Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Fifty-first report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1987

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 Okanagan History  Okanagan Historical Society  "^rfSfjy-  Okanagan History  FIFTY-FIRST REPORT  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4,  1925  COVER  Enderby Cliffs  from an oil painted by  E.C. Fisher in 1951  © 1987  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921 241-53-4  Printed in Canada. Wayside Press Ltd., Vernon. B.C. FIFTY-FIRST REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Jean Webber  ASSISTANT EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Ron Robey  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Aileen Porteous, Oliver and Osoyoos  Angeline Waterman, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong and Enderby  Florence Farmer, Salmon Arm  OKANAGAN HISTORY: 51st Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society has been printed with the assistance of the New Horizons Program of Health and Welfare Canada and of the Seniors' Funding Society of B.C.  The 50th Report was published with the assistance of the British Columbia Heritage Trust, the Seniors' Funding Society, and the Leon and  Thea Koerner Foundation.  Membership  The recipient of this Fifty-first Report is entitled to register his or her membership in the  Fifty-second Report which will be issued November 1, 1988.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Buying Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the Parent  Body (Box 313, Vernon), from Branches of OHS and, as well, from most museums and book  stores in the Okanagan.  For availability and prices of back numbers see order form on insert. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  Members of the Okanagan Historical Society were delighted to receive  the SPECIAL AWARD accorded Okanagan History: 50th Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society by the British Columbia Historical Federation  at its Annual Meeting held in Mission, B.C. on May 16, 1987. The recognition is gratifying and encouraging.  For decades the Okanagan Historical Report was the only publication  recording local history in the southern interior of British Columbia. Today  there is a proliferation of books and booklets dealing with "nearby history"  as it is often called. Many of these have been published with supporting grants  from various funding organizations. While members of the Okanagan Historical  Society cannot help being pleased at this evidence of growing interest in our  heritage, we have had to face the realization that many of these books are competing for the same market as we are.  Two years ago we sought, for the first time, financial aid for our Report.  Now we would like to acknowledge the help received for publishing our Fiftieth Report (1986) from the Seniors' Lottery Association of B.C., from the  British Columbia Government through the B.C. Heritage Trust, and from the  Leon and Thea Koerner Foundation. The Fifty-first Report (1987) is published  with the support of the Federal New Horizons Program and the Seniors' Lottery Association of B.C. We are very grateful for this aid which has made it  possible for us to continue collecting and publishing original material which  might otherwise be lost.  The Index to our Reports 1 to 50 will no doubt precede this volume off  the press. A master copy was completed early last spring and printing arrangements are under way as I write. The Index ($15.00) can be obtained  from Branches or from our Treasurer, P.O. Box 313, Vernon (plus $1.55 for  postage and handling). The work was accomplished by a large committee under  the chairmanship of Dave MacDonald of Penticton on whom by far the greater  part of the work of managing the project and of editing the text has fallen.  The Award of Merit presented to Dave at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the  Okanagan Historical Society was more than deserved.  In closing may I once again thank all those who have worked so hard to  make the 51st Report possible. This year I would like to mention in particular  one person who is retiring as Branch Editorial Chairman, Angeline Waterman of Penticton. For the past five years Angie has kept a constant flow of  interesting, well-edited and carefully typed articles coming in. In addition, my  files are full of ideas from this imaginative and intelligent woman, ideas awaiting  time and space for their development.  Jean Webber  History is the discipline which makes the whole world kin and is for humanity what  memory is for the individual.  Herbert Norman  Men need history; it helps them to have an idea of who they are. But history, like sanctity,  can reside in the heart; it is enough that there is something there.  V. S. Naipaul OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY 1987-1988  PRESIDENT  Dorothy Zoellner  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Bernard Webber  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  William Whitehead  SECRETARY  Robert Marriage  TREASURER  Phyllis MacKay  PAST PRESIDENT  Ermie Iceton  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver & Osoyoos: Don Corbishley, Carleton MacNaughton,  Harry Weatherill  Penticton: Mary Orr, Elizabeth Bork  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley, Dennis Maclnnis  Vernon: Robert dePfyffer, Lucy McCormick  Salmon Arm: Jim Shaver, Mac Drage  Armstrong & Enderby: George Armstrong, Wm. Whitehead  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Frank Pells (Pandosy Mission)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Don Weatherill, Frank Pells, Ron Robey,  Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber CONTENTS  TELEGRAMS AND TRAINS  MEMORIES OF A TELEGRAPH MESSENGER (Tilman E. Nahm)  7  THE WRECK OF LITTLE JOE RAYMOND (Randy Manuel)  12  HAZEL'S ILLNESS (Bob Cowan) '.  13  TAKING THE SWAY OUT OF TROUT CREEK BRIDGE (Allan Roadhouse)  15  A ROUNDHOUSE REQUIEM (E. W. Aldredge)  16  RUN OVER BY ENGINE . . . AND LIVED (E. W. Aldredge)  20  THE KETTLE VALLEY GHOST TRAIN (Arnold Jones)  21  C.P.R. MEMORIES (Norma Bearcrol't)  '  23  B.C. POLICE LETTER (J. H. McMullin)  26  THE OKANAGAN MIX  THE OKANAGAN MIX (J. L. Monk)  27  THE HISTORY AND PREHISTORY OF TSINSTIKEPTUM  INDIAN RESERVES NO. 9 AND 10 IN THE NORTH  OKANAGAN VALLEY REGION OF B.C. (Mike K. Rousseau)  29  THE HUNGARIAN PRESENCE (Elizabeth Renyi-Kangyal)  38  THE PORTUGUESE IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN (Paul M. Koroseil)  43  ETHNIC DIVERSITY IS OUR STRENGTH (a portion of an  Oliver Chronicle editorial. March 11,  1987)   49  THE PENTICTON COMMUNE (Fritz Gabelmann)  50  HISTORICAL PAPERS  CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS IN THE OKANAGAN (Steve Cannings)  51  THE CATBIRD (Nina S. Berg)  55  FAIRVIEW LOTS (Ermie Iceton)  56  JOURNEYS BY ROWBOAT (H. J. Parham)   58  BAPTISMAL WINDOW IN ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH,  SUMMERLAND (Marjorie Croil)  59  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN REGIONAL LIBRARY  1935 - 1984 (W. P. Lofts)   61  APPLE JUICE (Louis Deighton)  67  OH TELL ME DO THE WILD GEESE FLY (Isabel Christie  MacNaughton "Wood Fires 1948")  68  JENKINS CARTAGE LTD. (Ettie Adam)  69  'THE KELOWNA BOTTLING WORKS (Mav Clarke)  72  EARLY COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES (Jas. E. Jamieson)  74  THEIR USEFUL TOIL (Carol Abernathy Mellows)  76  THEATRE KELOWNA SOCIETY (Winston Shilvock)  79  FIRST SNOW (Nina S. Berg)   80  VERNON'S SILVER STAR MOUNTAIN (Vernon Branch)  81  RECOLLECTIONS REGARDING SILVER STAR (C. D. Osborn)  82  THE BASSETT HOUSE (Harvey Walker)  84  CENTRAL OKANAGAN RECORDS SURVEY SEPTEMBER 1986  TO AUGUST 1987 (Kathleen Barlee)   85  SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  85  TRAILS  FOUND — COX'S MAP OF 1862 (Robert L. dePfyffer)  86  OLD TRAILS OF THE CASCADE WILDERNESS FROM THE DAYS  OF BLACKEYE THE SIMILKAMEEN TO THOSE OF THE  ROYAL ENGINEERS (H. R. Hatfield)   92  BLACKEYES TRAIL (Harley R. Hatfield)  99  TRAIL GOLD (Isabel Christie MacNaughton "Wood Fires 1948")  104  CONTRACT FOR MULE ROAD FROM HOPE TO SIMILKAMEEN  AND E. DEWDNEY'S LETTER  105  EDGAR DEWDNEY, BUILDER OF THE DEWDNEY TRAIL,  HONOURED IN REGINA (The Penticton Herald-Aug. 13, 1979)  108  BIOGRAPHIES AND TRIBUTES  A VERY SPECIAL COUPLE: JACK AND MERLE ARMSTRONG  (Enderbv Commoner)  109  ETHEL BLACKBURN (Salmon Arm Observer)   Ill  IN MEMORY OF OUR DEAR FRIEND ETHEL BLACKBURN  (Dora Lein)  112 A TRIBUTE TO ETHEL BLACKBURN (Kaye Hubensky)  112  HELEN MARJORIE (HELENITA) HARVEY (Ronald H. Turner)  113  DR. MARGARET ORMSBY (Patrick Mackie)  114  AGNES A. LADNER (NEE TWINK MONK) (B. Wamboldt)  117  MRS. ALFARETTA MARION CROZIER (B. Wamboldt)  117  A TRIBUTE TO JIM TREADGOLD (Tilman Nahm)  118  A TRIBUTE TO JOAN MARY APPLETON NORRIS (Nina  Grigor and the Reverend Ernest Rands)  120  WALLACE J. SMITH (John Woodworth)   122  HETTIE FAIRWEATHER (N. J. Newman)  123  SALUTE TO MRS. GWENDOLINE ATKINSON 1886-1986  (Marjorie Croil)   125  THE HARVEY CLAN OF KELOWNA (Win Shilvock)  127  IN MEMORY OF A FRIEND . . . ERNEST DOE (Ronald A. Jamieson)  129  MY GRANDFATHER: JOHN DALE (Gordon J. Dale)  132  STUDENT ESSAYS  SHEPHERD'S HARDWARE OF ARMSTRONG (Greg Lehoux)  136  FORBES GEORGE VERNON LOSES THE PROVINCIAL  ELECTION OF 1894 (Susan Steinke)  139  BOOK REVIEWS  THE JOURNAL OF LADY ABERDEEN (Elaine Dickson)  148  THE OKANAGAN BRIGADE TRAIL. CENTRAL & NORTH  OKANAGAN (H. R. Hatfield)   149  AN AFFECTIONATE LOOK AT KALEDON'S PIONEER FAMILIES  0- W.)  150  AN EARLY HISTORY OF COLDSTREAM AND LAVINGTON  (David F. B. Kinloch)   151  TALES AND REMINISCENCES  FIRST PICTURE OF OKANAGAN MISSION CHURCH  (Michael F. Painter)  152  FLOWING WITH MILK AND HONEY (Sheila Pavnter)  155  ANOTHER LITTLE NEIL STORY (Harley Hatfield)  160  THE MINERVA CLUB (Peggv Adair Landon)   161  THE KELOWNA SHAKESPEARE CLUB (May Clarke)  163  LITTLE NEIL SHEEP HERDING (Allan Roadhouse & Harlev Hatfield)  166  WHAT IS IT? (A. M. Mabee)   167  COMMUNITY BARN RAISINGS - 1900s STYLE (Jim & Alice Emeny)   168  WE WERE ELEVEN (Jill Salter) '  170  EATON'S CATALOGUE (A. Waterman)  172  ERRATA AND ADDENDA  173  OBITUARIES  WE SHALL MISS THEM  174  A FRUIT TREE SPEAKS (B. A. Tingley)  185  BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1988   186  MINUTES OF THE 62nd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1987  186  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  189  SECRETARY'S REPORT  190  EDITOR'S REPORT  191  AUDITOR'S REPORT   191  REPORTS OF THE BRANCHES  ARMSTRONG/ENDERBY   193  VERNON  193  PRECIS-KELOWNA  194  PENTICTON  194  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  195  SALMON ARM  195  OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS 1987-1988   196  REPORT OF INDEX COMMITTEE   197  REPORT OF FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE - 1986  198  PROMOTION COMMITTEE REPORT  199  PUBLICITY DIRECTOR'S REPORT  200  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1987   201 TELEGRAMS AND TRAINS  MEMORIES OF A TELEGRAPH MESSENGER  by Tilman E. Nahm  On January 13, 1948, I left school at age 16 to begin delivering  telegrams for Canadian National Telegraphs in Kelowna and to learn a  trade that eventually spanned 26 years with that company. As I recall,  messengers in those days were paid about $35.00 a month for a 54 hour  work week. Gene Wilby was the telegraph manager-operator and ticket  agent who hired me. Jack Bogress was the evening operator who, along  with Mr. Wilby, helped and encouraged me to become a C.N. operator.  It must be remembered that during this time, the late 1940s, the  telegram was an important communications link in the lives of many people and businesses. This was in the days of open wire landline transmission, prior to development of microwave. Satellite transmission was just  an idea in the mind of forward thinking futurists. Long distance  telephone rates were relatively expensive compared to today and often the  quality of long distance voice transmission left much to be desired.  Telegraph rates were reasonable and, as many homes had no telephones,  the telegram delivered by hand provided a service that filled a need.  There were two telegraph offices in Kelowna at that time and the  competition for message traffic gave good service to the local clientele.  The Canadian National Telegraphs were located in the C.N. Building  (the old Paret Block), on the corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street,  which was demolished a couple of years ago to make way for the new  Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce Building. The Canadian Pacific  Telegraphs were next to the main entrance in the old Royal Anne Hotel,  on the site of the present Royal Pacific Hotel.  In 1948 all telegraph transmission was still by Morse telegraph and  during the hot months of the year, with no air conditioning and the office  doors open to provide relief from the heat, anyone walking down the 300  block of Bernard Avenue could hear the clickety clack of messages being  sent and received on the telegraph sounders. Wendell Morrison, an ex-  Morse operator who owned a newsstand across the street from the Bank  of Commerce, once told me he could, in quiet moments, read snatches of  messages as they were being transmitted.  It was in the late summer of 1948 that the C.N. Telegraphs switched  from Morse to teletype transmission of telegrams. However, due to poor  circuit quality, the teleprinter was frequently subject to failure and the  operators would have to resort to Morse transmission. The Morse signals  being stronger were better able to carry under adverse weather conditions  such as storms or aurora borealis. The old-time Morse operators would  then say, "There'll always be Morse around for emergency purposes;  they'll never make these newfangled machines work." But then they Canadian National Telegraph Office, Kelowna — 1954.  didn't envisage microwave circuitry and satellite transmission and the  eventual demise of even the telegram.  It was the messenger boy's job to envelope and deliver telegrams,  also pick up messages from businesses around town for outward transmission. We were issued a charcoal grey uniform consisting of peaked  cap, tunic, flannel shirt, riding breeches and black leather leggings to  wear over black boots. At first we didn't like the leggings, they were hot  in summer and it took a lot of elbow grease to keep them polished, but  after a few encounters with dogs snapping at our legs while riding our  bike, we would begin to appreciate their value. For winter we were issued  with heavy navy style pea jackets of excellent quality that really kept us  warm in sub zero weather and we sure appreciated them. We also got  waterproof raincapes, large enough to fit over the handlebars of the bike,  which kept us nice and dry during rainstorms.  On the job, when you were not delivering and picking up messages,  you were expected to learn how to take messages over the telephone, office routine and basic bookkeeping. In the evenings, if you were ambitious and wanted to become an operator, you would go down on your  own time to practice to become a Morse or teleprinter operator. The traffic load was lighter in the evening so the evening operator would have the time to help you learn to telegraph. When you became good enough to  handle the job on your own he would leave you in charge for a couple of  hours now and then, and perhaps sneak a quick date with his girlfriend.  You must remember in those days there was still a six-day workweek and  being a steady evening shift operator wasn't very conducive to that  operator's romantic lifestyle!  A messenger boy delivering telegrams in the late 40s had an interesting job. The C.N.R. and C.P.R. were at that time the major agents  of communications and transportation in and out of the Okanagan Valley. Roads were inadequate to handle much truck traffic, nor were trucks  as technically advanced or efficient as today. Consequently, most if not  all fruits and vegetables, canned goods and lumber moved out of the  valley by rail. There was no decent airport at Kelowna, so there was no  scheduled air service. The C.N.R. and C.P.R. both had 'Daily except  Sunday' passenger train service in and out of Kelowna. Both railways  had a tug and barge service handling freight cars from way points such as  Peachland and Summerland along the lake. The present C.N.R. station  on Clement Avenue was a busy place in those days with a considerable  number of employees handling freight, passenger and express services.  Across Ellis Street from the station was the big enclosed water tank for the  steam locomotives. There was also a freight shed and an icehouse for  icing refrigerator cars. These buildings are all gone now, only the octagonal concrete foundation of the water tank remains today.  I would like to relate some of the interesting and sometimes humorous incidents that occurred during my year and a half of delivering  telegrams in Kelowna.  Nineteen forty eight was the year of the big floods from the Pacific  coast through to Manitoba. We handled large numbers of telegrams for  people anxious about their relatives in flooded areas. A heavy snowpack  combined with a rapid melt seemed to cause floods everywhere. Mission  Creek flooded and I well remember dodging big carp while riding my  bike down south Richter Street in the vicinity of Raymer Avenue,  through about a foot of water. Train and telegraph traffic were totally  disrupted in the Fraser Canyon and Valley due to slides and high water.  Telegraph and telephone communications ceased at times between Vancouver and the Okanagan. Vancouver was the office we normally worked  with so alternate circuits had to be set up to work with Edmonton, until  floods in the North Thompson took them out. Eventually harried wire  chiefs set up Morse circuits eastwards, then through the American  midwest via Western Union Telegraphs and back up to Vancouver via  Seattle. I recall anxious people sending inquiring messages to relatives  and friends in Winnipeg which was particularly hard hit by flooding.  A humorous incident that I remember vividly, took place in Chinatown which was located east of City Park between Abbott and Water  Streets and Leon and Harvey Avenues. In fact, the alley between Leon  and Harvey was actually the 'Main Street' of Chinatown at that time.  One day I had a telegram for an inhabitant of one of the rooming houses  in that alley. I knocked several times on the door to no avail, yet I could  hear the low sound of voices inside. Anxious to fulfill delivery of the 10  message, I simply opened the door and walked into that gloomy, dim-lit  den. There was a sudden flurry of running bodies snatching up money as  they went, taking off for the deeper gloom in the bowels of the building.  I had apparently interrupted an illegal gambling session in progress and  in the semi-darkness the inmates had mistaken my messenger's uniform  for that of a policeman. I guess the Chinese were as relieved as I was and  we had a bit of a laugh as one old man signed for the telegram.  Another incident brings to mind the time I delivered a telegram to  the home of a retired army officer. As I cycled up the long driveway the  owner's two big black Labrador dogs gave me a bad time trying to bite  my legs. The officer's wife, who shall remain nameless, came to the door  and cut loose with a string of oaths that would make a regimental  sergeant-major blush, turning my ears red. She then grabbed a big piece  of firewood off the front porch, and with a well aimed heave sent the dogs  flying.  I well remember delivering company telegrams to Joe Rickards, the  C.N.R. engine watchman in the rail yards. Joe was a dapper little fellow,  URBfes  Kelowna Railroad Yards — 1954. 11  always neat and tidy in freshly laundered striped denim engineers'  overalls and cap, with a neat little black bow tie in the collar of his denim  workshirt. He also wore black arm muffs from wrist to elbow to keep his  shirtsleeves clean. His job was to keep the fires and steam up in the steam  locomotives parked in the yard while the road crews slept on their rest  break before returning with a train to Kamloops Junction. On Sundays  when things were quiet, Joe would be chugging an engine back and forth  in the yard, switching cars. He was the hogger (engineer), fireman and  switchman, all at the same time — quite a feat. This was, of course,  against all company and union rules, but I suspect that the road crew who  were supposed to do the switching were catching some extra sleep and got  Joe to do their yard work for them. A few times I gave Joe a hand for the  privilege of having a ride in the steamer. It was a neat experience with the  heat and oil smell from the boiler backhead, the whump, whump,  whump of the exhaust backfire rattling the firebox doors and the waddling motion of the engine as it banged along the track and over the switch-  points in the yard. You have never really lived if you haven't ridden in  the cab of a steam locomotive. Although the engine is a machine, it feels  like a living being as it rattles along.  On one of the team tracks alongside the water tank was the railway  'Beanery' (restaurant) which the C.N.R. ran for the benefit of the C.N.  and CP. train crews and employees. It must be remembered that in  those days with more rail traffic and smaller locomotives there were  numerous daily freights in and out of Kelowna and it was necessary to  feed the crews on their layovers. The Beanery consisted of several old  boxcars converted to kitchen, stores, dining cars and the cooks' living  quarters. Minnie Roberts was the kind-hearted head cook or 'Beanery  Queen' of the place. I will always remember the terrific apple pies she used  to make, really deep with lots of apples and lots of cinnamon. A big, and  I mean BIG, piece of pie and cup of coffee cost 15 cents and often Minnie  would let the messengers have free helpings, realizing that we didn't have  much money. Ever since then I have loved apple pie that is heavily laced  with cinnamon.  The downside of the messenger job was delivering telegrams in bad  weather such as rain or cold. The winters of 1948-49 and 1949-50 were  particularly cold and I recall getting touches of frostbite on my cheeks and  nose on several occasions. Another distressing thing was delivering  telegrams to people announcing sickness, injury or death. Many persons  had an emotional fear of receiving telegrams as signifying bad news even  if that was not always the case. However, if a message did contain  distressing news it was expected that the messenger be very tactful in  delivering the telegram and assisting the recipient in every way possible.  But it was an emotionally distressing and very unpleasant task to have to  announce that a message contained bad news.  In the autumn of 1949 I was promoted to a job as clerk in Victoria  but only worked a couple of months before being bumped back to  messenger due to fall layoffs. I again worked as messenger until January  1950 when I returned to Victoria. After working in a number of telegraph 12  offices throughout B.C. I came back to Kelowna in 195.3 as evening  operator, a job that I held until my resignation from the service in 1973.  As I recall, it was a great time in my life to have been a telegraph  messenger boy, a job that, unfortunately for young people, does not exist  today. It is a pleasure to share some of these memories of my experiences  with you, the reader, for historical purposes.  THE WRECK OF LITTLE JOE RAYMOND  by Randy Manuel  Joe Raymond train wreck — November 29, 1949, below Holden Orchard  Photo courtesy of Penticton Museum  On Tuesday, November 29, 1949 at 5:35 a.m. an east-bound  passenger train containing an engine, a baggage car and four passenger  cars had just left Penticton and was approaching the flat beyond Vancouver Hill crossing when the crew noticed that everything was black  and the tracks seemed to disappear. Just as the brakes were pulled the  engine and baggage car slipped off into the black abyss of a huge clay  slide. The conductor and crew ran forward expecting to see the engine  crew dead or seriously injured. What they did see was little Joe Raymond standing on the tender with steam from the overturned engine  wisping around him as he moaned, "Oh, my poor old engine." The  head-end crew were okay thanks to the slow up-hill speed and the application of the brakes. Heavy rains had caused the slide. It took six  bulldozers and 30 men working around the clock to repair the line by  the following Sunday. The 5200 class locomotive was still in the mud  10 days later. To this day you can see the cowcatcher on the beach below  the cliff. 13  HAZEL'S ILLNESS  by Bob Cowan  At the end of the 19th Century, it was not uncommon for doctors in  England to recommend a change in climate for their patients. While they  generally had only second-hand knowledge of the Okanagan Valley,  they, nevertheless, endorsed its climatic medical virtues.  In 1894 Graham Rosoman took the advice of his physician and  moved to the Okanagan Valley, settling initially near the community of  Mara. There a daughter, Hazel, was born in 1896. A few years later, he  moved to Enderby where he was employed by the Columbia Flour Mill  as a bookkeeper.  A paragon of Victorian virtues, he was noted for his faultless  preparation of the Flour Mill business and his punctuality. His great hobby and pre-occupation was health. He sent for numerous pamphlets and  paraphenalia that would improve his health or prolong his life. So when  his daughter took ill in the spring of 1898, he was concerned. When her  condition worsened, he became distraught.  As Enderby had no physician, Graham Rosoman wired to Dr. Morris in Vernon for assistance: "Baby grippe twelve hours now. Dangerously prostrated. Fever high. Half unconscious. Wire directions first."1  On April 13th, Dr. Morris had just returned to Vernon and was  unable to attend Hazel immediately. He wired Mr. Rosoman to give his  child a hot bath, one grain of quinine every three hours and put a cold  cloth to her head.  At that point Graham had not slept in thirty-six hours, keeping an  almost constant vigil at his daughter's side. She had been experiencing a  fever, convulsions, and a slight cough. He wondered in his reply to Dr.  Morris if her nervous system was strong enough for bromide potassium,  and if so how much should he give her?  Dr. Morris wired back: "Give five grains potassium bromide every  two hours if convulsions continue. Every three hours if no convulsions.  Wire later."2  The next day Hazel's condition became worse. She scarcely moved,  and her breathing was rough. She was perspiring and her temperature  had reached 102 degrees. Graham wired Dr. Morris: "Cheeks purple.  Flush. Greenish around mouth. Is there danger. Wire."3 He had already  decided he needed to change poultices.  Dr. Morris wired back to Graham requesting he send a man to  George Hutchinson's residence in Armstrong and pick up the medicine  he was sending.  On April 15th, Hazel's temperature reached 105 degrees. Dr. Morris responded to Graham's queries with: "Yes. Give five drops brandy  every two hours. Continue hot applications every half hour. Give two  grains quinine every three hours and wire in about three hours her condition."4  1     Correspondence. 1898. Telegrams from Dr. Morris, Vernon, to Graham Rosoman. (Enderby and District  Museum Archives: 986 07. 09.) Footnotes 2 - 9 refer to this correspondence. 14  Clearly, after three hours Hazel's condition had deteriorated. Dr.  Morris now recommended: "Give ten drops of brandy every hour and  use hot water bottles instead of poultices."5  Whether it was increasing the brandy intake, changing the poultices,  or having the disease run its course, Hazel began to slowly improve.  Graham wired to Dr. Morris that she had some fever, but she was  breathing rather better. Her strength was starting to return.  Dr. Morris responded with: "Give teaspoonful Castor Oil if diarrhea commences. Give Beef Tea cold and milk every few minutes also  brandy as directed. Child will be cross and peevish. Wire this afternoon."6  By April 18th, Hazel's temperature was 99 degrees. Her strength continued to improve, but she was experiencing occasional pain in her lower  abdomen. She slept only with discomfort. Dr. Morris responded to these  improvements with: "Give tea. Spoonful of Castor Oil. Continue  stimulant. Do not give powders or use poultices if temperature remains  at 99 degrees."7  With the danger over and Hazel's health improving, Dr. Morris  recommended: "Continue stimulant. Give milk and Beef Tea every half  hour. Do not remove from bed. Avoid drafts and do not have more than  one person around the bed."8  His last wire to Graham was on April 22nd and advised: "Give  child custard, bread and milk. Gradually give solid food. Stop stimulant  gradually."9  Graham Rosoman was greatly relieved.  The exuberance of youth! A story is told of our beloved Dr. Knox. About  1910 he and a group of young men were partying across the road from the  C.P.R. wharf in Kelowna. As a prank, in the small hours of the morning they  climbed the station roof and stuffed the chimney with sacks. Next morning the  attendant laid and lit the fire in the pot-bellied heater and left to check on other  matters. Imagine the excitement when he later discovered smoke pouring from  every door and window.  Cedric Boyer 15  TAKING THE SWAY OUT OF TROUT CREEK BRIDGE  by Allan Roadhouse  In the 1920s the C.P.R. was filling in the wooden trestle approaches  to the steel span over Trout Creek Canyon. The material came from the  gravel pit at Winslow, the station for the Dominion Experimental Farm.  At the same time additional steel bracing was being added to the main  span so that it would carry two engines coupled.  The men putting on the braces worked from a platform hung under  the bridge. The rivets were heated white-hot up on the deck and then  thrown down to a man on the platform who caught them in a bucket. Using tongs he then placed them in the holes and they were rivetted up.  To test the sway of the span we would run the locomotive on it at  about twenty miles an hour then put on the emergency brake so the sway  could be measured. I was firing for Jack (Haybelly) Hamilton this day  and when we stopped about the middle of the span there seemed quite a  bit of sway. Jack glanced down to the bottom of the canyon two hundred  and twenty-five feet below and turned to me, "There has to be a better  way."  m  Joan Greenwood 16  A ROUNDHOUSE REQUIEM  by E. W. Aldredge (The Apprentice Kid)  Penticton's Kettle Valley roundhouse is now only a memory. The  cavernous, six engine stall building, empty now for some years and its attendant machine shop silent now for a like time, are gone, ended in a pile  of rubble as the old building was bulldozed down.  Yet, for some of us it still lives, still throbs with activity, for that is  the way we remember it. And while we hated to see it go, we would  rather that, than it remain as it has been now for a quarter century, a  hollow symbol of once-upon-a-time . . .  Completed in 1913, the roundhouse was a key item in Lord  Shaughnessy's dream of having a Canadian railway in the southern area  of B.C. that would out-do one-eyed Jim Hill's Great Northern Rwy. in  providing service to that area. Hill, a born Canadian, but by 1910 an  American citizen, got into the region first with the G.N. line from  Spokane through to Princeton; Shaughnessy, born an American but now  a thorough British Canadian, planned and eventually built an all-  Canadian railway that far outdid Hill's efforts.  The details of all of that, and of Andrew McCulloch's work in  engineering the line are another story. As little is now known or  understood about the roundhouse, this writer, who had a share in it, will  concern himself with giving a few glimpses of the roundhouse-in-action,  together with the people who worked there.  Two of the six stalls in the roundhouse were what are termed 'drop  pits', which means they had the means for dropping-out the driving  wheels of locomotives, when a full or partial reconstruction of the engine  was underway. In the main, Number Two pit was used for this, for  Number One, which also had the drop pit did not have sufficient space  on the wall side where dropped-out wheels and axles might be stored.  The machine shop was attached to the east side of the roundhouse  and in my years this had two large lathes, a small lathe, a wheel lathe, a  shaper, a planer, a big drill press and a threader, among other machines.  All of these were driven by belts and pulleys linked to the overhead main  shaft. Back of the machine shop was the boiler room where two  locomotive type boilers furnished steam for roundhouse, yard and shop.  Back of the boiler room was the blacksmith's shop with two forges and  steam hammer, and a spring-tempering oil tank.  Some distance from the roundhouse was the 'Rep Track, where  boxcars and passenger coaches were repaired. A turntable permitted  engines to be moved from the access track to each of the six stalls. This  track led from the turntable pit, past an ashpit, and coal chute to a water  tower which was linked to the main water tank. The coal chute had a  noisy little stationary steam engine that drove the bucket-chain, which  conveyed coal to the high hoppers, from which coal could be chuted down  into engine tenders as required.  The locomotives, in my day, were chiefly of the 3200 or 3400 class;  later other, faster or heavier engines saw service on the K.V.R. after the  many wooden bridges, mainly east of Penticton, were replaced by steel 17  ones. The wooden structures could not stand either the weight or the  vibration from the larger locomotives. None of the 3400 class was sent  east of Penticton either, until an emergency in late 1929 forced their use  there. That, of course, was before the wooden bridges had been replaced.  When an engine was being rebuilt, all the driving wheels were dropped out, their bearing boxes rebrassed, their tires, if worn, replaced,  main and side rods rebushed, new piston rings installed in the cylinders  and some other items "down below" all attended to.  Above this, all the tubes were removed from the boilers and subsequently refitted. Meanwhile the inside of the now empty boiler shell had  to be scaled — that is, the removal of the thick coat of the same sort of  hard material a household kettle acquires where it is used with hard  water. This was done using an air hammer equipped with a special chisel.  I did quite a few of these, although it wasn't supposed to be a task for a  machinist's apprentice. But on the K.V.R. in those days you did  whatever job came to hand. I can still remember the deafening roar of  that tool reverberating against the shell of the boiler. The job took at least  a week, and by the time you were finished you were exceedingly weary of  the continual noise, the dust, and often-cramped positions you had to  assume.  Generally either Horace Reeves or Big Ed McDonald worked on the  drop pit, with Clarence Finniss doing air pump and headlight generator.  The smoke chamber or "front end" and the ashpan were attended to by  Dick Whitehead, while Harry Suckling worked on the engine tender.  Any boiler work was usually performed by Fred Milligan, boilermaker,  and his helper.  Horace Reeves learned his trade, if I remember correctly, on a small  railway in the maritimes. Locomotive foreman Ernie Mitchell learned his  on a small government line located, I think, in New Brunswick. Reeves  was tall and very strong, as was needed with the heavy work on either  running repairs or drop pit work. Big Ed or Big Mac McDonald, whose  mother tongue was Gaelic, hailed from Cape Breton and spoke English  with an unmistakable accent. Generally quite tight fisted, he would, once  in a while, come out with a sudden spurt of generosity. A bachelor, he invested in local real estate, his ventures including the original section of the  two-storey commercial building at the northeast corner of Main Street  and Wade Avenue. Horace Reeves took a keen interest in sports and,  when he retired, devoted himself to aiding these.  Clarence Finniss, who learned his trade at Cranbrook roundhouse  (C.P.R.), was probably the best all-round machinist in the roundhouse,  being able to do anything in either the roundhouse or the machine shop.  Ham (Hamilton) Swift, a long lean machinist and in spare time a  clarinetist of no mean ability, was an excellent roundhouse man who for  the most part worked on "running" repairs, which is fixing up a  locomotive so it could, after a short stay in the roundhouse, go on pulling  trains.  James William "Billy" Johnson, who learned his trade in England,  was similarly proficient. Long before the heavy lay-offs came, Billy quit  the roundhouse, being able to live comfortably from the shrewd in- vestments he made in Penticton. He served several terms as a member of  the Penticton Municipal Council.  Bill Monks was a good roundhouse man but lacked machine shop  experience. He was the only man I ever saw make a neat, five-sided  "hexagon" nut, one about four inches across intended for one of the  siderods. The laying-out of that nut, usually a quick easy job, took Bill a  long, long time and I, working the big drill press next door was wondering why it was taking so long. Bill worked on the nut, then finally walked  off and left it. When I saw his five-sided effort I burst out laughing but I  told no one why. Then one of the other machinists came in from the  roundhouse and did things to that nut so it would work, with none of the  officials being any the wiser. Ernie Mitchell doubtless heard about it but  took no official notice of it. He was like that, always standing up for his  men. When the lay-offs came to the roundhouse, Bill Monks went into  the plumbing business in Penticton, his son, Bill Junior, following him in  it and staying with it for a good many years until his own retirement just  a few short years ago.  Machinist helpers were barred from using most tools, such being the  craft rule anywhere on this continent. Later, during World War II, some  of the helpers were "raised up" to being roundhouse machinists and  while they were not customarily trained to use the machines in the shop  they were good men on running repairs. George Wharton, a helper in the  roundhouse for many years, was one of those so raised.  Good at the work for which they were trained, many roundhouse  machinists were limited in knowledge of "precision mechanics", where  you work to one thousandth of an inch or sometimes to a tenth of that. I  was fortunate enough to have learned this at the coast, after leaving the  K.V.R. at the end of my apprenticeship. Eventually, when work got  scarcer and scarcer, I left the trade and got into newspaper work, starting  in the spring of 1926. In 1941, being unable (deafness) to get into  uniform I went back to the tools at Ogden Shops, Calgary, which we  turned into a top-ranking naval ordnance plant. One day when the war  was over I met Clarence Finniss on Main Street in Penticton and at his  urging told him something of the work we had been doing, and the precision called upon to accomplish it, saying that working to one thousandth  of an inch got pretty commonplace.  "There's a fine mark on the machinist's scale, known as a sixty-  fourth of an inch," Clarence replied. "That is fine enough for me." That  was the tempo of the craft. They could work to quite close tolerances using calipers but generally did not have even a nodding acquaintance with  micrometers, which were essential on naval ordnance. You never saw a  "mike" in the roundhouse — or calipers in the gunshop.  Now for a few more names and personalities. The first that comes to  mind is Fred Milligan, the boilermaker, who was exacting in his work.  He learned his trade at Trail Smelter and later became a C.P.R.  superintendent in charge of stationary boiler installations in Eastern  Canada. Eventually, when he retired, he settled in Kelowna.  Fred Bean, boiler washer, became highly proficient at the task of  washing out loose scale from engine boilers — a job that often had to be 19  done between runs. Yonge Sutcliffe and Alf Atherton, the pipefitters,  were both good men at their trade. Sutcliffe came to the roundhouse as a  veteran of The Great War, quitting after a year or so to go into business  in Penticton and later to become the domestic water foreman for the  municipality.  Fred Bradburn, fireman of the stationary boilers, a quite small man,  never let the supply of steam or hot water fail, being extremely good at his  job. Jack Howard, the blacksmith, could turn out an excellent forging using the steamhammer if given proper directions as to size and format. His  helper, or "striker", was Bert Husband.  Then on the "Rep Track" there was Jim McGraw, foreman, Harry  Wall, who doubled as carman and train-inspector going down the line of  a train striking wheels with his hammer — a ringing sound meant the  wheel was O.K., a sort of "clunk" indicated the wheel was cracked and  that boxcar or passenger coach had to be taken out of the train and sidetracked until it could be repaired. Also in the crew there was George  Barr, the painter, Bill McQuistin, carman and, incidentally, a top-  ranking curler. Tom Bradley was carpenter and cabinet maker and there  were a few more.  Came the slack time and often during my final two years in the  roundhouse, Ernie Mitchell would come by me saying "Get out of  sight!" in a half-whisper. He had nothing for me to do and sometimes  nothing for a machinist to do either. The reason — much of the work that  Penticton had been doing was now going to Ogden Shops. Mitchell did  not wish to have officials demand lay-offs because he knew emergencies  were likely and he'd need every one of us. But the lay-offs came, leaving  only a handful of the original crew.  A queer lot? Perhaps; maybe I'm prejudiced and view these men  differently because one and all they were my friends. I never knew one of  them to shirk a difficult or messy task, nor to act toward one another excepting as friends. That was the keynote of the place.  We did have some rather miserable officials around, plus a few who  were quite the opposite. Mitchell the foreman and Jim McGraw on the  Rep Track were in a class by themselves. Mitchell could look sour, be  gruff-voiced, but underneath it was softhearted. And in all the years I  knew him I never heard McGraw raise his voice at any of his men, yet  both men got a lot done even when things were difficult. Both were kindly  toward that spindling little apprentice, me, who started in September  1917, weighing less than one hundred pounds and standing not quite five  feet tall. Learn I did, and more than I dared let on. Yes, I grew, and by  the time I was nineteen was spring-steel muscle and more than six inches  over the original five feet.  Probably now, at going on eighty-six, I'm the last one of the old  crew still living. In a way I'm glad the others are gone, so they did not  witness the final years and eventual demise of the place where they had  worked. Yet perhaps, like me, they would have been philosophical about  it, and would rather have seen the roundhouse go than continue on, a 20  hollow, empty skeleton of what it once had been, in the days when the  Kettle Valley Rwy. was something of importance in the whole of the area  it served so well.  Emerging from the Roundhouse.  bvR.S. Manud.  RUN OVER BY ENGINE . . . AND LIVED  by E. W. Aldredge  A cloud of steam; the exhaust from the coal chute engine . . .  something black looming through the fog that I hit with my head — and  then passed out. I came to amid a blur of wheels. I was under the engine,  between the rails. I let myself go limp — all five feet and one hundred  pounds of me. I dimly remembered I had been sent for chewing tobacco  for Locomotive Foreman Ernie Mitchell, and had been running up the  track; then all of that was lost in the pound of those dig drivers on either  side of me.  Next, the engine backed off of me — and I was still alive. I sat up between the rails shouting, "What did you run over ME for?" and then  men came running, with my father in the rear. All I had to show for it  was one tiny scratch over my left eyebrow — and countless bruises which  didn't show. I got up limping, not from these, but because the whole  heel-piece of one shoe was missing. My father found it moments later —  outside the rails! He tacked it on. I hung around until quitting time for  my mother mustn't learn of what happened to me. She did, but that was  later. Meanwhile the exhaust of that coal chute engine was altered so it  wouldn't blow across the tracks and the watchman, who should have  been riding the rear of that reversing engine No. 3233, was severely  reprimanded. Tommy Instone, who had been at the throttle of the  locomotive, gradually recovered from the fright of his life, as I  recuperated from my bruises. Yet the memory of that experience lingers  even now. 21  THE KETTLE VALLEY GHOST TRAIN  by Arnold Jones  If you 're driving east of Hope up Coquihalla way  Take heed of what I'm telling you and make the trip by day.  To drive by night is scary for there's no telling when  The Kettle Valley Ghost Train will fly those grades again.  You may call it superstition but I know this isn't so,  (And I know they tore her tracks up over thirty years ago)  But when men have built a railroad where a railroad shouldn't be  And have fought with mountain rock and snow through winter's misery,  And have dared to battle nature, and sometimes the men have won,  Their wounds and scars stay with them long after the job is done.  Long after their fears and curses, long after the blood and sweat,  They're haunted still by memories of struggles they can't forget.  They remember the daring blasting crews that worked on the steepest  slopes,  How they drilled and shot their dynamite while tied to the rock with  ropes;  And those men who died on the mountain side when the snows above let  go  And swept the work trains, track and all, to the river gorge below.  But with tunnels, bridges, trestles and cuts they made those rails run true  And for every hundred feet of track the grade rose two-point-two.  Officials drove the last spike home and then they rode the line,  And though they praised the workmanship, pronouncing it as fine,  They scheduled trains with passengers to run the pass at night,  Lest timid souls aboard the cars should panic at the sight  Of canyons yawning far below, and chatter through their teeth  "This bloody railroad's built on air, with nothing underneath!"  And did they give the stations names like Shere or Thunder Ridge?  Or Avalanche, or Hanging Rock, Slide Creek or Windy Bridge?  They gave them names from Shakespeare (to calm all thoughts of fear)  Like Romeo and Juliet and Jessica and Lear.  The last spike had been driven but the battle still raged on,  For train and engine crews took up the battle, never won,  Against those Coast Range blizzards when winter still is king,  And it snows at the rate of a foot an hour and smothers everything,  And telegraph wires are buried, and slides maroon the trains  When the cuts that snowplows fought to clear are drifted shut again. 22  When the line was at last abandoned it wasn't the men who lost;  The decision was made by Brass Hats who had counted up the cost  Of fighting a losing battle with a foe that always won  In the economic warfare of freight rates charged per ton.  So they salvaged her rails and her bridges, and with scarcely a thought of respect  They demolished her snowsheds and trestles that men gave their lives to erect;  And all that remains to show that steam trains once had brought life and sound to  these hills  Are the high mountain tunnels whose roofs bear the proof in the coal smoke that's  showing there still.  It's in these mountain tunnels that the Ghost Train hides by day  Until another railroader is due to pass away.  It's then that the Ghost Train flies again and her whistle mouthes his  name  In a way he's never heard before yet somehow sounds the same,  And her headlight shines upon him and it makes his eyes grow dim  And he hears her bell a-tolling and he knows it tolls for him.  It's the Kettle Valley legend: When a railroader gets old  And his legs can't reach the ladders and Life's boiler fires grow cold,  When his eyes can't read the orders and he's running out of steam —  That's when he sees the Ghost Train and he hears her whistle scream.  The Great Dispatcher's calling him and he knows the reason why:  He's now a one-way dead-head to that Terminal in the sky  Where there's never a wreck or washout, nor slide nor runaway  And he'll always win at poker and it's payday every day.  The red board's set against him and he's reached the end of track,  And at last he's got his miles in and he won't be heading back.  You may never see the Ghost Train but still you 'd best beware;  Just because you cannot see her doesn 't mean she isn 't there.  That patch of fog on the road ahead that blocks your headlights' beam,  That fog may not befog at all, but K. V. Ghost Train steam  So if you 're driving east of Hope up Coquihalla way.  Remember what I've told you and be sure to drive by day;  To drive by night is scary for there's no telling when  The Kettle Valley Ghost Train will fly those grades again. 23  C.P.R. MEMORIES  by Norma Bearcroft  My dad, Edward Steele Bearcroft, started working for the C.P.R. as  a call boy at age 13. Because, in 1910, there were few telephones, call  boys were hired to waken the train crews by walking, horseback riding,  or bicycling to their homes to ensure the men (engineers, firemen,  trainmen, brakemen and conductors) would be on their designated trains  on time.  In his spare time young Ted learned how to tap out Morse Code  messages on a "bug", and soon was promoted to operator. That's how  he met my mother, Mary Evelyn Moser, who had given up school  teaching to become an operator. My dad told me that when they were  married in 1920 he made only $60 a month. Of course, married women  didn't retain jobs in those days but devoted all their time to home and  family. As a result there were no delinquent kids in the 1920s.  Being the daughter of a railroader gave me the privilege of getting  free passes to travel on any Canadian train, with reduced fares on  American trains, in the day-coach or colonist car, where one could eat  lunches brought on board, or buy fruit, chocolate bars, magazines and  newspapers from the "newsy". The colonist car always seemed to smell  of oranges. As I recall, there was a section in the back of this car called the  smoker where men could indulge in this bad habit. (Few women smoked  then, and only the very brazen ever smoked in public). Nowhere else was  smoking allowed on trains in the 1920s and 1930s. Train windows opened up as wide as you wanted them, and I heard the odd story of some  smart alec thrusting his arm out full length at a passing train on the next  track, and losing fingers, hand or arm. As there was no air conditioning  most windows were open in the summertime. While passing through tunnels the air became foul and smokey, but no one complained. (Early  trains were powered by coal, shovelled in by a fireman. Hence the  smokey smell in tunnels).  Railway stations often had restaurants where sandwiches, chocolate  bars and hot drinks could be bought while the engine "watered up" at  the big water tank just up the tracks. All stations were clean and neatly  painted C.P.R. red with white trim. They contained a spacious waiting  room with long wooden benches and a ticket agent who sold tickets to  wherever you wished to go and knew all departure and arrival times.  Upstairs the station housed dispatchers, officials and stenographers. The  operators had their own office, usually downstairs near or in the ticket office, especially in the case of a one-man station. When special messages  were required to be sent to train engineers, an operator would have to go  out onto the wooden platform in front of the station and pass a wooden  hoop, which looked like an unstrung tennis racquet with a massage clipped  on, through the extended arm of the engineer as the train moved along at  a fair clip. I never saw one miss.  At divisional points professional gardeners were employed to keep  the station grounds beautiful. The C.P.R. Hill behind the Revelstoke station used to be a myriad of colored flowers,  set in immaculately 24  manicured lawns. There was also a multi-sided, glass-walled showcase  containing wheat, grains and stuffed birds or small animals to interest the  passengers as they walked about the platform during train stops.  Passenger trains of that era contained a mail car, baggage car, express car, elegant diner, coaches, colonist car, sleepers and observation  car at the end. Freight trains all ended with a caboose on which the train  crew slept and ate and which had a cupola above for the men to sit in and  watch the scenery whiz by. Since the caboose was the last car, there was  so much swing and sway I wondered how one ever retained his footing,  let alone get meals in transit. Those were the days of fast mail service,  when mailmen sorted letters in transit, postage cost a cent or two, and  mail never seemed to get lost.  On every station platform one would see baggage wagons shunted  about by baggagemen. I never heard of baggage getting lost in those days  either. Everything received a personal touch, and workers showed a pride  in their work.  I don't know about other railroads, but C.P.R. employees were one  big happy family. When I got out in the business world myself in 1941,  I realized this bond between C.P.R. employees was really very unique.  If a C.P.R. employee moved to a new location, all the resident  C.P.R.'ers would promptly call on the new arrivals and welcome them  into their midst. They did things together off the job as well as on.  While in Revelstoke ray dad became chief dispatcher, which meant  he was in charge of making up all train meets and was on call 24 hours a  day because there was only one "chief". This necessitated us having a  telephone, of course. Prior to this, we used our neighbor's phone. The  neighbor was an engineer whom the call boys didn't have to see personally, but could tell him over the phone when to take out his next train.  During the war years, "troop trains" were the order of the day, but  passenger trains carried a large percentage of boys on leave also, making  train travel very exciting for civilians.  In 1950 my dad decided he'd had enough of the deep snows of the  Revelstoke Division with its many slides. He successfully bid on the  chief s job in Penticton. This was a new adventure for him because of the  heavy volume of perishable fruit that came off three barges plying  Okanagan Lake. To the end of dad's working days passenger trains  received first priority. Freight trains had to wait on a siding while the  passenger trains sped by.  Throughout the 1930s and previously, there used to be a branch line  from Sicamous to Vernon. Mara was the first stop and the train was the  chief means of travel there as few people owned cars then and there were  no buses. My mother was the first white child born at Mara (in March  1892), and her mother, Mary Moser Sr., lived there until the mid-1940s,  on the hillside above the railway tracks opposite the narrow  wooden bridge that still exists. There used to be a huge white cattle corral  to load and offload livestock, where the young fry spent many a happy  hour. We often sat on the wide corral tops as trains whizzed by within  touching distance, almost knocking us over from the wind they created.  Hobos were an everyday sight on every freight train. They would wave 25  to us and some would get off and find their way to my grandmother's  house for handouts. None ever harmed us.  The Mara station consisted of two rooms with open doors. No one  broke the windows in it in my young years but much later the station was  vandalized and burned down, presumably by transients who slept in it.  The sole purpose of the station was to act as a protected place for offloaded goods such as my grandmother would order from catalogues. Dozens  of townspeople thronged there to meet every passenger train, morning  and evening. This daily train went to Vernon in the morning and returned to Sicamous in the evening and always carried plenty of passengers.  To get from the Revelstoke mainline onto this branch line one had to  overnight at the Sicamous Hotel, built on stilts over Shuswap Lake. Mosquitoes used to plague the area, even though they "oiled" the lake each  summer.  The Mara Post Office was in the Rosoman home. The only means  of collecting one's mail was to go to the Post Office. There were no  private boxes. You just had to wait in line for the postmistress to look in  your slot behind the counter for mail.  Grandma was a pioneer of Mara, farming an acre with chickens,  fruit trees, huge vegetable garden, and flowers everywhere. She had a  "green thumb" that could make everything grow. Water had to be  pumped from her well. I remember the day a bathtub arrived from a mail  order house. Previous to that we had to take baths in wash tubs on the  kitchen floor. No indoor plumbing or taps. She had a root cellar to  preserve her summer's harvest. I used to take her eggs to the local general  store, where the storekeeper credited her account at 25 cents a dozen. Yet  she supported herself entirely and, even when pensions first came in, she  refused to apply for one because she didn't want to be a drag on the country. There was no such thing as mixed chicken feed then; she mixed her  own concoctions for her Leghorns — warm bran and peelings mashed  daily. I don't know what else she fed them, but they never were sick.  Everyone in Mara could swim. Our dads taught us with inner tubes.  Our swimming hole was a relatively safe sandbar area between the Mara  Hall shore and the first of two booms which marked the channel of the  swift-flowing Shuswap River.  Huge salmon swam upstream each fall to spawn. The young men of  the village used to lay in wait for salmon on the bridge and spear them as  they swam under. This was illegal, of course, but no one got caught. Any  stranger approaching the bridge would find no men or spears, for they  had disappeared under the bridge platform. Salmon were not killed for  sport, but were given free to the needy.  I'm glad my dad never lived to see the way railroads are run today,  by remote control. The personal touch has long gone from all phases of  train travel, and I'm told there is no more comradery amongst the different levels of employees like there used to be. The "good old days" are  just a nostalgic memory of what used to be. 26  B.C. POLICE LETTER  A letter received in Penticton September 28, 1932 regarding the matter of unemployed men  riding atop freight trains or in empty box cars when they were fortunate enough to find them  open.  BRITISH COLUMBIA POLICE  Office of the Commissioner, Victoria.  September 23, 1932  Railwav Act"  To:    All Officers Commanding Divisions,  B.C. Police.  The Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police has asked for the co-operation of the Provincial, Municipal and Railway police  in stopping transients from riding free on freight and passenger trains,  commencing on the 1st of October.  This stopping of transients means transients going both east and  west and will be carried out all over the Dominion. With reference to  British Columbia, the R.C.M. Police are placing detachments at Jasper,  Field and Crow's Nest, and it is hoped the bulk of the transients attempting to enter British Columbia will be stopped at these points. As,  however, transients may manage to get past some of these points and  board trains again, the trains should oe combed at divisional points in  particular, and Constables at all detachments on a railway where trains  stop should examine the trains so far as they have time.  Particular attention should be paid to trains at Cranbrook,  Revelstoke and Red Pass.  Will you please give the utmost assistance in this matter to the  C.N.R. and C.P.R. Police and the R.C.M. Police.  It is the desire that this work be carried out with as little friction as  possible as it is not intended to prosecute all the persons put off the trains.  They must be informed they cannot travel free on trains and if unable to  pay the fare must use the public highway. Only in extreme cases should  prosecution be resorted to.  J. H. McMullin.  Commissioner,  B.C. Police  JHMcM/NW 27  THE OKANAGAN MIX  THE OKANAGAN MIX  byj. L. Monk  What is the "Okanagan Mix"? It is the blending of the physical attributes of  our valley and the various peoples that call it home. Let us look more closely at  the second aspect of the Mix. I do so with a fairly intimate knowledge of the northern valley but limited experience in the south. However, I am confident that  the northern people mix is typical of the whole.  The native Indian with centuries of living skills and traditional pastimes  lent the initial ingredients of the mix. The revival in recent years of native  dance, music, art, carving and other cultural activities is a wonderful addition  to Okanagan life.  In 1811, fur traders from the Oregon Territory entered this valley. As early  as 1812, trading posts were established. The largest of these was at the junction  of the North and South Thompson Rivers. These intrepid company men did  much to open up trade areas and travel routes but few, if any, remained as settlers. The early 1860s saw an influx of gold-seekers, an extension of the Fraser  and Columbia gold rushes. Some gold was found and mined in the Cherryville  region. Several of these miners acquired land and remained as settlers. The first  of these permanent residents were French from Quebec. They encouraged their  relatives and friends to leave "La Belle Province" to establish homes in the  White Valley. What would Okanagan hockey have been without the Lumby  Flying Frenchmen?  The two or three decades immediately following 1860 saw the arrival of  Americans, Eastern Canadians and British seeking land. A number of these acquired large tracts which became our early ranches such as the Coldstream, the  O'Keefe, the L. and A., the BX and the Stepney. The later arrivals built homes  and cleared 160 acre homesteads, the forerunner of today's prosperous farms.  Following completion of the mainline C.P.R. in 1885, many of the Chinese  workers brought into Canada as cheap construction labor took up residence in  the valley. A prosperous vegetable-growing industry resulted in areas such as  Armstrong, Swan Lake and Kelowna. Operation of restaurants and laundries  also became a favorite occupation of these Orientals.  Trinity Valley near Enderby was blessed by the arrival of Bohemian settlers who soon cleared the forest so they could till the rich land. In 1909, some  years of Finnish immigration began. Eagle Valley, White Lake and Mara were  populated by these skilled loggers and farmers. Meanwhile, many Italian people  settled in Revelstoke, Kelowna and other regions. In 1921-22, Ukrainian  families left their two- or three-year-old homes in Seymour Arm to farm at Grindrod and Swan Lake. The short frost-free seasons and lack of reasonable  transportation caused them to leave the northern Shuswap.  During all these years, there was a steady movement of Swedish and  Norwegians to our logging areas. They did not settle in colonies to the same extent as other ethnic groups from Europe. After the armistice of 1918, many 28  British took advantage of the availability of Soldier Settlement Lands. Ex-career  army officers from Britain and India seldom proved to be the best farmers and  loggers. They were very valuable in administration and leadership when  Canada entered the Second World War. Other British settlers of note were the  Remittance Men, usually younger sons who did not inherit land in Britain and  who chose not to enter the army or join the clergy.  The Second World War saw the displacement of Japanese families from the  B.C. coast. A number worked and took up residence in the Okanagan. Over the  years, numerous people moved here from Germany. Following the last World  War, many farms were purchased by industrious Dutch immigrants who are exceptionally able dairymen.  In recent years; wars, revolutions and political upheavals in other continents have resulted in immigration from Yugoslavia, Korea, Vietnam and  Chile. All of these peoples and others I have failed to mention have contributed  their knowledge, skills and culture to Okanagan life. Thus, our beautiful and  varied geographic environment has been populated by a great diversity of people. Surely, the "Okanagan Mix" is conducive to wide career choice and soul-  satisfying life in a land of natural and cultivated blessings. Occasionally, we  should count them.  Note: Mr. Monk presented the above as an address to the Annual Meeting of O.H.S. at Enderby,  1984.  Inkameep School. Anthony Walsh with his pupils who won so many honours in the 1930s for their  painting, drama, and Tale of the Nativity. Related stories are to be found in the 12th, 38th, and  41st Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society. The picture was taken by Bernard Webber in  the spring of 1942 just before Mr. Walsh left to serve in the Legion War Services. 29  THE HISTORY AND PREHISTORY OF TSINSTIKEPTUM  INDIAN RESERVES No. 9 AND 10 IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN  VALLEY REGION OF B.C.  by Mike K. Rousseau  Introduction and Background  In 1983 and 1984 the Westbank Indian Band sponsored a detailed heritage  study within Tsinstikeptum Indian Reserves No. 9 and 10, which lie on the west  side of Okanagan Lake opposite the city of Kelowna (Figure 1). The project was  directed by the author, who was assisted by several student Band members. It  focused on: 1) recording all historic and prehistoric heritage sites on both  reserves; 2) conducting detailed archaeological excavations at several sites endangered by proposed development; and 3) interviewing elderly informants  about aspects of local history (Rousseau 1984).  At the time of Euro-Canadian contact, the North Okanagan region was inhabited by the North Okanagan Indians, one of five groups within the Interior  Salish linguistic family (Teit 1930). They were characterized by a semi-  sedentary, egalitarian society dependent on hunting, fishing, and gathering for  subsistence. Population and settlement were contingent on the availability and  distribution of seasonal food resources. The people occupying the area around  Okanagan Lake were referred to as the "Upper" or "Lake" Okanagan, and  the Westbank/Westside localities were known to them as "StEkatkolxne'ut"  which translates as "lake at the side" (Teit 1930:207).  Initial contact with Euro-Canadians occurred in the early 1800s with the  activities of the North West Fur and Hudson's Bay Companies. The Fur  Brigade Trail passed through both reserves, and a camp may have been  established at sites DlQy 1 and/or DlQy 55 at the mouth of Keefe Creek on  I.R. 10 (Figure 4).  Heritage Investigations on I.R. No. 9  A total of fifteen heritage sites were identified on I.R. No. 9. However, only four have sufficient heritage significance to warrant being mentioned here.  They include a small historic community known as "The Village", two early  historic cemeteries, and an historic homestead (Figure 2).  The small historic community known locally to Band elders as "The  Village" was once located in the southeastern section of I.R. No. 9 on the west  side of McDougall Creek to the immediate north of a present large gravel  quarry. This small community was established in the late 1800s, and included  a church, a jailhouse, and a few small homesteads. The Church was located at  the northern end of the village (Figure 3), and Catholic priests used to travel  from Penticton to provide Sunday Mass and burial services. Elders Millie Jack  and Charlotte Popp remembered that the jailhouse used to sit on the very northern edge of the gravel pit. It was a simple box-like structure with a pyramidal  roof, two small barred windows, and a single door. Jailers included Cultus Joe,  Anton Eli, and Donald Abel. Only five or six small plank houses were constructed at "The Village". Some of the residents included the Alexander family,  Peter Joe, Pierre Manuel, Joe Pierre, and Chief Tomat. Between the houses lay  a recreation area (ball field) and rodeo grounds. "The Village" was abandoned  in the early 1950s, and none of its original associated structures remain. 30  Band elders Millie Jack and Charlotte Popp maintained that there is an unmarked historic cemetery located in the southeastern aspect of the reserve on a  sandy terrace edge on the east side of McDougall Creek about 250 m northeast  of where the church at "The Village" used to stand (Figure 2). They reported  that in the late 1800s and early 1900s the Catholic priests providing services for  the church insisted that non-Christians and agnostics be buried in this location  rather than in the regular cemetery by the lakeshore to the south (see below).  There are no markers to indicate the exact locations of these graves, and it is not  known how many people were buried there.  A second large historic cemetery is located in the southern end of the  reserve beside a trailer park near the lakeshore (Figure 2). It was established in  the late 1880s, and continues to be used. Our inspection determined that there  are at least 70 discernable graves, although it is probable that many more exist.  Most of the early marked graves are indicated by heavily weathered wooden  posts or boards bearing illegible faded inscriptions (some in Chinook jargon).  The earliest graves appear to lie in the northeast corner of the cemetery,  however, the majority of these are unmarked. Some may lie outside the fenced  area, as it was a common early historic practice to inter non-Christians outside  consecrated ground. This cemetery is presently heavily overgrown and is in  desperate need of attention.  An historic homestead was established in the northern end of the reserve to  the west of McDougall Creek by Anton Eli sometime in the early 1900s, and  was abandoned in 1944. The barn that used to sit on the homestead was  dismantled a few years ago, and reassembled several hundred meters to the northwest on the west side of Highway 97 where it can be seen today. The area  originally occupied by the homestead has been extensively disturbed, and its exact location could not be determined.  The majority of the remaining sites identified on I.R. no. 9 were  prehistoric in age, and represented locations where small groups of people  camped or performed subsistence activities for very short periods beside  McDougall Creek. These sites contained little in the way of cultural remains,  and brief excavations were conducted at only one of them.  During the survey of I.R. no. 9, we made an attempt to locate a spot where  Buckland (6th Report O.H.S. p. 15) mentions that the Hudson's Bay Fur Co.  used to trade with local Natives in the early 1800s. Dorothy Hewlett-Gellatly indicated the approximate location of this spot to us as shown to her by Buckland  a number of years ago. Alas, despite our diligent searching, we failed to find it.  Heritage Investigations on I.R. No. 10  Three major heritage site clusters are present on I.R. No. 10 (Figure 4).  The first cluster is situated in the very southeastern corner of the reserve and includes ten sites. Nine contain small circular cultural depressions measuring between 1.0 to 4.0 m in diameter and .3 to 1.0 m deep located in secluded terraced  cliff face contexts (DlQy 9-15, 17, and 54). These small basin-shaped depressions have intrigued several archaeologists who have observed them, and several  hypotheses have been offered regarding their origin and use. One suggestion is  that they were cache pits associated with the Fur Brigade Trail. However, this  is unlikely as the trail passed much further to the west and most of these sites are  very difficult to access. Another theory is that they may have been prehistoric 31  T    A  50 km  [49   Lat  119¬∞ Long  Kfa  Figure 1.   Location of the study areas, Tsinstikeptum Indian Reserves No. 9 and 10 in the North  Okanagan Valley. 32  WESTBANK  M  1km  Okanagan Lake  Figure 2.   Location of heritage sites on Tsinstikeptum I.R. No. 9. 33  hunting blinds. This is possible but not probable as there are numerous large  boulders and rock outcroppings in the immediate area that could have served  this purpose. A third possibility is that they may have been prehistoric sweat  lodges (saunas), but this is unlikely as there is no water source in the immediate  area. A final and more probable explanation is that they are small hut-like  dwelling foundations related to prehistoric puberty rites or spirit quest  ceremonies or to menstrual isolation. Such shelters erected in isolated settings  were commonly used for these activities by the Okanagan Indians (Ray  1939:55). One of these depressions at site DlQv 54 is beside a bluff face bearing  a pictograph (Indian painting) of a faded stick-man figure. Pictographic symbols  were often painted by young Native boys at sites related to puberty rites or the  spirit quest (Teit 1900:321).  The remaining site in this cluster contains both prehistoric and historic occupations. The prehistoric occupation is sparsely represented by a few stone  chips produced by the manufacture of stone tools, small pieces of smashed  animal bone, and a hearth that were buried between 25 to 40 cm below the present ground surface. This prehistoric occupation appears to have been a short-  term encampment probably dating sometime between 2000 to 500 years ago.  The historic occupation at this site is manifest by: a small rectangular, rimless,  dwelling foundation depression (for a small plank cabin or tent-like structure?);  nine small circular depressions ranging from 1.0 to 2.0 m in diameter which  served as refuse and firepits; and a scatter of early historic refuse. Excavations  revealed that the dwelling depression was occupied sometime between 1890 and  1910 based on the presence of square nails recovered from the floor zone. None  of the local elders could recall who lived at this site. However, there was a  general consensus that this area of the reserve was sporadically occupied by  Native people around the turn of the century.  The second major site cluster contains twelve sites, and is centered around  Siwash Point at the western end of the floating bridge. Of heritage significance  and interest in this cluster are sites DlQv 3, 28, 37 and 38.  DlQv 3 contains both historic and prehistoric occupations, but the majority of the prehistoric deposits had been previously destroyed and removed by the  relocation of Campbell Road. Therefore, only the intact historic component was  investigated. It is represented by a 4.0 m square early historic dwelling foundation depression which has a large linear pile of cobbles and boulders along its  eastern rim (3.0 m long by 1.5 m wide by .5 m high). Excavations revealed that  the dwelling floor contained a small central hearth associated with early historic  bottle glass and smashed deer and cow remains. Elder Marjorie Eli recalled that  there used to be a "stone house" in this general location about 50 years ago.  The linear cobble pile on the eastern edge of the dwelling depression probably  represents the remains of a collapsed stone wall. This accounts for Mrs. Eli's  recollection that it was a "stone house" although only the eastern wall appears  to have been constructed in this manner. It may have had a sod roof as the upper 20 cm of deposit within the depression lacked cultural remains. It is not  known who lived in this dwelling or when it was occupied, although sometime  between 1910 and 1930 seems probable.  Site DlQv 28 was an historic homestead known locally as the "Louie  Michele Place". Although the land was owned by Louie Michele, the original  occupants were Charlie Nakada and his family. They were Japanese-Canadian 34  farmers who leased the land from Michele in 1938. They grew tomatoes for the  Rowcliffe Canning Company in Kelowna and resided in this location for 12  years. During that time they erected several buildings near the main house, including a large ice cellar, a Japanese-style bath house, two large storage sheds,  and five large greenhouses. After the Nakadas left the farm in 1950, Louie  Michele took up residence and remained there until his death in 1952. The main  house was purchased and moved to the Keefe Creek area by Francis Swite in  1956.  DlQv 37 is a large recent historic and prehistoric site located on the  southern aspect of Siwash Point at the western end of the floating bridge. That  this location was of great importance during the past is clearly evidenced by the  large quantity of prehistoric artifacts and high density of cultural deposits contained there. Okanagan Lake can be easily crossed at this location, and the site  is in proximity to abundant and varied resources which enabled prehistoric people to establish permanent settlement there for thousands of years. Excavations  yielded a radiocarbon date on a major occupation horizon of 1080 + 160 years  BP (BP = "Before Present"). Arrowhead and spear point styles correlated with  others of known age indicate that this site has been regularly frequented for the  last 3,000 years or so. Cultural deposits were buried to a depth of 1.0 m, and the  identifiable animal bones indicate that deer and elk were commonly consumed  at the site. A small ferry service was operated by Eneas and David McDougall  at "the narrows" on Okanagan Lake beginning in 1885 to around 1907 (10th  Report O.H.S. pp. 39-44). It is possible that some early historic artifacts  Figure 3.  The Catholic church that once stood on the northern end of the small Native community  known as "The Village" on I.R. No. 9. Facing northeast.  Photo courtesv of Mrs. D. Hewleit-Gcllatlv. 35  associated with this ferry are represented here. However, none were noted during our investigations.  DlQv 38 is an early historic site which contains four cultural depressions  and a buried scattering of artifacts and refuse. Two of the depressions were  small, oval, temporary dwelling foundations; another was a shallow, roughly  square building foundation (shed?); and the remaining depression was a small  circular refuse pit. Artifacts recovered from one of the oval dwelling depressions  included several sherds of dark green bottle glass, a jet button, scraps of leather,  and pieces of tin. Excavations outside of the dwelling intersected a thin bed of  bones mostly deer with some pig and beaver. A square nail was associated with  these animal remains. The small circular refuse pit contained six square nails,  cut pieces of hoop metal, and several sections of a white, glazed clay, "English  Staffordshire" serving platter. The occupants of this site may have been Native  people who squatted in this location for a relatively short period (one year?)  sometime between 1890 and 1910. This age is based on the nature of associated  artifacts and animal remains. There are no historical accounts of this site and  local elders could not recall any settlement here.  The third major site cluster lies on the northern aspect of I.R. No. 10 near  the mouth of Keefe Creek and to the southeast along the lakeshore. A total of 12  sites are included in this group (Figure 4). Of interest are DlQv 1, 39, 41, 48  and 52.  DlQv 1 is a large historic and prehistoric site at the mouth of Keefe Creek.  Excavations indicated that the extensive prehistoric deposits are buried to a  maximum depth of 1.25 m, and it is apparent that this site was an important  major base encampment occupied at various times over the last 4,000 years. A  radiocarbon date on the earliest cultural deposits is 3980 ± 70 years BP. Other  major prehistoric occupations date to around 1,100 years ago (1,130 ± 340 and  1,095 ± 60 years BP), and 540 + 70 years BP. Animal remains recovered in  the excavations indicated that mule deer, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, elk,  ducks, grouse and squawfish were eaten. With respect to the historic occupation, elder Millie Jack maintained that there were three buildings in this location  from around 1900 to 1920. They included a rock and log structure with a sod  roof, a log and mud building, and a large barn. It is possible that the Swite  family, who occupied historic site DlQv 48 to the immediate west, constructed  and used these buildings for farming purposes. Several early historic artifacts  were recovered during excavation which likely belong to this occupation. Elder  Norman Lindley Sr. indicated that the Fur Brigade Trail used to pass through  this site and that a Brigade camp was located here. However, artifacts which  might have verified this were not found during our investigations.  DlQv 39 is a prehistoric campsite containing a single intensive occupation  which yielded a radiocarbon date of 2370 ± 80 years BP. The high frequency of  spear and arrow points at this site suggests that hunting was an important main  activity. Their forms are very similar to those of the same age found in sites on  the Columbia Plateau to the south, suggesting that the site occupants may have  originated from this area. Animal remains indicate that large numbers of  freshwater mussels were eaten, as well as elk, muskrat, marmot, duck,  squawfish and trout.  DlQv 41 is a prehistoric and historic site extending approximately 1.0 km  east from the mouth of Keefe Creek along the present lake shoreline. Arrow- 36  points found on the beach indicate that it has been a popular campsite for the  last 1,200 years or so. An historic homestead focus is located on the beach about  250 m southeast of the mouth of Keefe Creek and is known as the "Lindley  Place". The original homestead was established by Louie Michele sometime  between 1880 and 1890 at which time a log house, a barn, and two sheds were  erected. In 1925, Tom Lindley, grandson to Louie, took over the property and  built a second log house a few meters to the west. The original structures fell into  disuse and collapsed a few years later. Tom's log house was occupied until the  late 1950s. Sometime during the 1960s it was dismantled and removed by vandals. There are now two modern houses belonging to the Lindley family occupying this spot. One was built in 1956, the other in 1961. The Government  Ferry Dock in the eastern section of this site came into use in 1930 and was  abandoned in 1958 when the floating bridge on Highway 97 was constructed.  DlQv 48 was located approximately 200 m west of the mouth of Keefe  Creek and was known locally as the "Nancy Swite Place". It was originally  settled by Jimmy Swite around 1910 at which time a log cabin was built. Shortly  after he married Nancy McDougall they constructed a large two-storey house in  1920. A rootcellar, corral, and barn were also constructed to the immediate  north of the house. They raised eleven children. Jimmy died in 1950. Nancy  survived him by 18 years. For this reason the place is considered as hers. Local  residents used to bring Nancy deer hides and she made clothing and work gloves  for them. The main house and cabin burned down in 1972, and only the foundations of the buildings can be observed today.  DlQv 52 is a small prehistoric site located on the east side of Keefe Creek  beside a cattail marsh. Excavations revealed a deer butchering focus associated  with a hearth and a few stone tools that indicate cutting activities, hide preparation, and bone smashing. The majority of the bones belonged to the lower legs  of a single deer. Charcoal from the hearth produced a radiocarbon date of 1900  ¬± 80 years BP.  Summary and Conclusions  The findings of the Westbank Indian Band Heritage Project indicates that  historic settlement on I.R. No. 9 focused primarily around the small Native  community known as "The Village" on the west side of McDougall Creek.  Some short-term prehistoric settlement and land use is also represented along  McDougall Creek, particularly in the northern end of the reserve.  On I.R. No. 10 the most intensive historic and prehistoric settlements were  located immediately adjacent to the shoreline of Okanagan Lake around Siwash  Point and the mouth of Keefe Creek. People were attracted to Siwash Point  because Okanagan Lake can be easily crossed here, and because the site is proximal to rich and varied natural resources (i.e., fish, waterfowl, deer, marmots,  freshwater mussel, saskatoon, balsamroot, tule). The site also has a good beach,  long daily sunlight exposure, a good view of traffic on the lake and ample room  for settlement.  The area around the mouth of Keefe Creek was also quite attractive to past  human settlement. This is easily understood when one considers its aesthetic setting. Also, an abundance and wide variety of floral and faunal resources are  available here, including virtually all those traditionally exploited by the  ethnographic Okanagan Indians (Teit 1930). Historically, the fertile soil and 37  Okanagan    L.  312m*SLi  Borden   Site  Designation   is   DlQv.  Q   Prehistoric  Sites.  O   Sites  with  Prehistoric and  Historic Components.  ¬£~)   Historic  Sites.  9   Sites of Unknown Age or  Cultural  Affiliation.  Figure 4.  Location of heritage sites on Tsinstikeptum I.R. No. 10. 38  ample water for irrigation permitted small-scale agriculture and animal husbandry to be successfully pursued.  Information secured during the heritage investigations on Tsinstikeptum  Indian Reserves No. 9 and 10 appears to be in accord with what is presently  known about the prehistory and history of the North Okanagan Valley. The archaeological data indicates that human occupation in the Westbank and  Westside localities can be traced back at last 4,000 years. Other similar heritage  studies should be encouraged to help further our knowledge of Okanagan Valley  prehistory and early historic settlement.  References Cited  Buckland, F.M.      The Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail. The Sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society,  1935        pp. 11-22.  Ray, Verne F.  1939 Cultural Relations in the Plateau of Northwestern America. Publications of the  Frederick Webb Hodge Anniversary Publication Fund 3.  Rousseau, Mike K.  1984        Heritage Investigations on Tsinstikeptum Indian Reserve No. 10, Westside  Locality, North Okanagan Valley, B.C. Report on file, Heritage Conservation  Branch, Victoria.  Teit, James A.  1900 The Thompson Indians. Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, 2:4.  New York.  1930        The Salishan Tribes of the Western Plateaus: The Okanagon. In Annual Reports  of the Bureau of American Ethnology 405:198-294.  THE HUNGARIAN PRESENCE  by Elizabeth Renyi-Kangyal  (A   brief  history   of  Hungary   and   the   coming   of  the   Pioneer   families   to   Oliver,   B.C.)  "Hungary is a landlocked country in central Europe. It was once a powerful kingdom and Austria's partner in a great empire. But today it is a small  country, run by communist dictatorship."  So goes the description in a World Book Encyclopedia. Behind this brief  statement lies the dramatic story of a once proud people, the Magyars, a  nomadic tribe, which migrated from Central Asia to the broad plains of the  Danube in 896.  While the nation prospered in what was often referred to as the "breadbasket" of central Europe, with its near-perfect climate, fertile soil, lush forests  and rich mines, it soon became clear that the location was geographically vulnerable. The Tartars invaded Hungary from the East in the 1200s and the deadly Ottoman Turks came three hundred years later.  Alliance with Austria brought strength and prosperity, but it was relatively  short-lived. At the end of World War One, in which Austria-Hungary and Germany were defeated, the Treaty of Trianon at Versailles, signed in 1920, stripped Hungary of more than two-thirds of its territories. The mutilated country  could barely survive and in excess of three million displaced Hungarians  emigrated, setting out to all parts of the "New World." The worst, however,  was yet to come: for, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the already 39  crippled country was handed over to the Russians by the Yalta Accord in 1944.  Few escaped the ruthless occupation which followed. When the last "free" vote  was taken in 1947, only 22 per cent of the population wanted communism.  However, with the aid of some 200,000 Russian troops, it was forced upon them  anyway. We all remember the last futile attempt at regaining independence in  1956. The revolution lasted only days and was once again crushed by Russian  tanks. Some 45,000 freedom fighters were killed or taken prisoner then and  almost 200,000 fled to other countries, many of them to Canada.  This, in capsule form, is the mournful history of Hungary.  The Renyi family became a casualty of the First World War. For many  generations they had operated a glass factory in Transylvania. After the 1920  Treaty they found themselves under Romanian rule and were soon forced to  leave. Some members went to South America and Australia. My parents,  Joseph and Margaret Renyi, emigrated to Canada. At that time, the C.P.R.  and C.N.R. companies were advertising for new settlers to populate vast sections of land in the Prairie provinces. My father, already in his mid-fifties, who  had never wielded a shovel, took up the challenge and followed the Techy family, relatives of my mother, to virgin land near Manville, Alberta in 1925.  I was left behind for the time being, in the care of other relatives near  Budapest, and was thus spared those hectic pioneer years, during which my  parents lived under most primitive conditions and endured the severe winters.  For three years my parents were to struggle with wheat farming, only to see  their precious crop freeze in mid-August. (No crop insurance in those days!)  There was quite a clutch of Hungarian settlers on neighbouring sections. I  was to meet them all in the years to come, but not in Alberta, for by a curious  co-incidence the families would follow my parents after they migrated on to  British Columbia in 1928.  Unfortunately, I never did ask my parents under what circumstances they  found themselves in Belgo, near Rutland, being employed in the orchards of  George Casorso (uncle of our Victor Casorso). Mr. Casorso was a good provider and had quite a settlement of immigrants in his compound. The houses  were in a semi-circle, surrounded by fruit trees. Pigs, chickens, cows, heifers  were raised jointly. Substantial vegetable gardens also ensured plenty of food.  There was a man in the settlement whose wife and four children were still  in Hungary. Mr. Casorso advanced passage money for the family and, at my  parents request, I too was included. The six of us sailed on the S.S. Samaria for  Canada and reached our destination in British Columbia in August 1929.  That fall, some eight of us children from Belgo walked five miles daily to a  tiny one-room school in Rutland. Occasionally, when the weather was too  unbearable and snow too deep, Mr. Casorso would take pity on us and drive us  to school on the back of his truck.  In true teenage fashion, I sulked and rebelled over my new way of life, cut  off from all former friends and isolated with the language barrier. My mother  took me in hand and told me I would one day go down on my knees and thank  God for having guided me to Canada. (Prophetic words indeed, considering  what lay in store for the wretched Hungarians during and after the Second  World War!)  By February 1930, we were facing another change. Mr. Ward of Kelowna,  owner of the Apex Orchards in Oliver, had engaged my father to look after ir- 40  rigation on some eighty acres. His son-in-law, Robert Hall, moved us with all  our earthly possessions on his truck.  We found three identical houses built side by side by Mr. Ward for his  employees, located past the acre lots south of "Fritzville" where there are some  empty lots now, save for a small building in one corner which I am told belongs  to the Forestry Department.  The Molnar Sandor family, including four boys, were our immediate  neighbours. (They followed my parents from Manville-to-Belgo-to-Oliver.)  Soon an Italian family, the Gaspardones (with daughter Rose), arrived to occupy the third house. We had not met the Gaspardones before, but they too  came through Casorso connections from the Kelowna area. The Molnars moved on to the Fraser Valley in the fall of 1930.  There must have been a devastating winter frost in Oliver during that time  because blocks of young orchards in the Fairview area had nothing but dead tree  stumps and were being auctioned off. For a downpayment of $90, earned by my  mother at the tomato cannery, my parents picked up a ten-acre block on the  corner of Fairview and 7th Drive, where only a few apricot and peach trees had  survived. Soon a house was erected with the help of friends, at the back, far  removed from the road. The house was built of shiplap boards and had rough  plank floors. Spring of 1931 found us in our very own home.  My father put in ground crops of cucumber, cantaloupe and tomatoes.  That is a labour-intensive occupation: back-breaking work from dawn to dusk.  To this day, I have not lost my love of rain . . . what a celestial sound . . . when  I did not have to get up and hoe! But the worst scenario was yet to come. More  often than not, we had barely commenced harvesting when the dreaded "stop  pick" order came, via our fieldman from the packing house. Those were pre-  Hope-Princeton road, pre-tourist-years. There was no outlet at fruit stands.  The Renyi family with pet cat "Szucsi" in their garden on Fairview Road, Oliver, 1932. 41  We were far from affluent. After my father died in 1944, I found amongst  his papers a Tax Sale Notice stating that the annual Tax Sale would take place  on October 5th, 1932. Our 1930 property tax of $3.34 ($2.90 plus .44 int.) was  delinquent. Should our land go to tax sale, it would be offered for the full  amount of taxes due to date (which for 1930 to '32 was listed as $21.86). The  document was signed by W. R. Dewdney, Provincial Collector. I never recall  this "crisis" having been discussed at dinner!  In February 1931, we three Renyis and the three Gaspardones were among  the ten Roman Catholics to attend the first Mass celebrated in Oliver in the  private home of Mortimor Sebastian (Paddy) Kelleher on 7th Drive. Oblate  Father W. J. Cullinan was our priest. The well-built 1922 vintage home of Mr.  Kelleher still stands, structurally unchanged. Only the orchard around has been  newly planted and is now the property of a young Portuguese couple, Chris and  Kathleen Machial.  While in Belgo, we became acquainted with the three Rittich brothers, who  had extensive vineyards in the Black Mountain area of Kelowna. One brother,  Dr. Eugene Rittich, was an eminent viniculture and vine chemistry specialist,  having had extensive experience in the wine industries of Hungary and other  grape growing countries in western Europe before coming out to the Okanagan  Valley in the mid-twenties. He brought with him grape cuttings from Hungary.  My father was also most enthusiastic about grape growing and with the  help of Dr. Rittich, started a vineyard of his own in the spring of 1932. The  main varieties were: Pearl of Csaba, pink and white Chasselas, Thousand Good  and Riesling. By 1936, we had over five acres of what was undoubtedly the first  commercial vineyard in Oliver. Father chose this instead of planting trees, for  he envisaged a great future here for viniculture. There was, however, bitter  disappointment in store for him; once the delicious table grapes were ready for  harvest there was no market for them! The packing house did not handle them  and local demand was scant. Yield and quality were superb, but unfortunately,  my father was some forty years ahead of his time. After his death in 1944, we  eventually had all vines removed and planted an orchard which remained in  family hands until 1975 when my husband, John Kangyal, retired. The orchard  is now owned by Jack and Dolores Fodey. (John came to Canada in 1948 to  relatives, Joseph and Julia Matiz. His whole batallion had defected to the West  in 1945 and he spent the next three years in a West German D.P. camp.)  If there were any Hungarians living in Oliver when we arrived in 1930 we  were not aware of them. My father continued to correspond with his friends still  back on the Prairie and in quite short order many Hungarian families followed  us.  First to arrive were Steve and Helen Eisenhut in the spring of 1931. In  April 1933, Paul Eisenhut (Steve's brother), Paul Szabo and Kalman Beel (Bill  Coleman) came, having travelled in a box car with some livestock (horses and a  cow) from Armistice, Alberta. A few months later the two married men,  Eisenhut and Szabo, were joined by their respective families. Today a fourth  generation of Eisenhuts is growing up in Osoyoos and the twin sons of Julia and  Len Martinuk of Oliver are the great-grandsons of Paul Szabo. (Julia is the  daughter of Margaret Szabo-Green).  From the mid-thirties on, many other Hungarian families came into the  South Okanagan. For example, my husband's brother-in-law and sister, Joseph 42  and Julia Matiz, with young daughter Jolan settled in Osoyoos, planting an orchard where the Husky Gas Station is now located. Also in the spring of 1933,  my mother's relatives, the Techys, with three daughters and a son, accompanied by mother's sister Mary Polonyi, joined us. They stayed in Oliver only  a few months before moving on to Allengrove just outside Penticton. In the fall  of 1933 came Andrew and Freida Endreny with baby daughter Lavern. In  1934, a single young man, Louis Rienhard, completed the "Hungarian Invasion." In 1940 Louis married Edith Barrit who had lived in Oliver since her arrival with her parents from England in 1921.  The Endrenys still live on and operate the orchard they planted in 1934.  There they raised seven children, four of their own and three adopted. Of all the  Hungarians who have made their homes in Oliver none has been more involved  in community life than Andrew Endreny. For 25 years he served on the School  Board of District 14, including a stint as chairman. He represented the area for  two years on the Board of Directors of Okanagan College. Other organizations  which have benefited from his qualities of leadership are Air Cadets (34 years on  Civilian Committee), Canadian Legion, his church and the Holy Name Society. He has also been a supporter of baseball and football. In 1977 a grateful  community named his Good Citizen of the Year.  There are now an estimated 200 Hungarian families living in the Oliver-  Osoyoos area. The interesting thing about the people who followed my parents  was that they had all known each other on the Prairie, living in the vicinity of  Manville, Vermillion, Merry Lake and Elk Point, Alberta. During our pioneer  years we met and made many wonderful friends, but none better than Andrew  and Daisy Bell. Their already well established orchard was opposite ours and  they opened their hearts and their home to us when it meant most.  I lost my mother, Margaret Renyi, in November 1957. I shall always  cherish the memory of my dear parents; hard working, good pioneers, ever loyal  to Church and Country and grateful for the opportunity Canada gave them to  live in a free society.  Since that spring day in 1930 I have watched Oliver grow from a dusty  hamlet into a thriving community of respectable size and stature. Just as my  mother predicted almost sixty years ago, I do thank God every day for the  privilege of being Canadian and living in Paradise! 43  THE PORTUGUESE IN THE SOUTH OKANAGAN  by Paul M. Koroscil  Excerpts from "Canada, A Multi-Cultural Society: The Portuguese Experience" printed in  North Dakota Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1984 and reprinted here with permission of the author  and the University of North Dakota.  Background to Portuguese Emigration  Up to World War II there was no major concentrated settlement or Portuguese in Canada. They are first noticed during the post war economic boom  from 1946 to 1961. At this time Canada lacked a sufficient labour supply in the  construction and agricultural sectors of the economy. To solve this problem the  Canadian government revised the Immigration Act in 1952 to include a provision for dependent immigrants, nominated and sponsored, as new entrants to  the country. Sponsored immigrants were classified as immediate family (fiance;  spouse; unmarried children under 21; parents or grandparents over 60; and orphaned brothers or sisters, nephews or nieces, or grandchildren under 18).  Nominated immigrants included other kin (sons and daughters over 21;  brothers and sisters; grandchildren; uncles and aunts; and nephews and nieces).  This provision was important because it meant that the entry requirements were  less stringent for dependent than independent immigrants. The new provision  in the Act came at an opportune time for both Canada and Portugal. As  Canada was looking to Portugal to solve its labour shortage, "Portugal was interested in finding suitable destinations for the excess population of their adjacent islands." . . .  With the passing of the revised Immigration Act in 1952 the_Canadian  government initiated an advertising campaign to attract Portuguese agricultural  labourers from the islands. "Twenty persons, mostly from Terceira, were sent  in the pilot group. A year later, in late May, 1953, the Grace Line S.S. Hellas  landed 110 men at the port of Halifax. These were mostly married men, sent  with the expectation that, once established in Canada, they would be joined by  their families." . . .  In 1954 pressure from the Portuguese government together with continual  requests by Canadian railway construction companies resulted in 200 railway  track workers, 700 agricultural labourers, and 50 tradesmen emigrating from  the Azores. The movement continued in 1955 except this time 900 farm workers  and 50 tradesmen arrived in Canada from mainland Portugal. In the following  two years the Canadian government expanded its programme by recruiting  1,000 farm workers from the Azores and 1,000 from the mainland, 1,000 track  workers from the Azores, and 50 tradesmen from the mainland . . .  After the post-war economic boom, the Portuguese continued to emigrate  to Canada in large numbers mainly as sponsored or nominated immigrants.  From 1967 to 1973, 75 per cent of the 63,699 immigrants entered under these  categories in the Immigration Act. 44  By the 1970s the Portuguese had settled in every province and territory in  the nation (Table 1).  Table 1  POPULATION OF PORTUGUESE ETHNIC ORIGIN,  CANADA AND PROVINCES, 1971  Canada     96,875  Newfoundland  340  P.E.I  15  Nova Scotia  475  New Brunswick  195  Quebec  16,555  Ontario    63,145  Manitoba  3,815  Saskatchewan    275  Alberta  2,385  British Columbia  9,635  Yukon    25  N.W.T  20  Source: Immigration and Population Statistics (Green Paper on Immigration, Vol. 3) Ottawa: Manpower  and Immigration, 1974, p. 12.  Portuguese in the Okanagan Valley  Although part of the Canadian government's immigration programme was  intended to bring Portuguese farmers to Canada in the 1950s, it was only in the  Okanagan Valley that their hopes were realized on any scale. The most concentrated area of Portuguese settlement in the Valley is in the Oliver and Osoyoos  districts. Presently there are approximately 1,200 Portuguese residing in the  area.1 Like all other Portuguese settlements in British Columbia it was established through a process of chain migration which began with 12 original immigrants who arrived in the area in 1955. The majority of Portuguese in this  area arrived from mainland Portugal, particularly from the Beira district, and  a small number emigrated from the Azores and Madeira. This estimate of  homeland origins corresponds to Munzer's findings in 1978 and differs from the  national average estimates which show that 38 per cent of Portuguese in Canada  came from mainland Portugal, 60 per cent came from the Azores, and two per  cent arrived from Madeira.  Rosa Pereira Munzer, "Immigration, Familism and In-Group Competition: A Study of the Portuguese in the Southern Okanagan," Canadian Ethnic Studies, 13, No. 2 (1981), 99.  According to the 1976 census, approximately 600 of the 8,415 persons residing in Oliver and  Osoyoos were Portuguese. G. M. Anderson and D. Higgs in 1976 estimated that there were close  to 1,000 persons in the area. This figure is consistent with Rosa Pereira Munzer's estimate of 219  Portuguese families. In 1982 John Garcia indicated there were approximately 300 families in the  area. 45  The original immigrants in the area were hired on as labourers in the orchards and workers in the fruit-packing houses particularly during the harvest  season. However, during the 1960s the Portuguese began to settle permanently  in the area. This process of permanent settlement has continued to the present.  For example, in 1953 Joe Fernandes emigrated from Madeira to Canada. After  construction jobs in Toronto, Ontario, and Kitimat, British Columbia, he purchased an orchard in the Osoyoos area in 1960. Today he operates a large fruit  and vegetable stand and farms fifty acres of orchard with the help of his seven  children and their families.  One of Joe Fernandes' daughters married John Carcia who came to the  Okanagan at the age of fourteen in 1959 from the island of Terceira in the  Azores. John and his parents settled in Naramata where he spent his first winter.  John remembers:  We lived in a little one room cabin. The walls were paper-thin — when we got up in the  morning we would write our names and draw pictures in the frost on the walls.  In 1965 John moved to Osoyoos and worked on various farms including his  father-in-law's. In 1966 his father-in-law helped him purchase a gas station and  grocery store, and in 1980 he sold his business and bought a thirty-acre orchard  in Osoyoos. Apart from working his orchard he is very active in the Portuguese  community. He gives a radio programme, "The Call of Portugal," over  CKOO which serves the Oliver and Osoyoos area. On his broadcasts he provides information, sports, and news of Portugal in English and Portuguese.  Most of the original immigrants who came to the Oliver and Osoyoos area  in the 1950s, and those who settled permanently in the 1960s were able to adapt  to the new orchard environment and they were able to eventually become successful owners of orchards. The reasons for their success can be attributed to  economic circumstances in the area and the strength of the Portuguese family  unit.  Pickers' cabins. Initial residence of first generation Portuguese, Osoyoos. 46  In the decade from 1950 to 1960 crop damage caused by five spring frosts  reduced crop production in the Okanagan considerably. In 1959, frost caught  apricots and cherries in full bloom, peaches and prunes in the pink, and apples  in clusterbud, and all crops were "cut substantially." Together with the climatic  difficulties, the British and German orchard owners continued to have problems  attracting suitable day labour to the area during the picking and pruning  season. In the early 1960s properties that were uneconomical to manage became  available to the Portuguese. With their strong will to succeed and the strength of  the family unit to help each other, they were able to overcome such handicaps as  the language barrier, a non-orchard background, and an initial lack of capital to  take advantage of the depressed orchard real estate market. They purchased  their own orchards and began to operate them as viable economic enterprises.  Dorothy Fraser, an Osoyoos resident, aptly describes the situation of the  Portuguese in the area:  A vanished Canadian tradition has been revived. Savings from wages earned in the orchards of the South Okanagan are being turned into capital by a remarkable group of recent  immigrants from Portugal. In the streets of the little towns and in the hot sand of the orchards  a sturdy, suntanned people with dark hair and eyes and a look of scarcely suppressed merriment are adding yet another colour to the Canadian ethnic tapestry. The women work outside for 8-9 hours, then bake bread and do their washing. The men take on extra jobs even  on Sundays to lay up the where-withall for buying an orchard. These people used to be either  agricultural labourers in the Azores earning the equivalent of $100 a year or else they had  various dead-end jobs in Lisbon. Orchard wages are $1.10 to $1.25 an hour for men, $1.00  for women with higher piece-rates for cherry and apple picking. A man and wife working all  year might make up to $5,000. The Portuguese started to come 8 years ago in response to the  chronic labour shortage in the Okanagan. "Old Canadians" will not take this work because  of the long hours, its arduousness and relatively low pay.  No one expected an orchard worker to be able to go into ownership. But the frugal,  hard-working Portuguese after a few years in the country are taking on 10-20 acre orchards.  Some 20 out of 100 have already bought and others plan to buy. A good orchard with a house  and machinery costs from $3,000 to $4,000 per acre. Financing is through federal farm loans  or through crop percentage payments direct to previous owners. Down payments run as high  as $20,000. It is raised by a unique system of pooling savings. The Portuguese lend to each  other with only a verbal agreement and they do not charge each other interest. When one  skeptical Canadian said, "Suppose the borrower dies you'll never see your $2,000 again,"  the reply was, "If he dies, he loses his life. All I lose is my $2,000."2 . . .  [According to one informant, in 1987, of the 420 commercial orchards in the  Oliver area almost 25 per cent are owned by Portuguese Canadians; of the 223  Osoyoos commercial orchardists 44 per cent are Portuguese Canadians. Ed.]  The Portuguese who purchased orchards in the 1960s and 1970s farm their  own 10 or 15 acre parcels of land, and some farmers usually rent another 10  acres. In most cases the rental properties are quite profitable. In their agreement  Dorothy Fraser, "Portuguese in Canada — 1964," Saturday Night, September 1979. 47  with the owner of the rental property, the Portuguese do all the pruning, spraying, cutting of grass, watering, and picking for 80 per cent of the market value  of the crop. However, even though the Portuguese only pay 20 per cent to the  owner of the property, they feel that they can make enough money from their  own orchards and they are considering dropping their rental properties. One of  the major reasons in this consideration is the lack of a reliable labour supply during the picking season. This problem has arisen because of the changing attitudes of the second generation of Portuguese Canadians.  The members of the first generation or original immigrants were working-  class oriented whereas the second generation, many of whom have achieved a  higher level of education than their parents, are looking at a variety of careers  that are available to them rather than becoming orchardists. Of the 20 students  interviewed at Osoyoos Secondary School not one expressed a desire in his/her  future plans to own or operate an orchard. Most wanted to go to college or  university or become technical engineers or construction workers.  This attitude has had a direct effect on the operation of the farm as a profitable enterprise because they have had to hire farm labour. One local business  person pointed out:  The Portuguese men came originally, almost exclusively as orchard workers and were very  well accepted here. They operate their farms with a closely knit family — the members do  almost all of their own work. This is changing as operations become larger — so they are having to hire like everyone else.  Also, the new immigration laws of 1972 which prohibit visitors to Canada from  applying for landed immigrant status from within the country and require  visitors to have work visas has cut down the number of Portuguese people coming to Canada to help out during harvest season. Compounding the problem it  is no longer economical for the Portuguese to bring over relatives for just the  harvest period.  Faced with a shortage of labour, the Portuguese farmers are following their  Canadian colleagues by hiring transient workers from Quebec. However, this  solution has also presented problems for the Portuguese farmers because some  of their hired Quebec pickers disappear from the job before the crop is completely picked. This leaves the Portuguese orchardist in a desperate situation because  the crop must be picked during a certain time period designated by the  co-operative.  Another area where the changing attitude of the second generation Portuguese have had a negative effect on the operation of the family orchard is the  roadside fruit and vegetable stand. Five years ago the roadsides of Oliver and  Osoyoos were dotted with stands. Every Portuguese farmer who owned an orchard operated a fruit and vegetable stand in front of the house. Today many of  these stands are closed or they have been torn down. The young people left in  the family are no longer willing to run a stand. If it is operating, the grandparents usually attend the stand. The husband is too busy working in the orchard, his wife is often employed at the packing house, and the children may  have jobs in town . . . 48  .:*M  Vieira's residence, Osoyoos.  It is obvious, because of the forces of assimilaton, that the generation who  were born in Canada, would be apprehensive about the Portuguese maintaining  their identity. However, it seems that the identity of the group will survive the  future in the same way that other ethnic groups have preserved their identity in  Canada. The Portuguese will continue to emigrate from Portugal and settle in  the Okanagan Valley even with the imposition of government quotas, and they  will continue to maintain their strong family ties, their language, religion, and  cultural activities.  The annual celebration honouring the Blessed Virgin Mary, Our Lady of  Fatima, with an all-Portuguese mass is held every May. The celebration marks  the appearance of the Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal, in 1917, when she is  said to have appeared before three children and asked them to pray for peace.  Both young and old participate in the celebration, and children play a major  role as they sing in the choir, act as altar boys and flag bearers. This year the  flag bearers were Yvonne Silva and Nathalie Morgadhino. Undoubtedly, their  children will play important roles in future celebrations. The young also participate in other activities that bind the Portuguese community together such as  the folk-dancing group.  The Portuguese will likely continue to act as a dominant group in the South  Okanagan just as other ethnic groups dominate in other parts of Canada. As a  distinct cultural group, the Portuguese exemplify Canada as a multi-cultural  society. 49  ETHNIC DIVERSITY IS OUR STRENGTH  (a portion of an Oliver Chronicle editorial, March 11, 1987)  Last year's International Festival was the sleeper of the season. Planned as  a modest affair it overwhelmed its sponsor, the Oliver Rotary Club, by the sheer  numbers it attracted.  This year's event, in spite of heightened expectations, continued to amaze  the club with the people passing through the doors.  It is clear that the club has struck a sympathetic nerve in the community  which should not come as a great surprise given our ethnic diversity. Like a  giant layer cake, our population has been built up generation after generation  by each new wave of immigrants moving in with determination and energy.  Upon the original native Indian population came the English, followed by  the German, Dutch, Hungarian, Italian and other European peoples. The  1960s saw a major influx of Portuguese and the '80s is seeing a quickly growing  Sikh community. Living in relative harmony, the various communities continue  with many of their traditions yet at the same time participate as equals in the life  of the greater community.  The Butterfly Dance performed by three pupils of the Inkameep School in the spring of 1942.  Photo courtesy Bernard Webber  Many young Englishmen came to the Okanagan in the years just prior  to World War I and no doubt wrote home about their new experiences. One  such young man was Donald Temple who came to Kelowna in 1911 from his  home in Bridport, Dorset. His puzzled father wrote the following in reply to  one of Donald's letters: "... you tell us in it of your purchase of a "Cayeuse"  [sic], whatever that may be, answering to the name of Mickey. I suppose it  is the sort of thing sometimes called a hair trunk, with a leg at each corner.  Well, I hope it will prove a satisfactory purchase and won't bring you to grief."  (April 10, 1912).  A. David MacDonald 50  THE PENTICTON COMMUNE  by Fritz Gabelmann  "Who wants to settle in the valleys of British Columbia?" So said the  headline in a German youth magazine, Junge Menschen, (Young People)  February 1927, just 60 years ago. The writer was Adolph "Mim" Schwenk of  Penticton, B.C.  Schwenk had visited in early 1920 the Doukhobor community in the West  Kootenay and was impressed by what he saw. To "Mim" Schwenk, a  vegetarian, their hardworking and progressive community life had great appeal.  He could subscribe to it all except the religious dogma. He reasoned it should  work on a co-operative basis (as, for instance, the Co-operative started by Professor Franz Oppenheimer near Berlin, Germany.)  I wrote to a contact in Dresden, Saxonia, and was accepted. We were  organized to leave Hamburg on February 14, 1928. There were about twelve of  us, all male. A second group was to follow in May, 1928. Mim Schwenk, in the  meantime, had purchased a 20 acre orchard in Penticton. The deal was $1.00  down with payments to follow. The idea was that about half of us work the orchard and the other half work out, bringing the "loot" home.  Arriving in St. John, N.B., we received more instructions from Schwenk.  One piece of advice was to avoid, when questioned about our venture, the word  "commune". Secondly, Mim's brother, Walter, a farmer near Wainwright,  Alberta, needed two men. My friend, Fritz Hack, and I volunteered, being  slightly concerned about the outcome of the Penticton venture.  We kept in close touch with the Penticton group. All went well for several  months. The second group arrived during May. By Fall 1928 the first cracks  began to show. There were the fanatical vegetarians, and the not so fanatical;  the strict reformers and the not so strict. For instance, sugar was taboo but one  man bought himself a pound of sugar for a teaspoonful at a time in his tea. It  caused arguments. Some others found better uses for their hard earned money  than to put it into the common pot.  The more dedicated members stayed on. The commune continued into  1930. Of course, the plight of the fruit industry and the general decline that  gripped the world at that time did not help. The group found their financial  situation made it too difficult to continue. A few returned to Germany; a couple  went to California; and most of the others settled in various parts of the  Okanagan.  I like to remember, besides Adolph Schwenk, Alfred Grundig of  Naramata, Rudi Klix of Summerland, Kurt Domi of Penticton and Peachland,  Hans Feldt of Naramata, and all the others who stuck it out. They became successful orchardists and good Canadian citizens.  To the best of my knowledge, of the original two groups who came in 1928,  only Martin Howbold of Oliver and Kelowna, now living at the Coast and  myself are left. 51  HISTORICAL PAPERS  CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS IN THE OKANAGAN  by Steve Cannings  Most readers of the Okanagan Historical Society Reports will be aware of  the Christmas Bird Counts that are held throughout the Okanagan Valley.  Since many members of our Society take part, perhaps a brief history and  description of this event would be of interest.  The Christmas Bird Count, or Census as it was originally called, was first  held in 25 centres in the U.S. and Canada on Christmas Day, 1900. Twenty-  seven people took part in that first count organized by Dr. Frank Chapman of  the American Museum of Natural History. Dr. Chapman was looking for an  activity that focused on conservation to counter the prevailing custom of going  out at Christmas and shooting as many birds (or other moving objects) as possible. A short time later the CBC was adopted and coordinated by the National  Audubon Society.  Today over 1,500 counts are carried out from the Yukon and Alaska to  Venezuela and from Newfoundland to Hawaii by over 35,000 enthusiastic bird  watchers. In Canada these annual counts are held in each province and the  three territories.  The earliest record of a CBC in the Okanagan is one in 1905 by the well-  known naturalist and bird artist Major Allan Brooks near his home at  Okanagan Landing. His diary entry for Dec. 29 reads: "... went down the  Commonage range beyond Chatterton's and recorded 27 species and 137  wintering birds. Temp. 22¬∞; day fine, no wind."1  Brooks did three CBCs in 1906. No doubt he was acquainted with Chapman through his work as a specimen collector for many American museums.  Chapman was also editor oi Bird Lore, the magazine which became the journal  of the National Audubon Society early in the century. Brooks was almost certainly a reader of this journal which helped to coordinate the CBC and promote  its expansion. A few years later he was selling his bird paintings to the Audubon  Society regularly.2  Brooks carried on with the Christmas counts at Okanagan Landing nearly  every winter until 1913. In June 1914 he went to England with the Canadian  Rifle Team to compete at Bisley and did not return until 1919 after World War  One. That year winter came early to the Okanagan and he visited friends in  Comox where he recorded 56 species of birds. The winter of 1920 found him in  Florida. His fame as a bird artist was growing and he began travelling extensively. Nevertheless it was his pioneering with the annual "census" which inspired others to take up the winter CBC in the Okanagan.  In the very early days J. M. Schreck, a pioneer fruit grower in Naramata,  organized several Christmas counts in his area. In the Summerland-Penticton  area Christmas counts were started by Eric Tait, Herbert Simpson, S. A. (Joe)  Liddell and others as early as 1926 and were carried on in most years until 1950.  Some results of these counts can be seen in Harry J. Parham's book, A Nature  Lover in B. C3 Parham, a keen naturalist, was a friend of Allan Brooks and fellow  naturalists Charles de B. Green and S. J. Darcus. 52  After 1950 the Vernon area CBC was sponsored by the North Okanagan  Naturalists Club. That dedicated naturalist, Jim Grant, led the counts until his  untimely death in 1986. He helped to start most of the CBCs in the Valley.  Generous with his wide knowledge of natural history, he will long be  remembered in the Okanagan.4  In 1958 a Penticton-Summerland-Naramata count was revived and sponsored by the South Okanagan Naturalists Club from 1962 onward. The club  was founded by the same group which took part in earlier bird counts. In  Kelowna a similar count was held in December 1961 and the Central Okanagan  Naturalists Club was formed in 1962. Both clubs continue to sponsor CBCs.  A Vaseux Lake and area count was started in 1974 by naturalist-historian  Carlton MacNaughton and friends in Oliver and Penticton. Because Vaseux  Lake is a bird sanctuary (in fact part of the "Vaseux-Bighorn National Wildlife  Area") birders from many outside points take part in this CBC. During the  1960s and '70s a few CBCs were conducted in the Oliver/Osoyoos area. These  are now organized by the Oliver-Osoyoos Naturalists Club. This area is also  popular with visiting birders who hope to see southern rarities.  The purpose of the CBCs is to count'as many species as possible in a given  area in a single calendar day. By the late 1950s most Okanagan counts were  following the rules set out by the National Audubon Society to standardize  count areas and time periods. Counts are conducted within a circle of 15 miles  diameter. These circles are carefully chosen to enclose as many different bird  habitats as possible. They must not overlap and, once established, should not be  changed. The circles are divided into convenient areas to be searched by "parties" who report their results at the end of the day at a count-up session, usually  a jolly social occasion. The count day is selected from the two-week period  around Christmas Day. Observers are encouraged to spend eight hours in the  field; however, people with less time or endurance are always welcomed. Keen  birders often return to the woods after dark to listen for owls. Reports are also  welcomed from "feeder watchers" who may not be able to leave home.  The compiled results of the official CBCs are sent to the National Audubon  Society for publication in their journal American Birds. Official status is achieved  by each CBC participant contributing a per head fee to the Society to cover  publication costs. Nevertheless both official and unofficial CBCs appear in the  local press and the B.C. Naturalist, journal of the B.C. Federation of Naturalists.  Forty CBCs were held in B.C. during the count period of 1985-86. Thirty-  two were official counts published in American Birds. The publication of this extensive information on the distribution and abundance of birds in North  America is invaluable. No government or institution could easily duplicate it.  This annual count generates considerable friendly rivalry and the standard  rules provide a fair basis for competition as well as scientific analysis of results.  Figures from the 1985 B. C. Naturalist give some idea of the sporting appeal of the  Christmas counts.  Highest species totals were on the coast as usual, with Vancouver edging  out Ladner 132 to 131, while Victoria was close behind with 127. In the  Interior, Kelowna naturalists counted 89 species, topping traditional  leaders Vernon 87 and Penticton 86.5 53  Okanagan counts hold some all-time records for official Canadian CBCs  and have had the highest counts in North America for some species in certain  years.  VERNON holds Canadian records for numbers of Ring-necked Pheasant,  Blue Grouse, Pygmy Owl, Rock Wren (with Vaseux Lake), Harris' Sparrow  and House Finch.  PENTICTON has the highest counts for American Coot, Boreal Owl,  Lewis' Woodpecker, Say's Phoebe, Mountain Chickadee and Cassin's Finch.  VASEUX LAKE has records for Golden Eagle, White-headed  Woodpecker (with Oliver/Osoyoos), Pygmy Nuthatch and Canyon Wren.  OLIVER/OSOYOOS have the highest counts for Chukar and California  Quail.  Kelowna has recently entered the "official" CBC category and will no  doubt soon appear on the national record lists.  Birders are often asked about unusual birds found on Christmas counts.  Most of the surprises are birds which normally migrate south for the winter: for  example, warblers such as Yellow-rumped (Audubon) Warblers, Common  Yellow-throat and Northern Water Thrush (not a thrush but a warbler!). A  Northern (Bullock's) Oriole showed up at a feeder in Naramata a few years ago  and obliged by staying for the bird count.  Say's Phoebes have been recorded twice during mild winters at Penticton  and Vernon, as have Mountain Bluebirds at Penticton and Kelowna. In small  numbers Western Bluebirds are regular winter birds in the valley. Two other insectivorous birds that are exciting to find are the Rock Wren and Canyon Wren.  The Rock Wren normally migrates so is a rarity in winter but the Canyon Wren  is a resident at the northern limit of its range in the southern interior of B.C.  and is found nowhere else in Canada.  Probably the most surprising bird recorded on our winter counts has been  Anna's Hummingbird. These hardy hummers have been extending their range  northward from California for over 20 years."  Every year more mountain birds are reported as the more adventurous  young birders hike, ski or snowshoe into the hills to seek new species. Gray Jays,  Boreal Chickadees, Blue Grouse and White-winged Crossbills are now quite  common on CBC lists.  The historical trends in Okanagan bird populations are discussed in a new  book Birds of the Okanagan Valley.6 The Christmas counts have pointed up some  of these trends. Canada Geese are probably the best example.  Wintering Canada Geese were very scarce when regular CBCs started in  1926. In fact none were recorded until 1929 and then only five birds! Numbers  gradually increased through the 1960s reaching a peak in the early 1980s.  Government officials have used CBC records in their studies to find ways to  control the population of this species.  Other birds that have increased in numbers in the Okanagan Valley are  Ring-billed Gulls, Mourning Doves, Anna's Hummingbirds, American  Robins, European Starlings, Steller's Jays, House Finches and House Sparrows. Obviously we have improved habitat for some species but unfortunately  we have destroyed habitat for others or reduced their numbers in other ways.  CBCs reveal some interesting cases. 54  evl.-s.  Saw-whet Owl in cedar at Osoyoos, B.C. Christmas Bird Count, December 1984.  Photo courtesy of S. R. Cannings  The Ring-necked Pheasant declined rapidly in the 1940s and '50s, no  doubt partly due to the changes in orchard practices such as introduction of  sprinkler irrigation and mowing of cover crops. CBC records show that pheasant populations have now stablized somewhat, especially in the north end of the  Valley.  Most of our marsh birds have suffered loss of habitat. Grebes, ducks,  Virginia Rails and Marsh Wrens have been affected. These losses are not  always reflected in winter counts as some of these species migrate from northern  areas to winter in the Okanagan.  Large marshes flourished at Osoyoos, Vaseux Lake, Penticton, Kelowna  and Vernon until the late 1930s but since then all these have been modified. Alki  Lake at Glenmore was one of the richest breeding grounds for marsh birds in  the Okanagan but since 1966 it has been Kelowna's garbage landfill site.  Perhaps as compensation it now supports the largest population of Ring-billed  Gulls in the Valley. The first recorded nesting ground for these gulls was  established about the same time on Whiskey Island near Carr's Landing.  Christmas count records reveal facts about winter distribution of Valley  birds that are interesting and sometimes surprising. By comparing 25 years of  CBC records for the Penticton and Vernon areas (with a little help from a computer) pond ducks are found to be much more abundant in the north than the  south. The reverse is true of diving ducks most of which spend the Christmas  season on the large, usually open lakes to the south.  Christmas bird counts are often remembered for small incidents — about  birds or birders. Returning at dusk to the home of our count-up host at Osoyoos  we were surprised to find a tiny, fluffed-up Saw-whet Owl in a small cedar exactly where a Saw-whet Owl had been seen the previous year! Perched on a  branch, his head cocked sideways, his large yellow eyes examined the curious  birders. 55  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 Hamilton M. Laing, Allan Brooks: Artist Naturalist. British Columbia Provincial Museum special  publication No. 3, 1979. pp. 80, 81.  2 Jean Webber, Major Allan Brooks of Okanagan Landing. O.H.S. 42nd Annual Report, 1978, p. 84.  :i    H.J. Parham, A Nature Lover in British Columbia. London, 1937, pp. 229 - 231.  4 John W. Baumbrough, Well-known Naturalist Passes Away. B.C. Naturalist, Vol. 24, No. 1, March  1986, p. 4.  5 Richard Cannings,  Christmas Bird Count — 1985 Results.  B.C.  Naturalist, Vol.  24,  No.  3,  September, 1986, p. 11.  6 R. A. Cannings, R.J. Cannings, S. G. Cannings, Birds of the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia  Provincial Museum. In press (1987).  Footnote:  '    In no circumstances should attempts be made to influence the migration habits of hummingbirds  by leaving hummingbird feeders out in the fall.  THE CATBIRD  The catbird, it appears to me,  Has found himself a telling-tree,  And from its tip drips melody  That makes the valley ring;  And I, grown old in world distress,  And calculated carelessness,  Find, in that swift, explosive joy,  My own heart start to sing.  . . . when all the leaves are sere and brown,  And snow waits just above the town,  And people, bent before the wind,  Go hurrying along —  / will be seeing damask dawns —  And cherry trees — and daisied lawns,  And hearing, in the dreamless dark,  The black-capped catbird's song.  Nina S. Berg 56  FAIRVIEW LOTS  by Ermie Iceton  In 1887 Fred Gwatkins and George Sheenan put in the first stakes on the  Stemwinder Mine, which became known as the discovery claim in Fairview,  located two miles west of Oliver. Years before, two placer miners, "One-arm"  Reed and his partner Ryan, were the first to discover gold in the vicinity; and  the creek which tumbled down the gulch was named Reed Creek. Eventually  mining claims were recorded over an area of 30 miles and for nearly 20 years the  camp at Fairview flourished.  On December 1, 1892, a post office was established with Thomas Elliott as  the first postmaster. Elliott served until December 5, 1898. Successive  postmasters were Richard Russell (Jan. 1, 1899 to July 15, 1902); John Love  (Aug. 1, 1902 to June 20, 1906); W. B. Hines (Aug. 1, 1906 to Aug. 1, 1907);  Samuel D. Hines (Sept. 1, 1907 to Apr. 14, 1909); Mrs. J. P. McCuddy Quly  1, 1909 to Sept. 3, 1920); and H. C. McGuffie (Aug. 9, 1921 to June 6, 1925).  Two townsite plans were filed in 1897, the upper plan being filed on March  18 by Latimer and the lower plan by Dier, Davidson and Russell on June 9.  This land was originally owned by John Carmichael Haynes in 1883 and by  Thomas Ellis in 1896, both of whom were well known cattle ranchers.  The Fairview Presbyterian Church was built in 1899 on lots 11 and 12 of  Block 2L, bordered on the north by Penticton Street and on the east by  Washington Avenue, directly across the street from the Church of England,  which was built in 1897.  In 1903 the trustees of the Presbyterian Church acquired possession of the  lots. In 1955, the land surrounding them was divided into parcels ranging in size  from 1.97 acres to 18.13 acres.  On June 3, 1963, a picnic was held in the area, jointly sponsored by the  Oliver-Osoyoos and Penticton Branches of the Okanagan Historical Society. It  was the dream of the members that the area be made into another town such as  Barkerville with buildings moved from as far away as the Kootenays. Although  money was not available interest in the project was, however, sparked. Rev. Irvine McKee of the Penticton Presbyterian Church apparently began negotiations to have the lots given to the Okanagan Historical Society.  In 1925, the Presbyterian Church of Canada joined Methodists and Con-  gregationalists to form the United Church of Canada. In 1929 the Church Committee of the Okanagan Falls United Church decided to move the church  building from Fairview to the Falls. A Building Committee consisting of Messrs.  L. C. Clarke, R. Hody, J. R. Christie, Geo. Hawthorne and W. Thomas was  formed. The windows were boarded up from the inside and a charge of  dynamite suspended from the ceiling and lit. The explosion loosened the nails,  making the dismantling of the church possible. The building was reassembled  where it still stands as part of the Okanagan Falls United Church.  During Kathleen Dewdney's term as President of the Okanagan Historical  Society the Trustees of the Kamloops-Okanagan Presbytery of the United  Church of Canada, successors to the Trustees of the Fairview Presbyterian  Church, "sold" lots 11 and 12 to the Okanagan Historical Society on January  21, 1970 for the sum of one dollar. The cost of registering this indenture on October 29, 1970 was $39.26. The Trustees included Earl Victor Merrick of 57  Kamloops, Robert Dawson Mitchell of Peachland and Graham John McKinley  Holmes of Oliver. The O.H.S. Committee included Kathleen Dewdney of Penticton, Lutheran Minister Rev. Alvin Miller of Oliver and Victor Wilson of  Naramata.  In November 1985 correspondence from the Penticton Assessment Office  re making the lots taxable as there was no apparent use being made of them,  was forwarded to me as President of the Okanagan Historical Society. In July  1986, we appealed that decision but the commission ruled that the lots were taxable for 1986. However, the assessors advised that if we began a foundation by  September 30, 1986 they would consider that we were making an effort to use  the land. Carleton MacNaughton and a neighbour poured a partial foundation  in September and at a Court of Revision in December, the lots were declared  tax exempt.  Sources of information:  O.H.S. Reports 12 and 30, Rev. Alvin Miller; Copy of Indenture, Kamloops; 1929 Minutes of  Okanagan Falls United Church.  Carleton and Isabel MacNaughton on Fairview site.  Note: In the spring of 1987 Carleton and Isabel MacNaughton spent hours  clearing the Fairview lots of weeds, installing and securing two picnic tables,  erecting a stone cairn surmounted by a cross formed from mine drill bits to commemorate the Fairview Presbyterian Church, and building a roofed information  board on which to display old photographs as well as examples of local flora  under plexiglass. Trees have been planted and watered. Local interest and support is evident. Ed. 58  JOURNEYS BY ROWBOAT  by H.J. Parham  The following is an excerpt from H.J. Parham's book A Nature  Lover in British Columbia which was published in 1937.  By the time that I came to make a home here for myself and the rest of the  family — who were to follow — the main waterways of the Okanagan north of  the international boundary had become very familiar to me. Trips on the  C.P.R. steamship Aberdeen had brought me in contact with Okanagan Lake and  its people; for, in addition to the regular stopping places — Kelowna and a few  embryo settlements — almost any lone rancher could hang out his flag and  bring Captain Estabrook and his boat to a little private wharf or pier if a  passenger or a few boxes of farm produce awaited transportation.  Father south, I had — in 1905 — helped Rupert Venner take a row-boat  from the old bridge where the town of Oliver now stands to Osoyoos, where  Venner was then stationed as Provincial constable.  This trip had been as much a matter of steering as of rowing, for the river  is rapid and there were many stretches where the current did its best to carry us  under the overhanging branches and bushes. These would have forcedour gunwales down to the water-level had we not avoided them. The crookedness of this  part of the river gave us constantly changing views of the two little churches and  other buildings in Fairview. Sometimes we were heading straight for them, and  the next moment straight away from them. Such endless windings must more  than double the distance that the road traverses between Oliver and Osoyoos  Lake.  This was a very enjoyable trip, with the genial pioneer doctor — R. B.  White — as passenger, and as companion during one of the hottest evenings I  ever remember in B.C., at Charlie Richter's Osoyoos hotel.  As usual, Venner had no prisoner at the little jail, and we were all carefree.  There had been many row-boat trips on Okanagan Lake too, some of them  long ones. In the spring of 1906 I had rowed with Henry Childers from his Bear  Creek Ranch (opposite Kelowna) to Penticton and back, and with him and  another old Boer War friend, from Bear Creek to Okanagan Landing. The latter journey was repeated alone when, in the same summer, I rowed to meet  Esther and bring her to Bear Creek for a two-months' visit on her way back to  England from Australia. The happiest of all life's little voyages was that summer  night's return journey with Esther.  The short distance between Okanagan Falls and our ranch at Vaseux Lake  was rowed in the company of my two first lady visitors — already referred to. I  brought them down this way and then left them to bathe while I went to The  Shack to get dinner ready . . .  When my visitors returned to their friends at Okanagan Falls the next day,  en route to their Vancouver homes, I accompanied them and rowed them and  their hostess over the ten-mile stretch of Dog Lake to Penticton. This completed  the Okanagan's course for me, but for a short four miles or so between Mcln-  tyre's Bluff and the Oliver bridge. Part of this stretch is rather shallow for a  boat, unless the river is in flood. 59  BAPTISMAL WINDOW  IN ST. STEPHEN'S CHURCH, SUMMERLAND  by Marjorie Croil  In 1985, St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Summerland fitted a unique baptismal window into a large gothic arch in the southwest wall of the church. The  design was the work of Lutz Haufschild, internationally known architect and  stain glass artist.  Baptismal Window, St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Summerland, installed to mark the church's  75th anniversary. Photograph by Summerland Review 60  The window was installed to mark the anniversary of St. Stephen's 75  years of worship and service in the community from 1910 to 1985. The project  was made possible by a bequest received by the church in 1984.  History in glass, etched on it in a dull crimson are the Christian names and  christening dates of the 839 souls baptized since the church was dedicated.  Around the perimeter are five inch circular pictures, one face chosen for each of  the seventy-five years, from pictures submitted by parents of the children. At the  top are etchings of the seven rectors who served in the parish, Rev. Archdeacon  H. A. Solly, Rev. Humphrey Pearson, Rev. L.J. Tatham, Rev. Canon F. V.  Harrison, Rev. A. A. T. Northrup, Rev. Norman Tannar and the present incumbent, Rev. R. G. Mathews as well as that of Rev. Wilf Sparrow, honorary  assistant rector. Whimsically included is the bearded face of the architect, Lutz  Haufschild.  All around the window a clear yellow glass emphasizes the light pouring in  and represents the enfolding presence of the Holy Spirit, so often there invoked.  Ivy was removed from the wall outside the church prior to setting the window.  Part of the architect's vision was that as the vine grew again it would edge the  glass adding futher interest to the arresting effect.  Across the bottom of the window a verse from the book of Daniel 4:3 promises: "His kingdom is an everlasting kingdom and His domain is from generation to generation". Arnold Edinborough writing about the window in the  Canadian Churchman, November 1985, said, "It might just as well have been  from Hebrews 12:1, " We are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses''.  The baptismal window was dedicated October 13, 1985 by the Right  Reverend Fraser Berry of Kelowna, Bishop of Kootenay.  A part of the anniversary renovations was restaining all the wood appointments at the east end of the church to match the original interior. Outstanding  among these is a new dark wood frame for the dossal made by Indian carver,  Simon Dick of Vancouver.  During 1985, St. Stephen's had many special events. In May the Most  Reverend Edward Scott, Primate of Canada, spoke at an anniversary dinner  and attended an open house tea. Artifacts and enlarged pictures were shown  tracing the development of the church, rectory, parish hall and the memorial  garden and landscaping originated by Canon and Mrs. F. V. Harrison.  St. Stephen's was designed after St. Botolph's in Chevening, Kent,  England. For some time it was a mission of that church, supported in the  amount of 450 pounds Stirling per year, an encouragement to the British people  who pioneered in building churches and in settling and developing the  Okanagan. Stone for the edifice was available readily as land was cleared for  planting.  Giovanni Biagioni, at that time recently from Italy, was the stone mason.  John Robertson, father of Gordon Robertson of Summerland, was in charge of  construction.  The cornerstone was laid by the Venerable Archdeacon Beer in 1909 and  the first service was held in 1910.  Coming from England in 1913 the oldest member of the congregation,  both in years and long standing is Mrs. Robert (Gwendoline) Atkinson, now in  her 100th year. Her great grandchildren are the fifth generation on two sides of  the family to belong to the church, "from generation to generation", as the text  on the Baptismal Window proclaims. 61  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE  OKANAGAN REGIONAL LIBRARY 1935 - 1984  by W. P. Lofts  In December 1935, a referendum was put to 60 municipalities and  unorganized areas of the Okanagan as to whether the voters wanted to participate in the Okanagan Union Library. The answer to this referendum was  'yes' in all but three of the voting areas, namely, Hedley, Revelstoke, and Penticton. Hedley and Revelstoke felt that they were too far distant to participate,  and Penticton was quite satisfied with the Public Library Association that was  well established in the town.  Dr. Helen Gordon Stewart, member of the Public Library Commission  and past chief librarian of Victoria Public Library, had been organizing the  Union Library along the lines of the one that had recently been established in  the Fraser Valley. Funds for Dr. Stewart were made available from the  Carnegie Fund through the Public Library Commission in Victoria.  The first board meeting was held in 1936, and its first duties were to decide  where the headquarters was to be established, draw up a budget and to appoint  a librarian. Dr. Stewart, at that time, had been working in Vernon but the  board decided on a close vote to move the headquarters to Kelowna. Mayor  E. W. D. Prowse of Vernon brought down a budget of $11,125 and the Board  appointed Miss Muriel Page, a librarian from the Toronto Public Library, who  accepted the appointment and took up her duties in March, 1936. Under the  Public Libraries Act at the time, all units voting to come into the library district  had to remain in for at least three years before they were allowed to withdraw.  After the three year period elapsed, Vernon, Coldstream, Armstrong, Spallumcheen, Salmon Arm District, Hillcrest, Sicamous, Eagle Valley and Mara all  withdrew from the Regional Library District.  This was a great blow to the still new and struggling library with a budget  down to about $8,000. During the war years, service was maintained and  gradually increased until 1946 when the consolidation of small rural school  districts in the Province brought new legislation into use. By the end of 1946,  there was a larger area covered than ever before, and both Hedley and Penticton were brought into the library district. In 1947, the population served was  44,544 and with a fifty cents per capita rate, an expenditure of $25,800 was set.  In January 1955, the new headquarters building on Queensway was opened for  business and officially opened on April 15 by the Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, Premier of the Province. The City of Kelowna had donated a valuable site  in its civic centre property and $25,000 toward the building of the Kelowna  branch; the Government of B.C. granted $12,500, half the cost of headquarters,  and the Regional Library bore the cost of the other half.  In 1958, Revelstoke City joined the Okanagan Regional Library  establishing a complete Regional Library District from that city to the U.S.  border. In 1967, the School District No. 19 (Revelstoke) also entered the  system, and a branch library was established in Mica Village to serve the  workers on the Mica dam site.  In October 1961, a half-storey addition was completed to the Kelowna  building including an enlarged boardroom for use as an art gallery, librarian's  office, and film room together with spacious staff accommodation. This addition 62  First Board Meeting in this Board Room - October 28, 1961.  From left to right: George Dew, Assistant Secretary of the Board; Alderman John Johnson, Enderby,  Councillor of the Board; Mrs. H.J. Bawtree, Enderby School District; K. A. Plaskett, Osoyoos  School District, Southern Okanagan Councillor of the Board; Councillor E. G. Breeder, Salmon  Arm Municipality, Councillor of the Board; Alderman E. C. Rice, Vernon, Councillor of the Board;  John Fowler, Spallumcheen, Chairman of the Board; Muriel Ffoulkes, Librarian, Secretary of the  Board; John Wendland, Osoyoos; William Ritchie, Summerland School District; Alderman T. A.  Moor, Armstrong; Alderman P. F. Eraut, Penticton, Vice-Chairman of the Board; Mrs. Leslie  Balla, Penticton School District; Mrs. D. G. Mitchell, Revelstoke; Mrs. C. W. Aitkins, Peachland,  Councillor of the Board.  to the library was also financed three ways by the City of Kelowna, the Public  Library Commission, and the Library Board.  In 1964, Muriel Page Ffoulkes, who had been librarian since the inception  of the library in 1936, retired and W. P. Lofts, the assistant librarian, took over  as her successor.  Up to 1967 there had been very little change in the basic library service offered in the valley. In that year, with a grant from the Public Library Commission, the Board established its first bookmobile service based in Salmon Arm  which replaced a score of small deposit stations scattered throughout the North  Okanagan-Shuswap area. This service, which has operated continually ever  since, was responsible for an immediate jump in book circulation of 300 per  cent.  Up to 1967, the method of apportioning the library budget had been based  on a percapita system. In 1967, after long and heated discussion, the Board approved a change to a tax assessment method. The main reason for the change  was to place the financial burden more squarely on the shoulders of the  municipalities with the ability to pay.  Penticton City was strongly opposed to this change, and the action of the  Board resulted in that city making a study of the feasibility of Penticton  withdrawing from the O.R.L. and setting up its own municipal library. In  December 1968, a referendum was held in Penticton which was approved, and 63  in April of 1969 the divorce decree became absolute with Penticton being awarded the 16,000 volumes in stock at the time of withdrawal.  Centennial celebrations have been well taken advantage of in the system  with the building of centennial libraries in Armstrong and Summerland in the  celebrations of 1968; Penticton opened a fine new library in 1965 followed by  Vernon's in 1966; Oliver Centennial Library in 1967 and many other branches  have moved into bright, attractive, modern quarters.  In 1968, the headquarters and branch staff in Kelowna, Vernon and on the  bookmobile became certified as members of C.U.P.E. Local 1123. Since that  time, Golden, Salmon Arm, Silver Creek, Falkland, Coldstream, and Rutland  have been added to the certification.  The National Film Board of Canada, which had previously provided  blocks of films for library circulation, decided in 1969 to get out of the film circulation business in a large number of areas throughout the country. The  Library Board purchased 600 films from the N.F.B. and greatly enlarged its  film department. The N.F.B. subsequently closed its Kelowna regional office,  and a further 20 films were transferred to library stock.  After years of laboriously typing master catalogue sheets by hand, the  Board decided in 1970 to have our adult book holdings placed on machine-  readable tape for sheets to be printed by computer, and the first computer  printed catalogue was placed in branch libraries together with three cumulations  per year.  A bookmobile to serve the central and southern Okanagan was put into  service in June, 1971. This was a smaller version of the one operating in the  North Okanagan-Shuswap, requiring one person to drive and operate. This  mini-bookmobile has been replaced with very little change in design and still  operates in the areas designated for it at the time of its inauguration. One or two  places on the schedules have been discontinued while a few have been added to  the routes. 64  The Library Development Commission published, in 1972, its Programfor  Library Development in the Province of British Columbia which outlined development  for a number of years from the date of its publication. Future regional library  systems to be established were to be set up with the regional districts as the constitutional base as opposed to the present system of municipalities making up the  basis for the three existing regional libraries. The Program called for the three  regional libraries to reconstitute themselves under the regional districts, and  considerable work was done drawing up draft letters patent, plans of service,  and by-laws so that when amendments to the library legislation were passed, a  smooth transition to the new system could be made. At this time, it was planned  to provide large establishment grants and additional grants for additional services, but the necessary changes in legislation were never approved. The  Okanagan Regional Library, therefore, remains constituted exactly as it was  originally in 1936.  Since 1973, the Library Development Commission has been disbanded,  and the Program for Library Development in the Province of British Columbia is now of  mere archival interest.  In the spirit of the Program above, a new library headquarters building was  planned with a 50/50 split in cost between the provincial government and the  Library Board. Since the original headquarters building had been provided on  a three-way basis between the City of Kelowna, the Library Board, and the then  Public Library Commission, the Board had some equity in that original  building. As compensation for this equity, the City of Kelowna arranged for two  acres of land to be provided on the K.L.O. Road upon which the headquarters  was built. On November 13, 1974, the new building was officially opened by the  Provincial Secretary, the Honourable Ernest Hall, in the presence of numerous  past board members, staff members, and members of the public.  In December, 1974, a contract was signed with the Regional District of  Columbia-Shuswap to provide library service to Golden and the surrounding 65  Chairman O.R.L. Charles Buckland (left) greets the Provincial Secretary the Hon. Ernest Hall (centre) and Acting Mayor Jerry Cyr of Kelowna at the official opening of the O.R.L. Headquarters,  December 13th,  1974. Photo credits: Kent Stevenson. Kelowna Daily Courier)  district. This brings the area served to cover from Golden to Princeton with only  Penticton City excluded.  1976 was a banner year for the library system with a taped books service  being inaugurated in April, a new branch being officially opened in Princeton in  June and the circulation figures at the end of the year passing the one million  annual circulation barrier.  It had been the Board's hope that, at the time of the Princeton referendum,  a similar referendum could have been held in the area of School District No. 17,  but this was not to be. Subsequent attempts to have the school district hold such  a referendum have, until this date, been unsuccessful.  Having used outside resources since 1970 to produce its computer-based  catalogue, the Board decided, in 1978, to install an in-house mini-computer to  handle the catalogue print-out, ordering, allocations, and other programs. This  move removed any uncertainty as to computer services and reduced the cost of  catalogue production.  1978 saw a substantial increase in provincial government funding for all  libraries, and the Okanagan share was raised from $78,000 in 1977/78 to  $265,000 in 1978/79. This grant is based on a formula using local populations,  and when the 1981 census figures were released, there was a further increase in  this grant which now sits at the 1984 level of $689,461.  The problem of Princeton School District No. 17 was still unresolved in  1979, and the board chairman at the time, Mr. Arthur Halleran, made a further  attempt to have the school district approve the inclusion of their area into the  O.R.L. This was not successful. 66  A new system of providing library premises was inaugurated in 1979 which  allowed for the Library Board to pay rent for all the premises occupied by the  Board on the basis of an independent appraisal of the market value of the  respective premises. While the money for this additional budget item necessarily  had to be raised out of taxation, the burden of provision of such library premises  was now placed equitably upon all taxpayers in the region instead of inequitably  upon the shoulders of those living in urban areas which provided library  premises. The immediate result of this change in library policy was the expansion of existing libraries and the building of new ones in a number of municipal  locations. Among those libraries upgraded were Oliver, Osoyoos, Keremeos,  Golden, Summerland, Peachland, Westbank, Rutland, Oyama, Silver Creek,  Armstrong, Enderby, Salmon Arm, Revelstoke, and in 1980, a move for the  Kelowna branch into a leased building on Richter Street. This move from the  old location represented the last link with the old 1955 building which has since  been removed to make way for park area. In the same year, a new branch  library was established in Sicamous, a community which had increased in size  many times over the past few years. Sicamous, up to that time, had been served  by the north bookmobile.  In 1981, a cassette collection of music and the spoken word, was established  in the Kelowna branch for use by the entire regional library system.  In the same year, the library celebrated 45 years of its existence, and on  February 26, a number of past chairmen were honored at a luncheon in  Kelowna. Those honored in person were: Mr. J. Johnson (1965-66), Mr. C. D.  Buckland (1974), Mrs. Sandra Heal (1975-76), Mr. A. Halleran (1977-79), and  Mr. G. A. Gough (1980-81). Others not able to be present were Mr. W. B.  Hughes-Games (1951-56) and Mrs. Marnie Gilchrist (1972-73).  The provincial government placed a 12 per cent ceiling on budget increases  early in 1982, and the Board found it necessary to make cuts in departmental  salary budgets. This necessitated reduction of hours in all branch libraries with  commensurate cuts in employee hours of work. Late in the year, the provincial  government increased the grant-in-aid to the library, and it was found possible  to reinstate some of the cuts in service which had been made.  The recession was felt again in 1983 when the Board was forced to adopt a  zero-increase budget which had the effect of freezing the entire operation. The  Board was, therefore, not able to reinstate the services cut back in 1982, for example, the inter-library loans and universal request system. In 1984, a further  zero-increase budget was approved and since the union had negotiated increased salary scales, it was found necessary to take further drastic steps to balance  the budget. Some headquarters layoffs were made, and the entire library system  was closed down for three weeks during August to effect some savings in vacation replacement costs. In addition, the book fund was pared down to the level  of the provincial government grant, which grant must be spent on library  materials. Further cutbacks were made in the Van delivery services to all branches which effectively put the library service back to approximately the 1981  levels.  The O.R.L. enters its fiftieth anniversary year looking back on a half century of solid achievement. In 1936, the library served 26,000 people with an annual budget of $11,125. In 1985, 212,136 people received library service from  an annual budget of $3,000,000.  Note: Mr. Lofts is Regional Librarian. 67  APPLEJUICE  by Louis Deighton  Someone once said, "Louis, why did you mess around with apple juice?".  The answer was, "Because after selling Rome Beauty apples one year for $7 per  ton and Delicious for $14 per ton, and in succeeding years seeing only gradual  improvements, I decided that there was no profit for me to be made in apples.  To add to the injury, the packing house took 5 per cent for capital deductions  payable in five years and, at the same time, dumped 5 per cent to 8 per cent of  your fruit onto the garbage dump. Not only was the fruit wasted, but the  growers had to pay for the hauling''.  During all those years, a Dr. Copeland (I think that was his name), had a  syndicated column in practically every paper in Canada, boosting orange juice  for the Sunkist Company. Now Adam with the aid of Eve, I am sure, made apple juice and it has been made ever since. However, in all those years, nobody  ever thought of a quick and easy method of clarification. Then a method was  found, I believe, at the Dominion Experimental Farm in Ottawa. Shortly after,  this method of clarification was tested at the Summerland Experimental Farm  by Mr. Ted Atkinson. This was my opening to compete with Sunkist by the  salvage of that 5 to 8 per cent of culls. My opportunity came when Messers. Jim  Stowell and Cyril Huntley started a tomato cannery south of Oliver. In 1936  they offered me the use of their equipment and plant for experimental purposes.  In 1937 the Oliver Co-op gave me $250 to experiment with the canning of  the product but, as there was no equipment in the district, everything had to be  made. Three other growers, Archie Millar, P. C. Coates and Alex Gilmer, and  I made the equipment. I pressed the apples in the Oliver Co-op and transferred  the juice to the Stowell and Huntley Cannery where it was canned.  In British Columbia, at that time, the only source of cans was the  American Can Company which was situated in Portland, Oregon. The cans  had to be imported in bulk and there was no guarantee on their condition at  time of arrival. My final experimental product was passed for inspection by the  Summerland Experimental Farm and the Dominion Canned Fruit Inspection  Department in both Penticton and Ottawa. During this same period, the  American Can Company in Portland also had to inspect the life expectancy of  the enamel in the cans. It was a messy and impractical process, and I spent $500  instead of the $250, the balance coming out of my own pocket. The experiment  was discontinued by the Co-op, and I bought all the equipment and surplus  cans.  The following year (1938) I built a small cannery on the ranch. In the fall  of that same year, I constructed another small building higher up on the hillside  and conducted further experiments with the pressing and clarification of the apple juice. Soon after, I had a satisfactory process and a product that was of good  quality.  That winter I sold Deighton's Apple Juice between Oliver and the  Kootenay with fair success. I also sent samples to various institutions  throughout the province. The result of the sample sent to the dietition of the  Vancouver General Hospital was an order for 2,000 gallons. This order was the  start of the demand for my product in Western Canada. After two years of work at my own cannery, the Oliver Co-op got interested again and made a partnership arrangement. In 1941 I built a plant in  town, and I could pay for the delivery of cull apples at $4 per ton. We were  always, all through the years, fighting bottlenecks of one kind or another — lack  of supplies, etc. Sometimes there were not enough apples to process when we  needed them.  The directors of the Oliver Co-op and I met with the directors of the four  other district packing houses, and we formed a larger organization. We managed to pay $8 per ton plus delivery costs. Now that the war was on, the Department of National Defence took all our production for the armed services except  for a small quantity that was released for civilian trade.  After the war, in 1946, all the fruit by-product plants were taken over by a  new company called the B.C. Fruit Processors Ltd. I was appointed as a  member of their Board of Directors.  Note: We are indebted for this story to Mrs. Lorna Mays who sent us the manuscript written by her  father before his death in 1976.  OH TELL ME DO THE WILD GEESE FLY  Oh tell me do the wild geese fly  Across the German skies in spring?  And does their honking fill the night  With far away remembering?  Brown hands that loved the fields of home,  Hands that in German valleys he,  Will surely rest more gently there  To hear the wild geese going by.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton  (Wood Fires 1948) 69  JENKINS CARTAGE LTD.  by Ettie Adam  One of the oldest businesses in Kelowna is undoubtedly Jenkins Cartage  Ltd. From horse and wagon to tractor trailer truck it has served the public for 79  years. First the company was under the name of Collett Brothers. By 1910 it  was called Max Jenkins and Company and it has remained under the Jenkins  name to the present day. The first location of the company was at the corner of  Lawrence and Abbott, but after a disastrous fire in 1922 it was re-located to the  corner of Water and Leon and there it remained for 45 years.  In 1910 when Max Jenkins acquired the company the investment was  $7,000. He was president and D. W. Crowley was secretary. The business included transfer and express, merchandise distributing, furniture and piano  moving, bonded warehousing. Before trucks came in to general use most of the  work was done with horse and wagon. A natural consequence of this circumstance was to call the place "The Barn" and even today it is hard to shake the  nickname. An item of interest in an early newspaper must have caused a flurry  of excitement. It read, "A runaway team appeared in the Mission. It was found  to belong to Jenkins. Enquiry evinced the fact that while left outside the barn  unattended, some Chinese fire crackers, set off in celebration of Chinese New  Year, frightened them and caused them to bolt. The axles were strained but no  other damage done by their six mile run in the dark."  On his return from World War I, George Kennedy bought shares in the  company along with Archie Johnson, George Ritchie and his son Ray. Within  a few years George Kennedy bought the shares of the other men and became the  sole owner.  When Eldred Adam, commonly called Slim, started as a driver in 1926,  there was an old teamster by the name of George Chalmers working there and  even after the horses were gone he stayed on as a general handyman and was affectionately called "Old Dad" by the other men. He slept on a cot in a small  room off the office and ate all of his meals at the L.D. Cafe, a few steps down  Jenkins Cartage on Abbott Street.' Lakeview Hotel in background — taken in li  for J. D. Williams.  Load of pianos 70  Graham Bros, truck, 1928, at Anglican Hall, Sutherland Avenue. Mill Creek flood.  Water Street. He had been a teamster all of this life and had never been known  to swear at his horses though some of his expressions came close. He died in his  bed at an advanced age.  In 1949, after 30 years as owner, George Kennedy sold out to two of his  men, Slim Adam and George Anderson. In 1951 they became agents for North  American Van Lines. Their first tandem-axle truck was bought in 1965 and was  soon followed by a tractor trailer outfit and over the years they have continued  to grow.  Mr. Kennedy had done his own bookkeeping but now 16-year-old Wilma  Badley took on the office work and stayed with the firm until her marriage in  1959. Mrs. Edna Hamilton took Wilma's place, retiring in 1973. Both were excellent in the position.  In 1967 it became obvious that this property in the heart of the city was  much too valuable to be used as a cartage headquarters. A piece of property at  1120 Ellis Street was leased from the C.N.R. and a Butler building placed on it.  This is where business is carried on to this day. The Water Street property was  bought by Kelowna Motors, who demolished the building and paved the area  for a place to show their cars.  There is a great variety in the trucking business. In some of the moving  jobs there is a lot of improvising to get the job done. When a customer moved  into the Imperial Apartments his sofa would not fit in the service elevator so a  block and tackle was rigged up to his third floor balcony and the sofa was pulled  up the outside wall and taken through the balcony doors.  Another unforgettable job was the placing of a very heavy fan in the ceiling of Memorial Arena. The fan was raised inch by inch with a chain ratchet  and there were sighs of relief when it was in place. Heavy safes and pianos 71  were dragged upstairs and down, almost by sheer manpower. At one time boxes  were trucked to the orchards and fruit hauled to the packinghouses but now  most orchardists or packing houses do their own hauling.  During the Second World War, oil was trucked to the beam station at Carmi.  This was always done after the usual eight hour working day. Another job was  a daily freight run to Penticton. The freight was loaded from the C.N.R. and  delivered all along the route. Now the C.N.R. has its own large trucks. In the  days of boat travel, mail was trucked to the boat for delivery to all points south.  With the building of the bridge and the opening of the Hope-Princeton and the  Rogers passes, great strides have been made in the trucking industry. Today  most freight is moved by truck.  In 1961 Charley Adam bought into the company and since his Dad and  Uncle George Anderson retired in 1971, he has carried on with Gordon Thomas  and Ray Wasman as his partners and Walter Makortoff is their very efficient  bookkeeper.  It is interesting to note the difference in prices charged for work done and  wages paid sixty years ago and now. One hundred dollars a month was standard  for full-time employees and forty cents an hour was paid for casual labor. A  customer would pay $4 for a truck and two men for a moving job. Today a  truck and two men costs $58. The hourly wage is $15.70 for an eight hour day  which comes to $2,520 a month. It seems a vast difference but when you compare prices then and now, it is not so much. Rents were seldom more than $25  a month and groceries were about the same for a couple. Clothes were also very  cheap.  Jenkins Cartage Ltd. can be proud of its record in the trucking industry.  Photo eourtesv D. Zoellne 72  THE KELOWNA BOTTLING WORKS  by May Clarke  The Kelowna Bottling Works, situated on Cawston Avenue, was purchased by Joseph A. S. Tilley in the early 1920s (approx. 1923). It was very much a  family affair during the depression years and during the busy summer season  the whole family "pitched in" to help with such tasks as sorting bottles, pasting  labels, and loading the car for deliveries. Later, in the 1930s, university students  provided the necessary help, and, in turn, earned themselves some extra money  to help defray the cost of their education.  In those days the bottling equipment was not as sophisticated as it is today  and a great deal more manual work entailed. I well remember father's high  standard of cleanliness and any helper who did not "measure up" would find  himself doing a job over again until he had satisfied "the boss."  The Kelowna Bottling Works produced many varieties of soft drinks as  well as syphonated soda water. During the summer months the favourites were  Orange Crush, Lemon Crush, Lime Rickey, Cream Soda, Strawberry Soda,  Root Beer, Pineapple Crush, and Pommel (an apple drink). Only pure fruit  essences were used. These were purchased from the firm of Stevenson and  Howell of London, England. All of the soft drinks were manufactured from formulae which had been brought from England and which father kept secret.  However, as he had no sons to inherit the business, the formulae went with the  business when it was sold.  At Christmas time father made and bottled a very delicious ginger essence  which, when added to hot water, made an excellent hot drink at the festive  season and also helped to ease many a winter cold. His Badminton Ginger Ale  was a great favourite, and derived its name from the home of the Duke of  Beaufort, in Gloucestershire, England. Father designed a special label for it,  showing two badminton racquets in a crossed position.  An extra-dry ginger ale was manufactured especially for the patrons of the  Kelowna Club. The soda water was sold almost exclusively to the Kelowna  General Hospital and the local drug stores. Our family can remember several  occasions when Mrs. Wilmot, the Matron of the Hospital during those years,  telephoned to our house in the "wee small hours" with a special request for the  immediate delivery of a case of ginger ale or soda water for patients having just  undergone surgery. These drinks were the only things that could be "kept  down."  It was during the 1930s that the Coca Cola franchise was offered to father,  but he turned it down because he thought that a certain ingredient in it was unfit  for children. As children constituted a high percentage of his customers he felt  that it would not be right to offer it for sale to them. He did, however, accept the  "7-Up" franchise, adding one or two ingredients that gave it a special flavour.  This product was sold under a label designed by father, which pictured a pair of  dice showing a five and a two, together with the name "Tilley's Natural Blend  Lithiated Lemon Soda."  Bottles were purchased from the Dominion Glass Company in the East,  and corks from the Crown Cork and Seal Company of Winnipeg. The labels  were printed by Bulman Bros., Lithographing and Printing Ltd., of Vancouver,  B.C. 73  When my sister and I were young school girls it was always our delight to  accompany father and mother on the out-of-town deliveries during the summer  holidays, especially when they were overnight trips to Kamloops, Revelstoke,  Princeton and Merritt. Summer picnics nearly always co-incided with soft-drink  deliveries to customers that included general stores, small groceries, and cafes  from Oyama and Winfield in the north to Westbank, Peachland and Summerland across the lake to the south. On one such memorable outing the engine  of our good, reliable old Studebaker caught on fire. As we were on a stretch of  road where there was no water close by, father had to sacrifice some bottles of  pop to extinguish the flames!  The May 24th holiday and the Regatta in August saw our family in full  production, as father always rented a concession booth in the park at each of the  celebrations. My sister and I helped with the sales of "pop," ice cream and  candy bars and, though they were long, tiring days, we used to enjoy ourselves  very much while faithfully refraining from consuming too much of the profits!  There is a special anecdote connected with the official christening of one of  our government ferry boats. Apparently, a bottle of quite superior champagne  was purchased for the ceremony, but the local "Big-Wig" who was to perform  this act felt that it would be a shame to use such a superior product in this way;  therefore, he and a colleague made their way to the Kelowna Bottling Works  and a very neat manoeuvre took place. The champagne was safely transferred to  other bottles and a substitute beverage was put into the champagne bottle. The  cork and wrappings were satisfactorily restored to same, and the christening  took place with due pomp and ceremony with no one else the wiser!  In the late 1930s the Canadian Pacific Railway Company was anxious to  create a spur line to link the tracks being used by the neighbouring packing  houses. They needed the property on which the Bottling Works stood. After  negotiations with father, the sale of the property went through. Fortunately, the  soft drink plant on Ellis Street, owned and operated by the Calder brothers,  became available at this time and father was able to take it over.  After struggling through the difficult war years, when, ironically, business  could have "boomed" but for the fact of sugar rationing, father decided to retire  in 1946. He sold the business to Mr. John Voght and family.  The business has changed hands again over the years, but it is good to  know that soft-drink manufacturing is still being carried on at this site today.  Okanagan Lake Bridge at Kelowna was extended to three lanes in August  1984. Highway 97 (Harvey Avenue) from Abbott Street to Gordon Drive was  extended to six lanes in August 1985. A 1971 report showed 24,089 vehicles per  day used the bridge. It is not to be wondered that the ensuing traffic increase  from 1971 to 1984 necessitated the extension of both bridge and highway. 74  EARLY COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISES  by Jas. E. Jamieson  Pictured are invaluable photos made available from the Patten collection of  early pioneer days in the North Okanagan. They date back over a century and  show the first commercial sawmill and gristmill operations successfully doing  business in the North Okanagan.  The Twenty-sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1962) included an  article: "The First Sawmill and First Gristmill in the North Okangan." Portions of this article follow:  Patten's Deep Creek Sawmill.  Patten's Deep Creek Gristmil 75  In the year 1883 Alfred Postill who, with his two brothers William and  Edward Postill, owned the Eldorado Ranch near Winfield (the present  Kelowna Airport is situated on land incorporated in the original  Eldorado Ranch), pre-empted 640 acres of land on Deep Creek . . .  Mrs. Robert Lambly was a sister of the Postills and lived with her husband who owned the ranch later to be known as the Stepney Ranch  . . . On this land Alfred Postill erected a sawmill with a capacity of  some 12,000 feet per day, the first sawmill in the North Okanagan.  Much of the lumber entailed in the construction of bridges, stations and  other uses in the building of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway came from  this mill. As the railway pushed into the Okanagan Valley, the line of steel met  and joined with lake transportation at Okanagan Landing. Most of the lumber  and heavy lumber used for building of the S.S. Aberdeen which plied Okanagan  Lake, also came from the mill located at Deep Creek.  Water power was the only source of energy, this being supplied from Deep  Creek by means of a flume roughly one and a half miles in length with a small  dam near the old George Paton farm in the Hullcar area. The property is  presently owned by Fred Mitchell. Prior to that the late William Parker and  Fred Murray were owners and operators.  With other extensive interests pressing in the South Okanagan, Mr. Postill,  needing a manager for the sawmill, sent for an old friend from Ontario. Thus it  was that Levi W. Patten with his wife and three young sons arrived in the late  fall of 1883 and managed the sawmill for the next five years when he purchased  the property. Almost immediately Mr. Patten erected a custom gristmill in  order to accommodate the expanding cereal grain farming community, using  the same water power. Due to the shortage of water the sawmill was run during  the day and the gristmill at night. Levi W. Patten operated the sawmill for the  next twenty-two years, the gristmill being discontinued when an up-to-date flour  mill was erected at Enderby. Mr. Patten built the road from his mills in Deep  Creek to what is now known as the John Fowler corner and on into Lansdowne;  the road was used by the first stages from Kamloops to Lansdowne.  Members of the Levi W. Patten family played a prominent part in the early development of Armstrong and Spallumcheen areas. The two elder sons, Edward and Charles, cleared and farmed large acreages on Pleasant Valley Road  — Edward on the eastern side, now known as the Dunn property; Charles on  the western side upon which now are located Pleasant Valley Senior Secondary  and Len Wood Elementary schools. The late Charles J. Patten was a popular  road foreman for Spallumcheen and in later years operated a school bus until  shortly before his death in the early 1950s. He was the first president of the  North Okanagan Creamery Association. The third brother, Lee, entered the  medical profession and upon graduation from McGill University established his  practice as a pioneer physician and surgeon at Chilliwack in the Fraser Valley.  There are now only three surviving members of this early North Okanagan  family — Charles' daughter, Mrs. J. E. (Evelyn) Jamieson Armstrong; Edward's daughter, Mrs. Jim (Alice) Hope, Trail; Lee's son, Dr. Charles Patten,  retired and living in the United States.  Note: The accompanying copies from the original photos of the sawmill and gristmill have been  made available through the kindness of Jessie Ann Gamble, well known and valuable member of the  Okanagan Historical Society. —JEJ. 76  THEIR USEFUL TOIL  by Carol Abernathy Mellows  The Second World War has been called by historians the first "Total  War". By this, they mean that it was the first war in which the entire civilian  population of a country was drawn into the conflict as part of the nation's  fighting resources. The "home front" was seen to be equally as important as the  one manned by soldiers.  One example of this can be found in the minutes of the meetings of a small  group of women at the north end of Kalamalka Lake. Though thousands of  miles from the actual fighting, the members of the Coldstream Women's Institute, numbering no more than fifteen, most with homes, farms, and children  to care for, some with husbands or sons in the armed forces, decided to mobilize  in support of the war effort.  In the December 1940 issue of the Women's Institute Monthly Bulletin there  was a suggestion from "Ma" Murray, the well known newspaperwoman of  Lillooet, that the Women's Institutes of B.C. make quilts and comforters as  Christmas gifts to the women and children of England who were spending their  nights in air raid shelters and subway tunnels as a result of the then raging "Battle of Britain". The Coldstream WI sent two comforters at once. These were  hastily hand-knitted by the members. They then decided to make and send  some quilts as well.  There were, of course, no man-made fibres, such as Dacron or Qualofil,  available at that time to fill the quilts, as these had not yet been invented. Wool  was the preferred filler since, unlike cotton, it was locally grown and would hold  its warmth even when wet. Nevertheless, wool was hard to obtain since most of  the local wool had been bought up at good prices to supply uniforms for the  military.  In February 1941, the Coldstream Women's Institute received a somewhat  dubious windfall in the shape of a large donation of wool. The members' jubilation was tempered however, by the discovery that it consisted mainly of "tag  ends"; that is, that part of a fleece which covers the nether end of a sheep, usually heavily encrusted with ordure and normally considered to be too dirty to  bother with.  Undaunted, and armed with a newly purchased wool carding machine  (price: $12.50, February 1941 — minutes of Coldstream WI) these women rolled  up their sleeves in defence of the British Empire. Long tables were set up behind  the Institute Hall, where there was a cold water tap. A fireplace was dug into a  nearby bank of earth and covered with bars of iron to support tubs and boilers  of water. Then with bars of soap which were homemade from kitchen scraps by  the members (soap was another war-time shortage), the filthy wool was passed  through tub after tub of soapy water set up on the tables and manned (or  womanned, I should say) by the members. Finally, the wool arrived at the other  end in pristine condition after eight or more washings. Next, it was spread to  dry on recycled screen doors and windows which were laid on the grass.  Then the wool had to be hand carded. Much of this work was done by a  friend and neighbour, Murray Webster. Murray, about 35, was crippled with  polio and therefore ineligible for service in the armed forces. Nevertheless, he  cheerfully made his contribution to the war effort as he carded this wool. 77  After this, the WI members put the wool through their new carding  machine. Mada Rendell,1 a member at the time, writes in her notes, "This  machine turned out nice big "batts" — twelve by eighteen inches. By now we  had acquired many old curtains for coverings — thin scrim ones as under covers  and bright cotton ones, plus dyed odds and ends for over covers. We made  single bed size, and they were warm, light and pretty."2  From this quote, it might seem that the actual quilt-making was quite an  easy job, but further investigation quickly disillusioned this writer. It seems that  first you had to lay down one under cover of the quilting frame. Then the wool  batts had to be laid out, slightly overlapping, on that. Next came the second  under cover. Then the whole "sandwich" had to be sewn at one-foot intervals  with a loose running stitch from top to bottom and side-to-side. This formed a  grid pattern to hold the batts and under covers in place. This was done by using  twine or string from sugar and flour sacks. Finally the outer, brightly coloured  over covers were sewn in place.  All of this seems to be incredibly exhausting to produce even one quilt. But  not to the Coldstream Women's Institute. Mada continues, "By June 1941, we  had sent 50 to Britain. By Aug. 1941, 15 more had been sent. We only had 12 to  15 members, and mention is made that Vernon WI members sometimes came  to help us . . . Twenty-four more wool quilts sent in Dec/41. Mar./42 ... 19  more quilts were shipped this March making a total of 108 to date . . . July/42  — 20 more quilts sent . . . Mar./43 — 14 more quilts shipped. Apr./43 — 15  more quilts shipped this month."3 And so it goes on, with members acquiring  more wool, holding marathon washing sessions, and making more quilts.  The final count of quilts made and sent during the war by these few women  stands at 312. As if this was not enough, they also made and sent 340 pounds of  green-gage and yellow plum jam and 1,800 pounds of used clothing to Britain  through the Red Cross. In addition, they made and filled a number of "ditty  bags" for the navy and knitted wool socks for air raid victims.  What reward did these women receive for their efforts? Well, there was one  letter of thanks received in 1943 from the Holwell WI in Dorset, England,  thanking the Coldstream WI for the donation of a quilt for a raffle there, proceeds of which went to the "Prisoner of War Fund". There was another letter of  thanks in 1944 from a lady in Liverpool who had been given a quilt. In March  1946, the Coldstream Women's Institute received a letter from the secretary of  Victory Bundles, thanking the ladies for their efforts.  But that was all. No medals. No bands. Relatively few these days even  notice the small Coldstream Women's Institute Hall which was the scene of so  much patriotic activity. The hardfought battles with manure-soaked wool have  been well obscured by the more sensational deeds of the Second World War.  I   have  been  told  on   good  authority,   though  not  by  Mada herself,   that  Mada  always  insisted that the privilege of scrubbing in the first and dirtiest washtub be reserved for her.  Coldstream Women's Institute Minutes, 1939 - 1940 and research notes written by Mada Rendell  in April 1987.  Ibid. 78  So what motivated these women to give so freely of time and energy for a  mostly thankless task? A chance to gossip? An excuse to get out of the house?  Perhaps, but it is hard to escape the conclusion that they also possessed more  than their share of public spirit and humanity, and they were prepared to work  hard to express both in a manner consistent with their times.  The world has changed much since then; the defence of home and country  today requires peace and not war. Yet it seems to me that the world today  stands in great need of like-minded women as well as men.  . . . Let not ambition mock their useful toil,  Their homely joys, and destiny obscure.4  Note: The average attendance at the Coldstream Women's Institute meetings  during the war years was about 10 to 12 members. Although, during the years  1939 - 1945; there were some changes in membership. There remained a core of  women who served the entire six years. The Minutes for the period record the  following: Mrs. Gertrude (Charles) Haines, Mrs. Lucy Northcott, Mrs. Hilda  Fowles, Mrs. Blanche Pickford, Mrs. Margaret French, Mrs. Florence (Dolph)  Browne, Mrs. MacDonald, Mrs. Allie (Doc) Alderman, Miss Lily Acres, Mrs.  Mada (Ernest) Rendall, Mrs. Dickhout, Mrs. George Garlick, Mrs. Maude  (John) Webster, Mrs. Beatrix (Howard) Stillman, Mrs. Sauter, Mrs. Hedley,  Miss Hilda Wellbourne, Mrs. J. Mackie, Mrs. Vera Curwen, Mrs. Mehling,  Mrs. Gilbert Tassie, Mrs. Edward Hemsley.  4    Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard."  Sources:  Interview with Mada Rendell, April 1, 1987.  Minutes of Coldstream Women's Institute.  Bob dePfyffer, President of Vernon Branch, presenting a Life Membership to Beryl Wamboldt on  behalf of Okanagan Historical Society. For many years Beryl has been the Vernon representative on  the O.H.S. Editorial Committee. She has served as one of our principal proofreaders. 79  THEATRE KELOWNA SOCIETY  by Winston Shilvock  It was almost 100 years of dedication by a lot of people in Kelowna that set  the stage for Theatre Kelowna Society to host Theatre British Columbia Provincial Drama Festival June 3-8, 1985.  During the Spring of 1892 the Lequime Bros, built a store on Bernard  Avenue where Dusty's Cabaret now stands. The second storey was a hall given  over to the community for concerts, dances and meetings. At last the local thes-  pians had a place other than someone's living room where they could express  their talents.  The first event, held December 9, 1892, was strictly a concert with songs  and recitations. This was the first public concert to be held in the new town of  Kelowna and it grossed a total of $43. It was enough, however, to get the acting  juices flowing and the Kelowna Dramatic Society was quickly formed.  By February 13, 1893 everything was ready for the presentation of two  popular farces, "Ici on Parle Francais" and "My Turn Next." The society  must have had a small membership for this is what happened. E. M. Carruthers, F. Evison, Mrs. E. J. Cann and Miss E. Blackburn all had parts in  both plays. Miss Blackburn also played two characters in the second play. In addition, Evinson and D. W. Crowley, who had a part in the second play,  together painted the scenery and handled the stage settings which were pronounced "very handsome."  The audience of 100, which was about half the population of Kelowna,  "was well pleased with the performances" and the proceeds, amount unknown,  went to pay for fitting up the hall for a schoolroom.  After this effort the Dramatic Society seems to drop out of sight for awhile,  but the names of members pop up in various concerts, and in March 1895,  some were in a show presented by the newly formed Kelowna Minstrels.  Although people were anxious to attend any form of entertainment, in the  early days two problems presented themselves. One, the roughly graded paths  that were called roads were in atrocious shape. Transportation was by buggy,  horseback or sleigh and it was no mean feat to travel just a few miles. But people  so craved entertainment they often came from as far away as 15 or 20 miles —  probably from around Winfield — to see a show.  The second problem was to schedule performances when the moon was  full. Without moonlight to see by it was easy to have a serious accident on the  uneven, rutty roads. One show in 1896 was reported, "The quality of the performance warranted a much better house, but bad roads and lack of moonlight  was responsible for the small attendance."  By 1897 Lequime's Hall was vacated and dramatic presentations took  place in Raymer's "neat little hall, 30 by 40 feet, with a well arranged stage."  This building was on the S.W. corner of Bernard Avenue and Water Street,  where the Household Trust is now.  On March 2nd that year, "Freezing a Mother-in-Law" was presented by  the Dramatic Society and Mrs. E. Weddell received a rave notice for playing the  dual role of the "frozen" and "unfrozen" mother-in-law.  So well did "Ici on Parle Francais" go over back in 1893, that in January  1898 it was repeated along with another farce, "Box & Cox." The Vernon News 80  (there was no Kelowna paper) gave an excellent report with such comments as  "All parts were well carried out," and "Geo. Fitzmaurice was, as usual, par excellence." Several new faces were now on the scene but three original old stagers  were still taking parts.  When it was found that the wooden benches on the flat floor of the Opera  House didn't allow a good view of the stage, a new sloping floor was installed  and all was well except for women's hats. So, on programmes was printed the  admonition, "Ladies please remove their hats."  Over the years there have been many groups interested in theatricals, including two professionals. The Orchard Players of B.C. in 1912 was an ambitious troupe that toured several towns in the province and travelled even into  Washington State. Much later, in 1977, Joan Panton organized another professional group known as the Sunshine Theatre.  Several amateur groups came and went during the period until 1949 when  the Kelowna Little Theatre was formed. It was very active for the next 23 years.  In 1956 the Kelowna Musical Productions started and produced many successful shows until 1972 when the two groups merged to form the present day  Theatre Kelowna Society.  Several drama festivals, both regional and provincial, have been hosted  since that date, but Theatre B.C., the 1985 Drama Festival, was the most  prestigious.  It was a far cry from the small hall above Lequime's store to the modern  900-seat Kelowna Community Theatre, but the same enthusiastic spirit for the  art of acting still prevailed.  The Kelowna Community Theatre was officially opened in 1963, having  cost $90,000. Under the able chairmanship of Dave Chapman, an active committee succeeded in raising some $40,000 with the Government providing the  remaining $50,000.  FIRST SNOW  Hurry the fruit of the garden  Into the bin,  Fasten the catches  And batten the windows tight,  For the wind has caught in the clouds,  And thepetaled stars,  The six-petaled blossoms of winter  Are falling tonight.  Nina S. Berg VERNON'S SILVER STAR MOUNTAIN  by the Vernon Branch  When the Vernon Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society was asked to  present the historical background of Silver Star Mountain Park in celebration of  the 75th Anniversary of the park (Aug. 17, 1986), members were surprised to  find how little had been written about the park's development.  Below, readers will find, in the reminiscences of Mr. C. D. Osborn, an account of the naming of the mountain, of early mining activity, and of recreational use of the park by Mr. Osborn and his friends. Members of the Branch  contributed other items of information.  As early as 1910 the Forestry Branch had a forest fire lookout on the top of  Silver Star. The first cabin had been one of several built by Indians to shelter  them while on berry picking trips to the mountain.  Local people recall some ski enthusiasts used the mountain for skiing in the  1920s. Considerable logging had been done on the mountain leaving quite good  forestry roads and trails which later became the nucleus for many of the ski  trails.  During the 1930s many trips of exploration were made on skis to Silver  Star. These engendered enough enthusiasm that the Silver Star Ski Club was  formed in 1938. For a while an old forestry telephone line was used as a  downhill run. By 1939 the Vernon Board of Trade had constructed a road to  within two miles of the summit. The new road made it possible to create a  superior ski route. It should be noted that this road did not cost either the provincial or the federal governments a dime. It was built with local funds put up  by local men from the Board of Trade known as the "Silver Star Committee."  Among the committee members were: T. E. Clarke, A. E. Toombes, J. T.  Mutrie, T. Poole, F. Harwood, P. Edin, C. W. Morrow, A. C. Wilde, G.  Whitehead, A. Fleming, R. Heggie and H. E. Coursier. The committee  acknowledged the support and assistance given by Forest Ranger J. W.  McCluskey.  On August 5, 1939 about noon, a whole new era began on Silver Star  Mountain when Forest Ranger Alan Corbett stepped from his car, walked a few  steps to the lookout station, 5,250 feet above Vernon, and telephoned Mr.  Toombes to tell him that he had driven his car over the new road. Later that  year the road was officially opened and Silver Star Mountain activities have  never looked back.  On November 15, 1986 Lyall Hanson, MLA for Okanagan North, cut a  ribbon to officially open the new snowmobile trail on Silver Star. The Vernon  News of November 19, reported the MLA's comments:  "This is the first facility of its kind in Canada, where a family can  come to one destination, park the car, and enjoy snowmobiling,  cross-country skiing or downhill all in one location."  The paper reported that the trail took three years to complete and was unique in  that a part of it was an eight-foot culvert underneath Silver Star Road. 82  RECOLLECTIONS REGARDING SILVER STAR  byC. D. Osborn  The original name of the mountain we now call "Silver Star" as found on  early maps was Aberdeen Mountain, named in honour of Lord Aberdeen who,  with Lady Aberdeen, arrived in Vernon in 1891 just in time to open the area's  first Agricultural Fair.  Later that same year Lord Aberdeen purchased the Coldstream Ranch  from Forbes George Vernon. In 1893 Lord Aberdeen was appointed Governor  General of Canada.  Lord Aberdeen was delighted with his purchase of Coldstream Ranch and  its 13,000 acres, for he had always had the philanthropic desire to subdivide the  best arable land into small parcels and to encourage people in Britain and  Scotland to emigrate to Canada, and to own their own land and their own  homes. He commenced to subdivide the arable land near Long Lake (now  Kalamalka Lake) into ten and twenty acre parcels and to plant fruit trees.  Many people came out from Great Britain to settle on their properties.  However, in this dry climate it soon became evident that a further source of  water for irrigation was necessary. A. E. Ashcroft, land surveyor, was required  by Mr. Ricardo, Manager of Coldstream Ranch, to search for a further source  of water. Ashcroft recommended that a mountain lake be dammed and the  outflow creek, Duteau or Jones, be diverted from flowing east, to a canal system  to flow west to supply the Coldstream Valley with additional water.  This was undertaken, starting in 1906 and the lake was named Aberdeen  Lake, after Lord Aberdeen who undertook this great development. Then the  smaller, adjacent lake to the south was named Haddo Lake after the Aberdeen's  home in Scotland, Haddo Hall.  Silver Star Mountain was known as Aberdeen Mountain until about the  1930s when the name Silver Star came into general use. There are various  theories as to the origin of the name Silver Star, but it is most interesting that in  1896 the Silver Star Mining Company was formed with Cornelious O'Keefe as  president and several claims were staked on the summit of Aberdeen Mountain;  this could be the origin of the present name of "Silver Star" for the mountain.  The Mining Era  It is fascinating to be told by geologists that the ice sheet which covered our  area until about 10,000 years ago was about 6,000 feet deep over this Vernon  Valley and covered the summit of Silver Star. Glacial action scoured the highest  surfaces, rounded the hills and exposed ore-bearing rock.  It is said that a few men prospected through the Okanagan Valley in the  1860s on their way to the Cariboo Gold Fields. It was in 1896 that a five foot  wide quartz vein was discovered near the summit of the mountain and it carried  values of silver, lead and gold. The find prompted the staking of some twenty-  five other claims in the vicinity. The enthusiasm evoked by this initial discovery  eventually faded as prospectors realized that ores were of too low a grade to be  worked at a profit.  During this mining boom there was intense interest in staking claims and  C. W. Holliday, in his book The Valley of Youth, says of this time: "The most  notable was the gold mining excitement. Now just why all of us in the North  Okanagan should suddenly become convinced that the hills around Vernon 83  should be full of gold, I cannot imagine, for we had the opinions of reliable  geologists to the contrary. But when that sort of fever strikes a community  nobody's opinion matters — so we all dreamed of gold and mining was almost  the only topic of conversation. We formed mining companies and gambled  ridicuously in their shares. We all carried round chunks of rock in our pockets,  which we fished out and showed to anyone who would look at them, and talked  learnedly about geology and petreology of which we knew nothing, really."  The Silver Star Mine was located to the north and east of the summit of  Aberdeen Mountain. Today the remains of the cabin can be seen as we ski  down the "FAR OUT" ski trail. Seven shafts were dug in 1896, two of which  were 300 ft. apart and 65 ft. deep and 45 ft. deep respectively, but those have  been backfilled for safety.  As a rule small log shacks were constructed on the shafts to house the  winch. Men with picks and shovels removed the loose rock after blasting and  loaded it into buckets which would be winched up, sorted and loaded onto pack  horses for the trip down the mountain. The pack horses would bring supplies  back to the camps on their return trips.  The mining era lasted from 1896 to 1926. Early mining companies to be  incorporated were the Morning Glory Company, the Camp Hewitt Company  and the Silver Star Company. Approximately 26 claims were staked some of  which were Silver Star, Silver Queen, Prince of Wales, Black Prince, Maid of  Vernon, Centre Star, Montazuma, Frank and Joe, Maid of Erin, White  Elephant, Mystery Land 2, Gold Mountain, Woodland Bell. I think it appropriate that the directors of our Silver Star Cross Country Club have chosen  the names of old mining claims as the names of our beautiful cross-country ski  trails on Silver Star today.  Ski Era  Speaking personally, I made my first trip up Silver Star in 1926 when a  group of us, young riders at Lavington who had horses in good condition, decided to ride from Lavington through the Coldstream and B.X. Districts to the  summit of Silver Star and ride back the same day. It was a long ride and we and  our horses were very tired.  Then, in the early 1930s, Mike Freeman, David Ricardo and I decided to  ski to the Lookout on the 'Star'. We obtained permission from the Forestry  Department to sleep in the Lookout. Mike's father, Stephen Freeman, drove us  up to about Tucker's pre-emption and we started to climb in two feet of snow.  We reached the west end of the summit by sundown. We were worried about  finding our way to the east where the Lookout is located. Fortunately a full  moon ose and we skied in the moonlight between large tree snags, the remains  of a fire that had burned off the top of Silver Star a few years before.  In conclusion I would like to say how thrilled I have been over the years  with the development of skiing on Silver Star. We now have an excellent Cross  Country Ski Club whose members have been active in assisting each autumn to  widen and extend ski trails. The access road is kept in great shape and the Forest  Warden takes great pride in keeping the trails well groomed. I recommend  young and old to join us on the trails.  I have pictures of our children skiing on the summit of Silver Star thirty  years ago when Ski Club members were able to drive to the western area to  cross-country ski. Then a chalet was built and rope tows were constructed by a 84  local group, Silver Star Sports Ltd. Gradually a pomalift and later tee-pomas  and a chairlift were added, with more runs opened up. Now we have a SKI  VILLAGE with all that that entails. I would like to congratulate the management for the many programs that have been instituted.  I would like to say I feel extremely fortunate in still being able to ski crosscountry and down hill with our grandchildren and welcome the FREE LIFT  PASS FOR OUR OLDSTERS OVER SEVENTY YEARS OF AGE. This  encourages us to help youngsters pay for their lift tickets.  I wish to congratulate and thank all those many people who have promoted  and assisted in the development of our great winter sport of recreational skiing.  THE BASSETT HOUSE  by Harvey Walker  Excerpts from the address of Harvey Walker at the ribbon-cutting ceremony August 16,  1986 for the Bassett House, Okanagan Falls. Mr. Walker is a grandson of the Bassetts.  This house is kind of unique in that it's a real survivor. It has survived a  trip by railway and lake boat and freight wagon to its original site just over here.  It has also survived two really bad floods and the ravages of three generations of  kids and two moves. It barely missed the auctioneer's hammer. So, it's clearly  a survivor.  It seems to me . . . that this museum will grow and flourish because it's on  extremely fertile soil . . . Those of you who knew my grandfather would know  that he was famous for his garden and his orchard and, in fact, most people who  came and went never left empty handed because he always had something to  share with them.  I would like to suggest that this house is not merely the Bassett House but  is the Hawthorne House, the Edge House, the Christie House, the Shuttleworth  House, the McLean House, the Chase House, the Price House, Waltham  Home House — all of those, the S-Y-L Ranch and it's Mr. Keogan's Shack and  it's George MacKay's Cabin (M'kye) and Mrs. Worth's Store and the W.I.  Hall which, of course, was part of my Uncle Warwick's Hotel Alexandria. He  and Billy Hinds, I think, supplied indirectly a lot of the lumber for that hall over  there, if I know my history correctly.  So I would hope that you think of this place as being not the Bassett House  but the Okanagan Falls House that represents all of the incredible pioneers who  were part of this community.  When I was a small boy I sat on this back porch with my grandfather one  time. Telling me about Halley's Comet, he said that he would probably be long  gone when the comet next came back and, of course, he said to me, "Maybe  you might remember me." I think it's really a neat happenstance that you've  chosen 1986 to create this museum of the Bassett House. When I look around I  think my grandfather would probably be pleased . . . 85  CENTRAL OKANAGAN RECORDS SURVEY  September 1986 to August 1987  by Kathleen Barlee  Okanagan College received a one-year grant from the Social Sciences and  Humanities Research Council of Canada to conduct a Central Okanagan  Records Survey. The study area encompassed the region extending from  Oyama in the north to Peachland in the south. The project conducted a comprehensive survey of archival documents held by public repositories, private  agencies and the general public. The awarding of this Canadian Studies  Research Tools grant is part of a plan by the federal government to promote the  identification and care of our documentary heritage and thus, to facilitate the  pursuit of Canadian studies.  This was a significant project for a variety of scholarly, administrative, and  archival purposes. Canadian scholars are turning increasingly to the local level  for source material in their attempts to understand community development in  Canada. It is hoped the project has stimulated the establishment of comprehensive records management/archival programs, and local institutional  responsibility.  The computer program, GENCAT, was used to streamline procedures  and to aid local access. Print copies of the Survey were sent to the archives of the  federal, provincial and territorial governments, and selected universities, colleges, historical societies, libraries and school districts in British Columbia.  Members of the project team were Duane Thomson, Maurice Williams,  and Kathleen Barlee. Dr. Thomson, head of the team, is a history instructor at  Okanagan College, and an executive member of the Kelowna Centennial  Museum and the Okanagan Historical Society. Dr. Williams, Dean of  Mathematics and Science at Okanagan College, has published scholarly articles  which have appeared in major academic journals. Kathleen Barlee, the Project  Coordinator, has worked at the Public Archives of Canada, the Provincial Archives of British Columbia, and the provincial government's Records Management Branch. She is currently the president of the Association of British Columbia Archivists.  Summerland Research Station's new $21 million Office-Laboratory Building  was officially opened April 28, 1987. Dr. D. M. Bowden is Director of this  Agriculture Canada facility. 86  TRAILS  FOUND — COX'S MAP OF 1862  by Robert L. de Pfyffer  In the fall of 1864, Captain Charles Frederick Houghton led an expedition  into the Cherry Creek area of the Gold Range. This range of mountains is now  called the Monashees and it separates the Okanagan Valley from the Columbia  Valley. Houghton was looking for gold and he was also looking for a suitable  route that could be used for a road to connect the two valleys. His expedition  failed.1 After two more attempts, in succeeding years, he was successful.  Houghton found a pass through the mountains to Fire Valley, down which the  Inonoaklin Creek flows into the Lower Arrow Lake.2  A year before Houghton made his first exploratory trip, he had arrived in  the north Okanagan from Ireland with his friends, Charles and Forbes Vernon.  A few weeks after their arrival, the three men filed claims with the Colonial  Government for land in the area known today as Coldstream. Houghton, as a  retired officer of the British Army, expected to receive a free grant of 1,440 acres  of land under the British Columbia Military Settlers Ordinance of 1861 but his  claim was denied. The law had been changed and ex-army Captains were entitled  to only 300 acres of free land. Early in 1864 Houghton's problems were further  complicated when he discovered a post marking the centre of a Government  Reserve. To Houghton's consternation the reserve post was almost in the middle of his land claim. Houghton soon found out that this Government Reservation of ten miles square or one hundred square miles had been marked out by  W. G. Cox in 1862.  William George Cox was the Colonial Government's appointed representative for a very large area in south central British Columbia that included the  entire Okanagan Valley. He held numerous titles including Gold Commissioner, Justice of the Peace and Assistant Land Commissioner. His office was in  the booming gold mining town of Rock Creek, close to the U.S. border.  As the Assistant Land Commissioner, Cox maintained a land record book  and in 1862 he made the following entry:  No. 32  26 July  Recorded for a Government Reservation  Ten Miles Square from a central point marked by a prominent  stake and situated about five miles from the head of Lake Okanagan  on the East side — being the terminus of the projected road between  that lake and the Columbia River.  The above Reservation is situated in a fertile sheltered valley —  is well wooded and watered with abundance of excellent grass.3  1 Norris, L., "The Explorations of Captain Houghton", Okanagan Historical Society, Fifth Report,  1931, pp. 30-32.  2 Ormsby, Margaret A., "Captain Houghton's Exploratory Trip, 1864", Okanagan Historical Society, Thirteenth Report, 1949, pp. 38-44.  3 Cox, W. G., Rock Creek Land Records 1860-1862, Record No. 32, July 26, 1862, p. 7, P. A.B.C. 87  Location of Cox's 1862 Government Reserve shown on a modern map.  Why did Cox mark out this enormous Reserve?  The answer to this question is found by going back to June 15th, 1846  when the British and the Americans signed the Oregon Treaty which divided  the Oregon Country into two parts along the 49th parallel. South of the border  the Americans found it relatively easy to travel from west to east through their  Oregon Territory. North of the border, in the land that the British eventually  named the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, travel from  west to east was barred by many ranges of mountains that ran from north to  south. When it came to travelling, the people of British Columbia had a problem and the discovery of gold in several places in the Colony forced the government to improve communications by searching for new passes through the  mountains.  Early in 1862 the Colonial Secretary, William Alexander George Young,  was instructed by Governor Douglas to send W. G. Cox a letter asking him to  find out if there were any routes through the mountains between the Okanagan  and Columbia Valleys. On April 7th, 1862 Cox replied that his Indian friends and Mr. Francois Dischigut [sic]4 knew of at least two routes. The southern  route started at L'Anse au Sable, near the Okanagan Mission and it went  straight east to the Arrow Lakes. The northern route started close to the head of  Okanagan Lake and it too went straight east to the Arrow Lakes. With his reply  Cox submitted a sketch map of the area showing the two routes. For some  reason Cox was under the impression that there were three Arrow Lakes, not  two. His sketch map shows three lakes and in his correspondence he often refers  to the middle Arrow Lake.5  Actually there was nothing new in Cox's report, because the fur traders  had long been aware of the fact that the Okanagan Indians and the Lakes Indians used a trail connecting the two valleys. Archibald McDonald, in his 1827  sketch of the Thompson River District, shows a trail connecting the Okanagan  and Columbia Valleys.6 True Mabel Lake and Sugar Lake are located too far  north on McDonald's sketch, but the sketch proves that the fur traders knew of  the trail's existence.  After Young received Cox's report, he gave it to Governor Douglas for his  perusal. Douglas wrote a long note on the report telling Young to write to Cox  with instructions to explore the northern route and to submit a detailed report  on his findings. Douglas said that if Cox found a suitable route for a road, he  was to mark out a Government Reservation for public use at both ends of the  proposed road. Cox was also instructed to look for gold because Douglas felt that  an influx of miners would help to build up the prosperity of the Colony.  Cox followed Douglas' instructions and in July 1862 he went to the northern end of Okanagan Lake where there was an Indian community that the  Okanagans called Nkama'peleks. This name is still used by the Okanagans today and it simply means the head of the lake. When the early French Canadian  fur traders arrived at Nkama'peleks they discovered a cluster of spruce trees  near Tsin-th-le-kap-a-lax (Cayote) Creek, now known as Irish Creek. To the fur  traders the presence of Spruce trees at this low elevation was very unusual and  for this reason they called the place Taillis or Talle d'Epinettes, a name which  translates into English as Spruce Grove. Even up to the late 1870s the Indians  from Nkama'peleks were called the Taillis or Talle d'Epinettes in order to  distinguish them from the other Okanagan Indians.7  Francois Deschequette was in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company post at Keremeos.  Allison, Susan, A Pioneer Gentlewoman in British Columbia, Margaret A. Ormsby, ed., Vancouver,  B.C., University of British Columbia Press, 1976, p. 162.  Cox to Young, Colonial Secretary, 7 April, 1862, P.A.B.C., F377-6.  McDonald, Archibald, "The Earliest Map of the Okanagan Valley", Okanagan Historical Society,  Twelfth Report, 1948, pp. 2-3. Note: The map shown in the report is a redrawing of the original  sketch and the eastern part of the map was cut off. As a result, the draftsman moved the words,  "Communication with Columbia", to Shewap Lake. This gives the impression that the trail  started at Shuswap Lake which is incorrect. Actually McDonald's original map shows the Indian  trail leaving the Shuswap River at a point midway between Mabel Lake and Sugar Lake, which  is correct. However these lakes are located too far north on McDonald's original sketch.  McKinlay and Sproat to Wood, 25th Sept., 1877, P.A.C, RG 10, Volume 3612, file 3756-22,  pp. 3-4, or P.A.B.C., B-279 File 3756-22, pp. 3-4. In his report to Young, Cox states that he left "Talle d'Epinettes" on July  17th for the purpose of exploring the road to the Columbia River.8 He had  engaged two Okanagan Indians from Nkama' peleks as his guides and each  guide brought one of his sons along. Cox wrote that these men were the only  people in the country familiar with the route and their last trip to the Arrow  Lakes was made three years earlier. By July 26th, Cox with his guides had  returned from their exploratory trip and they planted a post in Coldstream to  establish a one hundred square mile Government Reservation. On August 8th  Cox completed a map of the Indian trail from Okanagan Lake to the Arrow  Lakes and he sent it, together with his written report, to W. A. G. Young, the  Colonial Secretary. Young forwarded Cox's map to the office of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works where a tracing was made on linen. It is this  previously unknown linen tracing that was found in the Surveyor General's office in July 1986.9  The tracing of Cox's map is 18" x 36" and it is not drawn to any particular  scale. A trail with several branches is shown running from Okanagan Lake to  the Arrow Lakes. Numerous hand written notes cover the drawing, presenting  a tremendous amount of information, much of which Cox obtained from his  guides. Very few place names are shown, in fact there are only three place  names viz, Head of Okanagan Lake, Shouswap R. [sic], and Middle Lake, Columbia River. In order to describe the map in greater detail, it is necessary to use  today's place names.  The map indicates that Highway No. 6, between Vernon and Lumby,  practically sits on top of the old Indian trail. From Lumby to the old bridge site,  below Shuswap Falls on the Shuswap River, again the road closely follows the  old Indian trail. On the left hand side of the map, Cox shows the "Head of  Okanagan Lake" and three trails starting at or near the lake, all of which pass  through Vernon. At Vernon, Cox drew a number of hills, several of which now  have names like Middleton Mountain and Black Rock. All three trails combine  to form a single trail just before crossing Coldstream Creek. In an open area immediately after the trail crossed the creek a post is shown on the map with the  note, "Gov't. Reservation 10 Miles Square."  From Vernon to Lumby Cox noted that the trail passed through "a rich  fertile valley." At Lumby he indicated that a large swampy area covered the  land to the hills in the south and up into the lower reaches of Creighton Valley.  From Lumby to Shuswap Falls the trail passed along the north side of Rawlings  Lake. Cox states that the standing and fallen timber east of Lumby made  travelling difficult and in places the trail was "completely obliterated."  Shuswap Falls is not shown on the map, nor is it mentioned in Cox's covering letter, but one must assume that the river was forded below the falls. This  assumption is based on the fact that the Okanagans fished for salmon annually  below the falls where they forded the river. They used this fishing site up into  Cox to Young, Colonial Secretary, 9th August, 1862, P.A.B.C. F377-12.  Cox, W. G., Map of Proposed road between Head of Okanagan Lake and the Columbia River, 8th August,  1862, filed under Roads & Trails, Map No. 26 T 3, The Surveyor General, Surveys and Land  Records Branch, Ministry of Forests and Lands, 3400 Davidson Avenue, Victoria, B.C. V8W  2Y9. 90  the 1940s. Notes on the map state that the expedition had difficulty fording the  river at this point.  After crossing the river, Cox with his Indian guides followed the trail  upstream to a point opposite Cherry Creek's entry into the Shuswap from the  south. Once more the expedition forded the Shuswap River and this time no difficulties were encountered.  After crossing the river the expedition proceeded up the north side of  Cherry Creek. Near the junction of Monashee Creek with Cherry Creek, Cox's  guides recommended that they leave their horses in an open area and proceed  on foot. Beyond the open area, fallen timber, tangled brush and dense forest  made the use of horses impractical.  From Cox's map it is impossible to tell for sure which creek, Cherry Creek  or Monashee Creek, the expedition followed. A careful study of the map in conjunction with modern maps indicates that they followed Monashee Creek as far  as Railroad Creek. Here the expedition stopped because they had run out of  supplies and the guides would not proceed any further. Cox drew a sketch, in  the lower left hand corner of his map, showing the mountain that was facing  them. It looks like The Pinnacles, a group of peaks that tower over 8,000 feet,  and although it was the middle of summer Cox wrote the word "snow" at the  top of his mountain sketch. His guides informed him that by following the creek  on their right, Railroad Creek, they would come to a creek, Barnes Creek, that  flowed into Middle Lake, Columbia River at Needles. While Cox wrote this information on his map his sketch of The Pinnacles shows that he thought a trail  could be built up and over these mountains. In his notes he admits that the trail  would be very steep and difficult for horses to climb. Before turning around and  returning to Coldstream Cox put his hand into the bank of Monashee Creek or  Cherry Creek and noted that "... fine scale gold was visible amongst the sand  that I took out." In his report he states that he took four handfuls of sand from  the creek and washed it in his frying pan. He enclosed the gold dust from this  washing with his map and covering letter to the Colonial Secretary.  Cox's guides informed him that there was a lake further up the Shuswap  River, so he drew Sugar Lake on his map with a note beside it saying that he  had not seen the lake. On the northwest shore of Sugar Lake are the words,  "Gold found here by W. Peon." William Peon was the guide for Father Pandosy and his group of settlers when they walked into the Okanagan from Colvile, (now known as Colville) Washington in the fall of 1859. The question is,  who should receive the credit for the discovery of gold in the area, Peon or Cox?  On his return trip to Rock Creek, Cox fell in with some miners and he told them  of his discovery. These miners immediately left for Cherry Creek. There is little  doubt that Cox's discovery lead to the mini gold rush on Cherry Creek.  On the right hand side of Cox's map is a small, very interesting drawing  headed "Indian Map." This map shows Mabel Lake, Sugar Lake and both of  the Arrow Lakes together with the connecting rivers. Several trails to the Arrow  Lakes are marked including one going up Shouswap [sic] River to Sugar Lake,  then up Stikum Creek, through the pass to South Fostall Creek and down to  Fostall on the western shore of the Upper Arrow Lake.  On the trail, just north of Cherry Creek, the Indian guides drew two men  wearing top hats and a horse. Cox wrote a note beside the figures stating that  three years earlier F. Dischigut [sic] left his horse here and walked over to the 91  Arrow Lakes on the Indian trail. The top hats are significant because only Chief  Fur Traders and Indian Chiefs wore them as symbols of their status.  In the lower right hand corner of the map are the words, "Traced by  James Conroy, La. Corporal R.E. 3rd September, 1862". In the lower left  hand corner are the words, "The Original Returned to the Colonial Secretary  3rd September 1862".  The tracing of Cox's map was found by John de Pfyffer. Copies, that is  diazo prints, of the map can be obtained from the Surveyor General's office in  Victoria. There is a small charge. (See footnote No. 9).  The author wishes to thank Dr. Margaret Ormsby for her critical reading of this report.  tAz^t^u^ sH/zfi  hi  l%3!  \W0 '  The Indian map which Cox included with his map of 1862, showing Sugar Lake, Mabel Lake,  and the Upper and Lower Arrow Lakes.  (Map reprinted with permission of Surveyor General Braneh of Ministry of Forests and Lands. Victoria) 92  OLD TRAILS OF THE CASCADE WILDERNESS  FROM THE DAYS OF BLACKEYE THE SIMILKAMEEN TO  THOSE OF THE ROYAL ENGINEERS  byH. R. Hatfield  The mountain ranges of western North America have always been a barrier to the free flow of human travel as though the Pacific Coast was being  defended from the inroads of those wild people from the plains and river valleys  to the eastward. The first and most spectacular line of defence was of course, the  Rockies. But finding some gateway there by no means meant that the attackers'  problems were solved. A maze of additional barriers remained to be overcome  before the salt water or the head of some estuary leading to it could be reached.  Starting with the Indians and carrying on with the fur traders, miners, colonial trail builders, railway, highway and pipeline locaters, openings in the barriers or ways around them have been found at the cost of some lives and of huge  amounts of money. Armed with modern maps, instruments and vehicles it is  almost impossible to appreciate what it was like to be a member of one of the  searching or construction parties a century or century and a half ago. A. C.  Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company, when searching for a possible trail  route, mentions setting out at 4 a.m. with breakfast at 7:45, no doubt dried  salmon. On the same day he complains about having to stop at 6 p.m. because  of the fatigue of some Indians who were with him. They were on foot and the  country "much obstructed by fallen timber".  In southwestern British Columbia, due to some accidents of geography and  history, there still exists a wilderness of some 23,310 hectares (90 sq. mi.).  Through it runs the wandering, even convoluted divide, separating waters going to the Fraser from those which eventually reach the Columbia. Within this  area are sections of 5 historic trails up to 72.4 kilometres (45 mi.) in length and  for the most part interconnected by prospectors' and other old pioneer trails.  Here one can travel by horse or on foot, meet the weather as it comes, ford  the rivers, climb the ridges, sleeping on the ground and carrying with one all the  resources of shelter, food and clothing. With maps and a sleeping bag in place of  a blanket, one is really not in the position of a voyageur of say 1850, but close  enough so that little imagination is needed to complete the picture.  Just now a number of outdoor and historical groups are trying to get this  "Cascade Wilderness" left as it is. Several timber firms say that it should be  logged, which would mean roads throughout and the practical demolition of the  trails and the death of the wilderness. There is presently a moratorium on  development in the area pending a decision by the provincial government.  The earliest of the five trails is an Indian hunting track of unknown antiquity. The pathway has been named Blackeyes Trail for an Indian chief of the  Similkameens, who met Anderson exploring for the Hudson's Bay Company  near the present village of Tulameen in 1846. The chief told Anderson of the  trail's location and advantages and it was later followed in part by the Brigade  and Whatcom Trails. It went from Campement des Femmes, near Tulameen,  up to and across an 1,830 metre (6,000 ft.) plateau in the big bend of the Tulameen River. Going down again to and across the river, it then followed a  branch of it up to the Cascade divide, once more at an elevation of some 1,830 93  metres. Here the Indians came to hunt the siffleurs (the hoary marmots) and to  harvest roots and berries.  After the Oregon boundary settlement of 1846, due to Indian wars and  troubles with American Customs, the H.B.C. had to abandon their old Okan-  agan-Columbia route between Coast and Interior. In anticipation of this,  several ways through the mountains were explored by Anderson in 1846 and  1847.  For various reasons the Company initially tried a trail which went from  Fort Kamloops (Thompson's River) by Nicola Lake and the Coldwater River.  From there it went across the mountains to Spuzzum on the Fraser and thence  to a new post, Fort Yale, from where Fort Langley could be reached by water.  This was the first commercial road to reach the Pacific in what is now Canada.  It proved a very hard and hazardous route indeed and it was decided to go back  to the 1846 one. Fort Hope was established where the Coquihalla joins the  Fraser. Henry Peers was given the job of rechecking Anderson's track of'46.  Peers' guide westward from Kamloops was Blackeye's son. Whether or not  there was some misunderstanding between the Chief and Anderson as to the  way to the west it is now hard to say but in any case the son, presumably keeping on the Indian trail, took Peers on a more direct route, up the Podunk and  over the divide into the Sowaqua. This resulted in a shorter but rougher trail,  crossing the notorious Manson Ridge between the Sowaqua and Fort Hope. In  1849 the inward Brigade returned to Thompson's River by this way, cutting as  necessary on the unfinished trail.  From then until 1861 over the section of the Brigade Trail between Fort  Hope and Campement des Femmes went in the supplies to, and came out the  furs from the vast Interior area including Fort St. James and its satellites in New  Caledonia to the north, the Thompson's River district, and that of Fort Colvile  (now Colville, Washington) to the south. Men and mail also travelled the Trail  H.B.C. Fur Brigade Trail 1849 — early 1860s. Campement du Chevreuil, aluminum marker  — O.H.S. 1969. 94  in and out. In 1849 over it went Eden Colvile, co-governor with Sir George  Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company in North America. In 1855 Paul Fraser  (not closely related to Simon) was killed by a falling tree and buried at Campement du Chevreuil overlooking the great valley of the Sowaqua.  In 1859 officers of the Colonial government, using the Trail and guidance  of the Honourable Company as was typical of first ventures into the unknown,  accompanied Chief Trader Angus McDonald and party of Fort Colvile. Lieut.  H. Spencer Palmer was on official reconnaissance, Chief Justice Matthew  Baillie Begbie on his rounds with staff of O'Reilly and Bushby. The last three  were on foot. The 30.6 kilometres (19 mi.) hike from Manson Camp to Campement du Chevreuil including two steep climbs, makes a long day, as young  Bushby found it . . . "I am not a very likely subject to give in but halfway I was  fairly stopped for want of something to eat, breakfasted at 6 o'clock, it was now  1 o'clock and we had had a frightful day's work. Thanks to a cup of brandy,  some flour cake and some raw salmon an Indian gave us we made a good meal  and jogged on to the top where we had a splendid camp, . . .". And before and  in between and after these notables came and went the officers and men of the  Company on their lawful occasions and with them the struggling pack animals,  many of which left their bones to whiten in the wilderness.  The commerce dependent on the Trail was considerable for that day. It  took at least one ship each year from England to carry the goods and furs which  went over it. In the early years, before familiarity with the route allowed more  frequent trips, the annual brigades were large. That of 1848 outward by the  Nicola-Spuzzum-Yale trail, one of the few we have figures on, had fifty men and  four hundred horses, loaded and spare. It was no doubt the largest to ever cross  the mountains.  The report and map made by Lieut. Palmer from his 1859 trip have been  the most useful records in the re-establishing of the Trail on the ground. He took  observations for latitude and longitude and checked elevations at each campsite.  It is interesting to check his results with our modern maps. The latitudes are  remarkably close. In five readings, Fort Hope to Campement des Femmes, two  differ by 20 seconds, two by ten seconds and one by three seconds only.  Remember that we have no definite marks to go by on the ground or on the  map and a second of latitude is just over 30.5 metres (100 ft.). For reasons  beyond the observer's control, chiefly the lack of time signals whereby precise  time is always available, the longitudes found in those days were usually out  quite a bit and Palmer's were no exception being a minute or more out at four  of the five points. The weather was poor when he was at Hope and he may have  relied on the previous fix by others for his start there. As far as Campement des  Femmes, however, his error was very constant. A minute of longitude at that  latitude equals some 1.2 kilometres (.75 mi.). His elevations were away off for  the high points on the Trail. He made Campement du Chevreuil 1,109 metres  (3,640 ft.) where it is actually about 1,646 metres (5,400 ft.) and Lodestone  Lake 1,289 metres (4,230 ft.) where it is actually 1,829 metres (6,000 ft.). The  constantly changing mountain weather evidently made his barometer most  unreliable at the greater heights. However in short distances he does give the  differences in elevation quite accurately and these figures are most useful.  The Lieutenant's descriptions are for the most part matter of fact  but, coming to the summit of Manson Ridge on the second morning 95  out of Fort Hope, he must have been impressed. He writes: "Looking  north, south and east the view embraced mountain scenery of a  description scarcely to be surpassed. As far as the eye could reach, an  endless sea of mountains rolled away into blue distance, their sides  clothed almost to the summits with an impenetrable forest of every  species of pine and their peaks and recesses lit up by the rays of the  early sun, too early yet to lighten the gloomy valley below us.  Here and there a rugged naked peak towered up in bold relief  some 1,000 feet or more above the summits of the adjacent ranges,  spotted with occasional patches of snow in crevices never perhaps  penetrated by the sunlight, and so complete was the network of mountains in which we were enveloped, that the question of 'How we were  ever to get out of them', which naturally occurred, appeared to me  somewhat difficult of solution.  Many a struggling traveller in the same spot feels the same sensation  without such words to describe it. The next summit to the east, that of the  Cascade divide, is higher at 1,829 metres (6,000 ft.) but facing eastward, from  there the traveller overlooks the more rolling hills of the Interior Plateau. From  this Cascade divide have rolled down great chunks of a conglomerate rock formed under water some hundred and twenty million years ago.  In 1858 the merchants of Whatcom (now Bellingham in the State of  Washington) decided to pay for the opening of a new trail direct to the goldfields  of the Thompson and Fraser, or at least to the Brigade Trail giving access to  them. After many difficulties the locaters and builders finally reached Anderson's track of 1846 at the Snass. Following Anderson's route they went by the  Punch Bowl and the upper Tulameen, then up to join the Brigade on the Tulameen plateau. The Whatcom is a very interesting trail to follow though in spots  difficult where alder grow in the tracks of the snowslides. When the miners from  the south came to the Brigade Trail, obviously old and well used, it was the first  indication that the country was already occupied. It may well be that Chief Factor James Douglas was justified when he said, reporting to London on the new  Brigade Trail in 1849, "— it may also have an important bearing on the future  destinies of the country at large; a triumph probably the last of the kind rserved  for the Fur Trade.''  Next came the first of the trails to be engineered and built by contract  under definite specifications, the Hope to Similkameen Mule Road, later to  become part of the famous Dewdney Trail which by 1866 was the main road  reaching from Hope to Fort Steele in the Kootenay, in the far east of British  Columbia. It was to start four miles out of Hope on the Brigade Trail. The terminus was specified in a deliciously vague way as a point on the Similkameen  River, the area now being called the Tulameen. The road was designed and  located by the Royal Engineers with location chiefly by Sgt. W. McColl. It is  notable that engineering done in British Columbia by the R.E. detachment was  carried out by N.C.O's and sappers as well as by the officers. Walking on the  old trails one is soon struck by the difference between the earliest ones,  Blackeyes, Brigade and Whatcom, which simply went across country in the  desired direction with ups and downs as the land went and with fords across the  streams, and the later ones, Dewdney, Capt. Grant's diversion (the Hope) and 96  Dewdney Trail at Pat Wright's cabin on Lodestone Lake to Whipsaw jeep track, elevation  5300 ft. L to R: Eric Jacobson, Harley Hatfield, Bob Harris, Bill Hughes.  its partial relocation, with cuts and fills, rock retaining walls and bridges all of  which allowed for controlled gradients.  Edgar Dewdney, later to become Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest  Territories and then of British Columbia, had the contract for the first section of  the Trail which came to be named for him. He took second low bidder Walter  Moberly of later railway fame as a partner. With the short working season in the  mountains, time was of the essence; the contract was signed in August but the  work had been going on for some weeks. The Trail did get to the "Similkameen" and beyond in the late fall of 1860. It was immediately put to use by the  packtrains supplying the miners and the next year improved and extended into  Princeton.  Due to the urgency for reaching the Similkameen goldfields and the little  knowledge anyone had of how best to get there, McColl had a pretty free hand  in his locating. Lacking was time and any ready sources of reliable information  on the land. He decided not to follow the Whatcom through Punch Bowl Pass,  elevation about 1,783 metres (5,850 ft.) but to go up the canyon of the west fork  of Snass Creek and by the divide in Paradise Valley about elevation 1,448  metres (4,750 ft.). The Canyon is a legacy of the ice age, overdeepened by melt  waters diverted by the ice to go that way instead of to the Fraser. The sides have  been falling in until for several miles the Creek itself runs among the broken  rock out of sight below the valley floor. While the Canyon Trail, as this piece  came to be known, is even now still in use to some extent, it proved unsatisfactory as a link in a main line of transport due to snowslides, avalanches and late  lying snow. By the time the Sergeant got there in the late summer or autumn of  1860 the snow was probably gone and there were no humans living in the area 97  to describe what happened in the winter or spring. The bears were doubtless  reticent in this regard. Where he went to the left (northerly) up the Canyon the  only alternative was to go right (easterly) and this way was seemingly blocked by  a series of high cliffs, the Skagit Bluffs.  Nature, as often happens, had the last word and canyon slides made  another look necessary. Sapper James Turnbull discovered that once the Bluffs  were passed the broad valley of Skaist River offered a way to a good pass over  the Cascade divide. Capt. J. M. Grant, R.E. decided the Trail should go this  way and in 1861 a trail, somewhat hair-raising from the traveller's point of  view, was made along the cliffs and the diversion built by the Skaist and Hope  Pass. It did not again join the original Mule Road (the Dewdney) until well  down Whipsaw Creek on the eastern slope. The Canyon section continued to be  used but this diversion became the more popular route and was generally referred to as the Hope Trail. Two years later a relocation of the Hope was made  along the upper Skaist from the shady to the sunny side of the valley to avoid  late lying snow.  The Hope Trail was a vital part of the main line of communication between the Coast and Interior of southern British Columbia for over thirty years.  From the early 1890s on, its use gradually lessened and the construction of  Highway 3 in the late 1940s cut it off at the Skagit Bluffs. From the Skaist crossing on the highway to beyond Hope Pass, it is still open and unspoiled and over  this piece of some 22.5 kilometres (14 mi.) one can still follow in the steps of the  pioneers. Such supplies as tools, sugar, tea and whiskey went inland this way,  and mail, several times each summer. Cattle went out to market at the Coast.  Pioneer wives from the Similkameen, Okanagan and beyond travelled it on  .... ,'[HBCo IB4-9 frail  wter ]i Xo Nicola Lake.^  Creek V and Kamloops  blackeye's  Camp, 184-fe  V^One Mile,  \\ Graveyard, or  \ Allison Creek  HISTORIC TRAILS  HOPE to PRINCETON their way to Victoria to have their babies and a few years later some of those  children went by the same road to school there. Few tried it in the dead of  winter. The hazards of slides, floods, forest fires, fallen trees, bogholes and narrow half bridges along the cliff sides at other times of the year were sufficient.  Contrary to what one might think in flying over it, few are the areas of the  size of the proposed Cascade Wilderness in southern Canada where the landscape and its flora and fauna remain practically untouched by man and his  machines. Fewer still are those like this, threaded with trails haunted by shades  of hunting Indians, men of the fur trade, gold seekers and the men, women and  children of pioneer days.  Grateful acknowledgement is made of the access to original documents, or copies thereof,  made possible by the Provincial Archives of B.C., the Kamloops Museum archives and those  of the Hudson's Bay Company, also of the leadership given on the trails by the good friends  who go over them with me and make sure I get home again. Quotations from Bushby Palmer,  Douglas and Anderson and the copy of Dewdney's tender are published with the permission  of the P. A.B.C.  The kind advice of Mr. R. C. Harris, P.Eng. has kept me on the proper trail in some  cases where I tended to stray and he has provided information I did not have. The accompanying map is by him, one of the many he has made of trails in B.C. The pictures, hopefully  properly identified, are supplied by companions of the trails. Col. G. Smedley Andrews and  Dr. H. V. Warren were most generous in help with surveying and geological details. —  H.R.H.  Note:  Since this article was written in 1980 much of the Cascade Wilderness has succumbed to progress with logging roads and clearcut. However some sections of  the trails with their close environment have so far survived and some assurances  have been given that most of the actual trails themselves will not be destroyed.  H. R. Hatfield, Nov. 27, 1986  Related stories are to be found in the Forty-fourth Annual Report of O.H.S. (1980). The Forty-fifth  Report carries a picture of H. R. Hatfield receiving the Heritage Canada Foundation Community Service Award from Governor-General Edward Schreyer Feb. 16, 1981. Unless the  destruction of these historic trails can be stopped the only record that will remain will be articles  of Mr. Hatfield, preserved by the Okanagan Historical Society. — ED.  •mm mi **    m —"  Unveiling of Brigade Trail Cairn. Westbank, August 24, 1949. Dr. W. Sage, U.B.C, Dr. M.  Ormsby, U.B.C, J. B. Knowles, O.H.S. 99  BLACKEYES TRAIL  by Harley R. Hatfield  Blackeyes Trail, an Indian hunting trail, went from Campement des Femmes (Tulameen) to the "height of land" separating the Fraser and Columbia  watersheds. Where did this trail reach this divide?  When A. C. Anderson made his famous exploration from Hope in 1846,  by the Nicolum and Sumallo and over Punch Bowl Pass to the Tulameen River  and hence by it to Tulameen, he met Black-eye the Similkameen by the river a  few miles up from Otter Creek. The Indian told him of the hunting trail crossing the plateau in the bend of the river, a much better route than following the  river around as Anderson had done.  Anderson's sketch map shows this trail reaching the river just below the  Punch Bowl. At first glance this appears to fit in with the description in this journal and, until 1981, when further research showed us differently, we took it that  Punch Bowl Pass was the "height of land" to which Blackeyes Trail went.  For various reasons, after the last H.B.C. brigade went out by the  Okanagan and Columbia in 1847, Anderson's route of 1846 was not adopted.  Another explored by him in 1847 was. This new route went from Nicola by the  Coldwater River, across to the Fraser near Spuzzum and down to Yale. It proved unsatisfactory and Henry Peers of the Company was told to recheck the  1846 route. The resulting Brigade Trail used from 1849 on, for 10 to 12 years  followed a very different way from that of Anderson in 1846 and this has been a  puzzle. We have asked ourselves how Peers came to go up the Coquihalla to  Peers Creek before turning off rather than to turn off earlier and go up the  Nicolum as Anderson did. The answer, I now realize, is that in his exploration  Peers was not going up the Coquihalla but was coming down from the Interior.  To the height of land he was guided by Black-eye's son, one would assume by  Wffi&£^^BmwWmm^twmmWb*ximSi2;'3»  Travelling east from Palmer Pond 1973 on the H.B.C. Fur Brigade Trail. 100  Blackeyes Trail. This trail, I now believe, went to the country around Palmer  Pond.  Considering the language difficulties that Anderson and Black-eye would  have in communicating and considering that from the Tulameen-Podunk junction it is about the same distance to Palmer Pond as to the Punch Bowl, that the  two small but deep mountain lakes are roughly the same altitude, and that two  streams Tulameen and Podunk about the same size and the valleys quite similar  it is not difficult to envision the two men believing they were talking of one  valley whereas actually each had a different one in mind. Anderson only noted  the mouth of the Podunk as he passed on the other side of the Tulameen after  days of the most arduous travel. Indians were rather inclined to stay with known  ways and it could well be that Black-eye had never been up the Tulameen.  Going now to more detailed evidence we find the last entry in Peers'  private journal covering the trip from Fort Langley to Thompson's River, Summer 1848 (Provincial Archives of B.C., B.A. P34A) goes as follows:  23rd,   24th,   25th   &   26th  August   were   spent   at   Kamloops   in  separating, arranging baggage and crossing property & horses, during  which interval I received [sic] a letter of instructions from Messrs.  Tod, Manson & Anderson conjointly, to proceed on the reexamination of Mr. Anderson's route from Langley to Thompson's River  summer '46 or to speak more clearly, to be guided by an Indian  through a tract of country, lying between, and cutting off at a considerable distance the bend of the Samilkimen River1 (Mr. A's Route)  and thence falling on Mr. Anderson's route near the head waters of  the Quiquialla, one day's journey on foot from Fraser River.  It was the custom of the H.B.C. officers to put instructions in writing even  though all parties concerned were present. There was obviously no time to be  lost if a new trail was to be located for the next year. So Peers would have left  Kamloops on the 26th of August or soon thereafter with his Indian guide.  Further information is in a letter from James Douglas to John Tod at  Kamloops dated 30 October 1948 at Fort Langley, as quoted in The Raison d'Etre  of Forts Yale and Hope (Howay). To quote:  Having met Mr. Peers on the Cowlitz Portage, I received your letter  on the 25th Aug., which will meet with due attention hereafter, on my  return from Fort Vancouver, and your various demands for assistance  be complied with as far as our means permit. My object in addressing  you from this place chiefly is to put you in possession of our views and  the plan we have in contemplation with respect to the communication  with the Interior. In consequence of the very unfavourable report we  have received from Messrs. Manson and Anderson of their last summer's route we have come to the determination of opening a new road  recommended by Mr. Peers after a very careful survey. Leaving  Fraser's River it follows successively the valleys of the Quequealla,  Peers, and the Soaqua Rivers, from thence the crossing of the dividing  ridge into the Similkameen Valley, where it falls upon Mr. Anderson's track of 1846 and follows it to Thompson's River.  Now known as Tulameen. 101  Peers was evidently under the impression that east of the divide (Mt. Davis) he  was on Anderson's route, i.e. Blackeyes Trail. Douglas continues:  He is particularly desirous that Black-eye's son, the Indian who accompanied him a part of the way on his late journey to this place and  left him at the head of the Soaqua, should be sent to meet him at that  point, as without such assistance he will not be able to find his way into the Similkameen Valley (now Tulameen) by the proper route, with  that Indian you will please dispatch Montigny and as many whites  and Indians as you can muster to open the road from the plains of the  Similkameen to the Soaqua Valley following the line of road Mr.  Peers pointed out to Montigny as being the best adapted for horse  transport, as early in the spring as the snow will permit . . .  So Peers' guide to or, at least, in sight of the Soaqua was Black-eye's son, not a  very likely person to leave the Indian trail and strike off in another direction.  Following are the relevant portions of A. C. Anderson's journal of 1846,  from the area of the rhododendrons over the height of land (Punch Bowl Pass)  and down the Tulameen to beyond the Podunk, "where the defile began to  contract".  Wednesday, 3rd June. Set out at 3 V% a.m. — A beautiful Rhododendron, with splendid crimson flowers now in bloom abounds in this  vicinity. There is some pasture for horses at the spot where we  breakfasted and in the neighbourhood. It is scanty but might be improved by burning the fallen wood. With this view partly, and partly  to secure a landmark whereon to take a distant bearing, I had fire set  to the fallen timber. We here leave the little river; strike up east, bending round northward towards the height of land. The name of the little  stream we have left is Sk-ha-ist* implying, it is said, 'a peak standing  between the ridges'. Set out at 8:20 and at noon reach the summit of  the mountain pass. The ascent is very gentle, and perfectly clear of  impediment throughout the greater part. Frequent fires have  destroyed the timber that heretofor encumbered the ground. Upon  nearing the summit of the pass a few occasional snow drifts witness  our elevated position, but up to that point there was nothing of the  kind to impede the passage for horses. But alas! on reaching the summit a dreary prospect met the view. The whole surface of the valley as  well as the confining mountains, was white with accumulated snow.  The difference is of course ascribable to the relative position of the opposite sides, that by which we ascended has a southern exposure, lying  open consequently to the full influence of the sun's rays, aided by the  southern winds and vice versa.  There is a small lake here bearing a marvelous similitude in some  respects to the Committee's Punch Bowl in the Rocky Mountains. It  is still covered with ice, save in one small spot, where through the limpid water, the bottom is seen shelving off, apparently to an immense  depth. Our Indian assistants turn back hence, according to agreement; save three who wish to visit their relations in the Nicoutamene  Now known as Skagit River with Skaist the next tributary from the north. 102  country. We have no one who knows anything of the country beyond  this point. The water must guide us. Left height of land at 2:20 and  after walking three hours through a country presenting every facility  for a horse road, save the depth of the snow, we encamped on the right  bank of the descending stream, which I take it for granted, is one of  the tributaries of the Similkameen. The whole country is still thickly  covered with snow; but we have found a clear spot among the  Cypres** to encamp upon and are very comfortable. The depth of  snow hereabout is from three to four feet in general. About the height  of land, as nearly as I could judge, it varies from 10 to 12 feet on the  levels. Fortunately it was sufficiently compact to support us, and except an occasional plunge leg-deep, we did not sink beyond our shoe-  tops. Nearer our encampment the snow was softer, and the difficulty  of walking became porportionally enhanced.  Leaving the Punch Bowl and walking for three hours would put them some  five or six miles down the River for their fourth encampment and thus Anderson's sketch map shows it. The depth of snow sounds normal or if anything a little less.  Thursday, 4th June. Fine. Set out 3:20. The frost during the night  had formed a crust upon the snow, which at the expense of a good deal  of slipping, enabled us to pass upon the surface. At 6 began to find the  snow diminishing. Made a bridge over a small river from the right.  River bears away North and N.N.W.  With good going on the crust they could have made Holding Creek by 6  a.m. and would be likely to need a bridge there, and nowhere else. The river  does bear away from there as Anderson says. He does not say this time but that  is likely where they stopped for breakfast.  Two forks fall in at different distances on opposite sides.  Fatigue is perhaps cutting down on detail in the journal but the second "fork"  would no doubt be the Podunk.  Until noon the facilities for a road were very good. Afterwards the  defile began to contract, and we have since been travelling through  abominable country, impracticable for horses. We saw the tracks of  three persons about noon.  It is surprising that Anderson did not investigate these tracks. They were  beyond doubt, I think, on or about the Blackeyes Trail where it reached the  river in the vicinity of the later Horseguard. The Indians would not be wandering far from the Trail particularly at that time of the year.  The Indians are quite at a loss as to our position, knowing  nothing of the country and puzzling themselves and the interpreter,  Montigny, with fifty silly conjectures; ... In fact all of them seem to  be much dispirited; but as I feel pretty secure, from the course which  the River seems to follow, apparently bending around eastward in advance of us, that we are on the right stream, I have no anxiety on the  subject. We saw and heard Siffleur Marmots today and yesterday, but  have killed none. One of the men, Charbonneau, got lost today and I  Lodgepole pine. 103  had to ascend the side of a mountain to find him, which I at length did  by falling upon and following up his track.  With fatigue, a bad leg, running out of food and rounding up Charbonneau, Anderson was in a position to miss the Indian trail. It is interesting that  they saw the "siffleur marmots" which are common today only around such  higher elevations as at Mt. Davis and Snass Mountain. One of the reasons for  the Indian hunting trail was to get these marmots. To go on:  Saturday 6th. Fine weather . . . Proceed six miles and meet two  Indians who proved to be old Black-eye, the Similkameen and his son-  in-law, on their way to visit their deer snares. It appearing that we  were still about 20 miles from the Red earth fork,2 the appointed  rendezvous, the old man sent his son-in-law on horseback to have our  horses brought to us, promising to guide us by a shorter and better  road to fall upon the road to Kamloops. This, as the river shortly  makes a great stretch South-Eastward, I can readily credit, and  therefore willingly accede to. Strike off N.W., N.N.W. and N. & W.  up a stream and its feeding lake3; the latter about five miles in length;  at the farther end of which, near Black-eye's lodge, we encamped at  1 !/2 p.m. Our provisions are exhausted but the old man supplies us  with a few fresh carp which, though nowise tempting at another time,  are very acceptable now.  Black-eye, who it appears was trusted implicitly in these points  by the late Mr. Black, informs me that the horse road to the height of  land strikes straight across the bend of the river and falls beyond our  encampment of the 3rd inst. He states that it is a wide and good road,  with plenty of pasture at the proper season and that but for the depth  of snow, we could not have missed seeing it after crossing the height of  land.  "Straight across the bend" fits somewhat better in going to the Horseguard  than to the Punch Bowl area.  Believing that Blackeyes Trail went to the Punch Bowl we have taken it for  granted that "beyond our encampment of the 3rd inst." meant upstream of or  before. I think now that it means after or downstream which is more logical.  It is of course very short as compared with the long and painful  circuit made by us . . . The road mentioned by Black-eye is that by  which all, or most, of the Indians of the neighbourhood proceed every  summer, in July, to the height of land with their horses to hunt Sif-  fleurs and gather roots; a journey of two days with their loaded horses.  He expresses his willingness to guide us through it at the proper  season, but like the rest of the country in that vicinity, it is impassable  at present owing to the snow.  The Punch Bowl area and that around Palmer Pond would offer practically  identical opportunities for marmot hunting and root harvesting. The Pond area  is perhaps slightly better in having more open alpine area for horse travel and a  number of small lakes.  Princeton.  Otter Lake. 104  Looking at a modern map it does seem that it would have been easier and  more natural for the Indians to strike directly across the plateau following the  more open country to the Podunk. Some would venture up the Tulameen no  doubt. The guide Anderson picked up on the Sumallo had doubtless travelled  that way and there are indications of an old trail up from the Horseguard.  The fact that Peers was guided by Black-eye's son and Anderson's report of  the tracks that he saw about noon of the 4th of June before the defile narrowed  down seem to me conclusive proofs that Blackeyes Trail went by the Podunk.  The Brigade Trail followed it from Campement des Femmes to Mt. Davis.  Anderson's first map it is true, shows the Trail going to the Punch Bowl area  but he was indicating a trail he had not been on or seen. It is noteworthy that  Anderson's later maps show Blackeyes Trail as reaching the Tulameen at the  mouth of the Podunk. He calls it "Blackeyes Portage".  Note: Any who have maps made before 1981, as in O.H.S. Report No.  40, 1976 please correct Blackeyes Trail and any of my writings where it is erroneously given as going to the Punch Bowl instead of the Campement du  Chevreuil. I do realize that my footsteps in the sands of time are tiny but would  not like to deliberately leave them going in the wrong direction to mislead  others. — H.R.H.  TRAIL GOLD  He who has walked a mountain trail  In happiness or sorrow,  Has ease for hurts of yesterday  And courage for the morrow.  And truth it is that mountain trails  All carry joy for lending;  And mountain trails all carry gold  That souls can have for spending.  The mountain magic is a thing  You cannot be denying.  Who walks a mountain trail has that  You '11 never find for buying.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton  (Wood Fires 1948) 105  Tf~ '";~*'~~TMr"  V.  {&S  :: czs  ^^J?P<^,.J^z^i._   £2^xt-?~ -   ..." .j..:  '...., ".   "Edgar Dewdney's letter of June 28, 1860 in which he states his conditions for undertaking the  building of the Dewdney Trail. The formal contract, dated August 17, 1860 follows." 106  CONTRACT FOR MULE ROAD FROM HOPE TO SIMILKAMEEN  and E. DEWDNEY'S LETTER  Dated 17 Aug. 1860  Contract for Mule Road From Hope to Similkameen Starting 4 Miles  Out of Hope on the Existing HBC Brigade Trail  To Be 4 Ft. Wide, With Centre 18" Finished Smooth and Hard  Completion Date: On or Before 1 Nov. 1860  Articles of agreement made this seventeenth day of August A.D. one thousand  eight hundred and sixty between Richard Clement Moody, Colonel Royal Engineers,  Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works British Columbia in behalf of the Government  of British Columbia of the first part and Edgar Dewdney of New Westminster of the second part. The said party of the second part does hereby for his heirs executors and administrators covenant promise and agree with and to the said party of the first part or  his successors: That he the said party of the second part his executors or administrators shall and will for the consideration hereinafter mentioned on or before the  first day of November now next ensuing make and complete a good Mule Road from  Hope to Similkameen, commencing at a point on the Hudson's Bay Company's  Brigade Trail about four miles from Hope said point to be fixed by Chief Commissioner  aforesaid or agent he may appoint and terminating at a point on the Similkameen  River, said point of termination also to be fixed by Chief Commissioner or agent he may  appoint. The Line of said road to be marked out by Chief Commissioner or agent he  may appoint. The road to be not less than four feet wide, clear of trees and boulders  and made firm throughout — one foot and a half in width along the centre to be  covered with gravel, hard earth, clay or small stones, and finished smooth and hard.  All wet places to be either made solid and firm, or to be corduroyed, and in such places  the road shall be ten feet in width.  In addition to the above width of road a clear space at the sides must be made sufficient in width for passage of widest packs. At all points of danger, such as passing  round bluffs, slides, slipping banks, or precipices, or crossing streams, ample space  in width and careful arrangements in construction to be provided for the safety of the  Public and animals passing over the road. The said width and arrangements to be such  as shall be approved of by Chief Commissioner or agent he may appoint.  The surface of the road throughout the line to slope inwards towards the bank or  rock, and a ditch or drain to be provided, where necessary, of sufficient capacity to cut  off and carry away side and surface waters. The nearest edge of the ditch or drain to  be not less than five feet from the centre of the road, except only in such cases as the  Chief Commissioner or his agent may approve. The drains or ditches to be carried  across the road at convenient intervals by proper culverts of such capacity and formed  in such workmanlike manner that the discharge of water shall not endanger the future  stability of the road.  Bridges to be formed where necessary of width in the clear not less than twelve  feet, the bridges to be framed correctly in principle, strongly as to dimensions of scantling, planking, treenails, iron bolts, straps and spikes, and firmly as to execution. The  roadway over bridges to be of hewn timber, or stout planking, firmly spiked down.  Cont'd. 107  Grades not exceed one in twelve in steepness and that only for distances not  longer than ten chains in continuance of rise or of fall.  For any short pitches up and down or to rise to level benches, so that a generally  good line throughout may be maintained with a view to future improvements, and yet  in the meantime the necessity of deep cutting or high embanking may be obviated the  Chief Commissioner or his agent will sanction exceptional cases of still steeper grades  — In passing around bluffs, precipices, or dangerous places, the grades not to be  steeper than one in fourteen.  On approaching or leaving bridges the road for a short length (such length to be  determined by Chief Commissioner or his agent) to be level or slightly ascending to  bridge.  Trees on each side of the road at distances not exceeding twenty yards apart to be  conspicuously blazed at a height of not less than six feet above level of said road. The  whole of the above to be executed in a workmanlike manner to the satisfaction of the  Chief Commissioner or agent he may appoint, and in the interpretation of the intention  or meaning of any of the above clauses or in case any matter necessary to the satisfactory execution of the work and of the spirit and intention of the above clauses shall  have been omitted, the contracting party of the second part, namely, Edgar Dewdney,  shall abide by, or carry out such further instructions from Chief Commissioner or his  agent as completely as if they had been included and fully described in the terms of  this written contract or agreement.  The whole of the above services to be completed on or before the first day of  November A.D. One thousand eight hundred and sixty.  In default of any of the above conditions or any part thereof by the contracting party of the second part, namely, Edgar Dewdney, the Chief Commissioner or his agent  may cause the same to be executed by any other parties to be named by him, and the  cost to be deducted from the amount hereinafter agreed to be paid to said party of the  second part.  Payment to be made as follows at the rate of Seventy-six Pounds Sterling per mile  in such proportions as the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works shall determine,  always retaining one fifth of the value of the work executed until three months after  date of completion, and acceptance of the whole by him the Chief Commissioner or his  agent.  The above sums to be paid as follows — namely not less than One thousand  Pounds in cash, the remainder in British Columbian Bonds, bearing interest at six per  cent per annum of which Bonds Eight hundred Pounds shall be redeemed on thirty-first  of December 1860. One thousand Pounds on the thirty-first of December 1861.  The remainder on the thirty-first of December 1862.  The said Bonds to be issued in sums of not less than fifty Pounds, each secured  by Proclamation on the Revenue of British Columbia.  In witness whereof we hereby attach our hands and seals.  Witnesses   P. O'Reilly      )  )  Corpl. Howse )  (initials) R. C. M.  E. D. 108  EDGAR DEWDNEY, BUILDER OF THE DEWDNEY TRAIL,  HONOURED IN REGINA  Story reprinted with the kind permission of The Penticton Herald  which carried the story in their issue of Aug. 13, 1979  Kathleen Dewdney to attend  ceremony to honor relative  When Parks Canada holds a  ceremony in Regina Sept. 15 to  commemorate the seat of territorial government, Kathleen Dewdney of Penticton plans to be present as the closest living relative of  Edgar Dewdney, who served as  lieutenant governor of the Northwest Territories from 1881 to 1888.  Announcement of the Parks  Canada ceremony comes at a  time when the Okanagan Historical Society is making plans to  honor Mrs. Dewdney for her contribution to the society and the  community at a reception in the  Peach Bowl on Aug. 26.  The co-incidence of the Regina  and Penticton honors was termed  today as "rather incredible" by  the OHS Penticton branch president, J. V. H.Wilson.  "It brings into focus the work  of Edgar Dewdney in building the  Dewdney Trail which the historical society in conjunction with  the parks society is trying to save  in the Cascade wilderness, northwest of Manning Park," he said.  Mr. Dewdney, as a civil engineer, was responsible for constructing the trail from Hope to  Princeton. It was later extended  into the East Kootenay.  Mr. Dewdney had a brother  and  it was  that brother's  son,  Walter Robert Dewdney, whom  Kathleen Ferguson, now Kathleen Dewdney, married.  Walter Dewdney was government agent in Greenwood and  later Penticton.  The Parks Canada ceremony  in Regina will involve the unveiling of two plaques — one  commemorating the seat of the  territorial government and the  other Edgar Dewdney as lieutenant governor of the territories,  which preceded the creation in  1905 of the provinces of Alberta  and Saskatchewan.  In addition to serving in that  capacity, Mr. Dewdney was Indian commissioner from 1879 to  1888. He was instrumental in  establishing Regina as the territorial capital, and after the Northwest Rebellion he was credited  with sensible policies which  helped defuse a potentially  dangerous situation.  Mr. Dewdney was later to serve  as lieutenant governor of B.C.  from 1892 to 1897.  Mr. Wilson said Mrs. Dewdney is planning to attend the  Regina ceremony where she  would represent the family as a  platform guest. Her son, Edgar,  of Penticton, has also received an  invitation. 109  BIOGRAPHIES and TRIBUTES  A VERY SPECIAL COUPLE: JACK and MERLE ARMSTRONG  by Enderby Commoner: a composite of several articles  A posthumous Citizen of the Year Award was presented by the Enderby  and District Chamber of Commerce to the family of Jack and Merle Armstrong  on April 10, 1987. Fittingly the presentation was made at a meeting of the Armstrong and Enderby Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, for history was  a common and enduring interest of Merle and Jack.  The Armstrongs' love of museums and history began for each of them during early childhood. History class was always a favorite for Merle while she was  in school at Kamloops. Jack's interest was sparked during a visit to a museum  in England when he was 10 years old. Later his enthusiasm was encouraged by  Jack Logie, a druggist who used to visit Jack's school in Summerland to tell the  class about early Indian life in the area.  From 1974 until their deaths Jack and Merle were very active members of  the Okanagan Historical Society. Jack served as President of the Parent Body  from 1979 to 1981. In order to put his service on record the Society, at its Annual Meeting May 3, 1987, posthumously declared Jack a Life Member. The  Armstrongs shared the common goal of one day seeing a museum established in  Enderby and, to that end, they worked hard getting their pictures and historical  artifacts ready for such a facility.  John "Jack" Domoney Armstrong was born in Summerland on  November 23, 1914. After finishing school he went to work for Overwaitea  Stores from 1937 to 1950 with the exception of the time from June 16, 1943 to  February 7, 1946 which was spent in the Royal Canadian Airforce. Jack's work  for Overwaitea took him to many towns, including Kamloops, where he met  Merle Elaine Bell at an Anglican Young People's Association meeting. Merle  had been born in Kamloops on August 5, 1916. At the time of her meeting with  Jack she was working as switchboard operator at the hospital.  The couple were married in St. Paul's Cathedral at Kamloops on August  12, 1940. Nakusp was their first home. In 1942 a move took them to Armstrong  where Jack was manager of the Overwaitea Store. In a pattern that was to  repeat itself in later years, Jack became involved in many aspects of the community, serving for four years on the City Council and also on the Hospital  Board.  When the Armstrongs moved to Enderby in 1950 they decided to do something completely different. Disregarding the fact that they had never milked a  cow, they bought a dairy farm and went into business with 12 milking cows.  This herd eventually grew to 45 milkers. Their farm on West Salmon Arm  Road had formerly belonged to Art Teece and was later to become Larsens.  After 14 years in the dairy business the Armstrongs sold their herd and  Jack went into real estate. For six years he worked with Mat Hassen in Armstrong. Then he purchased Munro Real Estate in Salmon Arm. There were offices in Sicamous and Enderby also. Later the Salmon Arm branch was sold and  the other offices continued under the name Armstrong-Bird Realty. 110  Jack and Merle Armstrong.  Members of the Okanagan Historical Society were shocked and saddened  to learn of the death of Merle Armstrong at Kelowna on June 15, 1986 as the  result of an accident in which the Armstrong van was struck by a vehicle rounding a corner at high speed and on the wrong side of the road. A second blow  occurred when members learned of Jack's death December 8, 1987 in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. Throughout the Okanagan there are those who will  remember for a long time Merle's quiet support and hospitality to visiting  members and Jack's kindly humour and gentle urbanity.  During the time on the farm Jack and the five children, Bill, Irene, Kathleen,  Maureen and George, became involved in 4-H, starting with the Grindrod Calf  Club. Jack remained active in 4-H and judged the public speaking competitions  for many years after the children had grown up and left home. He also judged  public speaking for the Enderby Queen's Committee.  Merle was well known for her volunteer work. She was a hard worker for  Enderby and District Branch of the Cancer Society in which she held the offices  of both President and Campaign Chairman as well as serving on the executive.  For more than 30 years she made free cancer dressings. She was a charter  member of Lansdowne Chapter of the Eastern Star and was also a longtime Ill  member of the Good Neighbour Club which started in 1948 and which later  devoted much of its time to patients in Parkview Place.  Both Merle and Jack were active members of the Anglican Church. Dancing was another love shared by the couple and they were involved in the Old  Time Dance Club from 1945.  In view of the commitment and service of the Armstrongs the remarks of  Elmer Halvorson, President of the Enderby and District Chamber of Commerce, made at the April 10 meeting are most appropriate:  During their time in Enderby, as was the case wherever they made  their home, the Armstrongs were active members of their community,  weaving their enthusiasm, kindness and expertise into the fabric of the  town . . . For their family, however, this award for Citizens of the  Year will be a reminder of the community's enduring appreciation for  all the contributions made by Jack and Merle: for their work, and the  time donated, and for the memories they have left behind, which will  warm hearts for many years to come. The award isn't for just one  year but for two lifetimes of sharing with others.  Note: The above was assembled from articles printed in the Enderby Commoner for Oct. 9, 1983  (Renee Zoritch); for June 18, 1986; for Dec. 10, 1986; for April 15, 1987.  The following items appeared in the Shopper's Guide, Salmon Arm, Nov. 10,  1986.  On June 15, a traffic accident near Kelowna took the lives of Merle  Armstrong, 69, of Enderby, Ethel Blackburn, 81, and Helenita Harvey,  69, both of Salmon Arm. It also took the life of the 33-year-old driver of  the vehicle which collided with the one from Salmon Arm. His death was  ruled accidental in the report released recently. A toxicology report showed alcohol, cocaine and two other drugs in his system.  ETHEL BLACKBURN  (reprinted from Salmon Arm Observer)  Ethel Ella Eldridge Blackburn died on June 15, 1986 near Kelowna, B.C.  as a result of a motor vehicle accident.  Born on October 14, 1904, in Snodland, Kent, England, Mrs. Blackburn  had resided in Salmon Arm since 1931. She was named Citizen of the Year in  1984. She was a mother and foster mother, having raised 64 children, and was  proud to have someone attending school from her home for the past 50 years.  She was a life member of the Valley Women's Institute, a long-time  member of the Unitarian Service Committee, and a very active member and  hard worker at St. John's Anglican Church.  She is well remembered for all her kindness, hard work, and was still milking cows the day before her tragic death. One of the foster children said, "Gram  was my mother, my father, my grandmother and my best friend." 112  IN MEMORY OF OUR DEAR FRIEND  ETHEL BLACKBURN  by Dora Lein  / am getting better, so I praise the Lord  And give thanks for prayers here and abroad.  I walk quite unsteady but with my cane  I almost get to the Altar again.  But on my way my hand reaches out  For a steadying rest.  Then up comes a prop, ' 'the very best, ''  It's Ethel's hand  And blest with her smile  I feel I can walk almost a mile.  And every time she does not fail,  So I walk nicely to the Altar rail.  Now the Lord has called her to take her place  Among the angels with her happy face.  I feel so lost as I get to the spot —  / reach out my hand  ' 'But Ethel does not. ''  Then Til go bravely on, as we all must do  And I'll reach out my hand —  Maybe to you.  June 20, 1986  A TRIBUTE TO ETHEL BLACKBURN  by Kaye Hubensky  A finer friend I have never known, and the pleasure was mine to have  known her for twenty-eight years, and for twenty-seven years I set her hair  every Friday morning.  We had so many wonderful trips together, and our thrill of a lifetime was a  trip to Lillooet to visit Margaret (Ma) Murray.  Ethel and I both belonged to the Okanagan Historical Society. We joined  through Jack and Merle Armstrong, salt of the earth type of people. We had so  many lovely trips with them, and saw so many beautiful and historic places in  British Columbia.  I can say with dignity, that if there ever was a Saint on earth it would be  Ethel Blackburn, who was loved by everyone. We shall miss her very much. 113  HELEN MARJORIE (Helenita) HARVEY  by Ronald H. Turner  The community of Salmon Arm was shocked to hear of the tragic death of  Helenita Harvey on June 15, 1986.  Helenita was born in Juanajuato, Mexico, in 1916, where she spent her early  years. After the death of her mother she attended St. Margaret's Boarding  School in Victoria and, when her father passed away, she moved to Salmon  Arm to live with her uncle and aunt, Mr. and Mrs. Jim Hyslop. She finished  her education at the Salmon Arm High School. In 1943 she married Bob  Harvey and raised two daughters, Mary and Valerie.  It is said that if you want anything done give it to a busy person and this  certainly applied to Helenita. She found time to run a small business, teach  Spanish at night school, engage in sports, not to forget the various clubs;  Camera, Women's Auxiliary (Hospital) and the Naturalist Club. But her chief  love was the Salmon Arm Museum. She was president from 1979 to 1984. It  was during this period that the Salmon Arm Scrap Book was published as a  tribute to the pioneers of this area. It was also solely through Helenita's efforts  that the Haney house was acquired by the Museum. This is one of our early  pioneer homes.  During the depression Helenita worked in a local packing house, The Bank  of Commerce, and later as a receptionist at the hospital and at a medical clinic.  At the time of her death, she was an active member of the Okanagan Historical Society, and still on the executive of the Salmon Arm Museum. She was  also doing some research for Brian Wilson on an historical book.  Sudden death is always sad, but there is some satisfaction to her family and  friends to know that Helenita left some lasting results of her labours and many  fond memories.  Note: Readers of Okanagan History, will remember Mrs. Harvey for the well written, meticulously  researched articles she has contributed to our pages. — Ed. 114  DR. MARGARET ORMSBY  by Patrick F. Mackie  To compress the life and achievements of Dr. Margaret Ormsby into an  article of four or five pages is a daunting undertaking. She is a famous Canadian, an eminent historian, a gifted writer, an impressive figure in university  circles and a celebrated resident of the Okanagan.  In order to understand Dr. Ormsby's unique personality and her contribution to Canadian life, it is necessary to understand her background and the  early influences which moulded her. Born in 1909 in a log cabin on the edge of  the Fraser River near Quesnel, she imbibed from her earliest years the values  and attitudes of her parents. Her mother was of Canadian Scottish ancestry.  Her Anglo-Irish father was an avid reader, a man of wide cultural interests and  one who captured the attention and imagination of his children with his own enthusiasms — especially in history. Later both Leonard Norris, the founder of  the Okanagan Historical Society, and Dr. Sage, the unforgettable professor of  history at U.B.C, were further to encourage Margaret's love of history.  In spite of financial hardships never was there a doubt that the Ormsby  children would graduate from university, and this they all did.  In 1925 Margaret Anchoretta Ormsby enrolled at U.B.C. where she obtained her B.A. in 1929 and her M.A. in 1931. Already her interests were  directed towards history. Her M.A. thesis, A History of the Okanagan, remains  today a rich treasure trove of information for those interested in the early days  of our valley. Research for the thesis was done in the Provincial Archives and in  the Vernon News office.  After two years as a teaching assistant at U.B.C, Dr. Ormsby obtained a  Fellowship in History at Bryn Mawr and there she obtained her Ph.D. in 1937.  At Bryn Mawr Dr. Ormsby became interested in some of the problems which  were common to both the American and the Canadian political structures. Her  profound studies there of civilizations and cultures later influenced subsequent  works.  After lecturing at McMaster University and teaching for a short time in a  private school in the States, Dr. Ormsby in 1943 began what was to be her  lifelong work at U.B.C In 1955 she became Professor of History; in 1963, Acting Head of the Department of History and, in 1964, Head of the Department  of History. In 1974 she retired.  To list here all Dr. Ormsby's publications would be an impossible task. A  full page of closely printed titles is insufficient to indicate the vast range of topics  upon which she has written.  To the general public one of her best known works is perhaps British Columbia: A History commissioned by the B.C. Centennial Committee. The book was  an immediate success. Of this work John Norris writes: "The value of the  History was very quickly recognized, and more widely and fully than that of  most provincial histories. For Margaret it was to bring a series of honours,  beginning with election as a Freeman of the City of Vernon in 1959 and including honorary degrees from the University of Manitoba and all four universities in British Columbia (University of British Columbia, Simon Fraser  University, University of Victoria, Notre Dame of Nelson), award of the 115  Centennial Medal in 1967 and election as a Fellow of the Royal Society of  Canada in 1968."'  Other honours followed: two awards from the American Association for  State and Local History and, more important, one from the Canadian  Historical Association in 1983 "in recognition of scholarship and teaching as  well as promotion of appreciation of British Columbia history among the people  of the Province." Dr. Ormsby is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, a past  president of the Canadian Historical Association, and a Life Member of the  Okanagan Historical Society. She is the only person to hold honorary degrees  from all four British Columbia universities. In the citation from Simon Fraser,  reference is made to her belonging to "the Sunny Okanagan School of  History". Obtaining such a standing in the Canadian academic world is indeed  rare.  In referring to Dr. Ormsby's British Columbia: A History, John Norris gives  an excellent summary of this important work:  The greatest merit of British Columbia: A History is undoubtedly its  firm organization. In the early chapters Margaret vividly portrays a  community built from the sea, whose values were British rather than  North American; in the largest section — that on the colonial period  — the narrative centres on the career of Sir James Douglas, "the most  significant individual in British Columbia's history;" in the immediate post Confederation period the theme is that of British Columbia as the "spoiled child of Confederation;" in the period of material  development the locus is on the career of Sir Richard McBride; and  in the 1920s and 1930s on those of John Oliver and Duff Pattullo. But  throughout the narrative, the dominant themes succeed one another  smoothly and without disrupting the continuity of British Columbia's  unfolding story. Undoubtedly the best part of it is the section, including the study of the colony of Vancouver Island and the gold colony, encompassed by Douglas' career. Here Margaret's capacity to  combine the vividness of personality with the astringency of historical  analysis, her romanticism, her lively sense of the absurd, and her admiration for enterprise and initiative were at their strongest and best.  But it is perhaps in her work on the post-colonial period that she made  the contribution which will be of most value to future historians. Here  she was a real pioneer, especially in filling in the history from 1914 to  the 1950s — something that had hardly been looked at before.  Though her interpretation of this period will undoubtedly be challenged, it will of necessity be by historians relying heavily on her  narrative.2  Another work which holds particular interest for those in the Okanagan is  A Pioneer Gentlewoman in B. C , the recollections of Susan Allison edited by Dr.  Ormsby. This work contains a fascinating introduction which in the opinion of  this writer is more interesting than the actual "Recollections".  B.C. Studies, No. 32, Winter, 1976-77, "Margaret Ormsby" by John Norris, p. 24.  Ibid. p. 24. 116  Susan Allison was the sort of person Dr. Ormsby admired most. Norris  writes:  [She was] courageous and enterprising, but genteel, maintaining high  standards of manners and conduct in the wilderness and demanding  them of others. The Similkameen and Okanagan Valleys in the  pioneer era, as Margaret pictures them, are examples of the warm, intimate communities which provide the basic strength of a society in  any era and which, in Margaret's view, society ignores only to its  loss.3  Dr. Ormsby's latest work and perhaps her most important contribution to  British Columbia history is Fort Victoria Letters 1846-1851, a detailed picture of  the Hudson Bay era with an introduction, fresh and original, that marks the  profound insight of this gifted historian.  A mark of the esteem in which Dr. Ormsby is held is the fact that in 1960  she was appointed a member of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of  Canada and represented British Columbia and the Yukon. In 1966 she was  elected president of the Canadian Historical Association.  In addition to her writing Dr. Ormsby will be remembered for her  teaching. Norris says:  Dr. Ormsby has had a great influence in the formation and attitudes of the younger generation of historians in Canada. She had a  gift for warm and generous encouragement of the young, above all of  the young with ideas. In particular, she had the ability, rare among  academics, who are a self-centred lot, to listen perceptively and to be  ready to suggest the most useful paths to follow through the thickets of  historical interpretation.4  Although more than a decade has passed since Dr. Ormsby's retirement,  her name is still green among university students. Recently a student in history  was heard to remark that he hoped that Vernon would have the foresight one  day to acquire Dr. Ormsby's home on the shore of Kalamalka Lake as a  heritage site. "A place," he said, "that has been so intimately associated with  such an outstanding Canadian should not be allowed to be altered or destroyed  but should be preserved for future generations".  We in the Okanagan are rightly proud of our famous daughter and — like  this student — take satisfaction that she is one of ourselves and that the esteem  and respect in which she is held gives all of us a vicarious sense of pride and  achievement.  Ibid. p. 26.  Ibid. p. 23  The Okanagan Historical Society owes Dr. Ormsby a special  debt. She was the Editor of Annual Reports Nos. 6, 8, 12, 13,  14, 15, 16, 17 and 18.—Ed. 117  AGNES A. LADNER (nee Twink Monk)  by B. Wamboldt  The Okanagan Historical Society is indebted to Harriett Esselmont of Victoria for the following tribute to Mrs. Agnes Ladner who passed away in Victoria, B.C., February 14, 1986 at the age of 76 years.  Mrs. Esselmon writes:  "Mrs. Ladner spent 76 years in Vernon (except for a few years spent in  Salmon Arm). She was the wife of Max Ladner.  "Her father and brothers, Dick and Jack Monk, were all public spirited  men. Over the years they contributed much to the rapidly developing city of  Vernon. They were actively engaged in the business community as well as in  town planning, sport and City Council affairs.  "Agnes herself was a talented member of the art community, participated  in the life of the Anglican Church and, in her earlier years, was a Girl Guide  leader and Camp Director. She was a member of the Okanagan Historical  Society for many years.''  MRS. ALFARETTA MARION CROZIER  by B. Wamboldt  The Vernon Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society lost a pioneer  member with the passing of Alfaretta Marion Crozier on October 13, 1986 at  the age of 93 years.  Mrs. Crozier was born in Tilbury, Ontario and came with her parents,  Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson, to Vernon in 1905. She later married Ivan Crozier and  a son, Charles, and two daughters, kathleen (Duddle) and Norah (Kidd), were  born. All live in Vernon today. Dr. Crozier died in 1975.  Mrs. Crozier was one of the earliest executive members of the Okanagan  Historical Society in Vernon and served on the Editorial Committee. She was  also an active member of the Arthritis Society, Trinity United Church and the  Restholm Society. Her keen interest in current affairs as well as her knowledge  of early Vernon and of area history and her refreshing sense of humour made  her a pleasure to be with.  Mrs. Crozier will be missed by family and friends alike. 118  A TRIBUTE TO JIM TREADGOLD  by Tilman Nahm  Jim was a native son, having been born in Kelowna in 1914, the fourth  child of Tom and Donalda Treadgold who arrived in Kelowna in 1906.  Kelowna was a very different place during Jim's youth. Mill Creek, a couple  of hundred yards from where we are, here, was full of trout and kokanee. Deer  and bear still visited, and pheasant were common where housing subdivisions  now stand. Many ducks and birds graced the lake foreshore and the marshes  and ponds surrounding the little town. These environmental factors no doubt  influenced and shaped Jim's life.  As a boy Jim did not partake in team sports to any degree but rather  became interested in the outdoor sports of fishing, hunting and observing  nature.  As a young boy in his teens he started working for Joe Spurrier, the pioneer  sporting goods merchant in Kelowna. Joe and Goldie Spurrier had no children  of their own and took a great liking to Jim, treating him in some respects as their  own son. This was to become a lifelong friendship, not only until Joe's untimely  death in the 1940s, but continuing on for many years, Jim and Vi still visiting  Goldie in California until her passing away a few years ago.  After Jim graduated from High School in Kelowna, he attended technical  school in Vancouver where his natural mechanical ability came to fruition. He  returned to Kelowna, working at various jobs, always broadening his horizons  and becoming very skilled in whatever he turned his mind and hands to. While  assisting the war effort by working in an armaments factory in Vancouver, Jim  became proficient in what was to be his ultimate career — gunsmithing.  Jim and Vi returned to Kelowna after the war to fulfill Jim's ambition of  opening a sporting goods and gunsmithing business with Jim's brother Bill in  1946, a business that he was successfully involved with until his retirement in  1969. I well remember the day of the opening on Pandosy Street of the shop,  which they had built and furnished themselves. As a young teenager, I was one  of their first customers. Jim was an excellent businessman and gunsmith, always  serving his customers well. On more than one occasion I can recall his and my  rummaging through his parts bins looking for parts for an obsolete fishing reel,  and often he would end up giving me the part free. Jim received guns for repair  from all over the province because of his reputation for fine workmanship. His  prices were always reasonable and you always got more than honest value for  your dollar. He would also go to any length and expense to get needed parts to  satisfy his customers. Even after retiring from the store, Jim still carried on an  active gunsmithing trade from his home workshop.  Jim always had a friendly word and smile for everyone. I often remember  Jim coming into the telegraph office, where I was night operator, to drop off his  telegrams on his way home from work. He would always pause a minute or two  for a friendly chat. If you walked into the back shop of the sporting goods store,  he would stop work for a few minutes to have a conversation with you. He never  made you feel you were intruding, even though he might be very busy at the  time.  However, Jim will be best remembered for much more than his business  and workday activities. He will be best remembered for the influence and im- 119  pact he has had in Kelowna and the Okanagan, and even beyond, for his ideas  and work in the community on behalf of conservation and fish and wildlife. A  great hunter and fisherman, Jim always recognized that conservation of habitat,  the species and the environment around us, was the most important factor. It  was his forward looking and sincere belief that future generations should be able  to enjoy outdoor sports and nature just as he had done in his youth and adult  years. Jim's conservation and wildlife interests were broad and far reaching  because he took an intense interest in everything that concerned the environment around him from logging practices in the forest to fish hatchery operation  on creeks. His observations on nature and wildlife ranged beyond sportsmen's  associations, to a far wider audience and he was listened to by naturalists and  others and his ideas were often accepted and carried out. He was for many  years a member of the Okanagan Wildlife Advisory Committee to the Ministry  of the Environment, as well as of the B.C. Fruit Growers Association Wildlife  Committee for seeking solutions to deer damage on farms and orchards.  One of his great loves in life was the Fish and Game Club and Sportsman's  Field. His association with the Club goes back more than 50 years to when he  attended his first meetings with Joe Spurrier. As a youth he assisted the club in  its secretarial work, becoming secretary himself in 1947, holding that position  for many years. In 1956 he was elected President serving for five terms, and  then took on the secretary's job again until 1983 — truly an outstanding record  of service. During his years as president and secretary the club prospered and  expanded. Jim, being a man of vision, worked with his executive to acquire and  develop Sportsman's Field, built the ranges, traps and clubhouse and caretaking  quarters. Not only was Jim involved in the decision making but was very active  in the physical labour on work parties to develop the field. Succeeding generations of sportsmen will be thankful for the foresight of Jim and his fellow executive members. In 1979 he was honoured by being awarded the Dan Hill  Memorial Award for outstanding service. He was also named an honourary life  member for his distinguished service to the club.  The diversity of Jim's interests are reflected by his having been active in the  Anglican Church in years past, as well as having been a member of the Tax  Assessment Court of Revision in recent years.  Jim espoused Christian principles throughout his life and lived by them.  He was a great family man who loved his wife and children and grandchildren,  giving them an upbringing in honest values to become the good citizens they  are. Jim maintained a ready smile and optimistic outlook in spite of the pain and  adversity caused by his many illnesses during the past few years, which is a  remarkable testament to his fortitude and endurance. He influenced all who  came in contact with him through his moderate and reasoned lifestyle.  In closing I would like to say that the world is a better place for Jim's having been here. He set and maintained a high standard throughout life for  himself as a family man, businessman, sportsman and citizen of Kelowna and  Canada. 120  A TRIBUTE TO JOAN MARY APPLETON NORRIS  by Nina Grigor and the Reverend Ernest Rands  At the memorial service for Joan Norris the Reverend Frank Chubb spoke  for all who knew her, "I cannot think of another person in my lifetime who has  done more good for more people with as little ostentation as Joan Appleton Norris." On November 27, 1986 she was killed instantly in a two-car collision near  Princeton.  Joan was born in England on December 20, 1913 the daughter of Dr. Appleton, a dental surgeon and Irene Doulton. She had one brother, Ronald, who  died in Egypt in 1948 while serving with the Royal Air Force. She first arrived  in Penticton during a round-the-world trip with her family. While staying at the  Incola Hotel the family fell in love with the area and Joan's father decided to  buy an orchard on the Upper Bench.  Joan's governess, who had accompanied the family, soon established a  classroom which was added to the orchard home. Young friends, Margery Leir  and Betty Penrose, joined the classes and enjoyed many happy days of study,  dancing and artistic pursuits in that pastoral setting.  Joan had an affinity for dogs and horses. The Appletons kept three or four  Golden Retrievers and Joan rode her pony over the hills and along dusty bench  roads where early Fords had not altogether replaced the horse and buggy. In  later years she became an enthusiastic rider with the Penticton Riding Club.  For her secondary education Joan was enrolled in St. Margaret's School,  Victoria. After graduation she and her mother travelled to England where Joan  Joan Appleton Norris. 121  trained as a nurse at St. Thomas' Hospital, London — the historic nursing  school from which Florence Nightingale graduated.  In 1939 at the outbreak of war the newly graduated nursing sister was  ready. She served with the Red Cross in the bombed-out areas of London.  Without doubt her lively sense of humour must have relieved tensions in tight  places during the blitz. Following the Second World War she worked with the  United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration among refugees and  orphans in prisoner-of-war and concentration camps throughout Europe and in  Morocco. As a result of these associations she became deeply committed to  mankind's need for justice and world peace.  Returning to Canada in 1947 Joan and her mother settled in their summer  home near Skaha Lake. As usual dogs were part of their household and among  these pets was a German boxer she had brought from Europe. This sagacious  animal took to the Canadian way of life by developing a passion for movies at  the local drive-in. Both mother and daughter enjoyed training and grooming  their pets. Together they drove to dog shows near and far.  While driving is a necessary activity for most people it was a pleasure for  Joan. She was knowledgeable about cars and those she drove were carefully  chosen and well maintained.  Before long she resumed her nursing career as a public health nurse in  Ashcroft, Summerland and Penticton. Legions of friends and patients in these  communities remember her with great affection for her door was never closed to  the needy or troubled. In 1956, before a transfer to a public health position in  Chilliwack, the City of Penticton honoured her by making her "Freeman of the  City".  Her marriage to Mr. Justice Thomas G. Norris took place in July 1960.  They made their home in Pitt Meadows and during those happy years Joan's  boundless energy involved her in community and provincial affairs. She served  as chairman of the Maple Ridge Hospital Board for many years and as a  member of the Provincial Parole Board for sixteen years. The latter led Joan  and her husband to deep concern for prison inmates and their families. Later  they established and helped maintain a half-way house for paroled prisoners.  This work she pursued until she died.  A few years after her husband's death in October 1976, Joan returned to  her Skaha Lake home which she enlarged so that she could welcome her many  friends and relatives who came to visit. As she settled into active retirement dogs  were, once again, lively members of her household. Her garden was a pleasure  to her. However, the ox-bow of Okanagan River adjacent to her property  presented this nature-lover with a dilemma she never solved: how to accommodate both trees and beaver.  Joan took a keen interest in political affairs at all levels and was deeply involved in community organizations and her church. She helped found the  Hospice Society in the Penticton Regional Hospital — a fitting memorial to her  interest in patient care.  Joan's life reflected her dedication to people whatever their needs. All those  who worked with her were cheered by her warm personality and lively sense of  humour. She will be greatly missed. 122  WALLACE J. SMITH  by John Woodworth  You who would do good works for your friend — don't put it off. Because  tomorrow you may be limited to writing his eulogy.  Wallace J. Smith, my first boss and family friend for half a century, died in  his home town, Oliver, November 25, 1982, at 83.  Many of you knew him as the author of "Orchard Run", a weekly  newspaper column on valley matters. Because we shared a passion for preservation of the environmental qualities of our valley, we had agreed I was to write an  occasional guest column for him, 'one of these days.' I never got around to it.  Wallace and 'Auntie Kay' arrived in Oliver in 1934, a year after our family. He was almost broke because the Depression and the dust bowl had wiped  out his first printing venture in Brooks, Alberta. The Oliver News, his attempt to  re-establish in the new orcharding area of Oliver-Osoyoos, was a three to four  page mimeographed advertising and news sheet — a considerable let down for  a man trained as a printer and linotype operator.  Wallace and my father, "KD" Woodworth, became great friends. Each  elected to weather the Depression in his own way.  My father, at 48, settled to a hand-to-mouth existence with four children  on raw sagebrush property at the river edge. He planned to live off the land as  his forefathers had done, using his skills as an engineer to build an irrigation  system and farm implements from native materials and salvaged scrap.  Wallace chose to stick to his trade. To cut home expense he planted a small  orchard, the latter often a subject for Orchard Run these past 25 years. Wallace  and KD also became reporters for the Vancouver dailies, sharing gasoline on  the occasional 'scoop' such as the Shuttlework dam collapse at Okanagan Falls,  or the West Kootenay power line collapse.  But the joint enterprise barely paid for typewriter ribbons and a newspaper  subscription.  When Wallace offered me as a 12-year-old a part-time job at 25 cents an  hour as a 'printers devil', he gently pulled me into his sphere. And thus began  a see-saw influence on my life.  Wallace, in keeping with his trade, was a cautious, methodical man. My  father was his opposite. Our jackpine pole farmhouse, for example, soon had a  water system. The river end began with abandoned three inch mine pipe and  the house connection was through a bicycle inner tube. Wallace in his stucco  and frame house installed a cast iron hand pump at the sink. In the office,  Wallace made it clear to me he would only have a pressure water system when  he could do it right.  The classic, I suppose, was Wallace's waterwheel. On our Haywire Ranch,  father built at least one waterwheel a year for irrigation. He would start with a  wagon wheel and axle, then add arms of jackpine wired to the spokes, paddles  made from box ends from the packinghouse dump, buckets from quart oil cans,  and a flume from salvaged nail kegs. Most springs we lost our waterwheel after  a struggle in the river floods.  Wallace would have none of this, but he needed irrigation. So he scrimped  and saved to build a proper waterwheel, a compromise between KD's ingenuity  and his own determination to do it right. His had a ball bearing wheel, steel 123  spokes, and was in a contained water race in the stream below his house.  On Wallace and Aunty Kay's 50th wedding anniversary in 1982, Wallace  reminded me that his waterwheel ran trouble-free for years, at a cost of $1 annually for a water license.  My first day at work was a milestone. Wallace put a push broom in my  hand. At home the broom was made from willow ends, and there wasn't a  mother to use it. Wallace watched my fumblings, and then said, "Here, this is  the right way. Push the broom along, then bang it to shake out the loose dirt.  Push it, then bang it!" To this day when I use a push broom, I push it and then  bang it, and I can almost see Wallace looking over my shoulder.  As an adult, I still don't know who was right. When I tackle a home project  there is always the struggling within — whether to 'make do', get the job done  fast and patch it later, or whether to do it right, so it will last and be  maintenance free.  How right, and yet ironic, that Wallace should choose Orchard Run for his  column. "Orchard Run" to a fruit grower is nature's mix, just as it comes from  the tree. Over the years he looked at Extra Fancy, Fancy, Cee grade and culls  — all the Okanagan's beauty and also its warts.  But his theme was for a fruit industry that would grow only the best. Thus  he reminded us of the value of high quality orchard stock, of a uniform fruit inspection system, of the need to preserve our limited agricultural lands and our  water resource.  In Kelowna, where I live, his column informed many that fruit growing,  packing and processing is still a major Okanagan industry, even when you  sometimes can't see the trees for the subdivision.  When Auntie Kay advised me of her husband's death she said, "We have  lost a husband and a father." We have also lost a true good friend to this  Okanagan Valley.  HETTIE FAIRWEATHER  by N.J. Newman  Hettie Dollarhide Fairweather lived during an era that saw more change  than any other, before or since. She was born in Amity, Oregon in 1887, into a  family whose roots in America can be traced back 300 years and whose vision  and hard work benefitted many.  During a family trip by covered wagon Hettie, then a toddler, became  blinded by a disease contracted from an unhealthy dog. Physicians of the day offered neither healing nor hope, but an elderly Indian woman learned of the  situation and rode 10 miles to offer her help. Hettie's hair was cut off and a cap  of pine tar and herbs was placed over eyes and scalp. Upon removal of the mixture some time later, the little girl could once again see. Thereafter Hettie always  felt tremendous gratitude and respect for the Indians and their knowledge. The  family travelled a great deal during her childhood, rarely settling for longer than  a year or two in one location.  Hettie played the piano by ear. She proposed accompanying her fellow  students as they marched into their new school in Pullman and, as soon as the 124  impressed principal heard her, the offer was accepted. Hettie auditioned to play  a concert that included among its performers many well-known musicians. She  was so appreciated that she received a standing ovation. Thinking they didn't  like her and were rising to leave, Hettie fled from the stage in tears.  At 16 Hettie accompanied her brother and sister and their spouses to  Canada to homestead. Nanton, Alberta was their destination and Hettie spent  an arduous year helping each couple establish a home and farm.  In 1907 Hettie joined another sister and her photographer husband in Calgary and moved with them to Fernie. It was there she met and came to love  Harry Fairweather, then chef at the Columbian Hotel. Harry had trained in  England and at one point was head chef of all the railway dining cars with 12  chefs under him. They married in January 1908 and moved to Edmonton. A  year later they moved to Vancouver where they stayed only a few months before  moving to Harrison where their children, Lloyd and Elma were born.  Harry noticed that the Queensborough area on Lulu Island was booming  and in 1912 decided to build a hotel to serve the district. The Queensborough  Hotel contained a 125-seat dining room and 20 sleeping rooms, and was constructed for $3,500. The hotel prospered for several years until the war began  and surrounding industries closed down.  Earlier, Harry had staked an old friend he had found in terrible circumstances. The friend had gone on to do very well in the circus business. When the  hotel fell upon hard times, Speed Garrett returned, offering employment. The  Fairweathers travelled with the circus for a year, feeding the employees and the  public, providing work for some of their hotel staff, and leaving the children  with wonderful memories.  After the war irrigation was opening up the South Okanagan and Harry  and Hettie bought two lots from Harvey Boone, dismantled their hotel, and in  1921, moved it to Oliver where it stands today. After a challenging three-day  journey by car through Washington State the Fairweathers arrived in Oliver,  first setting up housekeeping in a large circus tent which they shared with their  construction workers and supplies, then moving to a small house on the lot.  They operated the hotel until 1924 when they bought a mill which Lloyd took  over on his father's death in 1957. In 1923, when all were expected to help save  the crops, Hettie was asked to be the supervisor for Dominion Canneries, a  position she held for three or four years.  When I asked Elma Lyons, who lives in the lovely old family home in  Oliver, about her mother, tears filled her eyes as she spoke of her happy music-  filled childhood and their warm affectionate home presided over by this loving  and gentle woman. Hettie Fairweather passed away May 26, 1985 in Penticton. 125  SALUTE TO MRS. GWENDOLINE ATKINSON 1886-1986  by Marjorie Croil  On August 7, 1986 Mrs. Gwendoline Atkinson reached her 100th birthday. It is a joy to salute a woman who has so happily reached this age. Mrs.  Atkinson is a Summerland pioneer who has lived an ordered life, spent much of  her time outdoors, kept her own counsel and raised four children mostly by  herself.  Born Gwendoline Skeet on August 7, 1886 in the small village of Murree,  near Kashmir, she was the daughter of a British Army officer. Her baptism was  in St. Mary's Anglican Church, Rawalpindi, then in the Punjab and close to  her birth place.  As so often happened in Indian Army life, the Skeet family returned to  England when the young girl started her English education. She became a well-  trained teacher and her pupils in Surrey, England dared to call her "Miss-  Skeet-O." She delighted in teaching music and country dancing. Her classes  were so successful that the late Sir Edward Elgar came to the school to hear the  singing and watch the dances.  It was in Lincoln, England that Miss Skeet met Mr. Robert Hebblewhite  Atkinson and later became engaged to him. Atkinson, following an earlier trip  to Canada, had decided to emigrate and take up fruit ranching. After his  Mrs. Gwendoline Atkinson born 1886. A Summerland pioneer who celebrated her centenary August  7, 1986. 126  betrothal he returned to the Okanagan where his parents had settled in  Summerland.  It was to this area that Miss Skeet travelled suitably chaperoned by her  fiance's sister and brother-in-law (Mr. and Mrs. George Johnson). The party  arrived on February 25, 1913 and the young couple were married February 26  in St. Stephen's Anglican Church, the Reverend H. A. Solly conducting the  service.  Mr. Atkinson enlisted in the First World War and served overseas with the  Canadian Medical Corps in France and Salonika from 1915 to 1918. When he  returned to Summerland he planted an orchard overlooked by Giant's Head  Mountain. Mrs. Atkinson lived for nearly sixty years at Swallbeck as they called  that original farm on Giant's Head Road at the top of Sandhill Road.  Their first child, Brian, born in 1914, was the first baby to be delivered in  the original Summerland hospital. Oddly enough, another son, Clive, born in  1921, was the first occupant of the nursery in the second hospital. There were  two daughters, Berolyn and Gweneth.  Tragedy struck the family when, on October 26, 1931, Mr. Atkinson was  killed in a hunting accident. From then on Mrs. Atkinson herself looked after  the orchard and her four children at a time when apples were yarded out of the  orchard by horse and stoneboat and open ditch irrigation was the order of the  day. She often felt encouraged by the steadfastness of the old Giant's Head that  was always in sight from her home. Gardening was a joy to her as was reading.  She found pleasure in the beautiful Okanagan sunsets at the end of the long  day's work.  Gwendoline Atkinson has been a loved and respected member of the Summerland community. Among the organizations in which she has participated are  the Summerland Horticultural Society which made her an honorary member;  the Choral Society to and from whose rehearsals she walked long distances; and  the Anglican Church which has valued her membership for seventy-three years.  Mrs. Atkinson's family are a credit to her. Her older son, Brian, lives in  London, England, having spent many years in Malaya and Africa. Clive lives  on the home place in Summerland, though the orchard has been subdivided.  Berolyn, a registered nurse, is married to H.J. (Bill) Barkwill, fruit farmer and  former cannery operator, and Gweneth is married to Summerland lawyer  W. A. Gilmour. There are eight Barkwill children and all have "green thumbs"  which they attribute to their granny's love of gardening. Mrs. Atkinson's six  great-grandchildren, all baptised in St. Stephen's Church, are fifth generation  members of the church on two sides of the family.  This undaunted woman was independent and lived alone until her 97th  year when she unfortunately fell and broke her hip. After several months in  hospital Mrs. Atkinson now makes her home with her daughter Gweneth and  her husband by the lake at Trout Creek in Summerland. Her interests are keen.  Besides her large family, she concerns herself with the garden flowers, all the  bird life, nesting mallards and even the geese! She reads, plays the piano and is  a keen Scrabble player.  Mrs. Atkinson's whole life has been staunch and resolute. She has seen a  whole century of hard-to-believe, incalculable change. Not only has she survived  cheerfully, but she has happily celebrated her 100th birthday surrounded by  those she loves. 127  THE HARVEY CLAN OF KELOWNA  by Win Shilvock  James Edwin Harvey, who was to have a great impact on the development  of Kelowna, was 66 years old when he arrived from Indian Head, Saskatchewan  in 1907.  In 1904 he and his friend Joseph Glenn (Glenn Ave.), also from Indian  Head, visited Kelowna and acquired a large interest in the Okanagan Land and  Fruit Co. which bought out the A. B. Knox (Knox Mountain) farmland that  year. This property encompassed the area east from Bernard Ave. and Richter  St. to today's Cooper Rd. and south to beyond the present day Cottonwoods  Extended Care Complex. To gain access to the property, Bernard Ave. was extended east to the top of the Bankhead hill in 1906.  But the expected influx of settlers didn't materialize immediately and it  wasn't until 1909 when the population had grown from 600 to 1,200 that subdivision became feasible. At this point Harvey personally bought a large amount  of the property south of Bernard Ave. which had been subdivided into one acre  lots.  Back in 1892 when Bernard Lequime laid out the Kelowna townsite, he  named Gaston, Lawrence and Leon Avenues after his brothers and the main  drag after himself. The most southern east-west road he named Eli Ave. for his  father. Now, the road that delineated the southern boundary of Harvey's property ran into Eli Ave. and something had to be done about names. Mayor F.  R.E. DeHart and his Council decided that since there was a surfeit of Lequime  names, the two roads should be joined together under the name of Harvey  Avenue.  James Edwin Harvey was born in 1841 near Hamilton, Ontario, the second child of Charles Harvey who had emigrated to Canada from Scotland in  the middle 1830's and had married Jennet Masson.  Although both James and his father were very successful farmers and owned several grain and lumber mills in Ontario, they believed the future of Canada  lay in the West. Accordingly, in 1882 James, his wife Mary (Campbell) and  family left for Saskatchewan and settled at Indian Head. The following year his  father joined him but unfortunately died in 1886 while on a trip to Ontario.  James' faith in the West was justified and for the next 25 years he operated  a successful farm and grain mill and was the village postmaster. Then age and  the cruel prairie winters caught up. He had heard of the wonderful climate in  the Okanagan Valley and came here to enjoy a more comfortable lifestyle.  While becoming involved in commercial real estate he also purchased a large  house on Bernard Ave. next to one built by Dr. Boyce in 1906. Today's Town  Centre Mall is situated on this site.  James' wife, Mary, enjoyed Kelowna for many years before she died in  1925 at age 79. He followed her in 1931 and was 90 years old. During his years  in Kelowna he had influenced several of his children to move west, but the one  who had the greatest impact on Kelowna was George Campbell Harvey.  George had remained at Indian Head when his father left in 1907, but 10  years later his health began to fail after a bout with pneumonia and he was advised to find a more equitable climate. With his wife, Bertha (Brooks), and their  seven children, he moved to Kelowna where, during the course of time, three 128  Top: Win, Connie, Georgie, Ed. Middle: Jean, Bertha, George, Jim. Bottom: Beth, Bea, Do, Mabe.  more children were born. This group of eight girls and two boys became known  as '' The Harvey Ten.''  A spacious house was required for his large family so George bought the  brick one built by his brother Charles at the southeast corner of Richter St. and  Sutherland Ave. It soon became known as "The Harvey House" for the  popular Harvey children attracted many friends for games and parties on the  broad lawns. The house still stands (1987), albeit modern homes have been built  close by, almost hiding it from view.  George Harvey was a strict Scotch Presbyterian and took great pride in filling the family pew with his children. He was a teetotaler and thought anyone  who drank beer was in league with the devil. However, every year the children 129  were sent out to pick huge quantities of dandelion heads to make wine — "for  medicinal purposes."  Until rheumatism slowed him down George was expert at skeet shooting  and curling and enjoyed croquet on his lawns. For many years he had a running  game of crib going with his father.  During the 12 years George Harvey lived in Kelowna he ran a fruit orchard and did extensive work on his hobby of taxidermy. He was only 60 years  old when the ailments from Indian Head caught up with him and he died in  1929, two years before his father. Bertha lived another 18 years, passing away in  1947, age 66.  Nine of the Harvey Ten still survive and, except for Beatrice Burtch and  Dorothy Witt who still live in Kelowna, they're scattered to Vernon, Vancouver, Victoria, San Francisco and Hawaii. Connie Latimer died in Kelowna  November 16, 1985.  The two Harveys, James E. and George C. left a definite imprint on  Kelowna and their memory is honored in the name Harvey Avenue.  IN MEMORY OF A FRIEND . . . ERNEST DOE  by Ronald A. Jamieson  Ernest Doe or "Ernie", as he was known to his friends, was born in  Bulwell, England, July 29, 1912. His parents, Mr. and Mrs. J. F. Doe and their  children, Leslie, Ernest, Edith, George and Elsie arrived in Salmon Arm in  1923. Mr. Doe became the caretaker at the High School and started keeping the  weather records, a labour of love, that Ernie took over from his father in 1949.  Mr. Doe, a musician, became City Bandmaster with his four youngest children  enrolled in the Band.  When Ernie became a teenager, he joined the Tuxis Boys becoming an active member until other interests developed. Amateur radio and local history  became lifelong hobbies. Ernie, with brothers Leslie and George, revived the  local cricket club by maintaining the pitch and equipment until the outbreak of  World War Two.  After seven years of spare time research in the Public Archives at Victoria,  B.C. and reading back files of the Kamloops Sentinel and Salmon Arm Observer and  conducting many interviews with oldtimers from the local area, Ernie sorted out  his notes in 1938 and typed the first copy of the History of Salmon Arm, B.C.  (1885-1912). It was printed as a limited edition (1947) by the Salmon Arm  Observer.  1948 was another milestone for Ernie. He received his Amateur Radio  (Ham Operator) certificate with call letters VE7-AED for voice broadcast. From  that time he faithfully checked into the B.C. network from home or mobile every  day he was in B.C. He also found time to be a founding member and secretary  of the following Salmon Arm organizations: Little Theatre Association, Civilian  Protection Committee and War Memorial Committee, all of which involved  considerable correspondence.  Ernie had started working for the S.A.F.E. Ltd., the town's largest department store, in charge of the egg department. However, the biggest event in Ernie's  life was on September 20, 1951 when he was united in marriage with Margaret 130  Catherine Avery, a daughter of pioneer families in the Cariboo and Princeton  areas. Their happiness, with the arrival of Helen and Alan in following years,  bound a close knit family, bringing pride and joy as they watched their children  grow and develop until they left home for careers of their own.  It was during the early years of family life that Ernie began his rise through  several positions in the S.A.F.E. store until be became manager. Soon after his  appointment, disaster struck. A fire, believed to have started in the women's  washroom, on August 26th, 1956, destroyed the whole store, leaving 32 people  without a job and the company directors facing an estimated loss of $200,000.  Ernie convinced the directors to rebuild the store. When that had been completed, Ernie decided upon a new career, choosing to become an accountant.  After six years of study he graduated as a Certified General Accountant and  established his own business.  As a member of the Chamber of Commerce, Ernie served as secretary for  more than 20 years. He was a founding member and officer of the Salmon Arm  Community Association, a group of elected citizens who operate the Salmar and  Ernest Doe 131  Starlight theatres. This unique association returns the profits to the community  in the form of scholarships and grants. Ernie's love of his community and its  history led him to become a founding member and secretary of the Salmon Arm  Museum and Historical Society. It was his deep interest in history that compelled him to update and complete the Centennial History of Salmon Arm, incorporating  in this volume his earlier works (1885-1912). Ernie would not accept any personal renumeration for historical research or final typing of the manuscript.  However, the printing costs were paid by the Salmon Arm Centennial Committee and the British Columbia Provincial Centennial Committee. Printed by the  Salmon Arm Observer, the history book is a treasured volume in many homes. Ernie has been a long and continuing member of the Okanagan Historical Society.  May 1, 1963 the citizens of Salmon Arm honoured Ernie with the Citizen  of the Year Award, recognizing his many contributions to our community.  After the children had left home, Ernie's wife Margaret, a member of the  Women's Institute, was instrumental in organizing a committee from the three  local chapters of the Institute to continue with the plan of the Salmon Arm  Benevolent Society to build a home for senior citizens. Margaret had been a  nurse and teacher with a sympathetic understanding of the older generation.  After several years of persistent committee work their dream was realized with  the opening of the Pioneer Lodge in May 1982. Still active on the lodge's  operating committee, Margaret Doe was honoured for her contributions to the  needs of her community by being named the 1984 Citizen of the Year.  Ernie used to recall, with gratitude, how Margaret had gone back to work  while he studied for his accountant's degree and how they had shared many  hours working on clients' monthly statements. In retirement Ernie and  Margaret found so much to do and the days only too short. Ernie's project,  which had been on his mind for a long time, was to enter all the weather data  gathered by his father and himself since 1924 into his computer with a printout.  It was during this monumental task that Ernie passed away on November 13,  1986. He was buried in the family plot at Mount Ida cemetery in his beloved  Salmon Arm.  Ernie and Margaret Doe's son, Alan of Vancouver, B.C. is completing his father's project and  it will be printed by the Salmon Arm Observer, in memory of Ernest Doe.  Sid Bedwell, a friend and next door neighbour, maintained the weather records any time Ernie  and Margaret were away from home on holiday.  The late A. C. Fisher, the artist whose painting of the Enderby Cliffs is  reproduced on the cover of the Fifty Jirst Report, was born Agnes Hamil. The  Hamils were well known pioneers of the Lansdowne-Armstrong area. The late  Steele Fisher of Armstrong was her husband. 132  MY GRANDFATHER: JOHN DALE  by Gordon J. Dale  It is a pleasure for me to speak to you about a very special friend of mine,  John Henry Dale. Grandad Dale died in 1972 but he is fondly remembered by  his many friends. He was a unique man with a great love of life, in spite of the  hardships of his time. John Dale was a man of the woods and a man of the  mountains. If he were alive today he would be a conservationist and  environmentalist.  I enjoyed a special relationship with my grandfather. His greatest misfortune proved fortunate for me. About 1942 my grandfather was stricken with a  severe case of arthritis and never walked again without the assistance of crutches.  Despite this crushing blow which kept him from his beloved forests and mountains he retained his great sense of humour. For a small child living on the  neighbouring homestead he became a constant companion. For the first 14  years of my life I spent hours each day visiting with him. He taught me many  things; how to play crib and checkers, how to use a gun, how to identify birds  and many, many other things. He instilled in me a love for reading and information, an interest in history and current events, a respect for other people and  their opinions, and a sense of fair play. Even today I find myself pausing to  reflect on how my grandfather would have reacted to something or someone.  As we get older we tend to think more about our roots. I grew up at Lusk  Lake on the edge of the wilderness that was so large a part of both my grandfather's and father's past. History was very relevant to me because many of the  pioneers were still alive.  John Henry Dale was a true pioneer in every sense of the word. He was  born in Portage La Prairie, Manitoba in 1895. His father, Alexander, had immigrated to that area from Dundee, Scotland, a victim of the Enclosures Act of  the 19th century. Alexander Dale moved his family to the North Enderby area  in 1897, travelling up the Shuswap from Sicamous by steamship. John attended  school in Enderby for a while. I remember his recounting some of his schoolboy  pranks including taking advantage of the teacher's absence one noon hour to fill  the one room school completely with cordwood before the teacher's return.  In 1905 Alexander moved his family to a quarter section on the Shuswap  River halfway between Enderby and Mabel Lake. The land is now owned by  Rob and Marian Dale. John eventually homesteaded the adjacent property  which is now owned by George Salt. The only trace of the original homestead is  a long hayshed which is still standing and several old apple trees.  I remember clearly John's stories about growing up at the "halfway." He  often told the story of shooting his first deer at age twelve. He had shot a large  buck on the mountain above the valley and was sadly contemplating the  destruction of this splendid animal when it suddenly revived and launched itself  down the hill at him. He narrowly avoided being gouged by its horns before getting  in another shot. It was a lesson he never forgot.  John Dale started work early. At age eight he was tending cattle for  neighbours in addition to doing his own chores. Like all his neighbours he made  his living off the land. He was a logger, river driver, and trapper. He raised  most of his own food, keeping cows, chickens, pigs and horses. 133  His "halfway" ranch was a place of special significance. It was either the  end of or the start of the most hazardous part of the journey to Mabel Lake . . .  about five miles of very steep, narrow, mountain road. Mrs. Gertrude Peel  remembers that when a phone was finally installed at the farm, the first phone  in the valley, they used it to check on the safe progress of her parents, Mr. and  Mrs. George Rands Sr., who were travelling to their cabin on Mabel Lake.  Every year, too, members of the local Indian band would camp on the land  for several weeks to build fish traps in their traditional fishing grounds in the  Islands.  I read with much amusement a story about the Mabel Lake Road  reprinted from the February 8, 1906 edition of the Enderby Progress. I quote: "A  petition praying that the B.C. legislature will provide in the estimates for the  construction of a road from Enderby to Mabel Lake was circulated and has been  extensively signed by the residents of town and country". Politicians apparently  worked faster in those years for in 1909 my grandfather helped build that road.  Later grandfather drove the stage coach delivering mail, goods and loggers  from Enderby to Hupel. One of his passengers was Anne Bruynel from  Brussels, Belgium. Anne was travelling to the area to visit her sister Louise  Peters (later Pitton). They hit it off and were married in 1914, raising six  children: Tom, Agnes, Norman, Don, Betty and Bruce. John and Anne were  opposites; he the woodsman, she well educated, speaking six languages and  playing classical piano. It was a big step for her to go from the culture of Europe  to a homestead.  One of my grandfather's closest friends was Sir Major James Baird of  England and Ireland. Baird travelled to the area every few years with a hunting  party. My grandfather hunted with the group, acting as their guide. They used  to travel to the Cariboo to hunt ducks and geese, shooting hundreds every day.  The dead birds were all given to local residents.  Baird bought the Hupel Ranch in 1913 and my grandparents operated it  for a number of years. Hupel at that time consisted of a two-storey log building  with a few rooms for rent, a cafe of sorts, a store and post office, and a stable. It  was the terminus for the stage run to Enderby and served the many lumberjacks  in the area as well as the local homesteaders.  Park Mountain Camp 6, March 10, 1932. 134  While at Hupel John had a pet bear which he raised from a cub. The bear  took great delight in greeting visitors when the stage arrived. He also enjoyed  wrestling with the locals but was a poor loser. He eventually got too big and  started to root out apple trees for sport and had to be disposed of.  John and his brothers George, Douglas and Billy established several trap  lines in the area, including Park and Mabel Mountains. The lines stretched for  about forty miles and would take up to three weeks to cover. It was a lonely,  perilious life, with snowfalls of up to 40 feet. Grandad talked of digging down  through twenty feet of snow to reach one of their tiny cabins and of the constant  fear that some animal would break into the cabins and either consume or  destroy their caches of food. I remember clearly the emotion in his voice when  he related some of the worst experiences he had on the trap line; of becoming  snow-blind and disoriented in a blizzard and of confronting a wolverine in one  of his cabins. I still shudder when I look up at Park Mountain shrouded in a  winter storm and think of my grandfather, his brothers, and my father, all of  whom climbed the four miles up the mountain before embarking on their three  week trek.  My grandfather also spoke often of his experiences in the woods ... of  horselogging, and river driving. The river drivers were an elite group, but my  grandfather always tempered the romantic aspects of the drive with some of the  unpleasant realities . . . the weeks of bone-chilling cold, of clothing which never  dried, and the injuries sustained. He spoke of the celebrations that followed at  the King Edward Hotel.  My grandparents moved to another homestead at Lusk Lake in 1935, taking over the property from George Cargyle. Cargyle, a trapper, lived in a small  cabin on the property until his death in the 1950s. John cleared a few acres of  HI i      Hb      m-  John on porch, July 1962. 135  land and built a log house and outbuildings on the property. He situated the  house in a clump of large trees on the banks of the small lake. His friends will  remember visiting with him either in his room overlooking the lake or on the  large veranda.  They will remember my grandmother's beautiful flower gardens which  thrived in spite of the encroaching forest. I always picture my grandfather sitting  on the veranda, puffing on a pipeful of Ogden Pipe Tobacco, watching the  ducks on the lake, or the budding of the trees, or the formation of clouds in the  sky ... a man at peace with his world.  Note: John and Anne Dale moved to Enderby in 1963. Later John moved to the Vernon Hospital  where he died in 1972. Anne Dale died November 11, 1982 at Enderby, B.C.  Old Kelowna Club.  Photo courtesy Kelowna Mils 136  STUDENT ESSAYS  STUDENT ESSAYS  First Prize and Winner of J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award  — Junior Division —  SHEPHERD'S HARDWARE OF ARMSTRONG  by Greg Lehoux  On April 1, 1925, John "Jock" Duncan Shepherd, a hardware man from  Erskine, Alberta moved from his temporary home in Lady smith, B.C. to Armstrong and purchased the P. T. Goulter Hardware store. Immediately he changed the name of the store to "Shepherd's Cash Hardware". On July 1, 1939, his  youngest son, Charlie Shepherd, joined him in the business. The store has had  more recent owners, the Melvin brothers, but it still thrives today in Armstrong  under the name of Shepherd's Hardware.  There have been three locations for Shepherd's Hardware over the last  sixty-two years and their reputation for good service has endured. They were:  first the old Co-op building; second, the building that is now Downtown Realty;  and finally, its present day location on the corner of Mill Street and Railway  Avenue. The first Shepherd's building had no insulation and all they had for  heat was a sawdust burner. This building was located where the Armstrong  Legion is today. They rented the store from the Co-op Society from 1925 to  1948. The original name for the hardware store, "Shepherd's Cash Hard-  Previous store owners:  Left, Mr. J. D. Shepherd in the 1940s. Right, Mr. C. P. Shepherd in the early 1980s. 137  ware", came from the business being unable to afford credit for its customers.  The second location was where today's Downtown Realty is. It was bought  from a man named Fred Murray in 1948, the same year that the first store was  torn down to make room for the new Co-op store. Before Mr. Charlie Shepherd  bought it, the Murray store was a meat market. Some members of the Murray  family used to live upstairs and run their business downstairs.  Stores in the 1950s with Shepherd's Hardware on the right.  The final location was where you will find Shepherd's today. The switch to  a brand new building was made in 1977.  There was competition in Armstrong in the hardware business in the early  days of Shepherd's Hardware. The competition was a hardware and implement  store that was owned by George Smith and he named his store "MacPhail  Smith", and then later called it "Smith Hardware". Mr. George Smith was a  brother to the Smith family who owned the town's largest sawmill. "Smith  Hardware," later "Vicker's Hardware" and then "Bronson's Hardware" were  all located in the same building that Macleod's is in today.  In the early days freight and cargo were shipped by freight train from the  wholesalers. Some of the wholesalers were Mc & Mc and Marshall Wells but the  best supplier was Ashdowns in Calgary. To ship one hundred pounds of first  class freight (china, glass etc.), it would cost the buyer one dollar forty-four  cents. To ship one hundred pounds of fourth-class freight it would cost the buyer  seventy-two cents. From the train station the freight was hauled by horse and  wagon to the buyer's store. The buyer would pay for the merchandise when it  arrived at the store.  During the depression the hardware store was going through a tough and  trying time. There was not enough money so the hardware stores, or any other  stores,  could not afford to pay salaries and therefore could not hire any 138  employees. Those stores which already had employees had to lay them off  because owners could not afford to pay them. During the depression, the stores  were more or less run by the owners.  "The two employees who were with me the longest and were very good  friends and very loyal employees," said Mr. Charlie Shepherd, "were Ted  Hoole and Ronald Price." Mr. Hoole and Mr. Price worked at Shepherd's  Hardware in the 1950s, '60s and '70s.  There were a few robberies in the history of Shepherd's, but one that Mr.  C P. Shepherd remembers extremely well was when the store was located  where the Legion is now. At the back of his store he had a sliding door which  always had a five-hundred pound barrel of linseed oil in front of it. It was almost  impossible to break into the store because you would have to move the barrel of  linseed oil first. Every once in a while five gallons of oil were taken out of the  barrel to sell to customers. The Shepherds had forgotten that the barrel was continually getting lighter. Then, one night a robber decided that he was going to  break in. The barrel had so much oil taken out of it that the robber was able to  push it aside and get into the store.  Mr. C. P. Shepherd started to purchase an interest in the hardware  business on July 1, 1939. He became a full partner with his father on December  31, 1945. Mr. J. D. Shepherd died a sudden death on January 22, 1946. At this  time Charlie Shepherd was a full partner with his mother who inherited the  other half of the business. Mr. Shepherd ran the business with his mother as a  full partner. At the end of that year a legal agreement was drawn up so over the  next few years Mr. Shepherd made payments to his mother until he had paid in  full for her half of the business. Mr. Charlie Shepherd was not obligated to buy  the store but he was always interested in the hardware business. After school  and on weekends he would go to his dad's store and help out. He always enjoyed his work and had no complaints about owning the hardware business.  Almost every day something funny would happen at the hardware store  and Charlie Shepherd really enjoyed his customers. Once, he remembers, he  had lost his eye glasses and could not find them anywhere. So, he put an ad in  the Armstrong Advertiser offering a reward often dollars to anyone who found his  glasses. Days later, a near-blind man, who loved carpentry, came into the store  and was "looking" at the power tools on one of the shelves. Then the man said,  "Hey, I've just found a pair of glasses!" Charlie told him about the reward but  the man would not accept it. So, Charlie said, "Listen, if a blind man can find  a pair of lost glasses then he deserves the reward." The man accepted the  reward and bought a clock that his wife had admired earlier in the store.  Shepherd's Hardware was quite active in the Interior Provincial Exhibition. Every year Shepherd's usually had a display in the Fair and if not, the  store had a place for Fair visitors to sit and rest in nice comfortable chairs with  music playing in the background and a sign that read, "Sponsored by  Shepherd's Hardware Ltd."  Other towns within the province had a "theme". This was when the towns  would put a new look on the buildings. In Armstrong a western theme was picked in the late 1960s and all the stores put western fronts on their buildings.  Also, once a year the people of Armstrong would sponsor the Arabian Encampment horse show at the fair grounds. This is when most of the store owners  in Armstrong and their employees would dress up in Arabian costumes and tur- 139  bans and color their faces brown. Shepherd's was extremely popular for participating in this event.  In 1972, while Shepherd's was where Downtown Realty is, Mr. Charlie  Shepherd sold the store to Dennis Melvin and his partners Harry Earl, and his  two brothers, Brent and Dale Melvin.  In the year 1977, the store changed locations to where you see it now, on  the corner of Mill Street and Railway Avenue. At this time the store was a part  of Link Hardware which was a chain of hardware stores that spread all across  Alberta and British Columbia. Now, the store belongs to the Canada-wide  organization called Home Hardware. The hardware store has employed many  people over the years, but the most employees that were ever employed at one  time was 32 people.  Shepherd's Hardware deserves the reputation it has for great service to the  community of Armstrong over the last 62 years. We are proud to have such an  historic business in Armstrong and hope that it will thrive for many more years  to come.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interview with Charlie Shepherd on January 17, 1987.  Phone interview with Dennis Melvin on February 17, 1987.  First Annual College/University Student  Historical Essay Contest  (sponsored by Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society)  First Prize Essay  FORBES GEORGE VERNON  LOSES THE PROVINCIAL ELECTION OF 1894  by Susan Steinke  The provincial election in British Columbia in 1894 was a watershed election in the North Okanagan. Forbes George Vernon, the Chief Commissioner  of Lands and Works (CCLW), one of the most powerful politicians in British  Columbia, was a fifteen year veteran of the legislature and in his capacity as  CCLW, controlled all public works projects as well as the dispensation of all  crown land. Despite his advantages, or perhaps because of them, this prominent  cabinet minister lost at the polls in the constituency of East Yale on July 19,  1894. To understand Vernon's defeat, an examination must be made not only  of his activities as a large cattle rancher, businessman, and politician in the  North Okanagan, but also of the political climate, both locally and provincially,  that affected the electorate's perception of the man. 140  Forbes George Vernon, born into an "old and illustrious"1 Irish family,  emigrated to British Columbia in 1863 at the age of 20 with his brother Charles,  and friend Captain Charles Houghton. The three were originally engaged in  gold mining in the Cherry Creek area near present day Cherryville. In 1864 the  Vernon brothers pre-empted land in the Coldstream Valley while Houghton applied for a military grant in the same vicinity. The Vernons gave up their  original pre-emptions in 1866 and all three pre-empted land in Priest's Valley  (Okanagan Landing area). In 1871, Houghton received approval of his military  grant and moved to the Coldstream and four years later the Vernons and  Houghton exchanged properties.2 Having given up their pre-emptions in  Priest's Valley the Vernons were both eligible to pre-empt land again. By 1879,  with a joint holding of 3,070 acres, the Vernons were one of the largest landowning families in the interior.3 Forbes bought out his brother, Charles, in 1882  and, beginning in 1883, several years after land was first available for sale, Vernon increased his holdings to 13,261 acres to become one of the largest landowners in the province.4  In 1875, Forbes George Vernon was elected M.L.A. for Yale East. His appointment a year later to the post of CCLW made him, next to the premier, the  most powerful cabinet minister in the government and the senior mainland  representative Robert Cail writes:  He found himself responsible for such diverse matters as roads,  bridges, government buildings, water rights, drainage and irrigation  works, maps and surveys and government lands — agricultural,  timber, mineral and coal.5  The CCLW, in control of land sales and grants for the entire province, was considered by colleagues and settlers alike to be a "high and mighty individual."6  The Elliot government was defeated in 1878, although Vernon himself was  easily re-elected.7 After four years as member of the opposition, Vernon chose  not to run in the election of 1882. Because this four year absence from politics  from 1882 to 1886 coincided with the period of Vernon's major land acquisition  it precluded any conflict of interest charges which would have arisen had he  been Land Commissioner. When he returned to politics four years later, he was  again easily elected8 and re-appointed as CCLW. He held this position for a further eight years under Premiers William Smithe, A. E. B. Davie, John Robson,  and Theodore Davie, until his defeat at the polls in 1894. During his political  career, Vernon lived primarily in Victoria while retaining absentee ownership  of the Coldstream Ranch.  1 The Daily Colonist, Victoria, B.C. 21 January 1911  2 Based on a speech by Margaret A. Ormsby at Okanagan College, Vernon Campus, 26 March  1986.  3 Margaret A. Ormsby, ed., A Pioneer Gentlewoman in British Columbia. (Vancouver: University of  British Columbia Press) p. 174.  4 Duane Thomson,  "History of the Okanagan: Indians and Whites in the Settlement Era  1860-1920." (unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1985) pp. 281-284.  5 Robert E. Cail, Land, Man, and the Law, (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press) p.  50.  6 Ibid., p. 44.  7 The Daily Courier, Victoria, B.C. 30 May 1878.  8 Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, B.C. 15July 1886. 141  It was during the early 1880s when Vernon and other ranchers enlarged  their landholdings substantially that the North Okanagan first felt changes that  irreversibly altered its population and economy. In 1882, the construction of the  western portion of the Canadian Pacific Railway began and railway crews in the  Thompson-Shuswap area provided a ready market for North Okanagan cattle  and agricultural products. Once the line was completed in 1885 and steamboats  connected the mainline to Enderby, the Okanagan Valley was no longer considered isolated and its population swelled. Prospective settlers were anxious to  purchase land and share in the prosperity that the transcontinental railway promised. Much of the bottomland in Okanagan Valley, however, was already occupied by Vernon and others. Large tracts of prime agricultural land were no  longer available; a landholding oligopoly controlled access to all major bottomland in the area.9 Consequently, newcomers were forced to settle on  marginal land, such as could be found on the Commonage and in Trinity  Valley. Because of this lack of viable agricultural land in the North Okanagan in  the 1880s, the incoming settlers felt resentment and dissatisfaction toward Vernon and other large landowners who monopolized the best land. A common  sentiment among the North Okanagan residents at this time was that:  the prosperity of the Valley had been held up by Forbes Vernon who  had refused to dispose of any of Coldstream land in small parcels.10  As a prominent landholder and political figure, Vernon was involved in the  promotion and development of the North Okanagan. As the major shareholder,  he helped finance the building of the first C.P.R. spur in British Columbia, the  Shuswap and Okanagan (S & O) Railway, from the mainline at Sicamous to  Okanagan Landing.11 This new transportation link with the coast and with the  rest of Canada was to provide the single greatest impetus to population growth  and economic development throughout the Okanagan Valley.12 Once the construction of the S&O Railway had begun in 1890, Forbes Vernon and Vancouver real estate promoter, G. G. McKay, formed the Okanagan Land &  Development Company. They purchased Amos deLorier's property and laid  out the townsite of Vernon. To develop their property they built two large  hotels, the Coldstream and the Kalamalka; installed a system of water works;  and founded the Vernon News.13  The land company placed full page advertisements in newspapers throughout the province, publicizing the town and issuing lots for sale. Due to this  publicity and the completion of the S&O Railway in 1892, settlers poured into  the North Okanagan, all wanting a share of this prosperous valley.14 Forty new  In the North Okanagan, land was occupied by C. O'Keefe and T. Greenhow on Otter Creek  and Swan Lake; by F. S. Barnard on B.X. Creek; and by E. J. Tronson, C. Houghton, and L.  Girouard on Vernon Creek. See Thompson, pp. 253-257.  Mary Kitcher, "Coldstream Ranch Goes Back One Hundred Years," Twenty-second Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, (1963), p. 119.  Ormsby, Gentlewoman, p. 174.  C. W. Holliday, The Valley of Youth, (Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers Ltd.). p. 256.  Margaret A. Ormsby, "A Study of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia," (unpublished MA.  thesis, University of British Columbia, 1931) p. 81.  C. W. Holliday, Valley of Youth, p. 180. 142  businesses were incorporated in Vernon between 1891 and 1895.15 Between  1882 and 1894 the number of white males of voting age increased tenfold.16  Land purchased for one dollar an acre five years before was now worth $60 an  acre.17 The North Okanagan was indeed experiencing an unprecedented boom  and Forbes George Vernon was perhaps the major beneficiary.  The electorate that went to the polls in 1894 and defeated Vernon, the  wealthiest landowner and the most prominent promoter in their midst, was  completely different in character and number from the electorate of the 1870s  and 1880s. By 1894 the region was linked by rail to the C.P.R. mainline. Population pressure on agricultural land that was first evident in the 1880s was greatly  magnified, as was the feeling of dissatisfaction toward the landholding oligopoly,  still in place.  The final tally for the East Yale election on July 12, 1894, was Graham:  417, Vernon: 403.18 Though Vernon's loss was by the slimmest of margins, the  fact that such a reversal occurred at all came as a shock to everyone in the province. A breakdown of the returns of each poll (Appendix A) reveals that Vernon was defeated in the most developed areas of the riding although he retained  the support of the most isolated regions. The majority of voters in Armstrong,  Vernon, Benvoulin and Kelowna voted against him.19 In his home poll he lost  by a 15 per cent margin. It was in Armstrong, the newest centre of population,  the "child of the S&O Railway", where Vernon suffered huge losses. The  character of Armstrong settlement following the building of the railway has been  described as:  a simple hard-working farm village ... its people were less sophisticated and more industrious than those of Vernon or Kelowna. It was  built by industry, for no wealthy people came here and no government  money was expended.20  The railway had given settlers along its route, such as those in Armstrong,  a feeling of self-sufficiency. With the railway's promises of greater economic opportunity came also a feeling of diminished dependency on Victoria. It was in  the outlying regions, in fact, where people were still highly dependent upon  government road building schemes that Vernon topped the polls. He won handily in the most isolated polls, particularly in the "lower country" from Trout  Creek south to the border. Here he received double the votes of his opponent,  Donald Graham. A similarly isolated area which relied on government public  works projects was the White Valley/Blue Springs region east of Vernon. Forbes  Vernon took these ridings by the same overwhelming margin he took the "lower  country." Despite a record of fifteen successful years as a legislator, ten of those  as CCLW, despite the backing of a wealthy establishment, including the press,  and despite his efforts at building the railway, Vernon did not receive the confidence of the majority of voters in East Yale.  Edna Oram and John Shephard, Ninety Years of Vernon, (Vernon: Greater Vernon Board of  Museum and Art Gallery) p. 12.  B.C. Voters' List: Okanagan region of Yale riding, 1882. Copy in Vernon Museum.  Vernon News, Vernon, B.C. 20 August 1891.  Vernon News, 26 July 1894.  See Appendix A.  C. W. Holliday, Valley of Youth, p. 263. 143  There were numerous reasons for Vernon's election defeat. Among these  were several local scandals that brought Vernon's integrity into question at election time. Not only were his business dealings under scrutiny, but his potential  conflict of interest as a government official and as a landholder and businessman  were being examined. Three years prior to the election, Vernon had been involved in a scandal regarding the illegal shipping of grain on the S&O  Railroad. Just before the railway was officially operational, three flat cars loaded  with grain shipments from the Coldstream Ranch were shipped to Sicamous  without any freight charges being levied. This infuriated the other grain farmers  who felt such favoritism was not only morally wrong, but also provided unfair  economic advantage to the Coldstream Ranch. When the alleged impropriety  was brought before the public during the campaign of 1894, Vernon claimed  that it was the work of his manager, E. H. Wood, and that he knew nothing  about it.21  Another scandal occurred in 1891 when Vernon sold the Coldstream  Ranch to Lord Aberdeen who was to become Governor General of Canada a  year later. Shortly after the sale of the ranch a dispute arose between Vernon  and Aberdeen regarding the number of cattle which were part of the agreement  of sale, the state of the fences22 on the ranch and the purported availability of  hay.23 Due to the conflict, Aberdeen refused final payment to Vernon until the  quarrel could be settled. In July of 1894, Vernon's integrity over the sale of his  ranch was still in question and the fact that his dispute was with the Governor  General, a most prestigious and popular figure, did nothing to enhance Vernon's credibility. It was only in the weeks following Vernon's defeat at the polls  that a final settlement was reached, with Vernon accepting $5,000 less than the  original selling price.24  It was not only Vernon's reputation that was damaged by the Coldstream  Ranch dispute; the integrity of Vernon's ranch manager, E. H. Wood, was called  into question. Aberdeen's principal secretary, G. A. Jamieson, in a memo to the  Governor General, clearly blamed Wood for misrepresenting the hay supply.  Furthermore, he suggested that it was Wood who had unexpectedly removed  most of the ranch house furniture before the Aberdeens took possession. In  Jamieson's opinion, Wood was "unscrupulous" and showed a "thorough want  of principle".25 The manager's reputation undoubtedly reflected on the ranch  owner  Apart from the S&O Railway scandal and the ranch conflict, Mr. Vernon's reputation was called into question because of his position as CCLW. His  opponents were angered by what they considered unfair campaign practices of  promising public works projects to win votes. In an election speech Donald  Graham stated:  21 Donald Graham, "The Okanagan: Reminiscences of Donald Graham", (Archives of British  Columbia), p. 17.  22 Margaret A. Ormsby, "Pre-Emption Claims in Okanagan", Sixth Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society, (1935), p. 183.  23 G. A. Jamieson to Lord Aberdeen, memo, Aberdeen Papers, Provincial Archives of British Columbia, 1891.  24 Ormsby, "Pre-Emption Claims", p. 183.  25 Ibid. 144  During his recent trip through the lower country, Mr. Vernon had  promised to build over 150 miles of road there; the recorder's office  had been promised to three different localities — in fact, the voters  were promised anything and everything they asked in order to gain  their support.26  Not only did the electorate see political benefits accruing to Vernon from  his position as CCLW, they also identified two separate instances in which he  gained personally from his influential cabinet post. Firstly, his opponents questioned public funds being "lavishly used in building roads to the townsite of  Okanagan Falls, where Vernon was at one time [financially] interested."27  Secondly, as CCLW he made and interpreted the rules regarding land transactions, and it was perceived that Vernon and his associates had unfair advantages  in their personal land dealings.28 Although Vernon was absent from politics during the period of his major land acquisition (1882-1886), he was CCLW both  before and after. Vernon and some other fortunate landowners profited from  land transactions in 1885 when they managed to purchase land for one dollar an  acre, although legislation the year before had raised the price to $2.50. This was  possible because their applications were being processed at the time of the  change in legislation. Consequently, Vernon was able to purchase 4,739 acres  for $4,739 rather than the new inflated price of $11,848.29 In the mind of the  electorate this remarkable personal monetary gain confirmed that Vernon was  not above abusing his government influence.  There is no doubt that the local scandals and insinuations harmed Vernon's campaign. What was also instrumental in his defeat was the valid perception of much of the electorate that he was more allied to the propertied elite in  Victoria than he was to the pioneers in the Interior. He was never able to disassociate himself from a government considered unsympathetic to mainland  concerns and extravagant in its spending. The Legislative Assembly in the  1890s was "composed of businessmen and large property holders who had prospered during the days of railway construction."30 In 1883, the government in  Victoria had introduced land grant incentives for railway companies building  new lines. Ultimately it was the legislators themselves, their relatives, and their  prominent business associates who acquired the majority of the grants, and  thereby monopolized vast amounts of public land, including valuable mineral  and timber rights.31 The provincial election of 1894 was, in fact, fought primarily on the issue of such railway grants. Due to a province-wide depression,32 the  denunciation of the government's unpopular 'give-away' land policy was  mounting in opposition ranks.33  Vernon News, 12 July 1894.  Ibid.  Ibid.  Cail, Land. Man, and the Law, p. 37.  Ormsby, B.C.: A History, p. 304.  Ibid., p. 307.  Ibid.  Cail, Land, Man, and the Law, p. 155. 145  The most controversial railway scheme of all was the Canadian Western  Central Railway. Its incorporation in 1889 and its subsequent government subsidy represented "the height of the land grant spree"34 in British Columbia.  The company's promoters, including Charles Vernon (F. G. Vernon's brother)  and F. S. Barnard (F. G. Vernon's business associate), received a "princely  grant" to build a trans-provincial railway line. Fourteen million acres of B.C.'s  public land was pledged, despite scandalously few specifications regarding terminal sites or completion dates.35 To explain the unusual treatment this scheme  received, R. E. Cail, in Land, Man, and the Law, suggested that "it is significant  that each of the [promoters] seems to have been on intimate terms with [Premier  A.E.B.] Davie himself."36 By 1894, five years after its incorporation, the Canadian Western Railway had not begun construction, but it was still very much on  the mind of the populace. A very unpopular proposal, epitomizing government  favoritism and extravagance as the province was moving into an economic  depression, 'Canada West' was denounced loudly by opposition candidates  through the province.37  In the East Yale District, the 'Canada West' issue magnified Vernon's  connections with the wealthy governing elite. At the outset of the election campaign, Vernon was quoted by the Vernon News as condemning in the most emphatic terms, the "Great Western Humbug."38 During the course of the campaign, communication was severed between the coast and the Interior for two  weeks when the Fraser Valley experienced a severe flood. When telegraph service was finally restored, Mr. Vernon found he was speaking at odds with the  Premier and other government members; they had been strongly defending the  unpopular railway scam.39 Vernon then revised his position with a letter to the  editor of the Vernon News.w In his attempt to steer the middle course between a  skeptical electorate and government policy, Vernon offered a weak statement  that he would vote on the matter as his constituents wished.  The Canadian Western Railway scheme was not the only railway charter  that surfaced in controversy in 1894. A Royal Commission had been appointed  to investigate the Nakusp and Slocan Railway because of lavish completion  bonuses. Premier Theodore Davie himself was charged with impropriety  regarding potential profiteering upon completion of the railway line.41 A Royal  Commission had exonerated the government and the Premier by election time  but it must have appeared to the general populace as nothing more than an official white-wash. In Mr. Graham's words:  The Royal Commission . . . turned out to be a mere farce, as the  ministers of the government, while preparing their own indictment on  their own lines, prepared also their own defence.42  The building of new legislative buildings in Victoria were cause for two further charges against the government. Although British Columbia was over two  Ibid. 35    Ibid. 36    Ibid., p. 156.  Vernon News, 26 July 1894.  Ibid., 31 May 1894.  Graham, "The Okanagan", p. 17.  Vernon News, 12 June 1894.  S. W. Jackman, Portrait of the Premiers, (Vancouver: Evergreen Press), p.  Vernon News, 17 June 1894. 146  million dollars in debt in 1894,43 Premier Davie's government had begun construction of the buildings and the spiralling cost of the "marble palace" was hotly debated during the campaign. Extravagance was an important issue of this  debate, but more important was the 'mainland' versus 'island' issue. Main-  landers had long wanted the capital and the permanent structures would "anchor the capital" forever to the island.  Mainland residents not only desired the provincial capital, but they were  also anxious to obtain fair representation in the legislature. Although a recent  redistribution bill increased mainland representation, the mainland still received  only 19 seats to the island's 14. Regions like East Yale were still greatly under-  represented relative to ridings on Vancouver Island and sparsely populated  ridings in northern British Columbia. The resentment of these under-represented areas towards the controlling Victoria metropolis was aptly expressed by  a local resident: "the local politics [were] summed up in roads and bridges and  opposition to the Island which through its capital, Victoria, [ruled] the mainland  very unfairly."44  It was Donald Graham, a politically inexperienced Spallumcheen farmer,  who beat Vernon at the polls in 1894. Graham, a Scot, was an attractive alternative to the powerful incumbent; he was respected for his diligence, honesty and  championing of farmers' rights. He had pre-empted in the Lansdowne area of  Spallumcheen in 1876 growing wheat on his 320 acre farm. In the late 1880s he  took a leading role in attempting to improve conditions for Okanagan Valley  farmers;45 he spearheaded a petition in 1886 for an improved road to get wheat  to the C.P.R. terminal at Sicamous; he helped form an agricultural society in  1888 which was to be the voice of the farmers in the Okanagan; and he attempted in 1889 to petition the provincial government to incorporate the Spallumcheen Valley into a municipality which marked the beginning of a three-year  battle with the Victoria bureaucracy.46 Graham and his fellow North Okanagan  farmers wanted to gain more control of their community, to end the Victoria  metropolis manipulation of the electorate by controlling the dispersal of public  funds to the hinterland. When Spallumcheen was finally declared a municipality  in 1892, Graham was elected Reeve.  In May 1894, Forbes Vernon, the East Yale incumbent, travelled from  Victoria, his home of twenty years, to campaign for re-election in the Interior.  His home riding was greatly changed, both in character and in number since his  last successful election in 1890.47 The new electorate questioned Vernon's integrity because of local scandals; they suspected that Vernon had used his position as CCLW for personal gain. They doubted his interest in local affairs,  perceiving him instead as a member of the controlling elite in Victoria. After fifteen years of local politics, the people of East Yale voted for change.  Martin Robin, The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province: 1871-1933, (Toronto: McLelland and  Stewart Ltd.), p. 67.  Charles Mair, personal letter in possession of Duane Thomson, 22 May 1893.  Jim Wardrop, "Donald Graham: Pioneer, Politician and Co-Operator", Forty-fourth Report of  the Okanagan Historical Society, (1980), p. 20.  Ibid.  Inland Sentinel, Kamloops, B.C. 28June 1890. APPENDIX A  Final Election results for East Yale district  as published in The Vernon News, July 26, 1894  147  Po  lling Place  1  Mara  2  Enderby  3  Deep Creek  4  Armstrong  5  Okanagan  6  Vernon  7  White Valley  8  Blue Springs  9  Kelowna  10  Benvoulin  11  Trout Creek  12  Penticton "lower country  13  Fairview  14  Keremeos  15  Osoyoos  16  Camp McKinney  17  Boundary Creek  18  Kettle River  19  Rock Creek  TOTALS  rnon  Grana  15  6  44  30  7  7  26  99  10  12  93  124  43  17  5  2  11  26  33  35  13  3  12  4  13  9  12  6  6  1  31  8  9  12  11  14  8  2  404  417  Group in Victoria 1894 — Left to right: Colonel Baker (Cranbrook), Lord Aberdeen, his daughter.  Lady Marjorie, his son, Archie, Lady Aberdeen, Lt. Gov. Edgar Dewdney, Mrs. Baker, Mrs.  Dewdney, Miss Allison, Dewdney's aide-de-camp. 148  BOOK REVIEWS  THE JOURNAL OF LADY ABERDEEN  The Okanagan Valley in the Nineties  Annotated and edited by R. M. Middleton  Reviewed by Elaine Dickson  Thanks go to Robert Middleton for making readily accessible to us these  interesting excerpts from Lady Aberdeen's Journal, the original of which rests  in the Public Archives of Canada in Ottawa. Herein we are given vivid observations on pioneer life in the Okanagan Valley in the 1890s as seen from the  perspective of a remarkable woman.  What a zest for new experiences she conveys to us in her writings! That early  period in the west's development provided little cosseting even for aristocrats  such as Lord and Lady Aberdeen. However, the very primitiveness encountered  in their visits to this valley seems to have been a welcome change from the formalities of living at the family seat in Scotland or later, in state in Ottawa. While  never shirking the responsibilities of their position, they quite obviously enjoyed  the unpretentiousness of ranch life, the proximity to nature, the riding and  walking, as well as the visits with neighbours at both their properties — the  Guisachan at Okanagan Mission and the Coldstream Ranch near Vernon.  The description of a late-night, moonlit trip by small boat from Okanagan  Landing to the Mission followed by a two-mile walk to their ranch is filled with  joie de vivre and good humour.  A later journal entry tells us of a visit to the Coldstream in the fall and early  December of 1896. The temperature dropped well below zero and the living  room of the ranch house with its many doors and windows was far from being  snug. Lord Aberdeen took up this challenge to their comfort and became the  self-appointed "general attendant to the stoves" which required constant refueling. He was, at this time, serving as Governor General of Canada and the  humour of this juxtaposition of roles was appreciated by our narrator.  Mr. Middleton, himself a descendant of a Scottish couple who were persuaded by the Aberdeens to settle in the Coldstream district, rounds out the picture of the people and the period with comments and quotes from other pertinent source material.  For the reader, Lord and Lady Aberdeen emerge clearly with all their  energy, enthusiasm, generosity of spirit, and genuine caring for their fellow-  man. Through their active participation in events and causes, they made a  noteworthy contribution to the beneficial development and settlement of the  Okanagan Valley.  A good selection of turn-of-the-century photographs complements the text  of the book. 149  THE OKANAGAN BRIGADE TRAIL,  CENTRAL AND NORTH OKANAGAN  A Field Guide to the Remaining Sections of the Trail  by Roberta Holt, Alfred Jahnke and Peter Tassie  (Published with the assistance of the British Columbia Heritage Trust  Vernon Branch Okanagan Historical Society 1986)  Reviewed by H. R. Hatfield  The three Okanagan historians responsible for the publication of this  Guide deserve much credit not only for their careful research on the trail and in  the records but for going to the trouble involved in the detail of publishing and  getting the well deserved backing of the Heritage Trust.  The foreword and narration are logical, historically correct and interestingly written. Each section of surviving trail is well described. With the very good  plans, interested people will have no trouble finding them. The illustrations are  nicely chosen though somehow the reproductions are not as sharp in some as  one could wish.  Doing this review gives me the chance to make some random remarks  regarding this Brigade Trail and its successor. There was an alternate route up  Bear (Lambly) Creek then northward by Stocks Meadow and back to the main  trail in the Fintry area. Mr. David Falconer, one of our O.H.S. historians has  noted that mention of this has not been made in earlier accounts of the trail. He  explains that this bypass was used when weather conditions made the main trail  bad, probably at Mauvais Rocher.  I note with satisfaction the authors' slight confusion over the use of  Okanagan and Okanogan. It always bothers me which to use where. The Chief  Factor's hat always bothers me a bit. It does not seem a very practical headgear  for the trail. I feel sure that Governor Simpson's would be donned when approaching a post but otherwise be in a hat box in the baggage.  And now for the easiest part of any review, a little nit picking on someone  else's work, even though the nits are often there due to printers, gremlins and  etceteras. The map on p. 3 seems to show Ft. Kamloops on the North Thompson rather than at the confluence of the North and South Rivers, and the trail  below the border up the west side of the Okanagan River, though the main and  generally used one was on the east side. Colvile was generally referred to as Ft.  Colvile though other early posts in the area were indeed called "houses". The  word "new" in the second to last line on p. 5 has leap-frogged ahead. The line  must have been meant to read, " — a new post for his company — ".  Fort Colvile (p. 7) was named for Andrew Colvile, Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in London. The spelling Colville came into use in later  years especially by the Americans. In HBC official correspondence it was still  Colvile in 1865 but even their people on the ground were by then using Colville.  The initials of our O.H.S. member Bob Harris, mentioned on p. 9, are R.O  Incidentally he did the maps of the Okanagan Brigade Trail in the 39th Report.  It is admittedly difficult to untangle the story of the trails used by the fur  trade subsequent to 1846, but a bit more explanation could have been given on  p. 8. It is true that the last brigade with furs from New Caledonia and Thompsons River headed for the Columbia and Ft. Vancouver, came down the  Okanagan Brigade Trail in 1847. However a brigade from Ft. Colvile came up 150  it in 1848 to join the others at Kamloops. The three brigades then went together  by the Nicola country to Spuzzum and Yale and down the Fraser to Ft. Langley  and returned inland by that route. The next year the same procedure was used  for the outward trip. But the route proved so difficult that coming inward the  brigade left the Fraser at Hope and used a newly explored way via Tulameen.  That year of 1849 the Ft. Colvile party may well have gone down the Similkameen on their return trip. If not in 1849, it very soon did both go and come that  way. The Hope-Tulameen Brigade Trail was used until 1860 or '61 when the  Dewdney Trail was made. So it is likely that the last fur brigade to use the  Okanagan Brigade Trail was that from Ft. Colvile headed north in 1849.  This excellent booklet has inspired R. C. (Bob) Harris and Peter Tassie  and myself to attempt a similar description of the southern portion of the trail  between Westside and the border. Whether a booklet or an article aiming for the  1988 Report is not yet decided.  AN AFFECTIONATE LOOK AT KALEDEN'S PIONEER FAMILIES  Compiled by Ron King and Ray Findlay, printed by White Lake Art  Works,  a project of the Kaleden Recreational Commission  Reviewed by J. W.  On June 7 and 8, 1986 Kaleden's pioneer families were honoured by the  community. Events culminated with the installation of a plaque on the Hotel  Site naming 20 families. Seventeen fifth-generation Kaledenites were present at  the ceremony.  The book is an account of each of those early families, telling where each  came from and when, tracing the descendents, naming those whom family  members married. (One regrets that Audrey King's maiden name, Browne,  was misspelled.) Marriages between members of first families implies a close-  knit community, a community in which the pioneer forebearers saw Kaleden  "not merely as a place to make a buck, but a place to make a home, a place to  leave to their children and grandchildren just a bit better than they found it."  The book is well written and neatly, although unpretentiously, put  together. As the title suggests the tone is affectionate but never sentimental. The  run seems to have been a small one. We hope that at least a few copies have  been deposited in some public place such as the Penticton Museum as there is  material here which would be of use to an historical researcher. 151  AN EARLY HISTORY OF COLDSTREAM AND LAVINGTON  by Anne Person  Reviewed by David F. B. Kinloch  Anne Pearson, the author, must certainly be congratulated for her fortitude  and determination in producing this record of the Coldstream and Lavington  districts, and of the pioneer families who settled them and were responsible for  development of these once primarily agricultural communities.  This book represents a labour of love on the part of the author for the place  in which she was born and in which she spent her childhood. She has done a  great deal of research into the beginnings of the Coldstream and Lavington  areas, and she also paints a nostaligic picture of life there in the early days, the  1900s, the '20s and '30s based chiefly on stories heard from her family and  many "old-timer" friends. Her book is lavishly illustrated with priceless  photographs of pioneer residents, their homes and ways of life, their farms and  orchards, their equipment, and their various modes of transportation. The pictorial record alone is worth the price of the book.  This book should prove of great interest, particularly to anyone who has  recently settled in the area and who may wish to know something of its origins,  and the backgrounds of the early settlers. At least, they would discover why  there are roads named Cunliffe, Howe, Kidston, Kinloch, Postill and Ormsby,  and many others. Also there is information on many local institutions past and  present, such as the Coldstream Ranch, Vernon Preparatory School, the Irrigation and Water Districts, the Country Club and the Hunt Club.  In my opinion, more time should have been devoted to proofreading and  editing, as there are several errors which might irritate some who were part of  the past. For example: Old-time residents Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Sunderland  became Sutherland in the caption under a group photograph; L. R. Kent  (should have been L. A. C) in the text becomes L. R. Kent under the picture of  his house. Also the 9th Armoured Regiment (British Columbia Dragoons)  fought World War 2 in TANKS, not armoured cars. And who left the final "e"  off Gillespie?  In deference to her descendants who still live in Summerland and Penticton, I should point out that the bride in the well-known Marjoribanks wedding  picture — now hanging in our Municipal Hall — was NOT Kathleen Nichols,  but her younger sister Lily, who was married to Alan Agur of Summerland, at  Invercraig on June 30, 1914.  Most of the above-noted errors would be recognized by only a few of us  nowadays and should in no way be allowed to detract from the value and enjoyment of this very readable book, which deserves a place in the libraries of all  residents of Coldstream and Lavington. 152  TALES & REMINISCENCES  FIRST PICTURE OF OKANAGAN MISSION CHURCH  by Michael F. Painter  Photograph of watercolour painting which was made on an old blank postcard. Ink handwriting on  the reverse of the postcard reads: "Okanagan Mission Church. View of the East End. Dec. 1910."  (First Service in the church was Feb.  1911.) Photo courtesy of M. F. Painter, Dec. 1986  Seventy-seven years ago an unidentified artist with the initials "M.T."  made a small watercolour painting of St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission. It must have been the first picture of this, the oldest existing Anglican  Church in the Kelowna District, because the painting is dated December 1910,  two months before the first service. The little painting then went on a journey  that finished up, three quarters of a century later, in San Bernardino, California! But more of that later.  Primrose Upton's "A History of St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission", published in 1961, has been used for historical data. I would refer those  interested to this excellent book by one to whom we are indebted for preserving  a great deal of Okanagan Mission history before her far too early passing. The  book, incidentally, contains a 1971 photograph by Nancy Burns that must have  been taken from the exact spot where the unknown artist painted the first  picture.  In September, 1909, after a service in the old schoolhouse on the Swamp  Road, a group of Okanagan Mission residents discussed the possibility of  building a church. A canvass obtained donations from some fifty people — 153  nearly all the residents of Okanagan Mission at the time — plus contributions  from friends in England. The final cost of the church was $2,020.70, a lot of  money in those days. The land was donated by J. H. Baillie. Mr. W. Shand  and his son built the church. A $2.50 bill, dated October 22, 1910, for gilding  the cross on the belfry indicates that the church was substantially erected by then.  Another bill on January 14, 1911, for finishing the pews, suggests that work was  still going on in the interior when this watercolour painting was made. The first  vestry meeting took place on January 25, 1911, and the first service, with the  Reverend T. Greene officiating, was held on February 19, 1911.  The scene the artist saw has changed considerably since 1910. The church  itself is the same, except for a small extension to the vestry, but the view of  Boucherie Mountain in the background is hidden by cottonwood trees which  grew up on the banks of Sawmill Creek where it flows on the right side of the  church in the picture. The lake peeping through the trees to the left of the  church in the painting is also hidden by trees and dozens of houses which have  been built where the background woods once stood. A large new church stands  where the fir trees shown on the left of the picture once grew. The "A" fence, a  common style in those days, is long gone. The cemetery, one of the few in the  province adjacent to a church, now covers the foreground where the picture  shows stumps and, on the right, a large cottonwood tree. The names of most of  those who contributed to the building of the church can be found on the  headstones.  Who was the artist, "M.T."?  There weren't many people in Okanagan Mission in those days. The 1911  list of subscribers to the church includes the following whose names began with  "T": F. D. Taylor, W. M. Thomson, J. S. Thomson, Mrs. G. Thompson, J.  H. Thompson and F. Thornloe. I knew most of these people when I was a small  boy, but I can't recall amongst them or their families one who used a first name  beginning with "M". W. M. Thomson used the first name Wilbur. Primrose  Upton's mother, the first schoolteacher in Okanagan Mission was Dorothea  M. Thomson before her marriage to W. D. Walker, but she didn't use her middle name. There is a record of a Canon G. Thompson taking services in the early days, and a Reverend and Mrs. J. H. Townsend donated fittings to the  church in 1911. Possibly one of their wives had the initial " M " ?  This little church has many connections for me. My parents were married  there in 1925, just a month after the Okanagan Historical Society was founded.  I was christened in it in 1928, by the Reverend Greene, who had held the first  service seventeen years earlier. Amongst my earliest memories is the sound of  the church bell, faint across the mile to our house, calling the congregation to  worship. My mother, ninety-five at this writing, has been a member of the  Church Guild since its first meeting in 1926. At some of the services, she and I  were the only congregation while so many were away during the 1939-1945 war.  Dad worked tirelessly for the church since his arrival in Okanagan Mission in  1922, as Warden and in many other capacities, and now rests in the cemetery  beside it. I was an altar boy in it and also laid out the extension to the cemetery  where I have reserved a plot for my final rest.  With so many ties to the church, I was intrigued to read the following item  in a 1986 auction catalogue of a postcard and stamp dealer, Ted Woodward of  Cougar Stamps in San Bernardino, California: 154  "Unused P/C — Pict Okanagan Mission Church  (Indian) Dec 1910 — Painted in water colors  (I think) very nice —."  Not being quite sure what it was (especially the "Indian" which is, of  course, incorrect), I put in a modest bid by mail from my Vancouver home. In  due course I was notified that I was the successful bidder and received the painting. I was delighted to find that it was, indeed, the church that I had known for  so long and even more pleased when, on checking Primrose Upton's book, I  realized it must be its very first picture.  The original is a 3 J4 inch by 5 Y% inch postcard with the painting on the  blank side. On the reverse, which is a printed postcard For The British Isles Only,  in rather faded script is:. "Okanagan Mission Church. View of the East End.  Dec. 1910."  I wrote to the California dealer to see if I could trace how this little card  found its way so far from home. Ted, the dealer, wrote back a nice letter but  had to admit, "Unfortunately that card was purchased over a year ago at a  similar P/C bourse (40-50 dealers) and I do not know from whom it came. In all  probability if I did know he wouldn't have the slightest idea of where it came  from." Ted went on to say it might possibly have been one of the Victoria, B.C.  dealers, but so far I have not found any who have any recollection of the  painting.  And so the trail has grown faint over the decades. I don't suppose we'll  learn who painted the picture or where it has spent the last seventy-seven years.  I have, however, given it to St. Andrew's Church, together with a colour  enlargement, so it is once again amongst friends.  Old St. Andrews Church with new church built 1986-87 beside it.  irtesv Nancy Burns 155  FLOWING WITH MILK AND HONEY  by Sheila Paynter  In 1926 Henry Paynter cleared ten acres of wild land covered with pine  trees and rocks and planted his first orchard. It seemed rural and isolated, one  mile from Westbank's store and post office. In the next twenty years he planted  more acreage and formed a partnership with Art Johnson. At the same time he  worked in the local packinghouse, kept bees and, from 1932 until 1942 was  employed as a Dominion Fruit Inspector. He also served as secretary of the  Westbank Irrigation District.  During the 1940s Johnson and Paynter bought a pioneer hay farm from  Allan Davidson at Shannon Lake. When Henry and his partner came back to  the Okanagan after service in the R.C.A.F. during World War II they took up  farming again.  Henry married the author, Sheila MacKay, formerly of Peachland, and  this is a bit of the story of our family farm, including our six children: Geoffrey,  Gillian, Farlie, Henry Jr., David and Allison.  We grew cherries, apricots, peaches, plums, pears and apples and, after the  Hope-Princeton Highway opened in 1949, we sold baskets of fruit by the side of  the road in front of our house. On our hay farm at Shannon Lake we grew acres  of potatoes and tomatoes as well as alfalfa hay.  In 1951 we were still suffering from the effects of the bad freeze of 1949 so  we diversified by buying some cattle. Henry's sister, Edwina Paynter, had acquired the brand W/P (W slash P) and we applied this to a variety of breeds until we settled into raising pure bred Polled Herefords. We bought our first cows  from Billy Coldham in Trepanier and then tried Black Angus from .Harry  Hayes in Armstrong followed by the Beau Mode bloodline of Polled Herefords  of Les Robson and Son of Deleau, Manitoba and finally Gold Emblem stock  from Karl and Margaret Freding in Princeton.  Paynter's cattle ranching differed from cowboy legends as much as a  Kawasaki 175 from a good cutting-horse. When we fall-pastured our cattle on  Mrs. Abel's land on Indian Reserve Number Ten our sons rounded them up  with motorcycles and a 1959 green Volkswagen bug. Every fall we had troubles  when our cows brought themselves down from our McDougall Creek range. We  were never quite ready for them. Sometimes we'd be trying to get the Mcintosh  apples picked or else we would be in the middle of digging and sacking potatoes.  The route they took down Bartley Road was getting more urbanized. Our lead  cows and bulls didn't understand that their old familiar trails were now turned  into backyards and gardens. After some protesting phone calls from Joe Subu  and his neighbours we yielded to progress, built a holding corral and trucked  them home.  Henry and I have seen many changes in orchards practice — bins instead  of boxes, sprinklers in place of ditches, and Girettes replacing ladders. In the  1950s our small children helped run our fruit stand and we had a successful  "Serve Yourself sign complete with a Ceylon Tea caddy for customers to put  their money in. At the same time we began a "Pick your own fruit" operation  that we still maintain today. Henry is a Master Beekeeper and his bees  pollinated the fruit blossoms and gave us honey into the bargain. The cattle pro- 156  vided us with meat and dollars when other crops failed, plus a good layer of  manure to nourish the trees in our orchards.  In the 47th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society Paddy Clerke,  D.V.M. tells of his first Caesarian section operation on a cow.1 It was a story  with a happy ending. We had to call him with a similar problem in February  1962. By the time we phoned for help we had the choice of an operation to save  our heifer and perhaps the calf or to do nothing and lose them both. Not much  choice, really. So Paddy started the operation down in our loose-box stall with  one dusty, dangling light bulb. Unfortunately he found the calf dead but he sewed  the mother, Superbe 5 R, together again with one hundred and fifty stitches and  advised us to keep her warm and quiet. We left her bedded down in the loose-  box surrounded by bales of hay to protect her from any draughts.  Henry, himself, had been feeling more and more unwell all afternoon and  had a chill from working without his shirt on during the operation. Dr. Peter  Huitema came after supper and said "bronchitis" and "bed rest". So I was the  one who hurried out to the barn at daybreak to report on our other patient.  As I started down the barn steps I saw that the loose-box and the outer  barn doors were broken off and open. Most of the beef herd were milling around  inside, cleaning up the last of the protective bales of alfalfa. Where was Superbe?  As I stumbled off the last step I could see our invalid outside lying on the frozen  manure with a light skiff of snow on her back and flanks. She was chewing her  cud. Chewing her cud! I felt a surge of relief. "Come on Superbe. Up you go"  and I put her back inside and chased the others out.  1    Okanagan Historical Society, 47th Report^ Bold Incision, by Paddy Clerke, p. 149.  Henry Sr. milking Candy, 1983. 157  Henry was still in bed and waiting anxiously for a report. "How is she?"  "She's chewing her cud," I said and didn't tell him the whole story until he was  well again. Superbe survived her rough convalescence and gave us many fine  calves in years to come.  Henry has another hobby, apart from bee-keeping. It is the sport of badminton. It helps keep him fit for his farm work and vice versa. When he was  seventy-four he won a Men's Singles title in San Diego in the over-seventies.  Last autumn he had a hard choice to make. Henry found Candy, our milk  cow, choking on an apple. Henry Jr. was nearby and they tried to crush the apple with external pressure. No luck. Henry Jr. wanted to reach down her throat  but as he is a badminton player too, his father didn't want him to damage his  arm. Jr. ran for a telephone consultation with Dr. Rob Parmenter who suggested using a length of garden hose. No luck with this method either — the  hose went soft and buckled. Candy went down and was almost out.  It was time for drastic action. Henry Jr. shoved his right arm far down her  throat and was feeling around for the lodged apple. Henry Sr. was terribly  alarmed. "That's your badminton arm. That's your badminton arm", he kept  saying. Henry Jr. pushed the apple past the choke point, retracted his arm safely  and his father sighed with relief. Both were saved, the valuable cow who is  almost one of the family and the precious arm needed for badminton tournaments.  A few years before we sold our Polled Herefords we had been scrambling  for good summer range. Our approach and release sections of the McDougall  Creek watershed were badly over-grazed. Our licence to graze one hundred  head was controlled by the Department of Lands and Forestry. Officers of this  department kept advising and warning us of these conditions. We knew it  already. It was like telling the cook the soup is too salty. We, like the cook, were  the first to know.  We tried to remedy this by using a more northerly approach to the range  area. Our sons cut a steep trail parallel to Sweid Creek, trucked the cattle to  Johnson's crossing up Bear Creek Road and started to drive them towards  Porter's Dam, forty-five hundred feet above Lake Okanagan.  The first problem was to keep them high enough on the mountain so they  wouldn't drift into Mike Tutt's range. One son would motorcycle the twelve  miles from home each morning and drive stragglers up the path. After repeating  this for a few days the men decided to move our camper onto the site of the old  Porter homestead and have someone there for daily herding. We hoped that the  cattle would soon be persuaded to accept this new way of arriving at their usual  summer range. I took the initial shift and my first night alone in the camper was  tranquil. I could imagine what it was like to be a pioneer in this country and I  slept to the sound of rustling poplar leaves and the steady rush of Sweid Creek.  As I swung the camper door open in the morning, I found the whole herd,  all ninety of them, bedded down in the meadow around me. I stirred them up,  shouted, threw rocks and waved a branch of Saskatoon bush at them. They  moved reluctantly up the trail with Gold Emblem, our ponderous herd bull, in  the rear.  This was the time and place for a trained cattle dog but Henry and I  thought of ourselves as fruit growers with cattle as a sideline. Our Airedale dogs 158  seemed to end up being chased at the gallop by mother cows who had calves so  it was less trouble to leave the dogs at home.  The second morning was the same. There was the herd at the foot of the  mountain prepared to spend the day overgrazing their new range.  I yelled at them, "Hup, Hup, Hup". Gold Emblem was less anxious than  ever to tackle the steep trail, but I moved them as far as their first salt blocks,  confident that I was in control. They disappeared into the bush and stayed out  of sight all day. But the third morning I found Goldie and some of the cows  down again. This time Goldie refused to budge. He rolled red eyes at me and  thrashed his tail back and forth. I was the one who yielded, backed away.  I stood behind a stump for safety, gave up, no longer useful, and walked  dejectedly down the Westside road as far as Davidsons. Doris gave me breakfast  and sympathy and Jock gave me a ride home. My family laughed when they  greeted me. Someone said, "Why didn't you get an enormous stick and beat old  Goldie over his backside? Then he'd have moved." My sons overestimate my  talents.  Geoffrey (left) and David (right) with cattle truck.  We have another spin-off due to the fact that we are in mixed farming. It is  strictly non-profit but has become part of our lives every spring. Kindergarten  classes from School District 23 come to visit our farm in small groups. Parents  come too and are equally thrilled to see a working farm. Many Okanagan  residents have farm backgrounds from the prairies and other parts of Canada  and they enjoy that rich mixture of sounds and smells again.  Henry has had to cut corners on expenses all his working life and our farm  buildings have been put together with whatever was available. We're used to  them, but to people with city backgrounds it must look like a hay-wire outfit. 159  The five-year-olds love it. Henry has demonstrated that milk comes warm and  foaming from a cow's udder into a bucket and not from cold plastic containers  in supermarkets. He's always willing to show visitors the mysteries of a beehive, but most people are more comfortable with the observation hive in our liv-  ingroom than the ones lined up outdoors.  Visiting children are allowed to feed the chickens that range in the orchard  along with peacocks and guinea fowl.  Geoffrey has lifted baby calves out of the corral and the children are able to  see them close up, pet them, and wonder at the fact that cows don't have upper  teeth. Farlie has lowered his Girette basket that he stands in when he is pruning  and describes how and why he is cutting branches off a tree. David has been  known to give motorcycle rides and he and Henry Jr. tour carefully around the  orchard with a trailer load of happy children bumping behind a Massey-  Ferguson tractor.  Our daughters Gillian and Allison, granddaughter Chandra and daughters-  in-law Pat, Laurie and Suzanne have helped to round up rabbits and to lear our  young visitors around on a horseback ride. When the Dutch clover is in blossom  underfoot and the apple trees in bloom overhead it's a satisfying day at the farm  for all of us.  "What an imagination my daughter has," a mother told the local  kindergarten teacher. "Imagine. She said she rode Mr. Paynter's big bull  yesterday." "I had to tell her it was true," Maureen Esson reported. "You  should have seen her face." Henry Jr. was responsible. He'll put anyone who is  willing, up on an animal. He himself is the lightweight, light-footed one who can  run across the backs of thirty cows while they have their heads down feeding at  the mangers.  While I was showing our horse corral to a class from Lakeview Heights ten  years ago, I was carrying on at great length about our future plans. "Next year  we'll have peeled and treated logs instead of barbed wire. Next year we'll have  a proper gate instead of binder-twine. Peter Reid, a father who came with the  group, cut me off. "Come on, Sheila. That's just farmer talk." Peter, maybe  you were right.  Subdivisions surround us in the 1980s. Some of our new neighbours who  help themselves to fruit when it is ripe are the same ones who complain about  the noise of cows and calves at weaning time and the smell of manure spread on  the land in spring.  Sixty years after starting to grow fruit in Westbank, Henry is still keen.  Statistics Canada (1981) ranks B.C. with the Maritimes in having the least  arable land in Canada. In that year B.C. had 20,000 farms. Who knows how  many there are today. You have to enjoy the lifestyle and keep an optimistic  outlook.  At the time of writing we've sold our herd of Herefords. From now on, our  farm at the corner of Paynter Road and Highway 97 South should be quieter  and less rustic. We plan to have a streamlined fruit stall and orchard business  and even a tidy yard. Or is that just some more fanciful 'farmer talk'? 160  \\  Otatf.    fr  Sketch by Joan Greenwood  ANOTHER LITTLE NEIL STORY  by Harley Hatfield  One autumn evening my father met Little Neil near the junction of Main  and Westminster Avenue. The junction was monitored by the "silent policeman", a discarded hot water tank topped with a light in a square glass box.  As they chatted, small clouds of gnats floated by and dad remarked that  sometimes in the duck blinds at Vaseux Lake such a one passing close to the  eyes could for a second be mistaken for a flight of birds.  Neil agreed, "Yes, that's right — one time hunting grouse with Frenchman — going up valley — after while valley divided — small hill in middle.  Decided one go up each side — if one fired other one go over — pretty soon I  heard him shoot — started over — he fired again — came up to him and said,  'What you shootin' at?' 'Grouse up there in tree.' I looked up in tree —  couldn't see any grouse — looked at him again — louse on eyelash — he'd fired  at it twice!" 161  THE MINERVA CLUB  by Peggy Adair Landon  In November of 1908, six or seven women of the Spallumcheen district met  at the home of Mrs. Annie Jackson to form a club which has existed right down  to the present. Armstrong in 1908 was a rapidly growing village not due for incorporation until 1913. We may assume that it had yet to see many signs of  culture and that the ladies probably felt that a Shakespeare club would be a fine  start in that direction. According to the minutes, the group, initially calling  themselves the Women's Club, elected the following officers: President, Mrs.  Annie Jackson; Vice-president, Mrs. Kate Wood; Secretary, Miss Annie Van  Kleeck; Treasurer, Mrs. Emma Moberly. It was decided to meet every other  Saturday to study Shakespeare beginning with the play As You Like It. Fifteen  minutes of each meeting were devoted to the discussion of current events. The  president then appointed a Rules Committee: Mrs. Morgan, Mrs. Munro,  Miss Van Kleeck; and a Program Committee: Mrs. Ranks, Mrs. Wood, Miss  Gass. after tea was served, the meeting adjourned to meet at the home of Mrs.  Hawkins on November 28, 1908.  At the November 28 meeting the Rules Committee submitted a Constitution drawn up in surprisingly legal language. (I believe that Miss Annie Van  Kleeck was secretary in her brother Bruce's law office. Another brother, Peter,  was the well loved Dr. Van Kleeck in the Armstrong of that period.) The  meeting accepted the Constitution unanimously and each member affixed her  signature. The Charter Members were as follows:  Mrs. Annie Jackson Mrs. Emma Morley  Miss Helen Gass Mrs. Lizzie Munro  Mrs. Alice Hawkins Mrs. Emily Pelly  Miss Laura McKinnon Mrs. Grace Ranks  Mrs. Emily Moberley Miss Annie Van Kleeck  Mrs. Eliza Morgan Mrs. Kate Wood  (Note: Miss Helen Gass later married W. J. Smith. Their son, ex-Mayor John  B. Smith, familiarly known as "Jack", with his wife Joan still resides in Armstrong. When she died in 1953 Mrs. W.J. Smith had been a valued member of  the Minerva Club for forty-five years. She was the last of the Charter Members  to remain active.)  Some of the rules accepted in 1908 were as follows: the club was to be called  the Minerva Club and have as its motto "Sapere Aude"; each member must  sign the Constitution at her first meeting; membership was to be limited to  twelve; eligible for membership was any woman over eighteen who would promise to do the work of the club faithfully to the best of her ability; all applications had to be presented by a member at least one meeting before the admission  and one negative vote would be sufficient to bar from membership; entrance fee  was set at 25 cents and yearly dues at 60 cents, payable monthly; meetings were  to be held at 2:30 o'clock on alternate Saturdays, beginning in November.  When called upon to report at the November 28 meeting, the Program  Committee submitted several ideas which after discussion were unanimously  adopted. First the club chose the owl as its symbol and pink and green as its colours. Second, it was decided to purchase pins of a suitable design. The president  appointed Mrs. Ranks, Mrs. Munro and Mrs. Hawkins to attend to this mat- 162  ter. Several months later it was recorded that the pins had arrived but no further  mention of pins is made in the minutes. I expect that the project proved too difficult to continue. There being no more business, the club proceeded with the  program for the day. Mrs. Ranks spoke on "Trouble in India", Mrs. Hawkins  on "Problems of Unemployment", Mrs. Jackson on "Roosevelt's Hunting  Trip", Miss Gass on "Effects of Constitutional Government in Turkey." These  topics were enjoyed and discussed. Next, the character parts of the play As You  Like It were assigned and the first regular meeting of the Minerva Club adjourned  to meet December 12 at the home of Mrs. Grace Ranks.  It is not surprising that the Minerva Club has made changes through the  years. October rather than November has become the opening month of the  year. During the First World War the annual dues were changed to 50 cents and  have remained at that figure to the present. The rule of Article HI(3) of the Bylaws which forbade members to discuss the business of the club with non-  members and which suggested that the Minervas were rather exclusive has  fallen into disuse. Maybe the rule drew the ladies of that day more closely  together. Certainly the fact that a "no" vote could be exercised when considering a new member insured that the membership was composed of kindred  spirits. At any rate, a club that has been meeting continuously for seventy-odd  years must have avoided pitfalls to which groups of this kind are prone.  The purposes of both instruction and amusement have been well carried  out. Dear knows how often Shakespeare's plays, historic, tragic and comic, have  been read, reread, studied seriously, and just enjoyed by different groups of  Minerva Club Members, 1941-42. (Left to right) Mrs. Hamilton, Mrs. Purslow, Mrs. Eccelstone,  Mrs. W. J. Smith, Mrs. Murison, Mrs. Keevil and Mrs. Calbick. Missing members: Mrs. Evans,  Mrs. Hassen, Mrs. Jenkinson, Mrs. John Murray and Mrs. Ted Poole.  Photo courtesy Peggy Landon and Armstrong Museum 163  twelve. In 1950 Sheridan's play The Rivals was included in the program, an experiment which was so successful that modern authors, old and new, have  become another source of enjoyment. The discussion of current events continues  but is now limited to two or three sessions a year. The response to the roll-call is  a quotation from a famous writer or, at times, an original attempt (usually  hilarious).  In both 1908 and 1909 a December meeting was designated "The Holiday  Meeting", its sole purpose being amusement. In 1910 this special meeting was  named "The Frivolity" and as such has been celebrated every year since. Frivolities have taken the form of spelling bees, charades, picnics, parodies, or dinner on the town with a show or party to follow.  When the Minerva Club arrived at its fiftieth birthday in November 1958,  the members decided to mark the day by reading the minutes written in 1908.  In 1962 it was officially decided to ask the secretary to read the fifty-year-old  minutes at every meeting from then on. When members realized that 1987  marked the Club's seventy-ninth year they decided to include the minutes of  seventy-five years ago in their order of business. If this goes on one wonders if  the Minervas are destined for immortality!  THE KELOWNA SHAKESPEARE CLUB  by May Clarke  The Kelowna Shakespeare Club came into being in November 1931, in  response to a need felt by Mrs. Fred Day, Mrs. J. A. S. Tilley and Mrs. George  Balfour, to fill the void caused by the dissolution of a reading club in which they  had been members. At a preliminary meeting in the home of Mrs. Balfour, it  was decided that Mrs. Tilley should write to the Library Commission in Victoria, asking for a list of books available for the study of Shakespeare, and that,  in the meantime, each of the three should find one other lady interested in  becoming a member of the group.  In January 1932, the first meeting was held and a course of study decided  upon. Present were Mrs. F. Day, Mrs. J. A. S. Tilley, Mrs. G. Balfour, Mrs.  M. Greer, Mrs. S. M. Simpson and Mrs. F. McWilliams. At the final meeting  of their first season held on April 23rd, the anniversary of Shakespeare's birthday, plans were made for the first full season to commence in September. It was  decided to ask others interested in the Club to join, but membership to be  limited to twelve, this number being considered sufficient for the casting of  plays, and a "comfortable" number to be accommodated by the average  livingroom!  The group is unique in the fact that it has never had a charter nor has it  levied membership dues, preferring to function as a private group under the  guiding hand of a "Convenor", a role that has been taken by each member in  turn on a yearly basis. The first members laid down one or two guidelines for  the smooth functioning of the group and these have been followed faithfully and  to good effect through the years; e.g. "a new member may be suggested to fill  the gap caused by the retirement or death of an existing member", also, "if a  suggested member attends for two or three meetings then finds that other in- 164  terests or occupations cause her to miss more than three consecutive meetings,  then she is no longer considered to be a member of the Shakespeare Club." (Illness or travelling excepted, of course!)  Meetings were to be alternate Wednesday afternoons to enable those who  worked during the week to take advantage of the city half-holiday. For a short  time a second Shakespeare Club, a splinter group of the first, met on the alternate Wednesdays but, unfortunately, this group did not function for long.  From the beginning the meetings followed much the same pattern. The  roll-call has been followed by the reading of two Shakespearean sonnets, chosen  in chronological order and read by a different member each time. Then comes  the reading of the chosen play. The average number of plays read in a season  has been three. A history play is usually followed with a comedy, then a tragedy  and next a comedy, but there have been exceptions made. Some of the related  histories have been read right through: e.g. King Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III.  Each member takes a turn at casting. A Casting Book, which holds, in  chronological order, copies of every play that has been read since the Club's inception, is kept up-to-date by the Convenor.  Lively discussions on the play in progress are regular features of each  meeting. One season a special study was made of Shakespeare's heroines, each  member preparing and reading a paper on her favourite heroine.  During the 1970-71 season it was decided to digress from the plays of  Shakespeare and read some of the Greek tragedies. The diversion was interesting but the members were very happy to go back to Shakespeare again!  A few years ago it was decided that the reading of the plays would be  enriched if the meeting before each play was started was devoted to presenting  background information on the play. Each member has been responsible for  finding her own contribution. The variety of information provided is a constant  source of amazement to the members!  From 1932 the annual highlights of the Shakespeare season was the  Christmas party and the April celebration of the Bard's birthday. The  Christmas event was a private dinner party held at a member's home. Small  gifts were exchanged. On these the donor's named remained anonymous but  the contents of each parcel had to be guessed. Clues were given through the  "doggerel" verse which accompanies each gift, causing much merriment  amongst the members. The birthday celebration was also an evening event and  held at one of the more "commodious" homes as each member was allowed to  invite two guests. In the earlier years the programme was quite ambitious, with  the members dividing into groups to present segments from various plays, the  actors dressed in costume and saying their lines from memory. The "Address to  the Bard" was always given at this party, the members undertaking this task in  turn each year. Notes from some of the earlier parties record such events as  Mrs. Phyllis Trenwith singing "Orpheus With His Lute", and Mr. Charles  Davis' choir boys singing Shakespearian songs.  The Roll Call has been the introduction to every party since 1935. A theme  is chosen beforehand and each member must read an appropriate quotation of  three or more lines chosen from any play or sonnet.  Since 1974, at the suggestion of Mrs. J. V. G. Graham, both Christmas  and Birthday celebrations have taken the form of luncheon parties at the  Kelowna Golf and Country Club under Mrs. Graham's sponsorship. It was 165  there on April 21, 1982 that the Club celebrated the 50th anniversary of its inception! Recent parties have been recorded on camera by Miss Rosemary  Powell and her mother Mrs. Eileen Powell, and the pictures entered in the Red  Book, the official diary of the Club.  Besides the regular Club meetings the members, through the years, have  benefited greatly from various "extra-curricular" activities. In the 1940s trips  were made to the coast to attend premier performances of Hamlet and Henry V,  and a memorable trip was made to Ashland, Oregon, in August 1952, to attend  the Shakespeare Festival productions there for one week. During the years when  both the Canadian Stratford Shakespeare Company and the U.B.C. Dramatic  Society visited Kelowna, the Kelowna Shakespeare Club attended the performances as a group, and felt it keenly when the tours were discontinued. In  August 1971, those members who could, travelled to Vancouver to attend the  Shakespearian Seminar held at U.B.C. for a week, a marvellous experience.  In the summer of 1984 the Shakespeare Club was thrilled to be the recipient of Mrs. Blanche Simpson's personal Shakespearian Library, donated to us  by her daughter, Mrs. Rhoda Moss. During her life Mrs. Simpson was always  most generous in making her books available to the members at any time and  this gift brought with it a sense of old friends returning.  On April 4th, 1985, the Club members met at "Dixcot", in East Kelowna,  the home of members, Mrs. J. V.G. Graham, her daughter Mrs. Eileen Powell,  and granddaughter Miss Rosemary Powell for a very felicitous occasion, the  90th birthday of founding member, Mrs. Fred Day. A special guest at the party  was a former Club member, Mrs. Robin Bennett, of Ottawa.  Naturally, in fifty-four years of activity the Shakespeare Club has experienced many changes in its membership. It is difficult now to name each  member singly, but suffice to say that each and every one has contributed much  to the Club and helped to build the strong bond that holds the group together today. Today we particularly remember those members who have died in the last  eight years: Louella Balfour (d. February 1978), Margaret Dun-Waters (d.  November 1980), Blanche M. Simpson (d. January 1981), Elsie Hillian (d.  December 1984), and Sibeil Maude-Roxby (d. September 1985).  On our present roll are Bea Chapin, May Clarke, J. Day, Alice dePfyffer,  Babs Graham, Marguerite Hocking, Eileen Powell, Rosemary Powell, Bernice  Reid, and Frances Treadgold.  Miranda Oh wonder!  How many goodly creatures are there here!  How beauteous mankind is! Oh, brave new world,  That has such people in 't!  Prospero 'Tis new to thee.  from The Tempest 166  LITTLE NEIL SHEEP HERDING  As remembered by Allan Roadhouse and Harley Hatfield  A typical old timer Little Neil followed many and various occupations.  "One time was herding bunch of sheep — on the bench between Penticton  and Summerland — warm weather so had a little tent — moved often so just  kept grub in one corner — one morning just getting little bit daylight heard  something close by — set up — kept very quiet — pretty soon could see it was a  bear reaching in for the bacon — grabbed him by the paw — pulled him right  into the tent — most sheepish looking bear you ever saw.''  by Joan Greenwood 167  WHAT IS IT?  by A. M. Mabee  I saw it recently in a small restaurant — an old kitchen cabinet in use as a  decorative piece. You remember them! Many farm homes still used them in the  early 1930s.  The details varied, but the more elaborate models had glass doors in the  top section which was used for dishes. Just below this was sometimes a row of  small drawers for spices, etc. The counter was small, but sometimes the only  workspace in the kitchen, apart from the multi-purpose kitchen table. A baking  board might be slotted in just below the counter, and below it, one or two metal-  lined, tip-out bins for flour and sugar. These could be the most missed items in  a modern kitchen! Beside the bins were either a set of drawers or shelves.  How many of you remember how you couldn't wait to replace the old kitchen cabinet with built-ins all along the walls of your kitchen? I remember that  my mother's ambition was to get doors on her kitchen shelves instead of curtains. Now, it's the fashion to have your utensils on open display, just as they  are in an institutional kitchen.  Any survivors of the old cupboards are being sought out, refinished, and  put on display like the one I saw in the restaurant. 168  COMMUNITY BARN RAISINGS — 1900s STYLE  by Jim and Alice Emeny  The early 1900s saw a great influx of settlers into the west. People with ambition and courage to move their families here into the Okanagan Valley  homesteaded along the river valleys, hoping to eke out a living from the land.  By the early 1920s arable land was cleared and in production. The trees which  had been taken off were used to build homes, barns and fences. People did not  have a lot of money and, consequently, a true kindred spirit of caring about one  another developed. Having good neighbours certainly was a man's most  valuable asset; and to have good neighbours, you had to be one!  This neighbourliness was most evident at the time of "barn raisings". For  each farmer to construct a barn on his own was indeed a big undertaking. Most  of the building materials required were produced from the trees on one's own  property. A farmer would spend many months cutting down and skidding out  the logs from the bush, the skidding being done by horses. Then came the back  breaking job of hewing the timbers with an axe and shaping the beam ends as all  the beams had to be cut and rafters ready for the 'bee.'  Then, on a given day, neighbours from all around the area would assemble, with one man acting as foreman on the job. Up would go the barn in a  remarkably short time.  My uncle, Ernie Skyrme, and my father, Tom Skyrme, both helped out at  many building bees in the Grindrod area, as did the Halksworth brothers and  Barn Raising at the George Williams farm in Grindrod (May 10, 1938). Front (left to right): Joe  Dickey, Max Dangel, A. D. Stroulger, L. Stroulger, Mr. Grayston, Jack Rothwell, J. Robertson,  C. Coell, and F. Karpowich. Above: Alan Golley. Back (left to right): S. Halksworth, George  Williams, Tony Hawrys, Les Grayston, Mr. Siemens, Ed Emeny. 169  many others. In the Enderby area four Dale brothers were well known for their  expertise at raising a barn. Ernie Skyrme Jr. still has the old brace and bit  auger, used by his father to bore holes in the timbers at the corners where  wooden pegs were driven in for strength. Hewing a log was in itself a talent. The  Emeny brothers were skilled men with a broad axe.  Most barns had about four sections which were called 'bents.' The roof  rafters were generally made from peeled poles, and the roof was finished with  hand split cedar shakes made with a wooden mallet and an iron froe. Upon  completion, a track, made either of wood or steel, was suspended in the peak of  the barn upon which a carriage ran for pulling up the hay with either rope slings  or a hay fork.  Men worked hard and put in long hours at these barn raisings, their only  reward being a good home cooked meal and a feeling of worth to one's  neighbour.  Tools used in early days for raising buildings.  Photo courtesy Ernie Skyrme. 170  WE WERE ELEVEN  by Jill Salter  We were and are eleven. Seven girls and four boys. We were a small entity  all on our own with a mixture of characters to make a good cast for the stage of  that enormous stone shell, the Leir House. Today, fifty years later, the  characters are spewed and spread out but are probably closer in friendship than  they were when surrounded by ten acres of pine woods and a great stone wall.  But who were we? I'll tell you. I was much admired by my adolescent  friends because I could rattle off the names of the eleven brothers and sisters so  fast it was as though it was one long fascinating name. My friends would listen  in awe and murmur, "Say it again, Jill" and with a deep breath I would spill,  "Margery-Mary-Judy-Dick-J ill-John-Jim-Esther-Paul-Audrey-Ruth."  "Gosh," they would sigh in admiration.  But who else were we? We were unaware of it but apparently we were  rather a mystery behind that wall. The "kids" in that big stone house, and  because of bigness, "the rich kids"; then later, "the millionaire's kids" said  with a terribly embellished English accent. But why these mocking names for  merely living in a twenty-five room house where each one of us eleven had his  own bedroom complete with hand basin? Word got around that we even had a  walk-in refrigerator with sides of beef and pork hanging there; also that we  received our milk in two-gallon cans! They didn't know it was my job to wash  out those heavy milk cans every evening. I hated it! There was the mystery of  the lady who came in once a week to bake mammoth batches of bread and large  slabs of plain white cake or, for a treat, marble cake. And would you believe,  there were two dumb-waiters in the kitchen? One was for wood, for the boys to  keep filled and one for jams and good things like honey and condensed milk, to  be lowered to the cool basement for storage. Nothing too precious, mind you,  because we could "pick" down there too!  My father had had this solid gabled house built to suit his British instincts  and "to provide" and he had designed it himself. It was magnificent. As  children we were unaware of its grandeur. We thought all children in their  homes were allowed to roller skate in the complete circle of upstairs halls. We  believed all children had a weekly bake-lady to give lumps of dough to chuck  against our bedroom ceilings to try to make it stick.  We ran like wild things all summer, bare-footed till our feet were so tough  we could race swiftly over rocks. We knew every tree, clump of sage and patch  of cactus on that piece of land. Occasionally our free spirit extended beyond the  ten acres.  There are memories of my mother squeezing us into the McLaughlin-  Buick, her thank-you gift from father after their ninth baby. There are flashbacks to quiet Sunday morning drives to an exquisitely calm Okanagan Lake  and of running brown and naked on a people-less beach. Oh, the joy of clear,  clear water and brown bodies darting in the morning sun reflections!  Though Leir House has changed its pattern and become a cultural centre,  to us, the original eleven, it must always remain an enchanted world of memory  and happiness. 171  Jill John Dick  Judy  Esther  Margery  Ruth     Alisen Paul  Jim  Audrey  Leir House C.  1934. Photo courtesy ofM. Punnett 172  EATON'S CATALOGUE  by A. Waterman  Eaton's catalogue arrived, its shining coloured pages picturing items to  foster desire in young and old. It sparked hope that its contents could lead to  change and improvement. It was dream stuff.  For the first time in my ten-year-old life I was allowed to choose a store-  bought dress for Sundays and holidays. Hours were spent in agonies of indecision. Finally I chose grey flannel piped with French blue and with matching buttons. Had Marie Antoinette worn blue, French blue, to the guillotine?  Waiting for the parcel was as bad as waiting for Christmas. But the parcel  arrived and, if I unknotted the string and did not tear the paper, I might open  the parcel. Overalls, socks, shirts, underwear and stockings were thrust aside as  I lifted out the grey flannel dress with its blue piping. "Please, please, may I try  it on?"  Breathlessly I struggled out of middy and skirt and tried to pull the dress  on. Yes, the buttons were undone. Frantically I tugged at the dress but the  piped button holes and the French blue buttons were far apart.  The label said size 10. True, I was 10 going on 11. The tears spilled over as  I tried to understand why Eaton's could not know that I was big for my age.  Finally I was separated from my dream dress which was returned with a request  for a size 12.1 sobbed miserably at the delay and harboured misgivings about  ever growing into a size 12. It took less time than I expected.  Eaton's Catalogue of 1901 showed children's dresses as follows:  #7530 Dress   made   of   gingham   and   chambray  combination, colours pink, sky and navy,  trimmed with fancy braid, sizes 6, 8, 10, 12  and 14 years  $2.00  #4601 Dress made of navy blue all-wool serge, lined  throughout, trimmed with straps of silk, sizes  26, 28, 30, 33 and 36 inches long  $3.50  Customers were advised, "When ordering children's dresses, state age."  Further to the customer was the statement, "Our prices are always the  lowest at which Honest Goods can be made." 173  ERRATA AND ADDENDA  50th Report of OHS - 1985  Pages 99-101       re: The Coquihalla Sub-division essay.  As a result of further research, chiefly in Barrie Sanford's  book "McCulloch's Wonder", I should like to correct some  errors in my essay in the 50th O.H.S. Report.  Andrew McCulloch is the correct spelling of the name  of the Kettle Valley Railway's Chief Engineer.  Mr. McCulloch was born in 1864 in Lanark County,  Ontario. He graduated from the Dominion Business College,  Kingston in 1888. When he came west he found what work  he could, some of it railway construction, some of it with the  C.P.R. until on May 1, 1907 the C.P.R. promoted him to  the position of Division Engineer of Construction, Eastern  Lines. In 1910 when it was decided to build the K.V.R. he  was appointed Chief Engineer. Until he retired in 1933 after  42 years of railroading, McCulloch remained Chief Engineer,  K.V. Division.  There is little doubt that McCulloch would have been  aware of winter snow conditions in the Coquihalla from  previous surveys.  Tracy St.  Claire  Page 189 7th line from the bottom "long list of their prospective" should  read "long list of other prospective".  Page 196 Sons of the late Mrs. Mable Elizabeth Price: Ron, Jack, and  Harry. 174  WE SHALL MISS THEM  ADAM, Joyce Dallas, d. Kelowna 17 Feb. 1987. Survived by husband  Charles; son Lee; daughter Sharleen.  ADAMS, David Ernest, b. Stephenson, Michigan, 20 Dec. 1900. d. Armstrong, B.C., 5 Feb. 1987. Survived by sons: Philip Lehoux, Roger  Lehoux, Robert Lehoux, Aime Lehoux, Eugene Lehoux, Leon Lehoux,  Raymond Lehoux; daughters: Angeline Rousseau, Alice Bourgeois, Cecile  Wilcox, Jean Wickham; predeceased by wife Alma Marie Adams, 1985.  ALBRIGHT, Margaret Evelyn d. Kamloops, 2 Sept. 1986. Survived by husband Pat; son Reid; daughter Nedra.  ANDRUSKO, William Alfred, d. Kelowna, 16 Sept. 1986. Survived by son  Roy; daughter Donna Clark.  ARMSTRONG, John Demoney. b. Summerland, 1914; d. Vernon, 8 Dec.  1986. Survived by sons George and Bill; daughters Kathleen Lotzer, Irene  Armstrong, and Maureen Hatt; one brother.  ARMSTRONG, Merle Elaine, b. Kamloops 1917. d. Kelowna, 15 June 1986.  Survived by husband Jack; sons William Roy and George Sidney;  daughters Kathleen Lotzer, Beatrice Irene Armstrong, Maureen Hatt.  BALL, Bertha Tait. b. Fresno, California 1891. d. Victoria, B.C. 20 June,  1986.  BAIRD, Wesley Ernest, b. Enderby. d. Vernon, 6 June 1986. Survived by  wife Marion; daughter, Karen Ronenkamp; stepdaughters Audrey dejong  and Merla Kilburn.  BAND, Harry, b. Kelowna, 8 Dec. 1918. d. Kelowna, 18 March 1987. Survived by wife Lettie; son Martin; daughter Susan Marty.  BAUER, John M. b. Romania 1905. d. Kelowna, 3 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by  wife Margaret, 1977. Survived by sons John, Nick and Joe; daughters  Margaret Bunney and Elizabeth Billings.  BELL, (nee Damm), Christine, b. Grenfell, Sask. 30 March 1915. d. Vernon,  B.C., 1 May 1986. Survived by husband Roland; son Don Stewart;  daughter Cleo Bozsaki.  BELL-BIVAR, Ethel Marie-Louise, b. Montreal, Quebec, 15 Sept. 1892. d.  Salmon Arm, B.C., 8 March 1987. Predeceased by husband Roderick;  survived by son Roderick Gordon; daughter Valerie Patricia Elvira  Galbraith.  BENNETT, Sr., Alfred Ewart. b. Nottinghamshire, England, 17 Aug. 1910.  d. Armstrong, B.C., 9 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Edna; sons Alfred,  Douglas, Kenneth; daughter Sandra.  BERRY, Lois. d. Kelowna, B.C., 25 March 1987. Survived by brothers  Robert and Bruce.  BERRY, Gilbert, b. Vernon, B.C., 25 July 1919. d. Kelowna, B.C., 26 Nov.  1986. Survived by wife Helen.  BLACKBURN, Ethel Ella Eldridge. b. Kent, England, 14 Oct. 1904. d.  Kelowna, B.C., 15 June 1986. Predeceased by husband Bill and daughter  St. Barbe Mosher. Survived by four sons and two daughters, and many  foster children. 175  BLACKBURNE, Eliza, d. Kelowna, B.C., 12 May 1986. Predeceased by husband   Samuel  in   1980.   Survived  by  son  Ernest;   daughter  Kathleen  Mugford.  BLASCHUK, Fred Lazor. b. Romania, 7 Aug. 1905. d. Vernon, B.C., 9  Nov. 1986.  BLUMER, Elsa V. d. Kelowna, B.C., 9 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by husband  John in 1981. Survived by son Carl; daughter Yvonne Ponich.  BOBBITT, Walter P. b. Coleman, Alberta, 20 Aug. 1915. d. Penticton, B.C.  28 Sept. 1986. Survived by wife Dorothy; son William.  BORRETT,   Louise  Ellen  (Nellie),   d.   Kelowna,   B.C.,   10  Feb.   1987.  Predeceased by husband Roger in 1985. Survived by sons Alan and Hugh;  daughter Ruth Stirling.  BOYER, Cedric Moore, d. Kelowna, B.C., 3 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife  Beryl.  BROWN, Charles Henry "Harry", b. Innisfail, Alberta, 22 Nov. 1912. d.  Vernon,  B.C.,   1  Dec.   1986.  Survived by wife Jessie;  sons William,  Richard,  Lawrence,  and Dennis; daughters Janet Henley and Doris  Harrison.  BROWNE, Tryphina Gerdine. b. Toronto, Ontario 1892. d. Kelowna, B.C.,  7 June 1986. Predeceased by husband James in 1954. Survived by son Jim.  BUCKLAND, Charles Donald, b. Kelowna 1912. d. Kelowna, 7 May 1986.  Survived by wife Pamela; sons Donald and Frank.  BUTTON, Amiens Mary. b. Sintaluta, Sask., 15 May, 1920. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 2 Jan. 1987. Survived by husband Herbert James; son Gordon;  daughter Lynda Hamilton.  BUYER, Mary Pearl, b. Yorkton, Sask. 8 April 1923. d. Vancouver, B.C., 23  Feb.   1987.   Survived by husband Peter;  sons Dennis and  Nicholas;  daughters Deanna MacDonald, Caroline Saunders.  CAMPBELL, Charles Henry, b. Nepean, Ontario, 20 Jan. 1902. d. Vernon,  B.C., 28 March 1987. Survived by wife Ivy; sons Gordon and William;  daughter Joan James.  CAPE, Florence Jan. b. Staffordshire, England, 26 Dec. 1891. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 14 March 1987. Predeceased by husband in 1965. Survived by son  Vernon; daughter Vera Mason.  CARBERT, Alice Mary (May), b. Matsqui, B.C., 8 May 1896. d. Enderby,  B.C., 2 July 1986. Survived by three sons; Gordon, Maynard, Ross; two  daughters Lesley Schweb, Muriel Hoover.  CARE, Mary. b. North Dakota, U.S.A., 5 Jan. 1898. d. Vernon, B.C., 4 Dec.  1986. Predeceased by husband Peter Dyke in 1969 and son Charles. Survived by husband Les Care; sons Peter Dyke, Bob Dyke; daughters Laura  Smith and Theresa Boyd.  CARTER, Joan. d. Kelowna, B.C.,  1 May 1986. Survived by husband  Frederick; sons Vernon and Geoffrey.  CASSEL, Ella Mathilda, b. Northwest Territories, 6 April 1904. d. Vernon,  B.C., 2 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by first husband George Parker in 1937;  and second husband Earl Cassel in 1950.  Survived by sons: Wilfred  Parker, Edward Parker, Vernon Parker, Garnet Parker, Albert Cassel,  John Cassel; daughters Phyllis Roberts, Sheila Roberts and Lorraine  Dyck. 176  CICHOCHI, Adele. d. Kelowna, 10 Sept. 1986. Survived by husband Karol;  sons Erick and Robert.  CLARKE, Ilia A. d. Kelowna, 12 Feb. 1987. Survived by daughters Velma J.  Weiss and Alice M. Price.  CLAY, Chadwin Thomas, b. Pouce Coupe, B.C., 16 July 1933. d. Armstrong, B.C., 31 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Joyce; son Bradley;  daughters Jodey Bruns and Brenda Scott.  CLEMSON, Donovan, b. 27 Oct. 1907. d. Salmon Arm, B.C., 31 July 1986.  Survived by wife Doris; son Jan; daughters Griselda Stewart and Mary  Lee Hofmann.  COLLIS, Maurice (Mike) Fitzgerald, b. Shoal Lake, Manitoba, 1906. d.  Armstrong, B.C., 22 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Frances (nee Sidney);  son Dick; daughters Maureen Ingram, Barbara Collins.  CORBISHLEY, Elsie Mary. b. Saltcoates, Sask., 9 Oct. 1908. d. Penticton,  4 Oct. 1986. Survived by husband Donald; son Douglas; daughter Diana.  CORNOCK, Reg. d. Kelowna, 14 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Lelias; sons  Don, Jim; daughter Sandi St. Laurent.  COWAN, Jeanne D. d. Kelowna, B.C., 28 March 1987. Predeceased by husband Jim in 1953. Survived by daughter Maxine Wass.  CROZIER, Alfareta. b. 1893. d. Vernon, B.C., 13 Oct. 1986. Survived by son  Charles; daughters Kathleen Duddle and Norah Kidd.  CURTS, Doris Isobel. d. Kelowna, B.C., 26 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by husband Albert in 1977. Survived by daughter Lorna Hooper.  CURTS, Orval. b. Kelowna, B.C., 16 April 1907. d. Kelowna, 21 March  1987. Predeceased by wife Alice in 1986. Survived by son Walter; daughter  Carol Dillon.  DAFOE, Muriel Saffrona. b. Mossomin, Sask., 29 Nov. 1907. d. Penticton,  B.C., 18 Feb. 1986. Predeceased by husband Van R. K. Dafoe. Survived  by two daughters, Trudy Garnon-Williams and Dorothy Waycott.  DAVIS, Ernest George, b. Lashburn, Sask., 6 Aug. 1924. d. Vernon, B.C., 8  May 1986. Survived by wife Gwen (nee Rowles): and sons Glem, Dan,  Alan.  DAY, Olive, b. Seabright, Ontario, 1892. d. Kelowna, 18 July 1986.  Predeceased by husband Cameron 1954; survived by son Donald;  daughter Mary Sutherland.  DeFEHR, Henry, b. New Osterwich, Russia, 18 April 1907. d. Kelowna,  B.C. 27 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by first wife Mary (Goertzen) 1967. Survived by wife Alice; son Willard (Bert) DeFehr; daughters Hazel Rabel,  Helen Moore.  DOE, Ernest, b. Bulwell, England, 29 July 1912. d. Salmon Arm, 13 Nov.  1986. Survived by son Alan Ernest; daughter Helen Hill-Tout.  DOERFLINGER, Ethel, b. Mara, 28 July 1898. d. Enderby, 18 June 1987.  Survived by daughters Jean Woodford and Josie Doerflinger.  DONALDSON, John Ross. b. 1915. d. Kelowna, B.C., 19 April 1986. Survived by wife Jean; daughter Barbara.  DRAKE, Dorothy Elizabeth, b. Brandon, Manitoba, 17 May 1905. d.  Kelowna, B.C., 9 June 1986. Predeceased by husband Arthur in 1984.  DROUGHT, Geoffrey Arthur, d. Kelowna, B.C., 29 Aug. 1986. 177  DULIK, Martin, b. Czechoslovakia, d. Kelowna, B.C., 24 April 1987. Survived by wife Mary; sons David, Denny; daughters Doris Johnson; Diane  Fabian.  DUNLOP, Hugh Eric. b. Kelowna, B.C., 7 Nov. 1929. d. Kelowna, 19 Dec.  1986. Survived by spouse Jocelyn; son Hugh; daughters Debbie Eden,  Carol Brahnuik.  EDMUNDS, Florence Victoria, b. Ontario, 12 June 1905. d. Enderby, B.C.,  13 July 1986. Predeceased by husband, Colonel Henry Edmunds in 1986.  Survived by son Keith; daughters Mary Kirby, Hilda Grindle.  EDSTROM, Emil A. d. Kelowna, B.C., 13 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by wife  Necoline 1986. Survived by sons Edward, Earl, Lloyd, Milton, Orville.  EDSTROM, Mrs. Necoline. d. Kelowna, 30 Oct. 1986. Survived by husband  Emil; and sons Edward, Earl, Lloyd, Milton, Orville.  ENGE, Anita Julia, b. Edmonton, Alberta, 28 Dec. 1933. d. Enderby, B.C.,  14 June 1986. Survived by husband Marlow; sons Karl, Gregory and  Noel; daughter Marvel Taphorn.  EVANS, Eldred Keith, b. Kinsey, Quebec, 21 April 1907. d. Enderby, B.C.,  21 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Feme (nee Shute); son Les; daughters Norma Hlina, Doreen Olecko.  EWINGS, Thomas, d. Kelowna, 26 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Audrey; son  Michael.  FEIST, Tom. b. Kelowna, B.C. 1925. d. Penticton, B.C., 7Jan. 1987. Survived by son Tom; daughters Judy and June.  FILLMORE, Donald Clark, b. Vancouver, B.C., 1913. d. Vancouver, 20  April 1986. Survived by wife Josephine; daughters Gail Weddell, Diane  Myers.  FLEMING, Alex E. "Sam", b. Oliver, 1923. d. Vancouver. Survived by wife  Betty; son Denis; daughters Lynn Deckie, Joanne Lien, Pat Mah.  FLINTOFT, William James (Jim), d. Vancouver, 13 March 1987. Survived  by wife Ann; sons Bob, Don.  FOWLER, Peggy, b. Bradford, England, 1895. d. Kelowna, B.C., 21 Aug.  1986. Predeceased by husband Arthur in 1968. Survived by son Ray;  daughter Dorothy Marshall.  FOX, James Herbert (Jim), d. Kelowna, B.C., 10 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife  Helen; son Norman; daughter Sylvia.  FRASER, Lillian Nita. b. Renfrew, Ontario, 25 Sept. 1899. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 15Jan. 1987.  FUMERTON, Gertrude E. d. Kelowna, B.C., 31 Oct. 1986. Survived by husband Frank; son Grant; daughter Gail Johnston.  GAAL, Joseph (Joe), b. Mariaujfalu, Hungary, 25 Dec. 1925. d. Kelowna,  B.C., 25 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Arlene; sons Joseph, David;  daughter Laurie Ann.  GALLOP, William Charles, b. Victoria, B.C., 17 Dec. 1919. d. Summerland,  B.C., 26 June 1986. Survived by wife Rhoda.  GATACRE, Barry Dean. b. Vanderhoof, B.C., 7 Jan. 1963. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 18 May 1986.  GAYTON, Warren Wendell, d. Kelowna, B.C., 20 June 1986. Survived by  wife Winnifred; son Rodney. 178  GILL, James (Jim) Oswald, b. Cabri, Sask., 19 July 1920. d. Vernon, B.C.,  8 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Jean.  GILLARD, Cyril, d. Kelowna, 18 Aug. 1986. Survived by wife Nellie; sons  Don and Wayne.  GLEN, Elva Carrie, b. Carmen, Manitoba, 2 July 1920. d. Vernon, B.C., 19  Aug. 1986. Predeceased by husband Andrew Allan 1985. Survived by sons  Keith, Vernon; daughters Sharon Redli, Audrey Ringland.  GONCHIAS, Anne. b. Poland 1894. d. Armstrong, B.C., 1 Sept. 1986.  Predeceased by husband Joseph 1975 and daughter 1934. Survived by sons  John, Walter.  GRIESHEIMER, Amalja. d. Kelowna, 1 March 1987. Predeceased by husband George in 1963. Survived by son Arthur; daughters Adele Matt, Lottie Dumbrowsky.  GUIDI, Angelina, d. Kelowna, 1 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by husband Alfredo  in 1978. Survived by daughters Audrey Genovese, Mary Richards.  HALLIDAY, Sarah (Sally) Elizabeth, b. Sheffield, England, 8 Sept. 1894. d.  Terrace, B.C., 17 Aug. 1986. Predeceased by husband Harry in 1958.  Survived by daughter Betty Irwin.  HANDLEN, James Archibald (Archie), d. Kelowna, B.C., 2 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Minnie; daughters Lorraine McLarty, Wilma Newbrook.  HANET, Ewald. b. Kelowna, B.C. d. Kelowna, 27 Jan. 1987. Survived by  wife Loretta; son Darryl; daughters Anita Rau, Melanie Cayer.  HARDEN, Ellen, b. Maddock, Ontario 1882. d. Kelowna, B.C., 23 Jan.  1987. Predeceased by husband Haisted in 1967. Survived by three stepchildren John, Barbara Switner, Muriel Brook.  HARDIE-DUGGAN, Beatrice, b. Benvoulin (Kelowna), B.C., 11 May 1892.  d. Kelowna, 7 Oct. 1986. Predeceased by first husband R. Hardie and second husband F. Duggan.  HARDY, Archibald (Archie) James, b. Kelowna, B.C. 1911. d. Kelowna, 3  Aug. 1986. Predeceased by wife Nellie in 1954. Survived by sons Rick,  Bruce, Chuck; daughter Joy.  HARVEY, Helen Marjorie (Helenita). b. Guanajuato, GTO, Mexico, 16  Sept. 1916. d. Kelowna, B.C., 15 June 1986. Survived by daughters Mary  Baker, Valerie Smith.  HAYES, Maria Lucy. d. Kelowna, B.C., 20 Feb. 1987. Predeceased by husband Paul in 1945. Survived by daughters Mary Rimmer, Trudy Moser.  HEAL, Fyvie. b. Victoria 1909. d. Oliver, 8 Sept. 1986. Predeceased by husband Harold. Survived by sons Jim and George; daughters Aileen Johnson  and Patricia Carlson.  HILBORN, Hazel Jean. d. Kelowna, B.C., 18 April 1986.  HILDEBRANDT, Matilda, d. Kelowna, B.C., 22 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by  husband Adolf in 1984. Survived by sons Ernest, Walter, Albert, Fred, Irwin, Carl, Leonard; daughters Alma, Martha Penner, Ruth, Ruby,  Helen.  HOFFMAN, Carl. b. Germany, 16 March 1891. d. Vernon, 15 Feb. 1987.  Survived by nieces and nephews.  HOFFMAN, Katherine. b. 1902. d. Vernon, B.C., April 1986. Predeceased  by husband Adam in 1958. Survived by sons George, Leonard, Richard;  daughters Louise Millhouse, Eleanor Manaigre, Dolly Schweb. 179  HOLMES, Dorothy Mae. b. London, England, 23 June 1900. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 8 Dec. 1986. Predeceased by husband William John in 1978, and  daughter Dorothy in 1978. Survived by son Robert; daughters Edith  Taylor, Diane M. Sterner.  HOLMES-SMITH, Ronald, b. 1896. d. Vernon, 20 April 1986. Survived by  wife Gythe; daughters Mary Collins, Firle Inglis, June Smith.  HORNING, Joseph, d. Kelowna, 15 Dec. 1986. Predeceased by wife Mary in  1983. Survived by sons Dave, Wayne, Al; daughter Georgina.  HOVERMAN, Ernest Frederick, d. Kelowna, B.C., 11 Oct. 1986.  HUSBAND, Ralph Morris Qim). b. Vancouver, B.C., 23 Dec.  1916. d.  Enderby, B.C., 15 Oct.  1986. Survived by wife Catherine (Kay); sons  Earl, Albert, Mark.  HUSCH, Joseph Wallace, d. Kelowna, B.C., 15 Sept. 1986. Survived by wife  Josephine.  ITO, Kaoru. d. Kelowna, B.C., 9 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by wife in 1977.  Survived by sons Toshiya (Toe), Kenji (Ken), Morio; daughters Keiko  (Kay), Ernie Naito, Nancy Blackmore.  JACKSON, Bennie Arthur, d. Kelowna, B.C, 23 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by  wife Glenna Gladys in 1976. Survived by son David and daughter Betty  Perry.  JARRETT, E. Scott, d. Peace Arch Hospital, 18 Aug. 1986. Predeceased by  wife Effie in 1980.  JENNINGS, Robert John. b. Bolton, Ontario, 26 May 1904. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 26 Aug. 1986. Predeceased by wife Sadie in 1976. Survived by son  Wayne.  JONES, Annie, b. Enderby, 25 May 1891. d. Enderby, 17 May 1987. Survived by sons Dave, Arthur; daughters Nellie, Alice, Ethel.  JONES, Margaret Ann. d. Victoria, 27 April 1986. Predeceased by husband  Owen in 1964. Survived by sons Owen, Mickey, Trevor, Neville; daughter  Sylvia.  KABELLA, Stephen, d. Kelowna, B.C., 30 Oct.  1986. Survived by wife  Rose; son Stephen.  KARPOWICH, John Timothy, b. Brazil, lOJan. 1912. d. Mission, B.C., 7  Nov. 1986. Survived by three sisters, one brother.  KEEN, Emma. b. South Dakota, U.S.A., 26 Feb. 1898. d. Prince George,  B.C., 10 Sept. 1986. Predeceased by husband Bert in 1983. Survived by  son Wayne.  KEIR (nee Swanson) Frances Mary. b. Armstrong, B.C., 15 Oct. 1903. d.  Calgary, Alberta, 26 April 1986. Predeceased by husband John Arthur in  1984. Survived by daughter Claire Evans; sister Clara "Dolly" Gregory.  KELLER, Barbara, d. Kelowna, 2 Dec.   1986. Predeceased by husband  Rodney in 1954. Survived by sons Mike, Al.  KENNEY, Allen, b. 14 Jan. 1903, Langdon, North Dakota, U.S.A. d. Vancouver, B.C., 15 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Fiorina.  KEOUGH, Logan John. b. Armstrong, B.C, 1 Nov. 1979. d. Kelowna,  B.C, 4June 1986.  KIRK, Anne. d. Kelowna, B.C., 22 March 1987.  KOENIG, Victor, d. Kelowna, B.C., 3 Aug. 1986. Survived by sons George,  Robert, Victor, Jacob, Alex; daughters Margaret Jablonski, Alice Burian. 180  KORNBERGER, Anton Joseph (Tony), d. Kelowna, B.C., 29 March 1987.  Survived by wife Margaret; daughters Sandra, Alice Jean  KRONBAUER, Elizabeth, d. Vernon, B.C, 4 Sept. 1986. Predeceased by  husband Joseph in 1971. Survived by sons Christian, Joseph, Charles.  LADNER, Agnes (nee Monk), b. 1910. d. Victoria, B.C., 14 Feb. 1986.  Predeceased by husband Max. Survived by daughter Delta Saddler. (Resident of Vernon for over 65 years.)  LAMBERT, Jack. b. Calgary, Alberta, lOJune 1915. d. Penticton, B.C., 30  March, 1986. Survived by wife Hazel (nee Campbell); sons David,  Robert.  LANGSTAFF, Rose. b. 1909. d. Vernon, B.C., 8 Dec. 1985. Survived by husband John.  LINCOLN, Maurice Albert, b. 1907. d. Vernon, B.C, 13 March 1987. Survived by wife Doreen; daughters Glennis, Mavis.  LINDLEY, John Norman, b. Kelowna, B.C. 1921. d. Kelowna, 13 June  1986. Survived by wife Mary Elizabeth; sons Thomas, Andy, Louie;  daughters Betty Roxanne, Sharon.  LIPSETT, Campbell Minto. d. Kelowna, B.C., 12 Feb. 1987. Predeceased  by wife Margaret in 1985. Survived by sons Robert, Gary.  LONGLEY, Marion A. d. Vernon, B.C, 26 Oct. 1986. Predeceased by husband Roy.  MADARASH, Mary. d. Kelowna, 3 Dec. 1986. Predeceased by husband  George. Survived by sons Mike, Ted, Steve, Russell; daughters Joyce  Dovich, Pauline Bohke, Margaret McKay, Rose Shaw.  MARTEL, Coreen. b. Hamiota, Manitoba, 19 Dec. 1946. d. Armstrong,  B.C., 14 Oct. 1986. Survived by husband Maurice; sons Dallas, Darcy.  MAUNDRELL, Edna Pearl, b. Westwold, B.C. 1891. d. Victoria, B.C., 18  Nov. 1986. Predeceased by husband George during World War I. Survived by son Laurence; daughter Edna Ross.  MEIS, Clarence Henry, b. Swift Current, Sask., 23 Feb. 1914. d. Vernon,  B.C., 13 Sept. 1986. Survived by wife Ella; daughters Peggy, Kaylee.  MIDGLEY, Helen M. (Hennie). b. Witney, Oxford, England, 10 May 1902.  d. Penticton, B.C., 29 June 1986. Predeceased by husband Thomas N.  Survived by son Peter.  MIDGLEY, Thomas N. b. Bolton, Lancashire, England, 19 Aug. 1906. d.  Penticton, 22 May 1986. Survived by wife Helen (Hennie); son Peter.  MINCHIN, Ernest, b. Swan River, Manitoba, 5 Dec. 1920. d. Kelowna,  B.C., 4 Jan. 1987. Survived by wife Alice; son Kenneth; daughter Lynda.  MONFORD, Zellajane. d. Kelowna, B.C., 30 May 1986.  MORGAN, Kenneth Geoffrey, b. Whitewood, Sask., 30 Aug. 1958. d. Armstrong, B.C., 26 March 1987.  MUELLER, Fritz, b. Switzerland 1916. d. Armstrong, B.C., 4 March 1987.  Survived by sons Walter, Rudy, Werner, Fred; daughters Regina Day,  Margaret Schmidt, Susan Reimer.  MULLINS, Ruby Frances, b. Mead, Kansas, U.S.A., 3 Aug. 1910. d.  Kelowna, B.C., 27 Nov. 1986. Survived by sons Ken Moorman, Howard  Moorman; daughters Frances MacRae, Maxine Nayler, Marjorie. 181  MacDONNELL, Minnie May. b. Kelowna, B.C., 12 Dec. 1887. d. Summerland, 1 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by husband Gus in 1978. Survived by  sons George, Allan; daughters Bessie Duncan, Joy Cross, Gwen Hardie,  Phyllis Duggan.  MacKENZIE, Wilfred James, b. Thamesville, Ont. 1904. d. Kelowna, B.C,  29 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Marie; daughters Mary Turk, Janet  Rynard.  McCELVEY, James Andre, b. Kelowna, B.C., 2 April 1933. d. Kelowna, 23  Dec. 1986. Survived by wife Lila; sons Donald, David, Jason; daughters  Wendy, Jody, Tania.  McCONNELL, Walter Herbert, b. Chilliwack, B.C., 11 Nov. 1903. d. Armstrong, B.C., 15 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Muriel; son Lome; daughter  Norma Marshall.  McCORMICK, Norman Alexander, d. Kelowna, B.C., 7 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Annie; sons Allan Neil, Colin Lyall Brian.  McMILLAN, Daniel Fleming, d. Kelowna, B.C., 11 Aug. 1986. Predeceased  by wife Anette in 1980. Survived by daughter Dorothy.  McPHERSON, Alex. b. Oliver 1923. d. Kamloops, 30 May 1984. Survived by  wife Marjorie; sons Grant and Bruce; daughters Gayle and Heather.  NAUMANN, Otto. b. Germany, 18June 1901. d. Vernon, B.C., 6 Dec. 1986.  Predeceased by wife Frieda in 1952. Survived by sons Werner (Lilo), and  Wolfgang (Irmgard).  NEAVE, Mary Catherine, b. Ellison District (Kelowna) 1897. d. Kelowna,  B.C., 5 June 1986. Predeceased by husband Percy in 1933. Survived by  son Len; daughters Irma Felchle, Betty O'Keefe.  NETHERTON, Dr. (D.D.S.) Frederick James, b. Edison, Wash. U.S.A., 29  March 1895. d. Penticton, B.C., 24 Oct. 1986. Survived by sons James,  Frederick; daughter Catherine Anne Browne.  NORRIS, Joan Mary. d. Penticton, B.C., 27 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by husband Thomas G. Survived by step-sons Dr. M. F. Norris, Dr. J. Norris,  M. G. Norris.  PARKINSON, Stanley Copping, b. Hullcar, B.C., 2 Sept. 1893. d. Armstrong, B.C, 13 Jan. 1987. Survived by wife Nellis; sons Floyd, Jack;  daughter Hazel Thompson.  PEKRUL, Arthur Albert, d. Kelowna, 23 Sept. 1986. Survived by wife  Marie; sons Douglas, Brian; daughters Audrey, Nadine.  PETCH, Albert (Bert) Thomas Wesley, d. Kelowna, B.C., 3 Sept. 1986.  Predeceased by son Kenneth. Survived by wife Edna; sons Donald, James.  PETTERSON, John E. d. Kelowna, B.C, 24 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife  Irene; son John; daughters Elena Walker, Ethyl Wiggins, Irene Wiberg.  PHILPOTT, Ronald Arthur, b. Kelowna 1927. d. Kelowna, 26 June 1986.  Survived by wife Trudy; daughters Cathy, Sherry, Jean, Ronda Karen.  PHINNEY, Ethel Winnifred (nee Craze), b. Redruth, England, 24 July  1908. d. Penticton, B.C., 24 Sept. 1986. Predeceased by first husband  Aleck Gordon, second husband James Ronald Phinney. Survived by son  Patrickjames.  POOLE, Allan Walter, b. Kelowna 1914. d. Langley, B.C., 16 May 1986.  Survived by wife Kathleen and daughter Linda. 182  PORTEOUS, Hugh Aubrey, b. Gait (now Cambridge), Ont., 3 Oct. 1893. d.  Oliver, B.C., 15 Jan. 1987. Predeceased by wife Winifred Warren in 1947.  Survived by wife Aileen (nee Osborne-Smith); sons John, David; daughter  Pat Rowland.  PRICE, Rachel Calderwood. b. Scotland, 24 Dec. 1904. d. Armstrong, B.C,  12 Sept. 1986. Survived by husband Stanley, son Leonard.  PROWSE, Keith Miles, b. Kindersley, Sask., 27 Oct. 1930. d. Victoria, B.C,  22 July 1986. Survived by wife Diane; daughters Linda, Jackie.  PURDABY, Eileen, b. Armstrong, B.C., lOJune 1946. d. Enderby, B.C, 8  July 1986. Survived by husband Pat; daughter Cindy Robinson.  PURDY (nee Foulds) Nellie Irene, b. Lanceister, England 1899. d. Kelowna,  B.C., 2 Nov. 1986. Survived by husband Les; sons Stan, Hugh; daughters  Grace Bowie, Rita Newman, Noreen Loseth, Joan Sauer. Predeceased by  first husband Wilford and son Bruce.  RAINCOCK, K. V. R. b. Oliver, 26 Nov. 1922. d. Oliver, Oct. 1986. Survived by son Larry; daughter Denny.  RAMBOLD, Michael, d. Kelowna, 17 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Barbara;  sons Nick, Andy, Henry, Adam.  REED, George W. H. d. Vancouver, 13 Oct. 1986. Survived by wife Rachel  (Rae); son James; daughter Elizabeth Wilkinson.  REIERSTAD, Liva. b. Norway, 30 July 1894. d. Medicine Hat, Alberta, 1  Aug. 1986. Predeceased by husband John. Survived by son Clifford;  daughters Florence Brower, Mabel Hedley, Minnie Prouty.  REITH, Kathleen Viola, d. Vernon, 18 May 1986. Survived by husband  Dick; daughters Barbara Koeneke, Linda Mucha.  RILEY, Fred Denison. b. Outlook, Sask., 4 Dec. 1909. d. Armstrong, B.C,  2 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Helen; daughter Phyllis Penning.  RITCHIE, Cecil Edward, b. Gladstone, Manitoba, 27 May 1902. d. Oliver,  B.C., 7 Feb. 1987. Predeceased by wife Helen in 1986. Survived by son  Robert; daughter Margaret.  RITCHIE, Janet Helen, b. Girvin, Scotland, 5 May 1905. d. Summerland,  B.C, 28 Nov. 1986. Survived by husband Gordon.  ROBERTSON, John Gordon, b. Winnipeg, Manitoba, 29 June 1895. d. Summerland, B.C., 12 Sept. 1986. Survived by wife Dorothy; daughter Beryl  Denison.  ROTTACKER, Daniel, b. North Dakota, U.S.A., 16 Jan. 1899. d. Armstrong, B.C., 14Jan. 1987.  RYAN, William, (Bill) Nester. b. Abbotsford, B.C, 13 Jan. 1947. d. Armstrong, B.C, 16 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Jackie; son Bob; daughters  Colleen, Carly, Jill.  RYDER, Robert, d. Kelowna, B.C, 25 Dec. 1986. Predeceased by wife Pearl.  Survived by son Bob; daughter Betty Sperle.  SAUCIER, BEATRICE Clarissa, d. Kelowna, B.C, 27 March 1987.  Predeceased by husband Joseph in 1968.  SAUR, Elizabeth, d. Kelowna, B.C., 15 Sept. 1986. Survived by husband  Louis; son Brian. Predeceased by daughter Margaret.  SAVENKO, John. b. Castor, Alta., 17 April 1910. d. Armstrong, B.C., 17 July 1986. Survived by wife Ina; sons Terrance, John Arthur; daughter Cecil  Budzak. 183  SCHELL, Lillian Beatrice, b. Grenfell, Sask., 12 May 1891. d. Kelowna,  B.C., 17 April 1987. Predeceased by husband Willis in 1944. Survived by  son Clifford.  SEXSMITH, Randy James, d. Kelowna, B.C., 8 May 1986.  SHADLOCK, Pat. b. Vanderhoof, B.C, 2 Nov. 1931. d. Vernon, B.C., 23  Aug. 1986. Survived by husband Robert; sons Glen, Gary; daughters Sandy Kuick, Gail Whitfield.  SINCLAIR-THOMSON, Hilda, b. Kelowna, B.C. 1906. d. Kelowna, 2 Dec.  1986. Predeceased by husband William in 1984. Survived by son Terry;  daughter Wendy.  SMITH, Alice Louisa, d. Kelowna, 24 Sept. 1986. Survived by daughters  Jean Froese, Dorothy Maslenki.  SMITH, John George, b. Enderby, B.C, 10 Nov. 1927. d. Armstrong, B.C,  7 July 1986. Survived by wife Eva (nee Johnson); son Ken; daughter  Georgina Cassel.  SMITH, Percy Richard, b. Colville, Washington, U.S.A., 18 July 1910. d.  Winfield, B.C., 1 Jan. 1987. Survived by wife Eva; sons Dick, Donald.  SPARROW, Edward Andrew, b. Austin, Manitoba, 27 June 1899. d. Enderby, B.C., 17 Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Lillian (nee Morrison); sons  Ross, Hugh; step-children Bill Brash; Viola Parker.  SPEAR, Maria (Alice), d. Kelowna, B.C., 1 June 1986. Predeceased by husband William.  STEWARD, Doris Adelaide, d. Kelowna, B.C, 27 Sept. 1986. survived by  husband Joseph; sons Don Wilson, Terry Steward; daughter Gail  Pritchard.  STEWART, Charles (Charlie), b. Dufftown, Scotland, 18 Feb. 1896. d. Armstrong, B.C., 27 March 1987. Survived by wife Winifred; son James;  daughters Norma Freeman, Ann Stewart.  STEWART, Jack. b. Kelowna, B.C d. Kelowna, 19 June 1986. Survived by  wife Mary; son John.  STEWART, Dr. Richard Charles, b. Kelowna, B.C. d. Kelowna, 10 Sept.  1986.  STRANAGHAN, Walter, d. Kelowna, B.C, 23 Dec. 1986. Survived by wife  Ellen; sons Bill, Doug.  STRATTON, Mary Isobella. d. Kelowna, 8 March 1987. Predeceased by  husband William in 1971. Survived by sons Clarke, Albert, Raymond,  Bill, Warren; daughters Marion Warren, Isabella Stewart, Helen Walker,  Frances Stratton.  STUART, Kathleen Evelyn, b. Nanaimo, B.C, 24 April 1950. d. New  Westminster. B.C., 30 July 1986. Survived by husband Jim; son Roger;  daughter Dawna.  SUTHERLAND, Lillian Helen (nee Scott), b. Enderby, B.C., 8 Aug. 1911.  d. Enderby, 19 April 1987. Survived by two step-daughters Marian Atha,  Betty Anne Holland; sister Evelyn Scott.  SUZUKI, Hitoshi. d. Kelowna, 20 March 1987. Survived by son Toshiya.  SWORDY, William, (Bill), b. Kelowna, B.C 1931. d. Victoria, Australia, 10  May 1986. Survived by wife Margaret; daughter Jeannie.  TAIT, Blanche Emily, b. London, England, 13 Dec. 1903. d. Kelowna, B.C,  10 Oct. 1986. Survived by husband Samuel; sons John Roger, Alex. 184  TANAKA, Masao (Scotty). b. Japan, d. Kelowna, B.C., 16 Jan. 1987. Survived by wife Ayame Joan; son Larry; daughter Beverley Wyatt.  TINGLEY, Bedford A. (Bob), b. Middle Sackville, N.B., 18 May 1893. d.  Chilliwack, B.C., 2 Nov. 1986. Predeceased by wife Jane Elizabeth in  1979. Survived by daughter Valerie Tunbridge.  THOMAS, David, b. Calgary, Alta., 15 April 1918. d. Armstrong, B.C, 2  April 1987. Survived by wife Katherine.  TOWGOOD, Jean Love. b. Perth, Scotland, 29 May 1903. d. Summerland,  B.C., 2 July 1986. Survived by sons Arthur, James, Robert.  TRAUTMAN, Molly, d. Kelowna, B.C, 18 Sept. 1986. Survived by husband  Walter; son Ken.  TURGOOSE, Peter Carl. b. Turgoose, B.C (Saanich) 1909. d. Kelowna,  B.C, 15 April 1987. Predeceased by wife Dorothy in 1983. Survived by  son Peter; daughters Loralee Laing, Anne Grant.  TURNER, Marie Alice, b. Big Valley, Alta., 17 April 1917. d. Vernon, B.C.,  16 Jan. 1987. Survived by husband Dick; daughters Linda McClelland,  Sandra Halbert, Wendy Holms.  TWEDDLE, Haliburton (Hal), b. Santa Monica, California, U.S.A., 17 Feb.  1913. d. Penticton, B.C,  13 April 1986. Survived by wife Alice; son  Gerald; daughters Patricia Fezer, Carol Sofko, Maureen Mahony.  VAN WICKLIN, Garry Harry, b. Winfield, Alta., 2 March 1938. d. Vancouver, B.C., 14 May 1986. Survived by wife Sylvia; son Byron; daughter  Cindy.  VEALE, Reginald John (Jack), b. Clifton, England 1893. d. Vernon, B.C., 3  April 1986. Survived by wife Evangeline; sons Robert, Douglas; daughters  Joan, Nel, Bev.  VINT, Ethel Francis, b. London, England 1894. d. Kelowna, B.C, 5 April  1987.  Predeceased by husband James  1984.  Survived by son James;  daughter Jessie.  VOWLES, Ethyl Marie, d. Kamloops, B.C., 17 Oct. 1986. Predeceased by  husband Jim in 1971. Survived by sons Les, Bill, Rick; daughters Beverley  Myronuik, Doreen Zimmerman, Betty Schultz.  WALDRON, Eric Charles, b. Kelowna, B.C 1919. d. Kelowna, B.C, 11  Feb. 1987. Survived by wife Mildred; sons Brock, Bruce, Murray, Ross;  daughter Tanys.  WALLINDER, Minnie Pearl, b. Wilkie, Sask. 10 April 1909. d. Vernon,  B.C. 5 March 1987. Predeceased by husband George Melvin. Survived by  son Walter; daughter Joan Ternes.  WALTER, Gertrude, d. Kelowna, B.C., 12 Sept. 1986.  WAMBOLDT, Percy William, b. Caledonia, Nova Scotia, 25 Nov. 1905. d.  Vernon, 8 Jan. 1987. Survived by wife Beryl.  WATSON, Harold, d. Kelowna, B.C, 19 Feb. 1987.  WEEKS, Ronald Sidney, d. Kelowna, B.C., 17 June 1986. Predeceased by  wife Ruth in 1985.  WHITAKER, C. Foster, b. 23 April 1908. d. Vernon, B.C., 14 Aug. 1986.  Survived by wife Beatrice;  son Charles;  daughters Maureen Bridge,  Valerie Johnstone.  WIGHTMAN, Mable Augusta, d. Kelowna, B.C., 29 Jan. 1987. Survived by  husband Harold; sons Ross, Gary; daughter Evelyn. 185  WILSON, Isabella J. (nee Herd), b. 1898. d. Vancouver, B.C., 21 April  1987. Survived by husband Alex; son Don; daughter Barbara Broadbent.  WORSFOLD, Selina Mary. d. Kelowna, B.C., 30 March 1987. Predeceased  by husband John in 1981. Survived by sons Hugh, David, Michael.  YAMOAKA, Iwamatso (Iwa). d. Vancouver, 6 Aug. 1986. Survived by wife  Eileen; sons Robert, Roy, Brian; daughters Carol, Helen.  YEAST, Martin John. d. Kelowna, B.C, 3 Aug. 1986. Survived by wife  Freda; son Larry; daughters Clarice Weninger, Viola Weninger, Delia  Roshinsky.  A FRUIT TREE SPEAKS  It is not death, this quietude,  it 'sjust siesta time;  We drop our leaves and lift our limbs  as Autumn's days decline.  All winter long, so stark and bare,  we brave the cold and snow,  Awaiting with an eager hope  the Springtime's waking glow.  Then buds will swell and burst and bloom,  the robins, bluebirds fly;  The fruit will set and grow apace  beneath a cloudless sky.  A torrid sun flames from above,  intense and without cease;  At mid-day leaves are in a curl,  but evening brings its peace.  Now soon the days much shorter grow,  the sun has lost its sting;  The birds pursue their southward way,  then Autumn's windy fling.  Our work is done, our branches bare,  the year feels age's pain;  The cycle is completed now —  siesta time again.  B. A. Tingley BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES  OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE  of 63nd Annual Meeting  of  Okanagan Historical Society  1988  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 1, 1988  at 10 a.m.  Luncheon 12:30 P.M.  at  Sandman Inn  2130 Harvey Avenue, Kelowna  All Members are Welcome  MINUTES OF THE 62nd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  HELD IN PENTICTON  Sunday, May 3rd, 1987  President Ermie Iceton called the meeting to order at 10:15 a.m. with 63  members at the business session. A minute of silence was observed in memory  of those who had died since the last Annual Meeting.  1 NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary and agenda presented by  the chairman.  2 MINUTES of the 61st Annual Meeting as printed in the 50th Report were  adopted as corrected by deleting the second paragraph of Item 8 on page  174 ("Resolved that as a result &c") on motion by H. Powley, seconded by  H. Hatfield. 187  BUSINESS ARISING concerning By-Laws.  (a) RESOLVED that the further amendments to and revisions of By-Law  1 and By-Law 21 approved by resolution of the Executive Council the  26th day of October, 1986 be adopted as is shown on the copy of the  By-Laws of the Okanagan Historical Society which is available for inspection at this meeting. Moved by H. Weatherill, seconded by A.  Waterman, carried unanimously.  (b) SPECIAL RESOLUTION  RESOLVED that as a result of the previous deliberations of the  meeting of the 4th day of May, 1986 and of the meeting of this 3rd day  of May, 1987, the By-Laws of the Okanagan Historical Society be  amended and revised by deleting entirely the existing By-Laws and  substituting those attached hereto. Moved by H. Weatherill, seconded  by E. Lidster, carried unanimously.  CORRESPONDENCE Letter from Kawakawa Bay Historical Society in  New Zealand. See page 139 in 50th Report.  REPORTS OF OFFICERS to be printed in 51st Report and delivered by:  President      Ermie Iceton  Editor       Dorothy Zoellner for Jean Webber, absent  Secretary    Robert Marriage  Treasurer James W. Green  Audited financial statement was accepted on motion by Treasurer Green,  seconded by C. MacNaughton. Letters of appreciation will be sent to Peter  Legg (mailing labels) and Vernon Museum (membership lists). Mary Orr  expressed thanks to Mr. Green, vacating office.  BRANCH REPORTS AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES to be printed in  51st Report and delivered by:  Salmon Arm      H. Peterson for Don Byers  Armstrong-Enderby Jessie Ann Gamble  Vernon       H. Caley, Immediate Past President  Kelowna    Dorothy Zoellner  Penticton      Dave MacDonald  Oliver-Osoyoos    Harry Weatherill for E. Iceton  Pandosy Mission    Frank Pells  Index Committee    Dave MacDonald  Publicity . . .   Lucy McCormick (recommending termination of position)  Promotion Committee    M. Orr, E. Aldredge, H. Weatherill  Fairview Lots    Carleton MacNaughton, verbally  Bagnall Fund    Ron Robey, Stuart Fleming, verbally  Brigade Trail       Kelowna Branch working on this matter  MOVED by D. MacDonald, seconded by Lee Christensen that the  Reports from Branches and Special Committees be accepted. Carried.  UNFINISHED BUSINESS Nil.  NEW BUSINESS OHS Field Day sponsored by Vernon Branch will be at  Cherry Creek (gold panning) August 9th. Meet at Vernon Senior Secondary School 9:30 a.m. Bring lunch. 188  9    ELECTION   OF   OFFICERS   Nominations   Chairman   Mary   Orr  presented a full slate which was elected by acclamation:  President    Dorothy Zoellner  1st Vice-president    Bernard Webber  2nd Vice-president    William Whitehead  Secretary    Robert Marriage  Treasurer       Phyllis MacKay  Editor Jean Webber  Public Relations Director    Vacant  10 APPOINTMENT OF AUDITOR Moved by P. Legg, seconded by J. W.  Green that Lett, Trickey & Co. be re-appointed auditors. Carried.  11 COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS Moved by H. Powley, seconded  by Mrs. Holt that the complimentary resolutions follow the usual format  and include letters of appreciation to Hon. Jim Hewitt, M.L.A., Fred  King, M.P., and Vince Dantzer, M.P. Carried.  12 SETTING DATE & PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL MEETING Moved  by G. Thomson, seconded by W. Whitehead that the 63rd Annual  Meeting be held in Kelowna on the first Sunday of May, 1988. Carried.  ADJOURNMENT moved by J. A. Gamble, seconded by E. Peterson at  12:10p.m.  Note: Brief write-up of lunch meeting is being included with Editor's material  for 51st Report.  R. F. Marriage, Secretary  LUNCH AND PROGRAM  AT 62nd ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING, MAY 3rd  The singing of "O Canada" accompanied by Mrs. Pearl Betts was followed by the grace said by Hugh Cleland. Penticton Branch President Dave MacDonald introduced the head table guests. Addresses of civic welcome were offered to about 100 guests by Mayors Dorothy Whittaker of Penticton and Rita  Hermiston of Summerland.  Six Life Members present were recognized and a life membership certificate awarded to Beryl Wamboldt, unfortunately absent, and received on her  behalf by Hugh Caley. A similar award made posthumously to Jack Armstrong  was received by his son George. A special Award of Merit was presented to  David MacDonald by the immediate Past President Ermie Iceton. The winner  of this year's J.W.B. Browne/CKOV award in the Society's essay contest was  Greg Lehoux of the Len Wood School, receiving a prize of $50.  Guest speaker Al Peatt, wildlife biologist, was introduced by Phil Stannard  and thanked by Carleton MacNaughton. The Ladies Auxiliary to Branch 40  Canadian Legion served a delicious roast beef dinner. PRESIDENT'S REPORT TO THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  The past year has been a very busy one with the executive approving support to the following:  (a) a valley wide military/agriculture museum to be housed in surplus  buildings at the Summerland Research Station.  (b) an International Hiking and Bicycling Path from Brewster, Washington to Vernon, B.C.; as well as preserving the Kettle Valley  Railroad Historical Trail from Penticton to Midway.  (c) Peter Tassie's idea of publishing a book of the Okanagan Brigade  Trail from Westbank to the international border.  A Search Committee for a new Editor was formed and Bob Cowan of  Enderby will take over once he has finished the History of Enderby and got the  museum established.  Our finances were at a low ebb on Dec. 31, 1985 so a Committee for Outside Funding was formed and in December we had word of three grants —  $5,000 from Seniors Lottery, $2,500 from the B.C. Heritage Trust and $500  from the Koerner Foundation, for which we are very grateful. In March word  was received that $5,415 was approved form the New Horizon Fund to be used  in 1987 and 1988, for publishing costs.  The selling price of our books was set at $10, with no commission to the  branches, but available to commercial outlets at a cost of $9. At a final cost of  $13,654 for publication, this works out to $6,847 each with a profit of $3.16 for  the price of a membership plus the cost of other expenses each year.  Copies of Okanagan History for presentation to Life Members have been  delivered to the Branches the past three years but Branches are now expected to  bear the cost for each Life Member in their Branch. However, I am pleased to  report that a number of the Life Members pay the Branch for their book.  It is hoped to have the Society's business restricted to fewer pages in the  Report with officers, committee chairmen and Branch Presidents preparing concise reports for the Annual General Meeting.  In February, Bernard Webber agreed to become our second Vice-  President and we thank him sincerely.  A separate Memorial Fund has been established in memory of deceased  members and the funds used for special projects as approved by the Executive  Council.  The Index Committee has finalized the Index up to the 50th Report and  250 copies will be available this fall at $15.00 each.  Promotion of our excess earlier reports in storage has been considered but  much work remains to be done as the number increases each year with the leftover current reports.  Many constructive comments were made at the Workshop re our reports  on March 7 and we