Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Fifty-second report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1988

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 0  mi*  Okanagan  52nd Report of tin  Okanagan History  FIFTY-SECOND REPORT  Award Winning Publication  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4, 1925  COVER  The Simpson Ranch  by  Gwen Lamont in 1966  © 1988  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921 241 -54-2  VERNON. B.C 2  FIFTY-SECOND REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Jean Webber  ASSISTANT EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Ron Robey  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Aileen Porteous, Oliver and Osoyoos  Betty Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Carol Mellows, Vernon  Gertrude Peel, Armstrong and Enderby  Florence Farmer, Salmon Arm  OKANAGAN HISTORY: 52nd Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society has been printed with the assistance of the New Horizons Program of Health and Welfare Canada.  Membership  The recipient of this Fifty-second Report is entitled to register his or her membership in the  Fifty-third Report which will be issued November 1, 1989.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Buying Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the Parent  Body (Box 313, Vernon), from Branches of OHS and, as well, from most museums and book  stores in the Okanagan.  For availability and prices of back numbers see order form on insert. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  "If one had the talent and went on from being a historian where would he  go? To being a novelist, a dramatist, or, greatest of all, a poet!''  These are the words of a Canadian who devoted a lifetime to the study of history,  A. R. M. Lower, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Queen's  University.1  Today publications of local history proliferate. Many record original  research, as does Okanagan History: Annual Report of the Okanagan  Historical Society. Unfortunately there are some which merely reprint what  others have ferreted out, without bringing new insights, often perpetuating errors which should have been corrected.  Perhaps the time has come for the creative writer to advance from the  factual base that we have laid down and to people our landscape with larger  than life characters who will tell us who we are individually and collectively.  And would not such a literature be worth our serving with our wealth of  historical detail, our telling anecdotes, and our portfolio of real and vibrant  men and women?  There is another point to be made in favour of works of the imagination.  We are all aware of the stories that we cannot or will not tell for fear of causing  hurt or embarrassment. If we wish to tell the truth, the whole truth, we may  have to write fiction.  Jean Webber  '.    Eleanor Cook & Ramsay Cook,  The Craft of History. Toronto, 1973. p. 43.  Awarded to the Okanagan Historical Society  by  The Canadian Historical Association  for "the Society's involvement with history, its preservation,  and promotion"  announced at the annual meeting of the  Canadian Historical Association in Windsor, Ontario  — June 9 and 10, 1988 CONTENTS  OKANAGAN MEMORIES  THE SAGA OF WILLIE KING (Winston A. Shilvock)  7  GOLDEN WEDDING OF ALICE AND LOUIS THOMPSON (Ina Bedford)  9  OLD MEMORIES OF PLEASANT VALLEY ROAD (Jean Kidston, nee Keith)  12  REMINISCENCES OF KELOWNA (Frank Snowsell)  15  PIONEER IN PHARMACY IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY (S. A. Muir)  18  ELECTRICAL OUTAGE 1936 (The Oliver News)  20  OLD TIMERS  HERMAN WICHERS: ONE OF THE FIRST SETTLERS IN SPALLUMCHEEN  (James E. Jamieson)  21  THE EMENY FAMILY'S 100 YEARS IN SPRINGBEND (Jim and Alice Emeny)  23  CONSTRUCTION OF THE HISTORIC EMENY LOG HOUSE (Jim and Alice Emeny)  25  THOSE EARLY DAYS (Evelyn [Sparky] Hallett)  27  THE C. B. HARRIS FAMILY (Fay Fell)  28  REID'S CORNERS (Dennis Reid)  33  THE SIMARD MUSEUM (Judy Reimche)  34  HISTORICAL PAPERS  STAGECOACHES IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN -1872-1892 (Ken Mather)  37  THE KELOWNA CLUB (Winston A. Shilvock)  40  THE MURPHYS - PIONEERS OF THE NORTH OKANAGAN  (Shirley [Murphy] Page)  46  WATER: PENTICTON'S STRUGGLE TO HAVE ENOUGH  BUT NOT TOO MUCH (A. David MacDonald)  62  FIRST COUNCIL MEETING OF THE CITY OF ARMSTRONG  IS RE-ENACTED (Jessie Ann Gamble)  68  KELOWNA GOLF CLUB HISTORY (Evelyn Metke)  70  TWO KELOWNA GOLF TROPHIES (Evelyn Metke)  74  SKI DEVELOPMENT IN THE VERNON AREA (Carl Wylie)  75  THE OLIVER FIRE DEPARTMENT (Victor R. Casorso)  83  OKANAGAN CRATE LABELS: DAZZLING CLUES TO OUR PAST (Wayne Wilson)  88  THE "OKANAGAN LAKE" $100 BILL (Randy W. Marusyk)  97  LANDSCAPE CHANGE (Wayne Wilson)  99  FRANK HERBERT LATIMER (Peter Tassie)  99  HYDROLOGY OF THE OKANAGAN BASIN (Reprint)  102  BIOGRAPHIES AND TRIBUTES  JAMES EARLE "Jim" JAMIESON (John M. Jamieson)   105  RUBY LIDSTONE - OUR FRIEND (1908-1987) (Marjorie Abbott-Pavelich)   106  MAY LORRAINE HAYMAN (1931-1987) (R. M. [Bob] Hayman)  109  WILLIAM JOHN EVERETT (Ev.) GREENAWAY (W.J. E. Greenaway)  113  THE EIJIRO KOYAMA FAMILY (Sax Koyama)  115  DONALD CLARK FILLMORE - June 19, 1912-April 20, 1986, (R. M. Hayman)  116  BEATRICE HARDIE (Brenda Thomson)  120  GOOD MORNING, MISS DALE (Catherine M. Levins)  121  DR. NORBERT J. BALL (Rita Ball and Marion Eisenhut)   123  FRANCIS RICHARD EDWIN DEHART - 1874-1935 (Hume M. Powley)   125  THE FINDLAYS OF KALEDEN (Elizabeth Pryce)   128  DOLLY GREGORY  133 TRIBUTE — Edith Mary Aitken   133  THE COSENS FAMILY (Constance G. Cumine)   133  KATJA KRAHNSTOEVER - ARTIST IN STITCHERY  (P. M. Ritchie and Jane Clark)  135  EARL RICHARD TENNANT: a Community Man (Roland A. Jamieson)  137  BERYL GORMAN GARDNER (Ann Marrs)  139  CHARLES EDWARD OLIVER — Sept. 17, 1892 - February 13, 1972  (Wells Royden Oliver and Charles Edward [Ted] Oliver Jr.)   141  HALIBURTON THOMAS TWEDDLE (Doug Cox)  145  WORKING TOGETHER  AN APPRECIATION OF THE 100 YEARS OF THE HISTORY OF  SPALLUMCHEEN LODGE, NO. 13, G.R.B.C, A.F. & A.M. (Mat S. Hassen)  150  THE OLIVER SENIOR CITIZENS' SOCIETY, BR. #16 Qohn Zarelli)  153  OLIVER UNITED CHURCH SUNDAY SCHOOL (Carleton MacNaughton)  156  RIVERSIDE COMMUNITY HALL (Audrey E. Bogert)  157  STUDENT ESSAYS  INTERPRETATION OF LETTERS WRITTEN BY C. MAIR IN THE 1890s  (Vicki Baschzok)  163  ARMSTRONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL (Jordie Fulton)  164  FRONTIER LIFE IN THE OKANAGAN (James Gustafson)  169  BOOK REVIEWS  BIRDS OF THE OKANAGAN VALLEY (Phil Ranson)  171  HISTORIC SPALLUMCHEEN AND ITS ROAD NAMES (Harry Sheardown)  171  GRAND FORKS - THE FIRST 100 YEARS (Dorothy Zoellner)  172  THIS IS OUR HERITAGE (Jean Webber)  173  OKANAGAN HISTORY INDEX (Win Shilvoch)  173  CAPTAIN LEN'S FERRY TALE OF THE OKANAGAN (Bob Hayman)   174  ERRATA AND ADDENDA  175  OBITUARIES  WE SHALL MISS THEM  176  BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF 64th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1989  185  MINUTES OF THE 63rd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1988  185  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  188  EDITOR'S REPORT  189  SECRETARY'S REPORT  190  AUDITOR'S REPORT  191  REPORTS OF THE BRANCHES  SALMON ARM  193  ARMSTRONG/ENDERBY  193  VERNON  194  KELOWNA  194  PENTICTON  195  OLIVER/OSOYOOS  196  REPORT OF FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE   196  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE: FINANCIAL STATEMENT  198  BRIGADE TRAIL COMMITTEE REPORT  199  OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS 1988-1989  200  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1988  201 William S. King — 1873 - 1956. OKANAGAN MEMORIES  THE SAGA OF WILLIE KING  by Winston A. Shilvock  The man for whom the King Stadium on Gaston Avenue is named  was one of Kelowna's great sports enthusiasts; and he was also responsible for the city having a gold chain of office.  William S. King was born in England June 3, 1873. After completing the usual middle class education he joined the famous Peter  Robinson department store in London. That name will bring nostalgic  memories to many English emigrants to the Okanagan Valley. His marriage to Lottie Paris in 1903 resulted in a family of two daughters and a  son. A daughter, Rosemary, is living in Kelowna today.  In 1912 the Kings migrated to Calgary where William joined the  Hudson's Bay Company. His retail experience in England proved  valuable and in 1915 the company posted him as manager to the Nelson  store where he remained until retiring to Kelowna in 1939.  A deep love of music and tremendous enthusiasm led him to  organize the Nelson Operatic Society in the mid 1920s, and until the end  of his days he could sing the score of any Gilbert and Sullivan opera in a  strong baritone voice.  Although he was obliged to retire at age 66, he was still very much  a going concern. On arrival in Kelowna all sports interested him, but  particularly the local Girls' Softball Team which was having financial  troubles and required bats, balls and uniforms.  With great gusto, Willie, as he affectionately became known, dove  into the project of money raising. At every game he vigorously canvassed  the spectators and for years was successful in keeping the team financially  viable.  His little dog, Beau, a sprightly Springer Spaniel, also helped with  the finances. Before the Okanagan Lake Bridge was built, the lawn in the  city park went to the edge of Mill Creek and often a hefty swat sent a ball  into the water. On command from Willie, Beau would dive in, retrieve  the ball, rush to the mound and happily shake water over the pitcher.  Seventy-five cents was saved on a new ball.  Every summer Willie would dress in a tropical white suit, straw  boater and carried a cane. This, with his impressive, large white  mustache, gave him such an air of authority that, as he strolled around  town, strangers and town people alike would ask for information about  anything and everything pertaining to Kelowna. He amassed such an  amazing collection of facts about the city that he became known as "Mr.  Information" or "Old Timer."  One of his great contributions to Kelowna was when the city reached  the half-century mark in 1955 and Willie decided it was about time the  mayor had a chain of office. Although he was now 82 years old, he sped  around town and in short order had collected more than enough money required to buy a golden chain with medallion. To finish the job he personally arranged the design and manufacture. That's how the mayor of  Kelowna is now able to wear a chain of office.  One summer day in 1956 when his beloved girls were playing ball in  the city park, Willie, as usual, was canvassing the spectators for funds. Suddenly he stiffened, dropped his money bag and died.  So well was he regarded that a seldom-conferred honor was bestowed on him — all flags in the city were lowered to half-mast. A final honor  was given Willie King when a little later his girls' softball team moved into a new park on Gaston Avenue and the King Stadium was named for  a wonderful fellow.  A GRACE FOR LOVELINESS  A grace for lovely things we bring,  For shining bluebirds on the wing;  For tinkling waters, clear and cold,  For daffodils of yellow gold;  For fish hawks sailing high and lone,  For little winds through pine woods blown;  Forfar blue mountains, dim with haze,  For starlit nights, for sunny days;  For lilac time, for hills of brown,  For apple blossoms floating down.  From hearts that with their beauty sing,  A grace for lovely things we bring.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton GOLDEN WEDDING OF ALICE AND LOUIS THOMPSON  by Ina Bedford  I was six years old, and it had been an early spring that year in  Oliver of 1934. I came around the corner of our house and there, standing beside the American Beauty rose bushes, were my Auntie Alice and  a strange man. This strange man was kissing my Auntie, and she was  kissing him back! She had a rose in her hair, which I now suspect he had  put there. My feelings of dismay and jealousy were very strong but my  Auntie Alice saw me standing there and held out her hand to me and  said, "Ina, this man is going to be your Uncle Louis."  Alice Marie Haynes and Louis Raymond Thompson first met when  they were children attending the Convent School at Sprague,  Washington. There were no schools near enough for Alice and her sister  Helen to attend here then, and so both sisters had to travel the many  miles to Sprague where they attended the Convent boarding school. The  Thompson family lived at Sprague, where Mr. Thompson was the local  law enforcement officer. The Thompson children were day scholars at the  Convent. As Louis and Alice were almost the same age they were in  many of the same classes. Not too long ago, I overheard the two of them  discussing those early school days. Uncle Louis asked Auntie Alice:  "Did you ever notice me at school?"  "Yes, I noticed you all right," she replied.  Then he said, "How come you were always so stuck-up?"  And then she said, "Because the Sisters told us not to be too friendly  with the Day Scholars.''  There was a pause — then Uncle Louis said, "I guess those Nuns  knew what they were doing alright. You sure were cute with your long  blonde hair." And so you see the spark was ignited!  Several years passed before Alice and Louis met again. They were  now grown up. Auntie Alice went back to Sprague to visit her Aunt Kate  and Uncle Henry Staples. Uncle Henry, an old-time cowboy, and Louis  were both working for Rothrock, a large cattle ranch near Sprague. Uncle Henry had been teaching Louis the rudiments of cowboying. In years  to come many were to hear Louis declare:  "I can outride, outrope, and throw down any son-of-a-bitch in the  place."  Well, it just happened to be true. He could and often has proved  over the years the truth of his boast. Not too many years ago at the  Williams Lake Stampede, to my horror, he stood up in the grandstand  and loudly made his declaration to the hundreds of rodeo fans — they  loved it!  Anyway, to get back to my story, Louis was working with Uncle  Henry on this cattle ranch when Auntie Alice went back to Sprague to  visit. Uncle Henry mentioned the young Thompson fella, who also used  to cut the grass at the Staples residence. Aunt Kate said how good-  looking he was, and Alice decided to see for herself. She phoned the  Thompson house and talked to Mrs. Thompson, explaining she had gone  to school with Louis years before and would he please call her. Mother 10  Thompson said he was engaged, but she gave him the message. Louis  called, they met, and the spark burst into life again.  Meanwhile, back at the Ranch, Poppa Val Haynes needed another  hand. When Alice returned home she told her mother Lizzie about  Louis, Lizzie told Val, and Val offered Louis a job. Remember this was  during the Great Depression and jobs were hard to find.  At the ranch where Louis had been working, Fate stepped in and  played a part. Louis told me he went up for an airplane ride and, looking  down on the ranch, he saw someone riding his favourite horse. He was  pretty burned up about that, and so he took Val up on the job offer. He  came to Canada — but first he got himself unengaged.  Louis asked Alice to marry him and she said yes, and plans were  started for a wedding in the fall. Wedding plans were hastened when  Canada Immigration received a complaint about Louis, an alien working  in Canada when there were so many men unemployed. The date was set  for June 2 and my mother Helen had to get busy sewing the wedding  dress. The Community of Oliver put on a shower for Alice and Louis in  the newly built Legion Hall.  Alice and Louis Thompson renewing their wedding vows June 22, 1984. Father Clement St. Jaques  is the priest. Next to Louis stands Jack Berrian, a family friend. By courtesy Joan Thompson  The wedding day, Saturday, June 2, 1934, dawned sunny and  warm. Alice Marie Haynes became the wife of Louis Raymond Thompson at a ceremony conducted by the Reverend W. J. Cullinan, O.M.I.,  in the newly built Church of Christ the King in Oliver. Our cousin, Ruth  Berrian, was one of the attendants. She wore a gorgeous long blue dress  just the colour of Louis' eyes. Alice was very lovely in her ivory satin 11  gown with flowing veil held in place by an heirloom bandeaux of pearls.  It was a joyful day. I remember at the wedding feast Val poured some  champagne — he took one sip and made a face — reached into his coat  pocket and took out his bottle of rye — took a deep slug, straight from the  bottle with a mighty "AHHH!" and then passed the bottle to Louis, who  did the same. This was the beginning of a strong and close relationship  between these two men. Louis lived for many years in the shadow of Val,  but he was always his own man. I once overheard Val tell Louis, "You  stick with me, Louis, and you will never regret it."  The honeymoon couple left for Spokane accompanied by the best  man, brother Philip Thompson. Their first night as Mr. and Mrs. was  spent at Old Maggie MacDonald's cabin located on the east side of  Osoyoos Lake, a few miles north of Oroville. This cabin was the birthplace  of Auntie Alice. It was not a very big cabin —just one room serving as  bedroom, living-dining, and kitchen but it did have two beds. The groom  and his best man occupied one and Auntie Alice the other! Next morning  after breakfast, the three continued their honeymoon trip to Spokane  where Alice was reintroduced to the Thompson family. It was a short  honeymoon and the couple returned home to the Ranch and the hard  work of a successful outfit.  A year passed and then, during haying season about the end of July,  my Grandma, Lizzie Haynes, decided it was huckleberrying time. We  packed up the camping gear and proceeded to Antoine Valley to pick up  Great-Grandma Ellen Runnels and various other family members, leaving Uncle Louis and Poppa Val haying back at the ranch. We proceeded  further to Moses Mountain and set up camp. Berry picking is not easy  work as you may know, but it is grand to be out in the mountains and we  were having a great time — until tragedy struck. During the night there  was a great commotion. A bear had entered the camp and tried to get into the tent were Grandma Lizzie, Great-Grandma Ellen, Old Aunt  Suzanne, Aunt Kate and I were sleeping. Everyone in camp was in an  uproar. There was shouting and yelling and people milling around. Lots  of excitement. The bear fled hurriedly, but next morning we discovered  Grandma Lizzie was paralyzed with a stroke.  Thus began five years of selfless devotion by Auntie Alice and Uncle  Louis to Elizabeth Haynes, who from that day was confined to her bed or  her wheelchair. Night and day, week in and week out for five years Auntie Alice took care of her mother with only an occasional break when my  mother, Helen, came and stayed briefly, briefly because Helen had had  no nursing training and Alice had and Grandma needed professional  care. Of course, Uncle Louis was called upon to lift and carry Grandma  and do whatever else he could to make things easier for Auntie Alice.  Remember these were pre-electrical power days on the ranch so there was  no easy way to do a daily wash and all the other required chores.  Almost five years after marriage, Auntie Alice and Uncle Louis produced a son. George Valentine was born in February of 1939 in the little  house at the meadows. In 1940, Grandma Haynes died. In June of 1940,  Doctor Ball was a little late arriving but Louis Anthony (Tony) Thompson was not. He was delivered by Auntie Alice and the hired girl, Bessie 12  Lockhart. Dr. Ball said the two women had done a fine job. Robert  Henry was born March 1942 and Robert now lives in the house where he  was born at Garrison Ranch. Maurice Sherman was born in December  of 1945, just after the end of World War II. I baby-sat the three Thompson boys during their mother's hospitalization for Maurice's birth,  assisted often by my future husband, Gordon. Little Alice, Alice  Elizabeth, the first daughter after four sons, was born in February of  1947. Richard Augustin made his appearance in May of 1949 — the year  of the terrible floods in the Okanagan. Then in March of 1951, Mary  Katherine (or Kate as her Dad calls her) was born. Last but not least, was  Madelon Garbula, born in February of 1953. Alice and Louis' family of  five sons and three daughters has grown by the addition of seven sons-  and daughters-in-law. There are now seventeen grandchildren and three  great-grandchildren to date.  Note: In 1984 Alice and Louis Thompson of Vaseux Lake celebrated their Golden Wedding. Alice  was the daughter of Val Haynes and the granddaughter of John Carmichael Haynes who had been  posted to Osoyoos by the Colonial Government in 1862. Alice's mother was born Elizabeth Runnels,  the daughter of George Runnels, a miner and trader in the Tonasket area, and his wife Ellen, a San  poil Indian whose father was Chief in the Colville region. Elizabeth was the widow of Manuel MacDonald when she and Val decided to marry. Helen, the mother of Ina Bedford, was the daughter of  Elizabeth and Manuel MacDonald.  The article above is substantially the talk given at the celebration by Ina Bedford, daughter of  Helen and Charlie Mitchell.  The Garrison Ranch mentioned was on Hester Creek (near Road 13 south of Oliver). Val and  Elizabeth spent summers on this property but wintered at the "Meadows", the Haynes property at  the head of Osoyoos Lake. Val worked for the South Okanagan Land Company and was granted the  land south of Vaseux Lake by the Company, or south of "Swan Lake" as the lake was known locally  at that time.  Louis's many friends were saddened to learn of his passing 30 May, 1988 in the Penticton  Regional Hospital. Complications had followed surgery in January.  OLD MEMORIES OF PLEASANT VALLEY ROAD  by Jean Kidston (nee Keith)  When I was asked to write this article I wondered how good this  "old" memory would be. The names of streets elude me, but I well  remember C.W. Holliday (who wrote The Valley of Youth) telling us as  children that the old Indian trail which ran between Enderby and Vernon  was our Pleasant Valley Road. Today Highway 97, paved and straight,  which runs between the two towns has lost much of the charm and beauty  of that early road.  The old highway, leaving Enderby at the Bank of Montreal corner,  would pass the mill (Enderby's main industry) on the left. On the right  were the livery stables emitting gorgeous smells — no polluting diesel fuel  then. The big workhorses stabled there moved the logs from the booms at  river's edge to the mill for cutting. Then fascinating Chinatown — home  of firecrackers, ginger, Chinese lilies, and hooka smokers. 13 14  Entering the Indian reserve, the road bore right to become today's  Highway 97. Edwards, the chief of this small Indian band, was an arresting figure when he rode into town on his lovely grey — straight as an  arrow and with a proud hawklike face. To the west still stands the Indian  Catholic Church (it must be one of the earliest ones). Forgive a personal  note here. Turning sharply right at the church another road runs up  through the canyon to Hullcar. One snowy winter's day mother decided  to take my sister and me, aged five and three years, to Hullcar in the cutter drawn by Dolly, Dad's driving horse. We were well up the canyon  when Dolly met her first "Henry Ford." She rudely whipped round —  miraculously without upsetting the cutter — and tore for home. One  steaming, lathered Dolly and three very frightened females reached the  home barn in Enderby.  As you travelled the six miles south to Landsdowne, snake fences  covered with wild roses and syringa bordered the old road, with big  cultivated fields running down to the eastern mountains and lovely little  cone-shaped Kwilikwac in the centre. Old timers said that the last Indian  battle was fought from there and Alexander L. Fortune of Overlander  fame wished to be buried at the top. His home still sits on the banks of the  Spallumcheen River to the north of Kwilikwac. The big cultivated fields  mentioned here would include the Hassard and Stepney ranches.  Next the road wound higher to the right, leaving today's highway  until you pass the old Lansdowne cemetry. It is hard to picture that oldest  of settlements now, for when the railway was routed through Armstrong,  the church (first Protestant church in the Okanagan), school, hotel, post  office, and blacksmith shop were moved down to the new village. This  was lovely open country. The road, turning sharply left, ran between big  grain fields then dropped down the steep Vance Young hill to the flat  vegetable fields surrounding Armstrong. This hill was a beast to climb in  the old "Henrys" because the sharp turn at the bottom prevented any  real run at it. It was a horror to slide down on greasy gumbo. Crossing  the railway tracks one came to the enormous fields of cabbage which gave  Armstrong an unenviable reputation as they lay rotting in the late fall.  But Armstrong's real claim to fame lay in the wonderful celery fields on  the far side of town.  As one left Armstrong with its fine consolidated school building to  the left one had to negotiate "The Dip". Here the road dropped fifty feet  into a gulch and then climbed straight up on the other side. Narrow and  rutted, this road was not the most pleasant spot when the car's lights failed one dark winter night.  You will find few of those old landmarks today. The Dip has been  filled in and paved over. The Vance Young hill wouldn't puff today's  jogger. But I can sometimes find wild roses and syringa blooming within  sight of Kwilikwa.  The writer's father was Dr. Harry Wishart Keith, one of Enderby's pioneer doctors,  who practised in that town from 1907 until his death in 1933. 15  REMINISCENCES OF KELOWNA  by Frank Snowsell  In April 1925, after 14 years in Alberta, we moved to Kelowna  where my father had arranged to work with my uncle, Harry Snowsell,  in partnership in the Truck Farming enterprise of the Bankhead  Company.  The Bankhead property then stretched from Glenmore (now Gordon) Street to the Golf Course and from Bernard Avenue to Mountain  View. There were some properties out of the area: the Cousins Cherry  Orchard just north of the Glenmore Bridge; an acreage operated by Jimmy Britton who taught Agriculture at Kelowna High School just across  from the Golf Course; a portion on which Lionel Taylor had just built a  fine new home at the corner of High Road and Mountain View; and an  acreage belonging to him whom we irreverently called Deafy Varner  whose house stood just on the edge of the road where Mountain View  turns north.  The right-of-way was finished in 1925 but it was over a year before  the first trains came into Kelowna. We had come down from Okanagan  Landing on the Sicamous, a real treat for us prairie folk. The Sicamous  called at several places enroute to Kelowna: Okanagan Center, Nahun,  Wilson's Landing, Fintry. We dropped a passenger near Whiteman's  Creek almost without stopping. The Sicamous headed straight for the  beach. The passenger stood with his bag at the bow. Just before the keel  hit bottom, the paddlewheel was thrown into reverse, the passenger  leaped for the shore as the ship backed away and made a majestic turn  before heading south again.  During our first year we lived in the Red House, the manager's  residence, which stood about where Bankhead School now is. Uncle  Harry had lived there before we came, but, with his growing family, had  moved to what was called the Bunkhouse which stood on the hill near  where Highland Drive now is.  Highland Drive was the lane giving access to the farm. Below the  hill, where Bankhead Crescent and the apartments now are, was the  Bankhead Pond. This pond, kept fresh by overflow from Bankhead irrigation, let us youngsters swim earlier in the spring as it warmed faster  than the lake. Henry Burtch cut ice from it in the winter, stored the  blocks in an icehouse on the Bankhead Hill stacked in shavings from the  Lloyd Jones planing and sawmills which stood where the museum, parking lot, and arena now are. Henry Burtch peddled his ice around town in  summer with horse and wagon.  On the east and north slopes of the bank of the pond, were planted  apricot trees. On the east side of what is now Highland Drive was the  large dairy barn with the herd of Holsteins which I helped milk by hand.  The barn drained into a pond just east of the lane. To the west stood the  White House above the pond, in which the Taylors lived. They were the  aristocrats of the area. In an earlier time they would have been the feudal  barons of Bankhead.  My first job in Kelowna was thinning fruit in the Bankhead or- 16  chards. No dwarf trees then. We used 14 and 16 foot fir ladders which  often seemed to weigh a ton.  Foreman of the Bankhead orchards was Mr. Laws who had his own  small property south of Bernard where a motel now stands. His assistant,  George Vidler, lived in a house where People's Market is now. On the  south side of Bernard Avenue from Glenmore Street to the foot of the hill  was a row of magnificent Lombardy poplars. On the north, was a row of  Ben Davis apple trees. Almost all of the area from Bernard to the railway  was in apples or pears.  Bankhead was a "Heinz 57" varieties orchard. Besides Macintosh,  Delicious, there were Jonathans, Wealthies, Wolf River, Blue Permione,  Cox Orange, Winter Bananas, Yellow Newtown, Spies, Kings, Greenings, Russetts, Grimes Golden, Stayman and regular Winesaps,  Gravensteins, Rome Beauties, Yellow Transparents, Ben Davis  Baldwins, Wagners — that I can remember. There were also Transcendent, Hyslop and Florence Crabapples; D'Anjou, Bartlett, Brussoc,  Winter Nellis, Bosch and Flemish Beauty Pears.  Mr. Laws was a perfectionist as a foreman. He used to ride through  the orchard on his pony keeping an eye on not only the workmen but also  the trees. George Vidler, who lived in mortal terror of Laws, said Laws  could hear the codling moth worm inside the apple and could smell  fireblight in the pears. Laws had a sharp tongue and really lashed out at  an inefficient worker or the unfortunate who damaged any of his trees.  I remember once I was standing high above my ladder in an D'Anjou pear, reaching to thin the topmost branch, when the tree split and I  landed flat on my back. I was incapacitated for the rest of the day, but all  I got from Laws on my return to the job next day was a stern rebuke for  breaking the tree and a lecture on the value of the tree and of the pears  lost.  I was thinning then with a Seventh Day Adventist named Frith who,  while I was lying on the ground with the wind knocked out of me, told me  he prayed for me. He also worked on my religious life, trying to convert  me. One thing I remember was his telling me that the Salvation Army  was the youngest bastard of the Church of Rome. The concept was interesting, but not convincing.  1925 was an interesting year for me. I had dropped out of Grade 10  when we left Alberta and had gone to work. My first job in Kelowna was  with Bankhead. For dad and Uncle Harry I milked cows, looked after  sheep, did irrigating with Bill Craze, who ran the irrigation system on  Bankhead property, cultivated the tomatoes, cantaloupe, potatoes we  grew and helped with the hay harvest. Pay in the Bankhead Orchard was  35e an hour. That was good pay in the 1920s.  Irrigation was good fun in the hot weather. The water came up from  a large syphon somewhere in the neighborhood of Cherry Way. It was  distributed in ditches which varied in size from the large main ditch, to  smaller ditches decreasing in size to the small streams which ran down the  rows. A major task was cutting up the gunny sacks used for damming the  water, into the different sizes needed for the various ditches. The dam  was made by folding a shovel of sand, varying in size according to the size 17  of the piece of gunny sack, into the sacking and placing it in the ditch with  the flap of the folded gunny sacking down stream, of course, and carefully  adjusting the flow of water by punching the gunny sack dam down to the  required height. It was marvellous in the red hot summer to see the  vegetables, cantaloupes and tomatoes spring into growth as the water  flowed past the plants.  I got a bit fed up with the picayune work in the orchard and tomato  fields after the larger sweep of the prairies. So, I got a $4 ticket on the  CPR and headed for Alberta, one of the thousands of men required in  1925 to harvest the prairie wheat. That experience is another story. After  three months in Alberta I returned to Kelowna.  The deal with Uncle Harry on Bankhead had fallen through. My  family had bought the Johnson farm which occupied the area between  Moubray Road and the Watson property, now the Dallas subdivision.  There were two shacks and a barn on the place. The house we lived in  was just above the irrigation ditch near where the Kaushakis home now  is.  There were a few apple trees just below the ditch, but the main orchard was a fine block of Comese pears, a magnificent sight when in  bloom in the spring, but, for some reason unknown to the horticulturists,  no fruit in the fall. The blossom would not set. The rest of the property  was in alfalfa. Our domestic water came from a well high up in the valley  above the house.  That land was a solid clay, most difficult to work and water. A tiny  trickle at the top of the orchard would be down to Glenmore road in a few  hours. It was difficult to find the appropriate time to cultivate as the sticky  gumbo mud, almost impossible to walk on, turned after a few hours of  sun and wind, into concrete. No wonder Dallas subdivision had difficulty  with septic tanks.  That winter I worked on the Glenmore roads hauling shale from the  pit behind the golf course to the Glenmore road from the Valley Road  corner. Mr. Rankin was foreman. Ray Corner was municipal clerk. The  wagons had a low box with a bottom of 4 x 4s. Each load was approximately a yard of shale, about one ton. We loaded each wagon with  shovels.  Then the slow trip along the road to where the shale was to be  spread. In unloading, each 4x4 was lifted and turned separately and the  shale fell through. I seem to remember that George Hume, George  Ward, Sam Pearson, were also in the gang.  Later that year, I worked with our team with a gang constructing a  pipeline down the west side of the Glenmore Valley. The men stayed in  the second shack on our place and mother prepared their meals. It was a  slow job, a great deal of pick and shovel work to dig the ditches in which  the irrigation pipe, long tarred cedar staves wound with wire, was laid. I  think about eight or ten men worked on that ditch for several months.  Some years later a comparable pipe was being laid. The ditch was  dug by a special machine, the pipe was laid by machine almost immediately following the ditchdigging, and the ditch was filled by bulldozer, men and machines doing in a week what it would have taken us 18  months to do in 1925-26.  I started back to school in the fall of 1926. I was very glad that school  records were not as arbitrary as they are today. I had not completed  Grade 10 in Alberta but applied for Grade 11, Junior Matriculation, in  Kelowna. I had a long chat with Mr. A. S. Towell who, I am sure,  gathered that there was something inadequate in my past history.  However, he and Miss MacNaughton (Lizzie) gave me a month to show  what I could do and I never looked back.  The High School in 1926-27 was in what is now Boys' and Girls'  Club. In that Grade 11 class were such Kelowna notables as Len  Leathley, Charlie Pettman, Cedric Boyer, David Murdoch, Olive  Brown, Claire Thompson and Joe Gaspardone.  Besides Mr. Towell and Miss MacNaughton, we had "Jimmie"  Britton who taught Agriculture, Elsie Rilance who taught French, J. A.  K. Armour and Jim Logie, both first year teachers. I'm afraid we  "students" gave both J. A. K., "Jake" as we called him 'sub rosa', and  Jim rather a tough time.  "Pi" Campbell, an outstanding Kelowna athlete, later principal at  Rutland, was at Normal School in Victoria 1926-27, and injured his  back. In 1927-28, I was in Senior Matric in Kelowna High. Pi was confined to bed on the porch of his home which was on Richter Street where  Lawrence now crosses. At noon hours some of us used to go over and  play bridge with him to help pass the time.  Our home room teacher in Senior Matric was Mrs. Murdoch,  David's mother. Members of that class were Olive Brown, Claire  Thompson, Spud Staples, David Murdoch, Agnes Conroy, Meg Gore  and James Campbell.  In the year following, 1928-29, Olive, Claire, Jim and I went to Victoria Normal School. "Pi" joined us for the last term to complete his  Normal School interrupted by his injury the previous year. David went  on to U.B.C. where he became an outstanding professor. Spud died  shortly after.  PIONEER IN PHARMACY IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  by S. A. Muir  (Reprinted from The Western Druggist's Golden Jubilee Souvenir  printed for The Pharmaceutical Assoc, of B.C., June 1941.  In 1888 my brother, T. A. Muir, a graduate of Ontario College of  Pharmacy, started in business in New Westminster. The following year  I joined him. At that time there was no Pharmacy Act in B.C. About a  year later a Pharmaceutical Association was formed and an act passed. I  became one of the first apprentices of B.C. and my brother was a  member of the first council. In due time I passed my examination and  became one of the first graduates of B.C. There was no school of Pharmacy in those days and it was hard plugging to make the grade. In June,  1895, I went to work for John Cochrane of Victoria. In October, 1895, I 19  landed in Vernon under agreement with R. N. Taylor to manage his  business for three months with the option of buying, while he went to  England. He changed his mind and did not go to England but took a  holiday in B.C.  Mr. Taylor was the first real druggist in the Okanagan Valley and  very popular — honest, fair-dealing and competent. He was ever ready  to give a helping hand to those in need. He later started business in  Greenwood, then a promising mining town, where he died through accidental poisoning.  The territory served by Vernon was large. The nearest drug stores  to the North were Kamloops and Revelstoke and to the South were none  to the Boundary. Perhaps a few incidents of these early days might be  interesting.  The doctors had a wide area to cover and there were no automobiles  and few telephones. As I was secretary and manager of the Okanagan  Telephone Co., the exchange was in the back of my store. It was frequently necessary for the druggist to wait late at night to fill the prescriptions. Also after a busy morning they would come in with a batch of prescriptions to be sent by train. It was the usual thing for me to rush to the  station and throw a parcel into the express car as it moved out. The conductor used to say, "Has Muir been here yet?" and if I had he'd say, "I  guess we can go now." On one occasion I started on my bike for the station but the train pulled out before I got there, so I headed for the Landing and caught the boat before it pulled out.  I had a throat probang hanging on my shelves. Dr. Morris  remembered seeing it there and rushed in and grabbed it when he got a  hurry-up call for a woman with a piece of meat stuck in her throat. He  got there in time to save her from choking to death.  The druggist was frequently called to assist the nurses when the doctors were out of town during the early days of the hospital.  Mr. Carruthers of Kelowna was very ill with pneumonia and required oxygen. I happened to have a tank which the hospital had ordered  and then gone back on. We routed out the only auto in town and they  stripped it down to the chassis and loaded on the tank. (Not the nice small  ones you have nowadays.) Cars being what they were, a team of horses  followed the auto in case it broke down. However, all went well and it arrived in time.  There was not much money in the country in those days, but we did  not need much and in spite of long hours seemed to have a good time. A  stock of $2000 was sufficient and the bulk of the money was in patent  medicines. We made all our tinctures, syrups and powders and most of  our pills and tablets. The fluid extracts were confined to a very small list  — Parke Davis & Wyeths were about the only ones called for. Excepting  for Diptheria, Serums, Glandular Biological Therapy were scarcely  known. Later these came along together with proprietory medicines,  tablets and powders by every manufacturer under the sun, loading our  shelves, stretching our capital and giving us headaches. I say giving us  headaches, for by this time other stores had started in the Valley. The  first was Kelowna where an Englishman, quite a polo player, started. He 20  was followed by P. B. Willits & Co. Then a man who was not a druggist  started in Armstrong (at that time the Pharmacy Act applied only to  cities). He sold out to R. R. Burns, who ran a real drug store. Mr. Mann  started in Penticton, then a Summerland store opened up. Finally A. P.  McKenzie opened in Vernon. From that time on we were all scraping to  make a living and adding to the lines carried till finally we were practically general stores.  Note: Samuel Alexander Muir was born in Montreal, 7 October 1868. He came to Vernon in 1895  when he was employed by Nel Taylor to manage his drug store. Later Muir bought out the store  which was on the corner of Tronson and Barnard Ave. The store later became Vernon Drugs. S.A.'s  father was Rev. Thomas Muir who served as Presbyterian minister in the church that was to become  the Vernon United Church. On 3 June 1898, S. A. Muir married Maude Maybee in Nelson. They  had two children, Arthur H. of Vancouver and Mrs. William Deighton of Nahun.  The Muirs moved to Vancouver in 1919 where S. A. Muir worked for R. R. Burns and the  General Hospital Pharmacy. In 1933 he retired to Nahun where he had a ranch. He died, 5 Aug.  1945 in his 77th year, at the Vancouver General Hospital. Mr. Muir had been an active member of  the Presbyterian Church. He was the manager of Vernon's first telephone system which was operated  privately by a group of Vernon businessmen until bought out by the Okanagan Telephone Co. in  1907. Information from obituary in Vernon News, 9 Aug. 1945  ELECTRICAL OUTAGE 1936  From the files of The Oliver News  On Thursday, January 9, 1936 electricity was cut off to Kelowna, Summerland, Penticton, Oliver, Keremeos, Hedley, and Princeton when West  Kootenay Power Company's high tension lines came down for a distance of  13 miles west of Oliver and from 10 to 16 miles east of the village. Every pole,  with the exception of one or two new ones, snapped off at the ground.  The Oliver News of January 16 reports:  The pole line collapsed about 5:30 o'clock Thursday evening.  It is believed the break occurred east of Oliver in the neighborhood  of Camp McKinney. When the first pole fell the one next to it was  pulled down by the tension of the wires, then the next pole until the  whole line went down like a row of wooden soldiers.  Built about 1919, the line has the same poles as were then put  in. No replacement of poles has been made. After sixteen years of  use the poles are rotted through from the ground down to the butts.  Unable to withstand the pull of the sagging wires they snapped off  like toothpicks.  On examination of the broken poles that portion left in the  ground is seen to be rotted through and the soft wood can be pulled  apart with the hands.  Although surrounded by a collar of concrete designed to protect  the poles this measure apparently proved ineffective against rot. The  broken poles are of tamarack, and it is understood the cedar poles  on both sides of the break stood the strain.  It was the end of February before all lines were repaired in spite of the  company's best efforts. In the meantime power was supplied from the Shuswap.  {The Oliver News, Feb. 20, 1936). 21  OLD TIMERS  HERMAN WICHERS:  ONE OF THE FIRST SETTLERS IN SPALLUMCHEEN  by James E. Jamieson  The Herman Wichers photo accompanying this article was recently  discovered amongst family history material being assembled by a distant relative  of Mr. Wichers. With the threads of pioneer residents of the North Okanagan  (Spallumcheen in particular) rapidly disappearing, very few will recall the name  let alone the incidents with which Herman Wichers is associated. We researched  this article both from a personal relationship through family and by reviewing  contents of the past Okanagan Historical Society Reports.  In the 9th Report (1941, page 64) the late Mrs. Charles J. Patten (Sophia  Ehmke) writes: "Herman Wichers was one of the first settlers in Spallumcheen  . . . He was the first to acquire land under private ownership. On June 5, 1873  he pre-empted the west half section 15, Tp. 35. He lived there until his death,  April 14, 1890." Others who pre-empted land included: E. Martin Furstineau,  July 2, 1873; B. F. Young Sr., June 1, 1877; Donald Matheson, July 1878;  Henry J. Ehmke, April 1883; T. N. Hayes, April 1884; Myles McDonald,  September 1884; Henry Harding, October 1885; R. Davidson, Henry Naylor,  W. F. Hayhurst, 1893; Charles Crozier, 1894.  Mr. Wichers was the uncle of Mrs. Patten's mother, the late Mrs. Henry  J. Ehmke. She, incidentally, was the fourth white woman to settle in the North  Okanagan. Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ehmke and infant son Herman left their  native city, Hamburg, in Germany, on July 1, 1877 to begin the long journey to  British Columbia to join Mr. Wichers. They travelled by way of New York, San  Francisco, Victoria, Yale, Kamloops and into the Okanagan by stagecoach. At  O' Keefe's they had their midday meal and it was here Herman Wichers met  them on August 24, 1877. That evening they had supper with Mr. and Mrs. B.  F. Young Sr., Lansdowne, then drove about one and a half miles to Mr.  Wichers' farm. When they arrived some of the neighbours who were helping.  Wichers with his harvest were already there. Among them were Donald  Graham, Donald Matheson, Augustus Schubert, George Lynn, George Parkinson and Harry Swanson. Mrs. Patten pointed out in her OHS article that none  of them were married, except Augustus Schubert whose family had not yet arrived. There is one surviving member of the Henry J. Ehmke family often,  William T. Ehmke who now 91 (1987) lives in Portland, Oregon.  Herman Wichers, besides being the first pre-emptor of land in what is now  Spallumcheen Municipality, also has been recorded in OHS Reports and other official journals as the first settler in the Okanagan to require an amputation as a  result of a farming accident — away back on October 9, 1880. Another prominent pioneer, Robert Lambly, who walked into the Okanagan over the Hope  Trail in 1876 and later that year pre-empted the first land in what eventually  became Enderby, was a prominent participant in this gripping incident, as he  described it in the 6th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1935, page 82).  Lambly writes: 22  A very distressing accident on Herman Wichers' ranch near  Lansdowne on October 9, 1880. While threshing wheat Herman  Wichers got his arm caught in the gearing of the threshing machine  and torn off above the elbow . . . The arm was terribly lacerated and  torn, and to save Wichers' life it was necessary to amputate the arm  above the elbow . . .  As a lad Robert Lambly had travelled with a cousin who was a surgeon in  eastern Canada, acting as an assistant and acquiring considerable knowledge  and skill. He was living in Enderby (then called Lambly's Landing) and was  known as an amateur surgeon and bone-setter. Lambly was contacted and  begged to undertake the operation as no doctor was nearer than the coast. Mr.  Lambly continues:  It was a desperate case and I had no tools but a pocket knife and a  meat saw. (The latter was last in the possession of the late B. F. Young  Jr.) By dint of tying up everything that was not muscle or flesh I succeeded in catching up the arteries and stopping the flow of blood . . .  Mr. Lambly describes the victim's agony as having been "terrible, but  borne with stoical courage and endurance". He says:  The operation was performed without anesthetic and the only ligature  I had was cotton thread and a small quantity of carbolic acid for an  antiseptic. Despite these disadvantages the operation was a success  and Mr. Wichers made a good recovery.  Herman Wichers, Spallumcheen's first pre-emptor in year 1873. 23  According to the article many pioneer neighbours flocked in. Among those  present were Henry Seydel, who assisted in the operation, Moses Lumby,  Preston Bennett, A. L. Fortune, Henry Ehmke, George J. Wallace, William  Lawrence, Augustus Schubert Sr., and E. M. Furstineau.  Herman Wichers was among the early settlers buried in historic  Lansdowne Cemetery, which throughout the subsequent years became the  hallowed resting place for most of the illustrious pioneers who developed Spallumcheen and Armstrong into the rich and productive agricultural area for  which the region is now famous.  Editor's Note:  We are indebted to the late Jim Jamieson for the above article. A tribute to  Mr. Jamieson appears elsewhere in this volume.  Those interested in pioneer settlers in the Spallumcheen will want to read  L. Norris's article "An Argonaut of 1862" in the Sixth Report of the Okanagan  Historical Society (pages 263-277). Mr. Norris writes:  On June 20, 1866 A. L. Fortune, John Malcolm, Thomas Dunn (sic)  and John B. Burns, all overlanders of 1862, each staked pre-emption  claims. Later they went to Lytton to record their claims, but were told  they would have to apply to J. C. Haynes, the Gold Commissioner at  Osoyoos.  On July 2, 1866, Fortune, Malcolm and Dunne made a joint application.  Norris writes:  Across the face of the application which is in Fortune's handwriting, the  words "Permission given, J. C. Haynes, Magistrate" are written . . .  Later on the other three dropped their claims and Mark Wallas of St.  Thomas, Ontario, also an overlander of 1862, staked the 160 acres  just south of Fortune's claim, on the 27th of April, 1868. Wallas, after  he obtained his Certificate of Improvements, assigned his right to the  land to Fortune, something which was then permitted by the Land  Act. The date of the assignment is 30th December, 1870. On the 18th  June, 1887, a Crown Grant for the two claims of 348 acres, surveyed  as Lot 148, was issued to A. L. Fortune.  British Columbia did not become a province until 1871. Therefore, any  documents before that date would have been colonial. When Fortune made application to the Province for his Crown Grant in 1887, the document signed by  Haynes was submitted with other papers in support of his claim.  THE EMENY FAMILY'S 100 YEARS IN SPRINGBEND  by Jim and Alice Emeny  One hundred years of progress is very evident in our Springbend area,  as we drive along our busy highway 97 with its heavy traffic, speeding  along at 60 miles per hour, and look out across the modern dairy  farms all lit up with rural electrification, where perhaps a hundred  cows are milked daily with fully automatic equipment. How different  life is today, compared to when our grandparents arrived here in  1888. 24  It is almost impossible for today's generations to picture this Okanagan  Valley as our pioneer families found it, with only very rough wagon roads to  travel on, and the only mode of transportation from Sicamous to Enderby being  the flour mill's boat, the Red Star. The mainline railroad had only just been put  through to Sicamous about three years prior to our family's arrival; and the  branch line down the Okanagan had not yet been built. Such was the country  here when our grandparents, James and Ellen Emeny, with their two small  sons, Edgar (my husband Jim's father) who was four years old, and an infant  son Arthur, just two months old, decided to leave their home in Milton, Ontario  where they settled after emigrating from England and move west into British  Columbia to homestead. A brother Arthur Emeny also moved west and made  his home with the family. They homesteaded on the west bank of the "Spallumcheen" River, four miles north of Enderby in August 1888.  On July 23, 1988 the Emenys celebrated the centenuary of their arrival in  the Springbend community. The farm still belongs to 'an Emeny, rather a unique fact considering the transience of today's population.  The first winter here the Emenys built a small log cabin home. Shortly  afterward when the cabin was burned down, the family was taken in by the  Duncan family across the river in North Enderby, until a new home could be  built. This home was built in 1889 and still stands on the farm today.  The land was entirely covered with trees, and was slowly cleared off, using  hand labour, axes, and cross-cut saws. Oxen and horses were used to pull  stumps. Logs were used for buildings, fence posts and fire wood. Nothing was  wasted! Years of hard work, and hard times produced a large flat of productive  farmland.  The men folk cut cordwood for the wood-burning steam engine of the river  boat, the Red Star. The wood was piled at a low place on the riverbank which we  still refer to as the Scow. The riverboat pulled in here to take on wood from the  scow loaded with cordwood. The Red Star was used to push a scow loaded with  flour from the Enderby flour mill to Sicamous, where it was loaded into boxcars  and shipped by railway. Many early settlers came into the valley by means of  the Red Star.  Once settled, the only means of travel to town for these early pioneers was  by rowboat along the winding river, seven miles upstream to Enderby for food  supplies and mail. This was a whole day's trip, or they could walk a narrow trail  and carry a packsack on their back. As game laws were non-existent, men folk  caught plenty of grouse, deer, rabbits, ducks and geese for food. The only  method of refrigeration was blocks of ice, taken from the river and stored in  sawdust bins known as the "icehouse".  In the early days native Indians used to camp along the riverbank and on  sandbars to catch salmon and kokanees, which they would dry and smoke for  winter's use. They would come to the house to trade their "wares" and I can  recall Grandma Ellen saying that at first she was very nervous of them, but they  proved themselves to be good, friendly people.  In 1892 the Sicamous Okanagan railway was built, crossing through the  Emeny farm. The earliest railroad engines were wood-burning also, so until  they were replaced by coal, wood was cut from the homestead and piled at the  Emeny crossing at $1.25 per cord. The first passenger train car was almost like  today's handcars, with very few seats and drawn by a steam engine. It moved 25  very slowly and Ed Emeny, as a boy, used to race along side the tracks, and  could easily keep ahead of it. In a few years the railroad replaced the riverboats  for shipping flour from the Enderby Mill.  Though times were hard and money was short, the pioneers made their  own entertainment in their homes, often dancing to the wee small hours, to a  one-man orchestra.  There were no schools, so children got their education at home from their  parents. As Ed Emeny grew older, he took a taxidermy course by correspondence. Many of his birds and animals are still viewed in the Vernon  Museum today.  In 1908 the Emenys began the construction of the large log house, with  cedar logs taken from the farm. The unique feature of this house is that the logs  were placed vertically, rather than horizontally. Handmade cedar shingles were  used on the roof. Seventy-seven years later this stately home is still "as solid as  a rock", and is still being lived in.  In 1917 Ed Emeny married Nellie Crandlemire, a school teacher from  Grindrod. They raised five children, two sons and three daughters; Grace married Leonard O'Keefe; Jean married Trevor Schubert; Alice married Ron Big-  gar; Frank married Ruth Marshall; and Jim married Alice Skyrme.  Rural mail delivery came through this district in 1915, three days per  week. Mrs. Macpherson, who delivered with horse and buggy, took pride in the  fact that she was never late!  Our district became known as "Springbend" due to a bend in the road at  the gravel pit where Baird Bros, now have a cement plant. A cool spring of fresh  water still runs there.  A one room school was built in 1924, with volunteer help from the men of  the district, and the name "Springbend" was applied to this school district. The  first teacher was Miss Beth Bunn, who taught all eight grades in the one room  school. After nearly thirty years of operation the school was closed in 1953 and  students were then bussed into Enderby.  Jim Emeny married Alice Skyrme in 1944 and ten years later they purchased the family farm from his now aging parents. Two surviving children were  born to this marriage, Sharon and Robert (Bob). They were the fourth generation on the farm. Sharon married Otto Wickstrom of Prince George, and they  now live in Armstrong. They have two daughters, Lana and Denise, a fifth  generation stemming from their great-great grandparents James and Ellen  Emeny.  Our centennial span covers quite an era of progress, from wagon roads and  riverboats of the past, to today, when the farm sports a 2000-foot aircraft runway, where visiting pilots from as far away as Fort Nelson in the north and  California in the south have signed our guest book.  CONSTRUCTION OF THE HISTORIC EMENY LOG HOUSE  by Jim and Alice Emeny  In the year 1908 James and Arthur Emeny of Enderby along with Jim's  two sons, Edgar and Arthur, decided, after twenty years of living in the original 26  homestead cottage on the Spallumcheen River, that it was time to build a new  and larger family home.  The quarter section on which the Emenys homesteaded had a good stand of  cedar trees of all sizes. So it was that these rugged pioneers went to the bush with  cross-cut saws and axes, and began carefully selecting trees of uniform size for  the walls of their dream home. As the trees were brought out, each log was hewed on three sides with a broad axe. The construction of the house was to be unique with the logs being placed vertically in the walls rather than in the more  traditional horizontal style. It was to be a large, nine-room house, with four  bedrooms off a central hall upstairs and five large rooms on the main floor. The  outside measurements of the building were 38 x 40 feet.  *  ''?!  1908 — Large log house under construction.  1909 — Project completed. - ■ :■  27  A half cellar was dug by hand, and the dirt hauled away with a horse and  slip scraper. Large flat rocks were hauled in to line the cellar walls, and were  placed together with a lime and cement mortar. To this day, now 79 years later,  these stone walls still stand firm.  It took more than a year for the Emeny men to cut and prepare enough  timbers for the house and make all the cedar shingles for the roof by hand. A  draw knife was used to taper the shingles, each one being done individually.  Bricks for the three chimneys were obtained from the Enderby brick yard, which  was run by Andy Baird.  Finally the day came when all was in readiness for a building bee. Good  neighbours arrived and soon the construction of the upright logs began. A 'Gin  Pole' was used to raise the logs into position. Ten inch wide shiplap, which had  been sawn at the Enderby sawmill was used for sheeting. Once the initial construction was complete, the Emeny men proceeded to finish the house by chinking in between the logs with mortar made from sand, lime, and cement. The interior was lined with a heavy building paper, a base for finishing later with a  more decorative wallpaper.  What a joy and satisfaction our pioneers must have felt as they moved into  their new home late in 1909. Just two years to complete this large project. These  two generations of craftsmen have long since passed on, but the labours and  skills of their hands live on in testimony. The old home has withstood seventy-  nine years of family living, and is still being lived in today, still stalwart and  sound.  THOSE EARLY DAYS  by Evelyn (Sparky) Hallett  My mother, Elizabeth Parsons, and I arrived in Oliver on May 7, 1923  from Edmonton. Dad (Henry Parsons) had preceded us in 1922. On May 8 it  was 110 degrees in the shade and there was no shade. We lived in a small house  on the land behind what is now Wight's Insurance. Then Dad's plumbing shop  was there. It was hot right through till the middle of September. We moved to  what is now Park Drive in November. Two days later it started to snow and got  cold. On New Year's Eve the temperature dropped to - 25 degrees F!  My first school was the old Scout Hall situated where the School Board offices are now. My first teacher was Charlie Mitchell, a man with a temper. On  my first day I asked a student why the big hole in the blackboard and was told  that the teacher was demonstrating geometry to the students. He had a long  divider in his hand. One of the boys was a little dense and, in his rage, Mr. Mitchell pointed towards the blackboard. The divider opened and punched a hole  in the board. He roared and yanked the divider out bringing a big piece of the  board with it. It was a "no-no" to ask about it!  My next school was in the basement of the United Church. We had a short  teacher by the name of Mr. Gray. He had a large wife. One cold day we took  our lunches. Someone brought some comics. After that we called Mr. Gray  "Barney Google" (with a wife three times his size). I was named "Sparkplug" 28  because I ran for the school. Later that was shortened to "Sparky" and has remained my nickname.  Our next teacher was Mr. T. D. Davies who had one game arm. That  Hallowe'en was very busy! The next morning there was no fire in the stove and  all the wood was in the cupboard under the stairs. Mr. Davies scolded us and  said that he would light the fire himself. When he opened the door for the wood  a very large and filthy goat baaed at him. Mr. Davies never did find out who  had done the deed so he punished all of us.  We had a Young People's Club that met in the church. The pulpit was  moved to the back room and then we could put on plays, concerts, or parties.  That, of course, was before the building was dedicated as a United Church.  Back in the early 1920s it was very cold, especially the winter of 1924-25.  The ice on Tuc-ul-nuit lake was very thick and we used to skate there. In fact  Bob Lawrence took his father's old car out on the lake and we played Crack the  Whip — very exciting, especially if you lost your grip and went sailing to the  end of the lake.  In the fall of 1925 I went to Edmonton to attend college. I had only $200 so  I took what I could of a 10-month course in business. When I finished I could  not have a diploma because I had not gone fulltime. However, I came home  and, at sixteen, went to work as the first female in the office of the Southern  Okanagan Lands Project. My first boss was Major Harry Earle, the Project  Manager. George Allan was the accountant. I was well trained by these two  gentlemen in office work. When our pioneer doctor, Dr. Kearney, was away I  was the "nurse" for the injured men working on the new ditch. In the nine  years that I worked for the Government I had three bosses — Major Harry  Earle, Major C. A. C. Steward, and Donald G. McCrae.  This took me to June 1935 when I was married to Jim Hallett. From there  on was another story.  THE C. B. HARRIS FAMILY  by Fay Fell (Granddaughter of Chris and Emily Harris)  Christopher Beer Harris, while on duty in the Northwest Mounted Police  force almost a hundred years ago, had occasion to visit the North Okanagan  area of British Columbia.  He had joined the Northwest Mounted Police on May 7, 1887 at Toronto.  The record states that he was 43 years, one month of age, and that he was six  feet one-half inches in height, 160 lbs., with brown hair, blue eyes and a fair  complexion. At this time he had a wife, Emily Browne Harris, and five children  living in Muskoka County of Ontario.  He purchased his discharge from the Force on December 15, 1889 at  Calgary, stating that he had purchased 160 acres of land at Salmon Arm, British  Columbia.  It is presumed that Christopher spent the winter on his newly acquired  farm, building a log house in preparation for the arrival of his wife and children  including a little daughter who had been born since his enlistment. The family  arrived the next spring (1890) when the roses were in bloom, as Sophie, one of  the daughters, tells us in the memoirs she wrote many years later. She writes: THE C. B. HARRIS FAMILY, SALMON ARM, B.C. 1896  4. - ?; 5. - Mr. Timmons; 6 - Christopher Beer Harris, holding; 7. - (baby) Frederick Harris; 8. -  Mrs. Hutchins; 9. - Fred Shaw; 10. - Claude Harris (age 16); 11. - Mr. Palmer; 12. -Jennie Harris  (age 14); 13. - Sophie Harris (age 10); 14. - ?; 15. - Ruby Hutchins; 16. - Bessie Harris (twin of Carrie, died the next year.); 17. - Richard Harris (twin of Jennie, died the next month.); 18. - Gertie  Harris (age 8); 19.- Carrie Harris (age 5); 21. - Emily (Browne) Harris, (wife of C. B. Harris) age  40 years. NOTE: the only one of the family missing is Fanny, age 12, who was ill with rheumatic  fever.  The first vague memory I have (at five years of age) is being on the  train with my mother and her children (Claude, ten; Jeny and Richard,  eight; Fanny, six; and Gertie, two) on the lengthy trip from near Hunts-  ville, Ontario, through the Rocky Mountains to Salmon Arm and I  remember the wide sun hats with hanging ribbons that we girls wore.  My father, Chris Harris, awaited us at the station with a lumber wagon  drawn by a team of horses. The road to the farm led through masses of  wild roses which the horses tossed aside to pass through. Home was a  mile and a half from the station (S.W.) The trail by-passed the Indian  Reservation where Chief Narcisse and his band were tented in teepees  beside the lake. The children, tired of the tedious journey, were  delighted to be home in the two-storey log house which Father had  erected.  The 1890 census, which lists the C. B. Harris family, notes the population  of Salmon Arm at 56 persons which was comprised of eight married couples,  nineteen children and twenty-one bachelors. 30  The Harris home (on 10th Ave. S.W.) Salmon Arm. The "New House" built about 1899. Picture  taken in 1971 by grandson, Tom Parker.  A scant nine months later twin girls were born in the pioneer home. The  babies were so small that their beds were made in large oval vegetable bowls and  the other children didn't see them for three months. On February 2, 1891 the  babies were baptized Bessie Browne Harris and Carrie Winnifred Harris by the  Rev. George Butler, travelling Anglican Clergyman, who conducted church services in the Harris home throughout the early years.  It was during this first spring that, according to the Centennial History of  Salmon Arm by Ernest Doe, "the honour of planting the first apple tree, a  Duchess Oldenburg, in the district, goes to C. B. Harris and J. D. McGuire on  the land above the G. E. Ratcliff house." Christopher planted an orchard of his  own during those first few years and also a large field of strawberry plants. The  Indians from the Reservation were hired to help pick the berries which were sold  as a cash crop.  Four years after the arrival of Emily Harris, the last child was born,  Frederick Thomas Harris. A year and a half later fourteen-year-old Richard,  twin of Jennie, died on July 16, 1896 and the next year, little Bessie, twin of  Carrie, at the age of six, succumbed to pneumonia. The burial was April 18,  1897.  In the records of the Anglican Church is found: Confirmations October 17,  1897, by Bishop Dart of New Westminster, B.C.:  Harris, Claude Christopher age 17  Harris, Elizabeth Jane age 15  Harris, Fanny F. L age 13  Christopher was one of the original members of the Fruit Growers Association and held the office of President of the Kamloops Farmers' Institute organized in McGuire Hall on Saturday, March 5, 1898.  The Boer War broke out in Africa the next year and Lord Strathcona,  High Commissioner for Canada, called loyal Canadians to help England suppress the uprising against her colonial rule in South Africa. Christopher felt that 31  his own training when he was sixteen in the Canadian Militia, at that time a  compulsory service, and in the Northwest Mounted Police Force fitted him to  help provide British Columbia's quota of soldiers. He enlisted in the Strathcona  Horse Regiment on February 5, 1900 at Kamloops — unaware that his son  Claude, nineteen years of age, who was working away from home, had enlisted  at the same time in Revelstoke. Thus they both went to war in South Africa.  One year later, Emily was a widow. Christopher had died on his way  home. The death notice records that he died in Woolwich, England on January  22, 1901 of enteric fever, and was buried at Gravesend.  A likeness of a framed picture given by friends in Salmon Arm, to Emily Harris, widow of  Christopher B. Harris, after his death on the way home from the Boer War, 1901. The photo in the  centre is C. B. Harris.  Claude Harris returned home and obtained work on the railway between  Revelstoke and Kamloops, spending his "days off" on the farm helping his  mother and her family of five daughters and little Freddie.  In a letter dated September 26, 1902, Emily wrote from Lytton to the  children at home:  I had quite a pleasant trip to Kamloops with lots of nice people. I was  met at Kamloops of course and arrived at Ashcroft at four o'clock in  the morning, had a very nice room and a lovely breakfast about eight  o'clock the next morning. Then we went down to the Fair Grounds 32  and were made acquainted with the Judge, Mr. Kipp. We went into  the Show Room and I was invited to take part in the judging of the  fruit and of course that is just where I shine. We got through about  two in the afternoon. We then went back to dinner . . . We left  Ashcroft at five o'clock in the morning and got to Lytton at seven.  Mr. Earl arranged for a boat ... I enjoyed crossing the Fraser River  so much, There was quite a wind and it was covered with white  horses. We crossed in a Sailboat. We went over flying.  I am having such a pleasant time. I only feel sorry that I cannot give  you all some of the nice peaches and Bartlett pears and oh, the grapes  and apples, the ground is covered. I am enjoying myself in the land of  Milk and Honey.  During the next few years after the death of her husband, Emily arranged  for the teenage daughters to take turns attending high school in Vernon while  she and the others managed the farm. But tragedy struck again: a ruptured  varicose vein turned into blood poisoning and Emily died in the Revelstoke  Hospital on May 31, 1904 at the age of 46 years.  Sophie started teaching school that fall at Tappen and the younger orphans  managed the farm with the help of Claude. Two years later, Sophie married  Harry Smith at a ceremony in the farm home conducted by the Reverend Mr.  Pye, Methodist minister. It was then that the family broke up. Sophie and  Harry took Freddie, by then nine years old, to live with them. Fanny (Frances)  took Carrie to Seattle with her where she was taking nurse's training. Gertie was  teaching and Jenny was nursing in Golden. Claude left to go ranching in Alberta and was joined there within a few years by Freddie and Carrie. Jenny and  Frances later went nursing at Castor, Alberta, not far from where those  members of the family lived.  Gertie taught at Revelstoke before her marriage to Fred Thomson and they  lived at Salmon Arm during the early years of their three children: Phyllis (Parsons), Douglas, and Joy (Mclsaac). Then they moved to the coast.  Claude married in Alberta and had five children. He died there in 1972 at  the age of 92.  Jennie nursed in Calgary for many years and later won distinction for her  poetry which prompted one Calgary editor to refer to her as "Calgary's Poet  Laureate". She died in 1967 at the age of 85.  Frances and Carrie married Parker brothers and lived on the prairie. Carried died in 1941 and Frances in 1949.  Sophie moved to Vancouver and, at 100 years of age (1986) is still living  comfortably in a rest home there.  Gertie spent the last twenty years of her life with her daughter, Joy, in  California and died there in 1980.  Fred, the youngest, returned from the First World War, married Alma  Price and lived for a time in the old home at Salmon Arm before settling near  Edmonton where he died in 1975. 33  REID'S CORNERS  by Dennis Reid  Reid's Corners, the area where five roads intersected, six miles northeast of  Kelowna at the north end of Rutland, was so named when John Reid built a  general store and gasoline station there in 1921.  Reid's Corner - 1938.  Mr. Reid who was born in Belfast, Ireland, in 1886 immigrated to Canada  in 1904 going to Winnipeg. He took up steam engineering taking a course in Indianapolis. He operated the colorful steam tractors on the Prairies for a few  years, arriving in the Okanagan in 1910. He married Annie Evelyn Smith at  Rutland in 1913. She had come from England to visit her brother Tom Smith.  Mrs. Reid was the chief storekeeper, while her husband engaged in engineering  mainly in sawmills and canneries which used steam for power.  Originally there were only three corners, the fourth and fifth being created  in 1923, when the Government built the 'shortcut' through Ellison, which is  now the main highway running past the Kelowna Airport.  Prior to the railroad being extended from Vernon to Kelowna, supplies for  the store were shipped in from Vancouver to Vernon and then by boat to  Kelowna, where they were picked up at the wharf at the foot of Bernard  Avenue. Later they came by train and were put off at the local Rutland train  station. It is worth noting that these goods often sat for several hours at the unmanned station but nothing was ever stolen — a tribute to the people of the day.  In the mid 1930s a grocery warehouse was opened in Kelowna from which the  major supplies were then obtained.  One of the unusual aspects of the new rail line was the single self-propelled  passenger rail car which travelled daily from Vernon to Kelowna for a few  months. Locals dubbed it the "Galloping Goose."  Mr. Reid was independent so he handled three different brands of gasoline  from three pumps, quite unique among merchants of the Valley!  In 1926 Mr. Reid built a large dining hall next to the store, employing a  professional chef to serve meals to workers at the nearby new KGE Packing  House. Because the season was so short, this did not prove a viable venture, so 34  the hall was converted to a new home for the family in 1928. The previous living  quarters which had been part of the store complex were then turned into an expanded store.  Rural electricity did not arrive until the 1930s, so illumination for evening  hours were originally kerosene and Aladdin lamps and later the Coleman  gasoline lamps. Refrigeration for butter, milk, meat and soft drinks was by ice.  'Putting up the ice' was an annual winter chore, when groups of residents spent  a week or two cutting blocks of ice for storage from nearby ponds. These ponds  were also used every winter by the young people for skating. It appears many of  these ponds have now been drained and filled for agriculture use, probably to  the disappointment of many.  A person who touched the lives of everyone who lived along the mailing address, "R.R. 1, The Vernon Road", was the Rural Postman, Jack Wyatt. A  person of small stature, he was the epitome of reliability, always getting the mail  through. This sometimes meant switching to a team of horses and sleigh in the  winter time. (Roads were not ploughed in those days). Residents along the route  often had him pick up articles in town, other than mail, which he cheerfully  delivered to their mailboxes. This writer was pleasantly surprised when he  returned after the Second World War to find Mr. Wyatt still delivering mail  with his reliable Model A Ford. Many people regretted when he retired after 40  years of rural mail delivery.  Some of the residents who lived near Reid's Corners were the families of  Arthur Cross, Arthur Hall, Tom Stafford, George Reith, Dave Sexsmith and  John Carney, all of whom have descendants living in the Okanagan.  The business and property were sold to Stan Duggan of Winfield in 1938,  who later sold it to the Hall family who also owned a general store at Okanagan  Mission. The Reids moved into Kelowna and after the War went to Vancouver.  Mrs. Reid passed away in 1958 and Mr. Reid two years later. Three children  survive, Jennie Tinck and Nancy Hardwick of Vancouver and Dennis Reid of  Salmon Arm.  The store continued business until the 1960s when the Highways Department needed part of the property to make improvements at the congested five  corners. The area, however, is still referred to as 'Reid's Corners'.  THE SIMARD MUSEUM  by Judy Reimche  From her kitchen window Isobel Simard can see the Shuswap River  rushing by, curving past a small beach before it disappears behind a stand of  trees. It's her favourite view.  "I remember many happy years spent right on that beach," she says. "My  family had a cabin there — it's still standing — and we spent every summer  camped there when I was growing up. It took two days to get here from our  place on the Back Enderby Road. We camped overnight at Falls Creek. The  road was little more than a path then." From Ashton Creek their wagon travelled mostly on grass since there wasn't enough traffic to bare the road.  History has remained part of Wilfred and Isobel Simard's lives because  they have preserved their memories in material ways as well as in their minds. 35  The building which houses the  museum, inis  iginal homestead on the property.  Photo courtesy W. & I. Simard  The old house where they keep their museum was their home for many years. It  was in this house that Isobel first met Wilfred the summer she was sixteen. Her  parents had permitted her to attend a dance given by the Pittens, the original  builders and owners of the house.  Mrs. Simard became a teacher and taught in the first school at Kingfisher,  then at Hupel and at Ashton Creek. Schools were opened for use, then closed,  and later reopened, depending on the population and the location of the children  of the area. Mrs. Simard remembers how difficult it sometimes was to get to  school.  "In 1948 the river and creeks rose over their banks and the water came  right over the road," she recalls. "We were in Hupel School at the time.  Although the water covered the road, the school itself was on higher ground,  and the water didn't enter the building itself. So the children continued to come  to school. The older ones waded through the water, and Wilfred, who was the  bus driver at the time, carried the smaller children across the flooded area.  "That wasn't the only time I waded through water to get to school," Mrs.  Simard laughs. "At the old Kingfisher School the creek rose and the bridge  washed out. So we felled a tree across the creek and I had to walk across with the  water roaring right below."  Looking through the museum gives a glimpse of life in past years. The old  flatirons, gas irons and the fore-runners of the steam irons; scrub boards, which  later gave way to the hand-operated washing machine; hand-operated butter  churns, and other artifacts pay tribute to the hard work and long hours put in by  women in the home. Outside are examples of equipment used by the men for  farming, logging, and transportation which also represent strong backs and  many hours of labour.  But it wasn't all work. The museum holds several old phonographs,  cameras, a tennis racket used by Mrs. Simard's father in the 1800s, and other  equipment used for sport. 36  Isobel Simard stands amid the machinery of the past.  Isobel Simard's favourite part of the museum is upstairs where the old  books and pictures are kept. She has an old-fashioned school desk, and school  books her classes used in years gone by, as well as an assortment of other books  and newspapers, including the Okanagan Commoner.  "The museum is really Wilfred's department," Mrs. Simard says. "He  spends a lot of time each year getting the building ready for visitors and has  spent a lot of time on his displays outside."  Wandering around the yard, a visitor can trace a whole history in the logging industry — the old equipment, the river raft, the dugout canoe that  Wilfred made and used in the river races that used to be held on the Shuswap  annually. Wilfred has a barn full of old vehicles one of which is a 1912 fire  engine used by the Vernon Fire Department. A more recent addition to the outside displays is a blacksmith shop.  While most people don't realize that they are a living part of history,  especially when they are young, the Simards recognized the value of holding on  to their past so that they could share with future generations those special times  when the Kingfisher and Mable Lake areas were first being settled.  Trinity Creek School built in 1921 by people of the community using local logs.  $450 covered all cash expenditures including desks, blackboard, floor and ceiling. The building served as a school until 1955. -   ■ :  37  HISTORICAL PAPERS  STAGECOACHES IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN — 1872-1892  by Ken Mather  (K. Mather is Manager/Curator of O'Keefe Historic Ranch)  In the earliest days of settlement in the Okanagan, when only a handful of  white settlers had located in the area, mail was usually carried on horseback by  anyone who happened to be travelling into the valley. In 1870, Post Offices were  established in Kamloops and at Duck's and Pringle's (Monte Creek) and mail  carried into the Okanagan from there. But, as more and more settlers began to  be attracted to the lush grasslands and excellent growing conditions of the North  Okanagan in the early 1870s, the demand for a regular mail service grew. The  settlers began to express their concerns to their representatives in the Legislative  Assembly and, on March 8, 1872, a resolution was passed:  That an humble address be presented to His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor praying that he will recommend to the Dominion  Government the immediate necessity of a regular Mail Service  through the Kamloops, Okanagan, Spallumcheen, and Nicola Lake  sections of the Yale-Lytton District, such Mail Service to connect with  the different Post Offices on the general route between New  Westminster and Cariboo.1  This resolution brought results very quickly, reflecting the efforts of the  Dominion to please British Columbia, its new partner in Confederation. On  August 6, 1872, the Victoria Colonist announced under the heading "Okanagan  Mail Service", that the Chief Postal Inspector, Mr. Dewe, had "made temporary arrangements with Mr. Barnard for a weekly mail service to Kamloops  and Okanagan." The next day, Barnard's Express advertised:  Barnard's Express Stages for Okanagan . . . The undersigned has  placed a line of Passenger Stages on the New Wagon Road to  Okanagan, running in close connection with Stages from Yale to  Barkerville ... A General Express Business will be transacted over  the route. Freight carried, Parcels delivered, Commissions executed,  Collections made. F. J.Barnard & Co.2  The stagecoach travelled to Okanagan once a week, leaving Cache Creek  on Wednesday mornings at 10 o'clock and returned the following week to connect with the stages going north and south on the Cariboo Wagon Road.  It is important to note that the term "Okanagan" at that time referred to  the area around the Head of the Lake settled by Cornelius O'Keefe and  Thomas Greenhow in 1867. On their land, not far from the original Brigade  Trail first used by the Hudson's Bay Company years before, a Post Office was  established on August 14, 1872 and called "Okanagon" (apparently mis-spelled  by the Postal authorities in Ottawa)3. This spelling remained in effect until 1905  when it was corrected to "Okanagan". 38  During the fall of 1872, the contract to deliver mail to Okanagan and  Okanagan Mission (near present-day Kelowna) was advertised. The contract to  Okanagan, to commence on April 1, 1872, was awarded to Alex Vance who was  employed by the B.X. Company and it was in his name that the mail was carried until 1877.4 There was no contract awarded to carry mail to Okanagan  Mission, not surprisingly since there was no road beyond O'Keefe Ranch at the  time. It was not until 1874 that a motion was passed in the B.C. Legislative  /^Assembly recommending "the expediency of establishing a semi-monthly mail  between the Okanagan Mission and the O'Keefe Post Office at the Head of the  Lake."5 This mail service was established that year and delivery was carried out  on horseback. It was not until 1876 that construction was started on a wagon  road from the Head of the Lake to the Mission. For some years after 1877, when  this road was completed, the mail was still carried on horseback from O'Keefe's  to Okanagan Mission.6  One of the regular B.X. drivers on the run to O'Keefe Ranch was Benjamin Franklin (B.F.) Young who, impressed with the agricultural possibilities  of the area, settled near what was to become the town of Armstrong. Writing in  the Sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society -1935 he recalled those early days:  Driving stage in those days was hard work, but I liked it. From the  time the driver took over the team in the morning until he delivered  his freight and passengers in the evening his time was fully occupied  . . . The horses we had were small, mean to handle, and tough. A  horse in those days which weighed 900 or 1000 pounds was considered  to be a good-sized horse. We were supposed to get through on time.  The weather might be bad and the roads full of holes or blocked up, or  the harness might break, or the stagecoach itself might break down;  but that made no difference, a driver was supposed to overcome small  difficulties of that sort and finish the trip on time.7  The stagecoaches that ran on the Cache Creek to Kamloops to Okanagan  run were smaller "two horse specials" also known as "jerkies" or two-horse  thorobraces and they usually had two or three seats. They were painted in the  same standard colour scheme as the regular B.X. stages with the body of the  stage red and the running gear yellow. There are no surviving photographs of  these two horse coaches, but they were smaller versions of the regular Concord  type stagecoaches familiar to all. Like the Concord stagecoaches, they were built  with thorobraces, layers of leather which extended the length of the stage. The  body of the stage had rockers on each side which fitted on these thorobraces so  that the entire body of the stage was supported on them. The result was to give  the stage body a rocking, swaying motion not unlike a ship at sea. Until the  1890s, when the B.X. started constructing its own coaches, Messrs. Black and  Company of San Francisco built all the stages used by the B.X.8  The Concord type stage coaches, with their high wheels, were able to travel  through the most difficult mud holes and moderate depths of snow. But, during  the worst winter months, when heavy snows made travel by coach impractical,  sleighs were used to carry the mail, freight and passengers over the road to  Okanagan.  In the fall of 1881, J. B. Leighton, who had worked for the B.X. in various  capacities and who had operated the ferry at Savona, outbid the B.C. Express 39  Company and obtained the contract to carry the mail to the Okanagan. At this  time the route was extended to include the Okanagan Mission which had for  some time been serviced from the south over the Dewdney Trail by Fred Brent,  who operated the grist mill at the Mission. In September of 1881, Leighton  hired Alex Macdonnell to drive the first stagecoach from Cache Creek to  O'Keefe Ranch, Priest's Valley and Okanagan Mission. After Macdonnell had  made a few trips over this route, it was decided that there was not enough traffic  to require the use of a stagecoach beyond O'Keefe's so, from then on, the mail  was taken from there onward by horseback. Macdonnell drove the stage over  this route once a week in summer and bi-weekly in winter from then until 1885  when the northern half of the run was sold to James Armstrong Schubert of  Lansdowne.9 Schubert had driven for Leighton previously and bought part of  Leighton's equipment to operate this run which, like the previous ones,  originated in Kamloops. From there it travelled by way of Duck's and Grande  Prairie (now Westwold) before crossing to the Schubert Ranch at Round  Prairie, then on to O'Keefe Ranch, Priests' Valley and the Mission. Schubert,  after years of driving the stage in every kind of weather, began to suffer the effects of all his exposure to the elements. He contracted tuberculosis and was  obliged to travel to California to recover his health.  Price Ellison appears to have taken over the mail contract after Schubert  left. He was responsible for running a stage once a week from Sicamous, where  it met the Canadian Pacific Railway main line, to Vernon. This stage took the  road via Enderby and Lansdowne and from thence south west by Otter Lake to  O'Keefe Ranch and Vernon and beyond to Okanagan Mission. In those  days, the stage was a three-seated democrat pulled by four horses. Every Monday morning it ran 51 miles north from Vernon to Sicamous, changing horses at  Enderby. On Tuesdays, it returned to Vernon, the following day heading south  on the 35 mile road to Okanagan Mission. It then returned to Vernon on  Thursdays only to head north to Sicamous on Fridays and back to Vernon on  Saturdays. This amounted to a total of about 280 miles every week. Passengers  were charged ten cents per mile and express ranged from 25 cents a mile up.10  During the summer months, when the Red Star II was plying the Shuswap  River and Mara Lake between Enderby and Sicamous, the mail and express  was carried aboard this steamship and the stage horses given a rest. The original  driver on this run was Ollie Vale, but in 1891 he was replaced by Robert S.  Hall, who drove the stage until Price Ellison arranged to have the mail carried  by the newly completed Shuswap and Okanagan Railway. In January of 1892,  the last official stagecoach run from Sicamous to Vernon took place.11  After the completion of the S&O and the regular use of steamboats on  Lake Okanagan, a horse drawn stage still continued to travel the road from Vernon to Okanagan Mission and the new little townsite established on the shore of  Okanagan Lake which was called Kelowna. The stage, which was operated by  a number of drivers over the next ten years, consisted of an open democrat  which contained a number of seats and room for the Royal Mail. Around 1907,  William Scott took over the operation of the stage run and utilized a covered-top  democrat with sides that could be rolled down to protect his passengers during  inclement weather.12 Many stories are told of Scott's Mail Stage but perhaps the  most interesting involves the cold winter day when his stage was confronted by  a cutter on a single track of road, the sides of which were piled high with snow. 40  The driver of the cutter leaned out and shouted "I am Lord Aberdeen and I  want to get by." William Scott, not in the least bit intimidated, leaned out and  shouted "I am William Scott driving Her Majesty's Mail, and I have the right-  of-way." Lord Aberdeen, Governor General of Canada, pulled his team into  the drifts and Her Majesty's Mail was allowed to pass.13  It was William Scott who finally succumbed to the pressures of modern  technology and purchased a motor car to carry the mail and passengers from  Vernon to Kelowna. The bright red McLaughlin motor stage took over around  1910 but, even then, Scott was obliged to resort to more reliable transportation  in the winter months when he put his horse drawn stage back on the road. But  by the beginning of the First World War, the North Okanagan had seen the last  of the colourful days of horse drawn stages.  1 Journals of the Legislative Assembly, Volume 1, March 8, 1872.  2 Victoria Colonist, August 6, 1872.  3 George H. Melvin, Post Offices of British Columbia 1858-1970.  4 Victoria Colonist, February 22, 1873.  5 Journals of the Legislative Assembly, January 13, 1874.  6 B. F. Young, "Early Days in British Columbia," in The Sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society — 1935, p. 255.  7 ibid., p. 254.  8 Art Downs, Wagon Road North, Art Downs, 1960-73.  9 "Alexander Macdonnell Pioneer Stage Driver and Rancher — 1862-1925," in Fortieth Report of  the Okanagan Historical Society -1977, p. 67.  10 Robert S. Hall, "Pioneering," as told to his daughter Gladys in Nineteenth Report of the Okanagan  Historical Society -1955, p. 108.  11 Vernon News, January 7, 1892.  12 W. R. Powley, "The Vernon-Kelowna Stage Half-way House," in Twenty -first Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society -1957, p. 37.  13 anon. "A Short Story," in OHS 21st Report.  THE KELOWNA CLUB  by Winston A. Shilvock  A great many Englishmen came to the Okanagan Valley in the late 19th  century and, in a large measure, were responsible for the valley growth, particularly in the Kelowna area. Among their numbers were several remittance  men who harbored strong ties with the Mother Country.  Although grown men were loathe to admit it, they were frequently  lonesome and were always looking for news from home. However, subscriptions  to individual English papers were expensive and few could afford a variety.  Then one day Colin S. Smith confided to some of his cronies who were  having drinks at the Lakeview Hotel bar that he was tired of seeing only the  Farmer's Advocate and Montreal Star and why didn't they pool their resources and  get an assortment of papers from the Old Country so everyone could enjoy  them.  When this occasion took place and how many people were involved is  shrouded in mystery. There are some heresay accounts but there's no true written record of the event and the memories of later raconteurs vary considerably. 41  However, the idea met with enthusiasm and it is known that in 1903  several residents had rented two rooms for $9.00 per month in the Kelowna  Shippers Union building at the corner of Abbott Street and Bernard Avenue.  These were equipped with a desk and table and several easy chairs. Mr. M.  "Squire" Featherstonehaugh offered his services as caretaker to keep the place  in order.  While no one was averse to alcoholic beverages, it was decided not to serve  drinks for the Lakeview bar was but a few steps around the corner where a selection of good liquors could be had for a few cents a drink. A well worn path soon  developed between the two buildings.  Since the purpose of the club was to provide Old Country reading material,  about fourteen papers and magazines were originally ordered and included  Punch, Spectator, The Pink 'Un, Illustrated London News, Navy and Army, Strand,  Sketch and London Times.  The year 1903 proved a banner one for the group. No official record of  names was kept but by year's end it is known that about 70 men were associated  with the "Club". This was an amazing number when one realizes that  Kelowna's population in 1903 was only 300 persons.  Despite a deficit of $27.55 in the first year of operation, when 1904 rolled  around ambitious plans were started to form a recognized society and build a  proper clubhouse. To raise money it was agreed that every current member  would, according to his ability, pay $25 to $100 on a note with interest at eight  percent. Repayment would be if and when possible.  The next step was to obtain a charter, the application for which read:  "In the matter of the Benevolent Societies Act, and amended Acts, we, the undersigned,  declare that we are desirous of being incorporated under the name and for the objects  hereinafter set forth, under the provisions of the Benevolent Societies Act and Amending  Acts which name and objects are as follows:  1. The intended corporation name of the Society is  "THE KELOWNA CLUB."  2. The objects of the society are social intercourse, mutual helpfulness, mental and  moral improvement, rational recreation and promotion of good fellowship among  members.  3. The names of those who are to be the first trustees or managing officers are J. L.  Pridham, C. S. Smith, H. E. Wallis, H. W. Raymer, H. S. Rose, D. W. Sutherland,  H. C. Stillingfleet, G. W. Mappen, A. H. Crichton, who may from among themselves  appoint a President, a Vice-President and Secretary-Treasurer, and they shall hold office  until a General Meeting of the Society, which shall be called in one year from the date  hereof, to elect new Trustees or Managing Officers, and the retiring Trustees or Managing Officers shall be eligible for re-election.  (Note: H. W. Raymer was appointed the first president and C. S. Smith was the first  elected president.)  The successors of the said Trustees or Managing Officers shall be elected at the  times and in the manner provided by the bylaws of the Society. The Society shall have  a common seal of such design as may be chosen by the Trustees or Managing Officers.  In testimony whereof we have made and signed these presents this twelfth day of August  A.D. 1904. Signed in the presence of Walter R. Pooley, Notary Public, Pro. B.C. Filed  in duplicate the 30th day of August, 1904.  S. Y. Wootten  Registrar General. 42  With a Charter in hand and enough money in the bank, the Kelowna Club  was set to build a clubhouse. Two lots were purchased for $300 on the north-east  corner of Pendozi Street and Leon Avenue and plans were drawn for a spacious,  two-story structure. H. W. Raymer contracted to build it at a cost not to exceed  $4,500. The 100' x 120' property was of sufficient size that in time tennis courts  and a bowling green were established. By the beginning of 1906 everything was  completed and The Kelowna Club, the second men's club to be formed in  British Columbia was well on its way.  To foster the "social intercourse" and "good fellowship" as set forth in the  Charter, a huge round table, six feet in diameter, was constructed. For all the  many years to come this is where the members gathered to discuss events and  roll dice for drinks. At no time were the dice used for any other purpose than to  see who paid the bar bill.  Accounts of activities in the next few years are very sketchy as all minutes  of meetings have vanished. It is known that in April 1906, four lots on Leon  Avenue next to the clubhouse were purchased for $900. By 1911 the Club was in  excellent financial shape and then, as would happen so often in the future, the  members got carried away with the dollar reserves that had accumulated.  Although the present clubhouse was only five years old, in 1911 a lot opposite on  Leon Avenue was purchased with the idea of building a new, more sumptuous  place for the members.  Before this could take place, however, the depression of 1912 hit, followed  in short order by the First World War. These two events played havoc with the  membership and the money reserves began to dwindle. The lot purchased for  the new clubhouse was sold, but there's no record for how much.  The Kelowna Club wasn't alone in the loss of members. The Lawn Tennis  Club, comprised of men and women, was drastically reduced in numbers and a  suggestion was made that the two organizations join forces for the duration of  the war. Many heated discussions ensued as to the wisdom of allowing females  onto the Kelowna Club courts. A compromise was reached, however, with the  provision that the ladies could use the courts but could only enter the holy of  holies as far as the back verandah for refreshments. For the next 40 years this  was as close as any female would get to the precincts of the Kelowna Club.  A quaint custom regarding the ladies began with the advent of the  automobile. A couple would drive into the lane and park beside the ashcans  situated behind the clubhouse. The club member would then get a couple of  drinks at the bar and surreptitiously take them to the car. This spot on the club  property was known as "The Ash Can" and was well used until the new  clubhouse was built in 1948.  It was economic conditions that eventually forced a change in the scheme of  things regarding the ladies. Cocktail lounges had come to Kelowna hotels in  1952 and were offering stiff competition, as in them a man and wife could drink  together. Club bar sales dropped drastically and something had to be done to  accommodate the ladies.  After 54 years of male solitude it was difficult to go all the way and admit  ladies to the main lounge, but after many discussions a compromise was reached. In 1958 a ladies' lounge was built with a side entrance beside the main entrance where ladies alone, or escorted, could be served drinks. A large sum of  money was spent on this but it was never popular. Another attempt to placate 43  the ladies was made when they were allowed into the main lounge on Saturday  nights. This also didn't prove popular.  An event instituted in 1954 which was always in favor was the President's  Reception for members and wives on New Year's Day. The climax to this occasion was a smorgasbord which was set on top of two billiard tables. A piper led  a parade of four carvers, clad in chef caps and aprons and carrying huge carving  knives, in a march around the room until each carver took his place at one of  two huge turkeys and two hams. It was considered a great honor to be a carver.  A "first" event was tried in May, 1955, when a "Summer at Home"  cabaret and smorgasbord was held. "Dancing 10 p.m. to 1 a.m. Restricted to  members and their ladies. Sorry — no guests." For some reason this wasn't  popular and was never tried again.  With the advent of TV in Kelowna in 1956 an annual mixed bash was held  at the clubhouse to watch the playing of the Grey Cup game. This event won  great approval and continued until the playing for the trophy was changed to  Sunday, a day on which the sale of liquor was prohibited.  In 1963 several mixed events were staged such as horse races, a Klondyke  Night with various forms of gambling and a dance or two. To celebrate the  club's 60th anniversary a "Diamond Jubilee Shindig" was staged in August,  1974. "Members and ladies $9.00 per couple." Gone forever were the old male  smokers.  But back to the early days. Although the finances continued to worsen during the First World War, the urge to spend money was prevalent and the bulk of  the $2,500 insurance money from a serious fire in 1918 was used to build a  Khaki Room in memory of the seven members who lost their lives — W.  D'Aeth, F. Hall, W. H. Legge, R. B. Marshall, C. K. Pyman, H. C. Stillingfleet and R. H. Stubbs.  To complete repairs from the fire, members subscribed $20 and up with interest at 8 percent. Repayment was by annual drawing of names. Then in 1919  the financial situation came to a head and it was necessary to arrange a chattel  mortgage to take care of current debts.  After the war Kelowna began to grow and the population rose from 2,521  in 1921 to 4,655 in 1931. This had a beneficial effect on the membership and the  club finances improved greatly. In 1932 the entire upstairs of the clubhouse was  refurbished. By 1935, however, the Great Depression was gaining strength.  Again the club headed into serious financial trouble and the question of going  into voluntary bankruptcy was debated at length.  In 1937 a drastic reorganization took place but there's no record of how this  was accomplished. It must have worked, for the year ended with a profit of  $1,517. Again throwing discretion to the wind the members voted to spend  $4,734 on alterations and furnishings.  Caution crept back in 1938 when there was concern about reducing a bank  loan which had been incurred to pay for the splurge the year before. Improvements such as a blower to ventilate the card room; another tri-lite; new  covering for a chesterfield and chair and new billiard cues had to be postponed.  But disaster was averted by a large increase in bar sales that August. The  Kelowna Club and Canadian Legion were the only places in town that served liquor and an influx of visitors for Regatta and a Liberal Convention resulted in  good sales. A later report stated, "Our statement for August shows much 44  patronage."  As the club established its roots in Kelowna recognition of it spread to other  places. It has always been a source of pride that members could travel beyond  the Okanagan Valley and be welcomed at many affiliated groups. Over the  years this association grew to include clubs in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, Washington State, California, Hawaii, Vernon, Vancouver and New  Westminster.  Membership fluctuated over the years and there was a continuing effort to  maintain it. Gatherings were held to keep members interested and the annual  Smoking Concert held each December was a fun event. In 1936 the printed announcement stated, "Your Committee is doing everything in its power to make  this a jolly evening. Enjoy our refreshments and entertainment."  Smokers were held on a fairly regular basis and provided skits, bridge,  billiards, jokes and gags. These occasions were used for balloting on new  members — balloting from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. — and to conduct the annual  auction for magazines. Cheese and crackers, sandwiches and coffee with  "substitutions permitted — perhaps required" were offered.  Billiard tournaments were very popular and "Pros" were sometimes  brought in to give exhibitions. Seating which flanked the three tables was always  full to overflow.  The club's finances were very dependent on bar sales and when there was  rationing of alcohol during the Second World War, sales were seriously affected.  This is shown in 1943 when the inventory at the end of the year was only 27  Rye; 3 Scotch; 3 Rum; 4 Gin and 24 dozen beer and ale. Annual dues were also  important and although 17 members were in the armed forces, membership was  up. However, several members were delinquent with dues and for the first time  since 1934 names were posted.  During the early 1940s an attempt was made by the Committees to build  up cash reserves but on several occasions members objected to the stringencies.  In 1942, although the surplus was $2,600, the president stated, "This seems a  large amount — (but) the policy during the last three years of preserving, and if  possible, building up further the cash reserve, should be continued." As later  events proved, this advice went unheeded.  In 1945, Secretary Everard retired because of illness and Charlie Quinn  was appointed with a monthly salary of $50. Jimmy Mitchell who had been  Chief Steward since 1925 was paid a bonus of $50 in recognition of "his extra  work since Mr. Everard's illness."  Jimmy was an imperturbable Scotsman who looked on every member of  the club as his personal responsibility. The help given by "Doctor" Mitchell will  be long remembered by those administered to. Jimmy was made an Honorary  Member when he retired at the end of 1962 after 37 years of dedicated service.  Unfortunately he lived only two years to enjoy the honour.  After the war the affairs of the club gradually improved. Membership increased and in 1947 reached an all-time high of 256, taxing the space of the  clubhouse. Larger premises became imperative and that year the two corner lots  on which the clubhouse sat were sold to McColl Frontenac Oil Company. The  current house was demolished and a large new clubhouse was built on lots 3 and  4.  To help finance this move lots 5 and 6 were sold to McGavin Bakeries 45  Limited. The two sales realized $18,000 and backed by assets of $39,354 plus a  $20,000 bank loan, construction started on the new building in September 1947.  The move to new quarters was made in early 1948.  For almost half a century the old Round Table had done a noble job but  now its days were almost over. To preserve a memory of its tradition, a piece  two feet in diameter was cut from its centre and placed in the middle of a new  Round Table. Inscribed on the original wood was, "1904 - The Kelowna Club  — 1948." This inscription and three dice cups form the present club logo. During the last 38 years some repairs have been necessary, but in 1986 the Round  Table is still carrying on.  During the next four years the new, spacious quarters proved a great attraction and by 1952 enough money had been made to pay off the bank loan. A  mortgage-burning ceremony was held in the clubhouse and for one of the few  times in its history the club was debt free.  Profits continued to increase and, as mentioned previously, a considerable  sum was spent on a Ladies' Lounge. Through to 1961 money was also lavished  on redecorating, refurnishing and installing an air-conditioner unit.  In December 1964, a nostalgic reception was held for L. Hayman, Dr. W.  J. Knox, H. C. Mallam and Dr. Frank Quinn, the only Charter Members still  alive.  But the good times couldn't go on forever and membership and profits  began to drop off due to competition from many new attractions coming to  Kelowna. With promises from the professional community to participate, in  1975 two racquetball courts were built, along with showers and sauna, at a cost  of $160,000. This became a disaster when a drive for new members failed to  produce many and a number of racquetball commitments weren't honored.  During this period the ladies were allowed to play racquetball and were  often seen meandering through the club dressed in sports attire. This caused  considerable consternation among a lot of the members. At this time, too, the  ladies were invited to lobster and oyster feeds which became so popular that two  nights were required each time to handle the crowd.  Although the financial problems continued to mount, somehow the club  carried on for the next three years when an extraordinary meeting was called in  September 1978 to "Resolve the financial crisis of the club." As on past occasions the main solution offered was to increase membership and raise dues. The  bank mortgage in 1978 was $219,352 and in 1979, $214,232. Other liabilities  totaled $68,361. But membership and bar sales continued to stumble. In 1981  gross sales were $49,900 and in 1982, $42,325.  In the early 1980s interest rates reached incredible heights and the cost of  carrying the bank loan became intolerable. In September 1982, the club  premises and lots 3 and 4, the last of the six lots once owned on Leon Avenue,  were sold to the Central Okanagan Indian Friendship Society.  Some money was left over and, with a loan of $100,000 from Ernie Winter,  plus several thousand dollars from debentures taken up by some members, a  duplex was purchased at 554 Leon Avenue. The membership now stood at 72  and stringent economies were instituted.  Matters continued to worsen, however, and in March 1984, the duties of  the one steward were terminated. Five stalwart members then came forward  and offered their services free to handle the bar and look after the premises. 46  Without this help the club could not have carried on.  As of June 1986, this arrangement is proving an interim solution and,  hopefully, conditions will improve in the near future when The Kelowna Club  will be back on its financial feet. At this date the membership is 72.  PRESIDENTS  THE KELOWNA CLUB  1904  H. W. Raymer  1943-44  D.C. Fillmore  1905  C. S. Smith  1945-46  L. A. C. Panton  1906 & 1928  D. W. Sutherland  1947  F. Campbell  1907-08-09  T. W. Stirling  1948-49  F. L. Fitzpatrick  1910-11  J. F. Burne  1950-51-52  G. Bottger  1912-13  P. DuMoulin  1953  E. R. F. Dodd  1914  F. E. R. Wollaston  1954-55  J.I. Monteith  1915  W. G. Benson  1956  T. Pickering  1916-17  G. R. Binger  1957  Dr. M.J. Butler  1918  E. R. Bailey  1958  G. Bennett  1919 & 1936-37  E. M. Carruthers  1959  R. H. Wilson  1920  H. B. Burtch  1960  G. D. Imrie  1921  Dr. W.J. Knox  1961  G. L. Finch  1922  G. H. Dunn  1962  S. D. Walker  1923  H. S. Atkinson  1963  J. Stewart  1924-25  H. C. S. Collett  1964  F. W. Coulthard  1926  J. H. Thompson  1965  W. A. Shilvock  1927  F. A. Taylor  1966  H. G. Whillis  1929  K. Maclaren  1967  W. E. Hall  1930  A. K. Loyd  1968  T. D. Scaife  1931  C. R. Reid  1969  H. Long  1932  C. B. Winter  1970  C. A. Irish  1933  R. W. Willis  1971  J. L. Gordon  1934  St. George P. Baldwin  1972-73-79-80-81  J. T. F. Horn  1935  J. H. Horn  1974-75  J. Hambleton  1938-39  S. T. Miller  1976-77  C. W. Gaddes  1940  H. A. Truswell  1978  W.J. Boulding  1941  G. A. McKay  1982-86  P. Barclay  1942  D. Whitham  THE MURPHYS — PIONEERS OF THE NORTH OKANAGAN  by Shirley (Murphy) Page  Everyone who has ever heard or sung "Who Put the Overalls in Mrs.  Murphy's Chowder" knows that Murphy is an Irish name. Books tell us that  the name is derived from O'Murchadha — grandson of the sea warrior and that  Murphy is easily the most common surname in Ireland.1 Murphys of renown  include William L. Murphy who invented the Murphy folding bed and Captain  Ed Murphy, the namesake of Murphy's Law, the principle that whatever can  possibly go wrong will.2 This latter principle seems contradictory to the belief in  the "luck of the Irish" so it seems likely that most Murphys of Irish heritage fall  somewhere between the incredibly lucky and the very unfortunate. 47  My great-grandparents, Patric and Margaret Murphy (nee Burke) were  Irish immigrants to America, arriving in the New World in the early 1850s, as  had thousands of others seeking freedom from the old world restrictions and  lured by the prospect of acquiring their own land and having the opportunity to  prosper through their own hard work. Even before John Lane Soule told the  world "Go West, Young Man, Go West"3 Patric and Margaret were working  their way across the United States to the new lands in the West. Two daughters  were born to them in Pennsylvania, Bridget in 1854 and Sarah in 1857, and  their first son, Richard, after they reached Iowa in 1859, followed by my grandfather, William Francis Murphy, on April 1, 1862. The family moved again in  1863 to Nevada where Patric ventured into the business of stock raising on the  rich grasslands. Two more children were born to them in Nevada — Mary and  Robert, in 1865 and 1867 respectively, completing their family.  During the decades of the 1860s and 70s, large herds of cattle were being  trailed from Washington and Oregon Territories to the goldfields of the Cariboo  in British Columbia to provide food for the thousands of miners who had  descended on the area. Many of the herds were bunched in the Yakima Valley  and trailed along the Columbia River to where it was joined by the Okanagan  — then through the Okanagan Valley, through Kamloops (where they often  wintered), and on to the goldfields.4 It seemed clear to Patric Murphy that  future success in marketing beef cattle could well lie in being easily accessible to  these large cattle drives, so he moved his family again in 1872 to Walla Walla,  in Washington Territory, where they acquired their own acreage in the Dry  Creek area and, in a relatively short time, built up a prosperous ranch.5  Richard and William, at the approximate ages of 26 and 23, struck out on  their own and headed North to find adventure and, possibly, their fortune. It is  not known whether they followed the old Okanagan Trail north, or whether  they travelled the Coast route to New Westminster and then inland by train to  Sicamous, but early directories of British Columbia indicate that they arrived in  Centreville or Priest's Valley (now Vernon) in 1887. There Richard carried on  with the work he had learned as a lad, becoming a herdsman for J. B. Greaves  on his spread at Douglas Lake.6 This ranch was later incorporated as the famous  Douglas Lake Cattle Company.  William branched further afield and found employment as a bartender at  the Victoria Hotel,7 which was operated by E. J. Tronson, having been constructed for him in 1885. Tronson had come to the area about twenty years  earlier, preempting land on the Commonage8 and, by this time, was one of the  most prosperous ranchers in the area. In 1887 there were only four businesses in  the little settlement. The first post office was established that year with Luc  Girouard as Post Master. Girouard had also taken out his first preemption in  1867, west of Swan Lake.9 Captain T. D. Shorts had commenced operation of  the first powered boat on Okanagan Lake, the Mary Victoria Greenhow, in 1886,10  permitting easier contact with the growing settlements that were located further  south on the lake. The little village also had two other hotels, two stores and a  Government Office. In 1888 Centreville was renamed Vernon, after Forbes  Vernon, the British Columbia Agent General11 and owner of the Coldstream  Ranch.  When photographer C. W. Halliday made his first visit to Vernon in 1889  he described it vividly: 48  Vernon was undoubtedly just a little cow town . . . The Vernon Hotel was an old log  building . . . just a booze joint and gambling den for the boys when they rode into town  for a little relaxation. A little further on was the Hudson's Bay Store — the only one in  the Valley . . . Then there was Cameron's Store, the Okanagan Hotel, socially one  move above the Vernon, and the principal hotel of the place, the Victoria. This was the  real hostelry, and a very comfortable one too; it was owned by E. J. Tronson, one of the  big cattle ranchers, and was the stopping place for anyone of any importance until a few  years later the Kalamalka, a more modern up-to-date hotel, was built.12  Delima Murphy with sons, William E. (left) and Albert (right), taken in li  William Murphy was a young man of ambition, determined to make his  mark in this land of opportunity. In a very short period of time he was promoted  to managing the Victoria Hotel. The Vernon News reports that he filed a claim  for coal-mining near the junction of the Similkameen and Osoyoos Trails in  1891.13 Later that year, when the Customs Officer from Osoyoos, Theo Kruger,  seized horses from two men who had evaded customs in crossing over the U.S.  border, William capitalized on their misfortune with the law by buying the two  horses and saddles from the officials for a grand total of S140.14 He was active in  village affairs, joining the newly formed Vernon Athletic Club and attending the  racemeets and other sporting and social events that drew the far-flung settlers together in their leisure time. Richard, though working at Douglas Lake some  distance away, rode to town on many occasions to see his brother and mix with  the locals, keeping an eye on the new developments. One newspaper note tells  of his taking part in a social evening at the Lansdowne Hotel (in the area of  Armstrong) where the prize was a saddlehorse named Mowich, donated by Mr.  H. Schneider. Unfortunately, Richard tied for the low dice throw of the evening  with Mrs. J. Wright. The horse, in fact, was won back by Mr. Schneider!15 49  Over a long period of years, a nucleus of French-Canadians left the village  of St. Anicet, Quebec, in Huntingdon County on the shore of Lake St. Francis,  and headed west. Some, like Louis Christien, were drawn to the Valley by news  of the gold strike at Cherry Creek, while others had heard tales from the Oblate  Missionaries of the rich fertile land available for those who were willing to  devote themselves to the opening up and settling of the Okanagan Valley.  Rose Delima Quesnel, my grandmother, was born in St. Anicet in March  of 1872 to Antoine and Catherine Quesnel (nee Leblanc). Generatons of her  family had lived on the lakeshore Quesnel concession in St. Anicet,16 descended  from Olivier Quesnel, the first of the Quesnels to come to Lower Canada from  St. Malo, Bayeux, Normandy in 1660.17 As the eldest son of the family, Antoine  inherited the family farm and so was the only son in the family of nine children  who did not move West. Delima's mother died while she was still very young,  and since she had spent much of her early years with the families of her Uncles  Cleophas and Candide Quesnel it seemed quite natural for her to follow her  aunts, uncles and cousins west to the White Valley of British Columbia, where  almost all of the settlers were related to one another. In the year 1888, at sixteen  years of age, she journeyed, with her Uncle Alphonse Quesnel, by train to  Sicamous and then by democrat to Vernon, to the home of her Uncle Louis and  Aunt Selina Christien.  As the settlement grew, social life revolved around school or church activities, birthdays, weddings, and other festivities, and, of course, the attractions  of Kalamalka Lake in winter as well as summer. Delima was a popular young  lady and her name crops up in the social notes of the Vernon News as a guest at  dance parties, at the opening of the new Lakeview Hotel at the Okanagan Mission (travelling by the S.S. Okanagan with a number of young ladies and  gentlemen), and at many parties including a New Year's party given by the  Gilberts at a lodge on the arm of the Lake. She was a close friend of Marie  Louise Lequime, attending her as bridesmaid upon her marriage to Mr. Fred  Barnes.18  When Tronson decided in 1889 to sell his Victoria Hotel, it was purchased  by Louis Christien's brother, Joseph, of Okanagan Mission, and Louis and  Selina, having gained hotel experience in the East, moved their family (including Delima) into the Hotel to take over the management. The hotel was well  known as headquarters for the White Valley settlers, many of whom were  Delima's relatives from St. Anicet. In addition to seeing William Murphy often  in the hotel, Delima and he had their Roman Catholic religion in common and  so often found themselves attending the same social functions. It was not long  before romance bloomed.  William and Delima were married on February 22, 1892, at St. Ann's  Church, Head of the Lake, the Roman Catholic church built in 1885. The Vernon News of February 25 reports that "the Rev. Father De Vrendt tied the wedding knot. Mr. R. Murphy, brother of the bridegroom, acted as the best man  and Miss Delphine Christien as bridesmaid. A large number of friends and relations of the happy pair were present at the ceremony, the wedding party  numbering ten sleighs . . . Mr. and Mrs. Louis Morand (aunt and uncle to  Delima) hosted a large wedding feast for the guests and Mr. and Mrs. Louis  Chretien, a dance in the evening."19  Not to be outdone by his younger brother, Richard left the Valley a few 50  weeks later and returned to Walla Walla, where he married his sweetheart,  Marguerite (Maggie) Donovan and brought her back to the Douglas Lake  Ranch.  William and Delima spent the first part of their married life in a home  which was rented from Louis Christien, located near the new Kalamalka Hotel  and the new railway station. This is where my father, William Edmund Murphy, was born on November 18, 1892.  My grandfather preempted 160 acres south of Thomas Ellis' preemption at  Okanagan Mission in May of 1892 but cancelled it two months later in favour of  a new preemption with Alfred Manson of 320 acres behind the reserve at the  Head of the Lake. Here he had a home built by Morand and Barnes. When he  "proved up" his land in May of 1894 the document was witnessed by William  Gillies and Sandy McAuley with Leonard Norris as the Commissioner. It indicated that there was a house, 40 acres of cleared land and another 40 acres  slashed.20 By October of that year he had his Crown Grant and held a mortgage  on the Manson share of the property.21  In 1890 the Okanagan Land and Development Company had formed and,  anticipating the coming Shuswap and Okanagan Railroad and the consequent  opening up of the Vernon area, had subdivided a large parcel of land into lots,  and offered free sites to individuals setting up industries.22 In addition to constructing the Kalamalka Hotel the company put in a large irrigation and water  system. Their glowing publicity attracted 40 businesses between 1891 and  1895,23 including the first newspaper, the Vernon News. Vernon, situated at the  crossroads of the Interior's wagon roads, was incorporated in 1892 and became  the centre for the Provincial Government offices. The area mushroomed. In  1893, Lord and Lady Aberdeen purchased the Coldstream Ranch and introduced commercial fruit growing to the Okanagan Valley.  The area between Vernon and Cherry Creek was also progressing during  this period. Delima's uncle, Louis Morand, after mining at Cherry Creek, took  up land with another pioneer, Quinn Faulkner, and one of their many collaborative ventures was the laying out of the townsite of Lumby. When Louis  built the first hotel, the Ram's Horn, in 1893, it was cause for a huge celebration and both of the young Murphy families took part in the festivities which  were reported in great detail in Vernon's newspaper.24  The B.C. Cattle Company, formed in 1893, hired Richard Murphy the  following year and he moved with Maggie to work as foreman for the Triangle  Ranch at Quilchena. This ranch later (1911) became part of the famous  Guichon Ranch. Within a short time, William and Delima also moved to  Quilchena where he took over management of the hotel which was owned and  operated by a brother and sister, Nellie and Edward O'Rourke. Quilchena was  the "rendezvous of the cattlemen" and a stopover for the stage on the wagon  road from Kamloops to Merritt. It was also the point where the Douglas Lake  and Minnie Lake roads tapped the main line. O'Rourke's hotel was referred to  as one of the best in the Interior and the "favourite of the Nicola Road."25 Apparently Mr. O'Rourke was a great fancier of horses and had laid out a half-  mile track on his own land, also initiating a Labour Day Weekend sportsday  with races and polo which continued annually for many years.26  The Quilchena Hotel was later sold to the Guichon family and completely  rebuilt in 1907. However, it was here on December 2, 1894 that William and 51  Delima's second son, Albert Richard, first opened his eyes on the world.  Although the little settlement was a busy spot, comparatively speaking, the  young couple missed the excitement of the growth that Vernon and the White  Valley were experiencing and Delima missed being close to her relatives. When  McAuley and Grant retired from the management of the Victoria Hotel on  February 1, 1895, William assigned the mortgage he held on Manson's property to Louis Morand27 and seized the opportunity to pick up the expired Hotel  lease and move back to Vernon, only this time as a proprietor of the hotel, in  partnership with Quinn Faulkner.28  Later in that same year White Valley residents were shocked by the death  of both Peter Bessette and his wife Eunice within five months of each other, at  only 50 and 40 years of age. Peter was looked upon as the founder of White  Valley, having taken out the first preemption in the area, just east of the village,  in the Upper Coldstream Meadows.29 His home had served as the first White  Valley Post Office and he was also a partner with Chas. Levasseur in construction of the White Valley Sawmill in 1888. By 1895 the Bessette estate had grown  to a total of more than a thousand acres which, upon the deaths of the owners,  became available for lease. William Murphy was well aware of the potential of  the vast expanse of flat land. Although slightly higher in elevation than Vernon  and not as desirable for fruit crops, the land produced splendid crops of hay and  grain.30 William was quick to lease the property and move his family to the  estate. Soon he was into an extensive haying operation, shipping large quantities  to the Kootenays.31 Within two years he was able to pay out the mortgage held  by Louis Morand to become sole owner of the 320 acres he had purchased with  Manson.  The Vernon News of April 7, 1898 reports that in March, William had been  called home to Walla Walla upon the death of his father. During the visit there,  he became ill and, after spending several days in bed, insisted on returning  home to Lumby where his condition worsened. On April 5, 1898, five days after  his thirty-sixth birthday, he succumbed to pneumonia. His obituary reads  "During his residence in this area he had earned himself a reputation of which  anyone might be justly proud. His business dealings were very extensive and extended throughout the whole of the Interior, and everyone with whom he came  in contact in such relations always expressed the opinion that he was uprightness  personified, for his obligations were invariably fulfilled to the letter, irrespective  of any inconvenience or loss to himself."32 Pallbearers for his burial in the new  Roman Catholic cemetery were W. J. Armstrong, Martin O'Brien, Charles  Christien, Chas. Levasseur, J. Daly and Gilbert Couvrette.33 The will, dated  the day before his death and witnessed by Lavina Gooding and Lauchlin MacDonald, left everything to Delima and named Cleophas Quesnel as executor.34  Cleophas took over the management of the Bessette Ranch where he and  his family continued for many years. Delima obtained work at the Okanagan  Hotel in Vernon.  There is little information on Richard and Maggie Murphy over the next  few years. Richard's name is found again in Mallendaine's B.C. Directory for  1895, still working for the Triangle Ranch but nothing is known after that date  and it is believed that, with the deaths of both Patric and William in 1898, the  couple may have returned to Walla Walla.  Young Bill began his schooling in Vernon at Park School, where his 52  teacher was Mrs. Harding, but it was not long before Delima found herself  unable to cope financially. She was forced to give up the Vernon property and  made the difficult decision that Bill and Albert should go to the Providence St.  Genevieve Orphanage in New Westminster. She then moved to live and work  with the Morands at their Lumby Hotel.  On November 5, 1901, Delima was remarried, this time to Frederick  Neophile (Fy) Morand, a brother of Louis and a blacksmith by trade. He had  taken over Lumby's first blacksmith shop from Jean Leveau. There were living  quarters attached to the shop and the couple were able to bring Bill and Albert  back home from the Orphanage to be with them again. In later years they purchased the home of Cleophas Quesnel, which had been built for him in 1893,  one of the first homes in Lumby, on the Vernon Road just across from the  Ram's Horn Hotel.35  My father has many memories of those early years in Lumby. He recalls a  trip by stagecoach to Portland, Oregon, to visit his grandmother Murphy, who  had moved there from Walla Walla after being widowed. His grandmother,  meaning to please the boys with a gift, gave each of them some pennies but  Albert had not seen American pennies before and declared them "no good",  throwing them on the floor much to the indignation of his grandmother! On the  trip home, again by stagecoach, they travelled by way of Mamette Lake where  they visited the Quennvilles, who were related to Delima (her stepmother being  a Quennville). They also visited the hotel in Quilchena where Albert had been  born and found that the bedbugs were so bad that their mother would not allow  them to sleep on the mattresses and made up beds for them on the floor. On  their way home to Lumby they made an overnight stop at the Douglas Lake  Ranch where they stayed at the home of the Greaves. Dad particularly  remembers the daughters, Mary and Alice.  Dad found a great pal in Clara Morand, daughter of Salome andLouis,  who was just three days younger than he was. He recalls that it was she who  taught him to waltz. She placed four dining chairs back-to-back in the centre of  the room and they waltzed in a circle around the chairs while he also played the  mouth organ!  Charlie Num, who operated the Chinese laundry right at the bridge on  Jones Creek, waited every Saturday for Dad and taught him how to fish the  creek. He would often carry Dad on his back when the water was too deep.  Several Chinese, who were clearing land for Pete Catt, boarded at Charlie's  house. Charlie, some years later, brought his bride, Fannie Wong Sing, to  Lumby from Canton. Fannie was a very tiny girl whose feet had been bound as  a child so that she had some difficulty in walking. At the wedding reception in  Ormsby's Hall, following her marriage to Charlie, she slipped in her tiny slippers and fell down.  Dad remembers an old prospector, part Indian, by the name of William  Cook, who was known to everyone as "Deafy" because he was hard of hearing.  Deafy had mining claims all over the Trinity Valley but never hit it rich — he  found just enough to keep going. When Deafy came into town he usually set up  his tent and stayed in the Morand's front yard. Deafy was one of those who lost  their lives in the Okanagan Hotel fire of 1909.36  An Indian woman who lived with Ed Kitchen (often known as "Cranky  Ed") came regularly on Monday mornings to help Delima with the family 53  washing. One morning she arrived very late and very drunk, and when Delima  provoked her by scolding, she turned upon her and in very broken English  demanded "Who's business?"  Albert Murphy (on left) and Bill Murphy, c. 1978.  When Bill and Albert were about 13 and 11 years of age, they were running a trap line along Harris Creek. One day, down near Harry Grave's place,  they discovered that one of Cleophas Quesnel's cows had been killed and there  were large tracks in the snow beside it. Thinking that the tracks were made by  a lynx, they decided to set their large coyote trap beside the dead cow. Before  they had time to get the trap they spotted the animal in a large hemlock tree  overhanging the frozen creek. Bill, seeing the long tail, recognized that it was  not a lynx but a cougar and he decided to stay with their dog, "Dash", keeping  his eye on the cougar, while Albert ran all the way home (about one mile away)  to get the .40-70 rifle. Albert crept into the house so that his mother wouldn't  hear him and came back with a single shot .32 and only one shell. The cougar  jumped for Bill as he shot but, fortunately, the bullet found its mark and as soon  as the cougar dropped from the tree, Dash had it by the throat. The boys, enormously proud of their accomplishment, picked up one of Cleophas' fence rails  and, with some wire from the fence, tied the cougar's front and hind legs and  carried it into Lumby on the rail. Along the way they ran into Cleophas who,  after learning what had happened, declared "You damn little fools! I hope your  mother gives you a good licking.'' The boys skinned the cougar and received a  bounty of $15 plus $6 for the hide, in addition to getting their names in the  paper!  Bill and Albert attended the first White Valley School which had been built  in 1893 on part of the Bessette Estate and near the new Roman Catholic church  and the Cemetery. Their first teacher was Mr. Snyder but Dad remembers best 54  the teacher named Miss Campbell, who was very proud of him because he was  the first Lumby boy to complete grade eight. He believes that she later married  a Mr. Finlayson from Okanagan Landing.  Dad's first job after finishing school was at the Lavington Ranch. This land  originally had been preempted by Nelson Duteau and was a part of the Coldstream Ranch.37 It was all planted with fruit trees and Dad drove a team,  cultivating around the trees. His boss was Hoppy Robbins and the pay was $30  per month plus board. Every Saturday night he walked home to Lumby until  his great-uncle Cleophas took pity and got him a bicycle.  Dad also worked for the Northern Crown Bank at Peachland for a short  time and was then transferred to the branch at Lumby. One of his memories of  Peachland is taking part in war canoe races on Okanagan Lake against Penticton, Naramata and Kelowna. The canoes held fifteen men and the paddling was  very strenuous. My personal memory of Peachland is of driving through and  asking Dad about the little island out in the lake. He always told me that it was  the place where the young men of Peachland took the young ladies on weekend  picnics so they "could chase rock rabbits."  Another job in 1910 was driving a team for Cleophas Quesnel, hauling  shipments of hay from Lumby to Vernon, loading them onto the train and  returning with loads of freight for Will Shields who had bought out Megaw's  Store and Post Office. Later on Dad was hired to work in the store. Will Shields  was very pleased with him and gave him a $100 bonus. Jack Heighway worked  in the store and post office (eventually becoming a partner) and he and my  father became good friends. One of the favourite stops on their trips to Vernon  was a Chinese restaurant where they would order spaghetti. Jack liked to clown  around at slurping the long spaghetti and they had many good laughs when he  sometimes ended up wearing it on his forehead.  Dad tells of V. L. E. Miller of Trinity Valley owning four good-sized bay  horses which were usually driven for him by Fred Lindsey. Apparently the  horses were each given a cup of sugar per day and would often gallop from  Trinity Valley to Lumby without stopping.  When the Lumby Flying Frenchmen hockey team was formed in Lumby  in 1910, Dad played right wing, one of the original seven-man team (the seventh  position being called a "rover"). Others on the team were Armand Quesnel,  Dick Morand, Charlie Christien, Jimmie McAllister, Louis Gooding, Dave  Richards and Dave Hardie.38 Dad later managed the team when they changed  to intermediate hockey. Other teams were Armstrong, Enderby and Vernon  and he remembers well, staying at the Vernon Hotel for their "away" games.  In 1915 my father set out with Elsiore and Arthur Bessette in the hope of  finding and preempting some ranchland. They rode by horseback from Lumby  leading three packhorses, to Deadman's Creek area in the Cariboo. They  located their "perfect spot" beside a little lake that offered wonderful fishing but  they learned, upon attempting to file the preemption, that the Government was  holding the particular land for watershed.  Albert's first job after he finished school was with the Northern Crown  Bank in Lumby. After a time he was transferred to Quesnel, B.C., where he lived  above the bank. He transferred later to Vancouver and worked at the Powell  Street and also the Marpole branches. After several years of banking he returned to Lumby to take a job truckdriving for Henry Sigalet. 55  On February 18, 1916 Dad enlisted in the 102nd (North British Columbians) Canadian Infantry Battalion. The following day Albert and Dick  Morand also joined but Dick became sick and was not able to go. The Battalion  was raised under the leadership of Lieut. Colonel John Warden and became  known as Colonel Warden's Warriors. One of my early memories is of Dad  singing his old army song to the tune of ' 'John Brown's Body''.  We're Warden's weary warriors a'drilling on the sand,  And paying out a buck a day to help the bloomin' band,  But what they do with all the cash, we don't quite understand,  As we go marching on.  Chorus:  We are Warden's weary warriors,  We are Warden's weary warriors,  We are Warden's weary warriors,  The gallant one-o-two.  The sand gets in our blankets and the wind blows chill and drear,  If life was dull at Comox, it's a damned sight duller here,  You have to go a mile or so to get a glass of beer,  As we go marching on.  Their training was on Goose Spit at Comox. On June 10 they proceeded in  full marching order across the spit to embark on the S.S. Princess Charlotte for  Vancouver. There they boarded a train for Halifax with a stop at Ottawa where  they were reviewed by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, Governor-General of  Canada. Reaching Halifax on June 18, they embarked on the C.P.R.'s S.S.  Empress of Britain and sailed for Liverpool, England. Training in bayonet  fighting and musketry was at Whitehall, followed by almost continuous drill at  Bramshott. On August 11 they marched from Bramshott to Liphook, where  they boarded the train for Southampton. The small transport Connaught carried  them across the Channel and they disembarked at Le Havre harbour in France  at 7:00 a.m. on the 12th of August.  Both Albert and Bill served with the Battalion Transport, handling two-  horse teams by riding one of the horses and pulling a limber, which was like a  box on two wheels, with a center pole between the horses. The driver always  wore a leg iron for protection from the center pole. A brakeman walked behind.  The limber would carry food and water and would take the meals from the field  kitchens of the four companies out to the men. One of Bill's horses was named  "Flora" and she had done a bit of parading in her day so loved to prance  whenever she heard music playing. People on the streets in France would point  at her as they went by. The horse that Albert rode, "Babe," had learned to go  into a series of little jumps and bucks in certain situations and it was great fun  for the men to see Babe get the whole troop going when Albert didn't quickly  take her in hand.  Bill and Albert served in the action at Baupaume Road, in the capture of  the Regina and New German trenches, battle of the Somme, and, of course,  Vimy Ridge on Easter Monday of 1917. During the time that the battalion was  near Carency,with all the horse lines of the Transport Division running near the  Zouave Valley, they encountered poison gas shells. The men had been trained 56  in gas warfare and the men and horses were all equipped with masks. Because  the gas from the shells hung low to the ground, Bill, sitting high on "Buck"  escaped serious injury but lost his brakeman who had been walking behind the  limber. Other battles in which they took part with the 102nd were at Lens,  Passchendaele, Arras, Cambrai and Amiens. Bill was awarded the Belgian  Croix de Guerre for bravery.39 His old army pay book shows that, during his  war service, he received $1 per day plus ten cents field allowance, making a total  of $33 per month. Of this, $15 was assigned to his mother in Lumby, leaving  him a net pay of $18.  Over the years Albert liked to kid Bill by telling a story about the day that  they were sitting in the trenches when Bill whispered to him "Don't tell  anybody but I think I have lice!" The joke was on Bill because it seems that  almost everyone had them — in fact, every man in the Battalion had to be  deloused before embarking for England.  After the Armistice, the Battalion stayed almost three months at Boitsfort,  near Brussels, for which Bill was handling some of the billeting. He was asked  by Albert, "Well, did you get us a good billet this time?" The reply was "Yes,  and a lovely girl goes along with it." The lovely girl turned out to be eighteen-  year-old Paule Lefebvre who fell in love with Albert and later came to Canada  to marry him. Paule was the only girl in a family of six children and worked as  a designer in a lace factory there. Dad remembers that "she could talk to fish."  Their home in Boitsfort was beside a small lake and, when Paule called, the fish  would swim over to her to be fed. Dad also remembers that he had a good beer-  drinking party with Paule's father while Albert was busy courting Paule.  As the war ended, Dad became very ill with the Spanish flu and had to be  taken from his horse and put to bed. It was discovered that he had been riding  with a temperature of 104 degrees. He was hospitalized and so Albert was shipped  ahead of him to England and then home with the rest of the Battalion on the  Mauretania June 1, 1919.  Dad's discharge certificate was signed June 27, 1919. When he finally  reached Canada, he stayed for one month with the Caza family in St. Anicet,  Quebec while he convalesced. The Cazas were relatives of his maternal grandmother and had a farm and store in St. Anicet.  While Dad and Albert had been overseas in 1916, their stepfather, Fy  Morand had passed away. Delima told them that he had often expressed the  wish to "see the gamins again" but it was not to be.  The first day Dad was back home in Lumby, Cleophas Quesnel, knowing  that he was a good man with a team, persuaded him to take a job driving Armand Quesnel's team of "runaway horses". However, in the fall of that year,  Dad headed to Alberta for the harvest season where he worked as a "spike pitcher" on a threshing gang, feeding the wheat into the thresher. The next fall  (1920) he was put in charge of operating the thresher.  With his soldier's settlement he arranged a deal to buy 40 acres of land  from Cleophas Quesnel, but when Cleophas changed his mind, he accepted a  team of horses instead. "Maude" and "Molly" were mother and daughter and  were known in Lumby as "the Dashing Greys". Dad worked with Bill Skermer  hauling freight and ties as well as fruit for the Coldstream Ranch. He also worked  on the road grader for Angus Wood, the road foreman at that time. Sometimes  other farmers would complain to Angus that Maude and Molly were always the 57  lead team on the grader but Angus would challenge them with "Well, can you  come up with a better team?" The Dashing Greys knew what to do when they  were on the wheel and didn't have to be constantly driven. However, the road  grading job was a political one and when the government changed so did the  horses!  Dad still talks about how wonderful the Okanagan was for game. He  remembers hunting on the commonage for blue grouse, prairie chicken, pheasant, ducks and deer and, even after he had moved away from Lumby, he made  many trips back to visit and to go hunting with Albert. The fishing was also  outstanding and he often told us "If you threw in a line with two hooks, you pulled  out two fish." Echo Lake had trout of 25 - 30 pounds and for many years was  the "secret fishing spot" of Dick Neil from the Vernon Livery Stable. He would  drive through Lumby every Sunday in fishing season, on his return carrying  huge trout but never divulging his fishing hole. Years later, Jimmy Inglis and  my brother Bill were walking along Echo Lake and saw the fish jumping, so the  secret was out. Sadly, the lake was soon fished out after that.  When Albert returned from the war he went back to working for Henry  Sigalet and, by 1920, had saved enough money to bring Paule to Canada. Bill  and Delima went with Albert to the train in Salmon Arm to meet Paule and  bring her back to Lumby. The next day, November 15, the happy pair were  married in Vernon. After their wedding the young couple made their home with  Delima and Bill in the Morand home beside the blacksmith shop. In 1922 on  August 6th, they welcomed their little daughter, Jean, who was the first baby to  be baptized in the new Sacred Heart Church, in the basement because the  church was still not finished. Their son, Bert, arrived much later on August 5,  1930.  In the summer of 1923, a young school teacher from Grenfell, Saskatchewan,  by the name of Alice May McDonnell, travelled with her brother, Art, to visit  their Uncle Bob and Aunt Belle Copeland, who had purchased the Charlie  Levasseur farm south of Lumby in 1916. Art began working for his uncle on the  Copeland Ranch, while Alice planned to go on to Vancouver after her visit so  that she could apply for her B.C. teaching certificate. Alice's cousin, Lois  Copeland, and her husband-to-be, Nick Quesnel, introduced Alice to Bill Murphy, who must have had very persuasive ways because all her plans for going to  Vancouver evaporated.  My parents were married December 29, 1924 with Art McDonnell and  Lois attending. A reception was held for them in the Morand family home  followed by a dance in Morand's Hotel across the street. There was a very  heavy snowfall that day and their wedding snapshot shows the four of them outdoors surrounded by very deep snow. Bill and Alice also made their home with  Delima for a short time but then moved to rent part of a house on the next lot,  owned by J. B. Des Champs. The rent was $10 per month and Mr. Des  Champs lived in the other half of the house. By this time, both Dad and Uncle  Albert were working for Henry Sigalet, Albert still driving a truck and Dad  making poles out in Trinity and Squaw Valleys. He later got his scaling license  and also loaded poles onto flat cars at Postill for shipping to the U.S. Mom looked after Morand's Hotel, renting out rooms and cooking.  The young couples loved music and dancing and their social life centered  around dance parties at Ormsby's Hall or houseparties. Jean recalls that, as a 58  little girl, she was sometimes in winter bundled into the cutter filled with hay  and taken to parties where she went to sleep on the host's bed with everyone's  coats while the adults partied. Then, in the wee small hours, she'd be picked up  and bundled back into the sleigh for the return trip. Mom and Dad enjoyed  sports and Mom tells me (while Dad laughs) that she even played hockey on the  women's team. They were both quite strong swimmers and, one day, swam  across Sugar Lake and back with a friend by the name of Hollingsworth following them in a boat. They also enjoyed playing cards and remember particularly  an evening when they were visiting Wallace and Beatrice Ward. The Wards  had papered over a large doorway in their home and Dad, not knowing, leaned  his chair back against it and fell through the doorway backwards.  My brother, the third William Murphy, was born in the Vernon Hospital  on October 8, 1925, delivered by Dr. Baldwin. It was very shortly after his birth  that the Doctor left the district and Dad tells me that, to this day, Dr. Baldwin  has never been paid for delivering my brother.  While Delima looked after her two grandchildren, both Paule and Alice  helped out the family finances for several years by working through the fruit  season at the Coldstream Ranch, packing apples. One year the two families  rented a place to live at the Ranch over the packing season. They were just unpacking and moving into the rented house when little Billy pulled a heavy  bedspring over on top of him and broke his leg. Mom then gave up her job with  the Ranch and went back home to Lumby to care for him and also look after  Jean who was just starting school. My parents have often teased Jean about having to contend with their little calf which grazed on the vacant lot and always  wanted to play with her. Jean was afraid of him and would run as fast as she  could, arriving breathless on their doorstep, crying "Aunty Alice, Aunty  Alice," with the calf running right at her heels. Dad and Jean both remember  how she loved to ride around on Dad's shoulders.  My mother became a close friend of Henry Sigalet's wife, the former  Margaret Matticks from Blue Springs. One of the familiar and amusing sights  in Lumby was that of Margaret and my mother out walking with baby Harold  Sigalet in one carriage, my brother Billy in another, and two very protective  dogs, one guarding each carriage.  My Dad had always liked to tease and one of his favourite stories is about  the time that Mom turned her ankle when she stepped into a post hole in the  yard. She asked Dad to fill it in and when she took him to see where it was, she  fell into it again.  The Depression years in Lumby were very difficult for the family and  everyone put their hand to any work they could find. Jean remembers Dad and  Albert sitting at the table with tears in their eyes as they discussed how they  might come up with enough money to pay the property taxes so as not to lose  their land. Fortunately they somehow managed, but Mom and Dad did have to  let go for taxes a waterfront lot at Penticton which Mom had inherited from her  brother.  In 1929, Mom, Dad and Billy moved to Clearwater, B.C. where Dad continued to work for Henry Sigalet. Young Billy began school there at the age of  five because one more child was needed to keep the school open. However,  when my sister's birth was imminent, Mom travelled back to Morand's Hotel  in Lumby, where Muriel was born on February 2, 1930. Both Paule Murphy 59  and Ella Skermer were on hand and Muriel was delivered by Dr. Osborn Morris. The family remained at Clearwater until 1931, then returning to Lumby to  a small "shack" on a second lot beside my grandmother's home. By the time I  (Shirley) arrived on September 29, 1933 there was a new house under construction in front of the old one. Much of the work on the new house was done by Eli  Andre and we lived in it until 1936 when we moved to Vavenby, in the North  Thompson Valley. The Lumby house was sold to William Shumka.  Our water supply in Lumby was from Jones Creek, behind our house.  Muriel recalls that one day, while Mom dipped the water pail, the two of us  stood leaning over beside her and our combined weight tipped the little float so  that all three of us got a surprise dunking. Luckily, Mora was able to haul us out  with no disasters.  Muriel has vivid memories of beginning school in Lumby. On the first day,  her teacher, Mrs. Genier, was ill and the new pupils had to go to Miss Best's  classroom with the older children. Muriel was so frightened that it made her sick  and, when she was sent to the Girls' Room to freshen up, she crept out the back  door and ran home.  My brother remembers getting up very early on Sunday mornings and  rushing out to go fishing with Harold Sigalet. He knew that, if he was still at  home when Grandma wakened next door, she would insist that he go to church.  When we made the move to Vavenby, our furniture and other belongings  were taken on one of Sigalet's trucks by Danny Jackson and "Boss"  McDougall. The helpers, riding on the back of the truck, got to drinking beer  along the way and, between Little Fort and Blackpool, let Mom's kitchen table  (complete with bins of flour and sugar) slide off the truck and down the bank, to  float away down the North Thompson River. Needless to say, Mom was not  very happy!  Our family stayed in the North Thompson area for eight years, where Dad  was in charge of the pole-making operation for Henry Sigalet. For many years  Mom cooked for several of the men who came to work for Dad in the pole yard.  Cedar poles were cut on the South side of the river, hauled by truck, dumped into the river and floated downstream into a 900 ft. pocket boom which was built  for the purpose. One of my childhood memories is of watching Dad out on the  river, walking in caulked boots on the line of boom logs, pike pole in hand. He  tells me that he fell into the river many times but I don't remember ever seeing  that happen. The poles were hoisted from the river, up a steep bank, and loaded  again for trucking to the railway yard where they were loaded onto flatcars. As  I remember, most of the skidding in the yard was done with horses and for  several years we kept a beautiful bay team of part Percheron, part Clydesdale  horses, named "Mike" and "Barney". Barney drove my mother wild by scratching his tummy on her rosebushes and licking the window glass while he tried  to eat her geraniums which were sitting inside on the window sill. My brother,  Bill, started to work in the yard with Dad at sixteen years of age and worked side  by side with him until Dad's retirement in 1962 at 70 years of age.  Both of our parents were very active in the small, rather isolated community, Mom teaching school during the war years and playing a leading role in the  community war efforts. Of course, everyone in the area turned out for the  school and community functions, always held in the one-room schoolhouse.  There was a community club for which Dad served as President. The whole 60  family inherited a love of music and dancing, learning to dance when we were  quite young children.  In 1944 we moved to the Lower Mainland so that there would be a high  school available for Muriel and me. Dad and my brother began to work for  Macmillan Bloedel and, later, the Silver Skagit Logging Co. at Hope, B.C.  Albert and Paule spent all of their working years in Lumby. Albert left the  Sigalet Pole Co. in 1947 to become the Postmaster in Lumby, succeeding Jimmie McAllister. He continued in this position until his retirement in 1964. Paule  was a talented artist and musician who, over the years, became very well known  in the area for her lovely soprano voice and her beautiful watercolours and  needlework. She once won a Canada-wide competiton for an embroidered map  of Canada which she designed and created. She also led the choir of the Sacred  Heart Church for many years.  Delima made her home with Albert and Paule and looked after the house  while Paule worked for many years at Shields' Store. Jean remembers that, in  her younger years, Grandma loved to play poker and bingo and the family were  used to seeing her go out the door carrying a little black purse that held her  "gambling money". There were some harsh words from Albert on an occasion  when she stayed out the whole night. Very worried, he went looking for her and  met her on the road walking home in the early hours of the morning, with her  little purse on her arm. When Delima reached the age where she needed care,  Paule left her job at the store and remained at home. Delima passed away in the  Vernon Hospital in December of 1958, at the age of 87 years.  The old house was destroyed by fire in 194940 and the family moved to an  apartment over the Post Office while a new home was being constructed. When  Paule and Albert moved to Vernon, on retirement, the home was sold and later  moved to Lavington to make room for the present shopping centre. In 1969 they  made an extensive trip back to Belgium to visit the Lefebvre relatives. Paule  died in 1975 after a very lengthy illness and Albert moved to New Westminster  to be with their daughter, Jean, and son-in-law, Art Hepburn (from Chilliwack,  B.C.) Their son, Bert, who is married to the former Elaine Darwin from Minnesota, also lives in nearby Richmond. Albert passed away in New Westminster  in 1980, just five days after his eighty-sixth birthday. He and Paule are survived  by their two children, three grandchildren, and one great-grandchild, all living  on the Lower Mainland.  Bill and Alice moved to Vancouver Island in 1956 and made their home for  many years in Duncan. They are staunch Legion members, with Bill having 53  years continuous service. They now reside in a home for senior citizens at Che-  mainus, B.C., close to son Bill and daughter-in-law, Marybeth (nee Bothwell),  daughter of a pioneer Surrey family. Muriel is married to Norman Swank, also  descended from Surrey pioneers, and they continue to live in Surrey, B.C.  Shirley and her husband, Bill Page (a native of Saskatchewan), make their home  in Victoria. Bill and Alice have seven grandchildren and nine greatgrandchildren, and have recently celebrated their 63rd wedding anniversary.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This story is dedicated to my parents, Bill and Alice Murphy, in appreciation of the many happy  hours I spent taking notes while they shared their memories. I also want to acknowledge with thanks  the contributions of the other Murphys —Jean Hepburn, Muriel Swank and Wm. A. Murphy. 61  FOOTNOTES  1 Basil Cottle, Penguin Dictionary of Surnames, p. 246.  2 A. Bloch, Murphy's Law and Other Reasons Why Things Go Wrong, 1977', p. 4.  3 J. L. Soule, The Express, Terre Haute, Indiana, 1861.  4 F. W. Laing, Pioneers of the Cattle Industry, B.C. Historical Quarterly, Vol. 6, 1942 pp. 260-264.  5 Walla Walla Union Bulletin, Mar. 15, 1898, p. 3.  6 Nina Woolliams, Cattle Ranch, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1979, p. 64.  7 Mallendaine's Directory of B. C, 1887.  8 R. D. Kerr, "Early Days of Vernon", in Okanagan Historical Society, 6th Report, 1930, p. 8.  9 Ninety Years of Vernon, 1982, p. 9.  10 F. M. Buckland, Ogopogo's Vigil, 1948, P. 68.  11 Ninety Years of Vernon, p. 8.  12 Charles W. Holliday, Valley of Youth, 1948, Caxton Printers, Caldwell, p. 174.  13 Vernon News, June. 4, 1891, p. 5.  14 Vernon News, Aug. 6, 1891, p. 1.  15 Vernon News, Feb. 4, 1892, p. 1.  16 R. Sellar, The History of the County of Huntingdon, H. Gleaner Inc., 1888, p. 240.  17 C. Gallacher in Grassroots of Lumby, 1979, p. 114.  18 Vernon News, Dec. 17, 1891, p. 5.  19 Vernon News, Feb. 25, 1892.  20 PABC, Preemption Record #1314 GR 112, Vol. 13 5.  21 Kamloops Land Registry, File 41737.  22 F. M. Buckland, Ogopogo's Vigil, 1948, p. 82.  23 Ninety Years of Vernon, p. 12.  24 Vernon News, Jan. 19, 1893, p. 1.  25 Mallandaine's Directory for B. C., 1889, Nicola p. 292.  26 Kamloops Sentinel, Aug. 17, 1894, p. 3.  27 Kamloops Land Registry, File 41737.  28 Vernon News, Apr. 7, 1895, p. 4.  29 Grass Roots of Lumby, p. 11.  30 M. Ormsby, A Study of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, M.A. Thesis, 1931.  31 Vernon News, Apr. 7, 1898.  32 Vernon News, Apr. 7, 1898.  33 Vernon News, Apr. 14, 1898.  34 PABC, GR 1052, #4427.  35 T. A. Norris, Lumby 1893, in Okanagan Historical Society, 43rd Report, 1979, p. 3.  36 Okanagan Historical Society, 13th Report, 1949, p. 175.  37 A. Pearson, An Early History of Coldstream and Lavington, Wayside Press, Vernon, 1986, p. 47.  38 Grass Roots of Lumby, 1979, p. 127.  39 L. Gould, From B.C. to Basieux, Cusack Presses, Victoria, 1919.  40 T. A. Norris, Lumby 1893, Okanagan Historical Society, 43rd Report, 1979, gives the date as 1953  but family members agree that it was 1949. 62  WATER: PENTICTON'S STRUGGLE TO HAVE ENOUGH  BUT NOT TOO MUCH  by A. David MacDonald  (excerpted from Penticton's 75th anniversary publication, Penticton: Years to Remember 1908-1983)  Water — the life-blood of the hot, arid Okanagan Valley — too much, too  little, what to do with it after it is used — these are recurring themes which were  to occupy the time, energy, patience of countless persons throughout the entire  history of Penticton. Water for crops, for drinking, for transportation, for  recreation — a community tied inexorably to water . . .  The Okanagan was a prime target for land developers at the turn of the  century. J. M. Robinson, the Brandon newspaperman turned entrepreneur,  had already developed Peachland, had moved on to Summerland, and had his  eye on Naramata. Thus the Southern Okanagan Land Company was in tune  with the times. Capitalized at $500,000 the company's task was to develop the  vast Ellis holdings by subdivision. Horticultural experts had confirmed that the  area was ideal for fruit raising, providing water could be supplied. Water! This  was to be the concern of many persons for many years.  Key figures in the Southern Okanagan Land Company were the Shatford  brothers, W.T. and L.W., managing directors, and B.A., general orchard  foreman. There were four Shatford brothers — Nova Scotians who had heeded  the lure of the west. S.A. — they were all known by their intitials — remained  in Vernon. W. T. Shatford had arrived in Vernon in the 1890s, opened a  general store, and eventually expanded it to branches in Slocan City, Fairview  and Camp McKinney. During visits to his stores in the south, W.T. eyed the  Ellis holdings as a potential development.  L. W. Shatford had opened a branch of the store in Hedley. While there he  was elected to the Provincial Legislature. L.W. was eventually offered a seat in  the Canadian Senate during the tenure of Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Borden. It is for  L.W. Shatford that Shatford School in Penticton is named.  The man chosen by Southern Okanagan Land Company to lay out the  subdivision of its Penticton holdings was no stranger to this work. F. H.  Latimer, a native of Kincardine, Ontario had been Municipal Engineer for the  City of Vernon and also Irrigation Engineer for Coldstream Ranch, Lord Aberdeen's showplace near Vernon. Later, J. M. Robinson employed Latimer to lay  out irrigation systems for Peachland and Summerland and, eventually,  Naramata. In F. H. Latimer, therefore, the Shatford brothers had chosen the  services of a highly experienced engineer to lay out the original subdivision of  the Municipality of Penticton and also the irrigation systems on Penticton and  Ellis Creeks. He later became Municipal Engineer for Penticton and played a  key role in the establishment of the domestic water systems and the electric  system. F. H. Latimer was also responsible for laying out the townsite of  Kaleden and became Project Engineer for the South Okanagan Lands Project in  Oliver after the Southern Okanagan Land Company disposed of the last of its  Ellis land in 1918. While living in Penticton, F. H. Latimer constructed a  beautiful home on the corner of Eckhardt Avenue and Martin Street which has  been well preserved by its present owners Dr. and Mrs. J. J. Gibson.  In 1906-07 the Southern Okanagan Land Company purchased some tree  fruit stock from the Coldstream Ranch in Vernon and this stock was sold to  local growers . . . 63  Penticton's first council was soon faced with problems relating to water.  Following the official proclamation as a district municipality on December 31,  1908 arrangements were made to hold the first civic election and Alfred Wade,  a man who had already lived in Penticton for 27 years, was elected Reeve.  Wade, brother of Mrs. Tom Ellis, and a man highly respected by all who knew  him, undertook the task of creating a civic government. The first council  meeting was called to order at noon on February 1, 1909. There were five  members of the first council. Alfred H. Wade, postmaster and storekeeper;  Sydney Hatch; L. C. Barnes, general storekeeper; John Power, secretary of the  Southern Okanagan Land Company, and Henry Murk, barber. They met by  the light of an oil lamp in temporary premises in Penticton's first courthouse on  Van Home Street, just off Vancouver Avenue.  It was a monumental task facing this group of men. They were literally  starting from scratch. The first act of council was to appoint Charles Were as  secretary-treasurer and collector at a salary of $25 per month. The Reeve then  named committee chairmen: finance, John Power; works, Henry Murk; health,  parks and cemetery, L. C. Barnes; water, light and fire, Sydney Hatch. Considering that the town had no money, no streets or sidewalks except those that  had been privately built, no cemetery or parks, and no water or light system,  these chairmen showed great courage.  Finances were dealt with first. At the second council meeting, February 11,  1909, John Power moved the adoption of Bylaw No. 2, "Temporary Loan  Bylaw, 1909". Four more bylaws were passed covering cemetery, trades  licenses, fire protection and public morals.  But that most important topic, water, soon had to be grappled with. An  adequate supply of water was the first need of early orchardists in a semi-desert  climate. Given this combination of water, climate and soil, fruit experts were  sure that Penticton could become a major fruit growing area.  The first irrigation water system of sorts in Penticton, the one developed by  Tom Ellis to irrigate his home ranch, particularly the orchard, was a diversion  of Penticton Creek which ran down Fairview Road past the ranch. The  Southern Okanagan Land Company had need of a much more ambitious  system in order to develop the east bench lands which were then being subdivided. Thus, one of F. H. Latimer's prime responsibilities had been to tap the  water of Penticton and Ellis creeks by means of storage dams and distribution  systems.  After incorporation this irrigation system still belonged to the Penticton  Water Supply Company and the town had no domestic water sysem. First council discussed the need for a domestic system but no concrete action was taken.  One year in office was enough for Alfred Wade and he stepped down.  The practice at this time was for the entire council to be elected annually,  not part of the council on alternate years as was to be the practice later. In a lively election in 1910 E. Foley-Bennett, a New Zealander who had come to Penticton via the Yukon and the Klondike gold rush, out-polled W. J. Clement,  publisher of the Penticton Press, by a vote of 122 to 96. The new council, elected  on the "ward" system, contained men who would play a prominent role in Penticton's development: S.J. Kinney; J. R. Mitchell, real estate; Charles Greer,  real estate; A. S. Smith; I. M. Stevens, orchardist and John Lochore. All were  strong-minded men, a characteristic not unusual in those who pioneer a new 64  land, and, as such, addressed themselves vigorously to the problems of the community. A domestic water supply had high priority as did electric power. In the  minds of some, both could be incorporated in a single scheme. In December  1910 bylaws totalling approximately $201,000 were passed by voters, $71,000  for power and $130,000 for a domestic water system. In 1911, Foley-Bennett  was returned as Reeve.  In the thirty years since Edison had perfected the incandescent lamp, the  marvel of electric lighting had spread throughout North America. Settlers in the  south Okanagan had searched for a source of hydro-electric power but they were  soon to find that there were few major rivers with the necessary sustained water  flow.  Some of the sites suggested were Mclntyre Creek north of Oliver, Ellis  Creek, Naramata Creek, and Okanagan River near Okanagan Falls.  Reeve Foley-Bennett had accepted the Great Northern Railway figures  estimating supply and flow in the Penticton Creek watershed. These figures  showed that James Creek, a tributary of Penticton Creek, had adequate flow to  provide both power generation and domestic water supply. Were this true, Penticton would have been in an enviable position.  F. H. Latimer soon discovered that these figures were incorrect. Unfortunately council had already purchased quantities of pipe and a Pelton wheel to  operate an electric generator. Some quick changes of plans were called for. Instead of bringing water down for miles by pipe, an intake was constructed a  short distance up Penticton Creek. Construction of a distribution system proceeded and domestic water was turned on for the first time on August 23, 1912  and by December, 400 homes had water.  The power scheme was similarly modified and council accepted Latimer's  recommendation that a diesel generator at 100 K.W. capacity be purchased to  provide power while the hydro scheme was developed. He estimated that such  a diesel unit would provide power for two or three years and could likely be retained as a reserve unit when the hydro scheme came into operation. In fact,  two or three years later the hydro plan was dropped. Some of the pipe was sold  at a loss and the Pelton wheel stood outside rusting for years after . . .  Fruit growing, the railroad and lumbering were to be the three main pillars  of the economy of Penticton for many years. The first sawmills in the immediate  area belonged to the S. C. Smith Lumber Company of Vernon who opened a  mill at Nine Mile Point (Naramata) in 1906 and one on the Penticton flats between Kinney Avenue and Brandon Avenue. It is estimated that they took  several million feet of lumber out of the townsite in 1905-06, much of it used for  two by twelve flume boards for the new irrigation system.  At the same time a young Englishman, Hugh Leir, moved to Penticton  from Keremeos where he had spent the past two years learning the intricacies of  the sawmill business. Observing the need for flume lumber, Leir found a stand  of Ponderosa Pine on the east side of the valley north of Ellis Creek. Building a  road, the beginning of the Carmi Road, into the area he then obtained a contract from the South Okanagan Land Company for three million feet of lumber  for fluming.  Having secured the contract, Leir had to build a mill. He obtained a circular saw, edger and a steam engine in Keremeos but had to go to Vancouver to  find a boiler. This was shipped by rail to Okanagan Landing via Sicamous, 65  Eight-horse team hauling the boiler to Leir's Sawmill on Carmi Road, c. 1906.  Photo courtesy Jack White  loaded onto the Aberdeen for Penticton and hauled to its destination on the mountain by an eight-horse team. . .  By 1918 when Frederick Maurice Smith was elected Reeve of Penticton a  familiar topic of concern was the condition of the irrigation system. Reeve Smith  cautioned that, although the main flumes on Penticton and Ellis Creeks had  been newly replaced, the secondary flumes and laterals were in bad shape and  needed considerable sums of money spent on them. In 1918, total taxation  revenue was $40,011 of which $9,503 was for schools, so Reeve Smith's concern  was based on financial realities.  While the town fathers worried about supplying water to the growing  number of orchards and homes, especially in the dry summer, they also worried  about the times of year when the water rushed uncontrollably out of the hills.  Flooding on the creeks, the River and the Lake had occurred regularly for centuries and the water was not about to stop just because streets and houses were  built in its path.  However, property owners on the Penticton flats in 1921 felt that someone  should pay for the damage. The Board of Trade noted that there had been  "calamitous financial loss to settlers in the recent disastrous floods" when one  thousand or more acres of arable land were inundated and crops ruined. The  Board blamed the flooding on the fact that dredging operations had been  suspended on Okanagan River for the past three years. However, it was to be  another seven years before flood control became a reality.  In 1928, flood control gates were constructed where Okanagan River flows  from the lake and the river was no longer a navigable stream. However, in that 66  same year Penticton Creek flooded its banks, causing extensive damage through  the town.  1928 flood — Westminster Avenue and Front Street.  Photo Stocks Family Collection  1935 was again a flood year but it was not the spring freshet that was the  culprit this time but a July 1st cloudburst which could not be carried off by a  creekbed full of boulders. Disappointed organizers of a giant July 1 celebration  v/atched their parade and sports day ruined in the deluge. That evening, just  before midnight, merrymakers at the Gyro dance at the Incola Hotel had their  evening cut short as flood waters began rising around the hotel. By the next  morning the whole lower end of town from Westminster Avenue north was a  lake.  In 1935, A. R. MacCleave was appointed Engineer for the Municipality of  Penticton. A graduate in engineering from Dalhousie University, MacCleave  had considerable experience as a civil engineer, including nearly ten years with  the City of Los Angeles engineering department. Based on his experience in  California, MacCleave suggested that one way to solve the flooding of the creeks  was to divert the offending waterway away from the downtown areas to land of  lesser value. Thus he suggested diverting Penticton Creek into Ellis Creek  which, at that time, ran through land of minimal value.  By 1937, it appeared as if MacCleave's idea was to be acted upon. In April  of that year, Reeve Wilkins and council had decided that diversion was the best  scheme for solving the creek problems and were seeking financial assistance  from Victoria. The provincial government had given approval in principle and  consent of the federal government was considered a matter of course. However,  local opposition to the plan developed, the services of A. R. MacCleave were -  67  terminated in August 1937 and the whole scheme dropped, leaving the problem  of flooding for future councils . . .  "Spectacular Inundation Brings Worst Disaster in Penticton History" —  this headline greeted the readers of the weekly Penticton Herald's regular Thursday edition of May 28, 1942. Penticton Creek had once again gone on the rampage, jumping its banks at the Forestbrook Drive bridge, tearing through  creekside properties to bury the whole area between Jermyn Avenue and Edmonton Avenue with muddy water which, on its way to Okanagan Lake,  wreaked havoc in the business and residential areas of downtown.  Heavy rains in May, 1942 funnelling millions of extra gallons of water  down the Penticton Creek watershed had filled the large dams in the hills but  had not topped them, contrary to news reports in coast papers. Reeve R. J.  McDougall denied false reports in the Vancouver Daily Province which claimed  that "the whole business section of Penticton is under water today as a result of  breaks in Ellis Creek and Penticton River (sic) dams".  The focus of the danger was the domestic and irrigation water intake on  Penticton Creek just a short distance from town at the upper end of Penticton  Avenue. Normally, the water flowed over the centre spillway, which was lower  than the main dam, at a depth of about 2 feet 3 inches. At the peak of the flood,  reported Municipal Superintendent, A. G. Pearson, the water was flowing over  the entire length of the dam at a depth of 5 feet 6 inches.  The headlines did not exaggerate the damage. From Government Street  and Jermyn Avenue right through to Lakeshore Drive and Martin Street, the  torrent of water tore up sidewalks, left craters in the street, flooded basements,  stranded cars, and left some homeless.  Once the damage was repaired, the town again buzzed with talk of a permanent cure for Penticton Creek flooding. Some supporters of the previous  creek diversion scheme reminded their fellow citizens of this proposed cure but  the final solution was not to be found for nearly a decade.  On May 10, 1948 Penticton was officially declared a city and Reeve Robert  Lyon became Mayor Robert Lyon . . .  Penticton Creek flooding was still plaguing the City but a solution was near  at hand. City Engineer Warburton came up with the "riffles and groins"  design. The average person, looking at the Creek, sees only a series of pools but  Joe Harris explained the design in this way. "Each settling pond is egg-shaped.  The crest of the lower is one foot higher than the bottom of the upper so that you  have a dead water effect in the bottom. When water comes down it comes down  against the bottom, hits the obstruction and a certain amount of the water on the  sides goes back upstream, which eliminates bank erosion. You have dead water  all the way around the bank and the water can be going like hell out in the middle but on the banks it's going upstream because of the obstruction. The whole  theory of the creek channel is not to carry a lot of water, it's to stop erosion."  If the problem of too much water was finally in hand, the problem of getting enough water was not. The domestic and irrigation systems were still  separate and as the population grew the domestic system was stretched further  and further until some years water was scarce, especially during the hot dry  summers. But water was even scarcer in some homes during the winter of  1949-50 when water mains which were too close to the surface of city streets  froze solidly. An emergency pumping system was installed on the shores of Okanagan Lake, this later to become a permanent fixture . . .  Maurice Finnerty became mayor in 1962, elected for the first time and  then returned by acclamation for two more terms. He had already served as  MLA for Similkameen from 1949 to 1953.  Immediately on his election, Finnerty embarked on an ambitious  revitalization program for the city, in many ways similar to the Five-Year Plan.  Highest priority was given to the water system. Finnerty's understanding  of the workings of senior governments was to prove very rewarding to the community. He first of all persuaded the Federal Government to have the Prairie  Farm Rehabilitation Act engineers undertake a complete survey of Penticton's  water supply, including a projection of future needs.  The report of the engineers was presented to council on February 17, 1964  and called for a $1,705,000 revamping of Penticton's irrigation and domestic  water systems. The report called for a new dam at the junction of Corporation  and Penticton Creeks, a diversion dam behind Campbell Mountain, a 5,000  foot tunnel through Campbell Mountain and a separate, chlorinated domestic  water system to serve the long suffering residents of the North Bench. The additional water storage was calculated to last the city until 1992. The report was  an expensive one but worth the cost. By 1968 Greyback Dam on Penticton  Creek, a key component of the water storage project, was officially opened . . .  The orchards of Penticton in the fifties and sixties took on a different look  from the early orchards. Sprinkler irrigation replaced furrows and the long  aluminum pipes became a common sight. A pioneer in this field was Penticton's  Charlie Oliver, always an innovative man. Gradually the portable sprinkler  systems gave way to solid set systems . . .  The civic problems of the seventies were perhaps not as glamorous as those  of the previous decade — milfoil in the lakes, sewage disposal — but they were  just as vital. In March 1970 construction began on the new tertiary sewage  treatment plant, the second of its kind in Canada. When the plant opened in  June 1971, Penticton residents thought they had the problem of waste disposal  solved. However, by 1977 when the city applied to increase the discharge into  Okanagan River, the Provincial Government stepped in with the ruling that all  sewage effluent would, in the future, be discharged in land disposal systems. As  the city reaches its seventy-fifth anniversary, in 1983, the problem with water  still remains unsolved.  FIRST COUNCIL MEETING OF THE CITY OF ARMSTRONG  IS RE-ENACTED  by Jessie Ann Gamble  In 1988, the City of Armstrong celebrated its 75th Anniversary of Incorporation. As part of the celebrations, two groups of young people dramatized  the First Council Meeting in 1913. Mrs. Vicki Green wrote a play, based on the  original Council Minutes, for her Len W. Wood Elementary School Grade Five  class and it was performed in the City Council Chambers on April 22, 1988.  The second performance was the following day in the same location but the roles  were played by members of the 1st Armstrong Scout Troop. 69  1913 Revisited — Photos of the first Armstrong City Council and the council as re-enacted by  students from Vicki Green's Grade Five class at Len Wood Elementary School. The original council  are, from left to right in the back row, Aid. H. A. Fraser, Aid. T. K. Smith, Aid. F. C. Wolfenden  and Aid. A. E. Morgan. In the front row is Mayor James Wright and Aid. J. Leverington. The six  students are, from left to right in the back row, Chris Parsons who played Fraser, Matthew Irving  who was Smith, Wendy Liefke who played Wolfenden, and Jerry Muir who was Morgan. In the  front row is Alison Grittner who played Mayor Wright and Daniele Williamson who was  Leverington. 70  Mrs. Winnie (Wright) Stewart, daughter of the first Mayor of Armstrong, James M. Wright, with  Grade 5 student Alison Grittner, who played Mayor Wright in the re-enactment.  KELOWNA GOLF CLUB HISTORY  Researched by Evelyn Metke, Feb. 1985  from Kelowna Courier and Okanagan Orchardist - March 5, 1925  Annual Meeting of Kelowna Golf Club  AFFAIRS OF CLUB ARE IN A FLOURISHING  CONDITION AND MEMBERSHIP NOW NUMBERS 135  The fourth annual general meeting of the Kelowna Golf Club was held last  Thursday afternoon, Feb. 26th in the Board of Trade Hall. Sixty-five members  were present including twenty-two ladies, and the meeting was a most enthusiastic one, all reports handed in showing that the club is in a very flourishing  condition.  Mr. H. F. Rees, President of the Club, acted as chairman and Mr. H. B.  Everard as secretary, the proceedings being opened by the reading of the  minutes of the previous annual meeting, the financial statement and auditor's  report, all of which were adopted with little discussion. 71  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  Mr. Rees next read his report as President, which was as follows:  Kelowna, B.C.  February 26th, 1925  I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Balance Sheet of your Club for  the year ended Dec. 31, 1924, the outstanding feature of which is that the  balance of the purchase price of your property has been retired and title is now  registered in the name of the club. During the year the balance of the indebtedness against the property, amounting to $2,000 was retired.  The Club's liability is now represented by script in denominations of $100  divided among 59 members and 4 non-members as shown on back of the statement, a total of $7,200 of which amount $927 stands at credit of Capital Account represented by cash and Victory Bonds, as the balance sheet indicates.  The reports of the chairmen of the various committees will deal fully with  operations under their control and it will, therefore, be unnecessary to enlarge  on these reports, but as there have come into the Club the last year or two many  new members who are probably unfamiliar with the progress made by the Club  in recent years and, further, for the reason that we have reached our fifth anniversary, a brief review may be in order and prove of interest and will in any  event serve the purpose of in future years furnishing a record.  The meeting called by Mr. E. R. Bailey to consider the formation of a golf  Club had been held Feb. 14, 1920, and at a later meeting March 24, 1920 at  which 38 were present, it was decided to form a club adopting the name —  Kelowna Golf Club. The provisional officers being — G. R. Benger, Pres., —  G. L. Campbell, Vice Pres. — K. Maclaren, Hon. Sec. — and a committee of  six composed of— G. Stirling, K. Maclaren, E.J. Maguire, W. E. Adams, F.  A. Taylor, and P. B. Willits; and at the meeting it was resolved to purchase the  present property. At a subsequent meeting on April 12, 1920, Mr. Benger  retired to take the secretaryship and Mr. P. B. Willits was elected President,  continuing until a general meeting held on Nov. 3rd, 1920, when Mr. Grote  Stirling was elected President.  The land cost $5,500 and in the Balance Sheet submitted stands at $5,561  the $61 representing cost of cancelling certain registered roads, which then  became the property of the Club.  The building erected in 1921 cost $1,917.50 and with improvements and  additions representing a total of $2,948 has been depreciated 5 percent annually  since 1922, and to date, after a total depreciation of $361 stands on the books at  $2,587.  On furnishings and equipment there has been spent the sum of $577.07  which during the past three years has been depreciated $151.04 placing furnishings, including grounds equipment at $426.23.  Surplus account during the various years has stood at — 1920 $106 —  1921 $760 — 1922 $1,614 — 1923 $1,831 — 1924 $1,906. Other figures of interest are the increase of green fees from $34.50 the first year to $162.50 in 1924  at 50c per 18 holes, indicating that your course is becoming better known and  gaining in popularity which is evidenced by the fact that a number of Coast and  Calgary players now make it a point to visit Kelowna during the golfing season 72  and this no doubt will increase as you improve your course and make it more attractive. Subscriptions paid have ranged as follows: 1920 $670 — 1921 $1,657  — 1922 $1,935 — 1923 $1,831 — 1924 $1,906. Amounts recovered from entrance fees since 1921, the first year a fee was charged shows 1921 $555 — 1922  $404 — 1923 $244 — 1924 $428.  On the other side, in connection with disbursements it is interesting to note  that the past three years the cost of maintaining the course, including help has  approximated $1,100 not varying $70 from one year to another.  The advisability of engaging the services of an expert to lay out 18 holes has  been considered but to date no action has been taken in the matter. It has been  suggested that the Club in general meeting would do well to authorize the incoming committee to endeavour to arrange for the services of some such person,  not particularly with the idea of immediately establishing 18 holes but that any  work done in future on the course might be of a permanent nature. While it may  be possible that the club in its present state could establish the additional holes,  too great stress cannot be laid upon the importance of determining first the  Club's ability to maintain same. When that has been decided, then the 18 holes  should be proceeded with. Personally I estimate that at present rates the club  will need a playing membership of from 160 to 170 to do this.  The feasibility of locating a certain number of holes on the elevation to the  left of the third fairway has been considered. To do so it would be necessary to  acquire about one acre of the adjoining land, permitting of an easier climb. A  marvelous view is to be had from the top, the ground is most adaptable for golfing, and several very attractive holes could be located there, giving us something  most unique and making the course of the Kelowna Golf Club one of the most  attractive in the West. Those not desiring to play on top could, as now, play two  rounds on the lower land. The advisability of this move should be referred to the  party, if engaged, to resurvey the course.  During the season 1924 the Interior Golf Championship event was held on  your course. Practically all of the clubs of the Interior being represented, all of  whom voted the event a most successful one. The prestige of your club was  maintained. Mr. F. N. Taylor won the championship of the Interior, and it is to  be hoped that this year he will be able to defend the title at Kamloops, where the  event will be held.  A matter which has received the consideration of your committee has been  parking space for cars, the Glenmore Municipality having on several occasions  directed the committee's attention to the manner in which cars were parked on  the roadside and it has been considered highly desirable that the Club have a  parking space within their own grounds.  To this end the matter has been investigated and the members of the club,  Col. Cullin and Major MacDonald, who, in the company with your president  and members of the committee, have several times visited the property and have  prepared drawings to scale of a parking plan showing trees so arranged as to afford both morning and afternoon protection from the sun.  To put this plan into operation would not entail a great deal of money, but  your committee was reluctant to deal with same until the plan of your course  had been definitely settled, that is as to 18 holes. This matter should have the  earnest and early consideration of the incoming committee.  In conclusion I wish to express my thanks to the chairmen of the various 73  committees and the members of the executive for their support and co-operation  in carrying out the business of the Club during the past year, the ladies for the  assistance which they have rendered, to the Captain for the keen interest  evidenced by him ensuring the success of the various events. To the Secretary  for his untiring efforts on behalf of the Club, to the Auditor for his arduous  duties at the conclusion of our year. To the groundsman, Mr. Coles, for the  splendid way in which he discharged his duties and to the press for the manner  in which they have always featured our events.  After the adoption of the President's Report, the Reports of the Grounds  Committee, House Committee, Financial Committee, Captain's Committee  were considered. Among matters reported were the following: Some of the  greens had been remade and finished with oil and sand. Extensions had been  made to the lockers and dressing rooms and, through the work of the lady  members, considerable improvements had been made in the interior of the  clubhouse. The planting of shrubs was advocated and the making of a lawn near  the clubhouse as soon as arrangements were made for procuring an adequate  water supply from the municipality of Glenmore. Revenue had exceeded the  estimate made at the beginning of the year. The usual competitions had been  well patronized and competitions for all nine trophies had brought out a large  field. Club matches had been played with Kamloops, Vernon, and Penticton, in  all of which Kelowna had been successful. Interior of B.C. Championship matches had resulted in Mr. F. A. Taylor winning the title for himself and bringing  this honour for the second time to the Kelowna Club. The Secretary, Mr. H. B.  Everard, had done excellent work at all times and a revision of the salary allotted to his position should be made.  After the reports had been passed, the election of officers for the ensuing  year was proceeded with and resulted as follows: President, Mr. H. F. Rees by  acclamation; Auditor, Mr. W. O'Neill, also by acclamation; Committee by  ballot from thirteen nominations, Mr. P. B. Willits, Mr. J. V. L. Lyell, Mr. E.  M. Carruthers, Mr. Jerman Hunt, and Mr. W. R. Trench.  The election of the Club's Captain followed. Only one nomination was  made, that of Dr. G. L. Campbell, and he was chosen for the position amid  general applause.  They built the steel-hulled M.S. Pentowna on the lake shore at the north  end of Kelowna. From Prince Rupert they sent about six Scottish shipwrights  with all the tools to do the job and loads of huge timbers and blocks. These  were to construct the ways and the cradle to hold the ship. After the sideways  launch the site was to be cleared and those of us working were offered the wood  free for removing it. Several of us had loads delivered to our homes. After hours  of back breaking work with large cross-cut saws and axes we found the resulting  firewood did not burn but went black in the fire box. It had been in the salt  chuck in Prince Rupert so long it was saturated with salt.  Cedric Boyer 74  TWO KELOWNA GOLF TROPHIES  Researched by Evelyn Metke  THE HUNT TROPHY  News Items — Orchard Record — July 9th, 1914  NEW BUSINESS FOR KELOWNA  The beginning of next month will see another business enterprise  launched in Kelowna in the shape of a new dry goods and ladies'  ready-to-wear store, which is to be started by Jerman Hunt & Co.  It is Mr. Hunt's intention to confine his business solely to ladies'  wear and household dry goods, no men's goods being carried and a  comprehensive and first rate stock will be installed as soon as the  shelves are ready.  Jerman Hunt's business was located on Bernard Avenue (1914-1935) near  McDonald's Garage. The store area is now (1982) part of a large business block  known as Wm. Hamilton Block.  Mr. Hunt operated a fine ladies' wear shop, employing about six clerks.  His weekly advertisements in the Kelowna Courier and Orchard Review depict first  class quality clothing and dry goods.  EXAMPLES OF PRICES 1927:  Spring coats  $15.75 Corsets $3.95  Silk dresses    4.95 Bloomers       1.25  Tinker Bell voile  .65 yd. Wool bathing suits        2.75  Vests     .95 Brassieres 60  Jerman Hunt dissolved his business in 1935 and later moved to Nelson,  B.C. where he passed away in 1942 at the age of 54 years. He had one son who  died earlier of polio. Both Mr. and Mrs. Hunt played golf at Kelowna Golf  Club.  The fine silver trophy — THE HUNT CUP — presented by Jerman Hunt  to the Ladies' Section attests to his generosity and interest in promoting golf  competitions.  In 1982 a completely new base was added to the Hunt Cup with all  previous name plates secured to it. There is adequate room for additional plates  for many years to come.  THE CRAWFORD CUP  The William M. Crawford & Co. Store was located in the west side of  Raymer Block, 275-279 Bernard Avenue. The store was across from the old  Post Office. 75  Crawford's Store carried books, stationery and large quantities of toys near  Christmas time. Customers remember musical instruments as well. Mrs. Hazel  Buck of Kelowna Golf and Country Club (1982) recalls that her father, Mr.  Dayton Williams, who was Western Canada representative for Mason & Risch  Pianos, gave Mr. Crawford the agency for Mason & Risch pianos for the area.  Bill Crawford was also known to have been Kelowna Tourist agent for  several seasons. He was a very active community-minded man, devoting his  energies to many Kelowna projects, particularly water sports (Regatta). He instructed rowing and acted as coxswain in the competitions in war canoe racing  with Vernon and Penticton.  Mr. and Mrs. Crawford had three daughters, Isabelle, Beth and a younger  sister.  Bill Crawford played golf at Kelowna Golf Club and served on the Club  Executive in various offices. His presentation of the Crawford Cup to the  Ladies' Section in 1927 has been appreciated through the years.  ADVERTISEMENTS OF INTEREST  Kelowna Courier and Orchard Review 1927  Men's golf suits, breeches Mason & Risch piano .... $475.00  and jacket $22.50 Mid irons         2.75  Set of four McGregor & Golf balls 35  Burke golf clubs     15.00 Victrolas     115.00  SKI DEVELOPMENT IN THE VERNON AREA  by Carl Wylie  Strangely enough, it was the town of Revelstoke which played a key role in  the origins of skiing in Vernon. Revelstoke was the headquarters of the mountain division of the C.P.R. and some of its workers came from Scandinavian  countries. These hardy northern people brought with them their love of skiing,  particularly jumping. Perhaps what attracted them to Revelstoke in the first  place were the steep hills and the heavy snows, so much like their homeland.  By the 1920s ski jumping was firmly established. In those days the town  was isolated in the winter except for the railway, and its young people took up  ski jumping as a major winter activity. With this background it was not surprising that Revelstoke became famous for its big jump hill and as the home of  World Champion Nels Nelson. Not so well known, but of interest to Vernon  and Okanagan residents, were the exploits of Isabel Coursier, youngest sister of  Dr. Leon Coursier, well known resident of Vernon. Isabel defied all the "men  only" ski jumping traditions and became an outstanding jumper in her own  right, being recognized as the unofficial women's World Champion. Isabel is  now a resident of Penticton, still enthusiastic, and still skis cross-country  occasionally.  Vernon — The Beginning  Although some of this ski enthusiasm in Revelstoke filtered through to the  Okanagan, the big boost came on February 3, 1929 when a major demonstra- 76  tion jumping event, featuring World Champion Nels Nelson, was staged at  Vernon on the hill near the south end of Kin Race Track. There was plenty of  snow that year and the natural slope was augmented by the construction of a  wooden take-off. Other jumping experts who took part were A. Field, O. Higgs  and T. Tapping of Revelstoke; E. Smith and W. Wallenstein of Salmon Arm;  W. Emgen of Penticton; and Ole Olsen of Lumby. Nels Nelson thrilled the  crowd with his jump of 180 feet. Mayor L. L. Stewart and C. E. Shunter of  Vernon were credited with organizing the meet. For the first time Vernon  residents had the opportunity of seeing World Class skiers in action, and this  event ignited in the young people of the area a flame of enthusiasm for skiing  which has never been extinguished.  February 3, 1929 — Kin Race Track to the right.  Early Days  During the following years, it became commonplace to see groups of  teenagers sliding over small snow jumps on the hills around Vernon. At first the  skis were mostly home made, with simple leather toe straps for a harness.  Gradually this primitive equipment was supplemented by "store bought" ash  or hickory skis with a "bear trap" harness made of adjustable steel toe plates  with a leather heel strap.  First Ski Ascent of Silver Star  At Easter in 1921, Bert Thorburn and Tini Ryan, two of the earliest ski  pioneers, rode bicycles with skis strapped to the frames as far as they could go up  the Silver Star road to near Tucker's farm, which was located about one-half  mile below the first switchback on the park highway. They then used skis to  climb to the open slopes of the Star. 77  Winner - Birger Softing of Lumby.  First Club Formed  In 1930 the Vernon Ski Jumping and Toboggan Club was formed by a  group of enthusiasts including Neil Davidson, Bob Weatherill, Sid Seymour,  J. T. Cameron and Bert Thorburn. It was disbanded in 1933 due to low interest  and unreliable snow conditions. During its brief life a jump and a toboggan run  were built on the hill at the western edge of the present Vernon Golf Club. Some  of the marks of the toboggan run are still visible on the slope.  Change from Jumping to Touring  The open rangelands around Vernon were natural ski touring areas, and  groups of young people began exploring the area on skis. Visible in the  background were the snowy white slopes of Silver Star. Even then it was a  magnet and the subject of much speculation by local skiers: "Wouldn't it be  wonderful if we could ski Silver Star?" was a frequent comment.  Exploring Silver Star  At Easter 1930, Bill Osborn, David Ricardo and Michael Freeman skied to  the summit of Silver Star and stayed overnight in the Lookout cabin (See  Osborn story in the 51st Historical Report of 1987).  They were followed at Easter 1934 by Phil Hoskins, Robin Richmond and  Carl Wylie, who spent four days at the summit, exploring the open slopes in the  vicinity of the present downhill area. At that time the upper slopes were wide  open with only a few green trees showing as a result of the big forest fire which  swept the ridge early in the century. These skiers came home full of enthusiasm  for the possibilities of future skiing on Silver Star.  During the next three years there were several exploratory trips. A large log  cabin was discovered near Vernon Lake (now named Sovereign Lake) and it  was ascertained that it had been built to shelter supplies by the City of Vernon  when it was doing some watershed improvements in 1920.  New Ski Club Formed  Because of the rapidly growing enthusiasm and numbers of skiers, Silver  Star Ski Club was formed in February 1938 with Carl Wylie as the charter 78  president. Among those ski pioneers active in its formation were Dick Allen,  Mary Borden, Kay Clerke, Gordon Corbould, Don Crawshaw, Jean Darling,  Jim & George Duddle, Eleanor Eager, Michael Freeman, Anna Fulton, Don  Harwood, Jock Henniker, Phil Hoskins, George Jewell, Dick Locke, Dick  Meredith, Frank & Olwen Oliver, Anne & Betty Openshaw, Margaret Ramsay, Robin Richmond, Bernard Roze, Tini Ryan, Bert Thorburn, Jess White  and Marian Wylie.  The City of Vernon donated the large log cabin for the use of the new club  and renovations started immediately. With the cabin located three miles beyond  the road, work parties hiked in, back packing boards, shakes, windows and  heaters up the rugged mountain trail. The cabin became a weekend home for  the more venturesome Vernon skiers, as well as those from Kelowna, Penticton  and Summerland. At the end of a trip, the three mile downhill proved to be so  popular that a downhill race was organized in December 1938. Jim Duddle was  the winner of that race which was the first of a series held each December with  skiers from all over the Valley competing for the Vernon News Tropy.  •  May 8, 1938 at Ski Cabin — (Left to Right) Michael Freeman, Robin Richmond, Dick Allen, Carl  Wylie, Kelowna Visitor - unidentified, Bud Pratt, Ian Garven, Maurice Meikle - Kelowna, Vera  Cushing - Kelowna, Jim Duddle, Bruce Paige - Kelowna, Gordon Mutrie, Kelowna - unidentified,  Bernard Roze, Unidentified, Gordon Corbould, Jock Henniker, Pat Leslie, Elmer Crawford -  Oyama, Neil Davidson, Phil Hoskins.  Birnie Range — New Mid-winter Location  While the Star met the needs of the hardy few, the difficult roads and the  long uphill climb kept many away, so the Club developed a mid-winter ski area  on Birnie Range, above Highway 97 just north of the Lookout. Here a small  cabin and a jump were erected. At that time there was usually a good depth of  snow in January and February which provided good ski conditions at the lower  levels. Being close to the city, there was lots of participation and enthusiasm,  and the Club organized the first annual Okanagan Valley Championship held 79  on Birnie Range February 19, 1939. It was a four-way event (cross-country skiing, slalom, downhill and jumping) and was a great success with 75 competitors  and 1,500 spectators.  New Year's Day, 1938 at old forestry cabin (now near top of High T). L to R: Jim Duddle, Phil  Hoskins, Bud Pratt, Robin Richmond, Carl Wylie.  Summer Access Road  A very important related activity was taking place at this time. The Board  of Trade and an active committee were creating a summer road, all with voluntary labour and donated equipment and supplies (see Vernon's Silver Star as  reported in the Okanagan Historical Report #51, 1987).  War Years  Just as ski enthusiasm was growing, the Second World War intervened  and, with many ski club members entering the service, interest sank to a low  ebb. In 1945, however, a rejuvenated Club decided to install a ski tow. The rope  tow (third of its kind in B.C.) was installed on Birnie Range in time for the  1945-46 ski season. Eldon Seymour was the key person in its design and construction. The first ancient 4-cylinder engine was quickly overwhelmed by the  large number of users and a new Ford V-8 engine was purchased from the late  Joe Watkin. He had enough faith in the club to sell it on $100 down and the  balance when the club could pay it! The tow was about 900 feet long and club  members paid 50 cents a day to use it.  Move to Keefer Gulch — Lavington Area  With the need for more area and a larger hill the club moved its operation  and tow to Keefer Gulch for the 1948-49 season. That year saw the start of a  serious effort to promote and improve ski technique. Three members, Bill At-  tridge, Roy Barrett and Michael Freeman, qualified as Class "B" instructors at  a Rossland course. They then gave free instruction to club members. This activity was continued and expanded in subsequent years, greatly increasing local  enthusiasm and skill. 80  Silver Star, April 1939 South Slopes, looking toward Attridge. Left to right: Bert Thorburn, Mike  Freeman, Jim Duddle, George Duddle.  Second Okanagan Valley Championship  A major Downhill and Slalom Meet was held January 16, 1949 at Keefer  Gulch. The Downhill was almost a mile long and had a vertical drop of 1600  feet. It was a spectacular high speed race which thrilled the large crowd of spectators. John Hopping of Vernon won the combined title. The Vernon News of  January 20, 1949 reported the meet in detail and rated it a big success.  Move to Palmer Property — Lavington (North side of valley above Lavington Store)  Although the club had been operating at Keefer Gulch on Coldstream  Ranch property with local permission, some of the Directors in England did not  like the idea of large numbers of the public using their land, and the club received  the sad news that it was necessary to move. It was a frantic summer, but the  move was completed in time for the 1949-50 season. A cabin was built and the  tow increased to 1200 feet. During the period 1950 to 1955 the club operated  with varying degrees of success, depending on snow conditions. It also ran  another successful Downhill and Slalom Meet.  Move to Silver Star  After enduring two years of virtually snowless conditions, the club finally  bowed to the elements and gave in to the lure of Silver Star with its high elevation and consistent snow. The pioneering work of the Silver Star Committee  and the Board of Trade had resulted in a good, all weather highway built by the  Government Parks Dept., to a point just beyond the present cross-country ski  parking lot. The Department of Highways agreed to plow the road and this  made it possible to move the club operation to "Christie Shoulder" on the  western ridge of Silver Star. For two years the Club operated its rope tow and a  small shelter on the ridge, often with considerable difficulty due to heavy  snowfalls on the road. • '■  81  Isobel Coursier  Commercial Development  In 1958 Silver Star was designated as a Class "C" Park and for the first  time private capital could be used for development of winter facilities within the  Park. Silver Star Development Association (later to become Silver Star Sports  Ltd.) was formed. Bill Attridge was the President and he continued in that  capacity for twenty-one years. Other charter directors were Russ Postill, Joe  Peters, John Kassa, Mike Lattey, Carl Sorenson and Eldon Seymour. The new  company was a natural evolution and outgrowth of the ski club, with several  senior members of the club becoming directors of the company.  The company bought the rope tow from the club, built two miles of road,  a day lodge and a second rope tow in 1958 and was ready for the 1958-59  season.  Growth was steady and well managed by the young company, which  adopted a "pay as you go" policy. Rather than go deeply in debt, much of the  work was done by the directors and their own firms, who took shares in payment. Because of this policy, it was one of the very few ski developments which  managed to stay in the "black" during its development and expansion. They  did not forget the large numbers of local skiers who had helped make it all possible. By setting reasonably low season rates they encouraged local participation  with considerable success. For many of the old ski pioneers and promoters of the  Star it was the fulfillment of a dream.  Silver Star Sports Ltd. sold its interests to the present owners in 1981.  Silver Star Mountain Resorts Ltd. continued expansion of the facilities including a ski village with on-site accommodation and Silver Star is now one of  the major ski areas in Western Canada. 82  The members of the old Silver Star Ski Club succumbed to the lure of the  lifts and "downhill fever". The years of promotion and development were over,  and the club evolved into a downhill and slalom racing club. It has been successful in developing a very competitive group of young skiers, many of whom  have won fame on the racing circuits. The name has been changed to the Vernon Ski Club.  Cross-Country Skiing — A New Era of Development  After years of downhill skiing, some skiers were becoming disenchanted  with lift lines and impersonal crowds. They began to think seriously about the  quiet beauty of ski trails and the comraderie of touring groups. This new-found  interest in cross-country skiing was well advanced in Eastern Canada by 1970  and the ski manufacturers were producing light "skinny" skis suitable for  general touring.  New Cross-Country Club  In 1973 Keith Brewis organized a cross-country arm of Silver Star Ski  Club. After one season it became apparent that the objectives of a downhill club  and a cross-country club were not very compatible and a separate group, the  North Okanagan Cross Country Ski Club, was organized with Keith Brewis as  the charter president. One of the main objectives was to promote cross-country  skiing generally for all ages. At first the emphasis was on exploring different  local areas such as Keefer and Holmes Lakes in the Monashees, the Commonage, Vernon Mountain, Goose Lake, Aberdeen and Dee Lakes, Kettle  Valley Railway, etc. In addition bus trips were organized to 100 Mile House for  the annual Cariboo Marathon and to Fairmont Hot Springs, Banff, Lake  Louise, Sunshine and Panorama. More often than not, the uncertain weather at  lower elevations caused trip cancellations or last minute changes. It was only  natural, therefore, that the club should look for its "home" on Silver Star with  its consistent snow conditions. Exploration around Sovereign Lake and the  "burn" north of the lake indicated an area of gently rolling terrain, very  suitable for ski trails.  1975-78 — Initial trail development was carried out by the ski club. Two  loops extending past Sovereign Lake into the burn area were cut by club  members.  1978 — The park was designated a Provincial Recreational Area. A close  liaison was established with the parks planning department in Kamloops with  the objective of developing a first-class cross country area for the general public.  Summer planning was a joint effort and in the fall, club volunteers cut and extended the trails under the supervision of the Parks Branch. It was a unique and  rewarding partnership and it is still functioning well today.  1979 — Parks created a separate parking lot for the snowmobiles and for  the cross-country skiing. That year also marked the first club sponsored Federal/  Provincial grant for a small student crew to work on the trails.  1980-1983 — Three more Federal/Provincial grants were sponsored and  supervised by the club. In 1983 the Recreation Council of B.C. sponsored a  large grant during which the warming hut was built.  1984-1985 — There were no grants available so the club undertook a two-  year job of creating the "view" trail to the summit of the mountain entirely with  volunteer labour. It was named the Aberdeen Trail. 83  1987 — The club sponsored a large Jobtrac project funded by the Provincial Government and it completed the Gold Mountain trail and the Centre Star  trail. The trail system now totals 35 km of which 31 are groomed by park personnel and 4.5 km (Silver Queen) is classed as a back-country trail and left  ungroomed.  Volunteer Labour — In addition to the grants, ski club members have  donated a total of 9,700 hours to the trail projects.  The Skier Explosion  The results are gratifying. Increasing numbers of skiers of all ages from  toddlers right up to the 80s enjoy the exercise, clean air and winter beauty of the  Sovereign Lake Trails. Membership in the Club has grown to 700 but the actual  number on a weekend totals 1,200 to 1,400 including many from other areas.  The club held its 11th annual 30 km marathon in January 1988. In addition, members travelled to 100 Mile House for the annual Cariboo 50 km  marathon, and to other loppets in the Province. A group of young racers is being coached by Bill Maloney and Ted Hoyte and they have been showing good  results. One outstanding performer, Lars Taylor, at 18 years of age, won the  Canadian Junior Championships at 100 Mile in March with two golds and a  silver. He will join the Canadian team to take part in the Polar Series in the  Scandinavian countries in April. Beginners and those needing technical  assistance are enjoying Monday and Saturday morning upgrading sessions with  Ray and Peggy Vinten as leaders. The Jackrabbit program under Ken Green  had an excellent season with 72 Jackrabbits (aged 7-13) and 21 leaders.  Perhaps one of the more outstanding features of the club is the number of  healthy and vigorous older skiers who are out regularly. Some in their 80's are  still skiing, and there are numerous skiers of both sexes in their 60's and 70's still  actively racing (in their own age groups) and even learning new techniques such  as skating. For example, several older club members competed in the World  Masters Championships at Telemark, Wisconsin in 1983. Fred Taylor won a  bronze medal, while Flora Wylie won three gold medals. At Hirschau, Germany, in 1985, Bob Piatt won a bronze, while Flora won a silver and two  bronze, plus a gold in the relay.  On a personal note, as Trails Chairman of the ski club since its inception,  I have had the opportunity of working closely with park personnel as well as  with a large number of dedicated and hard working club members. It has been  a worthwhile and rewarding experience.  This might be considered to be the end of the story of the development of  skiing in the Vernon area, but I am sure there will be new ideas and, hopefully,  the willing people to promote them.  THE OLIVER FIRE DEPARTMENT  by Victor R. Casorso (1919 to 1929)  The South Okanagan Lands Project consisting of some 13,000 acres was  started in 1919 to rehabilitate the First World War veterans. The Project built  an irrigation system from Mclntyre Bluff to Osoyoos and installed a domestic  water system in Oliver. The Honourable John Oliver, then Premier of British 84  Columbia, after whom Oliver was named, was instrumental in having the project started. Over the years thousands of acres of desert lands were turned into  a garden of Eden. Many beautiful homes and places of business have been built  all of which had the protection of the Oliver Fire Department.  The Oliver Board of Trade was formed on August 21, 1921. One of the  first undertakings of the new organization was to bring pressure on Premier  Patullo to obtain a fire hose. The Premier referred the request to his assistant,  Mr. Cleveland, and to the Project Manager F. H. Latimer. The constant  pressure of the Board of Trade eventually produced results for on April 13, 1922  it was reported that the Government was ordering hose and a reel, both of which  were in Oliver by July.  On July 13, 1922 Project Manager F. H. Latimer requested particulars for  the building of a fire hall. At the same meeting G. Olson, who had been named  Fire Chief Pro Tern in April, reported that he was unable to carry out his duties.  E. E. LaCasse was appointed in his place and asked to organize a volunteer fire  brigade. On October 10, Mr. LaCasse reported what action he had taken to get  the hose, reel, and apparatus ready for service. By February 1923 the fire hall  had been completed.  The Fire Department grew and developed as the need for protection increased. In the very early days there were not many buildings to protect, but  when Harry Fairweather moved his hotel from New Westminster and  reconstructed it in Oliver, the need for a better fire brigade became evident.  Harry reorganized the first fire brigade and then became its second Chief. At  that time the community spirit was one of co-operation. In the words of the old  timers, "It was help your neighbour and in turn he would help you." These old  timers co-operatively built the Community Hall, a Community Church where  all denominations worshipped, and a Fire Hall which was located on the northwest corner of the present Village Office lot.  Mrs. Collen, one of our earliest settlers, says that, "In order to accomplish  all of these projects, a committee prepared a list of names and duties which was  posted on the bulletin board, and those responsible just simply went about their  assigned tasks and completed their duties.'' This was how the first fire hall was  built. The money was raised through donations, dances, community activities  and social functions.  Equipment was simple. The fire reel was guided and pulled by a shaft connected to the frame. In an emergency or practice the firemen grabbed the  handles on the shaft and pulled the cart to its destination. Later, as funds  became available, a car was purchased to pull the cart and still later a hard-tired  truck was bought. The truck gave considerable difficulty in ice or snow. The  first fire gong was a triangle of steel hung on a pole outside the fire hall. The  alarm caller struck the triangle with a steel rod for as long as it took the  volunteer firemen to collect. Later this device was replaced by a hand operated  siren. The first practice in which the siren was used was held on a Sunday morning, thus disturbing the church service. Rev. Feir felt that he should chastise the  department for disturbing his service and this he did in no uncertain manner.  Harry Fairweather apologized but then he admonished the good man for being  late for practice. Some of the first firemen were: Harry and Vic Fairweather,  Sandy MacPherson, Carl Collen, J. K. Anderson, Pearly Simpson, Bill Foster,  Shorty Knight, Slim Archibald, R. W. Smith, E. Johnson, Mr. Elliott, F. 85  Nesbitt, C. Norton, Rev. Feir, H. Boone, Jock Telfer, H. L. Scougall, G.  Olson, E. E. LaCasse, Dr. Kearney.  Records are sketchy but we find, on June 11, 1925, D. P. Simpson and  H. W. Sealy requesting the Board of Trade to endeavour to have the assistant  fire ranger transferred from Fairview to Oliver as Oliver was more central and  had better telephone service. (At that time the residents were requesting that the  telephone service be extended to sixteen hours per day.)  Some time between 1925 and October 12, 1927, Mr. Bill Foster was appointed Fire Chief. Gordon MacNaughton had an unfortunate fire at his place  which raised concern as to whether equipment was being serviced and tested in  readiness for emergencies. Victor Fairweather and Tom Roe were delegated to  interview the Fire Chief and to offer him assistance. At the same time the Provincial Government was pressured to supply a small gas engine and pump to be  set on the fire truck. Since the townsite was government sponsored and fire  hydrants had been installed with the domestic water system it was felt that the  Government should regularly test these hydrants.  On December 14, 1927 the Fire Chief made a good report on the condition  of the equipment, but advised that it was difficult to get the volunteers to turn  out for practice. He also stated that during the cold weather the fire truck was  difficult to start and the hard tires made the truck almost useless in the snow.  The department had little or no knowledge about the use of chemicals, but someone had heard that these were useful for fighting small fires. The Chief was  delegated to find a solution to problems provided that it did not cost any money.  By March 14, 1928, Bill Foster had obtained two pyrene extinguishers. A notice  was displayed in the post office advising the public that one of the extinguishers  had been installed in a glass box at Dr. Kearney's office and the other at the fire  hall. The larger one was later moved to the hotel where it was more centrally  located.  On June 11, 1928, Mr. Ede had a bad fire and the fire department was  again reviewed by Victor Fairweather and Dr. Kearney. A fire gong was  desperately needed. The Board of Trade wrote to the Provincial Government  recommending that an electrical siren costing $48 be purchased.  1930 to 1939  Records show a concern over the state of the equipment in the early 1930s.  Letters were sent to a not very sympathetic Provincial Government and Provincial Fire Marshall. At one time the idea was entertained of keeping on hand a  supply of dynamite for dire emergencies. D. G. McCrae, now Project Manager,  refused to take this suggestion seriously because of the risk of storing explosives.  In 1936 the Board of Trade interviewed Premier Patullo, asking for his support  for an extension of the fire hall in which living quarters would be provided for a  person who would man the department. Patullo granted the sum of $100 for the  alteration, work to be done under the supervision of Project Manager McCrae.  However, as it was found that the planned changes would cost $150, action was  postponed. As equipment was found to be in bad condition permission was  sought and received to use the Provincial Government's $100 to buy 100 feet of  two and a half inch hose and to have the ploy nozzle repaired.  On July 13, 1937 R. A. McNeill was appointed Oliver's fourth Fire Chief.  At this time the fire brigade consisted of from five to seven men, each of whom was to be paid $1.50 for each practice and $2.00 for each fire attended. The Fire  Chief was to be paid $5.00 a month. It was decided to sell the old truck with the  solid tires, replace it with a newer one, and to build a trailer. These changes cost  $30. A permanent committee consisting of M. D. Garward, B. Peckering, and  G. E. White was set up and authorized to reorganize the fire brigade, care for all  equipment, and prepare and submit a budget. An annual levy was established:  $4 for each business and $1 for each residence. C. E. Huntley was to approach  the Oliver Co-operative with a request that they donate a second ploy nozzle.  After considerable discussion it was agreed that the fee for businesses might vary  from $1 to $5 according to the prosperity of the business.  On March 10, 1937 it was reported that the trailer was almost finished and  that the Co-op had agreed to buy the ploy nozzle. By April 14, collections were  coming in and another 150 feet of two and a half inch hose was ordered. June 9  saw improvements being made in the water system east of the river.  Plans had been made in March to hold a Firemen's Ball on September 23.  On the strength of this fund raising activity another 100 feet of hose were  ordered along with wrenches and chemicals. The President of the Board of  Trade, R. W. Smith, urged everyone to get out and support the dance which, in  the end, netted $47.85. During the dance many complimentary remarks were  made about the Oliver Fire Department.  In 1938 another Ball was held, this time on March 17. Later that year the  Secretary was instructed to write the Provincial Fire Marshall's office and request that Robert McNeill be named Deputy Fire Marshall for Oliver. The  Commission and Badge were presented to Mr. McNeill by George White.  Relocation of fire fighting equipment was a concern in 1939. By June 14  the fire siren had been installed on the Griffin Building on the corner of 1st  Avenue and 6th Street, the work being done by the West Kootenay Power &  Light Company.  1940 to 1949  The location of the fire hall was discussed at the meeting April 10, 1940.  Mr. McCrae had suggested that the fire hall could be moved to the corner of the  lot occupied by the government building, providing its outside appearance be  improved. Dr. Ball objected to this location as he was putting up an expensive  building on his lot. The fire hall would block his view and devalue his property.  A committee was set up to investigate possible sites. On June 12 it was reported  that the building had been moved to the lot next to the cement shed, which is the  present location of the S.O.L.I.D. Office. The fire hall occupied this site until  1948 when the Village of Oliver built a new fire hall.  On July 10, 1940 it was reported that Fire Chief Bob McNeill had left to  serve in His Majesty's Forces. Mr. Ernie Amos was named Oliver's fifth Fire  Chief. Minutes indicate that Ernie and his Department did an excellent job of  protecting the community from fire. Voluntary subscriptions continued to come  in, but, of course, there was always need for more equipment. Fire Chief Amos  made regular inspections, pointing out potential dangers. The Provincial Fire  Marshall also made his inspections. The Fire Department did its bit towards  raising funds for War Savings Certificates. Mr. Ed Lacey, Road Foreman, had  the dirt cleaned from around the fire hydrants and from in front of the fire hall.  During September, 1941 the matter of charges to be made for fire calls was  discussed. Mr. Jorde's sawmill in Osoyoos had burned and the Oliver Depart- 87  ment had lent equipment to help fight the fire. The equipment was not returned  and, in addition, it was badly damaged. Letters passed between the Oliver and  the Osoyoos Boards of Trade. Finally, with the help of Constable Larry New-  ington, the matter was settled.  On September 10, 1941 George Crucette was cited for bravery. During  that year he had saved six people from drowning in the river. These events moved  the Fire Department to extend its training in life saving techniques.  On December 10, Walter Schuman offered his cabin to the Fire Department, provided it was moved alongside the fire hall and a door cut through both  buildings, so that heat from his cabin could be used to dry the hose. Project  Manager McCrae and the Department soon had this accomplished. The cabin  must have served the dual purpose of residence for the fire hall attendant for  whenever Mr. Schuman was out of town his cabin was occupied by another  person.  Ernie Amos was authorized to attend the Firemen's College in Victoria.  The experience proved to be so informative that the Board of Trade felt that this  should be an annual event.  During February 1944 a new and welcome piece of equipment was received, the A.R.P. (Air Raid Pumper). The A.R.P. could lift water out of streams,  wells, or tanks fast enough to supply two one inch hoses. The pumper was towed  behind the fire trucks and went on faithfully spewing water at all fires from 1944  until it was retired in the 1960s. By June 1945 the war was over in Europe and  the War Assets Corporation was turned to as a source of fire fighting  equipment.  In January 1945 the Department had a bank balance of $913.61. It was  decided that it was time to cover the firemen with insurance. Efforts to get a new  fire hall were spearheaded by Ted Trump, Secretary-Treasurer of the Fire  Committee for the Oliver Board of Trade, but nothing concrete was accomplished until after the incorporation of Oliver on December 19, 1945. Longtime Board of Trade members and active fire Committee members formed the  first Council: R. W. Smith, Chairman; George Stuart; and Douglas Smithers.  These people were very interested in maintaining an effective Fire Department.  In September 1946 a LaFrance fire truck, which had been built in 1912,  with chain drive and six cylinders was bought from the City of Nelson which  was offering the vehicle for $700. The Village was to assume responsibility for  providing suitable housing for the truck. In 1947 Walter Schuman became Fire  Chief. In the same year Chester Hutton spoke to the Board of Trade on the  practical importance of having an inhalator, cost $350. By April 1948 the sum  had been raised by public subscription and the inhalator bought.  The year 1948 was a banner one for the Fire Department as the Municipal  Hall, the fire hall, garage, firemen's meeting room and a fireman's living  quarters were built. When Fire Chief Schuman moved to his new home the  apartment was let to two successive occupants but they proved unreliable. When  the occupant went out one evening, leaving the doors open, gas was stolen from  the truck. The Village Council approached the writer and requested me to occupy the fireman's residence. At that time I was a fireman and the Municipal  Clerk.  This brought to an end the involvement of the Oliver Board of Trade in the  operation of the Fire Department. The people of Oliver owe a debt of gratitude to all those community minded men and women who dedicated themselves to  building the Oliver Fire Department from 1919 to 1948.  To them we say, "Thank you for a job well done!"  Note: Space does not permit us to print Victor Casorso's interesting and informative documents  which include lists of officers of the Department, lists of volunteer firemen through the years, lists of  Fire Chiefs. We would refer those interested to the complete document in the Oliver Museum. We  must make room for the following personal reminiscence by Victor:  "When my wife Joan and I were resident firemen (1951-1955), to be awakened in the  early morning hours by the wailing of the siren was a hair-raising experience. It was  my job to answer the phone, give the telephone operator directions, then dress and start  the trucks in readiness for take off. Joan had to open the doors and direct the firemen."  OKANAGAN CRATE LABELS: DAZZLING CLUES TO OUR PAST  by Wayne Wilson, Kelowna Museum  The fruit industry in British Columbia has produced a strange array of artifacts from bamboo sprayers to nail strippers and apple peelers. All of these are  important facets of the fruit industry complex, and they speak of technological  advances and organizational changes in fruit production.  In the entire spectrum of fruit industry artifacts, perhaps the most visually  impressive and culturally significant are crate labels. From the 1920s to the early  1960s, orchardists, co-operatives and independent packers had dozens of dazzling labels printed in the lithographic houses in Vancouver. Today, in retrospect,  we see an assemblage of design elements and advertising strategies that reveal  many aspects of our past — who we were, how we perceived our region, and  how strong our cultural roots were.  The adoption of crate labels in the Okanagan Valley seems to have begun  between 1905 and 1915. The Markets Commissioner of British Columbia's  Department of Agriculture, writing in 1913, recognized the success of Yakima  Valley Fruit Growers Association sales on the Canadian Prairies and ascribed  that success, in large part, to, " . . . establishing their blue and red "Y" (extra  fancy and fancy) brands of apples in the esteem of the trade."1 He continued by  encouraging British Columbia growers, "I would therefore urge our growers to  immediate action along this line."2 There is some indication crate labels were  used before this time; however, they could not have been in common use  because they do not appear on apple boxes in historic photographs until at least  the second decade of this century.3  At the other end of the scale, the demise of British Columbia crate labels  can be dated fairly accurately. A Royal Commission On The Tree-Fruit Industry of British Columbia published its findings in 1958. In that report the  Commissioner disagreed with growers and packers on the issue of private brand  names by stating, "In my opinion, the important thing is to establish and maintain a reputation for 'B.C. Tree Fruits'."4 Within three years of that report, all  fruit sold through the province's marketing agency, B.C. Tree Fruits, carried a  single label. 89  In the intervening years, private brand labels proliferated. With improvements in lithographic printing technology, the quality of the labels improved, and over time the design elements changed to reflect stylistic trends. By  1960, the Okanagan fruit industry had generated a unique legacy — crate labels  had become artifacts.  There were well over one hundred different fruit box labels produced for  British Columbia growers,5 and one of the keys to understanding them lies in  breaking down their images, logos, slogans and brand names. Clearly, this is a  subjective exercise in classification, but the result is fairly clear. Four thematic  headings emerge — Pioneer, Bucolic/Picturesque, Exotica and Connections.  Pioneer  Design elements that portray images of the pioneer experience form one of  the most easily defined groups of labels. Many of these images are of a generic  North American "West" and, therefore, smack of the frontierism popularized  in the United States. A few other labels give a more accurate representation of  Canada's west — of the Okanagan.  [ OK  OKANAGAN VALLEY LABD. SO. LTP.  OKANAfiAN CENTRE, B, C. CANADA  Figure 1  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  The more romantic pioneer labels show proud majestic Indians (Plains Indians by their headdresses), a caravan of Conostoga wagons pulled by a team of  oxen, a rollicking Bison (Figures 1 & 2). The heavier reliance on these dramatic,  more American stereotypes is difficult to account for precisely, and the simplest  explanation may lie in the Okanagan fruit industry following the longer 90  Figure 2  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museur  established and clearly successful lead of the United States growers. Moreover,  all of these are historic images and, as David Lowenthal and Donald Meinig  have noted a penchant of North Americans for past glories, it is not surprising  advertisers used such images freely.6  The combined effect of these design elements is an impression of the  Okanagan region as having undergone a set of pioneer experiences not unlike  those of the symbolic frontier of the United States. While this may be true in the  very broadest sense, the specifics are far from representative. There were no  Bison in the Okanagan, no covered wagon caravans, no Plains Indians in striking feather headdresses. The region does have something of the western cattle  heritage, but the area's stronger tradition lies in a transplanted British Isles  population that preferred a tidy life of polo, cricket, picnics and land promotion.  Bucolic/Picturesque  The labels in this category are the most interesting for what they reveal  about the character and evolution of the regional landscape. In one set of labels,  the Okanagan Valley appears to go through a youth-maturity-old age sequence  reminiscent of William Morris Davis' geographic theories. In another label, the  scene is a vista of the Okanagan town of Kelowna. In yet another, the general  topography in the scene is quite acceptable, but the overall impression is far too  lush and idealized.  The set of three labels that inspired this category were designed for the Oc- 91  cidental Fruit Company. The earliest label in this set provides the most vivid example of the Bucolic/Picturesque dichotomy. The lower half of the scene is a  well developed agricultural plain; the upper half shows an imposing backdrop of  snow covered peaks — and the relationship of this latter setting to anything real  in the Okanagan is tenuous at best. The deliberate misrepresentation is an effort  to appeal to the broadest market through a label that draws on a collage of land-  cape images of the greater Canadian west.  Mill! III tlffPEI If  "   OCCIDENTAL FRUIT G0.1T0.  Figure 3  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museur  The second label in this set is simply a clearer more refined version of the  first (Figure 3). The curious aspect of this label is seen in the change in the  agricultural landscape. The small farmhouse in the first label has been replaced  by a two story vaguely Victorian style home; there are now two additional  houses in the scene; the whole countryside is more lush and green; and the orchards are older, more mature.  The final label in the series is a photograph and a surprising departure  from its predecessors (Figure 4). In this the region has been given the flavour of  a tourist destination where orchards form a pretty backdrop to a resort lined  lakeshore.  As the sub-title suggests, the Bucolic/Picturesque is a category of contrasts.  In each label the characteristics of one theme or the other are highlighted or  balanced. The stereotyping of the Bucolic theme in particular, has been faithful- 92  Figure 4  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  CANADIAN APPLES  _3^JWMI»WafflBIIl  - ADA.  Figure 5  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum 93  ly rendered as comparison with photographs indicates. The result is an impression of the Okanagan that is not too far from reality.  Exotica  The variety of images under this heading are of a mythical nature, and  their connection with anything distinctively Okanagan is tenuous — except in  the case of Ogopogo Brand (Figure 5). Pyramid Brand, Old Gold Brand and  Monastery Brand are examples of a disparate group of labels, and they suggest  an advertising strategy that is more concerned with visual impact (Figure 6). At  this early stage of inquiry, it is difficult to say more about the Exotica imagery,  but continued research may well turn up the design rationale for these labels.  <VijffmW  PYRAMID COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION  Figure 6  APPLES  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  Connections  The theme of Connections is a simple one. It is drawn by recognizing first,  the cultural background of Okanagan settlers and second, the nature of the  destination market for Okanagan fruit. In most cases the design elements and  brand names are so obvious the category emerges on its own.  The cultural background of Okanagan settlers in the formative years of the  fruit industry was predominantly in the British Isles. In 1911 the Census of  Canada recorded the region's population was made up of 81 percent British  origin.7 By 1921 that figure had decreased by only two percent.8 The degree to 94  which this population maintained ties with Great Britain can be seen in a  number of ways — in the establishment of lodges such as Masons, Odd Fellows  and Foresters;9 in recreational activities such as cricket, coyote hunting (a  bastardized version of the Fox Hunt) and polo;10 and in business through the  set-up of land advertising companies in England and Scotland.11  Similarly, the largest export market for Okanagan fruit was in Great Britain, even after the fruit industry was well established. In 1935, for example,  over 90 percent of the Valley's export apple crop went to Great Britain.12 It was  only after the Second World War that B.C. Tree Fruits made a strong move to  expand its market.  Given these two indicators, there is little wonder Okanagan growers and  shippers relied heavily on the symbols of a common cultural heritage to make  their sales pitch. The most obvious examples in this category are Thistle Brand,  Lion Brand, John Bull Brand, Buy British Brand, and Castle Brand (Figures  7,8,9).  Figure 7  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  Conclusion  The foregoing deals briefly with only the most obvious aspects of crate label  art, and the tentative categorization allows a degree of structure in understanding the roots and context of design elements. The historical background at the 95  beginning of this article takes crate label art out of isolation, but the labels would  seem to offer more than this.  ■(>,h< ,J. ?  ?'-   .'%■:■;•:)■■ :■ j: r:^   , .   :•   nr  Figure 8  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  A number of questions arise from this study. To what degree was racism,  as seen in the company name "Occidental Fruit Company", a part of  Okanagan values? Do the landscape stereotypes on crate labels run parallel to  those presented in literature and art work from the region? What roles have the  design elements played in shaping impressions of the Okanagan in market  areas?  The answers to these and other questions call for more research and not a  little caution in interpretation. The latter is demanded because of the contrived  nature of advertising art. Not that other art can not be contrived, only that the  hidden agendas of advertising seem more elusive and, therefore, not as easily or  as accurately translated.  More than anything, however, crate label art offers a departure point for  the study of an evolving landscape. The labels are unique historic documents,  and for the Okanagan they begin to speak, with surprising power, of the cultural  background, social values and mores and idealized lifestyles of a settler population. In turn, the labels are a means by which places are categorized and  stereotyped to become, "... firmly entrenched in popular wisdom," so that,  "They spring to mind when a place is mentioned." 96  Figure 9  Photos courtesy of Kelowna Museum  Markets   Commissioner.   Annual   Report.    Department   of  Agriculture,   Victoria.    1913.  p. 11.  Ibid.  In the Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference of Fruit Growers of the Dominion of Canada, 1906, mention is made of 'Private Brands' and 'Trade Marks' already established in the industry. "Maple  Leaf" and "Beaver" are two of the brands referred to.  MacPhee, E.D., Report of the Royal Commission on the Fruit Industry in British Columbia. Province of  British Columbia, Victoria. 1958. p. 711.  Goett, R. B. "Selling The Harvest": An Exhibition of Okanagan Crate Label Art. Kelowna Museum.  1987.  Lowenthal, D. "Age and Artifact" pp. 103-128, and Meinig, D. W. "Symbolic Landscapes" pp.  164-192, both articles in The Interpretation of Ordinary Landscapes. Oxford University Press, New  York. 1979.  Reeves, C. Establishment of the Kelowna Orcharding Area. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of  B.C., Vancouver. 1973. p. 43.  Ibid.  Mitchell, D. and Duffy, D. Bright Sunshine and a Brand New Country. Sound Heritage, Provincial  Archives of B.C., Victoria. Vol. 8, No. 3, 1979. p. 39.  Ibid. p. 44.  Ibid. p. 70.  Reeves, C. Op. cit., p. 109. 97  THE "OKANAGAN LAKE" $100 BILL  by Randy W. Marusyk  Few residents of the Okanagan know that a scene of the Okanagan Valley  was once depicted on Canadian paper money. The scene was adapted from a  photograph of Okanagan Lake, taken in a northwesterly direction from the 2300  foot level of the west side of Mount Campbell, near Penticton. It appeared on  the Canadian $100 bill that was first issued in 1954 (Figure 1).  The obscurity of the location of this scene is not very surprising considering  that during the period in which this bill was circulating (1954-1974), Canadians  rarely carried such a large denomination of paper money in their wallets. In addition, few Canadians realize that the scenes illustrated on our paper money  were of actual locations adapted from photographs and not images created by  Bank of Canada artists. Finally, others had mistakenly claimed the scene as being elsewhere and thus added to the confusion of its true location.1  The Okanagan was chosen to grace the back of the $100 bill as, like the  other scenes found on the 1954 paper money, it represented one of the  geographically unique countryside landscapes that were found across Canada.2  The Okanagan Valley's geographical uniqueness arises from the fact that it was  one of the driest areas in Canada.3  Many features are clearly evident in the scene. The prominent point on the  east side of Okanagan Lake is "Three Mile Point". "Naramata" or "Nine  Mile Point" is the second point seen further up the lake. Gartell Point on the  western shore of the lake can be seen in the left mid-ground. Orchards are visible in the scene as well as the road leading to Naramata. The orchards are  thought to have been planted during the first decade of this century.4 Finally,  various mountains can be seen in the background with the most prominent being Okanagan Mountain (5164 feet) in the upper right corner of the scene.  The scene found on the 1954 $100 bill was adapted from a photograph  taken in November 1947 by Canadian Pacific Railway photographer Nicholas  Morant.5 The photograph was eventually purchased by the Bank of Canada  when they were designing their new banknotes.  The original photograph was taken a few years after a fire had swept over  this part of Mount Campbell as evidenced by the young tree growth in the  scene.6 The current photograph (Figure 2) shows that significant tree growth has  occurred since that time.  Comparing the current photograph with the scene found of the 1954 $100  illustrates a further point: artist modifications. The engravers who designed the  steel plates that were used to print the paper money would usually introduce  some slight artistic variations to make it more difficult for would-be  counterfeiters to use an actual photograph of the scene in their counterfeiting  processes.7 The size of the points on the lake and the curvature of the road illustrate this fact.  During the 20 years that the "Okanagan Lake" $100 bill was in circulation, over 17 million were printed.8 The $100 Okanagan scene was replaced in  1975 with a picture of Lunenburg, Nova Scotia as part of the new currency  series that was being introduced during the 1970s.  Residents of the Okanagan can be proud of the fact that their region of the  country once appeared on the Canadian $100 bill. Furthermore, they can be 98  proud of the reason for placing a scene of the Okanagan on Canadian paper  money: it is a reflection of the geographical uniqueness of their region in  Canada.  J. C. Smith claimed that the scene was of Kamloops Lake; Cst. J. C. Smith, "The $100 Scene"  R. CM. P. Quarterly Vol. 35 #2 (1969) pp6.  Woodman Lamb, "From Watts to the No. 2 Brownie", Saturday Night Vol. 70 (1954) ppl5.  A. L. Farley Atlas of British Columbia, people, environment & resource use (Vancouver: U.B.C. Press,  1979) PP43.  Chess Lyons Mileposts in Ogopogo Land (Surrey: Forest Publishing, 1970) pp96.  C.P.R. Photography Division — photograph M5693.  B.C. Ministry of Forests and Lands forest fire atlas reports a major fire swept over Mount Campbell in 1926.  H. D. Allen, "Changing Patterns in Canada's Currency 1858-1958" The Canadian Numismatic  Journal, Vol. 13 #12 (1958) pp371.  W. K. Cross (ed.) The Charlton Standard Catalogue of Canadian Government Paper Money, 2nd ed.  (Toronto: The Charlton Press, 1987) ppl86 and ppl99.  NON-NEGOTIABLE  Fig. 1: — Okanagan scene on Canadian $100 bill in circulation from 1954 to 1974.  1  Fig. 2: — Current photo taken from Campbell Mountain near Penticton showing same scene. 99  LANDSCAPE CHANGE  by Wayne Wilson  (excerpt from manuscript entitled "A Hundred Years of Change")  Visually, irrigation development completely altered the "look" of the  Okanagan Valley. Over the last one hundred years the establishment of a ready  supply of water made orcharding viable in the region and as a result the valley  became, quite simply but dramatically, more green. With more individual irrigation projects completed, the valley benchlands came under cultivation and  the greenness of the irrigated orchard expanded even further to form an almost  continuous band around the valley's major lakes.  More subtly, miles of flumes, syphons and ditches criss-crossed the valley  slopes, benchlands and lowland. Seen in historic photographs, these networks  seem to give an air of prosperity. Over time, these distribution networks were  buried and subsequently some of the detail in valley panoramas was lost.  In the upland region that parallels the Okanagan Valley, there were other  landscape changes. The most striking of these was the expansion of lakes when  dams were built and, later, when they were raised and widened. And, not to be  forgotten, are the miles of roads constructed into the high country to tap the  lakes and newly created reservoirs.  FRANK HERBERT LATIMER  Contributed by Peter Tassie  The man who more than all others wrought the new Okanagan landscape  in the thirty-five or so years after 1890 was Frank Herbert Latimer. We are indebted to Peter Tassie of Vernon for the following information.  The following is from "Who's Who in Canada" (c. 1913)  Latimer, Frank Herbert — Engineer; Dominion and British Columbia Land Surveyor, Penticton, B.C.; Consulting Engineer for Penticton, Consulting Engineer for Municipality of Summerland, B.C.  Born Kincardine, Ont., May 23, 1860, son of James F. and Kate  Latimer. Educated; London Collegiate Institute; Royal Military College, Kingston (Silver Medal); Assistant Engineer on lock work,  Michigan Central Railway, Windsor Ont., 1882-1883; Dominion  work for McPhillips Bros., Manitoba, 1883-1885; station grounds and  right-of-way, Michigan Central Railway, Detroit, 1886-1888; Resident Engineer in charge of bridge construction, Detroit, Lansing and  Northern, 1888-1889; Resident Engineer of Construction, Traverse  City Branch, Chicago and West Michigan Railway, Grand Rapids,  Mich., 1889-1890; practised Vancouver 1890; practised Vernon,  B.C., 1891-1905, during which time had charge of irrigation work at  Coldstream Ranch; also Municipal Engineer for Vernon and Irrigation Engineer for Peachland and Summerland irrigation systems;  came to Penticton 1905; associated with Southern Okanagan Land  Co., as Irrigation Engineer, until 1911; private practice and Engineer  for water and electric light systems of Penticton Municipality during 100  construction, 1911-1912; Engineer on irrigation systems at Naramata  and Kaleden, B.C. School Trustee, Vernon, two years; Penticton,  four years. Married Ella Wintemute, 1889; has two sons and two  daughter. Societies; A.F. & A.M.; A.O.U.W.; Canadian Mining Institute. Recreation: Shooting. Liberal. Methodist. Address: Penticton, B.C.  Following note supplied by Mr. Latimer's son —  He practised out of  Vernon 1891-1901  Summerland and Naramata  1901-1905  Penticton 1905-1942  Oliver and Osoyoos 1919-1924  Mr. Latimer neither smoked nor drank and was perhaps rather generally  austere compared with most Engineers. He was a much respected professional  man and citizen. He did a great deal of Engineering work in the Okanagan and  it has withstood the test of time extremely well. Harley Hatfield  Following excerpts regarding Mr. Latimer are from the "50th Anniversary  Historical Souvenir, City of Penticton."  ... he was destined to become the location engineer for many of the  important irrigation systems in the Okanagan Valley. In 1891 he  moved to Vernon. While there he laid out an irrigation system for the  Coldstream Ranch then owned by Lord Aberdeen, and served as  Municipal Engineer for the town. He also did assaying and analytical  chemistry work.  Moving down the valley he had charge of water systems at  Peachland and Summerland for the John Moore Robinson interests.  In 1905 he came to Penticton as engineer in charge for the Southern  Okanagan Land Co. which entailed the laying out of a larger townsite  and planning the two irrigation systems, on Penticton and Ellis  Creeks, their first storage dams, two intakes, high level main lines and  laterals.  The Naramata and Kaleden water projects were also carried out by Mr.  Latimer.  His last major task took him to the only remaining large tract of arable land  as yet undeveloped, the Oliver-Osoyoos district. Preliminary surveys were made  in 1917, and for the next four years Mr. Latimer remained as Chief Engineer in  charge of the project which included the laying out of the townsite of Oliver, the  intake dam at Mclntyre Bluff and the construction of the concrete irrigation  canal and laterals.  During his residence in Penticton he took an active interest in church and  musical affairs, the Masonic order and his garden . . . He also developed a fine  orchard property . . . He was a member of the Penticton school board for four  years . . . He died February 10, 1948.  Latimer Street in Penticton is named for Mr. Latimer. Pioneer Engineers dedicated a plaque May 11, 1950 in Oliver across Hwy. 97  from Village Office. The inscription reads:  "To commemorate our pioneer engineers,  among them  F.   H.  Latimer, especially for his work in the major irrigation and townsite  development 1905-1940 from Penticton to Osoyoos.  Erected by the Association of Professional Engineers of B.C. and the  Engineering Institute of Canada, Central B.C. Branch." 102  HYDROLOGY OF THE OKANAGAN BASIN  (reprinted from Phosphorus in the Okanagan Lakes: Sources, Water Quality Objectives  and Control Possibilities. Ministry of the Environment, May 1985)  The Okanagan Main Valley lakes consist of a chain of lakes including  Ellison (Duck), Wood, and Kalamalka that flow north in the east sub-basin, and  then south into Okanagan, Skaha, and Osoyoos Lakes. The Ellison-Wood-  Kalamalka Lakes sub-basin discharges via Vernon Creek to Vernon Arm of  Okanagan Lake. The outflow of Okanagan Lake becomes the Okanagan River  which flows south into Skaha and Osoyoos Lakes. Some morphometric features  of these lakes are given in Table 2-1. Vaseux Lake, located between Skaha and  Osoyoos Lakes, has a short water residence time (about 11 days) and its water  quality will be similar to that of Skaha Lake. It is therefore not discussed  separately in this report.  Most of the water inflow to the lakes occurs from April to July mainly due  to snow-melt in the higher portions of the basin. Since 1972 the Hiram Walker  Distillery has continuously discharged cooling water diverted from Okanagan  Lake to Vernon Creek above Ellison Lake, and contributed significantly to  flows at least within the Ellison-Wood-Kalamalka Lakes sub-basin. The regulation of the level of Okanagan Lake is of major importance to the southern part  of the valley; about 80% of the inflow to the entire Basin occurs to this natural  reservoir, and its control is used to moderate the extreme variations in year-to-  year runoff within the basin.  About 130 headwater lakes provide both storage for the mainstem lakes (50  reservoirs, 140 x 106m3 storage) and support for valuable sports fisheries. The  main tributary streams are listed in Table 2-2. With the exception of major  tributary streams, most small streams are dry from July to November due to  upstream storage on the regulated headwater lakes as well as irrigation requirements. The residual water entering Okanagan Lake, either through surface or groundwater flow, is further reduced by up to about 30% through  evaporation from the lake surface. Thus the actual water available (the net lake  inflow) within Okanagan Lake or downstream is only a fraction of the gross  inflow.  The main control structure for the mainstem lakes is the concrete dam on  Okanagan Lake at Penticton. It allows 1.2 m of storage, equivalent to a volume  of 420 x 106m3 which is about the same as the annual net runoff into Okanagan  Lake (467 x 106m3; gauge 08NM050 in Table 2-2). The discharge is limited by  the channel capacity of the Okanagan River, which is 60 m3/s at Penticton and  96 m3/s at the inlet to Osoyoos Lake. Minor regulation of Skaha Lake is maintained by a concrete dam at Okanagan Falls, and at Vaseux Lake by a small  concrete dam. Osoyoos Lake levels are maintained by the Zosel dam at the  outlet in the State of Washington, although flooding can occur due to lack of a  control structure on the Similkameen River which joins the Okanagan River  downstream.  Long-term mean flows for the Okanagan River and major tributaries  (gauged) are given in Table 2-2. The mean annual discharges from the six lakes  discussed (Ellison, Wood, Kalamalka, Okanagan, Skaha, and Osoyoos) are  summarized in Table 2-3. Also presented in Table 2-3 are the calculated lake  residence times,  which  are  generally lower than those published  in the TABLE 2-1.  Morphometric Features of Six Okanagan Mainstem Lakes  103  Surface  Depths (m)  LAKE  Volume  Area  x 106m3  x 106m2  mean  maximum  Ellison (Duck)1  5.4  2.1  2.5  5  Wood2  200  9.3  22  34  Kalamalka2  1520  25.9  59  142  Okanagan:3  Vernon Arm  171  12  15  30  North (Armstrong) Arm  464  28  17  100  North Basin  (south to Kelowna Bridge)  12 171  126  97  230  Central Basin  (south to Squally Point)  7 085  96  74  205  South Basin  (south to Penticton)  4 753  89  54  150  TOTAL  Skaha2  24 644  351  76  230  558  20.1  26  57  Osoyoos:4  North Basin  (north of highway bridge)  204.0  9.9  21  63  Total (including that south of  U.S. border)  397.0  23.0  14  63  Data from:  1 Lake summary sheets, Fisheries Branch, Penticton  2 Technical Supplement V to the Okanagan Basin Study, Limnology of the Major Lakes in the  Okanagan Basin, March, 1974.  3 Digitized from Canadian Hydrographic Service chart no. 3052, Okanagan Lake, 1982.  4 Stockner, J. G. and T. G. Northcote. 1974. Recent limnological studies of Okanagan Basin  lakes and their contribution to comprehensive water resource planning. J. Fish. Res. Board  Can. 31:955-976. 104  Okanagan Basin Study (1974) due to a recent trend of high runoff years. Mean  residence times are: 0.3 years for Ellison, 14 years for Wood, 36.6 years for  Kalamalka, 52.8 years for Okanagan, 1.1 years for Skaha and 0.6 years for  Osoyoos. These water residence times are important factors in estimating the  time it would take for water quality to change due to changes in phosphorus  loading.  TABLE 2-3.  Mean Annual Discharge and Residence Time, Six Okanagan Mainstem  Lakes  Volume1  Mean Annual  Residence Time (Years)  Lake  x 106m3  Outflow2  106m3  Calculated3  OK Basin Study  (1974)  Ellison  5.4  17.3  0.3  —  Wood  200  not gauged  —  30.0 (14)4  Kalamalka  1 520  41.5  36.6  65.0 (45)4  Okanagan  24 644  466.7  52.8  60.0  Skaha  558  493.9  1.1  1.2  Osoyoos  397  614.0  0.6  0.7  1 From Table 2-1.  2 From Table 2-2.  3 Volume/Mean Annual Outflow.  4 Figures in brackets are residence times after 1971 when cooling water pumped from Okanagan  Lake to the Hiram Walker Distillery began discharging to Vernon Creek, assuming licensed flow  rates. BIOGRAPHIES  AND TRIBUTES  105  JAMES EARLE "Jim" JAMIESON  by John M. Jamieson  Okanagan Historical Society lost a long-time member and contributor to  the annual report with the sudden death of James Earle Jamieson, 78, of Armstrong, in Vancouver on December 23, 1987, where he suffered a heart attack  while he and his wife Evelyn were awaiting a flight to Burlington, Ontario.  The couple were to have spent the holidays at the home of their daughter,  Marion Little and family and were to be joined there at a family reunion by  their son Dr. James D. Jamieson and his family from New Haven, Connecticut,  where Dr. Jamieson leads a medical research department at Yale University in  that city.  Jim was born at Areola, Saskatchewan, November 5, 1909. When he was  nine the family moved to Punnichy, Saskatchewan, and it was here that he  started learning the printing trade in his father's shop. He attended school there,  played the trumpet in the school band and orchestra, became goalie for the local  hockey teams and was a top-ranked tennis player among provincial juniors. He  was an avid sports fan loving lacrosse, hockey and tennis particularly.  James Earle "Jim" Jamieson. 106  Jim finished high school at Areola and came to Armstrong when the family  bought The Armstrong Advertiser in 1928. He worked as linotype operator and  printer until he retired in 1972.  Following his father's death in 1954, Jim and his brother, John M.  Jamieson, who came from Seattle, operated The Advertiser; which Jim edited until the business was sold to his nephew, John H. Jamieson in 1969.  Jim covered all sports stories for the newspaper. He loved lacrosse and was  a great booster for the club. He was singles tennis champion for the Okanagan  Valley for many years running. He played goal for Armstrong Hockey Club for  years and for one season he played goalie for a community league hockey club in  Seattle (he was known as "Stonewall Jamieson" in the net). This was following  his training as a linotype operator in San Francisco before returning to  Armstrong.  Always active and interested in music, he was organizer and member of the  "Serenaders", a local orchestra, which was well known throughout the valley.  It played for dances and other engagements with Jim leading with his silver  trumpet.  He took an active part and served as president of the Board of Trade, the  B.C. Weekly Press Association, the Typographical (ITU), Master of Spallumcheen Masonic Lodge No. 13 in 1954, chairman of the Red Cross Society and  Cancer Society, as well as being active in the museum and other community  affairs.  Jim's greatest interest in later years was in the Okanagan Historical Society  and to whose annual report he contributed many articles over the years on the  history of this district and its residents. Two years ago, he was made an  Honorary Life Member of the Society.  He was a member of Zion United Church serving on the Board of  Stewards for many years. It was in this church that he married Evelyn G. Patten  in April 1932. A final tribute was paid to James Earle Jamieson in this same  church on January 6, 1988 at a well-attended memorial service conducted by the  Reverend David Parks.  Dr. James D. Jamieson, the son of Jim and Evelyn, lives in New Haven,  Connecticut, with his wife Cynthia and their daughters Ann and Laura. The  Jamiesons' daughter, Marion Little, lives in Burlington, Ontario with her husband, Robert and their sons Douglas and James. He is also survived by two  brothers, John M. (Ian) in Armstrong and William, of Banff, Alberta.  RUBY LIDSTONE — OUR FRIEND (1908-1987)  by Marjorie Abbott-Pavelich  (A Eulogy compiled from Ruby Lidstone's Memoirs)  We have all come here today to share our sorrow in the loss of a wonderful  wife, mother, grandmother, daughter and friend. We should ask ourselves, how  would Ruby want us to react at this time? In her courageous way she asked  John and me to bid farewell to all her friends. She wants us not to mourn her  death but to celebrate her life. This should be an easy task for us, for surely  there are few people we know who loved life more than Ruby. 107  Ruby Lidstone in 1974 when she retired from teaching.  On December 22, 1908, on a cold wintry Winnipeg day, Martin and Ellen  Drashing welcomed their first-born into the world. This fragile, red, wrinkled,  baby girl resembled a jewel, so Daddy Martin appropriately named her Ruby  Ellen. She was her father's pride and joy, and spent many happy times riding in  the carrier of his bicycle. Two brothers, Martin and Fred, joined the family in  1911 and 1913 respectively.  In 1914, with the advent of war, Martin's Winnipeg hotel was converted  into Army barracks, thus forcing him to seek other work. Being of Swiss descent,  Martin was lured to British Columbia and in 1916 he traded their Winnipeg  property for the farm at the foot of the Enderby cliffs, where he built a small log  cabin. A year later, after a severe bout of pneumonia during Grade One, Ruby  and the rest of the family arrived in her beloved Enderby.  Ruby, still weak from the past winter's illness, began Grade Two in Miss  Emma Carlson's class at the Enderby school and was awarded the Diploma for  Proficiency. School years sped by and at the age of 13, under the guidance of  Miss M. V. Beattie, Ruby wrote her Grade Eight government examinations,  passing with high marks. At the tender age of 15, Ruby had successfully completed high school and decided to attend the Provincial Normal School for  teachers in Victoria. Due to the lack of funds, Ruby was not able to go home for 108  Christmas. This may have been a blessing in disguise, as, had Ruby seen how  ill her mother was, she may never have completed her teacher's training.  In the summer of her 16th year, Ruby helped on the farm, wrote 100 applications for teaching jobs, and assisted her ailing mother. Teachers were plentiful and Ruby did not get a position in September thus giving her precious time  to spend with her mom. In December, just before her 17th birthday, Ruby was  hired as the teacher for Grades One to Eight at Grandview Bench School. Out  of the $100 a month wages, she paid $35 for room and board, $50 to her dad for  Normal School expenses, and she had $15 to spend for herself. She enjoyed her  teaching assignment and her school won a shield for the best exercises. During  the winter, at one of the Bench dances, Ruby met a young man named Clifford  Lidstone.  In the summer of 1928, Ruby attended Summer School in Victoria and  took her frail mother with her to be near the ocean. That fall Ruby returned to  the Bench where she produced and directed her first very successful Christmas  concert. In January her mother passed away, leaving dad and the sons to look  after the farm. Ruby would return to the farm twice weekly to bake and clean  for the men.  In June, 1929, sadness again struck the Drashing family when father Martin, pining for his wife, ended his own life. Ruby and her brothers took over the  responsibility of the farm and Ruby's teaching career was interrupted. Love  blossomed between Clifford and Ruby and on a very cold January 8, 1930 they  were married and enjoyed a month's honeymoon in Winnipeg. Clifford purchased the farm, the house was renovated, work resumed, and in October they  were blessed with their only child, Eleanore. When Eleanore was 15, the farm  was sold, and the Cliff Street house became the famous Lidstone boarding house  — some were paying guests, but many were just guests.  Eleanore married Bruce Bolton in 1951 and provided Cliff and Ruby with  three wonderful grandchildren: Bruce, Brenda, and Byron. Ruby has also been  blessed to know her great-grandchildren: Arlana and Alisa, the daughters of  Bruce and his wife, Ivy; Jordon (whose accidental death in 1980 saddened the  family), Jessica and Harley, the children of Brenda and her husband, John  Heywood. Ruby and Cliff celebrated their 57th wedding anniversary last  January. Their devotion and love for each other has been an inspiration.  Ruby returned to teaching in February 1946, and taught at M. V. Beattie  and Fortune Schools until 1974. Following retirement Ruby substituted in all  classes and grades from Kindergarten to Grade Twelve. Cliff wasn't too confident when she went to sub in the mechanics class. He said, "She doesn't even  know where the horn is in a car!" Throughout her years of teaching she revealed  a love for writing and public speaking. Many of Enderby's Queen candidates  are grateful to Ruby for lending an editor's touch to their speeches. Ruby  organized and published the first Enderby School Annual in 1946 and had a collection of all the annuals to date.  Ruby also found time to be involved in her teaching associations both locally and provincially and has been honored by the Enderby and District Teachers'  Association, the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association, the British Columbia  Teachers' Association and the Canadian College of Teachers. The Enderby and  District Teachers' Association has dedicated their scholarship to Ruby. At  Ruby's retirement,  a fellow EDTA member remarked,  "One of Ruby's 109  greatest attributes is that she has been able to grow with the changes in education and policy, always being contemporary, never out-dated, never out of  time."  An old friend, Peter Ward, has said, "Ruby is the best organized organizer  organizing every organization she belongs to." The Queen's Committee, the  Homecoming Reunion, the professional teachers' associations, the Parent-  Teacher Organization, the Annual Teachers' Welcoming Party, the Okanagan  Historical Society, and the North Enderby Ladies Club all benefitted from  Ruby's expertise.  Ruby has left us with a sample of her love for Enderby and the history of  the area in two books which she has had published: "In the Shadow of the  Cliffs" and "The History of the Enderby Schools 1896-1965." In 1979 Enderby  named Ruby Lidstone as its first "Citizen of the Year."  Ruby, you have left an indelible mark on all your friends. We are very  grateful to have been a part of your life and we will miss:  . the many letters and notes you filled our mailboxes with  . the help and inspiration you gave to our young people  . the sincere welcomes we received at your home  . the "instant" meals you whipped up  . the smile and positive attitude you maintained  . the willing helpful hand you gave to those in need  . the love and kindnesses you bestowed on all  . the time you took to 'lend an ear'  . the strength and support you shared with others  . the dignity and courage you showed in adversity  Ruby, you have been a jewel and your sparkle for life will be written in our  hearts and minds forever.  Note: Ruby Lidstone was survived by both her husband Clifford and her brother Fred.  MAY LORRAINE HAYMAN (1931-1987)  by R. M. (Bob) Hayman  May Lorraine Hayman was born in Vancouver on March 18, 1931, the  only daughter of Margaret and Jok Mar. Margaret was of Norwegian descent,  Jok a Chinese immigrant, proprietor of the Golden Pheasant Cafe in Kelowna,  sometime court interpreter, militiaman, farmer, gymnast and sportsman. An  appreciation of Mr. Mar entitled "Mar Jok Always Fed the Poor" can be found  in the 48th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, 1984.  As soon as she was tall enough to reach the tables, May was serving the  customers and taking their money: 10 cents for a cup of coffee, 40 cents for a  meal. At five o'clock it was her job to take supper home to her ailing mother, do  the laundry and clean the house. If she was lucky, on a Saturday she and her little friends would find themselves at the Kelowna Aquatic Club enjoying the sun 110  and the lake. They were called the "water babies" of that time. May was one of  the first rhythmic swimmers to perform at Regatta.  May graduated from Kelowna High School in 1949 and received her  degree in Arts and Sciences from U.B.C. in 1953. In 1954 she qualified as a  Laboratory Technician at Saint Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, where for some  years she lectured to nursing classes on serology. In 1959 May returned to  Kelowna where she worked in the General Hospital laboratory. Following this,  she set up the Knox Clinic laboratory and ran it for a short while.  In 1962 she married Earl Jones. With their own hands they built their  rambling home on the Jok Mar farm. They had two boys, David and Gary.  When the boys were old enough to ski, May and Earl learned to ski too and  every winter weekend saw them on the ski slopes, May with the money, the dry  clothes and warm soup. When the boys got into hockey (1975-76), May became  team mother for Grant's Market peewee team and Earl a coach, having first to  learn how to skate.  May Lorraine Hayman.  Then, of course, there was soccer and May became team mother for  Gary's team, the "Alpine Helicopters". When the boys were old enough for  motorcycles, the Jones home became the clubhouse for the young bikers of the  district. The noise of the bikes around the Mar farm was like the buzz of bees  around a sugar pine. From Bernard Milledge she learned how to sail. She  bought a "Flattie" and she and Bernard rebuilt and raced it.  Her husband's hobby being the raising and showing of pigeons, May  became an expert in this field, as the many awards received by her husband will  attest. On the side, May ran the farm, drove the tractor, raised chickens, bees  and vegetables, becoming known locally as the "Asparagus Lady". Ill  As a variation from the pleasures of cooking, canning, cleaning and preserving, May took up sewing, tailoring, leatherwork and quilt making. Everyone  near and dear has "another May Mar Masterpiece" on his back cr his bed. She  made Mandarin jackets for all the waitresses at the Golden Pheasant.  To fill a community need, she did volunteer work at the hospital and for  the Westbank Women's Institute, and canvassed for cancer, heart and community chest. She made costumes for Theatre Kelowna and did props for "Carnival". She worked briefly as a nurse's aide and charge nurse at the Sun Valley  Rest Home. Then she took employment with the Homemaker's Service and  each of her "clients" she embraced as her personal charge.  Somewhere in there, she picked grapes and worked as part-time cashier  and bookkeeper for the Seven Seas Restaurant. Again, to augment family  funds, May took employment as a laboratory technician in the Park Medical  Clinic. When asked whether she could handle the new instruments, her comment was, "I guess the blood and the urine are the same."  May was a lover of sports. She joined the Westbank Yacht Club, the  Ponderosa Golf Club and the Lakeview Heights Tennis Club. She had a good  swing in golf, a nice stroke in tennis and her fly-casting was beautiful to watch,  but she wasn't the slightest bit interested in her score. Fishing, she used barbless  hooks and apologized to the fish as she released them. She loved music, especially that of Barbra Streisand and taught herself to play "The Bells of Saint Mary"  on the piano.  Surprisingly, in light of all this personal involvement and activity, May  developed a severe case of agoraphobia (fear of crowds). To combat this, May  deliberately exposed herself to gatherings of people. She would attend concerts  but insist that she have an aisle seat close to the exit to allow her an escape in the  event of a panic attack.  This somehow led to her becoming a member of the Community Concert  Association of Kelowna, where she took on the job of membership chairman.  How much was due to the excellence of the executive or the dedication of the  team captains is not known, but in her last year as membership chairman,  1984-85, the Kelowna Community Theatre was sold out for the season.  As was her father, May was a strong supporter of the Chinese Cultural  Association of Kelowna and dedicated a ceremonial lion to their work, a donation made by Jok before his death. Growing up in Kelowna, May didn't realize  she was different, a Eurasian, half-Chinese, half-white. At university, she learned  that to the whites she was Chinese, to the Chinese she was white. Only the intervention of her dear friend, Jim Horn, saved her from hurt.  When her stepmother June was dying in 1982, May was the only person  who could help the poor, tortured soul. From midnight to 5:00 a.m. every night  for the last month, May massaged June's arms and legs, forcing blood into the  extremities to bring relief. May's father, Jok, died in 1983. Where else? In  May's arms. And May took on the farm, the partition of the Estate and the  complicated and protracted legal matters that were a part of it.  After her father's death, May made a trip to mainland China as her  father's emissary and met and exchanged gifts with the Mar family in Canton.  This was only after having been confined, with other members of her tour  group, in the immigration jail in Canton for violation of visa requirements. To  compensate for this insult, the Chinese government put up May and her 112  disgruntled friends in a villa in the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, Beijing, two  doors down the road from Senator Weinberger who was visiting China as  Defence Secretary for the U.S.A.  Somewhat mollified, May and her friends were given the royal tour of the  "Forbidden City", "The Gate of Supreme Harmony", the "Dragon Wall",  and the "Temple of Heaven." She struggled up a piece of the "Great Wall",  she sat on the sacred animals leading to the Ming Toombs, she paid her respects  to the naughty Empress Dowager Ci Xi at the Summer Palace before whom a  nightly banquet of 110 dishes was paraded. She boated on the man-made lake  and boarded Ci Xi's notorious marble barge.  She consorted with the army of terra cotta soldiers at Zian. She visited  cloisonne, jade, silk and shirt factories. She closely examined every part of a  commune, paying special attention to the hospital laboratory. Everywhere she  went she was followed by a train of small children.  She explored the caves at Gwilin where the villagers hid from the conquering Japanese. She spent a day on the Li River marvelling at the oddly-shaped  mountains. She fainted in a human log-jam of people in Shanghai. In Canton  she ate in a restaurant which feeds 10,000 people a day, 3,000 at a sitting.  She rode the "Bullet Express" from Canton to Hong Kong. She was  driven through the tunnel connecting Kowloon and Hongkong Island. She  rented a boat in Aberdeen to study the boat people. She took the famous  "Funicular" ride to Victoria Peak for dinner in the Peak Tower. She swam in  the pool on the roof of the hotel, visited the "Tiger Balm Garden" and stocked  up with the famous cure-all.  Then she flew to Jakarta and on to Bali where they have three Gods to worship and every house has a shrine in front. There she studied the Barong  Dancers and their depiction of the never-ending battle between good and evil.  She rented a catamaran for sailing between islands, she played tennis, swam  and shopped for a legion of friends back home.  She rode around Singapore on a "Trishaw" and disliked it, a man being  the beast of burden. She loved the acre of orchids. She tasted a "Singapore  Sling" at Raffles and passed it to me to finish, which I did, with several refills.  In Bangkok she fell in love with the elephants and water buffalo. She explored every part of the Grand Palace (except the royal residence) and brought  the whole tour to a halt when they observed her kneeling before the Female  Buddha reverently placing joss sticks at her feet.  Physically, May was about five feet tall and just short of 200 pounds. When  confronted with this she would say, "I'm, not fat, just too short for my weight."  On eating she would say to me, "You're an alcoholic, I'm, a foodaholic".  Early in 1985 May was told she was going to die. On learning this, May  made the rounds of the bank, her accountant and her lawyer to tie up loose ends  and to say goodbye. Then she called in any relatives where bitterness or  animosity lay, to settle differences and terminate feuds.  The tumor was impinging on the brain, May was losing her orientation  and ability to think or converse; on the direction of her friend, the eminent  psychiatrist, Dr. Frank McNair, May was admitted to the psychiatric ward of  the Kelowna General Hospital, now called the "Frank McNair Unit".  We are in the ward, May is sitting on the edge of her bed, eyes downcast.  A cry comes from a young girl in the next ward. May is out of the door, across 113  the hall, her arms around the sobbing kid, before we have time to react.  The night May was taken to the hospital, her old Labrador Retriever  "Sadie" left home and hasn't been seen since.  On March 18, 1985, her birthday, the tumor was removed. When she was  coming out of the anaesthetic I again proposed marriage to her and put a ring  on her finger. Much to my surprise, because she had refused me many times  before, she smiled and relented. We were married April 6, 1985.  The surgeon succeeded in removing all the cancerous growth save for a bit  in the fossa. This was reduced by radiation and a new lease on life was given:  camping, fishing, beachcombing the Queen Charlotte Islands, exploring Wells  Gray and Yellowstone Parks, the Buffalo Jump (Head Bashed In) at Fort  McLeod and the beautiful lakes behind Westbank.  Late in 1986 the cancer returned. For Christmas that year May created an  altar on the organ in the corner of her living room. Along with the nativity  candles and the Palm Sunday cross are a Jewish Menorah, a Buddha, a Balinese  goddess, some Guatemala Trouble Dolls, several Chinese figures, and two  Spanish monks. In this setting May made her peace with her Maker.  Well, May died at home on the 1st day of July, 1987. With her passing we  lost that smile, that charm, that directness, honesty and love that entrapped our  hearts ... or did we?  WILLIAM JOHN EVERETT (Ev.) GREENAWAY  by W.J. E. Greenaway  Everett was born in Holland Centre, Ontario, in 1907 of Irish parentage  and was the sixth of Sam and Jenny Greenaway's seven children, the oldest and  youngest of whom did not survive.  A disastrous house fire in May of 1913 caused the death of his father and  left his mother with her five children on their Grey County farm with no house.  She managed to have a new home built and with the children's help operated  the farm until October 1915 when she died of cancer.  The farm, stock and machinery were sold and the children scattered among  relatives from Philadelphia to Vancouver. Everett, now eight years old, was  given into the care of his Uncle Chris and of Aunt Margaret Greenaway who  was a teacher and who had nursed his mother through her final months.  His Aunt Margaret took Ev with her when teaching in Saskatchewan and,  in 1918, when she moved to Bella Coola where she settled permanently. As  there was no high school there Aunt Margaret sent the boy to live with the family of her sister, Mrs. Dick Greenaway, on their farm at Cloverdale where Ev attended Surrey High School. He took his teacher training at the Vancouver Normal School, graduating in 1925. That September his long teaching career of  more than forty years began in Kispiox Valley near Hazelton. He was surprised  to find on the first day of school that all of his pupils were from the Sheehan  family ranging in age from four years to the 12-year-old twins.  Always fascinated by the North, Ev, in his 1926 summer vacation, took the  cooking job on George Beirne's famous pack train which every summer carried 114  the yearly supplies to the lineman who kept the Yukon Telephone Line  operating. Some of the more than 50 pack animals in the train were mules  which, along with all the equipment, were once the property of the venerable  Mexican, Cataline, who had packed on the trails from Mexico to the Yukon and  who died on Beirne's Ranch in 1922. It was an interesting fact that there was  not one regular pack saddle in the whole outfit. Each pack horse was fitted with  a Spanish "aparajo", a device of two leather pouches that straddled the animals  back. Green willow wands and straw stuffing in each pouch quickly acquired the  exact shape of the back of the horse it was fitted to and permitted him to carry  up to 100 pounds more than on a regular pack saddle.  The famous outlaw Gun-a-noot was also working for Beirnes at the time  and occasionally shared Ev's campfire.  After two years teaching in Kispiox, Ev moved to Alice Arm where he  taught for another two years and spent his summers working in the Nass Valley  on the construction of a roadbed over the lava flow that had once blocked the  valley and caused the river to cut such a rugged canyon through it that men and  mail were often lost trying to navigate to the coast. Ev's job was to operate a six-  ton Cletrac tractor which never ceased to amaze the native Indian audiences  when it pushed over trees or moved huge flakes of lava.  Ev returned to studying to up-grade his education but was frustrated by the  1929 depression and was out of teaching for two years. He never dreamt then  that it would be 1963 before he finished his degree in Education. His next school  was in Bella Coola where he taught for three years. There he and Olivia  Nygaard were married in June of 1932. In 1934 they moved, with their infant  son Lome, to the Okanagan and Ev served for nine years as principal of  Naramata School.  When the Second World War broke out he was rejected for active duty so  he served three years in the British Columbia Dragoons (Reserve).  Mr. Fred Marriage, principal of the Kelowna Central Schools, recruited  Ev to be his assistant, as due to the war, he had no man left on his staff of 18  teachers. So the Greenaways moved to Kelowna in 1943 and Ev commenced his  25 years of service to that institution as teacher, vice-principal and Supervising  Principal.  In 1947 their prayer for a baby daughter was answered when Wendy joined the family by way of adoption.  During their years in Kelowna, Ev and Olivia (better known as Pat) have  been quite active in community work. Ev served in the Junior Chamber of  Commerce until he reached the age limit of 40 and then became a charter  member of the Kiwanis Club of Kelowna. He and Pat have taken part in all the  Club's major activities and Ev served as its Charter Secretary, President and  many terms on the directorate. He was recently presented with his 35-year  Legion of Honour plaque by Kiwanis International.  In the 1940s Ev became worried by the casualty rate amongst excellent  students who could not continue to higher education or training for lack of  finances. At that time there were no government bursaries and very few scholarships available. He sought the advice of Dr. Sage of the University of B.C. who  suggested that he endeavour to set up, from public donations, a student loan  fund in Kelowna. It took two years, but he finally got the support of enough  citizens and organizations to establish the School District 23 Student Assistance 115  Association and set up a revolving loan fund. Rutherford, Bazett & Co.,  Chartered Accountants, have been its perpetual treasurers; Mr. Gordon  Herbert its diligent secretary until his death; and Mr. Greenaway its president  until after his retirement in 1968. As of 1988 the organization is still active and  its assets still revolve around assisting deserving students toward a profession or  a skill.  During the summer holiday months of the 1950s, Ev and Pat were  employed by the Parks Division of the B.C. Forest Service to supervise crews of  16- and 17-year-old boys in the building of B.C.'s first public campsites. Ev's  summers spent working in the woods when he was earning money for his  teacher training gave him the skills and knowledge needed for this work and the  campsites they developed, now improved and enlarged, are still in service from  the Shuswap to Oliver and from Princeton through Kamloops to Canim Lake  near 100-Mile House.  Though Ev retired in 1968 he answered the desperate appeal for teachers  put out by Australia in 1970 and he and Pat spent a happy and productive 1971  teaching in a suburb of Sydney.  Since then they have settled into mobile home living in Kelowna's  Hiawatha Park in the summers and in Mesa, Arizona in the winters.  Among the honours Ev has received are the 25-year Service Pin from the  Canadian Red Cross Society, Honourary Life Membership in the Okanagan  Valley Teachers Association, the Centennial Medal of Canada 1967 for service  to the nation, and the City of Kelowna Service Pin.  THE EIJIRO KOYAMA FAMILY  by Sax Koyama  1889: Eijiro Koyama, eldest of three children, came to Canada at the age of  18 years from Shigaken, Japan, on the Empress of Japan. Travelling in those  days was only by boat and it took approximately three weeks to cross the Pacific  Ocean.  1900-1902: Eijiro went commercial fishing up the Skeena River for salmon,  and also during this time he worked for the C.P.R. on a section gang.  1903: The latter part of 1903 Eijiro came to the Coldstream Ranch near  Vernon, and as a fireman he was in charge of 40-50 men. The ranch operated a  fair sized nursery, so a lot of the early plantings in the Vernon area were started  with trees from the ranch.  1908: Eijiro decided to become a Canadian citizen and took out his  naturalization paper.  1913: He returned to Japan to marry Fumi Fujioka. On his return, the  manager of the Coldstream Ranch picked up the couple in Vancouver and  brought them back to the ranch. Imagine travelling in a 1913 car all the way  from Vancouver to Vernon. Roads in those days were all gravel and narrow,  steep and crooked, nothing like it is today, all paved.  1914: The first Koyama child, Kimie, was born April 14th and still lives on  the farm today. 116  1915: Seichi, the second child was born December 16th. Seichi at present  is in the ministry in Japan.  1916: In the spring of 1916 Eijiro Koyama and a few others got together  and purchased 20 acres of land on the flats in Winfield next door to Mr. W. R.  Powley. This land was purchased from Mr. Sid Edwards who later retired to  New Zealand. To move from the Coldstream Ranch to the newly purchased  land, Eijiro borrowed a team of horses named Nip and Tuck from Mr. Powley.  It took two days to travel one way. One stop was at what is now known as the  Commonage. As the Winfield land was all in bush, the first year some clearing  was done, and all by hand.  1917: The small portion that was cleared was planted into strawberries. As  more land was cleared, Eijiro went into dairy farming, which kept up until  1948.  1930: Eijiro was left with ten children when Fumi passed away on February  7th, 1930. During the hungry 30s it was no easy task to bring up a big family.  Eijiro had to take on the responsibility of both mother and father so he had to  cook, mend clothes, and even learned to knit sweaters, socks, mitts etc. for his  children. With a lot of hard work and patience, he was able to pull through.  1948: In the fall of 1948 he retired to Mayne Island and lived there until  1956 when he passed away in Vancouver. Those surviving are Kimie  (Takenaka) still living on the farm; Seichi Koyama in the ministry in Japan; Sax  Koyama, Okanagan Centre; Ted Koyama, Toronto, Ont.; Harve (Taguchi),  Vancouver, B.C.; Jean (Kobyashi), Okanagan Centre; Motoy Koyama,  Quesnel, B.C.; Mary (Itami), Hawaii; Kadi Koyama, Quesnel, B.C.; Masae  had died in May 1930.  Note: I had only just received this story from Sax when tragedy struck the Sax Koyama family. Sax,  while fishing off Okanagan Centre in late January with his brother-in-law Mat Kobayashi, was tossed  out of the boat by a sudden squall and was drowned. Mat was rescued. Sax was 71 and very highly  respected by all who knew him. The large turnout at his funeral gave a good indication of the regard  of the community for Sax and his family.  Hume Powley  DONALD CLARK FILLMORE (June 19, 1912 - April 20, 1986)  by R. M. Hayman  Don was not born with a silver spoon in his mouth, but he did come into  this world with certain advantages. His father, Charlie Fillmore, a First World  War veteran, was a great humanist, a well-liked, easy-going, downtown Vancouver lawyer who later became one of the most popular judges on the bench,  albeit Small Claims, but an important court. From him Don learned about law.  His mother, Annie Fillmore, was a scholarly woman, a voracious reader with an  incredible intellect and a sharp wit. From her Don inherited a love of books, certain scepticism, and disdain for shallow or sloppy thinking and for inaccurate or  imprecise speaking and writing.  Added to that, he married Jo McLaughlin, a warm, vivacious, popular,  redheaded school teacher. She taught him about friends, community and peo- 117  pie. They had two daughters, Gail and Diane, both lawyers, both brilliant and  charming. They taught him whatever daughters teach their father.  It was not all easy-sledding for Don with a fairly permissive father and a  demanding mother. He started out with the usual paper route, schooling in Kits-  ilano, and a beaten-up car. In due course he was off to U.B.C, ending up with  a year in Osgoode Hall, Ontario, one of Canada's outstanding law schools.  Returning home to Vancouver in 1935, Don found a wire from the noted  Kelowna lawyer, later to become Judge Norris, asking Don to cover for him  during his holiday. Don came to Kelowna for two weeks and never left. He took  up residence in McCarthy's Boarding House on Bernard Avenue, which housed  a number of the young ladies and men who later became the strength of this  community.  A third member of the Norris firm was Bill Bredin, lawyer, actor,  raconteur. On the outbreak of war all three volunteered for service. Norris and  Bredin were accepted. Don was turned down. He was too light, only weighing  105 pounds. This was Don's greatest disappointment in life. Typically,  however, he threw himself into support of the war effort. For the next five years  he practised law alone with the assistance of the Ryan girls, Kay, Irene and  Marybelle, consummate secretaries.  After the war, I joined Don as his Articled Clerk, serene in the belief that  my command of English would satisfy the profession. It may have satisfied the  profession but it did not satisfy Don. He was meticulous in his choice of words,  grammar, punctuation, emphasis and excruciatingly careful in his drafting.  And, he was demanding of his student. A half hour would be spent selecting the  word with the proper meaning, nuance and weight. To this day, a dictionary on  its own stand occupies a central position in the entrance hall of his home.  Engraved on his front door bell are the words "The Fillmores" plural, not  "The Fillmore's" possessive, an error I see on almost every household sign in  Donald Clark Fillmore, Q.C. 118  town. He fought against what he called "perpetuating errors", the earmark of  the sloppy draftsman, where an error creeps into a precedent and is copied and  repeated time after time.  Don wanted and demanded the best, but was ready to forgive the mistakes  of others. One day I went into his office and said, "Don, I've done it now!" He  sighed, put down his pen and said "What?". I said, "You know that bond issue  I made for the Reverend Greatorex, pastor of the Evangel Tabernacle. Well, I  put it in the name of the wrong parties and the Land Registry refuses to register  it." By this time the church had held all the congregational meetings with the  prescribed notifications and announcements. Kelowna Printers had printed the  bonds at a cost of $600 and I had hours of work in it. All of this was wasted  because of my sloppiness. I fully expected the worst from Don. Instead Don  said, "It's not your fault, it's mine. If I hadn't piled so much work on you, you  wouldn't have slipped up on that. We'll absorb the loss. You better go make  your peace with the Reverend Greatorex". The Reverend was great too. When  I told him about my error which set their building plans back about two months  he said, "Don't worry about that Mr. Hayman. We'll start again. Oh, by the  way, I would appreciate your attending our next congregational meeting". I attended at the appointed time and the Reverend Greatorex opened the meeting  with: "Dear friends, first of all let us pray for Lawyer Hayman".  When I joined Don in late 1945 as his Articled Clerk, the Kelowna Bar  consisted of 5lA members: E. C. Weddell, Finlay McWilliams, H. V. Craig,  C. G. Beeston, and Don, with me comprising the extra half as I did not have  my call to the Bar. Don had the reputation of being completely honest, a man to  be trusted. He was careful. His files were filled with notes of every phone call,  every meeting, every piece of research, all undecipherable except to him. Notes  were important because, to him, breach of a solicitor's undertaking was the consummate sin. And he never broke one. In due course he was elected President of  the Bar Association. He was awarded his Q.C. and could have had a judgeship  but he turned it down because he was afraid he would black out on the bench.  He suffered from an occasional petit mal.  On the dissolution of his old firm, Don joined Bob Beairsto and John  Swanson as associate counsel and was giving opinions as late as a week before  his death.  As to his service to the community, although he held offices in the Bar, the  Board of Trade and some clubs and associations, Don was not a joiner. He was  a booster. Anything worthwhile could count on his support and, everything unworthy, his condemnation. He was also a patron of the arts. Although not particularly musical or theatrical by nature, there was not a performance of  anything of consequence put on in Kelowna that was not attended and, I  believe, enjoyed by Mr. and Mrs. Fillmore. As a would-be entertainer, I can  say that is important!  As to his contribution to the tree fruit industry, Allan Claridge, writing in  the May 1986 issue of the British Columbia Orchardist referred to Don as "the legal  Dean of organized marketing in B.C.", and he went on to say:  For many years during the terms of several presidents and many executive members, Don was the legal counsel of the BCFGA, the B.C.  Fruit Board, and B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. In addition he served individual growers and shipping organizations with well reasoned, 119  sound legal advice. Not only did he practise law for half a century,  bringing a continuity and knowledge to and of our industry that had  no legal equal, he developed a genuine affection for our industry, its  people and their needs. Time did not dull memories of specific happenings, the reasons for various actions, the outcome of different  judgments, with the result that he knew the past and the present,  managing to put both together with precision and conviction. Don  Fillmore was not given to sudden impulses or unrealistic promises,  and the advice that he gave to our industry carried a quality that stood  us in good stead over so many years. The legal aspects of the B.C.  Fruit Board operation and jurisdiction and their designation of B.C.  Tree Fruits Ltd. as the sole selling agency were just a few dozen of  complex and challenging items that were in his capacity of instant  recall. Don was at all times the proper perfectionist who could be  relied upon to concentrate on fact and not be influenced by anything  less. He believed firmly in the hard fought rights that growers had  won through years of effort and staunchly defended the need for  legislation because our products are perishable, a point he often stressed.  One could write a lengthy tribute to Don and his capabilities but  because that would not have been his wish or his way, I believe it appropriate instead to say that he served our industry well with professional, dignified competence and we will miss him as a friend.  For his contritbution, Don was made a life member of the BCFGA, the only  person outside the industry to be so honored.  He had a dry sense of humour. The day before Don died his wife, Jo,  wanting to get him something nice, bought him a beautiful red delicious apple.  She paid $1.16 for it. Don was conscious when she presented him with the gift.  Being Jo, she had to tell him the price she paid. Don looked carefully at the apple, then to Jo, and asked, "Whatever happened to 'a cent a pound or on the  ground'?"  Although to the outside world Don might have appeared cold and austere,  to his family he was everything they could ask: tolerant, understanding, loyal  and supportive. He loved them, they loved him. I must tell you Diane's story.  It was late at night. Diane had Don's car, the only new one he had ever owned,  albeit five years old at the time. She put it over the bank and wrecked it. She got  a ride home, burst into Don and Jo's bedroom. "Daddy, I've wrecked the car.  I put it over the bank." Don pulled himself out of bed, put his arms around the  sobbing girl and said, "That's an awful way to get your old man to buy a new  car!" Anyway, I guess Truswell and Murchison, local car dealers, got a sale out  of it.  Don was self-effacing, modest, moderate, and generous. No aggrieved  citizen was ever turned away for lack of money. He did not swear or smoke. He  drank a little. He did not accumulate much wealth, a necessary consequence of  charging low fees. He could not carry a tune. He was an obsessive gadgeteer.  He was a terrible photographer. He disliked emotionalism and displayed none.  He would freeze anybody to the core who tried to impugn his motives. And, he  was critical.  When he gets to heaven, I can see Don weighing the works of the Lord, but  I cannot see even the Lord wanting an uncritical, unthinking servant. 120  BEATRICE HARDIE  by Brenda Thomson  Beatrice Hardie in the Sudan, 1922.  A link with Kelowna's past came to an end with the death of Beatrice Hardie  on October 7, 1986. Beatrice, always known as Bobo, was the youngest  daughter of Gifford and Harriet Thomson, the only one of their children born in  Canada. She was born in Benvoulin on May 11, 1892, baptized in the Bethel  Presbyterian Church on December 24, 1893 by the Reverend Paul F. Longill.  Bobo's parents were born in the Shetlands. Her father went to sea in 1864  at the age of 16. He made voyages to Canada, U.S.A., Cuba, Australia, New  Zealand and finally South Africa in 1870. There, it is said, he made a small fortune in the diamond mines. He returned to the Shetland Islands where he purchased property and a fishing vessel, then married Harriet Inkster. Financial  reverses resulted in the family coming to Canada in 1891. After a year in Oslin,  Manitoba they moved to British Columbia, arriving in Benvoulin in April of  1892. With the birth of Bobo there were nine children, the oldest being  Dorothea (Mrs. W. D. Walker), followed by Giffordtina (Mrs. H. C. Mallam),  Emelia (Mrs. H. B. D. Lysons), Louisa, Harriet (Mrs. G. B. Ford), Wilber,  Ethel and Jock.  Gifford Thomson bought 20 acres from G.G. McKay, built a house and  planted an orchard. As well, he took on the mail contract between Benvoulin  and Vernon. Around 1900 the family moved to Okanagan Mission onto property  preempted just south of Bellevue Creek. A large house was built. Later it was  sold to J. J. Baillie who converted it into the Bellevue Hotel. After the sale of the  Mission property Gifford Thomson moved to Vancouver where his ventures included the building of the Gifford Hotel. When Gifford died in 1932 Harriet  Thomson returned to the Okanagan, moving onto property located on the pres- 121  ent Gordon Drive. This property was farmed by her sons, Wilber and Jock and  is still farmed by her grandsons, Gifford and Ken. Harriet died in 1934.  Bobo started school in 1898 at the Okanagan School in Benvoulin and continued at the old school on Swamp Road. She had a happy childhood, enjoying  the country and the activities of that era. With the advent of the First World  War and both brothers overseas, Bobo and her sister, Ethel, helped their mother  with the farm and worked in the harvest in nearby orchards.  In 1922 Bobo set off on an adventure. She travelled to North Africa to  marry Rex Hardie. Rex was born in Fairmont, B.C. but grew up in England.  He came out to Okanagan Mission before the first war, returned to serve in the  war, then obtained a position with the Sudan Government in the Survey  Department. Bobo joined him in Alexandria where they were married on July  21, 1922. So began a life of experiences which would not have been undertaken,  let alone enjoyed, by a woman without her spirit and determination. She went  with her husband to remote parts of the Sudan on trek, as it was called, by  camel. The stories of her experiences were remarkable and it is unfortunate that  at some point in her life she threw her diaries away and all that is left are some  faded photographs. Rex was appointed Director of Surveys in 1937, a position  he held until 1943 when the Second World War forced them to leave the Sudan.  After a short period in Victoria and Barbados they settled on the island of Ibiza  in the Mediterranean. Here they enjoyed retirement in an idyllic setting until  Rex became ill. He went to England for treatment and died there on April 9,  1960.  Bobo returned to Canada taking an apartment in Kelowna. By this time  she had many nieces and nephews and great nieces and nephews. She loved this  large family of relatives and spoiled them all, particularly the young ones. Being  taken to the Royal Anne Smorgasbord was one highlight, hearing the magical  stories of the Sudan another. As these young ones grew into their teens and  could visit on their own, one was led to write later, "I wonder how old I was  when I first smoked at Auntie Bobo's. I liked to visit her and have a glass of  sherry, it made me feel so grown up. She was so unconventional."  Failing health forced a move into a nursing home in 1981, a move she faced  with characteristic fortitude. In the fall of 1981, to everyone's surprise and admiration, she married Fred Duggan, a resident of the same nursing home. This  marriage gave her a lift and an interest that carried her along in spite of failing  eyesight. With the death of Fred in 1985 she seemed to lose heart and went into  a decline which resulted in her death on October 7, 1986 at the age of 94.  GOOD MORNING, MISS DALE  A Tribute to Adah Ruth Dale  by Catherine M. Levins  Adah Ruth Dale was born May 23, 1895 in Portage La Prairie, Manitoba.  Her father, Thomas Dale, had come from Ontario. At Portage Creek in 1894 he  married Margaret Victoria Crawford who had been born at Crawford Corners  on the Prairie. 122  The first Dale home in Summerland, a tent house which stood where the badminton court now is.  Seated are Ruth's parents and her brother George. George was killed in France in 1918.  Ruth Dale with a young friend.  In 1906 the family moved to Summerland where Thomas at one time owned  quite a bit of land. In 1909 Ruth joined the Summerland Baptist Church, thus  beginning an association of over 65 years during which time Ruth served as  pianist, organist and Sunday School teacher as well as helping with C.G.I.T.,  Young Peoples, and Mission work. Ruth attended Okanagan College in Summerland and the Vancouver Normal School, graduating from the latter in 1914.  For 42 years Ruth taught in the Summerland area, first at Garnet Valley  and later at MacDonald School, travelling in the early days by horse and buggy. 'ñ† 123  In 1953 Summerland showed its appreciation by presenting Ruth Dale with the  Good Citizen Award. The Encyclopedia Britannica honoured her service to  school, church, and community by placing a set of its books in the High School  library. On January 6, 1986 Ruth Dale passed away at home in her 91st year.  Ruth Dale will be remembered for her great love of children and for her  graciousness to all. The writer, who knew Ruth from childhood, never heard  her make a disparaging remark.  Thomas Dale died in Summerland in 1926 and Margaret Victoria in 1955.  George, the only other child of the family to survive infancy, was killed in  France in 1918. Dale Meadows in Summerland is named for the family.  DR. NORBERT J. BALL  by Rita Ball and Marion Eisenhut  Norbert was the first born to Louis John and Mary Ball of Vernon, British  Columbia on July 25, 1904.  He was a very normal boy, lively, mischievous and very interested in  things about him. On his 7th birthday he developed what was then called "Infantile Paralysis" but is now called "Polio". Very little was known of this  disease and, as his seemed to be an isolated case, it was treated symptomatically  and everyone hoped for the best. The paralysis which had caused loss of use of  the entire left side began to ease off and left him with a weakness in his left hand  and a dragging left foot.  A doctor in Toronto, who was attempting, with reconstructive surgery to  overcome the dragging of a leg, agreed to take Norbert for a patient. After very  painful surgery and two years of crutches and braces, the transplanted muscle  took over the functions of his foot enabling him to walk almost normally.  In his own mind Norbert was never an invalid and he never allowed the  weakness in his left hand and leg to limit his activities. He did everything he  wanted to do: swam, dived, hiked, skied and danced.  He showed good leadership qualities and as a boy growing up he belonged  to the Navy League and Boy Scouts, and was an avid collector of birds' eggs  and nests, of moths and butterflies. His collections were very beautifully set up  and were displayed in the school exhibits each year.  When, at 16, Norbert completed high school in Vernon he was sent back to  St. Michael's College, an affiliate of the University of Toronto. Because St.  Michael's offered only liberal arts, Norbert, after two years, transferred to the  University of Toronto to study medicine. During his time at university an extra  year had been added to the curriculum because of the advances made in  medicine and surgery since the First World War. In spite of this additional year,  when Norbert convocated in 1929 he was the youngest doctor in Canada.  Norbert returned to British Columbia to do his internship at St. Paul's  Hospital in Vancouver. This was quite an innovation as St. Paul's had never  had an intern before. The hospital asked Norbert to stay for a second year as  resident doctor to assist in establishing a plan and routine for future interns.  Norbert was asked to join a team of doctors in Vancouver and while he enjoyed the work his health suffered. He was advised to get out of city work. So his  eyes turned to his birthplace, the Okanagan. When the request came to the  Medical Association for a doctor for Oliver, Norbert was asked to apply. He ar- 124  rived in Oliver in January 1933 in an old Ford car packed with all his belongings. He was 29 years old.  It wasn't long till he grew to love his district which stretched from Osoyoos  to Penticton, and from Keremeos to Greenwood, and the people were very good  to him. His old Ford froze in winter, boiled over in summer, but it got him there  and got him back. The only hospital was in Penticton and many a surgery was  performed on a kitchen table with the help of the dentist, or the V.O. Nurse,  while the bravest member of the family held the lamp which made it seem like  operating under the Northern Lights.  In 1938 Norbert married Mary Gilmour whose family, coming from  Ireland, had made their home on a ranch south of Oliver. The young couple  had two children, Alexandra (Sandra) and Norbert. Norbert and Mary built the  Medical Office Building which still stands and is still used as such. In 1942  Norbert's dream came true when St. Martin's Hospital was built and staffed by  the Sisters of St. Ann.  Norbert's second dream was to go overseas in the Second World War. He  was able to find a replacement in Dr. Cope and went east to begin his training.  In spite of his age and disabilities he managed to keep up with the younger men  and arrived in England just prior to the great push of June 6, 1944. He worked  in the front lines where conditions were at their worst and earned for himself the  title "The Bone Man". His army experience was the most important factor in  his life. When the war was over he was offered a position in Ottawa which  would have placed him in charge of all medical facilities in the army, navy and  air force, but Norbert was not a desk man. Instead he returned to his loved  practice in Oliver.  After years of illness Norbert's beloved wife Mary died suddenly  November 22, 1968. His planned retirement was pushed aside and he found  consolation for his loss in his continued practice.  In 1970 he did retire and in March of that year married Ruth Duggan.  Norbert and Ruth attended medical conventions all over the world and they had  many trips planned for their retirement years. Unfortunately in November 1973  Norbert suffered a severe stroke which caused almost complete paralysis of his  left side. At 69 years of age he found himself paralyzed on the same side as when  he was seven years old. He tried to function in spite of his disabilities but he sustained several heart attacks. It was the last of these which took his life December  15,1975.  Just one month prior to his death the Community of Oliver had honored  him by placing a plaque in the newly opened South Okanagan General  Hospital. But the greatest honor was the love, respect, and devotion shown by  those attending the ceremony: to be enshrined in their hearts was the greatest  honor.  To us he was a big brother whom we loved and looked up to. Norbert dear,  may you rest in peace.  Note: The authors are the sisters of Dr. Norbert J. Ball. They were born in Vernon but later, when  the girls were ready to attend school in Toronto, the family moved to that city. Rita's career as nurse  and nursing administrator took her to Edmonton, Trail and Vancouver Island. She retired in Oliver  in 1976. Marion came to Oliver in 1966 to care for her mother who had had a stroke. Later she married Mr. Steve Eisenhut. 125  FRANCIS RICHARD EDWIN DEHART  by Hume M. Powley  1874 - 1935  F. R. E. DeHart, 1930/31, age 55.  The Okanagan has been blessed over the years since its early days of settlement with people who came to the Valley with the true pioneer Spirit — to build  and improve. One person, I feel, who fits ably into this category was Francis  R. E. DeHart, who arrived in Kelowna in 1903 and resided here until his early  death at the age of 61 in 1935.  Frank DeHart was born in Whitby, Ontario on November 18th, 1874, son  of Edwin and Diana DeHart. After his public and secondary education he attended the Ontario Agriculture College in Guelph where he graduated in horticulture in 1896.  Following graduation he began to hear the call "Go West" so in 1897 he  went out to Indian Head, N.W.T. where he farmed until 1901. In 1902 he  started the town of Grand Coulee, N.W.T. by building the first store and opening a lumber yard and coal business. He began to hear about the Okanagan  Valley in B.C. — its great potential and climate. Again he headed west, coming  to the Okanagan and Kelowna in 1903. Soon after his arrival he associated  himself with Messrs. D. W. Sutherland, James Harvey, W. Glen and J. Glen,  to be known as "The Okanagan Fruit and Land Co.", based in Kelowna. He 126  managed the Company until 1907, and during that time they bought the property of A. D. Knox — an early pioneer of Kelowna. This property, adjoining  the original townsite of Kelowna was to be developed and sold for residential lots  and small acreages.  It was about this time Mr. DeHart became very involved in the expanding  fruit industry in the area. With his knowledge of horticulture and his artistic flair  he became recognized as one of the most successful fruit exhibitors in Canada.  He, in association with Mr. J. Gibb of Kelowna, scored a remarkable triumph  at the National Apple Show in Spokane, Wash, in 1908, winning prizes valued  at over $5,000 from a total of 43 boxes of apples. The success at the Spokane  Show caused great excitement back home. The Kelowna Courier of 1908 carried  big headlines reading, "Splendid Success of Kelowna Exhibit" followed by a  story of Mr. DeHart with his fruit display. It was in competition with the older  established fruit areas of Wenatchee, Hood River and other U.S. districts. The  Spokane Spokesman Review wrote after the show, "One of the finest exhibits is  that of Mr. F. R. DeHart of Kelowna, B.C. — arranged in terraces with fancy  quarter boxes filled with different varieties of apples against a pale green and  white background. Vases with carnations, bottles of cider and apple wine occupy spaces among the apple boxes causing the fruit to stand out in prominence." J. Gibb, who accompanied F. R. DeHart to Spokane, was foreman at  the Kelowna Growers Exchange, and instructed men, in those pre-First World  War days, to pack apples in the new diagonal pack.  Upon their return to Kelowna aboard the S.S. Okanagan both men were  greeted by a large and congratulatory crowd assembled at the wharf. The success of Okanagan apples at Spokane really set the Americans back on their  heels. Many had not heard previously of the young fruit industry north of the  border in the Okanagan Valley. This was the beginning of more successful  showings in Canada, U.S.A. and in Europe. These shows did much to help put  the Okanagan on the fruit map of the world. Today B.C. fruit is sold to markets  in North America, Europe, Asia and others. Actually, it was the Dominion Exhibition of cherries held in Calgary in the summer of 1908 at which Frank  DeHart was an exhibitor that led Mr. DeHart to show fruit later in Spokane.  An American exhibitor at the Calgary show urged Mr. DeHart to enter apples  in the Spokane show later in the year. Although apprehensive at first, with some  friendly persuasion he agreed to enter, and the rest is history.  In 1910 he captured three Gold Medals at the Canadian National Apple  Exhibition in Vancouver. He possessed great artistic taste in display and arrangement, making him in steady demand for such events. Frequently, he was  entrusted with commissions to collect fruit by both Provincial and Federal  governments for shows both here and abroad. In 1924 he was placed in charge  of the display of B.C. fruit at the great exhibition in Wembley, England.  Following his return from Wembley, he resumed his business of purchasing  fruit, both in the Okanagan and the Wenatchee area for export overseas. In  1926 he was instrumental in having the first shipment of B.C. Yellow Newtowns  to Egypt.  Frank DeHart did not confine his talents and interests in agriculture to  fruit alone. As we shall see he went on to take top prizes and medals in hard  wheat and peonies. Earlier, he had purchased the A. L. Fortune (of The  Overlanders) ranch in Enderby, where he concentrated on growing prize win- 127  ning wheat. In 1933 he won four prizes at the World Grain Exhibition in  Regina with four entries of hard Red Spring wheat. There were 295 entries in  that class alone. Frank DeHart won several awards at the World Grain Fair in  Chicago, Royal Winter Fair in Toronto and a first place at the Winter Fair in  Vancouver. All the wheat entries were grown on his farm in Enderby, proving  that as well as growing award winning fruit the Okanagan could produce award  winning wheat.  A story of Frank DeHart would not be complete without telling of his  growing of peonies — peonies which came to be admired in different countries  around the globe, especially in Asia. He experimented with different varieties,  he tested various shipping cartons as well as experimenting in shipping them in  cold storage. He had great success, both with the growing and shipping of his  peonies. One Kelowna Courier article read "Kelowna Peonies Bloom In  Shanghai" while another story tells of the shipping of peony blooms to New  Zealand where they arrived in tip top condition. In 1924 peonies were a feature  of the Canadian fruit exhibit at the Wembley exhibition. Frank DeHart and Dr.  Brander, Edmonton's well known peony grower, engaged in friendly rivalry,  each trying to develop new varieties. As a result, Frank DeHart came up with a  new variety which he called "Diana" after his youngest daughter, who, as  Diana McGougan, now resides in Vancouver.  Apart from his agricultural activities he found time to take an active part in  community affairs and in the pressing problems of the day. The fruit industry  was always, it seems, in a turmoil one way or another and 1933 was no exception. The growers were in a desperate situation, many facing disastrous returns.  Spearheaded by T. G. S. Chambers of Kelowna and Frank DeHart of the Independent Shippers Association, a mass meeting of over 600 growers was held  in the Empress Theatre in Kelowna on September 16th, 1933. After hours of  haggling and controversy the growers decided to strike, demanding the shippers  must guarantee 40 cents a box, exclusive of packing and shipping charges. Thus  the campaign, "A cent a pound or on the ground" was started. 1933 would be  truly a year the fruit growers would not forget. Frank DeHart was one of the  crusaders trying to get a better deal for the grower in particular and industry as  a whole.  He served as an alderman of the City of Kelowna for the two years 1907  and 1908. In 1909 he successfully ran for mayor, defeating his opponent, Frank  Buckland, by 21 votes, 120 - 99.  At the same election the electorate approved the purchase of 36 acres of  lakeshore property for $29,000 from David Lloyd-Jones, to be made into the  now City Park, by a vote of 164 - 43. The new City Park eventually became a  show place filled with flowers, shrubs and trees. Roadways, lawns, soccer fields  and a ball park were all built in due time. Frank DeHart did much in helping to  plan the layout of the park. The park was one of the beauty spots of Kelowna for  years — it has changed from its original layout due to highway construction  leading to Okanagan Lake Bridge and also after the Aquatic building fire in July  1969.  The DeHart family owned lots on Manhattan Beach, one of which was sold  to Mr. J. B. Knowles, well known pioneer jeweller in Kelowna. The house that  was built on the lot is still occupied by Mr. J. B. Knowles' son, Bill, and his wife  Joyce, the house having undergone a major renovation. The DeHarts had a 128  summer cottage which they named "Kill Care Cottage," the scene of many enjoyable summer evenings.  In 1914, Frank DeHart as his own architect, planned and built "Brookside  Manor" one of the finest homes in Kelowna. It is a two-storey house with unique  architectural lines, built beside Mill Creek, at that time just outside the Kelowna  City limits on Ethel Street. It was also the site of the original farm buildings built  by Mr. A. B. Knox in earlier days. The home was admired by all. The grounds,  seven acres, were all laid out in lawns, trees and shrubs with peonies of many  varieties along the driveway which circled the grounds. It remained in the  DeHart family until 1936 when it was sold to W. A. C. Bennett, later premier  of B.C. for over 20 years. It was the scene of many garden parties hosted by the  Bennett family and attended by thousands of people from all parts of B.C. It still  remains in the Bennett family and is admired by all who visit the grounds at  1979 Ethel Street.  Frank DeHart took an active part in the earlier regattas, helping them to  become eventually Canada's largest water show. Curling was also one of his  favourite winter recreations. He belonged to the following societies: AF & AM  ROM Knights Templars and the Shriners.  Frank DeHart passed away on July 9th, 1935 at the age of 60. He was survived by his wife, Petronella, three daughters, Mrs. Gus Lyons (Bey) of Vancouver, Mrs. Harold Miller (Una) of Calgary and Diana at home in Kelowna,  one son Guy at home, and three half-brothers, Harold of Vancouver, Victor  and Norman of Kelowna. Interment followed in the Kelowna Cemetery.  DeHart Avenue in Kelowna and DeHart Road in Okanagan Mission  perpetuate the family name.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interview — Mrs. Diana McGougan.  Early edition Kelowna Courier clippings.  Golden Jubilee Edition — City of Kelowna, Kelowna Courier — May 2, 1955.  Diamond Jubilee Edition — B.C.F.G.A. Country Life —January 1964.  Kelowna — Tales of Bygone Days by Art Gray.  The Vernon News, Special Holiday Number — 1912.  THE FINDLAYS OF KALEDEN  by Elizabeth Pryce  To the benchlands above Skaha Lake, where once Indians of the  Okanagon bands had camped and where later cattle of the Ellis Ranch ranged,  came settlers with a view to the future during the early years of the 1900s. Arnott, Worgan and Cheeseman were the first, followed by Corbitt, Hatfield,  King, W. P. Simpson and Jud Findlay, to name only a few.  It was with his brother-in-law, James Ritchie, that Jud Findlay first viewed  those rolling, brown benchlands above the lake one afternoon in 1906. An inspection of the only building near the lakeshore, which belonged to Warwick Arnott, turned up a note tacked to the door: "Gone to England. Back in 10  minutes." The wheels of James Ritchie's mind were set in motion and, astride 129  their horses, Jud Findlay listened to his brother-in-law's ideas and plans for the  development of orchards and irrigation upon the acres that would eventually  become known as Kaleden, land which Mr. Ritchie would purchase from Warwick Arnott.  Although Mr. Ritchie, settled in Summerland since 1903, remained, Jud  Finlay returned to his home province in Manitoba. But, during his short stay in  the Okanagan, the beauty, adventure and challenge which the valley presented  in those very early years, captured Jud's imagination and heart and, following  a three-year logging stint in Ontario, he returned to British Columbia, arriving  at the Ritchie residence in Summerland in 1910.  Judson Victor Findlay was born on May 24, 1888 to John Clark Findlay  and Margaret Findlay of Manitou, Manitoba. He was eighteen years old when  he made his first visit to his sister Margaret's home, arriving at the Summerland  wharf aboard the S.S. Aberdeen in 1906 to be met by the Ritchies.  On his second trip west he was accompanied by his parents and sisters on  the journey made to the Okanagan on the advice of the family physician, in  favour of Mrs. Findlay's health. Sisters Mary, Annie and Catherine (who  became known to all as "Aunt Kate" and served as Kaleden's community  nurse for a good part of her life), arrived in Summerland in 1910, subsequently  moving to Kaleden in 1911. Jud's only brother, Alfred, had already located in  Summerland as had his sister, Margaret.  Near the lakeshore the family lived the first year in a tenthouse until their  home, with the able assistance of Bill King, was built. J. C. Findlay, a  wheelwright of considerable note, planted 15 acres of orchard that year and thus  provided the first link of the Findlay family with Kaleden's history. The second  link was to be Jud's marriage to Miss Iva Simpson.  Gagetown, New Brunswick was the home of William Patterson Simpson  and his wife, Eleanor Evalora Georgiana (Lora). Their daughter, Iva Muriel,  was born there on June 10, 1896.  As was the case with many of the Okanagan's pioneers, a move west was in  consideration of W.P.'s health and, having a brother located in Summerland,  he arrived for a visit. After a year he returned to New Brunswick. However, the  lure of the west was sufficiently strong to cause the move to Kaleden of the  Simpson sons, Hartley and Perley.  As a man in the field of road construction, perhaps W. P. Simpson saw  many possibilities in the valley. Whatever his reasons were for moving, combined  with his failing health, he was prompted to seek transportation of his family  across the great breadth of Canada in the crowded conditions of the "Colonist  cars" of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the only means of "quick" transportation then. It was by no means an easy trip. It took one week, likely considered to  be "fast" in 1910, but the family had to provide their own food, bedding and  other necessary comforts. While such luxuries as curtains and cushions could be  rented, the problem of cinders had to be tolerated, as the upper roof vents of the  cars allowed easy passage of the bothersome, dirty things which floated in upon  the passengers.  Arriving at Penticton aboard the S.S. Okanagan on May 7, 1910, W. P.  Simpson, his wife, and family, Iva, Vern and Velma were met by Hartley and  Perley and brought to Kaleden by wagon in the dark of night, over the narrow,  twisting, dirt road along the mountains of Dog Lake. 130  Like the Findlay family and many others, the Simpsons were housed in a  tenthouse for the winter. Iva recalls with a slight shudder how cold it was by early  morning when the stove had gone out! Warmth and comfort were found at last  in the new home built the following spring.  It was in this house, the "Simpson House ", that Iva Simpson, at age  eighteen, married Judson Findlay on September 23, 1914. The following morning, when a cameraman could be located, Iva again donned her lovely wedding  dress made with the lace from her mother's own and sewn and embroidered by  Mrs. Simpson, and sat with her husband for the wedding photo, beside the  J. C. Findlay home. The oak chair in their wedding photo is still in use in their  home in Kaleden, seventy years later!  The fruit industry in Kaleden was to become Jud Findlay's life. The horse,  which played such a great role in the clearing of land, in planting and in hauling  the harvest to market, eventually gave way to trucking. Mr. Findlay witnessed  the change. Working at clearing and planting of Kaleden's first orchards, Jud used  such horse-drawn machinery as discs, plows and cultivators and saw the  development of Kaleden move toward over 100,000 fruit trees in the ground by  1911.  Jud and other Kaleden workmen took time out in 1912 to construct the  Kaleden Hotel. Cement hauling was done by Mr. Findlay with wagon and  teams over the narrow old road from Penticton, one load a day being all the  tedious trip would allow.  In 1917, while bands of Nez Perce Indians of the Colville Reservation in  Washington passed through Kaleden on their way to the Coldstream Ranch for  hop picking, the Kaleden orchardists were fast becoming the largest producers  of apricots, offering a sharp contrast between the old migratory ways of the  Natives of this land and the permanency of its new settlers.  In wagons, specially fitted out with bolster springs, Jud Findlay and  George Robertson hauled fruit to Penticton. They also brought fruit from the  Hody and Ed Thomas orchards in Okanagan Falls, hauling over the old  Kaleden road above Skaha Lake.  Eventually the railroad was built from the Falls to Oliver and Kaleden was  able to take advantage of the boat service on Dog (Skaha) Lake. Mr. Findlay's  fruit hauls then were to the Kaleden wharf built by A. S. Hatfield and J. F.  Campbell. Fruit was loaded directly into Canadian Pacific refrigerator cars on  a scow to be pulled by the S.S. York, to the railway at Penticton. When the  Canadian Pacific Railways extended its tracks through Kaleden in 1932, Mr.  Findlay sold his truck to Vern Fetterly, a blacksmith and cattle rancher at  Okanagan Falls, and continued his employment with the Kaleden Packing  House, which had begun in 1916, on a full time basis.  Mr. Findlay remembers the first fruit packing process being carried out in  one of the rooms of the Kaleden Hotel in 1915 (a year after the closure of the  hotel). In 1917 a packing house was built at the top of the hill by Muir Steuart.  At that time the Penticton Co-op Growers operated in tents until a purchase of  the building was negotiated with Mr. Steuart by the Kaleden Co-op Growers  Association in 1924.  In the new packing house near the lake Jud Findlay, Clem Battye, Edgar  Walker and others made boxes by piecework, "... more than 700 a day and if  you worked fast you could get off early!" Jud remembers. The steady rhythmic 131  sound of the nails being tapped into place along the edges of the boxes was like  a "piece of music, perfect in its sound", recalls one of Mr. Findlay's sons. "The  box makers never missed a beat with their hammers and a very fine tune came  forth" — a tribute to those patient men who passed long hours in tremendous  tolerance of what could be called "boring, tedious labour" in order to furnish  the containers which would take Kaleden fruit to distant markets.  From the beginning of the fruit packing process to the finish, Jud has  known most of the jobs. Receiving, warehouseman, loading of the cars were only  a few. Then after 44 years of employment he quietly retired without fanfare  from the Kaleden Packing House in 1960.  While Iva Findlay spent many long hours of involvement with the church,  the Women's Institute, and Red Cross making bandages, caps and mitts,  quilting, etc., her husband expressed a keen interest in sports, excelling in badminton, ping pong, croquet, baseball and skating, Jud also tells of his hockey,  soccer and lacrosse days back in Manitou where he grew up. Not only was Jud  Findlay good at sports, but it's been said of him that he "exhibited good sportsmanship" as well. While his children were growing up in Kaleden, Jud had a  badminton club and assisted with baseball. "Badminton started in the school",  he says, "then moved to the community hall. It was a good game for  everybody."  Their church played an important part in the life of the Findlay family. In  the early years the Baptist Church, Kaleden's only church then and now, was  held in several different locations, one of which was the Neville Smith house. At  one time both church and school were held in a tent located on land belonging to  the school district above the site of the Kaleden Hotel. For several years in the  early 1920s Jud served on the Board of School Trustees.  Kaledenites felt a great pride in the fact that their church served all  denominations and was truly a "community church". Mrs. Findlay belonged  to the Mission Circle, serving as its President for many years. She also played  the organ for services for a time.  An interesting story surrounds the beautiful organ which has now found a  resting place in the Findlay home. It was bought 96 years ago for the Baptist  Church in Manitou, Manitoba, the year that Jud was born. When a new one  was purchased, Jud's sister, Margaret Ritchie, bought the organ simply for the  cost of shipping and this lovely old piece of furniture was brought to Kaleden  and placed in the Baptist Church there.  Never feeling a yen for travel abroad on extensive holidays, the Findlays  have been content with trips to Vancouver for family visits and one nostalgic  holiday back to Manitou. Mrs. Findlay has never paid a return visit to New  Brunswick.  In speaking with the Findlays today, one is struck by their keen sense of  recall and pride in Kaleden, "their town". Many changes in Kaleden have been  witnessed and they recall many old-timers outside Kaleden: the Bassett  brothers, Jim Christie, Mr. Snodgrass, and the Thomases to name a few. They  remember the first mail deliveries which came from Penticton three times a  week by stage to Postmaster Seaman Hatfield in 1910-11; the West Kootenay  Power into Kaleden in 1932, putting a happy end to gas lamps and sad irons;  and hard, bitter winters of woodcutting with Clem Battye when Jud and Clem  used a Wade Drage saw purchased by a group of Kaleden residents to keep a 132  good winter's supply of fuel ahead for all.  Their life has been happy and full and blessed with seven children: Alfred,  Raymond, Shirley (Carley), Evelyn (McWhinnie), Lome, Marie (Lofgren),  and Kenneth. With their sons and daughters, twenty-two grandchildren and fifteen great grandchildren, Iva and Jud Findlay celebrated seventy years of marriage on September 23, 1984. The following day, with their usual pleasant  hospitality, they received old friends and new friends from all parts of Canada  and western United States.  A quick wit, keen sense of humour and a fierce independence are still with  Jud. At ninety-seven he still maintains the lawn and gardens around his home,  while Iva, now eighty-nine, continues to keep on top of her housework, baking  and related chores. Of Kaleden, Jud says: "I liked what I saw in the beginning  and I've been happy here", and of his life: "My wife has made life pleasant and  happy for me."  Theirs has been an exemplary and disciplined lifestyle, and reflects itself  beautifully in the personal satisfaction of their life in Kaleden, in the tremendous  love of their family, and warm affection of their many friends.  Note: On May 24, 1988 Jud's community helped him celebrate his 100th birthday.  DOLLY GREGORY  Dolly Gregory holding a picture of her grandmother, Catherine O'Hare  Schubert, the first white woman to travel overland from eastern Canada to B.C.  Mrs. Gregory died July 5, 1987. Earlier that year Peter Critchley had interviewed her for the Armstrong Advertiser and found her, at the age of 89, lively, enjoying life at Willowdale, and concerned for the comfort and welfare of -■*■-••  133  those about her — a worthy descendant of the grandmother of whom she said:  "She was a wonderful old lady. After they got here (Armstrong) there were no  schools or anything in those days. She went out, taught school, nursed, and  helped wherever she could."  Mrs. Gregory grew up near Armstrong on the 385-acre family farm at the  foot of Rose Swanson Mountain which was named for her mother. In 1920 she  went to Calgary to study nursing at the "Nun's Hospital." Later she nursed in  various communities in the Okanagan Valley.  TRIBUTE — Edith Mary Aitken  Edith Mary Aitken was born February 23, 1902 at Glenemma, B.C. the  only child of early pioneer settlers, Jabez and Rose Kneller. Mrs. Aitken lived  all her life in the Falkland-Glenemma area. For twenty-seven years she was the  organist for the Falkland United Church. For over twenty years she was  Falkland's news correspondent for the Vernon News and for the Kamloops Sentinel. A member of the Okanagan Historical Society for many years, she wrote  for the Report. Articles printed are: "Early Settlers of the Salmon River  Valley" (16:100-107); "Early Records of Salmon Valley and Glenemma  Schools" (29:49-53); "Early Churches in Falkland, Glenemma and Heywood's  Corner" (49:140-143). Mrs. Aitken was predeceased by her husband, Thomas,  January 6, 1984. She is survived by her five daughters: Olive Swift, Doreen  Aitken, Margaret Birnie, Ester McRae, and Elizabeth Watt.  THE COSENS FAMILY  by Constance G. Cumine  My grandfather, Cornelius Cosens accompanied by his two younger sons,  Arthur and Spencer, came from Chichester, England, to Vernon in 1893 and  homesteaded on Long Lake, now known as Kalamalka Lake. Cosens Bay was  named for my family.  This property known as Rattlesnake Point was later sold to the Earl of  Aberdeen.  Arthur worked on the Coldstream Ranch and Spencer worked for W.T.  Shatford in Vernon, then went to Fairview and worked for Shatford and Co.  The following year my father, Sidney, came from England and joined his  brothers in founding stores in both Camp McKinney and Fairview named  Cosens Brothers, Universal Providers.  In the spring of '98 Arthur left for the Yukon to seek his fortune where he  experienced a very adventurous and hazardous time. He returned in the fall of  '99 to Camp McKinney although not any richer.  In the meantime my father had returned to England to bring out his  parents, his father having returned to England after his first summer in Canada.  The brothers had had a two-storey log house built for them at Camp McKinney. Some of the happiest memories my father had of this period of his life in the  Boundary country had to do with his friendship with Father Pat1 whom he held 134  in high esteem and with Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie, the famous pioneer  judge. After some time Spencer went to Australia and eventually became quite  wealthy.  ■■i <^  Picture by courtesy of Joyce Cosens  The picture is taken in front of the house built at Camp McKinney by the brothers for their parents.  Sidney Cosens (my father) is driving the team, Grandfather Cornelius Cosens is the passenger. I am  told that the next person, with the cap on, is Chief Justice Begbie. Mrs. Ellen Cosens (Grandmother)  is sitting. Standing is the maid brought from England. Arthur Cosens is last. The picture was probably taken by Spencer Cosens.  In 1904, when the mines closed down, Sidney and Arthur disposed of all  the merchandise that they were able to but much of the stock and the buildings  had to be abandoned. They returned to Vancouver taking their parents with  them. Arthur went into business. My father did the same for a short time but  then went to Kelowna and bought a large eight-room house on 24 acres. He  planted a cherry orchard which, I understand, was the first one there.  On this property was a two-acre pond which attracted the wild ducks and  afforded an opportunity for shooting parties. My father and his friends used to  go on shoots for ducks. Grouse hunting was also a popular sport. In those days  there were no pheasants in the valley so my father imported some beautiful  Chinese pheasants and successfully raised some broods. After they were released  to the wild there was a moratorium put on shooting them for three years; they  quickly multiplied and spread from the North Okanagan to the South. 135  Around this same time my father also imported a carload of twenty  Shetland ponies which he gradually sold off. I do not know where he brought  them. When school started I used to drive my little sister Susette into school in  Kelowna in a two-wheel basket-type governess cart with a pony named Blue  Bell.  Time has brought so many changes: the pond has long since been filled in  and in place of all the lovely fruit trees are streets and houses. Children no  longer can drive pony carts to school. One wonders what the next seventy years  will hold for our children — it leaves one with a pot-pourri of emotions.  1     The Reverend Henry Irwin, known affectionately by the miners and loggers of Southern British  Columbia as Father Pat, arrived in Kamloops in 1885 to serve as an Anglican missionary.  KATJA KRAHNSTOEVER — ARTIST IN STITCHERY  by P. M. Ritchie and Jane Clark  Katja Krahnstoever was born in 1894 in Switzerland and died in the fall of  1987 in Summerland.  After her death the decision was made to hold a retrospective exhibition of  her work at the Gallery of the South Okanagan as a memorial and tribute to a  gifted artist and a remarkable woman.  Orincess (Osoyoos) 1934  Stitchery by Katja Krahnstoever Indian Group, Rodeo, (Tonasket) 1939  Stitchery by Katja Krahnstoever  The significance of the exhibition of needlework tapestries by Katja  Krahnstoever touches both the broad artistic community and the community of  friends from which the collection is drawn. She had many friends who were influenced by her strong, positive personality and character. Her life was one of  artistic accomplishment, along with her tapestries 'my paintings in wool' or 'my  stitcheries'. They were her passion.  Katja sold many tapestries at shows in Europe and the United States but in  recent years, after careful consideraton, she gave them to particular friends.  Therefore, collecting the works for the retrospective exhibition has been a recreation of the tapestry of Katja's own life. Attached to every work is a recollection of an event or an anecdote woven into the colour and texture of Katja's  character. Gratitude was extended to the Provincial Archives and Katja's many  friends who supported the exhibition through the loan of works, assistance with  exhibition planning and through generous donations.  When she lived on Trout Creek Point, she worked every day in a small  studio, rather like a little greenhouse. It faced north-east and in it were her  chair, her trunk full of wools of every colour from France, her needles and the  backing that she used for her designs. It was a peaceful, sun-filled oasis, a corner that nurtured many of her stitcheries.  The colours and subtlety of tones in her work are as fine as a Gobelin  Tapestry or of any painting. Katja also worked in silk, the stitches so small one  has to look closely to see them. She never wore glasses.  Katja grew up in Switzerland, one of three children. She received disciplined training in Swiss traditional embroidery which freed her to develop her own  imagery and to integrate her unique sense of colour and design. This sense of  colour and design was her own without denying the understanding and influence of important artistic movements. Her work had been exhibited in Zurich 137  on three occasions. Her most prolific time paralleled one of the art world's major transitional periods. Through travel and correspondence she never missed a  beat. The influence of Gaugin, the Fauvists and the Impressionists can be seen.  As a young person Katja became a costume designer for the Pitoef Theatre  Company in Geneva. Her life was full. She was talented and knew many interesting people in the theatre and in the art world. As well as English, she spoke  French, German and Italian. She loved best of all to speak in her native Swiss  dialect. Katja left her job in Geneva for a time to look after her niece Elizabeth,  whose mother died in childbirth.  After Katja married Felix Krahnstoever, they came to Canada to visit  Krahn's friend Jacques Landry who lived at Trout Creek, Summerland. There  they decided to stay and make their home. It became a delightful "menage a  trois". A European haven in a small house on an orchard. To go there was to  walk into another world: a world of books (The New Yorker and The Scientific  American were two regularly subscribed to magazines), of stimulating talk,  anecdotes and stories that enriched our lives.  Katja loved to be part of a group but she always said that she was an  observer; she liked to be on the periphery watching, saying little, but her perception and her sense of humour meant she always knew and she always  understood. When asked, she liked to talk about her work, totally absorbed in  the story and inspiration of each piece. She kept a little note-book with the  names and number of hours it took to do each piece.  One of Katja's favourite things was to organize "outings" either at a  friend's house or on her little beach where the wooden tables and chairs never  moved, but sank further and further into the sand, creating a timelessness, as we  sat on them eating stuffed eggs, beautifully prepared on a bed of geranium  leaves.  Katja brought us together. Through her we made new friends and,  unknowingly, she has brought us together again through this exhibition.  Note: Our authors are mother and daughter. P. M. Ritchie, the mother, is an accomplished and  well-known painter. Jane Clark is Director of the Museum of the South Okanagan.  EARL RICHARD TENNANT: a Community Man  by Roland A. Jamieson  The Salmon Arm Museum Scrap Book shows a picture of Miss Marion  Mallot and her grade six and seven public school class of 1927. You will find  Earl in the second row from the front.  Earl Richard Tennant was born on February 12, 1915 in Evarts, Alberta.  In those years intervening between birth and adulthood, Earl grew and  developed into a man of conscience in service to his home, his community and  his country.  His parents, Mr. and Mrs. R. L. Tennant moved from Alberta to Salmon  Arm, British Columbia, establishing a small farm and dairy on Rotten Row  within the city limits and began the delivery of milk on April 1, 1920. Their  children Walton, Louise, Earl and Charley all took their turn helping with the  farm and dairy work. It was here, they learned of service to others by the exam- 138  pie of their parents. Mr. R. L. Tennant was an active member and officer of the  Farmer's Institute. Mrs. Tennant was a loyal and devoted member of the  United Church and active in the church auxiliary of the Women's Missionary  Society.  Earl Richard Tennant  Earl became a Trail Ranger and benefited from the dedicated leadership of  Jack Wilcox, George Sinclair and Charley Lundy, all working in the Christian  faith. As Earl entered his teens, he became a baseb'all player and progressed  through the system as a score keeper, equipment manager, club secretary and  helped with the development of younger players. He remained a baseball fan  until the last game was played. Earl was a member of the Rocky Mountain  Rangers at the time Canada declared war in September 1939. This unit was  called to active service on August 26, 1939 and was placed on guard duty at  several places in B.C. Earl transferred to a tank unit and was on active service  in Holland, Germany and France.  After demobilization Earl returned home to Salmon Arm where he found  work with Chester Barker's Ford agency, Dearborn Motors. Earl began an apprenticeship as an automotive mechanic until he heard of an opening with the  Department of Public Works (Dept. of Highways).  Elsie Dabell of Revelstoke, B.C. enlisted with the Canadian Women's Army Corp. (1942-1946) and after demobilization worked in Kamloops, B.C. for  the Federal agency S.N.A.D., an administration office supervising the storage  of Naval ammunition. Elsie's next move was to the British Columbia Department of Agriculture's office in Salmon Arm. Predestination ordained that Elsie  and Earl would meet one evening at a social event in the Royal Canadian  Legion Hall (Post 62). Their romance blossomed into a marriage on December  26, 1952 and the adventure of life together.  Elsie and Earl built their new home on a small holding facing west on the  North Broadview Road (30th Street N.E.) next to the North Broadview  Elementary School (recently relocated to the Salmon Arm Museum Haney  Heritage Park). Here Earl and Elsie developed their land into a park setting 139  with trees and flowers surrounding a family vegetable garden.  Earl joined the local garden club and during his long membership served  one season as president and was the continuing secretary of their annual flower  show. He was always an active volunteer in the garden club's downtown  beautification programs. These included street flower boxes, tub planters and  hanging flower baskets. Major improvements around the Canadian Pacific  Railway station and parking lot with substantial plantings enhanced that area  with a colorful profusion of flowers. An unsightly triangle at the junction of  Okanagan Avenue and the Trans Canada Highway was transformed into a  floral delight. Despite several rampages by vandals upon their good works, these  volunteer gardeners are the unsung community workers and have, each year  with the arrival of spring, renewed the glory of color and fragrance with new  plantings.  Earl worked in his own garden until after dark on the evenings he was not  attending fire drill or ambulance sessions at the #2 fire hall at Okanagan and  Broadview intersection. His public service included an early membership in the  Salmon Arm Community Association, a unique organization that owns and  operates the Salmar and Starlite theatres, returning the profits to the community by way of grants and scholarships.  After 32 years of service with the Department of Highways Earl retired in  1970. During those years he was an active member of the B.C. Public  Employees Union, serving in several positions including Vice President of his  local.  The late Helenita Harvey, past President of the Salmon Arm Museum and  Heritage Association and representative on the Okanagan Historical Society  Board of Directors, enlisted Earl to assist with the planning and development of  the Haney Heritage site. His knowledge of local history was utilized and  appreciated.  Earl's sanctuary was with Elsie in their home and garden. Working in a  garden is a time for planning and reflection. There Earl's struggle against failing  health ended September 9, 1987. Earl is missed by his loving wife Elsie and his  two brothers, Walton in Kamloops and Charley in Edmonton. Earl will be  remembered for all of his community activities and by his co-workers for his  willingness to help with a worthy cause.  BERYL GORMAN GARDNER  by Ann Marrs  Beryl Elizabeth was the first child of William and Edna (nee Jacques) Geb-  bie, born in Vernon, December 13, 1912. William Gebbie had come to Vernon  from Howick, Quebec in 1903, lured by tales he had heard of the Okanagan  through A. L. Fortune who was Enderby's first settler and a first cousin of  William's mother. William found work with the pioneer merchant W. J.  Cameron. Before his marriage on January 31, 1912 William had established his  own drygoods store in premises adjoining the Jacques store. Edna, the eldest  child of Fred and Annie Jacques, had been born in Enderby where her father  had set up his watch repair business. Eventually Fred Jacques transferred his 140  business to Vernon, naming his company " F. B. Jacques and Son.''  Beryl's brother, Frederick William, was born in June 1914. The next year,  on November 5, 1915, Edna Gebbie died as the result of her third pregnancy.  The death of Beryl's brother from meningitis followed in June 1916. Beryl went  to live with her grandparents, Fred and Annie Jacques, and remained with  them until her marriage to Harry Gorman. (William Gebbie never got over the  death of his wife. Eventually he left Vernon to work in Vancouver, returning to  live in Vernon shortly before his death.)  Beryl attended Central School (Beairsto) and, later, South Vernon when  Fred and Annie moved, in 1920, to the brick cottage on Barnard Avenue just  west of B.X. Creek (also known as Swan Lake Creek). The cottage had been the  home of the Gebbies. Beryl graduated from high school in 1931 despite having  spent two years travelling with her grandparents in Britain and Europe. About  this time she met her future husband, Harry Gorman.  In 1932 Beryl began to study voice, winning a prize at the Okanagan  Music Festival which entitled her to six months' tuition at Pitman's Business  College in Vancouver. However, because of the depression, it was 1936 before  she found a job in which she could use her training, a part-time position in the  Fruit Inspection Office in Vernon, at $60 a month. She stayed in this civil service job for four years.  On April 7, 1938 Fred Jacques died in Los Angeles, where he had gone in  the hope of improving his health. On May 20, 1939 Beryl and Harry Gorman  were married, thus ending the long engagement which had been forced upon  them by the depression. Just two months after their wedding, war was declared  and the Vernon Military Camp reopened. Harry enlisted in 1940 and became  Staff Sergeant in a recruiting unit. Happily for Beryl he was kept in Canada, in  Ordinance.  On October 24, 1941 Michael Harry was born and five years later, on  April 8, Ann Elizabeth. Beryl's life centred about her home, church, and family  interests such as the Figure Skating Club. She was always ready to serve on  committees and in executive positions. Harry, too, was an active churchman,  serving both as Rector's Warden and as People's Warden, serving in the  Vestry, and being a member of the Men's Club. Beryl's 12 years of service to  the Okanagan Music Festival included representing the Okanagan at the Dominion Festival Association in Newfoundland in 1964. Beryl has long been a  dedicated member of the Okanagan Historical Society, serving the Vernon  Branch as secretary and editorial chairman. Her interest in local history lead her  to spend five years working in archival and historical research in the Vernon  Museum. Since that time she has assisted as a volunteer.  After the death of Annie Jacques on May 12, 1955 at the age of 92 years,  Beryl and Harry moved into the cottage on Barnard Avenue where they lived  until the property was bought for redevelopment by the City of Vernon in 1975.  In 1963 a loss of hearing forced Harry to give up his work as Secretary-Treasurer  and Assistant Manager of Radio Station CJIB. Thereafter he did accounting  from his home, Beryl lending her support when hearing was required. Outside  activities were curtailed for both of them. On February 13, 1978 Harry died  from lung cancer.  Gradually Beryl became involved once more in community affairs which  included volunteering at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. On November 5, 1986 141  she married Ernest Gardner and is now in a new and happy phase of her life.  On May  1,   1988 the Okanagan Historical Society conferred a Life  Membership upon Beryl.  Note: The author Ann Elizabeth Marrs is Beryl's daughter. In 1967 she obtained her B.Ed, from  U.B.C. On August 22, 1970 she married Brian Marrs. They have two children, Michelle and Duff.  Michael Gorman graduated with honours in Merchandizing and Business Administration from  the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology in 1962. He married Wendy Francks on July 22, 1963  and they have four children, Sean, James, Debra, and Andrea. Editor  CHARLES EDWARD OLIVER — Sept. 17, 1892 - February 13, 1972  Recollections by his sons, Wells Royden Oliver and Charles Edward (Ted)  Oliver, Jr. Transcribed by Mollie Broderick and edited by A. Waterman)  Charlie Oliver  Credit Mrs. Signe Oliver  Possibly Charlie Oliver had dreams of glory and sacrifice when he enrolled  in the Royal Naval Flying Corps while at the University of Toronto. However,  such dreams were doomed. When he graduated with an honours degree he was  considered more valuable to the war effort as a chemical engineer and was  assigned to a New Jersey munitions plant which produced picric acid.  A moment of glory had come his way at university when he won the Canadian Collegiate Fencing Championship1 against George Drew who later headed  the Progressive Conservative Party. Dad always said he had an advantage going  into the match as he was left-handed and Drew, a right-hander, had never fenced  with a southpaw before.  Charles Edward Oliver, born in 1892 in New Westminster, the second 142  youngest son of "Honest John" and Elizabeth Woodward Oliver, had four  brothers and three sisters, all of whom received their early education from a  tutor who lived with the family. Charlie went on to high school in New  Westminster before entering the University of Toronto.  On July 14, 1918 Charles married Nellie Wells, a Torontonian who was a  graduate Dietician at Macdonald Hall, Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph.  Mother often observed that the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille was a  fitting date for their wedding.  The first years of their marriage were rather hectic, Dad had a series of jobs  in different parts of North America: first at a mine in Rouyon, Quebec; then  with the zinc refinery of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company,  Trail, B.C.; next in Oregon at a pickle plant; and.finally in Vancouver. The last  move took Dad to an asphalt plant where chemists were trying to make lime-  sulphur agricultural spray in an open kettle process. While there he decided to  go into business for himself using a pressure vessel to combine the lime and  sulphur. The heat necessary to melt the sulphur would come from a steam boiler  rather than from direct heat on the bottom of the vessel which would have  resulted in a burn-through in a very short time.  In 1921 he set up a plant in Vernon, B.C. but after one season he found the  weather too cold in the early spring to keep the plant from freezing. In 1922 he  decided to move to Penticton which was 5 to 10 degrees warmer. Here, he  bought a large piece of property on the Kettle Valley Railway branch line to  their Okanagan Lake dock. The property was across from the Penticton fair  grounds on what was then Fairview Avenue.2  It was vital to locate the plant on the railway because the raw materials,  sulphur and lime, could be brought in only by rail and the finished product  similarly shipped to the fruit growing parts of the province. There were no  highways in those days for motor transport. Sulphur came from Texas, by way  of Vancouver, and lime from Kananaskis, Alberta.  As the lime-sulphur spraying season was a very short period in the spring  Dad naturally wondered what to make during the rest of the year. Always a  man of innovative ideas he was willing to try anything to get local produce to  market. To this purpose he added a lean-to along one side of the lime-sulphur  plant and went into the canning business. Many different varieties of fruit were  processed; most memorably cherries because we were fascinated with the intricacies of the machine which punched out the pits.  At this time Dad was also making ketchup. An old friend, Nicol Thompson  who wore an impressive, full white beard and resembled Santa Claus, was a  guest at our home for dinner. A bottle of Oliver's vintage ketchup was on the  table. Father was anxious to demonstrate what a great product he had. After a  lengthy discussion on how it was processed he proceeded to open the bottle to  give his guest a taste of the new condiment. It was a mistake to have aimed the  bottle in Nicol's direction. As the cap was twisted off, the whole bottle exploded  colouring the beautiful white beard crimson.  The first carload of ketchup was shipped to Vancouver but ended up in  fiery chaos at the bottom of a canyon as a result of one of the few fatal accidents  on the K.V.R. On September 5, 1926 on leaving Iago the freight's brakes failed  and, in spite of heroic efforts by the train crew, the locomotive and 25 cars  plunged through a wooden trestle near Jessica into the ravine below, killing four 143  of the crew. The loss of life was indeed shocking. As for the ketchup, which had  been shipped on consignment and might never have been sold, the accident proved  a financial windfall to the manufacturer.  Before the days of river flood control father decided to try his hand at raising muskrats. From the Indians he leased the slough across the Okanagan  River, west of the present site of the S.S. Sicamous. The breeding stock he obtained  from a breeder in Lake Windermere. He probably never got a nickel out of the  investment and it wasn't until many years later that Johnny Robinson told us  that he had trapped those muskrats and that they had probably kept his family  in groceries during the depression.  In his next venture Charlie set out to make use of all the cull apples that  were needlessly dumped each year: he would make cider vinegar from them.  For this purpose he constructed a three-storey, galvanized iron building, later  known as the "tin building". Inside, a large press and tanks were filled with  wood chips through which apple juice percolated to convert it to vinegar. Outside were four large 12' x 24' tanks to store the finished product. The apple juice  was also put through a low temperature vacuum process to remove excess water.  The result was a very sweet concentrate, a syrup — not vinegar. It is not known  what purpose this concoction would serve but Dad found a buyer in Vancouver  who would take all he could get. The concentrate went to a supposedly  legitimate business but, actually, it was fermented and distilled next door into  alcohol and shipped to the thirsty Forty-eight. It was not long before Customs  and Revenuers put an end to that project. Nevertheless, with adjustments to the  process, enough vinegar was produced in three or four years to cover sales for  ten years.  Wells Oliver remembers washing empty whiskey bottles, filling them with  vinegar and then sticking the labels on. There is one in the Reg Atkinson  Museum still — a beautiful glossy multi-coloured label, "Summit Brand Cider  Vinegar". Charlie's son accompanied him on trips all over the province by car  when he called on grocery stores to try to sell his vinegar. His product wasn't  very profitable but he certainly got to know a lot about the country.  In the early 1930s father and three partners formed the Western Peat Company to mine the peat on the west side of the Pacific Highway in Whalley. They  later expanded to bogs on Lulu Island, the Burns bog in North Delta and even  bogs in New Brunswick. The Whalley property was sold when the peat ran out.  If the partners had had more foresight they would all have become  multi-millionaires as the former bog underlay many of the present shopping  centres in Whalley. The other bogs were profitably sold to an American conglomerate in the '50s.  In the early '30s a school friend of the Gilley Brothers came upon several  tons of galvanized iron at scrap prices. The outside of each case was rusted and  water-damaged but inside the air had not got at the galvanizing and every sheet  was in perfect condition. Dad made up the necessary forms and was now in the  flume business. The gauge of metal was heavier than that generally used so he  designed a rolled lip that gave the length of the flume rigidity so that it was self-  supporting between each 10-foot stand. This was a good selling feature as less  wood was used to construct an irrigation system. The business grew to the extent that it had branches in Kamloops, Lethbridge, Medicine Hat and Calgary.  In the early '60s Dad could no longer cope with the travel necessary to keep proper 144  control and he reluctantly sold the Alberta operation.  Father also had a large ranch at Okanagan Falls, 1,200 acres purchased  during the depression for slightly more than a dollar an acre. On this land he  developed the then largest cherry orchard in the Okanagan Valley and grew  peaches, pears, apricots and grapes as well. During the Second World War he  defied B.C. Tree Fruits by selling his crop of Candoka peaches direct to the  C.P.R. Candoka was a marvellous fuzzless peach that achieved a size about  twice that of a normal peach. For some reason it was not a prolific producer and  had to be abandoned after a half dozen disappointing years. Candoka peaches  surely were the prettiest peaches ever shipped, all packed in Easter-egg  excelsior.  At about the same time, during the war, father got the contract to strip the  old Kaleden Hotel. The lumber, doors, windows and especially plumbing fixtures, and radiators made it a very profitable venture when building supplies  were unobtainable due to wartime restrictions.  Politics came naturally to Charles Oliver though he failed to get the same  public recognition his father had. He was reeve of Penticton from 1932 to 1935,  mayor of the city from 1957 to 1961. He was defeated in the 1935 federal election by Grote Stirling who had been Minister of National Defence in the R. B.  Bennett government. He did not essay federal politics again.  He was always controversial and cocksure of himself but managed to retain  more friends than enemies. During one of his last civic contests, he informed the  electorate that if certain aldermen were re-elected along with him, he would  resign. He got his way and managed to retain the affection of the defeated Elsie  MacCleave to his dying day. She was a great lady and, politics aside, he knew  it.  There was a bit of the pixie-renegade in Charlie, too. It was his reluctant  honour to introduce Premier W. A. C. Bennett at a gathering in the old Capitol  theatre in Penticton. Although he rarely drank more than a summer's afternoon  beer, Charlie must have appeared to be among the fallen on this occasion. He  over-reacted to the stage lighting being too poor, pretending that he was unable  to read his notes. This, from a speaker of known extemporaneous accomplishment! After begging the indulgence of the self-acknowledged great man, and the  rest of the brethren, he got down on his hands and knees the better to read by  the glow of the footlights. The faithful were convulsed with laughter and W. A. C.  was so enraged by the upstaging that he never spoke to Charlie again.  Editorial Note: Charlie Oliver was a rugged individualist of great talent and charm; he helped to  shape the history of the Okanagan Valley. This article can only skim the surface of a long and colourful career. Behind the public, and often controversial figure, lived a man whose many acts of kindness  and generosity will never be fully known.  1 In effect, the Canadian Championship as there was no national competition at that time.  2 This street was later re-named Wade Avenue after the first Penticton reeve, Alfred Wade.  Harley Hatfield, long time member of the Okanagan Similkameen Parks  Society and key figure in the fight to preserve the historic trails of the Cascade  Wilderness area has been named as this year's recipient of the Volunteer Award  given by the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. (1987). 145  HALIBURTON THOMAS TWEDDLE  by Doug Cox  Hal Tweddle was born in Santa Monica, California on February 17th,  1913, the only son of Haliburton Tweddle and his wife, the former Miss  Florence Louden of Loomis, Washington. At the time, Mrs. Tweddle was holidaying there and remained in Santa Monica until July 1st, when she returned to  her home in Keremeos, British Columbia. The family moved into the second  Central Hotel situated on land at what is now the corner of Highway 3A Bypass  Road. Because government regulations required the owner of a hotel to live in  the hotel, and as Mr. Tweddle Sr. owned the Central Hotel, the family took  residence there upon their return. This order was later rescinded in 1915 and  the Tweddles were able to move back to their home place which was the  Englewood Ranch.  At Englewood, Hal's three sisters were born: Margaret in 1915, Eileen in  1917, and Willa in 1920. The family also consisted of four half sisters and one  half brother from Mrs. Tweddle's first marriage to Mr. Richter of Cawston.  Until they were of school age, Hal and his youngest half sister Helen were taken  care of by nursemaids, Miss Nelson and Angie Conley. Once in school in  Keremeos, Hal's teachers were Miss Spragett, then Miss Katie Walker, later to  become Mrs. Max Clark. He was also taught by Mrs. Mona (Jack) East.  In 1924, accompanied by his half brother Frank Richter, Hal attended the  Vancouver College boarding school operated by the Christian Brothers of  Ireland. He remained there until June 1930. In the autumn of 1930 Hal was  sent to Gonzaga High School in Spokane, Washington, returning in June 1931.  During the next two years Hal settled to work on the ranch, which encompassed  not only a cattle operation, but an orchard as well. However, as Hal's main interest was with the cattle raised at Englewood, he involved himself in all aspects  of the process — feeding throughout the bitter winter season, calving in the  springtime, branding, and moving the herd onto the summer range high into  the Ashnola Mountains. The rough terrain and often inclement weather made  the fall roundups a difficult and exhausting ordeal.  It was in the Ashnola that Hal suffered a serious accident which cost him  the loss of one eye. While chopping kindling from a pitch log, a piece flew up,  piercing his eye. Herb Clark removed some of the wood from the eye. Then, accompanied by Joe Harris, Hal rode his horse out the twenty miles to Keremeos  where Johnny Campbell, the druggist, removed some more of the splinter. He  was then taken to Penticton, where he was referred to a surgeon in Vancouver.  His father, Harry, who was at Joe Lake in the Ashnola Mountains, was notified  of his son's accident and rode horseback through the night to catch the Great  Northern train in Keremeos and transfer to the Canadian Pacific Railway  passenger train in Princeton to accompany his son to Vancouver. Admitted to  St. Pauls Hospital, a valiant attempt was made by Dr. T. B. Anthony to save  Hal's eye; however, due to infections, the eye had to be removed. Returning  home in November, Hal took over the less dangerous cooking chores for the  ranch hands and family for the winter months, resuming his regular ranch  duties in the spring.  Hal Tweddle and Audrey Clark (from Allen Grove) were married in 1933,  and moved to Vancouver in May where Hal apprenticed with a meat packing 146  company. While the Tweddles resided in Vancouver, two of their four children,  Patricia and Gerald, were born. After their return to Keremeos in October of  1936, Carol and Maureen were born.  Haying on Cawston Flats during 1930s. The mosquitos were so bad, the men had to put sacking over  the horses.  Florence and "Harry" Tweddle; their children Hal and sisters (L) Margaret, (R) Eileen and (Seated)  Willa, c. 1930. 147  Employed at Englewood once more as a ranch hand and butcher, Hal  worked mainly at fulfilling the contract which his father had secured with the  Mascot Mine near Hedley. For almost nine years Englewood Ranch shipped a  continuous supply of beef and other farm produce to the mine. During the years  of the Second World War Hal often rose at 3:30 a.m. to do the butchering, after  which he filled in 10 to 12 hours each day of general ranch work. Farm help,  because of the manpower shortage, was often unobtainable and long — near  'round the clock — hours were put in by those young men who had to remain at  home.  During the 1930s and early 1940s the cattle from Englewood Ranch were  trailed from Cawston to the original Clark ranch on the Green Mountain Road,  where they overnighted, continuing to Penticton the following day. Loaded at  Penticton, the beef cattle were transported to Vancouver via the Kettle Valley  Railway. In 1943 a stockyard was established at Okanagan Falls and there the  cattle were brought in a week before the scheduled sale and were weighed, graded  and auctioned. The established meat packing firms of Burns, Canada Packers,  Swift and Pacific Meats bought up the herds of the Okanagan and Similkameen, shipping the cattle west to Vancouver and east to Calgary by C.P.R.,  loading on site at the yards in Okanagan Falls.  Haliburton Thomas Tweddle - 1931, following graduation from Gonzaga High School.  The partnership formed by Hal Tweddle and his father, Harry, expanded  the properties of Englewood Ranch. During the early 1940s, the ranch included  800 acres of range land up the Ashnola (Hargraves), land on Crater Mountain  and Pudding Head. In 1950, the partnership was dissolved and the properties  sold to a Mr. Denny from Oregon, Louis Prince from Oroville and Frank  Louden (Hal's uncle) from Oroville, Washington. In no time the land was stripped of cattle, horses, hay, machinery and trees, and listed for sale. In the meantime, Hal left the Similkameen upon separation from Audrey, to search for a 148  suitable place in the Cariboo, then to the Kootenays and back to Vernon, finally  reaching a decision to buy back the old ranch.  Forming a partnership in 1951 with Mrs. Alice (Brent) Thompson who  later became his wife, the ranch was restocked with cattle, horses and equipment. Following the Second World War the land on the Upper Bench had been  opened up for sale to veterans. The new farmers grew hay to supplement their  incomes. As the Tweddle Ranch had purchased additional haying equipment,  these fields were custom baled by them. With Mrs. Thompson's two sons, Stan  and Jud, Hal and Alice baled hay almost '"round the clock" for 29 different  customers on ranches ranging from Kohler's Ranch south on the Richter Pass,  east to Ollala, and west to Coal Creek (presently Outward Bound location).  In the meantime, the Tweddle Ranch became the stopping place for Prince  and Louden of Oroville, Washington, who were buying cattle from the Cariboo  Country, transporting them by trucks (as many as six at one time) to the Tweddle Ranch where the cows were tested for brucellosis by a veterinarian from  Penticton. The cattle were held at Tweddles' throughout the testing period.  Over 6,000 head were tested in one year alone. Following this, the cattle were  taken across to the United States for breeding and beef marketing.  Before his retirement from cattle ranching, Hal was appointed brand inspector for the area. In addition to management of his ranch and the added  duties of inspection, Hal started a meat business. With Alice's help, he butchered  and sold meat wholesale. At one time they sold over 20,000 pounds of boned-out  meat to be made into hamburger patties for one of the first "burger outlets" in  the area, the A & W.  In 1964 when he finally stepped down from his saddle, Hal had ridden 42  years in the Ashnola Mountains. A holiday trip around the world on the Oriana  was a "finally realized dream" for Hal and Alice Tweddle. After visits to Japan,  Hong Kong, Singapore, India, Ceylon, through the Suez, the Mediterranean,  to Egypt, Italy and Portugal, with the final two weeks in England, the Tweddles  crossed the Atlantic on the Franconia to holiday a week in Montreal before returning home. When Alice's son, Jud, moved to Merritt, Hal and Alice moved into  the place which they had purchased before their holiday and which Jud had  looked after for them.  During the early 1960s Hal and Alice dabbled in real estate and operated a  small antique store for two years. Their purchase of the well known Boston Flats  Ranch at Ashcroft took them back into cattle and haying once more. After installation of a massive irrigation system was completed, the Boston Flats Ranch  was sold in 1968 and the Tweddles returned to Keremeos. Following a busy, but  interesting life, Hal Tweddle made retirement final.  In all his work for the community, the most ambitious undertaking was the  improving of the Cawston Hall, for which the Tweddles were awarded the Good  Citizens of the Year in 1982, honoring their efforts. The project was begun in  1971, after much hard campaigning for funds and assistance. It took ten years  to completely renovate the hall and install proper facilities. Other projects included the donation of trees for the cemetery grounds and the development of  Kobau Park and playground. Hal was a member of the B.C. Livestock Association and later he was given life membership to this organization. He was instrumental in the early development of the stockyards and stock sales at  Okanagan Falls and was associated with the Interior Stock Association. He was -  149  also President of the Rodeo Association when Keremeos staged its first Annual  Elks Rodeo. As well, he had been involved with the Brent family in the great  roundup of horses for the "Russian Horse Buy", a five-year program carried  out between Canada and Russia before the war years. Wild horses were  gathered from the mountains of the Okanagan and Similkameen, trailed to Penticton where they were shipped by rail to Vancouver and transported by boat to  Alaska.  Haliburton Thomas (Hal) Tweddle passed away on April 13, 1986. He is  survived by his wife Alice of Keremeos; son Gerald of Edmonton, Alberta;  daughters — Patricia Fizer of Whitehorse, Yukon; Carole Sofko, Kamloops  and, Maureen Mahoney, Kelowna; step-sons Stanley Thompson of Princeton  and Gerald (Jud) Thompson of Kamloops, and several grandchildren. Also surviving Mr. Tweddle are sisters Margaret Newstrom of Oliver; Eileen Steele,  Creston and, Willa Eden, Campbell River, and half-sisters Betty Penelton of  Seattle, Washington and Kay Durnan, Blaine, Washington, as well as many  nieces and nephews. Hal was predeceased by his half-brother Frank Richter,  and half-sisters Freda Shaw and Helen Clark.  SINGING WIND  Oh singing wind tell me  Have you come far?  From hills where the treetops  All reach to a star?  Oh singing wind tell me  Did you not blow  On slopes where the paintbrush  And blue lupin grow?  Oh singing wind tell me  Did you find there  Ghosts of old laughter  And song on the air?  Did you see a happy lad  Riding along  With you in his laughter  And you in his song?  Oh singing wind tell me  Has he gone far?  Is he on the hilltop  In reach of his star?  Isabel Christie MacNaughton. 150  WORKING TOGETHER  AN APPRECIATION OF THE 100 YEARS OF THE HISTORY  OF SPALLUMCHEEN LODGE, NO. 13, G.R.B.C, A.F. & A.M.  by Mat S. Hassen  The oldest Lodge of Freemasonry in the Okanagan Valley is Spallumcheen  Lodge numbered 13 on the Registry of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia.  1988 will mark the 100th year of the existence of this Lodge, first established in  the settlement of Lansdowne and afterward moved to Armstrong. The original  settlement was located at the junction of three roads from which radiated the  road east to Enderby and the river boat landing on the Spallumcheen River  (now named Shuswap), west the road from Kamloops and south the road to  Priest Valley and Kelowna. In 1888 the Shuswap and Okanagan Landing  Railway had yet to be routed and built. However, when that came into being,  Lansdowne was by-passed. The population of the settlement of Lansdowne,  about 100 in all, and a good many of the buildings, moved almost en bloc to  what they then called "the island", where the railway was to establish a station  named "Armstrong" named after a principal bondholder in the financing of the  line. Lansdowne had been nothing more than a convenient centre for the social  and basic services of a budding farming community and seems to have taken its  name from an hotel built in 1885 and named Lansdowne after the then Governor General of Canada, Lord Lansdowne. The hotel served as a convenience for  the travelling public of the day.  In 1886 a Masonic Lodge had been formed at Kamloops, about 75 miles  distant and located on the Canadian Pacific Railway. There, also, was located  an Episcopal Church under the Rev. D. H. W. Horlock who also was the  Master of the Kamloops Lodge. It appears that the North Okanagan area  adherents of the Episcopal Church were the responsibility of the Rev. Horlock  and to attend to the needs of these people meant a minimum four-day round trip  from Kamloops. In 1887 the Bishop at New Westminster sent an assistant to  Kamloops in the person of Canon William Henry Cooper. The said Canon  Cooper, then aged 57, was an ardent Freemason, having been initiated into the  Order while serving in the British Army in Ireland where he also had been ordained as a Priest in the Service. On retirement from Military service and  before arriving at New Westminster in 1887 he had served as a Missionary in  New Zealand, Australia, the Canadian Northwest and the Northwest Territories. His Masonic record is no less spectacular as during his lifetime he held  membership in two lodges in Ireland, three in England, four in Australia and  two in New Zealand as well as four in British Columbia at Kamloops, Donald,  Spallumcheen and Rossland and later two more in Ontario. It is small wonder  that during his visits to Lansdowne he would have met with ex-patriate Masons  and discussed the lack of opportunity to meet together in this new land.  There were 12 interested members of the order originally from Ireland,  England and Eastern United States and Canada and seemingly fairly youthful  as the first Senior and Junior Wardens were then only 26 and 27 years of age  and were comparatively well established in this District by that time. None were 151  confident enough to undertake the tasks of applying for the establishment of a  lodge, or of leading it in its initial stages but they were fortunate in having the  well learned Canon willing to attend to the formalities and to undertake to attend monthly meetings requiring a four-day round trip in each of the 12 months  of the first year in order to occupy the principal office of the lodge. Canon  Cooper prepared and presented the petition to form a Lodge to the Grand  Lodge of British Columbia, signed by 13 original members and designating  himself as Worshipful Master: G. H. Rashdale2, co-owner of a grist mill at  Enderby, Senior Warden; John Hamill, co-owner of Hamill and Pringle Sash  and Door factory, Junior Warden; Robt. Wood, General Merchant, Treasurer;  R. S. Pelly, Land Surveyor, Secretary; Chas. Lambly, later Government Agent  at Fairview, Senior Deacon; Norman McLeod, Steam Engineer, Rashdale &  Lawes Grist Mill, Junior Deacon; Frank Hassard, farmer, Inner Guard and  Cyrus Tilton, farmer and American Civil War Veteran, Tyler. The other  signatories were Sibree Clarke, teacher, druggist, Medical Doctor, Kamloops;  A. P. Goldsmidt, Hudson's Bay storekeeper, Priest Valley; Thos. LeDuc,  teacher, Round Prairie; James Steele, farmer, Hullcar (of the Steele-Briggs  Seed family). Spallumcheen Lodge was the first to be established in a rural area  in B.C. and no other lodge has ever received a charter in such a short space of  time, or maybe in such a manner. The lodge was not instituted and had done no  work before the dispensation was granted on the 20th June, 1888. Grand Lodge  met that year on the 23-25th June and on the 25th June granted the Charter to  Spallumcheen. The formal constituting was carried out on 14th July, 1888  under the capable direction of Canon Cooper, as the Grand Master had commissioned him to act in his place which at least had the advantage of the Grand  Master avoiding the rail trip to Kamloops and the long trip on horseback to the  little wilderness community.  The first meeting place was in a loft over Hamill and Pringle's shop, rent  free. Later that year the local barber had a two-storey building built in which he  occupied the ground floor as shop and residence and rented the top floor to the  Lodge, which was used until 1893 when the move to Armstrong took place. The  source of supplies of regalia was too far away for the purchase of the necessary  insignia so the local tinsmith made up the needs for the sum of $7.25 and some  of the members' wives made aprons.  There is little intimation of unusual circumstances while the Lodge was at  Lansdowne. Membership generally was esteemed and saw the number of  members greatly increased. But more difficult times were in store. The second  decade saw hard times, members moving away, debt by reason of the new  building, reduced income to the point that in 1897 the membership was down to  26 and serious thought was being given to returning the Charter and possibly  joining with Miriam Lodge more recently formed at Vernon. One who had  joined the Lodge at Lansdowne, Clement F. Costerton who was a co-owner in  a General Store, later moved to Enderby and then to Vernon where he conducted an insurance office and was a Notary Public. He had been very active in  the affairs of Spallumcheen Lodge, was a Past Master and in 1897-98 was the  District Deputy Grand Master. The Rt. Wor. Bro. Costerton made a motion to  consider the possibility of the cessation and discussed it with the Freemasons of  Miriam Lodge where he was a regular visitor, as well as being a staunch  member of his own Lodge to which he journeyed by horse and buggy each 152  month. It appears that his enthusiasm and devotion evidenced in both Lodges  had the effect of bolstering the spirits of the members of both with the result that  nothing was done relative to the motion to dissolve Spallumcheen or join with  Miriam Lodge.  In 1901 a vindictive drunk set fire to a building in town with the result that  most of the business core was destroyed, including the lodge building with all its  records and furnishings. On the 24th August a meeting was called to consider  ways and means for replacement, for it seemed at the time enthusiasm for the  Order was again triumphant. The result was an offer of a loan of $1,000 from  Bro. T. W. Fletcher, the builder of a number of original Armstrong buildings,  (provided the building was to be valued at at least $1,500), a loan of $250 from  Grand Lodge and the balance from Members so that a new building would be  built on the 33-foot lot on Railway Avenue, facing the railway station (the site  and building presently owned and occupied by Spallumcheen Lodge in 1988).  On the 5th October 1901 the first meeting was held in the new lodge rooms. On  reading old correspondence, the second decade was a time of difficulty for the  area and,it would seem, many another part of Canada. Grand Lodge requested  payments for dues, which were remitted with apologies for late payment. Some  members were pleading for time to acquire, in some instances, as little as $2.50  in order that they might keep their membership in good standing. Included were  a number of letters from those who had re-located in distant parts of the country. Both World Wars were followed by upsurges in new memberships but losses  were also experienced as re-locations were the order of the day, mostly by reason  of the terminations of war-time special activities and the return of former  residents.  Spallumcheen Lodge Members are most fortunate to follow the many  dedicated Freemasons who kept the organization going with strict adherence to  the best principles of Freemasonry. All were either farmers or small town  business or professional people, with sincere respect for each other. Naturally,  also, they were well acquainted with each others families. A good percentage of  earlier day members were from Great Britain where they had been well schooled  in the niceties of life and diction, who took the various tasks allotted in the  Lodge to heart and carried out their duties and responsibilities in a most sincere  and pleasing manner. In retrospect, one can well imagine that the Charter  Members had entered into Freemasonry in similar pleasant circumstances and  were eager to resume such fraternal enjoyment in the land to which they then  looked for their own futures. Many of the Members of the first half-century  period were the true builders of the Community, men who devoted much of  their time, knowledge and energies for the betterment of themselves and their  fellowmen. They were people who recognized the potentials of this bounteous  wilderness area and who exerted great efforts to create a creditable, beneficial  and enjoyable place in which to reside and raise their families.  The history of Spallumcheen Lodge has been recorded in somewhat more  detail by the writing of the Late Rt. Wor. Bro. A. E. Sage, long time secretary,  in the published Report of the 72nd Communication of Grand Lodge, 1943, reprinted in the Okanagan Historical Society 27th Report, 1963, written by the Late  Wor. Bro. Jas. E. Jamieson and covering up to the 75th Anniversary of  Spallumcheen Lodge.  Continually maintaining a membership in the range of 80 to 90, there is 153  one noticeable increase, the numbers of members receiving recognition for 50  and 60 years is growing, which would indicate that there is something worthwhile to be gained by those who would devote time and effort along the lines  sponsored by the Order. Additionally, regardless of the modern amenities of  life, man has changed little since the beginning of time. He is a social animal,  and he prospers from his personal communication and association with his  fellowman, and more particularly while in pursuit of common interests which  are of value to himself, his community and his country, but which do not interfere with his private life and aspirations.  Spallumcheen Lodge No. 13 A.F. & A.M., G.R.B.C.  This photograph, secured from Mrs. John Hamill and enlarged in 1934, was taken in front of the  Lodge Rooms at Lansdowne in 1891. The lower floor was used for a tool house and the Lodge  Rooms were in the upper storey with outside stairway. The men were: back row, left to right -  Richard S. Pelly, Secretary; Geo. H. Rashdale, I.P.M.; front row, left to right - Frank Hassard Sr.,  Senior Deacon; Thos. W. Fletcher, Junior Deacon; Fred H. Barnes; John Hamill, W.M.; Thomas  Clinton, Tyler; D.J. Macdonald, Junior Warden; Norman McLeod, Senior Warden.  This CW. Holliday photo is courtesy of Spallumcheen Lodge, No. 13 (ASMAS No. 4537)  THE OLIVER SENIOR CITIZENS' SOCIETY, BR. #16  by John Zarelli  In 1953 the Senior Citizens' Association of British Columbia was incorporated. In 1954 the Old Age Pensioners' Association of Oliver, B.C., under  President Harry Lyndon made application to affiliate with the provincial Senior  Citizens' Association. The application was accepted and, on July 16, 1954, a  Charter was authorized and granted to the seniors of Oliver in the name of the  Oliver Senior Citizens' Association, Br. #16. 154  Harry Lyndon served as its president from its inception until the end of  1960 and then again from 1962 to 1965, a total of 10Vi years. Johanna  Caughlan was president during the year of 1961. Elizabeth Schmidt succeeded  Harry Lyndon in 1966 and held the office till January 20, 1971 when she resigned because of a tragedy that had befallen her family. In 1966 the Club made  Harry Lyndon Honorary President of Br. #16 and in 1971 Elizabeth Schmidt  was granted the same honor.  Following Mrs. Schmidt's resignation Jim Gourlie, Maurice Willis and  Caroline Mund each served a two-year period as president. From July 1st, 1977  till 1983 the following persons held the office of president in the following order  for a single term: George Bishop, Peter Peterson, Mary Koenig, Cora Carlson,  Ernie Henry, George Dolder and Dorothy Carr. Succeeding Dorothy Carr, Art  Osland served a two-year term as president.  On the membership list for 1954 the names of the following people who still  live in the area appear: Caroline Mund, Joe Rogers, Nan Rogers, Ben Clarke  and Susan Seidler. Our Branch's paid-up membership has varied from year to  year. In 1954 there were 73 members. Its lowest recorded enrolment of 64 occurred in 1956 and its highest 500 in 1986. Included in the figure of 500 there  are 12 Life Members.  Our first big project was in the minds of seniors before Br. #16 existed. J.  F. Currie of the O.A.P. spearheaded the drive for a retirement home for the  elderly. In 1955 the senior citizens were given five lots by the Village. Shortly  after obtaining this gift two adjacent lots to the five were purchased by our  Branch. The original Sunnybank Home and the Kiwanis Village now occupy  this site.  Under the British Columbia Society's Act the Oliver and District Senior  Citizens' Society required a board of Governors so that one was elected with  Jack Currie as its Chairman. Jack served in this capacity for seven years. We  owe our thanks to Harry Lyndon, Frank Venables, Charles Webster, Albert  Millar and his wife Daisy, the Rev. F. C. Howell as well as to Jack Currie, and  many others who gave much of their time and money to establish a retirement  home for Seniors — Sunnybank.  By November 1, 1956 a total of $51,923.83 was collected or guaranteed:  Cash in bank - $12,089.83; Pledges - $3,000; Non-interest bearing loan -  $9,000; Lumber - on long-term deferment payment - $4,500; Government  grant - $23,334.  Our Branch supported Sunnybank in other ways also. It furnished a room  and made several cash donations from time to time. The money was obtained  through raffles, sales of contributed goods, bridge competitions, etc. In 1984 we  collected the sum of $2,200 and turned it over to the Board of Sunnybank for the  purpose of furnishing a room in the new Retirement Home.  Another big project, one of great importance to Branch #16, was to have a  Club-hall of its own. For the first 14 years of the Branch's existence most of its  general meetings were held in the Legion Hall or in Sunnybank while most of its  executive meetings took place in private homes. Members searched for a  suitable location on which to build a hall but without success.  This problem was solved when Beth Lawley made a gift of a lot to the  village for a Centennial Library with a senior citizens' club-room below it. The  completion of the hall was brought about with borrowed money and volunteer 155  labor. Finally, on November 6th, 1967, we had a club-room of our own. The  Village Council of that time informed us that it would be ours for permanent use  and that the Village would pay for the utilities.  The following members of the Branch have been honored with Oliver's  Good Citizen Award: Frank Venables, 1954; Mr. and Mrs. Albert Millar,  1957; Harry Lyndon, 1960; Rev. F. C. Howell, 1974; and Joe Rogers, 1979.  Between September 1973 and September 1974 Maurice Willis prepared  and published four Newsletters and these were distributed to the membership by  way of the post. (Postal rates were much lower than they are today.)  In 1981 George Bishop as Editor-in-chief, assisted by Madeleine Whittet  and May Whyte once more started the publication of a Newsletter, ten issues for  each of the years 1981, 1982, and 1983. The last copy was issued in April, 1984.  There were 34 issues in all. The membership looked forward to each issue.  And now the preparation of the seniors' Newsletter is in the capable hands of  our secretary May Kirkwood who assumed the position of Editor-in-chief  assisted by Madeleine Whittet and May's husband Bill Kirkwood. The first  copy of the Newsletter put out by May and her staff appeared on January 21,  1985. The membership is always glad to get the latest copy of the Newsletter. One  has only to read the latest issue to be brought up-to-date regarding the activities  of the Club.  Another achievement of importance to the senior citizens in our district was  the enlargement of the Club-hall. There was need for a bigger hall for the growing membership. The opportunity for expansion arose in 1980 when the  Centennial Library building had to be extended.  The seniors chose a committee consisting of Chairman Al Trenear, Ernie  Henry, Madeleine Whittet, Jim Whyte, and Peter Peterson to campaign for the  necessary funds to build and to furnish this project. The committee was aided by  the following five pairs of eager helpers: May Whyte and Alma Nilsson, Kay  Erickson and Gladys Prestmo, Mary Koenig and Hilda Simpson, Madeleine  Whittet and Rose Christian, and Norma Henry and Stella Trenear. These  women solicited contributions over the phone to our building expansion fund.  As a result of this campaign a large turnout of members and friends attended an  open house held in the Club-hall on Friday, August 8, 1980. The amount of  $3,500 in donations was realized at this gathering and Chairman Al Trenear expressed his gratitude to all for coming and for the generous contributions.  The building fund was increased by other means as well. Super-Valu  donated a side of beef for a raffle. A Flea Market held under the direction of  Mary Koenig and Hilda Simpson realized over $1,000. Additional financial  assistance was obtained from the business community, banks, other institutions  and service clubs. The out-of-town business of Woodwards also sent us a  generous donation.  In addition to the money (more than $7,000) brought in through our own  efforts, the B.C. Lotteries Branch allotted us the sum of $10,000 and we received  $15,000 from the New Horizons program. The Club is also grateful to many of  its members who freely contributed time and physical labor doing painting,  carpentry, hanging pictures, hanging drapes, etc.  The Drop-in Centre has become an active rendezvous for seniors. It serves  for practically all of our executive and general meetings and in it bingo, bridge,  whist and cribbage parties take place on a scheduled plan. It is also used for 156  keep-fit classes, hobby clubs, dances, and sing-a-longs. Also available for the  pleasure of members and guests are a snooker table, a shuffle-board, a television  set, and shelves of reading material. Simple refreshments are available at all  times to the membership and visitors at a nominal charge.  During 1985 the total attendance at the Drop-in Centre was 17, 023 for the  314 days that it was open, giving a daily average attendance of 54.2. In the first  11 months of 1986 the total attendance was 20,436 for 285 days open, giving a  daily average of 71.7. The club has had visitors from other B.C. centres, the  Prairies, the eastern provinces, the U.S.A., the U.K., and even one visitor from  Paris, France.  The members have given their support to many resolutions that were instrumental in bringing about social legislation beneficial to all Canadians. They  also contributed cash donations to numerous worthy groups and causes. The  Club has not sought benefits only for itself but also endeavours to make life enjoyable for all mankind.  OLIVER UNITED CHURCH SUNDAY SCHOOL  by Carleton MacNaughton  It is amazing how quickly things, both important and not so important, are  forgotten and lost unless the story is recorded and saved. We find the historical  records of most of the older churches of the Valley speak of their ministers and  the part that they and their churches played n the building of the communities  of the Valley.  However, the backbone of these churches, the Sunday Schools, are rarely  mentioned. This is rather sad, as it is from these same Sunday Schools that the  present personnel of the churches, the present drive, and the hard workers  came. Sunday Schools come and go, rise and fall. Their size and attendance are  unpredictable.  I leafed through the Okanagan Historical Report No. 27 and read of the history  of the Oliver United Church 1921-1963. It was interesting to reminisce because  for 18 of those years, 1940-1958, I was superintendent of the Oliver United  Church Sunday School. I had been a teacher and youth leader for several years  and became Superintendent in 1940 when ill health forced my father, J. B.  MacNaughton Sr., the previous Superintendent, to resign.  It was during the war years that the upsurge in attendance began. It  crested in 1958. From the late thirties the attendance had gradually increased  from approximately 100 to an average of 230 per Sunday. Why? That is a good  question. I don't know all the answers, but certainly most of it was the drive and  love of a dedicated group of teachers and officers both men and women, good  department heads, interesting programmes, as well as the "baby boom" following the War. I suppose that during the War everyone was doing his bit and this  effort carried over into the following years.  We had two major departments: the older children in the main body of the  Church, and the junior department downstairs. There was a superintendent for  each department, 35-40 teachers, a secretary-treasurer, and her assistants. This  was a really live-wire group. Once every month we had a pot-luck supper 157  followed by a teachers' meeting at which problems and ideas were discussed.  Sunday School was held one hour before Church, so we had the whole building  and on some special days we overflowed to the Elks Hall across the street.  And the kids kept coming. Their parents brought them and some parents  stayed. Others came and picked them up and stayed for church. We brought the  outdoors right into the classrooms. We had programmes with flowers and outdoor classes. Later when I had the Gray Sage Museum we brought wild animal  pets and birds to family services, which we had once a month. This was a great  way to teach the children of God's great Creation and a love of His handiwork.  There were many after-Sunday School hikes and picnics and parents gave  us real co-operation. No one had to be dragged to Sunday School. You couldn't  keep them at home! Then there were not all the distractions there are today:  hockey, baseball, T.V. etc. Young parents came to Church in great numbers  and on family Sundays the church was packed.  Today this same church has a small, but active, Sunday School, and other  boys and girls programmes. However, there is a much smaller number of young  parents and a large percentage of retired people.  I have purposely mentioned no names, as there were so many helpers and  many would be left out as my memory is not what it used to be. I expect the  swell will come again as it has in the past, but it would be a shame to ignore, or  forget, that very exciting and active era which came with a newer community  and a swelling population in the 1935-1965 years. Those were years in which I  was proud and happy to have played a part, as did so many other fine and  dedicated people.  God bless them all!  RIVERSIDE COMMUNITY HALL  by Audrey E. Bogert  The Ashton Creek Social Club formed November 12, 1927 soon found the  local school house too small for its socials. (Members and guests were having to  dance in shifts.) In January 1931 a new organization, the Ashton Creek Community Club, undertook the construction of a new hall. Minutes indicate that  this building was ready for use by May of that year. Some old-timers recall that  a few rounds of logs had been put in place before snowfall in 1930. This building  served the community for over twenty years.  By the 1950s, when the women of Trinity Valley began to feel that their  community needed a hall, there were many at Ashton Creek who believed that  the time had come to build a new and larger hall. On May 25, 1953 members of  both districts met in the Ashton Creek Hall to discuss a joint project. It was  decided to form a new Community Club which would undertake the building of  a new hall at Riverside near the Baxter Bridge over the Shuswap River, about  10 km east of Enderby. In the meantime the old Ashton Creek Hall would be  used by both districts. In August 1953 an executive was duly elected.  Many of the names of those working on the new hall are the same family  names of those who built the old hall. From 1953 until 1965 Frank Peacher served as President of the Club. Vice-Presidents for the same period were: Lome 158  Trueman, Ed Tipton, Keith Johnson, Art Gillard and Frank Zamis. Secretaries  were: Sylvia Dugdale, Harold Bawtree, Irma Gillard and Ruth Bawtree.  Treasurers: K. Johnson, Audrey Bogert and Walt Widmark. The above table  officers served on many committees throughout the project. In addition we find  the following Directors: Mildred Frederick, Charlie Dugdale, Jerry Raboch,  Jerry Wejr, Len Bawtree, A. (Bert) Frederick, Eddie Smith, Harold Lardner  and Nick Mazur. Eddie Harrison served with Ed Peacher and C. Dugdale on  the Land Clearing Committee. Bert Marshall, Mike Kuzma, George Kipp and  Joe Volpatti served with most of the men named above on the Building Committee (later to be renamed Improvement and Maintenance Committee). Jean  Carbert, Stan Wejr, Rosie Tokairin, Myrt Marshall were among those who  served as Auditors. Names of those on the Entertainment Committee, the group  responsible for raising the money required for the building, include: M.  Peacher, Peg Jones, Dolly Johnson, Elsie Harrison, Anne Raboch, Mrs. Lloyd,  I. Gillard, Frank Nadrozny, Hank Lundquist, Marie Olich Jr., Dan Frederick,  Johnny Bogert, Olga Doubek, Beatrice Trueman, Grace Lundquist, Mr. and  Mrs. Wildman, Mr. and Mrs. Vidal, Ernie and Pearl Croaker, W. Lardner, R.  Tokairin, Ted Stahl, Mary Widmark, Rose Case, Charles Shute, M. Marshall,  Ida Volpatti. New names appearing in the Recreation Commission are: Vern  Botkin, Glen Brydon, George Olich, Eddie Olich and Jenny Turner.  Back to 1953. Being able to start this hall took a few more years than anticipated because the property from which the club was trying to buy four acres  was mortgaged and therefore not owned outright by the seller. More delays  resulted when the property changed hands, not once, but twice, V.L.A. being  involved. However, after many letters from Vernon lawyers, Mr. Emmerson  and, mostly, Mr. J. Davis (both of whom incidentally donated their time to help  the club) and some very worrisome days, the four-acre parcel was finally purchased. Riverside Club had the deed and land clearing could begin. Jerry  Raboch was one club member who held out for purchasing four acres instead of  one acre. Thank goodness for his foresight. This land cost the club $50 per acre  plus survey charges.  Meanwhile, lumber (or promises of lumber) was being stock piled in  various ways. Donations from Kingfisher Sawmill (Acutt & Tipton), Riverside  Sawmill (Rabochs), and Armstrong Sawmill in Enderby (Jack Smith) were all  gratefully accepted. Men of the community, some of whom were F. Zamis, C.  Shute, Ernie Tucker, Glen Lloyd, L. Bawtree, Edwin Cooke, E. Croaker, B.  Frederick and E. Peacher, cut logs — fir, larch, birch, etc. — from several locations. Riverside Sawmill donated the use of its mill and planer, the labour being  supplied by volunteers between regular shifts and on weekends. Vern Botkin  and Ron Shulte were two who donated their trucks and time to haul logs. Some  names show up at all stages of preparation and building, but everyone put in as  much time as he was able to do.  Some shiplap was sawn from logs removed from the Department of  Transport Power Line right-of-way to the Hunter's Range V.O.R. site. As the  power line was a federal project harvesting the timber was not mandatory and  considerable time elapsed before the timber was removed. The high, cool  altitude prevented wood borers from becoming active, but when the logs were  hauled to the hot valley bottom and stacked these pests came to life. Lumber  from these logs used on the interior walls of the hall shows this interesting worm  damage. 159  The floor plan for the hall was originally drawn up by Ed Tipton and  Harold Jewell. However, as things proceeded, these plans had to be altered,  amended and completed. Gerald Raboch took on this job, redrawing the plans  to scale and putting in all necessary details. Finally the plans were submitted to  the Provincial Fire Marshall's Office, the only inspecting agency at that time.  The building was to be a Quonset — where "the roof meets the footing."  Throughout the planning stage the club profited from the advice of the Salmon  Arm Curling Club which had a similar building.  During the next few years community residents and businesses (and Baird  Bros.) who had caterpillar tractors — large and small — lent them at various  times for use on the new property. In May of 1956, an old-fashioned work bee  and picnic was held. Pictures taken that day attest to the fact that a very large  number of residents from Grandpas and Grandmas to children turned out to  help clear land, pick roots, etc., etc. etc. Any logs suitable for fence posts were  so cut and later sold; the money being added to the fund for the new hall. Of  course, a well-laid "pot-luck" picnic table was also the order of the day. Mrs.  Wejr Sr. was heard to say it was just like old times and how she really enjoyed it.  Next came the digging of the basement with Cyril Peacher and G. Lloyd  being two of the "cat" drivers. This was early in 1961. It had been decided to  hire one head carpenter who could be at the site at all times any volunteer was  able to be there. Bert Frederick was that carpenter. Even though it was his full  time job, Bert would take only about two-thirds of the amount he could have  earned as a wage elsewhere. This was his donation to his community. Walt  Widmark, although volunteering his time, spent many hours, (almost as second  in command to Bert), as they directed other volunteers. As president Frank  Peacher also put in many hours beyond the call of duty.  The first rafter being raised, Riverside Community Hall.  Photo courtesy A. Bogert 160  Finally building could start. Forms for the cement were built from cottonwood lumber donated by Armstrong Sawmill in Enderby. The cement came  from Baird Bros, at cost price with Ossie and Ross Baird driving the cement  trucks, and volunteers seeing that the cement settled in the forms properly. Next  came the beams and floor joists on top of which was laid the sub or working  floor. Jens Birkelund, Tom Coulson, A. Glushenko, E. Cooke, B. Marshall and  Jimmy Misca were some who were helping then. During the summer, K.  Johnson had a broken arm, but he did as much as he could with the good arm.  Forms or "jigs" were built securely onto the floor. These were to shape  and hold the laminated arches or trusses as 1x4s were glued and nailed in tiers.  Once these were dry and removed from the forms, they held their shape very  well. Bert's niece, Linda Peacher, helped him make the first arch. The 1x4s  were purchased in Sicamous.  One rainy Sunday towards summer's end, the arches being completed,  enough help showed up and the arches were "manhandled" into place by "people power" with the help of ropes and pike poles. A very strong wind blew that  night but none of the arches fell. Within a few days the underlay sheeting was on  and the arches were held securely in place. Hank VanDalfsen was another who  helped about that time. As the aluminum roofing was put on, a slight peak was  left at the top to split the snow in the winter. Some could work up there and  some couldn't. C. Shute managed it along with Bert.  After the outside was finished, the inside sheeting of the hall began. L.  Bawtree was one who hauled shavings from a mill on the airstrip near Mabel  Lake. Whole families would go to the hall and "stuff the walls as the boards  were nailed in place. Henry Zamis remembers Cooke and Widmark youngsters  there among others. When it came to the ceiling, a blower was used, but the  shavings still had to be leveled. E. Tucker can remember helping to put up the  ceiling rafters.  Once the doors were on with panic hardware, probably from E. H. Coulter  or Farr's Hardware (both were good with discounts) it was time to think about  the rest of the inside. Since there was to be a "mothers' room" and /or a "projector room" with a window view to the hall and stage below and built over the  washrooms and entry, the stairway had to go up through one of these rooms.  The ladies felt that if they were the ones to be most often using the stairs, it  should be through the ladies room. Since the holes were already drilled through  the floor for the plumbing opposite to what the ladies wanted, it was only after  a rather lively discussion and threats to use a certain fixture as a baby bed that  the ladies won out. All those at the meeting shall remain nameless.  It seems that gremlins must always get in. For some reason or other, at the  last minute, the floor plan did not get into the hands of the carpenter until after  the cement had been poured, and it was found that we had a building 90' x 40'  instead of 96' x 40'. Consequently, two feet were taken off each section,  washroom, main floor and kitchen, so as not to make the dance floor smaller.  While all this building was going on, "many hands made light work".  There are people who are not members who have always been willing to help  too. Following is a list of members who didn't hold any official position, but they  certainly did their share by helping in other ways. Herb Calvert, Lena and Bob  Cunningham, Mrs. Stangler, Dave Jones, Wenzel Krai, Wenzel Peacher, Orville Trueman (janitor), Mrs. I. Simard (teacher), Mrs. Marie Bogert, Grace 161  Tipton, Joe Doubek, Tina Birkelund, W. H. Cooke, Ethel and Warren  McAusland, Marion Rands, Mrs. Kirkpatrick (teacher), Mr. Fralick (teacher),  Verna Calvert, Paul Birkelund, Dee Wejr, John Olich, Mrs. Marie Olich Sr.,  Archie Estes, Rose and Florian Neagele, Ruth Nadrozny, Pearl Glushenko,  Tillie Pecher, Mr. and Mrs. Theo. Cameron, Gordon Carbert, Mr. and Mrs.  Paul Pinette, Louie Wejr, Beryl and Bill Hebditch, Nettie and Bill Seibt, Mrs.  Marie Wejr, Andy Blanchette, Jack Turner, Harvey Lloyd, Alvin Raboch,  Bobbie Cunningham, John Salamandyk, Kaye and Mac Daye, Mr. and Mrs.  H. Burgess, Mr. and Mrs. Walter Gould, Mr. and Mrs. Ed Haberstock, Mary  Nadrozny, Marion Cooke, Don Dewar, Lois and Don Geiger and Zwaantje  VanDalfsen.  Beatrice and Lome Trueman had Ashton Creek Store at that time and  were helpful to the club in any way that they could be. One of the things they  did was to buy some old theatre seats and donate them to the club. These were  not entirely satisfactory, so with Lome's permission, they were sold and wooden  chairs purchased. There was a Riverside Ladies Club by this time and the  members had a contest. Each one built a stool about 3' long (by herself). I can't  remember who won, but some of those stools are still around today!  For the first electrical wiring, Terry Richards of Vernon donated his  labour, and he had George Rands as one of his helpers. As is quite often the case  this has been changed several times, due to having more heavy appliances such  as electric stoves.  The last big project in those original stages of building the hall, was preparing and laying the birch flooring. 1965 was the date. Before the hall was ever  started, G. Harrison and his sons harvested some birch logs from his own property and donated them to the club. These were sawn at the Raboch mill at the  Trinity site, with I. Tokairin and his crew donating the labour. This lumber remained stock piled there for a long time. Then C. Shute remembers hauling  some of it down to the Riverside site and having to unload it by hand. With  memory being the only source of information, more birch lumber was obtained  from birch logs purchased from G. Rands and then exchanged for labour, to the  club. The two lots were resawn at Armstrong Sawmill (donated machinery and  labour) into 2x2s and 1x2s, (reportedly being very hard to pile and keep on the  truck, and later, after planing, even harder to handle!) This was all taken to  Vernon where Frank Becker's Pioneer Sash and Door donated the use of the  planer, and Earl McKay donated his time as planerman. F. Zamis and G.  Raboch were in charge of having this material prepared, so they took one load  to Vernon in off hours, and Frank Nadrozny, with his brothers Joe and Tony,  took another load. The finished product was 1 H»xl XA and %xl Vi. The reason  for the shape was that there would be a choice of 4 sides and 2 sides respectively.  When it came to laying the floor more fun began. Some of the wood was so hard  that the nails wouldn't go in, so holes had to be drilled. This was done at an  angle and each board was nailed to its neighbour, not the sub floor. One helper  found to his dismay that his work was being ripped up by others because it was  nailed incorrectly. This job took three weeks to complete — the last two weeks  in November and one week in December of 1965. It would have taken even  longer, but large crews turned out afternoons and evenings all that time. Help  from the Lions Club in Enderby was also very gratefully received. It is  rumoured that through history, there had never been so many sore knees! Now 162  it was time to start sanding. Two large sanders were used, one donated by E.H.  Coulter and the other rented from Vernon. One night, after work, Stan Wejr  and Kobo Tokairin did some sanding on the way home. When they came back  after supper, smoke was arising! It seems a spark from a nail had landed in the  sawdust bag. Any darkened areas on the floor were able to be sanded off and  work resumed.  Soon after this, Frank Nadrozny, Joyce and Ken Case and Gerald Raboch  painted basketball lines on the floor. When at a loss as to what to use to make a  certain size circle, an old cream can that was being used for water was spied;  they traced around that, and painted inside their line. John Pritchard donated  some cash to buy some finishing lumber for the stage.  Last, but not least, whenever there was work being done by the men,  women and children of the community, there were others supplying plenty of  eats, even cooking on electric hot plates for the hungry workers. As one  gentleman expressed his thoughts — "Many pleasant weekends and evenings  were spent. Some, like the farmers, were able to be present some days, and  others in the evenings. There were always lots of lunches, tea and coffee, and  comradeship."  Most of the money needed for this large undertaking was raised by  volunteers putting on a variety of functions such as dances, turkey shoots,  barbeques, suppers. Don Warner from Radio Station CJIB in Vernon offered  to put on and MC one talent show for only $10. In later years a little help was  received from the Regional District and labour from "make work plans," which  helped to fence off the river, build the playground and partially build the new  addition.  Members of the club, past and present, are very appreciative of ALL help  received. Hopefully, not many names have been missed, but if any have,  apologies are extended. I would like to thank everyone whose memories I have  tapped for this article. In some cases I have used the very words of the one involved. As minutes for meetings are sparse, often memory is all we have to go  on.  GWEN LAMONT  Gwen Kortright Lamont (nee Hutton), the artist whose "Simpson  Ranch" is to be found on this year's cover, was born at Fort Macleod,  Alberta in 1909. She attended the Ontario College of Art where Arthur  Lismer was one of her teachers. Following graduation in 1929 Gwen sketched and painted in Northern Ontario and in the Fort Macleod area.  Later she painted in northern British Columbia and on Vancouver Island.  She knew Emily Carr. Late in the 1940s Gwen and her husband John,  with their twins Gwendy and Eain, moved to the Okanagan, making their  home in the Kelowna area. There Gwen died in 1978. Many of Gwen  Lamont's paintings and sketches have to do with places and people of  historical interest.  Editor 163  STUDENT ESSAYS  This year the OHS Student Essay Contest has been conducted under the able chairmanship of  Mr. Jack Tait of Kelowna. With the assistance of Dr. Duane Thomson of Okanagan College,  Mr. Tait prepared and circulated a portfolio of documents — 10 letters written from Kelowna  by Charles Mair between 1892 and 1896. Students were invited to read the letters, develop a thesis  regarding the author, and then write an essay in which the student's insights were supported by  evidence from the letters. Essays of the conventional type were also accepted.  In the Junior section two students tied for first place. The $50 Junior Prize would have had to  be divided had not Mr. Jamie Browne arranged with Radio Station CKOV to award a full prize  to each student. We are grateful.  STUDENT ESSAYS  Junior Contest — First Prize and Co-winner  of J. W.B. Browne/CKOV Award  INTERPRETATION OF LETTERS WRITTEN BY C. MAIR  IN THE 1890s  by Vicki Baschzok  "The primitive people are the Siwash Indians, half-breeds, ancient, uncouth farmers . . . ," August 23, 1892. Only someone who considered himself  to be an aristocrat could make a statement such as this, and C. Mair certainly  portrayed himself as one. C. Mair felt intellectually, culturally, and economically superior to others as I will show in my essay.  C. Mair felt that he and his family were culturally above other, obviously  well-off families, since they sent their daughters to a school which happened to  be not good enough for Mair. In Mair's letter to Denison, dated May 8, 1895,  he asks Denison about a certain Bishop Strachan Ladies School for his daughter  Mabel. He states that: "... Miss Dupont's (Mabel's former school) is simply  a nest of vulgar brewers' daughters . . .", indicating that Miss Dupont's school  was very unrefined and less than adequate for his daughter.  Another example of Mair's ideas of cultural superiority is that he felt that  the Okanagan and the United States of America were uncivilized. In his letter  of January 4, 1896 he states: "I have had enough experience of wild life — quite  enough." Mair considered his native country, Britain, to be more refined and  better suited for child raising. According to Mair: "This is a stupendously wild  country, overflowing with the out-door life the boy (his son Cecil) loves, and it  would unsettle him." His opinion of the United States is not much higher. He  felt America was a bloodthirsty, sorry nation. Only England was good enough  for Mair.  Charles Mair was unquestionably an educated man. His knowledge was  apparent in the way he spoke about current events and literature in his letters.  Was it possible to match Mair's brilliance? Charles Mair felt that it was not.  He mentioned in his letter to Denison, January 8, 1896: "... [the young  Englishmen] were woefully ignorant of our trials". 164  Another example of his feelings of intellectual superiority was his contention that his work was too good for the everyday public, especially the younger  generation. On May 18, 1896, C. Mair wrote: "So far as the future of  'Tecumseh' is concerned, I am not so sure that it would be a benefit to have it  pawed over by boys who for that very reason, might afterwards neglect it as  men." Would it insult Mair's intelligence to have his work printed in a mere  schoolbook? Mair decided reluctantly to let his work be published in a textbook  so that the nation be not deprived of any benefit. Mair goes on to criticize, in the  same letter, the Americans' falsification of history "in order to implant their national sentiment in the impressionable mind of youth." He states that our  history is recorded essentially true, and he further criticizes or questions: "If the  Americans are justified in making an immoral use of history in order to fortify  their sentiment, how much the more are Canadians justified in using history  aright for a similar purpose?" And with these thoughts in mind he agreed to  allow his work to be published in schoolbooks which would influence the most  impressionable minds of Canada. In conclusion, Mair felt his accounts of Canadian history were more accurate than those of the Americans regarding their  own history and for that reason he allowed his work to be published in a school-  book even though it would not get the recognition he thought it deserved.  Mair also believed he, as well as the rest of Canada, were far more  economically advanced than the States. In reference to the States he says: "The  rotten hulk to the south of us seems to be on its last financial legs." (July 12,  1893)  In his letter of January 8, 1896, Mair proves that he values money. In this  letter he states: "Perhaps a good war would do good all round". He felt a war  would solve the depressed economy and further the sale of land. Thus Mair  valued money over lives and the welfare of his country.  From the evidence shown in this essay it is very apparent that Charles Mair  portrayed himself as an aristocrat. Simply stated, no one or nothing in Kelowna  was good enough for him.  ARMSTRONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL  by Jordie Fulton (Armstrong Elementary School)  Many children have grown up in Armstrong over the years knowing the  red brick elementary school. This school, the first consolidated school in British  Columbia, has a long history of providing quality education to the community,  and is still serving that purpose very well.  However, consolidating the school system did not happen without a lot of  work and many people helping out and promoting consolidation from 1915 to  1921. One of these people was the school inspector, Arthur Anstey. He was concerned with the fact that few children were passing their high school exams. He  attributed this to the difficulty of providing high quality education in the one-  room schools scattered around the area. He believed consolidating the schools  was the answer, and promoted it vigorously. Unfortunately, he was transferred  to the Fraser Valley in 1919, and never saw consolidation in Armstrong. James  Wright, who was the first mayor of Armstrong as well as being the postmaster 165  First staff of Armstrong Consolidated School, 1921. (Front row left to right): Lucy Dedolph, A.E.  Carlson, Florence (Adair) Soles, M. Brydon and E. Wilson. (Middle row left to right): G. Elbey, T.  Lantz, E. Dimock, Principal Tom Aldworth, V. McTavish, G. Fraser and L. Maxwell. (Back row  left to right): R. Garner, B. Johnson, Vice-Principal R. K. Bell, Dorothy (Dunwoodie) Garner and  J. Conden. The Garners are the parents of Terry Garner of "Reach For The Top" fame.  and a member of the school board for 30 years, was another strong advocate of  consolidation.  With the help of these men and other supporters of centralizing the schools,  the idea got off the ground, and a series of public meetings was held in Armstrong and Spallumcheen. The main problem to be solved was getting children  to the school from around the countryside. This would mean using busses,  which would mean an increase in taxes. The tax increase caused some opposition, but on the whole, the people were quite supportive. After the public  meetings, and much debating at school board meetings, it was decided to build  a new consolidated school in Armstrong.  On September 8, 1921, the new school, commonly known as the "Big  School", opened, with Dr. McLean, the Minister of Education, presiding over  the ceremonies. Many people came to look at the new school, and some were  even reminded of their old school, since the bell came from the old Pleasant  Valley School. To commemorate the opening, two blue spruces were planted on  the front lawn, one representing Armstrong and the other Spallumcheen. For  some time afterwards, the trees were watched carefully to see which was growing  faster. Both trees are still thriving after almost 70 years.  The new school was designed to hold a maximum of 500 students, and had  10 classrooms with about 40 students per class. Soon however, the number of  classes rose to 15, and it wasn't long before the school became overcrowded.  This was a problem that would be with the school for a long time, but it was 166  September 1921 opening of the Armstrong Consolidated School.  temporarily solved in the late 1920s by moving grades one and two to the old  primary school that was located in the present Memorial Park. Some of the  original rules were: no walking on the front lawn, no talking in the halls, and no  hands in pockets. Another rule that has since been dropped was the segregation  of the entrances, with boys going in one door and girls the other.  One of the most difficult problems in the early days of consolidation was  that of getting children to the school. This was solved by the busses. These  busses were nothing like today's models, but were converted trucks covered in  canvas with long benches down the sides. In fact, the busses were rarely called  busses. They were almost always called trucks. Entrance was through a rear  door, which was a safety hazard because drivers couldn't see children getting on  and off. In fact, some accidents did result from this hazard. The only heat was  from a long exhaust pipe going down the middle of the truck, and many people  can remember the smell of burning rubber as children tried to warm their feet  on the pipe, burning their boots. At Christmas time, the children had singing  contests to see which truck had the best singers. In the 1950s, bussing safety was  improved immensely. The government recommended fire drills on busses, and  the busses themselves were improved. In the beginning there were seven busses.  This number is the same today in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen district, but the  busses are much larger now, and each makes several runs.  When the school started, there was very little in the way of equipment on  the playground, but children still managed to have fun. They never seemed to  get tired of playing Tarzan, cops and robbers, and many other games among  the trees around the school. They had many indoor activities as well, such as  playing marbles and skipping. There was also another favorite activity involving  the playrooms downstairs, where the kindergarten classes are now located. The  children played in the separate boys' and girls' playrooms, but they had more 167  fun playing in the "out of bounds" area, in the darkened boiler rooms. When  the teachers came by the children hid. In the winter, the children had even more  things to do. They could go tobogganing on the large hill next to the school, or  they could go skating since the area between A.E.S. and the present Armstrong  Play-School was flooded yearly to make a skating rink. In fact, sliding and  tobogganing on the hill are still popular community activities. The sliding hill  was much larger and had more trees until an awful accident happened in 1936  when a child died after sliding into a tree. After that event, many of the trees  were cut down and, later on, the hill was actually bulldozed down to a smaller  size, with the extra earth being used to level out the soccer field.  Through the years many changes have been made to the school itself. The  most obvious of these was the addition of a large gymnasium and library wing in  1971. Up until that time the only library was a small basement room with a few  books. The old recreation hall was used for May Day dances and other school  celebrations such as Christmas concerts until 1971. In addition to these major  changes, the ceilings have been lowered, lighting has been improved, and many  of the floors have been carpeted, thus cutting down the dust. A lot of playground  equipment has also been added in recent years for the students to play on. Two  memorials originally stood on the school grounds. The War Cenotaph was  located on the front lawn, and was moved to its present location in the  Memorial Park in 1951. The Catherine Schubert memorial was also originally  located there, but it too is now at the Memorial Park.  For a long time the janitor who kept this school clean was Mr. Art Young.  He also had a steam ticket and ran the old, slab-burning, steam furnace. He  sometimes had to stay at the school all night to keep the school heated, by  feeding the slabs that were about a meter long into the furnace. In addition to  these duties, he was the all-around handyman.  In the 1960s, the overcrowding problem caught up with A.E.S. again. This  caused the School District to open Len W. Wood Elementary, which would take  grades 5-7. Later, this was expanded to be grades 4-7. In 1983, enrollment increased again, and Highland Park Elementary was opened.  There have been many teachers at A.E.S. — Mrs. Landon, Miss Calbick,  Miss Murray, Mrs. Hope, and Mr. Hassard, to name a few. One of the  longest-teaching teachers, however, is Mrs. Helen Sidney. She started teaching  in 1942, and came to Armstrong in 1943. She originally taught a split grade 1-2  class, and afterwards taught straight grade 1. She took a break from teaching  between 1953 and 1957 to raise her family, but was urged by the school board to  return after the retirement of another grade one teacher. She decided to return  and taught full time until 1972 when she began teaching halftime. This year she  is retiring, and has very mixed feelings about it. But she leaves with some rather  interesting memories, such as the time she found that a young student had gone  home and told his mother that one grade one teacher's name was Mrs. Rock  (she was really Mrs. Stone), and the other one was Miss Squirrel (Mrs. Sidney  nee Spelling) and that "Miss Squirrel" has so much red hair! As Mrs. Sidney  leaves with these memories she says that she has enjoyed herself immensely.  Some fun times for the children were the holiday celebrations. These  celebrations were emphasized much more then than they are now. For the  Christmas concert the whole town helped, and the great event was held in the  old recreation hall, with lots of singing and a dance for the older students. 168  Another big event was May Day. Bouquets of flowers were placed all over the  park, and everyone dressed up and did the May Pole dance. One year, Viscount Alexander of Tunis, the Governor General at the time, and his wife came  to watch the festivities. Again, the whole community got involved, helping and  watching.  As you can see, Armstrong Elementary School has provided quality education ever since 1921. It started as a new experiment in consolidated education,  an experiment that worked out very well. Being the first consolidated school in  B.C. is what makes it historically significant, but in my opinion what makes it  truly significant is all the people educated there.  Essay winners (left to right): Vicki Baschzok (Jr. First)' Jordie Fulton (Jr. First); James Gustafson  (Sr.).  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interview with Helen Sidney, January 28, 1988.  Johnson, Mary Eileen, "Consolidation and British Columbia's First Consolidated School", Primary  Research Project for History of Education 430-U.B.C.  Romaine, Owen, "Early School Busses and Their Drivers," 50th Edition of the Okanagan Historical  Report, 1986, pp. 102-106. 169  Senior Contest — First Prize and Winner  of J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award  FRONTIER LIFE IN THE OKANAGAN  by James Gustafson  The Charles Mair letters seem to indicate the gradual disillusionment of an  intelligent man, with frontier life. His letters start with all the optimism of a man  beginning anew but they end with apparent disappointment and loneliness.  Mair's first letters abound with his enthusiasm for this little valley he has  found. He says "... the magnificent scenery and climate ... is certainly  perfect.", and that "I [C. Mair] only wish I had been so fortunate as to strike it  years ago." His first impressions of the valley were obviously good ones.  Even his later impressions, after being settled, show his favourable disposition to the valley. Mair comments "The region and my work here increasingly  delight me. The mountain roads . . . are inspiringly interesting ..." He also  alludes to the political situation of the time, which appears to have changed little, ". . .its capital, Victoria, rules the mainland very unfairly." Even here,  though, his optimism shines through "There is a great future for the Province  — an unparalleled one I think ..."  Even the economic woes of the region could not dissuade Mair, in the early  years — "The Commercial Bank failing . . . caused great loss and suffering."  Mair then says "But the harvest outlook is good and I think things will come  round."  What was the reason for his happy existence in a frontier community? He  was after all, a writer, of no small intellect and sensitivity. I believe his optimism  extended from the novelty of his adventure. It is quite apparent that Charles  Mair made a rather sudden decision to move to the West. His first impression,  then, was obviously that of many first time visitors to B.C., the Okanagan, in  particular. It was one of awe. This impression would have definitely contributed  to an optimistic view of life in B.C. It may also have, however, contributed to  his later disappointment with his environment.  Mair's disillusionment appeared after many years in the Okanagan. He  began to feel despondent and dissatisfied with his way of life. This unhappiness  eventually forced him to leave and return to Toronto. The question here then  appears to be why did a previously contented man decide to move East again?  The answer is multi-faceted.  His initial unease was the result of the tensions of the time between the  U.S.A. and Canada. The system of law appears to have broken down in the  U.S. when Mair says "... the papers advocate every man going armed, since  the murders are now open and daily." This combined with fears of invasion  from the south seems to have stirred up the old spectre of annexation. With  Mair's inherent sensitivity he can forecast the consequences of war and he sums  up the feeling in Canada when he says "... we should lose no time in making  preparations for what is bound to come ..." This general feeling seems to have  encouraged him to return to Toronto and seek a position with Denison, a man  of the military.  Not only do the North American tensions encourage Mair to leave but also  the economic slump acts as a prod.  He continually complains about the 170  economic situation — "Things are very flat here, in fact, I have never seen  things so depressed ..." His business also takes a turn for the worse which  seems to depress him even more. His trouble and an inability to sell his land  were other reasons for his change of heart.  Another factor, perhaps of less significance, was his concern for his only  son, Cecil. He had been away from his son for a long period, in which Cecil did  a lot of growing up. Cecil proposed that he would enjoy a career in the military,  something his father endorsed in principle but not in fact — "Canada needs all  the help she can get from her own sons," yet "if the course did not fit him for a  career ..." Mair would not support it. Not only did he show concern for  Cecil's future but also he expresses worry about his well-being. With fears of a  war in the wind he did not want his son joining the military.  Mair felt tied down by his work. He was unable to write, something he loved  to do and took great pride in, and as a consequence felt unfulfilled. He met all  the challenges that the Okanagan could muster and he then settled down in  relative domicility. His family was rarely together, with his wife often going  away to look after business and his two daughters going off to school in Edmonton. These points would have played a role in his discontent.  Mair became a lonely man. He yearned for companionship with someone  his own age. No men in Kelowna were his age and he realized that only too  well. The one true friend he had was in Toronto and he corresponded with him  regularly.  Mair clearly, however, was biased against his local male colleagues. He  considered them to be too much younger than himself and their interests were  too different from his own. His ability as a writer also served to set him apart  from the others. In this and in other ways he was isolated from his society and,  over the years, this feeling of isolation gradually became more than he could  bear.  These letters, then, strongly indicate the changing views of a man of the  frontier. Why did his views change? As I have pointed out it was the result of  many factors. The international tensions, economic conditions, family concerns  and social isolation all contributed to this marked and dramatic change. The  beauty, challenge and promise of such a fertile land originally caught the imagination of Mair but his enthusiasm would soon wane in the face of reality.  Then there was the sharp contrast of his quick decision to stay in the Okanagan  and his long, deliberate decision to move back East. All this is indicated by the  correspondence of Charles Mair. 171  BOOK REVIEWS  BIRDS OF THE OKANAGAN VALLEY, by R. A., R.J. & S. G. Cannings  Reviewed by Phil Ranson  The much delayed Birds of the Okanagan Valley was finally printed late last  year. The waiting has been worthwhile. The Cannings brothers have done a  superb job, not only of researching and assembling the vast amount of material  required to produce such a book — an endeavour that took the best part of 12  years — but of adding enough moisture to the dry ingredients with anecdotes  and personal recollections to make the whole book highly palatable.  As the authors are quick to point out, this is not an identification guide. It  will not enable you to recognize a strange bird at your feeder. It will however  give you a detailed account of the relative abundance, seasonal occurrence,  habitat preference and breeding chronology for all species known to occur in the  Okanagan. Unfortunately, a book of this type becomes out of date the moment  it goes to the printers, and already another five, possibly seven, new species have  been added to the 307 birds described. This book however will never be obsolete. It has provided a baseline for the recording and documentation of all  future observations and a standard by which all similar publications will be  judged. It also gives a much needed impetus for naturalists throughout the  valley to make greater efforts to document their observations and pass them on,  so a more complete picture of birdlife in the Okanagan can be obtained.  The first chapters of the book provide a detailed analysis of the factors,  geographical and climatic, which make the valley so unique in Canadian Ornithology. Historical data has been used to good effect to show the environmental  changes, some subtle, some drastic, which have produced an alteration to our  aviafauna. Most interestingly of all perhaps in the introductory chapters, is that  concerning the pioneering ornithologists, who with shotgun and gunnysack,  provided the first records of Okanagan birdlife before the marshes were drained  and the valley bottoms were cleared. Such legendary names as Taverner,  Brooks and Munro provided much of the early information. No doubt the  names of the authors and their father, Steve, will take their rightful place beside  these men for the contribution they have made to our knowledge of birds of the  Okanagan Valley.  HISTORIC SPALLUMCHEEN AND ITS ROAD NAMES  by E. Brown, N. Lowry, K. Schultz  Reviewed by Harry Sheardown  Being asked to review Historic Spallumcheen and its Road Names brought back  many memories. Possibly the book should have been titled "The Road Names  of Historic Spallumcheen" because it is strong on road name stories and less so  on the history of the Municipality.  The road names are of special interest to me. There are nearly 30 roads 172  named after families or people that I knew while growing up in Armstrong.  Many of the descriptive road names such as Eagle Rock Road, Back Enderby  Road, Round Lake Road, Larkin Cross Road, Stepney Cross Road, Hullcar  Road, and Otter Lake Road are well known and may be used as a base to find  nearby roads named after people, when directed to the area in search of a  property.  The stories about people who gave their names to the roads, and others  who lived in the area are most interesting.  Some of the names chosen in later years have not impressed me, such as  "Serene Drive", and "Stepping Stones Crescent and Drive", named after a  construction and land development company. I feel that a Municipality such as  Spallumcheen, which has so much history in its road names, should not allow  subdividers the responsibility of naming roads. So many of the roads are named  after people who toiled against the bush and soil. Many were axe men who  square hewed logs for buildings; I knew of a granery building which had been  put together without nails. As a youngster, and into the 1930s, I recall the creaking sound of the sleigh runners on the snow along Wood Avenue during the cold  winters, as the large saw logs were transported to the Armstrong Sawmill,  reminding one of the strenuous work of making a living in the early days.  May I suggest that the Municipality and the City of Armstrong, along with  the Museum Society, form a committee to recommend road names for the  respective district areas.  Names that come to mind that might be suitable: Holliday; Lynn; Mellish;  Hayhurst; LeDuc; Hardy; Hunter; Hassard; Woolen; Hitt; Pehota; Hassen;  McKechnie; Landon; Shiell; Ehmke; Sidney; McNair; and there are others, as  well as names on the Cenotaph who were part of the early history of  Spallumcheen.  GRAND FORKS — THE FIRST 100 YEARS, by Alice and Jim Glanville  Reviewed by Dorothy Zoellner  If history is defined as "the branch of knowledge or study that deals with  the record and interpretation of past events", then co-authors Alice and Jim  Glanville have indeed shown their involvement as the historians of Sunshine  Valley.  This interesting, very readable volume of 196 pages was produced to coincide with the 90th anniversary of the incorporation of the City of Grand Forks.  The wealth of well-researched material is presented in 19 chapters delving  into the sociological, economic, geographical and historical factors that have  made Grand Forks what it is today — the centre of the Boundary Country.  The text of Grand Forks — the first 100 years is generously interspersed with  judiciously chosen photographs, which portray for the reader the life of a city. A  carefully prepared index adds to the book's historical value.  Printed by the Gazette Printing Company Limited of Grand Forks, the  publication boasts large print on quality paper. The wrap around cover shows  a picture of Observation Mountain — a mountain aptly named as the Observer  of a city's history. 173  The Glanville family has resi