Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Fifty-fourth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1990

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 Okanagan History  54th Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society  •*•$&*<'  m  JBJLi.  MttW*a«*WH^(i(5*l'VW«Ji.(>(i.«  v^  OKANAGAN  HISTORY  The fifty-fourth Report  of the  Okanagan  Historical  Society  Founded September 4, 1925  Cover  Guisachan Heritage Park  in Kelowna, May 12, 1990  Photo by Murray Mitchell  courtesy of the Okanagan Sunday  © 1990  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921241-56-9  Printed in Canada, Wayside Press Ltd., Vernon, B.C. FIFTY-FOURTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Robert Cowan  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Doris McDonald, Oliver and Osoyoos  Betty Bork, Penticton  Art Strandquist, Kelowna  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  Lorna Carter, Armstrong and Enderby  Florence Farmer, Salmon Arm  Membership  The recipient of this Fifty-fourth Report is entitled to register his or her membership in  the Fifty-fifth Report which will be issued November 1, 1991.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this  book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the Parent  Body (Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3), from Branches of the OHS and from most museums  and book stores in the Okanagan Valley.  For availability and prices of back numbers see the order form on insert. Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1990-1991  PRESIDENT  Bernard Webber  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  Robert dePfyffer  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Jessie Ann Gamble  SECRETARY  Ermie Iceton  TREASURER  Libby Tassie  PAST PRESIDENT  Dorothy Zoellner  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Carleton MacNaughton, Harry Weatherill  Penticton: David MacDonald, Mary Orr  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson  Vernon: Lucy McCormick  Armstrong-Enderby: Bob Cowan, Jim Sharman  Salmon Arm: Florence Farmer, Elmer Peterson, Hubert Peterson  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Frank Pells (Pandosy Mission)  Peter Tassie (Brigade Trail)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Don Weatherill, Frank Pells, Ron Robey,  Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber Contents  Current Events  The Grand Opening and History of Guisachan Heritage Park  byR. HughMcLarty  7  The Marquess of Aberdeen's Visit to the Coldstream Ranch  by Beryl Wamboldt  15  The Burrowing Owl Project by MelissaD. Graf  18  The Seymour Arm School by Alice Hucul  21  Historical Papers  The 1882 Visit by the Marquis of Lome by Ken Mather  24  Early Shuswap Lake Boats and People by Roland A. famieson  30  The Salmon Arm Foreshore: A Recent History by Frank Kime  37  The Enderby Coal Mines, 1904-1932 by Art Powell  42  A History of the Agriculture Canada Research Station,  Summerland, B.C. by Dr. D. V. Fisher  49  A History of Television in the Okanagan by Mike Roberts  59  North Enderby Community Clubs by Sylvia Carlton  68  The Penticton Post Office: The 100th Anniversary by Ed Aldredge  73  Letters and Diaries  Okanagan Indians Non-Registered: The Reason Why  by James H. Christie. Introduction by Robert de Pfyffer  77  Dredging at Summerland: Joe McDonald's Daily Journal for  January 1916. Introduction by Robert Cowan  92  Reminiscences  The Kelowna Milk Delivery by William f. Whitehead  97  Armstrong Oxy-Hydrogen Plant by Doug Kermode  101  Okanagan Landing Community Hall Project by Alan Hill  109  A Mail Boat on Okanagan Lake byfohnA. Kitson  115  The Similkameen Ice Tunnel by BobMacRae  118  Early Days of Osoyoos Golf by Douglas P. Fraser  120  The Thatch Roofed House by Herman Gummel  123  An Osoyoos Wedding Shower-1934 by Dorothy Fraser  126  Oliver's First School by Elma Fairweather Lyons  128  Biographies  The Clement Brothers by Ettie Adam  130  Byron McDonald by Gertrudefohnston  133  Lewis James Botting: Falkland's First Teacher by Donald W. Ferguson  135  The Kinghorn and Finlayson Families byfean Harris  137  Havelock Leroy (Lockie) Lantz by Marion Baird  139  Joe Biollo by David MacDonald  142 May Bennett, 1897-1989 by Anita Tozer  145  Bertha Sadie Tweedy, 1903-1989 by Rhonda Rohatynchuk  147  ATribute to Peggy Driver by Dorothy Fraser  149  Irene Olson of Salmon Arm by Florence Farmer  150  A Tribute to Ivan Edgar Phillips, 1897-1989 by Mary Gartrell Orr  151  Ogopogo  An Ogopogo Tale by Alice Fraser  152  The Story of the Ogopogo by Frank Buckland  154  Student Essays  Introduction  161  Enderby's Chinese Population by Allison Glanfield  162  The Western Theme of Armstrong by Lisa Cucheron, Cheryl Kempner,  Regena Rohrer, andFlora Ware  167  Book Reviews  Write it on Your Heart; the Epic World of an Okanagan Indian  byfean Webber  172  McCulloch's Wonder: The Story of the Kettle Valley Railway and  Exploring the Kettle Valley Railway by Bob Cowan  174  Shuswap Chronicles by Bonnie McDonald  176  Obituaries  We Shall Miss Them  177  Errata and Addenda  184  Business of the O.H.S.  Notice of 66th Annual General Meeting of O.H.S. 1991  185  Minutes of the 65th Annual General Meeting of O.H.S. 1990  186  President's Report  188  Editor's Report  189  Secretary's Report  190  Auditor's Report  190  Branch Reports  Salmon Arm  193  Armstrong-Enderby  193  Vernon  194  Kelowna  195  Penticton  195  Oliver-Osoyoos  196  Brigade Trail Committee Report  196  Report of Father Pandosy Mission Committee  197  Father Pandosy Mission Committee: Financial Statement  198  O.H.S. Local Branch Offices, 1990-1991   199  Membership List 1990  200 Alastair Gordon, 6th Marquess of Aberdeen and his wife Anne on the dock at the new Eldorado  Hotel prior to the departure by boat to Vernon, May 1990. Photo courtesy of Barrie Jeffries. %^U§M071T £ldZ/0flZS  The Grand Opening and History of  Guisachan Heritage Park - Kelowna  by R. Hugh McLarty  Warm Okanagan sunshine, a box lunch picnic, afternoon tea on the  lawn with music played by the Kelowna City Band helped celebrate the  completion of the restoration of Guisachan Heritage Park in Kelowna  by the Central Okanagan Heritage Society.  On May 19, 1990, Alastair Gordon, 6th Marquess of Aberdeen,  and Lady Aberdeen, took part in the official opening of Kelowna's  newest park. Lord Aberdeen' s grandfather, the first Marquess, bought  the property in 1891 and subsequently had a home built on it. It is this  house, now restored, that is the central attraction of the new park.  Following a box lunch picnic served to over 300, piper Doug  Arthur played at 2:00 o'clock to signal the beginning of the opening  ceremonies. Cynthia Ellis, president of CO.H.S. introduced the platform guests and Mary Liz Bayer, B.C. Governor of Heritage Canada  then introduced Lord and Lady Aberdeen. "When Lord Aberdeen was  asked to cut the ribbon to open this new park, he remarked that he  was aware of how much his grandparents had enjoyed their stays in the  Valley, away from the pressures of life in Ottawa. He also commented  that the house and grounds probably never looked quite as well as  they do now.  Lord Aberdeen, Alastair Gordon, is an artist who works in  watercolours and his wife Anne works as a potter and ceramic artist.  Both have exhibited in Great Britain and the United States and  expected to attend one of their showings in New York after leaving the  Okanagan.  During their visit to Kelowna they were guests at the new Eldorado Hotel on Lakeshore Drive. Mr. Jim Nixon graciously made  R. Hugh McLartywas born and raised in Summerland. He and his wife, Lorainne (nee Handlen),  have retired to Kelowna where, amongst other things, he is publicity director for the Central  Okanagan Heritage Society. Guisachan Park Dedicated  available one of the premier rooms of this new facility for the couple.  On Friday May 18th, members of O.H.S. Kelowna Branch were guides  and interpreters for the couple during a drive to some of the historic  sites in the City. Just prior to a luncheon at the Kelowna Golf and  Country club where old timers recalled their associations with Guisachan Ranch, the couple were greeted by Mayor Jim Stewart at City Hall  and signed the City guest book. Later they made an afternoon visit to  the Orchard Museum at the Laurel Building.  In 1986, the Central Okanagan Heritage Society took on the task  of rebuilding the site to its original design. With assistance from the  City of Kelowna, the Provincial and Federal governments and the  citizens of Kelowna, the park is now a reality. The house, originally  designated "Guisachan" by the first Lady Aberdeen, was built in the  style of a colonial bungalow, popular with the British in India and  Africa. A solid house with large rooms and a covered veranda allowed  gracious living outdoors when the weather permitted and spacious  living indoors in bad weather.  The story of the property that became known as Guisachan  Ranch starts almost 130 years ago. As has happened in many parts of  From left: Al Horning, MP Okanagan Centre, Cynthia Ellis, President of the Central Okanagan  Heritage Society, Lyle Mac Williams, MP Okanagan - Shuswap, Alastair Gordon, 6th Marquess of  Aberdeen, Anne Gordon, Lady Aberdeen, Lynsey Munson, flower girl, and Melissa Steele, Girl  Guide. Lynsey Munson represents the 5th generation of the family that has lived on the property  adjacent to Guisachan Ranch. Guisachan Park Dedicated  Canada, traders of the large fur companies, the Hudson's Bay Company, the Northwest Company and the Pacific Fur Company were the  first to see these new lands. It is one of these traders who is the first  character in our story.  John McDougall was born in Fort Garry in 1827 and for 20 years  worked in the west with the Hudson's Bay Company. He first saw the  Okanagan Valley in the 1840's and when he retired 20years later, over  a dispute with the Company, he took up land in the area that was  known, first as "L'Anse de Sable" and then as "Mission Valley". The  name change came about with the establishment, in 1858, of amission  to the Indians by Father Pandosy and several Catholic brethren of the  Order of Mary Immaculate (O.M.I.). At that time the area called  Joy Lambrick (on ladder) and Lorraine Barton complete the painting of the exterior of  Guisachan House. Joy supervised the volunteer painters during the entire project.  H. McLarty Photo Guisachan Park Dedicated  Mission Valley encompassed the land from Long Lake (Kalamalka) in  the north, to the mountains south of Mission Creek.  In 1861, McDougall staked a large rural claim close by the  Mission. Later the same year he took over a claim staked by George  Ford and thus consolidated his holdings. Although he was officially  retired, the Hudson's Bay Company was still willing to supply trade  goods to McDougall and other independent traders to gather what  furs the local Indians could deliver. He set up what appears from old  records to be a very successful business. A record of McDougall's two  claims filed in 1861 is contained in the report of William George Cox,  Magistrate, Rock Creek, B.C. showing that he had visited several  holdings in the Okanagan Valley and had recorded the land transactions of the area:  March 20 (1861) John McDougall. His claim is situated close by the Mission. It adjoins  one part of the same. 784 by 528. A house is, I believe, erected on it-160 acres.  July 29th. RecordedJorJohn McDougall. A rural claim of (160), one hundred and sixty  acres-formerly known as Ford's claim, situated on the east side of Great Okanagan  Lake between the Mission's claim and William Pion's claim. The above is an  excellent claim, well watered and agreeably timbered.  Development in the Mission Valley was slow at first, as there were  few roads into the area and large lake boats had not yet started to be  used. The Canadian Pacific Railroad through British Columbia was  still more than 20 years in the future, and the few settlers that did take  up land had no access to outside markets and few of the luxuries of the  larger centres in Canada. This all changed in 1875 when the provincial government called for tenders to build a road from the Catholic  Mission in the south to O'Keefe's ranch in the north. Finished in  1876, at a cost of $23,000, it was described as one of the best roads on  the B.C. Mainland. From the head of the lake, beyond O'Keefe's,  good trails existed to Kamloops, Cache Creek and beyond.  Although records are few, it would seem that McDougall prospered. He built several large houses over a period of time for his ever  growing family, acted as a guide for those adventurous souls that  wished to hunt the area and continued to trade in furs. As his family  grew, the boys too became efficient hunters and guides.  The next character in our story was born in Scotland and came  to Canada after a successful career there. George Grant McKay had  been a friend of Lord and Lady Tweedsmouth and had done considerable work on their estate in Inverness-shire. When, in 1888, he  found land at home was getting to be a bad business, he came to  British Columbia. Here he found a ready market and a great deal of  inexpensive property. He enters our story when, by pre-arrangement  in 1890, he met Lord and Lady Aberdeen in Vancouver while they  were on a cross Canada tour. At that time Lady Aberdeen (her father  was Lord Tweedsmouth), was casting about for a suitable place for her  10 Guisachan Park Dedicated  brother Coutts Marjoribanks to settle. Although her father had  settled Coutts on a large ranch in North Dakota, he was not doing well  and his sister kept looking for a new opening that might suit him.  George McKay took the Aberdeens on a tour of the lower Fraser  Valley and although the farms looked "snug", the only land there had  become very expensive. However, like any good land agent, McKay  knew of another area of the province that was developing as a result  of the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroad and an extension  southward from Sicamous to Vernon being built by the Okanagan  and Shuswap Railroad. "Thirty miles down the lake from Vernon was  a farm belonging to the McDougalls, a half breed family; 480 acres, a  nice house, 70 head cattle, horses and implements." The price  mentioned by Mr. McKay was $10,000. Lord Aberdeen commissioned  McKay to purchase the place and the Aberdeens elected to have  Coutts as manager.  It was a year later before Lord and Lady Aberdeen were able to  return to British Columbia. By that time, the new colonial style  bungalow had been built on the property and some planting had been  started. Lady Aberdeen describes this newly acquired property in her  journal - "The place besides being on a lake is on a plateau surrounded  by hills where the most splendid sport can be had." The couple named  their new property "Guisachan" after Lady Aberdeen's home in  Inverness-shire. To make the new home live up to its Gaelic name  "place of the firs", they planted Scottish fir seedlings along the  entrance road. Unfortunately, the seedlings died later that year.  It was mid October when the new owners first had an opportunity  to visit the property. After a stop in Vernon to attend that city's first  Agricultural Exhibition, the couple hired Eli Lequime and his rather  dubious boat to take them along the lake to what was then known as  Okanagan Mission landing. Again from Lady Aberdeen's journal we  have a first hand account. "Owing to the misunderstanding about our  arrival, we were not expected, of course...we all walked on the two  miles to Guisachan and took possession of our new domain by  moonlight...the new house seemed very much deserted and locked  up when we boarded the verandah, but Coutts knocked away in  confidence that someone would appear. Presently a cautious step was  heard and Mr. Smith, whom we did not recognize at first with his  beard, opened the door a chink and asked what we wan ted...he  admitted afterwards that he was very suspicious of us and that he had  brought his rifle just behind the door to be ready to keep us off." Such  was the welcome given Lord and Lady Aberdeen on their first visit to  Kelowna.  In 1893, Lord Aberdeen was appointed Governor General, and  the couple took up permanent residence in Canada. This gave them  11 Guisachan Park Dedicated  an opportunity to visit Guisachan periodically during the next four  years. During that time several attempts were made to have the ranch  become a paying proposition but all seem to have failed for one or  another reason. Fruit trees were poorly planted and died of "wet feet,"  as did hop plants. Corn, clover, timothy and potatoes did do well on  the land. Finally, it was decided the ranch might succeed as a hog  farm. Lady Aberdeen's journal for December 1896 describes a visit:  "we went down to Guisachan for a night, inspecting everything there  and seeing a good many of the people and 'A' is quite pleased at the  way the plan of making the place practically (?) a hog farm is turning  out."  In 1898, Lord Aberdeen's tour as Governor General ended and  the couple returned to their home in Scotland.  In 1902, the property was subdivided into four parcels. Parcels  B,C, and D, all north of the present Guisachan Road, were quickly  subdivided and then resubdivided during the next few years to  become smaller homesites and farming areas. Parcel A, south of  Guisachan Road, was purchased by William C. Cameron.  William Cameron and his wife emigrated from Scotland in 1883  to the Qu'Appelle Valley (then in District of Assiniboia, now part of  Saskatchewan) where Mr. Cameron was placed in charge of developing twenty thousand acres of prairie land, bringing it into production  and then selling it for the owners. When the job was completed in  1903, he purchased Guisachan Ranch and moved his family to his new  holdings. In September of that year they travelled by train to Okanagan Landing, and then on the stern-wheel steamer Aberdeen to  Kelowna. Along with their household effects, they brought horses and  cattle, all being landed on the wharf that existed at the west end of  Bernard Avenue.  Mr. Cameron was back in the Qu'Appelle Valley later that year  when he received an answer to an enquiry he had made to the  Inspector of Fruit in the Okanagan. Thomas Cunningham wrote  saying he had inspected the orchard and was well pleased with the  healthy condition of the trees. He pointed out that although some  showed signs of neglect, they were healthy with satisfactory growth,  the wood better than expected. He noticed many blanks in the  orchard and offered instructions on planting and how to get the best  results. Recommended varieties included Northern Spy, Wagner,  Spitzenburg, Grimes Golden and Jonathan. He cautioned Mr.  Cameron about bringing stock from the prairie saying that "unless  they are of great value they will cost all they are worth to carry over".  He pointed out that hay was selling for seventeen dollars in Kelowna  and that half the Okanagan crop had been ruined.  12 Guisachan Park Dedicated  William Cameron died in 1910, leaving his wife and three sons to  try to operate the ranch. Gilbert Douglas (Paddy) was attending  school in Victoria when his father died and he returned to Kelowna  to manage the ranch, before his eighteenth birthday. In 1914, he  enlisted and served with the B.C. Horse, the Lord Strathcona Horse  and later the 17th Battalion. Alister, the eldest son, enlisted in 1916  and joined the Engineers but while in England, after a bout of 'flu',  followed by pneumonia, his service career ended. He had studied to  be a land surveyor and had taken employment with the Water Rights  Branch of the B.C. Government before his enlistment and upon his  return he again took up these duties. Just prior to his service in 1916,  he worked for some time on private engineering and surveying and  at the same time helped his mother work and manage Guisachan  Ranch. In 1928, the year of his marriage, Alister had a house built on  the west corner of Guisachan farm. He and his new wife moved in the  following summer. The house is still standing and is the centre piece  of Cameron Park on Richter street. The grounds surrounding the  house, used for years by the children of the area, were donated as a city  park.  In 1919, upon his return from overseas, Paddy moved into the  original Aberdeen house. He and his wife ran a mixed farm including  a Grade "A" dairy, licensed to sell unpasturized milk, door to door, in  the area. His preferred interest seemed to be with horses and he was  known as a champion rider in jumping events and other equestrian  activities. His love of horses was probably one of the reasons he  became a founding member of the Kelowna Riding Club.  Mrs. Cameron (Elaine), as well as helping with the ranch, found  time to plant and care for a beautiful Edwardian garden around the  house. Some of the plants she so carefully nurtured can be found  there to this day. A talented musician, she also introduced many of the  young people of Kelowna to this magical world.  Alister died in 1970 and Paddy's wife, Elaine, in 1978. Ian, a third  brother, died in France in 1917. Paddy died in Kelowna on the sixth  of December, 1984, survived by a son Bill, still a resident of Kelowna.  Although the Ranch had been sold, Paddy lived in the home until his  death.  The City of Kelowna obtained 2.4 acres of the property as a park.  The Central Okanagan Heritage Society has restored the original  Guisachan House and rebuilt the Edwardian Gardens. Subsequent  planting restored the entrance avenue of trees, but they are cedar  rather than Scottish fir originally planted. A diary kept by Mrs.  Cameron has helped the Society to replant many of the original  species that were grown in her garden in the 1920's. The interior of  the home has been restored to the style of the late 20's and early 30's  13 Guisachan Park Dedicated  with period furnishing and finish. Changes were made to the home  as time and fashion dictated, but during the restoration some of the  original materials were exposed. Of particular interest is one section  of wall that has been left open to show the type of lumber that was  available to builders before the turn of the century. Wall paper in the  entrance hall, described in Lady Aberdeen's journal, has also been  restored and although it shows wear, it is a good example of the wall  finishes of the time.  The park site also contains the McDougall House built on the  property prior to the sale of the ranch to the Aberdeens. This log  structure was moved to the park property when it became apparent  that it would be demolished to allow for an extension of Glenmore  Drive southward from Glenwood Avenue when Gordon Drive was established. The Society, at the beginning of the restorations, undertook to have this 1886 building placed on proper foundations and the  interior redesigned to create modern living quarters for a caretaker/  gardener.  When reviewing any historical events, there is always the problem  of what to include, and what must be ignored. I have read and heard  a great deal that to me did not seem to fit the narrative, but was of  interest. One thing I found in my research was that the names of these  early settlers are recalled in many ways to this day.  John McDougall was an excellent axeman and a fine builder.  Two examples of his craft, both called McDougall homes, are still  standing, with some restorative help, in Kelowna. One, at Pandosy  Mission site, the other on the Guisachan Heritage Park site which is  in use as a residence for the park caretaker. A creek on the Westside  is also named for this pioneer. Long since buried by hardtop where  it passes under Highway 97, the creek runs roughly parallel to the  northern boundary of the Westbank Indian Band lands.  The name Aberdeen seems to occur in many places, including a  street name in Kelowna, a C.P.R. sternwheeler that operated on  Okanagan Lake and on the mountain we now know as Silver Star.  The Cameron name is reflected in the park on Richter Street, the  street adjacent to the new Guisachan Heritage Park and the Elaine  Cameron Gardens that are also part of the park.  14 The Marquess of Aberdeen's Visit  to the Coldstream Ranch  by Beryl Wamboldt  The name Aberdeen has long been associated with the Coldstream  Ranch and surrounding area. Ninety-nine years after his grandfather  had purchased the Coldstream Ranch in 1891, Alistair Gordon and  his wife, Anne, the Marquess and Marchioness of Aberdeen, visited  the Ranch on May 21,1990 as the guests of Ted and Caroline Osborn.  After acquiring the Ranch from Forbes Vernon in 1891, Lord  and Lady Aberdeen arrived in Sicamous and travelled over the newly  laid tracks of the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon on a flat car.  At the time the train went through to Okanagan Landing to connect  with the lake boats.  In 1893 Lord Aberdeen was appointed Governor General of  Canada. Although they moved to Ottawa, they kept the Ranch until  1921, and they spent summers here.  All was in readiness on Monday, May 21,1990. Former workers on  the Ranch and citizens of the Coldstream area gathered to meet the  distinguished visitors. The rain held off and a large marquee was in  place where the Lavington Ladies' Work Group served tea to four  hundred guests. A tree was planted to commemorate the visit and the  Maypole waited for the Lavington School children to perform their  Maypole Dance.  Ted Osborn, present manager of the Coldstream Ranch, introduced the guests of honor.  Welcoming the couple officially were Mayor Ernie Palfrey of  Coldstream Municipality, Mayor Anne Clarke of Vernon, M.L.A. Lyall  Hanson and M.P. Lyle MacWilliam.  Responding to the well wishes, the Marquess said that the family  name is Gordon, and he has retired from his work as British sales  manager for the Canadian insurance firm of Imperial Life. He and his  wife are artists. His wife is well known in British art circles for her  pottery and ceramic work. When he retired, he took up painting.  Speaking of his grandparents, he said they lived a very busy life,  but at home they were really very simple people who enjoyed a quiet  life. They were not the best financial managers and the present family  holdings are only a tenth of the land originally owned by the family.  He described his grandfather as a man with high moral standards and  deeply religious who expected the same from other people.  Beryl Wamboldt is currently Vernon Branch Editorial Chairman. She has resided in the north  Okanagan area for the past 48 years.  15 Marquess of Aberdeen s Visit  His grandmother, he said, could be called a lady before her time.  A "doer" living in the Victorian age, she was a great organizer.  (Pioneers in Vernon will remember she organized the Victorian  Order of Nurses while here, as she did many places they served in, also  the Council of Women which lasted into the 1970's in Vernon.) He  told a story of how she went to Andrew Carnegie and told him she  wanted him to donate books to people working in isolated parts of  Canada and added that she expected him to pay the bills to ship them  too.  His grandparents' monstrous home in Scotland, Haddo Hall,  was built in 1800 to replace the first family home which had been build  in the 1400'sbutwas destroyed by fire. Today Haddo Hall is owned by  the Scottish Government and it is so massive that symphony concerts  can be held in it.  Mrs. George Viel presented the couple with a photo of the  opening of the Lavington School in 1914. Her husband and Lord  Aberdeen were in the picture.  Following the Maypole Dancing, tea was served in the marquee  and a great time renewing old friendships took place. Only a few  scattered drops of rain had fallen.  May 21, 1990 at the reception for the Aberdeens at the Coldstream Ranch. From left Anne  Gordon, the Marchioness of Aberdeen, Alistair Gordon, the Marquess of Aberdeen, Caroline  Osborn, Ted Osborn, manager of the Coldstream Ranch and Libby Tassie, Treasurer of the  OHS. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  16 Marquess of Aberdeen s Visit  At 6 p.m. one hundred people gathered at the Coldstream  Women's Institute Hall. A Happy Hour preceded a sumptuous dinner  at 7 p.m., hosted by the Women's Institute members. The dinner  featured such locally grown foods as asparagus, Coldstream beef,  vegetables, apple juice, Okanagan wines and Armstrong cheese.  Mayor Ernie Palfrey welcomed the honored guests and those  attending. He asked people to introduce themselves and tell how long  they had lived in the Coldstream.  Speaker of the evening was Bill Osborn, manager of the Coldstream Ranch for many years. He came with his parents and sister to  Canada when the Aberdeens subdivided the Ranch. Many people  came from Britain at that time. The Osborn family bought property  in Lavington. After leaving university, Bill was offered a job as  manager of the Ranch which by then was the property of a group of  international investors. He spent most of his life there. His son Ted  decided to come back to Vernon and apply for his father's position,  knowing his dad wished to retire. So the Osborn connection has  continued.  Several presentations were made to the honored couple. The  Marquess spoke again and said that he now knows why his grandfather  loved Canada so much.  A private dinner party for the Marquess and Marchioness of Aberdeen was held on May 20, 1990 at Lake House,  7804 Kidston Road, Coldstream, the residence of Mr. Patrick F. Mackie. A buffet dinner was provided by the twenty-  five guests. After dinner the guests gathered in the main  drawing room to hear a concert provided by nine members  of the Vernon Music School organized by Mrs. Sharon Lawrence. The programme consisted of works by Bach, Quantz  and Vivaldi. Around 10 p.m. the guests began to take their  leave. It was a special evening that will be remembered to  years to come.  17 The Burrowing Owl Project  by Mebssa D. Graf  The Ministry of Environment's South Okanagan Burrowing Owl  Project has given me the opportunity to experience and observe one  example of a bird transplant operation. The project's objective is to  re-establish a self-supporting Burrowing Owl population in the South  Okanagan.  To accomplish part of this goal, Burrowing Owl families were  transported from Washington State to designated areas in the South  Okanagan. Initially, the transplant families were confined to specially  designed pens which enclosed an area of artificial burrow sites. They  were fed on a regular basis with cockerels. When the adults appeared  to have accepted the new location, the confinement was removed to  allow the adults free movement. At this time, the juvenile owls  remained within the burrow's nesting chamber since they were too  young to fly, forage, or escape predators.  My involvement, as one of two assistants hired by a contractor, was  to: (1) aid in the site preparation, which included digging the artificial  burrows; (2) capture and transport of the owl families; (3) and  observe and record any information regarding the Burrowing Owls  on or near the Ecological Reserve located between Oliver and Osoyoos.  My position was made possible through the Challenge '89 Program  which was managed by the South Okanagan Naturalists Club.  As with anyone new to such an operation, I asked many questions.  I was especially concerned with why it was necessary to feed the  Burrowing Owls on a regular basis. My first thought was that these  birds were quite capable of foraging on their own. It was pointed out  to me that their prey population may not be large enough to support  the one hundred owls we had brought into the area. In addition to  these new arrivals, which included twenty adults and seventy-eight  juveniles, there were the seventeen adult Burrowing Owls that had  returned from the wintering region. It showed me how one needs to  take into account every aspect of the ecological system to assess and  understand the whole picture.  Editor's Note: From the Cannings' Birds of the Okanagan Valley (page 210): "The Burrowing Owl  is a small, long-legged owl of dry grasslands. It was once relatively plentiful in the Okanagan, but  is now seldom seen ... The disappearance of the badger that provided burrows and the gradual  development for agriculture and housing of most of the dry, sparsely vegetated benchlands and  valley bottoms that were its favourite habitat, probably are the main factors responsible for the  decline of the Burrowing Owl in the Okanagan."  Melissa D. Graf is presently attending Cariboo College in Kamloops. She is a second year student  training as a Veterinary Technician.  18 Burrowing Owl  A few weeks later, I found a juvenile Burrowing Owl, approximately three weeks of age, dead. It is known that Burrowing Owls have  a high mortality rate. This death could have happened when both  adults were away from the burrow. One can only guess, but it showed  me how important it was that the largest number of owls survive until  a reasonable population can be obtained. In order to get that  significant population size, human involvement is required.  The majority of my exciting observations were sighted in the early  morning. On one occasion as I was perched on my vehicle, I sighted  an adult male owl. He remained on his perch for approximately thirty  minutes. During this time, he watched me as well as the other activities  around us. Although he was not concerned or alarmed by the  presence of the California Quail or Western Kingbirds, he was very  alert to the presence of the various black birds which flew past us. He  preened and scratched himself when the ants and fleas became too  irritating, and then made his distinctive "coo-coo" call. Within thirty  seconds the female arrived at his side.  At this time he seemed to carefully view the surrounding landscape. His next move was to silently float down from his perch and  Burrowing Owl.  19 Burrowing Owl  enter his burrow, while the female adult remained on the ground. To  my surprise, the male exited the burrow, he had been gone only about  three minutes, and after a few seconds the juvenile Burrowing Owls  waddled out. Half the brood stumbled over to the female, while the  remaining group stayed with the male.  The young spent most of their time enjoying the Okanagan sun  and carefully watching their parents, possibly for signs of danger or  feeding time. At one point I could tell from the juveniles that a  hopping insect was close. Their heads bobbed up and down, and from  side to side. The three older ones stretched their necks as far as they  could to see the insect. They were curious but not courageous at this  point in their lives. Soon a few more of the brood took interest. Then  the adult male gave a sharp warning signal, and the brood scurried  down the burrow. Both adults stayed just within the burrow mouth  while a Merlin flew past.  My experience throughout this project enlightened me to just  how precarious the life of the Burrowing Owl really is. Their predators  lurk everywhere. There is a need to protect and preserve their habitat  reserves.  Melissa Graf with a Burrowing Owl on the Osoyoos Ecological Reserve in the summer of 1989.  20 Seymour Arm School Opens  by Alice Hucul  It has taken 52 years, but Seymour Arm officially opened its new  school on October 10, 1989.  On opening day the new school, located in the community hall,  featured 21 students from Kindergarten to Grade 7.  Everyone in Seymour Arm came to the official opening to meet  the new principal/teacher Dave Saunders, the board of trustees and  senior staff of Shuswap School District #89, and other guests.  Alf Daniels, representing the oldest family in Seymour Arm,  officially opened the school. The students entertained everyone with  their versions of the Seymour Arm History and songs derived from  familiar tunes but words more appropriate to the community. Eric  Schulz catered the banquet.  The trustees then held their regular school board meeting.  Seymour Arm is a small community located on the north side of  Shuswap Lake, with no electricity (everyone has generators) and only  radio telephones.  To travel to Seymour Arm a person can take the barge from  Sicamous, or a logging road from the North Shuswap. There is also a  small aircraft landing strip.  After several years of having a teacher come to Seymour Arm on  a part-time basis the parents petitioned the School District to consider  having a full time school in the community. Shuswap School District  Acting Superintendent, Dr. Lai Mattu, says this was a very exciting  time. "It's not often in this day and age that a person is able to help  create a school." Following discussion with the B.C. Ministry of Education it was decided by the Shuswap School Board to set up a school  at the community hall.  Dave Saunders was named the principal/teacher and then later  a second teacher was added to the staff. Anita Fletcher took control  of the primary students. Both of the teachers look on education as a  shared, joyful experience and hope that they can pass this feeling on  to their students. The two use an integrated approach to teaching  which introduces the students to new technology, such as computers,  as well as projects which fit into their own unique lifestyle.  Alice (Coates) Hucul was born and raised in Salmon Arm. She is presently employed by School  District 89 as a communications service specialist.  21 Seymour Arm School  According to research conducted by the current students at  Seymour Arm, life is different for them than it was at the turn of the  century in Seymour Arm's very first school.  Miss Lister, one of the first teachers in the community isn't  around to share her philosophy or experiences, nor is Nelly Godbout  (Daniels), one of Miss Lister's pupils. However Nelly's son Alf and  daughter, Vi Hamilton, have shared the story about their mother and  how school was let out early one day in 1918 to greet the soldiers  coming home from the First World War. Few of the soldiers came  home, as many died and some moved on to different places.  Almost all of the male members of the community had gone to  war. This was the beginning of the decline for Seymour Arm. Fortunately, one man did return to stay, Vernon Daniels, and he married  Nelly.  The first school was situated up the hill from Daniels' Store, near  Vi Hamilton's home. All that remains today are the broken pieces of  the old school desks.  Ernie, Arnold, Alf and Vi, Shirley and Abby were all there to see  school in Seymour Arm close its door in 1937.  In 1920, a new frame school was built in Gillman's Bay, since that  was where the children were. The Daniels had to walk around Daniels'  Bay, row or cross the ice to go to school. The last two methods added  many grey hairs to their parents' heads.  The Seymour Arm Community Hall and school in 1989.  22 Seymour Arm School  Alf Hooper was the teacher in Seymour Arm when school was  moved into the hotel at Seymour in 1935. The school had to be relocated because there were no longer enough children in Gillman's  Bay. In 1936-37, the remaining students in school were the Daniels'  and the Hooper's children. When Mr. Hooper moved from Seymour  Arm the number of remaining children was not enough to support  the school and it closed.  The Daniels were forced to move to Salmon Arm to finish their  schooling.  Itwasn'tuntil 1959, when the Abbott family arrived, that children  once again started doing their schooling in Seymour Arm. By 1962,  the Abbott, Lipset and Bradley children were getting their education  by correspondence.  In January 1986, Lee Henson was hired to assist the correspondence students. In September of 1986 Julia Armstrong began spending two weeks of each month guiding the students through their  correspondence programs and enriching their social and educational experience.  Julia used the stage of the community hall as her classroom.  During the winter she had to be there by 7 a.m. to get the woodheater  going to heat the 38 degree F air so the classroom would warm up  before the children arrived. By the time they arrive at 9 a.m. it was 58  degrees. It was comfortably warm by the afternoon. To help keep the  fire going and without being asked, when the students went to the  outhouse they brought a piece of wood for the fire.  She spent each morning helping the children with their correspondence courses. In the afternoon, they would work on group  projects in music, science, social studies, acting and art.  Julia Armstrong has to be given much of the credit for the  opening of the new Seymour Arm School. Parents from the school  talk of the time, effort and dedication she exhibited and the hard work  in assisting them with needs assessment, school district representation and lobbying.  Today there are 16 students attending Seymour Arm School.  The Shuswap School Board has submitted an application to the  Ministry of Education to build an actual school in the community, but  no word has arrived back. Meanwhile, school will continue in the  community hall.  Principal Dave Saunders adds that the school may go to Grade 10  in future years, as development brings more families into the area.  Road improvement, electricity and telephones are all in future plans  for Seymour Arm.  The school is a positive attraction and an important addition to  a growing community.  23 Visit by the Marquis of Lome  to the Okanagan - 1882  by Ken Mather  Canadians were delighted to learn, in 1878, that the Marquis of  Lome1 was to be the new Governor General of Canada. Lome's claim  to fame was not so much his own particular attributes but the fact that  he was married to Princess Louise, daughter of Queen Victoria. At a  time when the British Empire was at its zenith and the Victorian era  in full bloom, any connection to Queen Victoria was prestigious. For  the young nation of Canada to have one of the Queen's daughters in  Rideau Hall was nothing short of wonderful.  It is therefore not surprising that, in 1882, when it was announced  that the Governor General and Princes Louise were to visit British  Columbia, the entire province was abuzz with excitement. While the  visit was to focus on the capital city of Victoria and the two other cities  of consequence in British Columbia, New Westminster and Nanaimo,  the Governor General and his party were to travel through the  interior to view the countryside and to allow the Marquis to indulge  in one of his favourite activities, hunting. In fact it was probably  because of the Okanagan's reputation for bird hunting that the  itinerary was arranged to allow for the official party to spend some  time there. When word reached the rather sparsely populated North  Okanagan of the Governor General's proposed visit, excitement  spread rapidly, not in the least diminished by the fact that the Princess  Louise did not intend to accompany her husband on his travels  through the interior.  The Governor General and Princess Louise travelled to Niagara  and then by train from Chicago across the United States to San  Francisco. There they boarded the steamer H.M.S. Momus, arriving in  Victoria on September 20, 1882. After an extensive visit to Victoria,  Ken Mather is the curator/administrator of O'Keefe Historic Ranch. He is also President of the  B.C. Museums Association.  24 Marquis of Lome's Visit  the vice-regal party travelled across the Strait of Georgia and up the  Fraser River to New Westminster. From there, the Governor General's  party, consisting of his Private Secretary, Major de Winton, ex-  Lieutenant Governor Joseph Trutch, and several others, journeyed to  Ashcroft and Lytton. Returning to Savona's Ferry, they boarded the  paddlewheeler Peerless, arriving at Kamloops on Thursday, October 5.  After a brief visit and the usual round of speeches, the party proceeded up the South Thompson to Shuswap Lake and up the  Spallumcheen River as it was then called. It was later to be reported:  In going up the Spellamacheen [sic] river the low stage of water caused the steamer  Peerless to ground on one of the bars, and all hands on board manned the capstain.  For some time the boat resisted all efforts to get her across and His Excellency then  laid hold with the rest. His aid helped her over and she reached her destination  without further difficulty.2  About two weeks after the Governor General travelled through  the area, a correspondent of the Kamloops Inland Sentinel travelled the  same route as Lome. His description of Lambly's Landing, as the  future site of Enderby was then known, is interesting as it indicatesjust  what greeted the Marquis of Lome upon his arrival:  From Savona's Ferry to head of navigation at Mr. Lambly's Landing, or Mr. A.L.  Fortune's, is 142 miles by water, or 105 by wagon road. The landing is comparatively  a new place, but signs of progress are visible in the fine warehouses, other buildings  and cultivated fields to be seen. Mr. Lambly is Government Agent and is prompt to  give information respecting lands or anything pertaining to his office.3  PPPV"  Spillamacheen Valley, between Salmon River and Lake Okanagan. From Sketches by His  Excellency The Marquis of Lome, KT., Governor-General of Canada. (Figure 1)  25 Marquis of Lome's Visit  After arriving at the Landing, the Governor General and his party  visited the farms of Preston Bennett, Moses Lumby, and A.L. Fortune.  In the process of visiting these farms and several others, the Marquis  enjoyed some excellent duck and prairie chicken hunting. Some time  later, writing in the magazine The Graphic, Lome was to describe the  Spallumcheen Valley:  When Spillamacheen (sic) Valley was reached, navigation ceased. Like many  another spots hidden away behind the wooded hills, this one seems to have been an  ancient lake; level as a billiard table the prairie winds along under the forest  mountain slopes. Although the first settler only appeared in this region a few years  ago there are already seven of eight farms of 300 acres each in line along this strath.  The fine long needled Pinus ponderosa contends with the Douglas Fir for the  occupation of the lower slopes.4  Accompanying the article by the Marquis of Lome in The Graphic  are a series of engravings based upon sketches the Marquis made at  the time of his journey. The engraving, show here, (Fig. 1) of the  "Spillamacheen Valley, between Salmon River and Lake Okanagan"  must have been based upon a sketch of the Spallumcheen Valley just  south of present-day Enderby but there appears to have been some  artistic licence taken with the original sketch. Non-the-less the sketch  probably represents the oldest surviving image of the area and has  significant archival value, as do the other engravings and sketches  done by the Marquis of Lome.  Indians at Lake Okanagan. From Sketches by His Excellency the Marquis of Lome,  Governor-General of Canada. (Figure 2)  26  KT., ^  Marquis of Lome's Visit  The Governor General's party then travelled over the wagon  road from Lambly's via Otter Lake to the house of Cornelius O'Keefe  at the Head of Okanagan Lake. O'Keefe, along with his partner  Thomas Greenhow, had settled there in 1867 and by the time of the  visit of the Marquis of Lome, their ranch headquarters had become  the centre of activity for the North Okanagan. The "Okanagon" Post  Office, the first in the valley, had been established there in 1872 at the  small general store constructed by O'Keefe and Greenhow. Since that  time, the stage coach to the Okanagan Valley had made the O'Keefe  Ranch a regular stopping place and accommodation had been offered to the traveller. As well, the ranch had been the site of a grist mill,  used by many of the earliest settlers to the area.  In travelling to O'Keefe's, the party had passed along the route  proposed for a canal to connect Shuswap and Mara Lakes with the  Head of Okanagan Lake. This canal was seen as an excellent way to  establish a waterway that would run all the way from Savona to the site  of present day Penticton utilizing Deep Creek and Otter Lake.  Confirmation of the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway  through the Kicking Horse Pass to Kamloops and beyond, the news of  which was carefully tucked in the Marquis of Lome's pocket as he  toured the Okanagan, was to destroy any hopes of this canal.5  The Governor General's party stayed at O'Keefe's for three  nights, from Sunday October 8 to Wednesday October 11. There they  were put up in the log house, which O'Keefe had constructed for his  Vanguard of the Pine near Okanagan Lake, October 11,1882. Sketched by the Marquis of Lome  and featuring the O'Keefe Ranch. Photo courtesy of the Provincial Archives of B.C. (Fig. 3)  27 Marquis of Lome's Visit  wife, Mary Anne, some few years previously. Donald Graham, another  Okanagan pioneer, has given an excellent account of his meeting  with Lome at that time:  The Marquis of Lome ... made his way to the Okanagan, putting up for a few days  in the house of Con O'Keefe. It was a squared log house (hewed), situated at the  head of the Lake. The house was spacious enough, however, to have a spare room  and there the Marquis lodged.  When we heard of his visit, Donald Matheson and myself rode to O'Keefe's and met  the Marquis there. He sat on the end of a log and talked to us in a most friendly  manner for half an hour or more. Mr. O'Keefe had been married for about a year,  so it was not "bachelor" cooking he got6  On Monday, O'Keefe drove the Governor General by horse and  wagon to the Coldstream Ranch, then owned by Forbes George  Vernon. Vernon who, along with his brother Charles, had settled at  the site of present-day Vernon, had been the Member of the Legislative Assembly for the Yale District since 1875 and had, by the time of  the Governor General's visit, acquired the Coldstream Ranch from  Charles Houghton.  The party did not stay at Vernon's but returned to O'Keefe  Ranch, "escorted by a large number of Indians, all well mounted, from  the Okanagan reservation."7 It was probably on this occasion that  Lome sketched a family of Okanagans' riding horseback. This sketch  appeared as an engraving in The Graphic (Fig. 2) with an excellent  background of the view down Okanagan Lake from the Head of the  Lake. The Marquis of Lome's accompanying description is worth  quoting in full:  In the last sketch we see that one of the customs of civilization which they (the  Okanagans') have not yet adopted is a European lady's seat on horseback, for the  mother takes her children on crupper and pommel, and rides man fashion on her  kyuso, or Indian pony, accompanied by her household; such a cavalcade we see in  the sketch riding along the sage-covered pastures in the neighbourhood of Lake  Okanagan.8  The Governor General and his party remained for Monday and  Tuesday evenings at O'Keefe Ranch, spending Tuesday hunting the  abundant game birds in the vicinity. It was during this time that they  encountered another "tourist" to the area, Newton H. Chittenden,  who was travelling through the area and writing a travel book about  his journeys. Chittenden recorded his meeting with the party as  follows:  Descending the foot-hills toward Lake Okanagan, the Governor-General, the  Marquis of Lome and party, ex-Lieut-Governor Trutch and Col. de Winton, were  seen shooting in the distance. The Marquis is very popular with the people who came  flocking in from the remotest settlements to see him. To use their own language the  Marquis is not in the least "stuck up" but chats as freely with the poor as with the rich  and titled. One of the settlers told me, with great satisfaction, that he had a talk with  the marquis without knowing who he was, and when he asked him his name the  Governor replied simply "Lome."9  28 Marquis of Lome's Visit  On his last morning at O'Keefe Ranch, before departing for the  Salmon River Valley, the Governor General sat on a small hill across  Deep Creek (or, as it was then called, Meadow Creek) and drew a  sketch of O'Keefe Ranch which he entitled Vanguard of the Pine, near  Okanagon Lake, Oct. 11, 1882. (Fig. 3) This drawing was located and  purchased by the Provincial Archives of B.C. in London in the winter  of 1988-89 and, unlike the engravings previously shown, was done on  the spot by the Marquis of Lome. It acknowledges the fact that the  Ponderosa pines do not extend along the valley bottom past O'Keefe  Ranch. Many of these pines, which were already huge at the time of  Lome's visit still dot the hillside behind the ranch buildings. In the  sketch can be seen the original Grenhow house, torn down in the  1930s, the original O'Keefe Log House, still standing, and the tiny  Okanagan General Store and Post Office, torn down in about 1919.  Probably missing or deliberately left out of the sketch are any of the  barns or outbuildings that would have been necessary to service the  once weekly stage coach to the Ranch.  As a final gesture of appreciation to Cornelius O'Keefe before his  departure, the Marquis of Lome presented him with a twelve gauge  shot gun. This gun, manufactured by the Wesley Richards Company  of London England, has a fine damascus barrel and elaborate scrollwork and, in keeping with its owner's reputation for fine things, is one  of the finest money could buy at the time. The gun was a proud  possession of the O'Keefe family and now can be seen on display at the  O'Keefe Historic Ranch.  The Governor General and his party left O'Keefe Ranch on  Wednesday morning, travelling via the Salmon River Valley to board  the Peerless for their return trip to Kamloops and Savona's Ferry. The  Okanagan Valley settled back into its slow pace of life, warmed with  the memories of the visit of "Lome", son-in-law of Queen Victoria  herself.  FOOTNOTES  1 The full title of the Marquis (pronounced "mar kwis" in the English manner) ofLomewas"His  Excellency the Right Honourable Sir John Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquis of Lome,  Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, Knight Grand Cross of the  Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George, Governor General of Canada."  -   Victoria Colonist, 22 October 1882.  3 Kamloops Inland Sentinel, 9 November 1882.  4 The Graphic, "The Tour of the Princess Louise and the Marquis of Lome", 27 January 1883.  5 Margaret A. Ormsby, British Columbia: a History, The MacMillans in Canada, 1958, p. 288.  6 'The Okanagan _ Reminiscences of Donald Graham," manuscript Provincial Archives of B.C.  G/OK1/1093.  7 Victoria Colonist, 22 Oct. 1882.  8 The Graphic, 27 January 1883.  9 N. H. Chittenden, Travels in British Columbia, Gordon Soules Book Publishers Ltd., Vancouver,  1984. (Originally published as Settlers, prospectors, and tourists guide, or Travels through British  Columbia, Victoria, 1882.)  29 Early Shuswap Lake Boats and People  by Roland A. Jamieson  Silketwa is the Indian name for Tappen Bay and more recently, but  not officially, referred to as mud bay especially at low water. It was on  the west side of this bay that the Genelle brothers built their second  mill in November 1894 on the shore near the Canadian Pacific  Railway's recently laid track. Joe Genelle, the spokesman for the  family, had travelled to Seattle, Washington to purchase the latest  available mill machinery. This was to be the best mill in the country.  Now that the millsite was near the lake, a boat and a boom area  would increase their production. The company purchased the paddle  wheeler Thompson. It was not a practical boat for towing a boom  because it had to be used in reverse since the tow lines interfered with  the stern paddles. By now there were 100 men working in the forest  and mill with the greater part of their timber and lumber being  purchased by the railroad contractors.  The millsite during the winter months lay in the shadow of  Granite Mountain making it a very cold place to work. For this reason  it is believed that the name Kault (a German name for cold) was  chosen for the Post Office by the recent bride of Joe Genelle. Widow  Snider was of German descent and after their marriage had taughtjoe  to read and write although up to that time he had managed very well  with a remarkable memory. He had promised his bride a new home  which was finished in record time and was the showplace in the  community.  The Columbia River Lumber Company had been formed by two  astute business men, Michael Carlin and Fred Jones. They had large  timber limits near Golden, B.C. and more recently acquired several  timber berths near Carlin and Canoe. Their small mill at Carlin could  not handle such a large supply of logs so the two partners negotiated  a reported $40,000.00 deal with Joe Genelle. They became the new  owners in January of 1899, just 15 years after the Genelle brothers  built their first mill by the beaver pond. Mrs. Genelle, their mother,  managed the cookhouse for the mill workers, getting up at 4 a.m.  When leaving she told her sons, "The only thing I will miss is the  beaver that came over to the cookhouse every day for something to  eat."  Roland A. Jamieson was born in Calgary, Alberta in 1914. In the 1920's his family moved to  Salmon Arm. After 35 years in the plumbing and heating business in Salmon Arm, he retired in  1979.  30 Shuswap Lake Boats  The mill superintendent was James Carlin, brother to Michael  Carlin one of the owners of Columbia River Lumber Co. James Carlin  purchased Joe Genelle's new house for his family who arrived from  Kandiyohi, Minnesota,U.S.A. several years after James. James had  spent the greater part of his time riding a horse over all of the timber  berths gaining first hand information about his responsibilities.  After a period of bureaucratic delay the Kault Post Office was  finally opened on June 11,1899. Unless the train stopped at Kault, the  mail bag was thrown from the mail car. The outgoing mail bag was  suspended from an extended arm supported from a vertical stanchion adjacent to the track. The open end of the arm pointed in the  same direction as the train was travelling. Another open ended arm  was attached to the mail car near the sliding door and was adjusted to  snatch the bag as the train drove by.  The Columbia River Lumber Co. decided that a new boat  designed for their needs would save considerable time with the log  boom towing. They hired Ed Woods, a master boat builder, who took  pride in his work and could handle a crew.  They set up the ways on the beach near the mill. The best of  timbers and lumber were cut to specification and as the boat took  shape and form, another crew dismantled the machinery and steam  boiler from the S.S. Thompson. This equipment was overhauled, to be  installed into the new boat now nearing completion in 1906.  Several prolonged blasts from the mill whistle gave notice of the  long anticipated launching. The beach was crowded with spectators  who cheered as Michael Carlin's wife Florence christened the boat  Florence Carlin. Eight-year old Bob Carlin, nephew to Mrs. Florence  Carlin, was among the invited guests on the maiden trip of the newly  christened sternwheeler. The trial run was a leisurely venture across  Silketwa bay (Tappen Bay) past towering Mount Hupant (Mount  Bastion) until the mill site disappeared from view.  The hostess, Mrs. Florence Carlin announced that refreshments  would be served and this is the part of the whole affair that young Bob  Carlin remembers to this day some 85 years later. It was the freshly  baked bread made up into garden ripe tomato sandwiches. A memorable day for a young boy who was to have many more trips with his  father, the mill superintendent, at the wheel.  The S.S. Florence Carlinwzs the first and only sternwheeler built at  the Salmon Arm end of the Shuswap Lake. After many years of service  the S.S. Florence Carlin was abandoned on the shore near the site that  had seen her launching. The hulk was burned in a cleanup for the  development of "Fraser's beach."  Captain G.B. Ward was a sailor and shipbuilder, an adventurer  who chose Kamloops as the logical location for his enterprise. Here  31 Shuswap Lake Boats  in the late 1890's he established his home and shipbuilding business.  He had come from Andover, New Brunswick, a small village by the  Saint John river near the border of the State of Maine.  The waterway of the Thompson river and the Shuswap Lake  became his challenge. The Ward shipyard built their first paddle  wheeler, the S.S. Ethel Ross in 1897. This boat became well known  along the 300 miles of navigable water as it carried any cargo available  and towed log-booms, scows, piledrivers and dredges to the various  points of lakeside development.  Captain Ward and his two sons, Elmer and Arthur, received an  order from the Arrow Lakes Lumber Co. for a paddle wheel steamboat. It was to be the S.S. C.R. Lamb launched in 1907 from the Ward  Shipyard.  Captain Ward received high praise for his design and craftsmanship for this sturdy boat that was destined to outlast all other paddle-  wheelers on the Thompson - Shuswap waterway.  The following year (1908) the Silver Stream was launched by the  Ward shipyard but soon after Captain Ward was given notice by the  British Marine Registry stating that the law demands that no two craft  bear the same name. An earlier Silver Stream was on the register.  Captain Ward, after a family discussion, chose the name Andover, in  memory of their former home in the Maritimes.  5. S. Florence Carlin gathering logs on the foreshore at Salmon Arm. A Rex Linford Photo courtesy  of the Ernest Doe Heritage Collection.  32 Shuswap Lake Boats  There was no wharf or moorage at Salmon Arm for a boat of any  size. The paddle wheel steamer simply ran her bow up on shore. The  crew placed a gangplank ashore and the passengers made their way  under a variety of trying conditions. Unloading the cargo was a test of  skill and brute strength. The matter of a wharf was discussed at the first  meeting of the newly elected District council on June 17,1905, about  a month after the proclamation of May 15, 1905, incorporating the  District of Salmon Arm.  The council, faced with many local problems, sought the help of  the district Liberal Association to deal with this federal matter,  pertaining to the proposed wharf. Their efforts were rewarded in  1907 when the Dominion of Canada Public Works awarded a $5,000.00  contract to W.L. Gibbard to build a wharf at Salmon Arm.  By the time the wharf was completed in the late fall, the low water  prevented any boat of making use of the new facility. The Liberal  association again used their influence with the Dominion Government, requesting help in obtaining a suitable channel to the wharf.  The Salmon Arm Observer kept its readers informed on the progress of the wharf and dredging operation:  ^December 13, 1907  The Federal Government has allotted $2,000.00 for dredging a channel at the wharf.  *January31, 1908  The Dominion Government engineer John A. Aylmer has informed the office of the  local Liberal association that the work of dredging the channel will commence as  soon as conditions permit, and the same will be completed before low water next fall.  This will be satisfactory news to those who are already figuring upon launches and  boats for this coming summer. W. Gibbard (the Wharf builder) took the levels one  day last week for the channel which is to be 150 feet wide by 800 to 1000 feet long.  Captain William Allan in charge of Dredge #309 and pile driver working in the boat channel at  Salmon Arm in 1932. Photo courtesy of R.A. Jamieson.  m Shuswap Lake Boats  A depth of six feet at low water along side the wharf will be provided.  *May 1,1908  The dredge arrived Monday afternoon under tow by the tug Ethel Ross. Our good  Liberal friends promised the wharf would be "get at able" by the time the water gets  low next fall, and thanks are due to them for so successfully keeping the needs of the  town and district before the eyes of the Powers that be —. The time required to  complete the work is said to be between three and four months.  August 14, 1908  The dredge must cease operation at the wharf for this year. Low water in the South  Thompson River has expose "The Chase Riffle" and is an impediment to river traffic.  The dredge will return to Salmon Arm in the spring.  May 21, 1909  Dredging has been done at Salmon Arm and at "The Chase Riffle", while other aids  to navigation have been provided. So there will be no difficulty in providing a new  and improved service.  The Salmon Arm Observer also kept its readers informed of the new  steamship service provided by Captain Ward and the S.S. Andover.  May 21, 1909  Navigation on the Thompson River will formally open on May 26 when Captain  Ward will institute the new running schedule of the steamer Andover. Many  improvements have been incorporated within the boat to meet the demands of  increased service. Stateroom accommodation for sixteen passengers will be comfortable and will include full meal service aboard ship.  The new service schedule will embrace all points along the river and lake between  Kamloops and Sicamous with the eastern base at Salmon Arm where an overnight  stop will be in effect. This is one of the most delightful trips in British Columbia,  there being a wealth of scenic beauty all along the route. Captain Ward feels  confident that the trip will appeal very largely to tourists, hundreds of whom will be  through the district during the summer months.  *June 4, 1909  The steamer Andoverma.de her first trip from Kamloops, arriving at the dock here  at 4 o'clock Friday afternoon. The boat left home on Wednesday at 2 p.m. but  required a considerable amount of time to arrange for firewood and the loading of  lumber from the mills around the lake. The sawmills had not been prepared for this  new service.  A number of local merchants were invited to inspect the Andoveras guests of Captain  Ward, who pointed out that when the beds are installed in the staterooms and the  painting completed throughout, he then expected a good season to follow.  *June 11, 1909  The steamer Andover left Kamloops at 7 a.m. and docked at Salmon Arm at 4 p.m.  the same day. The passengers expressed their pleasure with the accommodation  and service. They were unanimous with their praise about the scenic beauty along  the rivers and lake.  Captain Ward announced special family rates on the regular schedule of semi-  weekly service. The boat will leave Kamloops every Monday and Thursday and will  return on Tuesday and Friday. Schedules will be posted at each wharf.  Captain Ward and sons had done their best in shipbuilding and  shipping service, but the passage of time, along with road construction, ferry service and bridges indicated an end to the regular service.  The final blow was the loss of a $1,500.00 subsidy from the Federal  government in 1910, followed by the defeat of Sir Wilfrid Laurier's  Liberal government in the next year. The Liberals had supported the  west with generous allotments for boat building, wharves and maintenance including dredging, navigational lights and beacons.  34 Shuswap Lake Boats  S.S. Andover entering the boat channel at Salmon Arm. Photo courtesy of the Ernest Doe  Heritage Collection.  Sir Robert Borden lead his Conservative party to victory after a  bitter fight against the Liberal's plan of reciprocity with the United  States. While this was not the only issue, it was enough to end fifteen  years of Liberalism. How long would it take the local Conservatives to  find favour in Ottawa?  In our area, Canoe and Gleneden had petitioned for a wharf in  their respective locations at the same time that Salmon Arm had theirs  built in 1907 but nothing materialized until seven years later. The  Conservatives had been in office for three years before any action was  taken and then in 1914 a wharf was built in the spring at Canoe,  followed by another at Gleneden before the winter snow covered the  valley. World War I and an unknown future lay ahead.  The Gleneden wharf was used intermittently for commercial  purposes and allowed to deteriorate, but the local people gathered  there in the summer for diving and swimming, using the storage shed  as a change room. The water here was very clear and warm during the  glorious days of summer and still a happy memory for those who  shared the experience of an evening swim after a hot day on the hay  field so many years ago.  The wharf became the focal point again in winter, acting as a  windbreak until the water froze like a sheet of glass on the lee side,  attracting skaters of all ages. Mr. George Stirling organized a skating  35 Shuswap Lake Boats  The new government wharf at Gleneden in 1914. A Duncan photo courtesy of the Ernest Doe  Heritage Collection.  club and they built a clubhouse under the wharf, fitted with benches  and wood heater which provided a welcome warmth to the frost bitten  skaters. One bright and cold afternoon after a long skating session,  the weary flowing couples returned to their clubhouse only to find the  heater had disappeared through a large hole in the ice, a victim of its  own enthusiasm for heat. An overnight snowfall ended the skating for  that year.  The Gleneden wharf became unsafe during the 1930's and after  a few years had virtually disappeared. The remaining pilings were  declared a menace to navigation and at low water were sawn off at the  lowest exposed area.  Between 1910 and 1920 there was social unrest and a war of  destruction and death beyond comprehension. The steam paddle  wheelers on Shuswap Lake began their decline in service about the  middle of the decade and by 1920 their numbers were reduced to two  or three.  36 The Salmon Arm Foreshore:  A Recent History  by Frank Kime  Originally an ancient river bed, the Shuswap Lake System, was gouged  out of the Monashee Mountains by the action of Glaciers during the  last Ice Age. This resulted in a landscape dominated by a fiord type  lake, with steep and rock-bound shorelines. There were gentle sloping beaches, marsh-lands and mudflats where the rivers flowed into  the lake. These rivers included the Seymour into Seymour Arm, the  Anstey into Anstey Arm, the Adams into western Shuswap Lake, the  Eagle into Eastern Shuswap Lake and the Salmon into the Salmon  Arm. The rivers were proportionally few in number when considering  the over four hundred miles of shoreline of the Shuswap Lake System.  The largest of these river influxes is the Salmon River. Its  extensive delta formed by siltation dominates the Salmon Arm Bay,  making it a unique stretch of water. The shallow waters and mudflats  are a botanical treasure of marsh plants and supportive invertebrae.  As a fish-nursery it provides the ideal environment for salmon fry. It  is an extensive breeding and migratory rest habitat.  Approaching the Salmon Arm foreshore and wharf in 1932. Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson.  Frank Kime was born in Guisborough in the District of Cleveland, North Yorkshire, England, in  1923. A life-long environmentalist, he retired to Canada, choosing the Shuswap area as his  second home.  37 Salmon Arm Foreshore  The Salmon Arm Bay is slowly silting up by the action of the  Salmon River. Eventually the Bay as it is now will disappear, leaving  marsh land and small lakes. The shoreline will then extend from  Engineer's Point in the east to Sandy Point in the west.  It is unique in the interior of British Columbia. With the town of  Salmon Arm close by there exists a special geographical situation  close to a major urban area.  There has been considerable effort to preserve as much of the  original foreshore as possible while working with the municipality. In  1962 the Salmon Arm foreshore was designated a "Goose Management Area" or "Game Management Reserve" under the control of the  Fish and Wildlife Branch of the Provincial Ministry of the Environment. It is comprised of the land that is lake-side of the C.P.R. rail  tracks, and is bounded in the west by the Indian Reserve boundary or  the District Sewerage Treatment Outfall area and in the east by private  property in line with an extension from 20th Avenue.  In 1970 this area was established as a "No shooting" zone by a  District By-Law, although it had loosely been referred to as a 'Wrater-  fowl Sanctuary and No Shooting Area" for at least twenty years  previously. The District recommended that "A Public Boardwalk be  constructed to allow the public to view the geese." It further stated that  in the recent past the "Fish and Wildlife Service" had been interested  in acquiring the area as a reserve. This they could have done in 1976  Part of the Salmon Arm foreshore in 1989 closest to the city of Salmon Arm. The marina is in the  foreground.  88 Salmon Arm Foreshore  for approximately $16,500.00, but at that time funds were not available.  In 1979 studies were carried out by the Federal Ministry of  Fisheries and Oceans on the "Distribution of Salmon in the Shuswap  Lake System." This study suggested that proper management of  associated uses of the lake, and the Salmon Arm Bay in particular,  could 'ameliorate' the problems with fish habitat. They reported that  the Salmon Arm Bay, with the shallow and extensive inshore waters,  particularly at the southern end of the bay and the even summer water  temperatures were all conducive to the ideal habitat for juvenile, or  first year, salmon fry. They provided evidence that large numbers of  salmon fry migrate to these shallow waters from all around the  Shuswap Lake system sometimes as far afield as the Adams River.  In February of 1982, the Downtown Improvement Association  formed a committee to investigate the feasibility of building a 'System  of Boardwalks' across the Salmon Arm foreshore. This boardwalk was  to provide a low level footpath, following the highwater mark, to the  river mouth. It would cross the river by means of a Trestle walkway.  Their investigations included a report submitted by the Shuswap  Naturalists Club. This report explained that the Salmon Arm foreshore is one of only four areas in the Province with a nesting  population of Western Grebes. Further, with approximately 50 pairs  breeding in the colony, it was the second largest in the province.  Today, in 1990, it is the largest colony since the one in the Williams  Lake area has been wiped-out. Also one other colony on Swan Lake  near Vernon has since disappeared. Thus, besides the Salmon Arm  colony there is one at Creston.  The reason for the decline of the Western Grebe population has  much to do with the fact that it is very shy and nervous during the  breeding season, particularly at its nest. The nest itself is a floating  structure anchored to tall standing growths of Canary grass or rushes.  The nest can be easily tipped by either the disturbed bird, or the wave  action caused by power boats. The prolonged effect of the later was  what caused the elimination of the colony in the Williams Lake area.  In 1986 The Triple 'S' Development Corporation purchased  much of the property encompassing the Salmon Arm foreshore. It  proposed to construct a Harbour Front Village.  In May, 1987 the Shuswap Naturalists Club submitted to the  Annual General Meeting of the Federation of British Columbia  Naturalists a resolution asking that the appropriate government body  upgrade the designated area from 'A Goose Management Area and  No Shooting Zone' to a 'Provincial Wildlife Sanctuary and Federal  Migratory Bird Sanctuary.' This motion was carried at the meeting  and sent to the Provincial and Federal Governments. No action was  39 Salmon Arm Foreshore  taken by either level of government to implement the 'upgrading' of  the status of the area. The subject was given important publicity and  the concerns of the public were made known to the government.  In June, 1987, the Triple 'S' Development Corporation offered  for sale to the Nature Trust of British Columbia, the area of marshland  between the 10th Avenue extension and the 20th Avenue, comprising  twenty-six and a half acres. This sale also included a strip of land  bordering the lake-shore side of the Triple 'S' properties, extending  from the Indian Land Boundary in the west to the proposed 'for sale'  land in the east.  In June, 1987 a Provincial Government Technical Committee  was formed under the chairmanship of the Ministry of Environment,  Fish and Wildlife Branch. It included representatives of Federal and  Provincial Fisheries and Oceans, Ministry of Forests, and the Ministry  of Works. Their guidelines were to investigate the importance of the  area as wildlife habitat and any reasons for making it an 'Area of  Special Importance.'  They were to explore the impact the development would have on  the area and actions to be taken to minimize such impact. The result  was a report which emphasized the critical importance of the area as  a fish nursery and breeding area for the Western Grebe colony. They  noted the presence of the rarer Clark's Grebe to emphasize the  colonies' importance.  Also in June, 1987 the Salmon Arm District Council formed a  committee of business people and politicians to look into the  consequences of the proposed purchase as they would affect the town.  That same month the Triple 'S' Development Corporation formed an  Advisory Standing Committee to advise it on the ramifications of the  proposed nature area. This committee included representatives from  the Regional District, Chamber of Commerce, Tourism and Naturalists.  In November, 1987 there were a series of meetings with all the  above committees including Nature Trust and the developer. In  April, 1988 the Nature Trust purchase was completed and in May,  1988 the Salmon Arm Bay Nature Enhancement Society was formed  to assist the Wildlife Branch of the Ministry of Environment in developing the Salmon Arm foreshore as a Nature Conservancy and  viewing area. The Society was formed with a Standing Board of  Directors from the previous advisory committees. This board shaped  the future of the Society and opened it to public membership.  From August through November, 1988 there were further foreshore lands purchased from private owners by the Salmon Arm Bay  Nature Enhancement Society. These land purchases consolidated  the Nature Trust Holdings to include most of the Salmon Arm Bay  foreshore.  40 Salmon Arm Foreshore  In October, 1988 a survey of the foreshore was completed by a  biology consultant to provide a comprehensive and staged plan for  future development as a Nature Conservancy and Viewing Area. That  same month, the local native group indicated an interest in including  into the Nature Conservancy Area the foreshore under their control,  including the Salmon River mouth and its delta.  In December, 1988 the first Annual General Meeting of the  Salmon Arm Bay Nature Enhancement Society took place when the  board of directors was elected.  1890  1915  1924  1948  1956  Previous History of the Salmon Arm Foreshore  Crown Land.  Lands east of Wharf Road used as an Abattoir.  Lands west of Wharf Road used as a City Park and  lawn bowling area.  Lands east of Wharf Road owned by Sinclair and  used as grazing land.  Great Flood. City released land as City Park.  Lands east and west of Wharf Road purchased by  the Okanagan-Caribou Development Company.  41 The Enderby Coal Mines, 1904 -1932  by Art Powell  In the early years of this century there was a vision of Enderby as a  major industrial city in British Columbia. Its population was expected  to double or treble in a year. It was thought that Enderby would  become so important as to "...divert most trans-continental traffic  through the Valley...with new rail lines one envisages a time when the  Valley will be in the direct line of great streams of traffic flowing North  and South and East and West."1  What gave Enderby this tremendous pretension was coal:  "...hundreds of thousands of tons of it which may lie under Cliff  Mountain to the Shuswap River."2  George Weir, who lived near Mara, found a piece of coal float at  the foot of a side hill seven miles north of Enderby. He began  prospecting and found an exposure farther up the hill. Henry W.  Harvey and partners took up the land and let out a contract to Tom  Johnston and Joe Swallow to run a 100 foot tunnel on the vein.  Coal samples were displayed in town. The local newspaper, The  Edenograph, reported in November, 1904 that an application had been  made to purchase 8,000 acres "...and the deal with the government for  title of the land is virtually closed. At $10 an acre, this land will cost  Mr. Harvey and partners $80,000.00, so some idea can be gained of  the magnitude of the undertaken."3  On December 19, 1904, Mr. Harvey and eleven other men  established the Enderby Coal Syndicate. The following were syndicate  members or directors of the company:  Buckley, F.L.: manager of the A.R. Rogers sawmill in Enderby.  Burns, P.: a multi-millionaire meat packer in Calgary.  Fowler, C.W.: a member of Parliament.  Harvey, Henry W.: a merchant and postmaster in Enderby.  Heggie, George.: the manager of the Stepney Ranch, and later to become manager  of the Land and Agricultural Company of Canada in Vernon. In the 1930'shewas  an M.L.A.  McCarter, G.E.: Wm. Irwin and T. Kilpatrick. respectively, solicitor, purchasing  agent and superintendent for the C.P.R..  McCormick, George. M. Carlin and F.H. Hale: prominent lumbermen and sawmill  proprietors.  Padmore, F.W.: manager of the C.P.R. Hotel in Sicamous.  Tolmie, S.F.: Dominion Livestock Commissioner. He later became Minister of  Agriculture in Ottawa and then Premier of British Columbia.  Weir, George: the person who discovered the coal.  Murphy, Dennis: the company solicitor, who later became a judge of the Supreme  Court of British Columbia.  Art Powell is a free lance writer living in the Enderby District. He is a sometime researcher and  archivist at the Enderby museum.  42 Enderby Coal Mines  The syndicate partners agreed to acquire coal locations made by  other persons and to incorporate Enderby Coal Mines Ltd. Each  partner other than George Weir was to contribute $1,000.00. Upon  incorporation, each member was to transfer to the company his rights  to coal lands as well as rights acquired from others.4  The company was to have capital of $250,000.00 in shares of one  dollar each. One hundred and sixty thousand shares were given to the  syndicate for the transfer of coal rights and cash. Each member was to  receive 10,000 shares and persons who transferred coal rights were to  each receive 500 shares out of the 160,000. The balance was held in  trust.  1  Enderby Coal Mine, 1906. Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  43 Enderby Coal Mines  The Enderby Coal Mines Ltd. was incorporated January 23,1905.  An escrow agreement was dated March 20,1905. It was years later that  the company, thanks to bureaucratic procedures, acquired title to 135  acres and its shareholders never contributed more than $18,000.00.5  Some preliminary work had been done at the site. A tunnel was  dug to cross-cut the coal seam. The directors decided at their first  meeting to continue this work. Mr. Harvey, the company president,  reported at the first general meeting: "In the course of driving this  tunnel we cut through about 16 feet of coal, interspersed with bands  of clay; we had then driven some 60 or 70 feet; and finding that the  coal seam had been completely cut through, we deemed it advisable  to stop work, and await expert opinion."6  Alexander Sharpe, mining engineer to Calgary millionaire Patrick Burns, inspected the site in June, 1905 and recommended  prospecting in Logan's Gulch. His report encouraged the vision of an  industrial city based on coal:  The coal measures, very probably, have a southern outcrop just north of the town  of Enderby, and extend north to a point near George Weir's ranch, while the width  of the coal area extends from east to west across the Spallumcheen Valley, and rests  on the schists and granite mountains of either side. The central part of the coal basin  has in course of ages been eroded and worked away to its present level by the  Spallumcheen River, leaving the more elevated and stronger portion attached to the  igneous mountains of either side of the Valley, especially on the east, and between  George Weir's ranch and a point near the town of Enderby, having an area of four  to five miles, Logan's Gulch being the central and deepest part of the coal area  remaining...I would recommend some prospecting in this Gulch even with a  diamond drill if need be.7  Sharpe had samples analyzed and reported it compared favourably with other coal on the market and showed good coking qualities.  Following Sharpe's recommendation, the company set out to  prospect Logan's Gulch but found it did not have possession of the  land. It took several months to obtain possession and complete a road.  After constructing a 432 foot flume, 5,000 cubic yards of gravel were  removed to expose the bedrock.  "No coal seems were discovered," Mr. Harvey told shareholders.  "We then sent for Mr. Sharpe.. .and his verbal report.. .was that.. .he was  convinced that the seams were there, and that it would be necessary  to obtain a diamond drill to locate them."8 Unable to find a contractor, the company purchased a drill and had the seller send an expert  to supervise. His incompetence cost the company time and money.  W.H.Wall of Nanaimo, a drill operator and mining engineer of  experience, was then contracted to operate the drill at $4.00 per foot.  Two holes showed indications of coal but failed to find the seam. "It  appeared probable that with additions to the plant, to enable us to  reach greater depth, the coal seem would be tapped by the drilling of  another hole still further east," said Mr. Harvey. "The winter coming  44 Enderby Coal Mines  on, however, and our funds being almost exhausted, nothing further  could be attempted at that time."9  On the advice of Wall, the company started a 300 foot tunnel back  at Coal Gulch. To finance this the company offered members 10,000  treasury shares at 20 cents per share of which 7,150 were taken.  About 60 feet in the seam "...was encountered, having a top and  bottom lines well defined, and the coal being of excellent quality."10  Unfortunately the seam turned south and descended sharply. It was  then decided to start another tunnel at a lower point. This tunnel cut  through small seams and then Mr. Wall recommended an uptake  towards the upper tunnel. "This was done," said Mr. Harvey, "and the  roof of the seam was found, but no coal, thus demonstrating that we  were at a spot where a fault had occurred in the strata. As it was now  late in the season, and we had not only expended all the funds in our  possession, but had also incurred heavy liabilities, it was decided to  stop all work forthwith." ¬∞  Mr. Sharpe was called back. He advised no further work on the  tunnels at Coal Gulch and recommended searching Logan's Gulch  for the "...points of contact of the conglomerate rock and the vegetable shales." He would locate a site for another bore hole. Two  experienced men were sent out but the weather conditions forced  them to give up the search.  The record is unclear as to the company's acquisition of coal  rights in the Federal Railway Belt. In April, 1908, Mr. Harvey told  shareholders that the federal government had changed regulations  to permit leasing of coal lands only, but as negotiations had started  earlier, the company could purchase 640 acres. To pay the first  installment of $1,120.00 the company borrowed $575.00.  "This decision places the company in a very favourable position,  as they now have the right, on payment of the remaining three  instalments of the purchase money, to a title in fee simple of the lands;  whereas under the new regulations there would have been no security  of tenure, and a heavy rental would have been demanded," explained  Mr. Harvey. The company eventually acquired title to 135 acres.12  By the general meeting in April, 1908, the company was experiencing financial difficulties. Mr. Harvey explained:  At the time the funds became exhausted we were daily expecting to make a strike  at Coal Gulch. We were reluctant to stop the progress of the work, especially as itwas  felt that if the expected discovery was made it would enable them to dispose of the  treasury stock...and thus place the company in possession of ample funds. Legal  proceedings were taken by three of the men who had worked at Coal Gulch for  recovery of wages due them, judgment was obtained, and the Sheriff was placed in  charge of the company's plant. The total of these judgments only amounts to  $526.75, and owning to the fact that such material is not in demand in this district,  it is not likely that it would realize this amount in a forced sale; while its estimated  value is not less than $1,800.00. It is therefore very important that these judgments  45 Enderby Coal Mines  should be satisfied, and the plant released, without delay.  In view of the fact that the company's application for purchase of lands has been  accepted by the government, and that the opinions of the mining experts who have  examined the property are so favourable, your directors would recommend that  treasury stock should immediately be placed upon the market, and the proceeds  devoted, in the first place, to the liquidation of the company's liabilities, and in the  second place to the prosecution of such further development work as may be advised  by competent authority.13  Mr. Harvey also reported that the directors had decided to raise  $7,500.00 by the sale of debentures to pay off existing liabilities and  carry on further prospecting. The mortgage was registered on May 15,  1908 with F.L. Buckley of Enderby, trustee for the debenture holders.  A total of $1,600.00 was raised in debentures sold to eight shareholders, all members of the original syndicate.  In the fall of 1908, Mr. Harvey negotiated with Charles Biene-  mann of England for an option to work the property for six months  and then purchase it. This deal, subject to the assent of F.L. Buckley,  the trustee, was approved unanimously by the four shareholders  present at an extraordinary meeting on November 16, 1908.14  On March 1, 1909 five directors met in Enderby to raise the  money for the second payment to purchase the coal lands from the  government. About $1,300.00 was past due. The secretary was authorized to instruct the company's solicitor to make sight drafts for  $110.00 each from certain stockholders. There is no indication the  money was raised.  There were no further meetings of the Enderby Coal Mines Ltd.  There were internal difficulties in the management of the company,  one director left Enderby and several died.  At this point the Enderby Coal Mines Ltd. was left to expire and  its story should have ended. On February 22, 1914, the Registrar of  Joint Stock Companies dissolved the company. No returns had been  made since June 22,1908.13 But one man, with an intimate knowledge  of the company and a strong belief in the Enderby coal fields, stayed  to keep the vision alive. "I cannot get it out of my head that the coal  is there...hundreds of thousands of tons of it," wrote Graham Rosoman, Enderby's City Clerk, almost 25 years later.  At the first meeting of directors on February 17, 1905, Rosoman  was appointed auditor, six weeks before he became City Clerk. In  August of the same year he was appointed secretary-treasurer at the  salary of $30.00 per month, a post he held until his resignation on  April 10, 1908. A month after he resigned, he purchased five shares  in the company.  It appears the company was forgotten for almost ten years.  During the summer of 1918, R.G. Harvey, a real estate agent in  Vancouver, placed before clients a report written by Rosoman and  wanted to know "...a price at which your people would part with the  46 Enderby Coal Mines  Graham Rosoman, Secretary/Treasurer of the Enderby Coal Mines and City Clerk of Enderby.  Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  property, or such other proposition as they may make towards the  development of same."16  Rosoman also wrote to George Heggie, a former director, who  replied he was pleased to learn "...there may be something after all  come out of the wreck of our old Enderby Coal Mines and I congratulate you on having such a good memory. As one of the debenture  holders I greatly appreciate the trouble you are taking in this matter  and trust that your efforts to resuscitate interest in the Enderby Coal  Fields will eventually be rewarded in some tangible way and that in the  meantime your 'pro bono publico' spirit may not be over taxed."17  Two months later the controller of the federal Department of the  Interior wrote that the full purchase price appeared to have been paid  on the company's land but a patent had not been issued since the land  had not been surveyed. It was intended that the land be surveyed as  soon as a surveyor was in the district. Two years later, in August, 1920,  Heggie forwarded a cheque for $30.50 to complete the purchase.  Rosoman wrote, "I think...that as soon as the patent has been issued  the company will be reorganized so as to be in a position either to  negotiate a transfer or to operate the property."18  It appears that during the 1920's Mr. Rosoman, under the title  'Acting Secretary, Enderby Coal Mines Ltd.' filed coal mining returns  with the federal government.  By 1930 S.F. Tolmie, a syndicate member, had become premier  47 Enderby Coal Mines  of British Columbia and still owned more than 30,000 shares. A letter  to him from Mrs. Elinor E. Harvey, the widow of the company  president, probably initiated a survey of the Enderby coal fields by a  geologist with the federal Department of Mines.19  Dr. C.E. Cairnes visited the area in 1930 and was sent back in 1931  for a closer inspection. In preparation for Cairnes' visit, Heggie and  Rosoman arranged a guide to the old works. Cairnes spent two days  in the Enderby area late in September, 1931. Afterwards, Rosoman  was optimistic:  "I think it was a stroke of very good fortune that we were able to get Dr. Cairnes to  go over the ground. His report, when made, will be on file at Ottawa, and later, I  understand, will be included in the official publications of the department; and, if  of a favourable nature, it will without doubt go a long way towards bringing about  a deal with some suitable party for development and operation."20  We do not have Dr. Cairnes' report, but we do know how George  Heggie reacted to it. Mr. Heggie, who had supported and encouraged  Rosoman through the years, had had enough: "...I have neither the  means nor the desire to delve into those mountains for a commodity  which an expert geologist like Dr. Cairnes tells us cannot be found in  sufficient volume to justify the cost of going after."21  A chap named Bousfield had found coal on his property at the  foot of the mountain and this event reinforced Graham Rosoman's  belief in the Enderby coal fields. His answer to Dr. Cairnes' report was  a three page letter to George Heggie on May 27, 1932:  "As you will no doubt remember, the great trouble with the old company's  operations was that they were from the first carried on at too high a point. The  recommendation of the experts was always to 'try lower down.' Even the drilling was  too high, and the last advice was that they should understand that the small seams  encountered in the drilling indicated the presence of larger seams lower down.  Well, here is Bousfield at the lowest possible point—practically at the foot of the  mountain and on a level with the nearby farms and the road which serves them (so  he tells me) ...with a thirty-two inch seam. The presence of such a seam bears out the  statements of the engineers. Sir A. Stepney's engineer, if you remember, said the  whole mountain was underlaid with coal..."millions of tons of it!" Doubtless, below  Bousfield's present seam there are others, larger ones, and finally, the main seam."22  Graham Rosoman never lost his faith. At the end of 1935 he  wrote: "In spite of some people's adverse opinions, I believe the coal  is there, and that it can be got at quite easily by going after it in the  right place and in the right way." His last written words on Enderby  coal were in 1942: "While nothing conclusive was arrived at by the late  company, we Enderby people do think the indications are good  enough to warrant further investigation."23  That investigation came in the early 1950's, but that's another  story.  1 Enderby Museum Archives 988—204-21B and 988-204-24G.  2 Ibid. 988-204-25E.  3 The Edenograph, November 19, 1904.  «"Enderby Museum Archives 988-204-01 through 988-204-27.  48 History of the Agriculture Canada  Research Station, Summerland, B.C.  by Dr. D.V. Fisher  The following is the text of speech given July 30,1989 on the occasion  of the celebration of the 75th Anniversary of the Summerland  Research Station and the 100th Anniversary of the British Columbia  Fruit Growers Association.  Good morning Ladies and Gentlemen, boys and girls, and our  many honoured guests. Today we are celebrating an important event.  Seventy-five years ago, in 1914, the Dominion Experimental Station as  it was then called, commenced operation. The reason for this development was that it was learned in the late 1800's and early 1900's that  this south-central part of British Columbia with its excellent climate,  held great potential for agriculture, both crops and livestock. The establishment of the Station was largely due to the foresight of a few  progressive fruit growers who realized the value of experimental work  in solution of orchard and other agricultural problems. The work of  the Station followed the pattern of earlier stations in other parts of  Canada going back to the Central Experimental Farm established in  Ottawa in 1887. Wherever an Experimental Farm was established, any  agricultural enterprise was explored which showed potential for  benefiting the agricultural community. Summerland was no exception. Early experiments covered forage and grain crops, vegetables,  floriculture, tobacco, poultry, swine, sheep, bees, in addition to fruit  crops.  This Experimental Station commenced operations with Mr. R.H.  Helmer, a successful farmer, appointed as its first superintendent.  The land, obtained from the Department of Indian Affairs, consisted  of 405 acres of pine gullies and sagebrush, much the same in appearance as the land immediately south of the Station. Later additions  consisted of the acquisition of the 50 acre Antoine Pierre property  south of the Trout Creek bridge on Trout Creek Point, and later a  strip of land between the Main Station and the Virus Station, acquired  in an involved negotiation between Federal Indian Affairs and the  Provincial and Federal governments. One of the benefits of this deal  resulted in the Province establishing the now famous Sunoka Beach.  Total acreage today is about 800 acres, of which some 200 are farmed.  What a change today from the beginning! Because there was no  water on the terrain presently occupied by the Station, the first  Dr. Donald Fisher arrived at the Summerland Research Station in 1933. He became Head of  Pomology and later Director of the Station until his retirement in 1975. He was the co-ordinator  of the publication History of Fruit Growing in the United States of America and Canada, 1860-1976.  49 Summerland Research Station  buildings were, of necessity, located along Trout Creek by the old  back road bridge, northwest of the present operational area. The  superintendent had a rented house and temporary housing was set up  for an office and a shelter provided for horses.  The first work on land preparation commenced in spring of 1915  with the help of forty locally recruited residents and 10 horsepower.  By this I mean five teams of horses, who with the hired help had, by  the end of 1915, cleared 125 acres for crop use. This included  construction of roads, wooden flumes and concrete water distribution weirs. It is interesting to note that horses were used until the first  tractors were obtained in 1946 and 1947. The forty locally hired men,  many of whom remained with the Station for long periods of service,  included talented carpenters, painters and teamsters. Some of these  early workers were later to become prominent Summerland citizens.  Wages varied, but averaged around 25 cents per hour for a ten hour  day.  Water Supply  The key to success for the whole project was water. An early  agreement was reached with the Municipality of Summerland to  transport water over Trout Creek Canyon for irrigation and domestic  use. The supply from the Municipality, however, soon proved inadequate and a 75 H.P. pump was installed by the Station upstream on  Trout Creek above the Canadian Pacific Railway bridge. Because local  Official Opening of Okanagan Lake pumping station for Experimental Farm in 1932. Photo  courtesy of the Summerland Research Station.  50 Summerland Research Station  residents felt the Station was usurping their water, the Station, in  1924, constructed a dam on Crescent Lake at the 4,500 foot elevation,  to augment the irrigation water available for the Summerland area.  The water from Crescent Lake flowed eventually to Headwaters No.  1 Lake and then into Trout Creek, down to town and local orchards.  As the Station's water needs expanded to an even greater degree,  a 150 H.P. electric pump was installed in 1932 at the present pumphouse  location on Okanagan Lake. Part way up the hill a 40 LLP. booster  pump carried the water to the highest cultivated areas. In 1964 and  1965 the Station's irrigation system again was upgraded with the lake  pumphouse housing three 175 H.P. pumps which raised the water  into the present concrete reservoir located above the Station at an  elevation of 570 feet above lake level. Thus the Station's water needs  now became adequately served.  Buildings  Building programs in the era 1919 to 1925 comprised the old  square three-storey main office at the top of the hill, the Plant Pathology building and the various homes for resident staff. The  Superintendent's residence (the White House) was built in 1924-25  at an estimated cost of $30,000.00. Although not used for that purpose  since 1960, it since has become successively the library, the administration offices, and a museum.  In this era (1919-1925) also were built the Horticulture Building,  later enlarged for Fruit Processing, the boarding house for single  'ñ†BBS  Orchard Spraying Research Station 1930's. Photo courtesy of the Summerland Research Station.  51 Summerland Research Station  seasonal workers (board and room $25.00 per month), a tennis court,  skating rink, mini golf course on the dry farm (now the budwood  orchard), and the workshop, horse and cow barns, silos and greenhouses.  The old Horticulture Barn, in 1947, was torn down to its foundations, enlarged and re-designed for offices and labs for the Pomology  Section. Toward the end of World War II the Plant Pathology Virus  Station was established and later, in 1960, the present complex with  greenhouses built. A spacious new Entomology Building was constructed on Highway 97 next to Trout Creek Bridge when the staff  under Dr. James Marshall transferred from Vernon to temporary  housing in 1945 and later moved into their new quarters in 1947. Over  a period of years the old Station greenhouse potting shed gradually  was converted to the Vegetable Building. This building now is known  as Pomology Extension and is headquarters for the British Columbia  Fruit Growers Association (B.C.F.G.A.) Budwood Program. In 1957  the brick Soils Building was constructed as the intended nucleus of a  main station office-lab complex. The Animal Science Building was  erected in 1960-61 to serve the needs of an expanded dairy cattle  program; mainly concerned with solving the problem of bloat in  cattle. It later became the Plant Pathology and Chemistry Building.  As motor transport improved and the need for resident staff and  foremen lessened, all residential property except the White House  Garden and Superintendent's House at Experimental Farm, Summerland, B.C.  Photo courtesy of Dorothy Fisher from a postcard by Lumb Stocks.  52 Summerland Research Station  gradually either was sold for removal or torn down.  Finally, construction on the new Station laboratory-office- administration complex commenced in 1985 and the building opened  in 1987. This edifice houses most staff and station research operations  in one location except for personnel operating from the new adjacent  General Services Building. The magnificent main building is the envy  of horticultural scientists the world over and houses, in addition to  Research Station staff, Plant Protection staff formerly located in  Penticton.  Staff  It is totally impossible in the time at my disposal to go into detail  regarding staff and important scientific accomplishments. Suffice it  to say that I feel honoured today to have been asked to present a brief  history of the programs of this institution with which I first became  associated as a "rookie" graduate in Agriculture from the University  of British Columbia in 1933. Besides myself, there are still seven  persons living in Summerland who were on staff at that time; namely  F.E. (Ted) Atkinson, G. Ewart Woolliams, T.B. (Tommy) Lott, Wilfred  King, John and Charlena Manning and Jim May. I believe Wilf King  commenced employment in 1925!  The staff of the Station for the first few years consisted solely of  the Superintendent, R.H. Helmer. Then in 1919, D.G. Denny was  appointed as Poultryman, and in 1920 A.J. Mann, to be in charge of  Orchard trees planted 1916 with corn inter-crop 1923. Photo courtesy of the Summerland  Research Station.  53 Summerland Research Station  field husbandry and forage crops and later tobacco. In 1921 R.C.  (Dick) Palmer became Assistant Superintendent in Horticulture and  later made a name for himself as fruit breeder and initiator of the  dwarf fruit tree and fruit harvesting and storage programs. In 1921,  H.R. (Harold) McLarty joined Science Service to be the first Plant  Pathologist. (Harold passed away only last year.)  In 1924 R.H. Helmer resigned and was replaced as superintendent by W.T. Hunter. Although a horticulturist, Mr. Hunter quickly  became interested in livestock and it was he who started the famous  Jersey herd. In 1925 W.M. (Bill) Fleming was hired to look after  experimental work in vegetables and floriculture. When Mr. Hunter  left the Station in 1931, animal husbandry was added to Mr. Fleming's  duties. In 1926 G.E. (Ewart) Woolliams joined the Plant Pathology  staff as vegetable disease specialist and in 1928, J.C. Roger was added  to Plant Pathology to work on crown rot, fire blight and other  disorders. Also in 1928, J.E. (Ed) Britton, a Kelowna high school  agriculture teacher, was appointed to look after stone fruit research  and bees, leaving Mr. Palmer to work on apples and pears. In 1929 the  first work on fruit processing was started with F.E. Atkinson engaged  to work on fruit dehydration. He was aided in 1931 with the hiring of  C.C. (Charlie) Strachan to work as Chemist.  In 1931, J.C. (Jack) Wilcox was appointed under Mr. McLarty to  work on a serious apple disease known as corky core and dieback. (In  1936 Mr. Wilcox became Soil Specialist with the Experimental Farm).  Judging Jersey Cows about 1930 at the Experimental Farm. Photo courtesy of the Summerland  Research Station.  54 Summerland Research Station  Also in the year 1931, T.B. (Tommy) Lott was appointed to work with  Mr. McLarty on tree virus disorders.  When R.C. Palmer was appointed Superintendent in 1932, the  need was apparent for additional professional staff in Pomology  (Fruit Science) and D.V. (Don) Fisher and F.N. (Frank) Hewetson  were appointed to work on fruit storage and fruit tree rootstocks  respectively.  At this point I should make note of the succession of Superintendents/Directors who followed R.H. Helmer, 1914-23. They were W.T.  Hunter, 1923-32; R.C. Palmer, 1932-53; T.H. Anstey, 1953-58; C.J.  Bishop, 1958-59; C.C. Strachan, 1959-70; D.V. Fisher, 1971-74; G.C.  Russell, 1975-84; D.M. Bowden, 1985-88. The recently appointed  Director, 1989, is Dr. J. Dueck.  Following World War II great changes took place in buildings,  staff enlargement, and amalgamation in 1959 of Science Service units  (Plant Pathology, Entomology, Chemistry and Bacteriology) with the  Experimental Farms Service. Professional staff, which in 1945 consisted of eleven persons, increased to eighteen in 1953, and with the  inclusion of the Entomology staff, by 1960 amounted to thirty-six.  From 1959 onward the Station was designated as the Summerland  Research Station, with an enlarged number of Sections set up to work  on specific areas, i.e. Entomology, Fruit Processing, Soils, etc. At times  the total number of employees has numbered as high as 125; at  present it is about 110.  Experimental Station office and all Station Staff in 1923. Photo courtesy of the Summerland  Research Station.  55 Summerland Research Station  Social Aspects  The work of the Station was received enthusiastically from the  beginning. In fact, the first field day was held on July 21, 1916, and  teams of horses were used to pull out any cars stuck in the mud or that  were unable to climb the steep grades. The beautiful ornamental area  first conceived in 1916 soon became a major attraction and served as  a picnicking area, together with the facilities of the old Log Cabin  which, for reasons unknown, was removed in the 1960's. The late Dr.  Palmer, and later, Lyall G. Denby, added to, developed, enhanced  and perfected the present ornamental area for which the Station is  justly famous.  In the 1920's and well into the 1930's the annual "Farm Picnic"  was a major agricultural and social event attended by as many as 4,000  persons. At the Farm picnics there were numerous displays for public  viewing set up in a spacious marquee, cattle judging, visits to experimental plots and animal projects, and baseball games.  Other large gatherings at the Station happened in 1964, celebrating the Stations's first fifty years; a large field day in 1966 recognizing  fifty years of Pomology (Fruit Science) and in 1979 a banquet and  display recognizing the fifty year contribution of the Food Processing  Section. Finally, in 1987 with the opening of the present new building,  an excellent detailed account of the Station's history was published,  recording events from 1914 to 1985. The author was W.W. Fleming.  At one time there were eight families living on the Station as this  was standard practice on Experimental Farms and Stations across  Canada. Among these were indispensable employees required to be  on hand to look after cattle, poultry, greenhouses and gardens. The  large requirement for seasonal summer and some winter help made  necessary a boarding house, which at times, accommodated over  twenty single men. The boarding house included one long sleeping  room nicknamed the "Maternity Ward". Because of lack of auto  transport these men organized their own recreation on the Station.  This included playing golf on a mini 18-hole course on the main lawn,  tennis, skating and ping pong. Some great pranks were played on  each other at different times by the "inmates" of the boarding house  and some very serious bridge games were common. By the time I  arrived in 1933 there were four cars and one truck on the Station! The  truck was a 1928 Dodge, about 60 H.P.  The official Kettle Valley Railway train stop for the Experimental  Station was named Winslow, where incoming cargo was offloaded and  milk picked up each morning for delivery to a Penticton dairy.  Similarly, persons travelling west or east as passengers had the privilege of flagging the train. The overnight trip to Vancouver, for  example, involved standing on the track and flagging the train at  56 Summerland Research Station  11:30 p.m. The Engineer was known on occasion to say things he had  not learned in Sunday School.  Important Accomplishments of the Summerland Research Station  The accomplishments of the Station are so numerous and of  such importance to the agricultural industry, it is impossible for me  to go into detail, so I will only mention some highlights.  The plant pathologists, working cooperatively with pomologists,  discovered that boron application cured a serious apple disorder  (corky core), which threatened to wipe out the industry. Further work  showed that magnesium, zinc, and at times calcium and manganese,  were deficient in soils, and trees required chemical application of  these elements by foliar sprays.  The work on viruses, especially "Little Cherry", has saved the  cherry industry and prevented other viruses in different fruits from  spreading. The cause of crown rot was discovered and progress in  prevention is going ahead. The need for testing old apple soils for  replant disorder has resulted in treatments that allow new plantings  to grow successfully.  Fruit variety testing has resulted in many new kinds being introduced. Breeding of new fruits has resulted in development of Spartan  and Shamrock apples, Van and Sam cherries. World history was made  by the introduction of the first self-pollinating sweet cherries: Stella,  Lapins and others. The Summerland Red strain of Mcintosh has been  standard since the 1940's, and the work of the Station with spur-type  strains of Mcintosh is well recognized.  The controlled atmosphere storage procedures for apples and  pears, and tests for harvest maturity of different fruits developed by  the Station are the standards of the industry. The Station has been  very influential in promoting information on handling and training  of apples on dwarfing rootstocks. The chemical thinning and growth-  regulator programs used by this industry were developed at Summer-  land. The Station recommendations for post-harvest calcium dipping  of Spartan and some other apple varieties has virtually solved the flesh  breakdown problem.  One of the most important programs on the Station has dealt  with methods for determining soil moisture content and efficient use  of ground, overtree, microjet and drip irrigation systems, the results  of which have been of great value to the industry. Linked with water  and mineral conservation has been the valuable contributions on  testing of herbicides and plastic ground covers. The B.C.F.G.A.  Certified Budwood Program was developed at Summerland and virus  indexing of propagating material is monitored constantly.  Integrated insect control programs have played an important  part in increasing effectiveness and reducing cost of insect control.  57 Summerland Research Station  The program for controlling codling moth by release of sterile adults  has been proven effective and the SIR (Sterile Insect Release) program is presently in process of being implemented to eliminate  codling moth from the B.C. Interior.  The development, improvement and universal use of concentrate sprayers by combined efforts of entomologists and engineers has  saved the industry millions of dollars. Similar work on construction  and introduction of bulk bins has proven a boon to growers in time-  saving and reduction of bruising.  Work in fruit processing conducted cooperatively with industry  resulted in many small canneries being started. It also paved the way  for introduction of Vitamin C fortified apple and other juices, utilization of cull fruits, fruit dehydration and canning procedures, and  aided the wine industry in evaluating fermentation and testing procedures.  The animal scientists discovered that the chemical agent, 18S  protein, was responsible for death of cattle from bloat and established  that strains of alfalfa low in 18S protein existed, and could through  breeding, result in improved alfalfa varieties. In earlier years the  Jersey herd established outstanding, and in some cases, world records  for milk production. Jersey breeding stock was widely distributed.  Prior to 1940 when the program was discontinued, Summerland  White Wyandotte poultry set enviable egg production records and  supplied British Columbia with outstanding breeding stock.  Celebrations of this kind being held today are important because  they cause significant milestones to be recorded. These are times to  take stock - to see where we have been, where we are, and hopefully  where we are heading. Although Summerland Research Station is  thought of as a local institution, it also has to be recognized as part of  a nation-wide network of similar facilities dedicated to solving problems of agricultural and agriculturally related industries. While it is  one of the very few of the forty-three Agriculture Canada Research  Stations dedicated to a single industry, it nevertheless serves national  programs in food processing, fruit breeding, soils, pest control and  engineering.  The Station also, for many years has been recognized as a tree  fruit research centre of international stature since visiting scientists  from other parts of the world invariably include Summerland as one  of their stop-overs to discuss ongoing research with local scientists.  Local researchers also exchange sabbaticals with colleagues from  other research centers. Because of this local, national and international mandate, the future role of the Summerland Research Station  seems assured.  Footnote: As of August 1989, the Research Station property has been officially incorporated into  the District of Summerland.  58 A History of Television in the Okanagan  by Mike Roberts  The Beginning  A commercial television station in the Okanagan was the dream of the  owners of Radio Stations CKOKin Penticton, CKOV in Kelowna and  CJIB in Vernon. Each investigated the feasibility of operating a station  in their own community, but resolved to combine forces to create one  station, centrally located in Kelowna, to serve all areas. The sight  chosen for the offices was Alex Smith's Garage on Leon Avenue and  that's where our offices are today.  In May, 1957, Roy Chapman, then co-owner of CKOK Radio in  Penticton was appointed General Manager of CHBC. He retained  Tom Wyatt as Chief Engineer. Actually Wyatt had already completed  the job of assessing transmitter sights two years earlier. Working for  R.C.A. Victor of Montreal, Wyatt had climbed all the mountains  surrounding the Okanagan Valley and placed transmitters on top of  them. He then drove through the various communities to see how well  the signal could be received.  According to Wyatt, all that information was sent back to Montreal where the staff at Head Office constructed an actual topographic  model of the Okanagan with a red light where any transmitter could  be placed. When the room was darkened the engineers studied the  glow from the lights and their findings verified Tom Wyatt's readings.  That model is still squirreled away in the basement of the R.C.A. Lab  in Montreal.  Dick Sharpe came to television from The Penticton Herald; where  he had been for 18 years and held the position of General Manager.  He took up his post as Sales Manager at CHBC. He became President  and General Manager after Roy Chapman's death in 1976. Dick  retired in 1985 and died in the fall of 1986.  Russ Richardson was a member of the original 12. He came from  CKOK to become CHBC's News Editor, Program Director and Film  Editor.  Norm Williams, now with SILK-FM in Kelowna joined in July of  1957 as continuity editor, promotion and production manager. He  also edited the Teleguide Magazine for all those years.  Other members of the original 12 that started CHBC were Jill  Lennie, Jean Fleming, Stan Lettner, Reino Kokkila, and a man known  Mike Roberts has worked at CHBC in Kelowna since 1973. This article is the text of the speech  he gave to the OHS Annual General Meeting in May 1988.  59 CHBC Television  in radio circles as "the happy pappy", Al Jordan. They all have moved  away.  Of the original 12 only Tom Wyatt remains although Russ  Richardson was called out of retirement to host the seniors program,  "The Plus Generation".  Back in 1957 the price tag for putting together a T.V. station was  a quarter of a million dollars. The operating license was granted by the  governing body at the time, the CBC not the Board of Broadcast  Governors or the CRTC but the CBC.  A Unique Television Station  Although Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton were the original  communities to receive the CHBC signal, other communities quickly  erected relay transmitters, often with the help of CHBC technicians.  Today 27 transmitters carry CHBC to 55 communities.  "CHBC Television is the most unique private television station in  Canada", said the promotional material when CHBC went on the air  on September 21, 1957.  Officers of CHBC TV on Sept. 21 st, 1957, the first day of operation. Front row (1 to r) Dick Sharpe,  Vice President; Ray Chapman, President; Tom Wyatt, Chief Engineer. Back row (1 to r) Ken  Veale, Engineer; Norm Williams, Sales/Promotion; Russ Richardson, Chief Announcer. They  each wore several hats and when they were not involved in the actual operation of the Station,  they were out on the street soliciting advertising and other support. Photo courtesy CHBC TV  60 CHBC Television  What made it so unique was that in order to link the three major  communities of the Okanagan together, CHBC had to utilize three  transmitters to broadcast over three separate channels in Vernon,  Kelowna and Penticton.  The master transmitter atop Blue Grouse Mountain broadcast  on Channel Two to Kelowna and beamed the signal via microwave to  a mountain top transmitter near Penticton to broadcast on Channel  13 and similarly to Vernon to broadcast on Channel 7.  Prior to CHBC going on the air the only television received in the  valley was a reflector-type cable service in Penticton and Kelowna. An  aerial picked up a signal from Spokane and it was distributed to a few  homes in both communities.  If you wanted to watch television in 1957, you had to watch  CHBC.  A CHBC First -July 19, 1958  It was in July of 1958 that CHBC undertook its first mobile live  telecast. The occasion was the opening of the Kelowna Floating  Bridge and her Royal Highness, Princess Margaret, was going to do  the honors. The fact that CHBC didn't own a mobile telecast facility  didn't stop the intrepid 13. Chief Engineer Tom Wyatt, moved studio,  control room and transmitter to a vantage point 100 yards from the  bridge. An immense task given the heavy tube-type equipment of the  day. To quote Roy Chapman, the General Manager of CHBC, "This  Norm Williams filming a musical groups presentation. Photo courtesy CHBC TV.  61 CHBC Television  will be a major achievement for all of us at Okanagan Television, and,  we feel, for the people of the Okanagan Valley. This live telecast will  mean that...others unable to attend the bridge opening ceremonies  will have 'front row seats' for this once in a lifetime event."  Russ Richardson, the program director confirmed that this  historic telecast would commence at 11:30 a.m. and continue until the  ceremonies were completed.  Viewers from Salmon Arm to Penticton joined the ten thousand  people in City Park who saw Princess Margaret cut the ribbon and  open "The Bridge that couldn't be built", the "Most unique bridge in  the commonwealth".  Sales manager, Dick Sharpe, estimated that 95% of the population of the Okanagan saw the telecast. In 1958 that amounted to 95  thousand viewers.  Live Programming  A year to the day later the official opening of Kelowna's first  enclosed shopping mall, Shops Capri, was telecast. These live broadcasts and others done from Penticton and Vernon necessitated the  Ray Chapman, the President, wearing his other hat as the 'weatherman'. Photo courtesy CHBC  TV.  62 CHBC Television  bending of a number of broadcasting rules. CHBC simply bypassed its  main Kelowna control room and set up a micro-wave link at the  location of the live telecast. Then by reversing the transmitters  Penticton or Vernon became the base transmitter. What put an end  to this technological innovation was color telecasting. A better signal  was necessary for color than could be attained with the micro-wave  units they'd been using.  Although live remote broadcasts got all the attention, the early  days were famous for the live programming that originated in CHBC  studios. The Lions Locker Room, a nightly visit with the B.C. Lions, who  held their training camp in Kelowna from 1954 to 1958 was very  popular. Moe Young was the Sports Director of the time. Now I don't  remember Y.A. Tittle ever playing for the B.C. Lions but he appears  on the set in one of the publicity photos. Did you catch that shot of  Herb Capozzi talking with CHBC's Doug Mcllraith. The studio for  that show was actually the top of the city park grandstand. Tom Wyatt,  the master technician, also acted as the Movie Tone News style cameraman.  Her Royal Highness, Princess Margaret, prepares to open the Kelowna Floating Bridge in July  1958. CHBC was there to cover this historic event even though they did not have a mobile telecast  facility. Photo courtesy of CHBC TV. CHBC Television  Okanagan Farm and Garden with Mike Oswell and later Bob  Wilson of the B.C. Department of Agriculture was another popular  live weekly program. We've had a lot of animals in our studios over the  years but Elite must have been the biggest and the most aromatic.  Add to these programs Pete Stoltz and his Music Pals sponsored by  Mc and Mc Hardware Stores...Don Eccleston and the 3RsEducational  Program...of course The News from 6:30 to 6:40 Monday through  Friday with Russ Richardson... Weather from 6:40 to 6:45 with Shell  Weatherman and Station General Manager Roy Chapman...Ten  Minutes of Sports... Bank of Knowledge... Meet the People, a half hour every  Thursday night with Roy Chapman.. .but no show was more successful  than Romper Room with Miss Betty. 6,000 children and their mothers  attended four personal appearances of Miss Betty at sponsor' s premises.  These are just some of the programs produced by CHBC Television in the early days. But if you'll think back there weren't as many  hours of telecasting in the beginning. CHBC was on the air from 4:30  a.m. to 11:15 p.m. Monday through Saturday and from 1:30 p.m. to  11:15 p.m. Sunday.  CHBC Goes Color  A major milestone was passed in 1966 when CHBC began to  broadcast some programs in color. Supplements appeared in all the  valley papers to announce that CHBC was going color September 1st,  1966.  By 1967 staff at CHBC had grown from the original 12 to 33 and  the station was getting ready to make a major leap forward. The new  brick face was just a year away., .color cameras were moving into our  studios so that local productions would be seen in color...and video  tape was on the horizon. Prior to videotape the only way a program  could be recorded was to do it all on film, quite an expensive  undertaking, or to kinescope the video as it was shot. This was done  by the major networks but not by stations the size of CHBC.  Micro-Wave and Satellites  It's interesting to remember in this day and age of live programming from virtually anywhere in the world that it wasn't always so.  Today we turn on the set and watch a live newscast from Toronto  thanks to satellite transmission. Before satellites, programs were  beamed via micro-wave links but the national micro-wave link wasn't  completed until 1958. That meant that programs had to be shipped  to CHBC on film. Hockey games arrived a week late and the National  News a day late. The CBC had special high speed planes that had one  job...carry the film of The National News with Earl Cameron across the  64 CHBC Television  country as quickly as possible. Local stations would pick up the film at  the airport and load it onto their own projectors. Somehow it didn't  seem too great an imposition in those days but you wouldn't stand for  it now.  Personal Television History  My first job in television was at CHEK-TV in Victoria in May of  1972. At that time they had one giant video tape machine and just  black and white studio cameras. There was a color camera on the film  chain so CHEK could telecast color commercials but we weren't in  color from the studio.  I remember vividly getting a phone call from Roy Chapman in  August of 1973 asking me if I'd like to fly up to Kelowna to see the  operation and maybe work for CHBC. He told me there were color  cameras and video tape equipment here so I said I would. It was  August 19th. I left Vancouver in a drizzling rain and arrived in  Kelowna in the blazing sun. The temperature was 95 degrees and the  hills were brown. I took photos back to show my wife and to say she was  underwhelmed was a not inaccurate assessment. But the people were  young and enthusiastic. I would be doing sports and a weekly documentary program called Focus and I was just supposed to keep at it  until they told me to stop.  They've told me to change gears a couple of times but never to  stop. I have to say that I can't imagine a job that has had more  challenge, variety, or fun associated with it. Not much money...oh but  honey...ain't we got fun.  I did Focus from 1973 to 1979. Over those years we did documentaries on uranium mining, the Chinese in Kelowna, historic sights like  Father Pandosy's Mission, the Old Grist Mill, The O'Keefe Ranch and  many others...We had Christmas programs with local choirs that were  blessed by unbelievable good fortune and good humour. We've had  all the politicians Canada could supply from Pierre Trudeau to John  Crosby. Great authors like Farley Mowat and Pierre Burton...Great  photographers like Yosef Karsh and Freeman Patterson.  I've also done a late night talk show called Nightwatch. It was the  last show at night so sometimes it went long if we had great guests.  That's where we started to use local musicians. There was even more  music on Okanagan Live, a noon hour talk show that had three  interviews, a music segment, news, weather and sports every day. Russ  Richardson was doing Let's Visit, an afternoon talk show.  We've had enumerable news directors. Mark Jan Vrem was here  when I arrived. There have also been Tim Morris, Duncan Speight,  Tom Walters and Rob Duffus but I have scrupulously avoided that  position. For a period of six years I was sports director but I managed  65 CHBC Television  to get rid of that job a little over a year ago to become a feature  producer once again.  The Challenge of Local Television  The challenge in local television is to be accountable to the  people who allow you into their home every night but to do the job in  such a way that you look as good as the big guys with the big budgets.  One Vancouver television station has as many persons in its news  department as we have in our entire station. When you go through the  channels I hope that you notice us because we're bringing you local  material, not material of a lower quality.  Today CHBC employs 60 people and if you drop around 342  Leon Avenue you'll note some major renovations are taking place. It  just signals the beginning of a new era in television that will see CHBC  grow, bring in a weekend news operation and increase the number of  locally produced shows.  Now in addition to the four newscasts a day we have programs like  Rattlebagfor the children, a silver medal winner at this years Can Pro  competition., The Plus Generation for retirees and Gold Trails and Ghost  Towns for history buffs, another silver winner. In production is year  two of Gold Trails, a new music program that is ajoint project of CHBC  and several other B.C. Television stations, and in the discussion stage  is a news magazine show, a weekend news program and undoubtedly  programs that I haven't been told about. The addition of these  programs will result in addition to our staff.  Today  Film cameras have been replaced by mobile video cameras for  news gathering and program production.  Programs that originate out of the station are to a large extent  picked up off satellite these days.  The news department utilizes satellite feeds from the three major  American networks plus two CBC network feeds daily. This is why you  can sometimes see the same story on our news at 5:30 as you see an  hour later on one of the American stations or perhaps even at 10:00  when The National comes on.  CHBC Television is a privately owned CBC affiliate. We derive the  vast majority of our revenue from the sale of commercial time. We are  not supported by our tax dollars directly. It is true that we carry  programs produced by the CBC which your tax dollars pay for but the  programs we produce or buy are paid for from revenue we generate.  We have an agreement with the CBC to carry specific programs.  Otherwise the programs we present to you are either produced by us  66 CHBC Television  or purchased by us and other small television stations in a loose  network called BC Interior Television.  Remember when fire halls used coded blasts on their fire alarms  to tell the volunteers where the fire was. Well, as you know CHBC is  just across the street from the downtown Kelowna firehall. They used  to call their firemen out with a horn on the top of their building. They  also used to blast it at 6:00 p.m. every nightjust as our news reader was  saying good evening.  The CHBC studios have undergone modernization over the  years but they remain on the site of the Smith Garage building that was  purchased in 1957.  !*L.aGA#  *iir  o^#  |{  CHBC Studios at 342 Leon, Kelowna in May 1990.  67 North Enderby Community Clubs  by Sylvia Carlton  In the North Enderby district there are two community clubs that will  reach special anniversaries in the year 1990. They are the North  Enderby Ladies' Club (N.E.L.C.) and the North Enderby Residents'  Association (N.E.R.A.)  The North Enderby Ladies' Club was organized in 1940, primarily to do Red Cross war work. Mrs. F. Carbert suggested its formation  and many women of the district readily agreed to the beginning of a  club to do whatever possible for the service men and women.  The first meeting of the N.E.L.C. was held on March 14th, 1940  at the Frank Carbert home, and Mrs. Carbert became the first  president.  The ladies met every week to do Red Cross sewing and knitting  and often carried work home with them to be completed in spare  moments stolen from their busy home schedules. They knitted sox,  mitts, sweaters, wool throws, etc. and sewed such things as pyjamas,  gowns, quilts and surgical dressings. At one meeting they worked on  'shelter guilts' and 'Pneumonia jackets'. Long lists, found in old  N.E.L.C. minutes of the supplies sent overseas through the Red Cross  reveal how busy the women were and how very much they accomplished. They also packed parcels of food and other articles to be sent  to the boys who had enlisted from North Enderby. These parcels  contained such things as tea, sugar, honey, chocolate bars, candy,  razor blades, cigarettes, and soap. Letters found among the club's  records show just how very much these parcels were appreciated.  As well as doing everything possible for the service men and  women, the club responded to any need that they became aware of.  They sent clothing and food parcels to refugees and needy families.  Once they sent candy and cookies to a children's school in England  and one treasurer's report showed a donation to the 'Spitfire Fund'.  At one time Speer's store gave the club old dresses at 500 each. These  were washed, pressed and sent to refugees via the Red Cross.  There were card parties held in homes and dances, parties or  badminton games in the North Enderby school house. These not only  raised money for the Red Cross but filled a social need in the community as well.  N.E.L.C. minute books of those days make interesting reading  for they give indications of a much less affluent time than the present  Sylvia Carlton has been a member of the North Enderby Ladies' Club for the past 30 years. Last  year she and her husband, David, were honored as Enderby's Senior Citizens of the Year.  68 North Enderby Clubs  and also serve as a reminder of some of the inconveniences of those  long-ago, war-time days. At one meeting the treasurer was instructed  to purchase, for quilt making, thirty yards of unbleached cotton at the  price of 90 per yard and for lunch at one of their social evenings, they  bought six dozen doughnuts for $1.20 - unbelievable!  At card parties there were prizes given - a first prize not to exceed  250 and a consolation prize not to exceed 50 in value. Sometimes war-  saving stamps were given as prizes.  One motion was passed that, because of the shortage of sugar, no  cakes or cookies would be served at their tea and on the notice of a  forthcoming card party one could often read, "Please bring your own  sugar!"  Though, at that time, there was a scarcity of many items, the ladies  did not let that deter their efforts. They gave unstintingly of their time,  their work and their ingenuity to help in anyway they could. Red Cross  salvage bags were handed out in which people were to collect bits of  rubber, tin foil, old keys — anything that could be made use of in the  'war effort'!  North Enderby Ladies Club, 1944. Left to right: (frontrow) Lottie Jones, Mary Bramble; (second  row) Evelyn Blackburn, Mrs. Dunn, Cathie McDermid, Ruby Grahame; (third row) Mrs.  Alexander, Mrs. McDermid Sr., Mrs. Lopaschuk, Merle Bramble, May Blackburn, Evelyn  Bramble, Ida Olson, Ruby Lidstone, Mrs. Trenholme; (back row) Irene Imbeau, Flossie Mack,  Mrs. Chamberlain, Mrs. Carbert. Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  69 North Enderby Clubs  After the war ended and the pressure of war-time work was past,  the club felt it must make a decision on its future plans. It rejected  suggestions to become a branch of the Women's Institute or a chapter  of the I.O.D.E. and decided to carry on in its same form as the North  Enderby Ladies' Club. It met less frequently and finally settled on  once a month.  It still found much to occupy its energies. A list of all its activities  would fill a page. The club has given gifts to new babies, new brides  and people leaving the district. It sent cards or small gifts to North  Enderby residents in the hospital and helped victims of fire or other  disasters in the area. It sent donations or clothing to the Salvation  Army as well as donations of money to other worthy causes including  Kindale School, the hospital X-ray fund, new rink in Enderby, Queen's  supper in Enderby and the Senior Citizen's Complex. The club  donated two blankets to the Enderby hospital and paid for half the  furnishings of a two bed ward as well as giving a table and chair to the  children's ward. The ladies did hospital mending and helped the  Home and School Club with noon lunches at school. Each year the  N.E.L.C. finds canvassers in the district for Mother's March, C.A.R.S.,  and Cancer. Its members visit at Gardom Lake Rest Home every  month and take a gift of oranges to the residents there at Christmas  time.  The club has held an annual bake sale to which all the residents  of North Enderby contribute and the proceeds of which go to a  scholarship for a deserving graduate from the district.  For many years the annual meetings were hosted by Mrs. Frank  Carbert and later by Mrs. Maynard Carbert.  At this time, fifty years after its beginning, only one charter  member, Mrs. Evelyn Bramble, still resides in the North Enderby  district.  The North Enderby Residents' Association is made up of all  members of the North Enderby community who care to join. Its  inaugural meeting took place in 1950. Frank Carbert became its first  president but later he stepped down because of hearing difficulties  and Harry Woollam took his place.  Since the children from North Enderby now went to school in  Enderby, the N.E.R.A. was formed in order to have an association  which could legally hold land and property and so could acquire the  North Enderby school building and the land on which it stood for  community purposes.  The School Board of District 21 had offered this property to the  residents of North Enderby as soon as they had formed such an  association and had it registered under the 'Companies' Act'.  70 North Enderby Clubs  The policy of the newly formed N.E.R.A. was to encourage the  fullest utilization of the building for the young people of the district.  During the ensuing years the Enderby schools separated from  the large Enderby-Armstrong School District No. 21 and re-formed  into Enderby School District No. 78. During this time the N.E.R.A.  carried on with business of acquiring the North Enderby school.  In 1953 the School Board of District 78 offered to sell the school  building and property to the N.E.R.A. for the sum of $1.00. This offer  was accepted and the title was finally received in 1955.  Many community activities were held in the school but unfortunately vandals wreaked such destruction on the building that in 1958  it was sold to Hans Nielsen.  On the site a picnic kitchen and tables were built and for many  years it was enjoyed as an area for community picnics and tourist  camping. Sadly the kitchen and tables were later vandalized also and  the area now remains as mainly a campsite for tourists. It is kept clean  and the grass mowed by members of the district.  As well as acquiring the school property and preparing it for  community activities, the N.E.R.A. has, over the years, proved to be a  North Enderby Ladies Club, 1990. L to R: (standing) Marie Jeklin, Mrs.  Solkema,Jackie Devries, Elsie Tiechroeb, Florence Theobald, Charlotte  Carbert, Marie Stickland, Marge Sissons, Verna Poison; (seated) Sylvia  Carlton, Joe Stankovitch, Evelyn Bramble, Lillian Hadden.  71 North Enderby Clubs  strong voice from the district when it wanted the 'powers-that-be' to  listen to local needs such as weed control, road paving and preserving  the quality of life in the area.  This club has also held 'barn sales' (garage sales held in a barn)  to supplement the scholarship fund and the members contribute to  the annual bake sale.  These two clubs are still active in North Enderby. As well as their  many other activities they provide a way of welcoming new-comers  and add a friendly, enjoyable neighborliness to the community. They  would be sadly missed should they ever be discontinued.  The North Enderby School in the 1930's.  72 Penticton Post Office  100th Anniversary  by E.W. Aldredge  In this day of Television, Radio and Fax, and other forms of communication, we are apt to treat our Canada Post with a curl of the lip  contempt; depending of course, on what it is we are waiting for.  Smooth communications are always a problem, and were much more  of one in the earliest days of British Columbia and in the Okanagan  Valley in particular when "letters from home" (Eastern Canada and  especially the British Isles) were a matter of high priority.  On December 1st, 1989 the Penticton Post Office celebrated the  100th Anniversary of its official establishment in the City, thereby  expanding postal service and creating regularity. Up to that date, now  a century ago, Penticton had no post office, and things "coming  through the mail", while not a matter of chance, were subject to  unforeseen and unexplained delays. The earliest mail carriers used  either saddlehorse or rowboat. Captain D. Shorts used the latter to  bring mail down the lake, while several riders brought it over or  through the mountains from the west.  The very early post was most likely dropped off at the homestead  ranchhouse of Thomas Ellis on Fairview Road. Later, when Mr. Ellis'  brother-in-law established a store at the top of Vancouver Hill, near  the Penticton Hotel, the mail was unofficially delivered there for  more convenient distribution. However, from December 1, 1889  onward Mr. Wade went from being an unofficial postie to become  officially the Penticton Postmaster, who among his duties, transported the mail bags from stage coach or lake steamer via the  Irishman's Handsome Cab (more commonly known as the humble  wheelbarrow). There was no contempt of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria's  mail in that. It was simply the most convenient method of making  delivery!  In 1889 there was no "Great White Swan" steaming up and down  Okanagan Lake. The first of the sternwheelers, the S.S. Aberdeen, was  not put into service until June 8, 1892; so prior to that, "eastern" or  English mails reached Penticton by horseback riders or via Mr. Shorts'  boats. After that, of course, the Aberdeen and others carried it.  Mr. Wade kept the Post Office until 1902, when it was moved to  the leanto, a stout little building attached to Schubert's General Store  at the corner of Vancouver Hill and Ellis Street, with Mr. E.O.  Ed Aldredge is a photographer and writer. Retired in Penticton, he currently writes a historical  column for Okanagan Sunday.  73 Penticton Post Office  Atkinson and Mr. J.E. Schubert in charge until 1911. Smith Street  (later Front Street) was the main commercial thoroughfare. After  1911, Main Street came into its own, as businesses either started up or  moved to what is now the 200 Block Main, so when the two-storey  Stewart Block was built, the Post Office was moved there. Mr. D.J.  "Dune" Mclntyre, an area pioneer, became the postmaster.  The Schubert General Store was home for the Penticton Post Office from 1902 until 1911. Photo  courtesy of the R.N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton.  "Dune" proved to be an excellent postmaster, even during the  difficult days of The Great War, when anxious wives and parents  would linger around the building, in case the S.S. Sicamous carried one  more so-precious letter from the trenches. Mr. Mclntyre and his staff  were apt to go to considerable lengths to facilitate delivery of mail,  particularly when a letter arrived from a husband or son after the  family had received the "Killed In Action" wire. The same personal  service was extended residents following the 1929 Wall Street Crash.  "Dune" kept in touch— and sympathized.  The early orchardists used to drive their buggies down to collect  their mail, placed in the old tiers of "boxes". They grumbled at doing  this, and in the early 1920's rural free delivery was instituted. However,  the "town" people, knowing when the boat would arrive and how long  it would take to sort the mail, loved to congregate in the post office to  74 Penticton Post Office  chat and to peruse the newspapers and catalogues which were an  important part of the mail.  In the early 1930's the Post Office was moved once more,  occupying quarters in the structure housing the local Masonic Temple  (upstairs) and the new-to-Penticton Royal Bank of Canada on the  southeast corner of Main Street and Nanaimo Avenue; but, those  were leased quarters, and the Penticton Board of Trade particularly,  and local citizens as well, demanded that the Federal Government  provide Penticton with a new Post Office building.  In 1936, the government complied, giving this city a classic red  brick building, an outstanding structure, which remains a landmark  today. However, it was discovered within a year that this nice new  building, which also housed Canada Customs, just was not big enough  for the expanding city. Thus, a new wing was added, which being of  the same design (Architect, Robt. A. Lyon), blended in with it excellently. There also was a new Postmaster in 1943, in the person of Mr.  Gerald Latimer, who had had many years experience with the Post  Office after World War I. He had enlisted from Penticton, where his  father R.H. Latimer was an outstanding civil engineer.  By the time World War II was over Penticton was three to four  times the size it had been prior to that conflict, with signs that it was  The Penticton Post Office at Main St. and Nanaimo Avenue. It was built in 1936. In 1974 the  clock, which was made in Britain, was restored voluntarily by Pentictonjeweller, Ken Walker, and  is wound every ten days by his son, Kevin. Photo courtesy of the R.N. Atkinson Museum,  Penticton.  75 Penticton Post Office  again going to double in the next decade. The result was that the 1936-  37 Post Office was nowhere nearly large enough to handle the volume  of mail going through it. So, urged by M.P.Owen L.Jones, Penticton  got a brand new post office building, situated at the corner of  Winnipeg Street and Nanaimo Avenue. This structure, besides giving  adequate room for the Post Office, also housed the Regional Income  Tax headquarters, and of course, Canada Customs as well. Changes in  requirements for both of these branches has meant there is more  space available to the area post office. Institution of carrier postal  delivery has also relieved the central post office of the need for most  of the wicket and letter-box delivery. New systems and equipment  have made handling the mail more streamlined, and perhaps less  space-taking.  Mr. Latimer served as Postmaster until 1956, followed by W.F.  Mulligan, 1956-1966; G. Smith, 1966; J.W. McElgunn, 1966-1981; E.  Orr, 1981-1982; W. Corrie, 1982-1988. Postmaster at the present time  is Mr. Robert Otway.  From the days of delivery by boat, then by rail, followed by truck  transport to Penticton, the Post Office has come a very long way. To  commemorate this auspicious occasion, a special rubber stamp was  made, so that stamp enthusiasts might add a commemorative envelope to their collection. Celebration of the 100th Anniversary took  place in the front lobby of the building, where refreshments were  served; where reminiscences could be shared, photographs viewed,  and even the future debated.  76 Letters and Diaries  Okanagan Indians Non-Registered  The Reason Why  by J. H. Christie — Introduction - Robert L. de Pfyffer  In 1989 staff members at the Enderby Museum and Archives sorted  through a pile of old papers that had been donated by the City of  Enderby. In the process, Bob Cowan found an article written by J. H.  Christie which is of interest because it highlights conditions on the  Okanagan Indian Reserve at the beginning of the century and it is a  reflection of conditions on many Indian Reserves in British Columbia  at that time. The article was written by Christie on August 15, 1918  and, if he followed his usual practice, numerous copies were printed  and sent to various newspapers and people of influence all across  Canada. For a better understanding of the article, some background  information is necessary.  James Halbold Christie, better known locally as Jim Christie, was  born in Speyside, Scotland in 1852. As a teenager he emigrated to  Canada where he joined the Canadian Artillery, B Battery in Quebec.  He rose quickly in the ranks and in 1870 he was in command of a gun  crew taking a cannon to Fort Garry (now Winnipeg).  In 1876 Christie left the army andjoined the North West Mounted  Police. He served at various posts on the prairies and he was one of the  Mounted Police who received Sitting Bull and his Sioux warriors into  Canada after they had defeated General Custer and his Seventh  Cavalry at the Battle of Little Big Horn.  Leaving the police force, Christie spent three years exploring the  Peace River, MacKenzie River and Slave Lake areas. In 1887 he  became the foreman of the Military Colonization Ranch near Calgary  and from here he delivered a herd of horses to Major Sam Steel at Fort  Steel on the Kootenay River in B.C.  Robert L. de Pfyffer is a past president of the Vernon branch of the Okanagan Historical Society.  He has conducted historical research for Okanagan Indian land claims since 1975.  77 Okanagans Non-Registered  By the fall of 1889 he was in North Yakima, Washington, at a time  when there was great interest in the exploration of the Olympic  Peninsula. The Seattle Press sponsored an expedition of discovery into  the Peninsula and Christie was appointed to lead a party of six men  into the area. The expedition left Port Angeles on December 8, 1889  to ascend the Elwha River and they emerged at Aberdeen, Washington on May 21,1890 after descending the Quinault River. Many of the  mountains, streams and major geographical features in the interior of  the Olympic National Park, including 6,177 foot Mount Christie, were  named by the expedition.  A month after completing the Olympic Peninsula expedition,  Christie became a member of an exploration party sponsored jointly  by the National Geographic Society and the United States Geological  Society. This was the very first expedition sponsored by the National  Geographical Society and it was headed by Professor Israel C. Russell.  The expedition set out to explore and map the area around Mount St.  Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border. In the course of their work they  discovered Mount Logan, Canada's highest mountain.  Following the completion of this expedition, Christie returned  to Canada, where on July 19, 1892 he pre-empted two parcels of land  on the western side of the Shuswap River, at the southern end of  Mabel Lake. For a short time he lived here and he explored the land  Jim Christie and friends, Calgary, North-West Territories, c. 1888. Leftro right: Borne, Purchas,  Riddle, Morgan, L. Christie, J.H. Christie, H.B.B. Hall. Photographed by W. Hanson Boorne.  Photo courtesy of the Official Administrator, Vernon, B.C.  78 Okanagans Non-Registered  to the west of his pre-emption where he discovered and named Trinity  Valley, Bobbie Burns Mountain, Styx Creek and several other lakes  and streams.  In 1905 Christie discovered coal near Shorts Creek, west of  Fintry. He tried, without success, to interest some Vernon business  men in the development of the coal deposit, as a source of supply for  the C.P.R. boats on Okanagan Lake. Christie Lake and Christie Creek  which empty into the south side of Shorts Creek are named after Jim  Christie.  Around 1907 Christie moved to Clint Hill, four miles more or  less, east of Armstrong. Amelia Duteau of Lavington, in White Valley,  came to live with him. Amelia, whose mother was an Okanagan  Indian, and Jim had a son who they named Lloyd George Christie.  In 1908 a surrender document was signed by seventeen people,  living on the Okanagan Indian Reserve, for the sale of Okanagan  Indian Reserve No. 5, Long Lake, to Mr. John Kennedy. This Reserve  was located at the northern end of Long Lake (now known as  Kalamalka Lake). Kennedy came from New Westminster where he  had worked as a newspaper reporter for The British Columbian, which  was owned and published by three of his brothers.  Many Band members were upset by the surrender and they  turned to Christie for help because he appeared to be the only white  man that they could trust. Christie sent a telegram and a set of  Statutory Declarations, signed by the Band members, to the  Department of Indian Affairs, Ottawa, protesting the surrender.  Christie charged that something was wrong and he asked for an  independent investigation of the surrender. The Declarations along  with a four page letter of protest dictated by Chief Pierre Machell, also  known as Chief Pere Nequalla, plus a letter by the Reverend John  McDougall of Kamloops, asking for information on the Long Lake  surrender, prompted the Department of Indian Affairs to launch an  investigation.  At first the Department appointed Mr. A.W. Vowell, Indian  Superintendent, Victoria, B.C. to investigate. He got as far as Kamloops  when the Department cancelled his appointment and asked him to  return the files. Apparently someone decided that Vowell was not an  independent investigator and therefore he might not be impartial.  While Indian Affairs was looking for an independent investigator, the Provincial Government issued Crown Grant No. 3/233, being  a Quit Claim of the Provincial reversionary interest in Long Lake  Indian Reserve No. 5, to Mr. John Kennedy.  In October Indian Affairs appointed Mr. J.G. Ramsden, Inspector of Indian Agencies from Toronto and the Reverend John McDougall of Kamloops to investigate the surrender. They began their  79 Okanagans Non-Registered  investigation on October 28, 1909 with hearings at the Head of the  Lake Reserve. The transcript of evidence shows that of the seventeen  names on the surrender document, four people swore that they did  not sign and that they did not attend the surrender meeting. Of the  remaining thirteen, two swore that they did not understand what they  were signing. One of the signators, Jimmy Antoinne, was under legal  age being less than twenty-one years old.  Various reasons were given for signing the surrender document.  Some signators swore that they signed because Kennedy gave them  $2.00. Others swore that they signed because Kennedy gave them a  bottle of whisky.  The last name on the surrender document was Isaac Harris. On  the second day of the hearings, charges against Isaac Harris were  considered. Witnesses swore that Harris' father was a white man and  his mother was a Lillooet Indian. They swore that Harris was not an  Okanagan Indian and therefore he was not entitled to sign the  surrender document. They wanted Harris removed from the Reserve  and, in a vote taken at the hearings, they voted 23 to 7 against Harris'  residence on the Reserve.  Isaac Harris - notice the badge. Photograph courtesy of the O'Keefe Historic  Ranch Archives.  80 Okanagans Non-Registered  After three days of hearings and 40 pages of transcript the  investigation was closed. Inspector Ramsden reported to Ottawa that  the surrender was irregular. With his report Mr. Ramsden submitted  a statement from Mr. Kennedy and a letter from Kennedy's partner,  Mr. T.J. Cummiskey.  In his report, Ramsden had this to say about Christie:  All I need to say is that his (Christie's) manner and conduct of the case is  praiseworthy, and the Indians of the Okanagan as well as the Department should be  pleased at having so able a man show what is really the state of affairs here.1  Back in Ottawa, following the receipt of the Ramsden and  McDougall report, the Federal Cabinet set aside the surrender of  Long Lake Indian Reserve No. 5 by approving Privy Council Order  No. 2597.  In November 1911, T.J. Cummiskey was appointed by the Federal  Government to be the Inspector of Indian Agencies in the South  Eastern Inspectorate of B.C. In order to assume his duties in Kamloops,  Cummiskey resigned as the Vernon C.P.R. station agent, his seat on  the Vernon City Council and his position as Secretary of the North  Okanagan Conservative Party.  Chief Baptiste Logan of the Okanagan Indian Band. Photograph courtesy of  the Okanagan Indian Band. Okanagans Non-Registered  Early in 1912, Inspector Cummiskey travelled to the Head of the  Lake Reserve and he called a meeting of the Band. He dissolved the  Band Council and demanded the election of six new Council members. He removed Chief Baptiste Logan and appointed Lame Pere,  also known as Lame Pierre Michell, as Chief. Cummiskey threatened  to jail any Band members who objected.  After Cummiskey reported his actions to the D.I.A. in Ottawa, the  Federal Cabinet passed Order-in-Council No. 1712 removing Chief  Baptiste Logan on the grounds of intemperance and incompetency.  Logan was declared ineligible to hold office as Chief or Councillor for  three years.  In spite of Cummiskey's threats, nine Band members went to J.H.  Christie for help. In an effort to have Cummiskey removed from  office, Christie produced a twenty-three page printed article in which  statements given by the nine Band members were published. They  said that Cummiskey was one of the people who tried to gain  possession of the Long Lake Reserve by underhanded means, as  proven by the Ramsden-McDougall inquiry. The Band members said  they did not want Lame Pere as Chief because he was in favour of  selling the Indian Reserves at Swan Lake, Long Lake, Duck Lake,  Mission Creek and Westbank. Christie's efforts failed.2  At the turn of the century, new settlers were putting pressure on  the Provincial and Federal Governments for land. The settlers viewed  the Indian Reserves with covetous eyes and they wanted them opened  up for settlement. On the other hand, British Columbia's Indian  Bands were demanding more land for their people. They pointed to  the large Indian Reserves south of the border and on the Canadian  prairies, compared to the niggardly Reserves in British Columbia.  Finally the two Governments decided to investigate the problem. On  September 24, 1912 they signed the McKenna-McBride agreement  which established a five man Royal Commission to investigate Indian  Affairs in British Columbia. The Commissioners were given the power  to recommend changes to Indian Reserves. They could recommend  confirmation of the size of a Reserve or they could recommend  enlarging or reducing the size of a Reserve depending on the  requirements of the particular Band under consideration. Reductions were called "Cut-Offs" and these "Cut-Offs" have been a major  source of Indian land claims for years. The Commissioners travelled  throughout the Province from April 23,1913 until June 30,1916 when  they disbanded. Their recommendations were published in February  or March 1917 but they were not made public until approximately two  years later.  The five Commissioners, with their support staff, began their  Okanagan Agency hearings at Enderby on October 2, 1913. Isaac  82 Okanagans Non-Registered  Harris was sworn in as the interpreter for the Commission and he  travelled with the Commission until they wound up their Okanagan  Agency hearings in Victoria in November. Inspector T.J. Cummiskey  also travelled with the Commission. On the way over the Richter Pass  from Osoyoos to Keremeos, Cummiskey was riding in the car with all  of the baggage for the entire Commission. Every time the car got  stuck, which was often, Cummiskey would jump out and try to push  the car up the hill. By the time the Commission reached Keremeos,  it was obvious that Cummiskey was in pain. He had strained himself  and he died of internal bleeding in St. Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, a  few days later.  2 1/2 story solid concrete house built by Isaac Harris on Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 3 in 1913.  Photographed on November 30, 1983 by Robert L. de Pfyffer.  At the conclusion of the Okanagan Agency hearings, the Commissioners sent a letter to Ottawa with a copy to Victoria asking both  Governments to convey Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 3 to Isaac  Harris.3 Isaac had just completed his new 2 1/2 story solid concrete  house on the Reserve. Today you can see Isaac's house on the western  side of Otter Lake Cross Road opposite the Fletcher Challenge  plywood plant in Spallumcheen.  In February 1914, Mr. A. Megraw of Hedley, B.C. was appointed  to succeed Mr. Cummiskey. Early in the spring of 1916, Megraw leased  2,000 acres on the Head of the Lake Reserve for $200.00 per year to  Dr. Henderson, Veterinary Surgeon of Armstrong. The Okanagan  83 Okanagans Non-Registered  Indian Band was not informed of the lease and later that spring Chief  Louie, whose first name is shown in various records as Gas to or Gas tan  or Gaston, discovered white men cultivating land on the Reserve.  Louie put a stop to their activities. When Megraw heard of Chief  Louie's actions he sent Louie a letter that started, "It is my duty to  inform you that you are no longer Chief of the Okanagan Band of  Indians because you have been deposed." Megraw went on to say that  he was appointing a new Chief, "...who will take their (sic) orders from  me and from no one else,..."4  On the Westbank Reserve, David E. Gellatly constructed an  intake and a flume to take irrigation water from Cedar (McDougall)  Creek for his orchard. The intake was approximately 75 yards from  Chief Felix Tomat's house and it was selected by Gellatly with the help  of Indian Agent Brown. After construction was completed, Inspector  Megraw viewed the works and he warned Chief Tomat not to interfere  with the system or he would be put in jail.  At approximately the same time that Gellatly was building his  flume, Dr. James A.J. McKenna, Special Commissioner on Indian  Affairs in British Columbia and co-author of the McKenna-McBride  agreement, was appointed to investigate the Henderson lease. After  examining the property, Dr. McKenna reported to the Department  that the lease was not of benefit to the Band and it was an example of  mismanagement by Indian Agent Brown and Inspector Megraw. Dr.  McKenna recommended that the lease be cancelled.  There were so many things going wrong with the administration  of Indian Affairs in the Okanagan that four Bands decided to organize  in order to fight the system. The Spallumcheen, Okanagan, Westbank  and Penticton Bands formed the Okanagan Indian Rights' Defense  League. The League appointed James H. Christie as secretary and in  this position he sent out a blizzard of correspondence to Federal and  Provincial officials at all levels of Government. Much of his correspondence went unanswered, in fact many civil servants did not bother to  acknowledge receipt of Christie's letters. However, some of Christie's  correspondence did move the Moguls in Ottawa and His Excellency  the Governor General in Council appointed Dr. McKenna to investigate the League's complaints. Files containing the complaints were  forwarded to Dr. McKenna. After going over the files, Dr. McKenna  wrote to Christie and asked that the complaints and charges be  formulated and that a list of witnesses for each charge be given, so that  they could be called to testify at the upcoming hearings. Christie  complied with Dr. McKenna's request.  Before Dr. McKenna could begin his investigation, the Federal  Government placed him on the retired list. Now a new appointment  was required to conduct the investigation. Christie wrote to Duncan  84 Okanagans Non-Registered  Scott, Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs in Ottawa  and pressed for the immediate appointment of an investigator to  replace Dr. McKenna. Scott said, "No!" After an exchange of correspondence Scott absolutely refused to ask the Government for a replacement for Dr. McKenna. Finally in desperation, Christie assembled all of his correspondence, both in coming and out going and  had it published. The twenty-nine page publication contained twenty-  three pages of correspondence and six pages of charges. There were  five charges from Spallumcheen, sixteen from the Head of the Lake,  two from Westbank and five from Penticton. Christie sent copies of  the publication to all of the members in the House of Commons and  the Senate.  The charges, contained in Christie's publication, were read into  the official records of the House of Commons by a member of the  opposition, the Honourable Frank Oliver, M.P. Examples of the  charges included, from Penticton, a charge that land had been taken  from the Penticton Indian Reserve for the Summerland Agricultural  Experimental Station without a surrender document being signed by  members of the Band as required under the Indian Act. Westbank  charged that David Gellatly was stealing water from Cedar (McDougall) Creek. The Band claimed that they had used the water for 45  years to irrigate their crops.  Okanagan charged that Isaac Harris was a false interpreter,  Cummiskey's principal agent in the illegal surrender of the Long  Lake Indian Reserve and a man guilty of the most serious crimes.  Okanagan also charged that Inspector Megraw knew of and approved  of Frank Godfrozen's (Sic) open threat to murder James H. Christie.  Band members said that Godfrozen (Sic) was an American intruder  with a criminal record living on the Reserve.  Another charge, by the Okanagan Band, was that Railway Rights-  of-Way had been granted through various Reserves and the Band had  been kept in ignorance of these transactions. Further, Band funds  from the Rights-of-Way sales were unlawfully given to non Band  members.  Spallumcheen members, living on the Salmon River Reserve,  charged that the Chief maintained an American Indian on the  Reserve who was a trouble maker and a criminal refugee.  With national attention briefly focused on Indian Affairs in the  Okanagan, the Government had to do something. Quickly, William  Ernest Ditchburn, Chief Inspector of Indian Agencies for British  Columbia was appointed to investigate the charges. In a front page  new story, The Vernon News, reported on July 19, 1917 that Mr.  Ditchburn had been appointed as Chief Inspector by a Liberal regime  at Ottawa, "...and therefore will not be accused of any partiality...,"  85 Okanagans Non-Registered  towards Major Megraw or Mr. Brown who had been appointed by  Conservative regimes.  After his appointment, Ditchburn lost no time in starting his  investigation. He called for hearings to start in Penticton on Tuesday  July 10th. Christie arrived on the 9th to find Isaac Harris already in  Penticton talking to the witnesses. Also, to Christie's consternation,  he discovered that Harris had been appointed as the interpreter. The  next morning, Christie objected to Harris's appointment because  Harris was charged with offences against the Band. Ditchburn overruled Christie's objection saying that, "...as the charges against him  were preferred by the Okanagan Band there was no reason to object  to his acting here in Penticton."5  No transcript of evidence taken at the hearings has been found  and it appears that there was no stenographer to record the proceedings. Also it appears that no lawyers were present at the hearings.  Conflicting evidence was presented to Mr. Ditchburn. Witnesses  failed to support the charges that had been presented in the House  of Commons by the Honourable Frank Oliver, M.P. The same confusion was repeated at Westbank.  On July 18th, the hearings started at the Head of the Lake. By this  time Christie felt that he had done all that he could and he withdrew  from the hearings. He advised the Indians to hire a lawyer in order to  get things straight. Ditchburn was furious and he gave Christie a  tongue lashing for starting the inquiry and then withdrawing.  With Christie's withdrawal from the inquiry, many Indians felt  that they had been betrayed. They thought that Christie had taken  their money and then he had been bought out by the Department of  Indian Affairs. On top of all this, Christie was discredited by Ditchburn  who reported to Ottawa that Christie's charges were groundless and  Christie was nothing but a trouble maker. Indian Agent Brown and  Inspector Megraw were now in the clear and they could carry on as  before.  Not long after the inquiry, the wife of Westbank's Chief Tomat,  "High Tone" Mary, took an axe and chopped up David Gellatly's  irrigation flume. For this action Gellatly had Mary jailed in Kelowna.  The charges made by the Okanagan Indian Rights' Defense  League contained numerous references to individuals who were non-  Band members and living on the Reserves. These non-members were  treated as Band members by officials of the Department of Indian  Affairs. Under Section 18 of the Indian Act, the Superintendent  General had the power to appoint an officer or other person to,  "...determine who is or who is not a member of any Band of Indians " In 1918 the Superintendent General decided to exercise his  power with respect to the Okanagan Band of Indians. Two individuals  86 Okanagans Non-Registered  were appointed to compile an official register of band members. Both  appointees were considered to be intruders by the bona fide members  of the Okanagan Band. Chief Gaston Louie and band member Tonas-  ket refused to sign the register and Inspector Megraw had them jailed  in Kamloops. Once again, Okanagan Indian Band members asked  Christie for his help and once again he published an article which was  mailed to influential people in Canada.  Okanagan History is pleased to reprint Christie's unabridged  article.  Okanagan Indians  Non-Registered  The Reason Why  The Registration Act And Okanagan Indians  Some of the reasons why a number of the Okanagan Indians are  not registered, and why two of them are in Kamloops gaol, are given  below in order to place a few of the facts before the Solicitor-General  of Canada for his consideration, and to support the plea for clemency  for the men now in gaol, Konasket and Gaston Louie wired to His  Excellency the Governor-General in Council by J.H. Christie of  Clinthill, Armstrong, B.C., whose intimate knowledge of the affairs of  these people places him in a position to speak of conditions as they  exist today, and for a number of years past. This band of Indians,  meaning the true Okanagan Indians, have suffered, devilishly suffered, at the hands of the officials placed in authority over their  persons and property. This rough outline of but a portion of their  experiences may guide to a clearer view of the urgent need for a fair  and impartial non-partisan enquiry for the true reason why this  remnant of a once numerous, powerful, peaceable and industrious  band of native-born British Indians should have suffered the hell of  miseries through which they have passed during the past ten years, at  the hands of the combination of negligent, ignorant and intently  harsh officials, and the invading hordes of stray, foreign Indians, half-  breeds that drift from the United States with an added quota from the  reserves of B.C., Nicolas, Shuswaps and Spallumcheens.  The first serious break in the "it's all right if they are quiet" policy  of their agents came when they attempted to secure the surrender of  the Long Lake reserve by parties in an underhand manner. A deal was  put through, and on the protest of the Indians, made by me to the  department on their behalf, the deal was cancelled and the parties  concerned severely censured for same. A change of methods throughout the province was made; as result of enquiries several resignations  were called for, and the appointment of new men. K C. McDonald,  inspector, resigned for the purpose of contesting the last Dominion  elction; T. Comisky (sic) appointed in McDonald's place; Comsiky  87 Okanagans Non-Registered  (sic) removed by death at time of Royal Commission, to be followed  by the present incumbent, Inspector Megraw, to whom the non-registered Indians attribute the greater part of the present uncertainty,  fear, and misery. Shortly after Megraw's appointment one Dr. Henderson, veterinary surgeon, and a man who knew a good thing when he  saw it, secured possession as renter of the ranch known as Alexander's  place, consisting of several thousand acres for the comic opera rental  of two hundred and fifty dollars per annum. Chief Gastan Louie, the  owners of the reserve, Tonasket and others opposed the crooked deal.  Two years of correspondence and kicking brought an inspector who  fully condemned the Henderson lease, and broke it. For this and  other objections to their methods of handling their affairs, Megraw  secured or had the Chief Gastan broke for insubordination-broke by  the superintendent of Indian affairs on reports of Megraw, the man  who forced the Henderson lease down their throats—the lease the  department was compelled to acknowledge was crooked—and the  chiefs objections to crooked work, constitutes insubordination in a  Canadian department of public affairs! The conduct of these affairs  compelled the Okanagan Indians to make some effort to secure some  redress from the department without success, until on their request  and behalf, I had published and circulated throughout the House of  Commons, and the Senate of Canada, these all-too-numerous causes  for their objections to methods employed.  The Okanagans fight for years has been carried on against the  numerous horde of outside Indians and half-breed squatters on their  reserve. The Okanagan reserve consists of some thirty odd thousand  acres—the choice lands of the district. About one third of the  residents have any legal right to be on the reserve and are invaders,  who rule and receive every comfort and consideration from the  inspectors. These rule, evidently countenanced by the department.  These squatters consist of American and Canadian half-breeds and  Indians; Americans holding land or drawing money from the United  Sates, Nichola, Shuswap or Spallumcheen Indians—a regular assortment—who hold the actual owners in thrall and contempt. It is these  who supply the necessary force for the officials to buck every legitimate objection from the protesting Okanagans, and against the  presence and tyranny of this horde they have protested in vain.  The publication of these facts brought from the department a  promise of investigation and finally brought the Ditchborn's commission. Previous to Ditchborn's arrival at Penticton the ground had  been thoroughly prepared. I was notified to be present at Penticton  the day the commission commenced work, and on wiring objections  I was induced to appear, on strictly false promises by deputy-minister  of Indian Affairs Duncan Scott, not a single promise given having  been complied with by Commissioner Ditchborn. Okanagans Non-Registered  At the head of the Lake enquiry, despite protest against Interpreter Harris, he was retained. Here again Ditchborn refused to  comply with Scott's promise of a daily transcription of proceedings.  On the third day the partisan manner of proceeding compelled me  to advise the Indians to refuse to go on, and to secure the services of  a good lawyer; that they had not a chance on earth of justice at the  hands of Ditchborn; that I would not take further part in the commission.  The Indians unfortunately for themselves, failed to carry out my  advice. This commission, had it been honestly in the interest of the  Indians, and an honest endeavor to find the truth, would have been  a remedy for all the ills, troubles and complaints. Through it they  would have seen the end of all their trials and an era of peace and  progress would have commenced. Vain hopes. The Indians by the  time the commission had left the reserve, were again seeking the aid  of the man whom the discredited inspector had vaunted through the  columns of the press. He had taken their money, and had misled  them. Why the reason for these questions? Would I take more money;  just say how much; any amount I wanted, they were willing to pay, if  I would work for them again, and tell Ottawa that the Ditchborn  commission was crooked and no good, and not in their interest.  I assured the Indians that they had not one chance in God's earth  to getjustice but through the Supreme Court of Canada, as far as I was  aware, and when they were ready to take action in that court they  would have my whole-hearted assistance.  So matters were until the Registration Act. Here was opportunity  for fine work and the triumph of might over ignorance.  The Registration Act  The registration of the Okanagan Indians were entrusted to Isaac  Harris and Frank Godfrensen, two prominent enemies of the peace  of the Okanagans—both intruders and both prime movers in all  things affecting the peace of the Okanagans, upon whom they have  fattened for years; thoroughly hated and feared. To such men was  given the delicate task of securing the signatures to the registration.  The Indians had also been informed that the Act was in every way  inimical to their welfare. The opinion was formed that this was but  another scheme of the inspectors to secure their consent to the  partition of their reserves, into 20 or 40 acres blocks. The men, who  had for years felt the gall of their position, and suffered from the  tyranny of the man could not possibly believe in the good intentions  of the government or in their representatives at this juncture, and  refused to register.  89 Okanagans Non-Registered  The agent was absent somewhere; Inspector Megraw was absent,  purposely, if the Indians are right, and the personal enemies of the  inspector were not registered. Here was a rainbow-colored situation  for the inspector. The inspector caused the arrest of a few, Tonasket,  the martyr and champion of the band's right. His very sick wife the  chief deposed for insubordination with two or three others, in the  midst of the harvesting. They were arrested by his orders, brought  before himself, with Leonard Norris with him on the bench, between  the hours of 8 and 10 p.m.; and were given the opportunity of paying  a fine or Kamloops gaol. Gastan elected a gaol sentence of necessity,  but would not register, and Tonasket accompanied him. Then they  were whisked off by auto at provincial expense, to suffer the white  man's vengeance, for the white man's neglect of duty, insofar as he  had failed to educate or enlighten. The man Tonasket is 78 years of  age; faithful, honest and industrious; has this season some 25 to 30  acres of wheat, still uncut at this writing—August 15th; hay crop poor,  and half cut and in cock; large potato patch; 12 head of cattle and  horses; 15 or 20 pigs, etc., all left to be cared for by a very sick wife, and  all in danger of being wiped out. It was Tonasket's fear to comply with  an Act which meant him no harm.  Gaston Louie, the other victim, is some 40 years of age; wife weak  with consumption; three young boys; has some 25 acres oats; hay in  cock at time of arrest—same condition today; 25 acres wheat, late; 2  acres potatoes, 2-3 acres beans, 30 acres summer fallow—a fairly good  record for one man's help to win the war. This man is in gaol for the  same cause as Tonasket. Are these men criminals or martyrs?  These men have shown, by their crops sown, and yet unreaped,  they were honestly doing their part to fill the demands of the  government to produce; they have been goaded to their present  position by years of misunderstanding, and tyrannical officialdom;  scoffed and jeered at by a horde of parasites and adventurers—  foreigners—who drift from other reserves. They had prayed for  sympathy and relief from those to whom they had a right to look for  sympathy and aid, to keep their lives and reserves clean. Have they got  it? Have they any right to expect it from the person they openly charge  with all their misery?—the man whose official sense of duty protests  the brute, who carries a child of 11 years to the bush; keeps her there  during the night, and —after six weeks of effort on my part, this brute  is arrested, tried before Judge Swanson, prosecuted by Ladner,  defended by legal talent and found guilty, then by arrangement with  Attorney-General Bowser, is permitted to go, on arrangement that he  marries the child. Some twenty-four hours after this immoral finding,  the mother calls to ask my assistance to prevent the ceremony from  taking place. I consented to the mother's plea, and it has not taken  90 Okanagans Non-Registered  place. The Indians who laid the information by my instructions were  roundly abused by inspectors and Commissioner Ditchborn, presumably believing that the female of 11 years was responsible for her  own undoing.  Are they to look for either justice or mercy to the man Megraw,  knowing that I have the sworn evidence in my possession that he fully  approved of the murdering of my humble self at the hands of the  brute Godfrensen, at any time convenient if found around the  reserve. Knowing that the evidence given before Ditchborn was  unshaken in that court, are these people to be blamed for the belief  that registration was but another scheme for their undoing? Hon.  Frank Oliver in the house, said it is time for a showdown for these  people. The Ditchborn commission was the result of Oliver's demand, but it was unsatisfactory and partisan.  I would respectfully submit the question to you and your associates and to the general public of Cnaada, that it is time for a showdown  between the department of Indian affairs of the Dominion of Canada,  the horde of foreign intruders an this reserve and the Okanagan band  of British-born Indians—industrious and honestly striving for a chance  to live in peace under the flag their men have done their duty fighting  for—the same cause as our people are fighting at the present time—  to right to their own—the rights of smaller nations—as we are assured  is the heritage of the humblest of British subjects; believing that truth  and fair play is the foundation of security and the backbone of our  British civilization.  Believing the foregoing to be absolutely a truthful statement of  facts, I would respectfully submit the question if a plea for clemency  on the part of the Executive towards these faithful, loyal and industrious—if ignorant—Indians. Can clemency be considered misplaced  from any point of view? The dread now overshadowing their lives,  children and friends, regarding the meaning and the intentions of  the authorities towards the men now detained in gaol would require  the pen of a returned American missionary to faithfully portray for  placement before the Christian Canadian.  Respectfully,  James Halbold Christie,  Clinthill, Armstrong, B.C.  FOOTNOTES  1 Ramsden to McLean, 6 November 1909, P.A.C., RG10, Vol. 4014, Files 271322-1 and 2.  2 Christie, James H., Indian Affairs in British Columbia, B.C.A. and R.S., NWp, 970.5, C554.  3 Bergeron to the Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, November 20, 1913. Copy to the  Provincial Secretary. B.C.A. and R.S., GR 672, Box 1, File 21.  4 Christie, J.H., Correspondence and Charges Made Regarding Conditions on our Reserves Here in B. C,  publisher unknown, April 20, 1917, p.2, B.C.A. and R.S., NWp, 970.5, C554c.  5 Christie, J.H., "The Indian Inquiry," The Vernon News, August 9, 1917, p.9.  91 Dredging at Summerland:  Joe McDonald's Daily Journal  for January, 1916  Introduction by Robert Cowan  Joe McDonald was born in London, Ontario in 1860 and came to the  Okanagan in 1891. He constructed many notable homes in the  Armstrong area. While having little formal education, he had served  seven years as an apprentice carpenter.  In 1907 he became superintendent of Public Works. One of his  first projects was a canal connecting Wood Lake with Long (or Kalamalka) Lake. The government's next major project was the dredging  of the Okanagan River, and in 1908 he was moved to Penticton. For  ten years he worked in the Penticton area dredging, pile driving, and  constructing a dam to control the water level of Okanagan Lake.  From Frank McDonald's account of his father in the 13th Report  we learn:  The dredge Heron, which was built on a scow was notable because of its 'spuds'. These  were long twelve-inch by twelve-inch progs which could be lowered spread-eagle  fashion to the bottom of the river and then locked in place. They held the dredge  in position while the bucket was busy lifting its load of muck and swinging it to the  bank. The bucket was a half-yard one and I believe it averaged 600 or 700 mouthfuls  each shift,  (pages 68-69)  The diary excerpt reproduced here is from a collection of daily  journals for the years 1908,1910,1916 and 1918. They were a gift from  his granddaughter, Mrs. Sheila Peebles to the Enderby Museum, and  have since been given to the R. N. Atkinson Museum in Penticton. The  temperature recordings mentioned in the diary are in Fahrenheit.  Joe McDonald Diary 1916  Dec. 30, 1915. Should have moved to Summerland today but  Strong south wind prevented Captian Weeks Said he could not land  us but that we could drop anchor close in the proposition did not  appeal to me as it would be after dark.  Jan. 1, 1916. Weather fine with very little wind Moved to S. Land  in the afternoon had a good trip left dredge at transfer slip moved  bunk scow to Gov't wharf  Jan. 2, 1916. Cold with north wind blowing Dredge laying all  right but some of the pipes frozen.  Jan. 3, 1916. Getting dredge into shap putting on spud feet  changing lines & putting taps to drain pipes to keep from freezing  fixing up syphon to allow pipes to drain waiting for wood as we came  Robert Cowan is Chairman of the Enderby and District Museum Society and Editor of the 54th  Report.  92 Dredging at Summerland  up light getting supplyes for cook weather was rough but we took  some soundings water about-0 . 85 Very much hinderance by having  bunk scow so far from Dredge would be very much better to have  quarters on board.  Jan. 4. So far this has been the coldest day this winter would have  been impossable to dredge except for a short time in the afternoon  water full of slush ice temperatures 5 above zero received 3 cords of  wood and loaded same cut ice from sides of bunk scow pumped out  same which has not been doen for two seasons bunk scow very cold not  intended for zero weather and so not arranged for lake work as there  is no keel I intent to try to dredge tomorrow  The Dredge Heronon Okanagan River between Okanagan and Skaha Lakes. Photo courtesy of the  R.N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton.  Jan. 5. Weather moderated considerable took soundings and  found the bottom where dredging had been doen before much the  same no material had ben washed in but found the water inside the  dophins was too low to admit the car barge when loaded also on the  south side of car barge to shawlow to allow tug to come in. Will take  considerable work as the material will have to be recast three times to  get it out of the channel started to dredge in front of slip should finish  in about 3 days if weather holds good.  Jan. 6. Has been a very fine day and got a good Days Dredging  finished inside the dolphins and moved around to north side of  dolphins to throw dredged material back  Jan. 7. Weather fine finished cut to recasting back of Dolphins  moved out to cut outside of 72 ft set dredge got out lines took  93 Dredging at Summerland  soundings got out anchors 8c shore lines ready to start work in  morning Cut about 75' long starting at zero and running to 3 ft 6" at  deepest point Dredging to 9'6" at present water level  Jan. 8. Strong south wind during the night caused the dredge to  drift out of cut and almost on shore dragging 3 anchors and braking  one of the spud feet had trouble in getting spud foot out of mud  repaired same and replaced No. 2 cable which was broken in raising  spud foot the deck 8c sides of Drege were covered with ice and spuds  frozen solid  Jan. 9. (Sunday) Weather very cold with north wind  Jan. 10. Very cold 3 below Zero Strong north wind blowing slush  & drift ice Received word that tug with barge was cumming down lake  had to move Dredge around dolphins took in all anchors for fear the  tug would get fouled tug arrived at 4 o'clock could not get into slip on  account of drift ice tied up for the night  Jan. 11. Coldest night Termometer registered 10 below Zero the  tug crew managed to get ice cut around scow and get cars ashore  considerable drift ice in the bay could do not work but keeping steam  up to keep the pipes from freezing Went to Penticton on evening boat  went through about 3 miles of solid ice 3 to 6" thick  Jan. 13. Went to dam found everything all right river clear out to  tug boat Kelowna could not read any gages on account of ice water on  lake side about 2' higher than river side went down to store house  found everything all right piledriver scow riding all right made  cheques and sent out same by registered mail all that I could not give  personally  Jan. 14. Went out on SS Sicamouse to S Land found about 5 miles  of ice had considerable trouble getting through found everything all  right at S Land 1 above Zero the tug Naramata tried to make Penticton  but had to turn back on account of ice Went to Penticton by evening  boat had considerable trouble getting in  Jan. 15. 2 below Zero Strong north wind blowing. Went out to  dam found everything all right ice in front of stop logs but spillway  open out to entrance piles could not read the gage as ice was piled  around it  Jan. 17. (Monday) Went to S Land boat had lots of trouble getting  out assisted by tug Naramata which broke one of the blades off her  propellor and had to go to Landing for reps Sicamous could not make  Penticton in evening Passengers and mail being sent by auto to  Penticton  Jan. 18. 2 Below Zero Strong north wind got up steam thawed out  spuds which had become frozen solid thawing out lines CPR boat did  not go to Penticton  94 Dredging at Summerland  The harbour at Summerland. Photo courtesy of the R.N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton.  Jan. 19. 2 Below Zero thawed out spuds got lines in shape and  started to dredge taking out bank north of dolphins to make room for  material from cut can dredge on this cut without side lines which  would have to used if we moved into cut Also the CPR have a car of fruit  to get out on slip before we can dredge in cut  Jan. 20. Mild weather but strong south wind Dredge being side on  smack of it hard to hold put out extra lines the wind increased to a gale  in the afternoon Dredge covered with ice the Dredge should have  been placed head on but our boats were covered with ice we could not  get out with anchors  Jan. 21. Clearing the Dredge was covered with ice 8c lines frozen  to bits could not move until deck was cleared of ice  Jan. 22. Wind blew a gale from the south all day went on board got  more lines out could not get anchors out on account of float ice 8c  boats being covered so that they could not be handled besides being  dangerous The weather being mild 44 being registered the water did  not freeze on the deck we did not expect the dredge to last out the  storm  Jan. 23. The wind which had been blowing a gale from Saturday  morning shifted suddenly to the north temerature dropped from 48  at 10 o'clock to 16 at 5 o'clock  Jan. 24. Examined Dam at Penticton and instructed W A McKenzie to repair same as soon as possible Reparing spud frame damaged  in storm calking leak in scow Dredging for spud foot 4 above Zero  95 Dredging at Summerland  Jan. 25. Repairing spud foot chipping lines from the ice Moving  Dredge into cut Attaching cables to anchors and placing same Getting  things in shape to Dredge 6 above Z  Jan. 26. Milder weather with north wind Started to Dredge 10  above Zero  Jan. 27-Feb. 4. Dredging.  Feb. 5. 4 above Zero Tied up Dredge until wilder weather  Sunday Feb. 27. Sicamouse arrived at SLand today first time since  GREAT REJOSING GREAT ACHEAVEMENT  96 Reminiscences  The Kelowna Milk Delivery  by W.J. Whitehead  Prior to the 1950's, the delivery wagon or cart was a most common  sight in every community. Be it ice, coal, wood, bread or milk, it was  usually delivered to your door and the conveyance was drawn by  horsepower.  In June of 19391 began working for G.D. "Paddy" Cameron at the  Guisachan Dairy on the outskirts of Kelowna and it was there I made  the acquaintance of "Bonny" the delivery horse. A more gentle and  intelligent animal, I have never known.  Paddy and Mrs. Cameron had added the operation of a milk  business to their farm in the early 1930's. First they sold milk and  cream from a small store in Kelowna, which was attended by a Mrs.  Staples. The quality of their product soon demanded an enlargement  of the supply plus a home delivery service. This required, in turn, an  increase in the size of the herd of Jersey and Guernsey milk cows and  a dairy barn to house them.  The barn was constructed by contractors Andy Patterson and  Billy Black. The cement work for the foundation, floor and gutter  were provided under the critical eye of Geo. B. Andrews.  Next in line was a delivery wagon and the one constructed was  somewhat different from the usual mode. It was mounted on the  chassis of a Model A Ford, with boxes on either side, covered with tin  lids to hold the bottle crates. There was a walk way, which might be  more carefully termed a runway, up the centre. There was no top to  keep out the rain or sun.  Adolph Roth was the first person to operate this new service and  he continued until late 1939. My first position at the Ranch was  general help but I was soon given charge of the horses, then herdsman  and with the departure of Roth, I took over the delivery service. After  Bill Whitehead has held numerous positions with the OHS. He is retired and lives in Armstrong.  97 Milk Delivery  a few trips with Adolph some general instructions and some information pertaining to the route, I was delivering milk.  Any fears I may have harboured about direction, were soon put  to rest by Bonny. She knew every step of the route, where to stop and  when to turn. She also knew the most likely places to expect a treat of  sugar or cookies etc. from her special friends among the customers.  Spring time brought fresh green grass along the road and sometimes it required some rather strong persuasion to keep her mind on  the matter of delivery. A willow branch rapped sharply on the tin lids  of the wagon box usually was sufficient to bring her attention back to  the business at hand.  The Guisachan Ranch was the only dairy licensed to supply  Grade A milk. The four other dairies in the city were required to  pasteurize their products. There was much controversy over the  merits of pasteurized versus raw milk, but ironically, whenever the  medical profession were confounded with the problem of an upset  baby, they almost always directed the baby to be given milk from  Guisachan Dairy.  The Guisachan Dairy Barn taken about 1941. Photo courtesy Bill Cameron.  Delivery day started about 7 a.m. every morning, preparing  Bonny with a brush down, harness and a final bit of oats. I loaded the  wagon from the cooler, prepared the books and we were off, rain or  shine, summer or winter, seven days a week. Like His Majesty's mail,  the delivery had to be made.  Kelowna of fifty years ago, was not nearly so large as it is to-day and  except for the main streets, Bernard and Pendozi, had little or no  pavement except for the "shale" that was hauled from the base of  98 Milk Delivery  Dilworth mountain and spread mostly by Dillon and Sons. This  substance soon packed into a very firm and satisfactory road surface.  However, it soon took its toll on Bonny's hooves, so to alleviate the  problem, Paddy had the blacksmith shoe her with metal shoes  covered with a heavy rubber. Bonny seemed to appreciate this new  invention and her clip-clop down the street reminded one of a young  flapper in high heels.  After covering the east side of town in the forenoon, we would  stop at Pearson's cabins for a lunch break. Here Bonny received a feed  of oats and I took my lunch either at Mrs. Staples' or at the little  butcher shop on Cawston Ave. The after lunch run took us back up  through the business section of the city, down Abbott Street, along  Pendozi and finally back to the ranch by 2:30 or 3:00 p.m.  Bonny was then finished for the day. She was unharnessed, given  a rub down and another good feed. The milkman's duties, however,  were not finished. I had to fire up the little steam boiler to provide  steam for sterilizing the bottles in preparation for bottling the evening's  milking, unload the wagon, and take care of washing the bottles.  The usual day for the milkman was from before 7:00 a.m. till after  5:00 p.m. and it was seven days a week. On Sunday, Bonny was given  a day off and delivery was done with the new half-ton pickup truck that  had been purchased in the summer of 1939. It was at this time that I  learned to drive. A dollar for a driver's license, a few turns around the  barn yard and I was delivering by truck, but only on Sundays!  Every second Sunday, I was not required to wash the bottles, this  being done by Paddy while I had the rest of the day off.  Wages in those days were not the greatest; you usually made sure  you had the job and then asked what the wages were. I was married  soon after taking over the route and given pay of $60.00 per month,  a two-roomed house to live in, plus all the milk and potatoes we  needed. It was never declared officially but we used to have a nice bit  of "whipping" cream along with the milk.  Our milk customers came from all walks of life, several were  prominent in the business world, others had very little. Welfare was  not plentiful in those days and "charging the milk" was always a  problem for the delivery man. On one occasion, I collected an old  account from a local tailor by purchasing my wedding suit from him  and then subtracting his milk bill from the purchase price of the suit.  Six years later when I returned from army service, I found the suit  would no longer fit me and since suits were in short supply, Tutt's  Tailors had no difficulty in selling the suit for me for more than I had  paid for it originally.  Early in 1940, when World War II had been on for several  months, the powers in local control started a Non-Permanent Active  99 Milk Delivery  Militia company of the Rocky Mountain Rangers, and Major G.D.  "Paddy" Cameron was appointed Officer Commanding of "D" Company. Soon the required number of recruits was signed up. I was  included in this number and twice a week we met at the armory for  drill. The required enlistment for active service was more than  supplied at this time, so we had to content ourselves with "Saturday  night soldiering".  Meanwhile, a war of another nature had started in Kelowna, a  milk war. In 1939, Kelowna Creamery had started a milk delivery  service with Adolph Roth as operator. They were not receiving a  sufficient number of customers so they decided to cut the price of  milk. At this time, milk was selling for eight quarts for one dollar.  Kelowna Creamery initiated a price of nine quarts for one dollar and  the other four dairies, including Guisachan followed suit.  The Creamery then started selling ten quarts for one dollar and  again Bulman's, Brown's and Tutt's met the new price. Paddy grew  very concerned over this new cut and suggested we might do the same.  I said that, since we had not lost any customers, we should remain at  the nine for one dollar level. He agreed, with the provision that should  we lose customers we would have to meet the new price. We continued  at nine quarts for a dollar and by Christmas had turned away several  prospective customers due to lack of supply.  There were no official holidays for the milkman and Christmas  Day was no exception, but the fringe benefits of gifts, cash, candy,  cake, plus Christmas drinks, more than made up for the loss of the  holiday; and with the help of Paddy and the little truck, we were  finished early enough to still have time to enjoy part of Christmas Day.  In late February 1941, enlistment for active service in the army  was increased and as a result I gave up the milk route and Bonny in  exchange for a Private's pay in the Canadian Scottish Regiment. A  new delivery man was engaged, the new truck was put into full service  for delivery and Bonny was retired.  Paddy sold this wonderful little mare to a lady in Ellison, who  wanted the horse to pull her buggy while delivering eggs. I understand they got along very well except that Bonny still retained some  preconceived ideas of where the route should be and where they  should stop or turn.  100 Armstrong Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  by Doug Kermode  An Okanagan industry that has been strangely by-passed by history is  the oxygen plant that operated on the outskirts of Armstrong over 45  years ago. It was a splendid example of enterprise and hard work by  a talented entrepreneur and his partners.  The beginning of the venture goes back to the days of the  depression in 1938. Some years earlier the City of Armstrong became  connected to the West Canadian Hydro Electric System and closed  down its own plant adjoining the city reservoir. The powerhouse had  utilized the pipeline conveying water from its source, Davis Creek, to  rotate a Pelton wheel and to provide the force to operate a dynamo.  Discharge water from the tail-race was then channeled into the city  reservoir just across the nearby creek.  When the plant was closed in 1928 it left a vacant building, a  disconnected Pelton wheel and a water supply going directly into the  reservoir. These facilities came to the attention of Ken Atkinson, his  wife Mary and his father, Reg. This trio was later joined by Harry Lee  who, like Ken, was an expert welder and then by Percy Yarwood,  Ambrose Tree and Jim Swan. Together they visualized the potential  of a plant that would produce oxygen by the electrolysis of water. (This  method requires Direct Current (DC) to break down water into its  molecular components of Hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). The  prime needs were at hand; (DC) could be directly generated from the  wheel or converted from Alternating Current, which is the normal  utility supply.)  Hours of hard work came next as Ken and his welding partner,  Harry, fabricated the 52 cells necessary to separate the two gases.  Much of the preliminary work was done in Vancouver.  These units were then shipped to the Armstrong site, completed  and assembled there. Each of the cells had to be carefully constructed  with asbestos-lined internal plates and each equipped with an anode  (positive) and a cathode (negative) terminal interconnected to the  electrical system. Glass and rubber tubing leading the two separated  gases from these units had to be absolutely leakproof. The "cells" were  approximately 5 feet tall, four feet in width and one foot deep. The  two gases were delivered into large gasometers measuring 10 feet high  and 6 feet in diameter. These were located outside the building in  wells containing about 1,500 gallons of water and painted red and  green to safely identify the contents.  Doug Kermode has been a resident of Vernon since his early school days. A well known  photographer, he has had his own business in Vernon until retirement recently.  101 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  The stored oxygen was piped back to the compressor room. As a  consequence of water's chemical composition (H20) there was twice  as much hydrogen produced as oxygen. At the time oxygen was the  product they required for their welding customers. Hydrogen had  little commercial use, a circumstance to change in wartime as will be  seen. But, hydrogen is a tricky gas and if mixed with oxygen or air and  triggered with the tiniest spark will cause an instant explosion, as the  earlier destruction of the Zepplin Hindenberg so tragically demonstrated. Great care had to be exercised so that no "short" could occur  in the cells, gasometers or anywhere else in the plant. The operators  retained only a small quantity of (H) for their own use. The rest they  bled off safely into the atmosphere.  In the compressor room the oxygen was forced into steel cylinders under pressure of 2,200 pounds per square inch. Each of these  steel "bottles" then held about 240 cubic feet of gas.  At this was the era of the "dirty thirties" cash was in short supply  and ingenuity was the keynote of success. So Ken devised a unique  system to save on the use of gasoline to drive the 60 h.p. Chevrolet  motor connected to the compressor. He used a portion of the stored  hydrogen to replace the gasoline. Conversion required the removal  of the carburetor, the fashioning of a sliding cover for the throat of the  intake manifold - to control the  air mixture - and the introduction of hydrogen gas into the  throat with a valve-controlled  pipe.  The conversion proved to  be highly efficient. There was  literally no fuel cost, no plug  carbonization, instant starting  in even the coldest weather and  it was entirely pollution free as  the end product was just water  vapour. This motor operated  flawlessly for several years and,  as will be shortly seen, evoked  considerable interest during the  war years.  The over-all development  of the plant involved complexities, some of them potentially hazardous. For instance, compressor  pumps involved with oxygen cannot use any form of petroleum  lubrication. Just a drop of oil entering a cylinder under such pressure  produces a "diesel effect" and the resulting explosion will shatter a  Ken Atkinson in 1946. Photo courtesy of Doug  Kermode.  102 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  cylinder instantly. Consequently the pumps must be lubricated in a  water bath. The partners rigged up this necessary equipment also.  For the mechanically inclined here is a further instance of  Atkinson's genius. The details were provided by Mat Hassen, one of  Armstrong's real pioneers who with his wife, Rose, administered the  Interior Provincial Exhibition so successfully for so many years. They  knew Atkinson very well and many details of his plant's operations.  Mat recorded: "The compressor was also a home-made affair, a  Fordson Tractor block, from the era of the famous Model T cars, with  four cylinders but only three required for the immediate purpose.  The initial low pressure stage was a standard bore fitted with a homemade piston of leather. The middle pressure was obtained by reducing the cylinder to two inches with a matching piston. The final, or  highest, compression was the third cylinder reduced to one inch. The  fourth cylinder was unused." Later, moisture filters were added to  absorb any drops of water that might by-pass the pumps.  The plant produced about 20 bottles per day, not a big operation  as compared to Coast units but costs were minimal and in the depression days it was sufficient to constitute a good return. Eventually they  were to get a fair share of Okanagan Valley business. The firm known  as "Western Oxygen" augmented its staff. In addition to Ken's wife,  Mary, and Harry's wife, Kris, there were Caroline Farrell (later Watt)  and Elsie Murray. At that time there was an ingenious innovation. The  office girls, often doubling as cooks and coffee-makers, were provided  with a hydrogen-fired range — another brainchild of Ken and Harry.  They were, undoubtedly, among the first in the Okanagan to claim  that they "cooked with gas".  Now, the story moves ahead to the war years, shortly after the  Japanese raid on Pearl Harbour.  The need for hydrogen increased dramatically. Soon the U.S.  Army had requisitioned all the hydrogen the plant could produce and  most of the oxygen. Since double the amount of hydrogen to oxygen  is given off in electrolysis the plant was able to triple its effective  output and additional staff was hired. The U.S. supplied the necessary  cylinders. (It was later revealed that all the huge barrage balloons used  in the Kiska invasion scare and the many balloons ringing Seattle were  inflated with hydrogen from the Armstrong Plant). At this time the  company was operating three daily shifts seven days a week.  In spite of all precautions the inevitable explosion did occur. A  small rock entered the Pelton pipeline, momentarily reversing the  wheel and altering the polarity of the anode and cathode terminals in  the cells. Consequently some oxygen entered the hydrogen container  and in some mysterious manner a spark was produced within the large  tank. In a split second the 238 cu. ft. container was blown across the  103 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  creek onto the wooden roof of the nearby Armstrong reservoir, badly  damaging the structure. The force of the explosion expelled the  hundreds of gallons of unfrozen water in the well, despite the fact it  was winter, and the vaporized water descended as snow.  The U.S. Army immediately ordered that the crumpled tank be  re-fabricated and into production again in 24 hours or less! They even  shipped the approximately two tons of steel plate required BYEXPRESS  with an XXX priority.  Ken and his welding partners worked around the clock and had  the plant back in action in jig time. The army even replaced the  hydrogen fired compressor motor with a conventional gasoline driven  type to conserve hydrogen gas.  Fortunately no-one was injured in the accident but a potentially  dangerous, though in some ways amusing, incident did occur during  the shipment of some gas cylinders en route to the Armstrong  railway station. One of the  "bottles" was dropped from the  delivery truck and in striking  the pavement the top turning  valve was partially opened. The  impact created a spark and  ignited the escaping gas which  ejected a long stream of flame  and the high pressure caused  the cylinder to spin around and  into a series of wild gyrations.  Needless to say by-standers fled  the scene and witnessed the  screaming pyrotechnics from  safe shelter. Again, fortunately,  there were no injuries.  After the war the Armstrong plant experienced an increase  demand for oxygen. It augmented its work force by hiring new office  staff and drivers, Fred Shumay and Gordon Metcalf. Jack Clinton and  Les Murray were engaged to maintain the cells and other equipment.  A near fatal accident was prevented one day through Les' prompt  action and disregard for his own safety. Harry Lee was filling oxygen  tanks when one of the newly installed lines that contained a spot of oil,  apparently missed in the steam cleaning process, exploded. His  sweater immediately became impregnated with oxygen and he erupted  into a fireball.  Les heard the bang and the screams and promptly threw him to  the ground where he rolled him until he had doused the flames,  Harry Lee  104 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  noting with horror the burning flesh on his chest. He then ran to the  compressor room where he managed to extinguish the flames with a  COg tank. He returned to Harry and rushed him to hospital where his  severe burns confined him for several months.  Vernon's first Industrial Exhibition was held in the newly vacant  Army Camp buildings, with the intention of displaying products not  available in the period of wartime restrictions. Ken Atkinson was there  with his products from Western Oxygen as well as newly designed  welding equipment.  With his flair for promotion he quickly took advantage of the fact  that I had recently acquired some war surplus 16-inch weather  Oxygen cylinder filling room. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  balloons. He had the tanked hydrogen and I had the balloons. We  inflated some and tethered a few near his display and put others  outside the building. Those (H) filled balloons were a novelty in those  pre-helium days. To add to the variety and, to get the "boys will be  boys" urge out of our systems we added some oxygen into the gas  105 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  mixture. We inserted a six inch length of fuse into each balloon neck.  Then they were ignited and we let each one sail aloft. At about 100 feet  up, in broad daylight, they would explode harmlessly but with a fairly  loud bang and flash. The thin rubber offered little resistance as the  two elements re-united into a few drops of water. (It would have been  quite another story if the exploding gas had been contained in a steel  cylinder!)  Our crowning achievement occurred when we released one with  a 50-50 mixture during the evening when most of the exhibits had  been removed. Only the amusement centre was still operating.  Les Murray hydrostatically testing an oxygen cylinder. Water, under  4000 pounds per square inch was used instead of air or gases to test for  weak cylinders. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  The balloon had drifted to a point 60 feet or more above the  Ferris Wheel which was stopping to load passengers. In the dim light  from its own string of electric bulbs we could just make out a  smooching couple, stationary at the moment in the top-most seat.  Their tryst was short-lived as our "super" exploded with a seat-shaking  106 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  bang and a lightning-like flash! Probably those lovers are still wondering how that particular kiss produced the legendary "stars and  rockets"! We used up our remaining balloons later at the Armstrong  plant, achieving even greater bangs in the narrow confines of the  adjacent ravine.  Ken related to me an interesting experience he was involved in  during the latter years of the war. He received a puzzling request to  appear before a highly secretive board in Ottawa. After being shunted  from one designated meeting-place to another in the interests of  security, he finally appeared before the mysterious tribunal! Briefly,  to the point, they explained that this visit and talks must be dealt with  in the utmost secrecy.  They wanted to know how he operated the hydrogen-powered  motor in his Armstrong Plant. He obliged by giving them a detailed  description, with numerous sketches. Apparently this brain-trust had  been trying to devise some kind of hydrogen-fueled motor, only to be  plagued with uncontrolled explosions.  Ken said he never learned the ultimate use of such a power plant  but suspected that it was in connection with submarine propulsion or  possibly atom bomb development. At any rate, it was sometime after  the war's end before he told me about it.  Another amusing sidelight of hydrogen gas's potential occurred  at Christmas in 1946. Ken gave me and my family a gift that was not  only novel but which proved to be useful and a source of fun. It was  The in terior of the Armstrong Oxy-Hydrogen Plant -1940's. Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode.  107 Oxy-Hydrogen Plant  a part tank of hydrogen. That day I filled a cluster of six balloons, tied  them to a very thin blue silk thread and let them rise to about 30 feet  over our home.  It was a windless Christmas day and the gag proved to be rib-  tickling as we watched the passers-by on that festive day. They would  look up casually, then their attention would be rivetted by this  mysterious cluster, motionless and seemingly not held up by anything. In those pre-helium days lighter- than- air objects were not  common. Even UFOs hadn't been heard of. Maybe it was a prank of  a departing Santa? It was hilarious to watch the great number of  holiday strollers who passed, walking backwards, still trying to figure  out the puzzling phenomenon.  On the useful side, my wife, Nesta, was able to keep our nine  month old Beverley amused for hours by fastening an inflated balloon  to the handle of the baby carriage with an added string that the baby  could pull down, let go, and watch her novel toy rise two feet above  her, always accompanied by a smile. Ken probably never realized how  much satisfaction - or how many cryless days - 100 cubic feet of  hydrogen provided our family that winter.  In the late 1940s Atkinson was induced to further his oxygen and  welding activities with construction of a plant in Cranbrook. This  system utilized the liquification of air process. He took Les Murray  with him to assist in construction. Les, who had rescued Harry Lee, as  noted earlier, became an expert in later years at assembling this type  of facility in B.C. and elsewhere.  The Armstrong plant was dismantled and the 52 cells so laboriously constructed so many years before were shipped, in part, to  Spokane. The balance of the equipment was left on the site. Some  doubt remains that it was the intent of Ken, Harry and their families  to completely eliminate the Armstrong operation but, at any rate,  over time the rest of the facility was razed.  Even the staccato-bang balloons that we let go in that valley no  longer reverberate to remind us of a unique industry that once  hummed 24 hours a day and employed up to ten people. It was,  however, in its day a tribute to the perseverance, ingenuity and hard  work that the "dirty thirties" demanded for survival.  Ken's rolling laughter is also now just a memory. He was killed in  the crash of his own plane over 30 years ago. His beloved Mary predeceased him five years earlier.  My thanks to Mat Hassen, his wife Rose, Les Murray and his sister  Peg Mick, Ken and Caroline Watt; Mrs. Kris Lee, Len McLeod, Laurie  Smith and Mary Blackburn for refreshing my memory and rounding  out the details of this article about a nearly forgotten era. Thanks also  to Beverley Wiren for corrections and proof reading and Stuart  Fleming for editorial assistance and word processing.  108 Okanagan Landing  Community Hall Project  by Alan Hill  This is the story of Okanagan Landing's community efforts which has  resulted in today's Community Centre and the very popular Paddle-  wheel Park.  The Association existed before 1960 and held meetings in the  rooms of an interdenominational church on Okanagan Landing  Road. This church has been converted into a private residence.  In the years before 1960 Okanagan Landing was a thriving  community. It was the centre of commerce for the whole area. When  one looks at old maps it is obvious how important this Landing was  because the name was printed in type twice the size of Vernon.  It came into its own when the railway from Sicamous terminated  at what is today's Paddlewheel Park. The old station house (which is  another story) is now a Heritage Building that sits in the middle of the  Park grounds. It was from here that the movement of goods, livestock  and people commenced on Okanagan Lake for points south. It must  have been quite thrilling to hear the steady thump of the engines and  paddlewheels of the Aberdeen, the Okanagan or the Sicamous as they  wound their way from landing to landing.  After the boats ceased operation, the Landing lapsed into a  'sleepy hollow' community. People lived in town and had a cabin on  the lake for summer. After World War II, this situation changed and  the number of permanent residents increased. With this population  increase came the problems of roads, taxes and community services.  There was really no place to meet to discuss these problems. In 1965  there was a rejuvenation of the Okanagan Landing Community  Association.  The C.P.R. shipyards were at this time derelict. They were a mass  of rotting timber and old iron. The great shipways on which the boats  had been built were staid reminders of a bygone era.  As the President of the Association and with help from an active  committee, I embarked on a campaign to obtain the C.P.R. property  for the community. It took over five years to achieve this goal. At first  there were constant appeals to Marathon Realty, the real estate arm  of the C.P.R.  There were many occasions when people would intimate that the  committee must be 'quite mad' to take on such a project even if  Alan Hill is a past president of the Okanagan Landing Community Association. Presently he  represents Area A (Okanagan Landing) on the North Okanagan Regional District.  109 Okanagan Landing Hall  Marathon would agree! It was an undertaking, which, if done through  a municipality, would have cost a million dollars. But the Association  persisted and in the mid-1960's they were informed that they could  purchase, in the name of the Okanagan Landing Community, the  lands and buildings for the sum of $10,000.00 on the condition that  the area would become a community hall and park.  The help of Pat Jordan, our local M.L.A., was enlisted. Money was  scrounged from every quarter possible to get enough together to  make an offer to them. The Association owned a little land behind the  school which was sold to the School District. We carefully hoarded the  Provincial and Federal per capita grants and Centennial Grants until  we had the sum required. The land was purchased.  Okanagan Landing in 1914. The S.S. Sicamous is under construction in the background. The  train station is in the foreground. Photo courtesy of the Vernon Museum.  We were, of course, elated. This excitement gradually dampened  when we surveyed the work which lay ahead. Just cleaning up the site  was a massive project.  It was quite interesting how people react to such a challenge.  They became very determined! Some items were sold (timbers, nails,  etc.) to build a fund from which to start this project.  The Minister of Defence was approached with the proposition  that it could be a military exercise in demolition to remove the massive  no Okanagan Landing Hall  shipways. They accepted, and with local machine help, Navy divers  from Esquimalt arrived to remove pilings and underwater obstacles.  Now some attention could be given to the building which for so  many years had been the workshop for building and maintaining the  lake boats. It was a big building. It was also in poor condition, rotten  under the priming, without heat or insulation, actually little better  than a barn.  About this time a Local Initiative Program came into being and  an application was made for $30,000.00 from the Federal Government. This was money for labour because the employment situation  was so bad at that time. The grant had a tiny percentage permitted for  material but so much of the latter was needed!  Okanagan Landing circa 1950. The shipways are in the foreground. The patchwork roof  building was the C.P.R. workshop later to become the Okanagan Landing Community Hall.  Photo courtesy of the Vernon Museum.  Everyone responded magnificently. Sheeting, plywood, nails,  gyproc and other good things were donated by mills, businesses and  individuals. The L.I.P. grant was approved.  I shall never forget the day when we started. The work force  consisted of dozens of people, most of whom had never hammered a  nail or sawn a piece of wood. The first weeks were simply hair-raising.  We were fortunate to be able to hire as part of the work force, a  supervisor, Howard Powell, who utilized the workers to his best  advantage.  Ill Okanagan Landing Hall  From the 'barn' came a community hall. Although it was somewhat rough and ready, we finally had somewhere to meet when it  wasn't too cold. Sometime later another L.I.P. grant was given which  allowed heating to be put in. The plumbers and heating people  worked at cost for us.  We were committed to providing a park, and this was accomplished by volunteer labor. The tree planting day changed the area  when residents came carrying their trees and planting them with due  ceremony. Some of those trees are now giving shade to the hundreds  of visitors we get at one of the best parks in the area.  The Greater Vernon Parks and Recreation Department now  leases a portion of the park, which with the buildings is owned by the  residents of Okanagan Landing. Tennis courts and a boat launch have  been added.  Since those hectic times the hall has been used for dances,  parties, protests and local functions. Hall rentals are a major source  of revenue to the Association apart from family memberships.  This year (1989) application was made for a grant to increase the  attractiveness of the hall. The Provincial Government agreed and  again it is one of the conditions that we will match it with volunteer  labour and materials to the tune of $9,000.00.  In the last few months much excellent work has been done. The  hall has been repainted and varnished inside; the kitchen has been  brightened and expanded. Lighting has been renewed, a sound  system installed and the pillars tiled. From a utilitarian hall, which had  its charm and warmth, there now exists a hall which is bright, airy and  quite unique.  Where else can one walk from the hall out onto a verandah over  the water and have the lake at one's feet. There are not many  community halls that can boast that.  It's a far cry back to the mid-1960's when I stood in the broken  doorway of that old, decrepit building with holes in its roof and floor.  With windows broken and siding hanging off the outside walls, I  wondered whether I really had done the right thing for the community by signing the bill of sale on behalf of the Community Association.  Now we can all look back with extraordinary satisfaction. Some of  the old executive are now dead but many live on: Oxley, Powell, Robin  King, Earl Quesnel. There were workers who learned their first skills  there. The skeptics became enthusiasts.  What a change it is to open the door of the Community Hall,  which belongs to this community of just over 4,000 souls. It is a hall  steeped in pioneer history. It housed the C.P.R. workers who laboured  on the boats that plied the waters of Okanagan Lake.  It is truly unique, and we are proud of our achievement.  112 Okanagan Landing Hall  Appendix I  Proposal for Purchase: 1970  PARTI  Descriptive Data  CPR Property, Okanagan Landing, B.C.  Area 5.89 Acres  Frontage approximately 600 Ft.  Buildings   1. Pumphouse - no equipment  Condition fair  2. Supervisors shack  Condition fair  3. Main building - 3/4 condition fair  -1/4 in disrepair  Usefulness of buildings  Pumphouse is probably worth the cost of moving as say a  garden tool shed to another location.  Supervisors shack - as above.  Main buildings - with renovation, insulation, rewiring and  provision of heating could be utilized as community hall.  Estimated costs for this work is as follows:  a. Renovation @$10.00persq.ft, estimatedat$25,000.00,  upper floor not considered.  b. Rewiring for bare necessities $1,000.00  c. Heating system costs estimated at $2,000.00  d. Repiling and lifting dropped end and provide new  joists $1,500.00  Other Items on Site  Slips -  Cost of removing, estimated at $15-$20,000.00  Piles -  All are in disrepair and most are broken, cost of  removal estimated at $1,500.00  Sunken Barge - no estimate available  Tools - Certain woodworking machinery and some ironwork is on site. These could realize a return but would  have to be professionally appraised.  PART II  Summation of Property Potential  From the foregoing it can be seen that in order to clear the  site and make the building useful an amount in the order of $45,000.00  is required and although the cost estimates are based on semi-professional appraisals from different sources, they may well be much  higher.  113 Okanagan Landing Hall  PART III  Association Proposal  The Okanagan Landing and District Community Association is therefore prepared to assume the responsibilities for work so far outlined  and in addition will take on the following added responsibilities:  a. Creation and maintenance of a park  b. Give recognition to the C.P.R. in many forms i.e. photographs to be permanently on display together with  artifacts of a shipping nature and most importantly in  the name of the park which will be known as the  Canadian Pacific Railway Centennial of B.C. Park or  similar name.  c. We will sell all assets owned by the Community Association.  d. We will devote all monies at present on hand and accruing through the coming year 1971 as the purchase price  for the property which will amount to the sum of  $10,000.00 i.e. approximately $30.00 per family.  e. We will undertake to keep the area as a park in perpetuity.  f. We will not permit any commercial venture to operate  from the area and any monies collected within its  confines i.e. for memberships, entrance fees to special  events etc. will be devoted to the maintenance of the  property or its building or its park facilities.  We earnestly solicit the help of those involved in the final decision of  the sale of the property and ask them to consider the implications  involved. They are:  a. There is no other land in the area with water access  suitable for a park.  b. The population in the area is growing rapidly especially  in numbers of the very young.  c. The historical importance and the retention of the  landmark is of great aesthetic value to the community.  d. This Association has been asking for the donation of  the property for over fifteen years.  Signed on behalf of the 1830 Citizens of the Community  A. L. Hill M. Foster  President. Treasurer.  Okanagan Landing and District Community Association  114 A Mail Boat on the Okanagan Lake  (After the Sicamous)  by John A. Kitson  When the Sicamous ceased regularly scheduled operations in 1935,  the system for delivering mail to Post Offices at Wilson's Landing and  Ewing's Landing on the west side of the lake north of Kelowna was  changed. Mail to Wilson's Landing continued to go by water but by  using ships much smaller than the sternwheelers. John H. (Jack)  Kitson of Bear Creek obtained the contract for twice a week delivery  from the Kelowna Post Office.  For the first months of this service he delivered the mail in an  open 10' dingy powered with a 1.5 hp Johnson outboard. Mail was  picked up twice a week, Tuesdays and Fridays and delivered to the  Wilson's Landing Post Office located in the Browse house near  Wilson's Landing (it was actually on what is now Browse Road). About  the only residents were Mr. and Mrs. Browse, Mrs. Browse's sister -  (Mrs. Ferley), and Mr. Wilson, after whom the Landing was named.  Return mail for Kelowna would be picked up and delivered to  Kelowna Post Office. The entire day's run from the Kitson home near  Bear Creek to Kelowna, Kelowna-Wilson's Landing-Kelowna then  back to Bear Creek must have taken at least four hours and must have  been far from pleasant in winter.  With the deepening of the great depression in 1932-33, a so  called "relief camp" was built at Wilson's Landing. This was later to  become the Anglican Church Camp, but in the 30's it housed scores  of able bodied men who worked on improving the narrow and  generally unsafe portion of the Westside Road between Wilson's  Landing and what used to be known as Newby's Cove (north of the log  dump and Traders Trail Estates). The relief camp needed supplies of  food and equipment delivered along with the staff and workers.  To provide this service as well as delivering the mail and carrying  out sport fishing charters, Jack Kitson had a new boat built by Turner  Boat Works on Coal Harbour in Vancouver. The new vessel named  Trusty was 20' long with a 7' beam and 2'6" draft. Powered with a lOhp  2 cylinder Easthope fish boat engine she could travel about nine  knots, making the Wilson's Landing trip in about an hour. (Easthope  Engines and the company that built them are written up in some  detail in Rain Coast Chronicles). She was hauled to Kelowna by C.P.R.in  an automobile car then transferred to a hand pushed flat car and  launched down the freight car loading ramp at Kelowna. The ramp,  John A. Kitson is the son of Jack and Phyllis Kitson. He presently operates Kitson Consulting Ltd.  in Summerland.  115 Mail Boat  which was normally used for loading freight cars on to barges, was  specially lowered for the purpose. Trusty was, apparently launched in  the spring of 1935 and remained in mail service until the Kitsons  moved to Victoria in September 1937.  As well as hauling mail and freight, Jack Kitson ran a regular  fishing charter business and also carried after-hours ferry passengers.  Usually it would be basketball teams coming back from a late evening  in Penticton before the days of 24 hr. ferry service. He would pick  them up at the Westside ferry dock and drop them off in Kelowna.  Registered carrying capacity was 12 passengers or about a ton of  freight.  The Trusty circa 1937.  Winter operation was not without problems. The worst was skim  ice which usually occurred on cold still nights in early spring. It is very  thin and extremely abrasive to a wooden hull. We usually avoided  skim ice problems by hanging a strip of galvanized sheet metal from  the bow and along the waterline as far aft as midships. Without this  protection, the inch thick cedar hull would have been cut through in  a few seconds, as we found out one night when Trusty was accidentally  backed for about ten feet into a sheet of skim ice in Kelowna breakwater. This cut most of the way through her transom on the waterline  and the plank had to be replaced next day by the A.J.Jones Boatworks.  This was located where the covered berths of the Kelowna Yacht Club  are now installed.  116 Mail Boat  Note on Jack and Phyllis Kitson  Jack Kitson was born in London, England -14 May 1890 and grew  up in Harrogate, Yorkshire. He came to B.C. in 1908 to take up  farming and spent the first two years in Armstrong. In 1910 he moved  to Kelowna where he bought the 200 acre property now owned by T.L.  Solmer. His brother Bernard joined him in 1911 and their parents  Thomas and Catherine Kitson came out in 1914. Jack and Bernard  ran the orchard/mixed farm until the mid 1920's when the elder  Kitsons moved to Victoria to be joined later by Bernard.  Phyllis came to B.C. in 1922 from Essex in England where her  relatives have been farming for the past seven hundred years. She  came under a WWI Veterans' settlement scheme for which she was  eligible as a member of the Women's Forestry Corps. She had  supervised a logging operation and bush mill in England's "New"  Forest during the war. She met Jack Kitson at the Kelowna Tennis  Club and they married in the Anglican Church in Kelowna in  September 1924. In 1929, she bought the lakeshore property South  of Bear Creek Provincial Park and she and Jack moved there along  with their son John. Since roads along the west side were rather poor  and ferry service infrequent, it was more convenient to move everything, including building materials for the new house, by boat. This  became a way of life for them up until 1950, when they finally sold the  Trusty and bought a car.  Jack Kitson  Phyllis Kitson  117 The Similkameen Ice Tunnel  by Bob MacRae  Across the Similkameen River, two miles west of the old mining town  of Hedley, a tunnel full of ice lies buried in a rock talus slide above the  abandoned Great Northern Railway grade, and adjoins the property  of Banbury Mines. It is a dangerous area and should only be approached during the summer months.  One written report by an engineer who arrived in Hedley in 1899,  describes the tunnel as being 100 feet in length and was stopped a few  feet short of a rich vein of ore. Some area old-timers suggest the tunnel  was used by the original railway builders, the Vancouver, Victoria and  Eastern Railway, to extract rock fill from the slide for the railway bed  about 1908.  The tunnel, which is six feet high and five feet wide, ends on the  Keno mineral claim, which I have staked. It is part of the original  Bulldog Group of claims held in the early days by a prospector known  as Bulldog Brown, who is said to have had disputes with the railway  company over the property.  Last summer, while doing assessment work on the claims, I  dislodged an old tunnel timber and behind it, encased in a block of  ice, was a "single jack" hammer and a hand drill steel used by miners  Some of the Nickel Plate Mine residents at Stray Horse Lake resort in 1919. The men fished from  boats made from dynamite boxes and stored their catch at the Ice Cave. Photo courtesy Doug  Cox.  Bob MacRae is a local prospector. Retired, he resides in Penticton.  118 Ice Tunnel  before the introduction of compressed air-driven rock drills. In  finding the hand steel and hammer, I was convinced that the report  by the engineer may be true, as those tools that had lain in the ice for  at least 75 years were well worn and had been used to drill blast holes  in solid rock.These tools have been donated to the Hedley Heritage  Society.  I first entered the tunnel as a boy over 50 years ago to cool trout  I caught during fishing excursions along the river. At that time the  tunnel was blocked by solid ice 15 feet from the entrance, which even  on the hottest day was sheathed in ice. As a boy, I delivered fresh milk  by horseback from my parents' cattle and sheep ranch, to the nearby  cookhouse of Gold Mountain Mines (now Banbury Mines). Sterling  Creek Gold Mines and Amalgamated Mines also operated nearby at  that time.  Later, I worked underground as a tramway hoistman and hardrock  miner at several local mines - the original Hedley Mascot, the Good  Hope, Nickel Plate, Copper Mountain and French Mine, until their  closure. Of the hundreds of tunnels in the Hedley area, and including  those with other exits, none of them have ice in them year round. I  believe there must be a natural refrigeration process in the ice tunnel,  or perhaps the tunnel has tapped cold currents from glacial ice buried  under the mountain.  Slides have once again covered the tunnel entrance, so it may be  some time, if ever, before the mystery is solved.  Some of the old workings of the Bulldog portal at the Nickel Plate Mine site in the 1970's, which  were utilized by the crews exploring the workings of the mine which closed in 1955. Photo  courtesy Doug Cox.  119 Early Days of Osoyoos Golf  by Douglas Fraser  My father, George J. Fraser, recalled the origin of golf in Osoyoos in  these words: "Golf was introduced in Osoyoos by Raymond Fraser in  the early twenties: On a Sunday afternoon Raymond could be seen  knocking a ball around on the range (above the orchards). Raymond's  antics roused the curiosity of neighbor Sim, who followed him around  one afternoon and thereafter there were two golfers".1 The orchards  on the east side of the lake extended only one orchard deep back from  the lake. All the land above was rangeland. The greens were circles of  about twelve feet in diameter, cleared of bunch grass, and with a  tomato can sunk in the centre.  The advantage of starting the golf course was that Raymond  could locate the first tee and ninth green right at the back of his own  orchard. As interest and numbers grew, the first tee at the back of  Raymond's orchard proved inconvenient for access, so a meeting was  held and it was decided to make a real golf course with sand greens  and tee boxes.  The first tee of the "new" course was on the site of the present  Fernandes fruit stand, and as the first hole extended north, the tee  shot was across the road up the mountain, now Highway 3, but as there  was considerably less traffic then, this was of no consequence. This  first hole was the only one with a bunker—a wind-scooped hollow in  the sandy soil. As there was no turf as such, the ball invariably came  to rest between grazed-off tufts of bunch-grass, so a local rule permitted improving the lie.  As the greens were sanded, they had to be fenced to keep the  range animals off. An approach shot hitting a fence-post or strand of  wire had to be replayed. Waste oil from garages was used for oiling the  sand, the range cattle kept the course "mowed", and if you lost your  tee, dried horse droppings, preferably from a small-sized horse,  served the purpose. This being before the invention of the wooden  tee, most golfers used half-inch lengths of hose, and to make finding  them easier, had a bit of red cloth attached with a piece of string.  "R.H. Plaskett was elected first president, the penalty for which  was donation of lumber for erection of a club house. Work bees were  organized, the club house built, fairways cleared, greens sanded, oiled  and fenced and no one save the president had been called on for a  dime."2  Douglas Plaskett Fraser has lived in Osoyoos since 1917. He has been a teacher, orchardist, and  member of the Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society.  120 Osoyoos Golf  The new club was nothing if not ambitious, not to say pretentious,  and hearing that the Lieutenant-Governor of B.C., the Hon. Randolph Bruce, was soon to be passing through Osoyoos, a letter was sent  off asking if he would be kind enough, when en route, to officially  open our new golf club. He would, a date and time were set. A brand  new Silver King golf ball was purchased in Penticton especially for the  occasion. As the Lieutenant-Governor's eye-sight was failing, he  delegated his niece, Miss Helen Mackenzie, to make the opening  drive.  Osoyoos Golf Clubhouse in 1931. Standing from left: Norah Mitchell, Elsie Sim (Mrs. S.  Mepham), Peggy Fraser (Mrs. G. Driver), and Molly Sim (Mrs. K Plaskett). "Pat" Fraser  is seated.  "The vice-regal party were introduced by W.A. McKenzie, M.L.A.  for Similkameen. After a few remarks by the Lieutenant-Governor,  Miss Mackenzie teed off, making a spectacular drive, getting wonderful distance, plus perfect direction."3  The Silver King was retrieved and put alternately in care of Ken  Plaskett and Doug Fraser. What eventually became of it nobody  knows.  It is remarkable how so few people managed to do so much. The  total population of Osoyoos at the time was about 45, of whom 15 were  members. No land was then under cultivation on the west side of the  lake.  "Unfortunately the land on which the golf course was located was  potential orchard land, and there came a day about 1940 when the  golfer squatters had to relinquish their fairways and greens to the  covetous orchardists."4  Some golfers joined the Oroville Golf Club, also a range land,  sand-green course. It was just across the border, on the westside of the  lake, about a mile south of the present Osoyoos golf course. There was  121 Osoyoos Golf  good-natured argument as to whether the ninth tee was on the  Canadian or U.S. side of the line.  When the Oroville golf club folded over a land-use dispute, the  Osoyoos golfers then joined the Oliver Golf Club, now the Fairview  Golf Club, but then still a range-land course with sand greens. It is  interesting to recall a division of opinion—this would be in the  1950's—over a proposal to raise the annual dues from ten to fifteen  dollars.  Interclub Golf Match with Kettle Valley at Osoyoos in 1931. KV. Roberts is in the  foreground.  Not many of us in the early days used Silver Kings. They cost 75  cents. Generally we used 50 cent balls, and before present-day improved paints, they were grey rather than white after a few rounds.  Every golfer had a tin of golf-ball paint in his workshop and while one  could lengthen the ball's life for a bit, it soon became grey again. One  of my most welcome Christmas presents for years was a box of six  repaints from my cousin Raymond who had left our brown fairways for  Victoria's green ones.  1-4 Quotations are from The Story of Osoyoos by Geo. J. Fraser.  122 The Thatch Roofed House  by Herman Gummel  The history of the only thatch roofed house in the South Okanagan  goes back to the years 1922 and 1923, when the writer lived in  Germany as a teenager. We lived then, 25 kilometers east of the centre  of Hamburg in an old thatch roofed house, with the living quarters  on the one side and the livestock area on the other side, divided by an  area that could be entered by a wagon, so that the hay and grain  sheaves could be stored in the attic. The roof area of a building that  size was quite large and the reroofing was usually done in sections.  Part of the roof was badly weathered and needed to be renewed.  The solution was, to thresh the rye with the flail, so as not to crush  the stems and use it for thatch, instead of the better, but too expensive,  reed grass. I had seen how the thatching was done, when we had an  expert roofer do some repair work in previous years. Finally, sufficient  material was on hand to do a whole section of the roof at one time.  Everything turned out not too bad for a seventeen year old without  any training.  After coming to Osoyoos in 1930 and living here for several years,  we decided to make this our home. In 1933, we bought 10 acres of raw  land 2 miles north of Osoyoos with a 10% downpayment, which made  quite a dent in our financial resources. When the question of housing  came up, I remembered seeing a stand of reed grass in the meadow  north of Osoyoos Lake. These meadows were at that time owned by  Val Haynes. So I went to see him to ask permission to cut the reeds. He  had no objection. In fact, I think, he was glad, as in later years he always  made hay in that area, which can be done if the grass is still young  enough. But that never gave the reed grass a chance to recover for  another thatch.  Anyone remembering the early thirties, knows that money was a  scarce commodity at that time. The only thing we had plenty of in  1934, was potatoes. In the Bridesville area there was a sawmill operator  who was boarding his help, which gave me a chance to trade potatoes  for enough lumber to get the house framed. In the late fall of thatyear,  I was ready to put the roof on.  A thatch roof has to be comparatively steep. The gable has to be  at least 90 degrees or less. The rafters can be spaced fairly wide, as long  as they are strong enough to carry the weight of the roof. The rafters  Herman Gummel immigrated from Germany to Osoyoos in 1930. He is a retired orchardist and  continues to reside in Osoyoos.  123 Thatch Roofed House  are connected horizontally with one by fours at a distance of one foot.  In the Old Country, the preference is for hand-hewn poles, called  "Finnische Latten."  Before starting on the job of putting the thatch on the roof, one  has to have the tools and materials ready. For tools, it takes a needle  to thread the tyewire around the one by four. A professional roofer  uses a sickle-shaped steel needle with a hole in the point for the wire  to fasten to. One can also get by with a one foot long stick with a needle  hole near the point; but that requires another person on the inside to  push the needle back.  The Thatch Roofed house is located two miles north of Osoyoos. Herman Gummel is in the  foreground.  On the outside, one needs strong straight sticks, or heavy galvanized wire to hold the thatch down. In order to shape the surface of  the roof, a board is required. A piece of one by six or one by eight from  12 to 16 inches long, with holes not more than a quarter of an inch  deep, and close together, with a handle on the other side, works quite  well.  The first layer of thatch has to be quite thick, as one should aim  for an overall thickness of about one foot. On a small roof, like ours  here in Osoyoos, one can get by with ladders, but on a large roof, a  "Dachstuhl" or "roofchair" , is required; in fact, at least two of them  124 Thatch Roofed House  are needed. These chairs are about 20 inches wide and have three  steps. On the top of the underside is a long, curved steel spike, which  hooks over the one by four. When it comes to the last layer of thatch,  it is fastened along two lines to make it more secure against wind. This  layer should be renewed at least every ten years as it is more exposed  to the weather.  With the amount of rain they have in the Old Country, a roof with  reed grass has a life expectancy of about 30 years, while rye straw will  only last about 20 years. With the dry climate we have in Osoyoos, the  life expectancy can be almost double that. Another advantage is the  insulating quality of thatch. In the greatest heat of summer, it will  never be too hot in the attic. A thatch roof will always be my preference, but not enough material can be found in this area any more.  125 An Osoyoos Wedding Shower, 1934  by Dorothy Fraser  In August 1934, Douglas Plaskett Fraser and I were married and came  to live in Osoyoos, where Douglas (whose family had been in Osoyoos  since 1917) had a teaching position. In fact, he was to be principal of  a two-roomed school at $80.00 a month.  We lived in a little cabin on the lakeshore, and one day in  September we had an invitation from Daisy and Leslie Goodman  (pioneers of 1920) to come and play tennis and have tea. Innocently  we went ready for tennis, but found about fifty people there, all  dressed in their best. Indeed, almost everyone in the district must have  been present. There was a table in the garden piled with parcels. It was  a shower in our honour. I was almost overcome, for I had never  experienced anything like this. I had never even been to a shower and  did not know how to proceed.  We opened the lovely parcels, all filled with things very useful for  a new household: egg beater, potato masher, rolling pin, pie plates,  towels and dish towels, casseroles, ajar of jelly, a percolator, a mixing  bowl, a tablecloth, a grater, a lemon squeezer, and so on. Many parcels  had three or four of these essential items.  The little general store had no cards, so people used notepaper  and made up their own messages of love and encouragement. There  were so many that I cannot begin to list them. Several had jokes or  verses. "Hope the mashing is confined to potatoes", said Adam and  Connie Cumine with their potato masher. Eric and Gran Goodman  presented a wire basket dish drainer, saying via their mother's handwriting, "We don't like drying dishes either". Aunt Sadie, Mrs. R.H.  Plaskett, suggested that when the school children got on Doug's  nerves, I should serve Angel Cake for tea. Alf and Nan Hanbury gave  us a casserole "For Bigger and Better Scalloped Potatoes". Osoyoos  Women's Association said, "What is home without a cat?" but I do not  now remember what the cat was.  The Community Club (I suspect the Goodmans) sent pumpkin  seeds eventually to become, when the pumpkins were grown, a  pumpkin pie. The Male Defence League (definitely Goodmans this  time) sent a fly-swatter for Douglas, saying, "This makes a good  defensive weapon for the rolling pin". The Fraser brothers (Raymond  and Martin) sent pie plates and said, "For us hard-working Fraser men  / A little pie is relished now and then."  Dorothy (Johnson) Fraser came to Canada in 1925 from England. She graduated with a teaching  degree from UBC, and has been in Osoyoos since 1934.  126 Wedding Shower  Douglas Fraser and Dorothy Johnson  at the Penticton train station in 1932.  The Goodmans' most entrancingjoke was two mousetraps—one  each, was carefully noted—from Dr. Weir, then Minister of Education. (We were teachers.) The note also said, "When it comes to an  argument keep your trap shut."  I cherished particularly a bread-knife and board from Douglas'  mother and father: "A brand new board and a brand new knife / For  a brand new hubby and a brand new wife".  A most elaborately dressed figure called Kate was made by  Douglas' sisters, Margaret and Dorothy, and it consisted of a corn-  broom decorated with ten different household articles: dishtowels,  pansrubber, dustpan, and so on.  Several items came from Oliver and with these there were Shower  Gift cards, for Oliver had a drugstore which carried a small selection.  "This Shower is meant to bring / A wish for the best of everything", the  delicate little cards said.  After 55 years a number of the articles are still in use. The bread  knife and board and the dish-drainer I use daily, and I still have the  original potato masher, rolling pin, measuring cup and so on.  This shower was a wonderful introduction to the small warm  community of those days, and I am amazed now at the Goodmans  being able to get so many people together and then give them a feast.  There was almost no duplication among the presents so that must  have been organized too.  127 Oliver's First School  by Elma Fairweather Lyons  I came to Oliver in 1921 with my parents Hettie and Harry Fairweather  and my brother Lloyd. My father built the Oliver Hotel that year. It was  rebuilt from the Queensborough Hotel which he had built in 1912 in  New Westminster.  In September 1921 Oliver's first school was opened, consisting of  two very small shacks built about twenty-five feet apart and situated  just above where the present United Church now stands. The walls  were made of shiplap boards covered on the outside with a layer of  tarpaper. There was no insulation. When the tarpaper tore you could  see daylight through the cracks. The floors were bare boards with no  covering. That first winter was very cold, with bitter winds and much  snow. Each building had only a small airtight heater. Sometimes,  during the coldest days, we kept our coats and mittens on and sat as  close as possible to the stove.  One shack was used for the wee tots in the primary classes known  as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd readers rather than grades in those days. Our  first primary teacher was Miss Vera McRoray from New Westminster.  I was ten years old in 1921, old enough to remember what a pretty and  very popular young lady she was, liked by everyone in our small village,  and much sought after by the eligible young men. While she taught  in Oliver Miss McRoy lived with us at the hotel and it is not an  exaggeration to say that I adored her. She was musical and wonderful  with small children. We often heard her class singing.  The second shack was for the students from 4th reader on. This  was my room and our teacher was a very dignified elderly little  Englishman named Mr. Price. To this day I do not know what his first  name was. Mr. Price was dapper, always wearing an immaculate high-  collared white shirt, a well pressed dark suit, highly polished black  shoes, grey buttoned spats and pince-nez glasses on a black ribbon.  Outdoors he wore a bowler hat and gloves and carried a cane. He had  a well waxed big handle-bar moustache and thick wavy hair which he  parted in the middle. Both moustache and hair were jet black on  Monday but faded through the week to brown and finally, on Friday,  to a drab orange. We always wondered how he coloured them. No  doubt he did so in order to get a job because I believe he was in his  seventies.  Elma Fairweather Lyons is the daughter of Oliver pioneers Hettie and Harry Fairweather. She  continues to reside in Oliver.  128 Oliver's First School  Because he was only slightly over five feet in height Mr. Price  would stand on an orange box to write at the top of the blackboard.  I used to feel very sympathetic towards him when one or two of the  older six-foot boys tormented him. Mr. Price would stand in impotent  rage shaking his pointer (which was almost as long as he was) at the  offending student and say, almost in despair, "If I were your father, I'd  give you a jolly good hiding—I would." And that is as far as he went.  The poor man must have had a very unhappy time of it. He was, in  spite of all his troubles, a fine teacher, conscientious and untiring in  his efforts to teach a bunch of kids some of whom had never been  exposed to much refinement.  In January, 1922, our new two-room school was completed and  we moved in, about 25 or 30 pupils in all. However, Oliver began to  grow so quickly that soon the new school was bursting at the seems.  The new church basement became our high school and Elliot's  Restaurant became the primary school. In 1922-23 our first United  Church (Presbyterian at that time) was built and Mr. Price's old  classroom became Rev. Feir's cow barn. The cow grazed in the field  behind the church. The next year the building became a garage for  the minister's 1922 Ford, a "tin Lizzie." I believe it still stands. The  second little shack was moved away and probably became someone's  home, an improvement over the tent houses that most people lived in.  Miss McRory moved into the new school with her pupils, but Mr.  Price left Oliver at Christmas, very likely relieved to see the last of our  little frontier town. We never heard of him again. The teacher who  replaced Mr. Price was Mr. Charles Mitchell. He too was a fine teacher.  After sixty-five years I still remember many of his history lessons. Mr.  Mitchell had the gift of making his stories come alive. Even arithmetic,  algebra and geometry lessons were understandable and memorable.  Miss McRoy taught in the new school until the end of 1922. Then,  at Christmas, she romantically eloped with "Shorty" Knight who was  an owner of our garage. The couple moved to Cranbrook where  Shorty continued in the garage business until his death some years  ago. When Miss McRoy left Oliver her class was taken by one of her  school chums from New Westminster, Beatrice Bowden. Miss Bowden  became Mrs. Carl Collins and lives in Oliver to this day.  I must say that our teachers had to be very versatile because they  had to teach all subjects to many if not all grades. Sometimes classes  consisted of only one, two, or three pupils. I am proud to say that many  of our young people entered university with very high marks. They set  a fine example and expected high standards from their pupils.  129 Biographies  The Clement Brothers  by Ettie Adam  The four Clement brothers, Charles, Will, Percy and Ernest contributed to the growth of Kelowna.  In 1902-3 Charles was foreman for the Stirling and Pitcairn  Packinghouse, and in this capacity he supervised the packing and  shipping of the first export apples to leave Kelowna. Prior to this, fruit  had been shipped only as far as Winnipeg. The apples were packed  and taken on the boat to Okanagan Landing where they were loaded  into two freight cars and started on their journey to Glasgow, Scotland, where they arrived in perfect condition in November 1903.  By 1905 Charles had his own business, a cement and concrete  block factory. He built the first cement sidewalks in Kelowna on a  stretch of Bernard Ave. between Ellis St. and Abbot St. In 1907 he built  the First Baptist Church on Ellis St. just behind where the Royal Bank  is today. It was demolished to build the first Credit Union Building.  Mr. George Patterson, an excellent stone-mason, did the stone work.  Around the year 1908 Charles bought the brickyard from Harvey  and Jackman. In the ensuing years he built many of the brick homes  and businesses in town. In 1911 he built the Anglican Cathedral.  Charles was the contractor with Mr. Curts doing the building and Mr.  Patterson once again doing the stonework. In 1913 he built the  Casorso Block followed soon after by the Rowcliffe Block.  Will Clement was an early schoolteacher. He taught in the Black  Mountain school and some years later he taught in the new four room  school on Richter St. just south of the Presbyterian Church, now the  United Church. The old school is now the Armory.  When R. H. Spedding started the Kelowna Clarion, Will became  the first Editor on July 28,1904. After several years of newspaper work  in both Kelowna and Penticton he returned to teaching and taught in  Ettie Adam is the daughter of Charles Clement. Now retired, she is a life-long resident of  Kelowna.  130 Clement Brothers  many areas of British Columbia including New Westminster where he  was Professor of English History at Columbian College.  Percy got his start by helping his mother in her home bakery and  soon they were selling bread as far away as Vernon. The Clement  bakery became the first commercial bakery in Kelowna in the year  1899. With space to spare, Percy decided to sell bicycles. As this  business grew he decided to expand so he bought a lot on Bernard  Ave. in 1902 and built a Gift and Stationery store, the first such store  in Kelowna. Unfortunately, it was lost in a fire along with several other  stores. Since he was insured he was able to build again and carried on  till 1907 when he sold out to W.M. Crawford. Percy was also one of the  original aldermen who petitioned for incorporation of Kelowna in  1905.  The Clement brothers. From the left Ernest, Percy, Will, and Charles.  Photo courtesy of Ettie Adam.  In his retirement years in Victoria Percy spent many hours in the  Provincial Archives checking old records and newspapers for items of  interest about Kelowna. This research led to the writing of a book,  Early days of Kelowna and District.  Ernest, the youngest of the four brothers was only fifteen when  the family arrived in Kelowna in 1898. He went back to Vernon to  finish his schooling and on his return to Kelowna he took oddjobs for  awhile. These included working in the Tobacco Plant, S.M. Simpson's  sash and door factory as well as the packinghouse. While working on  the Whelan ranch he met and married Margaret, a daughter of this  pioneer family.  Working for Mr. Curts, he learned carpentry and soon became a  skilled craftsman. Together they worked on a palatial home for the  131 Clement Brothers  Countess Bubna, built on the Eldorado Ranch, formerly the Postill  Ranch. This mansion was destroyed by fire some years later. In time  he went into business for himself and built many homes in Kelowna  including his own home on Richter St. just north of the railway track.  This house still stands today.  In 1928 he tried farming on the old Whelan place but decided  that farming was not for him and in 1935 he bought the Winfield  General Store from Mr. Winchcomb and there he remained till his  death in 1947.  Clement Ave. is named for the family.  Construction of the Rowcliffe Block on Bernard Ave. in Kelowna. Charles Clement is the  gentleman with the vest.  132 Byron McDonald 1881-1936  by Mrs. Gertrude Johnston  Byron McDonald was born August 4, 1881 in Mallorytown, Ontario.  He began his business career in Ottawa with the Fruit and Produce  Exchange, moving later to the Winnipeg branch of the same firm.  After several years in the Prairie city, he came to Kelowna in 1907 as  manager of the Kelowna Farmers' Exchange. An item in the local  newspaper in April 1907 announced that "Mr. B. McDonald, manager  of the Ottawa Fruit and Produce Exchange, Winnipeg, has been  selected as manager of the Kelowna Farmers' Exchange from amongst  over 20 applicants. He is expected to arrive in the city shortly."  In 1913 Mr. McDonald established an independent shipping  house, The B.C. Growers Ltd., which  sold out in 1923 during the movement to consolidate the shipping  firms. Thereafter he acted as Sales  Manager for the Associated Growers. In 1924 he formed another  independent firm, The B.C. Orchards Ltd., and acquired the orchard of the Kelowna Land &  Orchard Co. Ltd., which was operated under the title of Keloka Orchards Ltd.  During most of his life he was  actively associated with the fruit  and produce industry first as a  salesman and later as a shipper  and grower. Mr. McDonald also  had other large interests in  Kelowna. He entered the garage business about the same time as he  established the B.C. Growers and built a fine block on Bernard Ave.  to accommodate it. He acquired Cadder House on Pendozi St. from  the estate of the late Commander T.W. Stirling and made its grounds  one of the show places of the city. He was largely interested in  Beaverdell Mines, particularly the Highland Lass.  Byron McDonald in 1922. Photo courtesy  of Gertrude Johnston  Gertrude Johnston is the daughter of Byron McDonald.  133 Byron McDonald  Mr. McDonald's public activities were many and diversified. He  scored many successes with displays of fruit at various exhibitions. For  many years he was an active member of the Board of Trade as well as  being keenly interested in the work of the Okanagan-Cariboo Trail  Association, in which he held office. He became a charter member of  the Rotary Club and never missed a meeting up until his illness and  death in 1936. He was elected to the Kelowna City Council in 1929 and  served until 1932, fulfilling the duties successively of chairman of the  Parks, Public Works and Finance committees. He was a member of the  Masonic Order, having joined in Mallorytown. In politics he was a  Liberal.  Mr. McDonald was married on December 30, 1909 in Kelowna,  to Miss Jennie Hardie. They had three daughters, Evelyn, Gertrude  and Eileen.  This building, with Mr. McDonald in the doorway, was built in 1925 on the northeast corner of  Bernard Ave. and Pandosy Street. Mr. McDonald had the General Motors dealership in this  location until his death in 1936. The top floor housed a very popular miniature golf course.  About 1942 the bottom floor was converted to other commercial use as the G.M. dealership  moved elsewhere. Radio Station CKOV was on the top floor until recent years. As of May 1990  the building was home to the Toronto-Dominion Bank. Photo courtesy of Gertrude Johnston.  134 L. J. Dotting - Falkland's First Teacher  by Donald W. Ferguson  In 1908 Lewis James Botting, wife Emily, with three children, Hilda  "Queenie" aged 17, Stanley 14, Charles 9, arrived in the Salmon River  Valley from London, England.  Before leaving England, Lewis was master of a boy's school; no  such opportunity came upon arriving here. He worked as a clerk in a  store, auditing books for various companies and as Justice of the  Peace. At this time he wrote exams to obtain a teacher's certificate. In  1913 Lewis was appointed to the office of Notary Public for the  Province of B.C.  Emily and Lewis Botting.  Donald W. Ferguson is the grandson of Lewisjames Botting. He recently passed away in Vernon.  135 L.f. Botting  In 1912, the Salmon River Land Co., owned by English investors  built a one room school building in Falkland. There were ten or so  students. Lewis was hired as teacher by the Company and they paid his  salary. He cooked his meals on the school stove and made his bed in  the school loft. On weekends he walked to and from his home at  Heywood's Corner, in Salmon River Valley, a distance of 12 miles.  After Falkland he taught at Chase Creek, a further distance from  home, but a larger salary, as he was now paid by the Gov't. By this time  World War I had started, so Lewis with his two sons Stanley and Charlie  enlisted. The two boys went overseas, and Charlie was wounded in  action. Lewis being low category, worked in quarter stores and for the  Provost Corps on troop trains.  Upon receiving his discharge after the Armistice, Lewis taught at  Summit Lake near Merritt, B.C. In 1920 he returned to Salmon River  Valley, received a Soldier's Settlement homestead and taught school  at Heywood's Corner.  In 1925 he taught at Glenemma, until his retirement in 1934.  There were two buildings used at Glenemma, the school and the hall.  When the majority of children resided near the hall, they used the hall  and the same when they resided near the school.  In 1912, Lewis and Emily's daughter "Queenie", was married to  William John Ferguson, a farmer, also foreman of the Salmon River  Land Co. from 1912 to 1917. There were four children, Phyllis  Wainewright of Vancouver, Margaret Scherle of Falkland, Donald  and Bertram of Vernon.  After retirement, Lewis and Emily lived at Falkland. Lewis passed  away in 1936, 69 years of age. Emily in 1948 age 81 years.  136 The Kinghorn and Finlayson Families  by Jean Harris  Two well know names in Sicamous and Okanagan Landing in the  1890's and 1900's were the Kinghorn and Finlayson families. The  Kinghorns emmigrated from Australia to England in 1863, and in  1882 Mary Jane Kinghorn married William Finlayson in Bathgate,  England, A son, Peter Reid Finlayson, was born in Glasgow in 1885,  the oldest of six boys and one girl.  Both families came to Canada, first settling in Salts Coats, Saskatchewan. They then moved to Sicamous where Mr. Finlayson  worked as head mail clerk on the Sicamous-Okanagan Landing C.P.R.  train. Mrs. Finlayson ran a General Store and Post Office, which was  carried on by their sons until 1957.  P.R.  Finlayson  in the early  1920's on the  Commonage Road near Vernon.  Mr. and Mrs. Kinghorn died in the early 1900's and were buried  in a pioneer cemetery on the Old Kamloops Road in Vernon (now  Alexis Park Drive).*  Some of the Finlayson family moved to Okanagan Landing in the  early 1900's where Mrs. Finlayson had another store and Post Office.  Peter R. Finlayson did construction work on the C.P.R. and was in the  Postal Service in Rossland and Revelstoke, returning to the Landing  Jean Harris is the daughter of P.R. Finlayson. She presently resides in Coldstream.  Editor's Note: Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon Editorial Chairperson, wrote: "The Pioneer Vernon  Cemetery is accessible today. A few years ago members of Friends of History, Beryl Gardner and  Claude McKern worked with City Hall staff to find and list the names of the pioneers buried  there. Students were hired and the grounds were cleaned up and names posted."  137 Kinghorn and Finlayson  in 1908 where he went to work in the store with his mother and  brother, Norman. When Mrs. Finlayson returned to Sicamous the  sons carried on in the store.  In 1914 P.R. Finlayson married Miss Evelyn Campbell, who came  from an old Vancouver family. Her father helped to build wagons  during the Caribou Gold Rush days. She came to teach school in  Lumby about 1912, and then to the Landing school where "P.R." was  a trustee. The school was up behind the Klinger house which was then  a church building. Mrs. "P.R." taught Sunday school there and played  the organ for church services which were conducted by Rev. Campbell-  Brown who drove over the Commonage from Oyama by horse and  buggy.  When Mrs. P.R. Finlayson came to the Landing as school teacher  she first stayed at the Hotel which is now the Lakeside and later she  boarded with Mrs. Finlayson; the old house is still standing across the  road from the Hotel. The house that the P.R. Finlaysons lived in when  they were married and where their two children Ron and Jean were  born, is the house the Blairs live in today. The home of Captain Weeks,  the skipper of the Sicamous, was right next door.  In 1926 P.R. Finlayson left his brother to carry on the store and  he joined W.E. Megaw in Okanagan Motors, the General Motors  Agency in Vernon. The building was where the Bingo Hall now  operates. At the time of his death "P.R." was on the Board of the  Vernon School District, the Landing school having amalgamated with  it in 1924. His son Ron has passed away, but the Finlayson name is  carried on with his grandson who lives in California.  L to R P.R Finlayson, mother Maryjane, brother Norman,  and sister Daisy (later Mrs. Jim Mackie) c. early 1920's.  138 Havelock Leroy (Lockie) Lantz  by Marion Baird  Havelock Leroy (Lockie) Lantz was born at New Ross, Nova Scotia, in  January, 1888. He arrived in Enderby in 1909 accompanied by his  brother Lenley, a barber, who later settled in Vernon. Lockie purchased property on west side of Mabel Lake, most of the acreage  followed the lakeshore from the Shuswap rivermouth south to  Newman's Bay. At the rivermouth he built a log home and quite a  large barn for his horses and for hay storage. He was a timber scaler  and proud of his Licence #16, one of the earliest licences issued by the  provincial government. In later years he became an experienced  timber cruiser as well.  Lockie was employed for  many years by the A.R. Rogers  Lumber Co. of Minneapolis,  Minnesota, owners of the large  sawmill in Enderby. They maintained logging camps around  Mabel Lake. Settlers along the  road from Enderby to the lake  including the Trinity Creek area  supplied logs for the mill. Logs  from the lake operations were  enclosed in booms and towed  to the rivermouth where they  were driven down the Shuswap  during high water to the mill.  The company built a warehouse-  cookhouse on the north side of  the rivermouth, directly across  the river from Lockie's home;  this was a convenient spot for  him to have his meals as he did  not enjoy cooking for himself.  In 1922 when the mill at Enderby closed down, Lockie was  employed by Clarke 8c Elliot, a local partnership firm. He lived at the  King Edward Hotel in Enderby and kept production records of their  timber operations and continued as an overseer of their camps.  Havelock Leroy (Lockie) Lantz, 1931. Photo  courtesy of Marion Baird.  Marion (Threatful) Baird is the widow of Lockie Lantz. She came to Enderby in 1920 from  Revelstoke and was employed for many years by the B.J. Carney Pole Co. in Enderby.  139 Lockie Lantz  Clarke 8c Elliot were subcontractors of R.W. Bruhn Ltd., a Sicamous  based logging firm with extensive operations around Shuswap Lake.  Through them, Clarke 8c Elliot produced logs that went to the T.K.  Smith Sawmill Co. in Enderby while the cedar poles were sold to B.J.  Carney 8c Co. Ltd., the Enderby branch of the parent firm from  Spokane, Washington. The Smith sawmill was built on the site of the  former A.R. Rogers mill which was partly dismantled. T.K. Smith  Sawmill Co. also operated a large sawmill at Armstrong.  When Tom Elliot left the partnership, Lockie took over his  interest, forming Clarke 8c Lantz Ltd. They continued their timber  operations, subcontracting for R.W. Bruhn Ltd., as in the past. After  a few years William Clarke was forced to retire owing to a severe  arthritic condition. Lockie had married and with his wife incorporated the firm of H.L Lantz 8c Co. Ltd. This time, however, there was  no connection with R.W. Bruhn Ltd. The new firm was an independent company, and had a small office in Enderby.  The Lantz company was in operation from 1931 to 1944. These  were the difficult depression years, but with careful management it  continued to make headway, offering employment to many people.  Eventually it owned timber limits in the Hidden Lake area, timber  berths #575 and #640 in the Trinity Creek area and various short-term  sales, one of which was in the Mara Meadows district.  The sawmill (T.K Smith Lumber Co.) had closed down its  Enderby operations in the late 1920's, and although several attempts  were made by local businessmen to establish a smaller operation on  the site of the former mill, these were not successful. With the closing  of the mills there was no further local demand for logs. The production and sale of cedar poles, railway ties and cedar fence posts kept the  Lantz company afloat. The post business showed very little profit, but  as Lockie often mentioned, the production of posts created employment and some income for settlers in the Mabel Lake and Trinity  areas.  About 1936 Lockie set up, with the help of millwright Percy  Ruttan, a small sawmill and planer mill at the east end of Regent Street  in Enderby near the river bank in order to cut white pine match plank  for a Nelson, B.C. firm. This was an interesting and profitable venture,  but after three years the supply of white pine ran out and the mill was  dismantled.  Ill health forced Lockie to retire in 1942. After many months in  hospitals at Enderby, Vernon, Kelowna and Banff, he died at his home  on July 4,1944, leaving his wife, Marion, and two small daughters, now  Audrey Lantz DeYoung of Armstrong, and Myrla Lantz Kilburn of  Toronto.  140 Lockie Lantz  Lockie was a community-minded person. Interested in politics,  he had been a member of the Board of School trustees, a member of  the Board of Stewards of St. Andrews' United Church for many years,  a long-time member of Eureka Lodge #50,1.O.O.F. and in later years,  a member of A.F. 8c A.M. Lodge #40. He was a kind-hearted person,  quietly helping others when he saw the need, a devoted husband and  father. At his funeral St. Andrews' United Church was filled to  overflowing with people from all walks of life paying tribute to his  memory.  The lastload of poles leaving the Lantz companyyard in Enderby. Photo courtesy  of Marion Baird.  141 Joe Biollo  by A. David MacDonald  Joe Biollo was born in Winnipeg, Manitoba and came to Penticton  with his family in 1912, where his father found employment on an  orchard owned by a Mr. Dalton. When the Kettle Valley Railway was  completed in 1915, Joe's father obtained ajob in the rail yard looking  after the coal chute. An unfortunate accident took the life of Mr.  Biollo when a lump of coal fell from the conveyor chain and struck  him on the head, leaving Mrs. Biollo a widow with seven small  children. Joe was the second eldest and only eight years old.  To help out at home, Joe began work at the age of nine for Ma  Sheridan who operated a boarding house, two rooming houses, and  a small store on Hastings Avenue across from the rail yards. Acting as  choreboy, he did such jobs as tending the coal and wood stoves,  serving in the store and as kitchen helper to the Chinese cook. The  store was popular with railway men (then the largest group of  employees in Penticton), not only because of its convenient location,  but also because of the good apple cider made by Bill Impett (quite  legal). Joe remembers Ma Sheridan as a very good business woman  and also a kind woman who helped many less fortunate people in the  community.  In 1927 one of the regular customers to the store, Syd Barton,  who was manager of the telphone company, offered Joe ajob. Joe had  been working part-time at the W.R. King Department Store on Main  Street and Mr. King wanted him to continue there full-time; however,  Joe opted for the telephone company. He was given two weeks in  which to learn how to drive a Model T Ford truck and how to climb  a pole. For the next two and a half years he did all the repair work in  Penticton by himself.  By about 1930 the telephone system was being changed over  from magneto to common battery system and much of this work was  being done by Cliff Greyell, who was also well known as one of the  community's earliest radio technicians. One of Joe's most interesting  jobs in this period was helping to install a telephone system in the 80-  room Incola Hotel during 1934-35. While Joe installed the phones in  the rooms, Cliff Greyell wired and installed the switchboard at the  front desk.  Dave MacDonald is a retired School District #15 Principal. He was editor of the OHS Index and  Penticton: Years to Remember.  142 foe Biollo  In 1936 Joe married Sine Nielsen from Cawston; they celebrated  their fiftieth wedding anniversary in 1986. They hve two sons, Harold,  employed by B.C. Tel. and Fred, with the Overwaitea warehouse in  Langley.  From 1931 until the beginning of World War II Joe had been  active with C Squadron, British Columbia Dragoons in Penticton. In  January 1943 he joined the Royal Canadian Army Signal Corps and  spent two years in Victoria and one year overseas, returning to the  telephone company in Penticton in 1946. In the post-war years  business was booming and many firms were installing new automatic  switching equipment.  The Okanagan Telephone Company installed one of the first  large automatic dialing systems in the Summerland exchange in 1949.  During his years with the Signal Corps Joe had learned how to install  and service automatic dialing equipment, so he was promoted to  Manager in Summerland. His area included Peachland and later  Westbank. Joe vows that during his employment with the company in  Summerland and Penticton, he climbed every telephone pole between Penticton and Kelowna.  Joe Biollo of Penticton in 1989. Photo courtesy of Dave  MacDonald.  143 foe Biollo  In 1959 Joe was transferred to Revelstoke as Manager. This was an  extremely busy time for that exchange, because the Mica Dam was  under construction and later the Rogers Pass Highway was opened.  Wherever he has lived, Joe has been active in community organizations. In Summerland he was President of the Board of Trade for  one term and while in Revelstoke, active in the Chamber of Commerce. He recalls being part of a promotional tour to Alberta which  was organized by the Hon. Phil Gaglardi, Minister of Highways, to  coincide with the opening of the Rogers Pass route. A bus load of  community representatives from all over British Columbia toured  Alberta for a week to encourage tourists to come to this province.  Joe and Sine Biollo retired to Penticton in 1968, where Joe has  continued his community work combined with world-wide travelling.  He is a valued and active member of Penticton Branch of the  Okanagan Historical Society.  Joe Biollo with his Okanagan Telephone truck in 1949.  144 May Bennett 1897-1989  by Anita Tozer  May Bennett, as wife of Premier W.A.C. Bennett and mother of  Premier W.R. Bennett, has a unique place in British Columbia history.  Born Annie Elizabeth May Richards on May 27,1897, in Wellington, B.C., she is a true British Columbian. May had a brother Russell,  and two sisters Jean and Helen, all younger than she. The Richards  family spent May's first seven years in the Nanaimo area, then moved  to the Alberta mining town of Lethbridge, then to Calgary and  Edmonton.  At the age of 17 May started teaching in a one-room school; some  of her pupils were older than she was! She taught a total of 12 years  before leaving to marry Cecil Bennett in Edmonton on July 11,1927.  They moved to Westlock, Alberta, where Cecil was a partner in the  Westlock Hardware Store. After three years in Alberta, where both  Anita and R.J. were born, Cecil, who planned to buy out his partner  in the hardware business, decided there was little future for them  there.  He sold out and headed for Victoria, British Columbia. May and  the babies stayed with her Aunt Lizzie Russell while Cecil explored  B.C. He bought Leckie's Hardware and went into business in Kelowna  in August of 1930. May and the children arrived in mid-September  when there was a house available for them. That house still stands at  862 Bernard Avenue.  Winnie Earl came "to help out" for a few weeks before Bill was  born in 1932. She stayed for 58 years! Aunt Lizzie and May's sister,  Helen, were now with them so the first house was too small. They  moved up Bernard Avenue to the foot of the Glenmore Hill until Cecil  purchased the DeHart property in 1937.  Although she had a large house and orchard to maintain, May  entered the life of the community wholeheartedly; she taught Sunday  School and C.G.I.T., joined the First United Church Women, became  a Charter Member of the Dr. Knox Chapter of the I.O.D.E. and of the  local Eastern Star, a member of the C.N.LB. and the Preventorium  Board. When WWII came, she sewed and knitted for the Red Cross,  assisted the Cancer Society, and with ration card distribution.  In 1952, Cecil became Premier W.A.C. Bennett and they had to  move to Victoria. This move changed her whole lifestyle! It was May  Anita Tozer is the daughter of May Bennett.  145 May Bennett  who decided they would live in an apartment. She knew he would  need the peace and quiet available there and in their retreat on Salt  Spring Island.  May firmly believed that the wife of a politician should remain in  the background. During her twenty years in Victoria, May lived  quietly, helping where she could, and making hundreds of friends.  When, in 1973, Cecil retired from active politics and Bill entered  them, she was happy to move even further into the background. After  Cecil died in 1979, May continued to be active with her favourite  organizations, attending meetings and providing her gardens for  special events.  Her death on September 4, 1989, came after several months of  illness. She continues to be fondly remembered and greatly missed.  As Dr. Baldeo said at her funeral, "This was a Woman!"  May Bennett (left) with Winnie Earl in May 1987.  146 Bertha Sadie Tweedy: 1903-1989  by Rhonda Rohatynchuk  To most of us, grandmother was known as Ma; to others she was  Bertha or Bert.  At the age of sixteen she was wed to John Tweedy, whom we called  Pa. Their way of life back then was not as we know it today. Everyone  experienced times of hardship. But Ma's memories of these days were  her joy in later years. She hated the modern way of life. She was old  fashioned in the true sense of the word, believing that hard work was  the answer to honest and joyful living.  Once she was alone for forty days while Pa freighted up north. Ma  was pregnant at the time, but she still hooked up the team every day  and took a load of hay to the stock. She hauled water from a fifty foot  well plus she milked six cows. It was great fun for Ma.  Pa was a wanderer, and their six children were all born in  different towns. Pa delivered her first three children. The youngest,  Don, was the only one born in a hospital.  When Ken, the oldest, was fifteen months old, and Joe was six  weeks, they went from Saskatchewan to Vermillion, Alberta, in a  covered wagon. Pa fixed a hammock in the wagon which rocked the  baby as they went on their merry way.  On May 8th, 1934, Ma and Pa arrived in Osoyoos with their five  sons and one daughter. Her parents, Theodore and Helen (Gram)  Pendergraft, were already here as were her brother and his wife, Ted  and Bea Pendergraft. They were living in Happy Hollow, which Gram  had named, located west of the present Elementary School grounds.  It was a well-known landmark in Osoyoos.  Ma and Pa lived in a big tent with a dirt floor from May 8th to  December 8th. They had saved $100.00 and had bought a lot. During  the summer and fall they went up the hill in their spare time and  brought down logs. They built a log house and moved in on December  8th. "  Christmas of 1934 was Ma's most memorable. As she said: "We  were as happy as a king and queen." Ma worked in the packinghouse  for .25 cents an hour, sometimes until eleven o'clock at night. Pa was  a master mechanic at the Dividend mine. These were red letter days  in her life. They had their own furnishings, but no fridge or appliances. They dug a hole in the ground to keep butter from melting  when the summer temperatures soared over 100 degrees F. for days.  Rhonda (Tweedy) Rohatynchuk is the daughter of Glen Tweedy, the son of Bertha. She was  raised in Osoyoos and presently resides in Grand Forks.  147 Bertha Sadie Tweedy  One day Pa came home and asked Ma if she could do the washing  for the mine boys. She said: "What do you think I am? I'm washing for  eight on a scrub board now!" They went to Penticton and got a gas  washer, and Ma was in business making more than Pa's fifty cents an  hour. She was now home with her family, baking bread and happy as  a lark.  They did many things together during the intervening years,  including skidding logs with a horse team on Lamont Flats. These logs  went to the Osoyoos Sawmills.  The things I remember about Ma are many and varied. I remember her sitting at the treadle sewing machine putting together her  patches for the many quilts that she made and gave away.  I remember her sitting at her wooden kitchen table, resting after  a busy day of baking. Then she phoned everyone to come and get her  homemade biscuits, pies and cakes. She loved to feed her family and  friends. Her door was always open and her coffee pot was always  brewing.  I remember she was a busy detective. She seldom left her home  in later years, but knew all the news or gossip in town. She loved her  telephone.  I remember her neighbours were all good friends. She loved  them. She loved her family. She loved Emily. We loved you, Ma.  Bertha Tweedy on right with her granddaughter, Bonnie  Douglas, in December 1978.  148 A Tribute to Peggy Driver  by Dorothy Fraser  Peggy (Margaret A.) Driver, nee Fraser, died at her home in Osoyoos  on Nov. 7, 1988. She came to Osoyoos with her family in 1917, when  Osoyoos consisted of the families of William (Billy) Richter, and Dr.  G.S. Jermyn, Customs officer.  Most of her life was spent in Osoyoos. She was always in demand  as a capable bookeeper and when economic pressures eased, was for  many years treasurer of the Oliver/Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society, a director for many years of the Osoyoos Museum  Society and was an active member of the Hospital Auxiliary, Meals on  Wheels, and a Book Club.  Never one to seek the limelight, her hand would go up as a  volunteer for hard-to-fill positions. She is missed by many for her  happy good nature, and many roles in the community.  She is survived by her husband G.W. Driver, brother Douglas  Fraser, sister Dorothy Molt and by daughters Camie Seeback, Marion  Buchanan and son Ross.  i  Margaret A. Driver, nee Fraser.  Dorothy Fraser is the sister-in-law of Peggy Driver. She came to Canada from England in 1925  and graduated from UBC. She has resided in Osoyoos since 1934.  149 Irene Olson of Salmon Arm  by Florence G. Farmer  The community of Salmon Arm was indeed saddened by the passing  of Irene Olson on January 23, 1990.  She was born in Aberdeen, Scotland, on October 7,1928. In 1946  she married Arvid Olson and came to Canada as a war bride.  Irene was an avid community worker. A former president of the  Ladies' Auxilliary to the Royal Canadian Legion and secretary for  eighteen years, she had also been a member of the Royal Purple and  Eastern Star Lodges. At the time of her passing she was a worker at the  Canadian Mental Health Thrift Shop. As well, Irene was secretary of  the Salmon Arm Museum and Heritage Association and secretary of  the Salmon Arm Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society.  She was predeceased by her brother John Leith during World  War II and her son Gary in 1981. Surviving are her husband Arvid of  Salmon Arm, daughter Pam of Naniamo; sons Wayne of Victoria and  Chris of Salmon Arm and her mother-in-law Annie Olson, Salmon  Arm.  Irene and Arvid spent many hours at the Haney Heritage House  in Salmon Arm, helping with weddings at the little church, gardening  and greeting guests. She was an inspiration to us who worked with her  and she will be sadly missed.  Irene Olson in 1989.  Florence Farmer has resided in the Salmon Arm and Armstrong areas since 1919. She is currently  Salmon Arm Branch editorial chairperson for the OHS.  150 Tribute to Ivan Edgar Philips, 1897-1989  For his Memorial Service, May 19, 1989, in St. Stephen's Anglican  Church, Summerland, B.C.  by Mary Gartrell Orr  A Tribute to our long-time friend and associate, Ivan Phillips, would  be incomplete without mention of his active participation in the work  of the Summerland Museum Society and the Okanagan Historical  Society.  Following his retirement his interest in the pioneers was reflected by his dedication to these two groups during the late 1960's  and through the 1970's, until his health began to fail.  Ivan was a Director on the Executive of both organizations. He  was very helpful to the Museum Society in establishing the first two  museums and was responsible for publicity in the local paper by  writing a regular column, "Summerland Museum and Arts Society  lopics .  He was a Director of the Penticton Branch of the O.H.S., and for  five years held the responsible position of Editorial Chairman, collecting material for the Report. Through the years 1967-85, he personally  authoured 22 articles on a wide range of topics pertinent to our area.  Ivan Edgar Phillips was born in Ipswich, England, May 29, 1897,  second son of Henry and Elizabeth Fallows Phillips. He was a Sergeant  in The Queen's Own Royal West Kent Regiment and Machine Gun  Corps, seeing service in the Balkans, Egypt and France during World  War I. He was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal, and  Serbian Cross of Karageorge. He had the Freedom of the Borough of  Ipswich by birth, conferred June 4th, 1925, in recognition of war  service. As well, he was Warrant Officer and Flying Officer, RAFVR(T),  188 and 262 Squadrons, Air Training Corps, 12 years during and  following World War II; awarded British Empire Medal (Civil Division) New Year Honour's List, 1946; and was a member of the Royal  Canadian Legion for 36 years. Mr. Phillips served as Civil Defense Coordinator, corporation of District of Summerland from 1955-1972,  developing the first Community Emergency Plan and Search and  Rescue Unit.  Although Mr. Phillips did not arrive in Canada from England  until 1953, he nevertheless, became enthralled with our country and  our history. Ivan Edgar Phillips is survived by daughters, Dorian  Blagborne andjean Skippings. He was predeceased by his wife, Edith,  in September 1975.  Mary Gartrell Orr is a life long resident of Summerland. In 1985 she was given a Certificate of  Commendation from the American Association for State and Local History for her work with the  OHS and the museum community in B.C.  151 Ogopogo  An Ogopogo Tale  by Alice Fraser  Everyone growing up in the Okanagan Valley sooner or later hears  about the famous Okanagan Lake monster - OGOPOGO.  Sightings are reported regularly every year up and down the lake.  Most are very convincing stories, and some tales told with 'tongue in  cheek'.  This story about Ogopogo goes back a long way to the 1930's  when I was growing up in Kelowna and it was told to a group of us that  were down at the Aquatic Stadium. The two lifeguards during that  season were Don Poole and Roy Longley and this is their story.  These two fellows were lifeguards during swimming hours and  the rest of the time were maintenance men, first-aiders and all-round  do-anything-that-needed-doing handy men. They slept in a couple of  rooms under the grandstand and so acted as caretakers and also  provided a type of security.  One evening before retiring for the night Don said that he was  looking out the window of his room which faced south, admiring the  view with the moonlight sparkling on the water, when he thought he  saw something strange in the water. This object seemed to be moving  very slowly off-shore, and he thought, coming north toward the  aquatic! Then he saw two fairly large humps, and a short while later  just one hump! No splashing or noise like a swimmer might make, just  silence - so it wasn't a motor boat or someone rowing a boat as no oars  were visible. It must be the Ogopogo - What else!  Off to Roy's room he went and back they came to view this 'thing'.  It was still there in the water, closer now and again two humps in view.  There was nothing else to do but get in their canoe and get closer  if they could.  Alice Fraser (nee Thompson) is very well known to Kelowna swimming enthusiasts. She was a  regular competitor during Regattas of the past.  152 Ogopogo  Silently they paddled around the point and on towards the black  object. Once or twice when they thought the thing was headed  towards them they hastily back-paddled - but nothing happened.  Eventually they got up nerve to paddle behind the thing and one of  them hit it with a paddle. WHAP! - a soggy thud and the canoe was  quickly paddled in reverse again.  Then as nothing attacked them, the canoeists got up nerve and  approached and touched the object discovering it was two overturned  baskets attached together by a bamboo stick which was under water.  These baskets were used for many years by the Chinese vegetable men  to carry produce around town to sell to the local households.  Don and Roy figured that this set of baskets had broken loose  from its home on Mill Creek where the Chinese kept them and had  floated down the creek and into the lake, when a gentle breeze or  current had made it drift north.  Both men were so embarrassed at being afraid of two vegetable  baskets that they decided not to tell anyone about their adventure for  some time. Eventually they told the story on themselves as it was such  a good tale.  "Imagine being afraid of a couple of baskets!" said one of them.  And they thought they saw an eye a couple of times - probably a hole  in one of the baskets and the moonlight shining through.  The old Aquatic Club which burned down in the '60s. Photo courtesy Kelowna Museum.  153 Story of the Ogopogo  by Frank Buckland  Famed and fabled as one of the world's premier sea serpents, this  Ogopogo of ours has been a habitant of Okanagan Lake from time out  of mind.  Countless eye-witnesses to the activities of this aquatic marvel  bear testimony to some queer frolics, as it sported through these blue  British Columbia waters. Antics, sometimes languid and lazy, sometimes swift and terrifying, excited the fear and credulity of the  tribesmen in bygone days as they do the people of the present  generation.  Once upon a time, and indeed until quite recently, this strange  creature was known to the Indians hereabouts as N'ha-a-itk. Then the  white settlers, who pioneered this Valley, spoke of it as the Lake  Monster.  In ancient times stories of N'ha-a-itk, told in the keekwillie houses  along the lake shore, were listened to with fear and trembling as the  "Old Ones" with bated breath spoke its name. The young ones, filled  with a delicious terror as they listened to these bedtime tales, feared  to leave the campfire glow lest this water devil should crawl out on the  beach and gobble them up.  N'ha-a-itk had its lair in a great cave under Squally Point,  according to the best native authorities. It was at Squally Point, halfway  between Kelowna and the foot of the lake on the east side, that the  queer tribe of "Little People", who also dwelt in Okanagan Lake, had  their headquarters. All the Tillicum, who have heard these strange  stories told by the "Ancient Ones", inform us that those Little People,  with their round heads, long hair and beady black eyes, nursed their  young while floating on top of the waves. In fact, they might have been  describing the poetic mermaid of Mediterranean fame that Homer  wrote about and it must be noted with some astonishment, that those  Ancient Ones portrayed in words and picture the now almost extinct  mammal that once inhabited the river marshes of the southern part  of this continent, the manatee.  At Squally Point, so legend tells us, N'ha-a-itk wrecked the  unbelieving Timbasket and his family. That Indian had come up from  one of the southern subtribes of the Okanagan Nation, which extended from the head of the great lake to the Columbia River. He had  Frank Morgan Buckland was a co-founder of the OHS in 1925. This story was written about 1927  for the entertainment of his brothers and sisters. The copyright is assigned to the Kelowna  Branch of the OHS by Mrs. Charles Buckland, a daughter-in-law of the author.  154 Ogopogo  pitched his camp atTisn-stik-ep-tin, a village that once existed directly  across the water from the mouth of the creek at Kelowna.  It is related on good Indian authority that the Tisn-stik-ep-tin  subtribe had started south in canoes to attend the big summer  gathering of tribesmen which took place each year at the southern  end of the lake. Preparations for this voyage had gone on for several  days and the shaman of the village made the necessary Big Medicine  to prevent any danger or annoyances that might come from the Little  People of the Ski-in-gut-klut, or the dreaded N'ha-a-itk, who had his  keekwillie house under those colored rocks.  It was arranged that a live dog should be sacrificed at the Point  and as a further precaution each canoe in the fleet would have a  certain mystic sign traced on the bow with a paint made offish oil and  Tulameen earth.  All this mummery, however, failed to impress the southern  visitor, Timbasket, who laughed at such precautionary measures and  refused to follow the shaman's sailing instructions, which were to  keep a certain line and distance.  The result of such foolhardy bravado was a stiff gale off Squally  Point. High waves dashed against the rocks, lashed by the devil's tail,  and the last the Tillicum saw of their doubting visitor, he was struggling for his life in an upturned canoe, which was being sucked down  in a great swirl of angry water off the N'ha-a-itk underground home.  Some years later when the incident was almost forgotten, a  hunting party, stalking deer above the Big Canyon, came upon a small  pond known as Medicine Lake. Here they found a wrecked canoe,  rotten and splintered, but two daubs of ochre still showed on its  shatter prow. It was the canoe Timbasket had paddled. It had been  cast up on the mountainside after the Lake Monster had gorged the  foolish Indian and his family.  Almost directly across the great lake from the scene of this  disaster, somewhere beyond the headwaters of Powers Creek, it is said  there is a picture of N'ha-a-itk, painted in red ochre on the smooth  face of a huge rock that stands abruptly out of a small mountain tarn.  No one knows who the artist was, it was painted so long ago.  In the memory of those now living, it is told, one of the early  Westbank settlers, while towing a pair of swimming horses across the  lake to Siwash Point behind a canoe, saw them disappear in midlake  before his astonished eyes, and everyone agreed that it was none other  than the Lake Monster which had dragged them down.  Another of the west side settlers tells in her memoirs of seeing the  Monster display itself on a summer day in 1870. While she stood on the  beach it raced along the surface of the lake and then suddenly  disappeared.  155 Ogopogo  There are many such stories told by the white settlers since the  beginning of the present century. In most cases the neighbors who  listened to the weird description of this creature, heard of its long  wriggling body resembling that of a snake; its staring eyes; its short,  flapper-like legs; and a head that resembled that of a horse or a sheep  as the imagination dictated.  Then there was likely to be a shruggery of shoulders and the  remark, "I say, old chap, haven't you been hitting it up a little too hard  lately?"  It certainly was no compliment to be asked if you had seen the  Lake Serpent, sea monster, or whatever the unclassified creature was  that inhabited the waters of Great Okanagan Lake. If you should say  "No, you had never heard of such a thing", you were promptly told all  sorts of fantastic stories about it and expected to believe them. If, on  the other hand, you admitted that you had a closeup look and  attempted to describe what you had seen of the creature, you were  promptly accused of having been on a binge.  Of course, there have been plenty of people with the highest of  reputations for common sense and truthfulness and abstinence who  have reported seeing a mysterious something. Small boys described its  submerged body under several feet of water and saw its bulging eyes  look at them. Young matrons, watching their small children on the  beach, hastily gathered the families together high up on the bank  because of the appearance of a strange creaturejust offshore. Middle  aged couples watched something, strange and uncanny, swim at great  speed on the lake surface; while elderly folk have told of closeup  observations and were able to describe in detail its head and neck  which showed above the water.  A whole family, father, mother and several children, left the  dinner table at their lakeside home in Kelowna one summer day to  watch a commotion this marine mystery was making in front of their  verandah, and gave a description of the something that agreed in the  main with the other stories told by other people at other times.  And who will dare to doubt the truthfulness of these yarns when  some of them have emanated from gentlemen of the cloth? Stories  such as these made news in the great daily papers from one end of  North America to the other.  One writer from Ewing's Landing says in part: "Like most of your  readers I used to think the possibility of any such thing as a sea serpent  in the lake in the light of a fable; the legitimate target for the wit in  which to air his little joke. However, during the last three years I have,  I confess, altered my skepticism to the belief that such animals actually  exist in these waters".  Short story writers gave fantastic descriptions of the monster.  156 Ogopogo  One wrote a graphic account of it smashing through some six inches  of ice which covered the lake one very cold winter.  These, and many another story which has never been told, go to  keep alive our interest in the mysterious inhabitant of our lake each  summer.  Take, for instance, the story of the lake captain of a motor-ship  that operated for the Canadian National Railways when that line was  first put through to Kelowna. This officer told of seeing the creature  and described its long, writhing body and sheep-like head and neck.  "It stuck its head out of the water", he said, "and seemed to be laughing  at something'.  Discussing the incident with the senior captain of the C.P.R. lake  fleet in the pilothouse of his big palatial steamer a few days later and  questioning him as to his opinion of the statements made by the  C.N.R. captain, the veteran skipper replied that it was quite possible  and he wasn't a bit surprised that it had stuck its head out of the water  and laughed. "Anything", said the captain, "that had a good look at  the C.N.R. outfit could not help laughing!"  Another story has never been satisfactorily refuted. A Kelowna  business man was talking to a friend on the Westbank Reserve one fall  many years ago. The conversation drifted around to the Lake Monster  and the various stories about it. Then the business man was told this  story.  One evening in the latter part of June, 1914, several people were  camped on the lake shore near the Greata Ranch. They were from the  Westbank Reserve, the Duck Lake Reserve and one Indian from the  Nicola country. This party was on its way to Penticton with its racing  ponies, where they would take part in the July First celebrations.  One of the party who had gone to the lake edge for water was  attracted by a strong smell of rotten fish. On investigation he found  the badly decomposed body of a strange animal lying at the water's  edge. He described his find as something that had never been seen or  heard of in these parts before. The body was between five and six feet  in length and would weigh about four hundred pounds. It had a short,  broad, flat tail and a head that stuck out from between shoulders  without any sign of neck. The nose was stubby, sticking out of a  rounded head, with no ears visible. The thick hide was sparsely  covered with a silky hair, four or five inches in length and of a bluish  gray color, while the teeth resembled those of a dog. It had two ivorylike tusks and claws resembling those of a great bird, on flipper-like  arms; claws that showed no signs of wear or use, such as those of a  cougar or other land animal.  While this talk was fresh and tantalizing, a visit to another  member of the party was made the same afternoon at the Duck Lake  157 Ogopogo  Reserve. There the same story was told of this mysterious creature by  one who had hunted in the hills and valleys of the Okanagan country  for fifty years. No such animal as that found on the beach that June  evening in 1914 had ever been seen by living man in this part of the  world.  Some of the bird-like claws were exhibited and it was pointed out  that no land animal had such needle-pointed talons. Land animals'  claws are always chisel-shaped at the point. Look at your dog or cat, if  you cannot examine bear, cougar or coyote.  A shoulder blade was also shown, but the skull unfortunately had  been destroyed while extracting the tusks. Two tusks were saved.  Tusks about two inches long and the thickness of an ordinary lead  pencil; tusks that looked exactly like solid ivory, although we are told  that the elk is the only Canadian animal south of the Arctic that grows  ivory.  All this convincing evidence was not considered sufficient without a visit to a third member of the party which had made the find. So  a quick run was made to the little fishing reserve on Mission Creek the  same afternoon. Again the same story was repeated by the Nicola  Indian, who had helped tear the fish-stinking carcass apart with a long  pole some ten years before.  All those interviewed agreed such an animal had never been seen  alive in this country, nor had they ever heard of such a creature before.  And so that mystery stands to the present day.  How seriously the Indians took N'ha-a-itk can better be understood by the following story.  A very old Indian woman from the Reserve had on several  occasions been given cast-off clothing, including men's suits. These  garments she handed over for her old husband to wear. Meeting her  on the street one day, the person who had made the donation  questioned the old woman about the keekwillie house where N'ha-a-  itk was supposed to make his home. After some time, when no  satisfactory answer could be obtained, the questioner threatened to  take a boat to Squally Point and see for himself. At that the old woman  became quite excited. "NO! NO! NO!" she exclaimed, "you can't do  that!" "And why not?" she was asked, "Because N'ha-a-itk will get you  and eat you up", she replied, "then what will my old man do for pants?"  It was as late as 1924 before our lake mystery received its present  name and became famous throughout the English-speaking world. It  so happened that on July 19th of that year the Vernon Board of Trade  gave a banquet to visiting members of the Vancouver Board of Trade,  and, as part of the program, Bill Brimblecomb — now with the  Canadian Scottish — sang a song which had once been a London  Music Hall hit. The words ran in part like this:  158 Ogopogo  "His mother was an earwig;  His father was a whale;  A little bit of head  And hardly any tail —  And Ogopogo was his name."  Ronald Kenvyn, a wide awake member of the Vancouver Daily  Province staff, caught the idea and promptly applied the name to the  famed denizen of Okanagan Lake.  "Ogopogo". How did this strange cognomen arrive at a London  Music Hall, you ask. Was it a chance combination of musical syllables  or might it have been a harking back to the Boer War days, to a time  when a Zulu chieftain came into Johannesburg to discuss the war  situation with British officers? The black man's name was Ogopog.  Who can tell at this late date?  However, the name took the fancy of the general public and the  ever-increasing and observing inhabitants of the Valley continued to  report having seen Ogopogo in various parts of the lake: at Nahun and  Okanagan Centre, at Summerland and off Westbank, along the  beaches near Kelowna and the Mission. As late as this September, two  good close up views of Ogopogo were had by residents of Penticton  and Naramata. These stories were reported in the Valley papers.  There were times when our citizens went out with guns and  patrolled the mouth of Mission Creek where it had put in an appearance. Others, with great chunks of meat on iron hooks attached to  light cable set them out with floats and anchors. This and a dozen  other crack-brained ideas were tried out in a frenzied effort to destroy  the elusive Ogopogo.  But why in the name of common sense, may we ask, should  Ogopogo be destroyed? Why not let it gambol through the years  ahead as it has in the past, rampaging up and down the lake according  to its fancy? Other parts of the world have had their sea-serpents. Why  should we not have ours?  Ancient Troy had its legend thousands of years ago, and we read  that, after Neptune and Appollo had built a wall around the city for  King Loamedon, the King repudiated the debt. To get even; Neptune  let loose a marine monster to prey upon the inhabitants and Hercules  undertook to destroy the Monster and save the King's daughter,  Hesione, who had been exposed on the shore as an offering of  appeasement.  Again, we have the dragon our own St. George slew on the shores  of Libya. It had wings and breathed fire.  Countless stories have come down to us through the ages, stories  from the Old World and the New. And from the Seven Seas where  sailormen roam come many a tale of adventure with creatures of the  159 Ogopogo  deep. Salt water serpents and fresh water monsters time and again  provide a topic of conversation in ocean tramp fo'c'sle or at fashionable summer resorts, where lively interest in the tales told is displayed  by both the listener and the story teller.  Now the Okanagan has its legend. Do we believe in Ogopogo? Of  course, we do. Okanagan's Ogopogo comes to the surface each  summer to excite our people with an anxious curiosity that lasts  throughout the bathing season, just as Santa Claus comes around  each winter season to create his kind of excitement.  Of course neither of these celebrities may seem to be just what  they are, but you will agree with me that there are thousands who  believe in Santa Claus. So why not in Ogopogo?  160 St        J m      JHt  Introduction  The student essay committee was hampered this year by the unfortunate resignation of its chairman, Jack Tait. Mr. Kelly Slater agreed to  take his place. However, Mr. Slater retired from this post because of  a call to teach in China.  In the absence of a chairperson, Bernard Webber took on the  task of contacting the School Districts throughout the Okanagan and  providing them with details of the contest. Without Mr. Webber's  timely efforts it is doubtful that the student essay contest would have  been the success that it was.  Duane Thomson of the History Department of Okanagan College assisted Mr. Webber by again preparing a package of historical  material for student interpretation. This material consisted of letters  reflecting relationships in the 1860's between miners and Indians  along the International Boundary.  The winning essays, however, did not come from the group who  interpreted the historical letters. Instead the winners chose to write  on topics of their own interest. Doug Fraser of Osoyoos chaired the  committee that selected the winners.  We are grateful for Radio Station's CKOV's continued financial  support for the prizes in the contest.  Robert Cowan  Editor  161 Enderby's Chinese Population  by Allison Glanfield  Senior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W.B. Browne/CKOV Award.  Chinese people originally came to B.C. and the Okanagan valley to  work on the construction of the C.P.R. for the B.C. contractor,  Andrew Onderdonk. Some fifteen hundred came up from California,  where they had finished railroad building. Onderdonk then brought  over an additional six thousand from China.  The Chinese were mostly farmers from Canton province, who  were told that after a few years of railroad work they could return to  China rich. This dream faded as the Chinese were paid one dollar per  day but had to pay forty dollars for their trip to Canada and two and  a half percent of their wages to their "labour boss" for his services to  them.  There came to be a fair amount of prejudice against the Chinese  immigrants in Canada, as can be seen by the statistics shown in Heritage  Magazine, Sept. 1989. According to the magazine, head taxes were  imposed on Chinese immigrants. At first these were only fifty dollars  in 1885, but rose to five hundred dollars by 1904. In B.C. the people  felt the influx of "Chinese Devils" would overrun the province.  Certainly they were paid lower wages than the "Whites" and were  segregated into certain portions of the towns.  Chinese prejudice was definitely evident in Enderby as shown in  a 1906 Endenograph newspaper, which was commenting on a failed  police raid on a Chinese boarding house, where Chinese had been  gambling: "unfortunately, those engaged in the game escaped" and  "Charlie 'Chink' (Chuck) will be summoned for keeping a place of  gambling."  According to George Green, the Chinese came to Enderby after  the completion of the C.P.R., and worked in the sawmill or as  domestics (servants for wealthy families). The Chinese established  themselves on Old Vernon Road from the corner of Hubert to  Granville Street, taking up three quarters of the block.  The first indication of Chinese in Enderby was the newspaper  clipping on the police raid in 1906. In 1909, the Orchard's Guide  business directory listed three Chinese laundries in Enderby owned  by Sing Lee, Wong, and Kwong Lee. And by 1919, according to  Wriggley 's Guide, there were two laundry-store combinations under the  Allison Glanfield is a Grade 12 student at A.L. Fortune Secondary School in Enderby. This past  year she was employed by the Enderby Museum.  162 Student Essays  names of Hop Sing and Pow Yeun, a Chinese restaurant owned by  Wing Chung, and a General Store owned by Sing Kee. In 1920, a large  section of the sawmill employees was of Chinese origin as well.  Chinatown is remembered mostly by inhabitants of Enderby in  the time period of the 1930's, when, according to George Green,  there were two laundries called the Hop Sing and Wing laundries, and  a Chinese shoe and horse harness repair shop. The laundries each  had a small store that carried candies, peanuts and firecrackers, which  cost a nickle per pack. Many of the goods were shipped in from China.  There was always a fair number of Chinese men coming and  going between Chinatown and Enderby at any one time. They loved  to smoke and gamble and were extremely friendly. The children of  Enderby would fish for suckers which the Chinese would buy off them  for two bits each. They were "happier 'in hell to have 'em", according  to George Green.  Bing Chong, more commonly known as Bang, owned the Hop  Sing laundry and was the best-known inhabitant of Chinatown. He  came to Enderby originally as a cook and houseboy for Mrs. Harvey,  the Enderby post mistress, and lived with her for four years. When he  left her employment she helped him set up his own laundry.  Enderby Hotel, 1912. Photo by J. H.James. Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  He would pick up laundry off the train with an iron-wheeled cart  which he could convert into a sleigh in the winter. He delivered his  laundry in the same fashion, pushing it before him. Bang would wash  linen for the King Edward Hotel, businessmen and wealthy families.  According to Bunny Gardner, Bang would fill his mouth with  water and spit it out of his missing tooth gaps, instead of using a  163 Student Essays  sprayer for ironing. He had a little stove with brackets on it to hold  warming irons.  In the front of his laundry, Bang had a little dark corner where  he sold candy, firecrackers and peanuts, which he bought green and  roasted himself and cost ten cents a bag. It seems that most of the time  he gave them away free to the children next door and to his customers.  Dorothy Harvey remembers "because I was Mrs. Harvey's granddaughter he would leave me lechee nuts".  There was always a crowd of Chinese at Bang's laundry, who  would sit around a pot-bellied stove, talking and smoking tobacco till  the air was blue with smoke. According to Irma Gillard, who lived next  door to the laundry, the Chinese men would sit about a small round  table passing around a long stemmed pipe which reached into a pot  of bubbling water in the center of the table. This was most likely the  drug opium as it must be smoked through water. A permanent  resident at Bang's laundry was a Chinese man named Long Louis and  nick-named Little Louis. He was always very quiet and solemn.  Bang was also known for his magnificent garden where he grew  beautiful sweet peas. He also gave his customers Chinese lily bulbs at  Christmas. Bang belonged to the United Church and never missed a  Sunday. He would dress in his fine black suit. Later he moved to  Kamloops to retire.  The laundry and store beside Bang's was owned by Wing, who was  a "little wee guy" according to George Green. He housed at least ten  Chinese in his building. Ted Peel remembers that there was a temple  upstairs with a six-foot high Buddha and there was always gambling  going on.  A Chinese man called Hong ran a restaurant in the Enderby  Hotel and there was always a poker game taking place in the kitchen.  Another Chinese man, Chung, was the cook in the King Edward Hotel  dining room for many years, he sold loaves of bread for a dime a loaf  and he would always give the kids a fritter that he would have cooking  on the back of his stove. It was like a deep fried doughnut. Chung then  worked at the Enderby Hotel when Hong left and finally operated a  restaurant where Elmer's Insurance is today. He went into a partnership with Mr. and Mr. Jeffers.  The only Chinese man living outside of Enderby was Charlie  Chong or Charlie the Chinaman, who rented property from Dick  Blackburn. He started the first Market Garden in North Enderby and  supplied logging camps in the area with vegetables. These he delivered in an old Model A Ford truck.  In 1934 he left North Enderby and went to Grindrod, where he  rented five acres and a house from George Wells, and one acre from  the Monks. This was all planted as a Market Garden. He had his  164 Student Essays  dilapidated truck converted into a buggy which was pulled by Charlie's  horse, Polly. He delivered produce door to door from Mara through  to Enderby and when he was finished he would throw nickles and  dimes off the bridge for the kids to dive for. George Green felt "he  must have spent hundreds of dollars" on the kids. Whenever a new  baby was born on his route, Charlie always gave it a silver dollar. In the  winter time he took the kids on Monk Road to school in his buggy,  acting as a bus driver. At Christmas he always gave a turkey and  oranges to his close neighbors.  Charlie died in Enderby in 1942 and was buried in the Enderby  Cemetery. In an interview October 1988, Don Wells said, "they put a  duck and paper in his coffin for him to burn so he could get to heaven  before the devil got him, or maybe they burned the paper first - I'm  not sure."  :*«  i   1  IP^  rJtr>  J»  Chinatown in Enderby on Old Vernon Road, 1912. Photo courtesy of the Enderby Museum.  The only mention of any Chinese person in the sawmill, besides  the employees list, was in a newspaper from December 21, 1911,  which stated: "A Chinaman was loading lath at the sawmill when he  suddenly collapsed and was dead in a few minutes. Heart disease. He  was buried Monday with celestial honours."  In the late 1930's, maybe 1938, Enderby's small Chinatown  burned down. The old, dry, clapboard buildings lit up like 'match  sticks'. Jim McAmmond remembers the Chinese men on the east side  165 Student Essays  of Old Vernon Road banging on metal pots in hopes that the Fire  Demon would go away. It didn't. Shortly after this all the Chinese  people drifted away.  There are no Chinese left in Enderby, either dead or alive. For  many years Chinese who died in Canada were returned to China for  final burial and that is what happened to the Chinese graves in  Enderby. According to the newspaper, Chinese ghouls came and dug  up the Chinese remains in the graveyard, put the bones in marked  sacks and sent them to Hong Kong to be identified and buried by  relatives.  REFERENCES  Bunny Gardner, interviewed, 1989, fall  Business Directory. (1909). Orchard's Guide.  Business Directory. (1919, 1922). Wriggley's Guide.  Don Wells, interview conducted by Joan Cowan, 1988, Oct.  Dorothy Harvey, interview conducted by Joan Cowan, 1988, October.  Enderby Progress. 1906, Nov. 9. pg 1.  George Green, interviewed 1989 fall.  Harvey Stenquist, interviewed 1989, fall.  Heritage Magazine. (1989, Sept.). pg. 26.  Irma Gillard, interviewed 1989, fall.  Okanagan Historical Society Report #49. pg. 98-99.  Oram, E. (1985). History of Vernon. Vernon.  Record. (1920). Okangan sawmill employees.  Record. (1912-1922). City of Enderby water works.  Ted Peel, interview conducted by Bob Cowan, 1987.  Walker's Weekly. 1910, April.  Walker's Weekly. 1911, Dec. 21. pg. 1.  166 The Western Theme of Armstrong  by Lisa Cucheron, Cheryl Kempner, Regena Rohrer, Flora Ware  Junior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W. B. Browne/CKOV Award.  In B.C.'s centennial year of 1967, the City of Armstrong took on a  whole new image. Local hardware merchant Charlie Shepherd had  been vacationing in Phoenix, Arizona and had seen what people had  been doing to some neighbouring towns to make them look interesting. He took pictures of the towns and brought them back to show his  friend, Vern Flatekval. They felt that if Armstrong took on an old  western look it would attract people and that would help the town and  the businesses.  One of the reasons that Mr. Shepherd and Mr. Flatekval thought  that Armstrong should try and draw people in, was that the provincial  government had made a highway by-pass so the highway no longer  went through Armstrong, as it had previously done. Little by little the  Armstrong merchants lost more and more customers, and some even  thought about giving up on their businesses!  Vern Flatekval and Charlie Shepherd then became the organizers in the westernizing of Armstrong. The two men arranged a  meeting with the Mayor at that time, Jack Jamieson, Sr., to show him  the pictures and tell him their ideas for Armstrong.. From this  meeting came another meeting with the rest of the merchants and  other interested people in the community. Mr. Flatekval put an ad in  a great many newspapers, Western Canada magazine and on some  radio stations asking the question, "Do you know a place in British  Columbia where the railway runs through the middle of town?"  People got interested and a large number wrote back saying it had to  be Armstrong, British Columbia.  Armstrong still needed to advertise more. So, they used the song  "The Railway Runs Through The Middle Of The House" to emphasize the fact that the railway did run through the middle of Armstrong.  All the merchants used this song in their radio advertising.  The Art Club drew sketches of what the store fronts should look  like. From the sketches, the builders put up the store canopies and  decorations. The merchants were responsible for their own renovations. The stores already had an "old" look to them so it was very easy  and inexpensive to make them look western. Matt Hassen's Insurance  Lisa Cucheron, Cheryl Kempner, Regena Rohrer, and Flora Ware are Grade Seven students at  Len W. Wood Elementary School in Armstrong.  167 Student Essays  Office was the first building to completely westernize. He put up  canopies as well as fresh paint. Shepherd's Cash Hardware also went  western quite quickly.  To emphasize the western theme, the merchants put up canopies  all over the city. These canopies were very useful to the people as well  as being eye catching. They provided shade in the summer and people  didn't have to shovel snow in the winter. But, these canopies were not  all that happened. Water troughs were placed by the Hotel and these  were a popular meeting place for the farmers who came into Armstrong on horseback.  Armstrong Council -1967. Front row, 1 to r: J. Keough, Gordon Gray, J. M. Jamieson (mayor) and  TA. Moore. Back row, 1 to r: J.A Little, C.R. Blumenauer, H. Wardrop and Clerk B. Hayden.  Armstrong still was not western enough for some people so they  decided to have a workbee to put up hitching rails. Vern Flatekval  wanted to be able to say, "We've got the longest hitching rails in the  world!" After some hard work they could: the hitching rails went from  the present Museum to the United Church.  The merchants really pulled together to get the western theme  rolling. Sometimes, 7:00 a.m meetings were called and still lots of  people came. The nicest part about the theme was the feeling of  friendliness it spread among the people of Armstrong. They felt close  to one another and were able to work cooperatively on many projects.  The Armstrong Advertiser let the kids join in on the fun by having  them write a column called 'Wee Wisdom". In this column the kids  could write their feelings about the Western theme and the activities  that were going on. They loved it!  168 Student Essays  Shepherd's Hardware and the Barber Shop westernized at its best.  One day, Mayor Jackjamieson and the organizers put an ad in the  newspaper asking for help in cleaning up Armstrong. They did not  expect many people to show up, but when the day came almost 100  people were ready to rake, sweep and make Armstrong shine. After  everyone had finished cleaning up, Mr. Jamieson took them to the  Shanghai Cafe, which had been opened in 1967 by the Jong family, for  coffee and doughnuts. After that, cleaning workbees were frequent  and good fun for everyone.  The postmaster, Mel Dunkley, had a Ford Mustang car which he  would hitch up with a rope to the hitching rails. One very unlucky day  a lady in Armstrong parked her car by the hitching rails. Right beside  The IGA and the Armstrong Lockers in 1968 where the Branding Iron Pub is now.  169 Student Essays  her someone had left their horse who must have been hungry,  because it ate some of the paint off of her car! Another day, a school  teacher parked his station wagon in front of the hitching rails. He had  left his car running, and when he came back the car had rolled into  the hitching rails and the whole top had been smashed!  Some of the main attractions in town were: Matt Hassens Insurance office, a telephone pole with funny sayings on it such as "to the  Moon" and "to Knob Hill", and a stage coach set-up in the vacant lot  on the corner of Okanagan St. and Railway Ave. All these spots were  popular places to have pictures taken.  Even the Canadian Legion westernized.  The Western Theme was promoted with great enthusiasm.  Merchants sometimes closed their shops to have pancake breakfasts  on the front steps of the old Bank of Commerce that stood on the  present C.I.B.C. parking lot. Many merchants and their employees  dressed up in Western apparel. People who did not like the theme at  first soon got into the flow of the activities around them. By 1968 the  stores looked very western with their canopies and their original  historic facades.  The real question was, "Did Armstrong's western theme bring  people into town?" Yes. People came from all over the country to see  the westernization of Armstrong. People also came to get vegetables,  fruit, wheat, and other types of food grown in or around Armstrong.  The people were pleasantly surprised to see the new change in the  town's appearance.  After Jack Jamieson Sr.'s turn of Mayor was over the new Mayor  of Armstrong was Jack Smith. In February, 1970 it was decided to bring  170 Student Essays  the hitching rails down. After the hitching rails came down the city lost  a lot of it's westernization look.  People lost interest in the western theme in the early 1970's but  aspects of it still continued. Even though the people lost interest there  is still a bit of the western look in Armstrong. Some people think that  if the western theme had been continued, the town's people still  would have lost enthusiasm, while others feel that if the western  theme had continued, Armstrong's downtown core would still be a  vital commercial area. In 1990 the old western look and the canopies  are still here, but people do not dress up and the hitching rails have  vanished. It was a fun-filled, enthusiastic five years in Armstrong in the  late 1960's and the early 1970's when so many people were involved  with the Western Theme.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  "Huge Pancake Breakfast", Armstrong Advertiser, July 27/1967 Page 3.  Interview with C.R. Blumenauer and student Cheryl Kempner on February 9, 1990.  Interview with Matt Hassen and student Regena Rohrer on February 6, 1990.  Interview with J.M. Jamieson and student Flora Ware on February 2, 1990.  Interview with CP. Shepherd and student Lisa Cucheron on February 7, 1990.  Miles Overend, 'They Turned Back The Town's Clock 100 years To Boot Business", Hardware  Merchandising, April 1968, pages 22 and 23.  "Retail Merchants, Hitching Rail Theme Now Scrapped," Armstrong Advertiser, April 9, 1970.  Serra, Johnny, The History of ARMSTRONG British Columbia, pages 60 and 61.  "Ten Great Small Towns", MacLean's Magazine, April 1971, page 54.  "A Thing Of The Past", Armstrong Advertiser, February 19/1970.  171 Book Reviews  Write It On Your Heart; The Epic World  of an Okanagan Indian  by Harry Robinson, compiled and edited by Wendy Wickwire. Talonbooks  and Theytus, Vancouver. 1989. Reviewed by Jean Webber  Write It On Your Heart is an extraordinary book which is deeply rooted  in Okanagan culture but which will find a readership far beyond the  boundaries of our region. The text is a selection of the stories of Harry  Robinson, a traditional storyteller of the Okanagan Indians and elder  of the Lower Similkameen Band. Ethnographer Wendy Wickwire has  transcribed the stories from tape and, with very restrained editing and  with the arrangement of the text in lines of varying lengths and  indentations, she has managed to preserve the oral quality of these  stories. Instead of standing between us and Harry Robinson Wendy  Wickwire ushers the reader into his presence.  The sophistication of this book will surprise readers who have  known only the nursery versions of folk literature, native Indian or  otherwise. In the introductory section of creation myths, chap-TEEK-  whl stories which tell us the time before God drew the animal people  out of the animals, we learn how God creates:  God made the sun.  I said he made the sun,  but he didn't use any hammer or any knife or anything  to make the sun.  Just on his thought.  He just think should be sun so he could see.  He just think and it happen that way.  This mental view of reality is important in the power stories. The  little girl sees the deer in its spiritual depict standing above its own  slain and disemboweled body and she receives power.  Jean Webber is a former editor of the Report. A retired educator, she resides in Osoyoos.  172 Book Reviews  Transformations become possible, transformations from animals to people, from feather to stone, from God who hangs on air to  a human presence, to the chief or the old man as in Old Man River.  Perhaps the transformation most challenging in its imagery to our  rather pedestrian minds is that of the grain of sand under Coyote's  fingernail in a moment becoming a ball and in another moment  becoming the earth under the feet of Coyote and his four companions.  Those interested in the Coyote figure and what he tells us of the  world view of the Okanagans before contact will find much to think  about in Write it on Your Heart. Coyote, the ancestor of the Okanagans,  the great traveller, the protector, the trickster is capable of doing both  good and bad. And what is the meaning of Coyote's fate in the final  story of the first section?  The Indian ethic regarding individual and group responsibility  emerges from some of the shmee-MA-ee stories, pre-contact tales which  tell of a period in which people are human but still live in close contact  with animals. The hunter who will not share his meat with his less  fortunate companion comes to a bad end. However, in another story  the members of a hunting party do everything they can to help their  sick comrade, but to no avail. Finally they have to leave him in his  mountain shelter, but not before they have laid in a supply of fuel and  food. The sick man makes no move on his own behalf until a wolverine  carries off all his food. Then he sets of towards home, crawling on his  hands and knees. He will go until he "get stuck." He imagines the meal  he would like for supper. When he reaches the place where he must  stop for the night he finds a bed of branches prepared, a fire, and the  meal he has imagined cooked and waiting. So it goes day after day  until he gets within reach of his village. Slowly he regains his health.  Those keen on the local history of this region will be interested  to know that Indians gathered at Oroville for a short fishing season  before the fish reached Okanagan Falls. We find in the book evidence  of the traditional animosity between the Okanagans and the Shuswaps  and of the cultural ties between the Indians of the Similkameen and  the Thompson.  Harry Robinson's art is a living tradition, drawing upon all that  he has heard and seen. Thomas King, author of Medicine River,  described his work as transitional literature, standing as it does  between two cultures.  Wendy Wickwire is to be congratulated not only for her excellent  introductory essay, but also for her restraint in editing. Some would  have found irresistible the temptation to mend those fractured syntaxes. (Readers interested in making a comparison may want to refer  to the Forty-second Report of the Okanagan Historical Society in which two  173 Book Reviews  of Harry's stories are transcribed in a more conventional form.) Oral  rhythms, repetitions, pause are among the devices that make these  stories very effective whether they are ancient myths or realistic  accounts such as the tragic history of Ta-POO-low. But what really  empowers the language of Write it on Your Heart is the remarkable  imagination of Harry Robinson.  Author's note: Harry Robinson died on January 25, 1990 at his  home in Keremeos. He had been born October 8, 1900 at Oyama.  McCulloch's Wonder: The Story of the  Kettle Valley Railway  by Barrie Sanford. White Cap Books, 1988.  Exploring the Kettle Valley Railway  by Beth Hill. Polstar Press, 1989. Reviewed by Bob Cowan.  Originally published in 1978, Barrie Sanford's delightful history  of the Kettle Valley Railway, McCulloch's Wonder, has recently been  reprinted in paperback. Relying not only on the written record, Mr.  Sanford's account has the added dimension of information gleaned  from numerous interviews with many of the participants.  His story might easily have been titled: Train Wars since much of  his text deals with the struggle between Mr. Hill's Great Northern  Railway (and its affiliate in British Columbia: the Vancouver, Victoria,  and Eastern Railway) and the Canadian Pacific. Would the rich  resources from the Kootenay and Boundary regions flow south over  Great Northern tracks or east and west over C.P.R. lines? Often the  struggle found its way through the courts, but all too frequently it  became physical as at Midway in 1905 (p. 108). Beginning construction in 1910, the Kettle Valley Railway was the C.P.R.'s ultimate answer  to Mr. Hill's challenge.  With Penticton at the centre, the Kettle Valley Railway went east  to Midway, connecting with C.P.R. lines to Nelson and the Crow's Nest  Pass beyond. From Penticton west the line passed through Princeton  connecting through the Coquihalla Pass to the C.P.R. mainline at  Bob Cowan is Chairman of the Enderby and District Museum Society and editor of the 54th  Report.  174 Book Reviews  Hope or through Merritt to the C.P.R. mainline at Spence's Bridge.  Mr. Sanford does an excellent job detailing the enormous construction problems. Through the use of Andrew McCulloch's diaries,  we are given a rare insight into the genius of the man responsible for  engineering such feats as the Quinette tunnels east of Hope or the  great loops east of Naramata where at 2.2% grade the line climbed out  of the Okanagan Valley. The gigantic problems associated with the  Coquihalla section during winter have been recorded here: the  reader is amazed at the persistence of the management and crews that  kept this section open.  Besides the general history of the K.V.R., there are a variety of  tidbits illuminating other aspects and personalities in Okanagan  history. We learn, for example, that the provincial government was  willing to endorse the Midway & Vernon Railway so that the Shuswap  8c Okanagan might become more profitable and thus eliminate the  government's problem of paying the interest on the S. 8c O. bonds (p.  73). While at Summerland we witness James Ritchie's protest against  the original route of the KVR, and his success in getting the line into  West Summerland (p. 141).  At the time of the decision to finally abandon the K.V.R., Mr.  Sanford quotes a C.P.R. official: "Of all the blunders in railway  building history, the C.P.R.'s southern British Columbia rail line is the  greatest." Mr. Sanford adds: "Certainly the KV.R.'s financial ledgers  supported this viewpoint. Although the K.V.R. produced an operating profit for most of its years, the railway never came close to paying  off the massive capital investment of its difficult construction." (p.  242)  It was just this magnificent and difficult construction that motivated Beth Hill to produce Exploring the Kettle Valley Railway. She  provides the reader with an abbreviated history of the K.V.R., but her  real purpose, now that the line has been abandoned, is: 'Would it not  be preferable, for the province and the world, to make this 500  kilometre long snake of right-of-way into the Kettle Valley Railway  Historical Trail, one of the great hiking and biking trails of the world  and a fitting monument to the age of steam railways?" (p. 93)  Her slim volume takes the reader from one end of the line to the  other. As she passes through the various stops such as Myra or Romeo,  she provides us with fascinating anecdotes and a description of what  can still be viewed of the KV.R.'s past. She also provides a list of  camping spots along the way and methods of accessing some of the  more remote sections of the line.  There is little doubt that Beth Hill's book will be a great asset to  those folks who wish to turn this wondrous monument to the railway  era into a linear park.  175 Shuswap Chronicles Vol. I (1988),  Vol. II (1989)  by the North Shuswap Historical Society. Editors: Jim Cooperman and  Mary Zoretich. Reviewed by Bonnie McDonald.  The North Shuswap Historical Society was formed in 1985. Its goal is  to collect, store and publish the written, pictorial and spoken records  of the area. Editors Mary Zoretich and Jim Cooperman have done an  admirable job of producing the first two volumes of the Shuswap  Chronicles. Volume I has many interesting vignettes of living in the  early days when the communities of the north Shuswap Lake area  were being born. The pictures accompanying the articles are remarkably clear and well chosen.  There is an interesting page of "Receipts" and Remedies. Included here are recipes for "half-hour" or ten cent pudding; dandelion recipes; Raspberry Vinegar, which I remember from my childhood as being a very refreshing drink on a hot summer's day.  I found the biographical sketch of George Mercer Dawson (page  30) so very interesting that I wondered why a more complete biography of this important explorer has not yet been written.  Perhaps the most notable feature of this first volume is the "North  Shuswap Historical Drive." Complete with a sketched map, and  photographs of old homes and buildings, it lists twenty-seven historically significant sites along the north shore.  Volume II follows the same general format as its predecessor. An  article on Pioneer Medical Services tells of one crusading nurse who  handed out a recipe for birth control pills along with her ministrations as a midwife. There are tales of sheepherding on Crowfoot  Mountain and the story of one sheep herder who survived mauling by  a grizzly bear.  "Post Offices of the Past" tells of the variety of ways used to  transport the mail, and make once-a-week delivery to the homesteaders. It also profiles some of the early postmasters and postmistresses.  An important function of the post office was to bring catalogues into  all the homes.  Photographs in Volume II are equal to the quality of the first  volume. There are more cartoons and sketches gleaned from the  Chase Tribune of 1912-13 by the talented Mr. Howard Smith. A  profile of this gentleman would be interesting in a future volume.  Yvonne (Bonnie) McDonald is currently president of the Salmon Arm Branch of the OHS.  Retired, she has lived most of her life in the Oliver and Salmon Arm areas.  176 WE SHALL MISS THEM  AIKENS, Phyllis, b. Victoria 1894. d. Kelowna 18 April 1990. Predeceased by  husband Pat 1976. Survived by sons John, Pat; daughters Marcia Aikens  and Anne Sager.  AIKENS, John Somerset, b. Narmata 1914. d. Vancouver September 1989.  Survived by wife Anne; sons Paul and Steven; daughters Mary Slade and  Katerine Foster.  ALEXIS, Nicholas (Nick), b. Victoria 1915. d. Vernon 6 February 1990.  Survived by wife Helen; son Nick Jr.; daughter Margaret Swift.  BAILLIE, Elizabeth (Betty) Laura, b. Vernon 1924. d. Vernon 24 January  1990.  BAWDEN, Gweneth Madeline (nee Cross), b. Rutland 9 April 1923. d.  Kelowna 27 December 1989. Survived by husband Lloyd; son Michael;  daughters Shirley Colby and Frances Moss.  BAWTREE, Caroline, b. St. Felix Parish, Manitoba 26 January 1899. d.  Enderby 20 July 1989. Predeceased by husband Harold Julius 1960.  Survived by sons Leonard and Alfred; daughters Phyllis, Edith, Jean,  and Noelle.  BENNEST, JohnH. b.Brandon, Manitoba 13 October 1916. d. Summerland  5 June 1989. Survived by wife Margaret; sons John and Gordon;  daughter Lorraine.  BENNETT, Elizabeth May. Please see article on page 145.  BERRYMAN, Grenville Fielding, b. England 26January 1889. d. Penticton 3  January 1989. Predeceased by wife Janet. Survived by son Colin (Rusty);  daughters Gladys Wheeler and Mary Wight.  BIRRELL, Dorothy (nee Postill). b. Postill Ranch 18 September 1894. d.  Delta 23 February 1989. Predeceased by husband Leslie. Survived by  son P.L. Birrell; daughter D.Joan Adams.  BLACKETT, Susannah, b. England 1893. d. Winfield 23 January 1990.  Predeceased by husband Harry 1972.  BLASKOV1TS, Katharina. b. Klinenbach, Austria 1905. d. Kelowna 10 July  1989. Predeceased by husband John 1976. Survived by sons John, Otto  (predeceased by son Robert); daughter Jeanne Barsi.  BRADLEY, Mary Elizabeth, b. Springhill N.S. 12 October 1897. d. Armstrong  17 September 1989. Predeceased by husband William 1962.  BUCKLAND, Douglas Secord. b. Kelowna 1906. d. Kelowna 9 October 1989.  Survived by wife Grace; daughters Pat and Frances.  BURNHAM, Janet (Jessie, nee Ferguson), b. Rothesey, Scotland 1906. d.  Kelowna 9 October 1989. Predeceased by husband Clare 1984. Survived  by sons Dennis and Ross.  CAMPBELL, Jean Walker (nee Black), b. St. Andrews, Scotland 2 March  1904. d. Victoria, B.C. 14 July 1988. Predeceased by husband Bill.  Survived by son Colin; daughters Nan Wood, Chris Toyne.  CARLSON, Oscar Bernard (Ben), b. Enderby 1 June 1910. d. Enderby 2  October 1989. Survived by wife Mary; daughter Wendy Norlin.  CARSWELL, Jack. b. Vernon 1922. d. Vernon 3 June 1989. Survived by wife  Violet; son Kenneth; daughters Jaqueline De Hood, Anita Dosenberg.  CHAPMAN, Florence May Higgs. b. Somerset, England 2June 1893. d. Oliver  October 1988. Predeceased by husband Ralph. Survived by son Dennis  Parsons; daughter May Shannon.  177 Obituaries  CHRISTENSON, Lloyd William, b. Vernon 4 June 1910. d. Vernon 8 June  1989. Survived by wife Peggy; daughters Yvonne Good, Karen Goodwin.  COLMAN, Arthur (Art) Russell, b. London, England 14 March 1887. d.  Osoyoos 26 December 1989. Survived by wife Gwen; daughter Diane  Guay.  COULTER, Edwin Henry, b. Westbrook, Ontario 20 April 1896. d. Enderby  4 August 1989. Predeceased by wife Bessie 1986.  COURSIER, (Dr.) H. Leon. b. 1893. d. Vernon 24July 1989. Survived by wife  Geraldine; daughters Marjorie Cliburn, Joan Lansdell, Doreen Raffa.  DANFORTH, Frank James, b. Enderby 1925. d. Enderby 18 November 1989.  Survived by wife Gerrie; sons David and Ralph; daughter Carol Berger.  DAVIES, Ella Alma. b. Punnichy, Saskatchewan 1913. d. Armstrong 6 October 1989. Survived by husband Herbert; sons John and Ken.  DAVY, Harry Reginald, b. Kelowna 1939. d. Kelowna 18 May 1989. Survived  by wife Anne; daughters Janet and Judy.  DAWE, George Stanley, b. Long Beach Pond, Newfoundland 22 October  1892. d. Vernon 25 April 1990. Predeceased by wife Marjorie 1978.  Survived by sons Arthur and Gerald; daughters Lynette, Barbara,  Kathleen, and Sharon.  DOE, George Francis, b. Nottingham, England 1915. d. Salmon Arm 19  December 1989. Survived by wife Rose; sons Ernest and Albert; daughters Frances, Elizabeth, and Susan.  DRD7ER, Margaret A. Please see article on pag 149.  DUGGAN, Ethel May. b. St. Williams, Ontario 5 November 1898. d. Armstrong 4 December 1989. Predeceased by husband Walter 1963, son Ray  1968. Survived by son Vern; daughters Eleanor, Jean and Donna.  EASTON, Dorothy Dawe (nee Clements), b. Helen Mines, Ontario 1906. d.  Victoria January 1990. Predeceased by husband Sydney G.  ELLIOTT, T.H. (Herb), b. Crawcrook, England 30 June 1905. d. Salmon  Arm 19 August 1989. Predeceased by first wife Anne 1968. Survived by  wife Bernice; daughters Edith, Peg, and Sandra.  FEIJX, Agnes, b. Enderby 17 August 1883. d. Enderby 2 December 1989.  Predeceased by husband Gabriel and 13 children. Survived by sons  Casimir and Peter; daughter Marjorie Dennis.  FERGUSON, Donald William, b. Falkland 15 January 1915. d. Vernon 16  November 1989. Survived by wife Isabel; son Robert; daughters Margaret, and Myrna.  FORSTER, Dorothy (Dorrie) Beatrice (nee Dunsdon). b. Summerland 25  March 1905. d. Summerland 16 October 1989. Predeceased by husband  George July 1970.  FORSTER, Medora (Meda) Wardlaw. b. Gait, Ontario 23 December 1885. d.  Penticton 20 May 1989. Predeceased by husband Harold Ernest 1941.  Survived by son George; daughters Frances Yolland and Thora Laidman.  GEEN, Dr. Glen H. b. Kelowna 1934. d. Burnaby 25 March 1990. Survived by  wife Olga; son Brent; daughters Brenda Lively and Julia McLachlan.  GREENING, Roy Murdoch, b. Kelowna 1925. d. Vancouver 23 September  1989. Survived by wife Beverley; sons Donald, Graham, David; daughters Brenda, Heather, Sheila, Joanne.  178 Obituaries  GIORDANO, Joseph, b. Natal, B.C. 1932. d. Prince Rupert 25 February 1990.  Survived by wife Louise; sons Sandy and Mark; daughters Shauna, Anne,  and Gina.  GRAF, Rachel Keller, b. Gravelbourg, Saskatchewan 1915. d. Oliver 22  October 1989. Predeceased by husband Walter 1961. Survived by son  Mervin; daughter Sharon Geese.  GUERARD, Frank Joseph, b. Port Arthur, Ontario 1907. d. Kelowna 15  August 1989. Survived by wife Madeline; son Frank; daughter Elaine  Ferguson.  HANDLEN, Margaret Alice, b. Toronto, Ontario 7 October 1916. d. Kelowna  24 January 1990. Predeceased by husband George May 1988. Survived  by sons Frank, Bill, and George Jr.; daughters Gabrielle and Pat.  HARRISON, Ernest, b. 1893. d. Kelowna 16 March 1990. Predeceased by wife  Gertrude. Survived by daughters Barbara and Joyce.  HAWRYS, Anne. b. Gronlid, Saskatchewan 7 October 1922. d. Kamloops, 8  May 1989. Survived by husband Anthony (Tony); sons Al and George;  daughter Faith.  HAYHURST, John William (Jack), b. Armstrong 1899. d. Vernon 1 November 1989. Predeceased by wife Winnifred. Survived by sons Ron, Ernie,  Doug, Charlie; daughter Edith Thomas.  HORKOFF, Fred John. b. Verigin, Saskatchewan 23 November 1908. d.  Kelowna 3 March 1990. Survived by wife Mabel (nee Barisoff); sons  Peter and William.  HORNBY, Robert (Bob) William, b. Chilliwack 19 November 1909. d.  Armstrong 18 June 1989. Predeceased by wife Evelyn December 1988.  Survived by son Eric.  HUMPHREYS, Alfred (Al) Noel. b. Earth Kent, England 19 June 1901. d.  Vernon 26 April 1990. Predeceased by wife Jackie in 1969. Survived by  daughter Lynn Jones.  JEFCOAT, Roy Andrew, b. Flagstaff, Arizona 26 February 1919. d. Enderby  10 May 1989. Predeceased by first wife Emily in 1974. Survived by wife  Val; daughters Carol and Sylvia.  JOHNSTON, Bertram (Bert), b. Clapton On Sea, Essex 1903. d. Kelowna 19  June 1989. Survived by wife Peggy.  JONES, Irwin Hassard. b. Armstrong 20 December 1930. d. Enderby 17 July  1989. Survived by wife Cleora.  JONES, William (Billy), b. Enderby 1920. d. Enderby 23 December 1989.  Survived by son Romeo Edwards; daugher Mae Holt.  JORSTAG, Nils. b. Norway 1904. d. Oliver 31 March 1989. Predeceased by  wife Hilda in 1974. Survived by daughter Karen Sutton.  KARRAS, Gus. b. Neche, North Dakota 2 February 1903. d. Enderby 26  January 1990. Predeceased by first wife Ida Estelle in 1974 and second  wife Lucille in 1977. Survived by sons Arnold, Everett, Alfred; daughters  Faye, Bernice, and Marie.  KATZUK, Antonina. b. Ukraine 1902. d. Armstrong 17 September 1989.  Predeceased by husband John 1976. Survived by sons Mike, Fred, and  Peter.  179 Obituaries  KERR, Douglas James, b. Lake Megantic, Quebec 2 April 1898. d. Kelowna  20 August 1989. Predeceased by first wife Marjorie 1930 and second wife  Mary Irene in 1982. Survived by sons Robert and James.  KNELLER, Aganetta (Nellie), b. Ukatrinaslav, Russia 19 August 1893. d.  Armstrong 28 August 1989. Predeceased by husband Gottlieb 1969, son  Daniel. Survived by sons Herman and Rueban; daughters Lenore,  Venona, and Caroline.  KIDSTON, James B. b. Tunbridge Wells, England 1903. d. Vernon 22  December 1989. Survived by wife Polly; sons Jamie, Phil; daughter Ann  Denman.  KREBS, Helen McKersie (nee Cook), b. Douglas, Scotland 1920. d. Kelowna  11 November 1989. Survived by husband Ruben; son Kenneth; daughters Lorraine and Doreen.  KRIMMER, Jack. b. 1901. d. Kelowna 16 November 1989.  LAITENEN, Albert, b. Griffin Lake, B.C. 1898. d. Salmon Arm 22 August  1989. Predeceased by wife Vera. Survived by son Bud; daughters Yvonne  and Lois.  LAZARD, Charles, b. Vernon 1900. d. Vernon 25 January 1990. Predeceased  by wife Ella, son Austin, daughter Deanna. Survived by son Basil;  daughters Winifred, Martina, Margaret, Mary, Clara.  LEIN, Dora. b. Yorkshire, England 1907. d. Salmon Arm 27January 1989. Predeceased by husband George 1985. Survived by sons Bob, Wellburn;  daughters Joan, Gloria.  LOCKE, William Donald, b. Kelowna 1921. d. Kelowna 25 November 1989.  LOWE, Marjorie (Midge) Ferguson, b. 1912. d. Vernon 22 April 1990.  MADDOCK, John (Jack) William, b. Winnipeg, Manitoba 23 April 1917. d.  Kelowna 27 April 1989. Survived by wife Doris; sons Grant, Bill; daughters Marilyn Mathieson, Judy, Ginny Dournovo, Terry McClain.  MARSHALL, Albert (Bert), b. 1907. d. Kelowna 25 September 1989. Predeceased by wife Bednie 1985. Survived by daughter Lynn.  MASON, Harold, b. Birmingham, England 1901. d. Ladner 1 February 1990.  Survived by wife Ellen (Nellie); son Allan.  MAUDE-ROXBY, Guy Nigel, b. Rutland 1921. d. Surrey, B.C. 24 October  1989. Survived by wife Claire; sons Dean and Craig.  MAY, Annie Jane. b. Antrimtown, Northern Ireland 14 January 1914. d.  Summerland 5 August 1989. Predeceased by husband Nat 1963. Survived by son Jim; daughters Moreen and Jean.  MEGGAIT, Eva Leonore. b. Mount Pleasant, Ontario 20 April 1892. d.  Armstrong 25 May 1989. Predeceased by husband William August 1972.  Survived by sons Lawrence and Martin; daughters Mary and Ann.  MEPHAM, Fanny (nee Willis), b. Kellan County Wexford, Ireland November  1902. d. Kelowna 19 June 1989. Predeceased by husband Archie.  Survived by sons Steve, Denis, Pat, John; daughters Kay McDonald and  Marion Burke.  MIDDLETON, Evelyn (nee Cools), b. Vernon 26 April 1920. d. Vernon 5July  1989. Survived by husband Doug; sons Bruce, Andrew, Peter; daughter  Beth Scherle.  180 Obituaries  MILLER, Wing Commander J.S. (Dusty), b. Vancouver 2 March 1915. d.  Santa Fe, New Mexico 5 May 1990. Survived by wife Katie; sons Jamie,  Rusty, John.  MILNE, Thomas Malcolm, b. Arbroath, Scotland 4January 1907. d. Vernon  15 May 1989. Survived by wife Barbara; son Frank.  MUNSELL, Ruby Myrde. b. Westwold 26June 1897. d. Vernon 30 December  1989. Predeceased by husband Benjamin 1965. Survived by daughters  Clara and Ina.  MURPHY, Barbara C. (neeTutt). b. Kelowna 1921. d. Victoria 4 March 1990.  Survived by son Robert; daughters Linda McLean, Brenda Beadnell.  McCALLUM, Anna E. (nee Alta). b. Colorado, U.S.A. 1901. d. Oliver 7 July  1988. Predeceased by husband Caughey 1985. Survived by son David.  McCURDY, John. b. Ballantoy, Northern Ireland 1901. d. Salmon Arm  October 1989. Survived by wife Retta; sons Douglas, Robert; daughter  Margot.  McDONALD, Hannah (Brownie), b. New Westminster 5 August 1902. d.  Penticton 23 August 1989. Predeceased by husband Frank Oscar 1970.  Survived by son Ramsey; daughters Marion Menzies, Norma Johnston.  MACINTOSH, Ralph Hamilton, b. Austria, d. New Westminster 23 January  1990. Survived by wife Maude (nee Haines); daughters Joyce, Sylvia,  Barbara.  MACKENZIE, Wallace Albert, b. Peachland 3 August 1906. d. Kelowna 14  August 1989. Survived by wife Betty; sons Carl Culler, Daniel Culler;  daughter Kathleen MacKenzie.  McNABB, Hugh Alan (Mac), b. Minnedosa, Manitoba 7 January 1902. d.  Vernon 22 June 1989. Predeceased by wife Helen January 1980. Survived by daughter Patricia.  NELSON, Enid Henrietta (nee Bennett), b. Wiggin, England 22 March 1920.  d. Vernon 23 April 1990. Predeceased by husband Stuart 1962. Survived  by sons Bruce and Chris.  NICHOL, Thomas, b. Silloth, Cumberland, England 1897. d. Oliver 19 July  1989. Predeceased by wife Isabel 1980. Survived by sons Dennis, Allan  and daughter Isabel Ferguson.  O'KEEFE, Mary Margaret (Peggy), b. Vernon 1903. d. Oroville, California 15  June 1989.  OLSON, Irene (nee Leith). Please see article on page 150.  PARFITT, Robert Alan. b. Kelowna 1942. d. Kelowna 10 February 1990.  Survived by wife Wendy; sons Christopher, Robert, Stephan; daughters  Dianne Laird, Jana Allingham, Wendy.  PARKINSON, Nellie, b. Armstrong 31 October 1895. d. Armstrong 16 July  1989. Predeceased by husband Stanley 1987. Survived by sons Floyd,  Jack; daughter Hazel.  PETERS, Alma. b. Carman, Manitoba 25 May 1885. d. Salmon Arm 29  January 1990. Predeceased by husband Fred 1979. Survived by sons  Earl, Fred, Gordon (Barney), Howard.  PHILLIPS, Ivan Edgar. Please see article on page 151.  181 Obituaries  POLSON, Sarah Margaret, b. Armstrong 16 March 1925. d. Kelowna 29  January 1990. Survived by husband Morris; sons Wayne, Cameron,  Gene; daughter Wendy.  PRITCHARD, John Dickson Smith, b. Oak Lake, Manitoba 29 April 1913. d.  Vernon 21 January 1990. Survived by daughters Yvonne Stabeck, Marian  Lutener.  PROUTY, Ernest Henry, b. Blaine, Washington 16 February 1907. d. Vernon  17 March 1990. Survived by wife Minnie; son Barry; daughter Sharon.  QUESNEL, Margaret Elizabeth (Madge), b. Lumby 1907. d. Vernon 19  October 1989. Predeceased by husband Arthur 1973. Survived by son  Ted; daughter Kathleen Dawes.  RAWLINGS, Emily, b. Herefordshire, England 1896. d. Osoyoos 1 July 1989.  Predeceased by husband John 1980. Survived by sons Bill, Bob, Doug;  daughter Eleanor Wheeler.  RAYMER, Harry William, b. Kelowna 1910. d. Vernon 7 September 1989.  Predeceased by wife Kathleen.  RITCHIE, William (Scottie). b. Lanark, Scotland 31 July 1907. d. Summer-  land 8 November 1989. Survived by wife Florence; son Ron; daughter  Rhoda Gray.  ROTH, Martha, b. 1898. d. White Rock 16 February 1990. Predeceased by  husband Trueman Walter 1969. Survived by sons Raymond, Leonard,  Richard, William; daughter Myrtle Avender.  SABY, Pearl Rossetta. b. Wetaskawin, Alberta 26 October 1902. d. New  Westminster 20 October 1989. Predeceased by husband Walter June  1983. Survived by sons Lyle, Glenn, Doughal; daughters Gloria, Shirley.  SAUER, Aron. b. Edenwold, Saskatchewan 1911. d. Kelowna 5 August 1989.  Predeceased by first wife Helen. Survived by wife Clara; daughter  Deanna.  SCALES, Mary. b. Ituna, Saskatchewan 4 December 1919. d. Vernon 20  March 1990. Survived by husband David; son Roger; daughter Charlotte Waters.  SCHELLENBERG, AbramJacob (Abe), b. Neudorf, Russia 18 October 1903.  d. Kelowna 29 April 1989. Survived by wife Tena; sons Arnold, Stan;  daughters Genny Bartel, Marlene Poitras.  SCHERLE, Dorothy Margaret (nee Ferguson), b. Falkland 1917. d. Vernon  29 March 1990. Predeceased by husband William June 1975.  SCHMIDT, Christina (Tinnie). b. Odessa, Russia 15 July 1901. d. Kelowna 2  June 1989. Predeceased by husband Anton 1988. Survived by daughters  Clara Wagner and Leona Fink.  SHEARDOWN, Harry R. b. Armstrong 11 February 1919. d. Osoyoos 28  March 1989. Survived by wife Susan; son Keith; daughters Karen  Aschenbrenner and Janice McEwen.  SWITE, William Leonard, b. Westbank 1938. d. Kelowna 5 August 1989.  Survived by wife Donna; son William Jr.; daughter Lori, stepdaughters  Wanda and Gail; stepsons Danny and Jarvis.  THOMAS, Frances, b. Calgary, Alberta 27 March 1922. d. Salmon Arm 1 April  1990.  182 Obituaries  TRAYLER, Frances, b. Brayford-on-Green, England 28 March 1887. d.  Summerland 18 March 1990. Predeceased by husband Alfred Edward.  Survived by daughters Alice Edith Robertson and Edna Trayler.  TWEEDY, Bertha Sadie. Please see article on page 147.  WEEKS, Ludlow James, b. Okanagan Landing 27 October 1904. d. Penticton  12 August 1989. Survived by wife Margaret.  WESTON, Sydney Joan (nee Pritchard). b. Kelowna 1924. d. Kelowna 28  November 1989. Predeceased by first husband William March in 1965  and by second husband Ronald Weston in 1984.  WILLIAMSON, Elizabeth, Ann (nee Spencer), b. Vancouver 1933. d. Vancouver 22 January 1990. Predeceased by husband David Francis. Survived by sons David and Norman.  WILLIAMSON, Francis Myles (Frank), b. Marpole, B.C. 22 April 1922. d.  Vernon 3 November 1989. Survived by wife Gladys; sons Tom, Mark and  Paul; daughter Verena.  WOODS, Alvin. b. Enderby 27 November 1906. d. Enderby 5 February 1990.  Predeceased by wife Althea 1988.  WOOLLIAMS, Doris Lillian, b. Vancouver 16 February 1903. d. Summerland  30 December 1989. Survived by husband Ewart; sons Neil and David;  daughter Jane Woolliams.  WORTH, Thomas William, b. Yorkshire, England 1905. d. Oliver 23 January  1989. Survived by wife Vivian; sons Ronald, Darryl and Tommy; daughters Carol and Barbara.  183 Errata  For the 53rd Report:  Page 6 Caption under the photo should read: Lumb Stocks.  Chataqua should read Chautauqua.  Picture caption should read John Ko Bong instead of  John Ko.  Subtitle should read Thomas Finley McWilliams, Q.C.  Subtitle should read Cyril G. Beeston, Q.C.  Pateete should read Papeete.  Title should read: A Tribute to Betty O'Keefe, 1924-  1989.  The Atkinson  (Gwendoline)  Obit should read: b.  India, 7 August 1886.  The Blewett (Ralph) Obit should read: Predeceased  by wife Dorothy.  Dundson should read Dunsdon.  The Findlay (Judson) Obit should have included his  son Alfred.  Page  13  Page  20  Page  42  Page  48  Page  67  Page  145  Page  173  Page  173  Page  175  Page  176  184 Business of the  Okanagan  is. 'ñ†  NOTICE  of the 66th Annual General Meeting  of  The Okanagan Historical Society  1991  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 5, 1991  at 10 a.m.  in the Pine Room 2 of the Sandman Inn  Penticton, B.C.  Luncheon at 12:30 a.m.  in the Pine Room 1 of the Sandman Inn  Penticton, B.C.  All Members are Welcome  185 THE 65th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  MINUTES OF THE 65th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  IN OLIVER, B.C.  Sunday, May 6th, 1990  President Bernard Webber called the meeting to order at 10:00 a.m.  A minute of silence was observed in memory of those who had died since the  last annual meeting. Eight-five members attended the business session in the  old C.P.R. Station.  1. NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary. Agenda was presented by  the chairman and accepted on motion by H. Weatherhill, seconded by  D. Zoellner.  2. MINUTES of the 64th annual meeting as printed in the 53rd Report and  as corrected by changing item 7 to read "—Canadian Historical Association—" were adopted on motion by A. Strandquist, seconded by H.  Powley.  3. BUSINESS ARISING out of minutes: nil.  4. CORRESPONDENCE: dealt with to date by Executive Council. Bulletins were read and filed as follows:  a) Phone call from Terry Halleran of Kaslo re old photos and movies of  lake steamers.  b) Boundary Historical Society re B.C. Historical Fed'n Conference 90.  c) Boundary Historical Society re annual picnic.  d) Kettle Valley Railway Heritage Society re symposium on use of  abandoned right-of-way.  5. REPORTS OF OFFICERS: to be printed in 54th Report. Delivered by:  President Bernard Webber  Editor Robt. Cowan  Secretary Robt. Marriage  These reports accepted on motion by E. Iceton, seconded by  D. Weatherill.  Treasurer Phyllis MacKay  The financial statement for the year ended Dec 31st, 1989, audited by  Lett, Trickey 8c Co was accepted on motion by Treasurer, seconded by  W. Whitehead.  6. BRANCH REPORTS AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES to be printed in  54th Report. Delivered by:  Armstrong-Enderby Jessie Ann Gamble  Kelowna Jim Horn (absent)read by Secretary  Oliver-Osoyoos Terry Sarell (read by J. Webber)  Penticton Olive Evans  Salmon Arm Yvonne McDonald  Vernon Lucy McCormick  Bagnall Fund D. Weatherill for R. Robey (absent)  Brigade Trails P. Tassie  Essays Robt. Cowan  Index this committee inactive at present  186 O.H.S. Business  Pandosy Mission Hume Powley for Frank Pells (absent)  Norris Plaque Robt. dePfyffer  Finance Gifford Thomson  Note: The Finance Committee was established by Executive Council motion  July 9th, 1989, as a standing committee responsible for budget planning. It  consists of the President, Treasurer and Editor together with a member from  each Branch not represented by the President or Editor. The committee's  recommendations are subject to approval by the Executive Council. The  Secretary O.H.S. (parent body) acts as recording secretary (without vote).  7. UNFINISHED BUSINESS:  nil.  8. NEW BUSINESS:  a) O.H.S. Annual Field Day-members are invited this year to attend the  annual picnic of the Boundary Historical Society at Carmi.  b) Biographies - Moved by W. Shilvock, seconded by J. Webber that  local branches encourage the writing of biographies of prominent  citizens now deceased and not, so far, covered by more than passing  references and obituary notice in O.H.S. Reports. Carried.  c) Salmon River Valley history - Moved by W. Whitehead, seconded by  Jim Sharman that steps be taken to see that Falkland, Westwold and  the Salmon River Valley are more comprehensively covered in  O.H.S. Reports. Carried.  9. ELECTION OF OFFICERS:  Immediate Past President Dorothy Zoellner presented a full slate elected  by acclamation as follows:  President Bernard Webber  1st Vice-President  Robt. dePfyffer  2nd Vice-President Jessie Ann Gamble  Secretary Ermie Iceton  Treasurer Libby Tassie  Editor Robt. Cowan  10. APPOINTMENT OF AUDITOR:  Moved by Treasurer, seconded by H. Powley that Lett, Trickey & Co be  re-appointed auditors. Carried.  11. COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS:  Moved by Secretary, seconded by P. Tassie that the complimentary  resolutions follow the usual format. Carried.  A vote of good wishes to life member Harley Hatfield, absent from the  annual meeting for the first time in many years, was moved by H. Cleland  and M. Broderick, Mr. Hatfield to be informed by letter.  A vote of thanks was proposed by D. Zoellner to the retiring Treasurer  and Secretary.  12. SETTING DATE AND PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL MEETING: Moved  by O. Evans, seconded byJ.A . Gamble that the Penticton Branch host  the 66th Annual General Meeting Sunday, May 5th, 1991. Carried. See  notice of call in 54th Report.  ADJOURNED 11:55 a.m.  R. F. Marriage, Secretary  187 O.H.S. Business  LUNCH PROGRAM  Chairman - Terry Sarell, President of Oliver-Osoyoos Branch  Over one hundred members and guests enjoyed roast beef dinner  served by the Ladies Auxiliary, Royal Canadian Legion. After "O Canada" accompanied by Joan Wight at the piano and grace said by Carleton  MacNaughton, an address of civic welcome was offered by Alderman Dal  Carter, representing Mayor Buckendahl of Oliver.  The winners of this year's J.W.B. Browne/CKOV Award for the best  student essays were announced. In the senior category Alison Glanfield of  Enderby was present to receive her prize and certificate. In the junior  category four pupils at the Len Wood School in Armstrong divided the prize  and received certificates.  The Leonard Norris Plaque to be installed in the Vernon Court House  in memory of the Society's founder was described briefly by Bob dePfyffer,  chairman of the committee in charge, and then unveiled at the head table by  Past President Dorothy Zoellner.  Ten Life Members present were recognized and two new Life Members  were presented certificates. They are Jean Webber, retiring president of the  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch and Peter Tassie of Vernon. A Special Award of Merit  was made to Phyllis Mackay, retiring as Treasurer and Bob Marriage, retiring  as Secretary, received an engraved plaque.  Bill Barlee, M.L.A. gave an interesting and entertaining talk on places  and people of nearby mining areas in the province.  The proceedings closed with singing "God save the Queen".  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  To the Members of the Okanagan Historical Society,  Ladies and Gendemen:  It is a great honour to be president of The Okanagan Historical Society,  to tread in the illustrious footsteps of those who over the past 65 years have  carried out the wishes of our founding members as set forth in our constitution.  I think we fairly and worthily carry out the intentions of the constitution  through our activities - except, perhaps, for the examination of the archaeological aspects of our heritage. It is titillating to think about developing an  archaeological wing to our Society, and so to attract young people who seem  to be enthusiastic about the prospect of digging up our past.  It has been an enriching experience for my wife and me to attend the  Annual General Meetings of each of our six branches. We thought we knew  the Okanagan as a valley very much the same throughout its parts. It was an  unexpected revelation to realize how different the regions and their towns  are. Amidst this diversity, however, we find common ground in identifying  and recording what is significant in local history. As a Society, we derive  strength from our special characteristics so long as they do not lead us to look  inward, but to remember that we are all part of a larger whole. In mathematical terms, we are more than the sum of our parts when we unite to seek  188 O.H.S. Business  government action for the recognition and protection of the memorials of  our past. I am proud to realize what our members are doing to identify and  protect the remnants of our historic trails, but sad to see how neglect and  vandalism have resulted in the Haynes building at the head of Osoyoos Lake  being so ravaged that it is probably beyond restoration.  In conclusion, I pay my respects to the members of our Executive  Council who have governed us during the past year. Rest assured that they are  full of ideas, articulate, tenacious in debate, gracious in accepting decisions.  I must also acknowledge the great contribution to this Society made by two  retiring officers, Phyllis MacKay, our treasurer, and Bob Marriage, our secretary. They have served in difficult positions with competency and good  nature. May they soon return to our Executive Council.  We welcome Bob Cowan's assumption of the editorship of Okanagan  History. Probably more than anything else, our annual publication is the  strand which binds all our branches together. Mr. Cowan's tenure has begun  with great distinction with the 53rd Report.  I must say, finally, how much I have been guided by the substance and  style of Dorothy Zoellner's presidency. Thankfully, her zest, her ability to  remember details, her diplomacy, her devoted dedication remain at the  service of this Society.  Respectfully submitted,  Bernard Webber  EDITOR'S REPORT  Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen:  The changes in the 53rd Report were a result of two workshops held last  year on marketing the Report. These changes include: larger type, slightly  wider margins and a better utilization of the back cover. I am pleased to  announce that the 53rd Report is almost sold out.  One of the recommendations of the workshops was that the Society  explore the possibility of computer use in the publication of the Report. A  committee was struck with Dave MacDonald as chairperson. Its been my  pleasure to work with Mr. MacDonald on this problem. For the 54thReportwe  will be experimenting with this possibility by submitting to the printers some  material on computer disk.  Our goal is to submit all of the material for the 55thReporton disk. I think  we can successfully accomplish this objective. It will mean some financial  savings for the Society plus it will eliminate the Galley Proof stage in the  production process thus giving me more time to work on the Report before  it is submitted to the printers.  It was my privilege to work with Winston Shilvock of Kelowna and Naomi  Miller of Wasa on the "Okanagan Special" for the B.C. Historical News. Many  of the articles were gleaned from past Reports, but some are finding their way  into print for the first time. I was pleased with the result.  Some of the Branches have expressed concern with the format of the  Obituary Section in the Report. The issue has been raised on numerous  occasions in the past. Last fall at a meeting of all the branch editorial  189 O.H.S. Business  chairpeople the issue was addressed again. It was the concensus of the group  that more input from the Branches was necessary before any changes can be  made in the Obit format. Hopefully by this fall your branch editorial  chairpeople will have a clear idea of your preference in this matter and we can  discuss it further.  I have enjoyed travelling to most of the Branch Annual General  Meetings this spring. Each of the Branches should be proud of the fine job  their editorial committees have done this past year. Without their conscientious effort my job would be impossible. A special thank you is due to the  chairpeople: Doris McDonald (Oliver/Osoyoos), Betty Bork (Penticton),  Art Strandquist (Kelowna), Beryl Wamboldt (Vernon), Lorna Carter (Arm-  strong/Enderby), and Florence Farmer (Salmon Arm).  Respectfully submitted,  Bob Cowan  SECRETARY'S REPORT TO THE 65th  ANNUAL MEETING O.H.S. MAY 6th, 1990  Minutes of the 64th Annual Meeting including reports by Officers,  Committee Chairmen and Branch Presidents are printed in the 53rd Report  on page 184. Letters of appreciation were sent as required by your complimentary resolutions. Requirements of the B.C. Society Act were met.  The framed awards to the Society from the American Association for  State and Local History, the Canadian Historical Association and the Heritage Society of B.C. were deposited for safe-keeping in the Vernon Museum  on March 17th this year. Other routine business of the Society and its  Executive Council has been conducted.  President Bernard Webber and other officers and members have been  most helpful.  Respectfully submitted,  R.F. Marriage  AUDITORS' REPORT  To the Members of the  Okanagan Historical Society  We have examined the statements of receipts and disbursements for the  General Account, the Bagnall Trust, the Editorial Finance Committee and  the Father Pandosy Mission Committee of the Okanagan Historical Society  for the year ended December 31, 1989. Our examination was made in  accordance with generally accepted auditing standards and accordingly  included such tests and other procedures as we considered necessary in the  circumstances, except as explained in the following paragraph.  It was not practical to extend our audit procedures sufficiently to satisfy  ourselves as to the fairness of reported receipts from operations.  In our opinion, except for the effects of adjustments, if any, which we  might have determined to be necessary had we been able to carry out the  190 O.H.S. Business  audit procedures referred to in the preceding paragraph, these financial  statements present fairly the results of the Society's operations for the year  ended December 31, 1989, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles applied on a basis consistent with that of the preceding year.  March 1, 1990  LETT, TRICKEY & CO.  Chartered Accountants  4**V  >#*\  */  .  P   "W  if  W. -M  /  * *'*iy  \  .t    -T-         M  ^B   &    ^^H  &.JU  f   ^j  j  K n AW  I     J  TM "^H  I         '£  -  '" * ^  ■    -31  v)  K  111  Officers at the Annual General Meeting in Oliver, May 6,1990. From the left rear, Terry Sarell,  President Oliver/Osoyoos, Jessie Ann Gamble, Second vice-President, Bob dePfyffer, First Vice  President, Dorothy Zoellner, Past Presient, and Bob Cowan, Editor. Front row from the left,  Ermie Iceton, Secretary, Bob Marriage, Past Secretary, Bernard Webber, President, Phyllis  MacKay, Past Treasurer, and Libby Tassie, Treasurer. Photo courtesy of the Oliver Chronicle.  191 O.H.S. Business  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  STATEMENT OF RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS  (GENERAL ACCOUNT)  FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 1989  1989 1988  $ $  RECEIPTS  Memberships and sales  Armstrong - Enderby - Salmon Arm           2,272 2,685  Kelowna           4,620 3,325  Oliver - Osoyoos           1,100 3,691  Penticton - Summerland           2,842 2,145  Vernon           2,215 2,221  Treasurer and commercial            3,110 3,311  16,159 17,378  Interest and exchange            1,583 1,025  Donations              234 3,985  17,976 22,388  DISBURSEMENTS  Annual meeting  86  Contribution to Editorial Finance Committee  563  Honorarium  300  Index  781  Postage and office supplies   Printing and copying   Prizes    Professional fees   Storage, insurance and rental   Telephone and miscellaneous   EXCESS OF RECEIPTS  OVER DISBURSEMENTS   CASH ON HAND BEGINNING OF YEAR   CASH ON HAND END OF YEAR   (Bagnall Trust)  1989 1988  $ $  RECED7TS  Interest              250 214  CASH ON HAND BEGINNING OF YEAR           3,663 3,449  CASH ON HAND END OF YEAR           3,913 3,663  370  487  14,115  11,036  150  264  435  23  520  313  53  314  17,287  12,523  689  9,865  23,110  13,245  23,799  23,110  192 oris  SALMON ARM BRANCH PRESIDENT'S REPORT  The Salmon Arm branch of the O.H.S. has had a busy year getting  organized. We held four executive meetings, and one general membership  meeting in November. At this meeting we welcomed new members and  prospective members, and introduced the 53rd Report. Our local historian,  Roland Jamieson, gave a talk. Also present was Editor Bob Cowan to give an  informative talk, and President Jessie Ann Gamble of the Armstrong/  Enderby Branch, to pass on enthusiastic encouragement.  We put a good effort into selling O.H.S. Reports ofpast years. One of our  members suggested making up sets of ten books to be sold for fifty dollars,  and used as gifts, or donated to organizations. We sold six sets. Around one  hundred copies of the 53rd Report were sold, which we felt was a respectable  number, considering we had to educate our market first.  We held our first Annual General Meeting April 29, with over fifty  persons present. Our guest of honour was ninety-three year old Robert  Carlin, who came to the area when he was two years old. The Carlin school  and Carlin Hall, west of Salmon Arm, honour his family. As speakers, Ben  Johnston gave an informative and entertaining talk on the history of the Deep  Creek area, where he has resided all his life, and Rollie Jamieson read  hilarious accounts of several escapades from his growing-up-in-Salmon Arm-  years.  We have, in this first year, generated a healthy interest in the collecting  and recording of past as well as on-going history of the Salmon Arm area.  Yvonne McDonald  President  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH  The Armstrong-Enderby Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society has  had a very successful year. Our energetic and enthusiastic executive members  have guided us to both financial and social success.  We have profited from the Parent Body decision to sell back-issues of the  Reports at a reduced rate: our local sales campaign has resulted in considerable financial gain.  Our fall meeting in November focused on the new 53rdReport, while our  annual general meeting and pot luck supper in March concentrated more on  memberships and renewals. As a result, we have over eighty members in our  Branch.  The membership appreciated the interesting topics presented by our  guest speakers, Ruth Bawtree, George Green, Cameron Clayton and Jim  Sharman. We also enjoyed the Native Indian entertainers under the leader-  193 O.H.S. Reports  ship of Bart Thomas. Socializing, and the sharing of memories are important  functions for our local Branch.  We are proud that the Student Essay Contest winners are from the  Armstrong-Enderby area this year. Allison Glanfield is the Senior Division  winner, while Lisa Cucheron, Cheryl Kempner, Regena Rohrer and Floa  Ware are the Junior Division winners.  We had Branch representatives at the Annual Meetings in both Vernon  and Salmon Arm.  I feel privileged to have been associated with such a fine executive and  membership, and I should like to thank everyone for their tremendous  support.  Jessie Ann Gamble  President  VERNON BRANCH ANNUAL REPORT  The Vernon Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society had a very  successful year. We had three executive meetings, six general meetings, an  annual meeting and two bus tours.  Speakers at our general meetings were: in September, Doug Cole on the  origin of the Vernon Golf Club; in October, John Corner on Indian Pictographs; in November, Alan Claridge on the History of the B.C.F.G.A.  celebrating 100 years; in January, Al Hiebert on Prohibition in B.C.; in February, Cindy Williams on the Development of the Shuswap Language for  children; in March, Rosemary Deuling on Early Settlement of the Mabel Lake  Valley.  At our annual meeting we had a pot luck supper at the Coldstream  Women's Institute Hall. Our guest speaker was Vic Casorso speaking on his  family settling in the Okanagan - especially the difficulties his parents  encountered building a home for their growing family in a new pioneer land.  Our first guided tour was to Falkland area to view the erratic near Pillar  Lake - our second tour took us through Lumby, Creighton Valley, Richlands  and back to Shuswap Falls to view the salmon hatchery.  In addition to the meetings and tours many of our members attended  meetings of other branches and were very involved in book sales.  A special committee headed by Bob dePfyffer met many times concerning the Leonard Norris plaque and we are pleased at the result which will be  available for all to see.  Our second involvement is co-sponsoring the visit of the Marquess and  Marchioness of Aberdeen to the Coldstream area May 20th and 21st. The  Marquess is the grandson of Lord Aberdeen, Governor General of Canada  1893-1898. Lord Aberdeen owned the Coldstream Ranch in the Vernon area  and the Guisachan Ranch in Kelowna in the 1890's.  I would like to express my thanks to my executive who have given me  good advice and support during the year.  Respectfully submitted,  Lucy McCormick  President  194 O.H.S. Reports  KELOWNA BRANCH REPORT  It has been a very busy year for the Kelowna Branch. We held 7 executive  meetings as well as the Annual General Meeting.  Through a bi-yearly newsletter we have endeavored to keep our members informed of branch activities.  In conjunction with the Kelowna Museum we put together 2 bus tours.  The spring tour was a repeat of the Brigade Trail to the O'Keefe Ranch and  returned by way of the Commonage. The fall tour covered the downtown  Kelowna Heritage homes; both were completely sold out.  We continue to co-sponsor with the Okanagan College a five part Fall  Lecture Series. These lectures continue to be well attended and we are  pleased with the quality of speakers we have been able to attract.  Our Street Names Committee is actively at work compiling information  on street names covering the time from the beginning of Kelowna until 1962.  This work will be published in book form in the near future.  Julie Renaud, our Public Relations person, writes a monthly column in  The Courier as well as producing Channel 11 programs on local history.  We promote locally for the Parent Body of the Okanagan Historical  Society the Essay Competition for secondary school students.  Several of our Kelowna Branch members are represented on the Father  Pandosy Committee and the Guisachan Park Planning Committees; and  continue to dedicate many hours of service to these projects.  The 53rd Reporthas been well received and we are grateful to our editor,  Mr. Bob Cowan, for his guidance and foresight in the restructuring of the  report.  Our Annual Meeting was again over subscribed and we thank Mr. Vic  Casorso for his presentation on the history of the Casorso family.  Respectfully submitted,  Denis Maclnnis, (retiring)  President  PENTICTON BRANCH REPORT  In the past year Penticton Branch held 3 general meetings and 4  directors meetings. Four war brides shared their experiences with us at our  Fall meeting. Doreen Tait led us on a time tour through the early days of  Summerland at our February meeting. At our April 26 Annual General  Meeting, Cuyler Page demonstrated historical research carried out to restore  the Keremeos Grist Mill to working order. His talk also touched on the history  of milling in the Okanagan Valley.  In June a successful bus tour up the Kettle Valley Right-of-way to Rock  Oven Park was organized. Sales of Annual Reports have been brisk, and our  membership has grown from 106 last year to 175 at the present time.  Olive Evans  President  195 O.H.S. Reports  OLIVER-OSOYOOS PRESIDENT'S REPORT  The Oliver and Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society  held two general meetings and four executive meetings. Speakers at our  general meetings were Cuyler Page, Manager of the Keremeos Grist Mill, in  November and Victor Casorso at our April meeting. Both speakers were very  much enjoyed.  Selling our Annual Reports is always a priority in our branch, the 53rd  Report being no exception. This last Report was very well received. We find  ourselves very interested in the steps taken to print electronically. We are  grateful to the Parent Body and, in particular, the Financial Advisory Committee for helping us get our inventory in order.  A highlight of the year was the picnic at Molson, WA. hosted jointly by  our branch and the Penticton Branch. Members of Okanogan County Historical Society served tea and coffee at lunch time in the Grange Hall where  historian Harry Sherling of Oroville told us about "Molson's First Year" and  Naturalist Carleton MacNaughton told us about "Bird species to be found at  Molson." Both the outdoor museum and the indoor museum were enjoyed  by a large group from all branches of O.H.S. and from the Boundary  Historical Society.  The display at the Fairview lots continues to attract many visitors, some  from as far away as Britain and continental Europe. The Oliver Heritage  Society and the Regional District have had conversations with the department dealing with crown lands with the intention of establishing a reserve of  some acres adjoining our lots for historical and cultural purposes. We believe  the ownership of the two lots by O.H.S. and our development is contributing  to the possibility of the public use of this land which has been designated "the  most valuable crown land in B.C."  Recently we participated with the Oliver Heritage Society in the fencing  of the old Fairview Cemetery. The cost of the wire was shared evenly between  the two organizations and the work was done by a provincial work team.  The year has had its sadnesses as well as its satisfactions. At this time we  are feeling keenly the death of our faithful secretary of many years, Nan  Mabee. Nan was a contributor to our Reports.  Jean Webber, President (retiring)  HISTORICAL TRAILS COMMITTEE  The principal activities of the committee during the past year have been  (1) to preserve a section of the Okanagan Brigade Trail near Killiney, just  south of Okanagan Indian Reserve No. 1, where a proposed subdivision is  under consideration, and (2) to have the rock and rubble cleared off the most  spectacular section of the Okanagan Brigade Trail at Nahun, at a place shown  on the old maps as Mauvais Rocher.  On the first activity we have met with some success in that the developer  has agreed to dedicate the trail through the subdivision, although the actual  dedication has not been effected. For this success we are grateful to our  president, Bernard Webber, for making a representation at the Public  Hearing, and bringing the matter to the attention of the public.  196 O.H.S. Reports  On the second activity we have expressed our concern on several  occasions to the Provincial Government, with little success. On our latest  letter to the Minister of Municipal Affairs, Recreation and Culture, we have  received the support of M.L.A. Cliff Serwa and hope that it will be effective.  On a more general note our concern is with the expected developments  on the west side of Okanagan Lake, which may destroy a few other sections  of the trail. In the past year an attractive part at Fintry was lost as a result of  logging - over which there is no control.  On the plus side the white paper "Toward Heritage Legislation" contains some helpful provisions that would give both local and provincial  government more power to protect heritage trails and heritage objects.  Peter Tassie, Chairman  Dorothy Zoellner  Jim Horn  Pat Carew  Harley Hatfield  Plaque dedicated by the Okanagan Historical Society, mounted inside the Vernon Court House,  in recognition of Leonard Norris the Government Agent who founded the Okanagan Historical  and Natural History Society. Pictured from the left are Bob de Pfyffer, vice-president of the  parent body, Lucy McCormick, president of the Vernon branch, Elizabeth Tassie, treasurer of  the parent body and Bud Anderson, director of the Vernon branch. Photograph taken on June  11, 1990 by Richard Rolke of The Morning Star, Vernon, B.C.  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE ANNUAL REPORT  We had our most successful season since I have been involved. Over  thirty school tours were conducted. The students seemed to enjoy and  appreciate the site, as did most of the estimated 7,000 visitors.  We enjoyed a successful financial year. The voluntary contributions at  the gate left us with a bank balance of $6,862.20 at the end of the year. A  197 O.H.S. Reports  financial statement is available for anyone interested, thanks to the assiduous  work of our treasurer, Jack Ritch.  Nothing has been done to implement the recommendations contained  in our Site Planning Report. It seemed advisable to wait until our two prime  concerns had been attended - namely, improved sanitary facilities and a  dependable domestic water supply. We were able, because of our solvent  financial state, to upgrade temporarily our outmoded outhouses by renting  a portable toilet for the season. The problem of domestic water may be solved  in the foreseeable future. The explosive expansion of urban development in  the area suggests that the five to ten year wait for domestic water may be  reduced.  The volunteer crew, consisting of Okanagan Historical Society and  Knights of Columbus members, continues to answer the call for work parties.  Particular mention must be made of the work of pur volunteer caretakerjudy  Toms. She does more than required in maintaining the site and also offers  a friendly, outgoing welcome to site visitors.  Respectfully submitted,  Frank J. Pells  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  For the Year Ended December 31, 1989  (General Account)  RECEIPTS  Donations  Grants   Interest ....  DISBURSEMENTS  Office and miscellaneous   Repairs, maintenance and supplies  Telephone and utilities   Wages and benefits   EXCESS OF RECEEPTS OVER DISBURSEMENTS  CASH ON HAND BEGINNING OF YEAR   CASH ON HAND END OF YEAR   HERITAGE TRUST ACCOUNTS  DISBURSEMENTS  Fees   EXCESS OF DISBURSEMENTS OVERRECED7TS  CASH ON HAND BEGINNING OF YEAR   CASH ON HAND END OF YEAR   198  1989  $  1988  $  5,573  8,037  41  4,675  7,246  13,651  11,921  1,127  1,049  114  10,165  731  1,276  469  8,154  12,455  10,630  1,196  5,660  1,291  4,369  6,856  5,660  1,100  (1,100)  6  1,106  6  6 OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS  1990-1991  SALMON ARM  PRESIDENT: Yvonne McDonald; VICE-PRESIDENT: Joan Idington; SECRETARY: Margaret  Booth; TREASURER: Hjalmar Peterson; DIRECTORS: Don Byers, Florence Farmer, Hubert  Peterson, Elmer Peterson, Jim Shaver; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Florence Farmer.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY  PRESIDENT: Jessie Ann Gamble; VICE-PRESIDENT: Bill Whitehead; SECRETARY& PUBLICITY DIRECTOR Judy Reimche; TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  Lorna Carter, Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie, Jim Sharman, LOCAL DIRECTORS: Gertrude  Peel, Ted Peel, Pat Romaine, DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Bob Cowan, Jim Sharman.  VERNON  PRESIDENT: Lucy McCormick; 1st VICE-PRESIDENT: (vacant); 2nd VICE-PRESIDENT: Jack  Morrison; SECRETARY: Ruth Caley; TREASURER: Betty Holtskog; PAST PRESIDENT: Bob  dePfyffer; DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Bud Anderson, Pat Collins, Jean Humphreys, Doug  Kermode, Paddy Mackie, Dr. M. Ormsby, Doug Scott, Libby Tassie, Audley Holt; PUBLICITY:  Paddy Mackie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Wamboldt, Libby Tassie, Carol Mellows; PARENT BODY DIRECTOR: Lucy McCormick.  KELOWNA BRANCH  PRESIDENT: Jas. T. F. Horn; 1st VICE-PRESIDENT: Robt. Hayes; 2nd VICE-PRESIDENT: Alice  Lundy; SECRETARY: Sheila Jackson; TREASURER: Gifford Thomson; PAST-PRESIDENT:  Denis Maclnnis; PUBLIC RELATIONS DIRECTOR: Julie Renaud; DIRECTORS: Pat Carew,  Joan Chamberlain, Eric Chapman, Fred Coe, Mona Dow, Robt. Marriage, Frank Pells, Hume  Powley, Val Rampone, Arthur Strandquist, Jack Ritch, Doreen Tait, Marie Wostradowski,  Dorothy, Zoellner; DIRECTOR TO O.H.S. PARENT BODY: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson,  (Alternate) Fred Coe.  PENTICTON BRANCH  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; HONORARY DIRECTOR: Angie Waterman;  PRESIDENT: Olive Evans; VICE-PRESIDENT: Vacant; SECRETARY: Enabelle Gorek; TREASURER: Jack Riley; DIRECTORS: Louise Atkinson, Joe Biollo, Betty Bork, Mollie Broderick,  Hugh Cleland, Doug Cox, Bob Gibbard, Allan Hyndman, Rose Hyndman, Duncan Jamieson,  Randy Manuel, Dave MacDonald, Mary Orr, Polly Stapleton; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY:  Dave MacDonald, Mary Orr, (Alternate) Randy Manuel; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Chairman  - Betty Bork, Mollie Broderick, Hugh Cleland, Mary Orr, Angie Waterman.  OLJVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH  PRESIDENT: T.J. (Terry) Sarell; PAST PRESIDENT: Jean Webber; VICE-PRESIDENT: S. A.  (Steve) Mepham; SECRETARY: Elaine Shannon; TREASURER AND REPORTS: Frances Mitchell; EDITORIAL: Doris McDonald; O.H.S. DIRECTORS: Carleton MacNaughton, Harry Weatherill, Aileen Porteous (alternate); LOCAL BRANCH DIRECTORS: Ermie Iceton, Stella Weatherill, Joan Wight.  199 OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  All addresses are B.C. unless otherwise indicated  LIFE MEMBERS  Anderson, Dr. Walter F., Kelowna  Berry, Mrs. A. E., Vernon  Broderick, Mrs. Mollie, Okanagan Falls  Cawston, A. H., Keremeos  Christensen, S. L., Vernon  Cleland, Hugh, Penticton  Cochrane, Mrs. Hilda, Vernon  Corbishley, Donald, Oliver  Galbraith, Horace W., Vernon  Gamble, Mrs. Jessie Ann, Armstrong  Gardner, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Gellatly, Mrs. Dorothy, Westbank  Harris, Joseph, Penticton  Hatfield, Harley R., Penticton  Iceton, Mrs. Ermie, Oliver  Lewis, Mrs. Dorothea, Osoyoos  MacNaughton, F. Carleton, Oliver  Orr, Mrs. Mary, Summerland  Ormsby, Margaret, Vernon  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, Vernon  Wamboldt, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Waterman, Miss Dolly, Osoyoos  Waterman, Mrs. Angeline, Penticton  Webber, Mrs. Jean, Osoyoos  Whitehead, William J., Armstrong  Wilson, J. Victor H., Naramata  Life members at the AGM in Oliver, May 1990. From the left at rear: Carleton MacNaughton  (Oliver), Don Corbishley (Oliver), Bill Whitehead (Armstrong), Hume Powley (Kelowna),  Hugh Cleland (Penticton), Ermie Iceton (Oliver), Jessie Ann Gamble (Armstrong). Front row:  Dolly Waterman (Osoyoos), Beryl Wamboldt (Vernon), Mary Orr (Summerland), Peter Tassie  (Vernon), Jean Webber (Osoyoos), Molly Broderick (Okanagan Falls) and Dorothea Lewis  (Osoyoos).  200 O.H.S Membership  INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS  Abernathy, Carol, Vernon  Advocaat, Mrs. Bertha, Keremeos  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver  Alder, William, Victoria  Alexander, Dr. H.J., Vernon  Alexis, G., Vernon  Alexis, Helen C, Vernon  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley  Allen, Fred, Vernon  Allen, Herb, Penticton  Allen, Jessie A., Kaleden  Allingham, Ted, Oyama  Allsup, C.R., Kelowna  Alton, Mrs. G.W., Victoria  Amis, Mrs. Dorothy, Hot Springs, Arkansas  Amor, Mrs. Dorothy, Oliver  Anderson, Elof, Kelowna  Anderson, G.E., Vernon  Anderson, Irene, Salmon Arm  Anderson, Rose, Westlock, Alta.  Andrews, George M., Vancouver  Anicer, Arne, Vernon  Appleton, Don, Kelowna  Arnold, Gilbert N., Winfield  Atkinson, Louise, Summerland  Atkinson, Mrs. Wm., Summerland  Bailey, Harold L., East Kelowna  Baird, Marion E., Enderby  Balcombe, Stella, Vernon  Banner, Rae, Vernon  Barber, Ray G., Peachland  Barkwill, H.J., Summerland  Barlee, Bill & Kathleen, Osoyoos  Barman, Jean, Vancouver  Basham, Dave & Betty, Creston  Batten, Mrs. Marion, Osoyoos  Bauer, Lee, Salmon Arm  Bawtree, Leonard, Enderby  Bayliss, Mr. & Mrs. G., Vernon  Beairsto, Colin, Kelowna  Beairsto, H. David K., Vernon  Beames, T.B., Ladysmith  Beckett, Bernice, Armstrong  Bedwell, Sid F., Salmon Arm  Beeston, Frances, Kelowna  Bennett, Russell J., Westbank  Bergan, Gary, Vernon  Berry, Eldred, Vancouver  Berry, Mrs. Helen, Winfield  Berry, Mrs. Janet, Oliver  Bertrand, Mr. & Mrs.JA., Peachland  Bewley, Mrs. H., Kamloops  Bilsland, Allan W., Kelowna  Birnie, E. Margaret, Vernon  Blackburn, W. David, Armstrong  Blackwood, R.H., Fort St. John  Blake, Les, Okanagan Centre  Blow, Robert W., Armstrong  Blumenauer, Ralph, Vernon  Bodnar, Mr. & Mrs. E.P., Westbank  Bolton, Bruce & Eleanor, Vernon  Booth, Mrs. Margaret, Salmon Arm  Bork, Elizabeth, Okanagan Falls  Borkwood, Mr. & Mrs. J.E., Pictou, N.S.  Boss, Rawleigh, Armstrong  Bowen-Colthurst, Mr. & Mrs. T.G., Ladysmith  Boyer, Beryl, Kelowna  Bradley, Mr. & Mrs. T., Summerland  Brent, F.J. Eddie, Burnaby  Bridger, Steven, Richmond  Briscall, Miss CM., Vancouver  Bristow, Charles & Verna, Vernon  Brown, Mrs. Ada, West Vancouver  Brown, Alice, Enderby  Brown, R.A., Vernon  Browne-Clayton, Patricia, Kelowna  Buckland, Mrs. CD., Kelowna  Buckland, Mrs. Grace, Kelowna  Bull, Mary, Okanagan Mission  Bull, Dr. & Mrs. S., Kansas City, Missouri  Bundschuh, Richard, Kelowna  Burnett, Mrs. E., Kelowna  Burns, R.E., Armstrong  Burtch, A.H., Winfield  Butler,J.R. &J.I., Penticton  Cail, Anna, Vernon  Cain, Mrs. G., Armstrong  Cajersk, Elizabeth M., Kamloops  Caley, Michael & Patricia, Osoyoos  Caley, Robert & Penny, Kelowna  Caley, Ruth & Hugh, Vernon  Cameron, Margaret, Salmon Arm  Campbell, Mabel B., Vernon  Campbell, Robert F., Terrace  Campbell-Brown, Mary, Vernon  Cannings, Jean & Steve, Penticton  Carbert, Gordon, Rimbey, Alta.  Carbert, Maynard, Enderby  Carpenter, Bruce, Vernon  Carr, D., Kelowna  Carr, Ethyl, Vernon  Carstens, Prof. Peter, Toronto, Ont.  Carter, Gaye, Oliver  Carter, Lorna, Armstrong  Carter, Mrs. R.A., Winfield  Case, Alan R., Kelowna  Casorso, Victor & Joan, Oliver  Catchpole, Diana M., Delta  Chamberlain, Fred & Joan, Kelowna  Chapman, R.H., Penticton  201 O.H.S Membership  Charles, Mary & Walter, Summerland  Doe, Margaret C, Salmon Arm  Charman, Mrs. Barbara, Kelowna  Doeksen, Rijn & Bessie, Kelowna  Cherry, M.D., Kelowna  Donnelly, John, Vernon  Chesterton, C.L., Penticton  Dore, Charles, Kelowna  Chow, Mr. E., Toronto, Ont.  Dorey, Joyce A., Salmon Arm  Christenson, D.B., Vernon  Douglas, George, Vernon  Christenson, KL., Vernon  Douillard, Leo. L., Kelowna  Christenson, R.G., Vancouver  Doyle, Rev. W. Emmett, Nelson  Christenson, V.T., Vernon  Draper, A. & A., Kelowna  Clark, Jeanette, Enderby  Drought, May, Vernon  Clarke, Dr. David A., Kelowna  Dube, Mr. & Mrs. A.J., Salmon Arm  Clarke, K.D., Kelowna  Duggan, Dorothy M., Burnaby  Clarke, Robert, North Vancouver  Dunkley, M.J. & N., Kamloops  Claxton, J.J., Burnaby  Dyck, Jack, Vernon  Cleaver, William H., Kelowna  Clerke, Bob, Vernon  Eichinger, Paul, Armstrong  Clerke, Mike, Vernon  Elliott, Peter, Vernon  Clerke, Paddy & Sylvia, Kelowna  Ellis, Mrs. Cynthia, Kelowna  Coates, Dennis P., Kamloops  Ellison, Kenneth V., Oyama  Coe, Mr. & Mrs. E.W., Kelowna  Embree, Mrs. Alice, Vancouver  Coe, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, Kelowna  Embree, Rev.Dr. Bernard L.M., Coquitlam  Collins, Mrs. Patricia, Vernon  Emerson, Marybelle, Kelowna  Colquhoun, Mr. Gordon, Vancouver  Emilson, Anne, Salmon Arm  Constable, Mr. & Mrs. Frank, Kelowna  Esouloff, Lorna, Grand Forks  Cools, A.E., Vernon  Evans, W.Robert & Olive, Penticton  Corner, John, Vernon  Cossentine, Jack, Penticton  Falconer, Dave, Likely  Countway, P.L., Ottawa, Ont.  Falconer, George, Vernon  Cousins, Verne M., Peachland  Fanner, Florence, Salmon Arm  Couves, Mr. S., Kelowna  Farmer, Mr. 8c Mrs. P., Enderby  Cowan, Bob &Joan, Enderby  Favali, M., Kelowna  Cox, Doug, Penticton  Ferguson, B.J., Vernon  Craig, Alex & Nellie, Vernon  Ferguson, Don, Vernon  Crane, Percy, Vernon  Field, Edna, Kelowna  Creed, Aubrey 8c Leslie, Vernon  Fillmore, Josephine, Kelowna  Cretin, Harry W., Kelowna  Findlay, Raymond W., Kaleden  Crosby, Beryl C, Parksville  Fisher, Donald V. 8c Dorothy E., Summerland  Crowe, Mrs. D.A.S., Parksville  Fleming, John, Vernon  Cumine, Constance G., Oliver  Fleming, Stuart, Vernon  Fleuter, A., Vernon  Danallanko, Shirley, Armstrong  Follis, Mrs. John, Vernon  Davidson, Isabella, Victoria  Forbes, K.G., Oliver  D'Avila,J.M., Oliver  Found, Dr. N.Paul, Kelowna  Davis, IT., Vernon  Francis, Blaine & Alice, Oliver  Davison, Ruby 8c Henry, Enderby  Frank, Mr. & Mrs. J.F., Oliver  Dawdy, Oliver, Enderby  Fraser, Alice, Kelowna  Dawe, A.S., Kamloops  Fraser, Douglas P., Osoyoos  Delcourt, Diana, Kelowna  Frederick, Mildred & Bert, Enderby  Delcourt, Mr. D., Kelowna  French, Margaret E., Kingston, Ont.  Delcourt, Glenn, Kelowna  Fridge, Anne, Peachland  DeMontreuil, Mrs. John, Kelowna  Frost, Wayne, Armstrong  Denison, Eric, Vernon  Fuhr, Alan S., Vernon  de Pfyffer, Robert L., Vernon  Fuhr, Brian, Smithers  Deuling, Phyllis, Lumby  Fuhr, Douglas J., Vernon  Dewdney, Edgar & Marilyn, Penticton  Fuhr, Ernie, Fort St. John  Dickson, Stanley, Oliver  Fuhr, Mrs. Grace, Vernon  Dillon, Edith L., Kelowna  Fulkco, Tom, Nakusp  Docksteader, E.S., Armstrong  Fuller, Cecil & Nona, Thorndale, Ont.  Dodds, Marg, Vernon  202 O.H.S Membership  Gaddes, Mrs. D.B., Victoria  Gale, Mrs. J.L., Penticton  Gamble, Bruce, Lafayette, Indiana  Ganton, George L., Oliver  Gardner, R.W., Enderby  Garlick, Donald, Vernon  Garlinge, Beth, Peachland  Gartell, Dr. Beverly, Vancouver  Gates, Joan 8c Frank, Armstrong  Gawne, William, Penticton  Gibbard, Mr. & Mrs. Les, Naramata  Gibson, Paul M., Calgary, Alta.  Gillard, D.A., Ottawa, Ont.  Gilroy, Alan J., Kelowna  Gislason, Dr. & Mrs. I.L., Orange, Calif.  Glaicar, Mrs. Marjorie, Armstrong  Glanville, Jim & Alice, Grand Forks  Gobeil, Rose, Grand Forks  Godwin, W. Lester, Penticton  Gollan, David & Jo Ann, Salmon Arm  Goodfellow, Mr. Eric, Princeton  Gordon, William, Westbank  Gore, Mrs. F., Westbank  Gore, R.C., Kelowna  Gorman, Michael, Vernon  Graham, Beatrice, Mission  Graham, Glenn & Vie, Penticton  Graham, Mrs. Janet, East Kelowna  Graham, Marion H., Victoria  Green, James W., Vernon  Green, Jan 8c Brian, Nerang, Australia  Green, Mrs. Marie, Kelowna  Gregory, David, Summerland  Griffin, Mr. & Mrs. Frank, Kelowna  Grist Mill, The, Keremeos  Groves, Mr. R., Kelowna  Guay, Diane, Osoyoos  Guidi, Rudolph P., Oliver  Hack, Mrs. M. Alda, Vancouver  Haddock, Chuck, Enderby  Hagel, Mary, Vernon  Hall, Dennis R., Osoyoos  Hall, Mabel, Kelowna  Hall, R.H., Kelowna  Hall, Robert O., Penticton  Hallowin, Rose, Penticton  Hamilton, W.D., West Vancouver  Hammell, Harvey, Kelowna  Hammell, Mr. T.C., Penticton  Hanet, Mr. 8c Mrs. Alfred, Kelowna  Hannon, Enid, Vancouver  Hanson, Iver & Mary, Vernon  Harmsen, Anna, Lavington  Harper, Mrs. I., Vernon  Harris, Edith, Vernon  Harris, Mrs. E.M., Vancouver  Harris, R.C., West Vancouver  Harrison, Frank, Armstrong  Harrop, Don, Vernon  Hartman, Werner & Mildred, Armstrong  Hassen, Mat. S., Armstrong  Hawes, Chas., Armstrong  Hawes, Mr. & Mrs. Ralph, Salmon Arm  Hawrys, Mr. & Mrs. G., Grindrod  Hayes, James H. & Wilma D., Kelowna  Hayward, Mr. & Mrs. A.M., Clearbrook  Heiliger, Mr. & Mrs. R, Westbank  Heller, Mr. V.H., Vernon  Hennig, Loren, Vernon  Henry, Mrs. Betty, Grand Forks  Heriot, Joan, Vernon  Hermanski, Bernd, Salmon Arm  Hermiston, Rita, Summerland  Hiebert, Al, Vernon  Hill, Medwin, Lumby  Hills, Vernon, Osoyoos  Hinchcliffe, Art & Nella, Kaleden  Hobbs, Mrs. Rose, Burnaby  Hodge, Mrs. Doris, Kelowna  Holden, C.W., Delta  Holland, Mr. G., Kelowna  Hollingshead, Dorothy, Dawson Creek  Holmer, Jean I., Burnaby  Holmes, Mrs. Mabel, Osoyoos  Holt, Audley C, Lumby  Honeyman, Robert, Grindrod  Horn, Jim, Kelowna  Howes, Mrs. Edna, 100 Mile House  Hubensky, Kaye, Salmon Arm  Hucul, Bill & Nancy, Salmon Arm  Humphreys, Mrs. Jean, Vernon  Hunter, Elsie, Burnaby  Iceton, Eddie 8c Helen, Okanagan Falls  Iceton, Mark & Elaine, Whitehorse, Yukon  Iceton, Russell & Connie, Black Diamond,  Alta.  Iceton, Terry & Shirlee, Spruce Grove, Alta.  Iceton, Tim & Lorena, Edmonton, Alta.  Idington, Joan, Tappen  Imbeau, Mrs. I., Enderby  Imredy, D.M., Vancouver  Inglis, Helen, Vernon  Inglis, Wayne, Armstrong  Inkster, Dr. W. Harcus, Vernon  Innes, Ross, Vernon  Ireland, Mr. & Mrs. J.K.H., Queen Charlotte  City  Jackson, Mr. H.W., Vancouver  Jackson, Lois, Salmon Arm  Jackson, Merv, Enderby  Jackson, Mr. & Mrs. R.D., Salmon Arm  Jackson, S.K, Kelowna  Jacobi, Hans, Salmon Arm  James, Cliff, Oliver  Jamieson, Allen, Salmon Arm  203 O.H.S Membership  Jamieson, Donald N., Penticton  Jamieson, E.E., Vernon  Jamieson, John M., Armstrong  Jamieson, Ken & Pam, Nanaimo  Jamieson, Mr. 8c Mrs. R.A., Salmon Arm  Janes, E., Vancouver  Janes, RE., Winfield  Jefferies, Frank, Kelowna  Johns, A. 8c N, Kelowna  Johnson, Dorothy & Bob, Okanagan Falls  Johnson, Robert R., Vernon  Johnston, H.W., Summerland  Jones, Mrs. Kathy, Victoria  Joyce, W. Russ, Kelowna  Jung, Ilya E., Dawson Creek  Kaschel, Werner F., Surrey  Kendall, Arvid, Tappen  Kennedy, Kathleen, Summerland  Kermode, Doug, Vernon  Kesterton, W.H., Ottawa, Ont.  Kidston, Jean, Vernon  Kilpatrick, Mrs. Dagmar, Vernon  King, Avery S., Penticton  Kinloch, Col. D.F.B., Vernon  Kinsey, George 8c Isabel, Bainsville, Ont.  Knorr, Louise, Armstrong  Knowles, C.W., Kelowna  Knowles, Joyce B., Kelowna  Ko, Mrs. V., Vancouver  Kobayashi, Anthony T., Winfield  Kohut, Mary 8c Alec, Grindrod  Kohut, Richard, Enderby  Kyles, Rod & Isabel, Salmon Arm  Laine, Ellen, Enderby  Lambert, Ben & Meg, Oliver  Lander, Mr. & Mrs. Fred, Okanagan Falls  Landon, Mr. & Mrs. G.K, Armstrong  Landon, Gordon L., White Rock  Large, Mrs. Alice, Vernon  Latrace, Ernest & Ethel, Armstrong  Laviolette, Ernie, Lumby  Law, Mr. & Mrs. C. E., Keremeos  Lawrence, George, Keremeos  Lawrence, M., Vernon  Leah, Dorothy, 100 Mile House  Leardo, A., Summerland  Leardo, Mr. 8c Mrs. E.M., Summerland  Leathley, Christina F., Kelowna  LeBlond, Lillian, Vernon  LeDuc, Burt 8c Barbara, Kamloops  Legg, Peter, Vernon  Leggat, W.S., Okanagan Mission  Leggitt, A. Helen, Kelowna  Leir, Jim, Summerland  Lentz, Mrs. Alida, Westlock, Alta.  Lenzi, Mr. 8c Mrs. P., Summerland  Lewthwaite, Mr. D., Kelowna  Leyh, Pat & Jim, San Diego, Calif.  Little, M.E., Vernon  Lockerby, Dorothy, Vernon  Lockhart, Ralph, Armstrong  Lockner, Bradley, Oshawa, Ont.  Lofdahl, C.V., Oliver  Lovett, Eileen M., Kelowna  Lundquist, Mr. 8c Mrs. H., Enderby  McAmmond, Jim, Enderby  McBeth, Ruby, Baldonnel  McCann, Leonard G., Vancouver  McClelland, Robert, Kelowna  McComb, Margaret H., Kelowna  McCormick, Lucy, Vernon  McCoubrey, Mrs. P.I., Winfield  McCulloch, Vera, Vernon  McDonald, Brian, Grand Forks  McDonald, Colin, Kelowna  MacDonald, Dave & Elvie, Penticton  McDonald, Doris V., Osoyoos  McDonald, Dr. Sheila, Kelowna  McDonald, Yvonne E., Salmon Arm  McDonnell, Peter & Nancy, Okanagan Centre  McEwen, Mr. 8c Mrs. Don, Grindrod  MacFarlan, Mrs. Robin, Calgary, Alta.  McFarland, Dave &June, Penticton  McGuire, George, Victoria  Maclnnis, Denis, Kelowna  Macintosh, Robert 8c Isobel, Penticton  Macintosh, Donald, Kelowna  Macintosh, R.D., Victoria  McKay, Gordon, Vernon  MacKay, Phyllis, Vernon  McKechnie, Craig, Armstrong  McKechnie, Lily, Armstrong  McKeever, J.L., Vineland Stn., Ont.  MacKenzie, Mrs. D.R., Mission  MacKenzie, Mr. 8c Mrs. Elwood, Marathon,  Ont.  MacKenzie, Ms. M.E., Salmon Arm  McLachlan, Mr. 8c Mrs. J., Summerland  McLarty, R.Hugh, Kelowna  McLean, James A., Canoe  McLean, Mrs. John F., Vancouver  McLennan, Mr. & Mrs. D., Kelowna  McLennan, Mrs. E.M., Oliver  McLeod, J.C. & Muriel, Kelowna  Macleod, Len, Vernon  McMaster, Mrs. Catherine, Kelowna  McMaster, Denis, Saltspring Island  McMechan, Allan & Marie-Louise,  Summerland  McMechan, Paul, Kelowna  McMynn, Graham, Kelowna  McMynn, Mr. J.D., Naramata  MacNaughton, Mrs. Ellen, Sidney  MacNaughton, Mr. & Mrs. J.B., Oliver  MacNeil, Walker, Vernon  204 O.H.S Membership  McQueen, Lillian, Enderby  MacRae-Fraser, Mrs. Effie M., Penticton  MacWilliam, Lyle, Vernon  Maard, Carl & Helen, Salmon Arm  Mackie, Patrick, Vernon  Mallam, Mr. 8c Mrs. Peter, Kelowna  Malm, Mrs. Agnes, Lillooet  Malpass, Olive & Tom, Enderby  Mangold, Anita, Kelowna  Mann, Al, Kelowna  Marriage, Robt. F., Kelowna  Marriott, Frank & Margaret, Vernon  Marrs, Mrs. Ann, Vancouver  Marshall, Mr. 8c Mrs. F.L., Kelowna  Marshall, George W., Summerland  Marshall, James, Summerland  Martin, Russ L., Kelowna  Marty, Arthur E., Kelowna  Marty, Steve, Kelowna  Mason, Ann, Vernon  Mason, Gladys, Vernon  Matchett, Alexander M., Armstrong  Mathieson, Nellie, Salmon Arm  Matthews, Richard D., Victoria  Maw, Glen 8c Vi, Armstrong  May, Kathleen, Vernon  Mayhead, Mrs. Barbara, Auckland, N.Z.  Meis, Ella, Armstrong  Mersington, Zem, Salmon Arm  Metke, Mrs. E., Kelowna  Middleton, W.D., Winfield  Miller, Mr. 8c Mrs. D., Summerland  Miller, Sam, Kelowna  Millin, Molly, Westbank  Mills, Mrs. Dorothy, Kamloops  Mills, Monica, Vernon  Mitchell, George A., Princeton  Moffatt, Doug, East Kelowna  Moffet, Gord, Penticton  Mohr, R.W., Vernon  Morgan, Dorothy 8c Cecil, Summerland  Morgan, Mr. 8c Mrs. H.G., Summerland  Morris, Michael, Ottawa  Morrow, George, Vernon  Moss, J. Patrick, Kelowna  Moubray, Philip R., Kelowna  Munn, A.R., Summerland  Munn, R. Russell, Kelowna  Munson, Stan & Fenella, Kelowna  Murphy, Sylvia, Calgary, Alta.  Murray, Marjorie, Kelowna  Murrell, Holly M., Kelowna  Nahm, Tilman 8c Mae, Grindrod  Naito,John, Kelowna  Nancollas, Mrs. Jennie, Salmon Arm  Naylor, Miss E.E., Victoria  Naylor, L. Reed, Kelowna  Neave, Alice, Kelowna  Neave, Greg, Didsbury, Alta.  Neave, Len, Edmonton, Alta.  Neave, Paddy, Lethbridge, Alta.  Needham, Joan, Kelowna  Neid, Mr. & Mrs. J.J., Kelowna  Neid, Larry, Kelowna  Neilson, Mr. 8c Mrs. J.W., Vernon  Nelson, Bob 8c Verna, Vernon  Nelson, Irene, Salmon Arm  Neufeld, Norma, Kelowna  Newman, Marilyn, Enderby  Newton, Peter W., Kelowna  Niblock, A.J., Kamloops  Niblock, Mrs. J.J., Penticton  Nitchie, Robert, Armstrong  Nordstrom, O.W., Armstrong  Norman, Doug, Vernon  Norman, E.W., Armstrong  Olsson, Joan, Salmon Arm  Oram, Edna, Vernon  Ord, Louise E., Enderby  Osborn, CD. Bill, Vernon  Oswell, Michael G., Victoria  Page, Cuyler, Keremeos  Painter, M.F., Vancouver  Partridge, Mrs. Ivy, Penticton  Paterson, Mrs. A.M., Kelowna  Paynter, Henry O., Westbank  Peebles, Jack, Enderby  Peel, Ted, Enderby  Pells, Frank J., Kelowna  Peterman, Art 8c Anne, Oliver  Peterson, Alf A., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Elmer, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Floyd B., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hjalmer, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hubert, Salmon Arm  Petterson, Irene, Kelowna  Pollard, A. Roy, Kelowna  Pollock, F.D., Kelowna  Porteous, Aileen, Oliver  Powell, Carrie, Oliver  Price, H.A. Alex, Kelowna  Price, J.B., Vernon  Prosser, Alice W., Kelowna  Prouty, Alton, Salmon Arm  Pruesse, F.A., Oliver  Purvin-Good, Keith W., Kelowna  Quinn, Patricia J., Summerland  Raber, Joyce & Howard, Vernon  Ray, Ruth, Surrey  Reardon, Mrs. Enid, Sechelt  Reese, Fern, Salmon Arm  Reid, Dennis, Salmon Arm  Reid, Mr. 8c Mrs. Michael, Okanagan Mission  205 O. H. S Membership  Reimche, Judy, Enderby  Renaud, Mrs. Julie, Kelowna  Rendell, Mrs. E.A., Vernon  Richards, R.F., Summerland  Ritch, J. A., Kelowna  Ritchie, Peter, Kelowna  Roberts, Leslie & Donna, West Vancouver  Robinson, Jack & Hilda, Salmon Arm  Rollier, Velma, Enderby  Romaine, J.Patrick, Armstrong  Ross, Dr. Douglas A., Victoria  Ruddell, Mr. Adrian, Los Gatos, Calif.  Ruhmann, W. Bill, Lake Oswego, Oregon  Rutherford, Elsie M., Kelowna  Rutherford, Philip & Carol, Armstrong  Saddler, Mrs. Delta, Langley  Sahaydak, Jack & Betty, Vernon  Salter, Rev. Derek, Okanagan Falls  Samland, Wayne C, Vernon  Sanborne, Kathleen, Enderby  Sanderson, Mr. W.B., Peachland  Sanger, Lyle & Leila, Kelowna  Sarell, T.J., Oliver  Sasges, A.M., Vernon  Saunders, Mrs. E.R., Penticton  Scales, James, Salmon Arm  Scargill, E. M., Victoria  Scherba, John, Vernon  Schubert, Trevor & Jean, Kamloops  Scott, Ross & Etta, Penticton  Seaton, W.D., Vernon  Sengotta, Bill & Toni, Vernon  Sengotta, Gerald & Dorothy, Vernon  Sengotta, Grace, Vernon  Shannon, Eric 8c Elaine, Oliver  Shannon, Larry &Jan, Oliver  Sharman, Jim, Armstrong  Sharp, Edith M., Kelowna  Sharpe, Grant W. & Wenonah, Port Ludlow,  Wash.  Shaver, James H., Salmon Arm  Shaw, John A., Naramata  Sheardown, Mrs. S.M., Osoyoos  Shearman, Mae 8c Gary, Victoria  Shelley, Nan F., Kelowna  Shepherd, Charles, Vernon  Shepherd, Jean, North Vancouver  Shepherd, John 8c Grace, Armstrong  Shilvock, Winston A., Kelowna  Shingler, Mrs. Rose V., Oliver  Shipmaker, Earl, Enderby  Shumay, Mike, Armstrong  Silver, Louise, Salmon Arm  Simard, Isabell, Enderby  Simonson, Antero, Salmon Arm  Simpson, Al, Vernon  Simpson, Allan J., Oliver  Simpson, D.R., Oliver  Simpson, George, Cawston  Simpson, Horace, Kelowna  Sinclair, Don, Nanaimo  Skyrme, Eleanor, Grindrod  Sladen, B. Arthur, Keremeos  Smiley, Harold, Enderby  Smith, Clare, Kelowna  Smith, John A., Kelowna  Smith, Neil, Abbotsford  Smith, Pauline, Osoyoos  Smith, Ralph, Salmon Arm  Smith, Stew, Enderby  Snow, Pauline, Summerland  Souder, June, Vernon  Sproule, Ms. Jane, Sechelt  Stankevich, Josephine, Enderby  Stapleton, Polly, Penticton  Steuart, Francis & Iris, Summerland  Stewart, Mrs. Lynette, Vernon  Stickland, Irene, Enderby  Stocks, Peter A., Victoria  Stoll, Mary, Armstrong  Stoneberg, Margaret, Princeton  Stoner, Joe, Salmon Arm  Strandquist, O. Arthur, Kelowna  Stuart, Deborah, Vernon  Stubbs, Archie, Kelowna  Stubbs, John H., Burnaby  Stubbs, R.D., Vancouver  Suckling, Frank 8c Kathleen, Penticton  Sutherland, Doug & Mary, Kelowna  Tait, Doreen, Summerland  Tait, Mr. 8c Mrs. John M., Kelowna  Tait, Mrs. Mildred, Summerland  Tapson-Jones, M.L., Salmon Arm  Terkelson, Joyce, Armstrong  Terlesky, Bob, Vernon  Tessier, Julia, Vernon  Thomas, Mr. 8c Mrs. Ralph, Vancouver  Thompson, Gordon, Penticton  Thomson, Brian & Joyce, Oliver  Thomson, Dr. Duane, Kelowna  Thomson, Eva, Enderby  Thomson, Gifford, Kelowna  Thomson, Jack 8c Irene, Salmon Arm  Thomson, Ken, Kelowna  Thorlakson, Ben, Carstairs, Alta.  Thorlakson, Margaret A., Vernon  Thorneloe, F., East Kelowna  Thorsness, Mr. & Mrs. Keith, Bredenbury,  Sask.  Tidball, W., Kelowna  Tily, Bill & Ethelyn, Penticton  Todd, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey, Peachland  Tomlin, E.V., Oliver  Tompkins, Tom & Michele, Lumsden, Sask.  Topham, Mr. 8c Mrs. J.C, Summerland  Topham, Peter, Peachland  Torrance, Jim, Penticton  206 O.H.S Membership  Tregear, Eugene S., Victoria  Truswell, Mrs. H. A., Kelowna  Tucker, Mrs. CO., Vancouver  Tulloch, Mrs. P., Vernon  Turik, H., Vernon  Turner, Kathleen C, Rossland  Turner, Margaret I., Quesnel  Turner, Ronald, Salmon Arm  Turner, Tom, Fraser Lake  Tyndall, Mrs. S., Winfield  Van Geuns, Hank, Salmon Arm  Veale, E.B., Vernon  Verhoven, Gail, Grindrod  Viel, Mrs. K, Vernon  Waddington, Kathleen E., Vancouver  Walker, Darrell, Salmon Arm  Walker, Harvie L., Vancouver  Walker, W.John D., Victoria  Wall, Shelby, Armstrong  Ward, Arthur L., Kelowna  Wardrop, Mr. J.R., Victoria  Warren, Mrs. A.M., Penticton  Watson, Sybil E., Vernon  Watt, Elizabeth, Vernon  Watt, H.J., Enderby  Watters, John & Irene, Armstrong  Watts, E. Ivadell, Kelowna  Weatherill, A.G., Vernon  Weatherill, Mr. 8c Mrs. Bob, Vernon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Brian, Calgary, Alta.  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. David, Vernon  Weatherill, Don & Doris, Vernon  Weatherill, Mr. 8c Mrs. Gary, Vernon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon, Vancouver  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. H.P., Osoyoos  Webber, Bernard, Osoyoos  Webber, Christopher, Lethbridge, Alta.  Webber, Evelyn, Salmon Arm  Webster, Garth, Richmond  Weddell, Brian, Kelowna  Weddell, E.A.H., Kamloops  Weeks, Mrs. Madge, Vernon  Wejr, Stan, Enderby  Wellbourn, Mr. & Mrs. Harry, Victoria  Wells, Don, Grindrod  Wells, P.M., Vernon  Wernicke, Ann Mf, Vernon  Wheelhouse, Jay, Vernon  Whetter, E.J., Enderby  Whiskin, J.W, Naramata  White, Ronald, Kamloops  White, Dr. W.H., Kelowna  Whitham, J.C, Calgary, Alta.  Whyte, Mr. Stuart, Nanaimo  Wiebe, V.J., Abbotsford  Wight, Gordon & Anne, Oliver  Wills, Lorraine, Vernon  Wills, Linda, Vernon  Wills, Margaret, Vernon  Willson, Mrs. Elaine, Coquitlam  Wilmot, Nancy, Kelowna  Wilmot, Penelope, Squamish  Wilson, Brian, Calgary, Alta.  Wilson, Mr. & Mrs. Donald K., Kelowna  Wilson, Elsie & Jack, Vernon  Wilson, Marguerite, Tappen  Wilson, M.B., Victoria  Wilson, Wayne, Kelowna  Wong, Henry A., London, Ont.  Wood, Hilga V., Salmon Arm  Wood, Henry S., Vancouver  Woodworth, John, Kelowna  Wort, Marg, Kelowna  Wostradowski, Marie, Kelowna  Wylie, Carl, Vernon  Yandle, Anne, Vancouver  Young, Norman, Vernon  Zaino, Carmin, Vernon  Zaino, Fran, Vernon  Zoellner, Rev. C.R., East Detroit, Mich.  Zoellner, Rev. J.C, Levis-Lauzon, Quebec  Zoellner, Mr. 8c Mrs. W.J., Okanagan Mission  207 O.H. S Membership  INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS  Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne,  Indiana  Burnaby Public Library, Burnaby,  Glenbow-Alberta Institute Library, Calgary,  Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library,  Toronto, Ont.  National Library of Canada, Ottawa, Ont.  Newberry Library, Chicago, 111.  Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna, B.C.  Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  Penticton Public Library, Penticton  Seattle Public Library, Seattle, Wash.  Spokane Public Library, Spokane, Wash.  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash.  Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ont.  Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver  Greater Victoria Public Library, Victoria  Westminster Abbey Library, Mission  Kamloops Museum, Kamloops  Kelowna Centennial Museum, Kelowna  Penticton Museum, Penticton  Summerland Museum, Summerland  Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria  B.C. Archives and Records Service, Victoria  Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver  Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day  Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah  South Okanagan-Similkameen Union Board  of Health, Kelowna  Westbank Indian Council, Kelowna  Wisconsin State Historical Society, Madison,  Berg & Company, Kelowna  Penticton Chamber of Commerce, Penticton  BX Elementary School, Vernon  Charles Bloom Secondary School, Lumby  Clarence Fulton Secondary School, Vernon  A.L. Fortune Secondary School, Enderby  Highland Park Elementary School,  Armstrong  Kalamalka Jr. Secondary School, Vernon  Kelowna Secondary School, Kelowna  Pleasant Valley Sr. Secondary School,  Armstrong  W.L. Seaton Secondary School, Vernon  Summerland Secondary School,  Summerland  South Kelowna Elementary School, Kelowna  Vernon Senior Secondary School, Vernon  L.W. Wood Elementary School, Armstrong  University of British Columbia, Vancouver  University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.  Canadian International College, Nelson  Eastern Washington University, Cheney  Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.  McGill University, Montreal, Quebec  Muriel Ffoulkes Learning Resources Centre,  Kelowna  Queens University, Kingston, Ont.  Simon Fraser University, Burnaby  University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.  University of Victoria, Victoria  University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.  Washington State University, Pullman,  Wash.  University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont.  University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Man.  Yale University, New Haven, Conn.  York University, North York, Ont.  208  ft:  ■  Guisachan  Dedicated  <  Enderby  Coal Mines  ' .  Similkameen  .  Ice Tunnel  Ogopogo  Salmon Arm  Foreshore  j  Osoyoos  \                 Golf  Okanagan History, the Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, has received  the following recognition of excellence:  1982      Award of Merit from the American  i  ■  Association for State and Local  II  CHBC  TV  History.  1985      Annual Award for Significant  Contribution to the Conservation  Student  Essays  Book  Reviews  of B.C. 's Heritage from the  Heritage Society of British  Columbia.  1987 Special Award for the 50th Report  from the British Columbia  Historical Federation.  1988 Certificate of Merit from the  Canadian Historical Association.

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