy place during the building of the  Kettle Valley Railway and a bridge over the Fraser River.  Mansell was an expert horseman and marksman, and always  was known to be a "gentlemanly officer"  He bought his first car, a one-seater Ford, in 1916, and drove  the first police vehicle in Prince George in 1909—he was the only  officer who knew how.  One outstanding posting when he was an Inspector saw him  in charge of policing the construction of the Alaska Highway through  northern British Columbia in WWII.  He married late in life and his wife predeceased him many  years ago. They lived at Okanagan Landing for an extended time,  raising a few horses. For the last 25 years of his life Mansell lived  alone at 3601 17th Avenue, Vernon, only requiring home nursing  care for a year and a half before he died. Before then he was always  fortunate in having good neighbours, who took an active interest  in his life.  He was made an honorary life member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Veterans Association during April 1993 at the  age of 100 years, when the writer had the pleasure of presenting  him with a framed commemorative certificate.  Joseph Brown of Vernon is a retired staff sergeant of the Royal Canadian Mounted  Police and keenly interested in BCs past. In 1973 he took part in a seven-day  backpacking hike over the HBC Hope-Tulameen trail by senior Boy Scouts and  their leaders.  163 BC POLICE INSPECTOR MANSELL  Hubert Mansell's 37 years of exemplary service in the BC  Provincial Police, plus his short term in the army cavalry in 1918,  ensured he will go down in policing annals of this province as "distinguished."  Former BC Police Inspector Hubert Mansell was singularly honoured on his 100th birthday by  RCMP veterans with an honorary life membership in their association. He is shown seated here  marking his 103rd milestone on August 3, 1995 with ex-Cpl. F. C. Bradley, 84 (left), ex-R/Cst. Cee  Paul, ex-S/Sgt. John Graham, Ex-S/Sgt. Joe Brown, ex-Cst. Kevan Vanherd. (Photograph courtesy  Kevan Vanherd)  THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  W. J. Whitehead  With the introduction of the Shuswap & Okanagan Rail  way to the Valley in 1892, there followed in its tracks a  surge of new settlers. Encouraged by the prospects of a  new land, a milder climate, the potential for growing fruit crops,  lumbering, and the raising of livestock, they came to the Okanagan  from the Prairies, the eastern provinces, and from the United States.  Many of the earlier settlers began to subdivide larger holdings into smaller lots (many of the 10-acre size) and offered these  plots to the newcomers for fruit growing, with the opportunity of  becoming rich without much effort. Sad to say, such was not the  result, and it is somewhat ironic that some 90 years later, many of  164 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  these plots are being sold for hobby farms and country residences.  Included in the ranks of these newcomers was the family of Samuel  and Margaret Smith.  Samuel Smith was born in Scotland and, as a boy of 10 years,  he arrived in Ontario in 1849. Growing to manhood, he became  engaged to and married Margaret Gibson. They started married  life in the district of Orillia, Ontario, and produced a family of seven  children, five of whom grew to maturity. It also appears from information provided by their granddaughter, Violet Gorham, that they  were bitten by the wanderlust and migrated to New Zealand, to the  State of Washington, to Manitoba, back to Ontario, and, finally, in  1904, to the North Okanagan.  The lighter land of the Hullcar district, about five miles northwest of the new town of Armstrong, was being touted as an ideal  area for the growing of tree fruits. It was also discovered that black  currant bushes did well in this locale. Several acreages were planted  and currants were harvested for many years.  Two well-known farmers of this district had already planted  fairly large orchards, namely George Paton, who had purchased  the west side of the ranch formerly owned by the Steele brothers;  and Sam Gray, who owned a large holding adjacent to the property  owned by Levi W Patten, who had developed the first sawmill and  grist mill, using water power from Deep Creek.  Samuel Smith purchased the property from Gray and proceeded to further develop its orchard. He had help with this endeavour from his two young sons, Tony and Norman. He also had  three daughters and a wife who were no strangers to outside work.  First row: Andrew and Dot Mitchell. Second row: Stephen and Annie Gorham, Samuel and Margaret  Smith. Third row: Charles Mitchell and Chrissie, Tony and Flo Smith.  165 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  It is reputed that Margaret smoked a corncob pipe. They proceeded  to establish a tree nursery in conjunction with the orchard and  engaged Tommy Yetton to care for this part of the operation. Yetton  had arrived before the railway, and once related how he had come  to Enderby on board the steamboat Red Star, having travelled up  Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River from Sicamous. During the 1880s,  he and Arthur Hayhurst dug the first drainage ditches on the flats  near what was the become the town of Armstrong.  It appears that two others were a part of the family: Andrew  Smith, an older brother of Samuel, and Thomas Gibson, an older  brother of Margaret. Samuel constructed a large farmhouse for his  family, but the two older men lived in a cabin just to the south of  the main farm buildings. I remember seeing the ruins of this cabin  when I first came to the district some 62 years ago. The story is  told that Thomas used to put out a thimble of whisky for the squirrels and chipmunks, just to watch their antics in an intoxicated  state.  With two daughters of marrying age on the scene, two more  gentlemen began to make their presence known around the farm.  Stephen Edward Gorham arrived from England about 1908, and in  1911 he married Annie Ellen Smith. They had one daughter, Violet.  After finishing formal school, Violet took up the nursing' profession at the Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops. Following graduation,  she moved to Ontario and continued in nursing until retirement.'  Grandmother Margaret Smith  166 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  Hullcar Packing School 'students' and the fruits of their labour.  The Gorhams resided on a piece of property north of Hullcar  Hall, which Smith had acquired from Dan Martin. Mr. Gorham had  a tree nursery and currant acreage on Knob Hill next to the Aaron  Ford farm. Following Mr. Gorham's death in the early 1930s, his  wife and daughter made their home with Tbny and Florence Smith,  siblings of Mrs. Gorham.  About 1913, Chrissie Smith married Charlie Mitchell, a young  widower with two small children. His wife had died during the  birth of daughter Dorothy. Andrew, her brother, was a year or two  older. Chrissie's father gave them a block of 40 acres on the northwest portion his farm. There they constructed a small house and  began to clear land for cultivation. Charlie spent most of his time  working out for others, rather than at home.  There is yet another individual who made the Smith farm his  headquarters from time-to-time. He was an East Indian man by the  name of Takar Singh. He was one of about six fellow-countrymen  who worked piling lumber at the sawmill in Enderby. When there  was no work for them at the mill, Mr. Singh would cut cordwood by  167 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  contract, as and when the opportunity arose. Mr. Smith provided  him with small living quarters, and he would come and go as circumstances dictated.  With the advent of World War One, conditions took an abrupt  turn for the worse. The winter of 1915 brought severe frost that  destroyed nearly all the fruit trees in the North Okanagan. It was  decided not to replant, so the family had to turn to other types of  farming. In addition to this naturally-occurring problem, the war  created a demand for younger men to join the army. Subsequently,  Tony and his brother Norman enlisted in the Highland Regiment  and were sent overseas. Son-in-law Charlie Mitchell also joined the  forces. This left the older men and the women to carry on with the  farm.  At the conclusion of hostilities in 1918, the two sons returned,  but Norman decided to settle back in Ontario. Tbny took over the  farm on Schubert Road. Having been subjected to poison gas during the conflict, he was not in the best of health for the remainder  of his life.  Age began to take its toll on the older members of the family.  Samuel Smith, Margaret, the two brothers-in-law, Andrew Smith  and Thomas Gibson, all departed this life between 1919 and 1923.  Tony and his sister, Florence, continued to operate the farm, growing hay, grain, and milking cows. Due in part to poor health, Tony  was not the greatest of managers, and quite often you might find  him milking the herd in the middle of the night.  However, when it came to showing compassion for others,  both he and Florence were at the top of the class. A neighbour lad,  Gordon Levins, told how he and his sister once got Tbny and Florence out of bed to come and administer a needle of painkiller to  their father, who was suffering greatly. There were no questions  asked, nor concern expressed for themselves. They very simply  came when they were called. Likewise, if neighbours needed a hand,  or wanted to borrow some of Tony's machinery, they had only to  ask. They were "Auntie Flo and Uncle Tbny" to all the children of  the neighbourhood.  Tbny passed to his reward in 1956 and the farm passed to  Tommy Parkinson, son of Dorothy (Mitchell) and Walter Parkinson.  Florence moved to Enderby to live near Dorothy and Walter. When  she could no longer care for herself, she went to live with her niece,  Violet, and died in 1970. Of the remaining siblings, Christina  Mitchell died in 1935, Annie in 1946, and Norman in 1962. Violet is  the only member remaining of this old-time family.  168 THE ERNEST NORMAN  FAMILY  W. J. Whitehead  Ernest Arthur Norman was born March 7,1879 in Martintown,  Ontario, the seventh arrival in a family of nine. He always  said that seven was his lucky number.  At the age of 18, he, like many others of that time, decided to  seek his fortune in the West, and reached the Okanagan Valley in  1897. Two of his older brothers, William and Albert, had already  settled in Armstrong. His father and mother, William and Mary  Norman, soon joined their sons in this new, far-flung venture.  After arriving in the Valley, Ernest made the acquaintance of  Andy Baird of Enderby. Baird held an interest in the local brick  factory and as a result encouraged Ernest to take up the trade of  When Ernest Norman felled this large log, one neighbour thought she was experiencing an earthquake. Scaling out at over 1,000 board feet, the log is shown with Ernest arriving at the Armstrong  Sawmill in 1912.  William J. Whitehead is a stalwart member of the Armstrong-Enderby OHS  branch and a frequent contributor to this publication.  169 THE ERNEST NORMAN FAMILY  brick and stone masonry, in addition to plastering and carpentry.  These trades served him well in the succeeding years and his expertise may be seen in the structure of some of the older brick  buildings still remaining in Armstrong. Two of the most notable  are the "brick block" on Okanagan Street just north of Patterson  Avenue, which was owned by W C. Wolfenden, and the Foresters'  Hall that is now occupied by the Odd Fellows on the corner of  Bridge Street and Wood Avenue. Among others who worked with  Norman on these buildings were old-timers Ab Warner and Charlie  Hardy.  Ernest Norman was responsible for building the stone foundation of Zion United Church (formerly Presbyterian) in Armstrong.  The cornerstone was laid in 1901 and upon close examination today, Ernest's initials "E A" can still be seen.  Norman took an active part in the social life of Armstrong,  becoming a member of  the local detachment of  the Rocky Mountain  Rangers militia regiment, and joining the  Independent Order of  Foresters lodge.  His brother,  William, had purchased  the 160-acre holding of  Bill Meighen southeast  of Armstrong. The property is presently cut  through by Highway  97A. The little creek  that flows from this  property, striking  cornerwise across the  town and eventually becoming part of Deep  Creek and the headwaters of Okanagan Lake,  derives its name from  the pioneering  Meighens.  William needed a  house, so he made a  deal with his brother  Ernest to construct a ..        .,...,,  Ernest and Jane Norman in their later years.  170 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  The Norman house, built from lumber milled from timber cut on the surrounding 80 acres. It is  still in use, 90 years after construction.  dwelling in exchange for half of the quarter-section. The house  was completed and Ernest was now the proud owner of 80 acres of  prime land covered with a good stand of timber. He proceeded to  make a further deal with T. K. Smith's sawmill to allow him to  stockpile logs at the mill during the winter. The following spring  William paid the wages and running expenses involved in milling  the logs into lumber, and then built his own 1 1/2-storey bungalow  on his new property. The building was 40 by 35 feet, with three  bedrooms and bath, a fireplace, veranda and a full basement. After  more than 90 years this house, set back from Highway 97A just  south of Armstrong, is still in use and in good condition.  During the first part of the years spent in the area, Ernest  divided his time between the construction trade and ridding his  land of the heavy forest growth so that he might develop it for  agriculture.  Having become established in his new home, he needed a  partner and helpmate. One winter day when he was enjoying being part of a skating party on the river ice near Enderby bridge, he  171 THE ERNEST NORMAN FAMILY  made the acquaintance of Jane Fletcher Walton from Victoria. Jane  was visiting friends, the Metcalfs, at Enderby and there soon developed a mutual attraction.  Born in 1878, Jane was the daughter of the Reverend John  and Mrs. Walton, missionaries at the Indian settlement of Paean,  northeast of Edmonton and near the present town of Fort Saskatchewan. As a child, she learned the natives' dialect. When the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 took place, her family was forced to move to  Ontario. While there Jane continued her education and went on to  become quite proficient in art and music. Later the Walton family  settled in Victoria, where Jane taught music.  Ernest Norman and Jane Walton were united in marriage on  March 7,1914 in Victoria. Soon the couple had a family to call their  own. Walton was born in 1915, followed 18 months later by another  son, Franklyn. Daughter Joyce arrived in 1919 and youngest son,  Douglas, was delivered in 1921.  Walton relates the story of his father driving him up to the  Armstrong hospital one morning to have his tonsils out. Ernest felt  that he could not leave the horses and buggy, so he instructed Walton  to go into the front office and present himself for the required surgery. Apparently it was performed without incident and Walton  was picked up later in the day and taken home. The patient was  just five years old at the time. Franklyn was not so lucky; he was  afflicted with rheumatic fever, which continued to be a health problem for his entire life.  The economy in the years following World War I was not the  best. As was generally the case, making a living and providing for  the family occupied most of Ernest's energy. Nevertheless, he and  Jane took an active part in the Methodist/United Church. Ernest  acted as secretary of the local Farmers' Institute for many years.  He believed in the co-operative movement, serving as director of  the Armstrong Co-op Society and was a prime mover in the formation of the Armstrong cheese co-op. In fact, he was largely responsible for purchasing the land on which Armstrong's dairy plant now  stands. In the mid-1950s Ernest became a director of the Armstrong-  Enderby Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society. Jane, too, was  involved in the town and was particularly active in the temperance movement and the Women's Institute.  Ernest Norman lived out his life in the district of Armstrong.  Having chosen this centre to be his home base, here he learned  and plied his trade, married and raised his family, and enjoyed  retirement until his death in 1961 at the age of 82. Jane Norman,  after her husband's death, went to live with her daughter, Joyce, in  Vancouver and passed on at age 87 in 1965.  172 THE SAMUEL SMITH FAMILY  Like his father, Walton took up the carpentry trade and followed it for the most part until joining the RCAF in World War II.  Upon discharge he married and took up farming in Manitoba for 25  years. He divorced, re-married and eventually returned to  Armstrong to retire. Walton and Kay presently live not far from his  parents' original home and have been active contributors to the  Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum, the Okanagan Historical Society and Zion United Church.  On June 14,1951, Franklyn married Mary Aslin of Armstrong,  a member of another well-known family of that time. They were  both very devout people. He was a dedicated worker for the United  Church until he married Mary, who was an equally devout Baptist.  Thereafter, their allegiance was to the Baptist Church. After Mary  died in 1962, Franklyn moved to the Salmon Arm/Tappen area,  where he was the caretaker at the Sunnybrae Bible Camp. Because  of the health affliction mentioned earlier, he failed to make it past  his 60th birthday.  Daughter Joyce trained as a nurse at the Royal Columbian  Hospital in New Westminster. After graduation she worked in the  Armstrong hospital for a short time before her marriage to Fred  Jackie, who took her to live in Vancouver. They raised four sons.  Joyce now resides in a nursing home in the Lower Mainland.  The third son, Douglas, started work in the Armstrong post  office in 1940. During WWII he was in the Canadian Postal Corps,  serving in Ottawa and at other military centres. On returning to  the North Okanagan he clerked at the Armstrong co-op store. In  1951 he married Claire Leduc of the pioneer Gus Leduc family,  and they have a son and a daughter. They moved to Burns Lake  where Doug worked for the Sheardown brothers in the grocery  business. After a couple of years in central BC, he re-enlisted in the  armed forces and spent the next 25 years in the Postal Corps. Returning once more to his roots, he was employed at the Vernon  post office for 10 years before retiring in 1983.  173 TRIBUTES  Dorothy Mabel (Dolly) Waterman 'Ģ 1904-1997  Betty Goodman  In December 1904, Dolly Waterman was born in Princeton to  Ernest and Mabel (nee Hunter) Waterman. Dolly's father was a  well-known pioneer of the Princeton area. In 1902 he became  the first justice of the peace in the Similkameen district (see "The  Waterman Family," in OHS Report No. 49).  Dolly grew up in  Princeton, and many years  later still remembered Christmas house parties at  Quilchena when she was a  girl.  In the early 1930s Dolly  moved from Princeton to  Osoyoos. A one-room cabin  was built for her on Les  Goodman's farm, where she  lived until the 1960s. She  raised chickens and sold eggs  all over Osoyoos from the  back of her bicycle. Thus  came the name for Dolly's  cabin, Cackle Cottage.  Over the years Dolly  babysat the two Goodman  boys, then their children, as  well as the children of numerous other families in the  Osoyoos area. She was loved  by all. She worked at many  jobs, including picking fruit, running a fruit stand, and at the  Osoyoos Co-op packing house.  Dolly joined the Girl Guides in Princeton soon after they were  started in Canada. She was a Guide leader in Osoyoos for many  years. She loved the outdoors, so didn't miss many outings with  Dolly Waterman in the early 1980s. (Photograph  courtesy Betty Goodman)  Betty Goodman has lived in Osoyoos since 1954. She is married to J. Granville  Goodman, whose pioneering family has lived in Osoyoos since 1921.  174 TRIBUTES  the girls. Jean Webber remembers Dolly telling of one camp where  several rattlesnakes were killed. Jean asked if this had upset the  girls, to which Dolly replied, "What upset them was the fact that  not everybody had a set of rattles to take home!" When Dolly retired from Guiding, she was presented with a lifetime membership, of which she was very proud. (See "Dolly Waterman: A Lifetime of Guiding" in OHS Report No. 50).  Dolly Waterman was a hard worker for the Osoyoos Museum;  also for the Anglican Church in Osoyoos. She was made a life member of the Okanagan Historical Society in 1983 and was the Oliver-  Osoyoos editorial chairperson for several years. She loved hiking  and especially enjoyed fishing. No matter how hard you tried, you  could never catch more than she did.  On June 15, 1997, Dolly Waterman died at the age of 92. For  the few years before her death, she lived at the extended care unit  in Summerland. She was a special person. She and her bicycle were  a familiar sight in Osoyoos over the years. When we think of Dolly,  we will picture her riding her bike with the box on the back, and  we will always remember her wonderful sense of humour.  Dr. James Marshall 'Ģ 1903-1996  An Appreciation by A. W. Watt  When Dr. James Marshall died at age 93 on December 30, 1996,  many in Summerland may not have realized what an important  part he played in the development of orchard technology in British  Columbia and elsewhere.  Born in Scotland June 1, 1903, Jim Marshall came to Canada  with his parents in 1909. He grew up in Summerland, obtained his  post-secondary education at Guelph Agricultural College and received his doctorate from McGill University. For a while he worked  for the Ontario Department of Agriculture, but soon returned to  the West where he helped to develop a highly effective spray for  codling moth control in Washington State.  The codling moth was becoming a major concern for apple  growers all over the Northwest, so it was not long before the Dominion Government asked him to come back to British Columbia  and help Okanagan orchardists combat the "codlers." In 1938 he  was placed in charge of the Fruit Insect Laboratory in Vernon and  Alec Watt came to Summerland in 1946 and worked as district horticulturist  with the BC Department of Agriculture. In 1974 he was appointed supervising  horticulturist for the Okanagan-Kootenay area, retiring seven years later.  175 TRIBUTES  in 1945 moved the facility to Lower Summerland and later established it at Trout Creek adjacent to the experimental farm (now  Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre).  One of the first major projects tackled by the fruit insect lab  at Summerland was a prototype of a lightweight air-blast sprayer,  which eliminated the laborious job of spraying by hand with guns  and high-pressure hoses. These sprayers were quickly adapted for  commercial use in BC and throughout the Northwest.  BC fruit growers were extremely fortunate that Dr. Marshall  was interested in all aspects of fruit growing, and not just pest control. For 50 years growers had picked apples into bushel boxes. The  boxes were then placed on trailers or truck decks for delivery to  the packing houses. Lifting these boxes was done manually, requiring a lot of hard labour.  On a trip to New Zealand, Dr. Marshall saw that producers  there were using large wooden bins as containers for transporting  fruit from orchard to packing shed. When filled, these bins could  not be lifted by hand, but a simple piece of machinery—the fork-  lift—could be attached to a tractor to do all the lifting by hydraulics.  Dr. Marshall realized that the bin concept could be adapted  for use in British Columbia and set about promoting this idea to the  BC fruit industry. As a result of his persistence, the BC orchardists  adopted a plywood bin holding approximately 800 pounds of apples. Because of standardized dimensions, the bins were interchangeable at all 50 packing houses then operating; the back-breaking job of lifting thousands of bushel boxes was gone forever!  In the early 1960s, Rachel Carson's book Silent Spring burst  upon the world scene. Among other things, it accused the agricultural pesticide industry of excessive use of chemicals, thus threatening the existence of many species at the apex of the food chain,  including many birds. At first Silent Spring set off a storm of criticism, but Dr. Jim Marshall heard the message and saw a need for  fundamental change. He toured the fruit-growing areas promoting  the idea of "fighting bugs with bugs" instead of chemicals.  Dr. Marshall had always said that it costs less to look than to  spray. Now he and his staff redoubled their efforts to identify and  monitor insects both beneficial and detrimental. The principle of  "Integrated Pest Management" was born. This led to a much more  benign orchard environment and the return of endangered species  to orchard areas.  Despite the many advances in insect control, the codling moth  remained the major economic threat to apples, even into the 1960s  and 1970s. The Summerland Insect Laboratory initiated a long-term  176 TRIBUTES  Dr. James Marshall (front row, left) with the Summerland entomology lab crew c.1956. On his left  are Bernice Carty, Jean Eddie, Jinx Proverbs, Ralph Downing. Centre: Don Logan, Jim Newton,  Wesley Davis, Eric Brinton, Ken Williams, George Wardle, Eric Smith. Back: Walt Wilde, Allan  McMechan, Pat Pielou, Cecil Morgan, Gordon Halvorson. Absent: Mac McArthur, George Lewis.  research program to see if sterile codling moth males could be released among the wild population and so eradicate these pests.  Such a program had been successful against the screw worm fly.  After a time, the Summerland research project demonstrated that  the codling moth could be eradicated in this way if carefully managed. Years later, in the 1990s, the Sterile Insect Release Program  has been adopted by BC fruit growers and with the help of government funds, is expected to rid the codling moth from the Okanagan,  Similkameen and Creston Valleys.  Dr. Jim Marshall's keen mind and adventurous spirit led him  into numerous community activities during the course of his career. In the early 1950s he worked on the Summerland School Board  at a time when a new secondary school was built. In 1962 Dr.  Marshall became dissatisfied with the performance of the Social  Credit Party and decided to run in the provincial election of that  year. He made a creditable showing at the polls, but his opponent,  W A. C. Bennett, won the day.  Having resigned his position with Agriculture Canada to enter politics, Dr. Marshall again turned his attention to community  work. Along with several prominent Summerland citizens, he  177 TRIBUTES  formed a committee to establish a park on Giant's Head Mountain.  This became a centrepiece of Summerland's celebration of the 100th  anniversary of Confederation. The park was opened on July 1,1967,  and a time capsule was installed at the summit, to be opened in  2067. As a result of these activities, Dr. Jim Marshall received the  Summerland Good Citizenship Cup for 1967.  As time went by, and after the death of his beloved wife,  Jewel, in June 1973, Jim Marshall retired to what he called his  "cabin," a trailer in Summokan Park. Here he continued his lifelong interest in gardening. He was especially interested in vegetables, often experimenting with new or unusual varieties. Earlier in  his career, roses had been an abiding passion. He spent a good deal  of time hiking in the hills and sailing on Okanagan Lake with his  friends and little dog, Sandy. He had a keen interest in literature,  especially the works of Robert Burns, and he was sometimes asked  to address the Haggis at Burns Night celebrations.  Dr. James Marshall's funeral was held in Summerland on  January 4, 1997 and was attended by his three daughters, Mary  Perrault, Joan Burnard and Margaret Bates, several grandchildren  and many friends. Appropriately, the altar was decorated with three  magnificent bouquets of roses.  Frances Mary Allen Bartell 'Ģ 1917-1996  June Griswold  Francis Mary Allen Bartell's grandfather, William Fenton, came  to the Springbend area north of Enderby in the early 1890s.  He pre-empted land on Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River in  1892. About 1895, Richard Mills Fenton, Frances's father, also arrived in Springbend to join the family. In 1900, Richard homesteaded  the adjoining property.  Frances's mother, Alma, moved with her parents, Andrew  and Jensine Andersen, from Fort Pierre, South Dakota to Enderby,  and shortly afterward they also purchased property in the  Springbend area.  In 1916, Richard and Alma were married by Reverend J. A.  Dow at the home of the bride's parents. Frances was born on May  4, 1917 at Enderby. Another daughter, Olive, followed on December 3, 1918.  178 TRIBUTES  The sisters walked or bicycled to the Springbend school for  their education. There, Frances became known as Fran, and took  this shortened version for the rest of her life. One of the teachers,  Gladys Pearl Stoodley, boarded at Frances's grandparents' home.  Gladys Stoodley later married Frances's uncle, Carl Andersen.  When Fran and Olive reached Grade 9, they rode their bicycles to the Fortune  school in Enderby. In  winter they went by  cutter.  After graduation  Fran worked the fall  months at a packing  house in Oyama.  Along with the other  girls who worked  there, she stayed in a  hostelry nearby.  Fran's uncle, Carl,  worked at the Britannia Beach mine near  Vancouver. On one  occasion when Fran  and Olive went to  visit their aunt and  uncle, they attended  a local dance. Here  Fran met Harry  Bartell. The couple  corresponded and  Harry got a job at the  Copper Mountain  mine near Princeton  to be closer to Fran.  Harry had left the family farm near Eskbank, Saskatchewan  during the Dirty Thirties and rode the rails to Vancouver, where he  was hired on by the Britannia mine.  Fran and Harry were married August 15, 1941. They made  their first home at the Princeton mine. A couple of years later, they  moved to Vernon where Harry worked as a truck driver for the  British American bulk petroleum agency.  He continued in the employ of the B-A dealer even after they  had moved to Fran's father's homestead, often leaving the truck at  the farm and making local deliveries. The Bartells had two sons,  Fran Bartell on receiving her life membership in the  Springbend Community Club, February 14, 1995.  179 TRIBUTES  Richard and Ross. Tbgether they operated the farm as a dairy. Their  house still stands west of Highway 97, just south of the junction of  Highways 97A and 97B.  In 1972 they sold the dairy farm and moved to 20 acres on  the Shuswap River that had been part of Fran's grandfather's homestead. Her grandfather had left this parcel to his sister, Annie, who  never married. The Bartells purchased it from the trustee for Annie's  estate.  Throughout her life, Fran was active in the Springbend community. During World War II she joined other local women knitting and sewing articles for servicemen. They called themselves  the Springbend Helpers. When the Springbend Community Club  Society was formed in 1956, she was one of the first directors, along  with her mother, Alma, Alice Emeny, Irene Strickland, Jean Welch  and Doreen Brodoway. Over the years Fran Bartell helped with  everything from bake sales to Christmas concerts. In the 1980s she  participated on the committee that produced Springbend Community Recollections. She was honoured for her contribution with a  lifetime membership in the Springbend club on February 14,1995.  Fran continued as an active member until her death November 26, 1996, a couple of months before the Springbend Community Club Society was dissolved. She voted in favour of donating  the hall to the Enderby and District Museum Society.  Her sister, Olive, who contributed to this article, married Tbm  Gray in 1940. They raised two sons, Murray and Norman.  At the time of writing this tribute, Olive and Tom live in  Enderby. Harry Bartell is at the Poison Extended Care in Vernon.  Richard and Marilyn live in Kamloops, Ross and Lynn live in Delta.  Richard and Marilyn have two children, Gregory and Tracy. Ross  and Lynn have three children, Darren, Donna and Michael.  180 <fBE> INDICATES MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY  ADAM, Eldred Leander (Slim), b. Didsbury, Alberta October 25, 1904. d. Kelowna March 16,  1998. Survived by wife Ettie Viola; son Alexander Charles. Coming to Kelowna in 1925, he  worked for and later became part owner of Jenkins Cartage, fashioning a career that brought  him a Founder Award from the American Truck Historical Society in 1995.  AFFLECK, Catherine (Cay) Corbet, b. Calgary August 10, 1913. d. Penticton March 17, 1997.  Predeceased by husband Norman in 1985. Survived by sons Allan, John, Bruce.  ►ALLEN, Fredrick Albert, b. Reading, England November 2, 1906. d. Vernon July 1,  1997. Survived by son Keith; daughter Lois Jackson. He was schooled in Vernon after arriving in 1913 and later worked up to district manager of Okanagan Telephone Company's  Revelstoke exchange. After briefly operating his own company, Fred Allen Electric, he eventually moved to Nova Scotia as a pioneer for the BahaTFaith. He returned West in the early  1960s to operate businesses at Penticton and Oliver, retired in 1970, but went back to the  workforce as a gas meter reader for the next six years. In 1992 the Bah£'i'Faith honoured  him in a ceremony in Israel. He was also an accomplished musician.  ARCHIBALD, Grace Hilda Evelyn, b. Thakeham, Sussex, England June 3, 1897. d. Kelowna  October 30, 1997. Predeceased by husband Reuben; survived by daughters Ella Sinkewicz,  Dolores Jackson. She came to Kelowna as a war bride in 1920 and developed an almost  lifelong affinity with veterans' activities. After living in Vancouver for a number of years,  she moved back to Kelowna where she took part in the annual poppy campaign until her  95th year.  BAKER, William, b. New Westminster May 29, 1923. d. Kelowna November 30, 1997. Survived by wife Dorothy; sons Murray, Ronald; daughters Poppy Angus, Lynda Baker, Sharon  Jaeger. A notary public, he served as a councillor for both Glenmore and Kelowna, and was  a strong proponent of the Kelowna airport.  BAPTISTE, Catherine Manuel, b. Oliver 1914. d. Oliver April 1, 1997. Survived by husband  Howard Roland; son Matthew Baptiste; daughter Eliza Pierre. Kate Baptiste, an expert at  riding and breaking horses, was one of the South Okanagan's original cowgirls.  BAPTISTE, Charlie, b. Oliver April 21, 1910. d. Penticton January 10, 1997. Survived by son  Matthew; daughter Eliza Pierre. Involved in ranching for his entire life, he spent time competing on the rodeo circuit.  BARISOFF, Walter, b. Malonic, Saskatchewan February 1, 1924. d. Kelowna March 15, 1997.  Survived by wife Ida; sons Bill, Barry; daughters Vi Leeming, Cindy Tribbick. He came to  Oliver in 1943 and was the owner of Reliable Trucking. His first business endeavour in  Oliver was a custom farming and spraying operation, which he started in the late 40s. Working alone and relying on the simplest of equipment, he was responsible for the spraying of  500 acres in the area. In the early 50s, he began hauling fruit in the evenings. He moved on  to carting wood, sawdust, water and coal, and in four decades Reliable Trucking grew into a  family concern, involved in many construction projects that contributed greatly to Oliver's  development. These included river-straightening, the Oliver Curling Club, Fairview Mountain golf course, and the upper playing field at Southern Okanagan Secondary School.  BENNETT, Walter Stephen, b. Vernon June 3, 1926. d. Vernon December 16, 1997. Survived  by wife Anna Marie; son Rick; daughters Sue Velichko, Dorie Rock. He worked for NOCA  dairy for 20 years, spent 20 years as an investment counsellor and operated Wally's Market.  His father managed Vernon's Empress Theatre.  181 LIVES REMEMBERED  «tljK»BTOLT,Q. Sine Kristina. b. Indian Head, Saskatchewan August 29, 1914. d. Penticton  September 9, 1997. Survived by husband Joe; sons Harold, Fred. She moved to Cawston in  the 1920s, then to Penticton.  BIRD, Cecil Frederick, b. Armstrong June 3, 1919. d. Vernon June 17, 1997. Survived by  sister Dorothy Smith. A lifelong resident of Armstrong, he was a carpenter and a bricklayer.  He was a life member of the Armstrong and District Fish and Game Club.  BLAKELY, (IRVINE), Georgie Margaret (nee Cail). b. Gunton, Manitoba August 22, 1926. d.  Vernon September 17, 1997. Predeceased by first husband Henry Irvine, and by second  husband Bernie Blakely. She was manager of the Vernon and District Credit Union for 27  years. She actively supported several community organizations and was a former Vernon  city alderman.  BLATTNER, Hans Jacob, b. Aarau, Switzerland April 14, 1923. d. Amsterdam, Netherlands  April 13, 1997. Survived by wife Ruth and daughter Helen. He served on Spallumcheen  council from 1971 to 1979 and was mayor from 1980 until 1987. In 1991 he became the first  chair of the Armstrong, Enderby and Spallumcheen Health Society, the same year he was  named Citizen of the Year for Armstrong and Spallumcheen.  BOOTH, Pamela Hilda (nee Stephens), b. Enderby June 12, 1931. d. Enderby January 24,  1998. Predeceased by husband Leslie. Survived by sons Michael, Gordon. Born into a pioneer Mara family, she trained at Royal Inland Hospital, Kamloops, and for many years was  head nurse at the Enderby hospital. In retirement, she was an active volunteer with the  Enderby museum.  BRODIE, Hazel, b. Nanaimo March 23, 1912. d. Penticton March 4, 1997. Predeceased by  husband Frank in 1983 and son Harlie in 1990. Survived by daughter Janan. She was a longtime Penticton resident and businesswoman, with several community involvements, including more than 60 years with the Pythian Sisters.  BURLEY, Kathleen Eleanor, b. Kelowna May 27, 1931. d. Victoria January 11, 1998. Survived  by sons Tom, Stewart, Tim; daughter Gretchin. She was the daughter of Richard and Mary-  Stewart, who operated Stewart Bros. Nursery in Kelowna.  CAIN, Gudrun Adalbjorg "Goody." b. Winnipeg July 1, 1901. d. Armstrong January 28, 1998.  Predeceased by first husband Charles Hill in 1951, and by second husband Wilson Cain in  1969. Survived by son Thomas Hill. In the 1950s and 60s she owned and operated Hill's  Grocery on Rosedale Avenue, Armstrong. She belonged to the Cheerio Club (OHS Report No  49) and to the Minerva Club (Report No. 51).  <9HI*CANNINGS, Jean McCurdy (nee Munn). b. Summerland December 27, 1912. d.  Penticton December 15, 1997. Survived by husband Steve; sons Robert, Sydney, Richard;  daughter Bette. She was an honorary life member of the South Okanagan Naturalists Club  and of the Federation of B. C. Naturalists, and with her husband received the FBCN's Elston  Anderson Award for outstanding contributions in the field of natural history in BC.  CARTER, Thomas Russell, b. Buckland, England October 29, 1905. d. Kelowna November  14, 1997. Predeceased by wife Rose in 1994; son Russell, 1933. Survived by son Howard;  daughter Patricia Tinling. He came to Kelowna in 1928, worked in vineyards and packing  houses, and later worked for and managed the South East Kelowna Irrigation District. The  author of Praying for Rain, his contributions to irrigation practices are well recognized locally and nationally. He was a founding member of the East Kelowna Hall Association and  a past chair of the local school board.  CHAPLIN, John (Clem).b. Kelowna 1912. d. Vernon February 11,1997. Predeceasedby wife  Joyce in 1992. Survived by daughters Marilyn Smiley, Barbara Renton, Kathy Temperly; son  Ken.  CLARKE, Margaret Neil. b. Vancouver April 2, 1912. d. Vernon December 19, 1997. Predeceased by husband Hugh K. Survived by sons Dr. Hugh Clarke, Gordon; daughter Sherry  Sinclair. She will be remembered as a long-time primary teacher at Harwood, Silver Star and  Bearisto schools.  182 LIVES REMEMBERED  CLEMENT, Leslie George, b. Kelowna November 16, 1910. d. Kelowna March 6, 1998. Survived by wife Lois; daughters Karen Strecheniuk, Glenda MacNeil; sons Wayne, Hugh, Gary.  Descended from Okanagan pioneers George Whelan and Thomas Wood, he was the son of  Ernest and Margaret Clement. He variously owned Winfield General Store, Winfield Shopping Centre and the Winfield Motel.  OJE^COE, Frederick James, b. Guilford, Surrey, England March 14, 1917. d. Kelowna  September 3, 1997. Survived by wife Phyllis; daughters Daphne, Eve, Barbara, Sheila. Identified with the fruit industry, he spent many years at Sun-Rype Products and was active in  several Kelowna community organizations.  COELEN, Alida. b. Haarlem, Holland November 5, 1902. d. Kelowna December 25, 1997.  Predeceased by husband Edward about 1978. In 1922 she came with her parents to Kelowna,  where her father, Dr. G. A. Ootmar, became the area's first medical health officer. Alida and  Edward Coelen operated a dairy farm for many years before moving to Okanagan Mission  and running Greenways Riding Stables.  COOK, Edwin Herbert, b. Enderby March 25, 1916. d. Kelowna April 2, 1997. Survived by  wife Marion, sons Robert, Gordon; daughters Katherine, Nancy. He was the son of Ashton  Creek pioneer William Herbert Cook. He continued to live in Ashton Creek, farming and  logging.  CORBIN, Grace W. b. Logoch, Manitoba December 4, 1898. d. Kelowna March 4, 1998. Predeceased by husband Walter in 1985. Survived by stepsons Chuck, Jim, Don. Trained as a  nurse, she will mostly be remembered as "Tiny," a partner with Mickey Wynn in Mickey's  Taxi.  DANALLANKO, Annie, b. Springside, Saskatchewan October 17, 1909. d. Armstrong March  25, 1998. Predeceased by husband John. Survived by sons Ed, Gordon; daughters Betty  Beck, Marion Walker.  <flIE*DESAULNIERS, Rita (nee Mutch), b. Penticton April 15, 1920. d. Penticton April 7,  1997. Predeceasedby husband Rene "Rusty" in 1982. Survived by daughter Marie.  DUNLOP, Ian. b. Kelowna July 2, 1927. d. Kelowna August 16, 1997. Survived by wife Kasey;  son Colin; daughter Gail Williamson. He was the son of Okanagan Mission pioneers, Mr.  and Mrs. H. C. Dunlop. He was an orchardist/grape grower on the family land for 55 years,  in addition to nearly 30 years spent with the Woodlands Department of S. M. Simpson's  Kelowna division.  DUNN, Mary Joyce, b. Cannes, France June 25, 1925. d. Chase December 24, 1997. Predeceased by husband Raymond (Dan). Survived by daughters Michele Gieselman, Danielle  Dunn-Morris, Theresa Dorer, Raymonde Campbell. She came to Canada as an English war  bride in 1946 and had lived at Chase since 1950, becoming the town's foremost historian and  author of A Town Called Chase. A second book, War Bride, will be published posthumously in  1998.  DUNNE, Dorothea Ellen (nee Harvey), b. Kent, England June 23, 1902. d. Armstrong October 2,1997. Predeceased by husband Fintan in 1954. Survived by daughters Margaret Heslop,  Lil Brown, Evelyn Sternig. She worked in the family bakeries in Enderby and Salmon Arm  in the early 1920s, while in 1926 she married into the Larkin district pioneer Dunne family.  She worked as secretary in the Armstrong Junior Secondary School from 1954 until her  retirement in 1969.  EDES, Isabelle Sarah, b. North Clemens, Alberta December 26, 1912. d. Salmon Arm January 27, 1998. Predeceased by husband William John in 1990. Survived by sons Teddy, LeRoy.  She was a resident of the Salmon Arm area for 80 years.  ELLIOTT, Doreen (nee Bloom), b. September 7, 1921. d. Vernon February 15, 1998. Predeceased by husband Peter. Survived by daughter Katherine. She served in WWII in the Canadian Women's Army Corps with the rank of Staff Sergeant, and was the daughter of Lumby  old-timers Charles and Evalyn Bloom.  183 LIVES REMEMBERED  ERICKSON, Flora (nee MacDonald). b. Armstrong September 20, 1906. d. Armstrong February 24, 1998. Predeceased by husband Josef in 1976. Survived by daughter Dora Stroud. Her  grandfather, Captain D. G. Cumming, was the skipper of the sternwheeler Red Star on the  Sicamous-Enderby run before the days of the railway. She and her mother, Mrs. Myles  MacDonald, had a long record of entries and wins at the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  FARRELL, James Roy. b. Kamloops July 14, 1925. d. Sunnybrae March 25, 1997. Predeceased by daughter Donna Kandall. Survived by daughters Rae Nash, Penny Yuchym; sons  Rick, Darren; also by Vera Farrell, the mother of his children. He was the grandson of  Sunnybrae pioneers Major Charles and Laura Mobley and early Carlin settlers Richard and  Mathilda Farrell. He was a champion ski jumper in his youth.  FOLEY-BENNETT, Walter Richardson, b. Penticton 1911. d. Penticton October 4, 1997. Survived by wife Mabel; son Ted.  FOSTER, Garner Box. b. Trois Rivieres, Quebec September 9, 1901. d. Vernon December 24,  1997. Survived by wife May; sons Orville, Mervin; daughters Alice Teeple, Shirley Miller. He  served the Armstrong community as school trustee for many years, was a past master of the  Masonic Lodge Spallumcheen No. 13 and a 50-year member of the Shriners.  FRY, Donald Cecil, b. Cremona, Alberta December 20, 1921. d. Oliver October 17, 1997.  Survived by wife Jean; sons Tom, Doug, Brian; daughter Kathleen. Employed by West  Kootenay Power since 1952, he worked in Keremeos and later as superintendent of the  Oliver substation until his retirement in 1982. A member of the first Keremeos Village Council,  he was known for his renovation projects. He built a family home in Keremeos using lumber salvaged from abandoned mine buildings. After moving to Oliver in 1960, he purchased  the old McPherson house and began a 30-year series of renovations and landscaping projects.  FUMERTON, Turner Lock. b. Glenboro, Manitoba May 9, 1894. d. Kelowna May 14, 1997.  Predeceasedby wife Olive in 1975. Survived by daughters Diane Rankin, Carol Slesinger. A  resident of Kelowna since 1916, he was active for many years in Fumerton's Department  Store.  GENIER, Mary Elizabeth, b. Vernon June 7, 1906. d. Lumby July 20, 1997. Predeceasedby  husband Earl in 1987. Survived by sons Ron, Noel; daughter Mern Gerow. She was a respected teacher in Lumby for many years.  GIBSON, Gordon Lionel, DC. b. Princeton March 7, 1913. d. February 17, 1998. Survived by  daughters Joyce Garbet, Donna Gibson, Delores Genaille; son Allen R. After serving in  WWII, he enrolled in the second class of the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College. He  practised in Princeton, New Westminster and Newton, and served as MLA for Surrey-Delta  from 1957 to 1960. He then relocated to Salmon Arm, where he became active in the Lions  Club and the Royal Canadian Legion.  GIGGEY, James Ronald, b. St. John, New Brunswick March 4, 1916. d. Kelowna July 24,  1997. Predeceased by wife Jenny in 1990. Survived by daughter Shirley; son Bruce. He  captained CNR tugs on Okanagan Lake for many years.  <SEE^GLAICAR, Marjorie Beatrice (nee Mellish). b. Armstrong August 31, 1916. d. Vernon  March 3, 1998. Predeceased by husband Joe in 1976. Survived by sons Ronald, Leonard,  Clarence. She co-ordinated the Zion United Church meals at the Interior Provincial Exhibition for 30 years, and was an active member of the Cancer Society, the Red Cross, Armstrong  Lawn Bowling and the Meals on Wheels program. In 1984 she was Citizen of the Year for  Armstrong and Spallumcheen.  OSB^GORE, Robert Chambre. b. Kelowna July 18, 1910. d. Kelowna December 10, 1997.  Predeceased by wife Elizabeth in 1984. Survived by son John; stepchildren Peter Howes,  Judy McGladdery, Rosalind Burnell, Sally Wilson, Pamela Howes, Wendy Buchanan, Debbie  Austin. He was one of six children born to Stanley and Phyllis Gore, who came to Kelowna  in 1904 and established the city's first steam laundry. A strong civic worker and supporter of  the arts, he was the 1996 recipient of the Central Okanagan Heritage Association's Distinguished Community Service Award.  184 LIVES REMEMBERED  GORMAN, Helen Irene, b. Armstrong May 16, 1912. d. Kelowna November 20, 1997. Beginning in 1916, she attended the one-room Glenrosa school, and later came back to teach  there until the school closed in 1942. She then taught at Westbank Elementary until retirement in 1972. (See "Early Glenrosa School Days" in OHS Report No. 60).  GOWAN, Rose Alice, b. Henley-on-Thames September 9, 1901. d. Kelowna April 16, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Charles. Survived by son Robert; daughter Mary Miller. She became a Kelowna resident in 1935 and lived with her husband in the 5 Bridges area, where  they operated the Millstream Garage and Auto Court.  «!liI£PGRAY, Hazel G. (nee Beatty). b. Penticton November 30, 1908. d. Penticton October  12, 1996. Survived by husband E. W. (Ted); foster sons Rick and Ray Hawkins. Predeceased  by first husband Harry V Davis.  GREGORY, Gwendoline F (nee Harding), b. Kelowna July 26, 1915. d. Victoria April 24,  1998. Survived by husband Jack. Predeceasedby son David (1992), and by daughter Gillian  (1988). As the wife of a police officer, she resided in several BC centres, always giving generously of her time to community causes.  HADDRELL, Edward, b. Mineola, BC April 12, 1919. d. Oliver August 30, 1997. Survived by  wife L. V. Predeceasedby infant daughter Donna Marie. He moved to Oliver in 1946 to work  for the Southern Okanagan Lands Irrigation District. He was active on the board of Okanagan  Savings Credit Union for 28 years, serving as president several times. The Credit Union  building was dedicated to him in 1993. He also served as president of the Oliver Co-operative Store and was a life member of the Oliver Heritage Society.  HAMMILL, Gordon Dale. b. Milden, Saskatchewan May 28, 1928. d. Kelowna October 27,  1997. Survived by daughters Lynda Newitt, Sandra Bildfell; son Kirk; also survived by Lois  Hammill. He served three terms as Kelowna's mayor, and was instrumental in the city's  purchase of the Canadian National waterfront lands. He also fostered a $4 million city hall  expansion and a new public works yard. His name appears among those who were responsible for organizing the Okanagan Sun junior football team. After completing a term as  alderman, he was appointed to the National Parole Board.  HARWOOD, Ethel Claribel. b. Salem, Oregon July 12, 1908. d. Vernon May 19, 1997. Predeceased by husband Charlie in 1986. Survived by daughter Shirley McArthur.  HAUTALA, Robert Alan. b. Salmon Arm May 28,1921. d. Burnaby January 5, 1998. Survived  by wife Gladys; daughters Sandi Hill, Nancy Ward; son Robert. Employed by the City of  Vancouver until retirement, he was the son of Salmon Arm oldtimers Jack and Ina (Laitinen)  Hautala.  HAWORTH, Lillian, b. Toronto July 9, 1901. d. Kelowna August 4, 1997. Predeceased by  husband James and son Douglas. Survived by son Murray. She came to Kelowna as a teenager. Later she married James Haworth and in 1932 they started their jewelry store, which  is still in business today.  HEMBLING, J. Clarence, b. Didsbury, Alberta June 2,1901. d. Summerland August 28,1997.  Survived by wife Harriet; daughters Carroll Layer, Ilo Kitson. The son of Mr. and Mrs. O. W.  Hembling, who moved to Oyama in 1917, he was the first non-Native child born in Didsbury.  He received his bachelor of agriculture from Brandon University in 1926 and later took  teacher training. In 1930 he was head of the English department at the Vernon high school,  but failing eyesight forced him to abandon a career in education. After operating an electrical business in Penticton for a time, he became field secretary for the CNIB and spent 21  years helping the sight impaired in the Southern Interior.  OJg^HERMISTON, Edith Rita. b. Gasperaux, P.E.I. September 19, 1919. d. Summerland  August 26, 1997. Survived by son Jim. She was mayor of Summerland for five years and  other community activities included the horticultural society, museum and fall fair.  HIGGINS, Delia May. b. Kelowna September 7,1926. d. Kelowna December 14,1997. Predeceased by first husband Alex McFarlane in 1969, and by second husband Patrick Higgins.  Survived by daughters Margaret Zarr, Sandra Runzer; stepchildren Dan Higgins, Carol  Lemieux. She completed a business career in 1982 as regional supervisor for Investors Group.  185 LIVES REMEMBERED  HILL, Elizabeth (nee Grant), b. Lumby September 2, 1916. d. Vernon September 19, 1997.  Predeceased by husband Medwin. Survived by daughters Donna Tellier, Carla Mobley. She  belonged to the pioneer Grant family of Trinity Valley.  HILL, Oliver Isaac, b. Gleneden February 22, 1919. d. Salmon Arm April 9, 1998. Predeceased by wife Irene. Survived by son Ron; daughter Wendy Askew. He was the son of  Salmon Arm district pioneers Liisa Greta and Victor Thomas Hill.  HOBBS, Lillian, b. Medora, Manitoba April 27, 1909. d. Enderby September 24, 1997. Predeceasedby husband Orval and son Richard. Survived by sons Alfred, Ken. In 1937 she moved  to the Enderby area, where she spent 25 years volunteering with the local branch of the  Canadian Cancer Society. Her dedication to the United Church was such that St. Andrew's  United Church Women made her a life member.  HOLDING, Arthur, b. Sedro Wooley, Washington June 3, 1903. d. Scotch Creek, BC October  2, 1997. Survived by wife Elsie; daughters Florence Harrison, Joyce Skjeie. "Trapper" Holding logged in the Okanagan until 1939, when he opened the Capital Motors car dealership in  Vernon. In the early 1940s he became a partner with P. F. Tarry & Son in a small sawmill on  Adams Lake. After the mill was destroyed by fire in 1945 it was rebuilt, with Arthur Holding  as sole owner. Holding Lumber Co. Ltd., now Adams Lake Lumber, was sold to the Interfor  company in 1971. Arthur Holding was also one of the founders of Kamloops Wood Conversions Ltd., which led to the creation of Kamloops Pulp and Paper Ltd.  HORN, John Arthur Nairn, b. Kelowna November 8, 1928. d. Vancouver June 19, 1997.  Survived by sons John, Robin; daughter Joanne. He was the son of J. H. (Jack) Horn and  grandson of Countess Bubna, who once owned the Eldorado Ranch and was responsible for  the building of the Eldorado Arms Hotel. John Horn attended Royal Roads Military College  where he was commissioned in the Royal Canadian Air Force. He then attended McGill  University and UBC, attaining his bachelor of science and professional engineer status before graduating with an MBA. After operating a business in Kelowna, he had a civil engineering practice in Vancouver.  HORTON, Frances Lillian, b. Kelowna July 27, 1912. d. Kelowna August 7, 1997. Predeceased by husband Donald in 1990. Survived by sons Bruce, Bob.  HUGHES-GAMES, Violet (Vitie) Mary. b. Strathmore, Alberta October 2, 1922. d. Kelowna  February 3, 1998. Survived by husband Arthur; daughters Elaine, Gwen; sons Stephen,  Geoffrey. She managed Sears' catalogue department at Orchard Park for 15 years and keenly  pursued several outdoor activities, as well as being a committed member of St. Michael and  All Angels Anglican Church.  JOE, Yasuko "Yosh" (nee Chiba). b. Vernon November 1, 1930. d. Vernon December 6, 1997.  Survived by husband Walter; son Brian; daughters Donna and Vicky. An active member of  the Japanese-Canadian community, she was a devoted member of the parish of All Saints'  Anglican Church and the Anglican Church Women.  JOYCE, Arthur Stanley, b. Vernon June 1920. d. July 20, 1997. Predeceasedby wife Barbara  in 1996, and eldest son Richard in 1997. Survived by sons Peter, Gordon; daughters Sandra  Arlitt, Linda Frye. Born in Vernon to pioneer parents, he was educated in Salmon Arm and  became a resident of Oliver after WWII service.  KENNEDY, Sheilagh Irene, b. Oliver 1915. d. Oliver October 15, 1997. She and her brother,  John, were raised in the family home at the base of Mclntyre Bluff, named after their great-  uncle Peter Mclntyre, who crossed Canada with the Overlanders in 1862. In 1866 he preempted land that became known as Cliff Ranch. Trained as a business secretary, "Mickey"  Kennedy worked in the office of the BC Minister of Agriculture and later moved to Spokane.  She returned to Cliff Ranch in 1967 to join her nephews in running the spread.  KERNAGHAN, Velma. b. Carlin, BC September 24, 1927. d. Penticton March 21, 1996. Survived by husband Earl; sons Doug, Dennis. She was the daughter of Shuswap district pioneers Elmer and Sally Mikkelson.  186 LIVES REMEMBERED  KIELBISKI, Edward Peter, b. Ituna, Saskatchewan September 23, 1919. d. Kelowna September 25, 1997. Predeceased by son Edward Jr. in 1993. Survived by wife Janet; daughter  Karen Herring; son Gerry. Ed Kielbiski was one of the original members of the Kelowna Red  Sox baseball team, excelling at several field positions. He later turned to coaching, and still  later to umpiring. His working life was spent in the fruit industry with Canadian Canners,  Okanagan Packers Co-op and Kelowna Growers' Exchange.  KITCHER, Mary. b. Poole, Dorset March 24,1913. d. Vernon February 20,1998. Predeceased  by husband Bill in 1992. Survived by daughters Lillian DaPont, Angie Kitcher, Bronwyn  Clark, Cathryn Brown. She was a life member of Coldstream Women's Institute.  KLEIN, George, b. Vernon July 13, 1913. d. Vernon February 8,1998. Survived by wife Lillia;  sons Ken, Ray, Ernie; daughter Katherine Palmer.  KOWAL, Ernest John. b. Yorkton, Saskatchewan, d. Vernon December 12, 1997 at age 63.  Survived by wife Viv; son Tom; daughter Sue Kowal. He operated Imperial Esso service  stations from 1958 to 1993 and was a keen supporter of amateur sports. He was involved in  the ownership of Vernon's junior A hockey team for more than 20 years, and coached and  managed other minor hockey teams as well.  KUTYIK, Patricia Kathryn. b. Salmon Arm October 22, 1922. d. Victoria October 24, 1997.  Predeceased by first husband Thomas Bennetts (killed in WWII), and by her second husband, Joseph, in 1978. Survived by daughters Ann Hartmann, Gail Congdon; son Craig. She  was the daughter of Oscar and Mamie Maki.  LANE, Florence Adella. b. Drayton, Ontario in 1900. d. Kelowna March 24, 1998. Predeceased by husband Maurice in 1961. A resident of the Central Okanagan since 1917, she  served for 49 years as secretary and treasurer of Kelowna United Church.  LANFRANCO, Mary Audrey (nee Duggan). b. Kelowna January 13,1928. d. Surrey February  13, 1998. Survived by husband Paul; sons David, Alan, Jamie, Bill, Tony, Christopher. Her  parents operated the Beach Tea Room, near Kelowna's lakeshore, in the early days.  LEVASSEUR, Vida. b. Merlin, Ontario April 14,1900. d. Kelowna June 29,1997. Predeceased  by husband Hank in 1971. Survived by son J. M. Couillard.  LONG, Elizabeth Janet, b. Ayre, Scotland, June 23, 1903. d. Westbank November 8, 1997.  Predeceased by husband George. Survived by daughters Helen Knutson, Margaret Long,  Dorothy Anne Martiniuk. She arrived in Trepanier in 1908 with her parents, Dr. and Mrs.  Buchanan. Following their marriage in 1928, Betty and George Long managed the Greata  Ranch until 1965.  LOUIS, Francis Pierre, b. September 13, 1925. d. Vernon June 5, 1997. Predeceasedby wife  Alma. Survived by sons Alton, and Pat Jack; daughters Wanda Brant, Karen Louis. He was a  member of Okanagan Band No. 1 and a scion of a well-known Okanagan First Nation family.  LOWENBERG, Margaret Maude, b. Kelowna July 6, 1909. d. Kelowna September 10, 1997.  Predeceasedby husband Jacob in 1973. Survived by daughter Emilie Lowenberg; son Murray.  Her father, Fred A. Taylor, laid the cornerstone of St. Michael and All Angels Church in  Kelowna in 1911.  LYSTER, Sarah Edith, b. Lancashire, England January 20, 1905. d. Vernon January 12, 1998.  Predeceased by husband Gordon in 1996. Survived by sons Ronald, Dennis. She was made a  life member of the Interior Provincial Exhibition for her work in the Floral Division.  MCALLISTER, Marjorie Louise (nee Rolston). b. Vernon July 13, 1918. d. Vernon February  14,1998. Survived by husband Lome; sons Bruce, Phil; daughter Coralie Forster. A graduate  of Toronto Conservatory of Music and the Royal School of Music, London, she was the founder  of the Vernon Music Teachers' Association.  McCALLUM, Sine Jane (nee McGee-Armstrong). b. Coldstream July 3, 1908. d. Vernon August 21, 1997. Predeceased by husband Arthur in 1973. Survived by son Ian; daughter Reverend Sally Gadd. Sine McCallum was the first white child born in the newly-incorporated  Coldstream Municipality.  187 LIVES REMEMBERED  McFETRIDGE, Mildred Reid. b. Cardale, Manitoba March 11, 1900. d. Kelowna June 21,  1997. Predeceasedby husband Mac McFetridge in 1962. Survived by daughters Nancy Higgins,  Margaret Gail Miller; son Dr. Peter Reid; stepsons Jack, Norman, Taft. Ms. McFetridge taught  nursing at Winnipeg General Hospital for 10 years and completed post graduate work at  McGill and Columbia universities. She served as trustee for School District 23 and was a  member of the John Howard Society and Kelowna hospital board.  McGUIRE, Jean Alexandra, b. Salmon Arm June 11, 1913. d. Yakima September 27, 1996. A  long-time employee of BC Telephone Company, she was the daughter of Lizzie and Sam  McGuire.  McKINLEY, Robert Lester, b. Fir Valley, BC January 25, 1901. d. Kelowna February 21, 1998.  Survived by Thirza Sieg and their children, Robert, Barry, Bonnie Dumont, Barbara Wood.  He was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Fred McKinley, early residents of the Fir Valley/Winfield  areas.  McLEOD, Muriel Sophia, b. Kelowna March 23, 1910. d. Kelowna December 1, 1997. Predeceased by husband James Clarence. Survived by daughter Donna Chan. Her parents were  Kelowna pioneers Max and Bessie Jenkins.  MADDOCKS, Richard Anthone "Tony." b. Saskatoon November 25, 1919. d. Armstrong August 24, 1997. Predeceasedby wife Mary in 1993. Survived by son Barry; daughters Beverly  Bower, Donna Mihalcheon. A prominent businessperson in the Armstrong, Spallumcheen  and Vernon areas, he operated Maddocks Construction Ltd. from 1962 to 1989.  MALONEY, Douglas William, b. Salmon Arm July 8, 1920. d. Toronto December 20, 1997.  Predeceased by wife Alix. Survived by daughters Dianne Hand, Sharon Maloney. The grandson of Annie and William Holliday, he became president and chief executive officer of  Industrial Acceptance Corporation, and before retirement oversaw the founding of the Continental Bank of Canada, now part of the Hong Kong Bank.  MARLATT, Diane (nee Swordy). b. Kelowna November 10, 1934. d. Kelowna April 27, 1998.  Survived by husband Reg; daughters Pati Sadoway, Susan Findlay, Julie Marlatt; son Gary.  An active community worker, she retired as a Sears employee in 1994 after 26 years of  service.  MARSHALL, Richard George, b. Armstrong November 21, 1926. d. Salmon Arm October 21,  1997. Survived by wife Anne; son Bob. A former lineman-driver with BC Hydro, he was the  son of Nob Hill (Armstrong) old-timers Frank and Willa Marshall.  MARSHALL, Dr. James, (see tribute page 175)  MASON, Anna Victoria, b. New Westminster March 24, 1914. d. Penticton February 9, 1997.  Survived by husband Fred. She was a public health nurse and founder of Penticton Retirement Centre.  MEGAW, Madeline Margaret, b. Vernon January 17, 1915. d. Vernon March 5, 1998. A member of a pioneer family, she worked as a registered nurse in Vernon and Vancouver. Returning to the North Okanagan, she worked in Vernon Medical Clinic for many years.  MEGAW, Robert Earle. b. Vernon April 20, 1924. d. Vernon October 8, 1997. Survived by wife  Pat; sons Randy, Lyall; daughters Sydey Dumont, Valerie LaFrance.  MEUWLY, Margaret P. (nee Howden). b. Vernon September 18, 1916. d. Vernon June 4,1997.  Predeceased by husband Joseph in 1978. Survived by daughter Rosalie Dawe.  MILTIMORE, James Earl, bachelor of science (agriculture), PhD. b. Kindersley, Saskatchewan November 21, 1924. d. Summerland March 23, 1998. Survived by wife Eileen; daughters Jane Grey, Ann Giroux, Maureen Green, Cherie Miltimore (Konwick); sons Earl, Lee.  After graduating from UBC, he joined the staff at Summerland Research Station, where he  helped to identify the cause of bloat in cattle, in addition to studying animal nutrition, and  188 LIVES REMEMBERED  dryland fertilization and irrigation. He then became director of Agriculture Canada research  stations at Kamloops (1970-73) and Agassiz (1973-1985). He served as a Summerland school  trustee and was involved in the establishment of Okanagan College.  MITCHELL, Hilda Florence, b. Wood Mountain, Saskatchewan January 22, 1906. d. Kelowna  June 12, 1997. Predeceased by husband Heber; daughter Margaret McGarvie; son Richard.  Survived by son Malcolm; daughter Joan Jones. Ms. Mitchell's parents, the Hoffmans, were  among the early Winfield orchardists. Hilda and Heber Mitchell operated a 30-acre orchard  on Seaton Road.  MOFFATT, Grace Alice, b. Quebec Province November 17, 1900. d. Vernon February 23,  1998. Resident of Vernon-Kelowna areas for more than six decades, she was a valued office  employee at B. C. Tree Fruits, where she postponed retirement until well into her seventies.  MONK, Belinda Maud. b. Eastham, England May 30, 1908. d. Salmon Arm May 1, 1996.  Survived by husband Bill; daughter Eileen Kernaghan. Predeceased by son Brian. Her family, the Pritchards, settled in Grindrod, where she and her husband later operated a dairy  farm.  MUDIE, Minnie Marilla. b. Sintaluta, Saskatchewan November 18, 1885. d. Kelowna August  27, 1997. Predeceased by husband Alfred in 1948. A resident of Kelowna since 1919, she  taught at the DeHart primary school, where she became affectionately known as "Miss  Harvey (Grade 1)".  MUNSON, Stanley Gordon, b. Olds, Alberta February 22, 1924. d. Kelowna December 21,  1997. Survived by wife Fenella; sons Tim, Patrick, Stephen. He farmed Kelowna land preempted by his grandfather in 1890, where his father, Fred, was born in 1893. Stan Munson  was also a federal fruit inspector.  NEEDHAM, Doris Marie (nee Mobley). b. Sunnybrae, BC November 25, 1908. d. Salmon  Arm June 23, 1997. Predeceased by husband Ernest Henry. Survived by daughter Juanita  Trenholm; son Sonny (Sam). One of 11 children born to Charles and Laura Mobley, she  trained as a nurse in Kamloops. While living in Revelstoke, she and her husband helped to  establish the Christian Missionary Alliance Church, and in 1948 they moved to Sunnybrae,  where they again started a small Sunday school and figured in the building of Sunnybrae  Bible Camp. In 1960, after years of preparation, they opened The Enchanted Forest theme  park on the Trans-Canada Highway, which, by 1970, had played host to one million visitors.  NUYENS, George Francis, b. Vernon December 8, 1916. d. Vernon February 8, 1998. Survived by wife Myfanwy; sons Gordon, Ronald; daughters Sharon Romeo, Bonnie Blackmore,  Irene Hannah, Pat Duggan, Cathy Clark. He spent 25 years with the Vernon Fruit Union as  shipping foreman and later pursued a career in accounting and life insurance sales. As a  coach, manager and builder, he was inducted into the BC Baseball Hall of Fame in 1992.  OVERTON, Cyril George, b. Penticton February 16, 1926. d. Oliver September 13, 1997.  Survived by wife Joyce; son Chris; daughter Jan Hobbs. After starting a sheet metal business in Oliver in 1936, his family moved to Vancouver in 1943. "Cy" Overton returned to  Oliver following WWII service in the Royal Canadian Navy and expanded his father's firm  into W. Overton & Son Plumbing & Heating Ltd. An active worker on behalf of his church  and community, Cy Overton was named Oliver's Good Citizen in 1973.  PARKER, Roberta "Jean" (nee Jory). b. Yakima May 25, 1929. d. Penticton October 5, 1997.  Survived by husband Ray; son Doug; daughter Debra. Her grandfather, Henry Douglas Jory,  and family were among Oliver's first pioneers, settling in the Fairview district and later  homesteading near Camp McKinney. Her father, Clyde, ranched until the irrigation system  was developed, then raised ground crops and hay. Jean and Ray Parker continued fruit  farming on Tuc-el-Nuit Drive.  POLLARD, Aubrey Roy. b. Edmonton January 1, 1909. d. Kelowna July 22, 1997. Predeceasedby wife Catherine in 1987. Survived by daughters Shirley Murray, Dinny O'Connell,  Karen Smith; sons Jim, Harry. He was Imperial Oil agent in Kelowna for 38 years, alderman, school board chair and a charter director of the Central Okanagan Foundation. For  these and other community endeavours, he was named Kelowna Citizen of the Year in 1992.  189 LIVES REMEMBERED  PORTER, William George, b. Chiselhurst, Kent, England July 5, 1910. d. Kelowna March 21,  1998. Survived by wife Ivy; sons Brian, Alan; daughter Denise Morrison-Porter. His parents  settled in the East Kelowna area in 1913, where he would spend the rest of his life. "George"  Porter started work with the Kelowna Land and Orchard Company; later a portion of it  became Keloka Orchard Ltd., and he functioned as ranch manager from 1937 until retirement in 1977. He was instrumental in obtaining land for both the East and South Kelowna  parks.  PRICE, Barbara Jessie (nee Ferguson), b. Kelowna January 15, 1919. d. Salmon Arm January 8, 1998. Survived by husband Ivor; daughter Debra.  RAMPONE, Ernie Edward, b. Kelowna January 14, 1928. d. Kelowna November 21, 1997.  Survived by wife Shirley; son Gary; daughter Debbie Stotz. He was the son of Camillo and  Emma Rampone, Valley residents in the early 1900s. He farmed Springdale, the family land  at the foot of KLO Hill.  RAMSAY, Barbara Helen (nee Moore), b. Enderby September 2, 1907. d. Vernon December  23, 1997. Predeceased by husband Edward in 1964. Survived by sons Edward, Fred, Dick,  Don, Ken, Bill and Leonard; daughters Peggy Poirier, Barbara Oberle, Isobel Burbridge, Noreen  Russell. A member of the Enderby/Armstrong pioneering Moore family, she spent many  years as a member of the Kingfisher Kitchen Band.  REED, Sylvia Leonie. b. Pretoria March 11, 1906. d. Kelowna May 26, 1997. Predeceased by  husband Guy in 1985. Survived by daughters Anne Marshall, Sheila Maciejewski, Leonie  Soder; son Peter. Her father, Lionel E. Taylor, brought the family to Kelowna in 1911, when  he formed Bankhead Orchard Co. Ltd. In 1928 Sylvia married Guy Reed, whose work as a  badminton professional took them to the Prairies and to California. In the late 1940s they  returned to the Valley to operate an orchard in Glenmore, where Mrs. Reed could indulge  her inherited interest in botany.  RICE, Ruth (nee Tait), outstanding community volunteer, b. Gartrell, BC (Trout Creek) July  5, 1911. d. Penticton November 11, 1997. Predeceased by husband Herbert. Survived by son  Jim; daughter Jan.  RISSO, Gaspar. b. Kelowna June 24, 1908. d. Kelowna October 4, 1997. Predeceased by wife  Inez in 1961. Survived by sons John (Toni), Alan; daughters Reta Finchman, Rhoda Weisgarber.  His parents, Vincent and Annette Risso, came to the Kelowna area from Italy in 1902.  RITCHIE, Peter, b. Kelowna January 1, 1913. d. Kelowna September 6, 1997. Survived by  wife Nina; daughters Jean Treadgold, Margaret Trethewey; son Evan. After serving in WWII,  he joined his sister, Jenny, in opening Ritchie's Drygoods. Peter and Nina Ritchie were  founding members of Sunshine Theatre and the Okanagan Symphony.  ROBINSON, Hilda (nee Marven). b. Kelowna January 17, 1912. d. Vernon September 24,  1997. Predeceasedby husband Frank (Jack) in 1990. Survived by sons Sidney, Robert; daughters Betty Wilson, Judy Bachynski. She moved to Salmon Arm at the age of four and resided  there until she lost her husband.  SCHORN, Iris Mable (Kern), b. Coal Creek (near Fernie) August 29, 1908. d. Oliver January  14,1998. Survived by husband Fred; sons Terry, Elden. She grew up in Phoenix and Bridesville,  moving with her husband to Osoyoos in 1946.  SCHULZ, Julius Richard, b. Poland 1909. d. Vernon November 16, 1997. Predeceasedby  wife Hedwig and daughter Dorien. Survived by daughters Martha Ryll, Erna Edwards. An  orchardist for most of his life, in latter years he was greenskeeper at Vernon Golf & Country  Club.  SELTENRICH, Alex. b. Loreburne, Saskatchewan February 28,1916. d. Kelowna January 29,  1998. Survived by wife Eleanor; sons Russell, Mark; daughters Donna Maier, Paulette  Seltenrich. A Valley resident for 50 years, he operated an orchard on Seaton Road, as well as  working for School District 23 as a custodian and bus driver. He was a charter member of the  Winfield fire brigade, Scoutmaster, and was active in the Social Credit party during the  1950s and 1960s.  190 LIVES REMEMBERED  'ñ∫ SIMARD, Isobel (nee Moore), b. Enderby May 29, 1906. d. Enderby May 20, 1997.  Predeceased by husband Wilfred. Survived by son David. Daughter of Spallumcheen pioneer John Frederick Moore, she was one of the earliest school teachers in the Kingfisher  area. She was the author of Reminiscences of Kingfisher and Mabel Lake, and contributed  many articles to Okanagan History.  <{QE>SMITH, Ruth Mary. b. Montreal May 23, 1921. d. Salmon Arm August 8, 1997. Predeceased by first husband John Beaulieu; son Bruce. Survived by husband Tom, past president  of Salmon Arm branch of the OHS; seven sons and three daughters. She moved from St.  Laurent, Quebec to Salmon Arm in 1985, and immediately became an active member of the  community.  SMITH, Virginia Rose. b. Armstrong April 21, 1914. d. Summerland March 10, 1998. Survived by brother Vern. During a lifetime spent in Armstrong, she clerked at several different stores, but will be best remembered for her years at Scarrow's Variety.  SOON, Arvo Robert, b. Salmon Arm August 27, 1916. d. Santee, California, August 5, 1997.  Survived by wife Flora; daughter Gayle Drake; stepson Gary Rowe.  STAFFORD, Temie. b. Crandall, Manitoba October 11, 1917. d. Kelowna May 20, 1997.  Predeceased by husband Herbert. Survived by son Warren; daughter Claire Turigan. Her  father, T B. Reece, was the founder of Westbank Orchards, packers and shippers of fruit.  <3i^STANNARD, Merle, b. Gravelbourg, Saskatchewan September 4, 1924. d. Penticton  March 24, 1997. Survived by son Bill Leighton; daughter Gayle.  STEWART, Mary Lucy. b. Vancouver October 19, 1903. d. Kelowna April 18, 1998. Predeceased by husband Richard John in 1972, and by daughter Kathleen Eleanor Burley in 1998.  Survived by sons Bill, Dick, Jim. Commencing in 1922, she trained as a nurse at Kelowna  General Hospital, and later became active in community work.  TANEMURA, Kenneth, b. Salmon Arm 1924. d. Kelowna March 26, 1997. Survived by wife  Kiyoe; daughters Terry Lynn Durrer, Heather Gale Tanemura; son Ryan. He was a lifelong  resident of Salmon Arm, where he was a self-employed electrician and fruit farmer.  TAYLOR, John Walter, b. Sheffield, England January 1, 1917. d. Vernon December 10, 1997.  Survived by wife Rita Elizabeth; sons Jack, Lance, Mark; daughters Pat Sheldon, Peggy Hall,  Faye Pollard, Betty Marion. "Jack" Taylor operated Taylor Service and Repair and was also  well-known for his ongoing contribution to the Vernon & District Credit Union, as president  and board member.  TERAI, Masaichi. b. Shiga-Nura, Honshu, Japan February 10, 1902. d. Kelowna May 14,  1997. Predeceased by wife Shige in 1991. Survived by daughters Suma Hunter, Seiko Niven;  son Isao. After moving to Kelowna in 1924 he became a vegetable grower, and in 1955  purchased the Appleby farm on Highway 33. Terai Road and Terai Court were named after  him.  THORLAKSON, Mary Julia, b. High River, Alberta August 1, 1903. d. Vernon September 4,  1997. Predeceased by husband Solvi. Survived by daughters Norda Jean Behrick, Kenna  Nyffeler. As Mary Rice, she came to Vernon in 1906. She and her husband ranched on the  Commonage and later relocated at Oyama.  TOMPSON, Arthur William, b. England May 7, 1912. d. Vernon January 12, 1998. Survived  by son John; daughter Judy Yntema; sister Mary Baillie. An entrenpreneur since boyhood,  he bought land on the Commonage, and ran a trucking company in the 1930s. He was also  a sheepman, cattleman, potato and grain grower, poultryman, hand and horse logger and  horse trainer.  TOPHAM, Mildred, b. Stettler, Alberta September 20, 1904. d. Kelowna November 21, 1997.  Predeceased by husband George. Survived by daughter Barbara Cook; son F. George. She  was a government fruit inspector during WWII, and later worked for Walters Ltd. at Peachland,  followed by employment at Westbank Orchards from 1958 to 1976.  191 LIVES REMEMBERED  TRUEMAN, Lome Garfield, b. Brampton, Ontario November 20, 1909. d. Enderby September 3, 1997. Survived by wife Beatrice; sons Orville, Glen, Norman. For his contribution to  the Ashton Creek community (he ran the store there for 22 years) he was made a life member of the community club in 1974.  VALAIR, Lionel Campbell, b. Vernon April 16, 1914. d. Vernon November 26, 1997. Predeceasedby wife Norah in 1986. Survived by sons Darrell, Gaylord, Verne; daughters Gaylene  Ridley, Judy Clark. He was prominent in horse-racing circles throughout the province.  <SIE*WATERMAN, Mabel (Dolly), b. Princeton 1904. d. Summerland June 15, 1997. (see  tribute page 174)  <¬ßEE> WEATHERILL, Harry Paxton. b. Kelowna October 17, 1911. d. Osoyoos February 26,  1998. Predeceased by first wife Edna in 1982. Survived by wife Stella. He retired from the  Royal Bank to Osoyoos in 1972 and became active in the OHS, Osoyoos Museum Society  and on the Cherry Fiesta committee. He was a life member of the BC and Yukon Heart and  Stroke Society.  WEBB, Henry Vere (Harry), b. Summerland October 28, 1910. d. Kelowna November 23,  1997. Survived by wife Joan; daughters Robin White, Heather Pottinger. He began a financial career at the Bank of Montreal's Summerland branch and some years later joined the  Okanagan Loan and Investment Company. He later managed Okanagan Trust Company  and, finally, Royal Trust in Kelowna.  WEEKS, Edith Marjorie "Madge." (nee Hawkins), b. Brentworth, England February 20,1913.  d. Enderby July 18, 1997. Predeceased by husband William Arthur in 1959. Survived by son  Lloyd; daughters Helen Paull, Ruth Peterson. She was a member of the pioneer Hawkins  family. (See OHS Report No. 61, page 181).  WEISBECK, John Alexander Raymond, b. Marienburg, Russia August 1, 1911. d. Kelowna  March 26,1998. Survived by wife Kathrine; sons John, Richard, Thomas, Eugene; daughters  Kathy Ferguson, Wilma Schell, Marion Schell, Deborah Carney. He was a well-known East  Kelowna orchardist and life member of the Knights of Columbus.  WELDER, Wendell Anton, b. Kelowna April 5, 1925. d. Kelowna April 11, 1998. Survived by  wife Rose; daughters Diane, Lynn; son Gary. He worked as a financial secretary during his  35 years with the International Wordworkers Union and spent a quarter-century on the UIC  Board of Referees. He lost a leg serving in WWII, and this experience inspired him to become active in the War Amps of Canada. A founder of the Kelowna Food Bank, he later  served as director and chairperson over a 15-year span.  43BE>WIGHT, Anne Elliott, b. Rome, New York July 3, 1917. d. Oliver March 20, 1997.  Survived by husband William Gordon; son David. The daughter of an Episcopalian minister,  she graduated with a degree in psychology from Wellsley College and subsequently attended  the prominent Katie Gibbs secretarial school of New York. She moved to Oliver in 1947 and  worked for 11 superintendents of School District No.14, as well as being a substitute teacher  and librarian.  192 OHS Business  Branch Officers - 1998-1999  Armstrong-Enderby  PRESIDENT: Robert Dale; VICE-PRESIDENT: Jean Lockhart; SECRETARY: Sybil  Sharman; TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton; DIRECTORS: William Whitehead, Pat  Romaine, Kathy Fabische.  Kelowna  PRESIDENT: Hugh McLarty; VICE-PRESIDENT: Fenella Munson; SECRETARY:  Kaye Benzer; TREASURER: Gifford Thomson; DIRECTORS: Pat Carew, Bob Hayes,  Jim Hayes, Bill Knowles, Alice Lundy, Denis Maclnnis, Bob Marriage, Hume  Powley, Jack Ritch, Rhoda Weisgarber, Marie Wostradowski, Dorothy Zoellner.  Oliver-Osoyoos  PRESIDENT: Gayle Cornish; VICE-PRESIDENT: Dan Roberts; SECRETARY: Mary  Englesby; TREASURER: Mary Roberts; DIRECTORS: John Musgrave, Elaine Shannon.  Penticton  PRESIDENT: Claude Hammell; SECRETARY/TREASURER: Bob Elder; DIRECTORS:  Louise Atkinson, Marylin Barnay, Joe Biollo, Mollie Broderick, Bob Gibbard, Art  Hinchcliffe, David Gregory, Randy Manuel, Maggie Ricciardi, Dave MacDonald,  Betty Bork, Ted Gane, John Ortiz, Enabelle Gorek.  Salmon Arm  PRESIDENT: Joan Idington; VICE-PRESIDENT: Mary Wetherill; SECRETARY: Rosemary Wilson; TREASURER: Denis Marshall; DIRECTORS: Florence Farmer, life  position; Sheila Cran, Hugh Ehlers, Hjalmar Peterson, Tom Smith, Dorothy Askew,  Marilyn Kernaghan, Reg Humphries, Carol Booth, Don Byers, Kay Currie, Allan  Wilson.  Similkameen  PRESIDENT: John Armstrong; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Wallace Liddicoat; VICE-  PRESIDENT: Ed Minshull. DIRECTORS: Richard Coleman, Charles Finch, Dorothy  Clark.  Vernon  PRESIDENT: Carol Abernathy Mellows; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Betty Holtskog;  DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Pat Collins, John Corner, Bob dePfyffer, Jean  Humphries, Lucy McCormick, Lisa Morrison, Elsie Wilson, Jack Wilson.  193 OHS BUSINESS  HIGHLIGHTS of MINUTES  73rd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  of the OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  SS Sicamous, Penticton, May 3, 1998  President Denis Maclnnis called the meeting to order at 10 a.m. with a  request for a minute's silence in memory of those OHS members who had died  since the last annual meeting.  NOTICE OF CALL for the 1998 Annual General Meeting read by secretary  Helen Inglis.  MOTION: Powley, Hume/Hammell, Claude. That the Agenda be approved  as written. Carried.  MOTION: Gamble, Jessie Ann/Dallas, Lionel. That the Minutes of the 1997  Annual General Meeting be adopted as printed on pages 212-216 of the 61st Annual Report of the OHS. Carried.  BUSINESS ARISING from the minutes: None.  CORRESPONDENCE to the Annual General Meeting: None.  Reports from Executive Council Officers  President Denis Maclnnis reported that the compiling and printing of the  Best of the Okanagan Historical Society Book have been moving in a positive  direction; the question regarding liability insurance for executive council is still  under investigation; President Maclnnis was only able to attend the Kelowna  Branch AGM due to his work schedule; he drew attention to the celebration marking the 40th anniversary of the restoration of the Father Pandosy Mission. He  concluded with stating his pleasure of being president of the OHS, his anticipation of completion of outstanding committee business, and his thanks for the  support of this "wonderful organization."  Secretary Inglis reported that during 1997-98, she handled the usual recording and distribution of the minutes of Executive Council Meetings and a small  amount of correspondence, mostly involving the plans for the new Fintry Provincial Park. Thanks to the efficiency of fellow Council members, responsibilities  were not onerous. (The secretary took the opportunity to request that all table  officers and Branch representatives supply complete address information: 1. Postal  address. 2. Street/road location. 3. Telephone/fax number).  Treasurer Jean Lockhart presented the 1997-98 Financial Report. She clarified the procedure followed when donations are received by the Branches that do  not have charitable tax numbers.  BRANCH ACTIVITIES REVIEWED  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY - President Don Wells reported a good Report  sales year, with 240 copies taken. The fall 1997 meeting in Armstrong had a large  turnout to hear about the contributions of the Chinese gardeners in the area. Mat  Hassen Jr. and Ralph Lockhart spoke of their recollections of the operation and  production of the Chinese farms. Mary Jong spoke of her childhood and school-  194 OHS BUSINESS  ing in Armstrong. Many in attendance had not realized all of the economic and  social hardships that she and others encountered. The Enderby, April 4, 1998,  annual general meeting followed a potluck supper. The business meeting was  followed by the interesting and amusing recollections of Walter Anchikoski of  Prince George, formerly of Grindrod, whose parents had been among the first  Ukrainian settlers to arrive there in the 1920s.  KELOWNA — Outgoing president Peter Stirling summarized a very busy  year: a newsletter sent to all Branch members; bus tour to Cherryville gold-mining area in September; the Fall Lecture Series featuring historical topics; the May  bus tour to Douglas Lake/Quilchena area. This is the 50th anniversary of the  Kelowna Branch. There were 300 present at the annual meeting. Bill Barlee was  guest speaker, and the two essay winners were presented with their prizes.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS - President-elect Gayle Cornish (for Joan Casorso)  described the Branch's two general meetings. November 1997 (at Osoyoos) Lionel  Dallas, an officer of the Honorable Guard and dressed in the full 18th century  regalia, presented the history of the 78th Fraser's Highlanders Scottish Battalion  in Canada. The March 1998 AGM at Oliver featured Irene Bryson, a member of  the Osoyoos Indian Band, who spoke about local plants used in traditional remedies. While serving Labrador tea, she answered many questions from the audience. Seventeen copies of OHS Reports were presented to the South Okanagan  Secondary School; the En'Owkin Centre is looking for a complete set of Reports.  PENTICTON — President Claude Hammell reported on a busy year; donation of $500 towards repairs on SS Naramata; August 18, new Ellis Homestead  Historical Marker; June 22, OHS picnic in the ornamental Summerland Research  Station garden and a ride on the KVR. The Branch has been active in lobbying on  behalf of Penticton's heritage by sending letters urging the City of Penticton to  erect a sign at the Fairview Road Cemetery and suggesting the creation of a heritage society in Penticton. Guest speakers at the two general meetings were Ken  Campbell of the Myra Canyon Restoration Society and Andrew Schwab, involved  in the restoration of MV Pentowna at Kelowna. 1998 marks the 50th anniversary of  the Penticton Branch.  SALMON ARM—President Joan Idington gave the following highlights of  the past year: October trip to Quaaout Lodge for lunch and Native cultural program; the number of local articles in the 61st Report; Christmas party at the Salmon  Arm art gallery, with a talk by General Peter Kilby on the history of the Rocky  Mountain Rangers army regiment; ongoing support for the Salmon Arm museum,  and the dedication of a bronze plaque erected on the Credit Union building to  mark the site of the area's first commercial orchard. The Turner family, descended  from fruit-grower Robert Turner, and his wife Maude, were suitably recognized at  the 1998 general meeting. The eagerly-awaited Fleeting Images of Old Salmon  Arm, a pictorial look at history, was forecast to be ready for sale in mid-July.  SIMILKAMEEN-President John Armstrong reported that the May 25,1997  meeting was at the Keremeos Grist Mill where curator Cuyler Page spoke about  new developments at the mill. In August, a tour was made to the Molson, Washington, museum. The November 30 meeting had former branch president and  195 OHS BUSINESS  theatre-owner Alex Gough speak about mining in the Bridge River area. The February meeting featured a Dorothy Zoellner/Alice Lundy illustrated talk about  Similkameen.  VERNON—President Carol Abernathy Mellows reported on the monthly  meetings held by her branch. In addition to book sales, the Vernon branch's major  achievement for the year was the compilation and publication of Vemon and District Pioneer Routes. After a catered dinner at the William Halina Centre, the AGM  was treated to a lively account by Jo Jones of the subject and her research into the  Barrett/Parke journals, recently donated to the Vernon Museum & Archives.  COMMITTEE REPORTS  The Best of Okanagan History  Dave MacDonald reviewed the background of this project, starting with  the Bagnall Fund and continuing through the steps taken to the present. Jean  Webber's manuscript is with Harbour Publishing and the committee is negotiating publishing contract terms. (Jean Webber was unable to be present). Dave  summarized her report concerning progress thus far; Ms. Webber is continuing to  collect illustrations, maps and photographs for the history volume.  Editor's Report  "We have good reason for being well satisfied with the progress we have  made during the past 12 months . . . we have already succeeded in saving from  probable loss or destruction a vast amount of data relating to the history of the  Okanagan Valley." These words are not mine, rather those of Leonard Norris,  writing in the very first OHS Repon. That first publication contained just 34 pages,  and I would guess that the number of copies printed would be fewer than 250.  Remarkably, for 73 years, the Report has continued to fill its original mandate  through a succession of editors, and I am grateful to have been given the chance  to work with such a timeworthy organization as this society. The Repon owes its  being to all those dedicated souls in our seven branches who persevere to bring  articles to light and to show supportive understanding when the editor decides  more work is needed, or rejects a submission as unsuitable. I am especially indebted to Dorothy Zoellner and Dave MacDonald for reading the final draft of  Number 61, whereby their knowledge saved me from considerable embarrassment and produced abetter 1997 issue.  Dave MacDonald also merits recognition for his role in placing the Report  index on the Living Landscapes website. This feat has put our entire output at the  disposal of researchers the world over or, for that matter, anyone connected to the  Internet.  As for Okanagan History itself, I am concerned over the paucity of articles  from some of our branches and I hope this doesn't translate into fewer sales.  Family histories continue to be a mainstay, but members are reminded that if we  do not include stories and essays of general interest and wider import, we run the  risk of losing readership and economic viability. Perhaps the operative word here  is "encourage." Encourage younger people to join the OHS; encourage professional writers and researchers in our communities to contribute to the Repon  articles of their own choosing, or by editing material assembled by that great  196 OHS BUSINESS  collective resource—OHS members, who have assembled the raw data, but are  reluctant to do the actual writing. It may also be an opportune time to seek feedback from our readership by enclosing a questionnaire in a forthcoming Repon.  Lastly, I urge consideration for a special edition for the momentous year  2000, coinciding with our 75th anniversary. A special editorial committee should  be struck, and one of its considerations could be whether to include a reprint of  that first Report with Volume Number 64.  Finance  Gifford Thomson had no formal report to make; the finance committee is  still working on the liability coverage for the OHS executive, and intends to have  a recommendation to put to the July Executive Council meeting.  Historian  Robert Marriage continues to build the collection of newspaper clippings  of OHS activities. He noted the recent donation of materials from former OHS  secretary Art Strandquist, which included a copy of Sun, Sage and Sand and several back issues of OHS Reports.  Historic Trails  Peter Tassie reported a "100-percent increase" in committee membership,  with the introduction of David Gregory of Summerland, who will report on the  trails in the South Okanagan. He noted with regret the death of Bob Harris. Mr.  Harris was one of the most knowledgeable authorities on BC's heritage trails.  David Gregory reported on the accomplishment of two goals by the south branch  of the committee: (a) Heritage Week, 1998, Harley Hatfield officially opened the  Priest's Camp Park at Summerland. The first of its kind along the Brigade Trail,  this site was used as a campground by fur traders, Jesuits, gold miners and cattle  drovers, (b) The definition of the route of the old Park Trail to Granite City. One of  the oldest recorded trails in the Interior and originally known as an Indian trail,  this track still exists for the most part as the Summerland-Princeton road.  Father Pandosy Mission  Basil Collett is continuing the task of preserving the Mission, initiated by  his father, H. C. S. Collett. The current bank balance shows $12,000, including  $5,000 received in donations. The group of volunteer guides on hand during the  summer get credit for increased donations. The focus for 1998 will be the 40th  anniversary of the opening of the restored site on June 15,1959. The event is held  to recognize the dedication and hard work of the many volunteers who have devoted time to the preservation, and as a means of bringing to the attention of the  public and government the need for continued financial support. There is concern expressed for the collection of farm machinery, which needs protection from  rust and decay.  Sales and Promotion  Lionel Dallas reported that promotion of the OHS and the Report has been  considerably enhanced through the establishment of a web site and the homepage  affiliation with the Living Landscapes project at Okanagan University College. He  gave credit to Carol Abernathy Mellows, Jessie Ann Gamble and David MacDonald  for these accomplishments.  197 OHS BUSINESS  Writing Contest  Enabelle Gorek expressed disappointment over the lack of participation  throughout the Okanagan, Similkameen and Shuswap schools. Clearly, this is a  matter to be addressed with all of the teachers of English and history. This year's  winners were Kezia Yeats and Adam Hanniman. (Certificates were presented  to their parents during the program that followed the annual meeting).  Fairview Kiosk  Vic Casorso reported widespread interest in the kiosk. Panels are being  protected from vandalism by installing heavy-duty Plexiglass. Richard Kendrick  will be starting the landscaping, utilizing all native plants. Larry Raincock has  replaced the original church sign and will present an estimate for repair of the  signature stand at the kiosk.  Fintry Park  Jack Morrison of the Vernon branch reviewed the process by which a management plan was being developed for BC Parks. Parks invited input from various  community organizations, including the OHS. After completion of a draft plan,  three open-house sessions were held—at Fintry, in Vernon and in Kelowna—where  the public was invited to study the plan and submit reactions and/or suggestions.  The final draft is close to completion, many of its terms already being addressed.  Unfinished Business  Talking Books Project—Mollie Broderick and her son, Fred, gave a presentation on the talking books concept with regard to having the OHS Reports recorded on audio tape for use by the visually impaired. Fred Broderick, a member  of the Lions Club, stated that this service organization supports projects for the  blind and that the five Lions clubs in the Kelowna area are all enthusiastic about  the talking books proposal. Upon investigation, it was determined that a Kelowna  company can produce master tapes for $500 to $600 each, with copies estimated  to cost $5.  MOTION: Gamble, Jessie Ann/Gorek, Enabelle. That the Okanagan Historical Society support the Rutland Lions Club in its endeavours to undertake the  talking books project as described. Carried.  New Business  MOTION: Marriage, Bob/Powley, Hume. That a letter of appreciation be  sent to Art Strandquist for his donation of books to the Okanagan Historical Society. Carried.  SIGNING OFFICERS-MOTION: Thomson, Gifford/de Pfyffer, Bob. That  the signing officers for 1998-1999 be: President Denis Maclnnis, Treasurer Elizabeth Tassie, First Vice President Peter Tassie. Carried.  APPOINTMENT of AUDITOR-MOTION: Thomson, Gifford/Stirling, Peter. That Leonard Miller be appointed as auditor. Carried.  198 OHS BUSINESS  COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTION-Motion: Marriage, Bob/Morrison, Jack.  That the complimentary resolution follow the usual format. Carried.  1999 ANNUAL MEETING-Hugh McLarty, incoming president of the  Kelowna Branch, announced that his group would host the next Annual General  Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society on May 2, 1999.  The business meeting was followed by a buffet lunch, utilizing the dining  room and the former ladies' lounge in the stern of the SS Sicamous. Claude  Hammell, Penticton Branch president, chaired the luncheon program. Enabelle  Gorek presented the essay prizes won by Kezia Yeats and Adam Hanniman. President Denis Maclnnis, on behalf of the Society, presented a gift to Jean Lockhart,  retiring treasurer. In view of the setting for the AGM, it was fitting for the Penticton  Branch to present as guest speakers Randy Manuel, of the Penticton Museum,  and Hartley Clelland, past chair of the Sicamous Restoration Society, and Fred  Tayler, restoration supervisor. They gave an informative history of the ship in  service and of her preservation.  Auditor's Report  To the members of the Okanagan Historical Society:  Attached are the Financial Statements of the Society for the year  ending December 31, 1997. These statements include the General  account (printed here), the Bagnall Trust account, the Savings account and the Father Pandosy Mission Committee account.  This audit procedure covered the examination of the following: all  pertinent banking records and statements, receipts and disbursement vouchers, the synoptic journals and the written statements  as presented by the Society's financial officers.  These records have been verified as a true and correct accounting  of the affairs of the Society for the year 1997 as presented by Mrs.  Jean Lockhart and the Father Pandosy Mission committee.  The statement includes the amounts owing to the Society at the  close of the business year and is represented by the Accounts Receivable.  Leonard G. Miller, accountant  (Continued overleaf)  199 OHS BUSINESS  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  GENERAL ACCOUNT  For the Year Ending December 31, 1997  RECEIPTS  Membership & Sales $  Armstrong-Enderby 2,738.00  Kelowna 4,436.00  Oliver-Osoyoos 720.00  Penticton 1,980.00  Salmon Arm 2,796.00  Similkameen 180.00  Vernon 2993.00  Treasurer Report Sales  Postage & Handling  U. S. Exchange  Interest Earned  Essay Contest  Donations  Insurance  GST Rebate  DISBURSEMENTS  2.435.00  18,278.65  346.15  87.59  880.12  400.00  6,770.00  420.00  389.43  9,293.00  Honorariums: Editor  2,000.00  Treasurer  390.00  Office Expense  468.64  Bears & Bedtime  267.50  Essay Contest  400.00  Printing & Stationery  10,790.24  Postage & Handling  557.00  Executive Meeting Expense  93.75  Audit Expense, 1996  340.00  Donations  7,820.00  Memberships  110.00  Miscellaneous Expense  251.45  Photos & Copies  402.89  Telephone Expense  105.06  27,571.94  23,996.53  Excess of Revenue over Disbursements  200  3.575.41 OHS BUSINESS  ERRATA  For the 61st Report (also No. 60)  page 39    Line 7—should read John Carmichael Haynes  page 69    Ken May transferred to Vernon in 1962.  page 79    Line 4—Son's name should read Delmar.  page 91    Photograph caption should have identified Dick Gunoff  as ex-Regimental Sergeant-Major.  60th Report, page 131  dad died ..."  Should read "Rob was sixteen when his  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1998  LIFE MEMBERS  Broderick, Mrs. Mollie, Okanagan  Falls  Cochrane, Mrs. Hilda, Vernon  Corbishley, Donald, Oliver  Cowan, Robert, Enderby  de Pfyffer, Robert, Vernon  Ellison, Kenneth V, Oyama  Gamble, Mrs. Jessie Ann,  Armstrong  Hatfield, Hartley R., Penticton  Iceton, Mrs. Ermie, Oliver  Lewis, Mrs. Dorothea, Osoyoos  McCormick, Mrs. Lucy, Vernon  MacDonald, David, Penticton  MacNaughton, F. Carleton, Oliver  Marriage, Robert, Kelowna  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, Vernon  Tassie, Elizabeth, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, Vernon  Thomson, Gifford, Kelowna  Wamboldt, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Webber, Bernard, Victoria  Webber, Mrs. Jean, Victoria  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong  Zoellner, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna  MEMBERS  Abel, Don, Westbank  Adam, Charles, Kelowna  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver  201 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley  Anderson, Eric, Salmon Arm  Andrews, C. E, Burnaby  Andrews, W P., Prescott, Arizona  Appel, Wally, Kelowna  Arens, Janet, Vernon  Arnold, Gilbert N., Winfield  Arsenault, Laura & Ernie, Salmon  Arm  Asay, Shirley Ann, Salmon Arm  Ashton, Anna-Marie, Vernon  Ashton, Wayne & Janet,  Armstrong  Askew, Dorothy, Salmon Arm  Atkins, Fay & Dave, Vernon  Atkinson, Ann, Armstrong  Atkinson, Louise, Summerland  Ayotte, Dr. Brian, Salmon Arm  Bannister, Charlie, Salmon Arm  Barkwill, H. J., Summerland  Barman, Dr. Jean A., Vancouver  Barron, Stan, Armstrong  Bartman, Ralph & Tina, Salmon  Arm  Basham, David H., Creston  Beairsto, H. David K, Vernon  Beames, T B., Ladysmith  Beckett, Bernice, Armstrong  Beckett, Ray, Victoria  Behnsen, Ken, Magna Bay  Bell, John, Kelowna  Bell, Warren, Salmon Arm  Benzer, Mrs. Kay, Kelowna  Bernardo, Sandra, c/o Lake  Country Museum  Bird, Geoffrey, Vancouver  Blair, Bruce, Salmon Arm  Bolton, Bruce & Eleanore, Enderby  202  Booth, Margaret, Salmon Arm  Borden, A. & S., Armstrong  Bork, Elizabeth, Kaleden  Boss, Rawleigh & Lydia,  Armstrong  Bowen-Colthurst, Mr. & Mrs.,  Ladysmith  Brent, Frederick J., Burnaby  Brett, Phyllis, Armstrong  Briscall, Miss CM., Vancouver  Brown, Marjory, Armstrong  Bulman, Sabina H. M., Winfield  Burne, Charles, Blind Bay  Burns, Donna, Prince George  Burns, R. E., Armstrong  Burtch, A. H., Winfield  Cain, Mrs. G., Armstrong  Caley, Hugh & Ruth, Vernon  Caley, Michael & Pat, Osoyoos  Caley, Robert & Penny, Kelowna  Cameron, Jack, East Vernon Road  Carbert, Gordon, Ponoka, Alberta  Carew, P. H. C, Kelowna  Carter, Lorna, Armstrong  Catchpole, Diana M., Delta  Cave, George, Salmon Arm  Cawston, Mark, Salmon Arm  Cayford, Art, Armstrong  Chamberlain, Joan, Kelowna  Chapman, E. Ian, Kelowna  Chapman, Eric W, Kelowna  Chapman, K D., Armstrong  Chapman, Ted & Mary, Penticton  Charman, Barbara, Kelowna  Christien, Melanie, Vernon  Church, Donna, Kelowna  Clarke, Ken, Kelowna  Cleaver, Wm. H., Kelowna OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Cochrane, Patrick, Vernon  Coell, David & Norma, Victoria  Coldwell, John A., Mclnnes Island  Lighthouse, via Prince Rupert  Collett, Basil & Brenda, Kelowna  Colter, Christine, Armstrong  Constable, Mrs. V.M, Kelowna  Cooper, I. L., Armstrong  Corner, John, Vernon  Cossentine, H. John, Penticton  Cousins, Verne & Joan, Osoyoos  Couves, C. S., Kelowna  Craig, Kathy, Lumby  Crane, WD., Vernon  Cretin, Harry W, Kelowna  Crosby, Beryl C, Parksville  Cross, Eve, Yorkton, Sask.  Cruickshank, Forbes & Beth,  Kelowna  Culling, Genevieve B., Calgary  Dale, Robert & Marion, Enderby  Dallas, Lionel & Judy, Osoyoos  Danal, Mrs. Polly, Vernon  Danallanko, Art, Armstrong  Danforth, Pat, Salmon Arm  Dangel, Mae, Grindrod  Davies, Tudor, Salmon Arm  Davis, Dave, Salmon Arm  Dedinsky, Lou, Kelowna  deDood, Hanne & Cor, Salmon  Arm  Delcourt, Diana, Kelowna  Delcourt, Glenn, Kelowna  deMontreuil, John & Gay,  Kelowna  Denison, Eric & Betty, Vernon  Denison, Janet A., Vernon  dePfyffer, Charles, Kelowna  Derkaz, Cindy, Salmon Arm  Deuling, Phyllis, Lumby  Dewdney, Jim & Connie,  Penticton  Doe, Margaret, Salmon Arm  Doeksen, Rijn & Bessie, Kelowna  Donnelly, John, Vernon  Douglas, Ken F, Armstrong  Douillard, Leo, Kelowna  Dryer, Amy N., Sicamous  Duncan, Walton, Vernon  Duyvewaardt, Mr. & Mrs. E. E.,  Kelowna  Earl, Harry, Armstrong  Earl, V. & W., Kelowna  Ehlers, Hugh & Shirley, Sorrento  Eichinger, Paul, Armstrong  Ells, Judy, Armstrong  Emerson, Marybelle, Kelowna  Erickson, June, Salmon Arm  Evans, W Robert & Olive,  Penticton  Fabische, K, Enderby  Fackler, Heidi Schelb, Enderby  Farmer, Florence, Salmon Arm  Farquhar, Mary, Salmon Arm  Favali, Marj & Mike, Kelowna  Fenton, Nellie, Salmon Arm  Findlay, Raymond & Win, Kaleden  Fisher, Dr. and Mrs. D. V,  Summerland  Fleming, John & Mary, Vernon  Forbes, Ken & Norma, Oliver  Forster, Beryl, Summerland  Fowler, Bob & Kathy, Armstrong  Fowler, Mary & Reid, Salmon Arm  Fraser, Ruby, Lumby  203 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Freeze, Russell & Jessie,  Armstrong  Fritzel, Al & Pat, Salmon Arm  Froehlich, Mr. & Mrs. S.,  Summerland  Frost, Wayne, Armstrong  Fulkco, Myrna & Tom, Nakusp  Gaddes, Joyce S., Victoria  Gale, Mrs. J. L., Penticton  Gamble, Bruce, Appleton, Wisconsin  Gamble, Jennifer, Montreal  Gamble, Len, Armstrong  Gates, Frank & Joan, Armstrong  Giegerich, Mike, Sorrento  Gillard, D. A., Ottawa  Ginns, Anne & Jim, Penticton  Girardet, Mrs. Lottie, Canoe  Gislason, Dr. & Mrs. I. L., Orange,  California  Glaicar, Marjorie, Armstrong  Goodfellow, Eric & Ruth,  Princeton  Gore, Robert C, Kelowna  Gourlie, Michael, Edmonton  Graham, Beatrice, Chase  Graham, Glenn, Penticton  Green, James W & Katherine,  Vernon  Greenaway, Lome, Victoria  Greenaway, Olivia (Pat), Kelowna  Greenough, Doug & Rayla, Vernon  Greenwood, Robin, Armstrong  Grieve, Elizabeth, Winnipeg  Grieve, Dr. Kim, Salmon Arm  Griffin, Merle E., Westbank  Guttridge, Bill, Peachland  Hagardt, Margaret, Enderby  Hall, Barbara, Salmon Arm  Hall, Dennis R., Osoyoos  Hall, Donald, Kelowna  Hall, Mabel V, Kelowna  Hall, R.H, Kelowna  Hamilton, Russ & Kitty, Vernon  Hammell, T.C, Penticton  Hanet, Alf & Sally, Kelowna  Hanson, Dennis & Jo Ann,  Armstrong  Hanson, Valerie, Kelowna  Harder, Jean, Vernon  Harkness, Percy J., Salmon Arm  Harper, Reba, Salmon Arm  Harrington, Mary, Salmon Arm  Harris, R. C, West Vancouver  Harrison, David, Armstrong  Harrison, M., Armstrong  Hart, Sue, Salmon Arm  Hartnett, Blanche, Salmon Arm  Haskett, Mrs. Yvonne, Kelowna  Hassard, Lesley & Frank,  Armstrong  Hassen, Mat, Armstrong  Hawrys, Mr. & Mrs. George,  Grindrod  Hayes, James H. & Wilma,  Kelowna  Hayes, Robert M., Kelowna  Hayhurst, Ron & Joanne,  Armstrong  Heckrodt, Barb, Enderby  Hennig, Loren, Vernon  Higgins, Lois, Salmon Arm  Holloway, Jim, Salmon Arm  Holman, Mike, Salmon Arm  Hope, Marion, Armstrong  Horn, Jas. T. F, Kelowna  204 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Hoshizaki, Brian, Armstrong  Hoshizaki, B. & A., Armstrong  Howard, Jean, Armstrong  Huband, Lois, Salmon Arm  Hucul, Nancy, Salmon Arm  Huggins, Allan, Burnaby  Hughes, June, Oyama  Humphries, Jean I., Vernon  Humphries, Reg, Salmon Arm  Hunter, Elsie, Surrey, BC  Hunter, Janet, Salmon Arm  Hutchison, Bob, Salmon Arm  Idington, Joan, Salmon Arm  Imredy, Doreen, Vancouver  Ingles, Mrs. M. E., Kelowna  Inglis, Helen, Vernon  Inglis, Sherwood, Salmon Arm  Ingraham, Janet, Vernon  Ivans, Betty, Kelowna  Jackson, H. W, Vancouver  Jackson, Sheila, Hixon  Jackson, Sheilagh, Winfield  Jahraus, K. & G., Armstrong  Jamieson, Ken & Pamela, Salmon  Arm  Jamieson, Rolland & Jean, Salmon  Arm  Jean, Feme, Westbank  Johnson, Bob, Armstrong  Johnson, Dr. G., Kelowna  Johnson, Dwight & Linda,  Armstrong  Johnson, Pamela D., Salmon Arm  Johnson, R. S., Armstrong  Johnston, Howard & Dale, Salmon  Arm  Jones, David & Veronica, Vernon  Jones, Mrs. Kathy, Victoria  Jong, Joan, Armstrong  Jonsson, Louise, Lumby  Joyce, W Russ, Kelowna  Kane, Cece & Sally, Salmon Arm  Kavanaugh, Patricia, Salmon Arm  Kelly, Dr. L. E., Vernon  Kernaghan, Bill & Peg, Salmon  Arm  Kernaghan, Ralph & Marilyn,  Salmon Arm  Kerr, Betty, Armstrong  Keswick, Janet & Jack, Osoyoos  Kettles, Faye & Andy, Vernon  King, Daphne E., Penticton  King, Rosemary, Kelowna  Kinloch, David F B., Vernon  Klein, Mrs. K, Kelowna  Knowles, C. W (Bill), Kelowna  Koski, Fred, Salmon Arm  Kotz, Larry, Vernon  Kunze, Ann & Junior, Armstrong  Laird, Bill, Salmon Arm  Laird, Ed, Salmon Arm  Lambert, Ben M., Oliver  Langford, Lance, Salmon Arm  Larsen, Don & Diane, Salmon Arm  LaTrace, Ethel, Armstrong  Latten, Gisella, Armstrong  Lawrence, Mrs. George, Keremeos  LeDuc, Burt & Barb, Kamloops  Lefler, Wes & Dorothy, Armstrong  Legg, Pauline, Vernon  Lett, Pat, Vernon  Lightbody, Mrs. Marietta, Kelowna  Lockhart, Ralph & Jean,  Armstrong  205 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Loken, Dr. J. D., Kelowna  Lundy, Alice, Kelowna  McCann, Leonard G., Vancouver  McClelland, Don, Kelowna  McClure, A. Ruth, Calgary  McClure, Dave, Armstrong  McComb, Margaret, Kelowna  McCoubrey, Patricia, Winfield  MacCrimmon, S., Winfield  McDonald, Colin, Kelowna  MacDonald, Donald J., West  Vancouver  MacDonald, Elvie, Penticton  MacDonald, Fran, Armstrong  McDonald, Yvonne, Salmon Arm  McDonnell, Peter & Nancy,  Okanagan Centre  Macfarlan, Robin Clarke, Calgary  McFarlane, Oliver & Audrey,  Kelowna  Maclnnis, Alison, Port Coquitlam  Maclnnis, Denis, Kelowna  Maclnnis, Lee, Langley  Maclnnis, Olive, SM.S., Saskatoon  Maclnnis, Rob, Surrey, BC  Maclnnis, Tom, Cold Lake, Alberta  McKechnie, Shirley & John,  Armstrong  McKechnie, Sjoukje & Craig,  Armstrong  McKeever, Larry, Vineland Station,  Ontario  MacKenzie, Juanita S., Mission, BC  McKerlich, Bill, Salmon Arm  MacKinnon, W J., Penticton  McLarty, R. Hugh, Kelowna  McLaughlin, Kathleen & Dal,  Princeton  McLennan, Mary & Don, Kelowna  MacLeod, Len & Doreen, Vernon  McLeod, Muriel, Kelowna  MacNaughton, James, Armstrong  Mail Boxes Etc., Westbank  Maki, Richard, Salmon Arm  Mallory, Margaret, Summerland  Manheim, Dr. & Mrs. E., Kansas  City, Missouri  Mann, Fred, Vernon  Marr, Dr. Brian, Salmon Arm  Marshall, Alma, Armstrong  Marshall, Dr. James, Summerland  Marshall, Joan and Denis, Salmon  Arm  Martens, Frank, Summerland  Martin, Paul, Salmon Arm  Marton, Louis, Westbank  Marty, Arthur, Kelowna  Mason, Doug, Ann, Tye, Vernon  Mason, Gladys, Vernon  Mather, Ken, Vernon  Matheson, Patricia & Don, RR1,  Enderby  Mathieson, Nellie, Salmon Arm  Mathews, Bob, Canoe  Maw, Vi & Glen, Armstrong  Mayhead, Mr. & Mrs. J. W, Auckland, NZ  Melnichuk, Mary  Mertin, Hank & Helma, Salmon  Arm  Middleton, Doug, Kelowna  Miller, Margaret Gail, Kelowna  Miller, Stan W, Kelowna  Mills, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna  Minnete, Eva, Salmon Arm  206 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Mitchell, Fred & Eileen,  Armstrong  Mitchell, Joan, Salmon Arm  Moffatt, Doug, Kelowna  Moisey, Margaret, Kelowna  Monford, Ken & Meryl, Grand  Forks  Monford, Lome, Kelowna  Moody, Mrs. E., Burnaby  Morgan, Howard & Barbara,  Kelowna  Morrison, Doug, Kelowna  Morrison, J. G, Vernon  Moubray, P. R., Kelowna  Muir, Jerry, Armstrong  Munson, Stan & Fenella, Kelowna  Murphy, Mrs. M. E., Salmon Arm  Musgrave, John Brent, Oliver  Nahirney, Denise, Kelowna  Nahm, Gerry & Irene, Vernon  Nahm, Tilman & Mae, Grindrod  Nakagawa, Harry, Salmon Arm  Naylor, E. E., Victoria  Neave, Carney, Stump Lake  Ranch, BC  Neave, Greg, Ashcroft  Neave, Len, Edmonton  Neave, Paddy, Coaldale, Alberta  Needham, Joan, Kelowna  Nelkenbrecher, Leo & Sharon,  Armstrong  Newell, Geoff, Salmon Arm  Nicholson, Viola, Armstrong  Nitchie, Evelyn, Armstrong  Nixon, Doreen, Armstrong  North, Ab & Helen, Kelowna  Oberle, A. M. J., Armstrong  Oberle, William, Armstrong  O'Brien, Dan, RR1, Sorrento  Ortiz, John E., Penticton  Oswell, Michael G., Victoria  Painter, M. F, South Surrey  Parson, M. J., Duncan  Pasechnik, Pete, Vernon  Patterson, Raymond & Ann,  Armstrong  Paynter, Henry Oliver & Sheila T,  Westbank  Pearson, Adeline, Salmon Arm  Peebles, Jack, Fulford Harbour  Pells, Frank J., Kelowna  Penner, Helen, Kelowna  Peterson, Alf A., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Floyd B., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hjalmar, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hubert, Salmon Arm  Picou, J. & A., Armstrong  Pinchin, Eleanor, Kelowna  Potter, H. Anne, Armstrong  Price, Alex, Kelowna  Price, John, Vernon  Price, Len, Armstrong  Price, Harry A. & Doris E.,  Kelowna  Pudleiner, Sam, Brooklin, Ontario  Raber, Joyce & Howard, Vernon  Rablah, John, Armstrong  Radomske, Eveline L., Kamloops  Reed, Arthur, Kelowna  Rees, Nigel, Armstrong  Reid, Dennis, Quesnel  Richards, R. F, Penticton  Rigler, Ethel, Salmon Arm  Ritch, Jack, Kelowna  207 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Roberts, Leslie, Naramata  Robertson, R. C, Salmon Arm  Rohde, Val & Kim, Salmon Arm  Rolin, Dorothy, Salmon Arm  Rolin, Gary, Salmon Arm  Romaine, Patrick & Margaret,  Armstrong  Salter, Rev. Derek & Jill, Okanagan  Falls  Sarell, T J., Oliver  Scales, James, Salmon Arm  Schaal, Joanne, Vernon  Schellenberger, Milton, Kelowna  Schierbeck, Elizabeth (Fewtrell),  Kelowna  Schley, Robert, Vernon  Schubert, Trevor & Jean,  Kamloops  Schut, Ben & Trudy, Salmon Arm  Segreto, Ralph, Salmon Arm  Sengotta, Bill & Tbni, Vernon  Sengotta, Gerry & Dorothy,  Vernon  Sengotta, Grace, Vernon  Shannon, Larry & Jan, Oliver  Sharman, Jim, Enderby  Shelley, Nan, Kelowna  Shepherd, Jean, North Vancouver  Shepherd, John F, Armstrong  Shilvock, Winston A., Kelowna  Shook, Wendy, Armstrong  Short, P. W, Okanagan Centre  Sidney, Tbm, Armstrong  Silver, Louise, Salmon Arm  Simpson, George, Keremeos  Smaha, Mike & Doris, Armstrong  Smathers, Terry & Claudia,  Armstrong  Smith, Clare, Kelowna  Smith, Mavis, Salmon Arm  Smith, Myrtle, Kelowna  208  Smith, Myrtle M., Armstrong  Smith, Neil, Abbotsford  Smith, Thomas, Salmon Arm  Spendlove, Rosemary & David,  Ottawa  Sperle, Elizabeth, Kelowna  Stammers, Mrs. Doug, Salmon  Arm  Stewart, Virginia A., Vernon  Shell, Rosemary, Kelowna  Stirling, Peter, Kelowna  Strandquist, O. A., Kelowna  Stocks, Peter A., Victoria  Sutherland, Doug, Kelowna  Swales, Cay & Ted, Kaleden  Swarbrick, Richard & Ruth,  Kamloops  Tailyour, Joan, Kelowna  Tait, Doreen, Summerland  Tanemura, Tbm & Anne, Salmon  Arm  Tapson-Jones, M. L., Salmon Arm  Tassie, Mary, Vernon  Teece, John, Armstrong  Thompson, Gordon & Kay,  Penticton  Thompson, Sharon, Okanagan  Falls  Thomson, Carol & Duane, Oyama  Thomson, Gifford & Brenda,  Kelowna  Thomson, Dorothy & Ken, Kelowna  Thomson, Jack & Donna, Kelowna  Thorburn, Herb & Lorna, Kingston, Ontario  Thorlakson, Margaret A., Vernon  Thornloe, Francis, Kelowna  Tidball, William, Summerland  Tily, Bill & Ethelyn, Penticton  Tbbler, Evelyn. Victoria OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  Todd, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey,  Peachland  Tomlin, E. V, Oliver  Tribe, Lester, Armstrong  Trimbee, Robert, Enniskillen,  Ontario  Truswell, Byron, Wenatchee, Wash.  Turner, Ron, Salmon Arm  TUrner, Tbm, Quesnel  Tutt, Brian, Kelowna  Tutt, C. H., Trail  Tutt, Mr. & Mrs. D., Kelowna  TUtt, Gerry, Kelowna  Tutt, Mike & Cher, Kelowna  Tweeddale, Elsie, Salmon Arm  Vaines, Peter, Victoria  Verdurmen, Joe, Salmon Arm  Vignola, Sue, Vernon  van Vreumingen, Peter, Kelowna  Waddington, J. D., Richmond  Waddington, Kathleen E., Vancouver  Walker, Harvie & Doris, Vancouver  Walker, W J. D., Victoria  Wardrop, Jim, Royal BC Museum,  Victoria  Watt, A. W, Summerland  Weatherill, A. G, Vernon  Weatherill, Bob & Lil, Vernon  Weatherill, Brian & Lilo, Calgary  Weatherill, David & Joanne,  Vernon  Weatherill, Don & Doris, Vernon  Weatherill, Gary & Monica,  Vernon  Weatherill, Gordon & Shelagh,  Vancouver  Weatherill, Harry & Stella,  Osoyoos  Webb, Bill & Jessie, Enderby  Webber, Christopher, Ottawa  Weber, Melba, West Vancouver  Weddell, E. A. H., Barriere  Weddell, Edith R., Kelowna  Weddell, James M., Kelowna  Weddick, Dean, Enderby  Weeks, Lloyd & Judy, Armstrong  Wells, Don, Grindrod  Westie, Andrew, Kelowna  Wetherill, Mary, Vernon  Whalley, Jamie, Armstrong  Whitaker, B. C, Armstrong  Whitehead, Frank, Kelowna  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong  Whitehead, Gordon, Calgary  Whitting, Ivan & Maud, Kent,  England  Whyte, Stuart & Betty, Nanaimo  Wiebe, V J., Abbotsford  Wilcox, Ed, Kelowna  Williams, Dr. Ralph, Salmon Arm  Wilson, Allan, Tappen  Wilson, Donald, Peachland  Woodd, H. S., Vancouver  Woods, Allan, Salmon Arm  Wore, Margaret, Kelowna  Wragg, Phil & Nicki, Salmon Arm  Yandle, Anne, Vancouver  Yeats, J. L., Sorrento  Zoellner, William, Okanagan  Mission  209 OHS MEMBERSHIP LIST  INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS  Weddell, Horn & Co., Kelowna  The Daily Courier, Kelowna  Summerland Museum & Heritage  Society  R. N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton  O'Keefe Historic Ranch, Vernon  Okanagan Regional Library,  Kelowna  Salmon Arm Museum  Glenbow-Alberta Institute, Calgary  Berge & Company, Kelowna  Armstrong-Spallumcheen Museum  & Arts Society  Wisconsin State Historical Society  University of Windsor, Windsor,  Ontario  Harvard University Library  Spokane Public Library  McPherson Library, University of  Victoria  Tacoma Public Library  The Newberry Library, Chicago  Vancouver Public Library  Penticton Public Library  Vancouver City Archives  The Roman Catholic Bishop of  Nelson, Nelson, BC  Westminster Abbey Library,  Mission, BC  Highland Park Elementary School,  Armstrong  Kamloops Museum Association  Muriel Ffoulkes Centre, Kelowna  University of British Columbia  Greater Victoria Public Library  Burnaby Public Library  University of Northern BC, Prince  George  Seattle Public Library  Okanagan Mission Secondary  School  Summerland Secondary School  Kelowna Secondary School  Allen County Public Library, Fort  Wayne, Indiana  Charles Bloom Secondary School,  Lumby  Kalamalka Secondary School,  Vernon  W. L. Seaton Secondary School,  Vernon  Kelowna Centennial Museum  Kelowna and District Genealogical  Society  McGill University  210    Number please."  Vernon Telephone Exchange c. 1929  VERNON MUSEUM AND ARCHIVES

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