Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Fifty-sixth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1992

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 Okanagan History  56th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society  Okanagan History  The Fifty'sixth Report of the  Okanagan  Historical  Society  Founded September 4, 1925  Cover  Senator Riley and family  on the "Kalamazoo"  Enderby, 1891  Hand-painted photograph  by Brian Wilson  ©1992  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921241-58-5  Design: E + E Marketing Services, Vernon, B.C.  Printed In Canada, Wayside Press Ltd., Vernon, B.C. Fifty^Sixth Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society  EDITOR  Robert Cowan  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Doris McDonald, Oliver and Osoyoos  Betty Bork, Penticton  Art Strandquist, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Lorna Carter, Armstrong and Enderby  Yvonne McDonald, Salmon Arm  Membership  The recipient of this Fifty-sixth Report is entitled to  register his or her membership in the Fifty-seventh Report,  which will be issued November 1, 1993.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms  see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from  the Treasurer of the Parent Body (Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3),  from Branches of the O.H.S. and from most museums and  book stores in the Okanagan Valley.  For availability and prices of back numbers  see the order form on insert.  Editorial Inquiries  For editorial inquiries concerning material in the Reports,  or for inclusion in future Reports, please contact the editor at:  Box 76, Enderby, B.C. VOE IVO. Officers and Directors of  the Parent Body  1992-1993  PRESIDENT  Robert de Pfyffer  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Jessie Ann Gamble  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  David MacDonald  SECRETARY  Art Strandquist  TREASURER  Libby Tassie  PAST PRESIDENT  Bernard Webber  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Carleton MacNaughton  Penticton: David MacDonald  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson  Vernon: Doug Kermode, Jack Morrison  Armstrong-Enderby: Bob Cowan, Jim Sharman  Salmon Arm: Hubert Peterson  Similkameen: Charles Finch  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Denis Maclnnis (Pandosy Mission)  Peter Tassie (Brigade Trail)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Don Weatherill, Frank Pells, Ron Robey,  Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber ^iiieois  Current Events  100th Anniversary of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway by Robert Cowan 7  40th Anniversary Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club  by Helen August and Lesley Cmolik 12  Harry Sherling Receives An Honourary Degree by Doris McDonald  16  Historical Papers  Commercial Boats of the Okanagan: A Summary Sketch by Harry R. Hatfield 20  An Early History of Aviation in Vernon and Area by Doug Kermode 34  The First Jewellery Store by Beryl Gorman  41  A Brief History of the Okanagan Historical Society by Robert F. Marriage 44  Loyal Orange Celebration: July 12th, 1903 by Albert E. Sage  53  Reminiscenses  Life at Fintry Ranch: 1933-1947 by Curtis AUsup  55  Sheepherding in the 1930s by Eric Anderson 65  Memories of a Sheepherder's Bride by Irene Anderson 70  Memories of Canoe by Roland Jamieson 76  Two Precious Seconds by Doug Kermode 81  The Bright Wide Land by Alan Morley 83  Biographies  Walter Rees Powell by Rees K.PoweM 86  William Hall Sr. by William J. Whitehead 92  Thomas Malpass and the Lumber Industry in Enderby by Olive Malpass 95  Fred and Nora Hitt by Marjorie Gordon 99  Jack Woods by Mary Lou Tapson-Jones  103  John Lewis Lambert by Donald Wells 107  Clifford Hardwick by William J. Whitehead 110  The Weeden Family by Robert M. Hayes 115  Frank Albert Clayton by Cameron Clayton  118  Hedley Stevenson by George Green  120  John Lindsay Webster by Barbara Rottacker 122  Tributes  Douglas Plaskett Fraser by Dorothy Fraser  124  Annie Josephine Fraser by Douglas Plaskett Fraser  127  Johannesen of the Music Societies by Bernard Webber 129  Stephen Archibald Mepham by Jean Webber 132  Frederick William King by Ray Findlay 135  Arthur Edward Danby: 1899-1991 by Fred King  137  A Tribute to Mary Gertrude Peel by George Rands  139  Elmer Peterson by Yvonne McDonald  141  Jack Ryder by Richard Rolke  143  Norm Williams by Brian Elmer  145  Obituaries  We Shall Miss Them 147  Errata 162 Student Essays  Introduction 163  Letters 164  Law and Order in the Mid-Boundary Country by Ryan Johnson 167  Thomas Benjamin Reece by Daryn Reece  170  Book Reviews  The Queen's People: A Study of Hegemony, Coercion, and Accommmodation  among the Okanagan of Canada Reviewed by Dr. Duane Thomson  173  Valley of Dreams: A Pictorial History of Vernon & District  Reviewed by Robert Cowan 177  The Okanagan Brigade Trail - In the Southern Okanagan, 1811 - 1847:  Oroville, Washington, to Westside, British Columbia  Reviewed by Bernard Webber 178  Paying for Rain: A History of the South East Kelowna Irrigation District  Reviewed by Tom Norris 180  Will You Have a Cup of Tea? Or Summerland Grows, 1905-07  Reviewed by Betty Bork  181  OHS Business  Minutes of the 67th Annual Meeting of The Okanagan Historical Society 183  President's Report 185  Editor's Report 186  Secretary's Report 188  Auditors'Report 188  Finance Committee Report 190  Armstrong/Enderby Branch Report 190  Kelowna Branch Report 190  Oliver/Osoyoos Branch Report 192  Penticton Branch Report 193  Salmon Arm Branch Report 193  Similkameen Branch Report 194  Vernon Branch Report 195  Historical Trails Committee Report 195  Father Pandosy Mission Committee Report 196  Index Committee Report 197  Project Interview Committee Report 197  Bagnall Committee Report  198  Okanagan Historical Society Membership List: 1992 200  Current Events  100th Anniversary of the  Shuswap and Okanagan Railway  by Robert Cowan  The City of Vernon and the Municipality of Spallumcheen are marking  their 100th Anniversaries in 1992, but it is doubtful that either of them  would be celebrating this year if it weren't for another 100th Anniversary.  The 51.3 mile track of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was completed  through to Okanagan Landing in May 1892 allowing the Okanagan Valley  to be connected by boat and rail to the C.P.R. mainline at Sicamous.  Besides encouraging the residents of Vernon and Spallumcheen to  incorporate, the coming of the railway had implications for other North  Okanagan communities. Lansdowne was the major community in Spallumcheen before the completion of the railway. It was by-passed by the tracks.  Armstrong, named after a British banker who helped finance the Shuswap  and Okanagan, became the new community in Spallumcheen, and much  of Lansdowne was moved to the new site on the rail line.  Enderby's importance before the arrival of the railway was precisely  because it was the head of navigation on the Shuswap (or Spallumcheen)  River. Its early names reflected this role, e.g. Lambly's Landing, Steamboat  Landing, or Spallumcheen Landing. When it became certain that the  railway was coming and a post office would open there, a new name was  selected. The completion of the rail line meant that Enderby's role as a  commercial water link from the Okanagan to the outside world was ended.  It is little wonder that Jacques Jewellers moved from Enderby to Vernon  that same year (see story on page 41).  The Shuswap and Okanagan Railway was the first spur line off the  C.P.R. mainline in British Columbia. Moses Lumby, a major player in S. 6k  O. and large landowner in Spallumcheen, was clear about the purpose of the  railway: "The object of the scheme is to give an outlet to the finest stretch  of wheat growing land in British Columbia, and to enable the producer to  Robert Cowan is chairman of the Enderby and District Museum Society and editor of  the 56th Report. The importance of the construction of the railway has been reflected  in the O.H.S. Reports. George H. Morkill's article about the railway was printed in the  3rd Report, reprinted with some minor additions in the Sixth Report, and again  reproduced in the Eighteenth Report. Mr. Morkill was the bookeeper for the S. & O. 100th Anniversary ofS&O  ship wheat to the sea coast. The country is specially adapted for wheat  growing: yield and quality cannot be surpassed in any part of the world, and  with the facilities for procuring necessary machinery and supplies, which  the proposed railway will afford, wheat can be raised at a low price, no  irrigation being required...The amount of land already occupied in this  district, certified to by Messrs. Dewdney and Nicholson, Government  Agents, is 136,373 acres. It is difficult to estimate, with any degree of  accuracy, the area of land capable of producing wheat, but from data  furnished by reliable farmers, in different parts, deducting twenty percent,  I put down the area at 200,000 acres. Irrespective of grazing land, this  represents (were it in one block) over 300 square miles." (Lumby to  Provisional Board of Directors of S. & O. Railway, 1886, Public Archives  of Canada, RG 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  The Board of Directors commissioned a second opinion on the  economic potential of a rail line into the Okanagan. G.A. Keefer, a Civil  Engineer, concurred with Moses Lumby's estimates on the agricultural  potential of the area, and added: "The mining and timber interests of your  district may also be taken into consideration as likely to add materially to  the traffic of your road. The well known Cherry Creek Mines are showing  good prospects. In the "Mission" a company has been formed to prosecute  hydraulic mining. The Similkameen or Granite Creek Mines are attracting  general attention at the present time, and has the confidence of experienced miners as to its future. All these points would serve as important  feeders to your railway." (Keefer to Provisional Board of Directors, Feb. 3,  1886, P.A.C., RG 12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  Part of the key to the success of the venture was government funding.  By April 1887, the provincial government had committed itself to a subsidy  of $4,000 per mile, bonds had been issued to the amount of $20,000 per mile,  and application was made to the federal government for a subsidy of $6,000.  In his letter of application to the federal government, Moses Lumby, now  Secretary of the S. & O., observed that the importance of this rail line to  the province was such that it was the only one approved by the legislature,  although numerous other projects had applied for aid.  It wasn't until June of 1888 that the Dominion Government approved  a subsidy of $3,200 per mile for the project. This subsidy was included in an  Act of Parliament that provided for funding to thirty-four other railways in  Canada.  By December 1889, an engineering study with cost estimates was  received in the office of Collingwood Schreiber, Chief Engineer and  General Manager for the Department of Railways and Canals. It met the  standards and specifications laid out by the government to make the project  eligible for federal subsidies.  Once construction began in August 1890, there were numerous  deviations from the original proposal. At Mara Lake, it was determined to 100 th Anniversary ofS&O  move back from the water's edge, which increased the severity of the curves  and produced considerable correspondence. It was a telling statement that  the railway used in its defence: "Our chief engineer, in explanation of this  deviation from the approved plan states that the original plan and profile  of the road were prepared by him from a survey made in the winter when  there was great difficulty from the nature of the country in making an  accurate survey of the line, and the plan and profile were somewhat  hurriedly prepared to meet the request of the Government of British  Columbia for a survey and plan of the line as an application was then being  made to that Legislature for a subsidy, which they subsequently granted.  When the application was made for a subsidy from the Government of  Canada, and after it was granted, when the contract was entered into with  the Government, the same plan and profile were used, without any new  survey having been made, as our chief engineer believed he could get as  favourable a location for the line as that shown on the plan and profile  approved by the Government. When, however, the road was actually  located and constructed, it was found absolutely necessary from the very  difficult character of the country for the first ten miles to adopt at several  points, a greater curvature than that shown on the approved plan." (Hector  Cameron to Minister ofRailways, May 20,1891,P.A.C.,RG 12, Vol. 1867,  F. 3268-44)  In Spallumcheen the deviation through Pleasant Valley met with a  howl of protest from the affected farmers. A petition was sent to the federal  Passenger train headed south at the Enderby Station circa 1895.  Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum. 100th Anniversary ofS&O  government to show: "First. That the contractors of the Shuswap and  Okanagan Railway have gone beyond the limits of deviation allowed by the  Railway Act in changing the route of the said road from the original survey  and passing through Pleasant Valley. Second. That the line on the original  survey is quite practicable. Third. That the change has been made for the  sole purpose of benefiting the contractors. Fourth. That the original survey  being in the centre of the valley would serve the interest of the public much  better, at the same time doing less injury to property holders." (P.A.C., RG  12, Vol. 1867, F. 3268-44)  The railway also proposed to deviate from the original plan by going  on the east side of Swan Lake instead of the west side. Their reasons for this  change were sent to Sir John A. Macdonald, Minister of Railways & Canals,  by P. Larkin, President: "The third deviation asked for consists in diverting  our line from the west to the east side of Swan Lake, and will give the line  better and more favourable location without increase of length and will  interfere less with private property. All these alterations are with a view to  procuring a better alignment and location for the road and meet with the  approval of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, which has entered  into a contract with my Company for the operation of the road for twenty-  five years, making it thereby for that term, a branch of the Canadian  Pacific." (Larkin to Macdonald, December 12th, 1890, P.A.C, RG 12, Vol.  1867, F. 3268-44)  Ignoring the protest from the farmers in Spallumcheen, the Dominion  Government approved the changes by Order in Council on the 2nd of  October 1891.  P. Larkin wrote to the Secretary of the Department of Railways 6k  Canals on January 22, 1892, requesting that the Shuswap and Okanagan  Railway have permission to run passenger and freight trains from Sicamous  to Vernon. Through much of 1891, the company had used a small steam-  driven speeder, the Kalamazoo (see front cover), to transport passengers on  the line. Although the Vernon News reported on October 15th 1891 that  the first passenger train had arrived in Vernon with Lord Aberdeen's private  car attached, itwas on January 27th 1892 that Collingwood Schreiber, the  Dominion Government's Chief Engineer, responded favourably to this  request.  By May 1892, the line had been completed through to Okanagan  Landing. Under the twenty-five year lease agreement, the C.P.R. took over  the line, using their rolling stock. During the first few years of operation, the  line was not the economic bonanza predicted by its early supporters. By  1915, the potential of the line was being realized, and the C.P.R. was happy  to enter into a 999 year lease.  Today, with changing transportation patterns, the line has declined  in use. The part between Vernon and Okanagan Landing has been removed. But, without the completion of this important rail link to the C.P.R.  10 100th Anniversary ofS&O  mainline in 1892, it is doubtful that the Okanagan Valley would have  experienced the growth that it did one hundred years ago, when Vernon  and Spallumcheen incorporated.  The C.P.R. Hotel and Station at Sicamous. Note the message on the roof  admonishing passengers to change cars for the Famous Okanagan.  Photo courtesy of Vintage Visuals.  11 40th Anniversary Kelowna  Ladies' Curling Club  By Helen August and Lesley Cmolik  The Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club was founded in October, 1951 - the  same year the first curling rink with artificial ice was built in Kelowna at the  corner of Water Street and Doyle Avenue. Most of the money for the rink  was raised by the sale of bonds and donations. The building offered four  sheets of ice, a waiting room, wash-rooms and a small coffee shop, manned  by the Ladies' Curling Club. Some years later, the rink was expanded by  adding on two more sheets of ice, a lounge and an extension to the coffee  shop. The ladies, throughout those early years, played a very active role in  the club's development, by raising money through bake sales, rummage  sales, and raffles.  In October 1951, the first meeting of ladies interested in curling was  held in the Board Room of the Tree Fruits Building. Nearly one hundred  women attended that meeting, and the Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club came  into being. An executive was elected, and Vi Howe became the first  president. About 120 ladies joined the club that year, and when curling  started in November, there were twelve afternoon rinks curling on Tuesday,  Thursday and Friday and eight evening rinks competing on Monday and  Thursday. From the entire membership, only ten players were experienced  curlers, and a few others had some knowledge of the game. These were the  first skips. Consequently, nearly every rink was made up of a skip and three  novice curlers. However, enthusiasm more than made up for the lack of  experience.  Local merchants and individuals showed their interest in the club by  donating trophies for competition within the club: the Buchanan, the  Meikle, the Haworth and the Sheriff trophies were the first, later the Ratel  and Turvey cups were added. When Bob Buchanan donated his trophy, he  also gave a one hundred dollar bond, the interest from the bond was to be  spent on roses and presented to the recipients of the trophy.  Helen August and Lesley Cmolik are Honourary Life Members of the Kelowna Ladies'  Curling Club.  12 Kelowna Ladies' Curling  Some charter members of the Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club:  (from left) Gwen Newby, Irene August and Lesley Cmolik.  At rear: Myra Cumming, Helen August, Mae Henderson and  Doris Stevenson.  The first Ladies' Bonspiel was held in Kelowna in March 1952, with  only local rinks competing. The following year, the first open Ogopogette  Bonspiel took place. There were five events, the first four being supported  by trophies donated by MacDonald Tobacco Co., T. Eaton Co., Super Valu  and Calona Wines. The latter was replaced by Long Super Drugs a few years  later.  In 1953, Kelowna became affiliated with the British Columbia Ladies'  Curling Association (B.C.L.C.A.), and in the following year, B.C. was  divided into zones and Provincial play-offs were held. In that year, 1954,  two Kelowna rinks, skipped by Velda Bebb and Norah Reigh, won the  South Okanagan division and represented that zone in the B.C. play-offs in  Vancouver.  Over the years, the Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club has been represented in a number of B.C. playdowns: Velda Bebb with Thelma Owen,  Joyce Underhill and Una Miller at Trail in 1955; Annie Alston with Norah  Reigh, Gertie Johnston and Pat Brownlee at Kelowna in 1956; Lesley  Cmolik with Gladys Watson, Muriel Willows and Nellie Griffiths at  Kimberley in 1958; Thelma Owen with Gladys Watson, Lesley Cmolik, and  Barbara Underwood at Victoria in 1959; Joyce Smart with her mother Ethel  Penson and her two sisters Barb Steed and Charlotte Truswell at Penticton  in 1962.  13 Kelowna Ladies' Curling  It was 1960 when the first Canadian Ladies' Curling Championships  were held under the sponsorship of Dominion Stores. In 1965, the rink  skipped by Lesley Cmolik with Joyce Smart, third, Jan Thompson, second,  and Mamie Robertson, lead, captured the Provincial title at Kimberley and  went on to the Dominion play-offs in Halifax.  Some time in the mid-sixties, the evening curlers formed their own  club with their own executive, and the afternoon group kept the name,  Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club.  Around 1970, the B.C. Senior Ladies' Curling Association (for  women over 50), affiliated with the Canadian Ladies' Curling Association,  was organized and both Provincial and National Championships were held.  Kay Laface skipped her rink to the Provincial playdowns in both 1974  and 1975; with her were Phyl Swaisland, third, Doris Walsh, second, Gwen  Donnelly, lead in 1974 and Gwen French, lead in 1975.  In 1984, Leila Johnston with Kay Laface, Joyce McMillan and Audrey  Fewell represented the South Okanagan in Dawson Creek. In 1987, Doreen  McGruther with Shirley Faulkner, Zae Pachenski and Freda Newfeld were  zone champions and went on to Abbotsford.  In 1989, Leila Johnston with Hazel Jamem, Myrt Snowsell and  Dorothy McGowan won the Provincial title in Prince Rupert and represented B.C. in the Canadian play-offs in Halifax. In 1991, Iola Stocks with  Mary Welder, Deanna Tannas and Sandra Lee reached the Provincial  playdowns in Trail.  DOMINION  S I 1_V E R  The 1965 Provincial Ladies' Curling  Champions: (from  left) Lesley Cmolik  (skip), Joyce Smart  (third), Jan  Thompson (second), and Marnie  Robertson (lead).  14 Kelowna Ladies' Curling  Kelowna has hosted many Championships, including the Brier in  1968, the Ladies' World Curling in 1986 and the Scott Tournament of  Hearts in 1989. Each time these events have been held, the ladies played a  major role in their success. For the Brier, a Ladies' Committee was formed,  headed by Peg Ratel, to look after many social events, hospitality, and  decorations. We have also held the B.C.L.C.A. play-offs here three times  and the B.C. Senior Ladies' play-offs in 1982.  On the lighter side, there have been the bonspiels. The Kelowna  Ladies are usually well represented at the bonspiels up and down the valley  and bring home their share of trophies and prizes. To accommodate more  of our advanced curlers, the Silver Belles were organized for those ladies  over 60, and a bonspiel is held in February.  There have been many changes in the Kelowna Ladies' Curling Club  in the past 40 years. In 1951, there were 127 members, which included both  afternoon and evening curlers; today, there are 123 lady afternoon curlers.  In 1951, the annual dues were $ 10.00 plus $3.00 for rock rental; in 1991, the  members paid $185.84, which included the G.S.T. Few women started off  with curling shoes, rubbers were the common footwear. It was 1965 before  we had our first club sweaters, which were turquoise and white, the red ones  came much later. There was a big change in 1978, when the Curling Club  moved from the rink on Water Street to the present facilities on Recreation  Avenue with 12 sheets of ice and a beautiful lounge and banquet room  upstairs.  Besides the regular members of the Club there are the Honourary Life  Members: Una Long, Gwen Donnelly, Peg Ratel, Norah Reigh, Jan  Thompson, Lesley Cmolik and Helen August. Honourary Life Members  who passed away are Joyce Underhill, Bertie McCaugherty, Ruth Weeks  and Doris Stevenson.  15 Harry Sherling Receives  An Honourary Degree  by Doris M.cDonald  In 1991, because of the time and effort he spent in preserving the history of  Okanogan County, Harry Sherling received an honourary degree from the  Wenatchee Valley College, the first to be granted by a community college  in Washington State.  Harry Sherling arrived in Molson, Washington in the dead of winter  at the beginning of this century. John Sherling with his wife Amanda and  their two sons, Harry and Ernest, travelled from Nelson, where he had been  working, to Midway by train then by sleigh 35 miles to Molson.  Just prior to 1900, a mining promoter interested some Molson Brewing  people in Montreal in investing in a venture in northern Washington State,  just south of the international boundary. Thus, the name of Molson appeared on the map. The mining venture soon petered out, but the rich  highland soil began to draw homesteaders.  John Sherling had acquired 160  acres of land from a man by the name  of Fontaine, who was too ill to fulfill  his homesteaders' obligations. A 12  by 12 foot cabin stood near an aspen  grove, the only trees on the property.  The little shelter contained a table, a  small cook stove and a heater. The  stoves stood side by side sharing a  stovepipe that went straight through  the roof. A tick filled with bunch-  Harry Sherling receiving an grass was i ai(j on the fan floor and  Honourary Degree from the j i     i r     "i i t-L  t^       cJi       i     " " served as a bed tor the two boys. 1 he  Dean or Wanatchee Valley  Community College on June  15th, 1991.  Doris McDonald (nee Betts) has been an active supporter of the Osoyoos Museum Society  and has been the editor for the Oliver and Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society. This article was based on an interview with Harry Sherling and Boy to a Man, his  biography, written by his daughter-in-law, Katberine Tracy.  16 Harry Sherling  night light was a candle secured in a cast iron holder with a prong that was  jabbed between the logs, thus holding the light in place.  John arranged for wood and groceries, and left Amanda to care for the  boys. He then went to Grand Forks, where he procured a job in the smelter,  earning $3.00 for a 10 hour day. Twice a month, he got home for a visit,  travelling first by train to Midway, then walking to Rock Creek, thence on  foot up the canyon to Bridesville and across the border to Molson.  In the meantime Amanda was making a life for herself and the boys,  and often walked to New Molson for groceries, or with the boys in tow,  walked six miles to the Pete Sneve home. Nine Mile, Bridesville and Circle  City were her favourite spots to visit.  After the first winter, Amanda bought a cow and some chickens. In  late summer, she found wild currants, strawberries, raspberries and huckleberries. She gathered mushrooms, lamb's quarters, nettles and dandelion  greens. A domestic garden added to the bill of fare. Grouse were plentiful,  and she became an expert with the rifle.  The Hotel Tonasket in Old Molson. It opened for business  on September 3rd, 1900.  Eventually, John saved enough money for improvements. He acquired  machinery and grew timothy hay that brought a good price from the  teamsters and stable operators.  By 1905 the little town of New Molson boasted a theatre, grocery  store, drugstore, hotel, barbershop and poolroom. The little town was  situated on a small rise above what was to become a railroad bed. A train  depot was built, and the first train carrying passengers arrived in Molson on  November 2nd, 1906. Later, the track was extended to Oroville on the  justification that it was needed to transport farm products, timber and  livestock. The railroad was the first in Okanogan County and boasted the  highest depot in Washington State.  17 Harry Sherling  The railroad construction crew provided Amanda with an opportunity to make some money, so she established a milk route, selling milk for  10 cents a quart or twelve quarts for a $1.00. Rising very early in the  morning, Ernest and Harry milked the cows and delivered the milk before  going to school. After school, they often carried a can of milk and a drinking  cup to where the thirsty railway crew was working. They charged 5 cents a  cup, the cup being passed around until the pail of milk was empty. Their  mother allowed them to keep that money.  In 1909, the Russell Hotel in New Molson burned down, leaving the  town without a restaurant. Amanda was approached to set up a tent  restaurant. She made and sold ice cream for 10 cents a scoop. In the  meantime, the boys had been going to school in an abandoned bar room.  Two students sat on a bench at each table.  Arriving home from school one day, Harry discovered a track-laying  crew coming into Molson. A steam engine was pushing two flat cars loaded  with ties and rails. Two men ran with a tie and laid it in place, two more men  came right behind and another crew would bring the rail. Moving quickly,  they placed just enough spikes to hold the rail.  The whistle tooted, and the engine moved ahead a few feet. Another  crew worked behind the train, spiking and bolting the rails together. After  the track was laid, the steam shovels came. The shovels would load hopper  bottom cars for ballasting (filling in between the ties with gravel).  Things went along well until 1913, when Amanda and John parted  company. John went to Tonasket to live. Harry was becoming restless, and  left for Loomis, Washington, where he got a job driving a team on a road  construction project. Later, he drove team for the Tungsten Mine for $2.00  a day for a 10 hour day. When the mine closed in December, Harry and a  fellow worker bought some bread and meat from the cookhouse and started  for Canada. He moved about the country, riding the rails to get from place  to place. Many others were doing the same thing at that time. He remembers  that one of his best jobs was as a tie inspector for the Great Northern  Railroad. Later, he was moved to the Curlew Republic Line, where he was  well paid: $450.00 a month plus his room and board. However, the desire  to become independent never left him, and in 1925, he returned to the  Molson area.  He purchased 200 acres of tillable farm land, financing it through a  mortgage company. He bought horses and farm equipment and moved the  old house on the property across the road, and tucked it under some trees.  Harry and his friend Ethel were married in 1931 at the height of the  Depression. Cattle went down to 3 cents a pound, wheat to 25 cents a bushel  and a five gallon can of cream brought $1.50. Two thirds of the farms  (including their own) were repossessed by the loan companies. Rather than  move, he leased the farm back from the loan company, a decision he later  regretted.  18 Harry Sherling  Five years after their marriage, their son John was born followed by  Georgia, Arthur and Allen. A previous child had died at birth. In spite of  their ups and downs, they could always keep warm and had plenty to eat,  which was the advantage of living in a rural area.  Their son, John, graduated from the University of Washington with  a degree in engineering. Georgia became a teacher. Arthur also earned a  degree in engineering at the University of Washington. Their son Allan was  killed in 1954 in a car accident, when their car rolled over the bank on their  way to Oroville one frosty morning in October. Luckily, the other members  of the family were spared.  Harry was always interested in preserving the history of the area and  wrote many interesting articles. In 1979, he was the Chamber of Commerce  Citizen of the Year in Oroville. In 1981, he received a Life Membership in  the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society.  In 1988, the Harry Sherling Scholarship Fund was set up by the  Chamber of Commerce, the amount of $250.00 to be awarded to a worthy  student, based on his or her academic achievement and financial need.  Harry was instrumental in assisting others to erect a marker explaining the  history of the Indian Hee Hee Stone. The Molson Museum became a reality  because of the inspiration and dedication of Harry and his helpers. And in  1985, the old Molson School, which closed in 1962, became the new  museum.  In 1982, it was necessary for Ethel to move to the North Valley  Nursing Home in Tonasket, leaving Harry alone. He celebrated his 90th  birthday in 1989, with a party at the Senior Centre in Oroville.  19 Historical Papers  Commercial Boats  of the Okanagan  A Summary Sketch  by Harley R. Hatfield  Engines, boilers, names, even deck houses moved around from boat to boat  in an amazing way in the early days of water traffic in the Okanagan Valley.  Even boats themselves moved from rivers to lakes and from lake to lake.  Stability seems to have been in the registration of the vessels at Victoria,  which apparently remained the same even when one boat was lengthened  by as much as twenty feet. For instance, when the S.S. Jubilee was ruined by  being frozen in at Okanagan Landing during the winter of 1889-90, Capt.  Shorts put her machinery in a barge which he named City of Vernon in 1890.  When he and Thomas Ellis put the S.S. Penticton into service in September  of 1890, he sold the City of Vernon, after which her new owners called her  the hiudhen because of her propensity to go to the bottom and sold her again  in 1896. These new owners built a new boat, the S.S. Wanderer and put the  same machinery into it. The Wanderer, 40 feet long, with a 9.5 foot beam,  and a 5 h.p. engine, ultimately went to Long (Kalamalka) Lake. For a time  Harley R. Hatfield is an author, historian, and trail-marker. He has lived all his life  in the Okanagan-Similkameen area. In 1980 he received recognition from the  Heritage Canada Foundation for "Community Service for his Discovery and Remarking of the Hudson's Bay Company Fur Brigade Trail and other Early Highways of  Commerce in the Interior of British Columbia." Before retirement, he was a civil  engineer with his family's construction business.  Author's Note: This is a summary sketch compiled mostly from articles in the Reports  of the Okanagan Historical Society. Numbers in brackets after the names of some of  the boats refer to the time of their appearance related to others of the same name, e.g.  S.S. Okanagan (3) means the third boat of that name. I have used a few sources other  than O.H.S. articles for comparison, among them Steamboats of the Okanagan by Art  Downs, Railway Mileposts British Columbia by Riger G. Burrows, and Sternwheelers  and Steam Tugs by Robert D. Turner. Authors to whom we owe thanks for  information about the boats are: Capt. Joseph Weeks, Capt. Len Hayman, Capt. Otto  Estabrooks, Eric Sismey, Michael Hagan, Mrs. Hester White, Harry Corbitt, N.H.  Caesar, Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney, Mrs. Edna Badgely, R.J. McDougall, Dave Falconer,  Noel Higgins, J.C. McKim, William Allison, Helenita Harvey, Dora Crowe, Harry  Parham, Dorothy Gellatley and L.R. Little.  20 Commercial Boats  in 1901, when she belonged to W.L. D'Aeth, she acted as a Kelowna ferry.  The north end of the west arm of Okanagan Lake was the launching  site for one or two of the earliest boats, and for a short time was the terminus  of their trips. The first Okanagan post office was at nearby O'Keefe Ranch,  and Lansdowne was the closest settlement to the north end of the lake.  However, as commercial boating got under way, Vernon soon became the  more prominent settlement, and Okanagan Landing, a much more suitable  site, soon became the centre for water borne commerce.  Okanagan Lake  Much has been written about Capt. T.D. Shorts, his rowboat the Ruth  Shorts, with which he started his freighting on Okanagan Lake in 1883, and  its successor the Mary Victoria Greenhow, which he and partner Thomas  Greenhow launched in April 1866. The first steamboat on the lake, the  Mary Victoria Greenhow, was 32 feet long with a 5 foot beam and registered  to carry five passengers and five tons of freight. She had a 2 h.p. engine and  a kerosene burning boiler. Badly damaged by fire on the beach near  Okanagan Mission while the skipper went to borrow more kerosene, she was  quickly changed to a wood burner; but that did not prove satisfactory and  she was replaced by the S.S. Jubilee. This second steamer, using the engine  but not the boiler from the M.V.G., was launched at Okanagan Landing in  September 1887, and was 30 feet in length with an 8 foot beam.  The high point of Capt. T.D. Shorts' career as a steamboat operator  came with the launching of the S.S. Penticton in 1890, a twin screw freight  and passenger boat licensed to carry 25 passengers. Capt. Shorts and  Thomas Ellis were joint owners. This was something different from the  rowboat with which the Captain had started, but apparently did not affect  his method of operation which was to voyage if and when he saw fit, thus  putting his would-be passengers, as Capt. Weeks said, "...to considerable  inconvenience."  The Vernon News of November 1938 tells us that in 1892, W.C.  The Naramata on Okanagan Lake. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  21 Commercial Boats  Ricardo and four others, returning from a sheep hunting trip up Sawmill  Creek (now Vaseaux Creek), went up Okanagan Lake on Capt. Shorts'  boat, the Penticton, with the passengers loading wood as required. Sold in  1892, the Penticton ended her career as a passenger ship in 1895 and from  then until 1902, served as the towboat for the Kelowna Sawmill and was  then dismantled.  In 1888, the first serious competitor to Capt. Shorts' boats had made  its appearance on Okanagan Lake in the form of the S.S. Okanagan (1),  formerly the Red Star (1) on the Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River, where it  was found she had too much draught for that sandbar stream. As the Red Star  (1), she was 33 feet in length. Two enterprising chaps had the abandoned  hull hauled from the Spallumcheen to the head of the Okanagan in 1888.  From there they floated it to Okanagan Landing, lengthened it by 20 feet,  installed new machinery and named their vessel the S.S. Okanagan.  The S.S. Okanagan (1) was sold to Lequime Bros, in 1891 and used as  a log tower. It was sold again in 1894, and used in general service by Capt.  Angus Campbell and partner until 1895, when she was moved to Kootenay  Lake and used as a towboat until 1913. Her name was changed to Lucy and  then back again to Red Star.  A good deal of the freight handled by the early boats was destined for  the mining camp of Fairview, so it was natural there should be an S.S.  Fairview. The Fairview was not a Canadian Pacific Railway boat, but built  at Okanagan Landing by M.E. Cousens in 1894 with the intent that she was  to run on the Okanagan River between Penticton and Dogtown (Okanagan  Falls). However, with a length of 55 feet, the Fairview proved too big for the  river and was subsequently used in various passenger and freight work on  Okanagan Lake. A wood-burning sternwheeler, the Fairview caught fire at  the Okanagan Landing dock in 1897. With the exception of the Mary  Victoria Greenhow on her first trip, all of the early steamboats seem to have  been wood burners. This was certainly using the materials at hand, but at  a considerable risk to the passengers as well as the boats.  Skaha Lake  The earliest boat on Skaha Lake (first called Lac Du Chien, then Dog  Lake), seems to have been the S.S. Miramichi, about which the early  accounts do not agree as to either the spelling of the name or the owner of  the boat. The captain, and at least nominal owner, is given as L. Holman,  a member of the Snodgrass Syndicate promoting Okanagan Falls. It also  seems that the original idea was that the Miramichi should run between  Penticton and Okanagan Falls, but as with so many other boats, this proved  impractical. Her career on Skaha Lake lasted from the spring of 1893 to the  fall of 1894, when she was sold at auction in Vernon to be used for some time  as a private steam launch at Kelowna.  22 Commercial Boats  The next ship to appear on Skaha Lake was the S.S. Jessie, which went  into service early in 1894 and appears to have burned in 1898. She was  reputed to be the first to navigate the river from Penticton to Okanagan  Falls, but with what success we are not told. The Jessie was built in Ontario  for W.J. Snodgrass, the promoter of Okanagan Falls. The S.S. Greenwood  was the next boat on the lake, and unlike some of the others, spent her life  on Skaha once she arrived there. She was built at Okanagan Landing in  1897 and burned at the Falls in 1903. Her length was 89 feet, with a beam  17 feet. Her owners were Greenwood, Shields 6k Brownlee, Capt. C.  Brownlee, and Engineer George Maynard, the latter still living at Okanagan Falls in the 1930s. I remember the big paddlewheel on the shore of the  river above the present highway bridge (1990), close to two rock-filled, log  cribbed docks, which ran out from the freight sheds on the east bank.  In 1899, Mr. Snodgrass had the S.S. Maude Moore shipped out from  Ontario. She ran on Skaha Lake from then until 1905, when she was moved  to Okanagan Lake and owned by J.M. Robinson, whereupon she became  The Cygnet on Skaha Lake. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  the unofficial Naramata to Summerland ferry and then the official one from  1908 to 1911. Apparently a screw steamer, the Maude Moore was a wood  burner 45 feet long and carried about twenty passengers. There seems to be  no note on her demise.  From 1905 to 1910, there appears to have been no commercial boats  on Skaha Lake. The mines of Fairview, Camp McKinney and other places  were petering out. More and better roads were coming into the picture and  the importance of Okanagan Falls as a trans-shipment point was vanishing.  However, movement by road was still slow and hazardous, so that when  James Ritchie promoted the establishment of Kaleden, there was again  23 Commercial Boats  need for water transport. After 1905, there was no steamboat seen on Skaha  Lake until 1922, with the exception of one return trip from Penticton to  Okanagan Falls, made by the C.P.R. sternwheeler Kaleden (2) in 1910.  C. Noel Higgins secured the contract in 1908 for a ferry between  Summerland and Naramata. He had a gasoline 30 foot launch built and  named her the Mallard (1). In 1910 Mr. Ritchie bought the Mallard for  service on Skaha Lake and renamed her Kaleden (1). She was then bought  by Hatfield 6k Campbell (soon to be the Southern Okanagan Transportation Company).  Skippered by my grandfather, Capt. Charles Hatfield, a master mariner  from Nova Scotia, the Kaleden (1) was used mainly for towing scows of  woodstave pipe, cement and so forth from the head of Skaha Lake down to  Kaleden. After two years, she was replaced by the motor launch Cygnet of  40 foot length, a 10 foot beam, with a heavy duty Fairbanks marine engine.  The Cygnet was built, I believe, by the Summerland Boat Works. The engine  was started by turning the heavy flywheel with a steel bar which fitted into  sockets in the wheel. I can still see a hole in the cabin roof where the end  of the bar went through one day when the engine backfired! During the early  1920s the Cygnet was moved to Okanagan Lake, and after carrying express  fruit to Kelowna at nights for one summer, was sold in the Kelowna area.  The sternwheeler Kaleden (2) was the only C.P.R. venture on Skaha  Lake until the S.S. York made its appearance in 1922. The S.S. Kaleden (2)  was built at Okanagan Landing in 1910. She had a length of 94 feet, with  a beam of 18 feet and draught of 15 inches. She was meant to run the  Okanagan River between the two lakes, but was far too long. After the one  trip, she was used on Okanagan Lake only and was dismantled in 1920.  During the construction of the Kettle Valley Railway, she was busy hauling  dynamite and other construction items.  In 1914, the South Okanagan Transportation Company put the  motor launch Mallard (2) in commission to run between Penticton,  Kaleden and Okanagan Falls. She was the only boat that could be called  really successful in navigating the river between the lakes. Her length was  just 32 feet, and with a tunnel stern and propeller above the bottom of the  boat, the Mallard was as well suited to the river as a boat of that time could  be; even so, the down-river trip around the sharp bends could be quite  exciting in times of high water.  The first control dam was built at the outlet of Okanagan Lake despite  the fact that the river was rated as navigable water and the two road bridges  and the railway bridge had all been fitted with swing spans. For some time  the Mallard (2) managed to climb over the dam, but one day was forced  against the side of the opening and had a large hole knocked in the hull so  that she promptly sank with a ton of apricots on board. She was purchased  by someone on Okanagan Lake for the engine. It was the end of navigation  on the Okanagan River.  24 Commercial Boats  The last commercial boat on Skaha Lake was again a steamer, but this  time a screw driven one, the Canadian Pacific's S.S. York. Eighty-eight feet  long with a beam of 16 feet, the York was built in sections in Toronto, and  assembled at Okanagan Landing. She was launched in 1902. On Okanagan  Lake she acted as relief passenger boat, freighter and tug, and sometimes as  ice breaker. One time, as she rounded Squally Point with a cargo of  dynamite, a six foot wave stove in the main door of the deck house.  Between 1922 and 1931 the York worked on Skaha Lake pushing a  barge loaded with locomotive and freight cars between the head of the lake  and Okanagan Falls. When railroad tracking was completed along the west  side of Skaha Lake, she was no longer needed as a railway link and was  moved to the Arrow Lakes.  Osoyoos Lake  To close the story of commercial boats on the lesser Okanagan lakes  south of the Great Okanagan, mention should be made of the S.S.  Cascadilla, built at the foot of Osoyoos Lake in 1860-61. Ninety-one feet  long, the Cascadilla was reputedly built to run between Oro (Orville) and  Penticton. When her owner learned about the falls on the river south of  Skaha Lake, her career was turned southward to run in the United States.  The Kaleden at Kaleden. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  25 Commercial Boats  Shuswap Lake  Having covered the waterways south of the Okanagan, let us now go  northward. Other than the move overland in 1888 of the Red Star (1) to  become the S.S. Okanagan (1) on the Lake, there did not seem to be any  transfer of boats, but service on the Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River was, of  course, closely connected with that on Shuswap Lake. The first steamer on  the Shuswap was the S.S. Marten, built by the Hudson's Bay Company in  1866 to serve the village of Seymour en route to the short-lived gold mines  on the Columbia River. She seems not to have ventured upriver into the  Okanagan country.  In 1872, a small, but interesting steamer was launched and put on the  Savona to Fortune's Landing (now Enderby) run. One account says that she  had a one-man crew and the owner-captain had lines rigged to the steering  wheel so that he could control direction while busy at the boiler and engine.  She was named the Kamloops (1), and may well have been the flag-bedecked  boat that brought Mrs. A.L. Fortune (the first white woman to reach the  Spallumcheen country) to Fortune's Landing in 1874. Mr. Fortune, in his  autobiography written in 1911, thirty-seven years after the event when he  was eighty-one years of age, says that she travelled on a boat named the  Peggy. I can find no boat of that name, except a note that the S.S.  Spallumcheen was sometimes nicknamed the Noisy Peggy because of the  racket her machinery made, but she was not launched until 1878.  The Spallumcheen , because of her light draught, was one of the more  successful on the Spallumcheen River. Robert Lambly tells us that they  built a freight shed on the river with lumber brought by steamer from  Kamloops. It was probably carried by this boat in 1878. In 1885 she was still  running between Savona and Fortune's (Lambly's) Landing. Built by J.A.  Mara & Associates, the Spallumcheen was followed by William Fortune's  Lady Dufferin in December 1878. Unlike the Spallumcheen, the Lady  Dufferin was a sidewheeler, and it is unlikely that she ventured up the  Spallumcheen River often.  There were some twenty-two steamers that ran on Shuswap Lake at  various times between 1866 and the 1930s (editor's note: please see Roland  Jamieson's "Early Shuswap Lake Boats and People" The 54th Report, pp.  30-37). It is hard to tell which of them may have ventured upriver into the  Okanagan. The Red Star (1) was one of them, built it seems, in Victoria in  1887 for the Sicamous to Enderby run, but not suiting the river, was hauled  to Okanagan Lake the next year and made into the first Okanagan. The Red  Star (2) with machinery from Red Star (1) went into service in 1888 and  continued into the 1890's, even for a time after the railway was built to  Vernon. The Red Star (2) was an important link with the Valley in her day,  and many pioneers entered the Okanagan on her. A sternwheeler, neither  very large nor elegant, she managed to dodge the sandbars. Apparently she  was not very powerful either, as a story is told that a man held her to the dock  26 Commercial Boats  one day as she was trying to leave, much to the annoyance of the well known  and sometimes irascible skipper, Capt. Cumming.  I suppose, because railway connection came earlier, none of the  Shuswap boats approached the size or sophistication that the Okanagan  and Kootenay boats eventually reached. The largest on the Shuswap  appears to have been the S.S. Peerless, 133 feet long with a beam 25 feet,  built at Kamloops, and making her maiden trip in 1881. In 1885 the Peerless  was on a schedule between Savona, Kamloops and Eagle Pass, connecting  with the S.S. Spallumcheen at the latter point. In general, as occasion  required, the Shuswap boats travelled Kamloops Lake, the South Thompson, the North Thompson, Shuswap Lake, the Eagle River, Mara Lake and  the Shuswap River. There is still a motor boat with barge (Phoebe Ann)  operating from Sicamous up Seymour Arm (1990).  Ferries and Tugs  Having covered the principal early boats on the main Okanagan and  the lakes to the south and north connecting with the Valley, let us go to the  two ferry systems which crossed the big lake. The main one and longest  lasting was, of course, the Kelowna-Westbank. The early main route up and  down the valley was on the west side, where the old Indian trails were  followed and sometimes altered, to become the Hudson's Bay Company's  Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail.  The first area of settlement by the white man was in the general area  of what is now Kelowna. A well known camping place on the Brigade Trail  was Anse au Sable near the narrows of the lake opposite, and so obviously  a place for a ferry. The first one, in 1885, was probably the most interesting  of all - a scow some 10 feet by 16 feet, propelled by oars. It was built by the  two McDougall brothers of the west side and was used mostly for the ferrying  of horses. When it was on the beach in the summer sun, the cracks tended  to open up and the caulking came out, sometimes in the middle of the lake.  When that happened, the live cargo had to be let loose to swim ashore and  the operators sat on a side rail until the craft came ashore somewhere. Then,  it was bale out, recaulk, round up the horses, and start over - typical of the  days when time was not of the essence.  The next, but still unofficial ferry was the S.S. Wanderer. Then came  the first official and government-subsidized ferry, the motor boat Skookum  (1) alias Tut Tut. She was 30 feet long with an engine of about 7 h.p. The  service started in April of 1906 and called for two trips daily except Sunday.  Next on the service was again a steamer, the S.S. Clovelly. In 1912, the S.S.  Aricia came on the scene. She was 50 feet long with a 10 foot beam and even  had a passenger cabin. About 1921, L.A. Hayman, who had a great deal to  do with the Kelowna ferries, built a scow to tow along which could hold  eight automobiles. He wrote a most interesting account of a shipwreck  which took place in 1924 (OHS Report # 10, page 43).  27 Commercial Boats  The first government-owned ferry was the M.V. Kelowna-Westbank,  built in 1927. Her length was 92 feet, the beam 32 feet, and she carried  fifteen cars. The steel hulled M.V. Pendozi came next, carrying thirty cars  on her 147 foot length. She was joined by the M.V. Lequime and M.V.  Lloyd-Jones. In 1958, when the floating bridge was opened, the three ferries  were struggling to carry the traffic load.  The other ferry system on Okanagan Lake was less important and had  a much shorter life. It ran from Summerland to Naramata and for a short  time also took in Penticton. Naramata, first known as East Summerland,  was developed by J.M. Robinson, who had already established Summerland.  There was only a trail to Penticton and the C.P.R. boat, S.S. Okanagan,  called in early morning and late evening, leaving room for a ferry to  Summerland, where Naramata people did most of their shopping during the  formative years of the village.  The subsidized service started in March of 1908, and the first boat was  the motor launch Mallard (1), later on Skaha Lake as Kaleden (1), although  Mr. Robinson's private boats the Naramata (1) and Maude Moore had done  The Skookum at Kelowna. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  some ferrying for a year or so. Later that year, the S.S. Maude Moore became  the official ferry. She had started her career on Skaha Lake in 1899. From  1905 to around 1913, her familiar ports were Summerland, Naramata and  Penticton, and then the wake becomes lost.  The next to join the Naramata ferry fleet was the Rattlesnake, used  mostly as a tug. In 1912, owners of the ferry service changed, and so did the  type of boat used. The Skookum (2) was built and put on the run. She was  a modern motor launch capable of carrying sixty passengers. I cannot find  any reference to more detailed specifications. My recollection is that she  would be about 50 feet long. In November of 1913, the Skookum (2) was  sunk in a collision with the C.P.R. tug, S.S. Castlegar, and barges somewhere between Trout Creek and Penticton. This caused a good deal of  excitement in the Valley, and if my memory serves me right, led to serious  28 Commercial Boats  The Maude Moore at Naramata. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  injuries to three men and some interesting litigation. Fortunately, there was  another modern motor boat available, the Trepanier, though somewhat  smaller than the Skookum.  The first diesel-driven steel-hulled boat on Okanagan Lake was the  M.V. Pentowna, and service was expanded to take in Penticton and  Kelowna. Who built the Pentowna seems unclear, but one would guess that  the Canadian National Railway was perhaps involved. She was, indeed, run  by the C.N.R. as a passenger and freight boat between Kelowna, Penticton  and way points. Later, as water-borne passenger travel faded, the Pentowna  was altered and became a tug in the C.N. car barge service. Her active career  was between 1914 and 1972. At this time, she is still afloat, tied to a dock  at Peachland (1991).  The Naramata to Summerland  ferry service lasted for about ten years,  and was very important to the area in  its day.  Most of the early boats were j acks-  of-all-trades, carrying passengers, off or  on schedule, on excursions of all kinds  and hauling freight of every sort. They  also provided tugboat service, towing  or pushing scows and barges of every  size and shape. The lumber companies  soon felt the need for tugboats. The  S.S. Penticton was used as the first tugboat for the Kelowna Sawmill Co., and  she was followed by the S.S. Kelowna  (1). The Kelowna (1) was 78 feet in  length with an 18 foot beam, and was  sold in 1911 to the Smith Lumber Com-  The Maude Allen at Oyama.  Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  29 Commercial Boats  pany, which had a mill near Naramata. I remember when she was abandoned at the old Government Wharf in Penticton and partly sunk. The  pilot house was still above water and we boys could ring the bell for full  speed, much to our satisfaction. The Kelowna Sawmill Co. then built the  S.S. Orchard City, and succeeding her, the S.S. Orchard City II, all wooden  tugs of comparable size.  A rather unusual job for Okanagan tugs came up in connection with  moving building stone from the granite quarry on the lakeshore south of  Vernon. A small steam vessel did the job from 1903 to 1910. Then the  C.P.R. did it until 1919, when the Grace Darling (1), an early internal  combustion driven boat, took over. She was followed by the 8 h.p. Turn  Turn, and one has to wonder if by some chance she was the Skookum (1),  alias Tut Tut with a slight change in name. The h.p. given for the two was  about the same.  The last on the quarry scene came on the lake in 1923, this time, the  Grace Darling 11(2). She was a durable little ship, outlasting the quarry  operation itself by four years, and then only being wrecked by a storm in  1960 when torn from her moorings. There were several small tugs, or boats  acting as tugs, on Kalamalka and Mabel Lakes, mostly in the timber hauling  business.  This brings us to the larger tugs operated by the Canadian Pacific and  Canadian National Railways. Their barges carried almost exclusively  railway cars on double-tracked decks and were docked at special docks  known as car slips, with counter weighted moveable aprons with tracks  which could be connected to those on the barges. The earlier CP. barges  were wooden with tall posts and hoglines to stiffen them and carried eight  cars. The later ones were of steel and carried ten cars. All of the C.N. tugs  were steel, I believe. The CP. tugs often pushed two barges; the C.N., one.  The second largest C.N. tug in service (the Pentowna was the largest),  was NO. 6, 89.5 feet in length, with a 20 foot beam, powered by a 575 h.p.  diesel, running on the lake from 1948 until 1973. NO. 6 moved the last  barge of freight cars on the lake, the CP. having given up the previous year.  There were several smaller tugs with numbers in the C.N. service, including  NO. 5, but the O.H.S. Reports and other research give no details. They  must have been christened by mathematicians, for only they could love a  boat with a number!  The first Canadian Pacific boat on the lake, built to be a tug and  nothing else, was the S.S. Castlegar, constructed of wood in the shipyard at  Okanagan Landing in 1911. Next came the S.S. Naramata (2) in 1913, steel  hulled and 90 feet long. She lasted well, being in shape to relieve the tug  Okanagan (3) while the latter was under maintenance in 1965. The S.S.  Naramata (2) is now tied up at Penticton (1991). The S.S. Kelowna (3),  launched in 1920, was the last of the three coal-fired steam tugs of the  C.P.R.  30 Commercial Boats  The M.V. Okanagan (3) was in service from 1947 to 1972. She was  definitely different. One hundred and ten feet long with a beam of 23 feet,  and a draught of over 12 feet, her diesel engine developed 800 h.p. and she  was equipped with the latest in ship to shore radio and radar.  It appears that for some years prior to 1925, barges of fruit and tows of  logs were moved on Wood and Long (Kalamalka) Lakes by two boats, the  Maude Aiien and the City of Vernon.  The tugs operated day and night, and the crews lived aboard. Over the  many years that the tugs ran on the lakes handling so much of the Valley's  freight, there were, I believe, only two fatal accidents: a Chinese cook and a  deckhand at different times fell overboard and were lost. Certainly, care had  to be taken during the winter months when the barge decks would ice up.  The Pentowna at Penticton. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  "Queens" of the Lake  The "Queens", big white sternwheelers, beautiful, friendly and comfortable, transported on Okanagan Lake before the railways came to  Penticton and Kelowna, before the highways connected us to anywhere and  everywhere, before telephone and telegraph, and radio and television  brought us news of the world every hour, every day. These magificent lake  boats brought us our clothes, most foods, our tools, our reading, and visitors.  Hundreds of Okanagan Valley men went off to war on those vessels, and  those who returned came home the same way. Everything imaginable was  carried by them, including horses and cattle, large steam boilers, cow hides  and gold bricks. The passenger accommodation was luxurious.  The captains and crews felt a responsibility for the well-being of all  and were ever friendly and accommodating. One really did not know the  early Okanagan unless he or she had travelled on "The Boat." There are few  people living today who came in on the Aberdeen, but there are some,  including myself, who first came down the Valley on the Okanagan, and  later enjoyed trips on the Sicamous.  The crews lived on board and had a long working day with much rush  at the docks, handling freight, express, mail, and coal for boilers (wood for  the first few years of the Aberdeen). During the boom days of the mines, as  many as forty teams of four to six horses took freight from Penticton to the  south and west, from the sternwheelers docking there.  31 Commercial Boats  The Sicamous at Ewing's Landing circa 1916. Photo courtesy of Vintage Visuals.  There were some notable passengers aboard those great white boats,  some of whom were the Governor-General, the Duke of Connaught on the  S.S. Okanagan (who was greeted by a salute, sounded by exploding sticks of  dynamite at the "old mine"); and Edward, Prince of Wales, who arrived in  1919 on the S.S. Sicamous, which caused a considerable stir in the south  valley.  The boats such as the Aberdeen and Okanagan had to be treated  tenderly when there was ice. I remember one winter day when a mixed party  of girls and boys from Penticton High School went on the Okanagan to play  some sports against Kelowna. From Westbank to Kelowna, we backed up  with the loss of some splinters from the paddlewheel. Coming home, we  were late leaving Kelowna, but now had a tug with a steel barge breaking a  passage ahead of us. It was quite a thrill to stand on deck watching the  searchlights and hearing the ice crunching. The searchlights on the  sternwheelers were fascinating, being big sizzling arc lights with highly  polished reflectors. The whistles, too, were of interest as their sound echoed  against the hills.  I suppose a sailing vessel of any good size gives the passenger more a  feeling of being carried by something alive, than does any other kind. The  steam-driven craft of light and flexible construction (and of these the  sternwheeler is surely preeminent), vibrates and seems alive, propelled  across the water by the thrashing wheel, in turn driven by the clean and  silent steam. The wheel with its great drive shafts (pitmans) was most  fascinating for anyone to watch. From the forward end of the main deck, one  could look down into the stokehold where the sweating fireman and his coal  passer were feeding the hungry boiler.  32 Commercial Boats  While the tugs and barges plodded their useful and somewhat mysterious ways, the three "Queens of the Lake," the S.S. Aberdeen, S.S.  Okanagan and S.S. Sicamous lent visible sign that we were connected with  the outside world. There were about thirty-two stops along the shore, where  the boats put in regularly, or on signal. We find life changing at a fast rate  in these last years of the 20th Century, but the change from Capt. Shorts'  22 foot rowboat to the 200 foot Sicamous in thirty years was equally as great.  The Aberdeen and Okanagan were dismantled when their years of  service were over. The Sicamous is permanently beached at Penticton and  currently undergoing complete renovation (OHS Report #53, page 7).  Some Statistics of the "Queens":  S.S. Aberdeen: Length 146 ft.; Beam 29 ft; Gross Tonnage 554; Speed 12 mph;  Staterooms 10; Saloons 3; Built at Okanagan Landing; Launched 1893; Reign as  Queen of the Lake 1893 to 1907; Years of Service 1893 to 1913.  S.S. Okanagan: Length 193 ft; Beam 32 ft; Gross Tonnage 1,079; Draught 5 ft;  Speed 15 mph; Passenger capacity 250; Staterooms 32; Saloons 4; Built at  Okanagan Landing; Launched 1907; Reign as Queen of the Lake 1907 to 1914;  Years of Service 1907 to 1930s.  S.S. Sicamous: Length 200 ft; Beam 40 ft; Gross Tonnage 1,786; Draught 5.5 ft;  Speed 20 mph; Passenger Capacity 310; Staterooms 37; Saloons 4, plus dining  saloon; Built at Port Arthur, Ontario, assembled and finished at Okanagan  Landing; Launched 1914; Reign as Queen of the Lake 1914 to 1935; Years of  Service 1914 to late 1930s.  33 An Early History of  Aviation in Vernon and Area  by Doug Kermode  As we observe the jet airliners' vapour trails high over the Ministry of  Transport's V.O. Station on Hunters Range near Enderby, guiding aircraft  to the prairies or the coast, we can reflect on the resourcefulness of the early  pioneers of flight. It was they who eventually perfected this precise navigation system. Those in the North Okanagan can proudly recall many aviators  and their aircraft that touched down on various fields and strips half a  century ago.  Vernon, in particular, boasted an enviable record in the 1930's as the  outstanding centre of aviation for the Interior. The apex of this interest was  probably reached during the big air shows staged in 1931 and 1932. This,  too, at a time when the effects of the Great Depression were being felt by  all enterprises. It was the era also when Canada's national pride shone  brightest, featuring the exploits of pilots opening up the frontiers of the  North. They trail-blazed in all types of weather, sometimes literally flying  "by the seats of their pants" with only limited radio equipment or no  electronic gear at all to assist their navigation.  Many of these pioneers who graced Vernon and other Okanagan  airports later were inducted into Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame. It is  fitting then that the Enderby Radio Range should look down on the area of  the B.C. Interior's first flight by a heavier than air machine on July 1,1912,  eighty years ago. The honour for this historic occasion goes to the City of  Armstrong. The pilot was Billy Stark, one of only two aircraft owners on  Canada's Pacific coast.  He rail-freighted his frail pusher type Curtiss biplane from Vancouver.  He assembled the craft at the fairground and made two successful flights  before a crowd of over four thousand spectators. No estimate of the number  of horses and buggies that surrounded the oval has been given, but for a  Doug Kermode is presently Vernon O.H.S. Branch President. A retired professional  photographer, flying has long been one of his hobbies.The author is indebted to  numerous people and organizations for their assistance in refreshing memories and  providing photographs including Linda Wills, Judy Gosselin, Ken Ellison and Barb Bell  of the Vernon Museum, the Armstrong Museum, Jim and Betty Griffin, Peggy Johnson  and the Aviation Hall of Fame, Ted and Bill Osborn, Cliff Renfrew, Dick Laidman,  Eagan Agar, Dick Biggs, Lucy McCormick, Stuart Fleming, Fred Allen, Stella Balcombe,  Peg Mick, Slick and Dorothy Langstaffe, Brian Harvey and the V.I.D., the Vernon  Daily News, the City of Vernon, Mat Hassen, Peter Dyck, "Chick" Bachop, and Ron  Smith. An extra special thanks to my old friend and pilot, Eldon Seymour.  34 Vernon Aviation History  JN4 "Jenny" on July 1st, 1919 in Armstrong. This is the aircraft flown by  Captain Ernest Hoy on his historic trans-Rocky Mountain flight a few months  later. Photo courtesy Doug Kermode.  crowd of this size in those days, the Okanagan must have been drained of  all hoofed transportation. When one considers that powered flight had only  been devised nine years previously, this event was an outstanding promotional feature organized by the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  To Armstrong also goes the honour of featuring the second airplane  to land in the North Okanagan again for the July First Celebrations. The  year was 1919. The aircraft was a World War I "Jenny" or Curtiss JN4 flown  by Captains Ernest Hoy and George Dixon.  This same machine, piloted by Hoy, was to make Canadian aviation  history just a month later, when he became the first pilot to successfully  cross the Rocky Mountains on August 7th 1919. On that trip Vernon was  his first landing after a three and one-half hour flight from Vancouver. The  letter he personally delivered from Mayor Gale of Vancouver to Mayor  Shatford of Vernon was the first such "B.C-Alberta Aerial Post." (The  original letter now rests in a fitting showcase in the Vernon Museum.)  Hoy continued via Grand Forks, Cranbrook and Lethbridge to Calgary,  arriving there at 8:55 p.m. after sixteen and one-half hours total flying time.  It was a gruelling flight in a heavily loaded, open cockpit airplane. An extra  gas tank with twelve gallons had been installed in the forward seat to extend  his range. His 90 horsepower motor was barely able to lift him over the  Crawford and Crows Nest Passes. At one spot, he estimated he had only 150  feet clearance and no space to turn around. (See O.H.S. Report No. 25,  pages 130-36.)  Attempting a return journey via the Kicking Horse Pass four days  later, he unfortunately cracked up his old "kite" taking off from Golden. He  was uninjured but that wrote "finis" for the moment to trans-Rocky  Mountain air/post ventures.  35 Vernon Aviation History  Captain Ernest Hoy in 1960.  Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  In 1969, however, the Vernon Flying Club contacted Hoy, then 74 years  old, at his home in the State of Georgia,  and he agreed to celebrate his aborted  1919 east-to-west flight with a return  trip on the 50th anniversary of his historic journey. This time he travelled in  the comfort of a six-place, twin motor  Piper Apache from Calgary to Vernon  via Golden. But this event is another  story that should be chronicled in a  future article.  Hoy's original plan in 1919 was to  take off from Vancouver on that trans-  Rocky Mountain flight on August 4th  and to combine his initial landing at  Vernon with Peace Celebrations being  held nationwide that day. Poor weather held him up for three days, so the  Vernon committee held some hasty consultations and wired Kamloops for  Captain Ernie Hall, then in that city with his JN4, to fly down and fill the  gap. He did, arriving in mid-afternoon, and was therefore the first pilot and  plane to land in Vernon.  After his departure there does not appear to be any more aerial activity  until 1921. In the summer of that year, records indicate that Lieutenant  G.K. Trimm, also a member of Hoy's Aerial League of Canada, landed on  the airstrip on Mission Hill on the southern outskirts of the city. The second  aircraft, also a "Jenny", was flown by Colonel Scott Williams.  Many an earth-bound soul in the area went for his first airplane ride  during the stays of these early pilots as they barnstormed their way around  Vernon and district, charging whatever the traffic would bear.  No recorded air activity appears on the scene in the Okanagan until  the fall of 1928, when an Eaglerock biplane, fresh from its factory in  Witchita, Kansas, came through en route to the Yukon, barnstorming in  The Eaglerock biplane at the Vernon Airport in 1928. It was owned by  the Yukon Airways and Exploration Co. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  36 Vernon Aviation History  Penticton, Kelowna and Vernon. It also touched down at numerous  Cariboo towns as it headed to its northern base.  This sleek biplane with its 220 horsepower Wright Whirlwind Motor  (the same that Lindbergh used) apparently did a land office business, paying  off the original cost of the machine ($14,000.00) before it reached  Whitehorse. The Yukon Airways and Exploration Company, under its  owner, Clyde Wann, had named the plane Northern Light, and it proved a  popular and much used workhorse under the skilful piloting of John  Patterson.  In 1930, two Fairchild float planes, registered to the R.C.A.F. in  Vancouver, drew up to the wharf at Kalamalka Lake and attracted the  interest of local residents. These aircraft were participating in the search for  the local contractor, Alex Smith, lost during his construction work on  Haddo Dam near Aberdeen Lake. They were successful in spotting him  from the air, and he was later rescued by a land search team after several days  in the bush.  Another famous pilot in Canadian aviation annals, who took part in  several noteworthy rescue missions, is of particular interest to our area.  Norman Forester was noted for his work in high altitude aerial photography.  He was inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame in 1973. Whilst on one of  CF-AGK Gypsy Moth operated by the Blakely Flying Services Co. of  Radium Hot Springs at the Vernon Airport. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  his assignments in 1933, he operated for a few days from Kalamalka Lake  with a Fairchild on floats. It proved an opportunity for his mother, and his  relatives, the Flemings and Megaws, to have their first plane ride, before he  continued photo mapping other B.C. locations.  In 1930, a de Haviland Gypsy Moth folding wing biplane, registered  by Blakely Flying Services of Radium Hot Springs and owned by John  Blakely, arrived in Vernon. It was piloted by Lowell Dunsmore. The  company was on the lookout for an area to open a flying school and finally  37 Vernon Aviation History  selected Vernon. Eventually, with its Moth housed in a corrugated metal  hangar provided by the City of Vernon, Blakely Flying Services trained  several local students. Among the early graduates was Charles Gray, who  entered the R.C.M.P. and became their earliest pilot when the Force  acquired aircraft of their own.  Dunsmore was later to test fly the ultimately famous local home-built  Corbin City of Vernon, constructed by a group of ambitious, but always flat-  broke air-minded buffs: Jim Duddle, Eldon Seymour, Ernie Buffum, and  Jack Taylor (see O.H.S. Report No. 33, page 86). Eldon is the only one of  this group now left. He still flies and is recognized as an outstanding float  pilot. Dunsmore eventually became chief check pilot for Trans Canada  Airlines after World War II. Jim Duddle had a commercial pilot fly him to  Edmonton to train for his pilot licence. Then he returned to Vernon via the  Crows Nest Pass to become the first pilot to fly a home-built plane over the  Rockies - a real achievement when you take on Mother Nature with a 40  horsepower motor.  -. ^.^^t^y^p^f  Air Show in Vernon, July 1932. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  Considerable flying activity occurred around the Vernon airport in  the early 1930's, particularly in connection with the outstanding air  pageants of 1931 and 1932.  The City acquired eighteen acres of land to the south of the City  boundary for the development of an airport. Mayor Stewart and his active  committee of Aldermen, Prowse and Wilde, can be credited for promoting  this project. Squadron Leader J.H. Tudhope of the Department of Civil  Aviation helped further the airport project with the federal government  and was instrumental in having Vernon made into a Customs Clearing  Centre. This Centre was a great boost for air travel from U.S. points. It  proved of prime importance when so many pilots came from the Pacific  Northwest to attend the 1931 and 1932 pageants.  Tudhope's nick name was "Tuddy." Before he entered government  service, he had lived in the Lumby area. He pioneered many routes and  initiated the use of untried equipment. For his outstanding contributions to  Canadian aviation, he was inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame in 1971.  Two other bush pilots, Sheldon Luck and Grant McConachie, visited  our airport while fostering potential air routes or providing services. They  too have been enshrined in the Aviation Hall of Fame. Another noted  38 Vernon Aviation History  aviation pioneer, Pat Reid, also made numerous visits to Vernon in his neat-  as-a-pin Puss Moth. He was then head of Imperial Oil's aviation division,  and the registration of his aircraft was CF-IOL!  In 1936, Air Commodore Herbert Hollick-Kenyon, probably one of  the most famous pilots to touch down on Vernon's runway, landed the  largest machine ever to lower its wheels on our strip, a Lockheed Electra. He  was mapping a proposed trans-Canada route, and was in charge of testing  radio ranges and reception in the mountain regions.  Lockheed Electra flown by Air Commodore Hollick-Kenyon at the  Vernon Airport in December 1936. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  While Hollick-Kenyon was born in England, he was raised near  Ewing's Landing and often worked in the packing houses. He joined the  Canadian Army in 1914, was wounded, invalided, and between different  postings overseas and in the U.S.A., eventually received his wings and  officer rank at Camp Borden, Ontario. He later became a legend in the  Canadian North. In 1935, he was selected by the noted explorer, Lincoln  Ellsworth, to be his pilot for an Antarctic expedition that would require, as  the supreme venture, a flight of over 2200 miles, crossing totally unexplored  ice caps. Their destination was the abandoned camp of Byrd's Little  America. Running out of fuel 25 miles from their goal, Kenyon successfully  landed their ski-equipped Grumman intact. They survived. For his accomplishment, a mountain plateau in Antarctica is named for him. He too has  been inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame.  Accompanying Hollick-Kenyon on his 1936 Vernon assignment was  our trusted friend, Tuddy, having relinquished his position to his junior  inspector, Bill Lawson.  Prior to World War II, the airport was located on Mission Hill. After  the outbreak of hostilities, the Department of National Defence selected  Vernon as a maj or training centre and plans were made to acquire additional  acreage for the Army Camp. The airport was soon acquired by the government, and shortly thereafter all civil flying in Canada was banned. These  developments meant the end of our promising air field south of the city.  Following the war, the need for a new airport became urgent. A  referendum was passed by a healthy majority on June 28,1946, authorizing  the City to purchase land adjoining the south arm of Okanagan Lake. A  total of 52 acres was secured from two landowners for $12,000.00 plus an  39 Vernon Aviation History  allotment of $6,000.00 for drainage and gravel to prepare the runway for  paving. Nine days after the passage of this referendum, the first aircraft  landed on the then partly completed runway.  The pilot of this plane was Robert Filtness. Along with some former  members of war-time air crews, he intended to form a company called  "Valley Air Services Ltd." They proposed doing extensive aerial spraying.  One of their two Fleet aircraft was fitted with the necessary spraying  equipment. Unfortunately, during the testing of this equipment, Filtness  was killed when his plane crashed into a nearby hay field. That proved to  be the end of this commercial venture.  A year later, Dick Laidman, a native son and air engineer, began  another commerical venture in Vernon. He had been employed in  Yellowknife. After qualifying as a pilot, he moved back to Vernon in 1947.  Starting out with a Fox Moth on floats, he interested two of his Lumby  friends in starting up a company. Peter Dyck, Jim Inglis and later, Hugh  Mann, established L 6k M Air Services Ltd. Pilot Dan Mclvor was involved  with the firm for a while. They did training and charter work with a variety  of aircraft. At one time they inaugurated a valley service with a float-  equipped Beech aircraft that plied between Penticton, Kelowna and Vernon. While some ventures proved successful, the trio eventually chose  independent routes. Laidman became associated with Pacific Western  Airlines and was later promoted to president of PWA.  These are but a few of the many aviators, private and commercial, who  have done so much to advance Canada's heritage in the realm of flying. The  signatures of many fine pilots are included in numerous log books and  Vernon Airport Registers. These dedicated people have assisted in promoting and developing our own local and provincial fields of aviation. (For  additional Okanagan aviation information please see: O.H.S. Report No.  43, pages 64-66)  'Ѣ~i*,"^|!5^8HS^i"  The Vernon Airport in 1932, located on Mission Hill.  Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  40 The First Jewellery Store  by Beryl Qorman  The jewellery firm of F.B. Jacques 6k Son was established in 1889 at Enderby.  Moving to Vernon in 1891, it is still in operation today (1992). There is little  doubt that it was the first such store in the Okanagan valley.  Frederick Bainton Jacques came to Calgary with his father in 1883.  They rode across the Prairie with a train of Red River Carts. His brother,  George, was already there, plying his trade as a watchmaker and telegrapher  before the C.P.R. was completed.  Fred decided to follow his brother's profession and returned to Toronto  in 1884 to apprentice with P.E. Ellis Manufacturing Jewellers. He qualified  as a Jeweller, Watch and Clock Maker in 1889. He then returned to Calgary  to assist his brother in the early spring of that year.  His fiancee, Annie H. Reeve, followed him in July. They were married  by his father, Rev. George Jacques, in Calgary. They had met in Toronto  where she had been apprenticing as a Dressmaker and Tailoress. She  immediately set up shop in Calgary and kept busy with her needles and  sewing machine.  After his marriage, Fred decided to look for opportunities further west.  He travelled to Vancouver, but O.B. Allan and Birks were already well  established, and he thought that he would have difficulty competing with  them. Rumour was that there would soon be a large metropolis in the  Okanagan with the completion of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway.  The construction crews were located in Enderby, which was then a hive of  activity. He went there and set up a work bench in the Enderby Hotel lobby  in 1889. He was also appointed C.P.R. Watch Inspector, a position he  retained until his death in 1938. Fred was joined by his wife in July of 1890.  By that time, he had established a small business and living quarters on the  main street next to CW. Holliday's photography studio. It was here that  their first child, Edna, was born on September 7th. The birth was attended  by Mrs. Lambly, a trained nurse. They remained here until December, 1891  when they moved to Vernon.  Beryl Gorman (nee Geddis) is the granddaughter of Frederick B.Jacques. She has lived  all of her life in Vernon.  41 First Jewellery Store  F.B. Jacques in the white coat and derby hat is leaving Sicamous  on the Kalamazoo car bound for Enderby in 1891. He had just  been to Sicamous to purchase his first stock of jewellery from  a travelling salesman on the mainline. He is holding on his knee  (cannot be seen) merchandise to the value of $400, the first  stock of commercial jewellery to be brought into the Okanagan.  Photo courtesy of Beryl Gorman.  The Jacques family rented premises in the Gilmore Block (3200  Barnard Avenue). A second daughter, Hazel, was born to them here on  October 19, 1892. In 1894, they made plans for a new store on what is the  present site in the 3100 block of Barnard Ave. Construction commenced  on August 30, 1894 with T.E. Crowell as contractor.  The building was two-storied and brick with living quarters adjoining  the business area on the main floor and office space upstairs. It had an  imposing facade, which unfortunately has been covered by stucco. Had this  change not occurred to the front of the building, it would be an interesting  historic site adding character to the main street of Vernon today. Dr.  Corrigan, a pioneer dentist, had his office above the store.  The business prospered with the assistance of Mrs. Jacques, who cared  for the front shop and served customers. Mr. Jacques carried on with the  jewellery, watch and clock repairs at the rear. In 1900, their son, George  Frederick, was born and their business continued to grow. Vernon's population was 600 souls which increased shortly after to 800 people.  With their business continuing to expand, the Jacques family moved  into a residence on 32nd Street in 1909. In the previous living quarters  adjoining the store, their son-in-law, William T. Geddis, established a dry  goods business until 1931. In that year, the jewellery store expanded their  "South Seas" gift shop into this area.  Many apprentices learned their watch and clock making trade through  the tutorship of Mr. Jacques. Several of these people went into their own  42 First Jewellery Store  business often in competition with their former teacher. Mr. CW. Whiten  was one of the first to do so, establishing his business in 1912. Gordon  Redgrave, a native son and well-known athlete in Vernon, established his  business in the Kootenays. Fred Dean, another local person, operated his  own store in Vernon before going to the Cariboo to continue his trade.  Charlie Fulford came to Jacques Jewellers as an employee from Winnipeg,  but stayed to open his own store in Vernon. Fred Lewis opened a repair  bench behind Nolan's Drugs in the 1930's. Don Harwood came into the  store in the 1930's. After serving in the Air Force during World War II, he  returned and is presently a co-owner of the business.  In 1921, George Jacques came into the business. He had taken a  mechanical course in Los Angeles in 1919, and had returned to Vernon  with the idea of establishing an automotive business. His father, however,  offered him part interest in the family business, and convinced him to follow  in his footsteps. The name was changed to F.B. Jacques 6k Son. George  brought many innovative ideas to the business, and introduced modern  forms of merchandising. The store became known for its up-to-date stock  with a reputation extending far beyond the boundaries of the Okanagan. It  became an exclusive  place to shop. George  continued in the business  until his untimely death  in 1963 with a stroke.  In 1952, Charles  Troyer joined the firm.  The 60th Anniversary in  Vernon was celebrated  that year. Many new lines  of merchandise were  added. George became  free to travel and purchase exotic and beautiful merchandise. In 1955,  the store was enlarged  and modernized, and the 66th Anniversary of the founding of the business  was celebrated with a grand re-opening.  With George's death in 1963, Don Harwood and Charles Troyer took  over the ownership of the business retaining the name. In 1964, Michael  Gorman, great grandson of the founder, and grandson of their daughter,  Edna, entered the business as a junior partner.  The firm of Jacques Jewellers continues to serve the citizens of Vernon  with integrity. They too celebrate their Centennial Anniversary along with  the City of Vernon. Jacques Jewellers remains the longest established  jewellery business in the Okanagan Valley.  Inside Jacques Jewellers in the early 1900's.  Mr. Jacques is showing jewellery to Bob Martin.  Photo courtesy of Beryl Gorman.  43 A Brief History of the  Okanagan Historical Society  by Robert F. Marriage  For some years it has been proposed in a vague sort of way that a history of  the Society itself be written. Various opinions were expressed including the  one that the idea could be ignored as the Reports constitute a record of the  Society's history. In any event, a motion by the Executive Council of July  8, 1990, authorized the writer to act as internal historian. It was thought  that there was much information and even humour to be obtained from old  minutes. They would form the basis of a short interpretive history.  However, during my tenure as Secretary, I had noted the absence from files of all  minutes and correspondence from 1925 to  1955. All persons involved with these papers are long since deceased as are many of  their heirs and successors in office. Numerous enquiries, verbal and written even as far  afield as Portland, Oregon, proved fruitless.  A search of the Leonard Norris miscellaneous papers in the Vernon Museum only  produced a copy of the minutes of the 1948  Annual Meeting. The Donald Whitham  papers, held by Dorothy Zoellner, offered  copies of the minutes of the Annual Meetings of 1950 and 1951. But this still left us  with about three decades of the Society's  early records missing. Therefore, I decided  to record something of the founding meeting and to discuss the evolution of the Annual Report.  In the early 1920s, the idea of a historical society in the Okanagan  Valley had been in the minds of several people, but most especially Leonard  Norris, Government Agent, in Vernon. The late Doug Buckland could  recall his father, Frank, entertaining Mr. Norris in the family home on  V..  Leonard Norris.  Photo courtesy of the Vernon  Museum.  Robert F. Marriage was raised and educated in Kelowna. After military duty from 1942  until 1946, he worked for Canada Post until his retirement in 1980. He was Secretary  of the O.H.S. from 1979 until 1990.  44 History of O.H.S.  Buckland Avenue in Kelowna and talking about local history and the  possibility of organizing a society devoted to that subject. These discussions  took place around Frank's prized billiard table.  The Armstrong Advertiser of September 10, 1925 reported the  inaugural or founding meeting of the Okanagan Historical and Natural  History Society. (See Appendix I for the report on this meeting in the  Vernon News.) The meeting was held at the Vernon City Hall on the  previous Friday night (September 4th) at the invitation of Mayor John S.  Galbraith, one of the founding members. The names of the twenty-two  founding members are inscribed on all copies of the Constitution and By-  Laws. Of their number, Mr. Horace W. Galbraith of Vernon was the sole  survivor, and he passed away just this year (1992).  The first officers of the Society were: Leonard Norris, president,  Charles D. Simms, vice-president, and Max H. Ruhmann, secretary-  treasurer. Price Ellison, a pioneer of Vernon and well known in business and  politics, was made honourary president. A resolution was passed instructing  the elected officers to prepare a constitution. It was to be many years before  incorporation under the Societies Act would take place. A certificate of  incorporation was obtained April 19, 1960 and the constitution and bylaws were filed with the Registrar of Companies on the same day. Amendments and revisions were filed in 1972, 1976 and 1987.  At a subsequent meeting, Frank M.  Buckland was elected Second Vice-President,  John S. Galbraith became Third Vice-President, and James C Agnew took on the responsibilities of Editor. The well-known bird life  artist, Major Allan Brooks, and Fish and Game  Officer, George Gartrell, were appointed directors. Mr. Norris would remain president until  1939.  The founding members understood that  the society was being formed for "...the purpose  of historical research and study of the natural  history of this part of the province." (Arm-  strong Advertiser, September 10, 1925) Several people expressed the thought that an immense fund of knowledge in the minds of those  still living would soon be unavailable. It was  clear that a written record was urgently needed.  The Annual Report was to become the prime objective of the Society, and  remains so to this day.  Many of those attending that first meeting had seen the Okanagan  Valley before extensive European settlement and were keen observers of  nature. The Upper Sonoran Zone extends into Canada only in the Okanagan  Frank M. Buckland  in 1931.  Photo courtesy of  Pamela M. Buckland.  45 History of O.H.S.  Valley. Observant northbound travellers note the change of landscape with  the abrupt disappearance of the greasewood shrub near Kaleden. Much  discussion was provoked by this phenomenon. It provided material for  several writers and interest for many readers of the earliest Reports. A  member said he had ".. .seen scorpions at Peachland. The Chairman said this  showed how their new society would enlarge their knowledge. The meeting  adjourned for two weeks." No record can be found of any further discussion  of that item of business! We can only hope the secretary was as attentive to  detail as was the correspondent of the Armstrong Advertiser.  The first five Reports were each forty pages or less. The page size was  five and one half by eight and one half inches. The printing was done in  news-sheet style of two columns per page. They lacked an index and a table  of contents. Commencing with the Third Report (1929) the editor offered  his own comments including an errata. The charter members wrote many  of the articles. The president, Mr. Norris, was a frequent and voluminous  contributor. As well as historical subjects both local and provincial, his  works included poetry and the occasional political or social comment.  The Fifth Report (1931) published a paper entitled "Early Days in the  Similkameen." It had originally been read by Henry Nicholson to the Kettle  River and South Okanagan Pioneer Society. A letter in the Norris Papers at  the Vernon Museum refers to this organization, but enquiries have produced  nothing as to its existence or demise. A limited number of the first five  Reports was reprinted in 1975 and eagerly bought by members and  collectors.  The Fifth Report was the last one under the heading of the Okanagan  Historical and Natural History Society. As the Society's title had proven  cumbersome and occasionally misleading it was shortened by dropping the  reference to natural history, although that subject continued worthy of  attention.  In 1935 the format was changed to six by nine inches which became  the standard. This Sixth Report was done on a higher gloss paper with  slightly larger printing on the full width of the page. It also included a studio  portrait of Eli Lequime, the first photograph to appear in a Report.  Margaret Ormsby of the University of British Columbia became editor  assisted by Mr. Agnew and Judith N. Pope. This Report contained forty-  three articles from the first five Reports. It also had twenty-three new  articles, including eight by Mr. Norris. A helpful Index of Contents  appeared for the first time, making it an informative and comprehensive  volume which was reprinted in 1964 and 1970, but has now been out of print  for some years. It was over three hundred pages in length.  The Seventh Report (1937), edited by J.C. Agnew, appeared in the  new format, but returned for that year only to the two column print style.  It lacked a table of contents for its fifty-two pages.  In 1939, Mr. Norris resigned as president to assume the position of  46 History of O.H.S.  Dr. Margaret Ormsby on right with O.H.S. Treasurer,  Libby Tassie, at the Annual General Meeting in Vernon  on May 3rd 1992. Photo courtesy of Jessie Ann Gamble.  secretary-treasurer. The same year, Miss Ormsby edited the Eighth Report.  This volume went back to printing the full width of the page, and that style  became standard henceforth. The Ninth Report (1941) was edited by G.C  Tassie, assisted by Elsie Foote, and expanded to seventy-five pages. The  Tenth Report (1943) was completed by the same editors and expanded to  one hundred and thirty-five pages, including a table of contents which  became a standard feature there-after.  In 1971, a single binding (for purposes of economy) of Reports seven  through ten inclusive was reprinted and eventually sold out. With the  Index of Reports 1-50 (1987), it is a most useful volume, but the wisdom  of the single binding is still doubted by those members filling gaps in their  collections.  The G.C. Tassie Papers in the Vernon Museum contain a copy of the  letter from president Captain J.B. Weeks to the directors after the death of  Leonard Norris in 1945 at the age of eighty. He suggested that the Eleventh  Report be a memorial to the Society's founder who had given so much of  his time and energy to the work of the Society. On page 15, "Appreciation"  by Margaret Ormsby appeared. It was a lengthy and appropriate tribute to  Mr. Norris.  A short item of interest was a correction of previously accepted  historical fact by C.A.S. Atwood of Grand Forks: Gaston Lequime, born at  Okanagan Mission in December 1861 was the first white child born in the  interior of British Columbia rather than Rose Schubert, who was born at  Kamloops in October 1862. Lequime died of injuries sustained in a cattle  roundup in 1889. His widow married Fred Barnes, who later became a mayor  of Enderby.  The Twelfth Report in 1948 marked the beginning of a continuous  annual publication. Semi-autonomous branches of the Society were orga-  47 History of O.H.S.  nized that same year. An editorial committee was formed. Though she was  a full-time professor (and later department head), Miss Ormsby agreed to  convene this committee. She was, in effect, editor-in-chief until the  Seventeenth Report was completed in 1953.  In 1978, the Eleventh and Twelfth Reports were reprinted. To secure  a lower unit price, a large press run was ordered. Sales have proven to be  disappointing and considerable stock remains unsold at this time. No  further reprinting has been done. In my opinion, the Twelfth Report is one  of the most comprehensive of all we have produced. The two articles on  place names and local newspapers are worth the price of the book.  Since 1948, there have been forty-three Reports issued by eleven  successive editors of whom Major Hugh Porteous of Oliver was the longest  serving (1961 to 1968). The Thirtieth Report (1966) bore the first  illustrated cover. It also included a binding of Primrose Upton's "The  History of Okanagan Mission" plus a brief but useful subject index of the first  twenty-nine Reports.  Commencing with the Thirty-third Report, covers have been designed to include the work of photographers or artists. Dr. Duane Thomson,  editor of the Forty-first Report, introduced the format still prevailing of  contents in classified sections, much appreciated by researchers and casual  readers alike. The Forty-ninth Report (1985), edited by Jean Webber, was  the first published under the title, Okanagan History. As required by law,  all Reports include the proceedings of the Annual Meeting and the audited  financial statement.  In addition to publication of the Annual Report, the Society has  concerned itself with matters of historical interest and importance to the  community including preservation of the Pandosy Mission in Kelowna.  The first, however, was the erection of the Schubert memorial on the  grounds of the Consolidated School in Armstrong, unveiled on Dominion  Day 1927. The monument has been moved twice since to its present site.  Just recently, in 1990, it was through the efforts of the Vernon Branch that  a memorial plaque honouring Leonard Norris as the Society's founder and  outstanding public servant was placed in the Vernon Court House.  The concern voiced at the founding meeting in 1925 is still valid: the  recollections of those still living will soon be lost. If history is to be interpreted  in the future, and it will be, then it must be recorded accurately now.  APPENDIX I: From "OlcMIme Tales Told,"  Vernon News, September 10,1925  The Okanagan Historical and Natural History Society got away to a  fine start at the City Hall on Friday night, when about two dozen residents  including a couple of ladies, most of them more or less old timers in the  district, got together and set the ball rolling with much enthusiasm. The  name adopted on the motion of Mrs. Furniss, seconded by that of Mr. L.  48 History of O.H.S.  Norris—who suggested the addition of the second part of the title. Mr.  Norris was elected president with acclamation, Mr. CD. Simms as vice-  president, and Mr. M. H. Ruhmann as secretary. In regard to the appointment of an executive, the question arose as to whether Mr. Frank Buckland  of Kelowna, and some others representing points outside of the district,  should be placed upon it. Mr. Norris suggested the adoption, for the time  being, of a constitution based on that of the B.C. Historical Society, with  such changes as might be needful, and this met with the approval of the  meeting, the president, vice-president and secretary being desired to  prepare a draft of that kind and submit it to another meeting to be held in  two weeks' time. It was further resolved, on the motion of Mr. Cochrane,  that Mr. Price Ellison be named as Honourary president, the mover saying  that Mr. Ellison would be able to render great assistance in the writing of the  history of the valley.  Objects of the Society  The president having taken the chair, said in reply to a question that  he understood the society was formed for the purpose of historical research,  of investigating the natural history of the province, and for prehistoric  research ("and the big fish in the lake.") (Laughter.) Mr. Ruhmann would  be able to tell them far more about the natural history than he could. The  work would be divided up amongst those best qualified to do it. The history  of this part of the province had never yet been properly investigated. The  B.C. Historical Society seemed to devote its whole attention to those who  had come to the coast in ships or by the overland trails; he did not think that  in the whole of Canada there was so large a district whose history had never  been investigated. It was known that in 1845 a Jesuit priest came up the  Okanagan river as far as Lake Stewart, but the best that could be found about  him in the records of the Roman Catholic Church was but sketchy, though  they knew that in 1846 he was baptizing Indians at Babine Lake. How  Bishop de Demers, who was often referred to as the pioneer bishop,  penetrated to the interior of the province he did not know. For their early  records they must go back to the Lewis and Clark train in 1803 which started  from St. Louis. That expedition was sent to found a city at Astoria. A man  named Stewart was sent to establish himself at the mouth of the Okanagan  river to get ahead of the rival traders and from that time the traders and  missionaries too appeared always to have been in occupation of the mouth  of the Columbia. St. Louis, founded in 1763, was always the head point of  these expeditions, because it was only twelve miles below the mouth of the  Missouri River, and they came up the Missouri and struck across what was  then known as the Great American desert, to the Columbia River, and  made their way up that.  Mrs. Furniss said her idea for that Society, though rather a small one,  had been that it should go back about forty years, to the beginning of  49 History of O.H.S.  Vernon and what had been going on since. This, though comparatively  small, would, she thought, be interesting and important. She herself had  been thirty-seven years here, but Mrs. Bessette had told her that she had  been here forty, and she would tell the Society anything if they came to her.  She hoped that when the Society was collecting the facts it would not forget  the ladies.  Gather Memories Ere They Pass  Mr. Hamilton Lang agreed with the aims of the Society as proposed by  the chairman, but desired also to remind them that there was now in the  Valley an immense fund of lore in the memories of those still living, that  would soon be gone. To realize that they needed only to recall the many  pioneers of the valley they had themselves known amongst them who were  already gone. There would be splendid work here for a sub-committee of the  institution. One often thought how nice it would be to get that information,  but with many of them they would not talk unless one got them off their  guard, and then it came out spontaneously. Tom Wilson, at Enderby, from  1868 to the end of the century was guide for the C.P.R. at Banff and in the  Field area, and he had probably the best collection of books upon the early  history of this country of any outside of the Carnegie library. There was a  tremendous field for efforts of this kind.  The mayor said he thought that what gave rise to this movement was  a little talk that he gave at the Rotary a few weeks ago, when he wanted to  get back to the early history of the place, and was surprised to find how many  were interested in it. He had never undertaken anything that he found more  interesting to himself. But he was impressed with the fact that much of the  data that could now be had would soon not be available. He had himself  been indebted to Messrs. Norris, Cochrane, Price Ellison, Dad Smith and  others. He was convinced that this was going to be a splendid organization,  and that they would be able to compile some authentic information in a way  that would be of great advantage to this district, and the after generations  would appreciate it.  How Visitors Seek Data  Mr. Cochrane said that as one of the youngest of the old-timers this  thing had been very near his heart; he only wished it had been started  twenty years ago. Ten days back a mining engineer who went up to Cherry  Creek was able to give him one of the scarce Dawson reports on the mining  in the Cherry creek district when the mines were opening there in '77 and  '78, and wanted him to introduce him to some of the old timers who knew  the district; but when he came to think them over—Donald MacKintyre,  Billy Mitchell and so on, there was not one of them left. Again, a month ago  Dr. Wyborn, a great fisherman from California, the trail partner of Zane  Grey, was up here, and wanted to know where he could get a few days  50 History of O.H.S.  fishing. He also wanted to know where he could meet some of the old  timers—miners, loggers, Indians. He had three or four days at Sugar Lake,  and said it was long since he had enjoyed anything so much. Had he been  able to get local color that he wanted, Zane Grey would perhaps have  written a book about us. Mr. MacKelvie twenty years ago wrote a history of  the Okanagan, which might be available. They had with them that night  Mrs. Brant (sic), who was the daughter of Captain Houghton, who was on  the Coldstream in '84.  Mrs. Brant (sic) said that she would be glad to help the Society in any  way that she could. Mr. Cryderman reminded the meeting that we still had  amongst us Tom Woods (sic), who came in with O'Keefe and Greenhow.  Mr. Brands (sic) Memories  Mr. Brant (sic) said that he was born in the Okanagan 52 years ago,  just outside Kelowna. His father came up the Columbia river in 1856 and  in 1857 he came up the Snake and met Father Pendozi. There was no  border-line marked out in those days, and when Father Pendozi went to the  general's tent he was given twenty-four hours to get out or be shot. In 1856  his father was taking miners up the Similkameen to the Cariboo. In 1860  the boundary line was surveyed. He had not been in the Okanagan then, but  he heard about it that it never snowed there. In 1861 he planted an orchard  near Oroville, and the trees were there today, some of them three feet thick.  He took a place near Duck Lake in 1862 and raised six hogs there which he  sold to the miners for a hundred dollars apiece. After that he gave it up and  took another, where with two other men he raised sheep which they sold  in the Cariboo. His father always spoke of Capt. Houghton as the great man  of the Okanagan, who brought real money there. Captain Houghton had a  great deal to do with getting B.C. to join the Dominion, and when this came  about he was elected by acclamation to the Federal House, but he never  came back from there. He it was who cut the trail in to Sugar Lake and who  lost his sugar there. Continuing, Mr. Brant (sic) said that his brother Joe,  who was eleven years older than himself, would remember much more than  he did.  Drink or Fight  Captain Houghton got 8000 acres on the Coldstream for a military  grant. He must have heard something about the Okanagan before he came  out, for directly he got his discharge at Malta he came straight there. When  in Victoria on his way in, he was stopped as he came out of the hotel by some  men who asked him to take a drink with them, and when he hesitated one  of them told him that a man who wouldn't drink with them must be their  enemy. He replied that he would sooner drink with them twenty times than  fight with them once, so went in and had his share and set them up in turn.  51 History of O.H.S.  The next day when he went to the land office to get his scrip, he found there  the man who in overalls and jumper the night before had challenged him  to a drink—it was Sir James Douglas. The speaker concluded with an  amusing yarn from the past about the Okanagan "big fish."  Dr. K.C MacDonald remarked that he knew a good deal about the  history of the Okanagan before he came west, through a niece of Peter  Girouard who lived in Ottawa and who had often visited him. Jimmy  Layton, of Savonas (sic), had also told him a great deal. He said what that  Society would gather would be of great value to future generations.  APPENDIX II: A Short History of the Oliver/  Osoyoos Branch  by Agnes Mabee  In June 1949, Mr. George Fraser called a meeting in Osoyoos of people  interested in forming a branch of the Okanagan Historical Society. Mr. J.B.  Knowles, president of the Parent Body, was in the chair. The new branch  was named the South Okanagan Branch of the O.H.S. The following  officers were elected: President, Mr. F.L. Goodman; Vice-president, Mr.  George Fraser; Secretary-Treasurer, Mr. A. Kalten; Directors, N.V. Simpson,  Dr. N.J. Ball, L.J. Ball, Mr. and Mrs. A. Millar. The table officers were from  Osoyoos and the directors from Oliver.  The earliest existing minutes are from April 1955, and by then the  branch was being called the Oliver/Osoyoos Branch.  There have been some interruptions in the continuity of the branch.  In 1954 and 1959 there were no annual meetings, and it lapsed in 1966  when no one was willing to take office. In 1968, at a meeting in Oliver, the  branch was reorganized with the following officers: President, Major H.A.  Porteous; Vice-president, Mr. E. Becker; Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. P. Field.  Over the years, the branch has completed several major projects, the  first being the erection of a cairn at the site of the first Customs House, four  miles north of Osoyoos. Others include helping with the restoration of  Inkameep Church, placing markers on McKinney Road, recording recollections of old-timers and placing a memorial plaque in honour of Mrs.  Lacey in the Osoyoos Museum. Most recently, Mr. and Mrs. MacNaughton  put up a cairn and an informative sign with picnic tables on the site of the  Presbyterian Church at Fairview.  52 Loyal Orange Celebration:  July 12th, 1903  by Albert E. Sage  The 1903 Loyal Orange Celebration and Parade probably topped all sports'  days in Armstrong, before or since. The Orange Lodge was the leading lodge  in Armstrong at the time. Nothing was left undone to make this a day to  remember. I had arrived in Armstrong only eight months before.  The Orange Parade was very imposing, and stretched from the railway  crossing to well beyond the Okanagan Hotel. It was led by a representative  of King William mounted on a white horse and decked out in Orange  regalia and sash. He was  followed by the Armstrong Brass Band, a very  creditable group of ten  to twelve instruments,  coached by William  Sawyer.  The Band was followed by a large procession of Orange members  with their yellow sashes  and regalia. The local  membership must have  been augmented by a  large number of outside  members. A stop was  made in front of the  Okanagan Hotel for a  solemn ceremony and  the men bared their heads. Orange banners were much in evidence, but  unfortunately we were unable to read their messages.  II  i  II  IH  r  ■HflB'vl  5*J  ~o"^~   '■      rr|f*      "   '   1  The 1903 Orange Parade in Armstrong. Photo by  C.W. Holiday, courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  Albert Eugene Sage was an active member of the Armstrong community from his  arrival in 1903 until his death in 1952. Over the years he had several partners in his real  estate, insurance and undertaking business. Together with his last partner, Jack  Pothecary, they formed Sage and Pothecary Ltd., now know as S & P Agencies Ltd. Mr.  Sage became the first President of the Armstrong Cheese Cooperative Associate in  1939. He served in various capacities with O.H.S. branches in Vernon and Armstrong.  This article was written in 1947 when Mrs. A.J. Fifer gave him the photographic plates  by C.W. Holliday that are reproduced here.  53 Loyal Orange Celebration  The street was lined with fir trees, cut specially for the occasion. In  front of the Wood Cargill Store there was an arch over the street surmounted by a large streamer "Okanagan for the Order." Groups of well  dressed people lined the street, ladies in long dresses without even an ankle  showing.  The buildings the parade passed were not even twelve years old at the  time. At the Sports Grounds, the Grand Stand, then on the north side of  the grounds, was packed. A grand dance ended the gala celebration day. We  were a happy and perhaps not too prosperous community at that time.  The arch over the street in front of the Wood Cargill Store during the  Loyal Orange Celebrations. Photo by C.W. Holiday, courtesy of the  Armstrong Museum.  54 Reminiscenses  Life at Fintry Ranch: 1933-1947  By Curtis Allsup  '.JU&/  Those of us who are interested in the history of the Okanagan never tire of  the stories of Captain John Cameron Dun-Waters and the Fintry Estate.  What follows is the story of Arthur William Harrop, his wife, Marie, and  their life on Fintry Ranch.  Art Harrop's parents were of British stock who immigrated to Canada  in 1894 and settled in Hamiota, Manitoba.  They later moved to Bradwardine where  six children were born with Art, the eldest, arriving on the 29th of September  1912. The family moved to Armstrong in  1920 where three more siblings were born.  Today (March 1991), Art has two brothers and four sisters still living in B.C.  Marie's parents, Arthur and Bessy  Hamilton, were also pioneers, originally  homesteading in Alberta, but moving to  Enderby when Marie was age three. They  moved to the Coldstream area when Marie  was age six. Marie recalls attending school  in Vernon, some five miles away. These  were the days before school buses and  families in the Coldstream took turns in  supplying rides to school. Marie's parents      Art Harrop holding his  eventually moved to a house and acreage      <Whter> Donnabelle, with  •      Aii v      i r,       i .i        r        Marie in 1942 at Fintry.  on the Old Kamloops Road, outside or       nL £ A       !  r fhoto courtesy of Art and  Vernon. Marie Harrop.  Curtis Allsup, originally from southwestern Saskatchewan, is a retired civil servant,  living in the Ellison district. His interest in Fintry started in the 1970s when his brother  took his holidays there. This story is based on his extensive interviews with Arthur and  Marie Harrop.  55 Life at Fintry Ranch  It was customary in those days to leave school and start working to earn  your own living at an early age, and when Art was fifteen he went to work  for John Cross at the Otter Lake Ayreshire Farm. This was on land formerly  owned by the Greenhows (one of the original partners of Cornelius  O'Keefe). Art worked as dairyman for John Cross, intermittently, for about  six years. In those days, before electricity in the rural areas and before  milking machines, all milking was done by hand and those doing the  milking were called "milkers."  The job with Otter Lake Ayreshire Farm came to an end when one of  Cross' sons became old enough to take over Art's duties, and it was then that  John Cross suggested to Art that he write a letter to Fintry Ranch to apply  for work. Art was happy to receive a reply from Fintry telling him he could  start work as assistant herdsman the first of March, 1932. Thus did Art, a  young man 20 years of age, commence work at the Fintry Ranch.  In 1935, Art's parents moved to Vernon, and chose a property next  door to the home of Marie's parents. This was where Art and Marie first met  and fell in love. They carried on their romance by letter when Art was away  working and were able to meet some weekends when Art came home to visit  his parents.  Art still remembers the trip from Armstrong to the Fintry Ranch  because it took most of the day. He left Armstrong at 10 a.m. on the C.P.R.  train to Okanagan Landing where he was to catch the S.S. Sicamous on its  way south. Fintry would be the second stop. The train had few passengers  and it stopped in Vernon just long enough to let off mail and passengers and  to pick up mail that had to go south on the S.S. Sicamous.  Okanagan Landing consisted of the C.P.R. yards (where the train  could be turned around), a store, Post Office and Hotel Cafe. The S.S.  Sicamous was there waiting and puffing smoke, but there was about an hour's  delay while goods, being shipped south, were loaded.  With one toot, the Sicamous left the dock and headed for its first stop,  Whiteman's Creek. While pulling into the wharf, the stern wheeler became  grounded. It took about an hour, plying back and forth, before the Sicamous  came free.  Arriving at Fintry, Art was met by Angus Grey, the Ranch manager.  They drove by truck to his house where Art had his supper. Mrs. Grey, with  the help of a Japanese boy, did all the cooking for the ranch hands.  After supper, Mr. Grey showed Art where he was to sleep in the bunk  house and explained procedures on the Ranch. He was told to set his watch  one hour ahead. By doing this he would make up for the extra time required  in catching the Sicamous and the distance to Vernon.  The herdsmen were to arise at 3:30 a.m. so that they would be ready  to start milking at 4:00 a.m. Two milkers would milk twenty cows each. The  wages were $2.80 per day, less $ 1.00 per day for board. Since these were ten-  hour days it meant seventeen cents per hour.  56 Life at Fintry Ranch  Milking was finished at six a.m., when the milkers would go to the  manager's house for breakfast. They then had some free time, but herdsmen  had to be prepared to milk some of the heavy producers three or four times  a day. Some cows at Fintry were setting records, producing as much as 120  pounds per day.  Accurate records were kept by the herdsmen of each cow's milk  production and each cow was fed an amount of grain proportionate to her  production. Grain was bought by the carload from the Quaker Oats  company in Calgary and the freight car would come down by barge from  Okanagan Landing to the Fintry wharf. The grain was in one hundred  pound bags and was carried from the boxcar to a wagon by which means it  was transported to the granary which stood next to the circular barn. It  would take about a day to unload the grain from a boxcar. The granary had  a grain grinder powered by electricity generated by a water wheel power  plant.  The grains used for the producing cows consisted of a mix of oats,  barley, wheat bran and flax. The mixing of the grain was the responsibility  of the chore boy who would also bring the cows into the barn prior to  milking time.  Most of the milk was sold fresh. Regular customers were: the S.S.  Sicamous (for their passenger service), the Incola Hotel in Penticton, the  Royal Ann Hotel in Kelowna, and the Forest House Resort at the Head of  the Lake (the present location of Kilkinney Beach). Surplus cream was  shipped to the NOCA Dairy in Vernon. Milk and cream were shipped in  five and eight gallon galvanized containers. Skim milk was fed to the calves  and pigs. There were usually about twenty-five or thirty calves to feed.  Captain Dun-Waters had purchased the best of Ayreshires from  Ontario, some of which had been imported from Scotland. It was a fully  accredited herd and to confirm dairy records, an R.O.P (Record of Performance) man would visit each of the accredited farms in the valley once a  Art Harrop and a Fintry Ayrshire being shown at the Armstrong Fair.  Photo courtesy of Art and Marie Harrop.  57 Life at Fintry Ranch  month. He would spend a day and a half at Fintry to check production  records, arriving in the afternoon and staying overnight to check the  morning's production.  There were several accredited dairy and purebred herds in the Armstrong/  Vernon areas in those days. There were also many dairy shows and competitions. As herdsman, Art was privileged to go with the fifteen or twenty head of  cattle picked for showing. The show circuit would extend over a period of two  or three months in summer. There was the prairie circuit which included such  cities as Calgary, Edmonton, Regina and Saskatoon; then the B.C. circuit which  would include centres such as New Westminister, Vancouver, Victoria,  Cloverdale, Chilliwack and Armstrong.  When leaving Fintry with a show herd, they would load the cattle into  a stock car on the midnight barge so as to catch the morning train out of  Okanagan Landing. In the boxcar, the Fintry workmen would construct a  deck over the cattle where the grain, hay and water were stored and where  the herdsmen bunked. Everything was done first class. Over the years of  showing, the Fintry herd was successful in winning many trophies, and Art  recalls being awarded a Western Championship and a Reserve Championship. Most of the time there were three purebred Ayreshire bulls on the  ranch. As an accredited herd there was to be no contact with other cattle  for a distance of at least three miles.  Art remembers the importance of being dressed in clean white overalls  whenever being with the cattle both on the Fairgrounds and when milking  the cows at Fintry. Art recalls taking his shirt off on a particularly warm day  and being caught by Dun-Waters in this state of undress when he was  milking a cow. Dun-Waters gave him a reprimand, and reminded Art he was  always to be properly dressed when he was in the dairy operation.  The circular dairy barn is still standing at Fintry. It was large enough  to stable the entire dairy herd. The cows were secured in stanchions facing  the centre. The hay was stored in a shed beside the barn. A silo was in the  very centre where silage was stored. It was a simple job of feeding the cattle  by placing the feed in mangers from the centre of the barn. Calves were kept  loose in an open stall. The cattle were bedded with straw that was purchased  locally from the Reserve at the Head of the Lake. Art recalls hauling many  loads of straw in the fall.  Manure was removed by a carrier on a trolley which could be easily  pushed about the outer circumference of the circular barn.  After about two years as a herdsman, Art was transferred to the  orchard operation. There was a north orchard of about 40 acres and a main  orchard of about 200 acres, all on the delta. Older trees were constantly  being removed and replanted with new and different varieties.  Since Fintry had its own packing house, it grew varieties of apples  which would mature at different times to disperse the packing process over  a longer period and supply a variety of markets. Some of the varieties Art  58 Life at Fintry Ranch  remembers were Yellow Transparent, Duchess (an early apple), Cox's  Orange, Maiden's Blush (a summer apple), Wealthy, Gravenstein (a very  good cooking and eating apple), Macintosh, Jonathon, Staymen, Old  Winesap, Black Twig Winesap, Winter Banana and, of course, Red and  Golden Delicious. Fintry also produced pears; cherries: Bings, Lambert,  Royal Anne, Black Tartaryn (for pollination), and Deacon; also Italian and  Silver Prunes.  Fintry Ranch not only did its own packing, but also when it was  known there was a demand for certain varieties and the packing house was  running out of work, the call would go out to growers in Summerland and  other areas to send their fruit to Fintry for packing. The packed fruit was  then sent to Associated Growers in Vernon for marketing.  Art remembers the apple boxes well as he was often the shook maker.  The materials (called shook) were supplied pre-cut by the Simpson Mill in  Kelowna. The box ends were pre-stamped at the mill with the Fintry label,  which he recalls as reading "Grown and Packed by Fintry Ranch and  shipped by Associated Growers, Vernon." The apple boxes were nailed  together on a special table. About one hundred boxes could be put together  in an hour, and there was a special wage of $1.00 for every 100 boxes. Art  recalls picking cherries all day and making boxes at night.  In 1939, Art and Marie decided to be married, and the date they  picked was June 28. The marriage ceremony was to be performed at the  home of Marie's parents. Their wedding was unique in that radio station  CKOV, Kelowna, agreed to supply the wedding march and suitable background music, over the air, during a period of fifteen minutes. It was  therefore very important that the ceremony be performed precisely on time.  Reverend Davies from Vernon did a fine job with the wedding ceremonies  The circular barn in centre with the horse barn on the left and the hay  barn on the right in 1989. Photo courtesy of Art and Marie Harrop.  59 Life at Fintry Ranch  Art Harrop at "The Chalet" in 1989. Photo courtesy of Art and Marie Harrop.  out on the lawn in the yard on Old Kamloops Road. The comments from  the congregation were that this was a beautiful wedding and one of the  shortest ceremonies they had ever attended.  Marie came to Fintry. She and Art were allotted a three-room log building,  situated high on the hill side overlooking Fintry Ranch and referred to as "The  Chalet". It had a stone fireplace and it is believed that the house was originally  intended for use as a trophy room for Captain Dun-Waters. Here is where their  daughters Donnabelle and Sharon were raised. When the eldest daughter was  nearing school age they were obliged to leave Fintry Ranch and move to the  Ellison District where they live today.  Marie remembers her first job on the Ranch was stacking the apple  boxes that Art had just made. They were stacked in three's, one box being  placed vertically in the first box, then a third box placed upside down over  the vertical box. This is the way the apple bins are stacked and hauled out  in the orchards today.  When it was time for the fruit to be shipped, the C.P.R. would be asked  to bring a railway boxcar by barge to the packing house wharf. Apples were  loaded in a hurry. Five boxes were loaded on hand cars and wheeled into the  boxcar. Three men could load a boxcar containing 670 boxes in three hours.  The boxcars were then transported to Associated Growers in Vernon. But  before being loaded in the boxcar, coloured labels were attached: red for  Extra Fancy, blue for Fancy and green for C Grade. Art remembers that 85  carloads of apples were shipped from Fintry in one season.  Art became familiar with all aspects of the orchard operations including pruning, spraying, and irrigation. It was open-ditch irrigation using a  gravity flow from Shorts Creek. The Ranch had about twenty Japanese  workers who did the irrigating and other work such as pruning, picking and  packing. It would take seven or eight men to do the irrigating.  Spraying was done, using a two-hundred gallon horse-drawn Massey  Sprayer operated by a teamster and two men. Each man used a hand-held sprayer  attached to a long rubber pressure hose connected to each side of the tank. One  60 Life at Fintry Ranch  side of two rows of trees could be sprayed in each pass through. There were two  spraying machines on the ranch. The men doing the spraying were issued with  a hat, coveralls and gloves which were destroyed (burned) after each spraying  season. No masks were supplied, but in extreme cases of being bothered by the  spray, they would take out their handkerchief, dip it in water and tie it across  their mouth and nose. Some of the sprays used were nicotine, sulphate, arsenic  of lead, lime and sulphur.  As described in "Dun-Waters of Fintry" OHS Report #38, Fintry  Ranch had a High Farm in the upper valley of Shorts Creek about four miles  above the Ranch Headquarters. The hay meadow was about three miles  long and a half mile wide with Shorts Creek on one side and the Terrace  Mountain on the other. On the High Farm was a two-story log house, a log  barn and a log hay barn. Art recalls that the hay barn was constructed  without nails — just wooden plugs.  The hay meadow was fenced off into five separate fields and the hay  was a grass and alfalfa mix. It was irrigated twice during the growing season.  The High Farm was also the pasture area for the pack horses Dun-Waters  used on his hunting trips. He had about twenty pack horses. Art recalls  riding horseback to the High Farm to feed the horses in winter, and that if  he left the Ranch at one o'clock in the afternoon, he would be back in time  for supper.  The work crew preparing to leave on the 1935 Chev. 2 ton flat deck  for the High Farm. Photo courtesy of Art and Marie Harrop.  The OHS Report #53 contains a diary of one of Dun-Waters' hunting  expeditions in the Shuswap. Art Hanop was never involved in a hunting trip,  but does recall going with Captain Dun-Waters and Margaret, his wife, along  with a Chinese cook and about fifteen pack horses to check and restock the  cabins on Dun-Waters' trap line. It took two days to go straight to the end of the  trap line at the headwaters of Shorts Creek and another two days to return.  After apple harvest was completed, some of the work crew were  occupied in cutting and hauling logs from the High Farm for the sawmill  operation during the winter months. The small limbs and tops and the  knotty logs were cut up for firewood to heat the houses on the ranch. There  61 Life at Fintry Ranch  were seven houses plus three or four cabins where the Japanese workers  lived. Ten cords of slab wood was the estimated requirement for each house.  These were the days before chain saws and the cutting of the logs was done  with a six-foot crosscut saw. The sawmill operation was powered by  electricity generated by water power. The lumber was cut in all dimensions  from one-by-fours to heavy timbers.  Most of the buildings at Fintry Ranch from the date of Dun-Waters'  arrival were built (except for the shingles) from lumber manufactured at the  ranch. Considerable lumber was required for building the flumes which  transported the water from the falls into the power plant and into the  irrigations ditches. Some of the lumber was left rough and some was planed  as Fintry had its own planer.  Captain Dun-Waters was an enthusiastic curler and Fintry had its own  curling rink located fairly close to the circular barn. Prior to the curling  season, he canvassed the workers to talk them into being on his curling  teams. He usually had two teams and for this he needed eight people. The  curling circuit included Vernon, Armstrong, Salmon Arm, Enderby,  Revelstoke, Kelowna and sometimes Penticton (if there was ice). These  were the days before artificial ice. Fintry had a "home" team and a  competition team which consisted of Captain Dun-Waters, Angus Grey,  Geordie Stewart and Art Harrop. Art played lead, Angus or Dun-Waters  usually played skip.  Wages in winter were still $2.80 a day, but with no board taken off. Very  little work was expected of the men who were on the curling team, because they  were up most of the night travelling to and from curling competitions.  While living at the Chalet, Marie recalls a humorous episode she had  with a pack rat. Somehow, the pack rat entered the cabin by way of a knot  hole somewhere in the deck. It didn't do any real damage, except that a bar  of soap was missing each time it paid a visit. Marie solved the mystery of the  missing soap one day when she was out for a walk. She noticed a depression  in the ground, and discovered a neat collection of bar soap which the pack  rat had been hoarding.  Marie didn't get to know Captain Dun-Waters very well as she arrived  at the ranch in July 1939, and he died in October 1939. She does, however,  remember him as being a jovial and friendly person. One day she was out  walking with her Pekinese dog that looked like a bundle of wool, when she  met Dun-Waters on one of the walks. His remark was, "I see you have your  knitting travelling behind you."  Marie enjoyed her days at Fintry. She was not especially lonely as she was  busy raising their two daughters plus her sisters and parents still lived in the  Vernon area. She recalls her sisters coming over by car and other visitors  dropping by on Sundays just to inspect Fintry Ranch. Some of them came across  the lake by boat. Fintry enjoyed being host to visitors, and Marie and Art recall  62 Life at Fintry Ranch  that all people who lived on the Ranch were advised prior to the weekend to be  sure they had their flower beds and gardens neat and tidy.  As time went by, their two babies became toddlers and the inaccessibility of the Chalet on the hill side made it difficult for Marie to take the  youngsters for outings. It was decided to move the Harrop family to a little  house near the lake.  Life was comfortable at Fintry. The houses were cosy and each house  had running water supplied by gravity flow from Shorts Creek. Each house  had electric lights. The power plant did not supply enough power to operate  any modern appliances such as a toaster. Marie remembers, however, that  the Greys had an electrically powered washing machine which could only  be operated if Mr. Grey remained close by to ensure that the power required  did not exceed what the power source could supply.  Something unexpected happened to the power supply in the winter of  1942. There had been an extremely mild day and the person in charge of the  power house saw no need for the continued flow of water through the  powerhouse. It, however, turned extremely cold suddenly and the water  flow completely froze solid. There was no way the water flow could be  restored, as even the falls were frozen. For the balance of the winter, Fintry  Ranch was without running water. For water, Marie remembers that for a  time she melted snow. However, before long, the Ranch organized a system  of water delivery by means of three barrels on a horse-drawn sled, the  teamster calling out on arriving at each house, "Do you need any water  today?"  Besides the lack of running water, there was no more electricity for the  lighting and the balance of the winter of 1942, kerosene (coal oil) lamps  were used.  For several springs, Art recalls that the Casorso Ranch moved their  sheep to the Westside by means of a barge. On one occasion, the barge  sprung a leak and the sheep had to be unloaded on the Fintry beach.  When the S.S. Sicamous discontinued service in 1935, Ted Fisher  from Vernon delivered mail and freight to the Westside in his two-ton  truck. Art recalls that there was a Relief Camp at Wilson's Landing during  the Depression years. This camp was sponsored by the Anglican Church,  and the unemployed people were housed in tar paper shacks in the area  north of where the Bear Creek Provincial Park is located today. Art made  a trip once or twice with Ted Fisher when he needed help to get through the  snow-filled road along the Westside. Mail was delivered to points south of  Fintry such as Nahun and Bear Creek. If the road was really snowed in, this  was sometimes an over night trip because of the difficulty of travel.  Art enjoyed life at Fintry mainly because the work was well organized  and the results were usually good. His main enjoyment was fishing, and  every opportunity he got, he was out in his little row boat on the lake fishing,  summer or winter.  63 Life at Fintry Ranch  Marie enjoyed life at Fintry mainly in the summer when she could go  swimming in the lake.  During the later years of Dun-Waters' life he decided to donate his  estate to Fairbridge Farms Training School, an organization in the British  Isles to help underprivileged boys and girls from the cities to become self  sufficient by training them to be farmers and farm workers. Another school  for training was at Duncan on Vancouver Island.  The first group of trainees came in the summer of 1938, but Art and  Marie remember the main group of about thirty-five boys arrived in 1939.  Marie remembers how the social life picked up after the coming of the  Fairbridge boys. There were cricket, lacrosse and baseball games. The boys  lodged at Dun-Waters' house and slept on cots out on the screened-in  verandah. Each night the people living at the Ranch were invited down for  apple sauce and fresh homemade bread, which was a nightly treat. Bill  Garnet instructed the boys in their prayers while the visitors were present.  The boys then quietly disappeared to their cots out on the verandah.  During the summer of 1989, Marie and Art were invited to Duncan to  attend a Fairbridge Farm School Reunion. They were given name tags designating them as Honourary Life Members. There is a reunion every two years.  Art and Marie recall being over at Capt Dun-Waters' home about a  month before he died and watching a pillow fight between him and the  Fairbridge boys.  They remember the day of the "Laird of Fintry" funeral. They and the  crew were busy in the packing house. Art was asked to come to Burnside  where an outdoor funeral was being performed. Art was dressed in his work  clothes and rubber boots. Angus Grey, Geordie Stewart, Pete Scott and Art  acted as pall bearers and loaded the body of Captain Dun-Waters onto the  truck of George Sutherland from Kelowna Funeral Parlour. The body was  covered with a black tarp for the trip to Vancouver where cremation was to  take place. It is not known where the ashes were scattered.  Today, March  1991, Art and Marie  Harrop continue living  in reasonable health at  their home in the  Ellison District, and  are always at home to  their family and old  friends.  Packing house and wharf at Fintry in 1989.  Photo courtesy of Art and Marie Harrop.  64 Sheepherding in the 1930s  by Eric Anderson  In 1931, when I was sixteen, I went up to the mountain pastures for  the first time. The destination was Griffin Mountain, going up from  Malakwa, and the flock of sheep was a large one, made up of those belonging  to Joe Blanc and my father, Emil Anderson, both of the Chase Creek area,  with the largest number being the flock of R. A. Davidson of South Vernon.  The Anderson and Blanc sheep combined at Skimikin and were joined by  the Davidson bunch at Malakwa. The trail up Griffin had been cleared of  windfalls by the Somerville brothers of Malakwa. Mike Somerville did the  packing for the herders that  year, loading the supplies onto  pack horses once a week. Salt  was the heaviest item, greatly  needed by the sheep, who  would go through a hundred  pounds a week.  In 193 2, we went instead  to Hunters Range, trying out  new pastures. This was a much  larger range. The Bostock  Ranch of Monte Creek also  had its flock of around a thousand head up there. As on  Griffin Mountain, I returned  home once the flock was up,  and left them in the care of  Davidson's herder.  There wasn't much traffic in those days, no paved roads, and travelling the sheep along the highway  did not cause any great problems. The few motorists often would stop and  take pictures. We passed by two relief camps where, in the Depression, men  Anton Honald (on left) and Eric Anderson  on Silver Star, August 1937. Photo courtesy of  Eric Anderson.  Eric Anderson was born in Chase and has lived all his life in the Shuswap area. He was  employed at the Adams Lake Lumber Mill until his retirement. He continues to be  interested in the sheep industry, and loves the outdoors. For more information on this  subject please see Alan Davidson's "Sheep Ranching in the Okanagan" in the 49th  Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, pp. 68-69.  65 Sheepherding in the 30s  were employed to work on the roads, hauling away newly blasted rock in  wheelbarrows. These men would all come out and look at the sheep. They  were getting twenty cents a day, meals, and a few clothes. Looking through  into the large bunkhouses, I could see they were very crowded, with straw-  filled bunks stacked one above the other, and a big wood heater in the  centre. One of these "relief camps" was at Yard Creek, one at Mara Lake, and  one near Kault Hill.  In 1933,1 spent my first summer on the mountains in the company of  R.A. Davidson's herder Gus Heer. Gus, who was from Germany, was a very  efficient shepherd and I learned a great deal from being there that year and  the next. It was an exciting year, with this newly opened range on Queest  Mountain, which had previously been open only to hunters and trappers.  Here I shot my first Grizzly, which had killed several sheep. In the fall, I  proudly took the hide of this big bear, eight feet in length, home where I  hung it on the outside wall of my uncle Emmanuel Anderson's barn.  I developed a deep fondness for the mountains in that first year which  has never left me, even though there were tough times. There were days  when it became so foggy I often could not see all the sheep. In the evening  we would go out as far as we could see tracks and move the sheep in toward  the camp, hoping they were all there. Sometimes the fog would hang for  three or four days before a clear day would break and allow us to see if they  were all there. There was a lot of rain, and often we would be soaking wet,  and had to use the campfire to dry out.  I spent two summers on Queest. In 1934, at the end of the summer,  after separating the three bands of sheep - my father's, Blanc's, and  Davidson's, I went to Vernon with R. A. Davidson (his name was Robert  Anderson Davidson, but he was always referred to as "R.A."). I worked for  him that fall and winter, herding on the south Vernon range owned by him  and on the Bernie Ranch on the Commonage.  I travelled with him that fall, driving his sheep on foot along the  highway from Malakwa and Sicamous, along Mara Lake to Grindrod, and  on the east side of the Shuswap River to Enderby. Here we crossed over the  bridge into town and took the back road to the Hassard place. This family  of twenty-one children - not all at home at that time - very kindly allowed  us to sleep in the farm bunkhouse, put the sheep into their corral, and the  pack horses into their barn. This was a real treat, after camping along the  highway the last few nights, and being the first night's sleep in a house for  three and a half months!  The next morning we went on the back road to Armstrong, then on  to the highway again, through town, and out along the Otter Lake Road.  We came out on the highway again near O'Keefe Ranch, then along the  west side of Swan Lake (Kamloops Road). Here, on an uphill curve, we met  with disaster. An old Ford car came down the hill, and unable to stop,  ploughed into the flock, coming to rest on top of dozens of dead and injured  66 Sheepherding in the 30s  !"JPf  ^tfflM&fr'Ѣ$%^  Herding sheep south of Salmon Arm in the area of the present Golf  Course in 1944. Photo courtesy of Eric Anderson.  sheep. We had to keep the sheep moving, there was no way to remain  stopped on the highway. "R.A.", as the boss, was left to deal with the mess.  We camped by the racetrack, not very far ahead (there were no houses there  then). "R.A." finally came with our camp gear, and told us he had to hire  a truck to haul the dead and hurt sheep away.  Next morning, we got down to his south Vernon range and stayed in  a log cabin high up on the top of the range. The weather was warm and the  herding was easy. I was left with one saddle horse and a dog. The pasture was  good after an early fall rain, and having not been pastured during the  summer. I had a Nubian goat that I milked, getting about two quarts a day  for me and the dog. The only problem was water for the sheep and the horse.  I would drift them down to Okanagan Lake every day and back up again,  about a mile.  This was in the midst of the Great Depression, when thousands of men  were riding the freight trains back and forth across Canada looking for work.  I considered myself lucky to have a job at thirty dollars a month, and board  and lodging, even if it was just a tent in the summer, and cabins that were  not very weatherproof, in the winter.  A dollar went a long way then. I remember asking the boss for a dollar,  as I wanted to go into town one night. After the sheep were corralled, I  walked into Vernon, a distance of about five miles. I was by then hungry,  so I went into a restaurant and had supper, which cost me twenty-five cents.  When I came out I saw people on the street going into the theatre, so I went  in, spending another twenty-five cents. After the show I spent fifteen cents  on apple pie and coffee, and bought a Liberty Magazine for five cents. I  walked the five miles back to camp, arriving near midnight, seventy cents  poorer, ready to crawl into my bed of straw under my blankets, content and  looking forward to reading my magazine the next day.  While the sheep and horses had to use Okanagan Lake as a water  67 Sheepherding in the 30s  source, I had no trouble finding enough for my own camp use. An old mine  shaft, which went down at an easy angle, held water that was cold and good.  For a two week period my camp was moved down past a rock bluff called the  Point. The trail past this was too narrow to get the horse through, so he was  taken back to the ranch pasture. My camp gear was moved by row boat to  a cabin close to the lakeshore about half a mile past the Point. At that time  there was no road and no houses there. After that I moved up onto the  Bernie Ranch, where there was a good cabin and a well, along with a big  corral and barn.  In the middle of December, I moved camp again back to the South  Vernon Range, but closer to the lake than my first campsite. This time I had  a camp wagon, similar to the old covered wagons used by the pioneers to  cross the continent. It was built on an iron wagon with a wooden floor, the  hood made of canvas stretched over steel hoops. The front door was made  in two parts so that one could sit or stand to drive the horses and still be in  the shelter of the roof. In the back, a bunk was built across the width. Along  each side were boxes with lids, which made room for food storage as well as  seating space. A table pulled out from under the bunk, and a tin stove was  fastened to the bench near the front. It was quite comfortable in fine  weather, but cold in winter.  Luckily, I didn't stay long in it. By December fifteenth, I moved back  to the cabin on top of the Range. There was a little snow, so that solved the  water problem for the sheep, and I returned to the mine shaft for my water.  The weather turned colder, and snow came through the cracks in the old  log cabin when the wind blew. The tin cookstove made very little heat, and  even my bunk offered no relief from the cold.  On Christmas Eve, "R.A." came up in his old Ford touring car, but  couldn't get right to the cabin, for snow had drifted too deep. He walked  over as I was putting the sheep into the corral. The corral was in a hollow  below the cabin, which was kind of sheltered. "R.A." took me and the dog  into town to his house on Pleasant Valley Road for Christmas Eve supper,  and I stayed there overnight. That night there was a blizzard, and about ten  inches of snow fell. The next morning "R.A." drove me down to a farm  owned by Bill Palmer. He lent us their team of horses and sleigh to go up to  the camp. We found the snow had drifted over the corral fence, and a coy  coyote had got in and killed a sheep. We moved the sheep down to the ranch  for the rest of the winter and fed them hay. "R.A.'s" son, Alan, came to do  the feeding, so I was no longer needed.  I went out to the Coldstream where a friend had a small band of sheep.  I was persuaded to put my savings into a partnership. I stayed for two years,  herding our joint flock, but the partnership was dissolved.  In 1937,1 went to work on Ned's Creek Ranch, which was part of the  Bostock Ranch, for the spring lambing. Then I went back to Vernon and  worked for Bill Palmer in South Vernon while they were still lambing.  68 Sheepherding in the 30s  Around the first of May that year, there was a bad epidemic of wood ticks,  and every morning there would be several sheep paralysed. We would shear  the back of the neck until we found the tick and removed it. In an hour or  so, the sheep would recover and go out grazing as if nothing had happened!  That summer I herded sheep at Silver Star. There was no road, just a pack  trail up to the Forestry Lookout. I soon made the acquaintance of the  lookout man, George Ogilvie, and we visited back and forth.  In the spring of 1938,1 left Palmer's and went to work for their son-  in-law, Dave Crerar. I put in that summer on Hunter's Range, and stayed  until Crerar started to feed hay, then I was again laid off.  I got a trapper's license and special permits to trap on private land, and  put in the winter there, staying in a cabin on Crerar's ranch. I finished  trapping in the spring on the Coldstream Ranch. R.A. Davidson came out  and got me, to get rid of some of the coyotes on his range before he turned  his lambs out to pasture. I stayed until the twentieth of March. I had caught  several coyotes, much to Davidson's satisfaction. That was the end of my  sheepherding years around Vernon.  I went back to the Chase Creek/Shuswap area where my father, Emil  Anderson, and uncle Emmanuel Anderson owned property. My father had  built up his flock to three hundred sheep.  A. Gibson hauling wool at Shuswap in May 1944. Photo  courtesy of Eric Anderson.  69 Memories of a  Sheepherder's Bride  by Irene Anderson  Farming took on an entirely new perspective for me when, in 1946, I  married and went to live on a sheep ranch in the hills of the Shuswap/Chase  area. I was barely twenty years old. My husband Eric was thirty-two, and had  been herding sheep for much of his life. He had returned from herding for  various ranchers around the Vernon area in the early 1940s, and now was  helping his father, Emil Anderson, on the ranch at Shuswap. I was no  stranger to farming. My parents, the Humphreys of Chase Creek, had quite  a nice farm, mostly dairy cattle, and I had done my share of farm work,  particularly during the war years when both my brothers were overseas.  Sheep ranching, however, was a whole new ball of wool!  After our quiet wedding on October 22nd, I accompanied Eric to the  little cottage he had built on the hillside overlooking the village of Shuswap  and the adjoining Veterans' Land Act "flats" stretching out to Chase. The  view was spectacular, looking out over the peaceful South Thompson River  and the Niskonlith hills beyond. The TransCanada Highway and the CPR  railway were also in view. It was very different from the sheltered Chase  Creek valley. Here at Shuswap, the whistle and clatter of trains and the roar  of highway traffic were a constant, and I was quite entranced by the new  sounds and sights by living high on the hillside instead of down in a valley.  Our cottage was at the bottom of a field. As time went on, we were to  discover that it was surrounded by poison oak, and each spring I would break  out in a severe, and puzzling until we identified the plant, rash. This resulted  in us later buying the old school building by the highway below us, which  was the original Chase School. But for the early years the little cottage was  home to us and our four little daughters born within a space of five years. At  the top end of the field was an older cabin, still visible from the highway,  in which my long widowed father-in-law Emil lived. During the busy  seasons of lambing, shearing, and dipping, Eric's uncle Emmanuel, and  various hired men, all bachelors, lived there as well.  Irene Anderson was born in the Chase Creek area, and has lived there and in Salmon  Arm all her life. She has been active with the United Church Women, and Senior  Citizens' Association 109, serving as secretary and director. She has been the Salmon  Arm Observer's correspondent for several organizations. She is profiled in Writers of  the Okanagan Mainline, Kelowna, 1985.  70 Sheepherder's Bride  It was a strange and often lonely world for a young bride to have  entered. Even the dogs were quite unused to women. I remember with  particular affection the dog Jock, a black and white Border Collie, who  vanished in panic on my arrival at the cottage. It took many months to win  him over, not helped any by Jock's skill in always being able to find a way  to snatch the desserts I would carefully place in the water trough to cool and  set (no refrigerator in those days; no electric power up to the farm). In time,  however, we became good pals, and ten years later, as he grew too old and  feeble to go with the men on the sheep drive to the mountains, it was I who  had to bury this fine old dog when his life came to an end one summer.  Over the years we had a number of dogs, all with the keen instinct to  herd, and all devoted to their particular master. Along with Jock, when I  first arrived, there was old Pat. He was a buff coloured shaggy English type,  and became a constant companion to our eldest daughter Lynda when she  became a toddler. Before that, however, he was almost always with Eric's  father, going out faithfully  with the old gentleman every morning. He so identified with Emil, who limped  with a painful hip, that old  Pat would hobble along beside him, holding his hind  leg up to keep step! With  anyone else Pat walked in a  perfectly normal manner.  Further up the field,  surrounding Emil's cabin,  were the shearing shed, the  dipping tank, the lambing  pens, and the sheep - hundreds of them. I had seen  them only from a distance as  each year they trekked back  and forth between Chase  Creek and Shuswap, or on  their way to the mountains. The Andersons, Emil and Emmanuel, owned  three 160 acre farms up the valley from my parents' place. The sheep drives  happened at least twice a year, and I remember my father, in true English  form, keeping a watchful eye as the flock went past, lest a "woolly beast" or  two should invade his prized alfalfa field!  I was used to cows, and never more than thirty of them, all of which  I knew by name and temperament. But the sheep, at first acquaintance, were  a mass of bleating identical bodies, moving with one accord under the  control of the collies. Only with the following spring did I become aware of  Irene and Eric Anderson with their first child,  Lynda, outside their Shuswap cottage in June 1948.  Photo courtesy of Irene and Eric Anderson.  71 Sheepherder's Bride  the individuality within the mob. During the raw cold of the March lambing  season, many chilled newborn lambs found their way to my kitchen, where  they would be gently warmed on a blanket in the oven of our old wood-  burning stove. One such lamb was Martha, one of twins, whose tiny, curly-  coated body quivered back into life after such a warming, and who thrived  on diluted tinned milk, tagging along behind me when I ventured up to the  corrals. What became of Martha? My memory eludes me on this point. We  kept her for more than a year, and she never produced a lamb of her own.  I recall the impracticability of keeping a "dry" ewe, and my sadness over that  fact, and that I flatly refused to consider her as table fare! Eventually, I fear,  she became one of many shipped to the packers at the coast after fall culling.  After that, I didn't make pets of the cuddly lambs. By then I had my  own firstborn baby girl, Lynda, followed in short order by Anne, Judi, and  Karen. A fifth  daughter, Gail,  arrived eleven years  later, when we were  living in the old  school by the  highway. For our first  four daughters, in  those early days, life  was a Heidi-like  existence, with  winters spent cosily in  the homes on the  Chase Creek farms, feeding the flocks on hay grown on those properties,  moving late winter to Shuswap for lambing and spring pasture, and summers  spent tenting on the mountains.  The treks to the summer pastures had been a yearly experience for Eric  for many years. For me, however, having never been any higher than the  "Bald Spot" behind my parents' farm, my first mountain trip was somewhat  intimidating. I was, first of all, a mother, fiercely protective of the two small  girls I had at that time. I worried anxiously about bears, about the girls  wandering off into this totally unfamiliar country, about illness striking in  such a remote area. Queest Mountain, when we arrived at its base after a four  day trek to Malakwa, loomed large and dark. A steady, steep, uphill climb  awaited us, up a Forestry road that still had to be cleared of occasional  windfalls. It was the most rugged of any pasturing.  We had reached the base of Queest Mountain by travelling the flock  down through Turtle Valley, Skimikin, Tappen Valley, up over the old  highway, down Kault Hill and along the Gleneden Road, crossing the  Salmon Valley Bridge in its old location. For a brief time we were on the  TransCanada Highway, no doubt to both the dismay and delight of  Irene peeling spuds for supper on Queest Mountain in the  summer of 1953. Photo courtesy Eric and Irene Anderson.  72 Sheepherder's Bride  motorists. We continued up Auto Road, past the area where Piccadilly Mall  now stands, pasturing for a short while where the Industrial Park now  sprawls, and from there through Grindrod, Mara, and Sicamous. Overnight  camps en route were first near Moore's Lake in Turtle Valley, next, where  the BC Hydro Building now stands, and the third night at Yard Creek.  These evening encampments were very pleasant. Supper was cooked over  a campfire, the little girls were thrilled to be sleeping with us in a tent, and  our kindly helper, Alec Arnouse, had a fine repertoire of stories to tell  around the campfires.  When we climbed at last to the edge of Queest's alpine meadows  which, like the trail, loomed alarmingly straight up, we hurriedly set about  making camp. The "covered wagon," which was a tarpaulin tied over a  frame on the back of the 1940 International truck, was quickly unloaded  and a hasty meal prepared for the hungry and weary crew. How good it felt  to crawl into the tent and fall asleep on a bed of balsam fir branches! It was  a clear evening, with the setting sun  glinting off icy peaks surrounding us.  We awoke next morning, July 1st, to  several inches of fresh snow! I was  very glad I had packed the children's  snowsuits for mountain living.  I must admit I never developed  a fondness for Queest Mountain.  Even today when I see its snowcapped crown from a distance, it  seems alien to me, and memories of  its sheer slopes, deep gullies, and  high ridges chill me. I did not let my  little ones out of sight or reach one  single minute during our summer  there. I have much gentler feelings  toward the Adams Plateau, where  we spent many happy summers with the flocks in the 1950s and where, in  fact, we still retreat as an ever-enlarging family each summer, for a day or  overnight of memories. As the girls grew they spent almost entirely their  summers on this verdant mountain while the season's lambs grew into  choice products for marketing. Prices in those times for fresh lamb were far  lower than today's prices. Indeed, a leg of lamb in the local supermarkets  now is often more than we were paid for the entire animal at shipping time.  The life on the mountains was a good, wholesome one, and the  children gained a love of nature which has never left them. There were some  exciting, even dangerous times. Once when we had made an arduous try at  taming Lichen Mountain, near Scotch Creek, which had no roads and  therefore required walking up along with the pack horses, the four girls, after  Eric with Anne (foreground), Lynda, and  Judi on his knee on a hillside at their  Shuswap farm in 1953. Photo courtesy Eric  and Irene Anderson.  73 Sheepherder's Bride  3 'ñ† .  Alec Arnouse washes dishes with help from Lynda and Anne at Yard  Creek in 1952. Photo courtesy Eric and Irene Anderson.  we reached the meadows and unpacked the horses, decided to have a ride.  Two got on old Dan, who was a big one-eyed gelding, and two on Molly.  Molly had ideas other than staying on this rough bit of mountain top. She  promptly set off at a good pace toward the downward trail. Fortunately, Dan  had enough for one day, and the two middle girls dismounted, while Molly  gathered speed homeward with their oldest and youngest sisters aboard, and  us frantic parents in pursuit. It was only a chance windfall, too high for the  little mare to jump over, that stopped her progress down the hill.  Bears were a frequent problem in the early days and on occasion came  near the flock's bedding ground near the camp. Eric kept a rifle handy, but  seldom had to use it. Black bears were common, but timid, on Adam's  Plateau, but on Queest, grizzly bears made frequent appearances, with  mutton in mind, so the sheep had to be herded carefully. We did have a  black bear invade our tent once while we were absent from the camp. It had  done a pretty good job of cleaning out the "grub" box, which hadn't much  in it - we had made a hurried trip down to replenish supplies. He had worked  hard on our large tin of black pepper, which was full of tooth marks. The bear  had likely spent a few hours sneezing! If there was any sign of bears around  at night - restless sheep or a "snuffing" noise in the area, I always woke the  children and sat in the truck with them, while Eric took rifle and flashlight  and searched the bedding ground.  We had, of course, sheepherders some of the time, often in the spring  when land had to be worked up, and during the summer's haying time. Most  of the herders were skilled in this line of work and happy enough to be alone  on the range with a dog, and a weekly supply of "grub" brought to them.  They all, to a man, were solitary souls, but looked forward with enthusiasm  to a break in the herding season, when they would head for the bright lights  74 Sheepherder's Bride  of the nearest town. On occasion, some would not return on the expected  day to resume work, and Eric would have reason to check the local RCMP  for his missing herder. Almost always, the officer would report having the  herder in the portable cell, recovering from a "little over indulgence."  A particularly colourful character among the long years of hired  sheepherders was Bill, a chap from Ireland, who thoroughly enjoyed his  quite frequent encounters with the police. He liked to tell, with a measure  of pride, about the time along Victoria Street in Kamloops when the police  ordered him to move along, when they spotted him sitting at the entrance  of a restaurant. "It's you that should be moving along," retorted Bill, "you're  trespassing on me trapline!" And indeed he had a trap, a mouse trap, all set  and ready on the doorstep! But the officers were insistent, and further urged  Bill to move himself and "trapline" elsewhere. "So of course," said Bill,  "there was nothing for it but to put the heel of me foot on the officer's toe  as I stood up, and for that they escorted me off to jail!" Bill was with us for  a year of herding.  Down through the years I remember several who took on this lonely  task: John Dobson, who was also a family friend from my childhood, Tony  Gibson with his lovely Scottish burr, Jack Munson who came from Lillooet,  Alec Joseph Arnouse with his wealth of wonderful native stories. They were  all very kindly, respectful, and gentle men, and I admired them, as I did my  husband, for their ability to live alone in such isolation.  In the late 1950s sheep raising in the old way became too costly to carry  on. Highway traffic had increased to the extent that the flocks could no  longer be travelled on foot. It was necessary to hire trucks to haul them to  the mountain range. Regretfully, we ended the idyllic life of tending sheep  on the spring pastures at Shuswap and the mountain meadows in summer.  We sold the sheep and some of the properties and Eric found employment  at Adams Lake Lumber Company. In 1966 we moved to Gleneden, and for  a while, for old times sake, had a half dozen sheep on the place. I still miss  those farming days!  75 Memories of Canoe  by Roland Jamieson  In the year 1907, Canoe, Gleneden, and Salmon Arm each petitioned the  Dominion Liberal Government for a wharf, feeling the need was urgent, to  service their respective areas of the Shuswap Lake. Only Salmon Arm had  its wharf built that year. Seven years later, the Conservative Government  in Ottawa obliged, and a wharf was built in the spring of 1914 at Canoe, with  another in the fall at Gleneden, while the Salmon Arm wharf was enlarged  and received extensive repairs. These wharves have served each community well for as long as the need was there.  For Canoe, the building of the wharf in 1914, and the shipways during  1932, was the beginning of a long and happy love affair for the hundreds of  annual summer campers and the friendly people of the village. The sandy  beaches, the clear water with the lure of excellent fishing, combined with  the Friday and Saturday night dances in the community hall made Canoe  the Mecca for many fun-seekers of nearby communities. The rhythmic and  sparkling music of the Armstrong Serenaders was the featured Friday night  attraction. Sponsored by the Canoe Women's Hall Committee, hospitality  and a midnight supper were extended to the dancers for the admission price  of one dollar and fifty cents a couple.  Will Kirk was the owner of the campground west of the wharf. He had  built a number of wooden floors with side walls, which made a comfortable  shelter for the campers when they erected their tents. Many people from  Revelstoke were regular summer campers and when their children became  parents, they in turn came back to Canoe with their children. The road into  the campsite was behind the row of tents and adjacent to the C.P.R. fence.  Will Kirk drove an ancient vintage automobile fitted with brass-trimmed  acetylene headlights and a bulb hooter (horn). He came along the narrow  road every day except Sunday to bring milk and garden-fresh vegetables for  sale to the families in the campground. A crowd of children usually followed  behind, waiting for Mr. Kirk to sound the hooter. It sounded like an old crow  with a severe cold.  Roland A. Jamieson moved to Salmon Arm from Calgary in the 1920s. This article  is based on his personal observations and experiences at Canoe since 1925, and  conversations with Bill and Gladys Allan on many occasions after he had finished  servicing their oil furnace in preparation for the winter season. Bill Allan passed away  in the Kelowna Hospital February 28, 1979.  76 Memories of Canoe  The public beach was on the east side of the wharf, where, on Sunday  afternoons, many people from Salmon Arm and other outlying districts  brought their families and lunch baskets for a day in the sun, or the shade  of the large trees along the railway fence. Mr. and Mrs. Jack Urquhart and  their children came out with his truck, fitted with three rows of seats on a  skid on the flat deck. The extra seats were filled with the neighbours'  children, who had a return trip for ten cents each.  Art Herald from across the lake arrived with his speedy boat each  Sunday afternoon, and for ten cents, anyone who was brave enough could  ride the surfboard (the forerunner of the water ski!). Art let you know when  your turn was finished with a figure eight daredevil manoeuvre.  The last week in August, when the C.G.I.T. (Canadian Girls in  Training) were camping at the most westerly end of Kirk's campground near  the bog and bushes, and the harvest moon cast a luminous glow over the  placid waters of the Shuswap Lake, was amateur night on the wharf. Jim  Brewster, Harold Malone, George Kinsey with his microphone and amplifier, and myself arrived in Jim's Model A Ford to set up for the concert.  George and Jim were the technicians, and Harold and I recruited the  contestants from along the beach. We also alternated as Master of Ceremo-  Canadian Girls in Training (C.G.I.T.) at their annual camp at Dirks  Campsite, Canoe in 1938. From the left: Kay Colley, Edna Urquhart  (part of head only), Kay Purkis, Jean Jamieson, Mary McMillian, Verla  Bellamy (part of head only), Helen Dagget, Nona Jaieson (half only),  Majorie Critchley, and Joan Sansum (sitting). Mrs. Tom Bennett, camp  mother, took the picture. Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson.  77 Memories of Canoe  nies or entertainers, until our volunteers came forward for their contribution of the evening. Many a hidden talent was discovered at these affairs.  It was a fun-filled night.  The building of the shipways and warehouse on the Canoe waterfront  was used by the Dominion Government as a "make work" project during the  winter months of 1932-33. The work was divided amongst the many  unemployed, which meant a new crew every two weeks. These untrained  men worked under extreme weather conditions, with the temperature  reaching a low of minus 15 degrees F. One hundred and twenty-four tons of  ice had to be removed from the work area, so the pilings could be placed and  sawn off below the water. The work continued until completion, and the  dredge #309 was then winched up onto the ways for recaulking and below-  the-water-line inspection. The dredge was put back in the water on March  8th, and then the piledriver received a similar repair. Captain Bill Allan,  who had supervised the complete project, still found time for courting.  William N. Allan and Gladys Throop were married on a very cold 23 rd  of May, 1932, with the snow falling on the nearby hillsides. Gladys ended  up in the Vernon hospital three days later. Her husband Bill returned to  work at Canoe to finish the overhaul of the dredge machinery before going  to the Salmon Arm wharf to start the channel and boat basin dredging. Two  weeks later he returned to Vernon to claim his bride. The nurses and staff  were not aware of the fact that the Allans were honeymooners until the day  Gladys was discharged, then the reunited couple received quite a ribbing.  I first met Captain Allan when the dredge was working in the channel  at Salmon Arm, several months after his marriage. I had been laid off from  my plumbing and sheet metal apprenticeship at Carroll and Co. due to lack  of work, and was working part time as a delivery boy for the Overwaitea  grocery store. One day I was delivering some supplies to the dredge by means  of a row boat that I had borrowed from D.W. Smith. Bert Cluse, the cook  on the dredge, gave me a generous piece of his tasty apple pie. Captain Allan  came into the dining room to speak with Bert about the house he was  renting on Merton Hill, and as he turned to leave, said to me with a smile,  "Bert sure makes good apple pie."  Nearly a decade had passed, a world-wide depression was now turning  into apprehension as Europe became the focal point of unrest. The ominous  signs of war hung like a cloud over us. The year 1939 was to be the start of  the greatest carnage ever inflicted on the human race.  The Canoe Community Hall was overflowing with dancing couples  gathered for the last event of the summer. The Armstrong Serenaders, led  by Jim Jamieson and his trumpet, had been a very popular orchestra for  many summers, and played many encores. My friend Herbie and I had  driven out to the dance with our mutual pal Jim Brewster in his Model A  Ford. We had come to say goodbye to a few of our camping friends from  Revelstoke.  78 Memories of Canoe  During the supper hour at midnight, we left the hall with our partners  and walked down to the wharf. A harvest moon, partially obscured by a film  of smoke from several stubborn forest fires burning on the mountain-side  across the lake, shone with an orange halo, and glistened on the restless  surface of the water. These reflections were in a near-red of ever-changing  forms of fantasy. To the northeast, the northern lights, like many searchlights, were probing the vast star-studded sky. This soft light filtered  through the smoky haze. No one spoke, each remembering the happy times  of the past summer. A cool breeze from the lake reminded us that the night  was nearly over.  We returned to the hall. The shadows of the dancers came through the  open door as they whirled around to a new song, "The Beer Barrel Polka."  The hall vibrated as the crowd yelled and whistled for more. The band  played several more encores until everyone seemed exhausted and Jim  Jamieson had a blister on his lip.  We used to say, "See you next year," but this time we only said  "goodbye." Herbie had been called up for active duty on internal security  with the Rocky Mountain Rangers on August 26, 1939. By September, Canada was officially at  war.  Postscript  I had often said throughout  my working years that I would  retire at Canoe. My family would  smile and shake their heads, but  the hand of fate brought me to  within one mile of Canoe and a  happy and contented retirement  with Jean.  Nearly all of the people mentioned in this story have passed to  their reward, but remain in my  heart and mind for their contribution to a way of life that sustained us all through "thick and  thin."  Captain Bill Allan and his  wife Gladys retired in 1964 to  Canoe, where they had first met.  Captain Allan had been with the Federal Department of Public Works for  forty-one years, and had supervised many projects on the interior lakes and  rivers of British Columbia. Near the end of his career he had attained the  The Armstrong Serenaders of the 1930s.  From left: Hilda Russell (piano), Sid Nash  (clarinet and saxaphone), Jack Mills  (drums), Arvid Johnson (saxaphone), and  Jim Jamieson (trumpet and leader).  Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson.  79 Memories of Canoe  position of Superintendent of the Federal Department of Floating Plants  and Equipment for B.C. and the Yukon. In Canoe, the Allans renewed old  friendships, and became part of the community spirit that built a Seniors'  Centre, renovated a church, library, and community hall.  Bill Allen possessed a quiet humour, endearing himself to Gladys  throughout their lives together. They both loved Canoe and their many  friends in the village. Their thoughts are revealed in this poem by William  Allan written in 1973 and taken from THE SAGA OF CANOE (Salmon  Arm Observer), 1980, p.101:  Colleen, you have asked me just how Canoe began,  It was written on the margin of the Master Builder's plan,  Six days for all creation! Such a mighty work to do,  Yet he kept a little corner, for the village of Canoe.  First time I saw the Shuswap, was the spring of'25.  The beauty of the country made one glad to be alive.  We trod along a tranquil trail, at a modest, easy pace,  No fiends with chariots of steel, disturbed the human race.  The snarl of screaming band saws no sentiments awoke,  I worship not at sawdust piles, or burners belching smoke,  The cause for man's migrations is difficult to know  Perhaps the hope to live again, the days of long ago.  Of course I love the country, its beauty and its grace  The scars you see are fostered by a greedy human race.  Mount Ida lifts her head up high, to greet the break of day,  While the rugged face of Bastion, keeps watch across the bay.  The mountains grand, like monarchs stand, great monuments of time  The birds, the bees, the flowers, the trees, all elements sublime,  The sky above, the things we love, the past, the future too  Are written on the margin, with the village of Canoe.  80 Two Precious Seconds  by Doug Kermode  Was it 1931 when a major panic was averted at the Empress Theatre on  Barnard Avenue in Vernon?  A black and white film was being shown that evening—colour was  infrequent in those days—when the film broke and the screen went blank.  I happened to be in the balcony, directly in front of the projection booth.  Looking over my shoulder, I noted Frank Dunn, the projectionist, and his  assistant, Bert Timm, bent over the film gate, attempting to rethread the  broken end. Suddenly it caught fire.  There was an instantaneous flare-up as the highly flammable celluloid  nitrate film's loose footage was gobbled up. It was immediately visible on the  screen as brilliant flickering flashes in the darkened theatre.  After about two seconds, the automatic window shutters of the projection  room dropped down with a clang, no doubt triggered by the heat. This action  cut off all traces of fire radiating from the booth. In those few seconds, all the  occupied seats on the ground floor went up in one accord as patrons got to their  feet in preparation for a panic directed exit.  I vividly recall one of our community's leading characters, who had  been seated in the balcony, clambering over five rows of seats and backs to  reach the upper exit door. He flung it open, and headed for his own safety.  The Empress Theatre in Vernon. Photo courtesy of the Vernon Museum.  Doug Kermode has been a resident of Vernon since his early school days. Until  retirement, he ran his own photography business.  81 Two Precious Seconds  There was a brief moment of terror. The people downstairs were  unable to see the projection booth, and were scared by those seconds of  flickering flame on the screen. Fortunately, the projectionists kept their  heads and turned on the lights, thus defusing a potential mass rush.  The theatre manager had been alerted to the situation by the roar of  all those ground floor seats arising as one, plus the commotion above his  office as our citizen clambered over those seats. He immediately raced down  the aisle to the stage. He advised the patrons that the danger was minimal  as the fire was confined to the booth. He asked them to leave quietly by all  exits and remain on the street until it was safe to return. I learned later that  not everyone went back following the all-clear signal.  As a teenager, I had acquired a "cushy" job as afternoon janitor to  sweep the theatre of popcorn boxes and generally tidy up. I was paid the  princely sum of 50 cents per week plus free admission to any movie. So as  an employee of the theatre, I took it upon myself to guide a few of the  balcony patrons to the exit door that fateful evening. They were very well  behaved.  I also remained behind to check on the projectionists when they  finally opened their fireproof door. When they emerged from that room,  their eyes were swollen and their cheeks streaming with tears. Their clothes  reeked with nitrate smoke. Most of the smoke had been directed out their  big window above Barnard Avenue, but still they had to put their faces to  the ground to be able to breathe. Had they dared to open the door even an  inch the resulting reflection from that conflagration undoubtedly would  have induced a headlong rush to the exits.  I developed a great admiration for those two stalwart fellows who  remained at their posts for the three or four minutes it took for the fire to  consume the entire two thousand feet on that reel. The Number Two  Projector was completely ruined. Those two brave projectionists resumed  their positions later that evening as people returned and the show went on.  There was an interval between the remaining four reels as they had only one  operable machine. This procedure had to be followed for the next week  until a replacement projector was secured from the States.  I have often reviewed this incident in my mind, and I realize that I  nearly became a witness to a panic disaster. The bravery and fast action of  the projectionists in activating the house lights so quickly averted a tragedy.  The balcony seat-jumping of our "citizen" was scary proof of just how  quickly panic can prevail when humans sense danger.  82 The Bright Wide Land  by Alan Morley  When the business of living becomes a bit too tedious and worry and  monotony fill the days from end to end, every man has a "home range"  toward which his thoughts turn with a great longing. My particular Utopia  is in a valley some two or three hundred miles east of Vancouver.  Just about now the life of a new year is beginning in the small town  — almost a city as interior cities go—at the foot of the long blue lake. There  is still a touch of raw dampness in the air of a morning, and the wind is  sometimes chilly, but on sunny days the gravelled roads are white and hot  at noontime, and the stores and buildings on the main street are bright and  clean.  Up along the benches, the orchards still sprawl bare-branched in their  long ranks, but the grey-brown earth, loose, damp and friable, gives off the  first smell of growth, and the yellow clouds of pungent lime-sulphur spray drift slowly along the  rows of trees while the muted  clatter of the pump engines marks  the progress of the hidden spraying machines.  The snow is gone from the  low mountains that border the  lake and hem in the valley floor  to the south, and the light bright  green of the bunchgrass, crisscrossed by innumerable cattle  paths, lies like a delicate veil over  the smooth swelling roundness  of the hills.  It is a bright wide land,  where men have room to turn  and move. Its mountains are made  for walking over; its forests are  Okanagan Lake.  Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  Alan Morley grew up in Penticton where his father, H.B. Morley, was a Reeve. He  pursued a career in journalism in Vancouver. This article appeared on April 1, 1944  in The Province.  83 Bright Wide Land  open and light and friendly.  Soon the faint, pink mist of the opening peach blossom will soften the  bare boughs of the orchards, and then the white of the apricots and green  leaves, and the pink and white apple bloom. From early morning until late  evening the sun will drench the land and sparkle from the shining lakes and  the strong March winds will be gentle April ghosts of themselves.  From a hill I know, you will be able to sweep the valley from a glance,  forty miles to the north where the lake bends out of sight and half as far to  the south, where a smaller lake and yet another beyond that lie in the valley  floor. And in all that distance the white blossoms will blanket the level  benches; sweet, fresh perfume rides on every errant breath of air, though you  are an hour's walk from the nearest orchard.  This is the valley at its softest and loveliest, but not, to my mind, in  its greatest beauty; for it can be a hard and exacting land.  As spring passes and the hot sun of summer beats down, the perfume  of the blossoms gives way to the tang of sagebrush and the hot astringent  dust of the trails covers the sweat-drenched travellers on foot or horseback,  and they gulp gratefully from lukewarm canvas waterbags between the long  miles of a thirsty land.  The bunchgrass grows brown and brittle on the hills as the fruit ripens  in the irrigated lands. As the summer draws on one finds the lakes are no  longer blue only, but under the passing shadows of high, white, rolling  clouds, are green and purple and black as well. The seared hills are harsh and  dun, and only the low, spreading beds of cacti are green amid the grey-green  of the sage and the silver-grey of the twisted greasewood bushes. Yet, even  in the heat of August there is a miracle in the hills, and the frail, silken-  smooth mauve cups of the lively Mariposa Lily nod above the parched earth  on their stiff, thread-like stems.  This is the country that breeds long, rangy, wire-muscled men, spare  and brown and hard, with light eyes, wrinkled at the corners from long  peering across the rolling hills in shimmering heat. They move with a sure,  slow steadiness of stride, yet lithely and lightly and smoothly.  Best of all days in the valley, however, are the long, crisp autumn days;  especially those of late September and all of October.  Still the sun shines, but the mornings are frosty, the noons hot, and the  evenings velvet-smooth and cool. The late apples still spangle the orchards  redly, and in uplands the poplars are pale gold and the maples and sumac  scarlet.  Here Indian summer reaches its ultimate perfection, and the hunter  finds his paradise. The fat deer and sleek bear roam the hills, the shining  pheasants swarm in the orchards, the big blue grouse explodes its whirring  flight from a gnarled pine to towering tamarack, and snipe flit and flicker  on the muddy shores of ponds covered with dignified mallards and perky  teal. The tang of woodsmoke is in the autumn air.  84 Bright Wide Land  Much more I could tell you of my valley, but let this little suffice. Such  in part, it is, and it is my home, as the place where one merely inhabits can  never be home. Such it is to all of us who are exiles from it, and when we  are tired and impatient and cast down, we know that there, and there only,  exists for us the revivifying Fountain of Youth.  Okanagan Lake. Photo courtesy of Doug Cox.  85 Biographies  Walter Rees Powell  by Rees K. Powell  Walter Powell was born in Brynmawr, South Wales, the son of a grocer. He  had a turbulent childhood, living in this small Welsh coal mining town  where most of the men drank their pay cheques before going home. He told  me many times that the sights he saw among the mining families were the  prime reason why alcohol was never a  part of his life. His mother died when he  was just school age. His father remarried his brother's widow and soon there  were three sets of children on the scene.  Walter was sent away to boarding school  to get him out of the way of his stepmother. I think he ran away several  times and was a very lonely boy during  these early years.  Walter went to school for only a  few years and then worked as an apprentice grocer in Cardiff, Wales. It was  this training that enabled him later to  become a very successful businessman  in Vancouver. His boyhood was far from  happy, as he told it to me, and at the age  of twenty-one, having saved some  money, he took passage to the USA,  arriving in the coal mining town of Scranton, Pennsylvania in 1906.  Because he spoke English with a Welsh brogue, people laughed at him. He  worked there as a grocer, but was lonely for his only real friend, his father.  Walter Powell speaking at the  opening of the Thirsk Dam in  1941. Photo courtesy of Walter Powell Jr.  Rees K. Powell is the son of Walter Rees Powell. He is retired and resides in Ontario.  His brother, Walter, continues to live at the family home, Balcoma Lodge, and was  recently given a citation by the Summerland Heritage Committee in recognition of its  condition and importance in Summerland's past.  86 Walter Powell  He returned to Wales a few years later, but soon realized that South  Wales did not offer the quality of life that he saw in America. So he  returned, this time to a small coal mining town near Tacoma, Washington  called Black Diamond. He obtained work at the local grocery and delivered  groceries in a horse-drawn cart. He was also the guard who slept beside the  safe at night with a six-gun under his pillow. As a boy, I played with the  black-handled six-gun with the hammer removed.  My mother, Edna May Boyer, was a bookkeeper in the store and Dad  sent her love notes through the pneumatic tube system used to move  invoices and orders around the large store. My mother, who was born in  Liberty, Indiana, lived with her sister and Grandma Boyer. Mr. Boyer was  never a known person to us. I have to credit my mother with eventually  taming my father to liking America and seeing a future there with her.  In 1915, he and Edna with Grandma Boyer, moved to Vancouver,  B.C. where he opened a grocery store on Hastings Street close to the old  Carroll Street bus station. My father, Edna and Grandma lived in a tent on  the North Shore. Dad went to work on the ferry each day. The store, a  forerunner of the supermarket, was an immediate success. Walter and Edna  were married and eventually bought a nice house on Balaclava Street.  Walter Junior, the oldest son, was born while they lived in an apartment at  Main and Hastings Streets.  My Dad worked long hours, seven days a week. He used to tell us stories  about the store. The most memorable one was of taking the cash home in  a brown paper bag, getting off the streetcar without the bag and running five  blocks down Granville Street in the middle of the night after the streetcar  to recover the day's take!  During the war years, the store had been very successful, but by 1919,  Walter had burned himself out. He closed the store and sold what assets he  had, and decided to take a rest.  I was born in 1921, the fourth child. I have hazy memories of myself  as a baby in Denver, Colorado with all the family having chicken pox and  measles at the same time, and my mother at her wits end. During those years  my father was able to have his father visit from Wales and to take him on  a trip to places like Pike's Peak, the Grand Canyon and the snow of Mount  Baker in an open touring Cadillac. I guess it was a lifelong dream to be able  to do this for his father. I know that after we lived in Summerland, he made  sure that his father had no financial worries.  I am sure that my father felt that a city street in Vancouver was not the  place to raise a young family of five children, so he went in search of better  weather and some open space. In 1923 we moved to Summerland and  purchased the Agur house in Prairie Valley with ten acres of land surrounding it. We still had the touring Cadillac, one of the few cars in town, and Dad  started to be a gentleman farmer.  I think it is important to mention that while Dad had very little formal  87 Walter Powell  schooling, he emerged from his business career well schooled in life. His  internal drive and vision enabled him to expend his energies over the next  twenty-five years toward the improvement of the quality of life for the  citizens of Summerland.  From left: Walter, Richard and Edna Powell at Balcoma Lodge on the day the  Experimental Farm pump opened on Okanagan Lake. Note: Richard joined the RCAF but  was killed accidentally before he completed his training. Photo courtesy of Walter Powell Jr.  My father became interested in local government soon after arriving  in Summerland. One of the things he noticed was the plight of fruit growers  trying hard to get things to grow, but always at the mercy of an inadequate  water supply. Summerland and the Okanagan Valley are essentially a desert  with an average annual precipitation of about ten inches. My dad saw  farmers hauling barrels of water in August from Okanagan Lake by horse-  drawn wagons, trying to save young apple trees from drought. Optimistically, they believed next year would provide more rain and a bigger root area  to suck water from the parched earth.  In 1929, he became Reeve of the Municipality and was able to start a  series of projects to make adequate water available to the community at  large. A number of storage facilities had been built far up on the headwaters  of Trout Creek, which is essentially behind Peachland. These dams gained  their water from the spring run-off from the immediate area surrounding the  dams. In a low snowfall year, they would not fill and even if they did, their  storage capacity was too small to provide sufficient water for the growing  season. In those days of open ditch irrigation, the equivalent of three feet  of water over the growing area during the season was required to provide a  good crop.  The Federal Experimental Farm in Summerland had prior rights on  Crescent Lake at Trout Creek headwaters and was able to use as much water  88 Walter Powell  as desired, while the Summerland residents saw their own trees wilt in the  August heat. About 1933, my father travelled to Ottawa, where he was able  to make a deal to have the Experimental Farm water rights rescinded in  return for a promise to build a pumping station on Okanagan Lake to supply  the Farm (The 12th OHS Report, page 175). I can remember well the day  in 1934, my father flipped the switch on the 150 horsepower motor to start  water flowing from the lake up some 500 feet or more to the Farm water  system. I know I was a proud little boy, so I can imagine how my father felt  that day.  However, the water supply did not really get any better, nor was it  adequate for the growth that was taking place in the community. Many  years the Headwaters Dam did not fill, yet in the spring, torrents of flood  water ran into Okanagan Lake at Trout Creek Point with enough water to  supply many towns the size of Summerland. My father talked of building a  dam on Trout Creek itself, but many said it would never fill. He engaged the  services of a civil engineer in Penticton and a consultant from Vancouver  who toured the length of Trout Creek looking for a suitable dam site. After  a lot of searching they found a place they thought was suitable, and my  father and the town council went to look at it. I am not sure how the dam  was eventually financed or constructed, but I remember as a young boy  sluicing down the canyon walls with pressure hoses using big portable  pumps to see if the rock face structure was suitable to hold the contemplated  dam.  The arched dam and spillway were completed, and it filled in just a few  days during the spring run-off. No suitable road existed to Thirsk, the site  of the dam, so the council hired a Kettle Valley Railway train and gave every  citizen who wished, free transportation to the dam opening and public  picnic on May 24, 1941. Dad dedicated the dam to Summerland. While  there is almost no written evidence of my father's endeavours in Summerland,  there is a plaque on the dam thirty miles away which properly gives honour  to my father.  As a young boy, I grew up with all the comforts of home at the time.  We had electricity, 32 volts from a Delco Generator with sixteen lead acid  batteries that you could see right through. We had a clothes washer and  iron, and anything else that was available that would run on 32 volt  electricity.  Although we had electricity through a Delco system and the town  itself had electricity, the outlying areas used coal oil and gas lanterns. I can  see them yet for sale in Butler and Walden Hardware Store on Main Street.  My father, while Reeve, was responsible for electrifying the outlying areas  of the town. I can still hear him at our dinner table discussing his vision of  progress with his family. He needed nothing for himself, but he saw the  needs of others and put his energies toward those needs.  During this time, Mr. Percy Thornber, who ran the town's electrical  89 Walter Powell  system, was a frequent visitor to our house and I can remember the support  he gave my father in his drive toward the goals he had set for the community.  I can also remember how distraught my father was when a young boy in  Garnett Valley, Jimmy Taylor, rode his bicycle into a downed power line  while on his paper route and was fatally burned. This was a tragic thing to  happen as a result of progress.  As a boy, I remember the town of Summerland with dirt roads full of  dust. However, I remember too, getting asphalt between the toes of my bare  feet the day Main Street went from dusty road to paved street. My father and  I stood watching the big trucks and I can hear him now saying, "Rees, this  is just the beginning." During his tenure as Reeve, the whole town obtained  paved streets, and even the three outlying valley roads became paved in  time for horse-drawn vehicles to give way to automobiles.  Mr. Magnus Tait showed Dad a nice beach at Trout Creek Point where  we used to go on afternoons after school for supper. I remember my Dad did  not go to work like other people. I am not really sure who owned the  property, but Dad arranged to have the C.N.R. piledriver come and drive  six big piles right on the blue waterline. My brother Walter and others built  a diving platform on the piles, and we built picnic tables and dressing rooms  for people to use. I know Dad paid all the money for it and then gave it to  the town.  On returning there today, the diving platform is gone, there are many  signs saying what you cannot do at the beach, no sign on the highway  pointing you to the beach, and no plaque or written indication of how it all  got there. Yes, it is named Powell Beach and that is wonderful. I learned  from my sister Mary that newspaperman Walter Wright gave the beach its  name.  Once my father saw an adequate supply of water for the orchardists, he  turned his energies to the marketing of the products the people produced.  He was on the founding board of directors of Tree Fruits Ltd., the agency set  up to sell valley fruit and ensure an adequate return. It was during these  times that one heard grumblings and slogans of "a cent a pound or on the  ground." My father visited the largest markets for the valley products in the  east, the prairies and the west coast to determine what the customer wanted  and what could be done to aid in obtaining a better price for farmers. My  father served the Summerland Cooperative Growers Association as its  president and made trips to various other packing facilities in the USA to  determine the best and most efficient way to pack apples.  I remember that after my father had a meeting with Mr. Dole of  pineapple fame, he came back and said Mr. Dole told him that he created  a market for excess pineapples by creating a market for juice. He said people  can eat only so much, but there is no limit to what they can drink. My father  was a member of a committee set up in 1946 to study the use of cull apples.  As a result, the grower-owned B.C. Fruit Processors was set up to take over  90 Walter Powell  most of the existing juice plants in the valley. For some time, the company  ran really well, but eventually problems arose. I was away from Summerland  during these times, but I really felt that the problems at Tree Fruits and  Processors were the main factors contributing to my father's death.  In 1944, my father was honoured by his fellow citizens by being chosen  Good Citizen of the Year. I think what Alex Stevens wrote about my father  at the time of his death probably says very well what kind of person my father  was. He wrote: "When the history of our industry comes to be written for  the benefit of coming generations, the name of Walter Rees Powell will  loom large within its annals and our hours of leisure will be crowned with  a becoming aura of appreciation for the privileges given to sporting youth,  provided for by his beneficial hand. Of a surety he leaves behind a legible  imprint upon community life and taking him all in, we scarcely hope to see  his like again. Of his passing and without seeming ambiguity the lines of a  great economist can surely be fittingly applied:  Men who work while others sleep;  Who dare while others fly;  They plant a nation's pillars deep;  Or raise them to the sky."  I often think that many people in Summerland today do not know why  Summerland has become the place it is, and more tragically, do not care.  Perhaps this short history of my father will help remedy an unhappy  situation for me, while providing entertaining reading.  Thirsk Dam full of water.  Photo courtesy of Walter Powell Jr.  91 William Hall Sr.  by William J. Whitehead  Picture in you mind's eye "Johnny Bull," the emblem of British possession and  defiance. Then combine this image with "Old Bill," the cartoon character of  World War I fame: short and plump with a walrus mustache. You now have an  exact picture of Billie Hall, developer, operator and owner of one of Vernon's  early industries, the Pioneer Cement Works.  Born in Rugby, Warwickshire, England in 1864, he took up the trade  of baker in his youth. At the age of twenty years, he came to Canada and  settled in the new town of Morden, Manitoba. Here he found work on the  railway, much of which was still under construction.  He next met up with a young Scottish lass, Annie Turner, who was  working on one of the local farms. Cupid was not long in getting into action and  they wed in November 1889. They established their home in Morden, where  they opened a bakery and confectionery shop. During the next fourteen years,  they were joined by a family of three girls, Violet, Ada, and Eva plus a son,  William "Billie" Jr., in that order.  The first few years were quite successful, and in keeping with their  place in the local society, they constructed a very nice stone cottage on the  main street of Morden. It is still standing today, and is used as a shop for  selling ladies' wear. The economy  took a down turn. Then Annie's  health started to give her problems  because of the climate, so they disposed of their holdings and moved  to Vernon in 1903.  They had been encouraged  in this move by the exaggerated  claims of the local real estate firms,  telling of how you could make a  fortune growing fruit in this beautiful valley with very little effort.  They purchased a small holding of  about eighteen acres on Pleasant  Billie and Annie Hall. Valley Road, just where B.X. Creek  Photo courtesy of Bill Whitehead. crosses it.  William J. Whitehead, a Life Member of the O.H.S., is retired in Armstrong. Mrs.  Annie Hall was his mother's aunt.  92 William Hall Sr.  They didn't grow much fruit, but kept a team of horses, some pigs,  chickens, and a few head of milking cows. To enhance his income, Billie  worked at a variety of jobs. He painted houses for various contractors. This  particular trade almost contributed to his demise. He was painting a house  for a Mayor Smith near Okanagan Landing on a hot summer day. Being very  thirsty, he and his mate took a long cool drink from Vernon Creek. The  result was a very severe case of typhoid fever and many months of recovery.  During the next ten years, two more siblings were added to the family:  Ruth in 1909 and Harold (Sonny) in 1912. Other members of the family  started to marry off. Ada married Harold Philips of Vernon. Violet married  Pierre Cole from Calgary, while Eva married Russell Postill of Coldstream.  William married Mary Bingham of Vernon. Much later, Ruth married  Clifford Kopace of Bella Coola and Harold married Ann Thomas of  Armstrong.  During the First World War, Billie returned to his old trade as baker.  He baked many a loaf for Walter Rolson Bakery, now known as King's Cafe.  These were not the best of times economically, and Billie soon discovered  a source of wealth right on his own property. The north side of his property  consisted of a high gravel hill, and Billie decided to go into the gravel  business. He also decided to combine it with a cement tile and ornamental  works business. At first, he depended on his horses to transport the gravel,  but soon advanced to a small truck.  He became so busy with his new venture that he decided to dispose of  his cattle. He proceeded to butcher them and sell them to the community.  The butchers in town raised a row and the local police called on him with  orders to stop butchering. He challenged the law to stop him. It was soon  discovered that a man could butcher and sell his own beasts so long as he  was not buying from others. Chalk one up for Billie Hall.  When the C.N.R. was constructed from Vernon to Kelowna, he  supplied the drain tile for the roadbed. Billie also supplied the Armstrong  municipality with this same type of tile. He would often deliver it. Some  years passed, and one day while delivering it in Armstrong, Billie was  charged by Mr. Elliot, the local law enforcer, with not having a business  license for the municipality. Appearing before Magistrate Parks, he lost his  temper and was fined for contempt of court. After paying his fines, he went  home and raised the price of tile sold to Armstrong. After he had made  sufficient sales to the municipality to recover the cost of his fines, he  informed them that the price would return to its original amount.  He lived up to his motto: "Anybody who is going to get ahead of Billie  Hall will have to get up damn early in the morning, and then the first man  there is already too late."  His younger son, Sonny, was now getting to an age where he could  help with the business, and in later years (about 1947) took over the  business when his father retired.  93 William Hall Sr.  They supplied many of the early building contractors with their gravel  and rock for many of the foundations still in existence today. Some of those  Vernon contractors included: Paul Debona, Charlie Wilty, Morris Sanderson,  and Joe Morrin.  In the early 1930s, he purchased a Model A dump truck, of which he  was very proud. He loaded it with a good size grain shovel. In later years,  Sonny persuaded him to install a loader run with a small motor. He said it  would never work, but after a short demonstration, he was amazed by its  capabilities.  After Sonny took over the business, he purchased larger equipment  and increased the volume of production. Gradually the gravel hill disappeared. Today, the whole eighteen acres is covered with a housing development on the south side of the creek and a mobile home park on the north side.  Except for an occasional "sucker or chump,"  Billie was never known to  swear. One would think it  would have been easier on  his blood pressure if he had.  He did appreciate a glass of  cold beer, but upon marrying a girl of the Salvation  Army persuasion, he refrained from that indulgence as well. They were  life-long supporters of the  church and were the main  force in starting the Salvation Army in Vernon in  1906. Old time residents  will remember the little  Army Band preaching their  testimony and singing  hymns on Saturday evenings at the corner of the Hudson's Bay Store on Barnard Avenue.  Mr. and Mrs. Hall celebrated their fiftieth wedding anniversary in  1939. The Vernon News gave them recognition by referring to them as one  of the best known old time couples in the city. Annie suffered from poor  health for some years and passed on in 1942. Billie died in 1951.  Billie Hall Sr. (on left), Billie Hall Jr. with  Stanley Hall in front circa 1933. Photo courtesy of  Bill Whitehead.  94 Thomas Malpass and the  Lumber Industry in Enderby  by Olive Malpass  The Enderby and Armstrong areas lost another member of a pioneer family  on March 28th, 1991, just three days after his 85th birthday. Thomas  Malpass was born in 1906 in Lansdowne, and before he passed away, he said  he thought he was the last person to have Lansdowne on his birth  certificate. After the railway came into Armstrong, Lansdowne ceased to  exist as a town.  Tom's parents were George and Sarah Ann Malpass. His father  immigrated to Canada from England in 1900 and his mother followed two  years later from Wales. They settled on a farm in the Lansdowne area, which  was located at the end of a road now named Malpass which runs off Rashdale  Road.  Tom went to school first in the old  Lansdowne school house, then across the  valley at the Bennett School, which was  located above the Stepney siding. He completed his education at the Armstrong Consolidated School, riding on one of the first  school buses from his home in Lansdowne.  He began his long logging career as a  teenager, helping to clear the family farm.  He hauled the logs to the Armstrong Sawmill.  In the 1920s, he joined a survey party  working with a civil engineer from Armstrong, William Hallam Jr. They were working on a government topographical survey of  mineral claims from the United States border to Kinbasket Lake near Golden. They built cairns on top of all the  highest peaks and lived a great deal of the time on glaciers. They left early  each spring and returned late in the fall. Tom was issued a special permit  Tom Malpass in 1971.  Photo courtesy of Olive Malpass.  Olive Malpass married Tom in 1931. She has lived all of her life in the Armstrong and  Enderby areas.  95 Thomas Malpass  to hunt big game, since their base camp was always too far from civilization  to obtain fresh meat. All their other supplies were taken in by pack horse.  During the winter months, while not working on this project, Tom  continued to cut and haul logs. He also hewed ties for the C.P.R. The survey  project ended in 1930 with the tragic drowning of three of the crew,  including the engineer. At that point in time, Kinbasket Lake was a five day  pack trip from Golden.  In 1931 Tom married Olive Huggins of Armstrong and moved to the  Deep Creek area where he farmed in the summer and logged during the  winter. He would haul a load of logs every day into the Armstrong Sawmill.  He also continued to hew ties for the C.P.R. He soon purchased a new  logging truck and was one of the first people to deliver logs to the mill by  truck. Using this truck, he started hauling poles for Enderby pole companies. He could now haul logs or poles year round, but he still did his skidding  with horses.  Tom sold his stock and farm equipment in 1941, and moved his family  to Enderby where he purchased a Standard Oil Service Station. He hired a  mechanic and truck driver. He also purchased another logging truck. In  1943, he started buying cedar poles for an American company and ties for  the C.P.R. He sold the service station in 1945.  In 1946, Tom built his first sawmill in the Ashton Creek area, and, in  1947, formed Malpass Lumber and Poles Limited. By 1948, he had purchased land just north of Enderby known as the Old Brick Yard. Here he had  the advantage of a railway siding and Shuswap River frontage. He built a  planer mill and started shipping finished lumber. He also shipped cedar  poles to the U.S.A. and the prairie provinces.  He purchased more property adjacent to the site. He could now have  a river drive each year, booming the logs from Mabel Lake and surrounding  areas at the mill. It was on this site in 1965 that Tom built the first chipping  plant in the North Okanagan, and started shipping chips to the Kamloops  Pulp Mill by rail.  When Tom built his first sawmill, he purchased most of the timber  from private property. As the demand grew, he began to buy Timber Sales  from the Ministry of Forests. He had to cruise a section of timber he wanted,  and then it would be put up for auction. If he was successful in his bid, then  he would have to put up cash as a deposit. This deposit was held by the  government for years until the area was logged and cleared to Forestry  specifications. In later years, he was allowed to put up securities such as  Government Bonds, so at least he could now receive some interest on his  deposits. This situation was a big improvement financially.  Tom built many miles of logging roads himself. Often these roads were  better than the Mabel Lake Road which was crooked and full of holes. He  drove the Mabel Lake Road every day to check on his logging operations.  At first, the logging was done by crosscut saws and skidding done by  96 Thomas Malpass  horses. Gradually, these methods were supplanted by power saws and  skidders or cats. He had a very reliable bush foreman for many years in Dave  Jones. He also hired many truck drivers and cat operators over the years  including: Audrey Baird, Charlie Dugdale, Jack Dugdale, Jack Hebditch,  Ross Baird, Lawrence Lutz, Bert Marshall and Les Frederick.  The cedar pole business was very competitive. The cedar poles had to  be felled and peeled in the bush. It required a good pole man to select correct  sizes. They were nearly all shipped to the U.S.A. with the smaller sizes going  to the prairie provinces. There were many loads hauled down the Okanagan  Valley for B.C. Telephone Co. or B.C. Hydro. Some of the truck drivers,  including Tom, had hair-raising experiences taking loads of long poles  across the ferry at Kelowna.  Most of the poles, however, were loaded on railway cars consisting of  two flatcars hooked together. There were many rail carloads of poles  shipped out of Enderby every month. There was a real art in properly top  Malpass Lumber and Pole Co. crew in 1948 at their new location north of Enderby.  This mill was on the site of the former Enderby Brick and Tile Co. yard. Note the  bricks in the background. Tom Malpass is second from left. Photo by George Meeres  courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  loading these poles and several of our native men were excellent at this job.  Casimir Felix, Harry Jones, and Fred Jones were some of the natives who  were always in demand by the cedar pole shippers in Enderby.  Tom purchased and shipped many thousands of ties for the C.P.R. In  the early days, these ties were all hewn by hand. Later, they were sawn in  portable mills. Some of the ties came from his own timber sales and others  97 Thomas Malpass  were purchased from individual suppliers. These ties were hauled in and  piled on the C.P.R. sidings where they were inspected by a C.P.R. Tie  Inspector, who for many years was Bill Preston. Before the era of fork lifts,  the ties were loaded into boxcars by hand, a very hard job indeed.  Tom looked after all sales and shipments plus he controlled all the  purchases for the company. In all his working years, he never knew what an  eight hour day was; he averaged from twelve to fourteen every day. During  his twenty-nine years in business in Enderby, he created employment for  hundreds of men.  In 1970 he sold the whole operation to Ganzeveld Forest Products of  Vernon. It changed hands a few years later and was purchased by Riverside  Forest Products. This latter company closed the mill and routed the timber  through Trinity Valley to their mill in Lumby.  After selling the company, he decided to travel, but he was always  happy to return to Enderby. He never gave up his love of big game hunting  and received many trophies over the years. He was one of the original  organizers of the North Okanagan Trap & Skeet Club. He was also a  member of the local Masonic Lodge, the New Horizons Club and the Senior  Citizens Society.  Besides a summer residence at Mabel Lake, he purchased a small home  in Palm Springs, California. There he spent the winter months, playing golf  and shuffle board. In February 1983, Tom had open heart surgery at the  Eisenhower Medical Centre in Rancho Mirage, California, which slowed  him down for a while, but by fall he was back playing golf. On March 21,  1984, his team won the first place in the second flight of the first Curling  Bonspiel ever held in Southern California. There was a large picture of him  on the front page of the Indio Daily News throwing his final rock.  He is survived by his loving wife Olive, daughter Cleora Ann Jones of  Enderby, his son George Levar Malpass and wife Gisele of Vancouver, his  grandson, Thomas Victor of Vancouver and granddaughter, Janice Leigh  Malpass of Bowen Island.  Baird Bros, truck at  Cooke Creek, circa  1952.  Photo courtesy of the  Enderby Museum.  98 Fred and Nora Hitt  by Marjorie Qordon  Although English by birth, Fred and Nora Hitt have lived most of their  adult lives in the Armstrong area. Now in their 90s, they continue to live  on the family farm on Schubert Road with their son, Raymond.  Frederick Charles Hitt was born at Venn Dairy in Cullumpton,  Devonshire, England on June 11th, 1893. He was the second youngest of  nine children.  Heeding the call of the west, Fred and his 19 year old brother, Jim,  immigrated to Canada in 1911, with a one-way ticket. They landed at St.  John, New Brunswick, then travelled by train via the United States,  arriving in Calgary in a snow storm on April 1st.  Fred lived in Alberta for two years, working on threshing crews and as  a teamster helping to build an irrigation project at Bassano. Fred then came  to Armstrong in 1913, and farmed at Hullcar  until his marriage to Nora in 1923.  Nora was the daughter of Henry (Harry)  and Margaret Price. She was born in Stroud  Gloucestershire, England on August 31st, 1898.  Her father was the proprietor of the Greyhound  Inn, and they lived above the Inn. She had three  older brothers, Ewart, Heygate and Stanley.  When the family decided to leave England  and come to Canada in 1906, it meant a total  change of lifestyle for them. At a farewell dinner, given in their honour, Harry was presented  with two guns: one for killing game for food, and  one for protection in the wild west!  They arrived in Montreal, and travelled by  train to Winnipeg. While seeking employment,  Harry was often greeted with this note: "No  Englishmen need apply." While playing in a school yard, Nora was acci-  dently run over by a sleigh pulled by runaway horses. She escaped relatively  unhurt, but fearful of horses.  Fred Hitt. Photo courtesy of  Marjorie Gordon.  Majorie Gordon is the daughter of Fred and Nora Hitt. She resides with her husband,  Dick, in North Vancouver.  99 Fred & Nora Hitt  On August 1st, 1911, the Price family arrived in Enderby. Harry  located suitable farm land in the Hullcar area. On their first buggy ride up  Canyon Road from Enderby to Hullcar, with the bush crowding in from  both sides, Nora's brother, Stan, remarked, "I hope we'll never be any worse  off than we have been."  Nora discontinued her education when she discovered that to attend  school, she would have to walk about two miles along a country road where  horses and cattle roamed. She didn't have far to go for the mail, because the  neighbouring farmhouse kitchen (the Cranes) served as the Post Office.  Nora settled into country living, sometimes accompanying her mother  on the six-mile cutter ride into Armstrong. On one such occasion they met  a buggy on the old corduroy road just out of town. In it were two young  fellows who, her mother explained, were new Hullcar residents, the Hitt  brothers. Nora laughed, and said that was the funniest name she'd ever  heard!  Nora married Fred Hitt at Hullcar on March 14th, 1923. They left by  train for Calgary, where Fred managed a fruit and vegetable stall, and then  a fish market. Later, they went to work for Lindsay MacMaster on his farm  at Airdrie. Fred worked in the fields, while Nora worked in the house.  They moved back to Armstrong in 1926 to a house owned by a man  named Chappel. They worked for Mr. Chappel in his orchard business on  Salmon River Road for about three years.  About this time, Fred heard of a 60 acre parcel on Schubert Road that  was up for auction. He checked it over, and purchased it. He moved there  with Nora in 1930. Only 18 of the 60 acres were clear, and Fred went to work  immediately, clearing more land by hand with some help from blasting  powder.  The remnants of the old road to Kamloops wound through some of the  property. When Nora's parents came to visit, they loved to walk that road  because it reminded them of an old country English lane.  The house was small with only three rooms. Nora's brother, Ewart,  built an addition to it in the late 1930s, complete with indoor plumbing. In  the 1940s, Ewart's son, Ron, completed the upstairs bedrooms.  Their first child was born on July 1st, 1932 during haying season.  When Nora went out to the barnyard to say she had begun labour, Fred  assured her not to worry. He would take her to town just as soon as he and  Max got that last load of hay up into the loft. This they did. The baby arrived  in due time at the hospital and all went well. A second child, Marjorie, was  born two years later, on June 30th, 1934.  For many years, Nora was an active member of the Knob Hill Ladies'  Aid, a charitable organization which held meetings in the homes of the  members. Women with pre-school children usually took them along. When  Raymond was just learning to talk, he tried to tell the men that he and his  mom were "...going to the Ladies' Aid at Caswells." But his words came out  "...going to the Aidies Aid and Cackle!"  too Fred & Nora Hitt  Over the years spent in developing the acreage into a productive  mixed farm, Fred and Nora got by with one family automobile, a 1928 Model  A Ford. In winter, Old Lizzie was kept warm under a cover of a big bearskin  rug. All things considered she proved to be pretty reliable. When Fred's  brother, Sid, won a brand new modern car in the late 1930s, Old Liz was still  willing to take her avid fishermen up into those mountain lakes where the  sleek model refused to go. You could also remove the back seat, fold up the  passenger seat, and stack crates of raspberries to the roof inside.  The raspberries had  to be in town for shipping by mid-afternoon.  In the early years, mostly  native Indian families  were hired to do the berry  picking. The old incubator room was converted  into living quarters for  some of these people during berry season while  others lived in tents.  Later the crop was  handled by local pickers.  At one time, Fred  went into the poultry  business, peaking at about  1600 birds a year. Poultry-  raising was very time consuming. To grade and candle all those eggs meant working long hours into  each evening in the dark of the basement. Fred had made an effective egg  candling machine from an old metal mail box. He eventually gave up the  poultry business and concentrated more on field crops.  When the children were school age, the farm was producing asparagus,  strawberries, raspberries, peas, carrots, seed potatoes, prune plums, turnips,  and squash for sale along with hay, grain, apples and various vegetables for  home use. Besides having the help of his son and daughter, Fred regularly  employed two neighbourhood lads, Bob and Wally Dodds, for field and  orchard work. He kept some cattle and shipped milk to the Armstrong  Cheese Factory for many years.  During the Second World War, Fred supplied the Army Camp in  Vernon with chicken. The military specified that the birds be dry plucked,  and this was done right on the farm before being boxed and delivered. Also  during the war, Grannie Price moved from Hullcar to make her home with  the Hitts. She was an avid knitter, and completed over 100 pairs of socks for  the soldiers overseas.  From left: Nora, Raymond, Marjorie, and Fred  Hitt circa 1940. Photo courtesy of Marjorie Gordon.  101 Fred & Nora Hitt  Fred was associated with the 4-H Clubs for quite some time, encouraging his children in the Potato, Calf and Poultry Clubs. He took many  produce prizes at the I.P.E., and even won a 1st Prize for a pyramid of Warba  Seed Potatoes in Toronto one year. When asked how the potatoes could  possibly be shipped that distance and remain in such good condition, Fred  grinned and said, "Ah! There's a secret to it. You pack them in bran!"  In the late 1940s and early '50s, a type of recreation similar to road  hockey became an annual winter activity on the farm. Locally, it became  known simply as "The Rink." Framed with slab lumber from the sawmill in  Armstrong, it had chicken wire supported by poles and covered with feed  sacking for the goals, red ink for the centre line and Nora's washing bluing  for the blue lines. The rink even sported a mini viewing stand on the west  side and oil can reflectors on the lights which were used for night games.  Games were held on Wednesday and Friday nights, and on Sunday  afternoons. Many young folk, some from miles away, came to participate in  the fun.  When Raymond finished school, he went into partnership with his  dad on the farm. Years later, he became the sole owner. Today it is a different  style of operation as it has changed with the times.  Fred and Nora still have an interest in the daily activity of the farm.  They appreciate visits from the Oddfellows Lodge to which Fred has been  a long time member and are happy to see all their friends and relatives who  drop in for a chat.  Fred and Nora Hitt on March 20, 1983.  Photo courtesy of Marjorie Gordon.  102 Jack Woods  by Mary Lou Tapson'Jones  Fourth winner of the Vernon Chamber of Commerce annual "Good  Citizen" award, announced last night, is Jack Woods, of Okanagan  Landing. Mr. Woods' name was thus added to the growing list of  distinguished Vernon residents singled out for their special contributions to the City's growth. (Vernon News, January 1953)  Jack Beasley Woods came to Canada at the age fourteen years in 1898.  He travelled to Maple Creek, Northwest Territories (Southern Saskatchewan  now) where his older brother was working. He soon hired himself out, and  worked all over the southern prairies at different ranches for the next seven  years.  In the spring of 1907, with Billy Lyons as helper, he brought two  boxcar loads of horses to Vernon for Vic Stanford, who was in charge of the  White Valley Irrigation Co. in the  Lavington District. It was the 7th of May,  and the leaves and flowers were bursting  out on all the trees when these two young  men drove their unbroken horses down  the main street of Vernon. Jack liked the  look of the country so well that he decided  to stay. He gave his return ticket to Lyons  and went to work for Mr. Stanford, breaking the horses that had been brought from  the prairies.  Late in the summer of 1907 when  that job was finished, Jack went to work in  a mill at Okanagan Landing owned by the  Salmon Brothers. In the fall, he signed on  with the Columbia River Logging Co. at  Yard Creek, east of Sicamous, and stayed  there all winter. By the spring of 1908, the      Jack Woods with his mother; Sarah>  logging business was rather slow, SO Jack        m 1919. Photo courtesy of Mary Lou  Went back tO Vernon. Tapson-Jones.  Mary Lou Tapson-Jones is the niece of Jack B. Woods, and lives in Salmon Arm. This  article was based on an interview taped in his Vernon home by Mary Lou and her  husband John, in February 1967.  103 Jack Woods  One day, when he was in Ben Richards' barber shop having his hair  cut, Mr. Richards suggested Jack try barbering, as he needed an assistant. He  started right in, and was soon cutting hair and shaving as well as the next  man at a wage of seven dollars a week. Later in 1908, the Summerland  barber, Mr. Fry, called and needed a helper. So Jack went there. When Mr.  Fry died, Jack borrowed money and bought the shop for three hundred and  fifty dollars. He stayed two and a half years before selling the business late  in the fall of 1910, when he returned to Vernon to work as a barber for Mr.  Green.  He did not stay long with Mr. Green before he heard of a barbering job  in Revelstoke with Roy McDonald. But Jack wasn't in Revelstoke very long  before he came back to Vernon. Sometime late in 1911, Mr. Brennan, who  was the manager of the CPR Hotel in Sicamous, came looking for a barber.  His offer of room and board as well as a wage looked good to Jack. There,  he worked in the mornings until about ten-thirty, when all the morning  trains had gone through. As the trains only stopped fifteen to twenty  minutes, a barber who couldn't cut a head of hair in ten minutes was of no  use! After Jack was through his morning's work, he had the rest of the day  to himself until five-thirty, when the next trains were due through. He said  it was his kind of life.  In his hours off, Jack would often rent a rowboat, take a bite of lunch  and go fishing. Most of the time he used a 'Near Gold' or 'Imperial No. 4'  spoon, though he soon learned to make spoons out of pieces of sheet copper,  brass or tin. For Jack, anything was worth trying to see if a fish would take  it. In those years of 1911 to 1913, the successful fisherman could sell all of  his catch, as long as it was four pounds 'in the round' or bigger. Jack told of  catching seven or eight fish, eight to ten pounds each or better, on any one  day that he was out fishing.  Jack had many stories to tell of those early days. One in particular was  of Doug Finlayson and himself roaming around Old Town across the Eagle  River from Sicamous. They found a box of undelivered mail in a tumbledown shack that must have been the original Post Office. They left it where  they found it and forgot about it, until years later, when reminiscing, they  recalled the incident.  While roaming around the Shuswap, Jack filed homestead rights on  two different pieces of land. The first was up Ansty Arm of the Shuswap  Lake on Five Mile Creek. He did not go back to that one, realizing it was  much too far from civilization. Later he filed and 'proved up' on a place at  Two Mile Creek on Mara Lake, where he built a wee shack.  In the early fall of 1913, he returned to Vernon, and being tired of  barbering, went to work for Mr. Skinner at the Vernon Fruit Union. Part  of his job was to keep the boxed fruit cleared away from outside the packing  house where it was stacked, waiting to be taken to the railway cars. He  sometimes ordered as many as thirty teams of horses and wagons, but only  104 Jack Woods  three or four teams would come. The other teamsters were on their way to  join the army. Because it was all hand work with no trolleys or hand wagons,  a crew was continually busy carrying boxed fruit away from the packers and  stacking the boxes beside the road outside the packing house. Sometimes  the boxed apples would be stacked along the road for as much as a quarter  of a mile.  In 1915, Jack joined the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles and went  overseas. After spending some time in the trenches, he was 'knocked out of  action' late in 1916, and spent a year in hospitals and rehabilitation units  in England. In 1918, he returned to Canada, and was discharged from the  army. He looked up his little place on Mara Lake, but found it had been  "crawled all over" by the internment camp that had been built on the  adjoining land, so he did nothing more about his homestead.  Jack wasn't home from the war very long before he married Anne  Vanetta, a school teacher who had been at Solsqua when he was working  at Sicamous. During their courting days before World War I, they found  their way to the local dances. The young fellows there fetched their dates  for a dance by handcar on the CPR rail tracks. The boys would "borrow" a  sectionman's car, pump their way to where their ladies were living, tuck the  girls on the car, and then start back. If they had judged right and were  between trains, they were fine, but it still meant keeping a sharp eye ahead,  as well as listening for a train coming from behind. If one was heard or seen  the boys had to 'pump like mad' until they reached a car siding and could  pull the handcar off the tracks. They would wait for the train to go by, then  put the car back on the tracks and continue on their way.  To make a living for his wife and himself, Jack started barbering again.  He and Anne set up housekeeping in Vernon, near his mother's home on  North Street. Mrs. Woods had come to Vernon in 1912, and ran a boarding  house for her family and their friends. It was 'home' for the boys as they came  and went during the War. Once they were all back (those that were coming  back), she quit running a boarding house.  Though Jack and his wife had no children of their own, there were  always other people's children around, being fed cookies, learning how to  make fishing spoons or tie knots, asking questions, or just 'hanging around.'  Theirs was a busy, open house, with everyone welcome, young and old alike.  Jack became known far and wide as the authority on where to go and  what to use to catch fish in the Okanagan Valley. He kept up the tradition  of hair dressers the world over - the barber shop was the place to go for  information. One time a fisherman from New York City came looking for  Jack, as a friend had told him to find Jack Woods, and ask for the latest word  on fishing in the Okanagan.  In 1943, Jack had some trouble with one of his eyes and could no longer  barber, so sold his business. After a few months rest, he entered into a  partnership with Henry Rottacker. They opened a sporting goods shop located  105 Jack Woods  on Barnard Avenue across the street from the Capitol Theatre, later occupied  by the Powell and Curwen Sports Shop. He stayed with the sporting goods  business until he retired in 1948.  In his retirement, Jack kept busy with fishing and other outdoor  recreation, as well as keeping up with all his civic interests.  "Jack Woods was chosen fourth winner of the Vernon Junior Chamber  of Commerce annual Good Citizen Award in 1953." This award was given  to Jack because of his many years of work for the city. He was three years on  the City Police Commission, and eight years president of the Canadian  Legion. As well, he served on  the Vernon Hospital Board for  fifteen years, and was visiting  barber at the hospital for seventeen years without remuneration. Jack was a life member of  the Vernon and District Fish,  Game, and Forest Society, and  was a ten-pint blood donor as  well as working with many other  organizations.  Besides all the former positions, "Mr. Woods was president of the original Okanagan  Landing Regatta organization  for seven years." He was a past  member of the Red Cross Society, serving mostly on the blood  donor committee. He was well  known for his efforts during  World War II with Victory Loan  Committees as well as for his contribution to the Okanagan Industrial  Exposition. "He did much for the Farm Labour Board and Vernon  Regulated Area Board of Appeal work after the Second World War."  Jack Woods died February 7th, 1970, at the age of 85. His obituary  read, in part: "When named 1953 Good Citizen, he was an active member  of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and of the Civil Defense  organizations".  From left: Jack Woods, his mother, Sarah,  and brother, Alex in August 1937.  Photo courtesy of Mary Lou Tapson-Jones.  106 John Lewis Lambert  by Donald Wells  Local maps show Lambert Creek flowing west from the water falls into the  Shuswap River at Grindrod. The land that John Lambert homesteaded  extended from the Shuswap River on the west to the William Monk  property on the east. To the north, it included the present Birchdale Golf  Course, and to the south, it extended to Monk Road. The Ed deBoer  property and Back Bay Service Station were also part of the original  property. John named his farm "Haven Ranch."  Born in Woodstove, England in 1863, John Lambert left his home,  family, and friends to begin a new life in Canada. He first worked in Quebec  and Ontario, but the west beckoned. He worked on the railway as it was  pushed across Canada. For some reason,  he and George Weir gave up on the  railway and walked the survey line to  Revelstoke. From there they canoed  down the Eagle River. At one point, the  river's turbulence caused the canoe to  overturn. They lost all of their belongings and supplies except for John's 22  calibre rifle (which we still have on the  farm).  After this experience, they walked  to Old Town (Sicamous) which at that  time boasted a considerable population.  John and George worked there for sometime, until they decided to follow the  Spallumcheen River until they found a  suitable homestead. George stopped at John Lewis Lambert,  the rock bluff that now bears his name Photo courtesy of Don Wells.  Don Wells is the step-grandson of John Lambert. He continues to farm the land John  homesteaded at the end of the 19th Century.  107 John Lambert  next to the river, and claimed his homestead. John went one and a half miles  south and claimed the NE 1/4 Section 19, Township 19. The year was 1889.  John built a log cabin and began clearing the huge trees. He drained  much of his land by digging a ditch from one pond to the next, all the way  to the river. This ditch was called Lambert Creek, and has since become  much larger.  As money was very scarce, George and John shared a dress suit which  they took turns using when they visited their neighbours. In those years, the  neighbours were very far apart. John often walked to the Ashtons (at  Ashton Creek) or to Lansdowne for his mail and groceries. Later on, he  bought a bicycle.  At home, his two companions were his faithful dog, Barney, and his  R.C.A. gramophone from which he learned to sing. In later years on  Christmas mornings, he would open the front room window and turn his  gramophone up full blast so that his closest neighbours, namely John Monk  and George McEwen, could also enjoy Christmas music.  Some of his other pleasures included baking his own bread, skating on  the river with George McEwen, or hunting for sport and out of necessity. On  one occasion, after a hunt, he and his friends, William Monk and George  Weir, were conversing about the day's activities. He absent-mindedly had  his finger over the barrel of his hair-triggered Winchester shotgun. The gun  went off. He lost his finger. (This gun was later sold to William Monk, my  grandfather, who passed it onto William Monk Jr. Recently, he gave it to  my son Rick as a collector's piece. And thus it has remained in the family.)  He was a great reader and became very knowledgable about land  surveying and law. As a result of this self-education, he was appointed the  local Justice of the Peace.  John purchased the first hay baler in the district. This piece of  machinery was powered by a team of horses pulling a drive pole in a circle  which in turn ran a large gear that operated the machine. In 1900, he started  a new home, which was a great project, as he split and planed each exterior  shingle by hand. In 1908, this building caught fire, but was saved by his  neighbour, George Neve. The original cabin was burned.  After 1900, there were many more settlers in the Grindrod area. My  grandfather, George Wells, arrived from England (after fortuitously missing  the sailing of the Titanic) in 1912. He formed a partnership with John. As  partners, they bought a new gas-powered bailer, a new team of horses and  some cattle.  By 1914, Grindrod boasted a school, hall, park, and several stores.  In 1932, George Wells Sr. died, and two years later, John and Mrs.  Wells were married. In 1934, they retired to Sicamous, and George Wells  Jr. and his family took over the farm. George Wells Jr., my father, worked  for Harry Danforth in the pole yard at Grindrod as bookkeeper. He was also  the bookkeeper for the construction of the second Grindrod bridge. As a  108 John Lambert  carpenter he assisted in the construction of William Monk's house. Here he  met Helen Monk whom he married in 1922. They lived for a time in  Sicamous where he worked at the C.P.R. Hotel.  In 1948, John Lambert passed away at the age of 85.  During the depression years, when my father had the farm, it was very  tough. George Jr. supplemented his meagre farm income by playing in a  dance band. He also continued to do bookkeeping for local people. In 1943,  he died, leaving my mother and I to carry on with the farm. These were very  hard years, but with the help of wonderful neighbours the farm prospered.  More land was cleared and the dairy improved. Today my sons, Rick and  Ron, and their families are living and working on the farm that John  Lambert began 103 years ago.  From left: John Lewis Lambert,  his wife, Jamima, and Dil Diebolt.  Photo courtesy of Don Wells.  109 Clifford Hardwick  by William J. Whitehead  Clifford Hardwick is a person who has experienced a great variety of things  in his life, yet he has never owned or driven a car, nor has he held any type  of public office. He continues to live on the one and only piece of property  he ever purchased - nearly sixty years ago. He has worked in packing houses  in Kelowna and in the bush and on Vancouver Island and in the Okanagan.  Besides innumerable other jobs, he has driven poles down the Shuswap  River, and helped build the bridge at Enderby.  He was born in Miller, North Dakota, in January, 1902. When he was  nine years of age, he, with his parents, George and Nellie, brothers Gradien  and Kenneth, and sister Eva moved to Armstrong. Through the succeeding  years, three more children were added to the family: Madge, and brothers  Victor (Bud) and Leslie.  His maternal grandparents, Daniel and Sarah Parkhurst, had settled  on Schubert Road about 1908, in the area commonly known as Poverty  Hill. His mother's sister, Ida, and her husband, Fred Abbott, were settled in  the Mabel Lake district, where Fred engaged in logging and trapping around  Cottonwood Creek.  The Hardwicks arrived in late summer of 1911, and lived the first  winter on Hallam Road. The children attended the Knob Hill School.  Some of the family names Clifford recalls who attended the school were:  Marzo, Harding, Docksteader, Coldicott, Crawford, Ford, and Dodd. The  next summer, the Hardwicks removed to Poverty Hill, and lived part way  up the hill on the east side of the road from the Parkhursts.  Cliff was not too impressed with school discipline. The young lady  who taught him held very different views as to what made up protocol and  deportment from his. On one occasion, he decided not to enter school when  the bell rang, but instead built a bonfire in the nearby woods to keep warm  and amused himself by pitching snowballs through the windows at the other  students.  The next year, the Hardwicks moved to Pleasant Valley Road, and  Cliff attended Spallumcheen School. In recent years, this old school has  been restored by Sheila Luniw. Cliff was one of the old students attending  William J. Whitehead is the brother-in-law of Clifford Hardwick. A Life Member of  the O.H.S., he is retired and lives in Armstrong.  110 Clifford Hardwick  the reunion in 1989. He drew our attention to the place in the nearby coulee  where he and the other boys used to hide their tobacco and papers.  The next year (1912) found the Hardwicks back at Poverty Hill. With  the outbreak of war in 1914, Clifford's father joined up with the Forestry  Battalion and went overseas.  Child Labour Laws were not a great concern of government in those  days, and it was the goal of every boy to prove he was a man as soon as  possible. Cliff and his brother Gradien undertook to carry on where their  Dad had left off, freighting lumber for the T.K Smith Sawmill in Armstrong.  They hauled from Salmon River up through the Indian Reserve, over Knob  Hill and into Armstrong.  Gradien and Clifford Hardwick hauling rough lumber for the T.K. Smith Sawmill  from Salmon River (Heywood's Corner) to Armstrong in 1914. Photo courtesy of  Mr. Thomas Leduc.  Due to the hot summer days, they travelled at night with a lantern on  the front of the wagon. One night, they met up with Charlie Pehota,  returning from the local watering hole. The result was a severely damaged  radiator on Charlie's vehicle and a badly bruised horse. Soon after this  episode, their mother decided to dispose of the horses and wagon and the  family moved into Armstrong, taking up residence in the "Old Mills House"  on Patterson Avenue.  Boyish pranks and curiosity occupied much of Cliffs and Gradien's  interest. On one occasion, they and the two Dodd brothers came close to  serious injury, when a blasting cap they were examining blew up in their  hands.  in Clifford Hardwick  Armstrong had a large Chinese population at the time, which was  largely engaged in growing vegetables. Teasing the Chinamen was yet  another way of exciting danger and it resulted in quite a scare one evening,  when the Chinamen captured Gradien and took him into their quarters.  Cliff ran up to the local bar and called on an old friend for help. The friend  was Bob Tilton, a bit of a character in his own right and reputed to have been  a close associate of Bill Miner, B.C.'s first train robber. He was not known  for indulging in any great work effort but always seemed to have money in  his pocket. He was also known for carrying a small derringer in his vest  pocket. Tilton responded to the call for help, and soon Gradien was let loose  by his captors.  One of the main industries in Armstrong at this time was the  "Evaporator," where large quantities of potatoes and other vegetables were  prepared for market by the evaporation method. During the war years, 1914  to 1918, the majority of the young men were serving in the armed forces;  consequently many teenaged boys and girls were employed at this type of  work. Cliff was one of those who worked there and he tells of how you could  smell the fumes all the way to Hullcar.  It was in 1918 when the dreaded "flu" came to the district. Cliff  experienced a really bad time for a while before he recovered.  In 1919, he worked for a short time for his uncle, Fred Abbott, tending  bar in the King Edward Hotel in Enderby. He was only seventeen, but no  one questioned his age. He remembered that this was prohibition time, and  they were only allowed to sell "near beer," but that didn't prevent them from  selling "home brew" under the counter.  The "home brew" was manufactured by a prominent resident from up  Mabel Lake way. One day, he was arrested while delivering two suitcases of  the goods to the hotel. The court was to hear the case a few weeks later in  Salmon Arm. However, it resulted in a quick dismissal, when the two cases  were brought into court, and it was discovered that the contents had  disappeared in some mysterious way.  When George Hardwick returned from overseas in 1919, he purchased a farm through the Soldier Settlement Board about three miles down  Salmon River from Heywood's Store. Here Cliff worked at logging, mill  work and fighting forest fires. It was also here that he met his wife to be,  Hilda Andrews, who had moved to the district with her family, Mr. and Mrs.  George Andrews, from Winnipeg in 1921.  In the summer of 1921, Cliff helped to build the brick "consolidated"  school in Armstrong. One time, he pointed out to me the stone lintels  marking the separate entrances for the girls and boys, telling how he had  helped lift these lintels into place manually.  Fishing and hunting were very much a necessity to help keep food on  the table for the large family. The nearby Fly Hills provided an ample supply  of deer, while the Salmon River teemed with the fish after which it received  112 Clifford Hardwick  its name. Night spearing and the odd bit of blasting powder were used on  occasion to help produce a limit in a hurry.  In 1922, Cliff decided to move to the Vancouver area and started work  in the Eburne Sawmill. After a few months, he decided to settle down, so  sent back home for his future wife. They were married in the city, and spent  their honeymoon travelling to Vancouver Island on the night boat. They  took up residence on a house boat near Duncan, and Cliff went to work in  the big woods, setting chokers and firing the donkey engine.  The young couple spent four months there. When they discovered  they were about to be joined by a third family member, they decided to  return to Armstrong to be near their families.  During the early summer of 1923, Cliff worked for a while logging near  Lumby. A bit later, he joined in the exiting pole drive down the Shuswap  River from Sugar Lake to Enderby.  In August of that year, their daughter, Mayme, was born at the  Armstrong Hospital, Dr. Van Kleek attending and Mrs. Harry Hallom, the  nurse, assisting.  Cliff spent that fall working on Charlie Hoover's threshing machine.  In those days, the grain was put in large bags and tied. Each bag had to be  carried and piled. Each bag weighed 120 pounds. There was no need to  worry about diets to keep your wight down when you had a job like that!  That fall, Cliff and family moved back to the coast and settled in  Burnaby, where he worked for Love's Sash and Door Factory. About 1925,  he found work with Riefel's Distillery in Sapperton. Much of the product  went straight to the rum-running boats working off the coast of California.  He was offered an opportunity to work on one of these boats, but declined.  He tells of how they used to weld false bottoms in oil barrels to smuggle the  whisky past the Customs.  About 1927, he moved to a better job with Canada Packers, where he  stayed for the next three years. As a result of that experience, he has never  been partial to wieners or baloney.  This work came to an end with the beginning of the Great Depression.  The family moved once more, this time to Kelowna. Through the next few  years, Cliff worked at a variety of jobs including: digging sewer lines for the  City of Kelowna; helping with the construction of a C.N.R. barge; working  on the de Pfyffer Ranch; or anything else to keep food on the table. When  there was no work, he spent his time fishing or hunting in season. He worked  for many years in the Okanagan Packers for the Buckland family. There, he  and his neighbour and hunting partner, Reg Ruttan, loaded hundreds of  boxcars of fruit for the prairie markets.  With the outbreak of World War II, the government decided to form  special "suppression" crews to combat forest fires. Cliff was a member of the  first crew put into operation in the early 1940s. They were stationed at  Adams Lake and were on call anywhere from that base to the American  113 Clifford Hardwick  border. A sad accident happened the first summer when their supervisor,  Josh Woods, was drowned. When the fire season was over each fall, Cliff  would return to the packing house.  Prior to working for the Forestry, he worked during the summer  months on the pile driver, building wharves up Okanagan Lake with Ted  Dunson from Summerland. This experience stood him in good stead when  the province undertook to replace the bridge at Enderby, following the  conclusion of the war. He said it was one of the coldest winters, but a good  paying job.  He finally secured a full time job about 1950, working with Haug's  Building Supplies on Water Street in Kelowna. He claims Roy Haug was  one of the best to work for, and Johnny Smith was one of the best to work  with.  Now it happened that Haug's Supplies was right next door to Calona  Wines. Cliff used to do a bit of visiting when opportunity availed. The result  was that after a few years, he was given the opportunity to work for Cap  Cappozi and Calona Wines. He spent the next eighteen years with this firm,  taking part in the big move to the new and present location on Richter  Street. He retired in 1969, but through the succeeding years, he was always  included in any anniversary celebrations. He still makes regular calls to the  works to visit and sample any new products.  Cliff was bereaved of his first wife in 1961. Four years later, he married  a neighbour lady, Rose Ashdown. They lead a busy life, fishing in the  summer, bowling several times a week, gardening, and hunting in the fall.  They also make three or four trips to Reno each year to test their gambling  skills. With the help of a friend, he brings in his supply of fire wood each fall,  and looks after the splitting and piling himself.  When he was eight years old, he started smoking. Five years ago, he  decided it might be bad for his health, so he quit. Cliff has outlived all his  brothers and sisters except one. At ninety years of age, he appears to have  many more years ahead of him.  114 The Weeden Family  by Robert M. Hayes  The March 18, 1918 edition of The Kelowna Courier and Okanagan  Orchardist contains the following entry: "Mr. and Mrs. George Weeden  and family have moved from Kelowna to Spring Cove Farm, where they are  taking up residence." George William Weeden was born at Croydon,  Surrey, England on August 14, 1886, one of seven children born to Simri  Weeden and Mary Ann Freeman. George Weeden left home at an early age  and became a sailor. He had visited the Okanagan Valley in 1902, before  making a trip to Australia, and then back to England in 1904.  In the autumn of 1904, the Weeden family had visitors from Canada,  George and Lucy Whelan and family of the Cloverdale Ranch in Ellison.  Lucy Freeman Whelan was Mary Ann Weeden's younger sister, and the  holiday was a chance for the Canadian Whelans to meet their English kin.  When the Whelans made ready to return to Canada, George Weeden  announced that he wished to accompany them, and work on his Uncle  George's ranch. It was thus that he said "good-bye" to his home and family,  and made the long trip to the Okanagan Valley.  Cloverdale Ranch was George  Weeden's home for a year, but again restlessness overtook him, so he headed to  Brantford, Ontario. Working for the  Waterous Wire and Nail Works Limited,  he was able to earn enough money to send  for his betrothed, Hannah Florence  "Anna" Garrard. Anna was born at  Croydon, on March 23,1886. She arrived  in Canada in 1907, and they were married  at Brantford on August 27, 1907.  Brantford was their home for several  years. Anna enjoyed life in Ontario. Her  sister and brother-in-law lived in that  city, providing a link with Anna's home  and family. It was at Brantford that George  Edwin Weeden was born, on November  18, 1908.  Anna and George Weeden circa  1939. Photo courtesy of Bob Hayes.  Robert M. Hayes is presently Kelowna Branch President of the O.H.S. He teaches  elementary school in Westbank.  115 The Weedens  Anna Weeden's happy times in Brantford were short-lived. In 1909,  George announced that they were leaving Ontario and returning to the  Okanagan Valley and the Whelan Ranch. During these next few years, two  more children were born to the Weedens: Isabel (born at Ellison on  December 26,1911) and Lance Simri Weeden (born at Ellison, November  29, 1915).  The Weedens remained at Ellison until about 1918, when they moved  into Kelowna, and lived in a house on Wolsley Avenue. Eventually they  bought a house on Sutherland Avenue, and George readily found work as  an apple box maker for local packing houses. It was piece work, and George  did quite well at it.  Anna Garrard Weeden was a staunch supporter of England and  everything English. She had a rosy picture of "the old country" in her heart,  and anything made in England she considered to be of top quality. She  never really settled in her adopted homeland, but found comfort in her sister  and her Bible. Anna took great pleasure in attending church.  George Weeden's interests were much more simple: skating, playing  the piano, fishing, hunting, playing cards, and spending time with family  and friends. His was an uncluttered life, with basic pleasures.  Despite Anna Weeden's constant homesickness, the Weedens never  returned to England. George Weeden worked at making boxes until he was  sixty-five years old, and lived for only a short time longer; he died at  Kelowna on July 31, 1952, aged sixty-six years. Anna did not long survive  him; she died of throat cancer on December 14, 1952. Both were buried in  the old Kelowna Cemetery.  But what about the three Weeden children? Isabel Weeden lived to  the age of twenty. She died, of tuberculosis, on April 23, 1932, and was  buried in Kelowna.  George Edwin Weeden started work at a very early age; his first job was  at the Kerr Garage, where he worked for a number of years, learning the  trade of a mechanic. He then rented a shop in Benvoulin, and ran his own  business. Following this venture he opened a general repair shop in the  Jenkins Building on Water Street. He serviced and repaired cars, trucks, and  motorbikes. George continued this business until 1943. He enlisted in the  Army and he served as Staff Sergeant (Mechanical Division) at the Vernon  Army Camp.  At the end of the war, he returned to Kelowna and bought property  on Water Street, near the Jenkins Building. This business, consisting of  George and his wife (Ruth "Pat" Edwards), was known as Weeden Garage  Limited. Pat worked as the stenographer and bookkeeper. George had an  interesting method of heating the floors so that the ice and snow which  often accompanied cars when they came in to be repaired could quickly  melt. He had pipes set in the garage's concrete floor, thus "de-icing" the cars.  Unfortunately, one particularly cold winter, the pipes froze and burst,  116 The Weedens  bringing a sad end to this novel approach. They also sold cars, and later  hired a salesman to help with this aspect of the trade. The Weedens  remained in business until George's health failed. He passed away on July  28,1958. Pat sold the business to Kelowna Motors Limited. Eventually, she  remarried and moved to Vernon.  Lance Simri Weeden remained in Kelowna for a number of years.  During the difficult years of the late 1920's and early 1930's he worked at  odd jobs. He married Irene Ames and they lived in Rutland. Their son,  Theodore, was born in Kelowna on December 4, 1932. Ill health forced  Lance to enter the Tranquille Sanatorium at Kamloops, and this contributed to the break up of his marriage.  Eventually released from Tranquille,  Lance returned to Kelowna where he worked  for his brother. In 1939  Lance married Vera  Threatful, a native of  Revelstoke. They remained in Kelowna,  living on Sutherland  Avenue, next door to  Lance's parents. Lance  worked as a truck driver  and grader operator for  the City of Kelowna,  while Vera worked as a  stenographer at B.C.  Tree Fruits Limited.  Later Lance operated a construction  company, L.S. Weeden Holdings Limited, finally ending up at Revelstoke during the building  of the Rogers Pass. It was to Revelstoke that they retired, and Lance died  there on October 27, 1989, following several years of ill health. Vera,  Theodore, grandchildren and great-grandchildren survived him.  The Weeden name has disappeared from the Kelowna area. No road,  geographical feature or building carries this surname. The Weedens, like  many early families, chose Kelowna as their home, worked hard in their new  land, and left behind their contributions.  The Weedens in 1918. From left George Edwin,  George William, Lance, Anna and Isabel.  Photo courtesy of Bob Hayes.  117 Frank Albert Clayton  by Cameron Clayton  My grandfather, Frank Albert Clayton, was born February 19,1878 in Dane  County, Wisconsin, the fifth of thirteen children. His father was a carpenter  and millwright in that area. Frank left home at an early age since, in his  words: "There were too darn many feet under the table for the food that was  on top of it." Amongst other things in his early days, Frank worked for the  railway - painting and repairing coaches. This work took him around many  of the western states. It also led him into blacksmithing, which became his  trade for many years. When this job finished, Frank hit the road and came  to Canada.  In April 1904, he fell asleep at a rail station only to awake the next  morning to a terrible commotion. That night, while he was asleep, the  famous Frank Slide came down, burying the town of Frank, Alberta.  Thankful he had missed this event, he travelled to B.C. By the spring of  1905, he was in Armstrong, considering the purchase of Wallace's Blacksmith Shop.  Mr. Wallace had recently passed on, and his shop was being run by a  man called "Heinzie." Frank bought the business for $5.00, and later paid  Mrs. Wallace $450.00 for the building and property. The original building  was one of the ones that had been moved from Lansdowne in 1891.  In the early 1920s, Frank added a large front section to the building to  accommodate his growing business. At first, much of his work was  horseshoeing and wagon repair. When the car replaced the horse, Frank  followed the trend and made his business into a garage and general repair  shop. Eventually, repairs to agricultural equipment became the mainstay of  the business.  During his blacksmithing years, Frank's main competition came from  Henry (Harry) Hope. Harry had learned his trade in England. It was also in  England that a dare devil dive into extremely cold water had ruined his  hearing. Harry once told me a story about the days when he and my Grandpa  were in business.  Cameron Clayton is the grandson of Frank Clayton. Born and raised in Armstrong, he  is a charter member of the Armstrong Toastmasters Club and a founding member of the  North Okanagan Chapter of the Vintage Car Club of Canada. This essay was originally  given at the Annual General Meeting of the Armstrong/Enderby Branch in 1989.  118 Frank Clayton  It seems that a man had come to town with his team to get the horses  shod. Harry gave the man a price for the job, but it wasn't to his liking, and  he told Harry, "I'll go somewhere else for this work." Harry knew full well  where he was heading, and sent a message across town to Frank, describing  the team, its owner, and the price quoted.  When the team arrived, Frank looked it over and gave the man a price  which was higher than Harry's. The man went back to Harry, but a message  from Frank had beaten him. Harry now quoted a price higher than Frank's.  They would not underbid one another! The man left town to get the work  done elsewhere. Both men told me personally that they never had fairer  competition than each other.  Frank married Maude Billson on September 9, 1908. She had come  from Dover, England, crossing the Atlantic when many remittance men  were coming to Canada. One of her fondest memories was crossing Canada  by train. Frank and Maude had six children, two girls and four boys. All are  alive and well except Art, my Dad, as of this writing.  In 1948, Frank sold his business to two of his sons, Art and Bill. They  formed a partnership and operated the business as Armstrong Machine  Shop. In 1952 Art replaced the original back section of the building with  a new one. This structure, plus the front section, presently house the  Armstrong Museum and Art Gallery.  Frank Clayton died in Armstrong hospital on April 12th, 1971, at the  age of 93. He lived until his last day in his own house. He may be gone in  person, but his memory is very much alive among family and friends.  Maude Billson Clayton. Frank Albert Clayton.  Photos courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  119 Hedley Stevenson  by Qeorge Qreen  About 1928, a remarkable man came to Enderby from Kisbey, Saskatchewan.  His name was Hedley Vickers Stevenson. He had been blinded in a hunting  accident at Kisbey some years before.  He came to this Okanagan community with his wife, daughters Alice  and Dorothy, and sons, Ralph and Nelson. Having been an insurance agent  in Kisbey, he carried on with this profession in Enderby. He had a fantastic  memory. He could carry all the rates for various kinds of insurance in his  head. He could do mathematics with unbelievable speed and accuracy.  Although he never saw the town site of Enderby, he got to know the  streets so well that he could give directions to visitors who arrived by train  or bus.  After he became a widower, he lived for many years in a room on the  third floor of the King Edward Hotel. He also boarded at various homes in  town including that of my parents, Alex and Annie Green. My dad was a  teamster and had come to Enderby in 1906. My mother's maiden name was  Airth, and she had arrived in the Okanagan with her parents in 1908 from  Stonewall, Manitoba.  Hedley loved to eat. After a big meal he would suffer indigestion. To  solve this problem, he would dump down a tablespoon of baking soda  followed by a glass of water, and the resulting explosion could be heard  several houses away.  He had a good singing voice and often sang at weddings up and down  the valley. During the 1930s and '40s, a lot of concerts were held at the K.P.  Hall (now Seana Electronics). Hedley would almost always sing a solo  (others who appeared were Rollie Hill, George Wells, Sonny Olson and  myself)-  For many years my mother read and wrote Hedley's letters for him.  After my two brothers and sister came along, I took over and used to go to  his room at the King Edward Hotel every day. He would give me twenty-five  cents, which was a fortune to me in those days (and still is).  Hedley was a member of the Masonic Lodge, and they gave him a  Rogers Majestic Radio, which was at our home. Hedley used to tell me about  the time when I was about six years old and he was baby sitting me. My  George Green was born and raised in Enderby. After many years in  business in Enderby, he has retired to Kelowna.  120 Hedley Stevenson  Hedley Stevenson (on right) with the  author in 1931. Photo courtesy of  George Green.  parents had gone out to a Christmas  Concert. He and I were listening to  Dickens' Christmas Carol on the  radio. I got up on his lap and hugged  him around the neck. He said,  "What's the matter, George?" And  I said, "It's dark in here." It was just  about the time that Marley's ghost  was clanking his chains about.  Hedley thought it was quite funny,  but he did get up and turn on the  light, which, of course, he did not  realize was not on.  Hedley walked all over town,  and the only time he had trouble  locating his landmarks was after the  first big snowfall. In the 1930s we  usually had snowfalls of one and a  half to two feet at a time. As Hedley was an early riser, he would go out before  the roads or sidewalks had been cleared, and he would often lose his  bearings.  I worked at Murray's Meat Market (now Sloan's Shop Easy) for  Charlie Horrex in the early forties. One morning after a big snow, I went to  work and noticed Hedley swinging his white cane over on the C.P.R.  crossing on Cliff Street. He was mumbling to himself. Although it might  have been the occasion for it, he never swore. I went over and led him back  to the store, so he knew where he was.  In the 1930s, money was hard to collect. Hedley would get me to go  down on Cliff Street (the main street in Enderby) on Saturday. He would  tell me if you see Mr. so and so, say hello to him by name, then he would go  and ask for a payment on account.  Hedley was in his room on the third floor of the King Edward Hotel  when it burned in 1947.1 ran down to see if he was O.K. I met Bill Drysdale,  the Provincial Policeman, and he told me that Hedley had escaped via the  outside metal fire escape ladder. He had a few burns but was safe.  He never really got over that night, and was in poor health until his  death. His funeral was on February 17,1950, and was one of the largest ever  held in the United Church up to that time. He had been a faithful member  of the church since his arrival in Enderby. Up to the very end, he was always  cheerful and never complained about his blindness.  121 John Lindsay Webster  by Barbara Rottacker  John Lindsay Webster was descended from a long line of distinguished  pioneers. The first John Webster was born in England in 1590, and was a  principal settler in Hartford, Connecticut in 1636. He became the fifth  governor of Connecticut in 1656. He later moved to Massachusetts. A  branch of the family moved to Nova Scotia.  In Nova Scotia, a grandson of the Governor, John Lindsay Webster,  practised as a medical doctor. His grandson (my great-grandfather) studied  medicine at Edinburgh and Glasgow, later practising in Yarmouth, Nova  Scotia. In the succeeding six generations, there were numerous Websters  who have practised in Yarmouth.  My father, the eldest son, born in  1860, was expected to carry on the family  tradition, but he had seen enough of country-  doctoring, and decided on a different life  style. He enrolled in the Ontario Agricultural College in Guelph, graduating in 1882  with a gold medal in Agriculture.  Wanderlust took him to Winnipeg.  Moving on, he drove an oxen team to Fort  Edmonton. This experience was quite an  adventure for a twenty year old. Apparently, he was not interested in settling  there, so he travelled back to Estevan,  homestead ing there for seven years.  On hearing of the mining boom in  the Kootenay/Slocan area, he made his way to B.C., and prospected for a  short time. He left there hiking over the Monashee to the Vernon area.  Here, with help from others, he built a boat and rowed down Okanagan  Lake and River to the Wenatchee country. There he saw orchards being  established and decided to return to the Vernon area with plans to follow  this example.  At this time, 1892, Lord Aberdeen was beginning to subdivide parts  of the Coldstream Ranch, and my father bought the first forty acres to be  John Lindsay Webster in 1909.  Photo courtesy of Barbara Rottacker  Barbara Rottacker is the daughter of John Lindsay Webster. She has lived all her life  in the Vernon area.  122 John Webster  sold. Later, he added another forty acres, and established a tree nursery  which provided stock for other landowners. As a point of interest, the elm  trees that lined Barnard Avenue in Vernon were from his nursery.  My mother, Maud Webber, came from Brighton, Sussex in 1900 with the  Jones-Williams family to look after their small child. Unfortunately, Mr. Jones-  Williams was killed by a falling tree in what is now Coldstream Cemetery, and  he was the first person buried there. My mother then went to live with the  Twidle family, who lived on the present Aberdeen Road. One of my mother's  duties while living with the Twidles was to learn to milk a cow. Her description  of this event was a subject of great hilarity later in the family, as she had been  a real city girl. The Twidles multiplied the amusement of this situation later  when they gave her a cow as a wedding present.  My mother and father were married in 1902 and produced five  children: John Lindsay, Joyce, Murray, Herbert and me. We attended the  small Coldstream School. There were so few children that John, the eldest,  went off to school at five years old in order to make up enough pupils to open  the school. When it was time for us to go to high school in Vernon, we  managed in a variety of ways. There were no school buses!  John followed his father, graduating from the Ontario Agricultural  College. He married Pearl Redgrave, whose grandfather was one of the  Overlanders. They had three sons. Joyce married Montague Speechly and  their son Tom still lives in a house on their land. Herbert also attended  Ontario Agricultural College and married Josephine Turnbull, whose  grandfather, Henry  Walker, was well-  known in the early fruit  industry, being in  charge of planting the  Long Lake sub-division. Herbert and  Josephine had two sons  and a daughter. Murray  remained single and I  graduated from McGill  in Physical Education.  After teaching for some  time, I married Henry  Rottacker, a member of a pioneer family of the Upper Shuswap area.  The Webster orchards are still in the family, and they are one of the  very few operations continuously producing fruit for the past 100 years.  My father was a member of the first Coldstream Council. His notion  of relaxation from orchard and nursery work was to travel into the mountains on prospecting trips. He always hoped for a lucky strike, and the  window sills in our home were filled with ore samples.  The Webster home in the Coldstream was built in 1911.  Photo courtesy of Barbara Rottacker.  123 lnbutes  Douglas Plaskett Fraser  by Dorothy Fraser  Douglas Plaskett Fraser, a pioneer of Osoyoos, died on September 15,1991,  a day before his 83rd birthday. He was a man who had taken part in every  aspect of life in the South Okanagan, from fruit growing to politics and from  golf to credit unions.  He was born in Kelowna in 1908, and his family lived there and in  Penticton for some years. His father, George Johnston Fraser, started the  first fruit cannery in Kelowna, and later had several businesses in Penticton.  In 1917, his father, originally from a Manitoba farm, took a three-year lease  Douglas Plaskett Fraser with his wife Dorothy (nee Johnson).  Photo courtesy of Ellen Fraser.  Dorothy (Johnson) Fraser came to Canada in 1925 from England. She graduated with  a teaching degree from U.B.C, moved to Osoyoos and married Douglas Plaskett Fraser  in 1934.  124 Douglas Fraser  on the Hill Ranch in Osoyoos. Through various complications, George  Fraser eventually bought the ranch and planted trees, grew a ground crop,  organized a packing house, and worked hard for the principle and practice  of central selling.  Meanwhile, Douglas had what he considered a wonderful boyhood,  riding horses on the range, hunting, fishing and boating. He did say that the  early Okanagan was run on boy-power, as he was often required for the  dozens of farm chores.  When he was ten, he was considered old enough to ride out and bring in  cattle or horses. He had his own horse, which had the habit of shying and  pitching him off.  He and the two Jermyn boys, Chester and George, also spent a great  deal of time practising being cowboys, and logging. Douglas once had an  adventure that turned into a 2 2-hour ride with twenty head of cattle to be  sold north of Oliver. He was then 15.  It was important to be a man in a man's world, and several of his  reminiscences of difficult rides as a boy suggested his quiet satisfaction in  those active days.  He was educated in a one-room school in Osoyoos until 1923, when  he finished Grade 8, and went to board with a family in Oliver in order to  attend high school. Oliver then had what was called a Superior School with  Grades 8, 9 and 10. Grade 11, the final grade, was not given, and several  students worked by themselves at the back of the classroom. Douglas failed  in two subjects and had to re-do them with private tuition the next year.  With the real object in view, he worked in the orchard, and then in  1928, decided to go to UBC. There he took double honours in English and  History, graduating in 1932. He then took teachers' training in 1933. Here  he met Dorothy Johnson, and they were married in 1934.  He taught for a year at Dog Creek in the Cariboo, and in 1934 became  principal of the Osoyoos School - it became a two-room school that year.  From 1939 until 1941, he taught at a boys' private school in Qualicum. In  the meantime, he had started an orchard on new land in Osoyoos, and in  1945, sold it and took over his father's flourishing acreage.  He became involved in the B.C.F.G.A., and was elected as a delegate  to the annual convention twenty-five times. He was a director of the  B.C.F.G.A. Mutual Hail Insurance Company, and was a founding director  of the B.C.F.G.A. Mutual Insurance Company which ran successfully until  taken over by ICBC He was also a director and president of the Osoyoos  Co-op Growers' Packing house.  He was one of the first to be involved in the many innovations which  came in the fruit industry. In 1966, he was given a Bank of Montreal Far  Leadership Award, which enabled him to study dwarf trees in Europe.  He was on the Implementation Task Force of the Federal-Provincial  Okanagan Water Basin Study from 1969-82.  125 Douglas Fraser  He was a member of the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society for  many years, working on conservation and naturalist projects. It took his  committee fourteen years to establish the Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone, the  "pocket desert."  He had worked in some capacity in each of the provincial and federal  elections since 1941 for the old CCF and then the NDP. He and Dorothy  were made Honourary Life Members of the NDP in 1982.  Douglas' many interests really did not show his quiet sense of adventure. Besides cowboy exploits, he and a friend made a remarkable sixty mile  hike over the original Hope-Princeton Trail in 1926. He went on many  hunting trips for grouse, duck, geese, and partridge, until his interests turned  to conservation. He camped whenever he could.  In 1941, he was on a provincial government survey in the Rocky  Mountain Trench, as an axe-man. This trip he has written up fully. Near its  end there was a thirty mile walk to Watson Lake.  In mature years, he took up a long-held interest and rented a sailboat  at the coast almost every summer. Sailing was a new experience for him.  With nothing to go on but charts, he always succeeded in getting the boat  where he wanted it. Later, he built a boat, and sailed on Osoyoos Lake.  Foreign travel also appealed to him. He visited the United States,  Mexico, and the Caribbean. There were numerous English and Continental trips, a particularly memorable one being in a rented car through  Provence. The most unusual was a trip to the USSR, including Central  Asia, in 1968.  At the time of his death, he was working constantly on local history  and conservation. He had an intense desire to preserve the Osoyoos  waterfront, and keep at least some of the land in its original state. He had  become well known as a writer of Letters to the Editor on matters of current  importance. He had known everybody for over seventy-five years, and  greatly enjoyed describing past life to later inhabitants.  The Fraser family has lived in the historic Haynes house since 1917, and  he was particularly pleased when Haynes' descendants came to look at the house  of their ancestors. He is survived by his wife Dorothy and his son George G.  Fraser, who farms the family orchards and teaches mathematics at the Osoyoos  Secondary School.  126 Annie Josephine Fraser  by Douglas Plaskett Fraser  Most of the names that have got into history books are names of men. Men  had the spectacular roles. They established ranches, built bridges, and were  the officers of the government. Even the mountains were named after them.  Women were equally pioneers, shouldering a major part of the  hardship of pioneer life, managing households and raising families in  difficult circumstances. My mother, Annie Josephine Fraser, was a pioneer.  She was born Annie Josephine Plaskett in 1878, the youngest child and the  only girl in a family of ten children.  The Plasketts were originally well-to-do farmers in the Lake District  of England. They went to the Caribbean island of St. Croix early in the  nineteenth century and became sugar planters, but the abolition of slavery  in 1848 made sugar less profitable and they  returned to England.  However, other sugar growers had  gone to southern Ontario where they found  good mixed farming, and in 1859, the  Plasketts emigrated to Woodstock,  Ontario. A son of the house, Joseph, met  and married Annie Stanley, also from  Cumberland, and they raised the nine boys  and one girl mentioned above.  The boys went into a variety of careers, but one, Robert Plaskett, wanted to  be a cowboy. He worked in Alberta on the  famous Walronde Ranch, and later acquired land of his own near Fort McLeod.  Here, one summer, my mother along with  her widowed mother, came to visit her  brother. One day, another young rancher, George Johnston Fraser, came to  the door, enquiring for a lost dog.  Many visits followed, and eventually Annie Josephine and George  were married. This was on November 26th, 1907 at 6:30 a.m. as the couple  had to catch the early train to Calgary en route to Kelowna.  In Kelowna, my father, George J. Fraser, established the first cannery  in the Okanagan, and my mother had her first child, myself. For the next  ten years, my father engaged in a variety of enterprises in Kelowna and  Annie Fraser. Photo  courtesy of Dorothy Fraser.  Douglas Plaskett Fraser lived most of his life in Osoyoos. A teacher, orchardist, and  member of numerous organizations dedicated to the preservation of Okanagan history  and environment, he passed away on September 15 th, 1991.  127 Annie Fraser  Penticton, managing an orchard and a packing house, and becoming the  Studebaker agent for the valley. At one time, he went into a real estate  partnership with Capt. J.R. Mitchell. (Does the Mitchell Block still stand  on Penticton's Main Street?)  Brought up on a farm, my father still wanted to farm, and in 1917, he  took a three-year lease on the Hill Ranch in Osoyoos, and later bought some  of the property.  For my mother, Osoyoos was a total change of life-style. She had been  living in a newly built house on Penticton's Lakeshore Drive, and there was  a social round of "at Homes" and visiting cards. This was exchanged for the  life of a farmer's wife in an isolated community. There were in Osoyoos the  families of Dr. J.S. Jermyn, the Customs Officer, William (Billy) Richter, a  rancher, and F.A. Helps, the "hired man" on the Hill place. The Fraser  family of four, Margaret having been born in Penticton, made the total  population of Osoyoos seventeen when they arrived in 1917.  Pioneer women were always busy. Soon, a school was started and my  mother boarded the different teachers for sixteen years. When the "boarding house" closed at the end of June, it seemed as if it re-opened for July and  August. Then, as now, relatives liked to come to the Okanagan in the  summer, and there were lots of Fraser and Plaskett relatives. All this went  on for the next twenty years, in a large house which had no running water  or electricity.  Soon, my mother was raising a family of three, as Dorothy was born.  Besides all the daily work, my mother was head fruit-packer for the Hill  Ranch fruit, and then the Fraser fruit and ground crops. The Osoyoos Coop Packing house was not built until 1931.  We also had three cows. Dad milked the cows, but mother skimmed  the cream, made the butter, and washed the milk bottles. My sister Margaret  and I were useful delivery boys.  As well as packing fruit and entertaining guests, she had to preserve  fruit for the winter. This was done in a copper boiler on a wood-burning  stove in a hot kitchen. Chicken was also canned, to be opened for a meal  when unexpected guests arrived. Tomatoes were put up in cans, and crocks  of cucumber pickles were prepared. Bread had to be made very frequently.  Included in her work was washing and ironing. There were no  automatic washers nor drip-dry materials. There were coal oil lamps to be  filled, and their chimneys cleaned. Three children needed baths every  Saturday night with water heated in the copper boiler on the kitchen stove.  There was a church to support. It was United and mother was  Anglican, but theological differences never troubled her. She worked hard  with embroidery and baking for teas and bazaars. For this and much other  community work, she was made a Good Citizen in 1953.  One of my most vivid memories is of my mother pushing back a damp  strand of grey hair from her forehead as she came in from packing fruit to get  lunch under way. The first move was to set the table, so that when the men  came in, they could see that things were well in hand.  She passed away on March 10th, 1971.  128 Johannesen of the Music Societies  by Bernard Webber  J.J. Johannesen has been a force to reckon with in the musical life of British  Columbia and the Okanagan for thirty years. He is the founder and prime  mover of, among other musical aggregations, The Young Peoples' Concerts,  The Festival Concert Society, The Sunday Coffee Concerts in the Vancouver Playhouse, The Victoria International Festival, and The Johannesen  International School of the Arts. These Societies cover a wide range from  children's and adult programmes to  programmes for aspiring professional  artists.  Born in France of a Norwegian  father and a Czechoslovakian mother,  who was a renowned opera singer in  her day, J.J. was brought up in Belgium, making him, as it were, the prototype of a Citizen of the Western  World.  During the Second World War,  the Belgians, like the French, knew  how to anger the occupying Nazis by  performing music which taken at its  face value was unexceptionable, but  which had undertones of meaning that  the invaders could not abide. At one  time the Nazis were so riled that they  tried to insist that van Beethoven be  known as von Beethoven.  J.J. was a 12-year -old school boy in Brussels in 1940. That was the year  the first unit of Jeunesses Musicales was organized in that city. J.J. was one  of the early members of that music organization for young people that after  the war spread through much of the western world. Speaking of that early  Society, J.J. said recently that "Good music could be a form of refuge from  the horrors of war and occupation."  In 1960, J.J. came to Canada and entered into business, but was soon  back engaged in his first love, music. In 1961, he organized the first group  J.J. Johannesen. Photo courtesy of  Bernard Webber.  Bernard Webber has been involved with J.J. Johannesen and the Young Peoples'  Concerts for many years. A past-president of the O.H.S. and a retired educator, he  resides in Osoyoos.  129 J.J. Johannesen  of Jeunesses Musicales in B.C. In 1963, a group was organized in Trail, and  the following year in Kelowna. About the same time, groups were organized  in Oliver and Richmond. Vernon followed soon after in about 1965. In no  time, Jeunesses Musicales covered British Columbia, all groups belonging,  through the provincial organization, to the national movement.  During this period, Gar McKinley was making a name for himself as  a band teacher in the Southern Okanagan Secondary School in Oliver. He  took to Jeunesses Musicales as a bee to honey, continuing to inspire the  young people in the South Okanagan schools, but now on a broader canvas.  Later, Kelowna enticed Gar away from Oliver. There, Gar had a similar  influence but in a much larger school system. Already in Kelowna, Father  Godderis was doing great work for music and Jeunesses Musicales at  Immaculata.  In those formative years, J.J. himself tried to get around to most  Jeunesses Musicales groups about once a year. One evening, at George Elliot  Secondary School in Winfield, he offered a record to the student who could  identify a piece of music that he then played. A lone boy raised his hand.  "That's The Ode to Joy," he said confidently. "Yes," said J.J., "but from what  composition?" The reply came: "From Beethoven's Ninth Symphony," then  adding to clinch the point, "Last Movement." He got the record on the spot.  Nothing pleased J.J. more than to find a girl or boy in whom the love of  music had taken root.  For years, J.J. was first vice-president of the National Jeunesses  Musicales organization. In 1972, however, he became convinced that too  much money was going into administration and not into performance. He  took the B.C. Jeunesses Musicales section out of the national organization  and re-named it "Young Peoples' Concerts" as it is to this day.  How do Festival Concerts and Young Peoples' Concerts function?  Two or three times a year, a Programme Committee made up of music  teachers and representatives from the adult committees meet with J.J.  Johannesen at his home in Vancouver. The Committee selects the artists  to be offered to schools and communities for the next year. The members  take infinite care to ensure that only quality artists are recommended.  For several years now, the two Johannesen Societies and the Music  Teachers' Association in the B.C. Teachers' Federation have jointly  sponsored a three-day "Artscan." Reputable artists are invited to demonstrate their proficiency and their public appeal at these sessions. Perhaps as  many as seventy competent adjudicators rate fifty or more music or drama  individuals or ensembles over the three day period. Also, classes of school  children are brought to the sessions in rotation. Their reaction to what they  see and hear is a good indication of how the artists will appeal in concert.  All ratings are collated and computed, leading to sets of print-outs. These  are sent to schools and concert societies so that they may make their  choices. This process led to at least 1800 concerts being produced in 1990.  130 J.J. Johannesen  Nineteen hundred and ninety-one is the thirtieth anniversary year of  J.J. Johannesen's entry into the musical scene of British Columbia. Over the  years, many Okanagan communities and school systems have benefitted  from Festival Concerts or Young Peoples' Concerts, often on paired  occasions with the same artists appearing in schools during school hours and  before the community in the evening. Sometimes, as a community's  familiarity with the problems of programming increases, its committee  decides to strike out on its own. It may hire some artists through its own  efforts, but contract with Festival Concerts for one or more ensembles. This  does not detract from the influence that J.J. Johannesen continues to have  on the musical life of the Okanagan. One of the strengths of his policy is its  flexibility: its ability to adjust to the needs of the various active committees.  Long may he flourish to fill a continuing need for music in this valley  and in the province.  131 Stephen Archibald Mepham  by Jean Webber  Stephen Archibald Mepham was born in Kelowna on March 16,1913. His  father, Archibald Valentine Mepham, was born in Eastbourne, England in  1886 and had come to Kelowna in 1907. There he met and married Hanna  Hall, who had been born in Ireland in 1884 of Protestant parents. Three  children were born to the couple: Kathleen, Maureen and Stephen. A.V.  Mepham, who worked for many years, firing at the Kelowna Brickyard, was  proud to call himself a labourer. One finds in this class-conscious English  workingman the not surprising father of a man who has been identified in  his community with first the C.C.F. and later the N.D.P. Steve's mother  died in 1924.  In 1933, Steve came to  Osoyoos to work in George  Fraser's orchard, having been  informed that there was a job  available by a former Kelowna  neighbour. At that time, the  only mature orchards were on  the east side of the lake. Ditch  water had been available in  Osoyoos since 1923, but the  only bearing orchard on the  west side was the forty acres  planted by Archie Ewer (next  door to Art Brownjohn's  present place). Ground crops  were common, especially tomatoes and cantaloupe, although the extreme  heat and the quality of the soil were hard on the tomatoes.  When the packing house opened, Steve worked there three or four  months a year. Then, during the winter, he would prune for George Fraser.  He was able to purchase a lakeshore property, on the north spit just south  of Highway 3, from Mr. Fraser and build a small house. Gradually Steve was  "...picking up building skills around the countryside." In a second-hand  store he bought two used correspondence courses on carpentry. "When I got  Stephen Archibald Mepham.  Photo courtesy of Richard Gampp.  Jean Webber is a past editor of Okanagan History. A retired educator, she resides in  Osoyoos. Her article is based on an interview with Steve and Amy Mepham on October  15, 1991 and telephone conversation with Molly Plaskett on November 1, 1991.  132 Stephen Mepham  stuck on the job, I'd go home and look up that section of the book," he said.  On December 1,1933, Steve married Elsie Sim. There being no clergy  in Osoyoos, the couple slipped away with two friends to Omak, Washington  to be married there. Molly Plaskett, Elsie's sister, says she knew nothing of  the couple's intentions but believes that her mother was in on the secret.  Elsie, Molly, and their brother Bill, who passed away last winter, were the  children of Abraham and Ann Sim who had emigrated from England in  1913 to join relatives in Montana. In 1924, the family came to Osoyoos,  where Mr. Sim managed orchards until he was able to purchase and plant  his own orchard, the property owned until recently by Steve.  In 1941, Steve joined the R.C.A.F as a carpenter-cabinet maker,  passing his trade exams with very good marks. After a Vancouver posting,  he was given "...a temporary posting with American Forces..." one hundred  miles north of Prince Rupert on an island in the Alaska Panhandle. "The  Military can find ways of doing anything," said Steve. When he first arrived,  Steve asked about the 7,000-foot lake beside the station. That was the new  airport. Steve thought the mountain at the end of the projected runway  would be a hazard. "But I was wrong." For six days almost 100 trucks would  haul rubble from the mountain to fill the lake. On the seventh day the  powder was set off, creating enough rubble to keep the trucks busy for six  days. "The island fairly jumped. They blew a mountain down. Wartime  effort."  Steve made crates for parts being trans-shipped from their depot to  other Alaskan installations. They saw no enemy action, but had the  Japanese come, they were ready. A number of empty oil drums, somewhat  larger than a 45 gallon drum, had been sunk into the sand along the shore.  In the event of an attack, the men were to rush down, get into those barrels,  and defend the shore with their machine guns.  DE Day, 1945, saw Steve demobbed. He returned to Osoyoos where  he contracted to build some small buildings. Phil Sampson, School Board  Secretary, recommended him as Building Inspector for the new Greenwood  School. This was followed by an offer from Ewart MacNaughton at Kitimat  to serve as Building Inspector for the schools being built there. The money  was too good to refuse. "I walked around with my hands in my pockets," says  Steve with his ironic self-deprecation. Then he redresses the balance by  adding, "They were very happy to have me."  By 1947, Steve was able to buy his first orchard which he planted  mainly to apples. There was also a period during which Steve and his  brother-in -law, Bill Sim, raised chickens for eggs, but local markets proved  too modest for all those engaging in the industry. They found, too, that the  hens, housed close to the road, were disturbed by the lights of passing cars!  Steve and Elsie had five children: Donald in Osoyoos, Sharon in Trail,  Michael in Quebec, Allison in Sooke and Cathy in Salmon Arm. Like many  growers' wives, Elsie did her stint in the packing house. Packing was very  133 Stephen Mepham  seasonal then and there was terrific pressure to get all the apples wrapped  and packed before going into storage. In 1972, Steve consented to go onto  the hospital board and remained there until 1987, serving as chairman for  much of that time. In 1975, Elsie died, and thus began a desperately lonely  period in Steve's life.  It was very good news for his friends when they learned that he and  Amy Lohlein were to be married November 10, 1979. Amy Coulson had  been brought up in Vancouver where her father was in construction. In  1938, she married Eric Lohlein and they settled on a grain farm in  Bridesville. In 1939, they bought Osoyoos Flour Mills, a business situated  on property now owned by the Co-op. They decided to rent the farm and  move down to Osoyoos. Eric and Amy had three daughters: Margaret,  Cathy and Frances. Eric died October 25,1970. Not only had both couples  many friends in common, but their families had known each other throughout their schooling.  134 Frederick William King  by Ray Findlay  Frederick William "Billy" King passed away peacefully at home in Kaleden  on September 23rd, 1991, at the age of 102 years. Born in Chew Magna,  Somerset, England June 22, 1889, Billy King moved to Summerland in  April 1910, where he, as a skilled carpenter, was put to work building that  settlement's College Gymnasium and Morton Hall.  In 1911, Summerland contractor Harry Tomlin was engaged by the  newly-formed Kaleden Development Company to build the Kaleden Hotel. Bill King served as part of that construction crew, working as a  carpenter. When it was completed in 1912, the company went on to build  the D.D. Lapsley Store (now the 1912  Restaurant), the J.C. Findlay home  and a number of other homes in  Kaleden. In 1913, Mr. King supervised the construction of the Kaleden  Baptist Church. The major portion  was done by volunteer labour.  As construction jobs reached  completion, Mr. King began work for  James Ritchie on the Kaleden Irrigation System. Bill King served on the  first Board of Trustees of the Kaleden  Irrigation District after Kaleden was  constituted an Improvement District  under the provisions of the Water  Act. He became involved in  orcharding when he and others looked  after properties of those who had gone  to serve in World War I. Fred and Phyllis King  of Kaleden.  Ray Findlay is the second son of Jud and Iva (Simpson) Findlay, early pioneers of  Kaleden. Educated in Kaleden, he is a Second World War veteran, and since his  retirement from Safeway Trucking, he has found time to renew an interest in history  and writing.  135 Frederick King  The Great War (1914-18) interrupted growth in Kaleden quite  severely. Some orchards were abandoned when financing by English  investors was withdrawn. Kaleden suffered reverses similar to many Okanagan communities. At this time Bill King gradually started into the fruit  growing business on his own, having purchased his first ten acres of land.  Bill King was the backbone of the Kaleden Co-operative Growers  Association. He was elected president in 1924 and served in that capacity  until 1949. He stepped down to the office of vice-president for twelve years  until his retirement in 1961. As well, Mr. King was Kaleden's representative  on the British Columbia Fruit Growers Association.  During World War II, Mr. King registered with the Pacific Coast  Militia Rangers and served on home guard duty with Company No. 71.  With the community of Kaleden and its residents always at heart, Mr.  King carried out countless worthwhile tasks to smooth the way for others.  In 1949, he gave his services for months when the Kaleden Community  Hall was built, mostly by volunteer labour.  Bill King's years of retirement were spent in comfort and relaxation  with his wife, Phyllis, in their home on the hill in Kaleden, which he had  helped to build so long ago. He always enjoyed reading. An avid gardener,  he took great pleasure in showing his displays of flowers and wonderful  vegetable crops to his visitors. He will ever be remembered for his generosity  in supplying flowers for church and other special occasions.  F.W. King possessed the spirit of a pioneer. He liked what he saw on  arrival in Kaleden in 1911. He had faith in its future. With hard work,  integrity and a capacity for business, he helped build Kaleden into the  comfortable community it is today.  Mr. Frederick William King is survived by his wife Phyllis, six children  Ronald (Helen), Mary, Fred (Audrey), John (Lorna), David (Patti), and  Raymond (Lois). There are numerous grandchildren, great-grandchildren  and great-great-grandchildren. He is survived as well, by his sister Elsie  Boone of Oliver and many nieces and nephews. Mr. King was predeceased  by his first wife Annie (Findlay) and daughters Catherine and Betty.  136 Arthur Edward Danby: 1899-1991  by Fred King  We first knew Arthur Edward Danby when he lived in Kaleden. He was the  Secretary-Treasurer of the Kaleden Cooperative Growers Fruit Packing  house, and acted in a similar capacity with the Kaleden Irrigation District.  He entered into all aspects of community activities, which centred around  the packing house and the Community Hall. This was a valuable time in the  life of Kaleden. With only seventy families, we relied very much on each  other, and not just in times of emergency or need, but indeed for all those  social contacts and encouragements which modern life seems destined to  deem unnecessary. In those days, it was not possible to live in isolation from  your neighbour. It was in this contact that our relationship with Art and  Grace and Patsy developed. In 1948, Audrey and  I took over the Kaleden Post Office, and for 30  years were privileged to meet Kaleden residents  daily as they picked up their mail at the wicket.  Every day, Art would come on his way home  for lunch, to pick up the packing house mail. But  he also collected the mail for all the packing  house crew, which he would dump into a carrying  carton. His visit would be occupied with little  notes of instruction which he pulled out one at a  time together with the necessary money: Harold  wants a money order for $2.79; a book of stamps  for Billy; Edith is expecting a parcel from Eatons  - has it arrived yet? "And where is the Smiler  today," Art would ask Audrey. The Smiler was  our son, Gordon, who as an infant grew up in the back of the Post Office as  his mother attended her duties. Art brought a cheerful, patient, helpful  disposition into all of his activities, and we enjoyed these opportunities to  know him better.  Soon after he lost his wife, Grace, to cancer, Art accepted a sales  position with F.W. Clark and Company of Calgary, a company from which  the Co-op had purchased much of its stationery. Mr. Clark liked Art and  obviously respected his talents, because he offered him a sales territory in  Alberta. But times were tough, and things didn't go too well. Art's friends  in Kaleden heard that he was ill and depressed. They did what they would  have done had Art still lived in Kaleden: they pooled their resources and  Arthur Edward Danby  Fred King is a pioneer resident of Kaleden and former M.P. for Okanagan-Similkameen-  Merritt. This is the text of his eulogy given at Arthur Danby's funeral on November  8th, 1991.  137 Arthur Danby  delegated Geoff Garlinge, the Packing house manager, to fly to Lethbridge  to visit Art and encourage him in this life, which was so strange and lonely  in comparison to what he had known in Kaleden.  Art had earned this continuing interest of his friends. He never lost his  concern for them. Whenever I saw him he would ask of my dad, "How's  Billy?" Art and Dad sat side by side at Aunt Elsie Boone's 89th birthday  party, just as they had so often sat together nearly 50 years before at packing  house and community meetings.  Art was born in Barnsley, Yorkshire, England in 1899. When he was  twelve, his family heeded the call to new opportunities in Canada —  specifically to Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, where his father became the  Chief of Police. Incidentally, their family home was next door to Olive  Diefenbaker's.  World War I broke out and as a lad of fourteen, Art joined the Army  as a Bugler. His four years in the military included time in the trenches in  France. He again answered the call to duty in the Second World War,  serving as a defense instructor. Love of country and freedom was a dominant  force in his life.  When Art left the employ of F.W. Clark in 1952, he returned to  Oliver. Was the timing and the destination of this move simply a coincidence? Some believe that there is a hand mightier than our own that  removes much of the happenstance from our lives. However that may be,  the result of that move was that Art met and married his beloved Fay, who  brought so much joy and pride into his life. His life now took on new  meaning and zest. When Cheryl was born, Art took mischievous pleasure  in describing Fay, Gloria and Cheryl as his three daughters.  Art's first employment upon his return to the Okanagan was as an  accountant at Smither's Motors. Later, he served in the same capacity at the  Oliver Sawmills. From there, he joined the staff at the Oliver Co-op Store,  working there until he retired at the age of 74, after sixty years of active  service from the age of fourteen when he joined the army. No compulsory  retirement for Art, he enjoyed his contacts with people at the store too  much for that.  During these years in Oliver, Art was elected as Alderman on Town  Council for six years. He enjoyed his involvement in the community, most  especially as secretary of the Oliver Board of Trade.  As a member of the St. Edward's Anglican Church, he joined the  choir, contributing some of his talents in music he learned in the army as  a fourteen-year-old Bugle Boy.  Art remained in generally good health until recent years, when time  began to take its inevitable toll. Many of you helped Art and Fay celebrate  his 90th birthday. At that party he obviously enjoyed the company of so  many of his friends and family. The memory of his keen interest in updating  the news from each of his friends who were there provides many precious  remembrances of this unassuming gentleman who crowded so much into  the 92 years he shared with those around him.  138 A Tribute to Mary Gertrude Peel  by Qeorge Rands  Mary Gertrude Peel, known to most people as Gertrude, was born in  Medina, New York on October 1, 1912, to George Alfred and Florence  Christina Rands. She came with her family to Enderby in 1915.  I'm sure the opportunity availed itself to her to live elsewhere, but she  chose to live in Enderby for the rest of her life. She was involved in  numerous activities including the Imperial Order of the Daughters of the  Empire. She helped start I.O.D.E. chapters in Sicamous, Armstrong,  Enderby and Ashton Creek. At one time she held the position of vice-  president on the I.O.D.E. provincial  board.  Some of her other activities included the Badminton Club, the Okanagan Historical Society, and the Toastmistress Club. She was a member of the  Vernon Chapter of Business and Professional Women. She helped start the  Enderby Unit of the Cancer Society.  She was active with the Enderby  and Vernon Hospital Auxiliary and the  Red Cross. She taught Sunday School,  sang in the United Church Choir, and  was a member of the Women's Auxiliary of the Anglican Church. She was a  past Matron of the Eastern Star.  Spending many hours working with the Enderby Queen candidates  coupled with the above activities, made it easy for the community to  recognize her and her husband, Ted, as Senior Citizens of the Year in 1984.  She wrote articles for the Vernon Daily News, The Vancouver Sun,  and the Canadian Press. She also was a contributor to radio stations CKOV  in Kelowna and CJIB in Vernon.  The Peels in 1941. From left: Ted,  Bobbie and Gertrude. Photo courtesy  of the Enderby Museum.  George Rands is the nephew of Gertrude Peel. He operates Enderby Auto  Body and has lived all of his life in the Enderby area. This is the text of the  eulogy given at Gertrude's funeral service.  139 Gertrude Peel  From 1938 until 1956, she worked with Ted in their grocery store in  Enderby. After 1956, she worked as a sales clerk and fashion buyer until  1970, when her creative abilities beckoned her to open a ceramic business  with Ted. They operated this business from their home until 1985.  Her artistic talents had been recognized early in her life when she  received a scholarship. She painted with oil and water colours on canvas,  china plates and silk screened silk scarves.  In her dress and mannerisms, she was first and foremost a lady. She  never held herself aloof from others and was universally liked. She loved to  laugh and help others to laugh as well, but she never laughed at or made fun  of others. If nothing else availed itself, she would make herself the centre of  laughter.  She was a wall paper fanatic. She loved the ability wall paper gave her  to completely renovate a room or a house in a short time. On one occasion,  she even wall papered a floor, and with some success, I might add.  There are few who can remember Gertrude's driving experiences  without a smile crossing their lips. It was not unusual to find Gertrude and  Ted in Vernon for breakfast, Kamloops for lunch and Kelowna for supper.  They loved to drive, and her poor vehicles became a diary of her many  adventures. She became quite well known to many policemen up and down  the valley. On one occasion, Ted recalled, upon being pulled over to the  side of the road, the police officer, recognizing the driver, said, "Oh, it's you,  Gertrude, you may go, but please slow down a little."  Her busy schedule was often misunderstood by some that she never  had time for her family. Nothing was farther from the truth. Her family  meant everything, and if she couldn't drive to see them, a long-distance  phone call was always in order. It has been suggested that she must have had  shares in B.C. Tel.  On January 26,1992, Mary Gertrude Peel passed away. She is survived  by her husband, Ted, daughter and son-in-law, Bobbie and Ted Stahl, son  and daughter-in-law, Randy and Marci Peel, brother and sister-in-law,  George and Marion Rands. Her grandchildren include: Tammy Taylor and  husband Jim, Teena Godfroid and husband Brian, Ted Stahl and fiance  Sandy, Shannon Peel, and Blake Peel. She is also survived by seven greatgrandchildren, three nieces and one nephew and their families.  140 Elmer Peterson  by Yvonne McDonald  Elmer Peterson, one of the well-known Salmon Arm Peterson brothers,  died at his home January 7, 1992. He was the second son of Edward and  Wilhelmina Peterson, Swedish immigrants who came to Salmon Arm in  1911. Born in 1917 in the original farmhouse on the property, he attended  school at the small North Broadview School not far from the farm. A few  years ago, he helped move this same school house to the Haney Heritage  Park.  At an early age Elmer learned to work, helping his parents by doing  household chores such as bringing wood for the stoves, and collecting the  wandering cows each evening. As he grew older, he worked with his father  and brother Hubert, cutting wood in the bush on  North Broadview (known as "The Limit" in  those days) for the CPR. This work was done  with hand tools, "bucking" and "hewing" to  produce ties that were flat on two sides and sawn  into eight-foot lengths. He helped build the farm  buildings, also built partly from trees in the area,  with hand-hewn logs and homemade shakes.  When lumber was needed, they bought "stack  bottoms" at a good price from the mill at Canoe.  As settlement spread, there were roads to  build for farms. He also built roads for the Forestry on Hunters Range and in the Fly Hills. In  the 1930s, he worked with his brothers doing  custom orchard work. As they acquired machinery, they did more and more custom jobs, including clearing roads in the winter, spraying, and discing. During the war, they  were often using the machinery twenty-four hours a day.  In 1948, the Peterson Brothers Company was formed. Besides fruit  growing, they had a John Deere dealership, becoming well known for selling  and servicing machinery. One of Elmer's hobbies was collecting business  cards, and in the course of his dealings with the public, he accumulated  thousands, which are neatly displayed in photo albums.  Elmer Peterson.  Photo courtesy of  Yvonne McDonald.  Yvonne McDonald is the Salmon Arm Branch Editor. Retired, she has lived most of  her life in the Oliver and Salmon Arm areas.  141 Elmer Peterson  As younger members of the family took charge of the heavier work,  Elmer had time to pursue his many interests. He enjoyed photography, and  loved entertaining with a slide show. He also collected books, and purchased local histories of BC communities as soon as they were published.  Although he never married, Elmer enjoyed his nieces and nephews,  and they enjoyed him. As a niece said in a tribute at his funeral, "Many of  us at different times worked in the family business, either in the orchards,  in the office, or helping in the house, as well as being called in to assist Uncle  Elmer with inventory in the shop, spending endless hours counting all  manner of nuts and bolts. During this time we saw our uncle at work and  observed his distinctive and friendly way of dealing with the public...We  will miss his quick wit, and his kind and quiet influence."  Elmer belonged to the Okanagan Historical Society, serving as a  Director and representing the Salmon Arm Branch at executive meetings  of the parent body. He was an interested and active member of the Museum  and Heritage Society of Salmon Arm, and the Orchard Museum in  Kelowna. He was actively involved with the Salmon Arm Camera Club,  the Shuswap Naturalists, and the Salmon Arm Bay Nature Enhancement  Society. The community will miss his cheerful presence.  The Peterson Bros, farm in North Broadview,  Salmon Arm. Photo courtesy of Yvonne McDonald.  142 Jack Ryder  by Richard Rolke  Most Okanagan communities have had some unique and colourful residents throughout their histories, and Kelowna is no exception. One such  character in Kelowna was Jack Ryder, a man who seemed to know everybody, had an incredible sense of humour and a zest for telling tales about  Kelowna's past.  Born John Stephen Ryder on September 21, 1905 in London, England, Jack was the son of Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Ryder. In 1907, the Ryders  left Britain for Canada, first settling in Earl Grey, Saskatchewan for five  years. Then in 1912, when Jack was only seven years old, they moved to  Kelowna. He had five brothers: Sam, Bert,  George, Robert and Wallace, and four sisters:  Carey, Nellie, Florence and Alice.  Possibly due to Kelowna's position on  Okanagan Lake, many of Jack's stories took  place on or near this body of water. As a boy,  Jack and his friends would dive into the lake  for coins that people on docking  paddlewheelers would throw overboard. One  night, when he was much older, Jack and  some friends decided to swim across the lake  to the Westside. Half way across, the group  headed back to Kelowna. Typical of Jack  though, he kept going.  In 1929, Jack married Margaret  MacCaulder at the First United Church Manse  on Glenn Avenue in Kelowna. They were married for 53 years until  Margaret's death on July 7, 1982. They had 13 children: John (died in  infancy), Bert, Bill, Pat Brownlee, Sam, Ross, Jean Tucker, Don, Linda  Hagerman, George, Shirley Gibbons, Nellie Rolke (died 1988) and Jack  (died 1971). Jack and Margaret also had 41 grandchildren and many greatgrandchildren.  Jack Ryder playing his  mandolin. Photo courtesy of  Richard Rolke.  Richard Rolke is the grandson of Jack Ryder. He is a reporter with The Morning Star  in Vernon.  143 Jack Ryder  There were aspects to the marriage that were later to add humour to  many family gatherings. One incident that always brought a gleam to  everybody's eye was the "short broom handle" story. Jack occasionally  would stay out with his pals for a day or two and the welcome at home was  often far from receptive. Generally, Jack would get a broom over the back  and more often than not, the handle broke. Thus, short-handled brooms  were found in abundance around the Ryder home.  Jack was always happy to tell a story to anybody who would listen. All  one would have to do is mention a name or event from Kelowna's past, and  Jack would talk forever: whether it was how he tried to break into Paul's  tomb with Mr. Paul's nephew to see what was in it or Halloween hijinks as  a youth. He once described how a group of boys performed an incredibly  daring trick on All Hallows' Eve by placing a cow on the roof of Central  Elementary on Richter Avenue.  Jack was willing to try almost anything once. As a young man, he heard  about a lady selling a mandolin. He had never played one, but he went out  and bought it and taught himself to play. Along with playing the mandolin,  he also became quite talented with the banjo. At one point in the 1930s,  Jack and his brothers played on CKOV Radio.  Over the years, Jack made bricks and wooden apple crates for a living,  and while he was never wealthy financially, he was rich in humour. He  always got a kick out of people who thought they had lived in Kelowna a  long time. When asked how long he had lived in the community, Jack's  response was "...since Ogopogo was a polliwog."  Jack Ryder died on May 1, 1988 at the age of 82 in Kelowna. At the  time of his passing he had lived in the city for 76 years. His greatest legacy  was his wealth of knowledge on Kelowna's early history and citizens. He  instilled in his family a great knowledge of local history and more specifically of many of his more humorous escapades. What was important about  this was that he just didn't tell the facts, he told his tales in a way that was  exciting and interesting. It is quite possible that Jack Ryder was one of  Kelowna's best story tellers.  144 Norm Williams  by Brian Elmer  On Monday November 25 th, 1991, the Okanagan Valley lost a broadcasting pioneer in the person of Norm Williams. Claimed at age 71 by heart  failure, Norm was one of the original twelve employees of CHBC Television, serving the valley from Kelowna since September of 1957.  Born in Winnipeg, Manitoba in August of 1920, Norm was educated  in local schools. After completing high school in 1937, he obtained his first  job in the editorial department of the Winnipeg Free Press, thereby  satisfying his school days' urge to write. In the latter part of 1940, Norm  joined the Royal Canadian Air Force as a wireless operator, spending the  next five years instructing in Morse Code at  Montreal, Calgary and Winnipeg wireless  schools.  After his discharge from the R.C. A.F. in  1945, Norm's experience in broadcast production, promotion, merchandising and writing  was gained at various radio stations. He applied for the position of copy writer at CJOB,  Winnipeg, and started there in December 1945.  The station was then in the process of construction, and it was the manager's intention  that all staff would be ex-service personnel.  Following his appointment as Continuity Editor, Norm later became Production Manager  at CJOB. In 1953, he transferred to CFUN  (formerly CKMO) in Vancouver.  Norm's radio experience was well-tested  upon the start-up of the new TV station, CHBC. He commenced work with  CHBC in Kelowna on August 15th, 1957, bringing his wife, Evelyn, and  three children, Rick, Lynne and Scott, to live in the Okanagan Valley. His  first jobs at the station were those of Writer-Producer (Continuity) and  Promotion Manager. He later wore the hat of Production Manager as well.  Norm Williams in 1958.  Photo courtesy of CHBC.  Brian Elmer has been employed at CHBC Kelowna since 1970. He has been Director  of News Telecasts and Promotion Director; currently he supervises the Master Control  Facility.  145 Norm Williams  A tall man of 6 feet 5 inches, Norm is kindly remembered by former  co-worker Betty Daft, "Miss Betty" of "Romper Room" fame, as gregarious  and full of vitality, contagious qualities which infected other staffers. He  had a broad, beaming smile.  Two years into the station's operation, Norm saw the need for a  publication listing CHBC programming and containing more detail than  newspapers would allow. He launched Teleguide Magazine and served as  editor. When the BCTV signal came to the area in September 1970, Norm  expanded the magazine's listings to include BCTV programming. The  magazine was abandoned in the 1980's when more detailed competitive  publications, listing growing cable signals, made it unnecessary.  In 1984, after 27 years with CHBC, Norm left to help open SILK, a  new FM radio station in Kelowna. He was both a partner and active  employee. There, the staff was greeted with the same congeniality that was  typically Norm Williams.  In his private life, Norm was involved in many charities, but he was  especially instrumental in building the Big Brothers organization in Kelowna. He had an ability to talk and relate to people of all ages, spanning  generations and becoming a friend to everyone. The Gentleman's Dinner,  the annual fund raiser for Big Brothers, received Norm's fullest support, and  he had just co-chaired that event prior to his death.  It was Norm's wish that there be no fuss over his passing; so in lieu of  a ceremony, a wake was held on Sunday December 1st, 1991, at the Capri  Hotel in Kelowna. The event was organized by his friends in dedication to  Norm's kind and pleasant character.  146 We Shall Miss Them  ALLAN, Gordon Campbell, b. Kelowna, 23 March 1920. d. Kelowna, 4 January  1992. Survived by wife Beth (Gellatly); daughters Lynn McKenzie, Jean  Smith, Sue Short, Judy Kunzli, and Claire Ewbank. Gordon worked for  Art Shelly's Speedy Delivery before he joined the Army in 1941 'Ģ After the  war, he started Comet Service, which he ran for many years.  ARCHER, Richard Warburton. b. 1913. d. New Westminster, 22 June 1991.  Survived by wife Norma Hazel; sons Donald and Erie; daughter Lynn.  Dick and his family lived in Enderby for over 27 years. He was Officer-in-  Charge of the Department of Transportation's facility on Hunters Range  near Enderby from 1960 to 1975.  ARMENIAN, Harold, b. 1917. d. Kelowna, 20 May 1991. Predeceased by wife  Ruth. Survived by sons Dale and Grant; daughters Joan and Judy. Harold  started working for the Kelowna Machine Shop in 1937. He eventually  built it up into Monashee Manufacturing.  BACH, Paul Peter, b. Groff, Russia, 29 June 1909. d. Kelowna, 23 December 1991.  Survived by wife Anna; sons Daniel, Donald, and James. Mr. Bach was an  ardent sportsman. He played for Rutland Adanac ball team, bowled, and  was a champion horse shoe pitcher.  BAKER, Amos Frederick, b. Fort William, Ontario, 1912. d. Vernon, 11 May  1991. Predeceased by wife Elsie in 1983. Survived by son Gary; daughters  Roxanne Trainor and Bonita Sipecko. Amos came to Vernon in 1945 and  founded Baker Signs Co. He had served in the Air Force in W. W. II. Amos  also served as alderman and was very active in community affairs.  BIRD, Jessie Payne (nee Ewart). b. Princeton, 1910. d. Kimberley, 24 September  1991. Predeceased by husband Peter Francis Palmer Bird in 1984. Survived by daughters Tanis Rye and Judith Bird.  BOSS, Flora Bella (nee Beaton), b. Amherst Shore, 9 February 1891. d. Armstrong, 18 October 1991. Predeceased by husband William Charles in  1956. Survived by sons Noland and Rawleigh; daughter Violet Trudell.  Mrs. Boss came to the Armstrong area with her husband and family in  1923. Their farm was about 2 miles north-east of town. She was active in  the Red Cross and the Women's Institute.  BOULT, Gwen (nee Roe), b. Colquitz, B.C., 27 July 1914. d. Oliver, 3 March  1990. Predeceased by husband Tom in 1979. Gwen was a Past Matron of  Chapter No. 53, Order of the Eastern Star, and a member of the Anglican  Church Women's Guild.  147 Obituaries  BOUTWELL, Hazel Lily (Caswell), b. Carman, Manitoba, 25 June 1900. d.  Salmon Arm, 22 May 1991. Predeceased by husband Charles in 1965.  Survived by sons Donald and Robert. Hazel came to Salmon Arm with her  parents in 1905. She moved with her husband to Alberta in 1938,  returning after his death to live in Sicamous.  CALLENS, Jules Honore (Cally). b. Antwerp, Belgium, 7 January 1913. d. Mara,  31 January 1992. Survived by wife Margaret; sons Larry and Ian; daughter  Jeanne. He came with his family to Canada moving to Mara in 1919. He  was a member of the B.C. and R.C.M. Police Forces. After retiring from  the R.C.M.P. in 1965, he returned to his ranch at Mara.  CATCHPOLE, Rev. Desmond Stanley, b. Stradbrook, England, 6 July 1899. d.  Victoria, 28 November 1991. Predeceased by wife Ethyln Elaine. Survived by sons Donald, Bruce, and Michael; daughter Marjorie Short.  Archdeacon Catchpole was the Rector of St. Michael and All Angels  Church for many years, and was instrumental in getting nursing home care  for elderly people in Kelowna.  CF1APMAN, Mary Ellen, b. 1890. d. Summerland, 29 April 1991. Predeceased  by husband Rex. Survived by sons Clark Ridd Gill, John Fisher Gill,  Arthur Andrew Gill, and Frederick Cecil Gill. The Chapmans had a  ranch at Mazama for many years. A story of the ranch by Mary Ellen's  husband, Rex, appeared in the O.H.S. Report # 38.  CHRISTENSON, Soren Leyden (Lee), b. Vernon, 1913. d. Vernon, 23 January  1992. Survived by wife Violet (Marven); sons Kenneth, Donald, and Rod.  Lee was a life member of the O.H.S. He grew up in the grocery business  in Vernon. Lee built and the operated the present-day SuperValu Store  after the family owned Maple Leaf Grocery closed.  CLAY, C.E. (Mike), b. Halifax, NS, April, 1898. d. Penticton, 27 May 1991.  Predeceased by first wife, Ruth, and second wife, Jacqueline, in 1984-  Survived by sons Tony and Graham; daughter Shirley Fisher. Mike was a  teacher, administrator and Superintendent of Schools in Penticton. An  active community worker, he assisted with the Cubs and Scouts in  Summerland for many years.  CLERKE, Dr. Andrew Stewart (Paddy), b. Vernon, 1926. d. Kelowna, 19 June  1991. Survived by wife Sylvia; sons Robert and Shawn; daughters Maureen  Bourdon, Shannon Brown. Paddy Clerke was for 18 years the only  veterinarian in Kelowna. He took great interest in the farming community of Kelowna and was active in many service and fraternal organizations.  COLLEN, Beatrice (Bea) D. (nee Boden). b. Arbroath, Scotland, 6 April 1901,  d. North Vancouver, 6 April 1992. Predeceased by husband Carl Daniel  in 1972 and son Ralph in 1991. Survived by sons William D. and  Frederick. Mrs. Collen was Oliver's first woman teacher arriving from  148 Obituaries  Vancouver in 1923. Along with her husband, she was owner of Collen's  Department Store. In 1978, Bea was named Oliver's Good Citizen of the  Year in appreciation of decades of tireless community work which included serving as school trustee, Wolf Cub and Scout Pack Committees,  pianist and choir of Oliver United Church, St. Martin's Hospital Auxiliary, Order of the Royal Purple (in which she held every office), charter  member of Order of the Eastern Star.  COOPER, Harold William, b. Penticton, 1917-d. White Rock, HFebruary, 1991.  Survived by wife Doris; son Brian; daughter, Gillian Crowley. Harold  served with the B.C. Dragoons during W.W. II. He was City of Penticton  Administrator for many years, and was a Past-President of the B.C.  Municipal Officers Association. He was active in numerous community  organizations including St. Marks Anglican Church.  COSTLEY, Mary Cleland. b. Rossland, 1904. d. Penticton, 2 October 1991.  Predeceased by husband Alfred Miner Costley in 1978.  CRAIG, Ruth Gair (nee Waterman), b. Princeton, 23 July 1900. d. Penticton,  April 1991. Predeceased by husband John Campbell Craig in July, 1972.  Survived by sons Verney and David; daughter, Barbara Fenwick-Wilson.  Ruth was the daughter of W.J. Waterman, a pioneer of Okanagan Falls  (see OHS Report No. 49 page 100).  DALE, Thomas, b. Enderby, 1917. d. Vernon, 1 April 1991. Survived by wife Ivy;  son Rene. Tom was the son of John Dale, a pioneer of the Mabel Lake area.  He worked as a logger and farmer for many years in the Enderby area.  DANBY, Arthur Edward. Please see Tribute on page  137 .  DOCKSTEADER, Edward (Ted) Francis, b. Armstrong, 27 September 1938. d.  Chilliwack, 27 February 1992. Survived by wife Marlene; sons Grant and  Devon; daughters Sherry and Morgan. Ted was a life-long resident of  Armstrong and a member of a pioneer family. He was active in the family  farm at Knob Hill and in the community. His wife, Marlene, is an  alderman in Spallumcheen.  DAVISON, Date Lorraine (nee Leckie). b. Hartney, Manitoba, 24 May 1893. d.  Coquitlam 6 January 1992. Survived by her husband Dr. Rufus Lamont  Davison; daughter Nancy Chisholm. Mrs. Davison was a member of the  pioneer Leckie family. She is well remembered by the older members of  the Kelowna community for the active part she played in the Regatta in  her early years.  DI ROSA, Veronica (nee Pridham). b. Kelowna, 29 June, 1934- d. France (while  visiting), 13 October 1991. Survived by husband Rene Di Rosa; son Jock  McDonald; daughter Andrea Flaa. Mrs. Di Rosa grew up in Kelowna on  the Pridham Orchards. She was a well known artist.  149 Obituaries  DUKE, N.R. (Pat), b. Kingswood, Surrey, UK, 27 April 1908. d. Vernon, 9 August  1991. Survived by wife Gladys (Bessatti); son Denis; daughter Gail  Radies. Pat came to Lumby in 1927 after service in the Royal Canadian  Engineers. He was Lumby's first mayor and served his community for 28  years in municipal politics. He was awarded the Order of BC for his tireless  efforts for his community.  DURNIN, Harvey Howard, b. Kelowna, 27 July 1927. d. Kelowna, 17 March  1992. Survived by wife Evelyn; daughters Jean and Marne. Harvey was a  very active and successful businessman in the excavating and logging  industries.  ENEAS, Angeline (nee Soorimpt). b. Penticton, 15 July 1902. d. Penticton, 15  October, 1991. Predeceased by husband Gideon in 1955. Survived by son  Adam. Angeline was daughter of Chief Soorimpt and Theresa of the  Penticton Indian Band.  FARMER, Frank, b. Kent, England, 3 April 1913. d. Salmon Arm, 27 December  1991. Predeceased by second wife Mayo (Pauling) in 1987. Survived by  son Richard Charles. Frank came to Salmon Arm in 1925, and was an  active member of the business community. He had a fruit and produce  business, the Front St. Grocery and Confectionery Store, as well as other  ventures. He was elected District Alderman in 1942, and Reeve in 1944-  He was a member of the Elks Lodge for over forty years, and for fifteen years  was involved in a dance band that played from Falkland to Revelstoke.  FAULKNER, Annie, b. Drifting River, Grandview, Manitoba, 24 February 1906.  d. Kelowna, 16 February 1992. Predeceased by husband Robert. Survived  by sons Robert, Frank; daughters Margaret, Olive, Verna Coe, Vivian, and  Carol. Mrs. Faulkner was a long time resident of Okanagan Mission and  moved to Kelowna in her latter years. She loved music and gardening.  FAVELL, Edith Elawize (Hopwood). b. Notch Hill, 16 July 1905. d. Salmon Arm,  August 4, 1991. Predeceased by her husband Wilfred Duncan ("Ginty").  Survived by sons Roy, Wilfred, Bill, and Dave; daughters Doreen Hesse,  Yvonne, and Lenore Fuller. A resident of the Canoe area since 1929, she  was an expert seamstress and loved her garden.  FINDLAY, George Henry, b. Balderson, Ontario, 28 August 1899. d. Salmon  Arm, 21 May 1991. Survived by his wife Ivy (Fuller); son Lloyd; daughters  Elaine Saunders and Marlene Fowler. George was a pioneer resident of the  Shuswap, arciving in the Canoe area in 1916. He farmed, and worked in  the mill. He was proud to be the oldest and longest surviving member of  the Presbyterian Church.  FRASER, Douglas Plaskett. Please see Tribute on page 124-  FREEMAN, Michael Stephen, b. Vernon, 13 May 1911. d. Vernon, July 1991.  Survived by wife Jean; daughters Anne Ferguson and Dr. Linda Freeman.  150 Obituaries  He was the son of pioneers, Stephen and Maude Freeman. He lived in  Lavington all his life, was active in community and agricultural affairs.  FR1SBY, Alan Stewart, b. 1922. d. Vernon, 14 May 1991. Survived by wife  Wenonah; sons Peter, Brian and John; daughters Gaye Frisby and Ann  Agnew. Alan was a game warden in the Vernon area for many years. He  lived in Nelson a long time prior to coming to Vernon.  FULLER, Dudley, b. Alida, Saskatchewan, 7 February 1910. d. Salmon Arm, 7  January 1992. Predeceased by wife Amy in November 1987. An early  mink farmer in this area, Dudley came to Salmon Arm in 1938. He was  a man who was observant and understanding of the bounties of nature,  expressing himself in verse. He published a small volume of poetry which  is treasured by friends and family.  GALBRAITH, Horace Wilfred, b. Ontario, 1897. d. Vernon, 19 January 1992.  Mr. Galbraith was the last surviving member of the Charter Members of  the Okanagan Historical Society. He was a Vernon lawyer for 50 years. He  also served overseas in World War I and in Canada in World War II.  GAUVIN, Charles Joseph, b. Kelowna, 27 February 1913. d. Kelowna, 3  November 1991. Predeceased by wife Theresa. Survived by daughter  Penny Doern. He spent his early life as a glazier for S.M. Simpson, and his  later life with the School District # 23 as a carpenter and maintenance  man.  GELLATLY, Arthur Fairley. b. Fintry, 23 May 1896. d. Kelowna, 4 January 1992.  Predeceased by wife Muriel. Survived by daughter Beth Allen. Mr.  Gellatly was a pioneer of the Westbank and Kelowna areas. His family was  well known for their propagation of nut trees.  GELLATLY, Dorothy Ann (nee Hewlett), b. Dorchester, Dorset, England, 1894-  d. Kelowna, 17 February 1992. Predeceased by husband David in 1953.  Survived by daughter Audrey Weinard. Mrs. Gellatly was a legend in  Westbank for her editorial and historical work. During World War II, she  was one of the first female Fruit Inspectors.  GINGELL, Clifford Harvey, b. Gravelbourg, Saskatchewan, 1912. d. Vernon, 16  September 1991. Survived by wife Connie; daughter Jo Anne Popham.  Clifford was a charter member of the Coldstream Volunteer Fire Department and remained active for many years.  GOODMAN, Margaret Jean. b. Tillicoultry, Scotland, 19 February 1899, d.  Oliver, 30 March 1992. Predeceased by husband Chris in December 1981.  Survived by son Ray. Margaret and Chris Goodman were named Oliver's  Good Citizens for 1976 for their contribution to community work. She  was past-president of Sunnybank Ladies' Auxiliary and long time member  of the Eastern Star and the Royal Purple.  151 Obituaries  GORMAN, Eva Edna. b. Admaston, Ontario, 29 June 1887. d. Kelowna, 14 June  1991. Predeceased by husband Milton in 1960. Survived by sons John and  Ross; daughter Helen. She was the mother of the founders of Gorman  Brothers Sawmill of Westbank. She was also a pioneer of the Glenrosa  District where she and her husband ran a 60-acre farm until they moved  closer to Westbank in 1946.  GRAY, Ruby Florence (nee Mills), b. Armstrong, 20 September 1910. d.  Armstrong, 21 December 1991. Predeceased by husband Gordon in 1987.  A lively and active resident of Armstrong all her life, Ruby gave much of  herself to her community. She worked at Hope's Bakery for many years  before her marriage. She was involved in Zion United Church, Women's  Institute, Ladies' Auxiliary to the Royal Canadian Legion, and the  Rebekah Lodge. With her husband Gordon, she was chosen Citizen of the  Year for Armstrong-Spallumcheen in 1976.  GRISDALE, Alice, b. Kent, England, 15 October 1899. d. Vernon, 18 December  1991. Survived by son Bryan; daughters Molly Douglas and Audrey Berey.  She was a long time member of the Vernon O.H.S.  F1ANDLEN, Harold R. (Sonny), b. Kelowna, 28 April 1919. d. Vanderhoof  (Cluculz Lake), 14 September 1991. Predeceased by wife Dorothy (nee  Tasker). Survived by sons Harold and Bruce. In his younger years, Harold  was very active in sports in Kelowna, mainly basketball. He also served in  World War II.  HENDERSON, Charlie, b. New Westminster, 1904- d. Kelowna, 22 February  1992. Predeceased by first wife Christine in 1950. Survived by wife Enid;  son Michael; daughters J eannine McDonell and Sheilagh McDonald. Mr.  Henderson will be remembered by many for his square dancing lessons and  Scottish dancing. He was Reeve of Glenmore in 1945.  HILL, David Medwin. b. County Down, Ireland, 14 February 1914. d. Vernon, 20  September 1991. Survived by wife Betty; daughters Donna Tellie and  Carla Mobley. He was active in community affairs and involved with the  Anglican Church Committee for many years.  HOLDEN, Claude, b. Bolton, England, d. Delta, 17 February 1991. Predeceased  by wife Barbara (Jackson) in 1989. Survived by son Patrick. A retired  orchardist, Claude contributed articles to past OHS Reports.  HOLMES, Franklin Isaac, b. Kingston, Ontario, 27 March 1889. d. Enderby, 19  February 1992. Predeceased by wife Sarah Mabel in 1983. Survived by  sons David, John and Allen; daughters Alberta Jean Coull and Margie Iola  Forsyth. Frank homesteaded in many areas of Canada including Oungre,  Saskatchewan; Minitaki, Ontario; Renwer, Manitoba. Frank worked for  the American Army on the Alaska Highway and the R.C.M.P. The latter  had to let him go when they discovered he was 80 years old. Frank and his  152 Obituaries  wife came to Enderby in 1967. He was an honest, hard-working man with  a sense of honour and great dignity.  HOOLE, Edward (Ted) Lawrence, b. Westwold, 11 October 1913. d. Vernon, 14  November 1991. Ted was a resident of Westwold, Armstrong, then  Vernon. He worked at Shepherd's Hardware in Armstrong for over 40  years and is remembered for his love of music, sports (especially baseball),  cars, and people.  INKSTER, Dr. William Harcus (Hare), b. 1920. d. Vernon, 10 February 1992.  Survived by wife Betty; son Jim; daughters Joan Inkster-Smith, Roberta  Holdener and Alma Jean Reid. Dr. Inkster was a dentist in Vernon since  1955. He was active in school board activities and was a "Paul Harris  Fellow" with the Rotary Club of Vernon.  IVENS, Ann. b. 1911. d. Kelowna, 16 January 1992. Predeceased by husband  Lawrence in 1990. Survived by son James; daughter Joan Winner. She was  a well known seamstress and dressmaker.  JENAWAY, Lily.b. Chatham, England, 30 May 1902. d. Kelowna, 7 March 1992.  Predeceased by husband Francis in 1937. Survived by son Frank; daughters Edith Dillon, May Eckland and Frances Owens. She was very active  in the senior citizen groups in Kelowna as Past-President and Life Member  of Club #17 and a member of Club #76.  KELLEY, Dora Agnes. b.l903.d. Kelowna, 14 July 1991. Predeceased by husband  Cyril in 1983. Survived by son Mark; daughters Dora Sauer and Sydney  Boultbee. She was a school teacher in Kelowna for many years, specializing in teaching slow learners.  KING, Ella (nee McKenzie). b. Peachland, 1907. d. Summerland, 12 November  1990. Survived by husband Wilfred; son Lawrence. She was a supporter  of the Summerland Museum and active in researching the history of  Peachland and Summerland.  KING, Frederick William (Billy). Please see Tribute on page 135.  KLAUSMAN, Fredrick Emil. b. 1901. d. Vernon, 22 September 1991. Predeceased by wife Anna in 1953. Survived by daughters Irene Bilinski, Nellie  Swift, Audrey Linn and Lorna Connelly. He was a resident of Vernon for  70 years, was the Chief Engineer at the Vernon Fruit Union for 37 years.  KOERSEN, Willem (Bill), b. Ijsselmulden, Netherlands, 11 March 1927. d.  Armstrong, 21 January 1992. Survived by wife Willempje; sons Will,  John, Henry, and Ben; daughters Sina and Wilma. Bill worked on the  Richter Farm at Keremeos for 5 years before farming in the Deep Creek  area for 35 years. He was very active in the North Okanagan Ploughing  Association, the Deep Creek Farmers' Institute, and Zion United Church.  153 Obituaries  KOSMINA, Peter, b. 1894- d. Kelowna, 31 July 1991. Predeceased by wife Martha  in 1982. Survived by sons Max, John, and Andy; daughters Marie Sorcy,  Stacia Beaumont, Tina Kowalchuck, Rose Robertson, Jackie Bewley, and  Lillian Martin.  KROEKER, Winnifred Isabel (nee Smith), b. Kelowna 21 April 1918. d. Kelowna  9 June 1991. Predeceased by her husband Arthur in 1966. Winnifred was  a daughter of Thomas Smith, an early pioneer of the Joe Rich Valley. She  served her community as a long-time volunteer with the Rutland Hospital  Auxiliary. She also served in the Canadian Women's Army in W.W. II.  LACEY, Florence Viola (nee Thompson), b. Star City, Saskatchewan, October  1923. d. Penticton, 6 August 1991. Survived by husband Ed; sons Tom,  Howard and Harold. Florence assisted her husband, Ed, with the "Nursery" at the Okanagan Game Farm during its formation and later.  LANFRANCO, Camillo. b. Kelowna, 11 September 1917. d. Kelowna, 16  February 1992. Camillo spent his younger years in Kelowna on his father's  farm. He was a tanner of leather and did beautiful work.  LAW, Leona Caroline, b. 1915. d. Vernon, 4 November 1991. Predeceased by first  husband Philip Hanson and second husband Kenneth Law. Survived by sons  Stanley Hanson and Glen Hanson; daughter Phylliss Hanson. Leona was  Vernon's Good Citizen of 1988. Most of her time was devoted to volunteer  work, much of it at the Alexander Wing of the Vernon Jubilee Hospital, the  Old Age Pensioners' Association, and the Red Cross Blood Donor Clinic.  She was also an active member of the Royal Canadian Legion.  LOUIS, Irene (Marchand). b. Vernon (Head-of-the-Lake), 1915. d. Vernon, 3  February 1992. Survived by husband Ned; sons Fred, Walter, George,  Jerry and Mervin; daughters Dora, Mabel, Lydia, Theresa, Georgina,  Michelle, Rhoda and Rosella. She shared many of her native craft work  talents and other knowledge with younger generations at the Head-of-  the-Lake Community.  MACASK1LL, Kenneth John Stevenson, b. 24 April 1915. d. Kelowna, 31  October 1991. Survived by three daughters of his first maniage: Valerie  Sewell, Kenna Mae Mulligan, and Sara Lee McKenzie; a son and daughter  from his second marriage: Gary Bullock and Brenda Schofield.  MACDONALD, William (Bill) Falconer, b. 1917. d. Vernon, 20 February 1992.  Survived by wife Fay; sons Bruce and Ian; daughter Sue Thompson. Bill  was a Life Member of the Vernon Minor Hockey Association. He also was  a member of the Kinsmen, the Vernon Trumpet Band, and the Kildonan  Pipe Band.  McCLEAN, Elizabeth, b. Ootacamund, India, 1902. d. Vernon, 26 October 1991.  Predeceased by husband Allan in 1969. Survived by son John. She was a  long-time resident of the Coldstream, arriving there in 1904.  154 Obituaries  McGIE, William (Billy) James, b. East Langley, 18 January 1894- d. Vernon, 18  July 1991. Billy was a veteran of the First World War. Using Armstrong  as his base, he spent his life in prospecting and mining endeavours.  McGUIRE, Ellie Cunliffe (nee Kidston). b. England, 1895. d. Vernon, 1 June  1991. Predeceased by husband Michael Vincent McGuire. Survived by  daughter Janet Jones. She was the eldest daughter of the pioneer Kidston  Family (John and Anna) who came to Vernon in 1904-  McIVER, Harriet, b. Winchester, England, 20 March 1889. d. Kelowna, 5  January 1992. Predeceased by husband Bernard. Survived by son Barry;  daughter Patricia Arcand. She was a pioneer of the Kelowna district,  coming to the area in 1920. She was married in the Christian House (now  located at Father Pandosy's Mission). She and her husband "Barney"  homesteaded in that area.  McKAY, Kenneth Lloyd, b. Waskada, Manitoba, 16 June 1908. d. Victoria, 7 April  1992. Predeceased by his first wife Gladys in 1957. Survived by his second wife  Olive (nee Clinton); sons Fred McKay, Tom Nash, Doug Nash; daughters  Betty Burke (nee McKay) and Arlene Wyenberg (nee Nash). He was a well-  known Armstrong resident who had worked at Hanison's IGA for 25 years  before his retirement. He was active in the Royal Canadian Legion, the  Armstrong Curling Club, Fish & Game Club, and the Seniors' Activity  Centre.  McKENZlE, Allan Douglas, b. Kelowna, 1917. d. Vancouver, 13 April 1992.  Survived by wife June; sons Michael and Paul. Dr. McKenzie was the son  of a pioneer grocer. He was awarded the Military Cross for service in the  Medical Corps in W.W. II. He also served as Chairman of the Department  of Surgery at UBC from 1959 to 1965.  McLEAN, Norval Jared. b. Salmon Arm (Silver Creek), 7 October 1903. d.  Salmon Arm, 14 December 1991. Predeceased by wife Gertrude (Rourke)  in 1961. Norval was instrumental in starting the Silver Creek Church  School, and for the first year lessons were taught at his home until a log  school was built. He worked as an electrician until an accident forced an  early retirement. He was treasurer of his church for many years, and was  a well respected man in his community.  McMECFIAN, Frederick Nelson, b. Red Deer, Alberta, 10 November 1908. d.  Williams Lake 24 September 1990. Predeceased by wife Rena in 1943.  Survived by son Fred. He was the bookkeeper for the Vernon Box Co. for  many years.  McMECFIAN, John Clarke, b. Hillsdown, Alberta, 10 March 1905. d. Kamloops  19 January 1992. Predeceased by wife Blanche in 1982. Survived by son  Bill. John lived for many years in the Enderby and Salmon Arm areas  before moving to Kamloops.  155 Obituaries  MAKI, Elli Eliisa (Huhtala) b. Squilax, 19 July 1903. d. Salmon Arm, 15 January  1992. Predeceased by her first husband, James Allan Ellis in 1934, and her  second husband Frank Maki in 1951. Survived by daughters Shirley  Stewart, Joyce Johnson, and Arlene Brown. Elli was a lifetime resident of  the Shuswap, moving to Salmon Arm in 1911. She was an enthusiastic  and friendly woman, leading an active life in the community as a member  of the Salmon Arm Women's Institute, the Valley Institute, as well as being  an Honorary Member of the B.P.O.E., Elks Lodge # 279, and a Life Member  of the Ladies Auxiliary of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch # 62.  MARTINELL, Floyd Charles, b. Edgerton, Alberta, 30 November 1912. d.  Enderby, 25 August 1991. Survived by wife Minnie. Mr. Martinell had  been a resident of Mara for 55 years. He was an outdoorsman who enjoyed  fishing and hunting.  MELIN, Helen Mae. b. Leduc, Alberta, 1921. d. Kelowna, 23 August 1991.  Survived by husband Frank; sons Gilbert, Laurie and Michael; daughter  Bonnie Smith. She moved to Grindrod from Calmara, Alberta in 1941.  She enjoyed flowers and painting.  MILLER, Audrey (nee Smith), b. Kelowna, 1914. d. Kelowna, 19 February 1992.  Predeceased by husband Don in 1946. Survived by sons Gary, Lyle, and  Alan. She was the last of the Smith girls from the Joe Rich Valley.  MILLER, Jack Frederick, b. Vermillion, Alberta, 19 February 1916. d. Salmon  Arm, 17 September 1991. Survived by wife Audrey (McKim), sons Kelly  and Marvin; daughter Kim Gottell. Jack was the heating engineer at the  high school.  MILLER, Pauline (nee Graf), b. Schenen, Kansas, 13 September 1907. d.  Kelowna, 14 May 1991. Predeceased by first husband John Schneider in  1963. Survived by husband Philip Miller; sons Alexander and Edward;  daughters Anna, Emily, Jean and Betty. As the wife of John Schneider, a  contractor, she was involved with early Rutland trucking and logging.  MILTIMORE, Adelaide Annie (Mannix). b. Erinview, Manitoba, 12 January  1901. d. Salmon Arm, 1 January 1992. Predeceased by husband Earl in  1979. Survived by sons Jim and Alan; daughter Cherie. Adelaide and Earl  came to Salmon Arm in 1937. She left the teaching profession to raise  three children and help on their South Canoe farm. In 1942, she taught  at Grandview Bench. Later, she taught in single room schools at Eagle  Bay, Lee Creek, Albert Canyon and Deep Creek. She will be remembered  by her many students for her encouragement and thoughtful help.  MITCHELL, J.T. (Harry), b. Uddingston, Lanarkshire, Scotland, 17 November  1903. d. Kelowna, 10 February 1992. Predeceased by wife Bessie in 1988.  Survived by son Grant; daughter Moira. He taught public speaking and  was a very strong church member. He also gave the stock report for B.C.  156 Obituaries  Tree Fruits for many years. He was called "Prunes" by all who knew him  well, because of his Scottish pronunciation of the word.  MOBLEY Ruby Annie (Flint), b. London, England, 17 July 1910. d. Salmon Arm,  1 May 1991. Survived by husband Howard; sons Bruce and Charles;  daughters Dawn Mobley and Ramona Wainwright. A pioneer of the  Shuswap, Ruby came in 1913 and lived many years in the Sunnybrae area.  MORRICE, Gwendolen Victoria, b. 1902. d. Vernon, 15 March 1992. Predeceased by husband James in 1974- Survived by son Ian.  MUTCH, Agnes M. (nee MacNeill). b. Allahabad, India, 27 October 1901. d.  Penticton, 26 January 1991. Predeceased by husband Wallace in 1960.  Survived by sons Robert and Munay; daughters Rita Desaulniers and Jean  Watson. Agnes lived her childhood years in Glasgow, Scotland. In 1918,  she married Wallace, coming as a war bride to Penticton in 1919. She was  an active community worker, Past Worthy Matron and Life Member of  Edina Chapter #33 O.E.S., long time member of the Legion Auxiliary, and  St. Saviours Anglican Church.  MYERS, Ethel Lillian (Gardiner), b. Chatham, Ontario, 19 September 1897. d.  Salmon Arm, 12 October 1991. Predeceased by husband Herman in 1966.  Survived by daughter Jean Carlson. A pioneer, she came to the Carlin area  to homestead in 1914- She was a kind and helpful neighbour, with many  community friends.  NAKAGAWA, Michael Masakazu (Mike), b. Kelowna, 10 March 1920. d.  Salmon Arm, 13 June 1991. Survived by his wife Aiko; sons Lloyd, Gary,  and Jeff; daughters Noreen Tamaki and Patsy West. Mike had resided in  Salmon Arm all his life, coming here with his parents at the age of one.  He led an active life in the community, being a Volunteer Fireman for  twenty-five years, on the School Board for two years, and on District  Council for three years. He had an orchard and a strawberry farm, as well  as being a partner in Salmon Arm Sheet Metal.  NESS, Nora (nee Carruthers). b. Kelowna, 31 March 1907. d. Kelowna, 19 May  1991. Predeceased by husbands Basil Loyd in 1932, and Charles Ness in  1983. Survived by sons Wayne Ness and John Colin Ness; daughter  Brenda Orr. She was a very active participant in early Regattas. Her father,  E.M. Carruthers, was an early real estate man as a partner of Pooley and  Carruthers.  NORRIS, Wilson, b. Yorkshire, England, 28 September 1904. d. Enderby, 26  February 1991. Predeceased by first wife Faith (nee Bennett) in 1957.  Survived by second wife Rhona (nee Sandeman-Allan); sons Eric, Harold,  David and Walter; daughters Monica Barber, Hannah Out and Marika.  Wilson came to the Grandview Flats near Armstrong with his first wife  and four children in 1938. He worked at the Armstrong Sawmill for a  157 Obituaries  number of years, and in 1959 moved to a dairy farm with his second wife,  where they had three children. His son, Harold, has been both alderman  and mayor of Spallumcheen.  NIELSEN, Hans Stokholm. b. Denmark, 23 April 1921. d. Enderby, 4 December  1991. Survived by wife Natalie; son Ron; daughters Elaine and Christina.  Hans came to Alberta from Denmark at an early age, and was raised in that  province. He was an Elder of St. Andrew's United Church, and enjoyed  fishing, hunting, and rock collecting. He built and sold furniture.  OGILVIE, Gwendoline Beatrice (nee Simmons), b. Vernon, 1901. d. Vernon, 26  February 1992. Survived by husband George; sons Bill and Bruce; daughters Joan Fox and Dawn Herring.  PATERSON, Wilma (Stewart), b. Port Hope, Ontario, 7 November 1925. d.  Salmon Arm, 1 December 1991. Survived by husband Gavin; sons Ralph,  Phillip and Kenneth; daughter Elaine. Wilma grew up in Salmon Arm,  coming with her family in 1935. She was anRN, working in the Extended  Care Unit of the Shuswap Lake General Hospital, and was well known for  her kind and loving personality.  PEEL, Gertrude (nee Rands). Please see Tribute on page 139.  PETERSON, Elmer. Please see Tribute on page 141.  PRENTICE, Agnes (Nan), b. Scotland, 1897. d. Vernon, 28 November 1991.  Survived by husband Tom; sons Tom, Bob, and Gordon; daughters Pearl  Shaw-McLaren and Isobel Crosby.  PRICE, Clarence Richard (Dick), b. 1918. d. Vernon, 1 March 1992. Survived  by wife Margaret; son Richard; daughters Carol, Debbie, Arlene, and  Christine.  REID, Thomas Freeman, b. 1912. d. Summerland, 13 January 1992. Predeceased  by wife Hazel. Survived by daughter Lynda Wray. He was a principal in the  Reid Brothers Band that played at dances in the area from 1920s onward.  RIBELIN, W.J. (Jud). b. 1909. d. Kelowna, 2 March 1992. Survived by wife  Dorothy; son Allan. Jud was a photographer in Kelowna for many years  and an active member of the Yacht Club.  RICF1ARDS, Pearl (Cullimore). b. Berkeley Glos., England, 1899. d. Salmon  Arm, 1 July 1991. Predeceased by her husband Norman ("Dick") in 1986.  Survived by daughters Pamela Johnson and Esme Farnham. Pearl immigrated to Canada as a war bride in 1919. She and her husband operated the  Hillcrest Poultry Farm and Hatchery until 1962, then retired to grow  vegetables and flowers. She was secretary-treasurer for the Altar Guild of  St. John's Anglican Church for many years.  158 Obituaries  RILEY, Dorothy Amy (nee Garnett). b. Summerland, 18 April 1908. d.  Summerland, 18 March 1991. Predeceased by husband Edgar. Survived by  sons Thomas and Robert; daughter Jean. Dorothy and her sister Grace  died within days of each other. They were daughters of pioneers Tom and  Bertha Garnett. She taught in the Shuswap area.  RITCHIE, W. Gordon, b. 1898. d. Summerland, 20 June 1991. Predeceased by  wife Janet (nee McMorran). Gordon's home won Summerland's 1990  Heritage Award. It was built by his father William Ritchie in 1910.  ROBERTSON, Mary Louisa (nee Ferrier). b. Knolton, Quebec, 1889. d.  Kelowna, 12 January 1992. Predeceased by husband Charles. Survived by  son Charles. Mary was a very dedicated worker for the Red Cross and St.  Michael and All Angels Church. She came to Kelowna in 1910, and was  a nurse in the Kelowna Hospital.  ROBINSON, Isabel Thornton, b. Brandon, Manitoba, 8 November 1912. d.  Oliver, 23 June 1991. Predeceased by husband Frank in 1978. Survived by  sons William and David; daughter Marilyn. Isabel moved to Penticton in  1938, and Osoyoos in 1948. She served in many community organizations  including the Hospital Auxiliary, Seniors' Assoc, Cancer Society, and the  Osoyoos Museum Society.  RUMBALL, Leslie Masham. b. Summerland, 1920. d. Kelowna, 22 August 1991.  Survived by wife Phyllis; sons Douglas and Kevin; daughters Diane  Spearing and Linda Watson. He was a long-time Summerland businessman and community worker. He also served in W.W. II.  SANBORN, Maude Evelyn, b. Harbor Beach, Michigan, 24 February 1903. d.  Kelowna, 17 August 1991. Predeceased by husband William in 1960.  Survived by daughters Edith Dickins and Jean Rankin. She was a niece by  marriage of Dr. B.F. Boyce. The Sanborns farmed a property owned by Dr.  Boyce on Cedar Avenue until the city expanded and took it in as a  residential area.  SAUNDERS, Allan J. E. b. Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, d. Vernon, 6 September  1991. He taught Industrial Arts in the area from 1946. He was also active  in music and the arts, assisting in the Vernon Little Theatre. He also  developed a method of mass-producing frames and hives for bee-keeping.  His pamphlet on this subject is still used today.  SCHUMAN, Loretta Inez (nee Inglis). b. 1910. d. Summerland, 12 December  1991. Predeceased by husband Fred. Survived by daughter Joyce Coulter. She  was a daughter of a pioneer Summerland family. She was a fruit packer and  later an Okanagan Telephone operator.  SCOTT, Dorothy Cleora (nee Davis), b. Onoway, Michigan, 14 September  1906. d. Armstrong, 5 August 1991. Survived by husband George; sons  Jim and Ron; daughters Betty Copp, Ellen Smith and Peg Bergen. She was  159 Obituaries  a nurse before she manied and raised her family of six children (being  predeceased by one son, Bert in 1989). She and husband George had  celebrated their 60th Wedding Anniversary two months before her passing.  SEPPALA, William Mauna. b. Salmon Arm, 14 January 1930. d. Salmon Arm,  15 September 1991. Survived by daughters Tina and Darlene. A reserved  and quiet man, born to early settlers of Salmon Arm.  SHEPHERD, Dorothy May (nee Wolstenholme). b. Blairmore, Alberta, 2  October 1915. d. Penticton, 14 May 1991. Predeceased by husbands  Ernest Pryce in 1950 and Aquilla Shepherd in 1986. Survived by daughters Elizabeth Bork and Mary Howard. She came to Okanagan Falls with  her parents in 1920. Until recently she had been active in community  organizatiions, being a member of the Women's Institute, the Ladies'  Auxiliary of the Royal Canadian Legion, and the Parent-Teacher Association. She had been a leader in the Girl Guides and Canadian Girls in  Training. In her later years, she worked with REACT, a group which  drives seniors to their appointments.  SIMONIN, Frank Leon. b. Kelowna, 25 December 1924. d. Kelowna, 11 August  1991. Survived by his wife Francien; sons John and Stan; daughter Fran.  Frank Simonin loved people. He was the son of a pioneer garage owner in  Kelowna.  SIMPSON, Grace Madeleine (nee Collias). b. Ramgate, England, 4 July 1900. d.  Oliver, 1 April 1991. Predeceased by husband D. Perley Simpson in 1973,  and son Darrel in 1990. Survived by daughters Dorothea Lewis and Gloria  Winter. She came to Osoyoos in 1920 to teach school at Sidley. In 1922  she moved to Oliver to teach and moved back to Osoyoss in 1929. She was  a founder of the Osoyoos Women's Institute. In 1948 she opened the  Rendezvous Gift Shop.  SMITH, Oliver John "Ollie". b. Summerland, 14 June 1914. d. Salmon Arm, 27  September 1991. Survived by wife Marjorie (Evans); son Barry; daughters  Gail Capostinsky and Martha Haddad. He was a pioneer of the Salmon  Arm area, coming here in 1916. He was a family man, an ardent bird  watcher and political observer.  SPARROW, Lillian Victoria, b. Chase, 24 May 1909. d. Vancouver, 12 January  1992. Predeceased by husbands Findley Brash and Edward Spanow and son  Bill Brash. Survived by daughter Viola Parker. Lil came to Enderby in 1929  and manied Findley Brash shortly thereafter. She worked with him on the  family farm in North Enderby, moving into town in the 1950s. After his  death, she went to work in Spanow's Drugs and later manied Ed Spanow, the  proprietor.  STROTHER, Mary Olive, b. 1903. d. Vernon, 24 March 1992. Predeceased by  husband James. Survived by sons Ted, Art, Bob, and Gary. Mrs. Strother  had lived in Vernon for 62 years and was active in the United Church.  160 Obituaries  SWEETEN, Thomas Allen, b. Kamloops, 6 April 1908. d. Kamloops, 26 April  1991. Survived by wife Bessie (Harvey); daughters Val Edeburn, Lois  Lapadat and Carol Tyssen. Born to pioneers of the Tappen Valley, he  lived all his life in the area. He was a long-time employee of the  Department of Highways, retiring in 1973. He will be remembered for his  love of children, animals, and gardening.  TRONSON, Josephine, b. Vernon, 1926. d. Salmon River, 8 March 1992.  Predeceased by husband George in 1989. Survived by sons Vernon, Paul,  Bob, Don, Larry, and Ron; daughters Betty Tronson and Louise Boyd.  TUCKER, Alfred Edney (Ed), b. 1910. d. Langley, 2 February 1992. Survived by  wife Millicent (nee James); sons Brian, Jack, and Trevor. Ed worked for  Canadian Canners in Kelowna all of his working life.  UPPER, Walter Theodore, b. Revelstoke, 1 June 1904- d. Vernon, 5 October  1991. Predeceased by first wife Frances in 1974. Survived by second wife  Lois; son Walter; daughter Gail Fraser. Mr. Upper lived in Armstrong for  over 60 years where he was a Life Member of the Royal Canadian Legion.  As a carpenter, he worked with Dominion Bridge and at the Army Camp  in Vernon.  WALDIE, George, b. Scotland, 1906. d. Kelowna, 8 February 1992. George  Waldie was a true Scot: frugal, quiet and humorous. He was employed by  Glenmore Inigation District and Sun Rype for many years.  WARD, Arthur Leonard, b. Montreal, Quebec, 1908. d. Kelowna, 14 May 1991.  Arthur was one of the leaders in getting the tennis courts in East Kelowna,  the Community Hall, and numerous other activities. He was an owner of  Apex Orchards and ran an independent packing house on that site.  WELCH, Jessie Jean. b. Ottawa, Ontario, 19 February 1916. d. Enderby, 12  January 1992. Predeceased by husband Harold in 1978. Survived by sons  Bruce, Edward, and Roger. Jean was active in the Springbend Community  Club, and enjoyed nature and reading.  WELDER, Anthony John (Tony), b. Kelowna, 1924- d. Kelowna, 3 June 1991.  Survived by sons Martin, Donald, Bruce, and Wayne; daughters Wendy  Hewlett, Lori Welder, Carol Crossland, and Cathy Welder. Tony spent  his life working for the Simpson, Crown Zellerbach, and Fletcher Challenge companies. He was the son of early resident Martin Welder.  WHITEHEAD, Lily Mildred (nee Simpson), b. Morden, Manitoba, 18 December 1898. d. Armstrong, 27 December 1991. Predeceased by husband  Frank in 1961. Survived by son William. She and her husband came to  Armstrong in 1936 where they farmed in the Hullcar area. She enjoyed  her vegetable gardens and her crafts. She had a special ability to care for  others.  WILLIAMS, Norm. Please see Tribute on page 145.  161 Obituaries  WILSON, Alvin Doney. b. 1907. d. Summerland, 9 January 1991. Survived by  wife Olive (nee Grant); sons Barry and Randy; daughter Bonnie Bull. He  was the son of the Summerland pioneer, Clark Wilson, and lived in  Summerland most of his life. Doney and Olive were Good Citizen  Recipients in 1985.  WILSON, Robert Michael, b. Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1913. d. Kelowna, 21  February 1992. Survived by wife Gwynneth; son Michael; daughters Jane  Lawrence and Rosemary. Bob was the District Agriculturist in Kelowna,  having worked for the B.C. Ministry of Agriculture for 35 years. He also  served in the R.C.A.F. in W.W. II. Bob was a dedicated volunteer for  many community organizations.  WOOLLIAMS, G. Ewart. b. 1902. d. Edmonton, 30 January 1992. Predeceased  by wife Doris (nee Baynes) in 1989. Survived by sons Neil and David;  daughter Jan. Mr. Woolliams joined the Plant Pathology Department at  the Research Station in Summerland in 1926 and stayed there until his  retirement. He and his wife were long-time members of the OHS.  WORTH, Vernon Harvey, b. Lumby, 21 September 1902. d. Vernon, 14 May  1991. Survived by wife Pearl; son Everett. Harvey had been a very active  member of the CCF and later the NDP all his life.  WYLIE, Marjorie Belle (nee Mann), b. Peterborough, Ontario 1891. d. Vernon  25 June 1991. Predeceased by first husband Arthur Godfrey, then second  husband Charles Wylie in 1975. Survived by daughters Barbara Reid and  Winifred Olsen; stepchildren Marion Allen, Doris Weatherill, Carl  Wylie and Doug Wylie. Marjorie often played a leading role in Vernon  plays and operettas. She was an ardent supporter of the IODE and  UNICEF.  T7UU ATA  For the 55th Report:  Page 154 MAYBEE, Agnes Marina (nee Anderson) should have  read MABEE, Agnes Marina.  Page 155 MACINTOSH, Ralph Hamilton Obit should have read  Mr. Macintosh was married to Maude, daughter of W.B.  Haynes NOT Judge Haynes. She was the granddaughter of  Judge J.C. Hayes and the first white child born at Hedley.  162 Student Essays  Introduction  The student essay contest was ably chaired this year by Bernard Webber.  Working with Dr. Duane Thomson of the Department of History at  Okanagan College in Kelowna, they prepared a package of documents for  students to interpret. The winning senior level essay by Ryan Johnson of  Oliver was an interpretation of that material. Two of the letters have been  reproduced here to give the reader a scope of the challenge presented to the  students.  The winning junior level essay by Daryn Reece is a sketch of his greatgrandfather, Thomas Benjamin Reece, a pioneer of Westbank.  There were over a hundred senior level entries and almost fifty at the  junior level. The prizes this year are given by Jamie Browne in honour of  J.W.B. Browne, the founder of CKOV. We are grateful for his financial  support. We would also like to thank the teachers who took time to work  with their students on this interesting and important project.  Robert Cowan,  Editor  163 Student Essays  Letters  Rock Creek  29th March 1861  Charles Good Esq.  Acting Private Secretary  To Governor James Douglas  Su  I have the honor to submit the following, for the information of His  Excellency, the Governor.  On the 26th inst. an old Okonagon Indian, Surname, the "Prophet",  arrived here with intelligence that a serious fight had taken place between  the Indians and miners residing at or near the Pond d'oreille—three of the  latter and four the former including their Chief were killed, the United  States soldiers had been called out and prisoners were taken—the affair was  not witnessed by the above named Indians.  "The Prophet" on passing Boundary Creek on route here, spoke of the  matter to a few of his tribe there, and they, imagining the war to be general,  immediately withdrew their women and children from amongst the miners  on that Creek. This sudden action together with the Pond d'oreille affair  created a sudden panic within the minds of the latter party, and self  protection became the order of the day—trunks, provisions, in fact everything was hurriedly packed up & carried to a central position, every house  was forsaken, 6k each man was armed to the teeth. Councils of war were  held, guards "told off" and a Fort was at once commenced on an eminence  overlooking the town, in fact preparations were made sufficiently extensive  to defy a regiment of soldiers, in place of a few emaciated Indians with their  Squaws. I did not know anything whatever of the matter until late on the  Evening of the 27th when I as soon as possible procured a horse—left—6k  on my arrival certainly found what I have now related to be perfectly true.  I remained at the Creek one night 6k a day & previous to my departure,  confidence & quietness were completely restored—the miners returned  (somewhat ashamed) to their sluices and the Fort already half built is  abandoned.  To sum the whole matter up, the Bostons were afraid of the Indians 6k  the Indians vice versa. I only could discover Seven of the tribe 6k I include  two children 6k two women in the number—6k to avoid any possibility of  164 Student Essays  a collision taking place now that the feelings of both the "armies" have been  somewhat irritated, I removed the Indians from Boundary Creek to this  town where they can live peaceably.  I have the honor to be, Sir,  Your most obedient Servant  Williams George Cox  P.S. Had I possessed a good horse I would have visited the Pond d'oreille. There  are a few wretched animals here but perfectly unfit for even a day's travel through  Snow.   W.C  Written in margin  Acknowledged the receipt of the letter—communicated for H E information that a serious affray attended with the loss of several lives had occurred  at the Pond d'oreille Mines between the Miners and the Native Indians—  the measures you have taken to maintain the peace in your district—and  attending to your intention of repairing in person to the scene of conflict  and that you had been prevented from carrying that intention into effect by  want of conveyance. H E highly approved of the careful superintendence  you have exercised in the maintenance of (order) within your own district  & appreciates the zeal which prompted you to extend your influence  beyond that limit—but you are probably not aware that the 49th parallel  (crosses) the Pond d'oreille River about 2 miles from its discharge into the  Columbia—and H E is of the opinion that the difficulty alluded to in your  letter has taken place within the territory of the U States—and beyond the  jurisdiction of the Magistrates of B.C. and His Ex therefore wishes to  caution you against any interference with the Indians or miners of that  country.  Rec'd 23 Apl  Rep'd to 10 June/61  165 Student Essays  Hope  27th September 1861  W. G. Cox, Esq.  Sir,  I have received the instructions of His Excellency, the Governor, to  acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 15th Sept. enclosing a Petition  form the Miners of Columbia River, and stating your intention to enter into  arrangements with the Natives, who were opposed to the entrance of  Miners into the British Territory north of Pen d'Oreilles River, for the quiet  and peaceable occupation of the country.  His Excellency is aware that the Natives of that District are greatly  incensed against the Miners and he justly fears that their presence, before  measures have been taken to maintain law and order, will be the prelude to  the introduction of crime and misrule.  The consideration of those circumstances should have induced you to  apply to His Excellency for instructions, before deciding on so grave a  measure, implicating the honor and dignity of Her Majesty's Government  whose faith is by your act virtually pledged for the safety and protection of  the Miners.  While appreciating your good intentions His Excellency desires me to  point out for your future guidance, that your course has not in that instance  been marked by the exemplary prudence and discretion exhibited in your  previous official career.  To repair the mischief as far as possible you must endeavour to  conciliate the Natives, and to prevent conflicts or collisions with the  Whites. You must impress upon their minds that they are not to plunder or  steal the property, or in any way injure or molest the miners; and you will  be equally careful in teaching the Miners to respect the lives and property  of the Natives, and that they are equally with White men protected by the  laws of British Columbia.  You will if necessary for the peace and security of the country take up  your residence at or near Fort Shepherd, while Mr. Haynes as at present will  attend to the affairs of Rock Creek, which appears to be almost deserted, in  addition to his other duties, connected with the Customs Department.  You will also endeavour to derive every advantage from the presence  of the Miners, encouraging them to prospect the streams flowing into the  Columbia from the auriferous mountains between it and the North River  and to extend their research into those mountains, which His Excellency  feels assured are the repositories of countless metallic treasures.  You will continue to remit, as a means of encouragement and relief for  the Mining population, the tolls specified in clauses B and C, and the fine  of 3 per cent leviable under clause 3rd of the Southern Boundary Act, on  166 Student Essays  all goods exclusively intended for the consumption at Rock Creek and the  Columbia River Mines, but the act may be left to its operation as respects  other parts of British Columbia.  His Excellency will be glad to hear from you by every convenient  opportunity.  I have etc.  J.J. Young  Law and Order in the Mid-  Boundary Country  by Ryan Johnson  Senior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W.B. Browne Award.  Between the 29th of March and the 5th of November 1861, the southern  portion of what is now known as British Columbia was, although not as bad  as the "Wild West" of the United States, in turmoil. During this time  Williams George Cox was in charge of enforcing law and order in the mid-  Boundary and West Kootenay areas. I believe he dealt exceptionally well  with the turmoil. I also found that (considering how most officials treated  the natives of the area) he basically treated the natives and miners equally.  Williams George Cox did an excellent job considering that he had a  lack of prompt instruction and communication from his superior, Governor  James Douglas. The dates of the letters and the responses are almost a month  apart: the letter written to Charles Good, esq. from Williams George Cox,  esq. on March 29,1891 was not received until the 23rd of April of that same  year. The time lag was probably a result of the harsh conditions and vast  distances the letters had to travel, especially since the only method of  transportation was on horseback or by boat.  The length of time these letters took to arrive at their destinations was  long, but it made matters worse when Governor Douglas did not respond for  sometimes up to 37 days: e.g. the letter of 29 March 1891 from Williams  George Cox to Charles Good was received on the 23 rd of April but was not  responded to until the 10th of June. Probably Governor Douglas was too  busy to deal with W. G. Cox's letter at the time he received it.  Mr. Cox also had to deal with the lack of first hand information. He  would never really get an accurate picture of the situation. Instead he had  Ryan Johnson is a grade 10 student at Oliver Senior Secondary.  167 Student Essays  to rely on rumours spread by natives such as the "Prophet," miners, or  Americans such as Mr. William Peon's son (mentioned in the letter of the  30th of March 1861 from W. G. Cox to Charles Good). Such people often  did not witness the event themselves. When Cox heard such rumours he  had to make a choice of following up the stories by travelling to the area  (sometimes at long distances on horseback) or forgetting about the information, passing it off as rumour. A case such as this occurred (see the letter  of 30th March from W.G. Cox to C. Good); Cox made the correct decision  and travelled to Boundary Creek to silence the fears of both "armies" and  resolve the situation.  Williams Cox had to endure long and arduous journeys through some  of the most treacherous areas of British Columbia. To make matters worse,  he had a lack of good horses and had to made good with "...a few wretched  animals...unfit for even a day's travel through snow." (Editor's Note: All  quotes are from the letters of Williams George Cox, Charles Good, Silhitza  and J.J. Young.)  One of the toughest situations Cox faced was at Boundary Creek. Here  the natives and miners fought over just about everything from "spirits" to  territory. Sometimes a rumour was enough cause for a confrontation as  when the natives heard stories about an incident at Pond d'Oreille. The  miners responded with "Councils of war were held, guards told off and a fort  was at once commenced..." while "...each man was armed to the teeth."  Mr. Cox also had to fend off the American Cavalry and convince them  not to rush across the border and avenge the killing of miners. He had to deal  with complaints made to Governor Douglas by native chiefs such as Silhitza  of the Okanagan, whose "...heart was heavy..." when he complained about  Cox and his actions.  He was under continual pressure from Governor Douglas through his  private secretaries, James Judson Young and Charles Good. Whenever a  situation arose such as Silhitza's letter, Cox would have to apologize and  "properly" deal with the situation. Governor Douglas would constantly nag  Cox to "...impress upon their (natives') minds that they are not to plunder  or steal the property, or in any way injure or molest the miners...and be  equally careful in teaching the Miners to respect the lives and property of  the Natives, and that they are equally with White men protected by the laws  of British Columbia." Governor Douglas also expressed his desire that Cox  grant "...relief for the Mining population..." in the form of tax deductions  at the Rock Creek and Columbia River Mines. This constant pressure made  Cox's job and life even more difficult.  Most officials brutally treated the natives of that area and spent most  of their time making sure that the miners and taxpayers (who provided the  government with revenue) would receive better treatment than the natives. Cox, unlike these officials, was fair in his treatment of the natives and  the miners. He dealt with any confrontations between the two in the best  possible way he could.  168 Student Essays  "Nearly all the Indian difficulties originate in foolhardiness and  brutality on the part of the whites who I fear will never learn what a little  prudent forbearance in such matters can effect." These are definitely the  words of a man who thinks miners and natives are, and should be, treated  equal.  When he received information that a confrontation had transpired at  Boundary Creek, he procured a horse and left. Arriving at Boundary Creek  he "...remained at the Creek one night and a day and previous to my  departure, confidence and quietness were completely restored...the miners  returned (somewhat ashamed) to their sluices and the Fort already half built  is abandoned." Thus Cox, being the government's official spokesman, dealt  with the possible violent incident quickly and later stated "...the Bostons  (Americans) were afraid of the Indians and the Indians vice versa."  In such incidents as the one at Boundary Creek, Cox not only talked  peacefully to both parties, but actually removed one of the parties to ensure  that such confrontation would not rise again. At Boundary Creek, Cox  decided to move the native tribe to Rock Creek where they could live  peaceably. Seemingly unfair to the native tribe, I think this affair was dealt  with quite reasonably because Cox could only "...discover seven of the tribe  and I include two children and two women in the number." This means that  he had to move a group of only seven people (who probably wanted to stay  away from the miners anyway) instead of moving a large group of miners  working at rich, gold producing mines and sluices. The situation may not  have seemed to be completely fair to the small group of natives, but Cox  dealt with it in the best way he could.  Williams George Cox was a respected man of his time who had  "...been marked by...exemplary prudence and discretion exhibited in...a  previous career." He was faced with an arduous task of maintaining order on  the frontier while placating government administrators. All in all, Cox  dealt exceptionally well with the turmoil that surrounded him.  169 Student Essays  Thomas Benjamin Reece  by Daryn Reece  Junior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W.B. Browne Award.  My great-grandfather, Thomas Benjamin (Tommie) Reece, arrived in  Canada from his native Wales in 1906 at the age of 18. He came alone. From  this difficult start, "Grampa Reece" became a large land owner and head of  a large family.  Born in 1887 in Magor, Wales, Tommie did not receive much education.  He could read and write at about a Grade Four level. He had no mother and  father because they had died when he was very young. He and eight older sisters  (an older brother had died) were brought up by an aunt and uncle. His uncle,  a teacher, taught him math so he could become a carpenter. The uncle was a  stern taskmaster and it was to get away from him that made the decision to leave  for Canada an easy one for Tommie. His uncle encouraged him to leave by  giving him the boat fare. Unfortunately, Tommie used up his fare buying drinks  for his friends at the town pub. He then had to rely on these friends to chip in  to replace the money so he could leave Wales.  He came to Manitoba as a farm boy, following the immigration rules  of the time which required him to have a job to come to in Canada. He  worked on the farm of Jack Fennell in the Kinsmore District of southern  Manitoba for two years then joined a building crew of the Canadian Pacific  Railway. Tommie built bridges as far west as Kamloops then returned to  Hamiota, Manitoba in 1910. He became a builder of houses, stores and  barns.  In 1917, Tommie married Eleanor Angus, a clerk in Miss Flora Fraser's  book store in Scotia, Manitoba. By 1921, Tommie and Eleanor had three  children, Temi, Adrian and Nelson. In February of that year, the Reece  family moved to Westbank because Tommie was advised by Dr. Hudson  (who followed later and after whom Hudson Road in Lakeview is named)  that the climate in Manitoba was bad for his chest. In spite of his bad chest,  Tommie continued to smoke a pipe for many years.  Driving a Model T Ford and accompanied by two friends in another  car, Tommie and his family travelled to what is now Lakeview. One of his  friends wanted him to put money into developing an irrigation system, but  Tommie wanted his children to be schooled in Westbank so the family  moved into a shack in town until he could find a job.  Daryn Reece is a Grade 7 student at the Westbank Elementary School and the great-  grandson of Thomas Benjamin Reece.  170 Student Essays  Thomas and Eleanor Reece, circa 1935, at the N.W. corner of  Pritchard Drive and Old Boucherie Road, now owned by Byland  Nurseries and planted in nursery stock. Photo courtesy of Daryn Reece.  "Grampa Reece" went into fruit farming and built his operation into  a fruit packing plant which is still run by his sons, Nelson and Milton. Three  more children were born to Tommie and Eleanor: Gwen, Milton, and  Elizabeth. During this time, Tommie built and operated a diesel driven  power plant where the Community Hall in Westbank now stands. He also  built a flume to supply water for the Westbank Irrigation System.  The land he owned and lived on was five acres where the Westridge  Mall is located. Grampa was an enthusiastic gardener and his home on Main  Street was always a colourful display. Other land he owned and developed  included the Angus Drive area, ten acres of orchard where Overwaitea now  is, Campbell's Gas Station on Main Street, and a shopping block of  buildings still standing where the Golden Panda operates today. During the  Second World War, "Grampa Reece" stayed in Westbank looking after the  packing house. Because of the war, a Japanese family came from the coast  to help him with his orchards.  Tommie and Eleanor were involved in many community affairs.  Tommie was a member of the Manufacturers Association of Canada and the  Chamber of Commerce where he served a term as president. He had the  opportunity to meet Governor General Vincent Massey at the unveiling of  the cairn to mark the Fur Brigade Trail. He was named Good Citizen of the  Year in the 1960s.  The Reece family grew up, married and had families. All the children  live in Westbank except Elizabeth, who lives in Kelowna. Many of Tommie's  grandchildren, great-grandchildren, and great-great-grandchildren also  live in the Westbank area.  171 Student Essays  In 1959, Eleanor Reece died in a car accident which also resulted in  the death of a baby girl and two other women. She was sixty-five at the time  of her death. Tommie and a twelve-year-old boy recovered in hospital.  In 1962, Tommie married Mrs. Grace Foote from Penticton. Eleven  years later, at the age of 88, Tommie Reece died. He is remembered by his  family as a hard worker who expected others to work as hard as he did. He  was determined, and in spite of his lack of formal schooling, able to be  successful.  His family remembers fondly his advice to have "good shoes and a good  mattress" because you needed to have a good night's sleep and be comfortable when working the next day. He spoke by adding "h's" in front of words  beginning with vowels. Thus, apples became "happles" and his son, Adrian  was always "Hadrian."  To this day people still remember him. Westbank has named a road  after Tommie, Reece Road. "Grampa Reece" went from being a poor farm  boy in Manitoba to become a successful landowner and businessman in the  Okanagan.  The Reece family, circa 1953.  From Left: Back Row: Adrian, Tommie, Eleanor, Nelson.  Front Row: Elizabeth, Gwen, Terri, Milton.  Photo courtesy of Daryn Reece.  172 B1    T?       *  The Queen's People: A Study of Hegemony,  Coercion, and Acconimmodation among the  Okanagan of Canada  by Peter Carstens. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1991. Pp.  333. Photographs; maps; index.  Reviewed by Dr. Duane Thomson  Peter Carstens has provided a scholarly ethno-historical and anthropological study of an Indian reserve community in the north Okanagan region of  British Columbia.  His study is presented in two parts, each with different sources, methodologies and purposes. The first section is ethno-historical and his source of  information is mainly secondary literature which has developed regarding the  Okanagan Indians in the contact period. The second part of his study is an  economic and sociological examination of the reserve community since 1950.  In his analysis of the modern period, Carstens employs mostly primary sources:  census returns, the field notes of James Hirabayashi, Department of Indian  Affairs files, band records, and his own informal personal observations. With the  exception of one bridging chapter, which chronicles the chiefs who held office  between 1900 and 1950, the study is disconcertingly bifurcated.  Carstens labels his strategy "diasynchronic" because he considers  socio-cultural relationships in the community in two distinct time periods;  however, one suspects that providing a label is merely making a virtue of  necessity as he has difficulty observing the community closely from the turn  of the century to the 1950s.  Carstens offers numerous original insights into Okanagan Indian  history. He refuses to consider as significant the attitudes displayed toward  Indians by individual colonial figures such as James Douglas and Joseph  Trutch. Douglas exhibited an enlightened attitude toward Indians and  allowed them to set their own reserve boundaries, while Trutch showed no  sympathy for Indians and coerced them into accepting smaller reserves.  Despite these differences, Carstens quite rightly views them as proponents  of "the same socio-economic system" who together realized the colonial  policy of clearing the land to make room for settlers. He also documents the  Dr. Duane Thomson is a professor of history at University College of the Okanagan.  He is also a past editor of the O.H.S.  173 Book Reviews  political incorporation of Okanagan chiefs into the British, and later  Canadian, colonial system.  Beginning with Nkwala, the "double chief, who "on the one hand  was always ready to ingratiate himself with the whites [and] on the other  hand... preserve the Indianness of his people" he proceeds through chiefs  such as Pierre Louis "who indentified himself with the white hegemony of  the time, for which he, too, was rewarded" and finally to contemporary-  chiefs who are still heavily reliant upon the Indian Act.  Carstens also describes in great detail the "reserve culture" in which  Okanagan people are "physically, culturally, and economically encapsulated." His sociological study examines factionalism, status, kinship, politics and other aspects of reserve life. He views Okanagan behaviour as  administratively determined, that is, the Indian Act permeates all of their  institutions, dominates their lives and affects their social and political  behaviour. He claims that "the people have incorporated the crucial  bureaucratic rules into their social personalities so that now the band  membership list embodies for them the sharing of common community  sentiments." His observations on the contemporary period are well supported by reference to Canadian and international scholarly literature on  reserve life.  The section dealing with the historic period has numerous weaknesses  stemming from Carstens' reliance on secondary sources and his general  unfamiliarity with the primary material. He does not understand the  constant supply of ball, powder and flint and the maintenance required to  keep flintlock guns operational or he would not claim that guns were in use  in the interior before the fur traders arrived. His claim of devastating results  on the natives because salmon were depleted by the presence of a handful  of fur traders is totally without foundation. Certainly, the Hudson's Bay  Company was dependent on salmon as a staple and it is true that the district  suffered periodic shortages; however, it would take the much later presence  of a commercial fishery at the mouth of the Fraser River before white men  had an impact on fish stocks.  He also uncritically follows Elizabeth Dolby (OHS. Report No. 37,  pages 134-51) in alleging that horse trading and the equestrian culture  shifted from south to north during the fur trade era. This argument is based  largely on Alexander Ross's report that he purchased horses in 1813 in the  south and travelled to Kamloops where he traded for beaver. The inference  is weak. Had Simon Fraser earlier wanted to travel overland from the Fraser  River to Kamloops he might have purchased some of the many horses he  observed on his historic voyage and travelled south to trade beaver.  Furthermore, I doubt Carstens is correct when he claims that the fur  trade led to the depletion of game, and hence starvation, among the  Okanagan in the period 1820 to 1860 or that this was the cause of Indian  hostility to the whites. His evidence is from the 1820s only, and from fur  174 Book Reviews  traders who did not appreciate roots as anything but starvation food. These  traders were probably not yet aware of the annual cycle of the Okanagan  Indians and apparently did not know of their historic propensity to trade for  fish at Kettle Falls or the Thompson River. Carstens makes no assessment  of the importance of small fur-bearing animals in the pre-contact Indian  diet and he also neglects the impact of potato culture, introduced by the fur  traders, on the Indians' security of life.  Finally, some of his evidence in this section is contradictory. For  example, immediately after claiming that overt hostility was related to food  shortages, he notes that "the cause of Nkwala's mood change turned out to  be the jealousy and insecurity he felt when it was rumoured that McLeod no  longer recognized his title to chiefship." This section does not lay a good  foundation for his later chapters.  Carstens uses biography extensively, particularly when dealing with  chiefship. He devotes considerable attention to Nkwala, an ally of the fur  traders and the most significant Okanagan chief during the fur trade era.  Nkwala is described as a "master broker... who enjoyed more influence,  authority and power than any Okanagan headman before him." Carstens  relies heavily on Mary Balf s hagiography of Nkwala and even claims,  without evidence, that "he was the first headman-chief whose followers  defined themselves through the allegiance they owed him."  But the opposite could be argued from Carstens' evidence. He documents Nkwala's impoverishment and growing marginality, both of which  made him the subject of condescension and belittling remarks from the fur  traders. In the aftermath of a brutal and unprovoked massacre of an unarmed  party of Okanagan people by gold miners, Nkwala, dressed in his stovepipe  hat, meekly responded that "he did not think much of Bostons, or Americans, who would do the like." Carstens considers this humiliation a success,  claiming that the powerless Nkwala and his warriors "must have been an  intimidating group to the gold miners." (43) Carstens remains a captive of  Balf s interpretation, while using evidence which does not support her  conclusions.  Carstens succeeds in identifying the line of chiefs of the Okanagan band  and he provides interesting details regarding their genealogy, appointment, and  tenure. Some, such as Pierre Louis, he examines and assesses thoroughly, but  with others his work would have been more accurate had he been more  thorough in his research. For example, the Vernon News contains reliable  information about Head of the Lake politics, especially regarding the career of  Chief Louis Jim, who was elected in 1895 (not 1898), and who defeated (was  not defeated by) Chewilah in 1901.  From readily available Department of Indian Affairs files (RG10,  volume 3944, file 12,698-54) we know that Louis Jim was re-appointed  chief in May 1903 for a term of three years. There Carstens would also find  the missing petition which apparently caused the dismissal of Agent Irwin  175 Book Reviews  and later the deposal of Chief Baptiste Logan. Carstens would also have  profited from J.H. Christie's commentary on the deposal of Chief Baptiste  Logan found in the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.  Carstens' decision not to examine in detail the impact of the Oblate  missionaries on the people of the Okanagan reserve in the nineteenth  century is an unfortunate omission. He refers to the Oblates occasionally  and admits that "the whole question of the relationship between church  councils and band councils needs further research." Original research in  this area would have yielded insight into some of his central concerns: the  changing role of chiefs, the transformation of Indian values and the  coercive process. Priests were by far the most significant agents in incorporating the Okanagan Indians into European culture in the generation  between the ending of the fur trade and the arrival of Indian Agents.  Furthermore, the extensive letters of the priests provide valuable first-hand  accounts of Indian genealogy and cultural practices and their adoption of  agriculture and conversion to Christianity.  The book is relatively free of errors; however, his reliance on secondary sources occasionally leads Carstens to repeat mistakes made by other  authors. For example, in one paragraph he claims that Nkwala's daughter  married Cyprienne Laurent [Cyprien Laurance], that his granddaughter  married Captain Houghton [they were not married], and that his great-  granddaughter married William Brent, a Spanish American War veteran  [more significantly, William was born in the Mission of an Indian mother].  He sometimes uses evidence from other bands to draw conclusions  about the Head of the Lake band as when he discusses Indian resistance to  white trespass and the disruption caused by mining activity. Finally,  Carstens sometimes neglects to document his evidence or he supports his  argument with a statement like "it is said that", both of which are  aggravating to any scholar using his work.  Despite its limitations, The Queen's People provides valuable insights into a contemporary Canadian Indian community's values and  behaviour and is a welcome addition to a growing literature on reserve  communities. The central thesis, that Okanagan Indians have been unconsciously incorporated, through coercion or otherwise, into a paternalistic  and assymmetrical colonial system is well supported.  Carstens' work is valuable to scholars interested in comparing the  experiences of Indians in the Okanagan with those elsewhere in Canada.  176 Book Reviews  Valley of Dreams: A Pictorial History of  Vernon & District  by the Qreater Vernon Museum and Archives. D.W. Friesen and  Sons, Alton, Manitoba, 1992.  Reviewed by Robert Cowan  As their contribution to the celebration of 100 years of incorporation of the  City of Vernon, the Greater Vernon Museum and Archives people (under  the direction of their curator and supervisor, Judith A. Gosselin) have  produced an impressive 250 page pictorial history of their community.  The chapter divisions correspond to the decades since incorporation,  each given a subtitle such as "In the Midst of a Depression" referring to the  1930s. The pictures and text are weighed heavily in favour of the first 50  years with only a third of the book concerned with the last 50 years. Perhaps  their view was that a closer look at the formative years would give readers  a better appreciation of their community today, or perhaps it is natural to  de-emphasize the period of time closest to the present as most readers and  the authors have had first hand experience with it. It does, however,  produce a certain unevenness to the text.  The group should receive high marks for their selection of photographs and accompanying text. They correctly decided to have each photo  take up an entire page. The result is clear images and lasting uncluttered  impressions.  With the exception of their lucid opening statement for each chapter,  the group chose to use quotes from The Vernon News, diaries, reminiscences, or historical texts. Various numbers of past O.H.S. Reports were  quoted throughout. They dug deep for some of their quotes as evidenced, for  example, in their description from the 47th Report on the Chinese in  Vernon (page 98). The text they used was the only reference to the Chinese  in William Ruhmann's "Soldiers of the Soil, 1914-19." It must have been  a formidable task to comb these various sources and glean the appropriate  material from them. They did a superb job.  There are minor problems when their quotes and pictures are taken  from decades other than the decade they are exploring, e.g. when they  choose to include quotes from the first decade of this century from the  Vernon News on parks and recreation (pages 122-23) in the chapter on the  1910s. These concerns are not major.  On the whole this book is a magnificent accomplishment of matching  pictures with appropriate text. The reader has a feeling much like viewing  Robert Cowan is Chairman of the Enderby and District Museum Society and editor  of the 56th Report.  177 Book Reviews  an impressionist painting first up close, seeing all the brush strokes, and then  standing back and having a feel for the full intent of the artist. The history  of Vernon is thus accomplished with each photograph.  This book will bring hours of enjoyment to various age groups and to  people who have lived in the Vernon area even a short time.  The Okanagan Brigade Trail - In the  Southern Okanagan, 1811 - 1847 Oroville,  Washington, to Westside, British Columbia  By Bob Harris, Harley Hatfield, Peter Tassie. Wayside Press, Vernon. 1989.  Reviewed by Bernard Webber  Possibly the most important of the Fur Brigades operating to the west of the  Rocky Mountains was that which began at Fort St. James on Stuart Lake  and eventually reached Fort Vancouver near the mouth of the Columbia  River. A brigade was always under command of one of the Hudson's Bay  Company's "Commissioned Gentlemen."  These Brigades were almost unique in the experience of the Company.  Where Rupertsland brigades customarily used canoes or York Boats to bring  in furs and to send out supplies and trade goods, the New Caledonia Brigade  used both canoes and horses. When the Fraser River became too dangerous  for loaded canoes, the brigade took to horses ashore. Fort Alexandra was  built to facilitate this.  The horse brigade operated from Fort Alexandra, through what  became Fort Kamloops, the Falkland Valley to the Okanagan. It went down  most of the length of that Valley keeping mainly to the west of the lakes or  the river system to Fort Okanogan near the juncture of the Okanagan River  and the Columbia. En route, the brigade kept to the high ground where  possible because that was easier for the horses and wild grass was plentiful  for their food. At Fort Okanogan, the 200 or 300 horses were finally relieved  of the two bales of furs each had carried daily all the way from Fort  Alexandra. The furs were loaded into boats for the final part of the journey  to Fort Vancouver.  The book under review considers in detail a significant part of the  Horse Brigade's route, namely from Oroville to Westside. It locates and  describes the trail between those two communities. In doing so, it completes  the study of the course of the Brigade Trail through what is now the  Canadian part of the Okanagan Valley begun by the publishing in 1986 of  The Okanagan Brigade Trail- Central and North Okanagan written by  Roberta Holt, Alfred Jahnke, and Peter Tassie.  Bernard Webber is the immediate past-president of the O.H.S. A retired educator, he  resides in Osoyoos.  178 Book Reviews  In the new booklet, the subject is divided into three parts. The first is  from The Forks (Oroville) to Meyer's Flat (Willowbrook); the second from  Meyer's Flat to Nicola Prairie (Summerland); the third, from Nicola Prairie  to L'Anse au Sable (Westside). Pages are large enough to accommodate  maps devoted to each sub-section. Other maps pin-point the location of  special features of the trail. In all there are ten maps in the booklet, all  except the first having been drawn for this publication. The exception is the  map in the frontispiece, a reproduction of part of Chief Trader Samuel  Black's famous map of 1833. All maps are clear and readable.  Close to each map is a description of the particulars that the observant  visitor will see as he walks along the trail. Alternatively, he may drive near  the trail, stopping where the map shows by a solid rather than a broken line  that parts of the original trail lie undisturbed close by.  It helps, of course, if one can be as fortunate as two of us were when  Harley Hatfield himself took us, partly walking, partly by car from  Willowbrook to the back of Summerland. The first snow of winter had just  fallen. The dusting of snow high-lighted the deep groove caused by several  generations of horses walking in line, twice a year, for almost forty years.  The booklet will tell why a straight line of pines sometimes grows up along  the groove of the trail.  You literally can, with booklet in hand and taking care, trace the route  of the trail yourself. Besides the maps, pictures taken along the route and  printed in the booklet help you to orientate yourself. Please remember that  the trail is fragile. Treat it with the respect that you would a heritage  monument. Another word of advice: often the best remaining parts of the  trail are on Indian lands which have never been ploughed; before venturing  on those lands, remember to visit the Band Office to obtain permission.  As you read this booklet, you will be amazed by the thorough research,  the meticulous scholarship, and the economy of expression of the authors.  Pages 26 and 27 will identify some of the sources they have used to help  them locate the trail accurately.  The Rupertsland Resource Centre at the University of Winnipeg  exists to foster Hudson's Bay Company studies and to publish them. It is  near the Manitoba Archives Building where the complete archives of the  Company are now stored. My wife and I browsed there for a few days before  Christmas, 1991. We found that although the resources of the archives are  very good for Rupertsland, they are much less so for fur trade activities west  of the Rocky Mountains. When I asked for the file on the Brigade Trail, all  it contained were pictures recently taken on the trail in the Okanagan. The  curator was pleased to be given copies of the two trail booklets written and  published in this valley. What this tells me is that the authors of these  booklets are the authorities on the Brigade Trails.  Copies of these booklets may be obtained from the authors, museums  and some booksellers in the Okanagan Valley at a cost of $5.95.  179 Book Reviews  Paying for Rain: A History of the South East  Kelowna Irrigation District  by Jay Ruzesky and Tom Carter, South East Kelowna Irrigation  District, 1990.  Reviewed by Tom Norris.  In Paying for Rain, Jay Ruzesky and Tom Carter have produced a solid  piece of local and administrative history. As a local history it deals with a  topic of immediate and vital concern to the Okanagan, the agricultural  water supply. As an administrative history it serves as an in-house monument to the specialized achievements of the South East Kelowna Irrigation  District (SEKID), and as a simplified technological history of local irrigation methods.  This work, however, is more than just local and administrative  history, it is a closely focused study of a distinct geographic area that has  been profoundly changed by human intervention over the course of this  century. As such, Paying for Rain is an example of the type of study that  will be indispensable in the new field of environmental and ecological  history.  Beginning in the latter part of the last century, Paying for Rain  recounts the process whereby the open, arid range land of the south east  Kelowna area was bought up and incorporated into a variety of land and  orchard companies which later formed SEKID in 1920. This consolidation  was made in order better to address the perennial problems of poor water  supply and a chronic lack of adequate development capital. The whole  history of this area may be seen as one of bold enterprises begun with great  energy and initiative confounded by historical and economic circumstances. In response to these conditions, a succession of provincial governments has become increasingly financially involved in the orchard industry  and its water supply; it is these two issues that form the bulk of the history  of SEKID.  The water supply itself is now much expanded through the use of  ground water, while the involvement of government funding and intervention in the orchard industry is now undergoing radical changes due to new  environmental and economic circumstances. This book is, therefore, a  timely study in that it examines an area on the threshold of great changes.  Tom Norris is a graduate student at U.B.C. working on an M.A. in the Department  of History. This review originally appeared in the Orchard Industry Museum Journal,  and is reprinted here with the Museum's kind permission.  180 Book Reviews  A few criticisms may be levelled at this book: the maps are unclear and  fail to show the region in a wider geographic context, and there are no  footnotes. However, on the whole, these are minor considerations.  Generally, this is a useful, well-written account of an important facet  of Okanagan history. The irrigation history of one of the most radically  altered, non-urban landscapes in British Columbia will retain its relevance  as the ecological history of this province comes under increasing scrutiny.  Will You Have a Cup of Tea?  Or Summerland Grows, 1905*07  by Mary Coates, Kathleen Kennedy, Iris Steuart, and Doreen Tait,  Summerland Museum Archivists Qroup, 1992. Edited by Doreen Tait.  Reviewed by Betty Bork  Will You Have a Cup of Tea? is the third book in a series designed by the  Summerland Museum Archivists Group to document and present historical data in an entertaining form. Preceded by The Streets of Summerland  and Summerland in the Beginning (on pioneers up to 1904), Will You  Have a Cup of Tea? provides further interesting literary sketches of  pioneers for the period 1905-07. Throughout the book there is an excellent  selection of photographs, adequately captioned, which give readers a clear  pictorial view of the Summerland area in that era. The stories lend research  value with dates and place names, and at the back of the book, there is a  complete index of the pioneers.  There is plenty to read and enjoy in this text: art (painters Irving  Adams, Irene Scott); authors (Alex Stevens, Bert Simpson); recipes (Mrs.  Gartrell's Ginger Cookies) and remedies (for tired feet); poetry (The Black  Iron Stove) and prose; and of course teas (your choice!).  The book takes its name from an interview being carried out with  some difficulty amid several interruptions and noisy exclamations, which  finally climaxed with someone asking: "Will you have a cup of tea?" End of  an interview; beginning of a book. So make yourself a cup of your favourite  tea, settle back in a comfortable chair, and enjoy the latest literary offering  from the Summerland Museum Archivists Group.  Elizabeth Bork is Penticton Branch Editor, and author of numerous articles. Employed  by the City of Penticton, she resides near Okanagan Falls.  181 OX_JTO   I"! *  JL JLV_/   JL-F ^lOJLJLJL^w'Oc?  NOTICE  of the 68th Annual Qeneral Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  1993  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 2, 1993  at 10 a.m.  in the Meeting Room - Lodge Motor Inn  2170 Harvey Avenue (Highway 97), Kelowna, B.C.  Luncheon at 12:30 P.M.  in the Ballroom of the Lodge Motor Inn  All Members and Guests are welcome.  182 OHS Business  Minutes of the 67th Annual Meeting of  The Okanagan Historical Society  Sunday, May 3, 1992  President Bob de Pfyffer called the meeting to order at 10:00 a.m. A minute  of silence was observed in memory of those who had died since the last  annual meeting including Life Members Horace Galbraith, Hugh Cleland,  Dorothy Gellatly and Lee Christensen. Seventy members attended the  business session in the Vernon Lodge.  1. NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary. Agenda was presented by  the chairman.  2. MINUTES of the 66th Annual Meeting were adopted as printed in the  55th Report.  3. BUSINESS ARISING out of Minutes. Nil.  4. CORRESPONDENCE: dealt with to date by Executive Council.  a) S.S. Sicamous Restoration Society, Penticton.  b) V.R. Casorso and John Woodworth proposal to celebrate the  Alexander MacKenzie Bicentennial Year in 1993.  5. REPORTS OF OFFICERS: see below. The audited financial statement  for the year ended December 31, 1991 was accepted on motion by the  Treasurer, seconded by Harry Weatherill.  6. BRANCH REPORTS AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES: see below.  7. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: Nil.  8. NEW BUSINESS:  (a) The Annual Field Day will be held on Saturday September  12th from 8 a.m. until 3 p.m. on board the Fintry Queen for a  cruise on Okanagan Lake retracing the route of the S.S. Sicamous.  (b) Moved by Peter Tassie, seconded by Jack Morrison, that a  letter of support be sent to the Alexander MacKenzie Trail  Association for the 1993 proposal to retrace the trail from  Alexandria, B.C. to Fort Okanogan in Washington. Carried.  (c) Moved by Dave MacDonald, seconded by Helen Inglis, that  a letter of support from the OHS be sent to the Sicamous  Restoration Society in support of their request to the Historic  Sites and Monument Board of Canada to designate the S.S.  Sicamous as a National Historic Monument. Carried.  183 OHS Business  9. ELECTION OF OFFICERS: Immediate Past President, Bernard Webber,  presented a full slate. Elected by acclamation were as follows:  President Robert de Pfyffer  1st Vice-Pres. Jessie Ann Gamble  2nd Vice-Pres. David MacDonald  Secretary Art Strandquist  Treasurer Libby Tassie  Editor Robert Cowan  10. APPOINTMENT OF AUDITOR: Moved by Gifford Thomson, seconded by Art Strandquist, that we authorize the Executive Council to  appoint a competent person or persons to review the financial operations  for 1992 and produce a financial statement for the membership. Carried,  with negative votes by Libby and Peter Tassie.  11. COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS: Moved by Dorothy Zoellner,  seconded by Hume Powley, that the usual complimentary resolutions  follow the customary format. Carried.  12. SETTING DATE AND PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL MEETING:  The Kelowna Branch asked to host the 68th Annual Meeting on Sunday  May 2, 1993.  ADJOURNED at 11:55 a.m. on a motion by Alice Lundy.  Respectfully submitted,  Ermie Iceton  Secretary  Lunch Programme  Chairman - Doug Kermode, President of the Vernon Branch.  About 130 members and guests enjoyed a chicken dinner served in the No.  2 Ballroom of the Vernon Lodge Hotel. Doug Kermode introduced the head  table guests. After "O Canada" was sung, grace was said by Father Lascelles,  O.M.I. A toast to Canada was proposed by Chief Albert Saddleman,  Okanagan Indian Band. A toast to B.C. was proposed by Lyle Hanson,  M.L.A., and a toast to Vernon was proposed by Wayne McGrath, Mayor of  Vernon. Bob de Pfyffer, President of the Parent Body, welcomed everyone  on behalf of the Society.  A bouquet of flowers was presented by Lucy McCormick to Mary  Elizabeth Bailey who orgainzed the day. Jean Webber presented flowers to Dr.  Margaret Ormsby.  184 OHS Business  Life Members were recognized, after which President de Pfyffer  presented a Life Membership to Bernard Webber.  The winners of the J.W.B. Browne Award for the best student essays  were presented by Bob Cowan, Editor, to Darren Reese of Westbank at the  Junior Level, and Ryan Johnson of Oliver at the Senior Level.  President de Pfyffer introduced the guest speaker, Father Thomas  Lascelles of Vancouver. Father Lascelles, an Archivist for the Oblate  Fathers, gave a very interesting and informative talk regarding the history  of the Oblates in B.C. and in the Okanagan Valley.  The proceedings closed in the singing of "God Save the Queen."  Some OHS members and executive dress up for the AGM in Vernon, celebrating Vernon's 100th anniversary. From left, front: Betty Holtstrog, Audley  Holt, Pat Collins, Nesta Kermode. From left, back row: Bob dePfyffer, lean  Humphries, Doug Kermode, Jack Morrison, Bob Cowan, Joan Cowan, Jessie  Ann Gamble. Photo courtesy of Margaret Hayes.  President's Report  A year ago, in Penticton, you elected a new executive to head your Society.  Since then we have held three Executive Council meetings in the board  room of B.C. Tree Fruits in Kelowna. Our thanks to B.C. Tree Fruits for  allowing us to use their facilities.  We had a successful year. Bob Cowan, our editor, produced another  excellent report. To the many contributors to the report I would like to say  thank you for helping to preserve the history of our valley.  Projects that the individual branches undertake bring our society  public recognition, and I would like to thank the many volunteers who work  so hard to make these projects a success. Special thanks are due to Denis  Maclnnis and his committee of Kelowna members who operate the Pandosy  185 OHS Business  Mission. We congratulate Denis and the committee for the successful  completion of negotiations with the Roman Catholic Bishop of Nelson that  culminated in the signing of a fifty year lease for the property. It is  marvellous to know that our society is leasing and operating the oldest  buildings in the Okanagan Valley as a historic site. We can now proceed  with the development of the property.  Other branches and members deserve our thanks. Oliver/Osoyoos and  Carleton MacNaughton for their hard work maintaining our two lots at  Fairview. This historic site will be visited by more people each year as it  becomes better known. Salmon Arm members are to be congratulated for  their strong support of the Haney House Museum.  Bus tours, our annual field day, pot luck suppers, lecture series, and the  maintenance of some old grave yards all result in favourable publicity for our  society. The volunteers who work so hard on these and similar projects  deserve our thanks.  The New Horizons Project, spearheaded by Bernard Webber, where  Mike Roberts of CHBC-TV ran training sessions for would-be interviewers,  was a success. Now, all we have to do is get out there and interview our old-  timers. Bernard also deserves our thanks for reactivating the Similkameen  Branch.  We experienced a few difficulties during the year. One was when  CKOV in Kelowna notified the executive that the radio station intended  to withdraw their support for our student essay contest. At that point we  considered the possibility of dropping the contest, but Gifford Thomson  found a new sponsor in Jim Browne, the former owner of CKOV. The  contest was saved.  In closing I wish to thank the committee chairmen and the committee  members for their dedication and support during the past year. It is you who  make the position of President worthwhile.  Respectfully submitted,  Robert L. de Pfyffer  Editor's Report  The move toward electronic publishing will be completed this year. The  branches have submitted their material to me on computer disk, and I will  be turning the edited copy over to E. and E. Marketing of Vernon who will  construct the pages using a desk top publishing program. They will liaison  with Wayside Press. Using this process, we will realize additional savings at  the printing end again this year.  In mid-December, I attended an executive meeting of the Salmon  Arm Branch where it was decided to do an experiment in the use of  advertising to sell the 55th Report. Together with the Armstrong/Enderby  Branch, they paid for a display ad in a local mass circulation paper  announcing the local authors and topics. Yvonne MacDonald and I visited  186 OHS Business  the two book stores in Salmon Arm and told them that we would be  advertising our book and using their names as the retail outlet where the  book could be purchased. We also asked them to display the book prominently that week, which they were more than willing to do.  The result of this brief ad campaign was interesting. Previous to  running the ad, Elaine's Books had sold exactly zero copies of our Report,  during the week after the ad appeared they sold 17 copies. Based upon these  dramatic results I will be hosting a marketing workshop in mid-October to  focus on how we sell our Report. I would hope that the branches will  develop a marketing strategy and bring it to the workshop. And I would  encourage anyone interested in this topic to attend. Perhaps our Report will  no longer be, in the words of Vernon's Jack Morrison, "...the best kept secret  in the Okanagan."  I would like to thank Bernard Webber for chairing the student essay  contest this year. He did an excellent job and over 150 entries were  received. When he agreed to take this responsibility last year, he made it  clear that it would be a temporary appointment. We have located a new  chairperson in Ron Willey of Salmon Arm.  Ron is a new resident of Salmon Arm, having retired there from  Edmonton. He is a past chair of several Edmonton Secondary Social Studies  Departments, and most recently lectured in Canadian History at Western  Washington University in Bellingham. He read this year's entries and  selected the winners. Unfortunately, he could not be here today.  Ron and I have met with Dr. Duane Thomson of the History  Department of Okanagan College in Kelowna to discuss the future of the  essay contest. I have requested each of the branches to select an essay  contest chair person whom Ron can contact through the year. We will meet  together at a workshop in mid-September to discuss our expectations and  problems. If you are interested in this subject, I would encourage you to  attend by informing your branch editor.  I would like to thank the branch editors and their committees for the  excellent job they have done in the past year: Cass Robinson in Cawston,  who is joining us this year representing the Similkameen Branch; Doris  McDonald in Osoyoos, who will be retiring this year but staying on to help  the new branch editor on the computer; Betty Bork in Penticton; Art  Standquist in Kelowna, who says he has to retire since he has taken on the  responsibility of vice-president of the branch and secretary of the parent  body (he says it wouldn't look right if one person did everything); Lucy  McCormick in Vernon; Lorna Carter in Armstrong, who once again  assisted me in the production of the Report; and Yvonne MacDonald in  Salmon Arm. Without the effort of these fine people, the Report would not  be the excellent publication that it is.  Respectfully submitted,  Bob Cowan  187 OHS Business  Secretary's Report  I have attended to all correspondence during the year and have sent letters  re the complimentary resolutions. But I would request that each branch  send a complete list of outlets where our report is sold plus the correct call  letters of each radio station, TV station, newspapers, and any other outlets  that are used for publicity. Please send the correct addresses and call letters,  as I understand some of these have changed. Thank you.  Respectfully submitted,  Ermie Iceton  Auditors' Report  To The Members of The Okanagan Historical Society  We have audited the statements of receipts and disbursements for the  General Account, the Bagnall Trust and the Father Pandosy Mission  Committee for the year ended December 31, 1991. These financial statements are the responsibility of the Society's officers. Our responsibility is to  express an opinion on these financial statements, based on our audit.  We conducted our audit in accordance with generally accepted  auditing standards. Those standards require that we plan and perform an  audit to obtain reasonable assurance whether the financial statements are  free of material misstatement. An audit includes examining, on a test basis,  evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. An audit also includes assessing the accounting principles used and  significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall  financial statement presentation. It was not practical to extend our audit  procedures sufficiently to satisfy ourselves as to the fairness of reported  receipts from operations.  In our opinion, except for the effects of adjustments, if any, which we  might have determined to be necessary had we been able to carry out the  audit procedures referred to in the preceding paragraph, these financial  statements present fairly, in all material respects, the results of the Society's  operations for the year ended December 31, 1991 in accordance with  generally accepted accounting principles. As required by the B.C. Societies  Act, we report that in our opinion, these principles have been applied on  a basis consistent with that of the preceding year.  March 20, 1992 Collins Barrow  Vernon, B.C. Chartered Accountants  188 OHS Business  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  (General Account)  Year Ended December 31, 1991  RECEIPTS                                                                1991 1990  Memberships and sales  Armstrong/Enderby/Salmon Arm $ 3,504. $ 4,198.  Kelowna 3,600. 4,223.  Oliver/Osoyoos 1,680. 2,758.  Penticton/Summerland  4,200. 1,720.  Vernon 1,804. 1,847.  Treasurer and commercial 2,926. 3,609.  17,714. 18,355.  Interest and exchange  2,580. 2,401.  Donations 252. 963.  20,546. 21,719.  DISBURSEMENTS  Honorarium 750. 300.  Leonard Norris plaque 0. 807.  Postage and office supplies 1,220. 744-  Printing and copying 13,669. 15,289.  Prizes 150. 271.  Professional fees 734. 580.  Telephone and miscellaneous 714. 285.  17,237. 18,276.  EXCESS OF RECEIPTS OVER  DISBURSEMENTS 3,309. 3,443.  CASH ON HAND BEGINNING  OF YEAR 27,242. 23,799.  CASH ON HAND END OF YEAR $ 30,551. $ 27,242.  189 OHS Business  Finance Committee Report  An area of obvious savings is our audit. We are very grateful to Lett Trickey  for many past years of complimentary audits; however, present cost of five  to seven hundred dollars are really not necessary given the nature of our  organization. Therefore, I would recommend the following resolution be  passed: That we authorize the Executive Council to appoint a competent  person or persons to review the financial operations for 1992 and produce  a financial statement for the membership.  Respectfully submitted,  Gifford Thomson  Chairman  Armstrong/Enderby Branch Report  Our Armstrong-Enderby Branch has members who thoroughly enjoy our  social events and who actively support the writing and marketing of our  Reports.  Our branch meetings have been very successful when all the speakers  focus on a single theme idea. In November, a large crowd gathered in  Armstrong to hear Eleanore Bolton, Beryl Wamboldt and Bill Whitehead  reminisce about the Depression of the 1930s. In addition to these speakers,  the general membership contributed to the discussion with many of their  own memories or stories from their families.  At our A.G.M. and pot luck supper in Enderby on March 27th, the  theme was the 100th Anniversary of the Spallumcheen area. The three  speakers were Helen Inglis, Frank Hassard and Jim Sharman. They spoke on  the early pioneer history, a family history and the early missionaries,  respectively.  A committee was formed at the annual meeting to look into the  feasibility of refurbishing and maintaining the Lansdowne Cemetery that is  located between Armstrong and Enderby. Committee members Sandy  Bonin, Jim Sharman, Bill Whitehead and Bert Marshall will report their  findings at our next branch meeting.  Sales of the 55th Report and back issues were extremely good in the  pre-Christmas season, and our branch intends to do some aggressive  marketing in the coming year.  Respectfully submitted,  Jessie Ann Gamble  President  Kelowna Branch Report  This draws to a close my two years as president of the Kelowna branch. I  hope they have been productive. The various projects and concerns with  which we have concerned ourselves over the year are as follows:  190 OHS Business  The perennial chase of the City of Kelowna in relation to street names.  It was felt that the City really did not have a policy in connection with street  names. The concern of the branch was that names of pioneer citizens should  be used as names for new roads and streets in the city. If such a policy were  followed, it would help preserve these names, which are a part of our history  and heritage. A number of meetings have been held with the City, and it  is hoped that progress is being made.  We have discussed the matter of the historic St. Andrews Church in  Okanagan Mission. We have notified the Church Board of our concerns  about the future of this unique building, and will keep informed as to  progress in this matter.  The branch has continued discussion with the City concerning the  Oliver Jackson Totem Pole. At the present time it is in the hands of the  City, being restored (some rotting at the base of this pole) and repainted.  It will then be returned to a site in City Park, where it will be enjoyed. Our  branch has paid half of the costs of having a suitable plaque made, and this  will be affixed to the pole once it has been returned to the park.  The branch has sponsored a series of bus tours, which proved to be as  successful as ever. These tours, and the local "lecture series" provide our  members, and the public at large, with yet more opportunities to actually  experience history. Both are extremely successful, thanks in great measure  to the hard work put into them by their respective committees.  Our branch has continued to lend its support to the Buckland Family  Bursary. This bursary is awarded to a student in the Central Okanagan who  displays an interest and strength in the study of history, and is going on to  Okanagan College. We have started the tradition of inviting the successful  candidate to our A.G.M. so our members can meet him/her.  We donated $ 100 to Penticton for their excellent restoration program on  the S.S. Sicamous, and in appreciation of their assistance relative to our bus tours.  Our branch adopted a set of guidelines for appointment of Kelowna  Branch Life Members, as a means of recognizing those individuals who have  contributed to the preservation of history locally.  We arranged with the local college to hold and make available for  research purposes the Historic Tapes (of local pioneers) which were  prepared by CKOV Radio on the 50th anniversary of the incorporation of  the City of Kelowna. These tapes, some thirty-seven in number, are an  excellent primary source of historic information, and are now in the safe  keeping of the College. They will be made available to interested parties.  Our branch kept a copy of each, and it is hope that we will in future obtain  archival-quality copies as well as transcriptions.  We have started a project, introduced to us by a local firm, to videotape old photographs, then using suitable texts and back ground music  create a video of local history. The first tape will be of a general nature, while  later ones will deal with various themes such as the orchard industry or  191 OHS Business  transportation. These tapes will then be available to the general public and  our members.  In recognition of the good work of the Okanagan Military Museum,  the branch donated $100.00 to their coffers.  Our branch took some steps towards persuading the City of Kelowna  to purchase the old CPR and CNR tugs, though the CNR tug was sold before  the City could act on it.  My sincere thanks to all the directors for their help and co-operation  over the years. It is with some regret that I leave the board after several years,  although I think that my Partners would substitute the word "relief for the  word "regret!"  Respectfully submitted,  James T. F. Horn  President  Oliver/Osoyoos Branch Report  The branch held two general meetings and four executive meetings during  the year. At our November general meeting, Osoyoos pioneer, Dorothy  Fraser, was our guest speaker. In addition, Jean Webber gave a very  interesting historical report on the life of Steve Mepham of Osoyoos.  We again participated with the Heritage Society in operating a booth at  the Oliver Home and Trade Show. Here we sold a number of the latest edition  of Okanagan History as well as many back editions. We also had draws for sets  of back issues.  We were impressed with the seminar on interviewing techniques  given by Mike Roberts and funded by New Horizons. Hopefully, we will put  these skills to good use in recording the history of our pioneers.  We have proceeded with the fencing of both Fairview and McKinney  Cemeteries and are in the process of providing plaques for them.  Bernard Webber of our branch is to be commended for his success in  reviving the Similkameen branch.  Our A.G.M. in March was very well attended. Our agenda included  a local historical reminiscence of the life of pioneer Alice Thompson,  daughter of Val Haynes. This was followed by a well presented program on  the MacKenzie Trail by John Woodworth. After a brief business meeting,  we all enjoyed an excellent pot luck supper.  Unfortunately, our participation in the Osoyoos Pioneer Walkway  has been put on hold due to lack of funding. Our committee is ready for  action as soon as moneys are available to complete the project.  A new project this year has been the presentation of a Pioneer Award  in conjunction with the local Chamber of Commerce at their annual  awards banquet. The trophy was carved by Carlton MacNaughton. The  recipients of our first award were the Evans family who came to Oliver in  1926. Sixty years later, six of the seven Evans children are still actively  192 OHS Business  involved in serving our community.  Respectfully submitted,  T. J. Sarell  President  Penticton Branch Report  We have had an active year with three general meetings, four executive  meetings, and a special committee meeting. At our fall meeting in October,  we travelled via slide show and narration by Mr. John N. Woodworth,  Kelowna, along the MacKenzie Grease Trail. Morrie Thomas told us of life  in Okanagan Falls at our February meeting. Winston Pilling, Princeton,  spoke at our April A.G.M. on the Blakeburn Mine Disaster of 1930. Mr.  Pilling was employed at the mine at the time.  A committee of seven members prepared a written brief to the Ministry  of Forests regarding the abandoned KVR Corridor from Glenfir to Midway.  A delegation of four members met with Mr. Bill Webster who is  conducting a study of the Parks and Recreation Facilities for the City of  Penticton.  With tour guides Randy Manuel and Doug Cox, we held a successful  bus tour to the Keremeos Grist Mill.  Our membership remains steady at approximately 125 members. Report  sales have been actively carried out at our general meetings, two mall sales, and  through the Penticton Museum, Okanagan Books, and Summerland Book  Store and Bazaar.  We congratulate Life Member Joe Harris who was named Good  Citizen of the Year by the Downtown Rotary Club. In closing we regret the  passing of Life Member and Penticton Branch Director, Hugh Cleland.  Respectfully submitted,  Olive Evans  President  Salmon Arm Branch Report  This is going to be a very brief report. Many good things were intended, but  much procrastination followed.  Mike Roberts gave an excellent presentation on interviewing to a  large number, most of whom were not members of the O.H.S. (but we sold  them memberships!). Since then we have been meaning to interview all  sorts of people. I think our list extends to some sixteen, who are of priority  concern. To date we do not have an interview, yet at each monthly meeting  three or four people say they have good intentions. The proof of the pudding  is yet to be sampled.  Our editorial staff have been busy, as you will note in the 5 5 th Report.  They are currently working on other contributions for the next issue  together with obituaries.  Last August we took a bus trip (42 people) to Wilfred and Isobel  193 OHS Business  Simard's at Kingfisher/Mabel Lake. We each had our brown bag lunch as we  wandered through the collection of items that most of us at one time lived  with and which are now considered antiques. Where does that leave us?  The Petersons kindly give us the use of their home for our monthly  meetings and also for the Christmas party, which considering the weather,  was well attended. Bill Leister gave an amusing poem that brought many a  smile to our faces as we related to his words.  The third annual meeting of the branch was held on April 26th with  seventy in attendance. The featured speaker was Mary Thomas, an elder in  the Niskonlith Band, who reviewed her work chronicling the history of the  Shuswap Nation.  Respectfully submitted,  Joan Idington  Similkameen Branch Report  The meeting to plan the formation of the branch occurred on October 21st  1991 through the diligent efforts of Bernard Webber. The organizational  meeting was held on November 17th. A slate of officers was elected.  The branch holds their meetings monthly and has thirty-five members to date. Our main project has been the taping of interviews with the  "Old Timers" of the Similkameen. Our editorial chairman, Cass Robinson,  is handling this project capably. Secure storage for tapes has been obtained  at the School District No. 16 Board Office.  Plans are being made to co-operate with the Keremeos Village  Council in having a commemorative "wind mill" incorporated into the  proposed Village Square project at the site where such a wind mill was  located in the early 1900s.  The last time this branch was active was in the 1970s when Gint  Cawston, Sam Manery, Mary Walters and many other old timers were  active. It is hoped now that while some of the pioneers are still here the  organization will gain momentum and attract younger members who will be  enthusiastic in carrying on the work of the society. Poor health has already  cost us the services of our most capable secretary, Mae McCague, who in the  first few months organized the branch in a very efficient manner. The  original editorial chairman was also forced to resign because of ill health, but  Cass Robinson is filling this position very capably. We are always pleased  to see younger members join the branch, and welcome their interest,  enthusiasm and energy.  Respectfully submitted,  Charles Finch  President  194 OHS Business  Vernon Branch Report  We are pleased to report that for our fiscal year (April to March) that it has  been a very good term. Membership has improved under the guidance of Pat  Collins and Jean Humphreys. They have done a marvellous job of rounding  up delinquent members. Each meeting has added chairs until sixty-four  were required for the last gathering in March. Much of this interest can be  attributed to the variety and quality of the seven speakers rounded up by the  program chairman, Jack Morrison.  Book sales both from the latest Report and accumulated dispersal of  back issues, under the guidance of Phyllis McKay, have swelled our coffers  also.  We have had three major bus tours organized by Bob de Pfyffer. These  popular events are to continue with a May jaunt which is practically sold  out.  With a healthy bank balance, we are looking forward to preparing for  the Vernon Centennial which will include the A.G.M. for the society. Our  committees under the direction of convenor Mary Ellison Bailey are pulling  out all the stops to make it a success. Undoubtedly our bank balance will  read a point or two lower in June, but it is an event that we are proud to be  able to host.  In keeping with any organization reporting favourably, the results are  attributable to the dedicated executives and committees. To them I am  deeply indebted for their unwavering help.  Respectfully submitted,  Doug Kermode  President  Historical Trails Committee Report  The committee has the following activities to report:  1. Okanagan Brigade Trail  At Nahun, on the west side of Okanagan Lake north of Kelowna, an  attractive section of the trail was covered by rubble from construction on  Westside Road above, and in 1991 most of this was removed by the Ministry  of Transportation and Highways. Although the trail was not restored to its  original condition, the committee felt that the work done was all that we  could reasonably expect.  At the urging of the committee, the Central Okanagan Regional  District has started a planning study of the recreational and heritage  features on the west side of Okanagan Lake north of Kelowna. The purpose  is to identify significant features and recommend ways in which they can be  integrated into a public park system, and preserved for public use.  The committee has a representative on the Steering Committee  overseeing the project.  195 OHS Business  2. Rails-to-Trails Symposium - Outdoor Recreation Council  The committee had two members attend the symposium in Kelowna  in November 1991, sponsored by the Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C.,  on the use of abandoned railway rights-of-way. Arising out of the symposium was a suggested provincial strategy for these rights-of-way.  The committee intends to keep abreast of the current developments  proposed by the Council, and advise the Executive.  3. Kettle Valley Railway Corridor Project  The committee had members attend the Kelowna workshop on the  use of the abandoned KVR right-of-way between Glenfir and Midway. The  workshop was one of three, and was sponsored by the Ministry of Forests. On  behalf of the O.H.S., the committee submitted comments to the Ministry.  4. Liaison with Alexander Mackenzie Trail Association (AMTA)  The committee has d iscussed with J ohn Woodworth of the AMTA, the  question of support for a horse brigade from Alexandria to Fort Okanogan in  Washington in 1993, the bicentennial of the first crossing of North America.  The committee recommends that the Society support the concept, and  participate on the planning committee. No financial support is required.  5. Other Matters  These are interesting and exciting times for members of the Historical  Trails Committee and the O.H.S., and our activity is only limited by the amount  of time that we can devote to local and regional history. The committee feels  that the Society has fulfilled a major role in the recognition and promotion of  Okanagan History throughout the Valley and the Province, and that it should  continue in this role.  The committee unfortunately lost the services of Jim Horn, who  resigned in April 1992. We were grateful to Jim for his council, and for the  use of his office in Kelowna for meetings.  Respectfully Submitted,  Peter Tassie, Chairman  Pat Carew, Harley Hatfield, Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber  Father Pandosy Mission Committee Report  The Mission continues to be a popular place for visitors and residents alike.  Over this past year our emphasis has been the procurement of a long term  lease and restorative work on the Christian house. I am pleased to report  that both have been achieved.  The continuing growth of Kelowna has brought both positive and  negative results to the Mission site. Vandalism and theft has increased at an  alarming rate. This year, the committee's priority will be to secure the site.  The volunteer crew from the O.H.S. and the Knights of Columbus  continue to answer the call in assisting our caretaker and summer students  196 OHS Business  in keeping the site presentable and interesting for all those that seek a quiet  place to dwell on our historic past.  Respectfully submitted,  Denis W. Maclnnis  Chairman  Index Committee  We are pleased to report that the Index of Annual Reports 51 - 55 is  virtually complete and ready for publication as a supplement to the first  Index. It will be published in a book form similar in format to the Index of  Reports 1-50, and will be available to branches for sale shortly.  It is recommended that the committee continue to exist in order to  index each new Report as it is published.  Respectfully submitted,  David MacDonald  Chairman  Project Interview Committee  The reasons for not collecting more stories from our "Old Timers" included  the fact that those individuals who are interested in accumulating the  desired material do not have the skills of an interviewer. This worry  appeared to exist to some extent in each of our branches. Last year, I  reported that action to correct this situation was under way with the  assistance of Mike Roberts, known to all as the Weatherman of CHBC TV.  A one-day seminar was held in Salmon Arm, Vernon, Kelowna,  Penticton, and Oliver with Mike Roberts attending at each location. A  package consisting of a tape recorder, batteries and battery charger, tapes  and a head cleaner was purchased for each branch.  The exercise was generally considered a resounding success with a  total of 130 people attending the various seminars. The enthusiasm in each  location was without bounds. The local directors arranged for space, food  and drink. They co-operated in every way with the organizers, for which we  thank them.  It now remains for the leadership within each branch to set up some  sort of an organization to record the names of those who ought to be  interviewed. Using our newly trained interviewers, they should set up a  working schedule of interviews. The editor can only use so many stories  each year, but wouldn't it be nice if each branch had a file of stories ready  to submit. It is generally conceded that without an active follow-up of this  nature, the whole exercise will have been for naught.  Respectfully submitted,  Arthur Strandquist  Secretary  197 OHS Business  Bagnall Committee  I phoned Dr. Duane Thomson on Monday 6 April 1992 to find out how his  book was coming along. He has recently been tapping a new source of  information which makes it necessary for him to revise some of his work and  extend it. This will set back the completion of the book. More research is  involved. Dr. Thomson now has a reasonable expectation that the book will  be ready for the publisher in September 1993.  In conclusion, I must say how much we deplore the unfortunate  circumstances which make it impossible for Mr. Stuart Fleming, as I  understand it, to complete his book. We all wish him an early return to  health.  Respectfully submitted,  Bernard Webber  Chairman  O.H.S. Local Branch Officers  1992-1993  At the 1992 AGM in Vernon. From left: Hjalmar  Peterson, Hume Powley, Yvonne McDonald and  Joe Biollo.  198 OHS Business  Salmon Arm  PRESIDENT: Joan Idington; VICE-PRESIDENT: Tom Smith; SECRETARY: Nancy  Gale; TREASURER: Lillian Smiley; DIRECTORS: Florence Farmer, Mary Harrington,  Ron Willey; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Yvonne McDonald.  Armstrong-Enderby  PAST-PRESIDENT: Jessie Ann Gamble; PRESIDENT: Jim Sharman; VICE-PRESIDENT: Gerrie Danforth; SECRETARY: Pam Booth; TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton;  DIRECTORS: Pat Romaine, Ellen Laine; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Lorna Carter, Bob  Nitchie, Jessie Ann Gamble, Bill Whitehead.  Vernon  HONOURARY PRESIDENT: Dr. Margaret Ormsby; PRESIDENT: Doug Kermode; VICE-  PRESIDENT: Jack Morrison; SECRETARY: Helen Inglis; TREASURER: Betty Holtskog;  PAST PRESIDENT: Lucy McCormick; DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Hugh Caley, Ruth  Caley, Pat Collins, Jean Humphreys, Audley Holt, Paddy Mackie, Doug Scott; PUBLICITY:  Ruth Caley; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Lucy McCormick, Carol Mellows, Beryl  Wamboldt.  Kelowna  PRESIDENT: Robert Hayes; 1st VICE-PRESIDENT: Alice Lundy; 2nd VICE-PRESIDENT: Art Strandquist; SECRETARY: Joan Chamberlain; TREASURER: Gifford  Thomson; PAST-PRESIDENT: James T.F. Horn; DIRECTORS: Pat Carew, Joan Chamberlain, Eric Chapman, Mona Dow, James Hayes, Bill Knowles, Robert Marriage, Frank  Pells, Irene Petterson, Hume Powley, Val Rampone, Jack Ritch, Peter Stirling, Doreen Tait,  Marie Wostradowski, Dorothy Zoellner; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Art Strandquist,  Fred Coe.  Penticton  HONOURARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; HONOURARY DIRECTOR: Angie  Waterman; PRESIDENT: Olive Evans; VICE-PRESIDENT: Vacant; SECRETARY: Frances  Yolland; TREASURER: Dave McFarland; DIRECTORS: Louise Atkinson, Joe Biollo,  Mollie Broderick, Bob Gibbard, Claude Hammell, Dave MacDonald, Randy Manuel, Effie  MacRae-Fraser, John Ortiz, Polly Stapleton, Jim Torrance, Ethel Tily, Diane Truant;  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Betty Bork.  Oliver-Osoyoos  PRESIDENT: T.J. (Terry) Sarell; PAST PRESIDENT: Jean Webber; VICE-PRESIDENT:  Joy Overton; SECRETARY: Elaine Shannon; TREASURER: Frances Mitchell; DIRECTORS: Carleton MacNaughton, Connie Cumine, Stanley Dickson, Bernard Webber, Alice  Francis, Blaine Francis, Harry Weatherill, Stella Weatherill, Joan Wight, Joan Casorso,  Victor Casorso; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Doris McDonald, Isabel MacNaughton, Jean  Webber.  Similkameen  PRESIDENT: Charles L. Finch; VICE-PRESIDENT: J.C. Stranart; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Mildred E. Finch; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Cass Robinson.  199 OHS Membership  Okanagan Historical Society  Membership List: 1992  Life Members  Berry, Mrs. A.E., Vernon, B.C.  Broderick, Mrs. Mollie,  Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Cochrane, Mrs. Hilda, Vernon, B.C.  Corbishley, Donald, Oliver, B.C.  Gamble, Mrs. Jessie Ann,  Armstrong, B.C.  Gardner, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon, B.C.  Harris, Joseph, Penticton, B.C.  Hatfield, Harley R., Penticton, B.C.  Iceton, Mrs. Ermie, Oliver, B.C.  Lewis, Mrs. Dorothea, Osoyoos, B.C.  MacDonald, David, Penticton, B.C.  MacNaughton, F. Carleton, Oliver, B.C.  Marriage, Robert, Kelowna, B.C.  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, Vernon, B.C.  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna, B.C.  Robey, Ronald, Vernon, B.C.  Tassie, Peter, Vernon, B.C.  Wamboldt, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon, B.C.  Waterman, Miss Dolly, Osoyoos, B.C.  Waterman, Mrs. Angeline,  Penticton, B.C.  Webber, Bernard, Osoyoos, B.C.  Webber, Mrs. Jean, Osoyoos, B.C.  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong, B.C.  Wilson, J. Victor H., Naramata, B.C.  Zoellner, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna, B.C.  Individual Members  Adam, Charles, Kelowna, B.C.  Advocaat, Bertha, Keremeos, B.C.  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver, B.C.  Alexander, Mrs. M.H., Vernon, B.C.  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley, B.C.  Allen, Fred, Vernon, B.C.  Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Herb,  Penticton, B.C.  Allen, Mrs. Jessie A., Kaleden, B.C.  Allsup, Curtis, Kelowna, B.C.  Alton, Mrs. G.W. "Skip", Victoria, B.C.  Amis, Dorothy A.,  Hot Springs, Arizona  Amor, Mrs. Dorothy, Oliver, B.C.  Anderson, Elot, Kelowna, B.C.  Andrews, G.M., Burnaby, B.C.  Armstrong, Julia, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Arnold, Gilbert N., Winfield, B.C.  Arychuk, Rita, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Askew, Lloyd & Dorothy,  Salmon Ann, B.C.  Atkinson, Louise, Summerland, B.C.  Atkinson, Mrs. William,  Summerland, B.C.  Baird, Audrey,Enderby, B.C.  Baird, Marion, Enderby, B.C.  Barkwill, Harry J., Summerland, B.C.  Barman, Jean Vancouver, B.C.  Basham, Dave 6k Betty, Creston, B.C.  Basham, John & Annie, Kelowna, B.C.  Batten, Marion, Osoyoos, B.C.  Battye, Clement, Penticton, B.C.  Bauer, Tony, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Bawtree, Len, Enderby, B.C.  Beairsto, Colin, Old Crow, Yukon  Beames, T.B., Ladysmith, B.C.  Beckett, Bernice, Armstrong, B.C.  Berry, Eldred, Vancouver, B.C.  Berry, Janet, Oliver, B.C.  Bird, C, Armstrong, B.C.  Birnie, Margaret, Vernon, B.C.  Biro, John W., Keremeos, B.C.  Blake, Mrs. Vera, Sydney, B.C.  Blow, Robert W., Armstrong, B.C.  Blundell, Peter, Vernon, B.C.  Boersma, A.J., Penticton, B.C.  Bolton, Bruce & Eleanore, Vernon, B.C.  Bond, Joan, Enderby, B.C.  Booth, Mrs. Margaret,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Bork, Elizabeth, Okanagan Falls, B.C.  200 OHS Membership  Borkwood, Mr. 6kMrs. J.E., Pictou,N.S.  Boss, Rawleigh, Armstrong, B.C.  Bowen-Colthurst, Mr. & Mrs. T.G.  Ladysmith, B.C.  Bowsher, A.P. , Calgary, Alta.  Bramble, Alice, Enderby, B.C.  Brent, Fredrick J., Burnaby, B.C.  Brink, V.C, Vancouver, B.C.  Briscall, Miss CM., Vancouver, B.C.  Brown, Mrs. Ada, West Vancouver, B.C.  Brown, Ed & Marion, Penticton, B.C.  Brown, D. Lillian, Armstrong, B.C.  Brown, John D., Vernon, B.C.  Brown, Mrs. J.C, Deep Creek, B.C.  Browne, Greg, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Bunce, Helen, Kelowna, B.C.  Burtch, A.H., Winfield, B.C.  Bush, Mrs. Agnes S., Cawston, B.C.  Butler, Mr. & Mrs. J.R., Penticton, B.C.  Byers, Don, Salmon Arm, B.C  Bylsma, H., Enderby, B.C.  Cail, Anna, Vernon, B.C.  Cain, Mrs. G., Armstrong, B.C.  Caley, Hugh & Ruth, Vernon, B.C.  Caley, Michael 6k Patricia,  Osoyoos, B.C.  Caley, Robert 6k Penny, Kelowna, B.C.  Cameron, Rob, Kelowna, B.C.  Cameron, W.J.V., Kelowna, B.C  Campbell, Barbara N.,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Campbell, Robert F., Tenace, B.C.  Cannings, Jean 6k Steve, Penticton, B.C.  Carbert, Gordon, Rimbey, Alta.  Carbert, Maynard, Enderby, B.C.  Carew, Patrick, Kelowna, B.C.  Carlton, Sylvia, Enderby, B.C.  Carstens, Peter, Toronto, Ont.  Carter, Rosemary, Winfield, B.C.  Catchpole, Diana M., Delta, B.C.  Chamberlain, Fred, Kelowna, B.C.  Chamberlain, Trevor W., Guelph, Ont.  Chapman, R.H., Penticton, B.C.  Chappell, Eileen, Kelowna, B.C.  Charles, Mary 6k Walter ,  Summerland, B.C.  Chesterton, Camilla L., Penticton, B.C.  Clark, Janette, Enderby, B.C.  Clarke, K.D., Kelowna, B.C.  Clarke, Robert, North Vancouver, B.C.  Clayton, F. 6k M., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Cleaver, William H., Kelowna, B.C.  Clerke, Robert, Vernon, B.C.  Cochrane, Winnifred,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Codd, Maxine, Tappen, B.C.  Coe, Mr. 6k Mrs. E.W., Kelowna, B.C.  Coe, Fred, Kelowna, B.C.  Collins, Patricia, Vernon, B.C.  Colquhoun, Gordon, Vancouver, B.C.  Constable, Mr. 6k Mrs. Frank,  Kelowna, B.C.  Cools, A.E., Vernon, B.C.  Cooper, I., Armstrong, B.C.  Corner, John, Vernon, B.C.  Cossentine, Jack, Penticton, B.C.  Cousins, Verne M. 6k Jean,  Peachland, B.C.  Couves, C.S., Kelowna, B.C.  Cowan, Bob 6k Joani, Enderby, B.C.  Cowan, Evangeline, Palo Alto, Calif.  Cox, Doug, Pentiction, B.C.  Craig, Mr. 6k Mrs. Alex, Vernon, B.C.  Crawford, Elmer, Celista, B.C.  Crerar, D.C, Enderby, B.C.  Crerar, R.D., Parksville, B.C.  Cretin, Harry W., Kelowna, B.C.  Crosby, Beryl C, Parksville, B.C.  Crowe, Mrs. D.A.S., Parksville, B.C  Cruzman, R. 6k G., Vernon, B.C.  Curtis, Maureen, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Danallanko, Shirley , Armstrong, B.C.  Danforth, Gerrie, Enderby, B.C.  Davidson, Ross, Armstrong, B.C.  Davison, Henry 6k Ruby, Enderby, B.C.  Davyduke, Elmer , Enderby, B.C.  D'Avila, Joseph M., Oliver, B.C.  Dawe, Arthur S., Kamloops, B.C.  Delaney, Anita, Palo Alto, Calif.  Delcourt, Darryl, Kelowna, B.C.  Delcourt, Diana, Kelowna, B.C.  Delcourt, Glenn, Kelowna, B.C.  Demara, Bob 6k Bernice, Kelowna, B.C.  DeMontreuil, Mrs. John, Kelowna, B.C.  201 OHS Membership  dePfyffer, Robert L., Vernon, B.C.  Deuling, Phyllis, Lumby, B.C.  Dewdney, Edgar 6k Marilyn,  Penticton, B.C.  Dewdney, Jim 6k Connie,  Penticton, B.C.  Dillman, Emily, Kelowna, B.C.  Doeksen, Rijn 6k Bessie, Kelowna, B.C.  Dow, Mona, Kelowna, B.C  Downs, Art, Surrey, B.C.  Doyle, Rev. W. Emmett, Nelson, B.C.  Dunkley, M.J. 6k N., Kamloops, B.C.  Dyck, Jack, Vernon, B.C.  Dyson, Robert T., Vernon, B.C.  Eagan, Mrs. C.E., San Leandro, Calif.  Eichinger, Paul, Enderby, B.C.  Elliott, Doreen, Vernon, B.C  Embree, Alice, Vancouver, B.C.  Embree, Rev. Dr. Bernard,  Coquitlam, B.C.  Emeny, Alice, Enderby, B.C.  Emerson, Marybelle, Kelowna, B.C.  Evans, W. Robert 6k Olive,  Penticton, B.C.  Fanner, Florence, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Farmer, Joy 6k Pat, Enderby, B.C.  Faulks, Dean, Vernon, B.C.  Favali, Marjorie 6k Mike, Kelowna, B.C  Feazel, Pat, Armstrong, B.C.  Ferlizza, Shannon, Penticton, B.C.  Field, Edna, Kelowna, B.C.  Finch, C L., Keremeos, B.C.  Findlay, Raymond W., Kaleden, B.C.  Fisher, D.V. 6k D.E., Summerland, B.C.  Flint, Bill, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Follmer, Elizabeth, Kelowna, B.C.  Forster, Mrs. W.M., Enderby, B.C  Fournier, Sandy, Enderby, B.C.  Frank, Mr. 6k Mrs. J.F., Oliver, B.C.  Fraser, Douglas P., Osoyoos, B.C.  Fredericks, M., Enderby, B.C.  French, Margaret E., Kingston, Ont.  Fridge, Anne, Peachland, B.C.  Froehlich, Mr. S., Summerland, B.C.  Fulker, Christopher, Vancouver, B.C.  Fuller, Mr. 6k Mrs. Cecil,  Thorndale, Ont.  Gaddes, Joyce S., Victoria, B.C.  Gale, J.L., Penticton, B.C.  Gamble, Bruce, Evanston, 111.  Gardner, Mrs. A.E., Vernon, B.C.  Gardner, Bunny, Enderby, B.C  Gardner, Mr. E., Vernon, B.C  Garlinge, Beth, Peachland, B.C.  Gartrell, Dr. Beverly, Vancouver, B.C.  Gatacre, Dave, Armstrong, B.C.  Gibson, Paul M., Calgary, Alta.  Gillard, David A., Ottawa, Ont.  Gislason, Dr. 6k Mrs. I.L., Orange, Calif.  Glaicar, Marjorie, Armstrong, B.C.  Glanville, J.B., Grand Forks, B.C.  Gobeil, Rose, Grand Forks, B.C.  Godwin, W. Lester, Penticton, B.C.  Gonchais, Walter, Armstrong, B.C.  Goodfellow, Ruth 6k Eric,  Princeton, B.C.  Goodridge, David J., Canoe, B.C.  Gordon, Rae A., North Vancouver, B.C.  Gore, R.C, Kelowna, B.C.  Gore, Mrs. W.B., Westbank, B.C.  Graham, Beatrice, Mission, B.C.  Graham, Glenn, Penticton, B.C.  Graham, Mrs. Janet E.V.,  East Kelowna, B.C.  Green, George, Kelowna, B.C.  Green, James 6k Katherine,  Vernon, B.C.  Green, Marie, Kelowna, B.C.  Greenwood, E., Armstrong, B.C.  Gregory, Dr. David, Summerland, B.C.  Griffin, Lucas, Westbank, B.C.  Griswold, June, Enderby, B.C.  Hall, Dennis R., Osoyoos, B.C.  Hall, Mabel V., Kelowna, B.C.  Hall, Richard, Kelowna, B.C.  Halvorson, Elmer, Enderby, B.C.  Hamilton, W.D., West Vancouver, B.C.  Hammell, H.W., Kelowna, B.C.  Hammell, Mr. T.C., Penticton, B.C.  Hammond, Stan, Armstrong, B.C.  202 OHS Membership  Hancock, Gerald, Enderby, B.C.  Harper, H. 6k R., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Hanis, Edith, Vernon, B.C.  Harris, Mary E., Vancouver, B.C.  Hanis, R.C, West Vancouver, B.C.  Harrison, Frank, Armstrong, B.C.  Hawrys, Joe, Enderby, B.C.  Hawrys, Nora, Grindrod, B.C  Hawrys, George, Grindrod, B.C.  Hayes, Robert, Kelowna, B.C.  Hayes, W.D. 6k J.H., Kelowna, B.C.  Haynes, Jessie 6k Sterling,  Westbank, B.C.  Hayward, A.M., Clearbrook, B.C.  Heriot, Joan, Vernon, B.C.  Hermiston, Mrs. Rita,  Summerland, B.C.  Hobbs, Rose, Burnaby, B.C.  Hobson, Marjorie, Kelowna, B.C.  Hoey, Harold, Penticton, B.C.  Holland, Maggie, Kelowna, B.C.  Holmer, Mrs. Jean, Burnaby, B.C.  Holmes, Mrs. Mabel, Osoyoos, B.C.  Holt, Audley, Lumby, B.C.  Hope, D. 6k M., Armstrong, B.C.  Horn, James T.F., Kelowna, B.C.  Howes, Edna, 100 Mile House, B.C.  Hucal, Nancy, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Huddleston, Peggy, Enderby, B.C.  Humphreys, Jean I., Vernon, B.C.  Hutchison, W.R., Enderby, B.C.  Iceton, Eddie 6k Helen,  Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Iceton, Mark 6k Elaine,  Whitehorse, Y.T.  Iceton, Russell 6k Connie,  Black Diamond, Alta.  Iceton, Terry 6k Shirlee, Olds, Alta.  Iceton, Tim 6k Lorena, Edmonton, Alta.  Idington, Joan, Tappen, B.C.  Imbeau, Irene, Enderby, B.C.  Imredy, Doreen, Vancouver, B.C.  Inglis, Mildred, Armstrong, B.C.  Inkster, Dr. W. Harcus, Vernon, B.C.  Innes, Ross, Penticton, B.C.  Ireland, Mr. 6k Mrs. J.K.H.,  Queen Charlotte City, B.C.  Jackson, H.W., Vancouver, B.C.  Jackson, Merv, Enderby, B.C.  Jackson, Sheila, Hixon, B.C.  James, Dorothy, Vernon, B.C.  Jamieson, Allen, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Jamieson, E.E., Vernon, B.C.  Jamieson, K. 6k P., Nanaimo, B.C  Jamieson, Mr. 6k Mrs. R.A.,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Janes, Miss Erma, Vancouver, B.C.  Janes, Ralph, Winfield, B.C.  Jefferies, Frank, Kelowna, B.C  Jensen, Roily M., Kelowna, B.C  Johnson, George, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Johnson, Robert T.,  Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Johnson, Ryan, Oliver, B.C.  Johnston, Ben, Enderby, B.C.  Johnston, H.W., Summerland, B.C.  Jones, Mrs. Kathy, Victoria, B.C.  Jordan, Dr. 6k Mrs. L.T., Vernon, B.C.  Kenyon, Gordon 6k Nan,  Penticton, B.C.  King, Avery 6k Daphne, Penticton, B.C.  King, Rosemary, Kelowna, B.C.  Kinloch, David F.B., Vernon, B.C  Knowles, C.W., Kelowna, B.C.  Kobayashi, Anthony T., Winfield, B.C.  Koersen, Bill, Enderby, B.C.  Laidlaw, Mrs. Gladys, Summerland, B.C.  Laine, Ellen, Enderby, B.C.  Lambert, Ben M., Oliver, B.C.  Landon, Mr. 6k Mrs. G.B.,  Armstrong, B.C.  Latrace, Ernest 6k Ethel,  Armstrong, B.C.  Laviolette, Ernie, Cherryville, B.C.  Law, Mr. 6k Mrs. C.E., Keremeos, B.C.  Lawrence, Mrs. George, Keremeos, B.C.  Lazzaroto, Jean, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Leah, Dorothy, Vernon, B.C.  203 OHS Membership  LeDuc, Barb 6k Burt, Kamloops, B.C.  Legg, Peter, Vernon, B.C.  Leggitt, A. Helen, Kelowna, B.C.  Leister, Bill, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Leitner, Sylvia, Vernon, B.C.  Lines, Mike 6k Bev, Vernon, B.C.  Lockner, Bradley, Oshawa, Ont.  Lonsdale, Richard, Vernon, B.C.  Loomer, Mr. 6k Mrs. Ian,  Penticton, B.C.  Loos, Frank, Weyburn, Sask.  Lowrey, Linda, Hamilton, Ont.  Lumsden, Clara, Enderby, B.C.  Lumsden, Harry, Enderby, B.C.  Lumsden, Reg, Enderby, B.C.  Lundy, Alice, Kelowna, B.C.  McBeth, R. 6k L, Baldonnel, B.C  McCann, Leonard G.,Vancouver, B.C.  McCarthy, Jack, Winfield, B.C  McCormick, Lucy, Vernon, B.C.  McCoubrey, Mrs. Patricia,  Winfield, B.C.  McDonald, Brian, Grand Forks, B.C.  McDonald, Colin, Kelowna, B.C.  MacDonald, Elvie, Penticton, B.C.  McDonald, Dr. Sheila, Kelowna, B.C.  McDonald, Yvonne E.,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  McDonnell, Peter 6k Nancy  Okanagan Centre, B.C.  McEwen, Donald J., Grindrod, B.C.  McFarlen, Dean, Campbell River, B.C.  MacFarlan, Mrs. Robin, Calgary, Alta.  McFarland, June 6k Dave,  Penticton, B.C.  Maclnnis, Denis, Kelowna, B.C.  Mcintosh, Bob 6k Isabel, Penticton, B.C.  Mcintosh, R.D., Victoria, B.C.  MacKay, Phyllis, Vernon, B.C.  McKechnie, Lily, Armstrong, B.C.  McKeever, James L. 6k Katherine,  Vineland Station, Ont.  MacKenzie, Mrs. D.R., Mission, B.C.  MacKenzie, Mr. 6k Mrs. Elwood,  Kelowna, B.C.  McLachlan, Mr. 6k Mrs. Joe,  Summerland, B.C.  McLarty, R. Hugh, Kelowna, B.C.  McLennan, Mary 6k Don, Kelowna, B.C.  MacLeod, Charles, Princeton, B.C.  MacLeod, Kathleen, Kelowna, B.C.  MacLeod, Len, Vernon, B.C.  McLeod, J.C. 6k Muriel, Kelowna, B.C.  McMechan, A.D. 6k M.L.,  Summerland, B.C.  McMechan, Paul, Winfield, B.C  McMynn, J.D., Penticton, B.C  MacNaughton, Isabel, Oliver, B.C.  MacNaughton, Mr. 6k Mrs. J.B.,  Oliver, B.C.  MacNeil, Walter, Vernon, B.C  McQueen, Lillian, Enderby, B.C.  Maard, C. 6k H., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Mackie, Patrick, Vernon, B.C.  Madryga, Marcia, Kamloops, B.C.  Makella, John, Vernon, B.C.  Malpass, Olive, Enderby, B.C.  Mann, Florence, Enderby, B.C.  Manheim, Dr. 6k Mrs. E.,  Kansas City, Mo.  Marriott, Margaret 6k Frank,  Vernon, B.C.  Marshall, Denis, Vancouver, B.C.  Marshall, James, Summerland, B.C  Marshall, W.A., Enderby, B.C.  Marty, Arthur, Kelowna, B.C.  Mason, Ann, Vernon, B.C.  Mason, Gladys M., Vernon, B.C  Mathieson, Jean, Enderby, B.C.  Mathieson, Nellie, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Maw, Glen 6k Viva, Armstrong, B.C.  May, John, Enderby, B.C  May, Ken 6k Kathleen, Vernon, B.C.  Mayhead, Mr. 6k Mrs. J.W.,  Auckland, N.Z.  Maylor, Bill, Whitehorse, Y.T.  Mennell, J.M., Cawston, B.C.  Mervyn, Sasha, Kelowna, B.C  Middleton, Doug, Winfield, B.C.  Miller, Heather, Keremeos, B.C.  Milledge, Barbara, Kelowna, B.C.  Millin, Mrs. Molly, Westbank, B.C.  Mills, Dorothy E., Kamloops, B.C.  Mills, Mrs. Monica, Vernon, B.C.  204 OHS Membership  Mitchell, Mr. 6k Mrs. F.,  Armstrong, B.C.  Moen, Mara, Enderby, B.C.  Moffatt, Doug, Kelowna, B.C.  Moody, Mrs. E., New Westminster, B.C.  Morgan, Barbara, Kelowna, B.C.  Morrow, George, Vernon, B.C.  Morton, Jane, North Vancouver, B.C.  Moss, J. Patrick, Kelowna, B.C.  Moubray, Philip R., Kelowna, B.C.  Munn, A.R. Sandy, Summerland, B.C.  Munson, Stan 6k Fenella, Kelowna, B.C.  Murphy, T.G, Salmon Arm, B.C  Murrell, Holly M., Kelowna, B.C.  Nahirney, Denise, Kelowna, B.C.  Nahm, Tilman 6k Mae, Grindrod, B.C.  Naylor, E.E., Victoria, B.C  Neave, Greg, Didsbury, Alta.  Neave, Len, Edmonton, Alta.  Neave, Paddy, Lethbridge, Alta.  Neid, Mr. 6k Mrs. J.J., Blind Bay, B.C.  Neilson, H.S., Enderby, B.C.  Newton, Jim 6k Betty, Summerland, B.C.  Newton, Peter, Kelowna, B.C.  Nitchie, Robert, Armstrong, B.C.  Nordstrom, K., Armstrong, B.C.  Norman, W., Armstong, B.C.  Norris, Al, Kelowna, B.C.  Oberle, A.M.J., Armstrong, B.C.  Olever, Wynne, Kelowna, B.C.  Olsen, C Stuart, Kelowna, B.C.  Olson, Arvid, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Ord, Louise, Enderby, B.C  Ortiz, Mr. 6k Mrs. John E.,  Penticton, B.C  Osborn, Bill 6k June, Vernon, B.C.  Oswell, Michael G., Victoria, B.C.  Overton, Cyril, Oliver, B.C.  Painter, M.F., Vancouver, B.C.  Patterson, Alan, Kelowna, B.C.  Paynter, Henry O., Westbank, B.C.  Peacher, E., Enderby, B.C.  Peebles, Jack, Enderby, B.C.  Peel, Ted, Enderby, B.C.  Pells, Frank J., Kelowna, B.C.  Penner, Helen, Kelowna, B.C.  Peterman, Art 6k Anne, Oliver, B.C.  Peterson, Alf A., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Peterson, Elmer, Salmon Ann, B.C.  Peterson, Floyd B., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Peterson, Hjalmar, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Peterson, Hubert, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Petch, F. Jane, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Pinder, M.M., Yorkshire, England  Price, Doris, Kelowna, B.C.  Prosser, Alice W., Kelowna, B.C.  Reid, Bernice, Kelowna, B.C  Reid, Dennis, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Reid, Lorna 6k Joe, Grand Forks, B.C.  Reimche, Judy, Parksville, B.C.  Renaud, Mrs. Julie, Kelowna, B.C.  Rendell, Mada, Vernon, B.C.  Richards, David, Vernon, B.C.  Richards, R.F., Penticton, B.C.  Riley, Mr. 6k Mrs. J., Penticton, B.C.  Ritch, Jack, Kelowna, B.C.  Ritchie, Peter , Kelowna, B.C.  Ritchie, W.R., Cawston, B.C  Roberts, Clara 6k Peter, Enderby, B.C.  Roberts, Lois, Enderby, B.C.  Roberts, L. Donna, Naramata, B.C.  Robinson, Cass, Cawston, B.C.  Robinson, Hilda, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Rogers, Jim, Kelowna, B.C.  Romaine, J. Patrick ,  Armstrong, B.C  Ross, Dr. Douglas A., Victoria, B.C.  Rutherford, Elsie M., Kelowna, B.C.  Saddler, Delta, Langley, B.C.  Salter, Rev. Derek 6k Mrs. Jill  Okanagan Falls, B.C.  Sanderson, Mr. W.B., Peachland, B.C.  Sanger, Lyle, Kelowna, B.C.  Sarell, T.J., Oliver, B.C.  Saunders, Y.H., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Scargill, E.M., Victoria, B.C.  Schan, Audrey, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Scherba, John, Vernon, B.C.  Schmidt, Laura, Vernon, B.C.  205 OHS Membership  Schultz, Dick, Vernon, B.C.  Serra, Nancy, Armstrong, B.C.  Shannon, Dorothy, Victoria, B.C.  Sharman, Art, Victoria, B.C.  Sharman, Jim, Armstrong, B.C.  Sharp, Edith, Kelowna, B.C.  Sharpe, Grant 6k Wenonah,  Port Ludlow, Wash.  Shaver, J.H., Penticton, B.C.  Shearman, G. and M., Victoria, B.C.  Shepherd, Charles, Vernon, B.C.  Shepherd, Elizabeth, Enderby, B.C.  Shepherd, Jean, North Vancouver, B.C.  Shepherd, John 6k Grace,  Armstrong, B.C.  Shilvock, Winston A., Kelowna, B.C  Shipmaker, Doris, Enderby, B.C.  Shuttleworth, Dan, Enderby, B.C.  Simard, Wilfred 6k Isobel, Enderby, B.C.  Simpson, D.R., Penticton, B.C.  Simpson, George, Cawston, B.C.  Simpson, Horace and Pat, Kelowna, B.C.  Skead, Lane, Enderby, B.C.  Slack, Buryl Jonas, Oliver, B.C.  Slater, Kelly, Kelowna, B.C.  Smidt, Ivy, Salmon Arm, B.C  Smiley, Howard 6k Lillian, Enderby, B.C.  Smith, John A., Kelowna, B.C.  Smith, M. Clare, Kelowna, B.C.  Smith, Myrtle, Kelowna, B.C.  Smith, Neil, Abbotsford, B.C.  Smith, S.R., Enderby, B.C.  Smith, Thomas 6k Ruth,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Spendlove, Rosemary 6k David,  Ottawa, Ont.  Sproule, Jane, Sechelt, B.C.  Stapleton, Polly, Penticton, B.C.  Stelmasehuk, Paul, Kelowna, B.C.  Stickland, Irene, Enderby, B.C.  Stickland, Stan 6k Gertie,  Penticton, B.C.  Stocks, Peter A., Victoria, B.C.  Stoll, J.H., Armstrong, B.C  Stoneberg, Margaret, Princeton, B.C.  Stranaghan, Doug, Kelowna, B.C  Strandquist, O. Arthur, Kelowna, B.C  Stuart, Debbie, Vernon, B.C.  206  Stubbs, Ethel, Vernon, B.C  Stubbs, John N., Vancouver, B.C.  Stubbs, R.H., Vancouver, B.C.  Suckling, Frank 6k Kathleen,  Penticton, B.C.  Swenor, Ruth, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Swift, Mrs. Glive, Vernon, B.C.  Tait, Doreen, Summerland, B.C.  Tait, Mr. 6k Mrs. John M.,  Kelowna, B.C.  Tait, Mildred, Summerland, B.C.  Tailyour, Joan, Kelowna, B.C.  Tapson-Jones, M.L., Salmon Arm, B.C.  Tassie, Mary E., Halfmoon Bay, B.C.  Terlesky, Robert, Vernon, B.C.  Tessier, Julia, Vernon, B.C.  Thom, M.D., Winfield, B.C.  Thomas, R.C, West Vancouver, B.C.  Thompson, Gordon 6k Kathleen,  Penticton, B.C.  Thomson, Duane, Kelowna, B.C.  Thomson, Eva, Enderby, B.C.  Thomson, Gifford 6k Brenda,  Kelowna, B.C.  Thomson, Mrs. Jack , Kelowna, B.C.  Thomson, Ken 6k Dorothy,  Kelowna, B.C.  Thorlakson, Ben, Carstairs, Alta.  Thorlakson, Margaret, Vernon, B.C.  Thorneloe, F., Kelowna, B.C.  Tidball, W., Kelowna, B.C.  Tily, Bill 6k Ethelyn, Penticton, B.C.  Todd, Mr. 6k Mrs. Jeffrey,  Peachland, B.C.  Tomlin, E.V., Oliver, B.C.  Tompkins, Tom 6k Michelle,  Regina, Sask.  Toms, Judy , Kelowna, B.C.  Topham, Peter, Peachland, B.C.  Trumpour, Mr. 6k Mrs. M.,  Penticton, B.C.  Truswell, Byron, Wenatchee, Wash.  Tucker, Mrs. CO., Nanaimo, B.C.  Turner, Kathleen, Rossland, B.C.  Tweedale, Elsie, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Vig, Raymond, Vernon, B.C. OHS Membership  Waddington, J.D., Richmond, B.C.  Waddington, Kathleen E.,  Vancouver, B.C.  Walker, W. John D., Victoria, B.C.  Walsh, Rita, New Westminister, B.C.  Wanderer, Dorothy, Enderby, B.C.  Wardrop, J.R., Victoria, B.C.  Warren, Diane, Lions Bay, B.C.  Watt, Elizabeth, Vernon, B.C.  Weatherill, Harry 6k Stella,  Osoyoos, B.C.  Weber, O. Melba,  West Vancouver, B.C.  Webster, Garth, Richmond, B.C  Weddell, E.A.H., Baniere, B.C.  Wejr, Stan, Enderby, B.C.  Wellbourn, H., Victoria, B.C.  Wells, Don, Grindrod, B.C.  Wells, Peg, Newport Beach, Calif.  Westgard, Nolinda, Santa Rosa, Calif.  Whetter, Melvin, Enderby, B.C.  Whiskin, J.W., Naramata, B.C.  White, R.V. Jack, Penticton, B.C.  Whitham, J. Gordon, Calgary, Alta.  Whitting, Ivan 6k Maud, Kent, England  Wiebe, V.J., Abbotsford, B.C.  Wight, Gordon 6k Anne, Oliver, B.C.  Wight, Laird 6k Joan, Osoyoos, B.C.  Wilbur, Lori, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Willey, Ron, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Willis, Jean, Cawston, B.C.  Wilson, Brian, Penticton, B.C.  Wilson, Elsie 6k Jack, Vernon, B.C.  Wilson, Marguerite, Tappen, B.C.  Wilson, M.B., Victoria, B.C.  Winter, D.N, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Woinoski, Janet, Kelowna, B.C.  Wood, Janet, Kelowna, B.C.  Woodd, H.S., Vancouver, B.C.  Woodworth, John, Kelowna, B.C.  Wort, Margaret, Kelowna, B.C.  Wostradowski, Marie, Kelowna, B.C.  Wylie, Carl 6k Flora, Vernon, B.C.  Yandle, Anne, Vancouver, B.C.  Yells, Peter, Enderby, B.C.  Zamis, F., Enderby, B.C.  Zoellner, Mr. W.J.,  Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Institutional Members  Allan County Public Library,  Fort Wayne, Ind.  Burnaby Public Library, Burnaby, B.C.  David Thompson Library, Nelson, B.C.  Greater Victoria Public Library,  Victoria, B.C.  Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  Metropolitan Toronto Reference  Library, Toronto, Ont.  National Library of Canada,  Ottawa, Ont.  Newberry Library, Chicago, 111.  Okanagan Regional Library,  Kelowna, B.C.  Penticton Public Library,  Penticton, B.C.  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane, Wash.  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash.  Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ont.  Vancouver Public Library,  Vancouver, B.C.  Victoria Public Library, Victoria, B.C.  Westminster Abbey Library,  Mission, B.C.  Enderby 6k District Museum Society  Enderby, B.C.  Glenbow - Alberta Institute,  Calgary, Alta.  Kamloops Museum Association,  Kamloops, B.C.  Kelowna Centennial Museum,  Kelowna, B.C.  Oliver Heritage Society Museum,  Oliver, B.C.  Penticton Museum, Penticton, B.C.  Royal  British Columbia Museum,  Victoria, B.C.  Salmon Arm Museum 6k Heritage  Assoc, Salmon Arm, B.C.  Summerland Museum,  Summerland, B.C.  207 OHS Membership  Wisconsin State Historical Society,  Madison, Wis.  B.C. Archives 6k Record Service,  Victoria, B.C.  Vancouver City Archives,  Vancouver, B.C.  Berge 6k Company, Kelowna, B.C.  Church of Latter Day Saints,  Salt Lake City, Utah  Kelowna Genealogoical Society,  Kelowna, B.C.  Muriel Ffoulkes Learning Centre,  Kelowna, B.C.  Salmon Arm Sheet Metal,  Salmon Arm, B.C.  South Okanagan-Similkameen Health  Unit, Kelowna, B.C.  A.L.Fortune Secondary School,  Enderby, B.C.  B.X. Elementary School, Vernon, B.C.  Charles Bloom Secondary School,  Lumby, B.C.  Clarence Fulton Secondary School,  Vernon, B.C.  Highland Park School, Armstrong, B.C.  Kalamalka Junior Secondary School,  Vernon, B.C.  Kelowna Secondary School,  Kelowna, B.C.  Len Woods Elementary School,  Armstrong, B.C.  M.V.  Beattie Elementary School,  Enderby, B.C.  O'Connell    Elementary    School,  Penticton, B.C.  Okanagan Mission Secondary School,  Kelowna, B.C.  Pleasant Valley Secondary School,  Armstrong, B.C.  South Kelowna Elementary School,  Kelowna, B.C.  Summerland Secondary School,  Summerland, B.C.  Vernon Secondary School,  Vernon, B.C.  W.L. Seaton Secondary School,  Vernon, B.C.  Eastern Washington University,  Cheney, Wash.  Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.  McGill University, Montreal, Que.  Okanagan College, Kelowna, B.C.  Queen's University, Kingston, Ont.  Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.  University of British Columbia,  Vancouver, B.C.  University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.  University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.  University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C.  University of Washington,  Seattle, Wash.  University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont.  University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Mb.  Washington State University,  Pullman, Wash.  Yale University, New Haven, Conn.  York University, Toronto, Ont.  208  Shuswap  and Okanagan  Railroad  Commercial  Boats  Early  Vernon Aviation  Kelowna  Ladies Curling  Club  Life at  Fintry Ranch  Sheepherding  in the Shuswap  The First  Jewellery Store  Student  Essays  Book  Reviews  Okanagan History, the Report of the Okanagan  Historical Society, has received the following  recognition of excellence:  1982  1985  1987  Award of Merit of the American  Association for State and Local  History.  Annual Award for Significant  Contribution to the Conservation of  B.C.'s Heritage from the Heritage  Society of British Columbia.  Special Award for the 50th Report  from the British Columbia Historical  Federation.  Certificate of Merit from the  Canadian Historical Association.

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