Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Forty-fifth annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1981

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 '*&£» R. N. (Reg) Atkinson Museum  785 MAIN STREET  PENTICTON, B.C    V2A 5E3 flee ft uJs'&i J)^ /9&  i  FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  COVER PHOTO  For many years now, the Okanagan Historical Society has been working  with the Okanagan-Similkameen Parks Society for the preservation of wilderness parks in our area. Our front cover this year was taken in Okanagan Mtn.  Park and symbolizes to me what Parks are all about — a place for wildlife and  wild country and a place of great natural beauty; but, perhaps even more importantly, a place apart from our technological world, whre a man can reexamine his life and values. — Editor  Photo by Victor Wilson  BACK COVER PHOTO  Professional photographer Hugo Redivo, resident of Penticton since  1949, has once more made available a colour photograph for the cover of this  year's Annual Report.  The back cover is a view above what once was the "Breaside Orchards,"  at one time the largest Apricot orchard in the British Commonwealth. A large  framed colour photograph of this scene was presented to H.R.H. Prince  Philip by the City of Penticton when the Royal Couple and Princess Anne  visited the City in 1971.  Hugo Redivo has photographed scenes and sights in the Okanagan  Valley, especially around Penticton and the South Okanagan for the last 30  years. His file is a rich historical treasure chest of images from the past to the  present days. It is due to the initiative and interest in history of photographers  such as Hugo Redivo (at the time unrewarding), that today's generation can  see how the world they now live in did look in the past. It is the intention of  Hugo Redivo to publish, in co-operation with the Historical Society, a pictorial essay of the past thirty years, which because of the rapid changes now taking place will seem far more remote.  © 1981  Lithographed in Canada  WAYSIDE   PRESS   LTD.  VERNON, B. C. 2  FORTY-FIFTY REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  ASSISTANT EDITOR  John Shinnick  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Victor Wilson  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Beryl Gorman, Vernon  John Shinnick, Kelowna  Charles Hayes, Penticton  Dolly Waterman, Oliver-Osoyoos-Oroville  Individuals wishing to subscribe to the report of the Okanagan Historical  Society may have their name added to our mailing list. The report will be sent  out each year and the subscriber invoiced. Back issues of Reports 6 (containing most articles from 1-5), 11 and 12 (reprints), 27, 31, 32, 35, 39, 40 (with  index), and 41 - 44 may be obtained from the Okanagan Historical Society, at  $5.00 per copy. Reprints of Reports 1 - 12 are also available. A charge will be  made for applicable postage. Please address correspondence regarding subscriptions or orders to: Treasurer, Okanagan Historical Society, Box 313,  Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3 OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Ron Robey, Vernon  VICE-PRESIDENT  Mary Orr, Summerland  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  H. Weatherill, Oliver-Osoyoos  PAST PRESIDENT  Jack Armstrong, Vernon  SECRETARY  R. F. Marriage  TREASURER  Lee Christensen  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  DIRECTORS  Armstrong-Enderby: J. A. Gamble, R. Nitchie;  Vernon: K. Ellison, P. Tassie  Kelowna: D. Buckland, F. Pells  Penticton: M. Orr, M. Broderick  Oliver-Osoyoos: D. Corbishley, H. Weatherill  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  H. Hatfield, Hume Powley BRANCH OFFICERS, 1981 - 82  ARMSTRONG BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PAST PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; PRESIDENT: Bill Whitehead; VICE-PRESIDENT: Jim  Sutherland; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT  BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie; DIRECTORS OF LOCAL BODY: Merle Armstrong,  Moyreen McKechnie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone, Lil Sutherland, Jessie Ann  Gamble, Bob Nitchie  VERNON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1981-82  PRESIDENT: Peter Tassie; VICE-PRESIDENT: Doug Scott; PAST PRESIDENT: Ron Robey;  SECRETARY: Betty Jane Denison; TREASURER: Don Weatherill; DIRECTORS: Mavis  Cameron, Ley Christensen, Eric Denison, Ken Ellison, Beryl Gorman, Terry Lodge, Edna Mae  Seright, Bert Thorburn, Beryl Wamboldt, Michael Parson; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: (To  choose Chairman), Rae Banner, Anna Cail, Beryl Gorman, Beryl Wamboldt  PENTICTON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1981-82  HON.  PRESIDENT: Mrs. W.  R. Dewdney;  PRESIDENT: Dave MacDonald; VICE-PRESIDENT: Randy Manuel; 2nd VICE-PRESIDENT: Mrs. Mary Orr; SECRETARY: Jack Riley;  TREASURER: P. F. P. (Peter) Bird.  DIRECTORS  HON. DIRECTOR: Mrs. Grace Whitaker; PAST PRESIDENT: Victor Wilson; Mrs. Mollie  Broderick, E. Hugh Cleland, Bob Gibbard, Miss Pat Gwyer, Carl Harris, Joe Harris, Chas.  Hayes, Mrs. Sandra Manuel, Donald Steele, Mrs. Angeline Waterman, J. W. Pete Watson.  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  CHAIRMAN: Charles Hayes; Mrs. H. L. Baumbrough, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Miss Helen Reith,  Mrs. G. F. R. Dorothy   Whittaker.  DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Mrs. Mary Orr, Mrs. Mollie Broderick.  AUDITOR  Fred Arnot.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1981-82  PRESIDENT: Ermie Iceton; VICE-PRESIDENT: Hank Lewis; SECRETARY: Dorothy Lewis;  TREASURER: Frances Mitchell; PAST PRESIDENT: Carlton MacNaughton; EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN: Dolly Waterman; EXECUTIVE MEMBERS: Buddie MacNaughton, Ivan Hunter, Aileen Porteous, Bob Iverson, Dorothy Iverson, Harry Weatherill,  Edna Weatherill, Don Corbishley, Elsie Corbishley, Retta Long, Kate Wilson, Emily McLennan,  Mrs. Stanley Dickon; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: Don Corbishley, Harry  Weatherill.  KELOWNA BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1981-82  PRESIDENT: Tilman Nahm; VICE-PRESIDENT: R. H. Hall; SECRETARY: M.  Wostradowski; TREASURER: R. Marriage; AUDITOR: To be appointed; DIRECTORS: W.  Anderson, A. Bach, W. Cameron, E. Chapman, M. Bull, D. Fillmore, R. Hayes, D. Hobson, B.  Johnston, W. J. MacKenzie, F. Pells, H. Powley, J. Shinnick, U. Surtees, M. Williams, D.  Zoeller; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: W. Anderson, F. Pells; CHAIRMAN:  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: J. Shinnick. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  This year the Okanagan Historical Society publishes its 45th Report. It is an impressive  record for any organization, but especially so for a Report produced entirely by amateur writers  and staff who are mostly Okanagan residents. This year's Report is the largest ever, and once  again contains many fine articles within its cover.  Once again, thanks are owed to many people who helped with the production of the 45th  Report. Heading the list is Mr. Victor Wilson, our Production Manager. In addition, Mr. John  Shinnick of Kelowna has joined us as Assistant Editor in order to help with the increased load.  Welcome John. Then there are all of the editorial committee members who busily collect material from their local areas during the year. Thanks is due also to Mrs. Lillian Mellons who helped  with the arduous task of proof-reading. Harley Hatfield of Penticton receiving Heritage Canada Foundation Community Service Award,  Honourable Mention, from Governor-General Edward Schreyer at a reception in Government  House, Ottawa on Heritage Day, February 16, 1981. CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  THE FORMATION OF THE OKANAGAN SIMILKAMEEN PARKS  SOCIETY (Dorothy Whittaker)        13  DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES IN THE OKANAGAN  1930 - 1980 (Jean Bennest)          18  THE HISTORY OF THE GRAPE INDUSTRY IN THE OKANAGAN  1905 - 1970 (John Vielvoye)       24  HISTORY OF GRAPE GROWING IN THE SOUTHERN  INTERIOR (D. V. Fisher)          31  CKOV: THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS (John Schinnick)       36  ESSAYS  THE GREY CANAL (Ann M. Davies)  56  THE BETTER HALVES - The Way of Life and Influence of Women in  the Vernon Area from Settlement to 1921 (LaVonne Byron)  65  FOOD OF THE OKANAGAN INDIAN (Mary Joe)  72  A HUDSON'S BAY POST AT KEREMEOS (Laurie Land)     74  BIOGRAPHIES AND REMINISCENCES  JOURNEY TO ADRA (Recounted by E. M. Betty Burgess  to A. Waterman)    79  THE B.C. PEA GROWERS LIMITED: A HISTORY (Ronald R. Heal)  81  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE WEEKLY NEWSPAPER BUSINESS  IN OLIVER, B.C. (WallaceJ. Smith)  86  MABEL (Alice Large)  93  CHARLIE ARMSTRONG (Doug Cox)  97  90th ANNIVERSARY OF THE VERNON FIRE DEPARTMENT  MAY 8, 1981     100  HUNTER, HUGH  102  AN OKANAGAN PIONEER  109  FORTY-ONE YEARS ON THE PIONEER VINEYARD (Ruth Saari)    112  ARTHUR ORMISTON COCHRANE (Hilda Cochrane)   ,.  117  THE DUNWOODIES - AN EARLY PIONEER FAMILY  (Mrs. Jim Russell)  119  EARLY MEMORIES OF KELOWNA 1907 - 1910 (Vera Lawson Wright)    122  ST. GEORGE'S LODGE #41 A.F. & A.M.  (O. Arthur Standquist, CD., P.M., Historian)  124  KELOWNA'S FIRST DEPARTMENT STORE (Marjorie deHart)  128  THE ZUCCA MELON (Hermann Gummel)  137  A THREE-GENERATION STORY (Doug Cox)   139  THE PARADIS FAMILY OF ENDERBY (Antoinette B. Paradis)  144  A LIFETIME OF OKANAGAN MEMORIES (W. (Bill) Spear)  148  STANLEY L. R. PRICE (Mrs. Stan Price (Nee Ella McKay))  152  WILLIAM AND BELLA BOSS  156  HOPE TO PRINCETON VIA SHANK'S PONY (Gordon K. Coe)     158  FRED AND ALICE JAMES - Their Early Years on the Commonage  and Rose Hill (George James)    162  MOSES LEVAR OF ARMSTRONG, B.C. (Olive Malpass)     168  WILLIAM POWERS - PIONEER OF THE OKANAGAN AND  BOUNDARY (Charles H. Bubar)     170  "THANK YOU 'PADDY'" (Hume Powley)  174 8  TRIBUTE SECTION  LT. COLONEL DONALD RODRICK CAMERON  176  TRIBUTE TO SAXIE DeBLASS  177  A TRIBUTE TO RUTLAND'S EDITH GAY (Anna Bach)     177  WILLIAM ROBERT REED - March 18, 1885 - March 3, 1981  (Mrs. R. (Kay) Hawley)  178  ERIC DEANE SISMEY - A TRIBUTE (A. D. MacDonald)  180  TRIBUTE TO ROGER SUGARS     181  OBITUARIES        182  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1982     189  MINUTES OF THE 56th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1981     190  PRESIDENT'S REPORT 1980-81 (J. D. Armstrong)  192  SECRETARY'S REPORT 1980-81 (R. F. Marriage)  193  EDITOR'S REPORT 1980-81 (Carol Abernathy)     197 HERITAGE CANADA AWARD  By Angeline Waterman  Harley R. Hatfield, life member of the Okanagan Historical Society, recently received recognition from the Heritage Canada Foundation for his  work on the preservation of the Cascade Trails. The story is best told in the  words of the official nomination which was submitted by the Penticton  branch.  The Nomination of Harley R. Hatfield for a Heritage Canada Foundation Award for  Community Service for his Discovery and Re-marking of the Hudson's Bay Company  Fur Brigade Trail and other Early Highways of Commerce in the Interior of British  Columbia.  Harley R. Hatfield, civil engineer, has lived 73 of his 75 years in the  Okanagan-Similkameen area. He has always been interested in Canadian history and, in particular, the network of trails which served commerce between  the interior of British Columbia and the coast.  Many have followed his leadership but it is the name of Hatfield that is  synonomous with the Historic Trails in the Cascade Wilderness. His name  and work are known up and down the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys  and down the Fraser River to Vancouver by men and women who cherish history and wilderness, people who desire to preserve both so that future generations can tread these unique trails in wilderness. What Harley has done is to  discover and record our heritage: it is ours to use and preserve.  Of the Historic Trails the first was the Hudson's Bay Company Brigade  route from New Caledonia to the mouth of the Columbia, 1821-1846. The  Oregon Boundary Settlement put the lower Columbia River in American territory and the HBC had to find a route west over the Coast Mountains to  reach tidewater.  In addition to the HBC Trail, the Dewdney, the Whatcom, the Ghost  Pass, the Allison and part of the old Indian Blackeye's Trail were all access to  the interior of B.C. in the 19th century. As time passed the trails fell into disuse owing to the building of the railway and better roads. Of that extensive  original road of commerce, the HBC Brigade Trail, only 40 miles remains intact.  Fortunately the greatest part of the area containing the historic trails is  adjacent to Manning Park. In fact the original plans for Manning Park included the area of the trails. Manning Park is only a three-hour drive from  Vancouver. In this area, south of the international border is the Paysayten  Wilderness, a section of Washington's splendid Okanogan National Forest  (1,520,456 acres). Through the Paysayten Wilderness runs the Pacific Crest  Trail which could extend, eventually, north to Alaska. At present this Trail  runs from Tijuana, Mexico, to Monument 78 on the 49th parallel abutting  Manning Park. (See National Geographic Vol. 139, No. 6, June 1971.)  From 1967 to the present day Harley has continuously led the search for  and re-marking of these trails in the Cascade Wilderness. His research began  in the B.C. Provincial Archives, continued through the National Archives,  Ottawa, and in 1972 he was granted access to the archives in the London office of the Hudson's Bay Company. With the transfer of the Company's archives  to  Winnipeg,   his source  for  research  has  been more  convenient. 10  Through the years he has indefatigably headed the Trails Committee of the  Okanagan Historical Society.  Both the OHS and the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society (OSPS) —  established in 1965 and dedicated to the establishment of parks and the protection of the environment — have actively encouraged Harley and his supporters*. Each year they have searched for, discovered and re-marked trails:  usually back-packing but sometimes, where trails were cleared enough and  funds available, pack-horses have been used. Each fall a party has made the  trip from Lodestone Lake to Hope where they have participated in Hope's  "Brigade Days" celebrations. Other groups and individuals use the trails.  Owners of private property in the Okanagan have co-operated with the search  for old blazes and signs of the HBC Brigade Trail where it runs through their  property and where such sections have been found they have been marked.  A Young Canada Works grant made it possible to brush-out and sign  some over-grown sections of the Dewdney Trail. Access and trail-head signs  along Highway 3 have been placed at strategic points by the Parks Branch,  B.C. Ministry of Parks, Land and Housing.  At Nahun, in the Okanagan, a new highway has been deflected to leave  intact a section of the Brigade Trail that runs through a developing area.  Not only has Harley done the leg-work of re-discovery but he and members of his committee have, over the years, presented lectures well illustrated  by slides to interested groups throughout the Lower Mainland. No one who  has travelled the trails with a camera has failed to record traces of the historic  past and the spectacular scenery.  Harley's achievement after years of searching and re-marking the trails  has been recorded in the OHS Reports. Magazine articles by Harley have appeared in "The Beaver," "Western Living" and "Whiskey Jack." Many newspaper reports and articles by Harley have described the trails and promoted  the preservation of the Cascade Wilderness. The OSPS produced a booklet  "Old Pack Trails in the Proposed Cascade Wilderness" written by Harley with  maps by R. C. Harris of West Vancouver.  For nearly 10 years Harley and his OHS committee supported by the  OSPS have called on the provincial governments urging protection for the 90  square miles needed to preserve these unqiue trails in wilderness. The OSPS  has written comprehensive briefs urging both the NDP and Social Credit Governments to protect the trails by establishing the Cascade Wilderness as an extension of Manning Park.  On May 2, 1980, the Chairman of the Environment and Land Use Committee of the B.C. Government wrote to the OSPS stating "... the Committee  approved a program for comprehensive study of all forest, mineral, heritage  and park and outdoor recreation values in the proposed area (Cascade  Wilderness Conservancy). In addition, the Committee agreed to a moratorium on all logging in the proposal area and a mineral reserve to prevent possible claim-staking until the decisions on designation and management of  lands and resources in the proposal area have been taken by the ELUC."  Harley Hatfield believes that these historic trails should be preserved in  their original wilderness setting so that when population pressures grow, people will be able to experience the wilderness as it was. In the area is commercial timber and the conflict arises: dollars today or wilderness for the future.  In the continuing communications between the OSPS and the government it 11  has been suggested that the trails be protected by "corridors" of uncut timber.  Harley considers this solution would destroy the wilderness because once logging roads are bull-dozed all-terrain vehicles follow. Should future generations wish to reverse a decision to preserve this wilderness heritage and to cut  the timber, theirs would be the choice and Harley believes:  "All around the world are places where man is suffering because he used every bit of material resources in sight. Can anyone  point out a place where he is really suffering because of setting aside  land to remain as nature made it?"  Whatever the outcome, wilderness or park, Harley Hatfield has discovered, marked and recorded an historic area of our heritage which benefits the  whole of the lower mainland of B.C. and, indeed, all Canada. Its value can  only increase.  With something far stronger than pleasure, the Okanagan Historical  Society — Penticton Branch, with the full support of the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society, wishes to nominate Harley R. Hatfield for a Heritage  Canada Foundation Award for Community Service.  Penticton Branch  June 2, 1980 O.H.S.  *The Society would be remiss if it failed to mention the names of some of the outstanding supporters of Mr. Hatfield in his search for the Historic Trails:  Eric Jacobson, Princeton;  Randy Manuel, Penticton;  Dan Rice, Tulameen;  Victor Wilson, Naramata, and  Pat Wright, Princeton.  The following organizations also supported the nomination:  The Boy Scouts of Canada, Okanagan South District Council;  Okanagan College, Penticton Centre;  South Okanagan Naturalists' Club;  The Sierra Club of Western Canada, Okanagan Thompson Group;  Okanagan Historical Society, Parent Body;  The Federation of B.C. Naturalists  Federation of Mountain Clubs of British Columbia  (representing 29 hiking, climbing and conservations groups); and,  The R. N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton.  The nomination resulted in the Awards Jury selecting Harley R. Hatfield to receive the  Heritage Canada Foundation's Community Service Award, Honourable Mention, for British Columbia and the Yukon in 1980. He was invited to Ottawa to receive the award and, accompanied  by his wife, he flew to Ottawa. On Heritage Day, February 16, 1981, Governor-General Edward  Schreyer presented the award. (See photo.) 12  HERITAGE DAY  The following editorial appeared in the February 16, 1981 issue of the  Penticton Herald and is reprinted here with permission of the publisher, Don  R. Herron.  Heritage Day Cause Gets Boost with Local Honors  National Heritage Day being observed today assumes some added significance this year for Penticton and the southern interior because of a signal  honor coming to one of our citizens.  Harley Hatfield is being honored in Ottawa with an award from the  Heritage Canada Foundation in recognition of the more than 15 years he has  devoted to the discovering, marking and preservation of old pack trails in the  Cascade Wilderness area adjoining Manning Park.  Hatfield, supported by environmental, naturalist, recreational and historical groups has been pushing to persuade the provincial government to  designate some 90 square miles of the Cascade area as wilderness park to preserve the trails.  Readers will recall he was nominated for the award by the Penticton  branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, whose president Victor Wilson  has pointed out the importance of preserving the trails in that they were the  first roads of commerce in the province and represent the story of the settlement of B.C. before the coming of the railroad. As Wilson has said, the heritage value of the trails belongs to the whole of Canada and the preservation of  them is for the benefit of future generations.  This Heritage Day is a uniquely Canadian event. Unlike other observations such as Victoria Day, Thanksgiving Day or Labor Day, it is not simply a  transfer image of European and American occasions.  That's as it should be. For although we owe much to these other traditions, for too long, too much of our heritage has been over-shadowed by the  procession of English kings in history books and by the continuing American  extravaganza on our TV tubes.  Canada does have its own distinctively Canadian heritage. Pierre Berton  writes about it. Organizations such as the Heritage Canada Foundation try to  preserve it. The foundation is an independent organization that uses funding,  legal studies, public education and personal dedication to save memorable  buildings, open spaces and wilderness areas for future generations.  Indeed, if we do not take care of this inheritance, we would be disregarding the responsibility given humans to maintain and manage the earth for the  good of all creatures living upon it, present and future.  But the idea of Heritage Day should not stop there. For if all we do is preserve the best of our past we shall have bottled ourselves up. And whether we  like it or not we should realize that our Canadian heritage also includes bitterness and discrimination, pain and loneliness.  So Heritage Day should not be merely an occasion for preserving the  past. It should also be a time for some housecleaning, for clearing our shelves  of unwanted holdovers — of steps to right wrongs.  As well as reminding us of our past, Heritage Day should be an annual  reminder that we are involved in building a better future. 13  HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  THE FORMATION OF THE  OKANAGAN SIMILKAMEEN PARKS SOCIETY  By Dorothy Whittaker  As far back as the 1940s, there had been groups and individuals to advocate the establishment of more "parks" within the boundaries of British Columbia. The idea was not a new one.  Vaseux Lake, for instance, had long been a federal wildlife bird sanctuary; but the protection given concerned only the lake waters. The late E. F.  Smith, an executive member of the Oliver Community Committee (today's  Chamber of Commerce) and father of Joe Smith, had drawn up proposed  boundaries for a park to be located at Mclntyre Canyon, near his home town.  By 1956, the Southern Okanagan Sportsman's Association had interested itself in the establishment of a park on a strip of land bordering Vaseux Lake.  But, for a variety of reasons, these proposals had not materialized.  Yet, during the 1950's, an increasing number of organizations and individuals had become aware of the urgent need to secure protection for wilderness areas before it was too late and the well-known Penticton teacher, Victor  Wilson, had become one of the first persons to take action on this account.  The Wilson family home was situated at Paradise Ranch (Indian Rock), just  outside the boundaries of the south-eastern tip of what is today the Okanagan  Mountain Park, and the young Wilson was knowledgeable on its many trails  and lakes. He envisaged plans to safeguard this area in its natural state, reserved for those who would travel by foot or horseback, an area protected  against all activities which — directly or indirectly — might modify or destroy  its natural processes.  In June 1958, in Victoria, Victor Wilson had initial discussions with  Premier W. A. C. Bennett and the then Minister of Forests, the Hon. Ray  Williston. Thus began the lengthy correspondence which Wilson carried on  with the Ministry, resulting in a Forestry Department survey of the land in  question. With the support of the Okanagan Historical Society, Mr. Wilson  began a series of lecture tours in 1963, illustrating his points with aerial-shot  slides he had secured from a helicopter. Enthusiastic, full if initiative and independent-minded, this public-spirited man spearheaded the group which  was eventually to see the area gazetted as a provincial mountain park in  August 1973.  In Kelowna, during the 1964-65 period, Ernestine Lamoreaux was busy  establishing a "Save our Parklands" branch of the Central Okanagan  Naturalist Club1 and Mrs. Lamoreaux was later to become involved with the  organization to which I wish to pay tribute.  Into Summerland Research Station in 1960 had come Katy Madsen, with  her husband, Dr. Harold Madsen. Forced to return to their native California  after a short stay, the Madsens grew nostalgic for the Okanagan and, in 1964,  made their way back. Katy soon joined the Naturalist Club and was able to 14  explore nearby areas. Brent Mountain overwhelmed her with the beauty of its  alpine meadows and the myriad species of wildflowers; but she also observed  that cattle had already destroyed some fragile growth near the base of the  mountain. Later, the idea of Snow Mountain (Brent Mountain) as a protected park became her dream.  At the Research Station, too, was naturalist-photographer Steve  Cannings, who had also comprehended the awesome significance of the  varied environments found in his home area, the Okanagan. Interested in  natural history, especially birds, he was soon in close contact with Harley  Hatfield, Victor Wilson, Joe Smith and Bill Kreller, all of them outdoor enthusiasts. Recalls Steve: "Local residents like myself had seen changes taking  place and felt the need to promote the establishment of parks."2  Encouraged when local naturalists suggested areas other than her beloved Snow Mountain as suitable "park material," Katy Madsen began making  approaches to concerned individuals — Victor Wilson; Steve Cannings, of the  South Okanagan Naturalist Club; from Oliver's Chamber of Commerce, Bill  Kreller; Bert Kinsey, Doreen Adams; Jim Leeson and others. On January  24th, 1966, at her home in the Summerland Research Station, Katy assembled a coalition of energies, the beginning of a great conservationist society.3  Yet it is sobering to remember that, only as recently as 1966, there were  in this Province no federal parks and not even a single "Class A" provincial  park gazettement — only the three small, Class "C" areas of Darke Lake,  Apex and Clearwater. There was a long row to hoe.  The thirty-two people who attended the January 1966 meeting pinpointed a list of projects worthy of battle. First off, there was the alpine wonderland of Snow Mountain; then, the wilderness and waterfront of Okanagan  Mountain; the canyon and California Bighorn Sheep herd at Vaseux-Mc-  Intyre; with its historical interests, Fairview Townsite; and the flora and  fauna of arid Osoyoos.  For the five proposed park areas, committees were formed, features were  identified, boundaries set. Support for these projects was to be sought from  provincial and national organizations. The measure of success achieved by  this first task force was seen when a public meeting in Penticton's Community  Arts Centre, on May 26th, 1966, attracted upwards of one hundred and fifty  people — a "standing room only" occasion, indeed — and the name "Okanagan Similkameen Parks Council" was approved.  After adoption of a constitution and bylaws, 12 directors were elected:  Avery King, Jack Stocks, Bert Kinsey, Dorren Adams, Ernestine Lamoreaux,  Bill Kreller, Joe Smith, Katy Madsen, Steve Cannings, John Kitson, Dave  McMullen and John Woodworth. A June 2nd meeting of these directors appointed its executive officers: President, Avery King; Vice-President, Joe  Smith; Treasurer, Bert Kinsey; Secretary, Katy Madsen; Recording Secretary, Dorren Adams.4 All knew that, in the urgency with which the chosen  projects were regarded, the responsibility for working efficiently and effectively as a group was paramount.  All 12 directors were well-known public figures, respected in their fields  of operation and representing many different facets of the Okanagan and  Similkameen valleys. A number of these early volunteers devoted a considerable part of their lives towards advancing the establishment of one or more 15  parks. Katy Madsen was determined, stubborn in her belief that there should  be no compromise in preserving a parks area. She is today spokesman for the  Sierra Club of Canada, which aims simply at that target — and no "multiple  use" land.  Following his election as a director of the new organization — soon to become known widely as "OSPS" — Steve Cannings worked diligently on its behalf, informing and persuading the public towards community action in preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. His film on Vaseux Lake and its immediate environs emphasized the danger faced by Bighorn Sheep herds there;  and when his production featured as a two-part series in the television show,  Klahane, Steve seized the opportunity to publicize the goals and achievements  of the Society. Several articles of his have appeared in the national magazine,  Nature Canada, one concerning the lambing season of Bighorn Sheep. Although an OSPS director for only six years, Steve Cannings has displayed an  abiding interest in our land and its living things.  Another early OSPS director, Kelowna architect John Woodworth, soon  showed multifold talents in the service of the Society. As a boy growing up in  Oliver, the outdoors was a way of life for him and, later, his training — especially in regional planning — helped the OSPS executive in numerous  ways. Mapping the proposed park area, writing and issuing press announcements, making time available whenever necessary, John often acted as spokesman for OSPS, meeting members of the provincial government to discuss  Parks matters. He served on various committees before accepting a two-year  term as OSPS president, in 1971, and it was John who encouraged his society  towards affiliation with Nature Conservancy of Canada, accomplished on  May 12th, 1970.  The society's first vice-president and its long-time director was Joe Smith,  whose grandparents had arrived from Portland, Oregon, in a covered wagon,  in 1895. Joe's father, well-known as an outdoorsman, had broken land to  farming in Oliver and had blue-printed the original plan for Mclntyre canyon. Joe himself had been a director of the British Columbia Wildlife Federation and president of the B.C. Interior Fish and Game and Forest Association.  When OSPS president Avery King was forced to request leave of absence in  the Society's first year of operation, it was Joe Smith who undertook the leadership of the infant conservation movement.  Bill Kreller, also an Oliver resident and past president of the Oliver  Sportsman's Association, was well aware that, for a number of reasons, the  future of Bighorn Sheep in the Vaseux Lake region looked bleak. Due to the  increasing number of cattle encroaching on the animals' food supply areas  and continual attack from predators, the Vaseux herd was now reduced to  250. When Parham Ranch, a 500-acre block east of Vaseux Lake and a key  winter range area for the Bighorn herd, was put up for sale, Kreller decided  to add his weight to the OSPS executive drive. Together, Bill Kreller and Joe  Smith initiated the bid to raise funds from all over the world and OSPS was  enabled to make a spectacular purchase of this vital rangeland.  By both OSPS directors and members alike, Doreen Adams — the first  recording secretary for OSPS and chairman of many of its committees — has  always been considered the backbone of the Society. Trained at Regina College and having been a teacher in Saskatchewan, Doreen came to British Columbia to teach at Coqualezze Residential School, one of the first Indian 16  reservation schools outside Chilliwack. Later, Doreen's ability for expressing  herself clearly on paper, combined with her warm personality and efficiency,  was of immense advantage to OSPS, which was soon seen to be making progress. Doreen's secret for successful communication within the Society was to  encourage every member of a committee to express opinions and to contribute ideas. It is no exaggeration to state that, without her dedication and  perseverance, OSPS might have floundered.  In order really to appreciate and have pride in our Parklands, an understanding of the history of OSPS is necessary. If we examine the original goals,  set in 1966, we cannot help but have tremendous respect for the society and its  early leaders, struggling against long odds to save "wilderness areas" for all  Canadians to experience and explore. In paying tribute to them all, we acknowledge great effort which has helped establish Cathedral Provincial Park  and Okanagan Mountain Park, true wildernesses; Vaseux Lake Wildlife  Area, a federal reserve; and Osoyoos Arid Provincial Park. These beautiful  parklands have added to the quality of life that we here in the Okanagan and  Similkameen valleys enjoy.  Editor's Note: But, in its objective of achieving Class "A"  Park and Recreational Area status for Brent Mountain and Sheep  Rock — a project on which much effort had been expended —  OSPS this year suffered a setback at the hands of provincial planning authorities. As current OSPS president Juergen Hansen explains, since the turn of the century Brent Mountain had been "a  favorite outdoor and recreational area for local residents and tourists" and, following 11 years of planning, analysis and consultations, OSPS submitted to the provincial government a detailed  brief asking for "permanent protection from motorized traffic for  Brent Mountain, Sheep Rock and the surrounding fragile alpine  landscape."  Said Mr. Hansen: "We suggested that this be done in the form  of a Class 'A' Park to the north and a Recreational Area to the  south of the two peaks." All outdoor groups and Organizations in  the area supported this concept; over 2500 persons wrote the provincial government confirming that support. But, in May 1981, the  provincial grading for this site, with its unique features, was announced as "forest recreational." Mr. Hansen went on: "On the  surface, this must sound great. To the layman, the difference between 'recreational area' under Parks branch and 'forest recreation  site' under Ministry of Forests may seem like a bickering squabble  over words. However, the difference is very real and is crucial for  the understanding of the issue."  "Recreational area" status offered protection for tracts of land  whilst allowing "flexible multiple-use management," Mr. Hansen  explained. On the other hand, "forestry recreation site" status was  designed "to protect campsites, to build outdoor biffies and boat-  ramps." It allows the forest service "to ask people please to be quiet  after 10 p.m.; but that's about it," the OSPS president went on. "It  has no clout, no protective clause when it comes to preserving fragile alpine lands such as those around Brent Mountain. It has no 17  mandate for conservation, which is no wonder, because conservation is the mandate of the Parks branch, not of the Ministry of  Forests."  In outspoken comment reported by The Penticton Herald in  May this year, Mr. Hansen said that much effort and local meetings, detailed planning and discussion had been "simply ignored"  and rational proposals had been "dismissed." He went on: "The  decision seems to be based on bureaucratic and political man-  oeuvering behind closed doors." But, he warned: "We'll be watching with interest to see how the Ministry of Forests will treat the  mountain, what safeguards it will apply and from where it will get  the funds and how it will solve some of the conflicts."  The battle to protect wilderness areas in British Columbia  goes on.  REFERENCES  Kelowna Daily Courier, March 30th, 1968.  Taped interview, Steve Cannings, August 1979.  Executive minutes of OSPS.  1966: recorder, D. Adams.  Executive minutes of OSPS. 1966: Doreen Adams, secrctarv.  Commando Bay, Okanagan Lake. Shoreline of Okanagan Mountain Park. 18  DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES IN THE OKANAGAN  1930 - 1980  By Jean Bennest  Following is a collection of my own and other Social Workers' memories  and observations covering a period of fifty years. The territory covered initially is Salmon Arm, Vernon, south to Osoyoos, west to Princeton. Emphasis  is on Penticton District — the area I know best.  Fred Hassard, a North Okanagan native who became Administrator of  the Okanagan/Mainline region writes from his home in Victoria:  "I started in 1931 in Vernon working in the Provincial Public Works Department assisting with the supervision of the road camps. These camps for single men were  located from Sicamous to Princeton. This Department was also responsible for supplying work for married men who were found to be in financial need. Work orders  for married men were issued from the Government Agents' offices and the Provincial  Police did the field reports. The able-bodied men did road work. By 1933 the Depression worsened and the work load on Agents and Police had increased to a point  where it was considered advisable to place the responsibility for "relief under the  Department of Labour and establish administrative offices at strategic points  throughout the Province. About 1933, the child care workers were sent to the field.  Prior to that, Isabel Harvey, Superintendent of Child Welfare travelled out from her  Vancouver office and did her own adoption studies and placement of children. The  Social Workers, in addition to the foster home and adoption home work, were responsible for reporting on the destitute, poor and sick (persons eligible for assistance  under legislation of that name). They were attached to the Department of the Provincial Secretary. In 1942, the Province was decentralized and the Social Workers  and Relief Officers were placed under the same Ministry. A great deal more authority had now been delegated to the Regional office. A great many changes took place  during the period 1931 to 1954, when I transferred from the Social Welfare Department to the Corrections Branch. Originally municipalities were responsible for aid to  their own residents and had their own work projects, the cost being shared by the  Province. It must be remembered that back in 1931, aid to the destitute, poor and  sick amounted to $30 a month with a few added benefits for a family. That and the  $20 old age pension was the only recognized public aid. To qualify for the old age  pension you had to meet Canadian residence laws, be over 70 years of age and have  assets of less than $250. There were no unemployment insurance benefits, hospital or  medical insurance in effect at that time."  During the summer of 1979 I had a visit with Winnifred Urquhart, one  of the early 'professionals,' now retired and living in Vancouver, and with  Nancy (Mrs. Tom) Lott, retired social worker of the '30's, who lives in  Summerland. "Wini" Urquhart contributed the snapshots of the roads as they  were in the days when she and other ladies came into the Okanagan as inexperienced drivers. She also contributed the picture of herself and Edna Page,  social worker of that era, at a Red Cross fund raising event during World War  II. I worked with Edna Page (now deceased) when she returned to the Okanagan periodically as an inspector for the Welfare Institutions Licensing  Board. She was working here in the '30's when the Summerland community  became concerned about conditions at the then-called 'Home for the Friendless' institution on the hill above the town.1 Out of the investigation of that  situation British Columbia legislation was developed to protect the ill and  elderly and children, and to create mandatory standards for care-giving institutions in the Province. There is one choice story Edna Page told me about a  case record in the days — not too far back really — when 'mother's allowance'  (a form of 'relief under legislation not now used) was only for the 'good'  mothers. The social worker had been suspicious for some time that there was 19  a man about the place although she could not verify this. On this particular  visit to the home she noticed a pair of men's slippers by her chair. She reached  down and touched them and they were warm!  Since our visit Winifred Urquhart has sent me the following 'notes' on  her experience in the Okanagan:  "Nancy Lott was the first social worker placed in the valley. She had an office in Penticton upstairs on the Main Street. She covered the area from the United States  border to Salmon Arm and west to Princeton and Brookmere. I joined her in Penticton in 1939 and took over from Summerland north and west to Princeton and  Brookmere, including all the small mining towns up in the hills. There were no such  things as winter tires and our overshoes had velvet tops! There were no finished roads.  Our responsibility was to Mother's Allowance families. Reports had to be sent to Victoria every six months and counselling services given where necessary. Five dollars was  deducted if she owned her own home, seven-fifty was added for each child and for  her husband if he was totally incapacitated. There were quite a number of single men  living in the Princeton area permanently incapacitated and receiving Destitute, Poor  and Sick allowance. They could usually be found up to their hips in the river along  side their sluice boxes panning for gold — the most optimistic people I have ever  known — 'lady, you won't have to come back next year, I will have made it before  then.' Also in Princeton was a 'hostel' of sorts housing many elderly Chinese men left  there after the building of the railway.  We had all the social legislation to administer — 'Infants Act' (you were an infant until 21), adoptions, unmarried parents, juvenile court. Reports were obtained for  mental hospitals and visits made to discharged patients, as well as for other Provincial institutions.  At that time there were few children placed in the valley in foster homes. Children  taken into care were sent to the Vancouver Children's Aid Society for placement  mainly in Roman Catholic institutions or Providence orphanage or St. John's School  for Boys. Finally the Children's Aid revolted and an order came through for us to  place two hundred children. These were not all Okanagan children but the Superintendent of Child Welfare dictated which children should go where and she thought  the Okanagan the most desirable area so pressure was put on us to find homes.  In the summer of 1940 we were told to prepare for large numbers of children being  evacuted from Britain. This was a busy summer but the program was cancelled the  following year. However, we did place about two dozen children (mainly from institutions in England). On the whole these children became attached to the Okanagan  families and stayed on to become Canadian citizens. During the war years we had to  undertake a variety of investigations for the army. In Vernon, with a normal population of 4500 and an army camp of 8000 soldiers and with many of their families living  in the area, we were receiving ninety to a hundred requests for investigation each  month. The interviewing and reports were in connection with family health and  social problems, requests from soldiers to have compassionate leave to deal with those  problems or to go home to help with the harvest, etc. The next major change came in  October 1946 when further decentralization took place. Supervisors were placed in  District offices throughout the Province and at that time I took over the Kamloops-  Salmon Arm area. The supervisors were given considerable responsibility for casework services in connection with family and child welfare, child protection, financial  assistance and on-the-job staff training. There was a supervisor appointed for the  Penticton-Kelowna area who only stayed about six months and one for the Vernon-  Armstrong-Enderby area. And that (says Winifred Urquhart) about covers it until  your time, Jean ..."  I came to the Okanagan in September 1947 and remained on the job until my retirement in 1977. I had previously spent six years in the Vancouver  Family Service agency which was financed by United Appeal. Fred Hassard  was Regional Administrator working from the Vernon office and he provided  me with sound guidance as I learned to operate in a Government agency. For  the first few years I had responsibility for the Kelowna Provincial office 20  (where there were two social workers and a stenographer) and for the Municipal office in the City Hall where financial assistance was administered by  Tom Hamilton (who also administered the first homemaker service in the  Okanagan, financed by the Kelowna United Appeal. I also had responsibility  for the Summerland-Penticton-Oliver-Osoyoos-west to Princeton area. I was  stationed in Penticton with the office still upstairs on Main Street and a Municipal office in City Hall and with similar staff to that of the Kelowna area. By  1974 the Provincial and City offices were amalgamated. Offices were moved  into court houses and as population, services and staff grew, annexed accommodation became necessary. Along with this growth my area of supervision  was gradually reduced to Penticton and Summerland. The present set up is  that Oliver and Osoyoos combined with Grand Forks has a supervisor stationed in the Oliver Court House. Princeton has a separate office and supervision from the Merritt-Kamloops region. The Penticton, Kelowna and Vernon offices each have two supervisors and along with the Oliver office supervisory district constitute the Okanagan region. Mr. Aubrey Reed is Manager  assisted by an administrative consultant staff (involving a further decentralization from Victoria of budget and administrative responsibility). I have  always maintained that physical division could better have been made in line  with regional district planning so that health, education and social services  could be coordinated from a physical and personnel standpoint.  On the road between Princeton and Brookmere, 1939-41. 21  In 1947 Provincial Government social services was a branch of the Health  and Welfare Department. Subsequently it became the Department of Social  Welfare. Then with changes in government and ministers the name changed  to Department of Rehabilitation and Social Improvement (the only way we  could remember our name in this phase was to think 'Rehab and Socem'!) and  finally to Ministry of Human Resources.  Along with the development and growth of social services, or perhaps instigating the services, were changes in legislation from the Destitute, Poor and  Sick Act and Old Age Pention providing meagre financial assistance and  Mother's Allowance Act providing slightly more to 'worthy' mothers to the  Social Assistance Act of 1944 which recognized and provided for assistance to  those in need regardless of race, colour or creed. And finally in 1976 came the  G.A.I.N. (Guaranteed Available Income for Need) which combined financing for the unemployed, the physically and mentally handicapped and supplementary assistance to the elderly. The G.A.I.N. Act also provides financial  assistance for services designed to assist residents to participate in improving  the social conditions of their community (made possible under the Canada  Assisance Plan, Federal Provincial cost sharing legislation of 1966). Administration of public welfare services is now almost entirely from the Provincial  Government agency financed by the three levels of government. There is new  legislation under way in the child protection and family relations field, aimed  at providing remedial services to prevent and reduce the development of social and health problems.  Each decade since 1947 has had its special problems: the breakdown and  changes in family life following the war years; the youth rebellion of the 60's;  the social and economic poverty in the midst of plenty of the 70's. The most  hopeful aspect of social service is the trend towards government and community volunteers working together.  One hesitates to name any of the many volunteers and professionals who  were involved in development of social services in the South Okanagan. Miss  Twiddy, the pioneer Public Health nurse, Mr. and Mrs. H. S. Kenyon, Mrs.  R. B. White, Miss Betty Thomas, played a major role. In 1947 there were still  cans placed in stores collecting money for the milk fund for children, later  this fund being combined with a Central Welfare Committee which received  a Penticton City grant in addition to contributions from local organizations.  This Central Welfare Society in Penticton still operates a Christmas exchange  bureau and is a source of emergency assistance to persons not eligible for government funds. There is a similar group in Summerland, now called the Good  Neighbour Society. Through the leadership of such veteran volunteers as  Sheila Shipton and Patricia Cossentine in cooperation with health, welfare  and education departments, church and service organizations, the Penticton  and District Social Planning Society was formed and became affiliated with  the Provincial Social Planning and Review Council (S.P.A.R.C. of B.C.) and  has been entrusted with administration of Provincial and Federal funds for  special programs initiated locally to meet community needs.  We've come a long way since the day in 1947 when Anna Mason, Senior  Public Health Nurse and George Gay, the only school counsellor and I got together to discuss our common problems. As other services such as mental  health, probation, juvenile court developed we enlarged our 'liaison' group.  Similar groups operated in Oliver and Summerland. 22  At one point we formed an ad hoc 'Indian Advisory Committee,' when  the Indian Band children were being integrated into city schools rather than  being sent off to residential schools. The Indian people were represented by a  number of their Band but outstandingly by Louise Gabriel who was then a  member of the Penticton Band Council. We gained a mutual understanding  in a number of 'touchy' issues through this personal contact with the Indian  people — for example, their feeling about our placing their neglected children in 'white' homes and our communicating to them that we did this only  because they did not offer an alternative. Gradually the Indian Band has  been given almost total responsibility for administering their own social services.  The most productive period in government services in the South Okanagan, in my view, was during the 60's. In this period we were inundated with  transient youth, the drug scene, and a social upheaval that at times seemed  overwhelming. Andy Mikita, a clinical psychologist came to the community  and helped us understand and accept the changes that were developing and  he assisted us in developing programs and resources to meet the needs of these  young people. Also during that period Dr. Victor Mollerup came to Penticton  and started the Community Psychiatry movement. And Judge Ross Collver  stepped down from the Juvenile Court Bench to work with the community to  deal with the problems of youth and families. At the same time there were  some young social workers and child care workers attracted to the area who  helped develop imaginative community services. There were also some  stalwart experienced social workers (Ronald Rutherglen in the Princeton  area, Katherine Davies in Summerland, George McPherson in Oliver-  Osoyoos, Rosalie Gray and Lorna McDiarmid in Penticton) who helped us  keep a balanced perspective. Our regional administrator, supporter, and  pipe-line to the powers in Victoria was Aubrey Reed. Some of those programs  like 'Imagine Penticton,' the brain-child of free-lance social worker, Walt  Taylor, and the trip social worker Douglas Hyslop and his wife organized, giving a group of young people a camping holiday exploring the Province, are  stories in themselves.  This was also the most difficult period for foster parents and while I hesitate to name any of the many who helped, Mrs. Irene Rosborough stands out  for her service over a period of twenty-five years to cover a hundred children,  and especially for her willingness to be called up at any hour of the night to  receive an unknown child. Another home that comes to mind thinking back  to those turbulent times is that of Jean and Ray Turner, then living in  Kaleden, who at one weekend I recall had fifteen youths in their sleeping bags  strewn about their house, sundeck and basement. Some of the youths stayed  awhile at the Turners until our social worker and probation officer could get  them on their way home. Others were counselled by the Turners who always  seemed to have time for them. There was an event at the Turners during this  period unique in most social agency experience. Our young male social  worker and a young male probabion officer who had worked closely together  were leaving at the same time. The young people staying at the Turners gave  a party for them and invited our whole staff!  There were also some good inter-governmental works programs developed in the 60's to assist the unemployed back into the work force and to  give youth an opportunity to work in community projects which they helped 23  to design.  As will be evident from the foregoing, developments in the South Okanagan social services have been monumental. Similar progress has been made  in the central and north Okanagan. Perhaps later someone will write about  their particular achievements — for instance long term supervisor, Lionel  Wace, Ministry of Human Resources, Kelowna might expound on their progress highlighting the establishment of a Community Foundation. Bill  Hesketh, social worker in Vernon, with the John Howard Society since 1961,  might talk about developments there in services for young offenders and their  temporary home at 'Howard House' in Vernon. And Joyce Fraser in Princeton  has developed a unique community multi-service organization in cooperation  with government health and welfare agencies.  In all parts of the Okanagan community volunteers are continuously  working with government agencies to build better resources for placement of  children, special school programs, homemaker and day care services, support  services for troubled families and resources for long term care of the handicapped and elderly.  FOOTNOTES  1    The 'Home for the Friendless' was located in the former Okanagan College buildings.  Wini Urquhart and Edna Page helping to raise money during a Red Cross fund drive during the  Second World War, 1939-45. 24  THE HISTORY OF THE GRAPE INDUSTRY  IN THE OKANAGAN — 1905 - 1970  By John Vielvoye  Grape and Nursery Specialist, B.C. Department of Agriculture  The earliest recorded date of grapes being grown in the Okanagan was in  1905. European (V. vinifera) grapes were grown experimentally at the Canada Department of Agriculture Research Station, Summerland, then known  as the Dominion Experimental Station until 10 years ago. Varieties grown included Black Hamburg, Muscat of Alexandria, Ribiere, Tokay, White  Malanga and Alicante. These varieties were very prone to mildew and did not  ripen. All were discarded.  In the year 1906, Mr. W. J. Wilcox arrived in Salmon Arm. In 1907 he  planted three-quarters of an acre in grapes. Varieties planted were Campbells  Early, Concord, Niagara, White Mountain and Delaware. The planting was  gradually expanded to some two acres. Varieties added were Clinton,  Thompson Seedless, Hamburg and the Red Rogers hybrids Agawam and  Delaware.  These grapes were not irrigated. They were cultivated with a harrow and  hand hoed. Manure was used as a source of fertilizer.  The grapes were sold on a fresh market. Sales were to grocery stores and  hotels in Salmon Arm, to the CPR and to the Prairies. They were packed in  six-quart wooden baskets. In some cases, each basket was packed to hold  blue, red and green grapes. Apparently business was good.  In those days the price received per pound could not have been too high,  possibly around one or two cents per pound. The 1949-50 winter did damage  the planting. However, part of the original Wilcox planting is still alive, and  producing grapes. It is presently owned by Mr. Don Raven of Salmon Arm.  During the years between 1907 and 1926 there was no recorded expansion of the grape "industry." People planted grapes in their back yards for  their own use, but that's all.  First Winery in B.C.  In 1922, the Growers Wine Company was established on Vancouver Island. This was the first winery in British Columbia. It was formed by a group  of loganberry growers who were looking for an outlet for surplus loganberries.  Its products were marketed as Logona Loganberry Wines, Vinsu preme (a  blend of loganberry and blackberry) and Logan Brandy. Its first managing  director and winemaker was Mr. Neil H. Lamont.  Credit for establishing a commercial grape growing industry in B.C. is  usually attributed to Mr. J. W. Hughes. J. W., as he prefers to be known,  visited places such as the experimental farm, the Wilcox planting in Salmon  Arm and people's back gardens. He predicted that, given proper care and attention, grapes would flourish and prosper in the Kelowna area. In 1926, J.  W. Hughes bought 45 acres of stumpland from "Shorty" Collett, who was at  that time in charge of land sales for the South-East Kelowna Irrigation  District and Land Company. This land was on a land bench above the  Casorso Homestead. J. W. cleared the land, built one and a half miles of  flume in the same year to carry the irrigation water, and planted 15 acres of  grapes. This was his pioneer vineyard. He had propagated his own plants 25  from cuttings received from many sources including the Wilcox planting, and  people in town.  He also wrote to E. D. Smith, Winnona, Ont. E. D. Smith was a senator.  He sent J. W. plants that were planted at "Pioneer Vineyards," J. W.'s first  vineyard. During the early years of the vineyard a cash crop of tomatoes was  grown between the rows. The crop was looked after by local Japanese people.  They irrigated and weeded the tomatoes and, of course, the grapes at the  same time.  A second winery, called Brentwood Products Ltd., was established on  Vancouver Island in 1927. In 1929 the name was changed to Victoria  Wineries (British Columbia) Ltd. It marketed wine under the trade name of  Slinger's, Mr. Slinger being one of the first directors of the company and its  first winemaker.  In 1928, J. W. Hughes bought another 15 acres and added it to the  Pioneer Vineyard. He also planted another 20 acres of grapes. In 1928, J. W.  also picked his first crop of grapes from his 1926 planting. These grapes were  sold to prairie markets through a local packing house.  Some time during the late 1920's J. W. established a trial planting of 20  acres of grapes on Black Mountain. He found that grapes did not ripen properly in this location. The planting was removed. J. W. found that the location was suited to onion and carrot seed production as well as raspberries.  New Arrivals  At about this time, Eugene Rittich arrived in the Kelowna area. Charlie  Casorso, a native of Kelowna, settled in the Ellison area and planted a vineyard. However, Charlie was not able to continue.J. W. Hughes and Leopold  Hays, manager of the Occidental Fruit Company, bought the Casorso grape  patch and expanded it to 60 acres. They gave it the name of Great West Vineyards.  Eugene Rittich had studied agriculture in Hungary. He also studied viticulture and wine chemistry there. He also had years of experience in the vineyards and wine industries of France, Germany, Austria, Italy and Balkans.  About 1930, Mr. Rittich established an experimental vineyard on Black  Mountain, some 10 miles from Kelowna, at an altitude of about 2000 feet.  This planting was near the place where J. W. Hughes had established his trial  planting. Winter temperatures of -30 degrees F and cold nights at blossom  time gave a severe test of the European varieties that he planted. After cultivating and observing some 40 varieties at this location for several years, he  selected 11 varieties which responded to his expectations. These were Pearl of  Csaba, Red and White Chasselas, Muscat Ferdinand Lesseps, Excellent,  Muscat, Riesling Sylvaner, Sylvaner, Blue and White Burgunder, and Seibel  5276, the latter being a Franco-American hybrid. Rittich documented his experiments and published a book, "European Grape Growing in cooler districts where winter protection is necessary." All varieties tried by Rittich were  pruned to a low head and buried for winter protection.  These varieties, plus a few others, were also planted at a friend's home,  Joseph Renyi, in Oliver. It is from the Renyi planting that the Okanagan  Riesling has spread to become a most important white grape in the Okanagan  grape industry today. 26  First Contract  On April 24, 1930, the Vernon News carried an article entitled "Contracts for Grapes — f 100 per ton." These grapes would be bought by Victoria  Wines Ltd. This winery set up an office in Salmon Arm as headquarters for a  tour of the Okanagan Valley, visiting all the important centres. Victoria  Wines Ltd. was bought by Growers Wines Ltd. some time around 1930. The  name "Growers Wines Ltd." was kept for commercial use.  Calona Wines  In 1931 Mr. Joseph Ghezzi talked Pasquale Capozzi into salvaging apples  which were rotting on the trees. "Cap" as he is now well known, organized a  group of local citizens and together they formed the "Domestic Wines and Byproducts Ltd." This was the first winery on mainland British Columbia.  Their first president was William Alexander Cecil Bennett, a hardware man.  In 1934 the company's name was changed to "Calona Wines Ltd." Mr. Bennett resigned in 1939 to enter politics. Mr. Bennett's place was taken by J. J.  Ladd, former mayor of Kelowna until his death in 1957.  Problems in producing a stable apple wine kept the company from producing apple wine. After two years of struggling with an apple wine product  which gave nothing but trouble, it was decided to switch to the traditional  grape wine.  In 1931 the American Fruitgrower carried an article on the motor truck  speed of Okanagan fruit, claiming that Kelowna, a hustling city of 4,500 people some 50 miles north of Penticton, was using trucks to play an important  role in the transportation of fruit and vegetables. In that same article, Hughes  was interviewed and stated he was receiving 55 cents a six-quart basket for  grapes at that time.  In 1932, Mr. Herb Anscombe was appointed managing director for "The  Growers Wine Co." Through J. W.'s introduction, Eugene Rittich was hired  by this winery by Mr. Herb Anscombe for the production of grape wines. In  1939 the first grape wines produced in British Columbia by both The Growers  Wine Co. Ltd. and Calona Wines Ltd. were offered for sale.  J. W. Hughes sent a test shipment of grapes to Jordan Winery in Ontario  in 1932. The grapes were found to contain 17 per cent sugar, which was said  to be considerably higher than the average for the Niagara Peninsula.  That same year, F. A. Atkinson, horticulturist at the experiment station  at Summerland, wrote in "Country Life in British Columbia," that of all the  vinifera grape varieties tried on the experiment station for the last 25 years,  none had reached full maturity until the 15th of October. Varieties tried were  Tokay, Alicante, Ribiere, Black Hamburg and Muscat of Alexandria.  J. W. Hughes, in the meantime, had kept planting grapes. He kept  planting until 1935. By this time he had planted some 250 acres of grapes. He  was selling to two markets now, the fresh market and the winery market.  Up to this time, J. W. had been shipping his grapes through a local packing house. He now wanted to ship his own grapes and went looking for advice.  He talked to Mr. "Dick" Palmer, then former director of the Dominion Experimental Farm at Summerland. Mr. Palmer suggested that J. W. sell his  own grapes, but cautioned him to ship a small quantity first. Hughes followed  Palmer's advice to ship his own grapes, but sent several carloads to the prairies instead. This was a success. 27  Hughes planted 495 vines per acre, spacing the rows 11 feet apart and  the vines eight feet. They were irrigated four times during the season. He  followed the Ontario system of trellising grapes, the Kniffen system (a wire up  and a wire down). At pruning time he selected wood from one-year-old  growth. He left 50 buds on a normal vine when pruning. The ripening season  for Concord was found to be the end of August or the first of September, a little earlier than Ontario.  In 1940, the CDA Station at Summerland published a paper, "Chemical  Constituents of Some Fruits Grown in British Columbia." Authors were F. E.  Atkinson and C. C. Strachan. Their summation of grapes grown commercially in B.C. was as follows: "Total sugar content of the 26 varieties of grapes  tested ranged from 12 to 25 per cent; acid from 0.38 to 2.25 per cent and tannin from 0.006 to 0.208 per cent. Grapes of the following varieties were found  to produce medium sweet wines of good quality. Bergunder, Campbell Early,  Muscat, Ferdinand and Delaceps, Muscat Ottinel, Portland, Rauschling,  Riesling Sylanvaner, S-2838 and S-5279."  During the period from 1926 to 1934, apple prices in the Okanagan were  poor. People began to plant grapes because of an apparent sure market. The  acreage planted to grapes slowly increased.  J. W. Sells  During the time span from 1944 to 1949, J. W. Hughes sold his vineyards  to men that worked for him on the various lots. Martin Dulik took over the  Pioneer Vineyard in 1945, and Dan Powell took over the Mission Vineyard in  1944. The Great West Vineyard was split up in 1946 between George Nemeth  (15 acres), Tor Tovilla (25 acres), Bill Bata and Roy Francis (20 acres);  Lakeside Vineyards was taken over by Frank Schmidt in 1949. J. W. Hughes  kept the lower portion of Lakeside Vineyards for himself.  Two main markets had been established by 1950, the basket trade on the  prairies and the winery trade — one winery in Victoria and one in Kelowna.  In these years, the basket trade absorbed 60 per cent of the crop. Prior to  1932, 100 per cent of the grapes were sold on a fresh market.  In 1955 the first medium dry table wine was offered for sale in British  Columbia. Two of these brands were from British Columbia, a third was from  Ontario. In 1960 two more table wines were available. These were drier than  those listed in 1955.  Acreage expansion was slow during the 1950's. In 1960, two new wineries  were established in British Columbia — one in Port Moody called Andre's  Wines Ltd., and one in New Westminster called West Coast Wines Ltd. Both  marketed grape wines in 1961.  Growers Organize  Prior to 1961, grape growers were unorganized. There was no organization which represented the grape growers. Through the urging of various  government bodies, and a realization themselves for a single voice, R. J.  Stewart, F. Schmidt and M. Dulik called a meeting of grape growers to sound  out their thoughts on forming an organization that would represent them.  Approval to approach the government was given the organizers to request the  formation of a grape growers' association.  On March 10th, 1961, the Association of British Columbia Grape Growers was incorporated under the Societies Act. 28  Also at this time agreement was reached with Calona and Growers Wines  and the Liquor Control Board that a certain percentage of the British Columbia crop would be used in British Columbia wines.  In 1963 a grape pooling committee to handle fresh grapes shipped  through B.C. Tree Fruits was established. It consisted of R. J. Parkinson, representing the Packing House, Doug Buckland, representing O.K. Federated  Shippers, and F. Schmidt, M. Casorso and E. J. Powell representing the  growers.  In 1965, Growers Wine bought Frank Schmidt's vineyard and changed  the name to Beau Sejour. It also established a subsidiary at Moose Jaw, Sask.,  under the label of Castle Wines Ltd.  Disaster  Many trees and vines were killed in a severely cold winter during December of 1964. In 1965, tree fruit and grape growers requested assistance from  both the federal and provincial governments to cushion their losses. As a  result, the "Federal-Provincial Tree Fruit and Grape Assistance Program  1965" was established. At this time, the association represented approximately 30 per cent of the growers.  In November of 1966, the "Association appointed a committee of four to  act as advisors to the newly formed Crop Insurance Branch of the B.C. Department of Agriculture. In 1967 a crop insurance program for grape growers  was offered.  New Wineries  Also in 1967, two more wineries entered the British Columbia picture.  Mission Hill Wines Ltd. was established at Westbank and Casabello Wines  Ltd. was built in Penticton. West Coast Wines changed their name to Villa  Wines Ltd. in 1967. Andre's Wines established subsidiaries at Calgary, Alta.,  and Truro, N.S., during this time as well.  In 1966, a survey of the nutritional status of grapes was undertaken by  the soils section of the Canada Department of Agriculture at Summerland.  The results of that survey were brought to growers' attention in early 1968.  After participating in an organizational meeting, the association agreed  to sponsor a grape petiole analysis service for grape growers. This service was  then offered to grape growers in August of 1968. In 1968, Calona Wines purchased Pacific Vineyards Ltd. These 350 acres of grapes were split between  Oliver and Westbank. A 200-acre block in Oliver was equipped with a time  clock for its permanent solid set irrigation system.  In 1969, Mission Hill Wines Ltd. was purchased by Ben Ginter, brewer-  industrialist.  After several meetings, questionnaires and a secret ballot, the Association of British Columbia Grape Growers was jubilant to hear that on June  17th of 1970, an Order-in-Council was passed establishing a Grape Marketing  Board. The establishment of this board being for the purpose of negotiating  higher prices for grapes with B.C. Wineries. It successfully did do this for the  1970 crop, raising the price from an average of 6.25 cents per pound to 8.0  cents per pound.  On October 2nd, 1970, Ben Ginter changed the name Mission Hill  Wines Ltd. to Uncle Ben's Gourmet Wines Ltd.  During the period from 1960 to 1969, grape acreage expanded from 572 29  in 1960 to 2,300 by 1969. The traditional area of Kelowna-Westbank was no  longer the only area where large acreages of grapes were planted. The east  side of the Okanagan River, just south of Oliver, became another grape growing area — some 540 acres being planted there.  What of the Future of the Industry?  The future of the grape industry depends heavily on two items:  (a) The continued insistence by the Liquor Control Board that wineries  in B.C. purchase the B.C. grape crop. At the present time grape production  in B.C. is not sufficient to fulfill the wineries' needs.  At the same time, the grape growers will have to continue to develop the  home wine making and fresh grape markets. At the present time, between 33  to 38 million pounds of grapes are imported into B.C. At an average production of five tons per acre, this is equivalent to an additional 3,382 to 3,643  acres of grapes.  (b) The success of the Grape Marketing Board in establishing grape  prices with the wineries that provides a fair return to the grower. "Fair"  returns is that level of income which enables the efficient primary producer to  pay for his production costs plus enough to yield a normal percentage on his  capital investment and, ideally, a wage commensurate with his labor input as  well.  Mechanization in the grape growing industry will continue. Permanently  installed irrigation systems will provide labor savings that will more than pay  for the costs of installation. Benefits to be looked at with such a system include  protection against spring or early fall frosts, disposal of a need for spraying  equipment since water soluble fertilizers, insecticides, and growth regulators  are available at relatively low costs.  Underground irrigation is not yet a fact of life in many areas. It will be  some time before the "bugs" are worked out of it. Underground irrigation, or  modification of it, would eliminate concern for wind distortion and evaporation of moisture from the soil.  Increases in production will, in time, be brought about through:  1. Improved pruning techniques;  2. Increased use of fertilizers and minerals;  3. Changes in trellising from the traditional two-arm Kniffen system to  the six-arm Kniffen, T-trellis and arbors;  4. New varieties will be introduced which will satisfy both the grower  and the winery needs.  Wineries know that the future of their industry is bright. This is due to  several factors, several of which are:  1. A large population of young people, whose tastes for wines are not  bound by tradition;  2. Air travel, which seems to educate many to the living and eating  with wine;  3. More disposable income;  4. Wine making as a hobby;  5. Lowering of the "drinking" age;  6. More lenient licensing laws for restaurants, hotels, etc.; 30  7. Immigrants from countries where wine is used regularly with meals  are educating many people to the joys of wine.  The establishment of wineries in the Prairie provinces demonstrates the  desire of many individuals to become a part of this lucrative portion of the industry. Prairie provinces such as Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba now  have wineries, but do not grow grapes, etc., from which to make wine. Here  lie additional markets for B.C. grapes. 31  HISTORY OF GRAPE GROWING IN THE SOUTHERN INTERIOR  By D. V. Fisher  From the earliest times, explorers, settlers, and missionaries, especially of  European origin, brought with them the fruits native to their own countries.  Thus the early French in Nova Scotia and Quebec imported grapes but in  neither area was the climate suited to their culture. We have reason to believe  when Father Pandosy established the Oblate Mission in Kelowna, that  amongst varied crops he grew for a self-sufficient agriculture, grapes were included. However, there seems to have been no success recorded in this regard,  although farmers in the B.C. Interior undoubtedly grew grapes for home use  during the latter part of the 19th century and early 20th century. The first  record we have of a serious grape planting was that of W. J. Wilcox in Salmon  Arm, who in 1907 planted about % of an acre to Campbell Early, Concord,  Niagara, White Diamond, and Delaware. This planting was gradually expanded to include Clinton, Thompson Seedless, Black Hamburg and  Agawam. Because Salmon Arm is an unirrigated area and the vines matured  early, grapes on the Wilcox place survived the various freezes reasonably well,  and part of the planting still exists on the Don Raven farm. The grapes from  the Wilcox planting were all packed in 6-quart wooden baskets and sold for  fresh fruit purposes locally and as far away as the prairies.  According to Mr. F. E. Atkinson, a semi-commercial planting of grapes  was made in Penticton in 1912 by Mr. Jim Creighton. This vineyard was  located at the corner of what is now Cambie and Vancouver Avenue, but has  long since disappeared.  The pioneer commercial grape-grower in the Okanagan was Mr. J. W.  Hughes, who in 1926 acquired land in the Okanagan Mission and the Black  Mountain areas. The Black Mountain project did not prove successful, but  the one in Okanagan Mission gradually expanded until he had around 300  acres in production. The Hughes plantings were dispersed between 1944 and  1949 to his foremen Dan Powell, Frank Schmidt, and Martin Dulik. In the  same period his Great West Vineyard was sold in pieces to George Nemeth.  Tor Tovilla, W. Bata and Roy Francis. In the late 1940's and early 50's, small  additional acreages were planted in the Okanagan Mission area, and in West-  bank which brought the total acreage up to around 400.  Around 1957, because of an increased demand for grapes by existing and  new wineries, a new era in grape growing started. The emphasis at this time  was upon planting of improved varieties of vinifera and vinifera hybrids to  produce wines of superior quality to those formerly manufactured from  grapes of the labrusca type. Accordingly, the expansion of grape acreage  which has taken place up to the present time, when about 3200 acres are in  the ground, has been largely in hybrid varieties. While many varieties have  been tried, the hybrids which have been the most acceptable have been Seibel  9549, 9110, and 5898; Bath, Himrod, and Foch, and the supposedly pure  vinifera variety, Hungarian Riesling often erroneously called Okanagan  Riesling. In this expansion period since 1957, grapes have been extensively  planted in the Oliver-Osoyoos area, the Similkameen, Okanagan Mission,  and Westbank areas, and to a lesser degree in Summerland and Penticton.  Grape Prices  In the early days, grape production was not too profitable. In reviewing 32  notes I made in November, 1937, following an interview with Mr. J. W.  Hughes of Kelowna, he provided the following information: He said that in  1937, he sold most of his grapes in baskets at 27 cents, which minus expenses  of basket, 7.25 cents, brokerage 1.6 cents, picking 2.0 cents, and miscellaneous 1.0 cents, meant 15.0 cents clear for 7 pounds of grapes. An interview  with the Kelowna Winery at the same time indicated that in 1938 they  planned to pay $50 per ton for good blue grapes, and $60 per ton for good  white grapes.  The profitability of grapes since that time has greatly improved, in considerable measure due to the formation of the B.C. Grape Growers' Association in 1961, whose members voted to come under the B.C. Natural Products  Marketing Act for one desk marketing of the crop in 1970. Prices negotiated  with wineries vary somewhat with varieties, and with sugar content of the  fruit, but averaged $213 per ton in 1973, a considerable increase from the  prices quoted for 1937! It is expected the 1974 negotiated price will show further improvement. Current demand indicates that the wine industry could  use at least twice as many grapes as are currently being produced in good  years in the Okanagan (10,000 tons). Expansion and production will depend  upon the anticipated returns for grapes vs. other fruits, plus availability of  suitable land. It is not likely that much more than an additional 2000 acres of  new land suitable for grapes could be found in the south Okanagan, although  it is quite possible that if a profitable market were assured, some tree fruit  land might be converted to grapes.  History of Wineries  The history of grape growing in B.C. is closely tied in with the development of wineries. The first winery in the province was Growers' Wines  Limited in Victoria, which was organized to make wine from loganberries. In  1927, Brentwood Products Ltd. was formed, which in 1929 was renamed Victoria Wineries, sometimes known as Slingers. In 1931, Domestic Wines and  Biproducts Ltd. was organized in Kelowna, and the name changed in 1934 to  Kelowna Wines Ltd. In 1960, Andres Wines Ltd. was organized in Port  Moody, B.C., and in 1967, Westcoast Wines started in New Westminster.  Westcoast later changed its name to Villa Wines. In 1967, Mission Hill Wines  was established in Westbank, and the name changed in 1970 to Uncle Ben's  Gourmet Wines Ltd. when the firm was purchased by Ben Ginter Breweries  Ltd. In 1967 Casabello Wines Ltd. was organized in Penticton, B.C. Under  the Liquor Control Board all these B.C. Wineries are required to use British  Columbia grapes when available, and when their needs exceed the supply,  they are allowed to supplement their crush by purchase of American grapes.  All these wineries operate under contracts with their growers.  Grape Variety Evaluation  The first grape variety test was planted at the Summerland Research Station by the late Dr. R. C. Palmer in 1928. This planting consisted of the old  standbys Niagara, Campbell Early, Warden, Concord, etc. Shortly  thereafter, newer varieties such as Sheridan, Portland, Ontario were added  and by 1935, 26 varieties were under trial. By importing wine varieties from  all over the world, including France, Italy, Hungary, and Madeira Islands,  California, etc., the variety collection had risen to close to 150 by 1936. Most  of these imported varieties were of European type (vinifera) and were quickly 33  discarded owing to lack of hardiness, susceptibility to mildew, and late ripening. As late as 1948 when the original Summerland Station grape variety experiment was terminated, there were still 70 varieties under test. The outcome of this first variety testing work was recommendations that varieties such  as Patricia, Golden Muscat, Sheridan, Portland, and Ontario be added to existing plantings for limited trial.  When it became apparent around 1957 that a new era in grape culture  was about to be initiated, the Summerland Research Station again went into  a variety testing program, this time selectively choosing only varieties which  had shown promise in northern areas of the North American continent, and  which appeared to be capable of ripening under the heat units characteristic  of the B.C. Interior. This program was rapidly expanded until by 1971, there  were 113 varieties under test from such diverse sources as the United States,  Russia, Hungary, Switzerland, France and Germany. Furthermore, nearly all  these varieties were either hybrids between the vinifera and the labrusca  types, or vinifera and riparia types widely grown in France. A few of the selections under test were pure vinifera type. The most outstanding two grapes to  emerge from this testing program were Seibel 9549 and Foch, now both widely grown in this area.  Variety testing continues at the Summerland Research Station as well as  evaluation of new cultivars which were developed from a breeding program  started in 1966. From the earliest time of cultivar testing, all promising selections have been evaluated for wine making by the Summerland Research Station.  The Rittich Brothers  The Rittich Brothers, Virgil J. and Dr. Eugene A., did important variety  testing work in the Ellison district near Kelowna, where they established their  vineyard about 1931. The Rittich's were immigrants from Hungary and had  had extensive experience in grape growing and wine making in their home  country. They brought with them some 40 varieties. The Rittich's were concerned primarily with grapes for making high quality European-type wines.  In their book "European Grape Growing" published in 1941, they stated "We  are now able to recommend the following varieties: Pearl of Csaba, Chasselas  White and Red, Mucat Ferdinand de Lesseps, Excellent, Muscat Ottonel,  Riesling Sylvaner, Blue Burgunder, White Burgunder, and Seibel 5279. They  recommended these varieties as superior wine and table grapes, but unfortunately none has become important because of a combination of one or more  of the following factors: winter tenderness, susceptibility to mildew, poor  yield, or late maturity.  The Rittich brothers grew their grapes on a low cordon and laid down  and buried the canes to provide winter frost protection, a practice common in  certain parts of Europe. Given winter protection it is likely that some of the  varieties they recommended would have proven to be commercially successful  but laying down of canes has not been an accepted practice in the Okanagan  area. Some of the Rittich property is still in grapes, but almost entirely is standard commercial varieties.  It is a quirk of fate that the one successful variety of their Hungarian collection, the so-called Hungarian or Okanagan Riesling, did not appear in  their favored list of 10. This variety is now considered to be the best high 34  quality white European wine grape now grown in the Okanagan. It has been  widely planted and wineries pay a premium for it. It is sufficiently hardy and  early maturing to be grown successfully in most grape areas of the Okanagan/  Similkameen Valleys. Dr. Rittich first planted this and other varieties on the  Renyi property in Oliver in 1930. Mr. Mike Barzal of Osoyoos obtained cuttings of Hungarian Riesling from Renyi and in time passed cuttings on to M.  Keri, who gave cuttings to Mr. J. W. Detterbeak. Mr. Detterbeak made the  first sizeable planting in Oliver in 1938 and later expanded it to about 3 acres.  J. W. Hughes  Any account of grape variety testing in the Okanagan would be incomplete without mention of the very important role played by Mr. Hughes in this  matter. In his search for better varieties than the old Niagara, Campbell  Early, Warden, etc., he introduced a number of the hybrids from the Geneva  Station in New York, including Interlaken Seedless, Golden Muscat, Ontario,  Bath and Steuben. Of these he favored Bath and told me around 1962 that  this was the best grape that had ever been grown in the Okanagan Valley. His  prediction certainly came close to being true, for this variety is the second  most widely planted, being acceptable for both fresh and wine purposes. It is  also the most productive of the varieties we grow. Mr. Hughes still does a little  experimenting with varieties on his acreage at Okanagan Mission.  Publications on Grape Growing from the Okanagan Valley  The account of history of grape growing in the B.C. Interior would not  be complete without some mention of what has been written on the subject.  The only book that has been published was that of the Rittich brothers entitled "European Grape Growing," published by the Burgess Publishing Company of Minneapolis, Minnesota, in 1941. Other publications include mimeographs entitled "Grape Growing in the Okanagan," by D. V. Fisher published  in 1936, and the "Status of the Grape in the Okanagan Valley," by A. J.  Mann in 1940. In addition, in 1940, Mr. Mann wrote a circular on the low  cordon system for training European grapes. The interest in grape culture  had reached such a stage by 1968 that it was necessary to publish an extensive  bulletin on the subject, and this was done by D. V. Fisher and J. Vielvoye entitled "Grape Growing in British Columbia," of which some 12,000 copies  have been circulated. This bulletin is now due for revision. In the December,  1970 issue of the B.C. Orchardist, J. Vielvoye published a "History and  Future of the Grape Industry in the Okanagan."  For the last 3 years, the British Columbia Grape Growers' Association  have published Proceedings of their Grape Forum which represents a very  successful annual information meeting held by this organization. A cost of  production study which was carried out by Dawson and Acton of the Agriculture Canada Economics Branch in 1971 and published in 1972, laid the basis  for price negotiations between the wineries and the grape growers.  Cultural Practices  Originally, grapes were grown on the Kniffen 2-arm system, and this has  gradually changed over to variations of cordon systems such as the Geneva  Double Curtain, or the Prosser T-Bar system. Further modifications of training methods will be based upon the use of mechanized harvesting equipment  such as was used in Oliver this past season. The Upright Harvester, which is 35  similar to some other harvesters and costs about $35,000 straddles the rows  and beats the fruits from the vines. The grapes are conveyed on belts and discharged into 2 large plastic bins transported on a flat deck and hauled by a  tractor in the adjacent row. This machine, which is adaptable only for wine  or juice grapes, harvests 15 acres of grapes in 10 hours and at half the cost,  does the same work as hand picking by 30 men.  Irrigation, originally carried out by furrows or hand-moved sprinkler  pipe has been largely replaced by overhead sprinklers on aluminum pipe placed on top of the posts supporting the grape wire trellis.  Birds, the greatest menace to profitable culture of many of the European  hybrid grapes, are now successfully controlled by means of the Av-Alarm synthetic bird warning cry, combined with acetylene or propane exploders.  From very modest beginnings, the B.C. Interior now has a small but profitable and stable grape industry. Acreage and yields per acre are increasing,  and with the support afforded the industry by research in culture, plant pathology, entomology and wine technology at the Summerland Research Station  and by the B.C. Department of Agriculture Extension Service, a good future  seems assured.  Kelowna-Westbank Ferry.  Courtesy Penticton Muse 36  CKOV: THE FIRST FIFTY YEARS  By John Schinnick  Ralph Waldo Emerson once said that there is no history, only biography.  Emerson's observation is one way of looking at CKOV's first fifty years of  broadcasting in the Okanagan. The history of the Okanagan Valley's first  radio station is a story of men and women who created a broadcast entity out  of an idea. It is the story of people who shaped a radio station during five  decades of Canada's ongoing struggle to find its own identity in a community  of nations. CKOV's history is also a story of a community, Kelowna, that grew  from being a small, unsophisticated frontier town into a small, somewhat  cosmopolitan city.  Central to CKOV's history is a family, the Brownes of Kelowna. No different than other immigrant families from Europe, Asia, South America or  Australia, the Brownes worked hard to wrest a new life from the raw opportunities of the Okanagan landscape. The Brownes, however, are merely one  part of the story. During CKOV's fifty years, nearly 500 disc jockeys, news  gatherers, announcers, writers, advertising salesmen, secretaries, accountant  and management personnel have contributed to the evolution of the station  and indirectly the town around it.  As a freelance writer and broadcaster, I heard stories for over a decade  about J. W. B. Browne, the man who started CKOV, and about his wife,  Gerdine Tryphena Browne, one of Kelowna's pioneer women, and matriarch  of Okanagan Broadcasters. Last fall, as I began to gather fifty years of  CKOV's history, I had my long-awaited opportunity to meet Mrs. Browne  ("Granny" as she is known to friends and family) and listen as she shared five  decades of observations and memories.  Prior to 1931  James William Bromley-Browne was born in Stoke-On-Trent, England,  in 1884. Like many of the young Englishmen of his generation, he developed  a yearning for travel and adventure. He fought as an underaged soldier in  South Africa's Boer War, developing arthritic heart problems that would  plague him throughout his adult life. After his hitch in the army, he signed on  as a purser with the CPR ships travelling to the Orient. He arrived in British  Columbia during the first decade of this century, a decade when much of  what we take for granted was either unimagined or still in its infancy. He  drove horse-drawn freight stages through the Fraser Canyon into the Cariboo  and eventually drove B.C.'s first automotive stage, a Pierce Arrow, along that  same route.  Around 1911, J. W. B. Browne joined a group of automotive enthusiasts  in Victoria who decided to tour B.C. and Washington by car. They drew the  first road maps of the Province for motorists and started western Canada's  first motoring magazine.  About this time, Tryphena — who had moved to Vancouver from  Toronto as a teenager — was selling magazine advertising. She met J. W. B.  at the Commercial Printing Company in the Sun building where he was working as an editor of the motoring magazine. They married in March of 1914,  moving to Kelowna in early May of that year.  "We took the train from Vancouver to Okanagan Landing just south of  Vernon," she remembers. "You had to walk from the train to the CPR boat. 37  That boat, the Sicamous, ran into very little landing all the way down the  Lake. The trip took nearly three hours. I remember standing on deck with my  dad and my husband. As I looked down at the long wharf that was supposedly  Kelowna, I thought to myself: 'Now what do we do here?' It was funny. There  was only this long wharf, a lot of rowboats, and a wholesale place for horse  feed. At first I thought we'd be behind a horse again. But no, a chap named  Clarence Duncan, an American from Missouri, I believe, picked us up in his  car. There could not have been more than three or four cars in all of Kelowna  at that time, so I guess it was one of the first ones."  Tryph and JWB settled in Rutland, a sparsely inhabited community separated then from Kelowna by miles of orchards. In spite of steady immigration, war decimated the Rutland population the way it did other Okanagan  communities. In 1914, World War One was on the horizon.  "Rutland wasn't very big to begin with," Mrs. Browne says. "It was mostly young English bachelors. A lot of them were military men, so when the first  war broke out, they enlisted. My husband, being an Englishman, wanted to  go badly, but his health had been poor following the Boer War, so the army  wouldn't take him. He decided to help out in other ways. He rounded up fellows to carry the news of the war up into the woods and hills above Rutland.  They came down the next day to sign up. Very few of them had wives," she  says, laughing. "They all had dogs and cats and livestock, but no wives. They  just couldn't let the animals run wild while they went away to war, and they  didn't want to shoot the animals themselves. So they helped each other out by  destroying one another's dogs and cats. They brought their horses down out of  the hills and turned them loose. There were a lot of wild horses around the  Valley in those days. They left all their harnesses and their chaps and whatnot hanging in the barns. Very few of those men ever returned."  Life in Kelowna during the First World War was busy for those who were  left behind. It was, in many ways, James William Bromley-Browne's preparation for the later broadcast years. When he notified the other young Englishmen that a war had broken out, it foreshadowed the future when CKOV  would broadcast similar information instantly throughout the Valley. During  the war he raised funds for the Red Cross and the Salvation Army.  "He was a showman," Mrs. Browne remembers. "He played in most of  the productions here in town, raising money for the people in Europe who  needed help at that time. He understood the workings of the stage and he enjoyed that sort of thing."  Around Kelowna, people called her husband "Bigjim." He stood six feet  tall, weighed 225 pounds. Because of his interest in automobiles, J. W. B.  Browne started Kelowna's first service station. The Oil Shop, which was the  town's first Goodyear franchise and the first Imperial Oil outlet. Gasoline arrived in barrels in those days and was pumped by hand into the cars. Tires  were applied directly onto the steel rims by a special vulcanizing machine,  and batteries were always custom built or rebuilt for whatever model car you  drove.  The health problems, however, that JWB developed in the Boer War  periodically confined him to his bed. It was during one of his illnesses, sometime in the twenties, that he developed the idea of going into commercial  broadcasting.  "When radio came along, he was in bed a lot of the time, unable to 38  move. So I thought the best thing I could do was get him one of those music  boxes, they called them radios," she laughs. "I thought it would amuse him,  help to get him going again. I took this thing into his room and turned it on.  The one thing he heard that really got him thinking again was a report from  the far north. The government was trying to find a young Provincial policeman patrolling the interior on horseback.  "The young policeman apparently married before he went to the north.  He had brought his young bride to British Columbia, but when it came time  for her to have her baby he sent her back to Toronto. Well, this report came  over the radio. The government was trying to locate this young policeman.  Because he travelled all the time, he had not picked up his mail in a while.  They were asking that messages be posted in places where he might hole up.  They said to tell him he had a son. My husband was struck by radio's wonderful ability to reach across the mountains like that to touch people's lives. That  started his interest in radio."  Radio had been of interest to several other Kelowna residents since the  early years of the century. The few local receivers at that time picked up KGO  in distant San Francisco. George Howard Dunn of Kelowna was one of the  first amateur radio operators in Canada. It was through Dunn's interest in  radio that J. W. B. Browne received his own introduction to the technical  potential of this new medium. Dunn, too, was an English immigrant. He had  worked for a while with the Japanese government before taking on the City  Clerk's job in the city of Kelowna in 1908. In 1912, he developed an interest in  amateur radio and established his first transmitter, a spark set. Radio, at that  time was very much a rarity in British Columbia. There were a few transmitters on ships and in the logging camps, but little else. Radio was still so young  that, as late as 1934, Webster's dictionary still only defined broadcasting as  "A casting or sowing of seeds in all directions."  In 1928, the Kelowna Amateur Radio Club was founded. Joining George  Dunn in this endeavour were other Englishmen, such as Bobby Johnston, an  engineer with A. J. Jones Boatworks, who became the club's radio engineer;  Harry Blakeborough, the City of Kelowna electrical engineer, the club's first  technical adviser; and - of course -James William Bromley-Browne in charge  of the entertainment programming. To convert to amateur radio broadcasting, Dunn's transmitter had to be converted from morse key operation to  voice. The government granted the club a licence under the call letters  10-AY, restricting the group to non-commercial broadcasting. With a whal-  loping 50 watts of power, they broadcast a relatively ambitious schedule of  programs.  10-AY broadcast church services from the United Church, with the  church sometimes raising money for equipment. On week-days, 10-AY  broadcast the performances of the Ogopogo Concert Club, as well as plays.  Some of the performers in those early days included Bert Johnston, who later  became CKOV's first sportscaster; Jack Taylor, Henry Tutt, Joey Price,  Toddy Boyd, Bay Pridham, Rev. C. E. Davis, Tommy Griffiths, Phyllis Tren-  with, and the Kirk family, all Kelowna performers.  Across North America, radio was beginning to catch on. Newspapers  folded in cities that had once supported a dozen dailies. The depression was  beginning to make itself felt in every corner of society. Radio offered an inexpensive diversion. You could laugh, you could sing along with the music. 39  Through radio, listeners sensed that others were enduring the same hardships  as themselves. Radio made people feel less isolated, less alone. The presence  of 10-AY on the Okanagan airwaves was important to the families living in  the Valley during those very isolated years. At that time a trip to the coast  could take two or three days, if you were lucky. Construction of the Hope-  Princeton highway was still two decades away. Sometimes the trip to  Kamloops took ten to fifteen hours from Kelowna, depending on the conditions of the road and the weather. Motorists heading for Vancouver often had  to decide whether to chance the weather between the Okanagan and  Kamloops or to take the longer, more circuitous route through Washington  State.  Okanagan fruit growers, in particular, felt the hopelessness of their isolation. A U.S. or Eastern Canadian grower was close to his markets while an  Okanagan grower had to not only raise an excellent apple at the best possible  price but ship it to market at competitive prices. The families living in the  towns and on the orchards developed a strong attachment to the programming of 10-AY. Radio allowed them a front row seat to local theatrical and  musical productions.  Even in those early days, radio was starting to prove its worth as an instrument of civic change and improvement. When the polio epidemic struck  the Okanagan during the late twenties, J. W. B. became known as Daddy Jim  to the children who were forced to stay indoors until the dangers had passed.  With George Dunn and the other members of the Kelowna Amateur Radio  Club. J. W. B. Browne produced dozens of small concerts with local performers.  "Jim was having so much fun," Mrs. Browne remembers, "that he finally  asked George to go in with him and start a business, get a commercial radio  licence. George thought it was a crazy idea. He had his job with the City, he  said, and he wasn't interested. So Jim went on his own and applied for the  licence.  The Birth of a Station  In the Twenties, the Canadian government had not yet defined its policies concerning commercial ratio. In England, the government decided to  avoid the licencing of commercial broadcasting altogether. Canada, however,  felt the lure and influence of policies established in the neighboring U.S. Because most radio transmitters were in the hands of a few amateurs, and used  for fishing or shipping or logging, the licencing of commercial radio in this  country was originally in the hands of the federal Department of Fisheries. J.  W. B. Browne received his commercial broadcasting licence in the spring of  1931 on the condition that 10-AY disband.  The Amateur Radio Club readily agreed to this condition for the token  sum of $1.00, paving the way for the Okanagan's first commercial radio station. While Tryphena Browne's husband's involvement with radio had been  growing, she had been operating a hair styling salon in Kelowna. On the day  that CKOV's licence came through, the wife of the director of Vernon Preparatory School came into Tryphena Browne's shop and asked if she was interested in selling the business.  "She said she wanted it so badly. I told her I would let her know that  night. I got in touch with Jim and told him that I'd received this offer on the 40  business. He said for me to do what I liked. I told him I had pretty well made  up my mind to sell and for him to get started building his radio station."  At this time, Jim Browne Jr. was beginning to become involved in radio's  technical side. He was interested from the beginning by the apparatus that  conveyed the signal. The yard of Jones' Sawmill, located where the Kelowna  Memorial Arena and Museum are now situated, was chosen as the site for the  transmitter towers.  "We started originally with two steel poles," says Jim, now retired. "The  idea was that the galvanized poles would get progressively smaller from four  inches down to two inches at the top. We were about two-thirds of the way up  with those steel poles when they came down on us, almost spearing a couple of  the guys who had come along to help out. After that we got some fellows out  of Lumby to cut two 90-foot cedar poles. They had trouble getting them  down here. The road at that time twisted and turned like you wouldn't  believe. They had two trucks, logging trucks, which were much smaller than  logging trucks today. Each truck had a load of logs on it and then the 90-foot  poles were put on top of the loads of logs. They couldn't come up the Kickwilli  Loop — the corners were too sharp. They had to go north to Vernon from  Lumby and when they couldn't find an intersection wide enough to make the  turn back to Kelowna, they had to go into a lumber yard and make the turn  around before heading south. Even them they had to carefully navigate those  turns, one truck cutting inside on a curve while the other went out wide."  The towers went up, studios were established on Mill Avenue (now  Queensway) next door to Jones' Sawmill, on a site that is now the location of  South Okanagan Health Unit. The original studio was a twenty by thirty foot  building with heavy carpet hanging from the ceiling as sound-proofing.  The year was 1931. The population of Kelowna was 4,597. The Dirty  Thirties were underway. The hobo jungle existed just north of Kelowna near  the railroad tracks. The Kelowna to Carmi Road, via McCulloch Lake had  just been completed. The Kelowna Dog Pound reported the impoundment of  one dog and four horses for a total of $15.00 in pound fees. The apple marketing season provided barely one month of work for the packing houses.  1931 was also the year that an enterprising oil entrepreneur drilled in  Okanagan Mission to a depth of 2,050 feet. He found gas, but no oil. 1931  had an average high of 60 degrees (fahrenheit) and a low of 28 degrees. The  Mayor of Kelowna was D. H. Rattenbury and the Kelowna School Board included such notables as David Chapman, Sr. and Mrs. S. D. Treadgold. In  November of that year there were ten births: Kuniko Kitaura, Billy  Schumacher, Carol Jean Curts, Mildred May Olsen, Tony Tozer, Paula  Wray, Albina Zvonarich, Freida Hannabar, Isabel Love, and CKOV.  On November 4th, 1931, at 2:30 p.m., amateur radio station 10-AY  ceased to exist. James William Bromley-Browne flicked the switch, turned on  his microphone and said:  "This is CKOV, the Voice of the Okanagan."  At that time, CKOV was broadcasting at 1230 kilocycles on the dial with  a 60-watt ship's transmitter that the Marconi Company in Montreal had converted to 100 watts. Looking after that transmitter was Jim Browne, Jr., the  Okanagan's first radio engineer.  From the beginning, CKOV was a community effort. As with its predecessor, 10-AY, CKOV's listeners sent donations to keep the station on the air. 41  The company, Okanagan Broadcasters Limited (the licence holder), had  been incorporated on July 27, 1931, so the contributions were converted to  shares of stock for the donors. Among the hundreds of Okanagan residents  who saw the value of the new station were W. A. C. Bennett, the hardware  merchant who eventually served as Premier of British Columbia for two  decades, and Cap Capozzi, founder of Calone Wines and the Capri Hotel  -Shopping Centre complex in Kelowna. Most of CKOV's listeners in the early  days found some way of helping out whenever they could. They loaned records, operated equipment and performed on the air.  "My main concern," Tryphena Browne remembers today, "was Jim's  health. I tried to keep an eye on him so he wouldn't overdo it. I knew if I  didn't watch him, I'd have him down again. But you couldn't stop him. He'd  go all the time. Eventually when he was confined to a wheelchair, he still  managed to broadcast all the hockey games. And he used to go to the station  in a wheelchair. They had to carry him to his office. He felt he just couldn't  leave it. He had a powerful voice and I remember listening to him sing along  with the orchestras he used to broadcast in those days."  J. W. B. Browne became known from Revelstoke to the U.S. border as  The White Haired Philospher. His fifteen minute program aired each morning and afternoon.  In 1931, CKOV's signal spread unfettered by competition throughout  the interior of British Columbia. Jim Browne, Jr. remembers the technical  difficulties of broadcasting in those early days. He entered broadcasting without any training, learning from the men who installed the original equipment.  J. W. B. Browne, the White Haired Philospher, during one of his broadcasts at CKOV's Mill  Avenue studio during the Second World War. 42  "I picked up what I could from the people who constructed the station,"  he says. "They showed me what to fix and how to fix it. We had a transmitter  with a tunable crystal, the signal sometimes moved as many as twenty kilocycles from where it was supposed to be on the broadcast band. The original  frequency was 1230. Listeners used to sometimes call up from Vernon to tell  us that a station from China or Japan or somewhere was interfering with our  broadcast. On a clear night, other stations sometimes interfered on either side  of us, forcing us to tune the transmitter to 1235 or 1240. We told the listeners  what we were doing so they could adjust their receivers accordingly."  In 1934, as Canadian broadcasting began to fall under increasing regulation, CKOV was ordered to install a crystal-controlled transmitter.  "That was when we bought our first true 100-watt transmitter," Jim, Jr.  remembers. "That was the year, too, that we enlarged the studio, adding an  additional 20 by 30 foot section to the building."  In Kelowna, the first generation of listeners were growing up with the  new station. E. J. "Ted" Turner, a packing house worker at that time,  remembers those early days:  "I sort of grew up with the station," says Turner, today a resident of the  Gulf Islands. "I knew the whole works. I remember the first building. It was  so small that when Big Jim Browne was on the air in that little talk booth, I  sometimes had to stand out on the treet to talk to him. It was that small.  Eventually that building became the first yacht club building. In those days  we used to congregate at the Golden Pheasant Cafe downtown listening to the  station. Sometimes after CKOV signed off, we'd all go over there and play  music with Big Jim."  Penny Bond Miller is another Kelowna resident who remembers Big Jim  Browne and the early days of CKOV.  "We used to sing on CKOV on Saturday mornings, I believe it was called  the early bird show," Mrs. Miller remembers. "Mr. Browne was very interested in human beings. He wanted to know absolutely everybody in the  Valley, and to know their story, where they came from, what they did. He was  very people-oriented. He had time for every group, everybody who had anything to say or contribute."  A lot happened in the confines of CKOV's original radio building on Mill  Avenue. Although the first studio had two chairs and a microphone, a constant stream of Kelowna citizens flowed through the station taking advantage  of Big Jim Browne's good nature, utilizing the power of radio to entertain, inform and shape the community. Harry Mitchell, who broadcast the B.C.  Tree Fruits Bulletin on CKOV for 20 years, remembered the significant part  that CKOV played in solving several of Kelowna's early problems.  "Those were depression years," Mitchell remembers. "There was literally  nothing out here. When I came down on the Sicamous, I had just emigrated  from a city of one million in Scotland, so I was a little taken aback by what I  saw here. There were only a few houses, a whaft and little else. I had left a  reasonably good job in Scotland, and it took me a few years to get established  here. I arrived about the time that the two tall cedar poles were being raised  for CKOV's transmitter where Kelowna's museum is now located.  "On the air, Jim Browne was pointing out things that needed improvement. CKOV was a regular forum for civic improvement, and in 1935 when  the Junior Board of Trade was being formed, all these young men got to- 43  gether to try to improve the civic situation. There was no mail delivery, no  street numbering. You just knew, for example, that you lived on Ethel Street,  but whether you lived on the north or south end of the street, you had no idea.  Jim Browne said he'd help out any way he could, so he gave us the airtime to  talk about the problem."  Another problem was mosquito control. "In those days you couldn't sit  on your lawn without being bothered by swarms of mosquitoes. People out in  Glenmore had friends over from England for a visit, I remember. These people were hospitalized by the bites they sustained during a single evening out in  the orchard. When they got out of hospital, they headed directly back to  England. They couldn't put up with the mosquitoes any longer. So we got together a committee to investigate the mosquito. We studied how they bred  and all, then publicized the problem over CKOV. I remember after that  broadcast, the Junior Board of Trade from Penticton came up and said 'what  are you fellows trying to do? Kill the tourist traffic in Kelowna? We said, no,  we were just trying to be factual and solve the problem. At that time, Mr. H.  V. Craig, a Kelowna lawyer, used to go on CKOV every spring asking for  funds to control the mosquitoes through a voluntary program. It was not adequate to solve the problem. Eventually, by talking about mosquitoes on the  air and among the residents of the town, the city fathers became convinced  that mosquito control was a community responsibility."  Radio has always been a blend of news, information, entertainment and  sports, a part of the day to day life of the community, a reflection of the  changing world. Music has always been the mainstay of radio entertainment,  and CKOV's music broadcasts in the thirties reflected Kelowna's tastes at that  time. In addition to the local performers, there were also visiting performers  from everywhere who contributed to the music programming. Win Shilvock,  a retired investment dealer who moved to Kelowna in the late forties, remembers performing on CKOV with the Home Oil Optimists.  Living on $5.00 per week while attending the University of British Columbia in 1933, Mr. Shilvock was playing with a small ensemble on the CNR  boats to Prince Rupert and Alaska when the Home Oil Optimists were formed. As an advertising medium, the group went on five-month tours of British  Columbia. A typical concert included everything from tap dance to comedy  skits. The 18-member orchestra appeared at matinee and evening performances in the Kelowna Scout Hall, and performed in the CKOV studios as  the first out-of-towers to perform on the station. "It was very hot in the CKOV  studio while we performed," Mr. Shilvock remembers.  Throughout the Thirties and the Forties, Jim Browne Jr.'s involvement  with CKOV was limited to the technical end of the business. His first love was  ranching and horses, so he often found himself drawn into the mountains on  horseback. Once when he was working on a ranch at Princeton, he left word  at the station that if anything broke down for someone to get in touch with  him. The full-time engineer at that time, Art Miller, ran into a problem he  was unable to solve. The station developed an intermittency in the transmitter, it kept going off the air and no matter what Miller did it just wouldn't stay  on for long. Miller, like Jim Browne, Jr. and most radio engineers at Canadian stations in those days, had learned his engineering by the seat of his pants.  The problem stymied him.  J. W. B. sent word to Jim via a bus driver who knew the owner of the 44  ranch in Princeton. Jim jumped on his horse and rode all night across the  mountains, arriving at the westside landing at dawn in time for the first ferry.  He rode out to the CKOV transmitter, walked in the door, took one look at  the problem, replaced a transformer, then went home to sleep. The station  was back on the air. Another time Jim remembers being called in because of  some difficulty while he was out on the range. He walked in the door and,  with one of his heavy workboots kicked the box that contained the crystal,  putting the station instantly back on the air.  "In those days," Jim Jr. remembers, "the crystal sat in a small, heated  box and could be very tempermental. Kicking it was not what the books  might have said to do, but it worked every time."  Jim Browne Jr., the Okanagan's first radio engineer, fine tuning CKOV's 250 watt Maraconi  transmitter.  In 1936, Jim Browne was not satisfied with the performance of the Marconi transmitter, so he decided to convert it from 100 to 250 watts. The engineers at Marconi in Montreal told him it was not possible.  "They said something about the harmonics," Jim recalls. "I didn't know  anything about harmonics, but I had been reading American manuals on  tubes and figured it would work."  He made the conversion and the transmitter performed beautifully at 45  250 watts, with the Department of Transport, now the agency regulating  broadcasters, none the wiser. At the start of the Second World War, Marconi  heard rumors of what Jim had accomplished in Kelowna. They invited him to  Montreal to show their engineers how he had accomplished what they had  earlier said was impossible. For a month he worked with the Marconi Company's designers and his influence went into the design of a new 250-watt  ship's transmitter used aboard Canadian and British corvettes during the war.  In 1938 the CKOV transmitter moved to Lakeshore Road on a piece of  property that had been part of Mission Creek's flood plain and within shouting distance of the Father Pandosy Mission. The 16-acre parcel was bought  from Dr. Benjamin DeFurlong Boyce for $75.00 per acre, with the agreement  written on the back of a paper bag found alongside Lakeshore Road. "When  we finally paid off that property," Jim Browne remembers today, "it was that  original piece of paper bag that we bought back,"  At the Lakeshore Road site, a proper tower was constructed and the station's power increased to 1000 watts. As the technical capacities of CKOV expanded during the late Thirties, the station began to reach farther and farther afield in search of its programming. Sports events were, naturally, the  first place they turned. Radio took the listener to the sporting event for all the  action. Sports facilities in Kelowna during those days were limited. There was  no rink for ice hockey, only a playing field in Kelowna City Park for box lacrosse games and a court in the Kelowna Scout Hall for basketball games.  Such things as indoor swimming pools and man-made ice were mere dreams.  As a fledgling radio station, CKOV went where the action was. Bert  Johnston was Kelowna's first sports announcer before opening a men's clothing store in downtown Kelowna. Marry Mitchell remembers that Johnston  used to share the announcing duties with J. W. B. Browne at the basketball  games. "Bert Johnston was the Foster Hewitt of sports in Kelowna in those  days," Mitchell says.  Kelowna followed its sports stars on CKOV radio. Charlie Pettman, who  eventually served as Kelowna's fire chief for several decades, and his brother,  Harold, who became a familiar figure in the tree fruit industry as well as  theatrical productions around Kelowna, were two of the basketball players in  the Thirties. Down in Kelowna City Park, CKOV's first remote broadcast was  a box lacrosse game that included Herb Capozzi playing goalie.  Once CKOV developed a taste for remote broadcasting, the station appeared everywhere with its small KAAR transmitter. Using telephone land  lines, the station broadcast from the Rotary Club's Home Fairs in Penticton  before finally establishing a satellite repeater that became the predecessor of  CKOK. When the Pendozi was launched, CKOV was aboard for the ferry's  maiden voyage with Jack Bews describing the historic event.  News during the early days of CKOV's broadcast was "catch as, catch  can." There was no newsroom as such, no news staff. The on-air personnel  read the news or incorporated it into their other programming.  "The news came in on quarter-inch tape," Jack Bews remembers, "and  we had to take it, moisten the back and stick it onto forms that were designed  for use with the ticker tape. That news came through at 7:30 in the morning  in time for our 8:00 a.m. news broadcast, and we usually re-wrote from the  B.B.C. newscasts for our evening news at 5:00. We also picked up news from  the morse code news service that we received from the U.S.I wasn't very good 46  at code, so I had to record the morse code signal on a dictaphone and then  play it back at the slowest speed to transcribe it."  During the Thirties, the Trans-Canada Network slowly threaded the  country together with news and entertainment programming. The Network  had an emergency capacity that went untested until almost the outbreak of  the Second World War. Suddenly, an abandoned gold mine in Moose River,  Ontario, caved in, trapping several men deep beneath the earth's surface.  When news of the disaster spread across the country, Canadians everywhere sat on the edges of their seats as the true-life drama built to a fever  pitch. The Trans-Canada Network used its twenty-four hour emergency procedure for the first time, and Jim Browne Jr. the ranching radio engineer who  had been more concerned with crystals and tubes, suddenly found himself  broadcasting for seventy straight hours as CKOV carried the developments in  Moose River. When the men were eventually rescued, Canadian listeners had  only a brief moment to catch their breath before the world itself began to  cave-in.  The War Years  The world of the late 1930's was a stage of turbulent international politics. Beyond the pastoral peace of the Okanagan, tanks were rolling through  green European valleys much like the Okanagan. When England entered the  war on September 3rd, 1939, the Trans-Canada Network of the Canadian  Broadcasting Corporation withheld the news while Prime Minister Mackenzie  King and his cabinet decided whether or not Canada should enter the war.  With Jim Browne Jr. broadcasting from the transmitter, J. W. B. Browne and  Jack Bews monitored their U.S. news sources at the studio downtown, conveying the story to Okanagan listeners as it unfolded. The Valley, as a result, was  one of the few regions in Canada to hear the story that night.  "I don't know how Ottawa found out that we had carried the news of  England entering the war," Jack Bews remembers. "But they found out,  nonetheless. The next day we got a wire telling us to cease and desist or lose  our licence. They rapped our knuckles on that one." It was not the first time,  nor was it the last time that CKOV found itself in conflict with the Ottawa  bureaucracy and its red tape.  When Canada finally entered the war, CKOV's staff experienced an exodus unlike any other in the station's history. Bill Carruthers, Rolf Mathie,  Dennis Reid and Dick Misener went to the Army. Bern Heeney, Ernie Gordon  and Jack Bews joined the Air Force. Ernie Gordon died in action, some of the  others found new occupations after the war, and only two, Dennis Reid and  Jack Bews, later returned to CKOV.  Big Jim Browne found himself again working to raise funds for the people in Europe who needed help. This time CKOV joined forces with the Kinsmen Club's Milk for Britain Drive. In recognition of the station's contribution  to this drive, J. W. B. Browne was made a lifetime member of the Kelowna  Kinsmen Club. CKOV kept the Valley informed of the war effort and passed  along news of the Okanagan's sons when it came available.  During the war, CKOV hired its first woman announcer-operator, Eileen  Bowman. She had held a similar position with CJAT in Trail. At CKOV,  Bowman became a companion for CKOV's listeners. Called "Hi, Neighbor,"  her program included a pot pourri of recipes, household hints, poetry and 47  items of interest to the homemaker. Eileen Bowman's program was a forerunner of the 1950's feature, "Cy and I," with Cy Cairns and Marion Bews.  Some people called the program cyanide!  During the war years employees were hard to find, but CKOV replaced  those who had gone to war with ex-servicemen, Jack Boates, Harry Watts,  Fred Weber, and Doug "Colonel" Elmore. A young fellow named Bill Stewart  joined the staff, introducing the use of sound effects, musical bridges and  other special effects to create a "live program" sound similar to that of the  American network programming.  As a young girl, Marion Lee often listened to CKOV on her brother's  crystal set in the attic of their Kamloops home. She moved to Kelowna in  1943.  "It took us ten hours to get here from Kamloops in a blizzard," she remembers today. "That was January. There were five soldiers on the bus in addition to the driver and me. Every so often we rounded a bend in the road and  ran into a snowdrift. The driver had to get out by himself and shovel us out of  that snowbank so we could get going again."  In Kelowna, Marion Lee went to work for CKOV as a stenographer, but  radio being radio nobody ever does the same job day in and day out. She soon  found herself writing quarter-hour, half-hour and one hour programs under  the guidance of Ralph Spencer, CKOV's first copy chief.  "It was interesting," she recalls. "We wrote each program with an introduction mentioning the sponsor, as well as an introduction for each musical  selection. We had to convey the era of a song and something about the composer. There was little room for ad-libbing, not like today. Most announcers  in those days wrote their own programs."  During the Forties, the station broadcast an incredible variety of programming from its small Mill Avenue studio. There was an exercise class, for  example, with Kay Dunaway playing the piano while a half-dozen children  went through their morning calisthenics under the guidance of Bill Wilcox  and Janet Strang.  The Radio Rascals, who had become famous across Canada from their  appearance on CJOR in Vancouver and the Trans-Canada Network, performed on CKOV to promote their dances throughout the Okanagan. The  Radio Rascals featured, among others, Red Hughes who later became a well-  known figure in Kelowna Little Theatre; and Art Vipond, who served as  CKOV's engineer for many years before opening a health food store in  Kelowna.  The Forties also saw the continuation of a CKOV tradition begun in  1931, the New Year's Eve broadcasts, a family affair for the Brownes. Every  New Year's Eve, Big Jim Browne, Typhena Browne, their son, Jim, his wife,  Barbara and eventually Typhena's grandson, Jamie, all went on the air to  play music, pass along Valley news and extend the family's best wishes to all  the listeners for the new year. The tradition continued into the Seventies.  At the end of the war, Jack Bews returned to CKOV where he met newcomer Marion Lee. In 1946, CKOV moved into its new studios on Pandosy,  designed by staff engineer Jack Webber, and much of the cabinet work by his  assistant, Geoff Watson. In the new building, Jack Bews set up CKOV's first  full-fledged newsroom. Correspondence sent news items from Revelstoke,  Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Coldstream, Kelowna, Peach- 48  land, Penticton, Princeton, Merritt, Oliver and Osoyoos, for a penny a word.  "We kept in touch with everything that was going on throughout the  Valley," Jack Bews remembers. "As CKOK and CJIB came on the air in the  late Forties, our news gradually became more local."  In 1948 Marion Lee married Jack Bews at the home of James William  Bromley-Browne, one of several CKOV romances that blossomed over the  years.  During the mid-Forties, the B.C. Arthritis Society was formed. His own  first-hand problems with the disease made Mr. J. W. B. Browne particularly  sensitive to the needs of the new society. While on holiday in the Gulf Islands,  Marion Lee met Mary Pack, a Vancouver school teacher whose mother suffered from arthritis.  "Drawing on her own funds," Marion Bews remembers today, "Mary  wrote to every newspaper in Canada soliciting support for the creation of an  Arthritis Society. She felt a society could wield clout in approaching Government for assistance. At that time, arthritis research was still in its infancy and  money was needed for equipment and staff."  Marion told Mary Pack's story to J. W. B. Browne. He immediately  threw the full promotional support of CKOV behind the effort. The result  was the establishment of the Kelowna Branch of the Canadian Arthritis and  Rheumatism Society, with Captain C. R. Bull as president and Marion Bews  the first secretary. Other branches soon sprang up in other British Columbia  towns. The B.C. service model became the cornerstone of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society, serving as an organizational model for parts  of the U.S. and other countries. The role CKOV played in the development of  this society was documented in Mary Pack's book "Never Surrender."  The Advent of Personality Radio  In 1946, Jack Thompson took over the CKOV Early Bird Show, moving  to the Okanagan after several years reporting the Wheat Board News on a  Winnipeg radio station. Thompson's arrival at CKOV heralded a major shift  in radio programming in the Okanagan, and reflected a growing trend  throughout Canada. Prior to Thompson, CKOV offered little in the way of  personality radio programming, only rarely had staff members even been  identified by name. To his Kelowna audience, Thompson's personality  blossomed in the character of Grandpappy Jackson.  He told tales, he played music and he hammed it up every morning from  7:00 to 10:00. In the process, Grandpappy Jackson became an Okanagan  legend. Generations of Valley residents woke up with him every morning. He  became, perhaps, the hottest item in CKOV's entire 50 year history. Today  some Kelowna residents still remember Grandpappy Jackson. It took television nearly a decade to develop Steve Allen, Jack Parr and Johnny Carson as  personalities. Grandpappy Jackson, by all accounts, was a one-of-a-kind  broadcaster. His program was spiced with ad libs and off-the-wall humor that  today many announcers do their best to duplicate. He maintained a running  battle of wits with Art Vipond, Bob Hall, Walter Gray, as well as others on  CKOV's staff. In Grandpappy Jackson, radio began to shape the programming it would eventually need to compete with the somewhat aloof, always  distant audio/visual combination of television. Radio was immediate. It responded to life in the here and the now. It played with the imagination in 49  ways that no other medium has been able to duplicate.  Freda Woodhouse, another early CKOV personality, came to the station  after working for two well-known Canadian broadcasters, Claire Wallace and  Kate Aitken. At CKOV, Freda conducted interviews, wrote news, features  and advertising copy, and specialized in a children's program called "Friend  Freda." She also spearheaded a program called "Coffee Break."  "In those days," Marion Lee Bews remembers, "there were no phone-in  programs. Several staff members and their special guests used to meet in the  studio at coffee time. For half an hour, Freda led the discussion on anything  and everything, whatever was topical. The modern version of "Coffee Break"  is the CKOV "Open Line," whose telephone bills today are almost as much as  some of the early payrolls.  As the Forties drew to a close, failing health made James William  Bromley-Browne's involvement with CKOV increasingly difficult. The duties  of station management gradually shifted to his son, Jim Browne Jr. By now,  Kelowna had grown to a booming population of about eight thousand inhabitants; the town was on the brink of a population boom that would occur  after the Okanagan Lake floating bridge was opened.  As manager of CKOV, Jim Browne and CKOV began to look farther  afield for new broadcast interests. When television was introduced to Canada  in 1952, he saw its potential and became involved with the creation of CHBC-  TV in 1957. Television introduced new competition to radio that was totally  unlike the competition that CKOV had encountered with the Valley newspapers over the years. As television began to catch the eye of previously loyal  radio listeners, the shape of CKOV's broadcasting began to change.  During the Fifties, as well, the technical end of the radio business began  to give radio new potential. Seventy-eight rpm (revolutions per minute)  records were gradually replaced by long-playing albums at 33 V3 rpms and the  shorter 45's. Reel-to-reel tape recorders replaced the wire recorder, and each  new technological innovation influenced the sound of the station, changing  very subtley the way radio conveyed music and information.  As if to signal the end of one era and the beginning of a new one, James  William Bromley-Browne died in 1954, with the decade not even half way  along.  "Jim was ill for about a year," Mrs. Tryphena Browne remembers.  "When the New Year came around he was in hospital. He had been very ill. I  went up to see him, it was just before I was supposed to go to the station for  the New Year's Eve broadcast. I didn't even know if I would get back to him  in time, but I went on and told the old people of the Okanagan how Jim was  and what he wished to say to them. The show had to go on, he always said."  And it did.  Under Jim Browne Jr.'s management, CKOV continued to grow, continued to reach out into the community. But Jim was different from his  father, he was his own man, and his involvement with CKOV reflected his individual nature. Because flying was one of his interests and because the  Kelowna city Airport was always in the process of closing down, he became involved in the push to get the city a permanent, commercially operated runway  and terminal. His contacts with the Department of Transport on radio matters were invaluable to Mayor Dick Parkinson and the other residents who  wanted Kelowna to have an airport. He personally flew a delegation back 50  East, opened the right doors and introduced Kelowna to Ottawa on a first-  name basis.  "I'll never forget when Jimmy took Mayor Parkinson back to Ottawa,"  says Mrs. Browne. "Jimmy was keen on the project. He did a fair amount of  flying in those days. He did everything he could to get Kelowna an airport.  When Ottawa finally agreed to it (airport construction) and time came for the  airport to open, all these big business people, the City Fathers and everybody  else turned out for the congratulations, Jimmy just disappeared. They eventually found him hiding out in the plane so he wouldn't have to go through all  the ceremonies."  During the Fifties, Rock and Roll began to fill the airwaves of North  America. As the post World War Two baby boom babies began to exert their  buying influence on the marketplace, radio became more popular than ever.  But this meant more radio stations. As the airwaves filled, CKOV's signal received increasing interference from stations as far away as the southern U.S.  Distant signals sometimes pushed CKOV off the dial in fringe areas of its  broadcast pattern. The applications necessary for a station to increase its  power are a slow bureaucratic process, but approval eventually came through  from the Board of Broadcast Governors (the predecessor the Canadian Radio  and Television Commission).  Top 40 Radio Arrives  With a full 5,000 watts of power beaming from its Lakeshore Road transmitter, CKOV entered the Sixties with all the confidence and bravado of a  young man at a Saturday night dance. The world was changing, much to the  chagrin of people who liked the old ways, the old music, the old style radio.  As North America began to look increasingly to the moon and beyond, technological innovations began to filter into radio everywhere. Suddenly the  equipment freed the staff from many of the tedious and often repetitive  chores that once filled their broadcast day, but it pushed the personality of  the announcer into the background, made the station sound "canned." In Los  Angeles and New York radio stations became heavily formatted. It was called  the Drake format, named after the broadcaster who invented top-40 radio.  Suddenly stations everywhere became "tight." Dead air became a curse  avoided at all costs. Every second was filled with music or commercial and as  little chatter, as little news as possible. Radio started to "drive" with a fast-  pace that made the personality of the announcer very difficult to perceive, it  was the "sound" of the station that became important. Announcements and  commercials that were once read by the person on the air were pre-recorded  onto cartridges and plugged into the flow of the programming as easily as a  record. It took nearly a decade for Drake to arrive in the Okanagan with all  its driving force. CKOV's format adopted the cartridge technology but maintained a lot of the backfence informality and the live feeling that was removed  from stations in major urban centres.  In the early Sixties, CKOV entered yet another field of broadcasting  when it put CJOV-FM on the air. The new FM outlet allowed for the broadcasting of classical and semi-classical music, longer album cuts and types of  music that had lost their place when the Drake format pushed AM radio into  the fast lane. Charles F. Patrick and Gloria Mildenberger, both well-known  figures in Kelowna Little Theatre, both long-time CKOV employees, worked 51  with the new FM outlet as it gradually shifted to an automated, pre-recorded,  semi-classical format in the later years of the Sixties. Eventually CJOV-FM  evolved into a station of its own, with its own staff, its own studios. Recently  the operation's call letters were changed to CHIM-FM, reflecting its unique  broadcasting personality.  Among the baby boom teenagers and young adults as a third generation  Browne, grandson of J. W. B. Browne and son of Jim Browne Jr., Jamie  Browne's full-time involvement with CKOV began in 1968. Following his  grandfather's footsteps, he entered first radio programming and later moved  to management. It is an unbroken family tradition unique to the history of  Canadian radio. Like his father and his grandfather before him, Jamie came  into the business of broadcasting with his own individuality intact. Radio had  changed a lot in the forty years since his grandfather had started the station,  and it would change nearly as much in the next decade as it had in the first  four.  When the influence of the Drake format finally took the Okanagan by  storm, CKOV went as tightly-formatted as any station could possibly get. In  1968, every moment of the day, every commercial, every newscast, every  weather report, every comment by an announcer was pre-recorded and fed  into a fully-automated broadcasting system. The heart of the system was a  bank of blue machines, primitive computers with carousels for the tape cartridges and a clock to schedule everything. Every spoken work was prerecorded on a cartridge, including such mundane radio business as the time  checks.  "It could do everything," Jamie Browne remembers. "The idea was to  free up people to find out more of what was happening in the community.  But it was never as fast or efficient as it should have been. The automation  was relatively accurate, but you could never leave it without being afraid  something would go wrong. We also lost that personal contact with the radio  audience. There was no announcer in the control room speaking to the  listener individually. With the automated system, the announcer was talking  to a tape machine, talking to everyone in general and nobody in particular. It  just didn't work. The same thing eventually happened to the Drake format in  the early Seventies. It wore out and stations re-discovered the importance of  the highly personalized style of radio."  The U.S. Space Program also had a powerful influence on radio toward  the end of the Sixties. With its emphasis on miniaturization, the Apollo program gave the world the benign virus of innovation. Every car rolling down  the assembly line had a radio in the dash as standard equipment. Many teenagers on the beach held transistor radios or cassette recorders to their ears.  Radio programming began to reflect the new listener as the Seventies arrived.  CKOV's influences during the Seventies, as always, came from around  the world as new staff moved to the Okanagan to work in the Valley's relative  pace and quiet. They brought CKOV their knowledge of the new solid state  equipment, their ability to read surveys and fathom the needs of the audience. Some demonstrated an almost mystical sense for programming  modern music. Studies across Canada showed that listeners wanted music,  news, commercial information and strong personalities. Modern programming began to mix this concoction, supplying a little of everything every half  hour. It fit the lifestyle on the go. 52  When CKIQ_ received its call letters in 1971, radio in the Okanagan moved into a new era. Prior to that time, the three AM stations in the Valley  (CKOK, CKOV, CJIB) had never been more than loosely competitive, nobody had a signal strong enough to take listeners from anyone else. For the  first time, an Okanagan station had competition in its own backyard, another  station down the street chasing the same news stories, producing commercials  for the same businesses, and struggling for the loyalty of the same listening  audience. In the past, CKOV's music programming had always had a bit of  something for everyone, it was general, it waltzed down the middle of the  road. Suddenly the station found it necessary to find its own audience and to  understand how that audience was different from CKIQJs. It was, for the first  time, necessary to specialize.  The Dawning of Radio's Age of Specialization  Space technology had two influential spinoffs that enabled CKOV to key  into the changing times in a big way. The cassette recorder, compact and improved from its early models, became the cornerstone of a new type of broadcasting. News personnel were suddenly everywhere, thrusting microphones at  the people making the news. CKOV extended its coverage, expanded its open  line and became an aggressive gatherer of news. The second spinoff was the  computer. Suddenly the grey humming boxes were working away in the corners of offices everywhere. As the Seventies unfolded, CKOV began to adapt  computer technology to such mundane routine tasks as the compilation of its  program logs, which are the heart of the broadcast day.  The task of scheduling commercials, newscasts, features and announcers  at a radio station is called Traffic. Prior to the advent of the computer, traffic  was a tedious, handwritten, boring job that sometimes occupied two CKOV  staff members. The computer transformed a traffic manager into a computer  operator and tied all of CKOV's departments into one cohesive whole. It  simplified many of the procedures, it clarified data for all of the staff, and it  even informed the sales department when there were additional time slots for  sale.  In 1973 when the OPEC oil embargo drove the price of oil sky high, nobody in the broadcasting industry could predict how it would ultimately affect radio stations everywhere. As the price of oil went up, the price of poly-  vinylchloride (pvc), the plastic omponent of records also went into the clouds.  To reduce their costs, record companies began to use recycled pvc and lower  grade materials. By 1979, CKOV had begun to change from records to tape.  The poor quality of the records made the move to tape necessary for the station to maintain a brightness to its sound.  "If you take a popular record," says Jamie Browne, "and back-cue the  record ten times during a week, you lose the first half bar of the music and the  needle of the turntable gouges out the grooves of the record. Today 50 to 60  per cent of our music is on cartridge and by 1982 we expect to have 90 per  cent on tape."  In 1979, along with the move to cartridge-recording for the music,  CKOV's surveys indicated that there was a large, untapped audience for  Country music in Kelowna.  "We surveyed about 500 people in the Kelowna area," says Jamie  Browne. "They basically told us that — yes — they would listen to Country 53  music, but it wasn't significant enough to turn around and change to Country  overnight. The survey gave us an indication of what the public felt was missing from the marketplace. That reinforced our own gut feeling that now was  the time to change. At that time, the three stations in Kelowna all sounded  basically the same. Somebody had to break away and take the chance; either  make it big or die. When you're in close touch with the listening audience,  you get a feeling for what people want. We felt the time was right and we  made the change."  CKOV: The Future  In 1981, work was begun on the new CKOV studios on one corner of the  land where the transmitter is now located, signalling yet another step in the  history that began in 1931. Within the walls of the station, CKOV will be endeavouring to adapt the state of the art technology to its programming.  "All of the equipment will be new," says Jamie Browne. "Basically it will  do the same job as the equipment we are using today, but in some cases it will  do the job faster, more consistently. Because everything has been miniaturized, you don't need as much space, but no matter how small the equipment gets you always need enough room for a man or woman to work comfortably. The building will be 11,000 square feet. The sound block will be on  the outside walls. The announcing and news staff will have access to the outside through windows. We have designed the building around one word,  Communication. We want the staff who communicate with the listening public to be able to see what's going on outside at any given moment. Inside the  building we have designed the space so the people who work together most  often are, of course, closest together. We operate 24 hours a day, seven days  per week, twelve months per year,, so we are designing the new facility to feel  comfortable to the staff. There will be a garden and recreation area outside,  with a courtyard in the centre of the building."  The biggest, most dramatic changes in radio during the Eighties will be  in the handling of information. The Information Revolution, as some writers  have called it, began in the Seventies and is starting to mushroom in the  Eighties. Teledon, the Canadian cable system adapted by IT&T, is just one of  the systems that will be feeding inforamtion into towns such as Kelowna during the Eighties. Every home will suddenly have access to libraries, films,  documentaries, research institutions and computer terminals all over the  world. Broadcast News, the service that supplies CKOV with its national and  international news stories, began its satellite transmission in the fall of 1981.  Each station on the service will have its own receiving dish and a high speed  printer capable of printing 120 lines per minute. All of the stories will be coded and stations such as CKOV will be able to call up whatever stories they  need for a particular newscast.  "There is still no computer program for local news." Jamie Browne says  regretfully. "The industry will have to develop this during the Eighties.  Broadcast News is having trouble finding a computer program to index the  news it will be transmitting via satellite. The closest they have come is a program used for cross-indexing the legal libraries of Canadian universities."  The Information Revolution will also revolutionize the way radio stations  in general and CKOV in particular program during the Eighties and beyond.  With vast quantities of information feeding into cable-linked homes, news- 54  papers, radio stations, television stations, and magazines are all expected to  specialize,to focus their formats for increasingly smaller interest groups. This  has already taken place in Canadian magazine publishing. Weekend Magazine and the Canadian Magazine both merged in the late Seventies as the demand for general-interest magazines declined. Runners are buying running  magazines, sailors are buying sailing magazines, electronics nuts are buying  electronics publications, women are buying women's magazines. No matter  what the interest group, there is a publication specialized for the limited  interests of that group. Radio in the Eighties is expected to follow suit.  Space technology, particularly the technology used for the Voyager and  Mariner probes to the planets, will again shape part of the way that radio  sounds in the coming decades. Although digital encoding is still somewhat  rare on popular recordings, it has the potential of offering the home listener a  quality of music that has, until now, been limited to FM receivers. Through  the digital process, all of the information of a particular song (the separation  of the channels, the frequency range of the music, the rhythm, the vocals) can  be programmed onto the record in the same way that similar information is  programmed into a computer. A home receiver capable of decoding the  digital signal can, in principal, receive a stereophonic, full-frequency recording as good as anything that FM can offer. Digital has expanded AM radio's  potential and people in the technical end of the business expect that digitally  encoded microchips will ultimately replace the cassette tape.  That, however, is the future, and the future is always, at best, a big question mark. The history is somewhat easier to grasp than the future of any operation. In the beginning, the future of CKOV was never certain. It started in  the Dirty Thirties, depression years when nobody with any sense should have  been starting anything new. It survived and thrived, spawning other broadcasting ventures. Mrs. Tryphena Browne says that it was impossible to envision the changes, the growth that would take place in Kelowna and in  CKOV between 1931 and 1981.  "I had no idea it would go fifty years," she says. "In fact, I never thought  of it. My mind was taken up with other things all the time. It was quite a time,  all the way through those years. It was something I wouldn't have missed for  anyting. It was a lot of fun."  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This CKOV history could never have been written without the patient  assistance of so many people. Among those who contributed their time,  memories and energy are Mrs. Tryphena Browne, the widow of the late J. W.  B. Browne; Jim Browne Jr., her son; Jamie Browne, her grandson. Several of  CKOV's former and current employees also contributed to the careful reconstruction of the station's fifty year history, and among these are Marion and  Jack Bews whose knowledge of the station was invaluable. In addition to  these, I wish to thank the dozens of Kelowna residents who agreed to be interviewed during the preparation of this history; and Brian Wilson of the Interior Photo Bank of the Kelowna Centennial Museum, who helped with the  photographic aspects of this history. 55  CKOV on location at Meikle's Department Store during a sales promotion in the late Forties. The  man with the microphone is Charles F. Patrick, a longtime sales employee of CKOV. The radio  technician on the right is Brian Harron. The man standing behind Harron is Norm DeHart, part  owner of Meikle's. 56  ESSAY CONTEST  Editor's Note: Each year the Okanagan Historical Society  runs an essay contest open to students in high school or college.  The subject must be some aspect of Okanagan History and the  length not more than 3500 words. The Parent Body of the  Okanagan Historical Society offers a prize of $150 for the best essay  overall and each of the branches offers a $50 prize for the best essay  from their respective areas. Students can enter by contacting one of  the editorial chairpersons listed at the front of this Report.  This year, again, we have had some fine entries in our essay  contest. These are some of the best. The winning essay was written  by Ann Davies of Vernon, B.C.  THE GREY CANAL  By Ann M. Davies  The Grey Canal, a system of open ditches, flumes and pipes used for irrigation was only one part of the irrigation system developed in the Vernon  area in the early part of this century. It was named after Earl Grey, a Governor General of Canada. Although it has not been in operation since 1970, remains are still noticeable running a straight line along the hillside above the  Coldstream Valley.  Vernon lies at the North part of what was advertised in early promotional brochures "Drybelt lands" and the land needed irrigation to bring it to full  productivity. The present day lush orchards of the area bear witness to the  foresight of the early pioneers in bringing water to all parts of the land.  Luc Girouard was the first person in Vernon to start irrigation in a small  way, running a ditch from Springs in the vicinity of Maple Street.1 The first  recorded rights for water use in the Vernon area is dated September 1871 and  the official acknowledgement states: "Charles E. Vernon, Coldstream Creek  No. 4A (22) Received 25th day September 1871 in favour of Charles E.  Vernon one thousand inches of water to be diverted from Coldstream Creek  for irrigation and mill purposes — Pro. A. J. Busby, S. M. Signed, John  Boyd."2  Charles E. Vernon, his brother Forbes Vernon and Capt. Chas.  Houghton were the original owners of what came to be called the 'Coldstream  Ranch' which was sold to the Earl of Aberdeen. Lord Aberdeen had travelled  through the area in 1890 and bought a ranch near Kelowna. He was very impressed by the Okanagan Valley and bought the Coldstream Ranch in 1891.  He appointed his brother-in-law the Hon. Coutts Marjoribanks as Manager.  Aberdeen was appointed Governor General of Canada in 1893, and therefore  was able to spend a good deal of time at the ranch over the next five years.  Coutts Marjoribanks employed H. Kirby, B.C.L.S. to survey an irrigation ditch on the North side of the Coldstream Valley while he was manager.3  W. Crawley Ricardo replaced him in 1895 and had a survey done of the Jones  Creek (now Duteau Creek) watershed and Lake Aberdeen as a possible source  of supply for an irrigation system.4 This survey was carried out by A. C. 57  Ashcroft who recommended that Haddo and Aberdeen Lake be dammed and  the Grey and South Canals be constructed. Aberdeen Lake lies S.E. of Vernon at an altitude of 4,197+ feet and Jones Creek connects the head gates  and dam. The Grey Canal itself begins at the 1950- 1900 foot level in the  Coldstream Valley, declining to only 500 feet at Okanagan Landing area.5  It was found prior water rights were held by Tom Ward and William  Reid of Benachie Ranch and they had to be offset before the project could go  ahead, but the canal, flumes and dam were soon started with the use of a  large steam shovel and horse scrapers.53 E. B. Knight was in charge of the  construction. The system was a gravity system using canals — from twenty  feet wide at the source to two feet wide at Okanagan Lake (built in later  years), with flumes of wood crossing gullies etc. as wide as eleven feet, plus the  syphons built of wood pipe.  The main reason for this large project was the fact that part of the Coldstream Ranch was being subdivided; the ranch became a limited company in  1906.6 This was a time of great activity in selling land throughout the Okanagan with many of the older cattle ranches being subdivided for orchardland.  The competition to sell was intense with irrigated land being more desirable.  Most of the shares of the Coldstream Estate Company were held by Lord  Aberdeen and Mr. James Lavington of Woolavington in England as were the  shares of the White Valley Irrigation and Power Company which was set up in  1907 to operate and develop the irrigation system.7  Legislation covering water rights was still in the process of being developed during those years. The Water Consolidation Act in 1897 was the first  dealing entirely with water. The Water Act of 1909 set up a Board of Investigation to revise all the old records, to make surveys to determine flow and  estimate what quantity of land could be made irrigable. It is evident this type  of legislation was necessary when friction over water rights caused the death of  a Vernon man named Layton who was shot and killed by a neighboring land  owner for digging a ditch for irrigation purposes even though he had authority by the Government Department concerned for construction in the year of  1908.8.  The Coldstream Estate Company published a fully illustrated brochure  in 1908 of the lands to be offered for sale in 1909. This contains photographs  of the flumes, ditches being built as part of the canal system as well as the  'Lavington Syphon.'9 This was a good stave pipe, wound with wire which was  two feet in diameter and syphoned the water across the Coldstream Valley up  the Grey Canal elevation. The brochure points out that the irrigation system  had been formed to irrigate 20,000 acres including 3,000 of the Coldstream  Estate Lands, where hops and fruit trees were being successfully grown. The  consumer would pay for water according to the quantity used and water use  would be properly metered. The scale of rates had the approval of the Provincial Government and was "framed while providing a fair return on invested capital to ensure its use being attractive economically to every producer  in the district."10 The Ranch also sold settlers stock for their new orchards  from the Ranch nursery of over 300 acres of fruit trees. A certain percentage  were replaced if the trees were destroyed or did not thrive.  The Canal was completed from the outlet of the Lavington Syphon to the  intake of the B.X. Syphon in 1909 and the section from Goose Lake to  Okanagan Lake in 1914. The ditch was extended Northwards due to the fact 58  the White Valley Irrigation Company made a contract with the Land and  Agricultural Company of Canada (L and A Company). This Company was  owned by a syndicate of Belgian Capitalists who in 1907 had bought 17,000  acres which included part of the O'Keefe and Greenhow Estates encircling  Swan Lake. The Land Company was to be responsible for the lateral distribution systems — a pressure system of wire wound stave pipe used to take the  water to the highest point of each purchaser's acreage.11  The Canal connected with Goose Lake as another reservoir storage area  and in 1921 extended west of Goose Lake to Okanagan Lake.  By 1915 the whole system had cost a total of $423,000. This had been  paid by —  10,000 pounds by Coldstream Estate Company.  $150,000 by L and A Company.  $ 40,000 bonus by purchasers of land in consideration for  supply of water.  30,000 pounds advance made by James Buchanan to Company in 1910  secured by Debentures.  The remainder was in the form of an overdraft from the Bank of Montreal secured by Debentures. At the end of 1915 no interest had been paid on  the Buchanan Debentures, no provision for payment of the other debentures  and less than $12,000 repaid. Necessary repairs could not be made on advances from the Government and the Company realized it could not carry on  in the same way.12  Owners of land within a designated area outside of the limits of the City  of Vernon joined in a petition to the Lt. Governor in Council and as a result  Letters Patent dated 9th December 1920 were issued. The area was constituted as an Improvement District and owners of a body Corporate under the  Water Act of 1914. This District was named the Vernon Irrigation District  (V.I.D.)13 The V.I.D. was made up of water users within its boundaries, and  they themselves became the District. From that time to this they collectively  own and operate the District and each year they elect a body of Trustees to  administer their District for them. The Trustees are responsible for the administration and employing the staff. That this was not always clear to the  users is evident by the note in the V.I.D. Annual Report of 1921 to the effect  "the regrettable tendency of a large number of users to treat the District as if  they had no interest whatever in its welfare or as if it were an outside corporation."14  Higher charges were immediately put into effect, under Lord Aberdeen  users were charged only 30 cents per acre, later subsequent purchasers paid  $1.50 per acre and in two cases as much as $2.00 per acre.15 A new dam was  built on Aberdeen Lake in 1919-20 and in the spring of 1921 a 34-inch  continuous wood stave pipe 2,250 feet long was built to take part of the flood  water from B.X. Creek to store in Goose Lake to help the draw on Aberdeen  Lake.  In 1923 there were 23 'ditch walkers' and foremen employed to do the  continuous repairs, checks and operations of the system. These men, who  afterwards became called 'water bailiffs' were responsible for raising and lowering the gates at Aberdeen Lake — a job later done by remote control from  Vernon — as well as controlling the individual flow of water to the many users 59  of the system. Orchardists and farmers had to inform the Bailiffs well ahead  of how much water they needed every day or week. The upkeep of the ditches,  flumes and pipes was a continuing process; for instance in the spring of 1922  over 100 men were employed for cleaning and repairing and also in the same  year 157 new meter boxes for measuring the water were installed. The seepage problem was also one which the engineer was continually trying to overcome.  Guniting, or cementing of the floor and sides of the Canal was tried in  1923, subsequently a form of asphalt lining was used and also concrete slabs  were made by the V.I.D. and placed. Some of these slabs still remain in the  part of the canal above Buchanan Road. There is evidence some users were  worried about the condition of the V.I.D. Canals, dams and other works as  the Annual Report of 1927 states: "The general feeling among water users  that District works might collapse, is not so and there is no foundation for  alarm."16  By 1928 there were only 3 foremen, one watchman at the Lake and 9  ditch walkers employed. During the War years of 1939-1945 it was difficult to  obtain labour for cleaning and checking as well as virtually impossible to obtain materials necessary for repair. Even for a few years after the war this was  still the case and in 1946 V.I.D. 'recycled' stave pipe from the Lavington  Syphon, replacing the wood and building the Craster Syphon with the same  material.  There were other unusual problems too, during the war years — the normally peaceful Coldstream Valley was being used as one of the main training  areas for Canadian Soldiers and in 1943 it is reported the V.I.D. had "suffered appreciable damage to its works through troops being trained on the  Coldstream Ranch, the shelling of the Grey Canal is a serious matter." Troops  were not the only problem that year, an "abnormal increase in pocket gophers  were also doing damage."17  After the war there was a great deal of extra cleaning to do, but "Japanese were secured for this work through the Coldstream Ranch and A. T.  Howe,"18 so it was started on. Mr. Ricardo, the man who ordered the survey  in 1905 died in 1945 and he was "likened to the Father of the Irrigation System."19 This system in 1946 stretched 88.72 miles — canals, ditches and  pipes.  The work of replacing flumes, pipes and cleaning went on year by year  — the next major change was the building of a road alongside the Grey  Canal. This was completed in the spring of 1954. It ran 20 miles and cost  $3,200. The complete cost including rights-of-way, gates and bridges was only $8,000.20 The number of water bailiffs were reduced after the road was  built, resulting in a saving of wages, though this was partly offset by gas allowances. Some flumes had been replaced by pipelines over a period of 8 years  (1946-54). Both flumes and pipelines were extremely perishable and in 1954  only 9.59 miles of flumes were in operation compared with 17.75 miles 8 years  before. (These figures do not refer specifically to the Grey Canal but the  V.I.D. works as a whole.) The 1956 V.I.D. Annual Report states they were  using pressure treated timber which would last 40 to 60 years instead of the 15  year life of regular timber, but this was not to be proved.  In March 1965 the Water Resources Service of the British Columbia Department of Lands, Forests and Water Resources presented an engineering 60  Study to the Trustees of the V.I.D. concerning a pressure pipeline and after  three public meetings a vote was taken and 332 out of 408 votes were for this  scheme. This spelled the beginning of the end of the Grey Canal.  The pressure pipeline was extended year by year, and the system was installed by the District crews. The Swan Lake area was the first area to be completed by 1967. In later 1967 the main pipeline from Grey Road, Buchanan  Road to Grey Canal south of Lavington Syphon was laid and 30 and 36" pipe  installed.  The work continued until in the V.I.D. 50th report is is stated "It should  be noted in this 50th Annual Report for the year 1970 that the old open ditch  system that had its start so many years ago, was used in part, for the last time  in the summer of 1970." The old flumes were gradually dismantled and the  canal easements were disposed of the next year.21  The Grey Canal serving the residents of Coldstream, B.X., Swan Lake  and Okanagan Landing so well for so many years is now almost forgotten, a  curiosity to those who bother to investigate the obvious man made change in  the landscape. It lies dry, grass covered, old pieces of cement block on the  ground, cement gates and supports for flumes crumbling in the sun and rain.  It would make a wonderful bicycle or walking route around Vernon with  superb views of City, Valley and mountain and who knows, in these days of in-  cresed leisure this may one day be a reality. It should be designated as a  historic route, with examples of flume and pipe and canal so future generations could see how Vernon pioneers overcame the problems of supplying  water to the area. They had a vision for the future, lush orchards and green  fields and this canal and system of irrigation shaped the area so those of us  who are fortunate to live here today benefit from their foresight.  FOOTNOTES  Vernon Irrigation District report 1921.  Okanagan Historical Society Report 1973.  V.I.D. Report 1921.  V.I.D. Report 1957.  Det. Lands, Forests and Water Resources Map. Sheet 82 L/SW 1966-67.  Lavington from 1905 - 1937 V. Blankley.  Vernon Daily News Holiday Supplement 1912.  Brochure, Coldstream Estate Company, London, 1908.  O.H.S. Report 1968.  Brochure.  Vernon News Supplement, p. 52.  Vernon News Supplement, p. 68.  Vernon Irrigation District Report 1921.  V.I.D. 1921.  V.I.D. 1921.  V.I.D. 1921.  V.I.D. 1927.  V.I.D. 1943.  V.I.D. 1945.  V.I.D. 1945.  V.I.D. 1954.  V.I.D. 1970. 61  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Buckland, F.M., Ogopogo's Vigil History of Kelowna and the Okanagan. Okanagan Historical Society, 1948.  Okanagan Regional Library.  Blankley, Violet. Lavington from 1905 - 1937.  Vernon Museum.  Ormsby, M. History of Okanagan Valley in B.C. Xerox  Okanagan College Library, Vernon.  Redmayne, J. S. (M.A.) Fruit Farming on the 'Dry Belt' of B.C.  The Why and Wherefore. Times Book Club, London, 1912.  Okanagan Regional Library.  Surtees,  Ursula.  Sunshine and Butterflies - Short History of Early Fruit Ranching in  Kelowna, 1979 Okanagan Reg. Lib.  Tassie. G. C. Memo V.I.D. Vernon Museum, 1943.  Brochure - Coldstream Estate Company, London 1908.  Vernon Museum.  Okanagan Historical Society Reports - 32 - 1968, 38 - 1974, 43 - 1979. Vernon Museum,  Okanagan Reg. Library, Mrs. H. Davis.  Vernon Daily News Holiday Supplement December 1912.  Vernon Museum.  Vernon Irrigation District Reports #1-25, Vernon Irrigation District Office. #26 - 59, Mr.  C. D. Osborn, V.I.D. Trustee.  Conversations with Mr. C. D. Osborn, November, 1980.  Conversation with Miss J. Herriot, November, 1980. 62  OKANAGAN  LAKE  PIPELINE  HADDO  LAKE  Route of Grey Canal  Dept. Lands Forests & Water Resources  Sheet 82 L/SW 1966-67 1" = 2 miles. 63  Steam Shovel at work. Main Canal.  Flume and Trestle on Main Canal.  The Coldstream Estate  Company  Limited  Vernon, British Columbia  London    Office:  24   Martin's    Lane,   Cannon   Street,   E.C.  Big Siphon, Lavington.  Coldstream Estate Company Brochure, 1908. 64  Grey Canal remains above Buchanan Rd., Coldstream 1980.  Grey Canal - Start of old flume. Grey Canal outlet to land above Buchanan Road.  Photographed October 1980 - A   Davis. 65  THE BETTER HALVES  The Way of Life and Influence of Women in the Vernon Area  from Settlement to 1921  By LaVonne Byron  It was a man's world then, a stretch of frontier that offered opportunity  and adventure. The grazing lands were rich and rolling, the soil was fertile,  the climate was mild, and only a few miles off, in Cherry Creek, there was the  glitter of gold. There were a few cabins, Luc Girouard's, Amos Delorier's,  and the beginnings of the Vernon Hotel when the first women began to arrive  in the late 1870's and early '80's. They brought with them the gentle caring  and steady determination that would solidify the emerging community in  Priest's Valley.  The country was unspeakably lovely . . . like one park . . . huge  Ponderosa pine and a grove of Douglas fir, thickets of deciduous  woods, olallas, chokecherries, wild roses, and tirenga. Night after  night there would be a little shower and the country never got  brown . . . The next year was a dry year and the green country had  turned to gold.1  For many the journey to the Okanagan Valley had been gruelling. Mrs.  W. R. Megaw's trip was exemplary of many. She came from England around  Cape Horn and enroute to the B.C. Interior was swung over the rushing  Fraser in a basket. Catherine Schubert's trek was unique. Heralded as the first  woman to cross the Prairies, she travelled with the Overlanders by oxcart and  horseback on their famous trek in 1862. Bringing with her three children and  expecting a fourth, Catherine made a trip that was perilous to men, but extraordinary for a pregnant woman. She pressed on to her destination, Kamloops, and the child, a daughter, was born the day of her arrival there. Mrs.  Schubert came to the North Okanagan twenty-one years later.  Mrs. Schubert was greeted by Mary Ann O'Keefe and Elizabeth  Greenhow, who had in the '70's settled on ranches out at Head of the Lake.  Newcomers were always gladly received. Even in the '90's, when settlement  had begun in earnest, and the city was well on its feet, new arrivals gave cause  for celebration. "What a welcome we had . . . Neighbours had set the table  and dinner was ready. What a grand meal it was, with roasted chicken,  potatoes and vegetables from the garden, great plates of homemade bread,  fresh butter and apple pie and coffee."2  Just keeping the family fed and well was a full time job for those first  women. Garden plots were dug and planted. Before the orchards were  started, olalla, chokecherries and spietlum (bitter root) were available for  fruit, if you went out and found it. Supplies from the coast were ordered yearly and brought over the Hope Trail by pack train. Eventually stores at  O'Keefe's Ranch and in Vernon replaced the yearly ordering of food supplies.  The need to educate the children presented problems. In outlying areas  eight children was the number required by law before a school was considered  necessary. It was common practice for a group of families who found  themselves a few short of the required number of school age children, to hire  a married woman, with two or three children. In this way the right number of  students could be had.  In Priest's Valley the first school was built in 1884 and Sophia Johnson 66  arrived as teacher. One of the first white women to settle in the district,  Sophia became Mrs. Price Ellison. Later, as president of the Ladies Aid  Society, some of her tasks involved visiting the sick and welcoming strangers.  An example of her concern for the community is recorded in the Vernon Daily News, February 4, 1892: "Mrs. Ellison suggests a reading room for young  men and others to enjoy believing that the chief cause of the drinking, gambling and other vices of the community, is found in the fact that there are no  counter attractions to the bar room."3  Out in the bush were women secluded from the growing community in  Priest's Valley. Catherine Dunn was pre-empting land around Larkin with  her husband. His frequent trips away from home left her to fend for herself  and her inexperience with the Indians made her fearful. When a band of Indians camped nearby, Catherine would hide herself and her children in the  surrounding bush.  There were a number of white men who had taken Indian wives and  valued them as great workers, untroubled by adaptation to country life. Indian women were appreciated for their assistance to the pioneer women during the delivery of their children, and their help with other medical problems.  What brought these first white women to settle in the North Okanagan?  Most came following husbands or beaus, who were attracted by the magnificence of the country and the opportunities for farming and ranching. In the  '90's and the early Twentieth Century, the Okanagan was being advertised as  an area of unprecedented promise;  Thousands of men who are struggling for a meagre living elsewhere  may find in British Columbia a prosperous home with profitable  occupation in a climate and amidst scenes of beauty unequalled in  the world.4  Men's hearts were set to adventure and if the women followed somewhat  reluctantly, they also showed great loyalty.  Sarah Jean Newton, whose poetry appeared in the Vernon Daily News,  remembers:  Her husband and his brother one day watched a liner pull out of  Liverpool docks for Canada. That gave them travelling "fever."  Mrs. Newton was not too intrigued with the prospects of pulling up  roots. Besides, she had a parrot, named "Joe," to whom she was  devoted. But when the male Newtons discovered that five shillings  would pay for Joe's* passage, that altered the situation . . . They  sailed from Liverpool . . . young and filled with optimism.5  Other circumstances brought women to the Valley. Sometimes health reasons  necessitated the drier climate of the interior. Often the political situation in  the Old Countries prompted emigration. Kathleen Gray travelled by herself  to join her grandmother in the Mara district because of the appeal of land  ownership.53  The trip from England to Eastern Canada at the turn of the century took  6-10 days. Another 5-7 days by rail brought the traveller to the Pacific Coast.  Women were advised to "dress the children in navy blue serge,"6 which didn't  show the dirt. Also to pack a lunch basket as meals were costly.  By the '90,s life was taking on more genteel characteristics, in the town of  Vernon. Until then women had cooperated in care of the sick. In 1892 a dip- 67  theria epidemic necessitated a place to nurse the ill. Two cottages were acquired for that purpose. Two members of the Victorian Order of Nurses, organized by Lady Aberdeen, arrived to provide nursing care.6a  Mrs. W. F. Cameron, wife of Vernon's first mayor, headed a group of  women who felt a city-supported hosptial was needed. "The city fathers were  approached, a subscription fund was started, and money was raised by holding dances, teas, tableaux, waxwork shows and theatricals."7 $1,200 was raised and an old boarding house bought in 1897 for use by the hospital.  Vernon's Women's Council, started by Lady Aberdeen, "later organized  as the Women's Hospital Board,"8 consisted of Mrs. Price Ellison, Mrs.  Cameron, Mrs. Greenhow, Mrs. O'Keefe and several others. They were responsible for part of the wages and care of the two nurses and also contributed  by sewing sheets and pillowcases.  The Women's Council was a great asset to Vernon and was part of the  expanding social scene in the area. The common need for entertainment and  company created a variety of social functions, as did the endeavours of the  British-born sector. A large percentage of the population was British and  wished to maintain the cultural aspects of their English background. A great  variety of social distractions emerged, largely organized and executed by the  ladies.  The great favorites were the dances and balls. They were widely attended  and carried out with a good deal of pomp. Attendance at the Hospital and  Bachelor's Balls required formal dress, and new gowns were sometimes ordered from London or New York.  At the Opera House there were recitals with elocutionists and soloists  brought in. Travelling shows made use of local talent and the San Francisco  Opera Company made visits to the city. The Ladies Aid Society secured lecturers. Musical evenings were organized in private homes.  Participation in church activities was a part of most women's lives. They  were involved in teaching Sunday School. There were organizations especially  for the women through which they could contribute to the Church on a practical level and to the community through a more social type of ministry.  "Church attendance was a social occasion and provided a welcome change  from the drudgery and toil of daily living."9  Among a variety of outdoor sports, tennis was popular among the more  well-to-do. Ephie Costerton* walked down the hill from Pleasant Valley Road  to the small clubhouse and tennis courts by the creek. Her tennis costume was  a long skirt, stiff, high-collared, long-sleeved white blouse and a hat worn to  serve underhand in a true lady-like manner. Afterwards there was time for tea  and cake with the ladies.  The established practice of visiting newcomers and presenting calling  cards was important to inter-community communication in the pre-phone  days. The visiting lady left the newcomer with three calling cards, one with  her own name engraved on it, and two with her husband's. She informed the  newcomers of the day of the month that she would be "at home" to receive  visitors and on that day an elaborate tea would await any of the ladies who  could attend. Each woman took her turn and so company and friendship was  provided for all.  The homes of the better off, financially, provided jobs for other Vernon  residents. District gentlewomen first employed chinamen as cooks and general 68  maintenance men. These men rapidly established themselves in truck farming, and chinaboys replaced them. The ladies trained them and taught them  English. Indian girls were also employed as househelp, but found that their  outdoor lives illsuited them to the jobs. Neighbourhood girls who needed to  help with family finances gradually took over as housekeepers. This was one  of the few jobs outside their own homes that women could find employment  in.  Indeed the variety of career opportunities was distressingly narrow.  Women were employed as nurses or teachers. There were a few stenographers. For those with less education there was housekeeping, occasionally a  cooking job, and a certain number of openings for waitresses. This did not indicate any lack of resourcefulness or initiative on the part of women. There  were not many jobs available and these were held by men who had families to  support. For widows the limited job market was a great drawback. They had  to exercise a good deal of creativity to keep their families fed. Some were able  to find seamstress jobs. Mrs. Duncan, a beloved Presbyterian S.S. teacher,  drove cows to finance her family.93  The coming of the railroad and the establishment of the Okanagan Land  and Development Company (1890) really put Vernon on the map. But as the  town was becoming modern and urbanized in the '90's and early 1900's, preemption was coming into full force in the surrounding areas. Folks were attracted to the land in outlying areas because they could homestead with little  financial output, whereas land around Vernon was privately owned and selling for more princely sums.  For women, homesteading during this time in backwoods areas, life was  reminiscent of the settlement days in the Valley twenty or thirty years earlier.  Neighbours were far apart. Trips to town were infrequent and loneliness was  a part of life. Grace Worth, using Lumby as a shopping centre remembers her  husband's trips to town.  Occasionally baby and I would go with him. I always got a sore  throat during these visits to Lumby. The women there used to  think I was the greatest talker on Earth. They overlooked the fact  that for months on end, I had no woman to talk to, and that my  husband had no time to even listen.10  For the country women days were busy, with household, as well as indoor, chores. Water had to be hauled, fires stoked, milking done and separated, chickens fed and eggs collected, bread baked, and the momentous task  of laundry done.  For both the city and country women wash day was an example of the  complexity of what is now a much simpler chore. Wash tubs came out of hiding. White clothes were put to boil on the stove, while the scrubbing began on  the wash board, then clothes were rinsed, wrung out, and hung to dry. Ironing was equally difficult as irons had to be heated on the stoves.  In Mrs. Newton's early years in Oyama, a Community Hall was  built; the Women's Institute organized. The few housewives there  were in Oyama in those days rose early, did their housework, fed  poultry, made butter, washed separators, left the men's lunch,  walked three miles to the hall to attend meetings. Through similar  good management and organization, many of them packed apples  either on their own ranches or at the packing houses.11 69  It was the Women's Council and Women's Institute (for farm women)  that gave the ladies of the era a chance to voice their concerns and viewpoints.  This was an important function in a time when women's opinions were generally not valued and at a time before they could vote. Lady Aberdeen was  responsible for organizing the Women's Council, as well as many other contributions including the Vernon Fair (1891) and various cottage industries such  as the Jam Factory. Active in the Women's Liberal Federation in England,  which had during the 1890's made the attainment of Women's Suffrage one  of its objectives, Lady Aberdeen's vision and achievements must have been an  inspiration to women of the area.  A complaint most often heard at this time concerned money — women  did not have any! One of the issues of great importance to a woman's well being was a legal problem. If a man died without a will, his relatives could claim  his property and leave his widow with nothing. If he died having pre-empted  land, that land was returned to the government and not to the wife.  Mrs. Furniss, who had come to the BX ranch with her first husband in  the '90's, was one of the women who took these issues to heart. Vernon was a  fairly conservative community and Women's Suffrage was not pursued much  publicly, but Mrs. Furniss was a woman of strong convictions. She followed  Mrs. Ellison as president of the Women's Institution.  When she believed in anything, she really believed. The law at that  time was a law that if a man died without a will, his people could  take everything. Mrs. Furniss went as far as to the Parliament with a  protest about this. Sometimes these English men would come out  and marry or live with an Indian woman and not make any provision for her. That law stood for years and finally it was changed.12  Things were changing in the Coldstream also. The Coldstream was  largely comprised of moderately wealthy British families, who were able to  finance themselves over the years needed to establish productive orchards.  But as the orchards reached maturity their income was found to be limited.  Some of the women who had employed maids and gardeners now began a  simpler lifestyle. They became their own cooks, housekeepers and gardeners.  Out in Creighton Valley, Mrs. Denison was working on getting a school  established and about this same time back in Vernon, Mrs. Atkinson's nursing  home was coming into being. Mrs. Atkinson had helped her first baby into  the world at age 13, but it was quite by accident that on Christmas morning,  1906, an expectant father knocked on her door, asking directions to the hospital. As his wife was very near to delivering her child, Mrs. Atkinson took  them inside, quickly changed the bedsheets, and delivered the baby herself.  This began a long list of people who came to Mrs. Atkinson for nursing. She  delivered over 300 babies in the next twenty years, giving women from the  surrounding countryside a home as they waited in town for the birth of their  children.123  In 1909 a new hospital was built on the present site of the Jubilee Hospital. The nurses' training school was maintained there, as it had been at the  earlier location. As well as nursing, women were able to find work cleaning or  in the kitchens of the hospital.  With the advent of the Great War the role of women in the community  took an abrupt change. As they waved their men goodbye at the train station, 70  they accepted responsibility for the welfare of their families and for filling the  vacancies in the job market. The manpower shortage opened up many jobs  for women. Previously the banks had been manned with bank boys. Now girls  took their places as tellers. They found jobs in stores and offices. Children  were left with obliging neighbours.  Community organizations and individuals alike began to contribute  countless hours in both free gratis work and fund-raising activities. Women,  in whatever group they had been previously active, worked together to support the war effort, packing food parcels for the troops overseas and knitting.  The Daughters of the Empire had chapters here, the Vimy Ridge Chapter in  Vernon and the Chrysler Chapter in Coldstream. These goups were particularly active, holding concerts and dances to raise money. Every Saturday  Vimy Ridge had a tea downtown, open to the public.  With the establishment of the Mission Hill military training camp, there  was a new influx of women into the city. These were the wives of the enlisted  men stationed at the "tented city." 3,500 men arrived in 1915, another 7,000  the next year, many with their wives. The camp housed the men, Vernon families made room for the women in their own homes. When their husbands  were transferred out, the wives either followed to England or returned to their  homes at the coast. Then a new regiment would be brought in with their wives  and so the cycle went through the war years.  For these transients the women of the community organized a reading  room, dances and other entertainment. They were hospitable, friendly and  very aware of time and how little of it they might have.  World War I seemed to last forever, but when it was finally over the  changes it had brought remained. Of the women who had, by necessity, gone  to work, there were some who were reluctant to return to full-time homemak-  ing. They had enjoyed earning and handling money during those unsettling  years. They had established themselves in the work force.  In 1921 the vote was finally given to women. Generally Vernon women  appeared nonchalant about this long-awaited development, but some were  jubilant and wanted to vote 2 or 3 times. A new day had dawned for women in  Vernon and across the country. There were new job opportunities, increased  educational opportunities and the beginnings of some representation in government. Their basis for future achievement was firmly rooted in the strong  pioneer spirit of the women who had preceded them. These founding women  had worked relentlessly to establish homes in a new frontier, to contribute to  the welfare of their neighbours by cooperation, and to make a quiet voice  heard in the affairs of their community. 71  FOOTNOTES  1 Tape of Mrs. Myra DeBeck (Vernon Museum), Nov. 1980.  2 Flora M. Cooper, Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Bell, Pioneer Residents of Vernon, Okanagan  Historical Society Reports Vol. 15, p. 192. 193.  * It appears that the Ladies' Aid Society and the Women's Institute were Synonymous,  as Mrs. Ellison is recorded as being president of both at this time.  4 Advice to Emigrants to B.C. in 1907, O.H.S. Reports, Vol. 29, p. 56.  * Joe, the parrot, ended up weeding Mrs. Newton's garden in Oyama. He learned to distinguish between young plants and weeds.  5 Mabel Johnson,   Oyama  Pioneer   Wrote  Poems,   Stories   When Farm-work Done,  O.H.S. Vol. 21, p. 41.  53    Grace Worth, Memories of Kathleen Gray, O.H.S. Vol. 22, p. 47.  6 Edith Ashton, Hints to Emigrants to B.C., O.H.S. Vol. 29. p. 57.  63     Burt R. Campbell,   Vernon's Diamond Jubilee,  O.H.S. Vol.   16, p.  62.  63. Violet  Sunderland, Early Community Activities of Vernon, O.H.S. Vol. 16, p. 65, 66.  7 Sunderland, p. 67.  8 Campbell, p. 63.  9 O'Keefe Historic Ranch Booklet, Wayside Press  * Wife of C. F. Costerton who started his real estate and insurance firm in 1890.  93     Interview with Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Nov. 1980.  10 Grace Worth, Autobiography, O.H.S. Vol. 33, p. 128.  11 Mabel Johnson,   Oyama  Pioneer   Wrote  Poems,   Stories   When Farm-work  Done,  O.H.S. Vol. 21, p. 41.  12 Tape of Mrs. Dolly Grieg with Beryl Gorman (Vernon Museum), Nov. 1980.  * Still checking out the accuracy of this portion.  123     Interview with Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Nov. 1980.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aberdeen, Lord and Lady. We Twa, Vol. 1. London: 48 Pall Mall. W. Collins Sons and  Co. Ltd., 1925.  Gabriel, Theresa.  Vernon. Vernon Centennial Committee, 1958.  Ashton, Edith. Hints to Emigrants to B.C., Okanagan Historical Society Reports, Vol. 29.  Campbell, Burt R. Vernon's Diamond Jubilee. O.H.S. Vol. 16.  Cooper, Flora M. Mr. and Mrs. R. B. Bell, Pioneer Residents of Vernon. O.H.S. Vol. 15.  Johnson, Mabel. Oyama Pioneer Wrote Poems, Stories When Farm-work Done. O.H.S.  Vol. 21.  Serra, Johnny. History of Armstrong.  Sunderland, Violet. Early Community Activities of Vernon. O.H.S. Vol. 16.  Worth, Grace. Autobiography. O.H.S. Vol. 33.  Okanagan Historical Society Reports. Vol. 5, 14, 15, 21, 22, 23, 24, 33, 34.  Interview with Mrs. A. E. Berry, Nov. 1980.  Interview with Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Nov. 1980.  Interview with Mrs. Norman Dennison, Nov. 1980.  Interview with Mrs. Harry Gorman, Nov. 1980.  Interview with Mrs. W. E. Megaw and Madeline Megaw, Nov. 1980.  Tape of Mrs. Myra DeBeck (Vernon Museum).  Tape of Mrs. Dolly Grieg with Beryl Gorman (Vernon Museum).  Tape of Mrs. K. W. Kinnard with Beryl Gorman (Vernon Museum).  Tape of Mrs. Grace Worth (Vernon Museum).  Vernon Daily News, Feb. 4, 1892. 72  FOOD OF THE OKANAGAN INDIAN  By Mary Joe  The food was one of the most important things that the Okanagan Indians, or any other tribe relied upon. They all worked together to help out in  the gathering of various roots, berries and meat that the Indians collected in  order to survive. There was a certain way they prepared and stored their  goods.  The various types of roots and berries were collected by the head women  of a family throughout the spring and summer months. First of all, around  April, Spitlum (bitter roots) were dug up. The bitter roots grew on either sandy or rocky land. The roots have a rose-coloured flower with small leaves and  the stems are about two inches tall. The root itself is about four to six inches  long. The best time to dig them up is before they bloom, this way the roots are  easier to peel.  Indian potatoes were next to dig up. The potatoes have a little white  flower and they look just about like a buttercup except for the colour. The  stem grows about two to three inches long. The potatoes are very tiny, around  one inch in diameter.  Foam berries (Hoshum) are tiny red berries that grow on a bush. The  bush grows about four feet tall and the berries are very sour and bitter tasting.  When you squeeze the juice out of the berry and whip the juice, it becomes  foamy, like whipped cream. Today, they call this Indian ice cream.  Sia (Saskatoons) grow on a tall bush. They have little purple berries with  a little bushy head on them. These berries were sometimes mixed with  Spitlum (bitter roots) and then eaten.  Later on there were strawberries, raspberries and chokecherries. All of  these berries and roots were dried and stored for the winter months.  There were a number of different kinds of game that the men hunted.  Some of the game hunted were bear, rabbit, ground hog, porcupine and the  deer family, moose, elk and deer. From the water they got otter, beaver,  ducks, geese and fish. All parts of the animal that they killed were used for  food and clothing; nothing was ever wasted. The meat for storage was always  dried. Both meat and berries were dried in the same way.  The drying and smoking racks stood about six feet high and five feet  wide. The rack was set up in a tent-like way. They had two racks, one four  feet off the ground, which they laid their meat and fish on. The other rack  was about five and one-half feet off the ground which they laid the roots and  berries on. The racks were made of four thick sticks that were tied to the outer  frame with Sia (Saskatoon) branches, then criss-crossed with thinner sticks  and then finally willow sticks were laid on top to prevent the meat and berries  from falling through.  The types of wood used to smoke and dry the meat and berries were  willow and alder, both slow-burning woods. They would cover the racks with  woven mats made of bullrushes to keep the smoke in and the rain and animals  out.  In the summer, the Okanagan Indians would trade with the Thompson  tribe for fish when they were scarce around the Okanagan.  Previous to the damming of the Columbia River, salmon runs came up  the Okanagan River as far as what now is called Okanagan Falls, B.C. 73  The fish were dried in the same fashion as the berries and meat. The fish  were cut in half (filleted) then slit about one inch apart, down to the skin,  then woven (skewered) with three thin sticks to prevent the fish from folding  over.  The fish were baked on an open fire. The Indians got a long cedar stick,  they slit the stick down the middle about half way. The fish were then de-  boned and placed between the slits of the cedar then woven (skewered) with  five thin sticks. The top and bottom of the fish were then woven to the cedar  stick then tied with a Sia (Saskatoon) branch. The fish were then placed beside an open fire for a slow cooking process.  All of the food was stored in woven sacks and covered with woven mats  and then again covered with bark. The food was always secure enough to protect it from insects and animals.  During the latter days of winter, when food was hard to obtain, and little  could be expected until spring, the chief of the tribe would get together all the  women of the tribe to determine how much food each family had to get them  through the winter. When they were called they had to say how many sacks of  food they had. If there were women whose families didn't have enough food to  get them through the winter they were looked down on and considered to be  lazy by the rest of the tribe. The ones who had food to spare gained respect.  Those families with a surplus of food would share with the families who didn't  have enough food.  The women seemed to work harder because they had to compete with the  other women of the tribe to see who got the most respect. This was one way of  keeping the food supply up. All of the Indians helped each other out when  hard times hit them. The only time there was hunger was when there was  hardly any berries, roots or game to gather.  Today the people don't try to fend for themselves like in the old days.  There is always an easy way out when the hard times hit you; for example, you  can get Social Assistance. I feel that this will never give the Indians back their  courage to fend for themselves again.  Selina Timorjakin and Louise Paul gather Spittum near Penticton.  Courtesy Penticton Museum 74  A HUDSON'S BAY POST AT KEREMEOS  By Laurie Land  Although traditionally the Hudson's Bay Company has been associated  with the adventures of the fur trade, there were diverse reasons for establishing a small post in the Similkameen Valley at Keremeos in 1860. The post was  called "Shimilkameen' but the name was interchanged with "Keremeos." The  tasks this post undertook were important to the operation of the Company,  but many were only remotely connected with the fur trade.  Intense competition and disension with American fur companies had  forced the H.B.C. into the Oregon Territory which was being utilized by British and American interests. On June 15, 1846, the Oregon Treaty was signed,  creating an International Boundary at the 49th parallel.1 Because of this treaty, several H.B.C. forts were now in American territory. Foreseeing difficulties and expenses in navigating the Columbia River to transport furs to the  H.B.C. headquarters at Fort Vancouver in the U.S.A., the Company moved  its regional centre to Fort Victoria in British territory. Thereupon, the  H.B.C. had to decide on a route which would connect its posts in American  territory with Fort Victoria by overland journey north of the 49th. The safest  trail appeared to be east of the Fraser River and through the Similkameen  Valley.2 The future Keremeos post lay in this path.  In the years following, the Company was forced gradually to move its  "livestock and other portable property" out of the U.S.A. The American government was being pressured to tax the Company for its traders' use of American land.3  In January 1860, Chief Hudson's Bay Factor William Fraser Tolmie  wrote to Chief Trader Angus Macdonald at Fort Colville, one of the few remaining posts in American territory. He suggested that Fort Okanagan within  the same area be closed down and another post be established in British territory.4 Tolmie's recommendation was followed. Francois Deschiquette, the  H.B.C. officer at Fort Okanagan, moved north of the border. After a trial  period of a few months in an adjacent location, Deschiquette chose a more  convenient site at Keremeos and established the Shimilkameen Post.5 This  post became a dependency of Fort Sheppard, a major American H.B.C. outlet, until 1869.6 The new post provided an integral link between Victoria and  the Colville-Sheppard districts.  On one occasion, Deschiquette's successor, Roderick McLean, travelled  with fifty mules on the long journey to Fort Sheppard.7 It appears he was  bringing back furs from there to the Keremeos post where they would be  taken to the coast.  McLean and his assistant, Frank Richter, engaged in the local fur trade  as a minor occupation. In the winter months Richter traded goods with the  Indians for furs which they had collected during the summer.8 "Shimilkameen" was established primarily as a trade centre, but much of the trade with  the Indians had to be done in the winter months because of the perishability  of the goods being exchanged for furs. Without refrigeration and with the extremely hot climate of the area, summer trade would have been minimal.  Therefore, Shimilkameen's functions during the summer were centered on  the numerous tasks which had to be done in connection with the post.  McLean   travelled   among   the   Indians   with   pack   horses   carrying   the 75  Company's barter items. The furs they collected were bailed at Shimilkameen  and sent by pack train to Hope, from there by riverboat to New Westminster  and then on to Victoria. There they were loaded on ships bound for London,  England.9  Shimilkameen, however, could not be supported by the fur trade alone.  Deschiquette, McLean and Richter pre-empted 640 acres of land and had applied for 980 additional acres between the years 1860 and 1866.10 Deschi-  quette's initial purchase of land for the post's buildings did not prove to be adequate for the activities in which the post would be involved.  A major porton of the pre-empted land was used for raising livestock for  the Company. The operations of the H.B.C, including the fur trade, were  heavily dependent on good pack animals. Richter was put in charge of the  breeding program.11 Horses were needed at all forts in order to transport furs  and supplies along the trails. Cross-breeding horses and asses must have been  practiced since McLean used mules to travel to Fort Sheppard. These animals  were hardy and able to endure considerable adversity, which meant they  would be very useful on mountain trails and in bad weather conditions.  Cattle and oxen were also important assets to the H.B.C. The post supplied beef for barter with local Indians and meat and milk to travellers.  Lieutenant Charles W. Wilson, British Boundary Commission Secretary  wrote in his diary:  "... the finest part of the valley was occupied — by the Hudson's  Bay Company — (Deschiquette) had some cows and a large number  of oxen so that we had a good drink of milk, a thing not to be despised in this part of the world . . ,"12  The Keremeos area proved to be an ideal location for the animals, as  H.B.C. surveyors had predicted years before. The hills were covered with  bunch grass, and water was available from the Similkameen River and its  tributaries.13  The oxen were used for another of the Shimilkameen's main functions —  horticulture. These animals would be used to plow the fields for the raising of  ground crops. Potatoes and other vegetables were grown for trade with the Indians.14" Crop experimentation was attempted. In a letter dated October 19,  1861, from John C. Haynes to Sir James Douglas, Haynes wrote:  "I herewith enclose samples of wheat and oats grown at 'Keremeous'  [sic] by Mr. Francois Deschiquette, the officer in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's Station at that place."15  The grains grown would likely be fed to the livestock, sold to the travellers, traded to the local Indians, and sent to other forts as supplies. The  H.B.C. land was also used for another form of experimentation. Richter  claimed to have planted the first fruit trees north of the border.16 Local fruit  was much easier for the Similkameen Indians to obtain. Since it was not  known whether the trees were adaptable to the soil and climate of Keremeos,  a very small part of the pre-empted acreage would have been used for fruit  growing. With the abundance of supplies available, Shimilkameen provided a  convenient rest stop and replenishing depot for those who travelled the Similkameen Valley.  Among those who came through the valley were Americans and Chinese  gold miners journeying to and from Washington and various gold fields. In 76  1855 strikes were found in Colville, Washington; in 1858 the cry of gold lured  an influx of American miners to the Fraser River; in 1860 gold was discovered  in Rock Creek; and in 1861 gold seekers began to mine at Blackfoot in the  Similkameen Valley itself. (Blackfoot was 9 miles North of Princeton.)  By 1860 it seemed that there would be a steady flow of miners through  the valley. It was thought that a Similkameen post would receive a large number of these travellers, and a location was chosen close to the trail for this purpose. Haynes and other government officials were concerned about American  miners bringing their own supplies from the U.S.A.  Somehow, revenue had to be raised to keep the British territory functioning. Therefore, a custom's house was built beside the Similkameen River  at Keremeos the same year as the H.B.C. post was established. Haynes remained there expecting to collect revenue in the form of a percentage of the  miners' supplies, as the Americans came across the border and proceeded  through the Similkameen Valley. Unfortunately, with the constant mobility  of the mining community, Haynes' plans went awry because many of the  miners began to travel through the Okanagan Valley. Haynes' office had to  be moved to Osoyoos in 1861.18 Had the custom's house remained and the influx of miners become constant, the Shimilkameen post would have been  well-situated. When the miners' provisions were taken, the H.B.C. could re-  supply them. The post would also provide a storage centre for the confiscated  goods. When the main mining route diverted to the Okanagan Valley, there  was no longer any need for this type of extensive storage and the goods had to  be moved. In 1861 Robert Todd, a H.B.C. employee from Fort Kamloops,  made five successive trips to Shimilkameen, taking approximately 250 horse-  loads of supplies back with him.19 The Shimilkameen post became a much  smaller supply centre than was intended. Nevertheless, there are indications  that miners did stop at the post after the custom's house was moved. In 1861  twenty-one Chinese came up from Fort Colville to mine the Similkameen  River. They stopped at Shimilkameen for supplies.20  Despite the fact that miners were no longer using the Similkameen Valley  route extensively, the trail was being used by the Company and other travellers journeying to and from the coast. The post provided them a convenient  place to stop on their trips through the valley. The post served anyone who  needed supplies or hospitality. There was sufficient traffic to necessitate constructing a more substantial trail. In 1865 Governor Seymour commissioned  Edgar Dewdney to continue the Dewdney Trail from Hope down the Similkameen Valley past Keremeos:  I am very desirous that our own pack trains should be able to transport goods from Hope to Wild Horse without having to pass through  American territory ... If you take charge of this work . . ., I will instruct the Hudson's Bay Company officers at several posts ... to advance to you . . . what you may require.21  After much time spent surveying, Dewdney stopped at Shimilkameen  later that year.22 Subsequently the post became a supply station along the  Dewdney Trail.  There were a number of reasons for Shimilkameen's eventual decline.  First of all, the Fraser Canyon Road was built through Kamloops and Boston  Bar.23 With a main thoroughfare between Fort Kamloops and the coast, it 77  was not necessary to take the longer, more difficult route through the Similkameen Valley. Secondly, many H.B.C. employees became interested in the  Gold Rush and other more profitable occupations. McLean left the Keremeos  post and the Company's employ in 1870. His replacement, a young H.B.C.  clerk, John Tait, came from the Coast to operate Shimilkameen.24 Thirdly,  Fort Colville closed in 1871 and the Similkameen Valley route became a  minor route of the Company. With this American route abandoned, interaction between the American and B.C. territories decreased. In the same  year, the Company closed its operations in the Kootenay.25 This stopped East-  West interaction. Local Indian demands were not sufficient to keep the post  open. It simply was not a viable concern. By 1872 the post was no longer  needed and had to be closed. Its unsold assets, including livestock, were transported to Thompson's River.26  The Shimilkameen post served the Hudson's Bay Company and the region for twelve years. During these years of service, it engaged in fur trading,  ground cropping, fruit growing, livestock breeding and provision and storage  of goods along the trail. This was a tremendous undertaking for a small post  like Shimilkameen. It was not a mistake that the post was established, but because of unforeseeable circumstances, the Hudson's Bay Company's Shimilkameen operation too soon became a monument of the past.  Hwy. 3A  To Penticton  To Hope  FOOTNOTES  1 J. C. Goodfellow, "Outline History of Similkameen," Okanagan Historical Society,  18th Report, 1954, p. 136.  2 British Columbia Official Centennial Record (Vancouver: Evergreen Press Limited,  1957). p. 42.  3 Henry Angus, "The Okanagan Boundary Settlement and its Effect on the Hudson's  Bay Company — 1846-1851" British Columbia and the U.S.A. (New York: Russell and Russell,  1970) p. 133.  4 "Historic Hudson's Bay Trading Post" (From the Beaver) Keremeos Chronicle,  December 1940, p. 3  s     J. C. Goodfellow, "Outline of Similkameen," p. 141. 78  6 "Historic Hudson's Bay Trading Post" (from the Beaver) p. 3.  7 J. C. Goodfellow, Ibid.  8 A. Parsons & B. Lawrence, "Keremeos, A History," South Similkameen Saga, M.  McCague, Ed. (Princeton: The Similkameen Spotlight Publishing Co. Ltd. 1978) p. 5.  9 J. C. Goodfellow, p. 141.  10 F. W. Laing, "Similkameen District — Keremeos and Cawston Area," Colonial Land  Settlement in B.C. (Publishing information unknown) p. 439.  11 K. S. Dewdney, "The Dewdney Trail," Okanagan Historical Society, 22nd Report,  1958, p. 80.  12 Cited in the original diary of Lieutenent Charles W. Wilson, Secretary of the British  Boundary Commission (available in the Provincial Archives at Victoria).  13 J. C. Goodfellow, "Fur and Gold in Similkameen," British Columbia Historical  Quarterly, Vol. II. No. 2. April 1938, p. 7.  14 A Parsons and B. Lawrence, 5. Similkameen Saga, p. 5.  15 Letter from J. C. Haynes to Governor Douglas, October 19, 1861.  16 J. C. Goodfellow: "The Changing Economy of the Similkameen," Okanagah Historical Society, 27th Report, 1963, p. 97.  18 L. Norris, "The Rise and Fall of Rock Creek," The Okanagan Historical Report,  1935, p. 238.  19 Thompson River Journals, 1858-1865.  20 Ibid.  21 K. S. Dewdney, "The Dewdney Trail," Okanagan Historical Report, 22nd, 1958,  pp 76-77.  22 K. S. Dewdney, pp 78 & 80.  23 Interview with Harley Hatfield, Penticton, B.C. January 29, 1979.  24 J. C. Goodfellow, "Outline History of Similkameen," p. 141.  25 Historic Hudson's Bay Trading Post (from the Beaver) Kremeos Chronicle, December, 1940, p. 3.  26 Ibid.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Angus, Henry, "The Oregon Boundary Settlement and its Effect on the Hudson's Bay  Company (1846-1851" British Columbia and the U.S. (New York: Russell and Russell, 1979).  British Columbia Official Centennial Record (Vancouver: Evergreen Press Limited, 1957)  Dewdney, Kathleen Stuart. "The Dewdney Trail," Okanagan Historical Society Report,  No. 22, 1958, pp. 73-92.  Goodfellow, J. C. "The Changing Economy of the Similkameen," Okanagan Historical  Society Report, No. 27, 1963, pp. 94-98.   " Fur and Gold in Similkameen," British Columbia Historical Quarterly,  Vol. II, No. 2, April 1938 (pages unknown).  "Outline History of Similkameen," Okanagan Historical Society Report, No. 18, 1954.  pp. 135-155.  Hatfield, Harley. Interview on January 29, 1979.  Haynes, John C. Letter to Sir James Douglas, October 19, 1861 "Historic Hudson's Bay  Trading Post," (from the Beaver) Keremeos Chronicle, December 1940.  Laing, F. W. Colonial Land Settlemen in B.C. (information from the Provincial Archives,  Victoria).  Norris, L. "The Rise and Fall of Rock Creek," Okanagan Historical Society, Report No. 6,  1935. pp. 233-241.  Parsons, A. and Lawrence, B. "Keremeos, a History," South Similkameen Saga, M.  McCague ed. (Princeton: The Similkameen Spotlight Publishing Co. 1978, pp. 3-10.  Thompson River Journals. 1858 - 1865.  Wilson, Charles W. (Lieutenant). Original diary written while Secretary to the British  Boundary Commission. 79  BIOGRAPHIES AND  REMINISCENCES  JOURNEY TO ADRA  Recounted by E. M. Betty Burgess to A. Waterman  Mrs. Janie Burgess had spent the hot August day in 1924 sitting on the  deck of the S.S. Sicamous watching the calm lake and clay cliffs, all so different from her native Scotland. She eagerly looked forward to her reunion  with Percy, her husband. She and her three children, Charlie aged 10, Betty 6  and Kathleen 2 had been separated from their father for eighteen months.  She tried to imagine what her new home would be like: all she knew was that  it was called Adra and was close to the railroad in the Okanagan hills. Mrs.  Burgess had sent a telegram to her husband and now, as the paddle-wheeler  neared the wharf at Penticton she gathered her children together and anxiously scanned the faces of those meeting the Sicamous. Bells clanged as the  great paddle-wheel reversed and the boat slowed. Hawsers were thrown to the  wharf and secured, gangplanks were run out and greetings were shouted back  and forth but Mrs. Burgess could not see her husband in the crowd.  Trying to overcome her disappointment she walked slowly down the  gangplank with her children. She found her hand luggage on the wharf and  the busboy from the Incola Hotel asked if she was being met or if she was going to stay at the hotel. Since it was long past the children's bedtime, Mrs.  Burgess decided it would be wise to stay at the hotel.  By morning her husband had not appeared nor was there any message.  Her anxiety about her husband's welfare increased and she felt that at all  costs she must get to Adra.  Enquiring at the desk Mrs. Burgess was told that Adra was a flag stop at  the section house on the Kettle Valley Railway and that the daily train had  left. By this time she was convinced that some catastrophe had overtaken her  husband — he was ill or injured — and she must reach him. Further enquiries  resulted in the appearance of an elderly man who owned a Model T Ford. He  agreed to drive the family as far as the railroad above Naramata. After a  dusty, bumpy drive they reached a point below the railroad and the driver  told Mrs. Burgess to "follow the track and you'll be in Adra in an hour."  At first the older children ran ahead, walking the rails and enjoying their  freedom but the railroad ties were too much for Kathleen's fat little legs. So  her mother carried her. After they ate the sandwiches provided by the hotel  they continued more slowly with the children lagging. Mrs. Burgess tried to  banish from her mind the warnings about grizzly bears offered by friends in  Scotland. As the sun set the tired children were again hungry and Mrs.  Burgess was worn out from carrying Kathleen. Her care for her children overrode her anxiety for her husband and she decided that they would have to rest  by the track till morning.  Coats were spread and prayers were said and the children were settling  for the night when they heard the rumble and the long drawn whistle of a  train far different from Scottish trains. Terrified they clutched their mother  as this flaring light appeared to bear down on them. It would be difficult to 80  say whether the children were more frightened by this wailing terror or the  engineer more startled to see the little group huddled beside the track.  Unknown to the campers, the train was carrying the Governor-General  and Lady Willingdon and therefore unable to stop. However, on reaching  Penticton word was sent back to the section foreman at Arawana and within  an hour a quieter sound and smaller light came up the track. The section  foreman's comment was to the point: "It's as well you stopped where you did  because you are close to the mouth of the tunnel And why in the name of  heaven are you wandering up the KVR in the middle of the night with three  children?" When he learned that this was the family of his pal, Percy Burgess,  he loaded them on the hand car and pumped them through the tunnel to  Adra.  Percy Burgess, who had not received the telegram, stumbled out of bed  in amazement to greet the family he had not expected so soon.  After hot tea and exchange of news the reunited family slept their first  night at Adra.  Adra Tunnel on Kettle Valley Railway.  Courtesy Penticton Museum 81  THE B.C. PEA GROWERS LIMITED: A HISTORY  By Ronald R. Heal  A veteran of the Great War, Stephan R. Heal, with his bride of 1919,  Margaret G. Jacks, took up residence on a small holding on Magrath Road in  Rosedale, seven miles east of Chilliwack in the lower Fraser Valley. There,  numerous agricultural ventures were undertaken. Poultry and dairy enterprises gave way to more remunerative market gardening and small fruit farming. Here a nine-acre raspberry planting on Yale Road climaxed the activity.  The energy of these efforts attracted the entrepreneurial eye of Mr. C.  Eckhert who encouraged Mr. Heal to join him in creating the Yarrow  Growers Association in 1932.  Mr. Chauncey Eckhert came to Yarrow in 1922 and sponsored the first  Mennonites coming to the valley. Two families settled on his Agassiz holdings  but later all moved to Yarrow where the colony was started in 1928 following  the reclamation of the Sumas Prairie area.  The first produce which Mr. Heal had to market for the Association was  rhubarb, presented to Mr. Eckhert in lieu of mortgage payments. An opportunity to produce canning peas seed was opened by a coastal company, and  Mr. Heal's very modest life insurance policy was security for the necessary financing through the Canadian Bank of Commerce. The Association found  itself launched in the pea business when, following harvest, the canning company went bankrupt and the seed was sold successfully elsewhere.  This experience indicated the favourable possibilities of pea growing,  and farmers were persuaded to sow soup peas with their oat crops. Lacking a  warehouse, the company towed a cleaner to the barns of growers and separated the oats and peas on the site of production. In the first season, rail cars  were the only storage available and several carloads were consigned to eastern  markets, preceded by a telegraphed offer of sale.  During the following years, a good warehouse with cleaners and a splitter  was built in Yarrow with Mr. Wm. Schellenberg as foreman. Varieties grown  in this area were Prussian blue, Harrison's Glory Marrowfat, Large Yellow  Sterling, Mummy, and Dashaway; each had its particular market as whole  boilers or as splits.  On page 69 of her book "Yarrow" Miss Agatha Klassen writes: "ten^car-  loads of dried peas of excellent quality were shipped to several parts of the  world but there was no sustained market for the produce." In fact, the problem was not one of marketing, but rather of production. The Fraser Valley  harboured the pea moth, and the ravages of this pest necessitated special  cleaning equipment or costly hand picking to be used either separately or  jointly. A search for a more suitable growing area led to the company's move  to Armstrong, in 1937, where, for two years under Mr. D. B. Butchart, trials  had yielded a good quality product in a pea moth-free area.  Prior to the move The B.C. Pea Growers Ltd. was incorporated in 1936.  Mr. Eckhart withdrew his interest from the mothy pea business. Meanwhile,  Mr. Heal promoted the pea program to enthusiasts in Buckerfields Ltd., and  executives of that organization were among the first directors of The B.C. Pea  Growers Ltd., with Mr. Heal. Mr. A. W. Wilson became the first bookkeeper  and remained with the firm until 1945, when he returned to Buckerfields, becoming general manager of that organization in the 1960s. 82  The North Okanagan responded well to its new cash crop and increasing  acreages of its neutral soils produced a quick-cooking soup pea which found  an excellent reception on the domestic market, where the AVION Brand  label remains synonymous with high quality peas. Production was the limiting  factor to the company's growth at that time. The first processing plant, a  vacated alfalfa meal shed on Railroad Avenue, was expanded in 1939 when a  four story machine tower and warehouse was erected under the direction of  Mr. E. Price who remained as millwright until his retirement in 1958.  Expansion into another phase of pea growing was undertaken in 1942  when The B.C. Pea Growers Ltd. purchased the Sunset Seed Co. Ltd. This  company was incorporated at Victoria in 1922. There, Mr. H. B. Thomson  who had been Food Controller for Canada during the war years, and later a  Member of Parliament for Victoria, financed with an intial capital of  $10,000, his brother E. V. Thomson and brother E. H, and F.O. Blake in  the venture. They grew an acre of sweet peas in 1921, three acres in 1922, but  expansion was hindered by financial difficulties. Mr. F. O. Blake persevered  with the organization and was joined by Mr. A. Weathers as partner. From  1926, they grew about twenty-five acres of sweet peas and other flowers until  the Second World War and its extremities prevented the importation into  Britain of such non-essentials. Vegetable seeds were the essential product and  Mr. Blake was asked in 1940 to organize the B.C. Seeds Ltd. as a cooperative  of growers throughout the province. The B.C. Pea Growers Ltd., through its  newly acquired subsidiary, took over the growing contracts for pea seed which  Sunset Seed Co. Ltd. had with Hurst & Son of England. Mr. Neil Bosom-  worth was employed as seedsman for the new concern.  In the search for production areas, the newly reclaimed Creston Valley of  the Kootenays was investigated and found to be most promising, in spite of  the possibility of flooding. (In 1949 the acreage was completely lost to water  but the Libby Dam in Montana now prevents such a catastrophe.) Some of  the large landowners in the area, including Messrs. Roy and Frank Staples  and Mr. F. Putnam, formed a cooperative with Sunset Seed Co. Ltd. to accommodate pea production in the area. A plant similar to the Armstrong  facility was erected, but the Cooperative was shortlived because of the Federal  Government's taxation policy, and the Creston Reclamation Company, owned by Mr. Roy Staples, became the owner. Pea seed and soup peas were produced for many years, but production declined in the sixties, when increasingly high freight rates precluded profit. Meanwhile, to maintain a staff  through the year, a feed operation was started in 1946. In 1948, Sunset Seed  purchased the interests of the Reclamation Company and Mr. Art Winter, of  Armstrong, moved to Creston as manager. The present manager, Mr. Edwin  Reber, came to Creston in 1952 from a seed house in England. The operation  is now exclusively involved in feeds and farm supplies. A modern pelleter and  bulk handling facilities are the installations of the seventies and eighties.  In the early forties, a further expansion occurred in the North Okanagan  by the purchase of several large land holdings. Various share manipulations  resulted in the ownership of the Eldorado Ranch of Rutland and the L & A  Ranch of southern Spallumcheen by ACT Holdings, Buckerfields, and The  B.C. Pea Growers Ltd. Mr. Heal managed the properties for several hectic  years, during which the dehydration plant was built on the L & A. Some five  dry well bores were sunk at fruitless expense on this land also. On the Eldo- 83  rado, the old ranch house on the hillside was demolished and a new house and  bunkhouses were built. The management of the cattle enterprise, with the  wartime shortage of manpower, and the penchant of the few remaining cowboys for stampedes and rodeos exacted much concern. Meanwhile, The B.C.  Pea Growers Ltd. continued to thrive, but the relationships of the varied interest involved were not to remain harmonious. In 1945, Mr. E. E. Bucker-  field threatened to liquidate the entire operation, rather than accept the proposed division of expenses and profits.  This was a devasting prospect for Mr. Heal, whose personal assets were  seriously jeopardized. In the confrontation, however, Mr. A. C. Taylor gave  support to Mr. Heal, the L & A and Buckerfields Ltd. were dropped from the  directorship of The B.C. Pea Growers Ltd. and the company survived. Next  year, Mr. Taylor sold his shares of The B.C. Pea Growers to Mr. Heal and his  sons Stephen J. and Ronald R. who had, in 1945, been discharged from wartime service in the R.C.A.F. Mr. R. M. Ecclestone, of Armstrong, also assumed some interest and became secretary-treasurer of the concern, which  once again was focussed on pea production exclusively.  Rail freight rates to eastern markets were always a heavy expense, threatening the company's profit. As early as 1934-35 the Yarrow Growers associated themselves with Mr. Thos. Sanderson of Portage la Prairie, and Mr.  B. Young of High Bluff, Manitoba, who produced dashaway yellows for the  eatern market. (Interestingly, Mr. Howard Braden started working for Mr.  Sanderson in 1933 and is now employed as millwright at Creston. He has the  longest tenure of any employee of the company.)  Later, the company in Armstrong marketed the production of the  prairie growers to everyone's satisfaction; indeed, such was the harmony of  the relationship, that Mr. Sanderson, in his will, deemed the Pea Growers to  have first option on the purchase of his farm. This opportunity was taken and  the farm was bought, in 1947, from his executors the Toronto General Trust.  The three Heal sons all graduated from U.B.C. Faculty of Agriculture in  Agronomy. Ronald R. assumed responsibilities in Armstrong and Stephen  Jacks, in 1949, set up residence in Portage la Prairie, where he was supported  by his youngest brother, Geoffrey H. G., in 1952. The prairie point developed  rapidly and the Manitoba interests of the company, since 1950, have been the  most important point of production and investment. Nevertheless, the head  office has remained in Armstrong, B.C.  In 1951, cleaning and warehouse facilities were built on the farm property, but were very soon proven inadequate. In 1953, land was acquired in the  city of Portage la Prairie, and building and expansion has proceeded steadily.  In 1980, the last building program was undertaken, when a bulk bin holding  30,000 bushels, or 30 carlots of peas was incorporated into the processing  plant.  Progress at this prairie point was stymied in 1956, when the city created a  sewage lagoon on the property adjoining the farm. Modest costs for steel linings installed to prevent flooding in the cleaning pits were not accepted by the  city as their responsibility. Rather, they suggested the company go to court if  they expected redress for the "alleged" seepage, which soon caused much of  the farm to assume the properties of a swamp.  The ensuing court case in which the city of Portage la Prairie was sued  for damages made legal history as it was the first case on this continent where 84  pollution damages were successfully assessed against a municipality. The  modest pit lining cost ballooned through provincial courts to the Supreme  Court of Canada, and the city, in addition to general damages, was obliged to  purchase the farm. The case lasted from 1959 to 1966, when the farm was  sold. The B.C. Pea Growers Ltd. won the case, but lost the farm and Mr. S.J.  Heal returned to the north Okanagan.  In 1957, the company started to produce peas in Brooks, Alberta, and  Mr. R. V. Hall, with Garrow Seed Company, handled the harvest. Soon major plants were erected on property purchased in 1960, in Brooks. Mr. Hall  retired in 1971 and two years later Mr. B. T. Heal took over the responsibility  of production and processing, in what is now the company's second largest  operation.  Following the war, the B.C. Seeds Cooperative faltered, as traditional  seed production areas resumed normal trade around the world. The Sunset  Seed Co. Ltd., purchased the B.C. Seeds assets in 1955, and entered the small  seed trade. Growing costs in B.C. were high, compared with California, and  the frustration of production was struggled with for many years with little  profit. Mr. Neil Bosomworth left the company in 1958, and Mr. L. Ehrlich, a  refugee of the Hungarian uprising of 1956, applied his talents to the organization. The company has subsequently developed into a trading concern with  production in peas, beans and a few select lines of small seeds. In recent years,  the packaging of seeds for retailing has been a successful venture.  Through this evolvement, the company, under it associated Heal Investments Ltd., acquired several farm properties in the Armstrong district,  with an area of about 900 acres.  In 1972, Mr. S. R. Heal died, leaving his estate equally between his three  sons. These three personalities, each with a particular interest in the organization, decided a split of ownership would be mutually advantageous. Mr. S.  J. Heal assumed most of the farm lands in Armstrong, including the well  known "Hassard Farm" south of Enderby, while Messrs. R. R. and G. E. Heal  kept the operating companies in Armstrong, Creston, Brooks and Portage la  Prairie. Mrs. Chas. Smith who came to the company in 1943 became a major  participant with the brothers and continues to be secretary-treasurer, a position assumed on Mr. Ecclestone's retirement, in 1960.  A new crisis occurred in February, 1973, when a shocking fire consumed  the main plant and much stock in Armstrong. Buoyed by some insurance, the  present modern plant was built, largely under the specification of Mr. M.  Harasymchuk whose employment with the company commenced in 1942.  Retailing of pea products and associated farm and garden supplies had  always been an activity of the company and was keenly pursued in the seventies. A major store addition was built in Creston in 1973. In 1975, a new store  and office was built in Brooks, and the Moccasin Square Store in Portage la  Prairie was constructed in 1978.  This catalogue of facts, dates and events cannot pay historical tribute to  hundreds who have laboured diligently for the companies in the producing,  processing and marketing of peas. Special tribute should be made to farmers  of all areas who have so successfully produced this specialized crop.  Tradition avers that peas removed from the Egyptian pyramids were successfully germinated and grown. This wondrous fact testifies to the storage  capability of this protein vegetable. Today West Berlin keeps a three year 85  supply in stock as an insurance against a food blockade. Millions in the West  Indies supplement their staple rice with the satisfying protein of peas. Pease  pudding is still a filling favourite of northern British pubs and pea soup the  world over is a staple, economic protein dish. We, in the B.C. Pea Growers  Ltd., are pleased to have contributed to the production and sale of this wholesome vegetable.  ;. 'Ģ  Threshing at Lambly/Lumly Ranch, Armstrong 1889. This became Stepney Ranch. 86  A SHORT HISTORY OF THE WEEKLY NEWSPAPER BUSINESS  IN OLIVER, B.C.  By Wallace J. Smith  When Carlton MacNaughton asked me to prepare a paper on the history  of the newspaper business in Oliver he didn't suggest a time limit; he just said  "Do it," so I have done it in a way that I hope will meet with your approval.  When we think about history we think about what happened a long time  ago, hundreds, perhaps thousands of years ago, but the history of the newspaper business in Oliver reaches back only half a century ago to the time when  Oliver was a new settlement in the semi-arid valley of the South Okanagan.  I recall hearing a vague report of somebody printing a news sheet in the  very early years of Oliver, perhaps about 1930, but I have not been able to get  any names, dates, or any information at all about the venture.  To the best of my knowledge Oliver's first newspaper was The Oliver  News, the first issue of which I published on October 18, 1934. It was a small,  mimeographed give-away sheet of only six pages, and in the succeeding weeks  and months there were times when the paper was reduced to only four pages.  A small town weekly newspaper is called a country newspaper in the parlance of the profession, and in writing a history of a country newspaper there  may be references to the mechanical end of the business.  This is because the country newspaper staff may consist of only one or  two members in the early life of the paper, and the editor not only writes and  edits news and comment, but he also has to roll up his sleeves and set type,  feed the press and otherwise get involved in the back shop mechanics of newspaper printing.  So in this report of Oliver's newspaper history I have made some reference to the mechanical side of the business.  Some of you may wonder how does a man get into the newspaper business? To tell you how I got into it I must go back to my first experience in a  weekly newspaper. I was 15 years old when I took a job as printer's devil on  the Bassano Mail.  Bassano is an Alberta town about 90 miles southeast of Calgary and at  the western edge of a big irrigation block. The irrigation dam on the Bow  river is just a few miles from the town, so somebody in the early days coined  the phrase, "Bassano, best in the West by a dam site."  It was a small town and a small newspaper. The staff consisted of me and  the editor-printer, Percy Stone, a middle-aged man with a shock of white hair  and a fondness for the bottle. Stone had both shop experience and news writing experience on daily newspapers. He gave me a sound training in the art of  setting type, making up pages, operating the two presses and how to use all  the other technical equipment needed in operating a weekly newspaper and  job printing plant.  We had no linotype so the whole paper, news and ads, was printed from  hand-set type. This is quite an undertaking and a much bigger job than most  people realize because every letter, figure and punctuation mark not only has  to be picked up one by one and placed in a little metal frame called a "stick,"  and each stickfull assembled on a page, but when the printing job is done  every piece of type has also to be returned to its own little compartment in the  "case" which you might call a tray. 87  After working on several other weekly newspapers and spending a few  summers on my father's dry belt homestead north of the Red Deer River I  returned to Bassano as owner and editor in the fall of 1926.  When the depression hit the country in the early 1930's I was still in debt  and my newspaper business suffered severe losses. When my business collapsed in late summer 1934 I, with my wife and eighteen-month old daughter, headed for British Columbia.  When I came to Oliver in September that year the town was small, the  streets were not paved and the sidewalks were made of wooden planks. But  the country was beautiful, the apple trees were loaded with fruit, agriculture  under irrigation gave the economy a stable base and there was a revival in  gold mining. It looked like a good place to start a newspaper and I decided to  stay.  I stayed at the Oliver Hotel which was under the proprietorship of Mr.  and Mrs. Tom Hall. When she learned my purpose in coming to town the  friendly hostess suggested I look up a Mr. Roy Jardine, a former newspaper  man who lived a couple of miles north of town.  I not only made the acquaintance of Mr. Jardine but he also sold me his  equity in eleven acres of unimproved land adjoining his orchard, and that's  where I settled down and planted fruit trees the following spring.  I mentioned the first issue of the Oliver News was dated October 18,  1934. It was printed in an upstairs room of the Oliver Hotel. I was a printer  without a printing plant, having lost what I had invested back in Alberta.  With no money to buy even second hand plant equipment, the only way I  could publish a newspaper was with a mimeograph machine, and I'll tell you  this was a very humbling experience for a printer-publisher.  It wasn't much of a paper — just a six-page mimeograph job — a rather  crude, amateurish piece of work by standards of the printing trade with which  I was familiar. But after being starved out of Alberta I was almost happy with  it because I was struggling to survive and it looked like a start on the way to  recovery.  Oliver merchants were not accustomed to spending money on advertising  and besides that, times were tough and money was scarce for it was the middle  of the depression.  That first issue carried very little advertising, and advertising is something a newspaper or magazine must have, if it is going to pay expenses. A  news publication cannot survive on subscriptions alone, and because the  Oliver News was given away free of charge, I had no income at all from subscriptions.  That first issue was poorly printed because I was unfamiliar with mimeograph work, but it is readable, and particularly interesting are the ads in that  first issue. The Home Cash Grocery, operated by Berne Pickering, carried an  ad offering Braid's best tea at forty-five cents a pound; three pounds of coffee  with cup and saucer for $1.05, and Aylmer soup at ten cents a tin. The Home  Cash Grocery was in the corner premises now occupied by the Smuggler's  Den. Charlie Jones' meat market was under the same roof as the Home Cash  Grocery.  Other businesses that advertised in that first issue of The News were the  Oliver Garage, Oliver Hardware, R. G. Tait Insurance, Star Meat Market,  Traviss Bakery, Oliver Laundry, Smith's Drugstore, Joe Hoogerwerf s Second Hand Store, Oliver Hotel, Collen's Dept. Store and the Oliver Post Office.  That same issue carried news stories about a mild boom in the sale of  government farm land and town lots. News of gold mining activity and a crop  report telling about an excellent crop of apples.  A weekly newspaper's job is to publish a report of the more important  (and sometimes less important) day to day events that occur in the town and  neighborhood; a sort of running history of the community. This I tried to do,  but my time was limited, my equipment was limited and often the results left  something to be desired. At that time, Oliver could not support a printed  weekly newspaper so the mimeographed Oliver News was the next best thing.  There was no subscription price for the News. It was given away and distributed through the post office every Thursday morning at a cost of one-half  cent a copy for postage. At first I printed about 250 copies and the number  was gradually increased to more than 500 a week.  It was not long before I rented office space on Main Street in a building  directly east across the street from the present Royal Bank premises. A new  brick building is now located on that corner, but in the old days, it was occupied by a frame building housing the telephone exchange, operated by Ben  and Jean Griffin. They were pleased to rent the front half of the premises and  I was pleased to get a well located office on Main street.  Job printing goes along with weekly newspaper publishing, so I soon  bought a small hand press and a few cases of type for the printing of hand  bills, letterheads, envelopes, statements, business cards, tickets, etc. These  are the bread and butter jobs of a printing plant.  Late in the fall of 1935, I made the acquaintance of Harry Bryce, an  Englishman and veteran of the First World War. Harry was interested in  printing and photography, and he took pictures of rural school classes to supplement his meagre army pension. He lived with a man named Art Lidstone  in a cabin north of Cosmo Bruce's lumber yard, which was located on the site  of the Family Centre store.  One cold morning Harry came into my office and sat down by the stove  without saying a word. Sensing something was wrong, I prodded Harry until  he finally said, "It's that guy Lidstone." It seems that Harry had been preparing his breakfast when suddenly and without provocation Lidstone slugged Harry on the side of the jaw.  "And what did you do?" I asked.  "I slugged him back," said Harry. "When he punched me I considered  that was an unfriendly act." I agreed.  One of my early jobs was the printing of this little booklet titled  "Souvenir of the Big Break on the West Kootenay Power Line." That happened in January, 1936. The booklet was Harry's idea. He worked on rebuilding the line and he aided me by supplying the pictures and some of the text.  As old timers will remember, 28 miles of the West Kootenay power line  collapsed on January 9, 1936. The poles went down one after the other like a  row of dominoes, cutting off power to Oliver, Penticton, Princeton and  Hedley. The line was rebuilt under difficult conditions. There was deep snow  and very cold weather. On February 9, the thermometer registered 20 degrees  below zero Fahrenheit.  We printed 125 copies of the little booklet and sold them for 25 cents  each. Additional revenue came from four pages of printed advertising done 89  on my little newly acquired hand press.  The power blackout lasted from January 9 to January 26, when power  was restored by bringing it in on a temporary basis from Shuswap, and the job  of rebuilding the line was finished some weeks later.  The blackout caused great inconvenience in Oliver. Oil and gasoline  lamps were pressed into service, and even candles were used to shed light  where it was needed. The Oliver News did not need power to run machinery,  because my equipment was all hand operated.  The blackout caused no inconvenience in my home north of town because there was no power lines in that area, but the sub-zero weather and  drifting snow did cause a lot of trouble. Several times I shovelled out the deeply drifted snow in my 300 feet of lane between the highway and the house. A  shovel was the only snow-moving piece of equipment I had, and I finally gave  up.  I had to go to town at least five days a week to run my little business so I  decided to leave my car at the highway end of the land every night. When I  came home after the day's work I would drain the water from the car radiator  and follow the snow path to the house. My gasoline pressure lamp travelled  with me back and forth between town and home. We could not afford two  gasoline lamps.  In the morning I would fill the car with hot water, return the bucket and  funnel to the house, and by the time I got back to the car the motor had  warmed up and it started without trouble. Downtown I parked the car in  front of the office, draped a blanket over the radiator, and started up the  motor every two or three hours to keep the radiator water from freezing.  I have already mentioned Joe Hoogerwerf s Second Hand Store, located  on the corner now occupied by the Royal Bank. When Joe's store burned  down the owner of the corner lot, D. Herrod, proprietor of the Oliver Garage,  erected a store building with living quarters above. Various types of businesses  successively occupied the premises, which was divided into two stores, until  1938 when one side became vacant and the Oliver News moved in.  By this time I had acquired some type and an old power operated Platen-  press and also an old cylinder press, both of which came from Oroville, Washington. At one time, these presses were part of a newspaper plant in Molson,  now a Washington ghost town. Prior to that the presses were used in Spokane.  I made good use of the platen press, but the cylinder press did not turn a  wheel in my shop because certain vital parts were missing. Some years later  the steel bed of the cylinder press was acquired by the Oliver Chronicle, where  it is still in use as a type table called a "stone" in the vernacular of the print  shop.  My younger brother David had been helping me for a couple of years,  and he now took over most of the work, while I spent more time at home looking after and enlarging my young orchard which was just starting to bear  fruit.  John Woodworth, now a well-known Kelowna architect, used to come in  Wednesday afternoons after school and in the evening to crank the mimeo  machine and assemble the single sheets for stitching into a newpaper. We carried on this way until the summer of 1941, when David joined the Canadian  Air Force and I was obliged to again take on nearly all the work. John Wood-  worth stayed on to help. 90  Life went on from week to week and month to month, with business improving a little, but it was still hard going. The Penticton Herald was published weekly, and had a modest circulation in Oliver. For a couple of years, I  acted as Oliver correspondent for the Herald and I was also correspondent for  the Vancouver Sun. My friend K. D. Woodworth was correspondent for the  Vancouver Province, so between the two of us, we had the news business in  Oliver pretty well sewed up.  But that was not to last for long. In midsummer, 1937, Bert Berryman  arrived in town. He was looking for a location to start a weekly newspaper and  job printing plant. Finding that Oliver was served only by a mimeographed  give-away sheet, he decided to set up shop in Oliver.  The Berryman brothers, Bert and Tom, Mrs. Tom Berryman and son  David, came from Blaine Lake, Saskatchewan, where they published the  Blaine Lake Echo for a number of years. The Berryman's brought with them  type, presses and all the equipment and machinery needed to operate a newspaper and job printing business. They set up shop in what is now the enlarged  Chronicle building. At that time it was owned by Joe Farrimond who operated a woodworking shop on the premises.  The Berryman's first issue of the paper was called the Oliver Echo and  was dated Wednesday, August 25, 1937. The Oliver News reported the event  the following day, with the terse statement that "Of course The News will  carry on as usual."  Naturally there was rivalry between the two publications, and I was concerned with losing business to the newcomer, but the rivalry was not bitter,  and years later, I worked for the Berryman's from time to time, when they  had a heavy work load.  About a year after it started, the Echo changed its name to the Oliver  Chronicle, and still later, when the village of Osoyoos began to grow, the  paper's name was changed again to the Oliver Chronicle and Osoyoos Observer.  The war came along in 1939 and, as I previously mentioned, my brother  David left The News to join the Canadian Air Force in 1941 and I had to get  back into The News office full time, in spite of increasing pressure of work in  my growing orchard. I carried on until the end of 1942 when I published the  last issue of The News, dated December 24, 1942. It was the Christmas issue  and it carried a lot of advertising in the form of Christmas greetings. It gave  me the feeling that I did not wither away — I went out with a bang.  Some time after The News ceased publication, Wilbur Hallman, a local  young man, decided to start a paper similar to the old Oliver News. He began  turning out a weekly publication patterned after my old paper, but printed  on a superior type of equipment called an offset press. I do not have any dated  recording when Wilbur started, and when he discontinued, about a year  later.  At any rate, Wilbur made a deal with the Berrymans, went to work for  the Chronicle and they took over his equipment. Wilbur's association with the  Chronicle came to an end when he went to the new town of Kitimat.  The Chronicle was printed from hand set type, but as business expanded  in the growing community, a typesetting machine was added to the plant. A  linotype is an expensive piece of equipment, but it greatly speeds up the work.  A young man named Harold Dieno was working for the Chronicle a this 91  time. I think he bought into the business, and that facilitated the purchase of  the linotype. The Chronicle still has the old machine, but most of the type setting is now done by a new method.  As the years slip by, time takes its toll. When Tom Berryman passed  away, and later Mrs. Berryman, Bert was left alone to run the paper, while  hew nephew David attended university.  The two months before Christmas is usually a very busy time for a weekly  newspaper. For several years, I helped the Chronicle staff during this busy  time, and we sometimes worked far into the night to get the paper out on  time.  The cylinder press on which the Chronicle was printed was in the basement because it was a heavy machine that had to rest on a solid concrete base.  The pages of type, weighing more than seventy-five pounds, were put  together on the main floor, and had to be carried downstairs and placed on  the bed of the press. When the last pages go on the press, this is called putting  the paper to bed.  Bert Berryman became ill, and finally had to give up work, and his  nephew David returned to Oliver and took over the business. Bert died in  April, 1955.  David had been brought up in the print shop, and was a capable craftsman but lacked experience in writing, so much of the writing was done by his  wife, Mary.  After David took over the Chronicle, I continued to help in the shop  from time to time, and this was the situation when Don Somerville from Vancouver bought the business in August, 1959. For a few weeks, I continued to  lend a helping hand, but I had become completely committed to fruit growing and I preferred to work in the orchard where the air was not fouled up  with tobacco smoke, and the fumes from the molten metal pot on the linotype.  In reviewing this local newspaper history, something about Osoyoos  should be included.  As mentioned before, the Chronicle for several years, was called the  Oliver Chronicle and Osoyoos Observer, the paper having some coverage in  the Osoyoos community. Then, early in January, 1947, Stan Stodola and his  wife Rosemarie came to Osoyoos. They were from Lamont, Alberta, and although they had no newspaper or print shop experience, they came with a vision of starting a paper in Osoyoos.  Beginning with no equipment at all, the paper was set up and printed in  Penticton, and the first edition of the Osoyoos Times was dated January 27,  1947, and consisted of six pages, tabloid size. Several months later, Stodola  acquired a printing press, type and other equipment needed to set and print  his own newspaper. Two years later, a linotype was added, as business increased in the growing town of Osoyoos. Still later, a cylinder press and other  pieces of machinery were added, to speed up the mechanical operation.  The Stodolas have won several weekly newspaper association awards for  journalism, including the best all-round tabloid size weekly in B.C. Mr.  Stadola was president of the B.C. Weekly Newspaper Association for 1971-72.  He is still editor and publisher of the Osoyoos Times.  The Oliver Chronicle, too, has won its share of awards under the guiding  hand of Don Somerville. Twice the Chronicle was ranked second best in its 92  classification, and has also won awards for photography. Editor Somerville  served as president of the B.C. Weekly Newspaper Association in 1966, and  he is still going strong as editor of the Chronicle.  Oliver and Osoyoos communities are well served by their newspapers.  Bright news stories, interesting articles and comments (sometimes contentious) are featured by both newspapers, and both have moved away from the  old letterpress form of printing to the modern offset method.  On general appearance, and taking note of the amount of advertising  they carry, I would say that both papers are quite comfortable financially.  That is well, for both communities can expect a continuation of good weekly  newspaper service.  I must not overlook the Penticton Herald which had a weekly circulation  in Oliver before the Oliver News was launched. As mentioned before, I acted  as Herald correspondent for a few years. Later, Connie Seeley was correspondent for the Penticton paper, a position filled today by June Hook.  Most of you will remember that interesting column written by Major  Hugh Porteous and appearing in the Herald every week. It was titled 'Pepys'  Diary' and written in the style of that famous 17th century English author,  Samuel Pepys.  And that, ladies and gentlemen, brings me to the end of this report on  newspapering in the southernmost end of the Okanagan Valley.  The weekly newspaper business involves a lot of hard work, often extended into the late hours of night to meet the publishing deadline, but for  those who like the profession, there's a lot of satisfaction in that kind of  career.  The town of Oliver c. 1922.  Courtesy of Penticton Museum 93  MABEL  By Alice Large  In the Valley of the Shuswap  With mountain sentinels high above,  Lies a lake — a jewel — Mabel  Fondly called "My Second Love!"  Who was Mabel? Perhaps an Indian princess beloved by her tribe? — a  romantic thought — but no — The Provincial Archives in Victoria informed  us that a team of surveyors working in this area in 1870 named the lake and  the mountain "Mabel," for the daughter of a Hudson Bay Co. factor in Victoria.  I first saw Mabel in the spring of 1936, when as a substitute teacher at  Kingfisher School, I was invited by Russell Large to go for a rowboat ride  from the rivermouth across to the east side of the lake. Little did I know on  the beautiful May day, that within a year I would be married to Russell  Large, and a co-owner of Dolly Varden Beach Camp!  In 1925 Henry Walker of Enderby had purchased 70 acres from A. C.  Leighton of the Rogers Logging Co. and sold lots. He hoped it would become  a family-oriented resort area and so it did. In 1925 Fred Murray of Armstrong  bought one of the first lots sold and built a cabin. Today his children, grandchildren and great grandchildren use the cabin. Al Sage of Armstrong also  built about this time. The majority of those early cabins were owned by Armstrong or Enderby people.  Joe and Alice Kass, Russell's sister and brother in law, bought their first  of many lots in 1927. Each year saw new cabins and in 1929 Mabel Lake  Tourist Camp was established. Russell's father, Joshua Large, helped Joe  build those beautiful sturdy cedar-strip boats which quickly gained a reputation throughout the whole Okanagan as the safest boats afloat. Because it is  now about 25 years since the last of those boats was built by Russell, and  Ralph Stevenson, I began to make enquiries to see if any of them were still  around and in use. I found one built about 1940 for the late Dick Neil. It is  still in use on Mabel Lake and owned by Bob Thompson of Calgary. He has  been kind enough to lend me pictures.  Cedar strip boat built by Russell Large. 94  It was no easy task to manage Mabel Lake Tourist Camp in those days.  The Kass family lived at the river mouth so they went to the beach each morning. Mrs. Kass took either Noreen or Joyce with her each morning, leaving the  other at home to prepare meals for Joe's logging employees and take care of  Marjorie, who needed constant care. They bought the little store on the beach  from Mrs. Hall and provided the campers with the staple necessities. Anyone  who has ever tasted the ice cream they made every day, could never forget it.  Real cream, milk, eggs, sugar and flavoring. I have a copy of a priceless picture, taken in 1930, by Mrs. Van Kleek, showing how much they enjoyed it!  The ice house was built into the hillside behind the store, ice being cut either  from Mabel or Lusk Lake in the winter. There was always a "crew" to help  turn the hand freezer. When they finished Mrs. Kass handed out spoons and  they "licked" the dasher when it was removed. Ken Parks of Armstrong and  now of Vernon, vividly recalls this event.  "That Ho-made ice cream at Mabel Lake." Picture taken in 1930 by Mrs. Van Kleek of Armstrong.  It truly became a family camping beach and the same families returned  year after year. If they rented a cabin they wanted the same cabin year after  year and called it "theirs." The cabins were "pioneer" but had a good wood  burning stove and good beds and rented for $1.00 a day! There was always  wood for the first fire and after that you gathered your own — mostly driftwood. You used lake water or carried it from the spring, down the beach near  the river mouth, or rowed across the lake to the waterfall.  Joe Kass and Al Sage were responsible for forming The Mabel Lake  Rainbow Club. Fishing for and catching 8 or 10 pound rainbow trout was a  common occurrence. To become a member you had only to catch a 6 pound  rainbow. It had to be weighed and registered at the store. A certificate was issued and you were entitled to buy a "trout" pin. The person catching the  largest rainbow of the year became the president, and held the silver cup for a  year. During our years at the Resort, the largest rainbow we weighed was 15 V&  pounds, caught by the late Dick Neil of Vernon. August each year saw a popular regatta with swimming, diving and boat racing competitions. The day 95  ended around a huge bonfire, with hot dogs provided by the resort and coffee  made over the open fire. Prizes for the day's events were awarded and the  president of the Rainbow Club installed and a great sing-song led by Bob  Garner of Armstrong, on some occasions, ended a happy summer. One year  one of the competitions was to select a name for the beautiful little waterfall  that tumbles into the lake on the east side. Three men, Joe Kass, Mr. Cuthbert and Mr. Aldworth had cleared brush away from the falls so its beauty  could be enjoyed. Joan Aldworth — now Mrs. Rod Munro of New Westminster, won the competition by choosing the first two letters of the three  mens' names and thus forming the name "Cualka." Joan has many wonderful  memories of happy summers at Mabel.  When Russell and I took over the Resort in May 1937, it was difficult to  follow in the footsteps of the Kass family. They had worked very hard and had  made many friends who in turn became our friends. We too worked very  hard, putting emphasis on friendly service to customers. Many, many extra  after hour trips were made to town by Russell for such supplies as bread and  milk. You could never guess the right amounts of these two staples. We made  every effort to stock things people asked to have. We built a new store with living quarters that first year. We continued making that fantastic ice cream  and on a really busy Sunday we sometimes made 3 freezers — but, we progressed from hand-turning to a gas engine doing the hard work!  I could not begin to count the number of people who came because  friends recommended Mabel Lake. One person who sent many, many people  was Bill Moffet of Seattle. He had grown up at the flour mill in Enderby but  after moving to Seattle, returned every year to Mabel. Many of those dear old  friends are gone but children and grandchildren return each summer for  vacations.  A must for every visitor was a boat trip to see The Indian Paintings —  and almost everyone had a different interpretation of their meaning. They  are fascinating. We sit around a campfire on Abbott Bay beach at Cottonwood and watch the full moon rise over the mountains of Tsuis Valley. Its first  light strikes the white limestone rock on which Indians of so long ago told  their story. I'm sure this has some significance to their story. We feel they  crossed the lake at Tsuius Narrows. In 1947 Russell took me up over Mabel  Mountain and we came back down on what was called the old Indian Trail.  Tsuius means "The Narrowing of the Waters."  We have experienced and marvelled at the many moods of Mabel. In  spring the vibrant fresh green colors were reflected in her crystal clear water,  as creeks and rivers filled her banks from brim to brim. In summer her sudden squalls sent fishermen and boaters scurrying to shore. Summer storms  worried us. Our advice was "Watch the southern sky and lake — if you see a  black line with white caps advancing up the lake, head home or to shore,  fast!" Not one of our boats was ever involved in a fatal accident! Fall brought  peace and quiet with few storms — cool nights but gorgeous Indian Summer  days. Birch, poplar and cottonwood reflected their gold in her waters. Then  came winter and if the lake froze over the silence was almost eerie. Trees  along the shore laden with heavy snow created a fairyland. Sometimes in the  quiet of night the winters' hush would be shattered with the booming, cracking of the ice. We knew it was Mabel crying to be free!  In 1949 the late Ralph and Renee Stevenson became our partners and we 96  changed the name to Mabel Lake Resort Ltd. We enlarged the store and added a dining room. Ralph with his fine building skills became the head boat  builder and Renee took charge of the dining room, long being remembered  for her gourmet home-cooked meals and especially her lemon meringue pie!  From a fleet of 6 boats in 1937, it grew to 26, — many of them powered by a  small inboard which would putt-putt away for a fisherman all day on a gallon  of gas! In 1952 ill-health forced Ralph to quit. We knew we had lost valuable  partners and friends.  Mabel's shores were indeed a great place to raise our family of three —  Helen, Hugh and Marjorie. When old enough each shared in the responsibilities which went with the business. But what a fantastic playground for  summer fun! They all formed many happy and lasting friendships.  So many people say Mabel has changed over the years — we have seen  many changes but not to the real Mabel! We watched a road creep along her  eastern shore; many, many cabins spring up and the boating traffic increase  from casual rowboats and a few motor boats to many high powered boats. I  like to think and trust that the majority of people who have property there do  so because they love Mabel as I do, and do not want her spoiled! My grandchildren cherish their time at Mabel.  Sometimes after a busy week-end of boaters and skiers the silence of  Monday morning is heavenly. Even my friend, a lone loon, seems happy as he  cruises close to shore. Suddenly his shrill, quavering, hauntingly beautiful call  seems to say "All is well with Mabel, today!"  The first store built by Russell Large in 1937. 97  CHARLIE ARMSTRONG  By Doug Cox  "I was just a boy, about ten years old, when I moved to this ranch and  helped my uncle clear the land. We lived in a teepee at that time." Charlie  Armstrong still lives on the same ranch he helped clear near the head of the  Marron Valley.  Charlie is over eighty-five, close to ninety, he doesn't know for sure. His  records have been lost. He has lived in the Marron Valley, roughly located  between Penticton and Keremeos, ever since his father, Tommy Armstrong,  and his mother Christina, brought him from near Vernon at the turn of the  century. Tommy Armstrong was one of the men L. A. Clark brought with  him to help survey the road to the Nickle Plate Mine.  The Armstrong family occupied land in the Marron Valley above the  reservation but Charlie lived with his Uncle Eneas Sussap, whose name was  anglicized to Joseph and later shortened to Eneas Joe.  Eneas Joe did not have a family and regarded Charlie as his own son.  Their first home on the ranch, whose boundaries were reportedly axe blazed  by Chief Francois, was a teepee and apparently Charlie and his uncle lived in  teepees for several years. In summer the teepee was moved to a convenient  location close to where land clearing or other work was being done. In winter  the two lived in a winter teepee that Charlie describes as made of timber and  bark, insulated with pine needles and banked up about four feet on the sides  with dirt. With a small fire this type of home was comfortable and warm.  Charlie tells something about his father. "They say he took a farm in  Armstrong, they built a log house there — my mother tells me that — and  that is why that place is called Armstrong; it's the first settlement there.1 He  (his father) took off — he just left — but they got a ranch there, not too big a  ranch and he went to the Klondike, I guess for prospecting. In many years he  came back again and took up here and that's where he lived." At this point  Charlie waved his hand in the direction of the original homestead located on  the mountainside above the present ranch. "I was a good sized boy when he  died."  Charlie Armstrong never went to school but he did pick up the trades  and training that were necessary and in demand at that time. He was a cowboy, a teamster, a hunter, and eventually a rancher. "I was just a kid," he  recalls "when I was breaking horses, herding cattle and driving teams for  some of the ranchers."  Charlie was asked if he had broken and trained many horses. "Many,  many horses," he replied. "I was a good horseman. I could break a wild horse  in the morning and be mowing hay with him in the afternoon. Horses never  hurt me — been bruised pretty good, but I never had anything busted."  Although he was in demand as a cowboy, and particularly as a teamster,  Charlie did have time to raise a herd of cattle. He started the hard way with  one cow and built from there. Eventually, he had a herd of about 200 head  bearing the "Half Diamond-Thirty Six' brand. He also raised horses, getting  better stallions as he could afford them. He was an excellent horseman, and  prided himself on having a good team of horses, which is evident in a photo of  himself with a four-horse team which he raised, digging potatoes on the Fred  Howell Ranch. The old Fred Howell place is at present the T6 Cattle Company owned by Lynn and Nonie Kusler. 98  Charlie Armstrong with a four-horse team digging potatoes on the Fred Howell Ranch, presently  the T-6 Cattle Co. owned by Lynn and Noni Kusler.  The house and buildings on the Armstrong ranch are constructed mainly  of log in the style of most early ranches with high round log corrals for holding  and breaking horses. All the buildings on the ranch were built by Charlie  himself, some of them with the help of his brother, Willie, and his nephew,  Napoleon Kruger.  Charlie still lives in the original two-room log cabin with a lean-to that  was built on the ranch. An ancient cookstove and a cast heater keep the place  comfortable. Portable gas lamps light the main room and a coal oil lamp  brightens the bedroom. "I've been living with an oil lamp for a long time  now," says Charlie. The lack of electricity doesn't concern him.  I marvelled at the man who strolled around the ancient unpainted log  structures. Small pines and shrubs encroached on abandoned machinery  from a bygone era. A Case threshing machine had a final resting place  against a log corral. A small herd of cattle grazed on the meadow beside the  fruit trees. Seventy-five years ago this man, affectionately known to his grand  and great-grand nieces and nephews as "Toopa" lived in a teepee while he  helped clear this land.  Mr. Armstrong mildly apologized for the "thirty or forty head" of cattle,  explaining that his hay land was not as productive as it once had been.  Charlie went on to explain that at one time he raised pigs, chickens, ducks  and geese, and sufficient hay for all the animals.  I asked about horses.  "Horses? I just don't know my horses anymore. I've got two mountains of  horses! I don't know how many, last year we counted seventy, and that was  just around here. Goin' wild you know, they can't bring any down. It takes me  to bring them down and I quit riding."  After nearly ninety years, he deserves a rest.  1    Editor's Note: Actually, Armstrong was named for an English financier. O.H.S. Report  No. 13, p. 153. 99  Charlie Armstrong. 100  90th ANNIVERSARY OF THE VERNON FIRE DEPARTMENT  MAY 8, 1981  The souvenir and program agenda of the evening turned out to be only a  guideline. As posted, the cocktails and stories did commence at 6:00 p.m. but  before the 7:00 hour rolled around for the dinner all the present day staff had  already spent half an hour fighting a major blaze that gutted the historic railway station just blocks away — ironically a building so familiar to all the old-  timers who stood at the windows watching the smoke and swapping stories  while whetting their appetites. Co-incidentally, this landmark was very close  to the age of the celebrated event!  The evening, nonetheless, went underway as if this had been all part of  the plan and the banquet carried on with the fire trucks coming and going,  all to the amusement of the oldtimers. Throughout the evening all concerned  became conditioned to the chatter of the radios and few of the guests fully  realized that three major motor vehicle accidents were also being attended by  our two ambulances and the 'Jaws of Life' rescue equipment.  A special guest of the evening, Mr. Jim Hull of Sorrento, assisted in the  unveiling of portraits including those of all Fire Chiefs from the inception of  the Department. Jim's Father had been Vernon's first Fire Chief serving  1899-1903.  The Chief Officers were:  1891 - 1889 - Chief G. G. Henderson  1899 - 1903 - Chief Jim J. Hull  1903 - 1915 - Chief Thos. Crowell  1915 - 1924 - Chief J. Moffat  1924 - 1925 - Chief A. Thompson  1925 - 1932 - Chief Alex Green  1932 - 1934 - Chief Joe Kent  1934 - 1939 - Chief Ben Dickenson  1939 - 1970 - Chief Fred Little  1970 - 1980 - Chief Ken M. Little  1980 - - Chief M. Wakefield  Jim especially enjoyed his spot at the head table sharing stories with  Mayor Neil A. Davidson who had been a friend back in school days.  Throughout the evening the many historic pictures of past staff, socials,  landmarks and memories provided the steady drone of many wheels in motion. Some of the rivalries were rekindled as old buddies tried to out-do each  other's wits at card games and the like and a wonderful time was had by all.  Similar parties have been held in the past on anniversary dates, the most  notable being the 50th, 60th, 75th and this 90th. Past members attended  from various locations as far away as 850 miles.  Historically, it is interesting to note that the Vernon Fire Department  originated in 1891 while Vernon was not incorporated until 1892. The old  City centre Firehall had been located across from the Cenotaph Park as we  now know it and in those days its neighbour was the old granite Post Office.  The Firehall saw great growth over the years and the transition from horse-  drawn reels and apparatus to the newer chain drive LaFrance, the 1934 Ford  with its wooden ladders, the Godfriedson Pumper, the ARP Unit, Inhalator  Trailer, 1938 International Pumper, 1946 Bickle-Seagrave, 75' Aerial Truck 101  for which the hall had to be modified and finally the 1960 LaFrance Pumper  and our first International Ambulance. In the course of those years there was  the human element — some of this country's most unique characters were  'born' there! And remember the old fire horn that would terrify any moose! —  those were the days.  Leaving the old Firehall in December of 1965, progress saw the inception  of the Civic Complex, first occupied by our new modern premises. The staff  had now grown from one full time Chief (Fred Little) in the 1940's to a Chief,  Deputy Chief and eight drivers, all full time staff, along with 25 Volunteer  members and officers. Progressively the numbers of professional staff has increased to today's complement of 25 - Chief, Deputy, a Fire Prevention  Branch (including a Captain and Inspector), a Secretary, 4 Lieutenants, 16  Driver-firefighters and a 25-man Volunteer call-out membership consisting of  Assistant Chief, 2 Captains, 2 Lieutenants and a 2-tier callout system.  Today's Firefighter no longer listens for a horn but carries a pocket pager for  call to duty.  The Vernon Firehall is a component of a modern well-equipped fire service. Dispatched from the new alarm room are the Regional District Volunteer Departments including BX/Swan Lake, Coldstream, Lavington, Okanagan Landing and soon will be joined by another satellite Vernon Firehall.  Equipment in the Vernon Hall includes: 4 Pumpers, 1 Aerial Ladder (75'), 1  Snorkel (85'), 1 Rescue Van (Jaws of Life), 1 Tanker, 3 cars and 2 ambulances. The modern communications that include direct annunciator lines to  the Firehall and such advantages as recorded messages etc., all help to keep  response time within a 4 minute average.  Prdgrarhme Of  Labor Day "  Celebration  VERNON, B.d  *     Monday  Sept 2nd  . THE MAPLE LEAF  FOREVER I  |  Officers Of  :   Brigade.  T  J. J. HULL  Chief.  T.E. CROWELL  Asst-Chicf.  A. E. A. LOWES  Secretary.  H. W. KNIGHT  Treasurer.  Sports  Committee  T.E CROWELL  Chairman.  R. W. TIMMINS  F. a JACQUES  R. CARSWELL  S. A. SHATFORD  Secretary.  !  Programme  GRAND PARADE     -     - 9 to IO.30 ui.  Ik* D*«atcd Bicycle in Parade - $5.00. S3.CC.  BASEBALL-SpiliumcSecn n. Veraon-I&30 to (2 a^n.  HOSE REEL CONTEST-WET     -     -     J tun.  Distance 100 yards, lay ISO feet base and get water, let.  11100; 2nd, 18.00.  tmt     2nd  Bicycle Race, H mile-3 In 5 »10 00    $5 00  Bicycle Race " girls 16and under, ralue. 3 00 150  Bicycle Race     "       boys    " " "        3 00      1 50  Bicycle Race, 1 mile  .'.    7 00      3 50  Hose Reclx and Hoot and Ladder Wagon,  100 yardi Hub and Hub  12 00     8 00  Drilling Contest  10 00  Foot Race, 100 yards  1     750       100  Foot Race,   "       "    married men of Brigade.    5 00       3 00  Foot Race, ingle " " 5 00       3 00  Foot Race,   H       "    members of Band     5 00       3 00  Foot Race, 75 yards, boys 16 and noder, value 2 00 100  Foot Race, 50   "       girls       " " 2 00       1 00  Hordle Raoe, 220 yards    5 00      2 00  Climbing Greasy Pole      5 00  Running High Jump    5 00      2 50  Vaulting with Pole     5 00       2 50  Catching Greasy Pig     Pig  Running Long Jump     5 00       2 00  Kloolcbmen's Horse Race, X mile     5 00      2 00  Victnria Cross Race, 300 yards     7 50      100  Horse Race, \( mile—2 in 3   10 00       5 00  Horse Race; t{ mile dash     5 00  Tug of-war, Fire Brigade vs. World  13 00  Prize of 610.00 for the Farmer bringing the largest number of people from the oonntry and joining in Parade.  LACROSSE MATCH-Kclowoa vs. Vetnon-5 pjn.  Hdic Reel Fire Conteit—7 p.rn.    -    -    -     $(0; $5.  Big Fire to be extinguished by the fire fighters of tbe  Vernnn Fire Brigade.  GRAND BALL in the Evening  IN ODDFELLOWS' HALL.  TICKETS, JI.50.      *       *      *      *       LADIES FREE.  God Save the King I 102  HUNTER, HUGH  Notes of conversations with Hugh Hunter at his home, four  miles east of Princeton, July 10 and 13, 1930.  I was born in Armagh, Ireland. My father was a chaplain to the Imperial  troops. As a youngster I was with the family in Ballincollig, in the county of  Cork; at the Curragh of Kildare, the great military camp of Ireland, and at  various places in England. I came out to Canada as a young man. I worked  for a time on construction on the C.P.R. I came on a construction train from  Laggan, at that time the end of the track, and on a flat car to Beaver, just the  other side of Rogers Pass, and then I hoofed it to Revelstoke in the middle of  winter. It looked a wild place then and as cold as blazes. I don't know that it  looks any less wild now than it was then except that there is a railway line  through it and trains rumbling and whistling day and night. It is a wonderful  country for scenery, though, and when they get Golden and Revelstoke joined  up with a highway there should be thousands of cars driving through there  every summer. I wasn't thinking much of the scenery when I came along there  on top of a flat and on foot, but of keeping warm and getting to shelter.  Farwell was the original name of Revelstoke, after A. S. Farwell, the surveyor, who had laid out a townsite there in anticipation of the railway coming  through. It was below where the court house is and over towards where the  traffic bridge is now. He wanted too much for his townsite and so the C.P.R.  put in their own. It was a rough-looking place, alright, and a rough-looking  crowd, but good order was being kept. There were six thousand men there  waiting for the weather to moderate to cut the right-of-way on G. B. Wright's  contract down to Sicamous.  I didn't stay there long, then I hoofed it to Sicamous, my first introduction to British Columbia. I went down to Enderby and Armstrong. The  English Church sent a man to Armstrong, where they had just built a little  shack in the woods. He was Rev. Alfred Shildrick. He was the father of Shil-  drick, who dropped dead the other day in Revelstoke. (Darrel Heath Innes  Shildrick, accountant.) Shildrick brought his wife with him. They came up on  the "Spillamachene," a boat which had no accommodation for women. She  was a Miss Innes, a daughter of James H. (Henry) Innes, superintendent of  naval stores at Esquimalt. There were three daughters. Father Pat (Rev.  Henry Irwin) married one (Frances Stuart, 2nd daughter; January 8, 1890);  Dr. Simon J. Tunstall another (Marianne Lawson, 3rd daughter, September  22, 1885); and Shildrick the third. Father Pat was no preacher but he was a  fine man and did a tremendous amount of good amongst the miners and railway construction men. He put on no airs, as some of the clergy used to, but  met everybody man to man, and he was more highly respected than any other  minister ever in the boundary districts or along the right-of-way. Shildrick  came up to Armstrong from New Westminster. Dodd's (referring to Leonard  Alleyne Dodd, Gold Commissioner, Princeton) father, ran a little store at  Lansdowne (settlement three miles north of Armstrong), which belonged to  Dr. ? and afterwards a brother of the doctor came in. Old Dodd (William  Dodd) was Government Agent at Kamloops for a while. (He was agent for the  British Columbia Express Company, the B.X., at Yale for twelve years, and  was Government Agent at various agencies from 1886 to 1911.)  From there 1 kept on going west, mostly hoofing it, and I got on to Kam- 103  loops, and then to Spences Bridge, and then down into the Nicola Valley.  When I got there all the talk was about the finding of gold in Granite Creek.  By that time, the C.P.R. was finished and the men from the construction  gangs were pouring down to the new diggings. I landed in Granite Creek in  January, 1886, and stayed till the following summer and went back to Nicola.  I rode down from Nicola on horseback. I walked down from Granite Creek to  Princeton and cross on the first bridge over the Tulameen. As dusk fell, I  crossed the bridge over a cedar log in the dark. There was no Princeton then;  it was part of Allison's ranch. J. F. Allison lived near where the old school is,  between here and town, about a mile from town.  Forbes George Vernon reserved an area of land, about a square mile,  about a mile below the forks of the river on the trail that is now the Hedley  road, and called it Princeton. J. F. Allison got this abolished early in the  nineties and the townsite was established where it is now. Allison turned it  over to his son-in-law, Dick Sandes, and Sandes sold it to the Watermans, who  came out here to represent the Vermillion Forks Mining and Development  Company, an English outfit. This was around 1900. After that some of the  Allisons and Hon. Edgar Dewdney and others tried to put a townsite called  Allison on the market. This was described as "three miles below the forks of  the rivers, with a bridge over the Similkameen." This bridge was one Allison  had put in and it was the only way for many years to get from the south side of  the valley into the town without fording until the bridge at the south end of  Bridge Street was built. Allison townsite did not go for some reason, although  it was in a fine location. My land is part of the same bench, and you can see in  my garden and meadows what rich soil it is.  Granite Creek is eleven miles from Princeton and at that time it was only  a horse-trail between the two places. After the mines were going, the trail was  improved and in the course of time became a wagon road. I first met George  C. Tunstall, the gold commissioner for this district, in the old court house at  the creek, which was a log cabin. Mrs. Alice James had it as a hotel and it cost  $5,000 but the Government got it for ten dollars for use as a government  building and residence for the officials. Allison had been offered the job of  gold commissioner as soon as it was found there was need of such an official,  but he did not want to go up to live at the creek so he refused to take it,but he  acted for a short time until the government was able to make arrangements.  The name of Tunstall as gold commissioner was supposed to be signed to all  records of locations but sometimes the mining recorder who was acting for  him forgot this and signed just his own name. John Swan was the first mining  recorder and he was followed by Archie Irwin. Archie Lindsay and Charley  Gallagher acted as recorders for short periods.  I became mining recorder in August, 1889, and later I was appointed  gold commissioner and to other positions in connection with the assessment  and taxation of lands. The office was at Granite Creek until 1900, when it was  moved to Princeton, and a year or two later, the old court house which stands  beside the new one was built. I had a nice ranch at Otter Flat where I made  my home, but when the office was moved to Princeton, it was too far away so I  sold it and moved to my present place.  Granite Creek was sure a rough dump when I saw it first. It was the middle of winter but there were lots of men living in tents. A tent in winter is not  so bad as you might think; if you get in a sheltered spot, bank it up with snow 104  or board it round, and put in a rough floor. With a stove going it gets too  warm for comfort sometimes. The first winter there were 22 saloons and 22  whores. After the last spike was driven in the C.P.R. late in the year 1885,  there was a rush of unemployed men to Granite Creek. There were as many as  two thousand men dumped there in the course of a very short time. That  winter they were starving along the creek and living on deer meat. The first  summer there was a lot of gold taken out of Granite Creek and there were  some nice nuggets found. All the gold that was taken out was not reported;  you never can tell what Chinese take out as they do not tell. If you ask them  they will say they are making four bits or six bits or something like that.  The town of Granite Creek was one narrow street about twenty feet wide,  and the buildings were all log buildings, some of them nothing better than  shacks, built of rough logs with the chinks filled in with moss and mud, and  the roofs were split cedar shakes. While there were no sanitary arrangements  about the place there was little sickness, as there never was in any of these  mining camps, there being so much fresh air. There was always a good supply  of spring water from several springs. Anyone that wanted it could get lots of  whiskey to mix with it and there was certainly lots of whiskey drunk on the  creek. Saturday nights and Sundays the miners would gather in the bars in  town and drink and gamble and chew the fat. Sometimes there would be  fights but on the whole they were not a bad lot as soon as those who came  from across the line found out that we would not stand any nonsense or rough  work or gun play in the camp.  In addition to my other duties, I was provincial constable for several  years. As a policeman I had trouble from time to time with old-timers who  could not realize that as the place got settled up they could not carry on as  they used to in other mining camps and in earlier days. When I began to enforce the closing of bars on Sunday (which I was justified in doing, although  the law in that respect was not observed either in town or country), they  thought I was an awful tyrant, but they soon came to acknowledge that I was  right. When the rush was on, I was ordered to close the hotels, that is, the  bars, and everyone thought they were very badly used by me. Thomas Rab-  bitt, who has a farm near Slate Creek and after whom Rabbit Mountain is  named, at that time had a bar on his place, which was a stopping-place for  miners and prospectors going up to the headwaters of the Tulameen. Father  Lejeune came to me at Granite Creek and said that there were a lot of Indians  at Rabbitt's drunk. I went up there and found that a bunch of natives were lying about the bar and outside the house dead drunk, and though Rabbitt  denied they got the liquor in his place, I had no difficulty in getting a conviction against him.  The casting of lots was an old Biblical custom which I once saw carried  out in the shape of a game of cards to see who should get a liquor licence. At  the summer licensing sessions in 1901, one of the first held here, the board  had applications for licences from W. A. Dodds, of the Aspen Grove House,  and Donald Munro, of the Wayside House, a bit out of Aspen Grove on the  Otter Flat road. Both places were regular stopping-places between the Nicola  Valley and the Similkameen, and both were well-conducted by men who were  highly thought of in the community. Dodds' place was probably the oldest of  the two, he having been an old-time settler there and a well-known stock-  raiser and rancher. So far as I remember "Judge" Murphy, Alex D. Bell, and 105  Charley Thomas were the licence commissioners. Anyway, they decided that  they would give one licence only for Aspen Grove and vicinity, and they left it  to the applicants themselves to decide who should drop out. Both men were  good poker players and they agreed to decide the matter by a poker hand.  Munro won out, Dodds withdrew his application, and both were satisfied.  That is the only time I ever saw or heard of such a method of deciding an  application in any court in our part of the country.  Charley Thomas I knew well, having come into the district with him. He  was a native of Barnwood, Gloucestershire, and was born there on the first  day of November in 1861. He left home when he was twenty and spent four  years in Australia prospecting and mining. In 1885 he came to Canada, landing at Victoria, and he was attracted to the Similkameen Valley by the  Granite Creek excitement, word of which had reached Victoria just about the  time he landed there. A young and enterprising man, with the experience he  had gained in Australia, his success in this country was certain. He mined on  Granite Creek for a while and did well, and then for some years he was with  A. E. Howse in his Nicola store. About 1894 or 1895 Charley opened for himself in Princeton, his being the first retail store here and the first store of any  kind for that matter. He was our first postmaster, our first justice of the  peace, the first president of the board of trade, and one of the original members of the hospital board. His brothers were associated with him in the store  business for some years. He was in every way a good citizen and was always active on behalf of the town and district, frequently going to Victoria at his own  expense on deputations. Charley never married but he was not a grumpy old  bachelor at all, but a genial, sociable, good-humoured fellow. He died a year  ago, May 25th, 1929.  After the railway got into running order, some supplies came to Granite  Creek that way, and most of the Nicola Valley stuff. They came by train to  Spences Bridge and then were freighted fifty miles to Nicola Lake, and then  those that came to Granite Creek came on by horseback. All our goods came  ove the Hope Mountains in summer. There were stages between Kamloops  and Nicola and between Nicola and Spences Bridge each way once a week.  There was a mail once a month to Granite Creek. It went out on a Tuesday.  Once we were three months without any mail, the snow was so deep. A man  on snowshoes brought in our mail in winter; just letters, no papers.  Practically all the furniture there was in Granite Creek was home-made  in the early days and even in later days except in houses like F. P. Cook's.  There was plenty of timber; I have been told that this valley was very well-  timbered one time; and with a whipsaw and adze, a hammer and some nails,  there is no article of furniture that a handyman, like all prospectors are, can't  make for himself. A miner's stool was three legs and a piece of board. If you  wanted to be quite fancy you could nail a back and arms on it, or you could  get a log long enough and hew out the upper half of it so to have a back curved round. Lots of them were satisfied with a piece of a small log high enough  to sit on. Tables were sometimes a large log set in the middle of the floor or a  rough table of whipsawn boards on four legs braced together. Few men went  to the trouble of making a bedstead. They built up a bunk in one corner near  the fire with a few thin poles and some boards, and threw their blankets on  that. If you wanted a mattress all you had to do was cut a few branches of  cedar or hemlock and throw them on the bottom of the bunk. Cedar boughs 106  make a fine comfortable bed.  The government offices were moved to Princeton on March 19, 1900. J.  Fred Hume was Minister of Mines at the time and had been visiting Princeton  and the Similkameen Valley a short time before. (Editor's Note: Hunter is  slightly out in this; Hume went out with the Semlin administration at the end  of February and Smith Curtis succeeded him as Minister of Mines, but of  course the change in the location of the office was arranged for by Hume.)  There was a road completed to Granite Creek in 1896 and the next year they  made a sleigh-road to Princeton. They kept on working on it with the object  of making it a highway. This was accomplished about 1899 or 1900. The old  trail was over the mountain and not as good a grade. It was a good deal later  before there was a road east towards Keremeos. It was the development of the  Nickle Plate mine at Hedley that brought the construction of that road.  There had always been a good horse trail over that route and an Indian trail  long before the white men came. There were also horse trails north-and-south  which the Indians followed between this part of the country and the Oregon  country to the south.  Granite Creek never had a school, not that there ever were many children there to be educated. Still there were a few, white as well as half-breed.  Mrs. Beattie's school in Kamloops was the nearest good school there was when  I went to Granite Creek. About 1900, a school was started in Princeton.  There was never any church at Granite Creek. The Anglican, Presbyterian,  and Methodist ministers at Nicola came in at intervals and held service, sometimes in a house — I think they used Swan's or Irwin's house — and sometimes  in one of the hotels. If it was in a hotel the sale of liquor would be stopped by  the proprietor during the service. There was also Archdeacon Small, from  Lytton. Small administered the sacrament to the Indians. One minister, Rev.  J. A. (?) Bastin, we had every six weeks in the summer for a year or two. For a  long time Princeton had no church either. First, the Presbyterian Minister at  Nicola came in once a month or so and held a service in one of the hotels; that  would be in the bar-room too; then the Anglicans sent a man in; and then the  Catholics. In a short time after the government agency was moved here, there  was a small church put up. For a while, the old school was used, that is the  first school, which used to be the land company's office.  Granite Creek in its palmy days was the third largest community in the  province, Victoria and New Westminster being the only towns larger than it,  and in those days it is doubtful if either of them was as busy a place as was the  Creek. Everything was booming, the stores were doing a roaring trade, and to  us young fellows who had never seen anything just like it, it looked as if this  prosperity would go on for years indefinitely and the town grow into a big  city. Charley Thomas, F. P. Cook, and I all got in here about the same time,  all drawn in by the Granite Creek excitement. F. P. Cook saw the chance for a  store in the Creek instead of mining, just as Charley Thomas did in regard to  Princeton some years later, and at once opened a general store in a good-sized  log building in a central location in the town. As a matter of fact, any location in Granite Creek would have been central, for the population had only  the one street to walk along — Main Street they used to call it, but of course it  had no name — and they had to go to the store, wherever it was. There were a  store or two besides Cook's but he had the best stock and his was the main  store in the place. He kept it up, too, for many years, even after Granite Creek 107  began to go down, and served the district for a good way round. In later  years, he opened stores in Princeton and in Coalmont, when the Columbia  company started their colliery there. Perley Russell ran the business for the  estate after Cook died, and is in charge of the store here, which is the only one  they run now.  Cook was about the same age as Thomas and myself but died at a comparatively young age. He was born in Bedford, England, in 1861. His name  was some family connection and an unusual name, Foxcrowle, but he was  generally known familiarly as F. P. He came out to Canada in 1885 and right  through to British Columbia, and like Thomas the discovery of gold in  Granite Creek brought him here. He tramped in carrying his blankets. He  often referred to his shouldering his way through the crowded street in  Granite Creek the first time he struck it. Crowds were no novelty to him but  that sort of a crowd was. He was always a live and active citizen, and was  prominent in all movements for the advancement of the district. While the  store was his main thought, he had a number of mining interests, and was always a great friend of miners and prospectors, staking several with success to  them and to himself. He was a great horseback rider and some years before  his death he was thrown and sustained an injury to his head which gave him a  good deal of trouble afterwards. Finally he had to go to the Vancouver General Hospital for an operation for an abcess on the brain and was unable to  rally. It was the last day of July, 1918, he died and he was buried, as he had  always intended, at Granite Creek.  Albert E. Howse is a Canadian from Ontario. He settled in Nicola in  1876 and came to Princeton in 1900. He has had several stores in various  places and flour-mill and sawmill interests as well. His business here is now  owned by the Princeton Mercantile Company. John Campbell had the first  drug store here. He is now in business in Keremeos. I don't know whether or  not George G. Lyall is his successor in the business, but Lyall has been here  for a quarter of a century or more in the drug business.  The first hotel here was Jim Wallace's, which was called the Princeton by  him later on. He started it thirty-five years ago, at least, and probably a year  or two more than that. Before that, he had been running a saloon in Granite  Creek. John H. Jackson established the Jackson House about 1900. It was  where the Princeton now is. The present building of the Princeton Hotel was  the first brick erection in town. The Tulameen Hotel was started by George  W. Aldous about the same time as the Jackson. Mr. Aldous had a butcher  business in Princeton with one of the Allison boys. The Similkameen Hotel  was put up by Mrs. Worgan, a very smart, businesslike Englishwoman, who  came here with her husband from Rossland or Greenwood. He was ho hotel-  man, but it was her house and she knew how to run it. It stood for many years  beside the old court house on Vermillion Avenue, and was burned down last  winter. Mrs. Worgan had been out of it for years before that. There was none  better fitted up in the country. Chinese were in charge of it at the end, and  they had the water system shut off from most of the house on account of the  cold weather. When the fire broke out they were unable to get the water turned on or they could have put the fire out before it got beyond control. Today,  there are just the two hotels in town, the Princeton and the Tulameen, which  are quite enough for the place. Both have beer parlors and on Saturdays the  chaps come in and drink and gossip just as they used to do in the old days, but 108  there is not the drunkenness nor the fighting that were to be seen in the older  times.  We had no doctor in here in the early days, but Dr. A. M. Sutton came  in monthly from Nicola, and if there was an emergency case he had to be sent  for from there. He used to be in Guy's Hospital, London; he is now in California. Dr. H. A. Whillans was the first resident doctor in Princeton. He and  Alec Bell came in together, hoofing it up the valley. That was about 1900. He  moved from here to Hedley and then to the coast, where he practiced in Victoria. Then I think he went to Prince George and he is now in Stewart. His  wife was a Miss Dunlop who was one of our earliest school teachers and whom  he married after she had been here a few months. Afterwards she was a school  trustee for a couple of terms. A sister of Dr. Whillans also taught here and is  married to Jim Wright, who ran The Star for a long time. Mrs. Wright is  secretary of the school board. We had Dr. James E. Schon for quite a time.  Then we had Dr. Lesieur or Lazier after that. (Editor's Note: Lazier is correct.) At Nicola for a long time, they had Dr. John Chipp, who was a bit of a  character. He came out to Victoria in the very earliest days as a ship surgeon,  and can't have been a young man then. He practiced at Barkersville, from  where he came to Nicola. From Nicola he went over to Vernon and I think  that is where he died. Probably he was a widower when he came out, for he  had a daughter keeping house for him in Cariboo and in Nicola.  The first building for a school here was a temporary one used before  there was a properly organized school district. After the district was organized  they used an old building on the townsite which had been the office of the  townsite company while they were building a school house. This old office  building was used by all denominations for church purposes until a church  was built.  The first undertaker here was "Tink" French (D. M. French). He got his  nickname from "tinker," he and Dave Day being in partnership for a number  of years as plumbers and tinsmiths. Before that they were together prospecting and recorded a number of claims together. In his advertisement in the  Star "Tink" one time had: "We have buried others, why not you? Caskets cosy  and comfortable. Give us a trial." "Just received, a shipment of caskets, warm  and inviting — come in and inspect them."  I find from old papers that my first official actions as mining recorder  were on September 4th, 1889, when I recorded lay-overs. 109  AN OKANAGAN PIONEER  Henry James Blurton was born in the town of Stourbridge, Worcestershire, England, in the year 1873. He was the only child of John and Frances  Blurton. His father was assistant superintendent at the London Post Office,  for a time, but passed away while Henry was a small boy.  Henry, who later on became familiarly known as "Harry" to all his  friends and acquaintances, received his education at St. Edward's College,  West Malvern, Worcestershire, finishing off at St. Peters school, Eaton  Square, London, S.W.  He left England's shore for Calgary in the year 1889, preferring Canada  to Australia, where his uncle had promised to buy him a sheep ranch, but  nothing if he came to Canada. He hoped to make his fortune in the new country. While at Calgary, he became very ill with rheumatic fever in the year  1892. The doctor wrote his mother that he was not expected to recover so she  sailed from England to be with her son. She had been a widow for several  years.  She travelled by way of the United States to Calgary only to find her son  had left there to go to B.C., so she followed him.  Harry had homesteaded in the Salmon River Valley. It had been given  the name because, when the salmon spawned, they were so thick it was said a  person could walk across the river on their backs. He had nothing but a tent  to live in when he learned of his mother's arrival. The few scattered pioneers  gathered together and built a shack. My grandmother (Harry's mother) was  one of the first two women to arrive in Salmon River Valley. Harry and his  mother lived there till the following spring when she remarried, moving to the  Mara district. Henry traded his homestead to his chum J. Kneller for the large  amount of seventy-five cents (754). This was probably just to make it legal.  Jabe was his chum and still lives in Vernon at the age of eighty-five, moving  there several years ago, after retiring from the farm. Horses at that time could  be bought from the Indians for from seventy-five cents to one dollar and fifty  cents.  Harry started trapping furs that first winter and kept on for the greater  part of his life. When he felt he was too old to travel the mountains in winter  he got a trader's license. It is hard for a man to quit doing the work he loves.  Harry homesteaded land at Mara in 1899. When the United Farmers of  B.C. were organized he joined them. He organized the Mara Lake Local  U.F.B.C. and was sec.-treasurer during the whole time of their existence. He  was delegate at all U.F.B.C. conventions held in Victoria, Vancouver and  Vernon.  Big Game Hunter  He was a big game guide and hunter for several years. He was in the  Lilloet and Chilcotin country as early as 1893, and in the Bridge River country in 1895. There he killed his first grizzly bear. He hunted mountain goat  and the big horn sheep and became well acquainted with Billy Mason,  another big game guide who was well known in the district.  He was appointed honorary game warden in 1908, and in 1910 was placed on permanent patrol work over a large district extending south to the  United States boundary line. In 1914 he was transferred to Lilloet during the  Pacific Great Eastern Railway construction. His district was from Squamish 110  on the coast, north to the Upper Chilcotin.  Excerpts from one of his reports read as follows:  "March 1 - On patrol at Bridge River. (Each day has its own report.)  "March 11th - Raining all day. I saw three mountain sheep ewes this  afternoon from Hanson's house on the hill near Lebrings.  "March 12 - Left Hanson's on snow shoes and managed to travel over the  Mission Mountain down to Seaton Lake. Had to leave my pack behind with  traps, clothes and two lynx skins belonging to the government.  "March 18th - Left Lilloet on patrol and had a lift in a motor car up the  Fraser Valley and through the Marbles Canyon to Hat Creek. Plenty of snow  still on the ground in Marble Canyon.  "March 19th - Left Robertson's Ranch, Hat Creek and patrolled down  the creek to Cole McDonald's 12 Mile House, Caribou Road.  "March 21st - On patrol at Ashcroft.  "March 27th - On patrol at Lytton.  "March 30th - On patrol at Lilloet."  Mountain Man  Harry entered for and passed his examination as assistant forest ranger in  1918. In relation to his game and forest work, he received a letter from relatives in Stourbridge pointing out the queer fact that he should be in a new  country in charge of such work when several hundred years ago his ancestors  had borne the title of "The Royal Axebearers to the King" in Sherwood  Forest.  Harry became known as a "mountain man" after hearing the marmots  whistle and the porcupine sing when he was in the mountains west of Revelstoke. According to the Chilcotin Indian standards one is not a "mountain  man" until you have heard both of these. He wrote poetry and had a book of  poems written, titled, Rhymes of a Mountain Man. Hence the use of the title.  He was called poet laureate of the miners, being well known both at the coast  and in the interior of B.C. for his mining interests. He won the first prize for  five years at the Vancouver Exhibition with his rock collection, then quit to  give someone else a chance.  He wrote these lines titled "The Prospector" in 1941 and often sang them  at gatherings, accompanying himself on the banjo:  "I wander o'er the grassy hillside,  I search along the noisy brook;  I travel on the mountain goat trails  And everywhere for gold I look."  There are five verses to the song and probably many folks have heard  them or read them.  Harry was an expert photographer, taking pictures far back in the  mountains where perhaps no one else has been even yet. Many of his trapping  scenes, live wild animals and B.C. mountains and lakes were shown at The  Wembly Exhibition in England in connection with the Canadian fur exhibit.  He showed mining specimens and gave exhibits with his violet ray and  geiger counter outfit at Vernon exhibitions. He wrote a booklet, "Mining  Possibilities of the Okanagan Valley," including excerpts from mining reports  dating back to 1895. He had great faith in future mining possibilities in the  Okanagan Valley and district and had many claims staked out there and in Ill  different parts of B.C. He had the only known complete set of mining reports  from 1895 to the present and took great pride in them. These, unfortunately,  were found missing after his death except for the 1895 and 1950 reports.  He wrote several letters to Princess Elizabeth and also after she became  Queen and took great pride in her replies. He also spoke to her on her Canadian tour.  With his passing another colorful pioneer of the Okanagan is missed with  his songs and stories of the early days. Of shooting the grizzlies with both gun  and camera, hunting the mountain sheep, prospecting the hills, but never  lonely as some people are. Harry did not like the cities, preferring the mountains always.  I have written these following lines to him in remembrance:  The Man of the Mountains has passed away.  He closed his eyes in rest today.  And now the trails will no longer hold  The Man of the Mountains, he too, grew old.  Yet his spirit shall soar oe'r the eagle's nest;  The white capped mountains shall now be his rest.  He will once more follow the moose and the bear  But they will not know of his presence there,  Perhaps he will follow the wild goose wing;  Tread Nature's green carpet where crickets sing:  His spirit will soar where he once firmly trod  Though now his body lies under the sod.  Harry Blurton as a young man. 112  FORTY-ONE YEARS ON THE PIONEER VINEYARD  By Ruth Saari  The Viking, Lief Ericson, found wild grapes growing in Canada which  he called 'Vinland' 500 years before Columbus adventured to America. The  clusters of fruit were forerunners of an industry that would flourish in the  warm climate of the Okanagan Valley. The earliest settlers in British Columbia were a robust lot with a thirst for beer and whiskey but as the province  toddled out of infancy, tastes became more refined. Farmers started making  their own wine. By the late 1800's, private clubs in Victoria and Vancouver  were gracing their dining tables with loganberry wine and kept cellars of the  local brew. In 1921 the Growers' Loganberry Winery was incorporated in Victoria where business boomed until 1927 when the crop was poor. The switch  to grapes was a necessity but it gave the company new potential.  In the Okanagan Mission Jesse Hughes was first to experiment with commercial grape growing in the Okanagan on his Pioneer Vineyard. His persistence resulted in the planting of 300 acres by 1944. He eventually sold his  vineyards to his three foremen, Martin Dulik, Dan Powell and Frank  Schmidt. This is the story of Martin Dulik, one of the handful of toiling  growers who made their vineyards their lives and permanently established the  grape growing industry in Western Canada.  Martin Dulik was born near Breslau, Czechoslovakia on October 8, 1907.  The third of eight children, he grew up determined to escape the depressed  economy that encumbered his parents. Believing he could relieve their financial distress with opportunities in Canada, he left his homeland knowing no  English at age fifteen. He had no way of knowing he wouldn't see his parents  again or that his brothers and sisters would have their lives shaped by the dark  side of the Iron Curtain. It was an unlikely beginning for the young man who  would gain prominence in British Columbia's early grape growing industry.  Settling in Spring Valley, Saskatchewan, Martin soon learned to speak  English. He found himself in the midst of more poverty and harsh prairie dust  storms. When he met and married Mary Mohart in 1933, there was no money  for a wedding.  "There was no money for anything," recalls Martin. "Mary and I left  with a suitcase of clothes and $35.00. We decided to travel and stop anywhere  there was work, it didn't matter which town. I gave a fellow with a 1926 Chevy  $30.00 and we drove three days and nights from Moose Jaw to Penticton."  Mary Dulik remembers her arrival in the Okanagan Valley in the dirty  30's.  "My mother said come back if we didn't find anything, but it wasn't like  that. With no money you couldn't go back. I had two friends doing housekeeping in Penticton and as soon as we got there I looked them up and they  found me a job. It didn't pay much but at least it was something. It was  harder for men to find work. Married men were better off than the single  ones. They had a bit of money, the rest wandered around with nothing."  Martin continued on to Kelowna in his search but in vain. Back in Penticton late one night with two other homeless companions, he was ousted from  a public park by the police. An empty boxcar seemed like a good alternative  for some sleep but at 4 a.m. they were disturbed by the police again. With no  place to go the threesome started walking the forty-three miles of dirt road to  Kelowna. 113  "It took us 24 hours in the heat. We had no food so by the time we came  to Peachland we were hungry. I pulled a quarter from my pocket and bought  three loaves of raisin bread then about half a mile out of town we came to an  empty fruitstand. There were boxes of cherries sitting there so we took some  and walked away quickly. This boy who had been fishing was yelling and waving his arms but we just kept going eating the cherries and bread. The 10 cent  fare at the ferry dock was too much so we hid under a large truck to cross the  lake."  Martin Dulik had come to the Kelowna area to stay. Mary joined him  soon after. Their belongings had increased by two sets of cutlery, a gift from  her employer in Penticton. It was good they didn't own more — the search for  work shunted them around to five different locations in the following year.  During one move from Coronation Ave. to St. Paul St., they dismantled their  bed at 4 a.m., piled their possessions on top and carried it two blocks down  the street to their next abode.  By chance in 1934, Martin found work with Mr. J. W. Hughes on the  Pioneer Vineyard which he had started from 15 acres of stumpland above the  Casorso Homestead in 1926. Like other new help, Martin was paid with a case  of jam and 48 gallons of grape juice.  "I had a bike and lived in a shack down on Pandosy near the hospital. I  got up early to bike out to Swamp Road but if it rained when I got there, I  had to turn around and go home. Then if the weather got better again, I'd  ride back out there to work all in the same day," recalls Martin.  Little did he realize that he would someday own the rolling vineyard that  stretched up the hillside above Swamp Road. Martin's first taste of viticulture  came to an abrupt end when he was laid off two months later. The search for  an income continued.  "We went out to Glenmore, near the golf course now, to pick apples by  size and colour for 3 cents a forty pound box. The grower said we were his best  pickers but we couldn't make much money at it. Then we moved up to the  Sunset Ranch and worked for Don Tutt watching cattle and milking 17 cows  twice a day. We were way up in the hills with only the coyotes and bears.  While we lived there our daughter, Doris, was born. Then we worked for Cliff  Clement at Ellison for two years," says Dulik.  Mary proved her worth working for Clement picking prunes. With her  baby beside her in an apple box, she earned $5.00 a day compared to Martin's  monthly wage of $10.00. The days were often 10 working hours and the  chores tiring. It's with good reason that Mary remembers January 15, 1940.  When Frank Yochim, a trucker for Hughes, pulled into Clement's for a load  of hay he mentioned one detail that would change their lives . . . Hughes  needed a teamster. Who was better qualified than Martin who had graded  roads behind a team of twelve on the prairies?  "We moved to a small house on the Pioneer Vineyard almost right away.  Hughes never lived there. He paid 15 cents an hour and with fifty men on the  road wanting my job, I worked hard. David had been born and we needed the  money even more. I got up at 5 a.m. to harness the pair of horses and drove  them for 10 hours a day for two years. It was worth it. When Walter Bohren  left after being foreman for Hughes for 17 years, he asked me to take his  place," Dulik remembers with pride. 114  Martin Dulik driving a team of horses in the Pioneer Vineyard, the Okanagan's first commercial  grape vineyard, circa 1940.  In the early forties when he took over as foreman, the hillside vineyard  was irrigated by wooden flumes which had to be cleared continually. Cash  crops of strawberries, raspberries and tomatoes were planted and cultivated  between the rows of vines by local Japanese people. The added crops brought  extra work for Martin. Varieties of grapes at that time included Concords,  Portlands, Campbells, Diamonds, Ontarios, Delawares, Fredonas, Sheridans  and as many more. The vineyard had expanded to 45 acres.  In 1944 when Hughes decided to divide and sell the 300 acres he had  planted, he approached Martin to buy the Pioneer Vineyard under a seven  year plan. He proposed that at each harvest Martin would pay income tax on  the crop and give him half. At first the proposal seemed overwhelming to the  Duliks who had no cash and lived in a modest house full of apple box furnishings. They shied from the idea.  "Diane and Denny had been born," says Mary. "As it was I took the two  toddlers into the vineyard while I picked. They waited at the end of each row  for me then we would move down one. I did it out of necessity, I could pick  200 six-quart baskets in a seven hour shift and it helped. Finally, we could see  that it was the only way for us to ever own the land so we agreed to it."  If they had worked hard for Hughes, they worked even harder for themselves. Martin let one full time employee go and took on his chores in addition 115  to his own. The older children counted as labour, helping with the horses and  picking during harvest. During the war when help was scarce, the Duliks  hired high school students to take off the crop.  "After the war it came time to buy a tractor. To get one in Kelowna you  had to put your name on a list at the Ford garage and wait months and  months then pay extra, more than it was worth. I couldn't afford it so I found  a secondhand one through the Free Press in Gall Lake, Saskatchewan. I  brought it home by rail, the whole thing cost me about $1,000. When I had it  loaded on the truck, I drove into the Ford garage and asked for one gallon of  gas so they could see it. The guy asked me where I got it and I told him it was  none of his business. It was never as good as the horses in the rain though, the  horses never let me down."  By late in the 40's, Duliks had paid Hughes a total of $400,000 and were  in debt $38,000 but the Pioneer Vineyards was theirs. The fresh market was  their mainstay with only a portion of the crop going to the Growers' Winery.  With the aid of an astute bookkeeper, Mr. Faye Walrod, they picked and  loaded boxcars with as many as 3,500 six-quart baskets in a day. The fruit was  shipped as far as Montreal with major markets in British Columbia, Calgary,  Edmonton and Regina. A basket sold to the consumer for between 54 cents  and $1.05.  "If you asked me how we managed," says Mary, "I couldn't tell you.  Sometimes I sit and cry when I think how hard we worked. I never want my  children to have to work like that. I remember one year I drove six small nails  into the wooden handles on 58,000 baskets. My arm still isn't right. Doris  stamped them and David stacked them into bundles. The stamp included our  postal code and we got hundreds of letters praising the fruit and asking the  variety. There was no time to keep track of that so we always said they were  Condordes, always Concordes," she smiles.  By 1958, the establishment of new wineries put the Duliks' income on a  new foundation. Martin was first to sign with Villa Wines which later became  St. Michelle Wines, a company he continues to deal with. His voice was heard  along with Dan Powell and R. J. Stewart in a request for the formation of the  Grape Growers' Association in 1961 resulting in higher prices for growers. It  was followed by government assistance, crop insurance and the formation of  the Grape Marketing Board.  Still, there were unforeseen hardships. The freeze of 1964 killed half the  vines in the Pioneer Vineyard, a heartbreaking fact followed by another bad  winter five years later leaving them with an income of $1,900.00 for their  family of six. Not even Nature could discourage the Duliks. They busied  themselves replanting and expanding to a present 68 acres.  Now in 1981, the Dulik clan numbers 25. Martin and Mary still live in  the quiet of the vineyard. Their son, Dan, with help from David runs the  acreage under Martin's watchful eye. Martin returned to Czechoslovakia after  forty-one years for a warm reunion, though he no longer speaks the same  language as his relatives. For him, it was a lifetime ago when eager and keen  he left for Canada. The Duliks claim they were lucky to enjoy the success of  the vineyard but it wasn't always as prosperous. It seems more like hard work  and good management made luck a dividend for the couple that arrived in  Kelowna forty-eight years ago with five dollars, each other and a dream that  wouldn't go away. 116  The Dulik Family, one of the early grape growing families in the Okanagan. 117  ARTHUR ORMISTON COCHRANE  By Hilda Cochrane  Arthur Ormiston Cochrane was born at Port Perry, Ontario, in 1879, the  sixth child of Addie and William Maurice Cochrane. His grandparents were  United Empire Loyalists. His father practiced law in Port Perry and Whitby  but, as business had slowed down considerably in those towns due to a recession, in September 1880 the family moved to Minnesota, living for a time in  Moorhead, and later in Minneapolis. In 1886, the family came West to New  Westminster, B.C., where Mrs. Cochrane had a cousin, Mrs. James Kennedy.  The following year they moved to Kamloops, B.C., where Arthur, along with  his brothers, Maurice and Frank, attended the first Public School in that  City. His father established a law office in Kamloops, and one in Vernon;  however, by 1892, his practice in Vernon had increased considerably and he  had a large house built in Vernon in 1892, moving the family into it in  January, 1893. Some time later, Arthur returned to Whitby, Ont. to complete his High School training at the Collegiate. While in Whitby, he resided  with his aunt and uncle, Mr. and Mrs. David Ormiston. After matriculating  he returned to Vernon and was articled to his father, as a law student, and  later to his brother-in-law, Judge Cayley at Grand Forks, B.C. In 1904, he returned to Vernon and entered into a partnership with his brother-in-law,  Frederic Billings, until the latter's eath in 1915. Subsequently, the law firm  became Cochrane, Ladner, and Reinhart.  As a young man, Arthur was an ardent athlete, taking part in track  sports, excelling in running and jumping, hockey and baseball, and he was a  member of the first lacrosse team in Vernon, along with his brother Frank.  No doubt his love of sports was inherited by his two sons, Homer and Jimmy,  both well known athletes of the Vernon High School, prior to World War II.  In later years, Arthur was an enthusiastic hunter and angler.  For a number of years, Arthur was a member of the Vernon Fire Brigade, and was also a member of the Independent Order of Oddfellows, and a  Rotarian. He was active in the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks and was  the second Exalted Ruler of the Vernon Elks Lodge, later continuing to serve  on the Provincial and Grand Lodge Executives.  In 1906, Arthur married Helen R. Christian, a daughter of Charles and  Emma Christian, one of the early pioneer families of the Okanagan.  In 1924, he was elected to the Provincial Legislature, as a Conservative,  in a by-election, defeating the Liberal M.L.A. for the North Okanagan, Dr.  K. C. MacDonald, who had been appointed to the Cabinet. At that time, it  apparently was the rule that when a Member was appointed to the Cabinet,  he was required to have the support of the voters in a by-election.  He loved the beautiful orchard country of the Okanagan Valley, and  during his time in Victoria, devoted himself to promoting measures affecting  irrigation and fruit marketing in the Okanagan. In the Legislature, he was  regarded as one of the ablest members of the opposition and was highly esteemed on all sides of the House, regardless of party. He took a leading part in  important debates and his contributions were always marked by close study of  the questions involved, by keen debating instinct, and generous consideration  for the viewpoint of his opponents. A few weeks before his death, he was in  Vancouver and stated he was looking forward with interest to the next session 118  of the Provincial Parliament to begin in December, 1926. A week before his  death, he was in Kamloops taking a prominent part in the Conservative Party  Convention.  Arthur Cochrane died at his residence at the corner of Pleasant Valley  Road and Schubert Street, Vernon, very suddenly, early in the morning on  December 4th, 1926. His death, at the early age of forty-seven years, was due  to heart failure, and came as a great shock to his family, his many friends in  Vernon and throughout the North Okanagan, and in the Legislature. He left  a widow and seven children, Helen, Margaret, Homer, Maud, Barbara,  Arthur (Jimmy), and Patricia.  When the members of the Legislature convened for the next session of  Parliament on December 16th, 1926, on the desk formerly occupied by  Arthur O. Cochrane, were two immense wreaths, floral tributes of affection  and respect from the Government and from his fellow members of the Conservative Opposition. Lt. Governor R. Randolph Bruce read the speech from  the throne and out of respect for the memory of the late Arthur Cochrane,  adjourned the session to January 10th.  Although I did not know Uncle Arthur personally, I recall standing in  Poison Park, Vernon, as a Grade III student in 1924 when he gave the address  at the public funeral of his old friend, John A. MacKelvie, Conservative Member of Parliament for Yale, who had died suddenly in Ottawa. His power of  oratory made a great impression on me at that time, and I can still recall it  very vividly. The words he uttered at that time, "Possessing the knowledge as  we do, that in a little while we, too, must go as he has gone" became prophetic  when he passed away, just two and a half years later.  Arthur Ormiston Cochrane, 1879 - 1926. 119  THE DUNWOODIES - AN ENDERBY PIONEER FAMILY  By Mrs. Jim Russell  A traveller, who wishes to go from Enderby to Hullcar, will drive up the  Canyon Road. About three miles from Enderby, he will see a side road called  Dunwoodie Road, which leads to the homesteads which were taken up by Joe  Dunwoodie and his eldest son. Merlin, who was later to be known as  "Woodie," by his many friends in Vernon.  Joe moved from Iowa to Enderby in the Fall of 1903. He found work  there with the sawmill, and a comfortable home next door to Dr. Bentley.  Then he sent for his wife and five children: Merlin, Donald, Alan, Rena and  Dorothy. They travelled by train and the trip was halted at Glacier by a snow-  slide. A second slide blocked their return back to Calgary, so two trains  holding about two hundred people had to remain at Glacier for a week. The  supply of food was soon used up, and the trainmen had to carry supplies  across the slide. The Dunwoodies were very happy when their long train trip  finally ended at Enderby.  Canyon Road. 120  It was six or seven years before they moved to their homesteads and the  children attended school at Enderby, except for Ted, who was born there in  July, 1906. For a year or more, they walked a lonely path through the woods,  uphill and downhill for three miles to get to school at Enderby. One day Don  was coming home alone, as he had been kept in after school. He ran down a  hill and jumped over a log at the bottom. Imagine his surprise upon landing  on a bear that had been enjoying the warm sunshine beside the log. That day,  Don must have established a record for a broad jump, and he didn't stop running till he got home. The next morning he didn't want to go to school, but  his dad took his rifle and walked with the children till they came to the log.  There he showed them how the bear had torn a piece off the log, in his haste  to get away from the thing which had landed upon him.  Not long afterwards, an Indian pony was bought and we drove him down  the Canyon road on our way to school. He certainly helped to educate us.  School teachers I remember include Miss Beattie, Tom Calder, Miss Rae,  Miss Campbell and Mr. D. J. Welsh, all of whom were fine teachers.  When the First World War broke out, Don enlisted in the 47th battalion,  and, in due time, went overseas. Alan developed a heart condition, following  rheumatic fever, and the doctor said he should be living at sea level. So, in the  summer of 1918, Mother took him to Victoria, leaving the rest of the family  on the homestead. Dorothy joined her in September to attend Normal School  and about six months later, the rest of the family, except for Merlin, moved to  Victoria.  Merlin settled in Vernon where he lived for many years, just across the  street from the Vernon Civic Arena. Here he established a sharpening shop in  1946. which he operated until he was 85 years of age. Four years later, he died  on March 30, 1971, at the age of 89 years. When he arrived in Vernon, in  1925, he was employed as Occupation Foreman for the contractor, D. N.  Ferguson, and later in the same capacity for David Howrie.  Alan died of a heart attack in November, 1920, and his father died two  months later. Dorothy came to Larkin to teach in 1920, and moved into Armstrong when the consolidated school opened there.  She and her husband, Robert Garner, who was also a teacher, and their  four children lived there until 1943, when they moved to Victoria. Their son,  Terry Garner of "Reach for the Top" renown was interrogator of this program for 21 years, never once missing an assignment. It is estimated that  3,000 students were questioned by him during that time.  Mrs. Dunwoodie lived in California for many years, moving to Victoria  in 1962. She died in 1968 in her 98th year. Ted, living in Oregon predeceased  her by six weeks.  Rena married Jim Russell and lives in Seattle.  Hullcar was a wonderful place for children to grow. In the winter there  was skating on the ponds and sleigh-riding on the hills. In the summer, there  were meetings almost every week at this home or that. Our neighbours were  the Parkinsons, the Hayhursts, the Johnsons and the Pringles with whom the  Dunwoodies shared many good times together. 121  Ted, Mr. Joseph Dunwoodie, Mrs. Effie Dunwoodie, Alan, Rena, Donald, Dorothy and Merlin.  Taken in 1915.  Enderby flour mill and Red Star riverboat, 1885-89. 122  EARLY MEMORIES OF KELOWNA  1907 - 1910  By Vera Lawson Wright  In June 1910, Bay deHart and I went around collecting for a gift for our  beloved first year teacher, Mary Coppinger. Each family gave anywhere from  10 cents to 25 cents. We adored Dr. Knox for stopping in his horse and buggy  and giving us 50 cents!  For something like $6.00, we bought a beautiful real leather handbag  adorned with the initials "M.C." Principal Irene (I think) Messenger had the  pupils of all four rooms assemble in the wide hall for the presentation. I handed Miss Coppinger the gift, while Bay presented her with a huge bouquet of  the DeHart roses.  In the early days, Mill Creek was a natural dividing line in the town. The  "English kids" lived across the creek and attended private schools. In the  spring of 1909 Mrs. Gaddes and Mother decided to send Charles and me to  Miss Bloomfield's private school on the lake shore. We attended for about  three months. The only other pupils I remember, were the three Crowley  youngsters; Jessie Mantle, Dick and Jack Parkinson.  The first automobile I saw was that of Mr. Scott's, driving from Vernon  in 1907 or '08 with mail. It could not have been a regular service. I remember  running and climbing up on the gate when I heard that raucous chug-chug  far up Bernard Avenue.  Several years later Dr. Gaddes, next door, bought a Hudson, and J. W.  Jones was the proud owner of a Reo. It was such a thrill to be invited for a ride  in either car.  In those days, there were "days at home." My mother's was the first and  third Wednesday, when callers left cards for themselves and husband on a  silver tray in the front hall.  One day Mrs. J. W. Jones and Mother, very grand in new white felt hats,  with large gold hatpins, and card cases in their hands, seated themselves in  the open Reo with young Clarence Jones chauffeuring them. As the car  started off, Mrs. Jones' hat blew off into the dusty road. The hat restored and  brushed off, the car started again only to have mother's hat blown off. I happened to view this disaster, and no doubt the neighbours who did, chuckled.  The Duke and Duchess of Connaught and their daughter Princess Pat,  made a royal stop at Kelowna in 1912. All of the school children marched to  the wharf and lined up there. Nellie Jones, as mayor's daughter, and I, as  daughter of school board chairman, presented bouquets to the duchess and  princess. That morning in the school yard we had practised singing "Rule  Britannia" and "The Maple Leaf Forever." Rumor had it that as the Okanagan approached Kelowna, the Duke was heard to mutter, "There's that  d d 'Maple Leaf again."  Every yard had a woodshed, and in many yards a wooden flume with  rushing water, and some were along the streets. I remember the flume on  Richter. I can even remember a well at the southeast corner of Bernard and  Richter intersection!  When the brick church was being built in 1910 or '11, a few of us were  playing inside when Chief of Police Hidson ordered us out because of the  danger of falling bricks. Awed by his regal presence, we shamefacedly  scrambled out, very fearful of the consequences. 123  In 1907 the S.S. Aberdeen was succeeded by the S.S. Okanagan. On its  maiden voyage, an excursion to Penticton, I was taken along and nearly left  on the wharf at either Peachland or Summerland, which I can well remember.  Going to Vancouver was such an adventure! Boarding the Okanagan to  sail up to Okanagan Landing where one boarded the train (so exciting because trains were unknown in Kelowna) for Vernon. A two-hour stop at the  Kalamalka Hotel for dinner, was followed by the continuation of the train  ride to Sicamous. Here, one had supper at the station-hotel complex while  waiting for the transcontinental to take one to Vancouver with all the thrill of  sleeping in a berth and breakfasting in the diner.  A group of friends left Kelowna for London, England May 24, 1911, to  attend the pageantry of the coronation of George V. The group included Dr.  and Mrs. Gaddes, Mr. and Mrs. F. R. E. DeHart, Mr. and Mrs. Geo. Row-  cliffe, Mr. and Mrs. Thos. Lawson, Henry Clay, Grace Martin, Mary  Messenger, Miss Ladue (the last four unmarried) and Betty Gaddes (11) the  only child.  At Moose Jaw, waiting for their Soo Line train to Chicago, they took in  one of the early movies (with their quick jerky movements), the story happening to be about a mother leaving her children, with consequent disasters.  Four very depressed mothers who had left their children with aunts or housekeepers came out of the theatre that afternoon.  Most of the party toured several countries in western Europe; but except  for a brief side trip to Paris, my parents remained, most of the time in Great  Britain, where they had relatives to visit.  They all returned by the end of August, the women with huge black velvet hats with ostrich plumes and fantastic hat pins.  They brought us beautiful dresses, coats, and such gorgeous hair ribbons. But I had prayed for a parrot in a cage!  Chinatown (Leon between Abbot and Water) was a unique place to visit  in Chinese New Years. The ground was red with fire-cracker papers; and being with my father whom the Chinese knew, I was given gifts of fire-crackers,  Chinese candy and lichee nuts.  Many of these Chinamen made excellent houseboys, arriving at a household each morning at 7, to light the kitchen range, and in winter the heaters.  They did the housework until 7 p.m., when they padded back to Chinatown  in their felt slippers. Most of them, married men, would visit their families in  China, returning to Canada to make enough to keep their families, and to  make another visit.  Then there was the camping at Manhattan Point where we children,  after our afternoon swim, were dressed primly in gingham dresses to walk  bare-footed along the length of beach searching for flints, agates, and the  rare arrowhead. 124  ST. GEORGE'S LODGE #41 A.F. & A.M.  By O. Arthur Strandquist, CD., P.M.  Historian  The history of an organization, fraternal or otherwise can rarely stand  apart from the community in which it functions. So it is that a glimpse of St.  George's Masonic Lodge over the past seventy-five years appears as one facet  of the life of the city of Kelowna. For anyone familiar with the first seventy-  five years of Kelowna the comparison with St. George's Lodge makes them appear as one.  One difficulty faced by the Historian is the rapidly dwindling number of  participants who can speak with the voice of one who was there. This aura of  authenticity is missing when one has to resort to old, fading Minutes and  documents of a bygone era, for which the writer apologizes.  In 1905, our village of approximately 500 souls included Freemasons who  had come from other parts of the country and, indeed, other parts of the  world. During the year 1904, interested Freemasons held numerous meetings  to plan a new Lodge. These were usually held in the back of E. R. Bailey's  combined Post Office and Butcher Shop, which stood on the spot where  Fumerton's Store now stands. One of the strong advocates for a local lodge  was Dr. Benjamin DeFurlong Boyce. He had come from Fairview, B.C. in  1894, where he had his practice in a gold camp. He must have had strong  feelings about joining the Craft because in 1898 he petitioned to Miriam  Lodge No. 20, Vernon, for initiation. Records reveal that he rarely, if ever,  missed a meeting and was elected to the office of Worshipful Master in 1902,  age 36. Thus we can imagine that, by 1904, he and his companions were  becoming a little tired of travelling to Vernon to attend meetings held on the  'Thursday on or before the full moon.'! Travelling over 35 miles, each way, by  horse and buggy, summer and winter, even by the light of the full moon must  have been a genuine labour of love. One cannot help but wonder how his patients kept from becoming ill on the two days each month the "doc" was absent attending Lodge.  Finally everything was arranged and the first meeting was held on Friday, 14th of April, 1905, with Dr. Boyce as the first Worshipful Master. They  met in what was known as Raymer's Small Hall, which as near as can now be  determined was on Bernard Avenue near Water Street and was later known as  Lawson's Corner.  In the summer of 1909, this building was moved to a spot near the present City Hall flag pole on what was then known as Mill Avenue near the  "Home" gas station and right on the edge of the David Lloyd-Jones Saw and  Planer Mill. This move was made to permit Henry Raymer to build a more  modern brick structure in its place on Bernard in which the Lodge was promised new accommodation on the upper floor. In August, 1909, the Small Hall  was destroyed by fire, including most records and all regalia and furniture.  Only the original handwritten copy of the Constitution and By-laws remain.  The Secretary, John F. Burne, must have had this one book at home. However, in November, 1909, the first meeting was held in Raymer's new building  on Bernard Avenue.  There were 19 Charter Members, comprising a good cross section of the  business and professional people of the new city. They were Dr. B. F. Boyce, 125  M.D.; G. F. Budden, Painter, Glazier, House Decorator and Carriage  Painter; J. F. Burne; P. B. Willits, Pharmacist; D. W. Crowley, Bookkeeper;  H. W. Raymer, Building Contractor; W. R. Pooley, Realtor and Notary  Public; M. J. Curts, Building Contractor; F. R. E. deHart, Administrator;  John Dilworth, Farmer and Rancher; James Sutherland, Baker on Patterson  Ave.; W. A. Hunter, Bakeshop & Confectionery; D. Barnes, Carpenter; G.  H. Dickson, Rancher; John Davidson; W. W. Grummett, Carriage Striper,  Painter and Cabinet Maker; J. W. Hepburn, Furniture Co.; Edmund Newby;  H. S. Rose, Policeman.  The first to make application for initiation were, S. T. Elliott, F. W.  Fraser, Lewis Holman, Dr. W.J. Knox, Thomas Lawson, D. A. Lloyd-Jones,  D. W. Sutherland and E. W. Wilkinson.  In October, 1916, Raymer lost this building, again to fire, however, this  time the records were saved and there was some insurance. Temporary accommodation was provided in the old Orange Hall, and later in the Odd  Fellows' Hall, both of which were located above McKenzie's General Store. In  recent years, one-half of this building has been occupied by Kirtley's Shoes  and the other half by various businesses. This location is now 339 - 345 Bernard Avenue.  After this fire, David Lloyd-Jones took over the corner lot and rebuilt.  The upper floor was designed in consultation with the officers of the Lodge to  provide an ideal location for future meetings. The entrance to the Lodge can  still be seen near the back lane on Water Street. These premises were occupied for over 30 years, when in 1949, the new owners decided they wanted  to use the space for other purposes.  During the period 1949 - 1951 the Women's Institute Hall at 770 Glen  Avenue (now Lawrence Avenue) was rented. Two members of the Lodge, Gus  Briese and Andy Patterson are generally credited with building the next Hall  on the S.E. corner of Bernard Avenue and Bertram Street with a budget of  $17,000.00. This Hall was occupied in 1951. By 1975, taxes and the cost of  maintenance had risen to the point where it was decided to sell to Canada  Safeway. An electrical transformer now marks the spot. The Williams Block  at 1560-66 Pandosy St. was purchased and is now the home of several masonic  and concordant bodies.  D. W. Sutherland came to Kelowna as a School Teacher and later became associated with a retail furniture outlet known as Hepburn and Sutherland Furniture Co. He was the Master of the Lodge in 1911 and the Grand  Master of B.C. in 1926. He was also on the City Council, as Alderman or  Mayor, every year but one from 1905 to 1929.  H. W. Raymer, our Charter Treasurer, was the first Mayor of the new  city. In fact, the members of the Lodge were very prominent on City Council,  being represented on every council from 1905 to 1959. Nine brethren served  as Mayor for a total of 44 years, 35 brethren served as Aldermen for a total of  157 years and 24 brethren, some of whom had also been on Council served on  the School Board for a total of 100 years. During the years 1924-1925 the  Mayor, all six Aldermen, the City Clerk, the City Engineer and possibly other  city employees were all members of St. George's. One cannot help wondering  how much city work was done in Lodge and how much Lodge work was carried out in Council chambers.  M. J. Curts, a charter officer of the Lodge, was a building contractor 126  who arrived in Kelowna in 1892 and built his home which is still standing at  911 Bernard Avenue. He was awarded the contract to build a LARGE school  for $6,000.00. We can now see it as the Brigadier Angle Armouries, just  recently named in honor of another member of the Lodge.  G. H. Dunn who was the Master in 1917 served as City Clerk for almost  50 years. He was a pioneer Amateur Radio Operator and can be said to have  operated the first Radio Station with identifiers of 5BW and 10AY. In 1931,  he relinquished this license to make way for our present Radio CKOV. (Mr.  Jack Bews wrote a comprehensive article on this aspect of George Dunn's  career in the 1965 edition of the Okanagan Historical Society Report, and  George Dunn's contribution to Okanagan Radio History is explored further in  the History of CKOV elsewhere in this edition.)  In the days before good roads and bridges, our brethren often visited the  sister lodges in Summerland and Peachland by boat. There is a record of one  occasion when the late James Haworth and companions attempted to attend a  meeting in Peachland but were forced to abort the mission due to the rough  waters of the Okanagan Lake.  It could be said that the first telephone exchange was in the hands of St.  George's. A number of private lines had been strung, and in 1905, our H. H.  Millie, a watchmaker, offered to assemble these lines at a home-made switchboard in his watch repair shop. F. M. Buckland relates in "Ogopogos Vigil"  that Millie finally "turned over his switchboard and goodwill, together with  his patrons' lines and phones, to the Okanagan Telephone Co. when it was  formed."  During the past 75 years, about 800 Regular business meetings have been  held. Probably an additional 500 Emergent meetings have been called to confer degrees, attend funerals and greet important visitors. Circumstances,  however, have not always been kind. In 1908, the treasurer announced that  "we were broke and the bills could not be paid." He was authorized to pay the  electric light bill (apparently from his own pocket) as soon as received in order  to receive the discount. There were several years in the 1920's and 1930's when  dues were difficult to collect, making the payment of bills equally difficult.  The year 1933 must have been particularly difficult. One member  donated wood for the stove; janitorial service was cut off for the summer to  save $10.00; the telephone was removed; there were no applications for membership and there was no degree work. By 1936, conditions must have been  improving financially but bank interest on savings was reduced to 0.5 per  cent. Compare this to 20 per cent in 1981.  There is another interesting sign of the times. In 1940, the Lodge collected $182.00 to furnish a ward in the hospital — it was reported to be one of  the finest rooms in the hospital. In 1977, a ward was again furnished this time  in Cottonwoods Extended Care Wing, but at a cost of $1,550.00 and was one  of many such rooms furnished by others.  Considering the fact that over 600 men have travelled through the pages  of Lodge history, a look at membership may be revealing. That membership  peaked, at 195, in 1956, is interesting because there were several serious reverses during the great Depression. There were 5 years when there were no  petitions for initiation and 4 years when there were no affiliations from other  Lodges. During a bad year in the "Dirty 30's," we only acquired 3 new members, but lost 22 through death and other causes. In 1955, we acquired 17 new 127  members but 11 deaths were recorded that same year. Over the years, the  memories of that by-gone era begin to fade but with the continuous injection  of new to mix with the old, Freemasonry in Kelowna remains as strong and  virile as it ever was.  Travelling around this rapidly growing city there is strong, visible  evidence that Freemasons played a big part in its growth. We find street  names such as Boyce Crescent, Burne Ave., Burtch Rd., Chapman Place,  Copeland Place, Craig Rd., Crowley Rd., Curts St., DeHart Ave., and  Dilworth Cres.  There is an Elliott Ave., Gay St., Gore St., Harvey Ave., Haug Rd.,  Knox Cres., Kerr Rd., Knowles Rd., Lawrence Ave., Lawson Ave., Leathead  Rd., Martin Ave., McTavish Ave., Meikle Ave., Morrison Ave., Patterson  Ave., Pearson Rd., Pooley Rd., Sadler Rd., Trench Place, Truswell Rd.,  Ward Rd., Weddell Place and Willits Rd.  Besides street names, we can find other reminders of the past. We have  Boyce-Gyro Park, Sutherland Park, Dilworth Mt., and we can see business  signs such as Carruthers and Meikle, Willits Taylor Drugs, Willis and  Harding, Bennetts Hardware, and the David Lloyd-Jones Senior Citizens  Home. Straying off Bernard Ave., we can find Fillmore and Co.; Weddell,  Horn and Co.; Jenkins Cartage; D. J. Kerr Auto Body Repair; Cookson  Motors and Mervyn Motors to name just a few.  In the realm of education, we find Dr. Knox Secondary School, Raymer  School and DeHart School. Out towards East Kelowna we have KLO Rd.  (from Kelowna Land and Orchard Company, with which W. R. Pooley was  associated) and Pooley Creek.  Undoubtedly many names have been over-looked, but for the purposes of  this brief history the relationship between St. George's Lodge and the City of  Kelowna becomes obvious. Within the Lodge only one member, D. J. Kerr,  remains who was initiated by St. George's Lodge in 1923. There are, however,  12 members who have been in the Craft for 50 years or more having affiliated  from other Lodges 20, 30 or 40 years ago. F. J. Willis, who joined Freemasonry in Saskatchewan, in 1911, can claim association with the Craft for 70  years.  It is easy to concern ourselves only with the problems of the present, but  in the Lodge room hangs a portrait of each of the 75 Past Masters, continually  reminding those present of their heritage and urging everyone not to forget  the past.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Strandquist, A. O. "Floreat, St. George's Lodge" being published 1981.  Buckland, F.M. "Ogopogos Vigil."  Okanagan Historical Society Reports - various editions.  Kelowna Daily Courier, Kelowna, B.C. - 1904 - 1920.  St. George's Lodge, Kelowna, B.C. - Minutes and other records. 128  KELOWNA'S FIRST DEPARTMENT STORE  By Marjorie deHart  The story begins with the arrival in 1898 of two young business men from  Shoal Lake, Manitoba, Thomas Lawson and his brother-in-law, George  Rowcliffe. They had heard of the Valley and its attractions from a former  resident of Shoal Lake, Mr. W. H. Raymer, and on his advice and encouragement were going to investigate for themselves the prospects for business in a  rapidly developing British Columbia.  What kind of a town did they find? With fewer than five hundred people  then, Kelowna consisted of a wide main street, business buildings, for the  most part in one block from Abbott to Water Street, scattered houses and  buildings from Water to Pandosy Street, and board walks raised above the  muddy streets, but of course, no electricity and no water system. As they talked with men of the town, they discovered that there was already established a  flourishing trade with mining communities in the Similkameen and to the  north. They also noted that several commercial ventures in fruit growing had  already begun and there was a lively demand for all sorts of produce from the  area.  The fact that "Lequime's" was the only general store in a growing community may have influenced them also to return the following year to open up  a business — another general store. Mr. Raymer promised to build a two-  storey frame building on the south-west corner of Bernard and Water Streets,  part of which they could rent. Lawson, Rowcliffe & Company was then  launched in May of 1899, occupying a 30' x 50' area of the building which  had a warehouse behind and a meeting hall above. Shelves to the ceiling were  stacked with a variety of goods from crockery and drygoods, to groceries,  seeds, boots and shoes. Feed grain in sacks, air-tight heaters and coal-oil  stoves stood on the floor, coal-oil lamps and other items were suspended from  the ceiling. The store also did a large seasonal business in locally grown fruit  and produce and it was not long before they were shipping such produce to  the prairies to the tune of hundreds of tons.  Bernard Avenue and Water Street before the construction of Lawson's Store. 129  George Rowcliffe apparently assumed direction of the packing of  tomatoes and fruit at the back of the store. The story is told that he often had  to work at night at this job and would commandeer the aid of any stray  Chinese he found on the street. The next day he and his helpers would trundle  the boxes down to the wharf in old-fashioned express carts, there to be picked  up by the "S.S. Aberdeen." Eventually, George Rowcliffe withdrew from the  store to set up his own canning and packing business. With business expanding and prospering, more staff was required, and in 1902 W. B. M. Calder, a  "Men's Wear Specialist" joined the firm as a partner, at which time the name  of the firm became Lawson, Rowcliffe and Company.  In March 1903, residents of the town were awakened from their sleep at  3:30 in the morning by news that the whole lower part of the Raymer Block  seemed to be on fire — that is, the general store of Lawson, Rowcliffe and  Company. The only fire-fighting equipment took the form of barrels of water  hauled from the lake, about two hundred yards away, and a hand pump from  the sawmill. As a result, the flames spread rapidly to W. A. Hunter's Bakery  in the same block. In no time, the roof and upper floor collapsed and the fire  jumped quickly to buildings west of the Raymer Block, some of which were  also destroyed. The loss incurred on the Raymer Building was estimated at  $6,000 and the insurance $2,000. Lawson, Rowcliffe and Company lost  $14,000 with insurance estimated at $8,000.  Mr. Lawson and Mr. Rowcliffe immediately secured space in the A. B.  Knox building down the street, received new stock from the Coast and were  back in business a week later. W. H. Raymer also started construction of a  new store, which was completed in the fall.  For merchants in 1903, the re-ordering of supplies from Vancouver was  no simple matter. There were only two ways of getting to Kelowna, one by  boat from Okanagan Landing and the other by a very rough road from Vernon, forty miles distant. A horse-drawn stage came south on Tuesdays,  Thursdays and Saturdays, returning to Vernon on alternate days. In addition  to mail, the stage carried passengers, merchandise and farm produce.  The bulk of freight and express had to be carried by the steamer "Aberdeen" which left Okanagan Landing, where it connected with the C.P.R.  from Sicamous, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, continuing on to Penticton where it stayed overnight. The return trip was made on the days following. Both passengers and freight were carried. Not until 1907, when the "S.S.  Okanagan" was launched, was there daily service, and not until 1916, when  the Kettle Valley Railway was completed, did they have direct access to the  Coast.  The new building, completed in the fall of 1903, gave Lawson, Rowcliffe  and Company slightly larger premises, this time 70' by 80'. No doubt the experience of the fire prompted the company to build, in 1906, a concrete fireproof warehouse at the back of the store in the Raymer Block. It measured  about 15' x 30', had a concrete arched roof, reinforced by iron pipes and a  fire-proof door.  In 1904, W. B. M. Calder left the Company to go into the dry-goods  business for himself. He was later to become the first manager of the Government Liquor Store. That same year George A. Meikle and Joseph Ball joined  the staff, the former as an experienced retail merchant from Carman, Manitoba, and the latter as secretary bookkeeper. People who knew Mr. Meikle 130  might like to think that he was responsible for changing the slogan that appeared in the advertisements from "The People's Store" to "The Wide-Awake  Hustlers on the Corner," as stated in The Clarion of October 6, 1904. The  following year, a more sedate slogan appeared "Headquarters for the Economical Buyer."  The original Lawson building at what is now Bernard Avenue and Water Street in downtown  Kelowna. This photograph was taken before the turn of the century.  In 1905, Thomas Lawson bought out his two partners, Mr. Rowcliffe  and Mr. Calder, but did not change the name. However, it was not long  before Thomas Lawson realized that he needed more capital to expand his  business. George Meikle and Joseph Ball acquired shares at this time, as well  as a silent partner, J. W. Jones, who many years later, in 1933, became  Minister of Finance for B.C. under the Conservative Government.  Mr. Lawson then formed a limited liability company under the name of  Thomas Lawson Limited, a name familiarly known as "Lawson's" for the  next thirty years.  Arrangements were already being made with the Oak Hall Clothing  Store which occupied the western part of the Raymer Building, to allow T.  Lawson Limited to take over their premises. This addition would double the  size of the store. While alterations were in progress, the store moved to the  Keller Block (north-west corner of Bernard and Pandosy) on January 21,  1909. The Orchard City Record of that date comments on "the large airy  display room, well-lighted (Kelowna in 1908 had a new Electric Light Plant).  The west side of the store was a grocery department, the east side was reserved  for dry goods, but also there were separate sections for men's and ladies' wear,  as well as boots and shoes. A new cement sidewalk installed that same year, on  the south side of Bernard from Pandosy to Water Street, must have been a  boon to pedestrians.  To run the grocery department, George MacKenzie from Vernon was engaged. After five years, he bought out the grocery department from T.  Lawson Limited and opened up his own grocery store across the street in the  same block. In the meantime, plans for changes in the Raymer Block were go- 131  ing ahead. The old frame building was moved to a lot on Mill Avenue, east of  Pandosy Street, next door to two cottages owned respectively by A. Raymer  and H. Small. The new one was to cover the whole block, the largest building  in town, 110' x 120'. T. Lawson Limited would occupy the ground floor and  the second floor would become lodge rooms and a hall 42' x 100' with an entrance from both Bernard and Water Streets. This would be the "Opera  House." And so in 1909 the grand renovations began, only to have calamity  strike again.  On a Sunday afternoon in August, 1909, fire broke out beneath the old  Raymer block, now on Mill Avenue. The fire seemed to be coming from  under the building, and running up the east side.  Before the general alarm was given, Raymer Hall was a mass of flames,  as well as the adjoining small cottages. This time the firemen had the assistance of the big pump in the power house and were able for an hour and a  half to keep three streams of water going on the old building, and on the sawmill and Mrs. Shaylor's home, both in the path of the wind. The Raymer  building burned to the ground. Only the fine work of the firemen saved the  sawmill and other nearby residences.  The ground floor of the old building was being used as a warehouse by  T. Lawson Limited. Their losses were great — a carload of flour and feed,  groceries and their new fall stack of dry goods, amounting to some $70,000,  while insurance was only $4,000. But they were not the only losers. The lodge  room upstairs contained all the regalia and equipment of such lodges as the  Masonic Order, the Oddfellows, the Orangemen, the Knights of Pythias and  the Foresters. All was destroyed. T. Lawson Limited continued business in the  Keller Block (present site of the Bank of B.C.) until October 21, 1909 when  they opened their "fine new store" on the corner of Bernard Avenue and  Water Street. The article that followed that headline in the Kelowna Record  of that date, went on to state that "it was probably the largest in the  Province." "You have to go a long way to beat that" was a traveller's comment, on his first visit to the new store.  The Raymer block this time was of sturdier construction. The brick wall  on Water Street, part of the "Cantex Fabric Centre," and the two large entrances on Bernard Avenue, date from 1909. The store extended back to the  "Opera House" which could be entered by the door off Water Street. The interior of the store was very handsome for its day with showcases of polished  oak, some actually made in town by the Kelowna Furniture Company. Since  it was much more spacious, there was room for five separate departments —  groceries, drygoods, boots and shoes, haberdashery and clothing and gent's  furnishings.  George MacKenzie in the grocery department could proudly display behind his counter a long row of bins, balanced so that they were either wide  open or tightly shut — "dust and mice proof in the words of the newspaper.  In the drygoods department, weary lady shoppers could use a row of spring  seats which flew up against the counter when not in use. At the back was a  cashier's desk and private offices for the firm. Boxes of boots and shoes lined  the back wall, to be reached by a ladder on pulleys. The chinaware had been  disposed of before the move in a gigantic sale in the Keller Block.  The Orchard City Record of December 10, 1909 carries an illuminating  advertisement for Christmas supplies. The early residents of Kelowna set a 132  good table if we can judge by the following list:  Japanese oranges New fancy seeded raisins  Navel oranges New fancy sultanas  Crystallized fruits New Vostizza currants  Honey in comb New Vostizza figs  Fancy table raisins Dates  Jordan almonds Fresh peel of all kinds  Sweet potatoes Plum puddings  Bananas Malaga grapes  Cape Cod cranberries  The same advertisement suggested for the smart woman, the latest style  in hats — "Cosques" — apparently a close imitation of a Cossack hat.  T. Lawson and Company must have already established its enviable  record of customer service, to judge by a note in the Kelowna Clarion of July  13, 1914: "Messrs. Lawson Limited received a pleasing and rather practical  testimonial this week in a nice big order from a lady in Jamaica who, remembering her previous satisfactory dealings, sent all the way for some more  goods."  When Thomas Lawson in 1913 left Kelowna to make his home in Victoria, many were the farewell parties for a man who had taken a very active  interest in civic activities. He became interested in the school system, was  elected a school trustee and eventually Chairman of the Board. His presence  in business and civic affairs was very much missed.  Mr. Lawson still retained ownership of the store, but Mr. Meikle became  manager and Joe Ball retained his position as secretary/treasurer. A picture  taken just before Thomas Lawson's departure tells us the names of the people  on the staff at that time: K. Kirkly, George MacKenzie, George Meikle, W.  Goodwin, J. MacMillan, Chas. Morrison, J. J. Ball, T. Lawson and Miss Lena  Wilson.  The interiof of Lawson's (Meikle's predecessor) around 1909. Behind the counter, on the far  right, stands W. B. M. Calder who clerked the store several years before becoming Kelowna's  liquor agent. Next to Calder is Thomas Lawson, an owner of the store. Beside Lawson is George  Meikle. In front of the counter wearing a vest and cap is Charlie Regenergy who operated the first  cannery in Kelowna (Canadian Cannery, which later became Dominion Canners) and who was a  frequent visitor of Lawson's. To the right of Regenergy is a man identified as Mr. Ball, and beside him is an unidentified customer. 133  When in 1910 the Kettle Valley Railroad line was started, great impetus  was given to business in Kelowna. By 1913 there were over three thousand  men working on the line, twleve hundred of them just east of the Okanagan.  Thomas Lawson Limited, as well as grocery and butcher stores profited from  supplying the necessities for an encampment of that size. Lawson's shipped  clothing and groceries by wagon road to these camps.  £■%&&!  The Lawson Building at Bernard and Water in Kelowna sometime around 1910. This photograph was taken on the day of a land promotion by the Kelowna Land and Orchard Company.  The men in the automobiles were given a guided tour of the new subdivision. Many of the brick  buildings in this photograph are still standing behind modernistic facades.  Early on Sunday morning, November 9, 1916, the fire siren once again  woke the residents of Kelowna. Before most people had time to throw on their  clothes and get out on the streets, the siren blew again and was joined by the  whistle from the "S.S. Okanagan." This fire was serious and once again in the  Raymer Block. It must have been burning for some time before it was discovered by the Raymer family who lived over the front of Lawson's Store. By  the time young William Raymer gave the alarm, the Opera House behind was  a mass of flames, which were already creeping up the stairs to the Raymer  apartment. All the family had to escape over the roof of the building. The fire  brigade turned out very quickly, but as they turned their hoses on the flames,  a dull explosion was heard in the Opera House or the rear of Lawson's store.  This explosion blew down all the wall of the Opera House along the lane and  part of the wall on Water Street. It almost instantly spread the fire to all parts  of the block, scattering bricks in all directions. It was fortunate for the firemen that they had not arrived earlier, or perhaps their lives would have been  lost.  The blaze then broke out in the upper story of the Raymer Block and was  fanned into savagery by a strong gale from the west. The firemen had all they  could do to confine the holocaust to the Raymer Building, and the onlookers  feared that all the business section would be destroyed. Dogged fighting on  the part of the firemen kept the blaze contained to the block, the last part to  be destroyed being the eastern portion of Lawson's store. Had the long brick 134  wall on Water Street failed to stand, the fire would have been out of control.  As it was, a group of citizens had all they could to to keep extinguishing the  sparks and embers that the strong wind carried to the Oak Hall Clothing store  on the south-east corner of Water and Bernard Avenue. Only the constant  vigilance of inmates and neighbours kept buildings and residences blocks  away, from being ignited. After some five hours of back-breaking work, the  town was out of danger, leaving utterly destroyed the Kelowna Opera House,  Lawson's store, Muirhead's Shoe Store, Crawford's Store, Raymer's small  hall, the Masons and Oddfellows Hall, the Mason and Reach Piano Company's warehouse, and a number of dwelling rooms and offices upstairs.  Again the losses were great, $64,000 of stock, $6,440 in fixtures and fittings. Insurance covered $42,000 of stock and $5,000 of fixtures.  George Meikle and staff took action immediately. In three days a  "Business as Usual" sign went up across the street in premises now occupied by  Whillis-Harding Insurance Company. Mr. Meikle caught the train to Vancouver, then to Winnipeg and Montreal where he purchased goods to replace  that lost in the fire. Mr. David Lloyd-Jones, who had bought the Raymer  Block after Mr. Raymer's death in April of 1916, stated that he was going to  re-build and by March 1917, a start was being made on the building, but it  was another year before T. Lawson Limited was back again on the corner of  Water and Bernard.  This time the Opera House was eliminated with its entrance from Water  Street, and the store was extended to the lane. A fine new office was established at the back and the latest of modern fittings were installed in the interior. As a result of this disastrous fire, Mr. James Pettigrew, fire chief at the  time, presented a brief to the City Council, asking for a new chemical engine  and a new pumping engine to cope with fires of this dimension.  The war of 1914-1918 and its aftermath brought about changes in the  Valley — new ideas, new people and increased competition, by Thomas  Lawson Limited continued to flourish, adapting to new styles and changes in  staff.  In 1937 another major step was taken. On March 1 of that year George  Meikle formed a new company to acquire the stock of merchandise of  Thomas Lawson Limited. The name of the new company became "George A.  Meikle Limited" a name it retained until the store was sold in 1969. Mr.  Meikle then became managing director and Mr. W. B. Hughes-Games, who  had bought into the business, replaced J. J. Ball as secretary-treasurer. Under  this management, the business weathered the depression and another war until in 1949, expanding business required further re-organization of staff and  management.  Mr. Meikle resigned as manager but remained a director, Mr. B. T.  Haverfield was named president of the Board of Directors, Mr. Norman  DeHart, managing director, Mr. W. B. Hughes-Games, secretary-treasurer.  Older members of the staff were given new responsibilities. Miss B. Wilson became a director and manageress of the drygoods, Miss Flora Perry, headed  the ladies' ready-to-wear, Frank Walman (a new member of staff) manager of  the shoe department and Mr. Glen Miller (also new) head of men's furnishings. Miss Betty cooper moved into the office as manager of that area of the  business.  The store was once again completely renovated inside, the most dramatic 135  change being the creation of a mezzanine floor from what had once been a  part of the old Opera House. This floor was reached by a wide stairway at the  back of the store. This gave room below for an expanded shoe area equipped  with comfortable benches for fittings. So comfortable were these apparently,  that often Wong Wo, the janitor, was found sleeping on one of them, by the  First staff member to open the store in the morning. Not only Wong Wo, but  his large, unfriendly German Shepherd as well! A completely new ceiling, and  lighting fixtures and lower showcases created a fully up-to-date store. Two  small display windows on the brick wall on Water Street were also added.  The building itself was now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Robert Seath, the  latter the daughter of Mr. Lloyd-Jones. She and Mr. Seath had purchased the  building on the death of her father in 1944. For twenty more years, George A.  Meikle Limited, continued to serve its patrons up and down the Valley, living  up to its slogan "Quality Merchandise" and its twice yearly sales drew crowds  to the downtown area.  Changing times and shopping habits brought about its dissolution in  1969, when Field's Store bought the business. For a short time, this company  continued in the same building, but eventually moved to other quarters.  Other businesses have come and gone there but the brick wall and the plate  glass windows of 1909 still remain.  The story, however, of a successful business of seventy years that survived  three serious fires, two wars and two depressions, comprises more than brick  and plate glass. "Lawson's," later "Meikle's" was wholly owned and for the  most part, operated by residents of Kelowna. This fact, no doubt, contributed to its success, but tribute must be paid to the employees, particularly  those whose working life was spent in service with one store. It is impossible,  even if names were known, to list all the people who worked for the company,  but the story of "Lawson's" and "Meikle's" is inevitably linked to memories of  certain individuals who were known by two and sometimes three, generations  of Kelowna-ites.  The two founders of the business, George Rowcliffe and Thomas Lawson  soon involved themselves in civic business. Mr. Rowcliffe served as alderman  and Mr. Lawson's work with the School Board has been noted. George  Meikle, a keen athlete, was president of the newly formed Aquatic Association when the first Regatta was held in 1909. He served many terms as alderman and was an active member of the Board of Trade. He formed the first  Retail Merchant's Association and store clerks of that era must have been  grateful to him for advocating regular closing hours and a half-holiday on  Thursdays. J. Ball, who started with the firm at the same time as Mr. Meikle,  for thirty years as secretary-treasurer, guided the store through the difficult  years of the post First World War and the boom of the twenties.  In 1916, two other permanent members of the staff began to work. Af-  fectionally known as "Bea" and "Flora," Miss Wilson and Miss Perry served  and advised two generations of women (and men at Christmas) in dry-goods  and women's wear, and were still with the store until its sale in 1969. Such  records are inconceivable today! Miss Wilson recently died, but Miss Perry is  now living in Victoria.  Norman DeHart, who joined the firm as "chore-boy" in 1916 worked his  way from junior clerk to managing director in 1949. He, too, had time for  community affairs. A baseball player and all-round athlete, he was president 136  of the first Kelowna Athletic Association and served for many year in various  offices of the Board of Trade and the Retail Merchants' Association. His  proudest achievement was a more tangible one. In 1919, he headed a group  of volunteers who badgered the City Council into filling in a slough in the City  Park. He and his group then worked to form the playing field now called  "The City Park Oval."  When in 1936 Mr. W. B. Hughes-Games bought into the store and became secretary-treasurer, he combined these duties with many civic positions  culminating in that of Mayor from 1947-1951. He now resides in Vancouver.  Not to be forgotten is the record of Miss Betty Cooper who began work at  "Meikle's in 1945, first as sales clerk, then as bookkeeper and finally as office  manager, a position she held until the store was sold.  The kind of service these people gave, based on long years with the same  firm, an intimate and personal knowledge of their customers, and on loyalty  to the store, is still remembered by many residents of the Okanagan Valley.  They and the store are part of Kelowna history.  FOOTNOTE  I wish to thank Mrs. L. J. Leathley for allowing me access to copies of The Orchard City  Record and the Kelowna Courier for access to their files.  Meikle's Department Store, circa 1950. 137  THE ZUCCA MELON  By Hermann Gummel  When the Osoyoos area of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project was  settled in the late 1920's and the 1930's, growers planting an orchard had to  find some ways and means to make a living until the trees started bearing.  After the attempt to grow tobacco failed, their attention turned to other  ground crops, like tomatoes, cantaloupes, cucumbers and others. Sweet corn  was also tried, but when it returned only six cents a dozen to the grower, not  much corn was grown after that. Watermelons fared even worse, as they  brought red ink to the grower. Then, in 1938, when the depression started to  abate somewhat, something new turned up. The firm of William Robinson  Ltd. in Vancouver, who are in the business of processing fruit, obtained five  seeds of a Zucca melon, which were planted by Hermann Gummel in his  young orchard in Osoyoos. As the seeds arrived rather late in the season, none  of the fruit matured sufficiently to produce seed, but luckily, the Experimental Station in Summerland had also managed to get hold of a few seeds,  which were planted early enough to mature some melons. So, in 1939 Walter  Graf and Hermann Gummel started in the business of growing Zucca melons,  with 25 plants each. Not knowing the proper maturity for harvesting them,  they were left on the vines until the end of the summer, when they were taken  to Penticton to be prepared under the supervision of Ted Atkinson, head of  the processing department at the Summerland Experimental Station.  When the Zucca melon is mature, the skin becomes so hard that it has to  be cut with a saw. And that is what happened with most of the melons in  1939. It was found, that a melon fully developed, but with a skin still soft  enough to be peeled with a draw-knife, brought the highest percentage of  useable meat.  For those readers not familiar with the Zucca melon, probably an explanation is in order at this point. The Zucca melon is probably the largest  melon grown. It can reach a size of 100 pounds and over. The largest weighed  in at 1271/£ pounds; but the average weight is around 65 to 70 pounds. The  flesh is white and tasteless, which makes it ideal for processing. After it has  been cured in a sulphur dioxide solution and cut into one-quarter inch dices,  it can be given any desired colour and taste. And in the end it turns up in  cakes and cookies as melon cubes. 138  One thing some readers may be interested in, is, that the Zucca melon  only blooms at night. Large white blossoms raise their stem above the leaves  and open their petals when the sun goes down. If it is a cool night, the blossoms will stay open until mid-morning. That gives the grower time to  pollenize the female blossom by hand, as the bees will not go near them. We  have tried and put a drop of sugar syrup in blossoms near the bee hives; but  even that did not attract them.  As far as is known, the Zucca melon originated in the Mediterranean  area, from where it was brought to America. It was grown in the Oroville,  California area for some years, where it was closely guarded, before it found  its way into the Okanagan.  With sufficient seed available now and an increased demand for the  melons, due to wartime restrictions on imports, the area grown with melons  expanded rapidly, as more growers started planting them. As an individual  plant, when well fed with manure and commercial fertilizer, will cover an  area of from 20 to 25 feet square, most growers found that they didn't have  enough room for Zucca melons. So after a few years there were only 4 to 6  growers left with large enough acreage to grow them. In some years there  must have been nearly a thousand tons of melons shipped out of Osoyoos.  After the initial shipments to William Robinson Ltd., Woodland Products of  Vancouver also started buying melons, some of them being processed at the  Sunoka plant in Summerland.  After the wartime restrictions on imports came off, the demand for  melons decreased, while growers' expenses started to rise and the price for the  melons remained at the same level. Gradually the acreage planted decreased  from year to year and by the middle of the 1950's no more were grown. 139  A THREE-GENERATION STORY  By Doug Cox  The Marron Valley and Green Mountain area west of Penticton is a quiet  ranching area with the exception of a steady flow of traffic to Apex Mountain  during the ski season. Few if any of the people intent on getting to the ski hill  realize the historical significance of this area and the families who first settled  the area.  One of the first persons to settle in the Green Mountain area was L. A.  Clark who was commissioned to survey a freight supply route from Penticton  to the Nickel Plate Mine.  Leonard Clark with a cart he used while surveying the Nickel Plate freight route, (c. 1900).  Leonard Clark was born in the State of Vermont in 1840. After fighting  in the Civil War, he moved to Ohio where he married and started his family.  Sometime later he left Exira Indubon County in Iowa and travelled westward  across the plains in a covered wagon. At that time the Indian nations were in  a state of war with the settlers and, despite attempts by the United States  Cavalry to stop them, the Indians did raid the wagon trains killing horses and  cattle. To prevent the animals and themselves from being harmed, the expedition Clark was with stopped at about 4:00 p.m. each day and let the cattle and horses graze until dusk. The animals were then herded into the centre  of the wagons which had been pulled into a circle and tied securely for the  night. Using these safety precautions, the Clarks made a safe journey and arrived in Colorado where Leonard did some irrigation layout work. He and his  family later moved to Spokane, where he did some railroad grade contracting, and then to Northport, Washington. At Northport, the Clarks had a  livery stable and store, but lost everything but their horses in a fire, which also 140  wiped out half the town.  After the devastating fire at Northport, Leonard and some of his family  moved to Calgary in 1893, where he put in the first irrigation system for W.  C. Ricardo. Ricardo later moved to Vernon, where he became manager of  Coldstream Orchards. He sent for Clark to supervise the installation of the irrigation system for the company. In 1898, Leonard went over the Chicot Pass  to the Klondike where it is possible he met Tommy Armstrong, who later accompanied him to the Penticton area.  Clark presumably returned to the Vernon area in time to meet M. K.  Rodgers, from the Nickel Plate Mine, who travelled to Vernon in August  1900, looking for someone to survey and build a freight road from Penticton  to the mine above Hedley. L. A. Clark, with his previous survey and road  building experience, undertook to build the road for him.  At that time road survey work was possibly more exacting than it is today. A road grade that was not too steep and that could be constructed with a  minimum amount of work was essential. L. A. Clark did much of his survey  work using a one-horse cart which had a mark on the wheel to calibrate distance. The grade and route on the Nickel Plate road were the result of his  many years of experience as a surveyor and railroad grade contractor.  The Green Mountain road follows some of the original freight route; the  switchback sections of the road up to Nickel Plate were used as logging roads  in later years.  While the work of constructing the freight route was in progress, L. A.  Clark had Ezra Mills, who came from Vernon, construct a stopping house and  home for his family. The area and stopping house were named Green Mountain after Mr. Clark's recollections of the low green mountains of his boyhood  home in Vermont.  Mrs. Clark and her daughter, later Mrs. Forbes, ran the roadhouse, supplying meals and accommodation to freighters, stage coach passengers and  travellers. Mr. Clark looked after the livery and made sure the change teams  for the stage coach were ready when the Welby Flyer arrived.  The original stopping house was expanded in size and also became the  Green Mountain Post Office. The post-mistress was Winnie Clark, Clark's  youngest daughter, who later married Dave Innis and raised Ross and Len In-  nis who now live in Keremeos.  The land for the Green Mountain Stopping House was pre-empted in  September 1900. In December 1900, Lot 96, the present Calla Ranch, was  pre-empted by Gerald Clark, L.A. Clark's son. Gerald arrived in British Columbia driving a band of sheep which he had purchased in Pendelton, Oregon. He had just recently returned to the United States from Manilla in the  Philippines, where he had taken a boatload of horses that presumably were  used for mounts at the American military base there. From the Philippines,  he had gone with the United States Transport Service to China, where the  Boxer Rebellion was taking place. He contracted dysentry and fever and was  returned to San Francisco in late summer. Gerald presumably recovered  quickly and subsequently arrived in British Columbia.  In the early 1900's, there was a great demand for horses everywhere and  especially in the Okanagan. Freighters needed draft teams, ranchers needed  saddle horses, and almost everyone needed one or two horses for drivers or  general purpose work. L. A. and his son Gerald apparently foresaw this need 141  and began raising horses. The Marron Valley, close to the Green Mountain  area, harboured wild horses, tough little mustangs that had been abandoned  or had slipped away from the early pack trains and had bred and multiplied.  The strain was improved when a renegade stallion stole the occasional mare  from the early settlers or ranchers, but generally the mustangs remained small  and tough. It was these wild mares that were the foundation stock for the  Clark horses.  The Clarks obtained two stallions which were mated with the once wild  mares. One was a large shire purchased from Joe Graves, then of Grande  Prairie, and later of the Douglas Lake Ranch. The offspring of this union  were considered draft animals. The other stallion was a cross Thoroughbred-  Percheron purchased from Frank Richter Sr. The colts from this stallion, because of the finer bone of the thoroughbred breeding and absence of feathers  on the legs, were used as saddle horses.  The stallions were run with the mares on either side of the road except at  times when they were needed. Both stallions were broken and used. They  were possibly used on the freight haul by Gerald, who did obtain a freight  outfit and freighted from Penticton to the Nickel Plate mine, on the road his  father had surveyed, before the railway to Hedley was completed. Some of the  other freighters who would ply this route were Phelps, the Bassett brothers,  Fred, Dick and Tom, Dave Innis and Gillespie. When the freighting boom  was over, Gerald turned his attention to the land he had pre-empted and  Calla Ranch.  Gerald Clark with his freight outfit and team during the time he freighted to the Nickel Plate  mine above Hedley, (c. 1905). 142  The Calla Ranch, which means "peaceful house by the road and/or  river," in Philippino, like most ranches in the South Okanagan required irrigation in order to raise hay or fodder. Gerald installed an extensive flume  system with the help and expertise of his father, which brought water from  Shatford Creek to be flushed on to fields of fall rye and crested wheat.  Buildings, fences and corrals had to be built. A dairy herd was started. Calla  Ranch had a unique method of keeping dairy products cool; water from the  creek was diverted through a cement trough in the milkhouse, in which the  cream cans were placed. The milk and cream was sold in Penticton about ten  miles away. All the time Calla Ranch was being developed, Gerald still kept  raising and improving the horse herd.  Arnold Atkinson, a Penticton pioneer who worked for the Clarks during  his youth recalled, "They ran one stud, the Shire, on the north side of the  road and the cross Percheron-thoroughbred on the other side. They raised  saddle horses from that horse and out of the wild mares. In 1915, after the  outbreak of the war, they started selling re-mount horses to the army; sometimes they were lucky enough to sell sixty head at a time. In the fall of the  year, we'd round up the works and put all the colts in and they'd be halter  broke; anything four years old and up, we'd break those horses and they were  sold to the army."  Mr. Atkinson was asked how they broke the horses at that time. "Well,  we never wasted any time like they do now, we'd sack them out, saddle 'em  up, get on and ride them. We'd ride each horse around the corral for an hour  and after they were cooled down enough, we'd take them out in the field. If  the snow was deep they couldn't buck too hard."  It was about this time, 1914, that Herb Clark was born to Gerald and his  wife Daisy, formerly Daisy McLellan. Calla Ranch, at that time was part of  Allen Grove, a thriving community about ten miles west of Penticton. Herb  started school at four years old to make up enough children to warrant a  teacher for the school at the community. When his father, Gerald Clark, became ill the family left the ranch and moved to Penticton. Gerald died in  1927.  At age 17, Herb followed a family tradition and began working as a  horseman and cowboy on the Tweddle Ranch near Keremeos. It was shortly  after this that he began to hunt and pack into the Ashnola and Cathedral  Mountains. Herb obtained a class A license as a big game hunter and guide.  With some partners he began the development of what is now the Cathedral  Lakes Resort. This project involved packing everything in by packhorse.  Some people that he did guide as guests were H. R. McMillan and in 1952 the  members of the Vancouver Natural History Society.  During the summer and late autumn, Herb was a guide and hunter; in  the winter he was welcomed as an employee of Mascot Mines, high above  Hedley. In 1940, Herb married Helen Van Blarecomb, who, before she was  widowed, was a Richter, one of the pioneer families of the Keremeos area.  Helen died in 1959.  Herb had made his home in Keremeos, where he was instrumental in organizing the Keremeos Rodeo. He promoted square dancing in the community and was an active member of the Keremeos Elk's Lodge. Very interested in the preservation of history, Herb was a member of the Okanagan  Historical Society and worked for the restoration of the first grist mill at 143  Keremeos. After his retirement from the Highways Department, Herb was  able to spend more time at Cathedral Lakes Resort, an area he had pioneered  as a young man.  Herb suffered a fatal heart attack October 13, 1979. He is survived by his  wife, Dorothy, whom he married in 1960, his daughter, Tammi, two stepdaughters and three step-sons. With his passing go three generations of pioneers; L. A. Clark who crossed the plains after the Civil War and surveyed an  early freight route; Gerald Clark, an early freighter and pioneer rancher;  Herb Clark, a hunter, guide and pioneer in the Ashnola and Cathedral  Mountains. Only one small lake and a creek, a tributary of Shatford Creek,  bears the name Clark. However, there will be many areas that will long be  associated with the Clark family.  Tammie Clark, Herb's only daughter, presently a teenager attending  secondary school in Keremeos, is the great-granddaughter of the original  Clark who settled in the Okanagan. This writer feels that she has a family  legacy of which she can be truly proud.  Herb Clark with a horse skidding logs for the first buildings in the Cathedral Lakes area, about  1940. 144  THE PARADIS FAMILY OF ENDERBY  By Antoinette B. Paradis  Our family moved to Enderby late in 1912 and after a brief stay with  friends and in a rented house, we moved in early January into the house that  Dad and Mother had bought, the Matthews place on Cliff Street.  Dad was born in the Eastern Townships of Quebec, but as his father died  when Dad was very young, he left to work in the woods down the St. Lawrence  River. Perhaps he was particularly drawn to that area, for it was on the St.  Lawrence, at Beauport and later on the Isle of Orleans, that his ancestor,  Pierre Paradis, the first Paradis to come from France, had settled around  1652. It is believed that all the Paradis in North America, numbering well  over 50,000 in 1960, are descended from this man. In 1960 a monument was  raised on the Isle of Orleans in honour of Pierre Paradis, on the occasion of a  convention held to celebrate the approximate tercentenary of his arrival in  Canada. The farm on which the monument stands is still in the Paradis  name.  Dad worked his way down the St. Lawrence, and finally worked in the  Maine and Massachusetts woods. He eventually made his way into Wisconsin,  where, in 1890, he met and married our mother, Caroline Beffa. Mother was  born in Paris of French and Swiss parentage, her Swiss grandparents being  from close to the Italian frontier, and possibly of Italian descent. The only  other time we have ever heard the name was, by a strange coincidence, in early April of this year, when there was an article in the papers about some new  method of obtaining energy from the sun, and the inventor of the system was  an Italian by the name of Beffa!  The Paradis family 1912-13. Honore, Caroline, mother, father. Jean. Antoinette, Louise, Marie  and Josephine. 145  After their marriage in Wisconsin Mother and Dad came to Manitoba,  where most of his brothers and sisters had settled. The first five of us were  born there, and the last two of us, my sister Josephine and myself, were born  in Saskatchewan.  Our Dad was no farmer, but loved the outdoors and particularly the  woods. Having heard of the wonderful forests in B.C. through a family who  had lived in a neighbouring village in Saskatchewan and had moved to Enderby, (the Simard family, see the O.H.S. 41st Report), Dad came to the  Okanagan two or three winters to work in the woods before he finally moved  us here in 1912. One of the things Caroline remembers when we were still in  Saskatchewan is when word came from Dad that the people in Kelowna needed butter, and Mother and other women in the area made butter, packed in  into wooden tubs, and shipped it to Kelowna.  When we arrived in Enderby mother lost no time in establishing herself  as an excellent dressmaker, having taken a correspondence course in dressmaking and tailoring from Rice Lake, Wisconsin, her former home. She continued to sew for many years, assisted at first by the eldest daughter Marie,  herself an excellent seamstress. Mother's first job in Enderby was a wedding  dress for Katie Jones — I met her at an Enderby reunion in Vancouver many  years later, and she talked about the wedding dress mother had made her.  There were many funny experiences, such as when she was making pongee  silk shirts for Japanese mill workers, and they wanted 'twice cuffs' — she took  it to mean double cuffs, and when a very English lady ordered what mother  took to be 'a long short waist' with 'long short sleeves,' but she was no doubt  saying 'shirt.' When Mother was sewing for a bazaar she could run up two or  three cotton dresses in one day. Some of her clients still sent her materials to  sew for them after they had moved to the Coast.  Dad took contracts for poles, railway ties, and logs, but the forest industry had its ups and downs, and sometimes he had to go as far as the Kootenays  to find work. Until he was 70 years of age he could still out-distance many  younger men, walking up the Mabel Lake Road or climbing the mountains to  his cabin, with a pack on his back containing his week's supply of food. He  always built a cabin or shack if he expected to be in the same area for several  months. A well-known local lumberman, Billy Clark, once remarked that if  he ever got to Heaven and saw a bark shack he'd know that 'Old Paradis' had  got there first! In 1930, when Dad was 70, the Forestry Department came to  get him to go up to Hidden Lake with a crew to fight a fire, as he was the only  man available who knew how to get there. It was practically his last work in  the woods, for he died suddenly of a heart attack in April, 1931. Mother  followed him after a lengthy illness, in 1934.  Of the seven children, the eldest, John, never lived in Enderby, as he was  already teaching school in Saskatchewan when we moved to Enderby. Now  aged 87, he lives in a retirement home in Saskatchewan, and plays the violin  every day for the other guests. After a few years of teaching, he became Secretary of the Municipality, and held the various other positions that attach  themselves to such a job in a small town. Most of his seven children live in  Saskatchewan, within easy reach of their Dad.  Marie married Arnold Bogert of Enderby when he returned home after  the war. Their only son, John, still lives near Enderby on the family farm.  Daughters Antoinette Harasymchuk, Yvonne Young, and Kathleen Jahraus, 146  live in or near Armstrong, and Louise Schweb in the Lower Fraser Valley.  Marie died in 1972, her husband having predeceased her by many years.  Dad and mother at Mabel Lake.  The second son, Henry, also moved to Enderby with the family, but did  not live there more than a few years. A painter and decorator by trade, he  never married, and died in Vancouver in 1975. Like his brother, John, he was  a natural musician, and as a young man, roamed the Prairie provinces with  his own orchestra.  Caroline was a school teacher, in a little log school at Ashton Creek, and  then married Harold J. Bawtree (see Bawtree Family, O.H.S. 41st Report).  He passed away in 1960. Caroline still lives in Enderby, where she leads a very  active life. Their elder son, Leonard, who was a bomber pilot in WW II and  won the DFC, and was also the M.L.A. for the district in a previous legislature, lives on the family farm. The younger son, Alfred, is Provincial Agrolo-  gist, based in Kamloops. Of the daughters, Edith lives in Vernon and Noelle  Bieber at Stepney, between Enderby and Armstrong. Phyllis May lives in  Texada Island, and Jean Cleator in Vancouver.  Louise was a teacher for a time, then after a year or so of training, worked as a bookkeeper until she married Eli Cosky in 1929. She passed away in  1945.  Josephine was a high school teacher, and taught in West Summerland for  ten years from 1926 to 1936. During that, time she played cello in the Penticton Symphony under Mr. Whimster, and was contralto soloist in the Gilbert  & Sullivan Operatic Society (see O.H.S. 43rd Report), playing Iolanthe, and  also Ruth in the Pirates of Penzance. She taught in West Vancouver from  1936 to 1942, when she married George Price. She died, after a lengthy illness, in 1959. As for myself, I have lived in Vancouver since 1936, and am a  Certified General Accountant, now semi-retired.  It was a good life in the house on Cliff Street, with a large vegetable 147  garden, soft fruits, and flowers — a huge maple tree for shade and a front  veranda shaded by Virginia Creeper, where Mother sat on hot summer evenings. We had a cow when we were growing up, which we kept in Johnny's  Meadow with Mrs. MacPherson's cows, and Caroline had a buckskin pony to  ride back and forth to her school at Ashton Creek. There were no cars, no  power boats, no TV, but there was lots of music and, in later years, large  family gatherings — it was a good life.  Mother with daisies in garden. 148  A LIFETIME OF OKANAGAN MEMORIES  By W. (Bill) Spear  I was born in Port Moody on February 27, 1893 to a family of five boys  and one girl. From 1907 to 1912, I worked for the Canadian Pacific Rail-way  as office boy in the legal department, clerk in the General Freight Office and  for four and a half years as Assistant Timekeeper for Trainmen, Conductors,  Engineers and Firemen on the Vancouver to Revelstoke run.  In 1912, I came to Kelowna to play lacrosse with five boys from Vancouver. They were Howard Paul, Frank Carlyle, Bemo McLean, Grant  Scoullar and Manfred McGeer. I only stayed for about six weeks, and then returned to Vancouver to join my brother-in-law, Ross Mcintosh, in his Ice  Cream and Candy store. I made ice cream in the morning, then made up  dishes in the store, working until ten or eleven at night. This job lasted one  year.  In 1913, I went to Seattle and got a timekeeper's job on an Extra Gang  with the Northern Pacific Railway. I also worked for a short time for the N.P.  Railway as a Roadmaster's clerk in Sedro Wooley, Washington.  I came back to Vancouver in the latter part of 1913 and got a job with  Kelly-Douglas, demonstrating Buttercup Evaporated Milk and Electric percolators. This took me to grocery stores in all parts of Vancouver.  However, in May of 1914, I returned to Kelowna with E. Gillanders and  Carleton Hill to play lacrosse. We had to pay our own fares on these trips (i.e.  rode the rods). There was no pay when we got there so I found a job with  Dominion Express in 1912 and the D. Leckie store in 1914. While we were  here, war broke out. I went to the Recruiting Office, but they wouldn't look  at me because I had bad teeth. They finally took me in late 1917 and fixed my  teeth.  In the meantime, I returned to Vancouver in late 1914. The Canadian  Pacific Railway was looking for help in the Timekeeper's Office. They had  had a strike and the Trainmen, Engineers and Conductors got back pay. I got  the job of making out the time for them. This took several months as it was a  very complicated job.  In 1916, I went to Vernon, to take a job with the Vernon Fruit Union.  Bud Castner and I got the contract that winter, sorting spuds in the Fruit  Union Basement. The following year, Bud and I went to California to work in  the oranges, in East and West Highlands, where we picked for colour and  worked in the packinghouse.  At this time, I received a letter the foreman of the Vernon Fruit Union  sent me, offering me a job. So, I got on the train and came back to Vernon to  work for one season. The Mutual Brokers in Calgary then offered work. Before leaving for Calgary, I had an Army Medical, as we knew there was going  to be conscription soon, and I did not want to be conscripted. Because I had  had Typhoid Fever which had left me weak, I did not pass the Medical, and  went to Calgary.  In Calgary, I received notice to report to Victoria, where I spent eighteen  months as office help in the Headquarters' staff and in the Pay Office.  At the end of the war, 1919, I got a letter from Harry Slater, Manager of  the Kelowna Growers' Exchange. He wanted me to come to Kelowna and take  the Shippers' job, which I did, reporting to Jim Linton, Superintendent of 149  Operations. Jim told me he wanted me to be his head packer. I told him I had  only worked in the shipping department at Vernon and knew nothing about  the packing. He replied, "You are just the man I want, someone who will do  as I tell him. Go out and be Headpacker. Don't tell the packers that you don't  know how to pack. Come to me if you get into difficulty!" Well, I immediately  began to learn to pack and spent every night, for at least a month, practising!  In later years, I acted as instructor at our packing schools at the K.G.E.  It was at the K.G.E. that I met Alice Berard (daughter of a Pioneer  Kelowna family). We kept company for two years and were married on July  13, 1921. In those days, we only worked a few months and then were laid off.  When I was laid off in the spring of 1920, I had an offer from the Kelowna  Fruit Company (owned by C. W. Lees) to be its foreman. J. E. Montague was  the Manager. The Kelowna Fruit Company was principally a Mail Order  House. We did load some cars, but this was a small operation, and I was  headpacker. car loader and shipper. We had about six packers and we packed the overflow from Okanagan Packers Company Limited, on contract.  Also, we loaded onion cars on contract for Dave McNair of Armstrong.  The Kelowna Fruit Company disbanded in the spring of 1922. Alice and  I were farming on the old T. G. Speer (no relation) place in South Kelowna. I  was still playing lacrosse. One night, because of a sore throat, I was a spectator at a game. I met Harry Slater, who asked me to come back to the K.G.E.  as shipper. I did just that and stayed there until I retired in February of 1961.  Until 1928, I played lacrosse (about thirty years), in which I acted as  Manager, Captain and Coach, as well as playing every year.  I worked as shipper for the K.G.E. until 1925, when Bill O'Neil, (the  manager at that time) sent me out as manager to the Rutland House, under  construction at that time. We started packing before they had the roof on the  building. There was a cookhouse (which my wife operated), a women's bunk-  house and men's bunkhouse were built. I continued as manager until 1935,  when Mr. Dan MacFarlane (then manager at K.G.E.) advised me that they  wanted me to move back and take the management of the larger town house.  I was satisfied where I was, and not anxious to move. However, the growers  had a meeting in the Rutland Cookhouse, and Captain C. R. Bull, who was  President at that time, called me out to tell me that it was an advancement  and that I should take it. I did, and was manager of the Townhouse until  1946 when Mr. Bill Vance resigned as manager of the full operation of the  K.G.E. I was appointed in his place. Mr. Walter McDowall was appointed  general manager, and when he retired, I took over this position, which I held  until my retirement. In all, I had 39 years continuous service with the K.G.E.  and two part years for a total of 41 years. I was on a monthly salary, with no  overtime pay, and worked long hours. When I retired in 1961, I still had two  years to go before reaching O.A.P. age, so I set up a business of my own.  In all this time, my wife and I took a great interest in all kinds of sports. I  played with the Fairview Lacrosse Club when they were Intermediate City  League champions in 1910. Our president was C. Gardner Johnson. In 1909,  I played with the Olympic Athletic Club, an intermediate team in Vancouver. I was the first president of the Kelowna Packers Senior Hockey Club,  and never missed a Basketball Game when they used to play in the Scout Hall  on Bernard Avenue. In fact, we had special seats which always seemed to be  left for us, as they were never occupied by anyone else. 150  I have been on the Fish and Game Club executive for forty continuous  years, and President for six years. Alice and I built a cabin ourselves at Beaver  Lake in 1930, clearing a road in. We are both very interested in fishing and  still make the odd trip to the lakes in the hills, locally and in the Cariboo.  I was Chairman of the Committee which started the ball rolling to build  the Memorial Arena. In 1955, I was given an award of merit from the  Kelowna Athletic Round Table (later, the Kelowna Recreation Commission).  I was the first President of the Okanagan Valley Senior Hockey League  in 1954.  Alice and I were chosen the Teen Town Centennial couple in 1967, and  given a plaque by the Teen Town Association. In 1972, I was awarded a life  membership in the British Columbia Fruit Growers Association.  My knee injury happened when I fell out of a railway car, checking the  contents. My left knee landed on the rail. I kept riding my bike for a few days,  and then it got so sore I went to see the doctor. Dr. H. B. McEwan treated it.  He said I would have to have it in a cast. I said I couldn't do that as I had to  work. I was on only for the season at that time, and the Workmen's Compensation was so small in those days, you could not live on it. Dr. McEwan bandaged it up, and phoned the manager, Mr. Slater, that I was to keep off it for  a week. In a few days, I was on it as usual and played lacrosse for six years  after that. I did have to have my knee rubbed during the rest period. I  wrenched the same knee while playing lacrosse in the oval, as it was pretty  rough at that time.  I have made my own way since I was fourteen, when my mother died. I  never sent home for money or asked for help from elder brothers. I postponed  a few meals, but never really missed any.  In looking for a job in Highlands, California, the man asked me what I  could do. I told him I would take anything from shovelling manure to managing a bank. Lots of young fellows were out of work then, but most of them  were a little "choosey" about what job they took. I had good references from  the C.P.R. and this helped me to get a job several times.  On July 13, 1971, Alice and I celebrated our Fiftieth Wedding Anniversary, entertaining 175 guests on our lawn at the back of the house.  Editor's Note: Bill Spear passed away in Kelowna. During his lifetime,  he contributed a great deal of time and effort to the sports activities of  Kelowna and District. It is such contributions which have allowed us all to  benefit from the present quality of life in this Valley. 151  Mr. and Mrs. W. (Bill) Spear on the occasion of their 50th Wedding Anniversary. July 13. 1971.  Kelowna, B.C. 152  STANLEY L. R. PRICE  By Mrs. Stan Price (nee Ella McKay)  At 10 years of age, Stan reached Halifax with his parents, Henry and  Margaret, and two brothers; Ewart's first wife, Kate, came with them, and  Heygate, and sister, Nora, after an extremely rough sea voyage in a top-heavy  cattle ship. This ship carried cattle to Britain and brought back immigrants.  The heavy smell of lime, used to clean the ship didn't help to make the trip  pleasant. The stormy seas meant being confined to cabins a great deal of the  time. Nora was nearly swept overboard.  At Halifax, they boarded a colonist car, which had a wood-burning stove  in it, also slatted benches. Here they prepared meals. They left the train at  Winnipeg, intending to take up farming on the Prairies. This would have  been quite an experience, as his father was indeed a "green Englishman." For  a time, his dad decided to obtain work in Winnipeg, in order to refund his  pocketbook. But, nearly every position advertised contained this caption —  "No Englishman need apply." Finally, he secured a position as night watchman in a large food warehouse — Foley, Lucke & Larsen. One night, he had  checked, a "mysterious" fire broke out and destroyed the establishment. Having a very inventive bent and being willing to give his employer the benefit of  this he soon had no trouble obtaining work. They established a home in  Elmwood, a suburb of Winnipeg.  Nora and Stan attended school there. In a year or so Stan left school,  having obtained a position in Swift's, working the machine that put the summer covers under the main lid on pails of lard. He worked ten to twelve hours  a day doing this. He had to press a pedal with his right foot all day. Being so  young, this damaged his arch and large toe. Before leaving Winnipeg, he also  worked in a large machine shop. At that time, they were making what was  called a Big-Four Tractor. I recall his telling of a close call the men had. A  large overhead wheel crashed down during the night. Had this happened during the day, many of the workers would have been killed.  Their stay in Winnipeg was marred with much ill-health. Ewart's wife  Kate, died of tuberculosis, Heygate (about 20 years of age) didn't recover,  following a serious hip operation, and Ewart had a period of ill-health, being  in hospital with a serious case of typhoid fever, which was very prevalent in  mosquito-infested Winnipeg, with its poor water. All this was capped off  when Stan's mother came down with rheumatic fever. She was so bad that she  couldn't get about on her own. Doctor advised a drier, warmer climate for  her.  The real estate men were picturing the Okanagan area as a "garden of  Eden," that one could live in tent all winter. This sounded good, so they decided to move once again.  Nora and Stan accompanied their parents, Ewart coming out with his  second wife, Mabel, the following year. The four of them arrived in Sicamous  in August 1911, too late to catch the C.P.R. down the Valley. They stayed in  one of the hotels. Stan said his mother sat up all night because of "the armies  of bedbugs marching up and down the walls." They arrived in Enderby next  day, going to the big white hotel. I believe this was run by a man called Webb  Wright. Here the "curtains looked like polka dot material" as they were laden  with house flies. 153  The livery man, the late Ed Mack, drove them to Grindrod to look at  property. This was so isolated that they returned to Enderby. He then took  them up to Hullcar. This valley really appealed to them. The big Crane farm  was for sale. They decided to try to buy the western half of this property. At  first, they bought the ten-acre block on which they built a small house, building half at a time. The first half was a lean-to shed type, two small bedrooms  and a living room. They were able to get final papers for the bigger property  around 1920 when the moratorium on all mortgages was lifted following  World War I.  On their arrival at Hullcar, the Cranes let them pitch a tent in their  yard. Imagine how uncomfortable this was, as it rained hard for several days!  They quickly erected a small shed on the ten-acre piece of land. They spent  part of the first winter in this. Some mornings, Granny Price's hair was white  with frost. It was a pleasure to move into warmer quarters. This old shed was  later used for a barn.  The picture they had been given of B.C. was changed that first winter, as  that area experienced one of the deepest snows on record — six feet of snow  that covered up all the fences. Imagine trying to get around with a horse to  get out enough wood to keep the fire going! The lesson learned was to prepare  the wood supply before winter arrived. All this was new to them, as also was  farming.  Dave Crane, who had a herd of dairy cows, proved a real neighbor. Stan  learned much farming knowledge from him and was always grateful. (One interesting thing they learned from Dave was that the farmers' pigs were  gathered into herds and driven on foot by horseback riders to Kamloops to be  shipped!) Stan and his father also learned much about farming by working for  such farmers as Mathesons and Lynns. They also took care of the late G. H.  Game place (now Ripleys) until the Games came to take over. While doing all  this they also continued to improve their own place, which required much  land clearing.  The late Charles Hoover provided considerable work for the local men  with his sawmill, the first one on the Lynn place, the second by the creek just  below the Hullcar Hall. Stan and Ewart worked there. Also, in hard years,  farmers were given the opportunity to do roadwork for the municipality to  help pay their taxes.  But it wasn't always work, work, work! Stan was a good skater and many  happy evenings were spent on the ice on a large pond on the Crane property.  Young people came from a distance to join the local young people. Lanterns  around the pond gave light. Another winter sport was tobogganing. They had  a long slide area from up on the Lynn range. This was well banked with snow  and made slippery by putting water on it. There always had to be a sentry at  the road to stop any traffic crossing. Although rather a dangerous sport, no  one was seriously hurt. After such an evening they gathered for lunch at a  home, often at Price's.  The big Hullcar and Deep Creek Hall was built (mostly volunteer  material and help) about 1909. All public gatherings such as meetings,  Church, dances, concerts, etc., were held there. A Literary Society was formed in early times which met once a month in the fall and winter months. A  speaker and some other entertainment were secured. In February those interested in drama prepared a three-act play. After putting it on at the Hall it 154  was then taken to adjacent small towns such as Enderby, Armstrong, Falkland, etc. It was sponsored by a group from each place. Stan always took a  very active part in all the above. Crokinole tournaments were enjoyed by  crokinole enthusiasts.  Stan got much pleasure in attending hockey games in Enderby and Armstrong. The North Okanagan League was made up of teams from Vernon,  Armstrong, Enderby, and Salmon Arm. Following the First World War,  Enderby had a very strong team which brought much honour. Sid Speers  managed this team. Stan had a fast team of horses so wouldn't think of missing games, especially at Enderby. He always took several of the local boys with  him.  The Hullcar and Deep Creek church goers used to hold a big picnic on  the Matheson place on the flat amongst the trees just across from the Lynn  home. Many happy times were had there.  As time went on, Stan and his father increased their farming activities,  grain growing, hay, potatoes and pigs (sold as weaners).  Stan married Rachel (Ella) C. McKay of Enderby. Ella came to live in  Enderby in July 1905 when six months old. She was teaching in Hillcest School  (now demolished), and participated in activities at the hall when she met  Stan. They were married in October, 1929. Their son, Leonard Stanley, was  born in August, 1930. As Stan's dad was not too well, because of a heart condition, Stan And Ella took over the responsibility of the farm.  His folks built a small home and continued to live on the farm. His Dad's  ability to fix almost anything, (if fixable) was of inestimable value to us especially during the depression years. During World War II Granny Price did  much knitting of socks for the Red Cross. Grampy Price passed away in 1945  at age of 83 following a stroke. Granny left us in 1953 when 86, following a  lengthy illness.  Depression years were felt most in 1931 to 1934. The Prices disposed of  their car and returned to travelling with horses. (It was 1949 before we were  able to buy a truck because of the scarcity of these following W.W. II.) By  1935 we had excellent crops and so were able to pay off the principal on the  farm by 1947. We were milking (by hand) 20 cows. From seven years of age,  Len helped milk. By the time he was 12 years, following a serious illness which  almost took his life, he took over all the work involving the horses. When  about 16 years old, he left school at Grade 11 and began logging on the farm.  By now he had bought a fine team of horses from Nigel Rees. As long as he  worked with us, we shared everything evenly. So, by the three of us working  together and by some help from Ewart's boys, we were able to come out on  top.  Len was a 4-H member of the potato club while at school. From this  beginning we grew certified spuds for a few years. This proved very remunerative. One year we had over $500.00 from our patch of about an acre.  In 1950, Len decided to go logging with his friend, Arnold Graham. The  years he logged were good ones for him.  In 1951 he married Dorothy Kemp of Hupel. She camped out with him  during the months he logged. Their home was in the little house formerly occupied by his grandparents. He later built his present home. When Stan had  to stop farming in 1957, due to a heart condition, Len took over the farm. He  combined his logging with the raising of beef cattle until the beef market col- 155  lapsed. With his second son, Wayne, he continues to farm, renting other land  too. They also raise swine having over 20 sows. The big farm has gained many  pig pens. They sell the young pigs for weaners when around six weeks old.  These bring $30.00 to $40.00 each. (Compare with $1.50 each in depression  years in the 30's.) He doesn't log now.  Len's family are all on their own now.  Marty (a truck driver) and his wife, Kelly live in Edmonton. Wayne is at  Hullcar with his dad on the farm. Lynne (now Mrs. C. Anderson of Salmon  Arm) has a boy (Stanley, 4 yrs) and a girl (Vicky, 1 V& yrs. old). Patsy (now  Mrs. E. Hainer (Prince George)) has a boy, Marty who is four. Nancy is in  Alberta at present.  I returned to teaching (in Armstrong) in 1957 when Stan's health failed.  When I retired from teaching in 1969 we moved to Kelowna. After 3V£ months there, we moved to an apartment (3608 - 30th Avenue) in Vernon. We  were living close to My School (for the retarded), and close to Restholm (for  the elderly). Stan enjoyed the company of so many elderly folks in that area.  A former Hullcar resident, Dorothy Alexander, head teacher at My School,  approached me to join the staff there to teach the reading program. I taught  there for seven and a half years.  After two years of poor health, which caused much we