Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Okanagan history. Fifty-seventh report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1993

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 Okanagan History  S7t>hvReDjont*ofAhe Okanagan Historical Society  OKANAGAN  HISTORY  Fifty-seventh Report  of the  Okanagan  Society  Founded September 4,1925  Cover  Hudson's Bay Co. Fur Brigade at Lake Okanagan.  A Painting by John Innes,  used with permission  from the Native Sons of B.C.  ©1993  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921241 -60-7  Printed In Canada, Ehmann Printing Ltd., Kelowna, B.C.  ®  Recycled Paper FIFTY-SEVENTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Robert Cowan  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Jean Webber, Oliver and Osoyoos  Betty Bork, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Lucy McCormick, Vernon  Lorna Carter, Armstrong and Enderby  Yvonne McDonald, Salmon Arm  Cass Robinson, Similkameen  Membership  The recipient of this Fifty-seventh Report is entitled to register his or her membership  in the Fifty-eighth Report which will be issued November 1, 1994. For Membership  Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Purchasing Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the  Parent Body (Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3), from Branches of the O.H.S. and from most  museums and book stores in the Okanagan Valley. For availability and prices of back numbers see the order form on the insert.  Editorial Inquires  For editorial inquires concerning material in the Reports or for inclusions in future Reports,  please contact the editor at Box 76, Enderby, B.C. VOE IVO. Officers and Directors of the Parent Body  1993-1994  PRESIDENT  Jessie Ann Gamble  FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT  David MacDonald  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Denis Maclnnis  SECRETARY  Art Strandquist  TREASURER  Libby Tassie  PAST PRESIDENT  Robert de Pfyffer  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Carleton MacNaughton,  Bernard Webber  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Olive Evans  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Gifford Thomson  Vernon: Doug Kermode  Armstrong-Enderby: Bob Cowan  Salmon Arm: Hubert Peterson, Hjalmar Peterson  Similkameen: Richard Coleman  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Denis Maclnnis (Pandosy Mission)  Peter Tassie (Brigade Trail)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Don Weatherill, Frank Pells, Ron Robey,  Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber Historical Papers  Hudson's Bay Fur Trading Posts in the Okanagan  and Similkameen by Jean Webber. 6  A History of the Penticton Airport by T.G Hammell 34  Penticton's Saint Saviour's Anglican Church by E.M. MacRae-Fraser. 46  Okanagan Mission Post Offices by Michael Painter 52  Finnish Settlement in the Central Okanagan by Mike Roinila 59  Salmon Arm Women's Institute by Yvonne MacDonald 63  Spallumcheen  Spallumcheen by Helen Inglis 69  Spallumcheen: Where Farming Comes First by Lorna Carter 76  The Catholic Church in Spallumcheen by Rita Luttmerding 83  Reminiscences  War Bride by Ruth Bawtree 87  Kelowna 1910 by A.R. Lord 98  Happy 25th "Rita Joe" by Dick Clements 105  The 1932 Windstorm by Doug Kermode 108  Peace Came Slowly to Salmon Arm by Roland Jamieson 110  Tributes and Biographies  The Heriot and Edgar Families by Joan E. Heriot 114  The Tozer Family by Anita Tozer 126  The Evans Family by Agnes Sutherland 131  H.O. Weatherill by Harry Weatherill 135  Dr. Walter Anderson by Dr. RonaldEllis 139  Ronald Rupert Heal by Graham Campbell Blair Baillie 143  Dr. Ragnvald Haugen by Dawn Jamieson 147  Mary Orr by Doreen Tait 149  Hugh Cleland by Mollie Broderick 151  Irvine Adams by Doreen Tait 153  Donald Sherman McTavish by Salmon Arm Observer. 154  Student Essays  Introduction 156  Charles Mair's Letter to G.T. Denison 157  Charles Mair: a Canadian Nationalist in the 1890s by John Redenbach 160  Early History of the Coldstream Ranch by Graham Jantz 163 Book Reviews  Nature Power: In the Spirit of an Okanagan Storyteller  Reviewed by Jean Webber 165  Summerland Reviewed by Robert Cowan 166  Ninety Years of Golf - A Chronology of Golf in Kelowna  Reviewed by Dorothy Zoellner 168  RMH - Memoirs of Bob Hayman  Reviewed by 0. Arthur Standquist 169  Obituaries  We Shall Miss Them 171  Errata 184  O.H.S. Business  Minutes of the 68th Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society 185  President's Report 188  Editor's Report 189  Secretary's Report 190  Auditor's Report 190  Finance Committee Report 191  Armstrong/Enderby Branch Report 191  Kelowna Branch Report. 192  Oliver/Osoyoos Branch Report 192  Penticton Branch Report 193  Salmon Arm Branch Report 194  Similkameen Branch Report 194  Vernon Branch Report 195  Historical Trails Committee Report 196  Father Pandosy Mission Committee Report 197  Index Committee Report 197  Bagnall Committee Report 197  Fairview Lots Committee Report 198  Pioneer Graveyards Report 198  Project Interview Committee Report 198  O.H.S. Local Branch Officers, 1993-94 199  Okanagan Historical Society Membership List: 1993 200 Historical Papers  FUR TRADING POSTS  IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  by Jean Webber  The Boundary  In 1846, the Oregon Treaty declared the 49th parallel to be the boundary between British and American continental territory west of the Rocky  Mountains. The Hudson's Bay Company had hoped that the Columbia River  might mark that boundary, everything south of the river going to the United  States of America and everything north of the river remaining British. The  term "Columbia" had been used by the fur traders to designate all the territory drained by the great river and its tributaries as well as the Shuswap watershed, as distinct from the northern interior known as New Caledonia. Once  the Oregon Treaty was accepted, only territory north of the 49th parallel  remained "British" Columbia.  Nowhere has the boundary settlement influenced local history more  than in the Okanagan and Similkameen. Although it was more than a decade  before engineers of a British and American Joint Boundary Commission  marked the exact location of the 49th parallel in our area, the Hudson's Bay  Company, foreseeing the difficulties of carrying on their affairs in foreign territory — paying duty on furs passing down the Columbia to be shipped to  markets in London or in other parts of the world, then paying duty on trade  supplies imported — decided to relocate its posts on British soil.  Already, in 1843, Dr. John McLoughlin, feeling the pressure of settlers  moving into the Oregon Territory, had sent James Douglas to establish Fort  Victoria on Vancouver Island. The fort was to become the Pacific headquarters of the company, replacing Fort Vancouver, which was situated on the  north bank of the Columbia River and which, in 1825, had replaced Fort  George (Astoria) at the mouth of the Columbia as head of operations.  Jean Webber is a past editor of Okanagan History. A retired educator, she resides in Osoyoos.  Author's Note: In 1974, the Archives of the Hudson's Bay Company were moved from London,  England to the Provincial Archives of Manitoba. I cannot speak too highly of Ms. Judith Hudson  Beattie, Keeper of the Hudson's Bay Archives, and her obliging and helpful staff of researchers.  Many references to Okanagan forts had already been abstracted by researchers and placed in  Research Files. FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  When the Oregon Treaty was accepted, the Hudson's Bay Company  claimed indemnity from the Government of the United States for the loss of  the following forts: Vancouver, Champaeg, Cowlitz at river mouth,  George (Astoria), Cape Disappointment, Chinook or Pillar Rock, Umpqua,  Nez Perces (Walla Walla), Hall, Boise, Okanagan, Colville [sic], Kootenais,  and Flatheads. No indemnity was claimed for Carkooman (Caweeman),  Nisqually, Bellingham, Simcoe, Saloush, or Spokane. (Ernest Voorhis, Historic  Forts and Trading Posts of the French Regime and of the English Fur Trading  Companies, #407) After years of legal wrangling, the United States  Government agreed to pay the Company $650,000 in gold bullion, the sum to  include $200,000 for the Company's agricultural lands on Puget Sound.  (Peter C. Newman, Caesars of the Wilderness, Penguin, p. 393) Gradually, the  company moved its activities into British territory.  Fort Okanagan  Fort Okanagan, a post established in 1811 by David Stuart and  Alexander Ross of the New York-based Pacific Fur Company, was situated on  the Okanagan River one half mile upstream from the river's confluence with  the Columbia. (In the Annual Report of the Okanagan Historical Society, No. 3,  page 28 - hereafter referred to as O.H.S. Report - we learn that there are over  30 variants in the spelling of "Okanagan." I shall use the modern Canadian  spelling "Okanagan" throughout but note that south of the border the word  is spelled "Okanogan.") From the new post, Stuart pressed up the Okanagan  and finally through to Kamloops, thus discovering the route which was to be  used by fur brigades for the next thirty-five years.  The confluence of the Okanagan River (on left) and the Columbia. The arrow to the right of  centre indicates the location of the original Fort Okanagan, now inundated by waters behind  the Wells Dam. Photo courtesy of Bernard and Jean Webber and taken from a viewpoint  across Highway 97 from the Brewster, Washington Airport. FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  When the War of 1812 broke out, the North West Company took advantage of the situation to persuade the American Pacific Fur Company to sell  out its interests in the Columbia region. F.M. Buckland tells us that Duncan  MacDougall, the Factor in charge, agreed to the price of $80,500. (O.H.S.  Report No. 17, page 74) Both Fort Astoria, renamed Fort George, and Fort  Okanagan became North West posts until 1821 when they became Hudson's  Bay Company posts upon the amalgamation of the two great fur trading companies.  In 1816, while Fort Okanagan was the property of the North West  Company, the original buildings were replaced by a stockaded group of well-  constructed buildings. The construction of the new fort was supervised by  Ross Cox, the colourful Irishman then in charge of the post. In his book,  Adventures on the Columbia (quoted in Judge Wm. Compton Brown, The  Pilgrimage to Old Fort Okanogan, 1951), Cox records this description of the  fort:  By the month of September, we had erected a new dwelling  house for the person in charge, containing four excellent rooms  and a large dining hall, two good houses for the men and a spacious store for the furs and merchandise, to which was attached a  shop for trading with the natives. The whole was surrounded by  strong palisades fifteen feet high and flanked by two bastions.  Each bastion had in its lower story a light brass four-pounder, and  in the upper story loop-holes were left for the use of musketry.  From 1812 onward, the winter's catch of furs was collected at Kamloops,  or Thompson's River as it was often called, baled, loaded on pack animals and  driven south through the Okanagan Valley to Fort Okanagan where the cargo  was transferred to bateaux for the trip down the Columbia River to Fort  George and, after 1825, to Fort Vancouver. Then in late summer the brigade  would retrace the route with trade goods and supplies for the inland posts.  Thus began the great brigades that have left their mark on the Okanagan  landscape to this day. (See the two booklets: R. Hot, A. Jahnke, P. Tassie, The  Okanagan Brigade Trail, Central and North Okanagan, 1986 and B. Harris,  H. Hatfield, P. Tassie, The Okanagan Brigade Trail in the South Okanagan  1811 to 1849, 1989.)  It did not take the Nor'Westers long to see the advantage of shipping  out their New Caledonia furs through this southern and Pacific route instead  of taking them through difficult mountain passes and across the continent to  Montreal. On May 13, 1813, John Stuart left Fort St. James by canoe in search  of a route to Fort Okanagan and hence down the Columbia to the Pacific. In  October 1814, Chief Trader D.W. Harmon recorded the arrival at Fort St.  James of J. LaRoque with two canoes laden with trade goods brought up from  Fort George. (E.P. Creech, "Brigade Trails of B.C.," The Beaver, March 1953, p.  11) However, it was not until 1826 that the route through the Okanagan was  used regularly. In the minutes of the Council for Northern Department of FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Rupert's Land, held at York Factory in July 1825, we find the following: 'That  William Connolly be directed to take out the New Caledonia Returns to Fort  Vancouver (Columbia River) next Spring, from whence he is to receive the  ensuing Outfit for 1826." (Minutes of the Council of the Northern Department,  1821-31, Hudson's Bay Record Society, p. 106)  Although the 1821 amalgamation had opened York Factory (on  Hudson's Bay) to New Caledonia commerce, the southern and Pacific route  still afforded savings of time and wages. Each spring, from 1826 on, Fort St.  James furs gathered during the winter were baled and loaded into canoes for  their journey down the Stuart, Nechako, and Fraser Rivers to Fort Alexandria.  There, because the river below was unnavigable, two 84-pound bales, or  "pieces" as they were called, were transferred to each pack horse for the journey through Kamloops and thus to Fort Okanagan.  45 OK 64  FORT  O.KANOGAN  POST-1816   RECONSTRUCTION  GROUND PLAN  Floor plan of the 1816 reconstruction of Fort Okanagan based on information gained from  archaeological digs. Diagram courtesy of the Okanogan County Museum. FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Sometime after 1821, Fort Okanagan was relocated on the bank of the  Columbia River, several miles to the south-east of the original post. Robert  Stevenson of Princeton, B.C.in his "The Story of a Trip Through the  Okanagan Valley in the Summer of 1860" (quoted in Judge Wm. Compton  Brown, "Old Fort Okanogan and the Okanogan Trail," Oregon Historical  Quarterly, March 1914, p. 22) describes the post as he found it almost forty  years later:  The fort consisted of a stockade built of fir trees, 14 to 20  inches in diameter and twenty feet long, standing on end with the  lower end firmly planted in the ground. Entrance to this stockade  was by means of a strong gate. A space of 60 to 80 feet square was  enclosed and all buildings opened to the center, and the walls of  the stockade were firmly braced on the inside.  No doubt the newer location afforded a better site from which to monitor river traffic, both that travelling up and down the Columbia as well as that  crossing the river, forjudge W.C. Brown tells us:  At this fort is the site of the "upper crossing" of the  Columbia. That was an alternate to the "lower crossing" [a few  miles down river] and was used when the nature of the property  to be ferried — the stage of the water in the river, or otherwise,  made the upper crossing more desirable. It is as ancient as the  lower crossing, and ultimately became the crossing generally used  by the wagon trains, while the lower crossing, the swimming ford,  was more for the pack trains and cattle drives. (Brown, Pilgrimage)  When Fort Okanagan was first established, it was a post at which furs  were purchased. However, we find John McLeod, in his report of April 23,  1823 (HBC Archives, Winnipeg. B. 208/e/l, fos. 6d-7d), stating:  On examining the Returns of Okanagan Fort, I found it to  be 100 Beaver Short of that of last Year at the same Post. Mr. Pion  (the Person in charge) attributes this deficiency to the backwardness of the Spring but in this I differ with him in opinion, as I am  inclined to think it is owing to some of the natives appertaining to  this Place having gone to Walla Walla and even to Fort George  where I am informed some of them received clothing.  There was another factor which must have had a deleterious effect  upon fur production in the country near Fort Okanagan. In an attempt to  drive out the mountain men or free traders and thus stem the tide of  American settlement, Governor George Simpson, in 1825, announced a  scorched earth policy whereby Hudson's Bay hunters would trap beaver south  of the Columbia to extinction. (Newman, Caesars, p. 370) That Simpson  achieved the success he sought is perhaps born out in the observations of  Commander Wilkes who was in charge of the United States Exploring  Expedition, 183842. Wilkes reported in June 1841:  10 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Few skins are obtained here [Fort Okanagan], and the  extreme scarcity of game and fur animals is remarkable throughout all this part of Middle Oregon. This is somewhat difficult to  account for, as we are well satisfied that there is abundance of  food, and that all kinds of cattle would thrive exceedingly in this  section, where grass is so abundant. (C. Wilkes, Narrative of the  United States Exploring Expedition... 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841.  London, 1845)  Thus Fort Okanagan became an entrepot for the trade rather than a  trading post of importance in its own right. We find, for example, C.T. Heron  recording in his Fort Colvile Journal the return of two Indians June 2, 1830,  from Fort Okanagan with "...1 bag of Ball, 100 flints and 15 pounds of tobacco which had been ordered from the lower fort." (C.T. Heron, Fort Colvile  Journal commencing 12th April 1830, ending 13th April 1831, Hudson's Bay  Archives) The principal justification for maintaining Fort Okanagan, of  course, was because it was there that the change between land and water  transport was made. In writing to the Governor and Committee of the  Hudson's Bay Company, Governor Simpson stated:  This place [Fort Okanagan] is maintained almost entirely  for the accommodation of New Caledonia and Thompson's River,  being the point at which the route from those places strikes upon  the main River, and where it is necessary to keep two or three men  throughout the year for the purpose of Watching Boats, horses,  Provisions, & etc. left here from time to time for the use of those  places. The Expenses of this Post, are for the sake of regularity  charged to Thompson's River. (E.E. Rich, editor, Part of a  Dispatch from George Simpson Esq... 1829, The Hudson's Bay  Record Society, p. 50)  The status of the fort is reflected in the post managers who were, for the  most part, clerks, interpreters or labourers rather than officers of the company. (See Appendix I)  A human face is put upon the relationship between Forts Okanagan  and Thompson's River in the reminiscences of Joseph LaFleur, son of the  interpreter Joachim LaFleur and half brother to Francois Dechiquette. Joseph  was born at Fort Okanagan in 1834 and baptized by Father Demers in 1838.  In May 1912, the Indian Department and the Washington State Historical  Society brought the elderly Joseph back to Fort Okanagan in order that he  might identify features of the old fort. Among his remarks are the following:  I came down from Kamloops with a big pack train once  when my father was in charge. I made several trips with pack  trains between Okanagan and Kamloops. My father most always  took all the family when he went to Kamloops, and sometimes we  stayed at Kamloops several years at a time. Those big pack trains  that carried the furs down in the summer and carried the goods  11 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  up in the fall travelled about fifteen miles a day. When we left  Okanagan the train usually got a late start and we did not go far  the first day, probably about six or seven miles above the mouth of  the river. The next night we usually got about to where Salmon  Creek comes into the Okanogan...the second night after that we  would get probably to Bonaparte Creek and the next night to  Osoyoos Lake. (Brown, OHQ pp. 24-5)  Fort Okanagan was more remarkable as a horse guard rather than for  its field culture, a fact which is not surprising when one thinks of those great  brigades of some 300 horses arriving and departing each year. Even the first  fort had extensive corrals. In the proceedings Hudson's Bay Company vs  United States Government referred to above, Alexander Caufield Anderson  described the horse range, triangular in shape each side being 25-30 miles in  length, one side extending up-river from the fort, the second along the range  of hills towards the Okanagan Valley, and thence back down along the  Okanagan River. (Brown, OHQ, 1914, p. 27)  Reproduction of an old map on display at the Fort Okanogan Interpretive Center near  Brewster, Washington. Photo courtesy of Bernard and Jean Webber.  Up to four acres of garden were cultivated at the post. The "...peas, cabbage and turnips..." which Emilius Simpson found at Fort Okanagan in  October 1826 must have been welcome fare to the traveller from York Factory  and a pleasant addition to the diet of fish, game and tea upon which company servants often depended. (Emilius Simpson R.N., Journal of a Voyage Across  the Continent of North America, 1826, Hudson's Bay Archives) In 1824,  Governor George Simpson thought the fort's potatoes the finest he had seen  in the country. Simpson, who was very keen on fort agriculture, thought that  "...grain in any quantity..." could be raised "...but cultivation to any extent has  12 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  never been attempted." (HBC Arch., Research File, "Okanagan, Fort")  However, Commander Wilkes in his report described the fort's location to be  "...on a poor, flat, sandy neck." (Wilkes, U.S.Exped.)  The last brigade to bring its furs through Fort Okanagan arrived in  1847. After that, the combination of customs difficulties and the hostilities  between whites and Indians in the Oregon Territory following the Walla Walla  Council (May 1855) made an all-British route most desirable. However, the  fort continued to exist until 1860 when Francois Dechiquette, the last manager, was instructed to move to Similkameen and establish there a horse farm.  Yet, the company did not wish to surrender its interest in the site for, on  August 7,1860, we find Chief Factor D. Mactavish writing to Angus McDonald  at Fort Colvile:  We note the removal of Francois Dechiquette to the  Shimilkameen [sic], which is approved of, but according to the  understanding you had with Mr. Dallas, you must endeavour, in  the most economical manner possible to retain our hold at  Okanagan - as we do not wish to give up our claim to the  Establishment - and further in establishing ourselves at the  Shimilkameen, we must only look upon it as a temporary arrangement - where no large outlay in the way of building or improving  is to be incurred either for trading or farming purposes. (HBC  Arch. B.226/b/18,f. 92-93)  Gradually, the buildings of the old fort fell into disrepair. Placer miners  cannibalized the buildings for the cut timbers which they used in their operations. Finally, the severe flood of 1894 almost obliterated the site of the second fort. The original site, being in quieter waters, better survived the inundation. Chimneys and cellars remained distinguishable there. In 1968, a final  and permanent inundation covered both sites when the waters of the  Columbia rose behind the Wells Dam. Fortunately, before this flooding took  place, archaeological digs were initiated in 1952, 1957 and 1963 with the cooperation of the National Park Service. Artifacts discovered during these  operations are now on display at the Fort Okanogan Interpretive Center just  to the east of the flat in the valley bottom. Before the flooding, the remains of  those buried near Fort Okanogan were removed and re-interred in the Fort  Okanogan Memorial Cemetery a few miles north of the Interpretive Center  and just west of Highway 97. (O.H.S. Report No. 34, page 173)  Fort Colvile  Fort Colvile, situated on the southeast side of the Columbia River just  upstream from Kettle Falls, was cited by Voorhis as ranking, in the Oregon  Territory, next in importance to Fort Vancouver. Fort Colvile had been established in 1825 by the Hudson's Bay Company to replace the old North West  post of Spokane House which, from 1810, had been the principal distribution  centre for the Upper Columbia, Kootenay and Flathead country. On April 7,  13 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  1826, the latter post was closed and employees and stores moved to the new  site, which had been named in honour of Andrew Colvile, a member of the  governing Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company.  The new location proved to be a very satisfactory choice, the Kettle  River and the Columbia system offering convenient access to a vast hinterland. Being on the Columbia, the post was on the main route between Fort  Vancouver and Boat Encampment from which place brigades set out through  mountain passes to the prairie and on to Hudson's Bay or eastern Canada.  Moreover, Kettle Falls was the scene each year of one of the major fisheries of  the Interior Salish. Beginning in June, natives from a great area gathered  there to fish, visit, compete in games, and trade.  Fort Colvile and the valley of the Columbia River. The Post buildings are on the right hand  side, surrounded by farmlands. The photo was taken in 1860 or 1861 by the North American  Boundary Commission and is used here with the permission of the National Archives of  Canada (neg. no. C36939).  An important feature of the location was the great flat of rich fertile  loam that surrounded the fort. Even in 1826, Emilius Simpson noted the successful gardens. Fort Colvile was soon supplying the needs of posts throughout the interior as Governor George Simpson had predicted. By 1834,  Simpson was able to report to the Governor and Committee of the Company:  "Fort Colvile, besides being the most valuable inland establishment in point  of trade, is of great importance to the other posts, being the granary or provision Depot of the interior, as it possesses the advantages of soil and climate  highly favorable to cultivation." (James R. Gibson, Farming the Frontier: The  Agricultural opening of the Oregon Country 1786-1846, Vancouver, 1985, p. 47)  James R. Gibson continues:  In the late 1830s, Fort Colvile supplied Fort Nez Perces with  one hundred hundred-pound sacks of flour annually. "New  Caledonia also depends on this place for her flour, pork, corn and  meal etc. etc.," noted a member of the United States Exploring  14 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Expedition in 1841. In that year from eighty to ninety sacks of  grain were packhorsed from Fort Colvile to Thompson's River for  New Caledonia... [In 1842] Chief Factor Archibald McDonald  reported to Fort Vancouver that "grain is called for I might say  from every point of the compass..." He estimated in 1841 that Fort  Colvile needed two thousand bushels of wheat alone to meet its  obligations, (pp.4748)  It should be noted that early settlers in Osoyoos were among Fort  Colvile's flour customers before Barrington Price established his grist mill at  Keremeos.  In the Hudson's Bay Archives, there is a fascinating document, Fort  Colvile Journal (commencing 12th April 1830, ending 13th April 1831). The  Journal, copied in the hand-writing of Wm. Kittson, is Chief Trader C.T.  Heron's record of the year during which buildings in the post were being  improved and extended. Each day records the tasks to be performed and the  number of men assigned to each. Here is a sample of some of the entries:  April 18 - Accounts closed, everything ready for proceeding to York  Factory.  April 19 -  8 men out for fence poles  6 employed at bastions  5 farming  1 carting  4 at boat house  1 making small building  2 attending on Gentlemen's Mess  April 20 -  Express boat to York House. Boat manned by 8 men  — two passengers.  Turnip (Swedish), cabbage, cress, mustard and carrots  planted in garden by old Philip  May 4 -     Women of establishment cutting seed potatoes  May 11 -    4 men brought down raft of squared wood for the saw  May 17 -   river rising fast  May 19 -    61 packs [of furs] pressed. 3 more men added to mill wright's  party for purpose of making a canal  May 21 -   Planted by now - 23 kegs of wheat, 7 kegs barley, 31/2 kegs  corn, 9 kegs pease, 240(?) kegs potatoes, 2000 pumpkin seed.  May 24 -    Kittson sent off in my place with our returns in 5 boats  manned by 18 men and 2 Indians (4 of boats built here)  June 4 -     Indians beginning to gather at falls for fishing  June 8 -     Indians want C.T. Heron to pray for them [re fishery - He  did]  15 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  St. Paul's Roman Catholic Mission at Fort Colvile in 1858. This photograph is from the North  American Boundary Commission Collection, and used by permission of the National Archives  of Canada (neg. no. C36938).  There were no free-loaders at a Hudson's Bay post. Everyone was  employed including the women, most of whom were "country wives." Good  service brought some security. For example, men who had "...married after  the fashion of the country..." Indian or half- cast wives were obliged to leave  one tenth of their pay with the Company against the day when they might  leave the country without taking their wives and children with them. Sylvia  Van Kirk has made an interesting study of this matter in her book Many  Tender Ties: Women in Fur-Trade Society, 1670-1870 (Winnipeg, 1980).  Although, in 1856, Fort Shepherd was built north of the 49th parallel  with the intention that it would replace Fort Colvile, we find Fort Colvile continuing to operate into the late sixties. However, by then the fort was no  longer the profitable post that it had been. On May 24, 1867, Chief Factor  WF. Tolmie, looking towards the final withdrawal from Colvile, wrote from  Victoria to post master Angus MacDonald at Colvile counselling him: 'Take  notes from debtors or any goods convertible into cash." The fort was finally  closed in the spring of 1871.  While Fort Colvile existed, and even after its demise, Colvile remained a  strong presence in the minds of those living in the South Okanagan. Actually  the association between the Indians living in the vicinity of the fort and  Indians living at Osoyoos Lake was an old one. Mourning Dove, an Indian  woman born at Colvile about 1886, tells us in her autobiography that her parents seldom failed to travel from their winter quarters at Kettle Falls to "S'oo-  yoos" Lake each year to visit relatives and to participate in the dog salmon  fishery at the narrows in the month of September. (Mourning Dove, A  Salishan Autobiography, Lincoln, 1990, p. 20) One is tempted to see this as an  ancient pattern of migration. The late D.P. Fraser of Osoyoos remembered  this fish run when his family moved to Osoyoos in 1917. (Mss Osoyoos 1917-27  by D.P. Fraser, p. 74) Mount Baldy (Pak-kum-kin or White Top) was a place  where Mourning Dove's people might go to acquire spiritual insights or  power. (Mourning Dove, p. 82)  16 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  When Father Pandosy was obliged to leave his mission work in the  Oregon Territory in 1859, he first went to Colvile in search of provisions.  When he left Colvile, he was accompanied by Cyprian Laurence and his wife  Teresa, his brother Theodore, a Flathead Indian and his wife, and Wm. Pion.  The Laurence brothers and Pion became pioneer pre-emptors at Okanagan  Mission. Teresa, whose home had been Colvile and who was a great-aunt of  Marie Houghton Brent, played an important role in negotiating with the  Okanagans the right of the missionaries to settle at L'Anse au Sable. Thus we  see the influence of Colvile extending to Central and North Okanagan.  Julia, the Indian wife of John Carmichael Haynes, came from Colvile.  (This information was obtained by the late D.P. Fraser from Kenneth Lindsay,  a descendent of Julia and John.) Then, in 1864, when Haynes was instructed  to go to Wild Horse Creek in the East Kootenay to settle unruly miners, he  went first to Colvile with his assistant and their five horses to find out from old  Hudson's Bay friends just how he could get to the mining camp. In 1875,  when Emily Pittendrigh Haynes was about to give birth to Valentine  Carmichael Haynes, the mid-wife was brought from Colvile. Mrs. K. Lacey  writes:  It was necessary to bring in a mid-wife from Ft. Colvile, a  good three days' ride away, the woman being Mrs. McDougall, a  French halfbreed who was 75 years of age at the time. The weather turned very cold and lots of snow came before she was able to  return home and she was forced to return to Ft. Colvile on snow-  shoes. (O.H.S. Report No. 27, page 117)  That portion of Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake which today covers the site of Fort Colvile.  The picture was taken from a view point in St. Paul's Mission State Park (editor's note:  compare this photo with the Fort Colvile photo taken by the Boundary Commission in  1861 above. Notice the prominent land mark in the background of both pictures.)  Photo courtesy of Jean and Bernard Webber.  17 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  What can we see of old Fort Colvile today? Not very much. A few artifacts are displayed in the museum in Colville, Washington (note the spelling  of the modern town). The old bastion burned down in the summer of 1911.  Then, in 1941, the whole site disappeared as the waters of the Columbia  backed up behind Grand Coulee Dam to form Lake Roosevelt. However, at  St. Paul's Mission State Park one finds simple but effective information  plaques indicating the location of the old fort as well as that of the Indian  fishery at Kettle Falls. In the park is the cemetery in which some of the residents of the old fort were interred. Another link with this past is found some  miles away. South of the customs house at Midway, just to the east of the highway in the State of Washington, is a small graveyard. Among the graves is that  of the romantic figure Ronald McDonald, son of Archibald McDonald, Chief  Factor at Fort Colvile 1835-1844, and Princess Raven.  Fort Shepherd  Early in 1856, Sir George Simpson wrote to Dugald MacTavish, Chief  Factor in charge of the Oregon Department, instructing him to establish a  trading post north of the 49th parallel, but as close to Fort Colvile as possible,  the intent being that trade should be withdrawn from Fort Colvile and transferred to the new post. Although the Oregon Treaty in 1846 had settled the  matter of the boundary, it was not until the late 1850s that the British and  American Joint Boundary Commission began to survey and mark the 49th  parallel. However, by 1856, the fur traders realized that the days of a loose and  ambiguous border were coming to an end.  Tightened control of the border meant paying custom duties on all  goods passing north or south. To avoid such costs, it appeared desirable to  relocate the Company's posts in British territory. Yet it is interesting to note  that the Company's attitude in the matter of the custom charges remained  pragmatic rather than ideological, for in 1868 we find Chief Factor  W.F.Tolmie instructing Joseph Hardisty to ascertain the best way of outfitting  boats in the Kootenay, whether through Hope, B.C. or Pordand, Oregon.  (Letter 28 September 1868 from WE Tolmie to Joseph Hardisty, HBC Arch.)  James Sinclair, "...whose experience, judgment and business habits..." fitted him for the task, was chosen to decide upon the location of the new post.  Unfortunately, Sinclair along with eighteen others was killed by a party of  Indians at the Cascades of the Columbia River on March 26, 1856 whilst on  his way from Fort Vancouver to the Dalles. (HBC Arch. Research File  "Shepherd, Fort") No doubt this event, along with the general hostilities  between Indians and whites following the all-Indian Council of Grande  Ronde in 1854 and the Walla Walla Council in May 1855 (hostilities which led  to Father Pandosy's moving into British territory), made the Company more  determined than ever to establish an all-British route between the Kootenays  and the Pacific coast.  Governor Simpson himself approved a site on the west side of the  Columbia River across from the mouth of the Pend d'Oreille River and  18 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  approximately thirteen miles south of the present city of Trail. Just how the  location's relationship to the 49th parallel was arrived at we do not know, but  there seems to have been some relief when Captain John Palliser, working out  of the fort in 1859 in his explorations for what Frank Merriam believes to  have been an all-Canadian railway route, determined the fort to be three  quarters of a mile north of the 49th parallel. (Chief Trader James A. Grahame  to Thos. Fraser, Secretary, HBC, London, 3 October 1859. HBC Arch. A.  11/71 and Frank Merriam, "The Dewdney Trail Through the Kootenays,"  B.C. Historical News. vol. 22, no. 1, p. 9)  When Palliser explored up the Pend d'Oreille Valley searching for a  route through the Selkirks, he was accompanied by Joseph McKay of Fort  Shepherd and that route was used by the Hudson's Bay Company from then  on. This may have been the route followed by Haynes in 1864. In 1865, Edgar  Dewdney, when extending his trail from Rock Creek to Wild Horse Canyon,  decided that his best way east of Fort Shepherd was up the Pend d'Oreille,  Little Salmon River and Summit Creek. (Merriam, "The Dewdney Trail..."  p. 9)  James Douglas, Chief Factor at Victoria, was a staunch advocate of the  all-British route and urged that at least one or two of the buildings be ready to  receive goods on the return brigade from Fort Langley in the fall of 1856.  Work began in June 1856, and by August 1857, the new buildings were nearly  completed, put up in a "...substantial workmanlike manner." Buildings were  made of hewn squared logs and stood in an open square, men's residences  and storehouses on the sides and the officers' residence at the end. (Elsie  Turnbull, "Fort Shepherd," The Beaver. Autumn 1959, pp. 4247)  Fort Shepherd, named first Fort Pend d'Oreille but renamed after a  governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, proved to be no second Colvile. For  one thing, the plentiful bench land which Simpson thought suitable for agriculture was infertile compared with the great area lying about the older fort.  Although the company no doubt thought that they were moving into Lakes  Indian territory which had been a principal source of Colvile furs, the new  location did not have the attraction of the old, which was adjacent to the traditional fishing grounds of Kettle Falls. So disappointing was the intake of furs  that the post was closed temporarily in 1860. However, when Chief Factor  Roderick Finlayson visited the site in 1862 and learned that a "free trader"  across the river had bought 500 marten skins from the Indians, he urged that  the post be re-opened. Furthermore the mining of placer gold promised a  retail market for the Company store. (HBC Arch. A.11/79)  The ups and downs of Fort Shepherd are reflected in its changing status. From 1856 to 1860 and from 1862 to 1866, the fort was in the Colvile  District. Then, from 1866 to 1869, itwas head of its own district, which included Similkameen. From 1869 to 1870, it was back in the Colvile District.  Perhaps the new fort suffered from the intention of the Company to keep  Fort Colvile viable in support of the Company's claim for indemnity from the  Government of the United States, an indemnity which was eventually paid.  19 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Shepherd in 1860 or 1861. Photo taken from the North  American Boundary Commission Collection and used here by permission of the National  Archives of Canada (neg. no. C36199).  In the spring of 1870, Chief Factor Finlayson came to the conclusion  that the Districts of Kootenay and Colvile were no longer profitable, the latter  because, being mainly in United States territory, its posts were subject to  "...heavy duties on imports, Internal Revenue charges, and various other disadvantages of competition from the numerous traders of the Country." (HBC  Arch. Research File "Shepherd, Fort", p. 4.) Fort Shepherd was to be closed  "as early as the bulk of the goods there can be exchanged for Furs or Cash"  and as soon as the Kootenay District goods stored there could be removed.  (HBC Arch. A. 11/85)  By June 30, 1870, Fort Shepherd was closed. Once the buildings were  emptied, they were left in the care of the local Indian chief. At the end of  1872, a report reached the Company that the buildings had burned down.  Knowing something of the habits of the country, one cannot help wondering  if, before that fire, the buildings had been cannibalized and if those fine  squared timbers had found their way into other Columbia country uses. Elsie  Turnbull, in her very interesting article quoted above, tells us that the site, difficult to access in 1959, had been marked with a stone cairn by the Kinsmen  Club of Trail.  What has Fort Shepherd had to do with the Okanagan? To understand  the business of the Similkameen (Keremeos) Hudson's Bay post it is important to understand what was going on at the Columbia River post and beyond.  Even after the closing of the Company depot and store, Fort Shepherd figures  in Osoyoos records because there was a customs port there which took the  name of the fort. Several references to the port appear in the Documents of  Judge Haynes, Years 1867 to 1887 housed in the Penticton Museum.  20 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  On January 24, 1872, W.H. Lowe, in his capacity as acting Deputy  Collector and Peace Officer, wrote to W Hamley:  I have the honor of forwarding to Hope by Indian  Messenger the Kootenay mail which reached here last evening  from Shepherd where it I am informed unavoidably remained several days, the officer of that place not being able to get anyone to  undertake the trip sooner owing to the Extreme Severity of the  weather which has also been exceedingly severe in these parts  since the 1st of last December. Ever since that time it has been a  continuation of stormy weather accompanied with intense cold.  Parties having stock in the Country are already getting very  uneasy. Several parties have already commenced feeding and I  fear that if the cold continues much longer that a great many of  the stock will perish. (Lowe to Hamley, Documents of Judge Haynes,  Years 1867 to 1887. Penticton Museum)  Then on April 21 of the same year, Lowe wrote that "Mr. Moore  ...attending to the customs duties at Shepherd reports that Steamer 147 is  already preparing to make the trip to Big Bend."  The Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Shepherd in 1860 or 1861. Photo taken from the North  American Boundary Commission Collection and used here by permission of the National  Archives of Canada (neg. no. C36196).  Among the same papers in the Ledger Book from Sooyoos Customs  House, we find the copy of a letter sent September 30, 1878 from Haynes to  the Honourable Collector of Customs at Victoria. The letter reads:  Sir:  I have the honor to transmit to you herewith 2 letters and  amount of expenditures of a seizure of a small lot of goods at  21 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Fort Shepherd. Under all circumstances connected with the matter, the isolated position of the station being the chief, I consider  Mr. Moore acted judiciously in the matter throughout, and I feel  confident that you in your judgement will take a similar view of  the matter. I have the honor to be,  Sir, your obedient  servant.  'J.C. Haynes"  Fort Similkameen  In The Similkameen Star of February 4,1937, Susan B. Allison, speaking  of the development of the Similkameen Valley, is quoted as saying: 'The background to the entire picture is the Hudson's Bay Company. They had, to the  sufficiency of their purpose, surveyed and tapped the area long before its natural development began."  Who would know better than Mrs. Allison who came as a bride to  Princeton in September 1868?  Early in 1860, Francois Deschiquette (or Dechiquette) had been sent  from Fort Okanagan to establish a new post near where presently stands the  centre of the Cawston community. The post was generally referred to as  Similkameen although sometimes the local Indian name, Keremeos, was  used. Deschiquette set about building a simple structure to serve as living  quarters and storehouse and began to conduct the Company's business. In  September, Edward Huggins arrived with a band of horses and mules which  he had driven from Fort Nisqually, the Hudson's Bay Company centre for animal husbandry, and delivered them to Deschiquette. (HBC Arch. Research  File, "Similkameen") Similkameen was to prove an ideal location for wintering and rearing stock.  On 20 January 1860, Chief Factor William Fraser Tolmie in Victoria had  written to Angus Macdonald, Chief Trader in charge of the Fort Colvile district:  With respect to a settlement in the Shimilkameen [sic] valley,  you were recommended in our last of January 6th the removing of  Francois Deschiquette from Okanagan early in Spring to a choice  spot in Shimilkameen for farming and trading purposes, or, if his  Services cannot be relied on, the placing of some other experienced, and trustworthy man there - Our present object being  chiefly to have an advantageous foothold there. The erection of a  log hut, or two, and the enclosing, and cultivation of a few acres of  land in potatoes, Oats, and garden vegetables is all that should  now be attempted - Deschiquette with assistance from Indians  might effect this, and be of more benefit to the concern than he  now is at Okanagan. Please to give us your own views as to the eligibility of Shimilkameen as a trading post from whence after we  22 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  leave American territory, the business of Colvile might be carried  on - State also, whether there would be much demand amongst  the Indians there for unbroken Mares and for half American  Colts and fillies one and two years old. (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/18,  pp. 49-50)  The London Committee of the Company approved the plan, but  advised the purchase from the British Columbia government of the land  selected for the post. "Occupation might not prove enough should disputes  arise." (HBC Arch. 6/35, p.75) Deschiquette was installed with the understanding that any outlay would be of a very modest nature.  '^.,-i  &u.nch    QrlS$  tr*  /■'w     !»"</      Centred      u,;tk     U/.-llows      an*     Shrub  Plan of H.B.Company Clai  Similkameen  Surveyed May 1862 by A.Turner  % m  The Hudson's Bay Company's Similkameen Trading Post first location, surveyed in May 1862  by A. Turner. This diagram was drawn from a map held by the B.C. Heritage Trust Grist Mill  at Keremeos.  Judge William C.Brown in his article "Old Fort Okanogan and  Okanogan Trail" (page 22) reports that Deschiquette was reputed "...to have  been a very intelligent person and a good business man, but much addicted  to Hudson's Bay rum." In the same article the Judge quotes Robert Stevenson  as writing (Brown, OHQ, p. 22-23):  23 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Franswa[sic] was a short, stout French half breed, and not  any more than thirty years of age in 1860 when I first saw him at  Old Fort Okanogan...Yes, he was educated some. Could read and  write and was a pretty good bookkeeper.  The first building put up by Franswa is still standing [c.1910]  on the old Cawston ranch two and one half miles below Keremeos  and I saw it last only two years ago. I know it well for I was in the  store many times in 1861 when I was Custom House Officer at  Osoyoos Lake under Sir James Douglas when British Columbia  was a Crown Colony, and Franswa was in charge there  [Similkameen].  The London Committee was well aware of the discovery of gold and the  effect an influx of miners might have on company fortunes. On January 27,  1860, Chief Factor John Work had written from Victoria to Thomas Fraser,  Secretary, Hudson's Bay Company, London:  Encouraging accounts from the Shimilkameen [sic] gold  diggings still continuing, we have instructed Chief Trader  Macdonald, now in charge of Colvile District to select, and have  occupied for the Company, as early as possible, a suitable spot in  the valley of that name, the best portion of which, lies north of the  parallel of 49¬∞.  This step, tho' hastened by the recent gold excitement in  that direction has been taken chiefly because Shimilkameen offers  the most eligible point in British Columbia, from which the Fur  Trade of the Colvile District could be carried on, after our withdrawal from American territory, which, it is to be hoped may  occur at an early date. With regard to Fort Shepherd altho the  trade of its neighbourhood may defray the wages of the person  left in charge it is considered quite unsuited as replacing Colvile  from the want of arable and pasture land in the vicinity. (HBC  Arch. B.226/b/20, pp. 112-3)  Not everyone in the Company agreed with the location of the  Similkameen post nor with the appointment of Francois Deschiquette to  manage the affairs of the Company in an era of change. On September 10,  1860, Alexander Grant Dallas, who was on the point of succeeding Sir George  Simpson as Governor of Rupert's Land, wrote from Victoria to Angus  Macdonald at Colvile. Dallas addressed not only the question of purchasing  land but also the location of the Similkameen post. The letter reads in part:  Land in British Columbia is now or will be immediately sold  at 4/2d (4 shillings twopence) or one dollar pr acre. To pre-empt  land without paying occupation is necessary. It is therefore better  for us to purchase at once, and I have requested Mr. Moberly - one  of the Contractors of the trail to secure for the Company 160 or  320 acres at the Forks (Princeton). I am also securing at the Land  Office 160 acres where Francois now is, with the view of selling  24 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  our improvements there. If your opinion coincides with mine  please act on it and take the first opportunity of selling our  improvements and removing Francois. It may be necessary at the  New depot at the Forks to have a man more capable of dealing  with the whites than Francois now that the whole valley will be  more or less occupied and traversed by miners. In this case you  might plant Francois at the point you would select as a substitute  for Colvile when abandoned, say at the anse de sable [sic] or the  grand prairie [sic] - near the line as suggested by you. As a horse  guard and farming land, either would answer well, but my judgement must give way to yours, in regard to the eligibility of either,  as a fur trade post. I shall be glad to have your views on the above  suggestions.    A light horseman can easily ride in two days from  Fort Hope to the forks of the Shimilkameen [sic]. From thence  the communications will be easy both North and South, and our  operations much simplified. By another year a waggon road will  be made into the Shimilkameen, and goods sleighed over in winter - Rock Creek and Colville will then be supplied easier and  more cheaply from Fort Hope than from the Dalles [on the lower  Columbia]. (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/19, pp. 161-2)  The changes suggested by Dallas were, however, not made, perhaps  because he was soon to take up his new duties in eastern Canada.  Deschiquette remained. Chief Factor Roderick Finlayson, when reporting to  The Board of management of the Western Department September 12, 1862,  tells of seeing Deschiquette on his recent visit to the interior posts. Finlayson  writes:  On my arrival at the Company's Station on the  Seemilkamen[sic] River I found Francois Deschiquette the man  in charge there too ill to accompany me to select the land to be  surveyed there for the Company or to give me any information  about the business. I therefore proceeded on to Colvile intending  to visit the place on my return for this purpose.- The Mining operations carried on last year on Rock Creek and Seemilkamen -  which created much excitement at the time are now almost entirely suspended the Miners having gone to other localities to work  and left their buildings and improvements at Rock Creek to the  number of about Sixty well built houses entirely abandoned...I  arrived at Colvile on the 10th August and found Mr. McDonald  quite recovered from his late accident ...From Colvile I proceeded  by the West side of the Columbia to Ft. Shepherd...I returned to  Colvile by the same way I went up, where I remained for some  time...On the 17th Aug I left Colvile with an Indian guide and  returned to Seemilkamen by the same road I went by. And on my  arrival at the Station there found Francois Deschiquette...so ill  that he was not expected to live -1 therefore took an Inventory of  25 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  all the property I could find at the place belonging to the  Company, Copy of which I sent with a letter to Mr. McDonald  requesting him to secure it, and if necessary to have it taken to  Colvile by the Brigade on its return from Ft. Hope - In the meantime Mr. Cox the Magistrate who is residing near the place, kindly  promised if the man did not recover, to look after the property  until the brigade reached the place. At this place also I have selected One hundred Acres of land for the Company's business in the  best locality I could find taking a native of the place with me and  marked the trees thus...at the angles of the section Selected and  explained fully to the Indian the direction of the lines, in order  that he might be able to give any information required to the  Government Surveyor. As the post of Seemilkamen [sic] with a  competent man in charge is capable of giving better returns, than  it appears to have done of late, I would recommend that a steady  man, whose honesty can be relied on, should be sent there as  early as possible. (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/27, pp. 25-31)  Francois Deschiquette did die before the end of September. Sam B.  Manery, whose family arrived in the Similkameen in 1885, says that  Deschiquette's death was the result of being shot by Frank Peto during a quarrel and that the Post Master was buried "...on the north side of Blind Creek  where the old Similkameen-Fairview road winds up the hill." (O.H.S. Report  No. 12, page 116)   5 :"'"!m  The town at Rock Creek, Senaket-ville, on the Newhoialpitku (Kettle) River in 1860 or 1861.  These are some of the "...well built houses..." which Chief Factor Finlayson found abandoned  in 1862. As miners depended on the retail services of the Hudson's Bay Company, it was  important that Company officers be aware of the rise and fall of mining communities. This  photo is from the North American Boundary Commission Collection and used here by permission of the National Archives of Canada (neg. no. C36936).  26 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Replacing Deschiquette was not an easy task. The dilapidated state of the  buildings was given as one reason for the reluctance of a qualified man to take  on the post. However, on June 20, 1863, Chief Trader Angus Macdonald  informed Chief Factor Dugald Mactavish that such a man had been found,  Roderick McLean, and that he was already at Similkameen. (HBC Arch.  Research File, "Similkameen," p. 4) McLean's experience as an axeman with  the Boundary Commission surveyors (O.H.S. Report No. 18, page 141) must  have stood him in good stead when it came to rebuilding the post.  After visiting the Similkameen in 1864, Chief Factor William Fraser  Tolmie reported to the Board of Management (Western Department) on  October 3:  Our Post at Shimilkameen [sic] is well situated for securing  the trade of the Lower Okanagan and Shimilkameen Indians.  Being within about ten miles of the American Frontier, to which,  in this direction, a practicable, though rough waggon-road from  the Columbia River already exists, and near to one of the two most  frequented trails leading from Washington Territory to Cariboo,  Shimilkameen may, as population increases afford an important  outlet for British goods. During last winter and spring Maclean, the  man in charge erected a log store-house, and I found wood on the  ground for a dwelling house, but, as the present locality is fully two  miles off the trail from Hope to Colvile and Shepherd, and is  besides, during the summer months, when there is most travel, so  infested by mosquitoes and other troublesome insects as, then to  be almost uninhabitable, I would recommend the removal during  the ensuing winter of our trading establishment to a more open  and elevated spot, pointed out by Maclean, about three miles distant adjoining the Hope and Shepherd trail, and where a tract of  about fifty acres of the best soil in the valley, can be irrigated at very  small cost. The present site, as it adjoins a copious spring, which  never freezes in winter, and is moreover in the centre of the most  favorable wintering ground for livestock in the neighbourhood,  should be retained as a stock station; and in this connexion I  would recommend the placing at Shimilkameen of about forty or  fifty brood mares from Thompson's River, and in addition a herd  of from sixty to a hundred cows. Horses are greatly in demand  amongst the Indians of Shimilkameen and its neighbourhood, and  as at Kamloops a ready sale, in barter for Furs, would be found for  all the yearling colts disposable. I made particular enquiries  amongst the Shimilkameen Indians, as to whether they had ever  experienced winters of extraordinary severity, such as occurred  here [Victoria], and in a higher degree at Nisqually in 1861 & '62.  The reply was, that for about six miles up, and about eight down  the valley, throughout that extent averaging four miles in width,  they had never had deep snows, nor serious loss of horses, but that  27 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  higher on the Shimilkameen, the snows were deep and of long  duration. Should it be decided to stock Shimilkameen with  horned cattle, and brood mares, it would be necessary to pre- empt  or purchase an extensive tract, at the stock station, and a smaller  one at the trading establishment, say two or three thousand acres  at the latter place. There would be no immediate need to fence  much of this land. (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/26)  On October 14, 1864, Chief Factor WF.Tolmie wrote from Victoria to  J.W. McKay at Kamloops as follows:"...you will please proceed to  Shimilkameen [sic], and take land for the Company, according to the memorandum herewith enclosed, one tract in the name of Chief Factor Tolmie, and  the other in the name of Chief Factor Finlayson. A copy of this memorandum  is now sent to Mr. McLean in charge of Shimilkameen, who will be examining  tracts desired in expectation of your coming." (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/26)  According to the memorandum the first tract was to include one thousand  acres "at the potato-field, upland prairie on both sides of Keremeyoos[sic]  streamlet..and a good extent of frontage on the line of the present trail (from  Hope)." The second tract was to be "...two to three thousand acres at the present station so as to include the whole spring, or small stream at the  Company's Post."  When W.F. Tolmie and J.WMackay called upon A.N Birch, the Colonial  Secretary, in January 1865, regarding this matter, Birch gave them to understand that the Company would not be allowed to purchase all the land laid off  by Roderick McLean. However, the Company was far from satisfied with the  government survey for Tolmie wrote May 19 to the Colonial Secretary as follows:  We are informed by our agent at Shimilkameen [sic], Mr.  Rodk McLean, that Mr. Haynes of Soyoos[sic], Collector of  Customs, who we learn has been authorized by the Government of  British Columbia to lay out the lands at Shimilkameen to be purchased by the Hudson's Bay Company, as agreed upon with  Governor Seymour in September 1864 has so surveyed the country  there as to deprive the Company of a winter watering place, they  have been settled alongside of for several years, where their buildings now stand, and which in part or whole they greatly desire, and  consider themselves justly entitled to hold possession of. (HBC  Arch. B.226/b/26)  What the outcome of this particular matter was is not clear from information presently available. However, in writing to McLean on October 12,  1865, Finlayson stated that the Company intended to purchase six hundred  acres at the upper site and that "As soon as we get the proper title to this property we shall remove our buildings to it."  Roderick McLean, in addition to seeing to lands, fences and buildings,  was the supervisor of a ranch with herds of horned cattle and horses. When a  post in the southern interior required a pack train, it was his responsibility to  28 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  prepare and dispatch needed animals charging expenses up to the post concerned. He was expected to get out into the surrounding country to buy furs  from the Indians. He oversaw the trade with the white settlers. If Company  mail arrived, he was expected immediately to find a reliable messenger to carry  packages destined for places other than Similkameen in the appropriate direction.  Shrewdness in trading, energy and practical knowledge in farming and  building, and the keeping of careful records were demands on the post manager. McLean did not always measure up with respect to record keeping. The  Company was even more seriously concerned by the debts customers were  allowed to run up. With regard to both Indian and white debtors, Finlayson  wrote in March 16, 1866, "Unless these accounts are settled without delay the  loss on your transactions at Keremeos will be very great." Finally, on October 2,  1867, a report to the Board of Management, included the following information:  Mr. McLean in charge of this place, having neglected to  attend to the orders given him, "to give away no Goods on credit  without security" had received notice to leave, as soon as an Officer  could be Sent to relieve him. An Officer is therefore required to  take charge of this Station and should be at Hope about the 15th  Inst, to accompany the train of mules expected then to leave Hope  with goods for Similkamen [sic]. (HBC Arch. B.226/b/35, f.544)  The new officer, who arrived some time between October 7 and  October 19, was John Tait, clerk. Roderick McLean was retained for a short  time to assist.  Similkameen was in the Fort Colvile District from 1860 to 1866 when it  was transferred to the Fort Shepherd District under the supervision of Joseph  Hardisty. Hence, we find the post mentioned in Tolmie's letter of 28  September to Hardisty at Fort Shepherd in which Tolmie says, 'Tait will have  responsibility of wintering several trains of animals at Similkameen."  In the late fall of 1868, Tait was planning a trip to take brood mares and  young horses from Hope to Kamloops and down the east side of Okanagan  Lake via Mission. An inventory dated December 16, 1868 for Thompson's  River, gives us an idea of the value of stock: mares and folds - $35 each; colts  and fillies 1 and 2 years - $15 each; Colts 3 years - $25 each.  Business at Similkameen improved under Tait's management. However,  old debts continued to be a concern. On February 11, 1867, while  Similkameen was in the Fort Shepherd District, Finlayson had written to  Joseph Hardisty at Fort Shepherd regarding the debts that must be collected.  In correspondence out of Victoria, the name of W.H. Lowe appears most often  as that of a major debtor. But it is clear that there were others since Tait  received a letter dated September 16, 1869 which included the instruction:  "Press Mr. Lowe and other long winded Debtors for payment of their accounts  and let us have a remittance as soon as possible."  There seems to have been a reluctance to name Haynes as a major  29 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  debtor, although in a letter dated May 3, 1867 to Roderick McLean, Tolmie  had urged: "The Boards have not yet had time to go minutely into the  accounts recently transmitted by O.F Hardisty from Shimilkameen [sic]; but  they regret to notice the large amount of credit which has been given there,  and we must beg that every exertion be made to collect all outstanding debts,  including those due by Messrs. Haynes and Lowe."  A letter from William Charles to Lowe at New Westminster refers to the  account of Mr. Haynes being overdue by $1061.04. Lowe's own debt was in  that range - a very large sum at that time.  How had Lowe and Haynes become so deeply indebted? Perhaps an  answer is suggested in the question asked in a letter written April 22, 1867 to  Hamilton Moffatt of Kamloops after a very severe winter. Finlayson wrote: "We  very much regret your loss of horned cattle and horses - How does your percentage of loss compare with that of Haynes and others?"  At this period the Company was selling stock to new settlers. Severe  winter kill would be a serious setback to a rancher. To make matters worse,  local markets in the southern interior were almost non-existent after the gold  rush of the early 1860s petered out and before hard rock mining began in the  1890s. Among the Documents of Judge Haynes in the Penticton Museum is a  copy of a letter which Haynes sent March 30,1876 to the Collector of Taxes in  Victoria. Haynes speaks of "...the greatest depression ever known in the parts  in question during the last few years both north and south of the  border...Cattle sometimes are not saleable at any price." Then Haynes says  that prices are beginning to improve at last and he gives current prices:  "...cows with calves at $10, and steers 3 yrs. & up $17."  The Company's method of extracting payment suggests that the debt  was agricultural. On November 5, 1867 Tolmie wrote to Hardisty: "At your  convenience during winter please communicate with Mr. Tait of  Shimilkameen [sic] as to his looking through Mr. Haynes' band of horses at  Soyoos[sic] for any good young Stallions for sale...Mr. Haynes had last Spring  a pretty large debt in the Company's books at Karemeos[sic]."  On July 23, 1869, Chief Factor Tolmie reported to the Secretary of the  Company in London that for the Outfit 1869-70 Similkameen had been made  into a District with the Osoyoos post subordinate to it. Tolmie praised John  Tait for the improvements under his management. However, this confidence  did not stop the Chief Factor from asking for an accounting of every person  fed at the post (August 2, 1870) or writing September 16, 1869: "\ou mention  that your time has of late been taken up entirely out of doors. How in such  case can you attend to the Indian Trade and general Merchandise business?  which should be your own affair and not entrusted to any stranger. Fearing  that farming would too much divert your attention from more important matters, we have thought it best not to send you the seed Wheat and Timothy  asked for." (HBC Arch. B.226/b/44, f.430)  30 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  In a letter June 29, 1869 from Tolmie to Tait, we learn that the salary of  LP. Kennedy, accountant at Similkameen, had been raised to $40 a month  and Tait's to 150 pounds a year.  In spite of the improvements made by Tait, we find the Company  preparing to close Similkameen during the Outfit 1871-72. On October 4,  1871, Finlayson wrote to William Armit, Secretary, H.B.C. London:  Similkameen District. Mr. John Tait clerk in charge. The  business at this place shows a slight increase over that of last year,  but now that the districts of Kootenay and Colvile are closed from  the transport of whose property a considerable portion of its gain  was made, and being a poor place for business, it is to be closed  this outfit, and all its Live Stock and other property unsold this  month are to be transferred to Thompson's river. Mr. John Tait  the officer in charge is to take charge of the Thompson's river district. (HBC Arch. B.226/b/43, f.99)  Then the next year on September 9, 1872, James A. Grahame, the new  Chief Factor in Victoria, wrote to the Secretary in London: "Similkameen  District. Apparent gain $2709.65 arising from the sale of Stock and  Equipments & etc to the Canadian Pacific Railway Survey. This District has  been closed during the Outfit by transferring to Thompson's River District its  unsold balance of goods & etc, and outstanding debts." (HBC Arch.  B.226/b/45,f.317)  The 1,140 acres of land owned by the Company was rented to W.H.  Lowe. Today a Heritage Park, which contains the Grist Mill built by  Barrington Price, lies just to the west of that property. The pond which contains the spring so important to the original horse guard lies just to the south  of the centre of the Cawston community.  The second location Hudson's Bay Trading Post at Similkameen from the  William Ralph Survey Plan in 1877.  31 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  Osoyoos  The Osoyoos Post of the Hudson's Bay Company had a very brief existence. Roderick McLean, while Post Master at Similkameen, proposed in  1866 the opening of a house at Osoyoos Lake. Perhaps this was because the  recently-built Dewdney Trail running from Fort Hope on the Fraser River to  Wild Horse Creek in the East Kootenay intersected the ancient north-south  route, which the fur brigades had used, at Osoyoos. McLean's plan met with  approval, and the new post was opened in March 1867 on the rise just to the  west of the bridge across the narrows. Theodore Kruger, trader, was hired at  $40 per month on a temporary basis to manage the post. (HBC Arch. B.  226/b/35, f.543-5)  Of the few mentions made of the Osoyoos Post in Company correspondence, two concern liquor. Is this significant? Chief Factor Roderick Finlayson  wrote from Victoria to Joseph Hardisty at Fort Shepherd on November 19,  1866 as follows: "We note your having approved of McLean's project of opening a House for trade at Osoogus[sic], and have directed Mr. McKay to meet  any order you may send him for goods and liquors for the purpose." (HBC  Arch.B.226/b/35,f.l45-6)  In Finlayson's letter to Hardisty July 23, 1867, we find: "We have the  liquor order for Osoyoos: but unless we have a trustworthy man there to sell  it, it had better be sold here." (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/35, f.438-9)  Osoyoos House seems to have prospered for Finlayson's Report to the  Board of Management (Western Department) on October 2, 1867 includes  the following: "The Post at Sooyus[sic] established last March, appears to be  more favorably situated for trade than Similkameen, from which it is situated  about 18 Miles. It has collected for 5 months ending with August Furs to the  value of $1258.75 valued at the Fur Cash prices here - and the cash sales for  the same period Amounts to $1517.60 which may be considered fair as a  beginning." (HBC Arch. B. 226/b/35, f.543-5)  Whether or not Osoyoos was making a profit, the little post was doomed  when it was decided to close the Similkameen District in Outfit 1871-72.  Osoyoos's unsold stock went to Thompson's River with that of Similkameen.  On February 28,1872, Finlayson wrote to William H. Lowe as follows:  The Hudson's Bay Co. having disposed of their Title and  interest in the Post at "Osooyus"[sic] to Messrs. Bice and  Wonnacott, You will please deliver to them the premises, of which,  I believe, our Mr. Tait gave you charge for safe keeping, on their  applying for the same to you. (HBC Arch. Victoria Out. Letter  Book (Sundries), 1871-75. f.224)  Theodore Kruger resigned from service with the Hudson's Bay  Company about June 1872. In 1873, Kruger purchased the store at Osoyoos  and operated it for many years. (O.H.S. Report No. 6, page 76) Chief Factor  James A.Grahame wrote from Victoria to William Armit, Secretary, H.B.C.  32 FUR TRADING POSTS IN THE OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN  London, on September 9, 1872 that the stock and equipment of the  Similkameen District had been sold to the Canadian Pacific Railway Survey  and that the posts had been closed by transferring to the Thompson's River  District the unsold balance of goods and the outstanding debts. (HBC Arch.  B.226/b/45,f.317)  Appendix I  POST MANAGERS - FORT OKANAGAN  1814-1816 Alexander Ross  1816- Ross Cox  1823-1824 Pion  1824-1827 James Birnie, Clerk  1827 Francis Ermatinger, Clerk  1829-1831 A common labourer  1834-1844 An interpreter  1841 Le Pratt  1844-1845 Felix, Interpreter appointed, [LaFleur in charge]  1845-1846 LaFleur, Interpreter  1846-1850 Joachim LaFleur, Interpreter  1850-1851 A labourer  1851-1856 Joachim LaFleur, Interpreter  1856-1860 Francois Deschiquette, Interpreter  POST MANAGERS - FORT COLVILE  1825-1829 John Warren Dease, Chief Trader  1829-1831 Francis Heron, Chief Trader  1831-1832 Mr. Ermatinger  1834-1835 Francis Heron, Chief Trader  1835-1842 Archibald McDonald, Chief Trader  1842-1844 Archibald McDonald, Chief Factor  1844-1846 Francis Ermatinger, Chief Trader  1846-1849 Peter Skene Ogden, Chief Factor  1849-1853 Alexander Caufield Anderson, Chief Trader  1853-1854 A.E. Pelly, Chief Trader  1854-1865 Angus McDonald, Clerk  1871 April J.W. McKay, Chief Trader  POST MANAGERS -  FORT SHEPHERD  1856-1857 Angus McDonald, Chief Trader  1857-1859 George Blenkinsop, Chief Trader  1859 Herbert Margary, Clerk  1859-1860 James Cooke  1863-1864 Interpreter appointed  1864-1865 William Sinclair, Clerk  1865-1869 Joseph Hardisty, Chief Trader  1869-1870 J.O. Allard, App. Clerk  POST MANAGERS - SIMILKAMEEN  1860-1862       Francois Deschiquette, Interpreter  1863-1867       Roderick McLean, Post Master  1867-1872      John Tait, Clerk  POST MANAGERS - OSOYOOS  1867-1872       Theodore Kruger, Post Master  33 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50th Anniversary -  by T.C. Hammell  Airport Construction and Development  The domestic transcontinental scheduled airline operation start-up in  the late 1930s made it necessary for the Department of Transport (DOT) to  construct airports along the flight routes.  These airports also provided significant support to the Royal Canadian  Air Force's role in defense of Canada during World War II.  In the period from 1935 to 1940, airports were constructed or were  under construction at Princeton, Oliver, Rock Creek, Midway and Grand  Forks. The problem at Penticton was the lack of a suitable site.  In March 1935, the land south of the old recreation ground and originally purchased for an airport, was to be incorporated in the proposed new  golf course, according to the Municipal Council reports. In 1936, the Council  committee was studying new sites for an airport. The special Airport  Committee of the Chamber of Commerce with Mr. Cliff Greyell as Chairman,  became very active in 1937. Three sites for an airport were being considered:  the first was the old recreation grounds and a field to the south on the west  side of the town; the second was on the east side of Main Street south of Ellis  Creek; and the third site was on the main Penticton Indian Band Reserve  north of Skaha Lake and west of the Okanagan River.  Mr. W.S. Lawson, Airways Inspector for DOT, came from Regina and  Mr. G.T. Chilcott, the engineer from Oliver airport, inspected the sites. The  west side site development cost would be prohibitive and the site on the east  side of Main Street would also cost too much. The site on the Indian Reserve  would have no obstacles to hinder the establishment of a first class airport  and seaplane base. Permission was obtained from the landowners of the site  on the Reserve and a detailed survey was under way by January 1938.  An agreement to lease the land was signed by the end of March and was  ready for final ratification by Municipal Council and the Indian Affairs  Department. The size of the site would be approximately 38 acres, 3300 feet  long and 500 feet wide in dimension. Council agreed to pay the rent of  $375.00 for the first year and applied to Ottawa for an assistance loan to construct the airport.  Claude Hammell began his career with Transport Canada in Winnipeg fifty years ago in October  1943. In 1949, he arrived at the Penticton Airport and alternated between Carmi Radio Range  Station, Vancouver Airport and Penticton Airport, where he is still employed as a Flight Service  Specialist. An avid historian, Mr. Hammell is an O.H.S. Penticton Branch Director.  34 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  The Penticton Airport with Skaha Lake in the foreground.  35 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 5 OTH ANNIVERSARY  Ottawa would only agree to the airport site if it was moved several hundred yards north as it was too close to a large body of water and an arterial  highway. This would require some additional brush clearing and filling to be  done. In June 1938, Mr. R.A. Barton was surveying the new site. Ottawa was  satisfied with the new location if provision was made to clear away certain  small obstructions. The site would be 2700 feet long, 1014 feet wide at the  north end and 1135 feet wide at the south end.  Council decided to lease the land for a term of five years with provision  for renewal. It also proposed a long term lease for 900 feet on Skaha Lake for  a seaplane base (established following dredging of the river channel in the  late 1950s). During 1939, negotiations continued over the land, leases and  loans. In 1940, Transport engineers started surveying an area larger than the  original proposal. A site for the Radio Range Station was obtained north of  the sawmill at the west end of Hastings Street. Tenders for work on the Radio  Range were called by August and awarded to Kenyon & Killick, with work  under way in September.  Tenders to cover preliminary development of Penticton Airport were  called August 14, 1940 on Penticton Indian Reserve No. 1, lying east of the  Kettle Valley Railway, north of Skaha Lake and west of the Okanagan River.  This included clearing, stumping, grading a landing strip 500 feet wide by  3845 feet long, drainage ditches and fencing. The work was carried out by  Williams & Carrothers and was completed and inspected July 8,1941.  In October 1940, tenders had been called for the Radio Range Control  Building at the airport, and awarded to Kenyon & Killick. The first field lighting was installed and in use by March 1941, and the remainder were installed  when the field was completed. The first plane, the DOT Lockheed 12, landed  at the airport on May 2, 1941. The local Gyro Club started planning in  February for an official opening on July 1, 1941 - "The biggest day Penticton  ever had!" However, government officials in Ottawa were unwilling to have  such celebrations, believing that they interfered with the main war effort.  South Okanagan Flying Club building in 1945. The First Aerodrome  Keeper's Office is in the background.  36 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  Tenders for additional development of the Penticton Airport were  called July 18, 1942 to cover clearing, stripping and grading, drainage and  construction of a hard surface runway 200 feet wide by 5300 feet long and a  small taxiway. This contract was awarded to Storms Contracting Co. Ltd. with  work completed by August 2, 1943. There is a story about the fill that was  hauled to the site to fill the soft areas. This rock and gravel contained many  rattlesnakes and the staff at the airport were kept very busy killing them!  Tenders for paving the entrance road from the north and construction of a  car parking area were called.  Mr. H.B. Gates had been carrying out maintenance at the airport and  Mr. S.Jackson took over as Aerodrome Keeper in 1946.  The first resurfacing of the runway was carried out in 1948. Also a new  quonset garage was completed in December 1948. A new entrance road from  the highway south of the airport was constructed in 1949 and opened in  October of that year. The airport had not been supplied with maintenance  equipment by 1950, except for a pickup truck. The winter of 1949-1950 was  cold with a heavy snowfall. The Aerodrome Keeper managed to keep the airport usable by dragging a length of railroad steel behind the pickup. The  maintenance equipment has been increased and much improved since 1950.  A visit from a United States Air Force bomber in 1945. Note the Aerodrome Rotating Beacon  Tower with wind direction indicator on the right. Photo by Lumb Stocks.  Runway resurfacing in 1958 was followed by a 700 foot extension to the  north end and apron extension in 1959. A new five bay equipment garage was  constructed in 1958. The first full time equipment operator was Mr. C. Young  (1956-1976) and the first shop mechanic was Mr. P. Mundreon (1960-1978).  The year 1963 saw the opening of the first terminal building with space  for the airline (CPA), the Airport Manager, a coffee shop and customs.  Additions and alterations were made to the terminal in 1966. Construction of  a taxiway at the north end of the runway and a taxiway parallel to the runway  from the terminal apron to the south end was a 1969 project.  37 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  Mr. S. Jackson, Airport Manager, had retired in 1968, and was replaced  by Mr. W. Mitchell, followed by Mr. W Rempel (1970-79), Mr. J. Baker, Mr. L.  Pennycook, Mrs. J. Brown and at present, Mr. J. Warman. The first clerk for  the manager was Mr. S. Ward, appointed while Mr. Rempel was manager.  In 1971, the maintenance garage and terminal building were extended,  and an emergency power house added. The extension provided space in the  terminal for the Telecommunications Area Manager's offices, electronic workshop and equipment room, aeradio control office and weather office. The  aeradio and weather office moved into the terminal at the end of September.  The control tower had moved earlier in the spring of 1971. The addition of  an airline passenger holding room on the air side of the terminal was in use  by 1976, with an addition completed in 1988.  Over the years, the airport electrical lighting system, water and sewer  facilities, landscaping, roads and car parking have been continually upgraded.  Portions of the runway were resurfaced in 1971 and 1977. A tanker base for  the Forest Service water bombers was established at the north end of the airport after the taxiways were completed.  Navigational Aids and Radio Services  The DOT along with the construction of airports, developed a network  of radio range stations (low frequency range LFR), which were staffed to  monitor the navigation aids, provide air-ground communications and weather  information.  The Carmi and Princeton Radio Range Stations were in operation when  the development of the Penticton airport started, and formed part of the  main GREEN 1 airway across B.C. from Lethbridge to Vancouver. Radio navigation aids were required to serve the airport. The LFR at Grand Forks no  longer served the airway, being too far south, so it was shut down and the  transmitting equipment moved to Penticton. It was installed in the new  building on the site north of the sawmill where the four transmitting towers  had been erected. The  Penticton LFR was on  the air by mid-February  1941. A cone-of-silence  marker (CSM) was also  installed at the site.  The LFR control  and communications  equipment was installed  in the new building  at the airport. The  weather information  was handled on a teletype circuit.  The control position of a Radio Range Station in 1950.  38 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  The Trans Canada Airlines (TCA) company radio station at Oliver was  closed February 10, 1941 and the company radio and staff were moved to the  Penticton airport. Mr. J.A. English was the station manager.  The installation of a Fan Marker (FM) transmitter to assist instrument  approaches was planned for a site on Okanagan Mountain. Plans changed  and a site was selected north of the Greata Ranch on the west side of  Okanagan Lake. The FM equipment was installed in a new building with a  special antenna and called the Greata FM. Sites were being checked in 1941  for a remote receiver location as there was too much interference at the airport. After leases were obtained, a remote site was located on Campbell  Mountain and is still in use.  Communication equipment had improved by 1948 and TCA no longer  needed a company radio at Penticton. TCA said farewell to Penticton on  February 15,1949.  The Radio Division of the Department of Transport took over operation  of the Penticton Radio Range station. A staff of five radio operators (E.  Skelton, Officer-in-charge, VE. Lewin, I.W. Paton, H.C. Lovell, and D.O.  MacKenzie) were moved to Penticton. In addition to the regular duties, the  staff also handled the company frequencies for Canadian Pacific Airlines as a  paid service. Radio telegraph had been used and continued to be used for  point-to-point communications between stations. An air traffic control interphone was in use and weather information handled on teletype circuits.  In 1949, the transmitters used for point-to-point and air-ground communication were installed in a small room in the northwest corner of the new  quonset garage. These were moved to a room at the rear of the electrician's  shop built in the 1950s, then to a new transmitter building constructed opposite the quonset garage. In 1958, an addition to the transmitter building provided space for an emergency power plant.  The radio range was converted to a simultaneous operation in the early  1950s, with equipment brought from the Dog Creek station.  A low-power, non-directional beacon (NDB) was tested at the Greata  FM site, but did not improve the approach to the airport. The Greata FM  equipment and building were moved across the lake to the present Naramata  site. A new higher power NDB was installed. The name of the facility was  changed to Naramata.  Another change in the 1950s was the installation of very high frequency  (VHF) air-ground communications equipment which replaced the HE Ultra  high frequency (UHF) equipment was installed for military aircraft use. A site  was located at Okanagan Falls in 1959 and a NDB for pull-up use was  installed. This is the present Okanagan NDB.  Aeradio had become the new name for the Radio Range Station. The  use of radio telegraph for point-to-point communication between stations was  being discontinued by the 1960s and teletype circuits were being installed as a  replacement.  39 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 5OTH ANNIVERSARY  Mr. E. Skelton had retired in 1958 and Mr. A. Miller came as technician  in charge, July 1961.  The installation of a track guidance localizer (TGL) at the north end of  the airport was a 1961 project. The TGL along with the NDBs and markers  improved the instrument limits for the airport.  A telecommunications Area Manager's office was opened in 1969 in  Penticton to supervise operations at Princeton, Penticton, Kelowna,  Kamloops, Castlegar, Enderby and Cranbrook. Mr. C. Tymm was in charge  with Mr. A. Miller as Area Maintenance Supervisor, and Mr. M. Jefferies as  Area Operations Supervisor. Mr. Tymm retired in mid-1986, and the area concept was discontinued.  The solid state NDB was in operation January 3, 1975, replacing the old  LFR equipment. The CSM was converted to a solid state middle marker  (MM) July 24,1979.  The Naramata NDB and Okanagan NDB were converted to solid state  February 27, 1980 and September 18, 1980 respectively. The Naramata FM  was converted to solid state March 12, 1981 and communication transmitters  on June 26, 1981. The transmitters were moved to the Campbell Mountain  site. Very high frequency direction finding (VDF) equipment was installed at  the Campbell Mountain site and operational February 10,1983.  A new TGL and distance measuring equipment (DME) was installed at  the south end of the runway and in operation on May 5, 1981, replacing the  TGL at the north end of the runway.  During the 1980s, the Aeradio name was changed to Flight Service  Station (FSS), with a station Manager and are under the Air Traffic Services of  Transport Canada.  The equipment maintenance has been carried out by station technicians since the arrival of the first technician in 1961. The technicians also provide equipment maintenance at Princeton, since the staff was removed from  that site. The FSS also provides service for the Kelowna, Princeton, Oliver,  Osoyoos and Midway airports. Remote Communication Outlets (RCO) are  located at Kelowna, Princeton and Oliver. The FSS provide airport advisory  service to aircraft and vehicle control at Penticton and Kelowna when the  control towers are closed.  Penticton Radio has been on daily 24 hour continuous operation since  commissioning in February 1941.  Control Tower  The Airport Control Tower was commissioned at the airport on  September 6, 1969. It was a mobile tower located a short distance in front of  the Aeradio building. Airport traffic movements were increasing. The mobile  unit was used until the new permanent tower at the south end of the extended terminal building was completed. The new tower went into operation in  May 1971.  40 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  Mr. W Warne was the first tower chief. Mr. D. Cameron assumed the  tower chiefs position July 2, 1971 and retired April 1, 1989. Mr. Al Karn followed as chief and retired. Mr. G. Logan, the present tower chief, began his  posting in August 1992.  Weather Service  The Penticton Radio Range Station, manned by the Trans Canada  Airlines operating staff, was on 24 hour operation by April 1,1941 and began  the aviation weather observing program at the Penticton airport for the  DOT's Meteorological Division. The DOT Radio Division staff took over the  operation of the Radio Range Station in February 1949, and continued the  weather observing program.  A weather office was established at the airport on June 1, 1966 with Mr.  W.J. Field as the briefer in charge. This provided for increased services for aviation and public weather users. Mr. Field remained about four years, and Mr.  R. Duffy held the briefer's position until the arrival of Mr. D. Richier in July  1970. The weather office was moved to the new extension to the terminal  building at the end of September 1971. The staff was increased to two briefers  with the arrival of Mr. D. Mason on May 24, 1972. Mr. Richier retired in  December 1988, and Mr. I. Lougheed took charge of the weather office.  When Mr. Lougheed left, the supervisor at the Kelowna weather office  assumed supervision of the Penticton weather office. Mr. R. Klock replaced  Mr. Lougheed. The Penticton weather office closed on March 31, 1993, and  Mr. Klock and Mr. Mason moved to the new weather office, opening in  Kelowna.  The Department of Transport load test truck at the Penticton Airport. The operators sit in a  compartment under the tank which has a known weight of water. The test equipment applies  the weight to the runway and the strength is calculated.  41 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  The staff of the Penticton Flight Service Station has now taken over the  full aviation weather observing and briefing program, which has been shared  with the weather office staff.  The Frost Warning Service moved its yearly April and May operations to  the airport in April 1941, and used space provided for it in the Radio Range  Control Office. This was a service provided for the fruit growers in the spring.  A forecaster and an assistant came for this spring period, and issued the special forecast from Penticton. A number of observers in the fruit-growing areas  supplied extra reports during this two month period. This practice of issuing  the forecasts from Penticton was discontinued a number of years ago, and  they are now being issued through the Vancouver and Kelowna weather  offices.  Emergency Services  The first fire protection equipment for the airport, supplied in the  1950s, was a jeep equipped with extinguishers. An addition on the south side  of the quonset equipment building was added for the crash jeep. Larger crash  vehicles, supplied later, were kept in the two-bay quonset building which has  served as a fire hall. A fire chief and crew were supplied to operate the larger  equipment, with offices and day quarters constructed on the south side of the  fire hall. A new fire hall under construction since the fall of 1992 will soon be  completed and open in 1993.  Over the years, Penticton Airport fire fighters have won several awards  in contests held within their service.  Airport Security  The increase in terrorism and hijacking made it necessary to provide  more security at airports. A security trailer was provided in 1974 to accommodate an R.C.M.Police Detachment stationed at the airport, and the checking  of airline passengers began. A holding room was added to the terminal building in 1976. The R.C.M.P. Detachment was disbanded in 1977. A private firm  made security checks until the Corps of Commissioners took over airport  security duties. Security fencing of the airport was started in 1974.  Customs - Port of Entry  The movement of aircraft between the other states and Alaska via the  B.C. interior increased rapidly after World War II. The need for Customs  ports of entry became necessary, and Penticton was a designated port.  Mr. T.F.H. Padberg, who had come from Trail, B.C. in 1939, was  Collector of Customs in Penticton with an office in the Post Office building  on Main Street. Mr. D. Gawne joined as a customs officer on May 2,1946, and  became the first customs officer in uniform at the airport on May 19,1951.  42 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  A small one-room addition was made to the south side of the Radio  Range Control Building during the 1950s. This served as a customs office  until space was provided in the new terminal building.  Mr. Gawne became Collector of Customs after the death of Mr. Padberg  on December 9, 1957. His assisting Customs Officers were: Mr. J. Perdue  (February 1954-February 1968), Mr. M. Harvey (March 1958-July 1971), and  Mr. H. Naylor (July 1971-1977). Mr. Gawne retired in 1975 and was replaced  by Mr. J. Davey as Collector, until he moved to Kitimat in 1981. Mr. S. Proulx  assisted Mr. Davey until he retired in January 1979, and Mrs. A. Loewen came  as a replacement and remained in charge of the Port after the departure of  Mr. Davey.  The City Customs Office, which had moved from the Post Office to the  new Federal Government Building on Winnipeg Street, was closed in July  1987, and located in a portable unit north of the terminal building at the airport. Customs service is available 24 hours daily, covered by two officers.  Airport Restaurants  A small coffee shop, a first for the airport, was located in the northwest  corner of the new terminal building, when it opened in 1963. It was operated  by Mr. G. Schubert until it was taken over by Mrs. A. Jacobs.  Terminal building extension in 1970-71 resulted in the loss of the coffee  shop area. Mrs. Jacobs leased an area adjacent to the north side of the terminal, and had her own restaurant building constructed. The restaurant was  opened on July 9,1972 and named the Pen-Air Restaurant. However, it had to  close in September 1992, when further extensions to the terminal building  began. A new restaurant will open in the terminal building this year, when  construction is completed.  Airport Operators and Users  The airport became usable in 1941, and a great effort was made to  obtain air service for Penticton without success.  Trans Canada Airlines (TCA) started to use the airport when they  encountered poor weather conditions enroute between Lethbridge and  Vancouver. R.C.A.F. aircraft were using the airport in 1941, and by 1942, the  124 Ferry Squadron had established a four-man unit at the airport to service  the military aircraft. Mr. H.Jackson was a member of this unit from June 1942  to October 1943, and returned to Penticton where he still resides. The unit in  Penticton was closed in October 1945. The military have continued to use the  airport.  The South Okanagan Flying Club was formed in late August 1945 and  Mr. J.W. Johnson was elected to head the club. The first club aircraft, a Tiger  Moth, arrived in mid-February 1946, with Mr. C. Agar as pilot and Mr. A.  Stringer as engineer. A second Tiger Moth arrived in the spring. The club  had 97 members with 26 taking instruction.  43 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  In July 1946, the B.C. Interior Aviation Company applied for a non-  scheduled charter service, and received the licence in September 1946. A  number of other operators had applications to operate in Penticton, but few  were successful. Okanagan Air Services applied in the spring of 1947 for a  licence to operate non-scheduled air service in the area. They were purchasing helicopters.  Penticton was to have air service at last to Vancouver when Canadian  Pacific Airlines (CPA) started scheduled service on September 8, 1947. The  service was extended east to Castlegar, Cranbrook and Calgary about two  weeks later. CPA operated DC3s, Convairs and DC6Bs, with increased service  when required, until April 1969.  The Regional Director of Air Services for the Department of Transport, Dr. T. Howe (at rear  centre), visits the Penticton Airport. Also in the picture from the left: A. Miller; P. Campbell;  unidentified; unidentified; R. Heiliger; R. Neill; W. Irvine; A.R. McCauley; and S. Jackson,  Airport Manager.  Pacific Western Airlines (PWA), later Canadian Airlines, took over the  CPA service in April 1969, using Convair and B737 jet aircraft. In April 1988,  Time Air, now Canadian Regional, using DH7 and DH8 aircraft, took over  from Canadian Airlines, and still provides service.  L 8c M Air Services of Vernon began a regular connecting service  between Kamloops, Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton on September 26, 1949.  This service, using Beechcraft 18s, was discontinued after a short time.  44 PENTICTON AIRPORT - 50TH ANNIVERSARY  B.C. Airlines operated a scheduled service through Penticton from  April 1969 to August 1970. From May 1984 to April 1985, Inter City Air operated a scheduled service from Kelowna to Penticton and Vancouver, using  Convair aircraft. Northern Thunderbird Airlines operated a local scheduled  service from Prince George to Penticton during the mid-1980s. Air BC, using  DH7, DH8 and BAH aircraft, began operating into Penticton in the late  1980s, and continues to provide service.  The smaller operators based in Penticton that have provided pilot training and charter service were: Penticton Air Services, Rapid Air, Warner  Aviation, Sunrise Aviation, Mile High, Key Air and Schaffer Aero. Present  operators are Stage Air, Interior Aviation Services and Canadian Helicopters,  formerly Okanagan Helicopters. Spencer Aviation Services Ltd. operate the  Shell refuelling service and Kittyhawk A/C Services Inc., aircraft maintenance  service.  The Flying Club is still operating. The air cadets carry out glider training.  The Skytel Motel was constructed at the airport in 1976, and provides  accommodation for travelling flyers.  R.C.A.F. Flvine Box Cars  45 PENTICTON'S SAINT SAVIOUR'S  ANGLICAN CHURCH  - 100th ANNIVERSARY -  by E.M. MacRae-Fraser  As 1993 dawned, the congregation and friends of Saint Saviour's  Anglican Church completed a year of celebration in recognition of its first  hundred years. Sitting in the Ellis Memorial Chapel, now attached to the  south side of the main church, located at the corner of Winnipeg Street and  Orchard Avenue, one thinks of all those, past and present, who have been a  part of Saint Saviour's. The Right Reverend David Crawley, present Bishop of  Kootenay, has suggested that a suitable motto for Saint Saviour's second century might be: "On our way rejoicing." Certainly, Saint Saviour's congregations have had much to rejoice about.  Indeed, Tom Ellis, a native of Ireland and first white settler in Penticton,  built this first Protestant church in the south Okanagan in celebration of his  family having been spared from death when they were involved in an accident  caused by their team of horses bolting. Saint Saviour's, a name symbolic of  preservation was surely an appropriate one! The first service was held on  April 26, 1892.(1) In November of that year, Bishop A.W. Sillitoe, Diocese of  New Westminster, consecrated the sanctuary. Several other firsts were: first  rector, Reverend Thomas Green; first organist, Eileen Ellis, eldest daughter of  the Ellis family; first wedding, Lily Allison to James Norman; first baptism,  Alfred (Gint) Cawston. Today, services are still held in this building.  Among clergymen serving the new parish between 1897-1907 were the  Reverends Henry Irwin, Charles T. Easton, G.W Borlase, James Hill and A.N.  St. John Mildmay. Bishop John Dart, who made his first visit to^Saint Saviour's  in December 1897, consecrated the completed church in 1905.(2) In 1908,  under Reverend John Cleland, the building was enlarged when it was cut in  two, its ends pulled apart, and a nave inserted to increase its seating capacity. (3) One hundred and fifty people could be seated! In 1908, three teachers  along with sixteen children comprised the first Sunday School.  As Penticton grew in size, so did the congregation. Plans for a new  church were drawn up under Reverend John Cleland's direction. In 1930,  the new church on Winnipeg Street was finally ready. In 1934, the original  church, soon to become the Ellis Memorial Chapel, was moved and joined to  the new Saint Saviour's. Local stone, matching that on the new church, was  used to sheath the chapel.  Effie MacRae-Fraser was confirmed in Saint Saviour's Anglican Church fifty years ago in June  1943. A retired teacher of history and English, Mrs. Fraser resides in Penticton. She is a member of OHS Penticton Branch, and assists on their Editorial Committee.  46 PENTICTON'S SAINT SAVIOUR'S ANGLICAN CHURCH  Saint Saviour's Anglican Church circa 1910. Photo courtesy of the Penticton (R.N. Atkinson)  Museum.  In his detailed account, "Saint Saviour's Centenary" (Supplement, The  Penticton Herald, November 3,1992), Harvie Gay provides this description:  The seats and other furnishings then in use and considered  appropriate were moved with the chapel. The transept portion,  along with seats, windows, the pulpit and lectern were presented  to Saint Peter's Church, Naramata. 'Indeed,' says Reverend Derek  Salter, 'Saint Peter's is literally a daughter of Saint Saviour's  because of the pieces of the old church that went into its construction.' Reverend WS. Beames, the minister at the time, had training as an architect, and was able to use that to advantage in the  Saint Peter's work.The font used in the original Saint Saviour's  went to the Presbyterian Church in Penticton. (4)  Today, visitors may see the Penticton Presbyterian Church on Martin  Street.  The Ellis Memorial Chapel was finally consecrated in September 1934.  It is in memory of Thomas Ellis, his wife Wilhelmena, and Ellis' brother-in-  law, Alfred Wade, first Reeve of the Municipality of Penticton. Nowadays, visitors to the Chapel will notice the stone cairn near its entrance on Winnipeg  Street. Those who contributed to this historical site included the Government  of British Columbia, the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society, and members of Saint Saviour's Church. Visitors will also find the  stained glass windows of particular interest. The Chapel is open to visitors  throughout the year.  47 PENTICTON'S SAINT SA VIOUR 'S ANGLICAN CHURCH  The 1930s, a decade beginning with a world-wide depression and ending with the start of World War II, saw many changes, both economic and  social. Yet, itwas in 1937 that the present Parish Hall was dedicated. Local mill  owner, Hugh Leir, provided gifts of labour and lumber, as he continued to do  so for general maintenance not only of the hall, but also of the church itself.  Situated behind the church, the hall provided much needed space for  the church school, church social functions and meetings. Recently, annual  fall fairs have been held there. Its basement kitchen and dining area house an  inter-denominationally operated Soupeteria, which offers the needy soup and  sandwiches six days a week. Rental space is also available. Thanks to volunteer  work groups, the parish hall is still in very good condition.  Although the Parish Hall continues to be used for many functions,  including a pre-school, it is best known as the original home for seniors'  recreational activities:  In 1974, these activities became part of the Penticton and  District Retirement Complex's recreation centre when that facility  was established.  The origin of the complex dates to 1969, when a social service committee of Saint Saviour's undertook to assess the needs of  the area's elderly, because of concern that many were living in isolation without any contact with others. The committee identified  an acute need of recreation and social support for about 1,500  older residents, living within a half-mile radius of the Church.  It was decided to address the need by opening a seniors'  recreation centre in the parish hall, and with the assistance of various groups, a society called the Penticton and District Retirement  Service was formed. The Centre, which opened in 1969, became  an immediate success with membership of 400 at the end of the  first year. As a result of the phenomenal growth, it became apparent that the space in the Church Hall was rapidly becoming too  small to accommodate the demand, and planning started on a  new facility that incorporated care and housing as well as a recreation centre.When that complex was completed, a grand march  was held to it from Saint Saviour's Hall, about two blocks away. (5)  Thus, the Penticton Retirement Centre was born. It was the first project  of its kind in Canada. Anna Mason, a Saint Saviour's parishioner and public  health nurse, had had a dream of such a complex. She and many others  worked to make it become a reality. In a personal interview, Mrs. Mason said:  "Saint Saviour's congregation can indeed be justly proud of the successful and  magnificent effort which continues to be a most valuable asset to the community. "(6)  On October 21, 1975, the Governor General of Canada, Jules Leger,  presented the complex with the Vincent Massey Award for Excellence in the  Urban Environment. Mrs. Mason was justified in thinking the impossible had  48 PENTICTON'S SAINT SAVIOUR'S ANGLICAN CHURCH  happened. She said further: "When the impossible happened, the next  impossible happening was the recruiting of Delia Volden as Director of the  Centre at one dollar a year. "(7) The following year the sum was raised to two  dollars!  During the Second World War, as in World War I, many congregation  members served in the armed forces. Twenty-nine parishioners died in "the  war to end all wars." Another seventeen servicemen died in the 1939-45 war.  Were it not for the contribution of these individuals and many others, it is  quite possible that freedom of worship might not exist today. During both  wars, two associations from Saint Saviour's, the Penticton Soldiers' Comforts  Association in World War I and the Penticton Comforts Association in World  War II, worked diligently to provide parcels and communications for overseas  armed forces members. During W.W. II, Reverend W.S. Beames, who himself  suffered the loss of a son in service, worked tirelessly to sustain faith among  his parishioners on the home front.  When hostilities finally ceased in 1945, both Penticton and Saint  Saviour's were to see many more changes. During the 1940s and 1950s, as  congregation size increased, so did the many organizations within Saint  Saviour's. Volunteerism continued to be extensive. It is impossible to recognize the many participating groups and individuals in a limited space. Suffice  it to say that service is the hallmark of Saint Saviour's parishioners. Their contribution to the growth and development of Saint Saviour's continues to be  invaluable.  The addition to Saint Saviour's Anglican Church. Note the stonework. Photo courtesy of Olive  Evans.  49 PENTICTON'S SAINT SAVIOUR'S ANGLICAN CHURCH  Unfortunately, a serious fire in April 1963 caused more than $53,000.00  damage. As a result, the church could not be re-opened until March 1964.  Destroyed were many valuable items and records. Also seriously damaged was  the stained glass window installed above the altar only a year earlier.  Fortunately, the Ellis Memorial Chapel suffered only water and smoke damage. Administration offices and the parish hall were unscathed. Once more,  the volunteer efforts of many helped to restore the church building to its pre-  fire level.  Still another significant date in the history of Saint Saviour's Church was  1983, the date of Penticton's 75th Anniversary. A quilt based on drawings  from the twelve pictures portraying the city's early history was completed after  five thousand hours of work by Ladies' Guild members. Begun as a Guild project, the quilt soon became a church one. Dedicated at Christmas services  1983, the quilt may be viewed by Penticton visitors.  Other items of interest to Saint Saviour's visitors are its two stained glass  windows and a small cross on the side of the pulpit. The latter, made of oak  originally part of Winchester Cathedral in England, has the dates 1202-1906.  The cross is thus described:  1202 is the date that the piece of wood was fixtured into  the cathedral. 1906 is the date on which it was removed when the  cathedral underwent renovations. There is no record of who fashioned the wood into a cross, but the artifact was donated to the  church in 1930 by Miss G.A. Scott. The base reportedly contains a  small piece of pavement from Mars Hill in Athens. This is the hill  from which St. Paul delivered his sermon to the Athenians. (9)  Indeed, not too many Canadian churches have artifacts which pre-date  Magna Carta.  The larger of the two windows measures eight by ten feet. It is behind  the altar. Designed and manufactured by Celtic Studio in Swansea, Wales, the  window was dedicated in December 1962, only to be destroyed in the fire of  April 1963. Fortunately, a duplicate was made to replace the original. The second stained glass window, depicting the nativity scene, is on the north side of  the church.  Naturally, the 100th Anniversary of Saint Saviour's Church created great  interest not only within the church itself, but also within the city of Penticton.  Under the able chairmanship of Ken Davis, an energetic committee along  with many helpers, worked hard to create an interesting year of celebration.  In November 1992, it culminated with a visit from the Most Reverend Douglas  Hambidge, then Archbishop of the Diocese of New Westminster and  Metropolitan for the province of British Columbia and Yukon. At that time, a  set of three chimes was installed and dedicated to mark Saint Saviour's  Centennial. As these chimes ring out down through the years, those who  served, past and present, will be remembered.  50 PENTICTON'S SAINT SA VIOUR 'S ANGLICAN CHURCH  SAINT SAVIOUR'S INCUMBENTS, 1893 -1993  1. Rev. Thomas Green, 1893-1897.  2. Rev. C.T. Easton, March 1898-June 1900.  3. Rev. Henry Irwin ("Father Pat") arrived 1901.  (Also periodically officiated earlier)  4. Rev. G.W Borlase, May 14-July 5,1903  5. Rev. A.N. St. John Mildmay, November 1906-May 1907.  6. Rev. John A. Cleland, October 1907-April 1921.  7. Brief periods following John A. Cleland: Canon George Thompson,  Rev. T.E. Rowe, and Rev. Field Yolland.  8. Rev. H.B. Barrett, May 1929-1932.  9. Rev. W.S. Beames, May 1933-June 1951.  10. Rev. T.R. Lancaster, July 1951. Died two weeks later from a heart attack.  11. Canon A.R. Eagles, October 1951-May 1964.  12. Rev. R.K. Turner, May 1964-July 1965.  13. Rev. John Moorhouse, August 1965-October 1969.  14. Rev. T.D. Wilding, February 1970-August 1973.  15. Acting Rector Archdeacon R.E.M. Yerburgh, retired,  September 1973-March 1974.  16. Canon P.N. O'Flynn, March 1974-November 1993.  Now an Archdeacon and an executive assistant to the Bishop of  Kootenay.  A new rector is in the process of being chosen. Saint Saviour's ministry  has been aided also by many assistants and more recently, by lay readers.  Assistant priests in recent years are Rev. Mark Gibson and Rev. Marion Booth.  FOOTNOTES  All notes except footnotes six and seven, the interview with Mrs. Anna Mason in November  1992, are from Harvie Gay's "Saint Saviour's Centennial" (Supplement) 6, Penticton, B.C.,  November 3,1992. pages 2a-9a.  51 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN  MISSION POST OFFICE  by Michael Painter  The story of the Post Office at Okanagan Mission is scattered amongst  several articles in previous Okanagan Historical Society Reports and other  sources. This article gathers the pieces into a chronological history while trying to avoid repeating too much of the detail already published.  The Post Office has been relocated seven times from its first site near  the junction of the present KLO and Swamp Roads, moving three or four  miles in total. Map #2 shows the eight locations of the Post Office within a  general map of the area.  The first postmaster was Eli Lequime (see p. 87 of OHS #17) who had  taken up land in 1861 north of the Mission of Father Pandosy, whom he had  met previously at the coast. Eli was appointed first postmaster of what was  then spelled Okanagon Mission on October 1, 1872. His house became the  Post Office which provided mail service for everyone from Vernon to the U.S.  border. Mail came in monthly from the Cariboo Road via Kamloops and  Okanagon (now O'Keefe) and was distributed on the same basis from  Okanagon Mission to Penticton and the Boundary area. In 1875, Eli moved  the Post Office next door to his new store (p. 91 of OHS #17 and p. 42 of  Ogopogos Vigil [1948] by EM. Buckland).  Thanks to G.C. Tassie and Eli's son, Bernard, the exact location of these  Post Offices and the first Mission buildings is preserved on a map. One of the  main purposes of this article is to reproduce this important map, which has  not previously been published (editor's note: a copy of this important map  can be found on page 12 of The Report of the Okanagan Mission Planning  Task Force to the Father Pandosy Mission Committee of the Okanagan  Historical Society, October 20, 1987). In 1936, Bernard Lequime and G.C.  Tassie marked the locations of these first buildings in the Kelowna area and  mapped them (p. 20 of OHS #7). Copies of this map were given to the OHS  and to the Kelowna Museum. A recent search for these copies failed to locate  them, but luckily G.C. Tassie's son, Peter, still had the original. (See Map #1)  By 1881, the mail was brought in weekly from Cache Creek via  Kamloops and Okanagon. The Directory the following year (p. 17 of OHS #4)  show 77 heads of households within the Okanagon Mission postal district,  which still comprised the entire valley from Vernon to Osoyoos.  Michael Painter is a professional engineer and resides in Vancouver. He spent his early years  in Okanagan Mission and attended school in Kelowna.  52 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  SITES    OF    FIRST    BUILDINGS  AT  OKANAGAN   MISSION  GrtsfMiV/  IDENTIFICATION    BY    BERNARD    LEQUIME, E  ktSIDENl    AT    OKANAGAN    MISSION    IN    1861.  SURVEYED    BY    L. NORRIS   AND    C.C. TAS 3 I E , SE P TE *.  VERNON, B.C" SgPTEfcjBCn. *»,)»»».  Map #1 This is a 38% reproduction of the map of the First Buildings at Okanagan Mission  surveyed by L. Norris and G.C. Tassie on September 20, 1936. It is reproduced here with the  permission of Peter Tassie.  53 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  Map # 2 of the Kelowna area showing various locations of the Okanagan Mission Post Office.  54 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  /.of /3 /,   6. /  5$  one/  fMt//-  Ao/- /a£ a/.  (.First post office)-*-,,/^^  (Second po  tftfct' F/an   A&/0&  6 7 B.  Portion of the G.C. Tassie map of 1936 showing the exact location of the first post offices.  Eli Lequime resigned on January 4, 1888, and his son, Bernard, was  appointed to replace him as postmaster on June 1,1889 (p. 17 of OHS #7 and  p. 13 of OHS #17). Bernard ran the Post Office until 1905, then moved his  store to Kelowna, where he lived until his death in 1942.  After a hiatus of seven months, J.H. Baillie became postmaster, running  the Post Office at its third location in a bungalow opposite the new school, a  couple of miles south of the old location. At this time, the spelling was  changed to Okanagan Mission. Map #4 shows the site of this building. The  following year, Baillie bought the Gifford Thomson house, and moved the  Post Office to this fourth location. He converted this house into the Bellevue  Hotel (p. 221 of OHS #30). Map #5 shows this and the subsequent Post Office  locations.  The Post Office was only in the Bellevue for a few months before Baillie  moved it to his new store, its fifth location, on the lot to the west of the  Bellevue. A.W. Agnew bought Baillie out in 1908 and became postmaster on  October 1 of that year. Within a year, F.D. Taylor bought the store from  Agnew and became postmaster on June 1, 1909. Another change came in  1913, when G.G.R. Harvey bought the store and became postmaster on  October 1.  George Hall had just come out from England, and in 1913, he went to  work in the store which was now called the South Okanagan Co-op. In those  days, the mail came by boat and landed at the foot of Collett Road, where  Hall picked it up. The boat wasn't too reliable and, when the mail didn't  arrive, Hall would go to Kelowna on horseback, and bring the mail in two saddle bags. By about 1914, they got a democrat to fetch the mail from Kelowna.  That was the year George Hall was married in the Anglican Church that had  been built two years previouslyjust up the road from the store.  55 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  38^5  FR.NEI/4 SEC^3I"TP 29  ?k\ ~rr\ \mk T^¬±j  Map #4. The third location of the post office, two miles south of Lequime's.  In 1918, Hall and his partner, Dodd, bought the store, and George Hall  became postmaster on July 16. He continued as postmaster until his death on  February 5,1935. On April 4,1935, H.W. (Bill) Ashbery, who worked at Hall's  store, was appointed postmaster. When war broke out, Ashbery was granted  military leave, and Mrs. Jesse B. Hall, widow of George, became acting postmaster. Bill Ashbery died just before being discharged at the war's end, and  was taken off the postmaster list on February 7,1946.  On June 1, 1946, R.H. (Dick) Hall, eldest son of George and Jessie, was  appointed postmaster. The Okanagan Mission School, which had migrated  more or less in tandem with the Post Office, was located on the other side of  the Bellevue Hotel from Hall's store. It burned down in 1949 and was rebuilt  on another site a quarter of a mile to the north. Hall Brothers Ltd., who now  operated the store, bought the lot on which the school had stood. In April,  1958, Dick and his brother, D.W. (Buster) Hall, opened a new store on this lot  to the east of the Bellevue Hotel (which had been torn down four years earlier).  Thus, the post office moved to its sixth location.  56 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  The Hall and Dodd Store near the Bellevue Hotel in the 1920s. It was the site of the fifth  location of the Okanagan Mission Post Office.  Dick Hall retired on April 28, 1981, bringing to an end the long Post  Office service of the Hall family who, along with the Gleeds of Okanagan  Centre and the Dunkleys of Armstrong, were amongst the longest-serving  families in the B.C. Post Offices. Dick kindly provided much of the information in the latter part of this history.  Mrs. B. Collingridge replaced Dick Hall as postmaster. The next year, on  July 1, 1982, the Post Office was moved to a new location, its seventh, about  200 feet to the north, opposite the Anglican Church. On May 9, 1987, Mrs.  Collingridge married a second time and became Mrs. B. Wood, but continues  as postmaster at the time of writing. On April 1, 1990, the Post Office was  moved back to its sixth (now technically eighth) site, where it continues today  as one of the last rural post offices in the region.  OKANAGArslT  i  K  Map #5. The fourth to eighth locations of the post office. The eighth and present location is  back in the building which was the sixth site.  57 THE HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN MISSION POST OFFICE  As stated at the outset, much of this history is scattered in earlier  Okanagan Historical Society Reports. Besides past Reports, other references  include Bright Sunshine and a Brand New Country [1979] p. 49, Derek Reimer  editor; Ogopogos Vigil [1948] p. 42, EM. Buckland; The Post Offices of B.C.  [1972] p. 89, George H. Melvin; Sunshine and Butterflies [1979] p. 13, Ursula  Surtees.  George and Jessie Hall on the wagon that picked up the mail for Okanagan Mission. Photo  courtesy of Richard Hall.  58 FINNISH SETTLEMENT HISTORY  IN THE OKANAGAN  By Mike Roinila  Introduction  Over the winter of 1991-92, an opportunity arose to conduct research  on the Finnish ethnic group which has settled in the Okanagan Valley. While  very little literature is found for the Okanagan Area Finns, mention has been  made by some authors in various works of Finns living in the Sicamous,  Salmon Arm, Revelstoke and Kamloops areas. These authors include contributors to the Okanagan Historical Society's Annual Report. However, for the purposes of this study, these areas are outside the Okanagan Valley, which  includes settlements from Armstrong south to Osoyoos. Regional and local  newspapers have, on occasion, published articles dealing with the Finns of the  area, covering topics such as a Finnish Girls Choir performance in Penticton  (Penticton Herald 1988), to local Finnish entrepreneur (Kelowna Daily Courier  1991). Apart from these sporadic stories, little has been published on the  Okanagan Finns.  Methodology  A mail-in questionnaire was forwarded to a total of 163 respondents,  whose names were collected from the 1991 Kelowna and Area Telephone  Directory, the 1991 Penticton and Area Telephone Directory and the 1991  Vernon and Area Telephone Directory. A response from 125 Finns was  received, representing a 76% response rate. Follow-up contacts were established with numerous respondents over the telephone, and 13 respondents  were visited for personal interviews. Further evidence of Finnish settlers was  collected from the electoral voting lists found for the Okanagan Valley dating from 1940 onward.  Setdement History  From respondents who took part in this research, the earliest Finn to  settle in the Okanagan Valley includes a Swede/Finn family named Tuovila.  Arriving in 1942 from Alberta, Mr. Jim Tuovila was initially involved in building log cabins in the Cariboo area of Interior B.C., and later worked in  orchards in the Kelowna area (Correspondence with Mr. Jim Tuovila: South  Okanagan District Voting List 1942). Mr. Tuovila and his descendants still  reside in the Kelowna area.  Mike Roinila is presently a lecturer in the Department of Geography at Brandon University,  Brandon, Manitoba. He conducted this research while teaching at Okanagan College in  Kelowna.  59 FINNISH SETTLEMENT HISTORY IN THE OKANAGAN  One of the earliest recorded Finnish settlers to the Okanagan was Mr.  Sulo Hiisa. Born in northern Finland in 1902, he arrived in Canada in 1923.  While travelling across Canada a number of times, he passed through the  Okanagan in the 1930s, vowing to return and settle at a later date. Initially  settling in Wells, B.C., working in the local Wells mine as a blaster, he moved  to Peachland in 1946. In the Okanagan, he worked in orchards as well as a  saw mill. Mr. Hiisa passed away in 1970 (Peachland Memories, Vol. II,  1983:393).  Another early settler was Mrs. Hilja Ketola, who arrived in Peachland in  1947. Born in Finland in 1895, she arrived in Canada in 1926, and settled in  Shaunaon, Saskatchewan. In 1948, after visiting the Okanagan a year earlier,  she along with her two daughters moved to the Trepanier District, close to  Peachland. She made a living by being employed as a picker in local  orchards, and passed away in 1984. Her two daughters still reside in the  Okanagan Valley (Okanagan South District Voting Lists, 1947: Peachland  Memories, Vol. II, 1983:412; Interview with Mrs. Mary Domi).  ~fj-.   1>.                - '  ' JkS¬ß  ^^^^ ^BB                 2L\^  1^  Hilja Honkala (left) and Hilja Ketola at Carr's Landing, circa 1976.  According to the North Okanagan District Voting List and the  Okanagan Telephone Directories for 1947 and 1948, a few Finnish residents  were also found in the Vernon area. These early settlers included Mr. John E.  Koski (b. 1912), Mrs. Thelma Koski, Mr. Ray Koski, Mr. Oscar Niemi (1894-  1972), and Mr. Gerald Niemi (b. 1927). Oscar Niemi was a co-owner and  operator of the Lumby Timber Company from 1947-51 (Interview with Mr.  Gerald Niemi).  Thus it is noted that the earliest settlers arrived in the Valley during the  1940s. Very few arrived at the beginning of the decade, with a larger proportion settling toward the end of the decade. From the data collected, it is  important to note that very few Finns settled in this region in these early  days. The results clearly show that the largest proportion (81%) of all  respondents has moved to the Okanagan Valley since 1971. However, as  60 FINNISH SETTLEMENT HISTORY IN THE OKANAGAN  mentioned previously, Finns settled in areas north of the Okanagan prior to  this period. In nearby Enderby, the arrival of the Lundquist family in 1929  has been recorded by other historians and researchers (Bawtree 1975:74).  The reasons for setdement in the Okanagan is most often related to  the climatic factors of the area. A dry, hot summer and warm, dry winter  have brought many elderly people from across B.C. and Canada to this area.  Thus, 45% of all respondents indicated that the biggest reasons for settlement included climate, weather, health reasons, and the lifestyle of the area.  Climate was the single most important reason for 27% of respondents.  Most respondents have moved to the area from within B.C. (55%), followed by Ontario (19%), Alberta (15%), and Saskatchewan (5%). Other  areas of origin include the Yukon, Northwest Territories, New Brunswick,  Montana, Oregon and Michigan. No direct migration from Finland to the  Okanagan Valley was found through the research.  Cultural and Religious Activities  A highlight of cultural activity occurred in the summer of 1988, when  the Serena Girls Choir of Esboleygdens Musikskola of Espoo, Finland, gave  the official opening concert for the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts. A  choir of 33 members with conductor Kjerstin Sikstrom presented many  "Swedish selections of a wide variety and context, which were performed  almost entirely a cappella" (Penticton Herald, July 19, 1988). Local papers,  such as the Herald, gave rave reviews for their performance, and helped promote the choir's two week Canadian tour. Local people, including some  Finnish residents, helped billet choir members during their stay in Penticton  (Interview with Mrs. Mary Domi).  Apart from this rare visit by a famous Finnish choir, seldom has there  been other such noted activities. Rather, some local efforts have been organized to have picnics, get-togethers and even sewing bees amongst the residents in the Kelowna area. One such period was from 1974-1984, when picnics were held at Carr's Landing, near Okanagan Centre. At the home of a  Finnish respondent, numerous Finns enjoyed games, music, dancing, and  the ever-present sauna along Okanagan Lake (Interview with Mrs. Ilmi  Gasman). These events were organized by Mr. and Mrs. Rautiainen, Mrs.  Hilja Honkala and Mrs. Sally Maunu, who were energetic in keeping contact  amongst the Finnish people of the area. Along with organized activities,  Mrs. Honkala often planned and celebrated important birthdays, such as the  50th birth dates, and 25th wedding anniversaries, by inviting local Finns to  take part in the parties (Correspondence with Mrs. Hilja Honkala: interview  with Mr. Ericjakku).  61 FINNISH SETTLEMENT HISTORY IN THE OKANAGAN  Finnish Picnic at Carr's Landing, circa 1976.  The Finns of the Okanagan Valley seem to have a strong desire to keep  up some religious activity. There are numerous church supported functions  that occur in the area. These include an Old Apostolic Lutheran Church  congregation in Summerland, and two smaller home-based Bible-study  groups in Kelowna and Summerland. The Old Apostolic Lutheran Church is  part of a movement originally started by Reverend Lars Levi Lestadius in the  mid-1800s in northern Sweden. The congregation in Summerland has over  30 active adult members, with numerous children. Their activities include  occasional seminars and visits by missionaries from as far as Michigan and  Minnesota.  Conclusions  The findings of the project show that the earliest Finnish settlement in  the Okanagan Valley dates to the 1940s. While only a few people found their  way to the area at the beginning, the number of Finns arriving in the last few  decades has grown dramatically. Summerland is becoming a strong centre  for the Finns, and activities involving religion attest to this. While the number of Finns is growing, the older residents are being overlooked, and it is  fortunate that through this research some of the interesting early settlement  of the area has been discovered.  Resources  Bawtree, Caroline (1975), Reflections abng the Spallumcheen, Enderby.  Domi, Mary, Interview April 13,1992, Penticton.  Finnish Pentecostal Churches of Canada and the USA (1992), Totuuden Todistaja, 67: cover page.  Gasman, Ilmi, Interview Feb. 7,1992, Kelowna.  Honkala, Hilja, Correspondence June 26,1992, Kelowna.  Jakku, Eric, Interview May 7,1992, Kelowna.  Kelowna Daily Courier, Dec 7,1991, C.l, "The shape of the New", Finnish entrepreneur Seija Van Kranendonk.  Niemi, Gerald, Interview May 20,1992, Vernon.  Okanagan South Electoral District Voting Lists; 1920-1979  Okanagan North electoral District Voting Lists; 1940-1979  Peachland Historical Society (1983), Peachland Memories - A History of the Peachland and Trepanier Districts in the  Beautiful Okanagan Valley, Vol. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  Penticton Herald, July 12,1988, p.6; July 19,1988, p.5.  Tuovila, Jim, Correspondence March 12,1992, Kelowna.  62 Salmon Arm Women's Institute  by Yvonne McDonald  Eighty-three years of dedication to the Salmon Arm community came to  an end on June 2, 1992, when the Women's Institute held its final meeting,  ending as they had begun by meeting in the home of a member, this time  that of Mrs. Margaret Nordstrom, president. There were eight members present.  At that meeting, a letter from the Minister of Agriculture was read by  the secretary, Edith Wright. It recognized the Extraordinary Resolution  passed at their meeting of the previous month, which stated "...that the  Salmon Arm Women's Institute disband due to the inability of the members  to function as an Institute, advancing years, (the average age of members is  eighty-five) and varying degrees of health problems." The Honourable Bill  Barlee's letter said, in part, "While I am disappointed that the Institute is disbanding, I want to take this opportunity to commend the Salmon Arm  Women's Institute for its manyyears of service to Agriculture and Community  Life, with my very best wishes to its members."  Already in existence since before the turn of the century was the Farmers'  Institute, under the umbrella of the Federal and Provincial Departments of  Agriculture. When the concept of Women's Institutes came into being, they  became basically a sister organization to the Farmers' Institutes. They too were  sponsored by the Department of Agriculture. Although in the years between  1909 and 1914 fifteen Women's Institutes were formed in B.C., they did not  receive official recognition until they were incorporated under a new  Agricultural Act of 1914. Today, in recognition of the value of the work done by  Women's Institutes, the B.C. Department of Agriculture provides office space in  Victoria, and an annual grant of $10 per member to each institute in good  standing with a membership of five or over.  In 1909, Mr. E.W. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, and later  Superintendent of Women's Institutes, brought Miss Laura Rose to British  Columbia. She was an instructor in dairying at the Ontario Agricultural  College, and came to B.C. to "...judge at Fall Fairs, give talks on dairying, and  organize Women's Institutes." Robert Turner and Jack McGuire of the  Salmon Arm Farmers' Institute invited the ladies of Salmon Arm to attend  their meeting on November 15, 1909, to hear Miss Rose speak. She spoke  about Domestic Science, and the promotion of knowledge which would lead  to improvements in the home, and ultimately the country.  The first Women's Institute had been formed in Stony Creek, Ontario,  in 1897 by a woman whose baby of eighteen months died from drinking contaminated milk. This tragedy resulted in her determination that conditions in  the homes of rural women must be improved, through education, better  government, and uniting in a common cause. The philosophy of Adelaide  Yvonne McDonald is the Salmon Arm Branch President and Editor. Retired, she has lived  most of her life in the Oliver and Salmon Arm areas.  63 SALMON ARM WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  Hoodless was that a "homemaker" was the highest vocation to which a woman  could attain, and that a good home was the base for good citizens, good communities, and thus a better nation. Like a cry to battle, she and Miss Laura  Rose chose as the motto for this new organization, FOR HOME AND  COUNTRY  Salmon Arm Women's Institute Members in 1913. The photo was taken in front of the  Agricultural Hall. Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson and is from the Ernest Doe Collection.  After Miss Rose's talk, Mr. Turner and Mr. McGuire made a motion, that  a branch of the Women's Institute be formed in Salmon Arm. With complete  disregard for the protests of the ladies that they lacked experience for such a  venture, the appointment of Miss Gertie Buchan as President and Mrs. Jack  McGuire as Secretary/Treasurer was carried out. With eight more ladies signing as charter members, the first Women's Institute in the interior of British  Columbia was born.  In those early days, the meetings were held in the larger homes of the  members. Two dozen chairs were purchased, and Mr. McGuire had the task  of "draying" these chairs to the home where the meeting was to be held,  returning them to his own home for storage in between meetings.  In a paper prepared by Mrs. J.D. McGuire and read at the 50th  Anniversary dinner of the Women's Institute, held on the 17th of November,  1959, she tells of the early days:  It was the duty or the president and secretary to arrange the  monthly program. The district was large. There were no telephones, no mail delivery and no cars, so it was up to the secretary  (Mrs. McGuire) to saddle her pony and ride out into the country  to round up those responsible for the next meeting.  When meetings were held in the country homes it was Mrs.  McGuire's duty to hitch up the team to the old "bob sleigh" and  64 SALMON ARM WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  take the members out in the country, if the meetings were in the  winter time. Once, when the meeting was scheduledfor Mrs. John  Dolan's home at Mt. Ida, we started out, with the sleigh well  padded with hay. It was all right stopping at the homes to pick up  the members, but on the return trip, one of the team, 'Polly ,  made exception to so many stops, and would not come to a standstill. So, each member had to be ready to jump, or roll off in the  deep snow when their home was reached, and then watch the  sleigh quickly disappear around the corner.  Marg Shand's rendition of Mrs. McGuire's story about her horse, Polly, refusing to stop to let  members off the sleigh after a Women's Institue meeting. A graphic artist, Ms. Shand lives in  Salmon Arm. In addition to cartooning, she is a free-lance writer/photographer who edits the  Shuswap District Arts Council newsletter and a Tourism Guide for the Salmon Arm Observer.  At one point membership numbered one hundred and thirteen. As the  district grew and developed, branches were formed in the surrounding areas,  until the original organization was split into seven branches: South Canoe,  North Canoe, Mt. Ida, Valley, Tappen, and Silver Creek. The Salmon Arm  Branch membership roll stabilized at about forty members.  One of the most ambitious undertakings taken on by these staunch and  purposeful women was the building of their very own hall. When their membership grew too large to be accommodated in homes, they met in various  places around town. One of the first was the old City Hall. Mrs. McGuire  notes that "...this (location) became impossible, because very often on the day  of the meeting there were prisoners lodged in the cells at the end of the hall.  Their language, tho' impressive, was not in keeping with the discussions  underway..." Other locations had problems too, either the sale of the building  in which they held meetings, or being crowded out by other groups using the  same space. "It was then we decided the only thing we could do would be to  build a hall of our own...so we purchased from the City two lots for the sum of  $265."  65 SALMON ARM WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  In an era when "a woman's place was in the home," and women had few  privileges in the business or political world, setting out to build a hall was  indeed an ambitious project. Mr. Pearson, manager of the Bank of Hamilton,  was approached by four of the ladies, and agreed to loan them $1000.00,  which, to their indignation, turned out to be only $978.70 when the bank  deducted the eight percent interest "up front."  Mr. Jack Moir was in charge of putting up the building. On the 19th of  December, 1922, in an impressive ceremony presided over by Mrs. Richards,  with Mayor W Newnes and Reeve F. Wilcox officiating, the Institute Hall was  opened. "It was a grand night of celebrating," reported Mrs. McGuire, "ending with a dance."  The Institute Hall soon became the centre for all manner of community  happenings. It was a meeting place. It was a banquet hall, and a dance hall. It  was used by the Boy Scouts and Girl Guides for meetings, free of charge. The  Red Cross used it during the war years for making blankets and comforters to  send to England, and to hold whist drives to raise money for the war effort.  Political meetings and debates were held there. The women of the Institute  arranged cooking classes for war brides, coming into a new community far  from their home. They sponsored Better Baby Clinics.  The Old Time Dance Club, which still exists today, had its beginnings in  the Institute Hall. Blood donor clinics used the hall, and the Cancer Society  met there. Quilt shows, flower shows, rummage sales, bake sales, church services, wedding receptions- all were held there. People often wondered what  Salmon Arm would do without its Institute Hall.  But by 1964, the hall had become too much of a liability for the women,  and so after over forty years of community activity, it was sold to Peter  Ferguson, Ford-Mercury Sales, and Institute members once again met in rented space. The hall was moved to the present arena area, where it was used for  a few more years by the community, before eventually being demolished.  The commitment of these ladies to the betterment of their community  took many forms. In 1917, they held an Arbor Day, which was the forerunner  of the Horticultural Society. They purchased shrubs, and shade and ornamental trees. With the men doing the work, and the women supplying the means  and afternoon tea, the trees were planted - on the school grounds, CPR  grounds, and on some of the streets. Those trees survived and beautified the  town for many years. Many have since been cut down as the town grew. A few  still grace the streets, providing cooling shade in the heat of summer and  enhancing the appearance of the downtown area.  Another popular tradition started by the Women's Institute was the  annual May Day celebration, complete with a May Queen and May pole  dancers, trained by ladies of the Institute. They were also part of the Fall Fair  Association, and contributed effort and time to help make it the successful  Fair it is today. They judged children's and school entries, and each branch in  the District, in a spirit of friendly competition, had its own entries. Of special  66 SALMON ARM WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  interest were the local 4-H Clubs, who could always depend on the Institute  for a donation to assist them in their efforts.  The project which had the greatest impact on the community, and must  be ranked up there with the building of a hall, was the idea of a facility to provide a home for people whose age and health made it difficult for them to  remain in their own homes. It started at one of the annual meetings, when an  elderly member said she was having to give up her home, and wished there  was some place where widows and elderly people could live.  In a report presented by Mrs. Wright, she says, "Many thought maybe it  was time to do something at home which would benefit people in this area,  and it would appear that it was up to the women to do this or it wouldn't get  started. We decided we would need help for this project, so we invited representatives from the Valley WI and Tappen WI to our next meeting, where we  put forth our suggestion for a 'home.' All were very interested and realized  the need for such a facility. We persuaded one of our members, Margaret  Doe, who had recently retired from teaching and was also a trained nurse, to  assume the duties as organizer, with representatives from the three WI's forming an executive. There have been many meetings, with successes and disappointments, since January of 1977. A Society and an Auxiliary have been  formed, whose members have worked very hard. Bake sales and raffles have  been held, to which the public has very generously responded. So finally the  building has been completed. Eligible seniors are now being admitted."  The project to build the Lodge started at an organizational meeting  January 25,1977, at the home of Margaret Doe. A committee was formed with  Mrs. Doe as chairman, Nancy Irwin of the Valley Institute as secretary, and Ivy  Ford of the Tappen Institute as vice-president. Directors were Mayor Margaret  Lund, Lucy Schaff, Shirley Stewart (Valley), Janet Cloutier (Tappen), Helen  Green and Edith Wright. Later Alf Ames became the government representative.  Once again, when a need became apparent in the community, these  women were there to identify and address it. Soon the whole community was  involved, and the dream of a home for "widows and elderly people who had  to give up their homes" became a reality.  Pioneer Lodge, a seventy-five bed intermediate care facility, was officially  opened Saturday, September 11,1982. As reported in the Salmon Arm Observer  ofSeptemberl5,1982:  Saturday's official opening capped more than five years of  effort by a few dedicated people, and by many others who have  joined in the effort during the intervening time. Members of the  Shuswap area Women's Institutes were among the earliest to  become concerned about the gap in the community's health care  services and, right from the start, Institute members have been  active on boards, in planning, work-bees and fund-raising committees for the lodge.  67 SALMON ARM WOMEN'S INSTITUTE  One can only speculate as to why the Salmon Arm Women's Institute  ceased to exist. Perhaps the dwindling and aging membership did not start  soon enough to try to recruit new and younger members, or perhaps there  seemed no one with enough interest to hand the torch to. It is more likely  that with the growth of Salmon Arm into an urban community, there was less  need for an organization geared to rural homes and country women.  Certainly some of the concerns of the Women's Institutes have now become  the functions of governments through health and welfare programs.  Whatever the reasons, Salmon Arm must be forever grateful that the organization did exist for over eighty years, and contributed so richly to making the  community a warm and caring place in which to live. The Women's Institute  played an important role in our history when our needs were great, and it will  be remembered always, with love and respect.  Resources:  Minute Books and Scrapbook of the Salmon Arm WI.  Handbook, B.C. Women's Institutes.  Modern Pioneers, 1909-1959, Evergreen Press Ltd.  Conversations with Edith Wright, Margaret Nordstrom, Margaret Doe.  Salmon Arm Women's Institute Members in front of WI Hall in 1966:  back row, L to R.: Ethel Brown, Janet Bennetts, Gladys Johnston, Ada Attridge, Dorothy  Bonar, Victoria Seating, Marg Doe, Florence McKim, and Wreatha Pacey; front row, L. to R:  Hilga Wood, Rebecca Doe, Ella Daggett, L. Galcak, Daisy Bedwell, Lucy Daggett, Marcia  Dodds, Ina Hautala, Maude Turner, Edith Wright, Vera Laitinen, Elli Maki, (absent) Mamie  Maki. Of these ladies, Marg Doe, Edith Wright, and Mamie Maki were still members (Marg  Doe being the Treasurer, Edith Wright the Secretary) when the final meeting was held.  68 Spallumcheen  Spallumcheen  by Helen Inglis  Spallumcheen, the geographical location, the political jurisdiction, and  the oft-mispronounced name, seems to be something of an Okanagan conundrum, even to many who have called it home.  A small group of pioneers assembled in Armstrong, July 21,1892, to witness the bestowing of the Charter upon British Columbia's newest municipality. Certainly, they would have recognized that the community had come to a  significant milestone - a new economic, cultural, and political reality called  Spallumcheen.  The advance and retreat of the great continental glaciers had scoured  and deposited a bowl-shaped valley north of Lake Okanagan. It was rimmed  and occasionally traversed by the more resilient highlands today bearing  names like Hunter's Range, Eagle Rock, Rose Swanson Mountain, and Knob  Hill. To the southwest is a large terraced plateau, named, appropriately,  "Grandview Flats."  Barely discernible, a height of land has traversed the valley; two  drainage systems have continued to mould the terrain. Fortune Creek, fed by  a series of small streams, flows north and east to meet the Shuswap River  which, in turn, joins the Thompson and Fraser watersheds. From the north,  the spring-fed Deep Creek meanders south, creating ravines, marshes, and  Otter Lake on its way to the northwest arm of Lake Okanagan.  Many generations of Interior Salish peoples found the area a bountiful  source of wildlife and vegetation, but only a very few archaeological sites have  been located within the boundaries of Spallumcheen Municipality. The  Spallumcheen Band lands border the municipality to the north. Not surprisingly, the original name of the large river nearby was "Spallumcheen" not  "Shuswap," the name assigned to it by the Federal Department of the Interior  cartographers.  Helen Inglis is O.H.S. Vernon Branch Secretary. She has been a volunteer archivist at O'Keefe  Historic Ranch for eight years, and presently is working on an inventory of heritage buildings  in Armstrong and Spallumcheen.  69 SPALLUMCHEEN  The various communities and their location in Spallumcheen.  70 SPALLUMCHEEN  The first recorded European encroachment on the area came with the  Hudson Bay Company fur traders. The Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail by-passed  Spallumcheen to the west and there is only scant evidence that the traders  familiarized themselves with the area, other than to estimate the native population, do some map-making, and conclude that it was not rich in fur-bearing  animals. It is likely that the itinerant Oblate Fathers visiting their missions  among the Okanagans were told of the lands to the north, but their travels  took them from Pandosy's Mission to Kamloops, not into Spallumcheen.  Thomas Wood, Thomas Greenhow, and Cornelius O'Keefe, driving a  herd of cattle north along the Brigade Trail to beef-hungry miners in the  Cariboo, overwintered on the grasslands at the north end of Okanagan Lake,  on the edge of Deep Creek. They each pre-empted land which, combined,  was to become a holding of about 20,000 acres. The era of the big ranching in  B.C.'s Interior had begun, but none of the other early spreads in  Spallumcheen rivalled the O'Keefe-Greenhow Ranch in size. The Lumby-  Bennett (later Sir Arthur Stepney) holding in the northeast was approximately 1600 acres.  Meanwhile, during the late 1860s, the A.L. Fortune and Augustus  Schubert families, members of the famous 1862 Overlanders' Trek to the  Cariboo gold rush, arrived from the north and established homesteads. A veritable roll call of Spallumcheen's other early pioneers arrived and established  homesteads in the period 1869 to 1892: Lumby, Bennett, Le Due, Young,  Wichers, Ehmke, Rabbitt, Wright, Clinton, Crozier, Pringle, Crawford,  Hallam, Docksteader, Hunter, Furstineau, Patten, Pelly, Graham, Hayes,  Wood, Cargill, Matheson, Hayhurst, and Harding.  Word quickly spread about the fertile and scenic valley in the B.C.  Interior. As more and more settlers arrived by boat, horse and wagon or on  foot, a number of closely-knit communities emerged within the future municipality. Schools, churches, and post offices provided focal points. Many of  those early structures still stand. Cemeteries, like those at Lansdowne and  Hullcar, provide quiet testimony to the sense of having established one's  place.  Hullcar is in the northwest corner of Spallumcheen. Its name is the  anglicization of "Hurrahar," the Indians' name for the nearby rock bluff. The  small Hullcar Cemetery and the Hullcar Community Hall are both found on  Hullcar Road.  Knob Hill, to the southeast, gave its name to a district about six miles  across and centred upon the Knob Hill School House, built in 1881 and still  in use.  Round Prairie was centred at the log school house built on land donated by Augustus Schubert. The first services of the Presbyterian congregation  were held in the school house in 1887.  71 SPALLUMCHEEN  The Hullcar Cemetery in 1993: Photo courtesy of Jessie Ann Gamble.  Furstineau's hotel was named Lansdowne after the governor-general,  and the settlers in the area looked upon the location on the north side of the  municipality as an ideal townsite. By the end of the 1880s, a church, school,  store, blacksmith shop, post office, and several dwellings gave physical evidence of this resolve. Although most of the buildings are gone and the town's  growth terminated by being left off the Shuswap & Okanagan Railway's route,  the community's identity remains in tangible form with Lansdowne Road and  Lansdowne Cemetery.  The Stepney area roughly coincides with the ranch created by Sir  Arthur Stepney's purchase of lands originally held by Fortune, Lumby, and  Bennett.  Armstrong, named after an English investor in the S. 8c O. Railway, was  founded on land sold to the S. 8c O. Railway by Robert Wood. Wood, Daniel  Rabbitt, and E.C. Cargill were the first developers of the townsite, which  became the commercial and administrative core of Spallumcheen.  Pleasant Valley developed a distinct identity around its school, which  was built on the Ehmke homestead and numbered the O'Keefe and  Greenhow children in its classes. Pleasant Valley Road was one of the earlier  roads linking the Spallumcheen Valley with the fledgling settlements of  Priest's Valley (later Vernon) and Okanagan Landing.  Larkin, named after Patrick Larkin, the contractor who built the S. &  O. Railway, originally had a post office and a whistle stop for the "Galloping  Goose" on its way to and from Okanagan Landing. Today, the Larkin Cross  Road traverses the district which still describes itself by that name.  72 SPALLUMCHEEN  The Knob Hill Community Hall in 1993. Photo courtesy of Jessie Ann Gamble.  Grandview Flats sits on its elevated shelf, bounded to the north by  Grandview Mountain; to the south and west by the Okanagan Indian Reserve;  to the south by the Lake Okanagan lowlands; to the east by Deep Creek and  Otter Lake. The 3,000-acre plateau of flat, rich, arable land was homesteaded  by a half dozen families who arrived in the 1880s. Otter Lake School, at the  foot of Corkscrew Road, was central for children from Larkin, the O'Keefe  Ranch, and Grandview Flats and served as the first place of worship.  The pioneering families brought with them the traditions, expectations,  and resolve to build the fundamental structures of the northwestern  European societies from which they came. The first post office (called  Spallumcheen) was opened at Lansdowne in 1881; other post offices were  located at O'Keefe, Larkin, Lumin, and Hullcar.  The Spallumcheen School District was formed in 1884, prior to the  coming of the railroad and had several schools: Round Prairie, Hullcar, Knob  Hill, Pleasant Valley and Otter Lake under its jurisdiction before 1892.  While in many cases, the school buildings were used for religious services, there was a collective desire for churches. A church was a significant  visual symbol of the stability and unity of the community in which it stood. So  it was that the Anglican Church was built at Lansdowne in 1885 and later  moved to Armstrong; St. Ann's Catholic Church at O'Keefe was subscribed  and dedicated in 1889.  During the 1880s, that formative decade preceding the coming of the  Shuswap 8c Okanagan Railway, preliminary efforts to provide transportation  for communication and commerce had been undertaken. Otter Lake Road  served as the main road through the North Okanagan. As Charles Le Due  recalls, "From O'Keefe's the road followed much the same course as it does  73 SPALLUMCHEEN  today to Moffat's Corner (Fraser Road). After reaching that place, it turned to  the east, passing up the long hill north of the 'Island.' This, the site of the present town of Armstrong, was a slight elevation of land consisting of several  acres of fir and cottonwood trees which stood in the centre of a swamp. From  the Island, the road went through bush to bottom land at Deep Creek. There  it crossed the creek and ascended the hill on the other side, coming out into  open fields at Lansdowne." (Charles Le Due, "Early Settlement in  Municipality of Spallumcheen" The 15th Report of The Okanagan Historical  Society, 1951, p. 70)  The Lansdowne School, later used to store grain, in 1993. Photo courtesy of Jessie Ann  Gamble.  The possibility of a rail link through the valley seeming indefinite and  remote; a serious proposal to build a canal linking Shuswap and Okanagan  Lakes by way of Deep Creek and Otter Lake through Spallumcheen took  shape. One of the principals in this scheme was Captain Shorts who was operating boats on various navigable waterways in the North Okanagan.  Bureaucratic and financing obstacles delayed actual building; the C.P.R. was  completed in 1885 and announcements of the Shuswap to Okanagan branch  line spelt the end of the canal project.  The completion of the S. 8c O. Railway in 1892 was a deciding factor in  the B.C. Government's timing of granting municipal status to Spallumcheen.  In spite of rumours that the railway would purchase land at Lansdowne for a  station and townsite, it was evident that construction costs would be. prohibitive; the line would be located two miles to the east, following Davis Creek  (Fortune Creek) and the more level lands south of Enderby. Because railway  negotiators were able to make a better deal with Robert Wood than with other  land owners along the way, the townsite was located at Armstrong. The rate of  settlement of the farm land immediately picked up and a flurry of  74 SPALLUMCHEEN  commercial activity coincident with the new railway connections caused  Armstrong to grow very rapidly during the 1890s and the first decade of the  20th century. It became the marketing centre for the burgeoning agricultural  activity surrounding it.  The Armstrong Hotel built in 1892. Photo courtesy of Jessie Ann Gamble.  July 21, 1892, the Letters Patent authorized the new Municipality of  Spallumcheen to get on with its new mandate. Elections were held; the jurisdiction divided into the four wards of Okanagan, Pleasant Valley Road,  Salmon River, and Spallumcheen. Elected Reeve was Donald Graham and as  Councillors, John Cameron, Donald Matheson, Thomas Hayes, and Robert  Wood. With Henry Seydel the first appointed Clerk, Council was duly sworn  in. The first meeting was held in the Armstrong Hotel, September 24, 1892.  Mr. Seydel's minutes record that during the balance of 1892, the rookie council dealt with such diverse matters as: business licensing, butchering practices,  the cemetery, hogs running at large, learning procedures according to Letters  Patent, liquor licenses for the Armstrong and Lansdowne Hotels, the location  of the Yale District Registry Office, roads, safe keeping of municipal funds,  and the choice of design for the municipal seal.  Twenty-one years later, March 21, 1913, after petitioning the  Spallumcheen Council, obtaining the provincial government's authorization,  and winning a very close referendum, Frank Wolfenden, James Wright, and a  number of other Armstrong businessmen succeeded in having Armstrong  declared a separate municipality. Because of their common history prior to  1892 and growing as one municipality for the next two decades,  Spallumcheen and Armstrong both observed in 1992, the centennial of being  declared a municipality.  75 Spallumcheen: Where Farming Comes First  by Lorna Carter  When the first settlers pre-empted land in the valley known as the  Spallumcheen, its value as farmland was one of its drawing cards. One hundred and twenty-six years later the municipality of Spallumcheen, celebrating  its hundredth year of incorporation, is proud of its reputation as one of the  most fertile valleys in the interior of British Columbia. Its north and south  borders announce to visitors and passers-by that it is still a municipality  "where farming comes first."  A.L. Fortune, an Overlander, is generally acknowledged as the first  white man to claim a homestead in the area, and he encouraged some friends  who were also frustrated in their search for gold to look for riches from the  soil. So it was that J.L. Burns took up land in the area known as Lansdowne,  future home of the first townsite in the municipality.  Together these two men built a log cabin and sowed a few handfuls of  wheat. The "eminently satisfactory results" (OHS Report #40, p. 146) marked  the first agricultural pursuit in the Spallumcheen and gave an early prediction of the area's great,agrarian potential.  By 1873, many more cabins were dotting the benchlands across the valley from Fortune's own. Augustus Schubert pre-empted land in  Spallumcheen in 1877 and moved his family there in 1883.  Lansdowne at the turn of the century. Photo by C.W. Holliday, courtesy of the Armstrong  Museum.  Lorna Carter is a retired teacher. Presently, she is branch editor for Armstrong/Enderby. For  the past decade, she and her husband, Gil, have farmed in Spallumcheen.  76 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  Services for the settlement centred in Lansdowne which had a Post  Office ("Spallumcheen"), a general store (Wood 8c Rabbitt), a blacksmith  shop (Henry Schneider), a hardware store (WJ. Armstrong), a furniture store  (Hamill 8c McLeod), a confectionery shop (George Murray), a sash and door  factory (Hamill & Pringle), an Anglican church (built in 1885), a school  house (built in 1890), and a cemetery.  One of the most famous ranches in Spallumcheen was the Stepney  Ranch begun in 1869 by Moses Lumby in partnership with Fred and Preston  Bennett. Its 1600 acres began at the southern fringe of the Spallumcheen  Indian Reserve and ended at Lansdowne. Superior crops of hay, grain, and  catde were later augmented by the growing of tree fruit. However, the killing  frosts of 1915 ended that endeavour. Lumby sold the ranch to Leonard Norris  of Brantford, Ontario in 1888, who four years later sold to Sir Arthur Stepney  of Scotland. Stepney improved the ranch with stock and modern equipment.  He remained the owner for 20 years. On his death, the ranch was left in the  hands of a syndicate. After 1918, the syndicate started to sell off parcels. The  ranch ceased to exist after an auction sale in 1928 to dispose of remaining  equipment and stock.  A combination of cool, moist soil; bright, warm days and cool nights; an  abundance of water; disease and pest free conditions (until 1940); and willing  workers produced an ever-growing market of an amazing variety of crops. The  area's versatility was illustrated by the Stepney Ranch, managed by George  Heggie in 1903. By following a three-year rotational plan, it produced fall  wheat, barley, oats, peas, grass and alfalfa hay, cattle, sheep, hogs. Many other  farmers were raising stock: horses, hogs, beef, and dairy cattle, to take advantage of the valley's abundant clover and natural grasses.  In 1890, the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway negotiated to run its rails  through the "Island in the Swamp," drained three years earlier by a ditch dug  through the Schubert and Barrett properties. By 1892, the railway link  between Sicamous and Okanagan Landing was completed and the townsite of  Lansdowne moved lock, stock, and barrel to the new town centre of  Armstrong. The railway augured well for the farmers of Spallumcheen, for  now their fertile land could produce crops that could reach hitherto  undreamed-of markets. No longer were their efforts confined to growing vegetables for family consumption.  In 1904, R.E. Burnett experimented with the growing of celery, and  found that his land produced a very fine crop. Thereafter, the drained bottom lands were planted in rows of vegetables. By 1910, four hundred tons of  celery were shipped from the area. Later, Mr. Burnett's endeavour was maintained by J.H. Patten and his son, Wallace. These men were instrumental in  hiring Chinese farm labourers. Having learned the trade of celery growing,  the Chinese rented bottom land, and besides celery, cultivated vegetables  such as cabbage, potatoes, carrots, and lettuce in such quantities that they  were exported to points as distant as Toronto and Hawaii. Armstrong became  known as "The Celery City" of B.C.  77 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  A Special Illustrated Edition of The Vernon News of 1904 listed the 1903  freight shipments from Armstrong as follows:  Apples  65 tons  Grain  307 tons  Hay  281 tons  Root Crops  2009 tons  Flour  2493 tons  Millstuffs  113 tons  Cattle  3 tons  Horses  28 tons  Hogs  57 tons  Sheep  20 tons  These were freight figures only and the amount of Express shipments  would have increased the tonnage substantially.  Just eight years later, The Vernon News Special Holiday Edition of 1912 was  able to report that the "Spallumcheen was noted for its production of vegetables: celery, potatoes, cabbages, beets, carrots." The newspaper also stated that  250 carloads or 12,000 tons of potatoes were shipped from Armstrong in  1911. At this time, Armstrong could boast that it was the largest shipping  point of agricultural produce in the province.  By 1912, area growers were experimenting with small fruits and tree  fruits. Once again, the valley's natural characteristics brought excellent  results. Strawberries were able to return $800.00 per acre, and winter apples  proved to be best adapted to Spallumcheen growing conditions.  All this productivity was able to support a number of packing houses.  T.W. Fletcher had the honour to be the first in Armstrong to ship vegetables;  R.W. McDonald and Company was the first to successfully ship fresh lettuce.  Other packing firms to share in the produce prosperity were: Daykin and  Jackson Ltd., Armstrong Co-Operative Growers' Exchange, and W.M. McNair,  who specialized in potato handling. These were but a few of the packing firms  that served the area's farmers.  In the 1930s, many farmers, notably in the Grandview Flats area, uprooted their orchards, turning to crops such as watermelons, potatoes, hay, and  asparagus. The latter proved to be a success story.  By 1987, the B.C. Asparagus Growers' Association reported that more  than 366 acres of the interior B.C. valleys were in asparagus, 80% of these in  Spallumcheen. Each acre produced 1500 pounds for a total 390,000 pounds  of asparagus. Local residents yearn for their first feast of asparagus each  spring while the growers nervously watch the weather and impending frost  warnings that can set the crop back by ten days to two weeks. The local theatre group adopted the name "Asparagus Theatre" in honour of the vegetable that once again has put Armstrong, via Spallumcheen, on the map as  'The Asparagus Capital of B.C."  78 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  Threshing on the Ken McKechnie Farm. Photo courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  Many of the district's business enterprises depended on the agricultural  pursuits of the residents. In 1902, the North Okanagan Creamery was built  and equipped with a butter-maker with money raised through the sale of  shares held by the farmers of the Armstrong district. By 1914, the Creamery  was paying $360,000.00 annually to its suppliers for cream. In 1918, it broke  all previous records by processing 2210 pounds of cream into 700 pounds of  butter in one day. In 1925, the Creamery was sold to the Pat Burns Company.  After being destroyed by fire in 1927, the Creamery was relocated in Vernon.  The valley dairymen in 1938, were able to ship cream to a local firm, the  Armstrong Cheese Factory. The following year, a Cheese Co-Operative  Association was formally incorporated, with its head office in Armstrong and  branch offices in Penticton, Vernon, and Kamloops. Just one year after the  installation of a temperature-controlled curing room, the Cheese Factory won  two second prizes at the British Empire show in Belleville, Ontario.  In 1948, the Cheese Co-Operative expanded into the fluid milk-processing market and five years later was delivering milk to Penticton, Kamloops,  Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Kelowna under the "Valley Dairy" brand.  Unfortunately, in the years between 1954 and 1961, the company ran into  financial troubles as a result of unionization and went bankrupt. The buildings were purchased by Dutch Dairies of Kamloops who continued to make  cheese with the "Armstrong Cheese" trademark.  In 1977, Dairyland bought the trademark and the factory. They continue to operate the plant.  Individual dairies of the area made their mark as well. The McQuarrie  family dairy, known as the "Glengary Dairy," won many prizes. Another family  dairy well known to Spallumcheen and Armstrong residents was the "Spring  View Dairy" operated by the Ross and Ruth Lockhart family. This dairy of  "Spring Vista Jerseys" delivered milk to the doors of its customers seven days a  week from 1926 to 1944. By the latter year, customers were clambering for  pasteurized milk, so the farm was sold to Myers Frensden, then later to the  Armstrong Cheese Company.  79 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  The dairymen of Spallumcheen felt that, with 1200 to 1500 cattle in the  area, Armstrong would be a logical choice as a centre for artificial breeding.  Plans were discussed at a meeting held on April 22, 1944. The North  Okanagan Breeding Club was formed and necessary equipment was purchased. Four years later, the club had folded, but the technician continued to  provide this service. Now the dairymen continue to use artificial insemination, but many take the course offered once or twice a year by Alberta  Breeders Service and do their own insemination.  Other agricultural associations were formed to pool the farmers'  resources and to give them a united voice. These were: the Pea Growers'  Association (still in business), the Egg Producers' Circle, and the Potato  Growers' Association.  In 1895, the Okanagan Flour Mills Company was formed with all farmers of the municipality but three as shareholders. A year later, the mill and  elevator were completed and production commenced. 1898 saw the erection  of two large steel grain storage tanks (still standing, but now used for storage  of other commodities). Although the mill had been profitable for ten years,  in 1906, it had to bow to the competition of larger prairie mills. After standing dormant for twenty years, the buildings underwent renovation to become  the Armstrong Inland Flour Mills in 1927, owned by Charles and Edgar  Hoover (these are the same men who owned the first threshing machine in  the area, purchased in 1903).  1933 saw the new mill's first year of production. With its new and  improved milling machine, it was the only flour and grist mill in the  Okanagan Valley, and had a capacity of fifty barrels a day. This mill also pioneered the making of alfalfa meal from hay. In 1936, it installed machinery to  make puffed wheat. It shipped products to the lower mainland as well as  other points in the Okanagan Valley. In 1946, the business was sold to  Buckerfield's who still operate on the same premises.  Threshing on the Charles Hoover Farm. Photo courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  80 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  Spallumcheen farmers kept pace with modern developments in their  industry. In 1929, Hope Brothers Machine Shop, as the Massey-Harris dealer,  received the first combine in B.C., shipped for purchaser George Heggie,  then of the L & A Ranch. By 1938, nine threshing units were operating in  Spallumcheen. In 1941, two mechanical milkers were installed on the Jim Gill  farm. In the same year, rubber tires were used on farm tractors. By 1946, farmers were grumbling about licensing fees, not only for tractors, but also for any  conveyance they pulled behind. In 1947, farm mechanization hit stride with  the automatic straw and hay baler. Many could be observed in the district, baling up to 1000 bales a day.  As in the early days, Armstrong's businesses still relate to the farming  endeavours of the surrounding Spallumcheen municipality. Some of those  industries are:  Buckerfield's (Feed 8c Garden supplies)  Unifeed  Armstrong Cheese Factory  Valley Auction  Pea Growers/Sunset Seeds  Colonial Farms (Poultry Processors)  Rogers Foods (Flour 8c Grain Mill)  Farm Machinery Dealers  (Case, Hesston, John Deere,  Kubota, New Holland, Ford)  The Armstrong fair grounds at the turn of the century. Photo courtesy of the Armstrong  Museum.  A municipality with such a strong agricultural base was bound to  require a showcase for its agricultural and horticultural pursuits. In 1891, the  Okanagan and Spallumcheen Agricultural Society Exhibition was held in  Vernon. In 1900, the title was changed to the Armstrong and Spallumcheen  Agricultural Society, with D. Matheson as President and L.W Patten as  81 SPALLUMCHEEN: WHERE FARMING COMES FIRST  Secretary, ably assisted by Mat Hassen Sr. and Mrs. M. McDonald. The fair's  excellent showing resulted in a steady growth, and soon it needed to acquire  property to allow the showing of livestock. In 1912, the Honourable Price  Ellison requested that the provincial government grant $2,500.00 to be  matched by the municipality for the erection of suitable barns. In 1920, the  facilities had to be expanded again and the fair was renamed the North  Okanagan Fall Fair.  Six years later, when most other fairs in the Interior were closing down,  the Armstrong Fair enlarged its scope. By 1930, with the need for new buildings, fresh land was purchased, the old buildings razed, modern buildings  erected, and the name changed to the Interior Provincial Exhibition - the  Showcase of the Interior. In 1950, the IPE was able to celebrate its Golden  Jubilee and each new year brings a new attendance record. The last four days  of the first week of September are days full of holiday spirit, and the town of  Armstrong swells its population threefold.  Although incorporation of the Municipality of Spallumcheen took  place in July 1892, it was September before the Municipal Council held its  first meeting, with Donald Graham as Reeve. By December the council had  divided the municipality into four wards: Spallumcheen, Salmon River,  Pleasant Valley, and Okanagan.  One of their first concerns was to let tenders for the construction of  passable roads for horse teams. Over the early years, the council set salaries  for municipal workers, passed by-laws, appointed special constables to maintain proper decorum, planned for the drainage of bottom lands, set up a  waterworks, operated a dumping ground, supported the Agricultural Fair  Association, set assessments on real property, provided fire protection, and  operated schools.  Initially, Armstrong was a part of Spallumcheen. By 1913, however, the  growing importance of Armstrong and a need to borrow money for urban  necessities such as sewage, paved roads and lighted streets caused its inhabitants to request its own municipal council. On March 31st of that year, the  City of Armstrong was incorporated (1200 souls), an election of officers was  held, and the first council met on April 23,1913, with J.M. Wright as Mayor.  The two municipalities share expenses and responsibilities for Parks  and Recreation, Land Fill, School District, and funding for the buildings that  house the Library and Health Centres. A referendum for amalgamation of  the two municipalities was held in 1985. The decision was to remain two distinct entities.  By Canada's Centennial, Spallumcheen could boast 100 years of history  as well. But as that honour had to be made official through incorporation, it  remained until 1992 for Spallumcheen to celebrate its centennial. A.L.  Fortune would still be able to enjoy an uncluttered view of meadows and trees  (with a few farm houses and barns included) from his original benchland  viewpoint and know that this area still puts farming first.  82 The Catholic Church in Spallumcheen  by Rita Luttmerding  In every culture and clime, the urge to worship has always been inherent in man. This desire was in the minds of the people who have lived in the  Spallumcheen Municipality since itwas incorporated in 1892.  In the early part of the 1890s, very few of the residents were Catholic. A  native Indian reservation (the Spallumcheen Band of the Shuswap Nation)  was in the northern half of the municipality, and many of its inhabitants had  been baptized by the early Catholic missionary priests: the Oblates of Mary  Immaculate. A small church, St. Mary's, was built on the reserve near the  native cemetery. It was a small  church and it served its  parishioners well until  it burned to the ground in  1911. Only the lovely statue of  the Blessed Mother was saved,  and it now graces the Indian  Church at the south end of  Enderby.  Meanwhile, at the other  end of the municipality  toward Swan Lake, Cornelius  O'Keefe began the construction of a church on his property which he and his partners  Tom Wood and Thomas  Greenhow had been developing since 1868. Fifty friends  and neighbours in the north  Okanagan aided Mr. O'Keefe  with fund raising. Soon a  local carpenter assisted with  volunteer labour built a  Gothic-style church, typical of  many churches during that  period. On Christmas Eve  1889, this new little church  dedicated to St. Anne was  blessed and the first Mass said  there.  St. Mary's Church on the Spallumcheen Band Reserve  south of Enderby in 1892. This photo was taken by  C.W. Holliday and is provided here courtesy of the  Enderbv Museum.  Rita Luttmerding is retired and living in Spallumcheen. She is a Past President of the Catholic  Women's League in Armstrong. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SPALLUMCHEEN  In June 1891, Bishop Durieou, O.M.I, of New Westminster had  Confirmation in St. Anne's for five young people, who also made their first  Holy Communion at that time. A bell was purchased two years later by the  local Indians. However, by the time the bell arrived, St. James Catholic  Church in Vernon was being completed, so the bell was sent there instead. St.  Anne's continued to serve the O'Keefes, their ranch hands, and other  Catholics not only as a church, but also as a community centre for social get-  togethers. Missionary priests continued to say Mass there on an irregular basis.  During the Depression Years of the 1930s, St. Anne's Church became a  haven for destitute men, and part of the building was also used as a granary.  In 1967, Tierney O'Keefe, one of Cornelius' sons, decided to turn the  ranch into a tourist attraction. St. Anne's Church was restored with the original pews, organ, and vestments. It was painted inside and out. Presently, it is  only used for special occasions such as weddings. In 1987, the altar stone was  given to Bishop Sabatini of Kamloops to be used there in a church of the  Diocese.  Meanwhile, Armstrong  city was growing up in the  middle of Spallumcheen  Municipality. In fact, both  municipalities were merged for  several years.  Mostly by the efforts of Fr.  Pelletier of the Vernon  parish, a decision was made  that there were enough  Catholics in Armstrong to  start their own church.  On December 23, 1910, St.  Joseph's Church was opened  and blessed.  Until 1920, it seems  that no priest resided in  Armstrong. Then, in that year,  Fr. M. Cronin became the first  resident priest. Within a few  years, he was transferred, and  St. Joseph's came under Fr. W.  McKenzie and Fr. Chalmer of  .;..-> -.:^.Jr^... .~~Ju.' Salmon Arm parish. During  St. Joseph's Catholic Church in Armstrong, shortly lhis Period< St' Anne'S Chlirch  after construction in 1910. Photo courtesy of the m Enderby was opened by Fr.  Armstrong Museum. McKenzie in 1925.  84 THE CATHOLIC CHURCH IN SPALLUMCHEEN  In 1928, Fr. Jim Smith came to Armstrong and rented a nearby house as  a rectory. His successor, Fr. A. McDonell, built and looked after St. John's  Church in Falkland (which lasted until 1983).  Fr. T Finnegan built a rectory beside the church in Armstrong in 1934.  Fathers Cote, McLeod, J. Steele and Beauregard were the priests after Fr.  Finnegan.  In 1940, Fr. Gerald Connellan was appointed pastor. During his twenty-  five year tenure here, the Catholic Women's League was established in the  parishes of Armstrong and Enderby. In 1956, a new and larger church was  built and blessed in Armstrong, and a new rectory was built in 1962.  In 1965, Fr. V Roche succeeded Fr. Connellan and kept up the duties in  the three parishes. Under his direction, a new St. Anne's Church in Enderby  was opened and blessed in 1972. Also at this time, the Indian Church on the  Spallumcheen Reserve was reopened after many years of disuse, and Mass was  said there once a month.  When Fr. Roche was transferred to Kamloops in 1975, Fr. M. Byrne from  Salmon Arm came to take care of Armstrong and its missions. In 1980, Fr.  Byrne retired to Ireland after so many years of priestly dedication in the  Kamloops Diocese.  Fr. Donald O'Reilly took over St. Joseph's in Armstrong, St. Anne's in  Enderby, and St. John's in Falkland in September 1980. In 1982, Fr. O'Reilly  was instrumental in getting the Knights of Columbus organized in Armstrong  and Enderby. A parcel of land adjoining our property in Armstrong was purchased and a lovely useful parish hall was built at this time. It is a wonderful  place for catechism teaching rooms, banquet hall and meeting rooms.  In 1985, Fr. O'Reilly was transferred to Kamloops, and Fr. Ignatus  Saldanha became our parish priest for two years. After looking after the three  parishes for two years, he was replaced by Fr. A. Vella for two years. In January,  Fr. Vella was called back to Toronto to look after a parish there.  Sister Mary Adele was appointed Administrator of the Parishes with Fr.  Potts of Vernon appointed to see to it that we have Mass on Sundays. During  the week, the parish has an Eucharistic Service every morning, capably handled by our local Eucharistic Ministers. On August 1, 1992, our prayers were  answered when Fr. J. McLeod came to be our parish priest.  In retrospect, not only have the early missionaries of a century ago plus  the resident priests done their share in keeping the Catholic faith alive in the  Spallumcheen/North Okanagan, but also we have had nuns who have been  instrumental in assisting the parish ladies who were teaching catechism to the  young of the parish As there was no boarding house available in Armstrong  for them, they moved into an apartment in the rear of St. Anne's new church  in Enderby and only came occasionally to Armstrong to help teach. In time,  these two nuns moved further north in the Kamloops Diocese. Catechism  lessons were kept up by the ladies of the Armstrong Catholic Women's  League.  85 THE CATHOUC CHURCH IN SPALLUMCHEEN  In the past year (1991), three nuns came to Armstrong from St. Agathe,  Ontario in search of a place to build a new monastery. These nuns belong to  the Carmelite Order. Their chief duty is to pray and sacrifice for their own salvation and also for the souls of those around them who ask for prayers. They  purchased twenty-one acres of land in the Salmon River Valley of  Spallumcheen. They have built a lovely monastery. On May 1, 1992, the  monastery was dedicated by Bishop Lawrence Sabatini. Eventually, there will  be nine nuns in residence and praying for all of us, truly a great asset to our  lovely municipality.  Indeed, we are indebted to the early Catholics who came into this area  and helped build up the municipality and town. Equally, we are fortunate to  have people today in our church, working for the good of the church and  community. The Catholic parish societies and parishioners are doing their  best to keep up St. Joseph's and St. Anne's Parishes.  St. Mary's Catholic Church from E. Burnett's Shuswap Country.  Photo courtesy of Enderby Museum  86 Remtmscences  War Bride  by Ruth Bawtree  I am only one of the 40,000 women who married Canadians at the time  of World War II. The events that turned my life around began 53 years ago.  This led to an influx of thousands upon thousands of young men and women  from all parts of the Empire to do their war service, and my meeting and marrying a Canadian airman, Len Bawtree. His grandparents Jane and Julius  Bawtree and his father, Harold, emigrated from England in 1910, and joined  Jane's mother Sophia Cooke and several brothers and sisters, who had preceded them in the Ashton Creek area east of Enderby.  Len enlisted in the RCAF in 1942 at the age of 18, with the intention of  becoming a pilot. After fifteen months, he had obtained his wings and qualified to fly single-engine aircraft. He was then posted to England to complete  his training on multi-engine machines, culminating with the famous  Lancaster. The operational part of his war service began after his arrival at a  Bomber Command station a few miles from Louth, Lincolnshire, on the east  coast of England, which was where we eventually met.  Len Bawtree in the cockpit of a Lancaster Bomber near Louth,  Lincolnshire in 1944. Photo courtesy of Len and Ruth Bawtree.  Ruth Bawtree was originally from England, but has lived the past 47 years in Ashton Creek,  east of Enderby. In 1975, her husband, Len, represented the Shuswap-Revelstoke riding in the  provincial legislature. Editor's note: This essay is an edited version of an address to the  Enderby Museum Society meeting on February 18,1993.  87 WAR BRIDE  My family came from Grimsby, Lincolnshire, a large fishing port on the  east coast. My mother's family were trawlermen. My father was the owner of a  large department store called a drapery. He stocked everything from women  and children's clothing, accessories, fabrics and notions to household linens  and bedding. In 1939,1 had two younger brothers in school; I had left school  and was in business college. My father had died a few months previously. Civil  defense preparations were going on all around us. A megalomaniac had risen  to power in Europe: Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party. Many countries had  already been overwhelmed; it appeared Great Britain was to be involved sooner or later. We were all very afraid of what the future might hold.  I can only guess at my mother's state of mind at that time, newly widowed and with three children to bring up. Up until then, we had enjoyed a  very comfortable lifestyle: a large house on the outskirts of Grimsby, a live-in  maid and weekly washerwoman. My father had a chauffeur as his health had  made it inadvisable for him to drive. Outbreak of war changed all this.  An Anderson Air Raid Shelter was available to anyone with the space for  it. It had to be dug partly into the ground, as far away from buildings as possible, then covered over with a deep layer of soil. Emergency supplies such as  blankets, water, tinned food were to be stored there. Officials visited our  homes and fitted each member with a gas mask, for if we were to suffer the  same fate as the countries of Europe, there would be massive air raids, and  although gas had not been used yet, we were being prepared for the eventual-  ity.  As we wouldn't be taking holidays this year, mother rented a small cottage on a farm about 20 miles away and we began to spend a lot of time there,  especially when school broke up for the summer. It was fun fixing it up with  odds and ends of furniture. There was no electricity or water, but we didn't  mind. It was really small: downstairs was one large combination kitchen and  living room and a little pantry and scullery. A door in the living room wall  opened to reveal a steep and narrow flight of stairs which led up to three tiny  little bedrooms, the largest of which could accommodate three camp cots  side by side. The cot against the wall was the safest, the outside one the worst  as whoever slept in that one got trampled twice. At first there were only five of  us: my mother and her younger sister, myself and my two brothers, but the  day war was declared, September 3rd, we came out with my grandmother and  three other family members to spend the night in case of an air raid. There  weren't enough beds, of course, but who cared. The main thing was we'd be  out of the town if there was an attack.  Oh, what a night we spent! Some of us upstairs in a strange bed, the  rest downstairs on whatever could be improvised, a small couch, two armchairs pushed together, and all of us still fully dressed, restless and uncomfortable. Then suddenly a crash on the ceiling brought everyone awake with a  jerk. We were sure a bomb had dropped close by, but it was just someone who  had fallen out of bed. Daylight came with relief and most people went back to WAR BRIDE  Grimsby. Nothing had happened that night after all, nor for many months  after. It was a period later called 'The Phoney War."  Mother decided that we would stay in the cottage for the time being. So,  the house was closed up. After packing up a few belongings, we moved in,  and that's where we spent the first six months of the war. My mother's sister  and sister-in-law and young son soon joined us. One uncle was already at sea  serving in the Merchant Marine, and the other had enlisted in the Air Force  and was awaiting his call-up papers.  We soon discovered that living permanently in that little place was very  different from larking about on weekends. Every drop of water we used had  to be brought from the pump outside; oil lamps had to be cleaned and filled  every day; and a supply of paraffin kept handy. A supply of coal for the  kitchen range had to be ordered, and then stored in a nearby shed, next to  the other facility, the outside toilet. We had a little Primus stove but the main  cooking was done on the hot coals of the kitchen range or in the oven beside  it. A reservoir on the other side provided our source of hot water and we had  to remember to constantly replace any water we took out. Water jugs and  washbasins were kept in the bedrooms for personal use, and "the article" as  we called it, slid under the bed.  We soon adapted to this new way of doing things, got to know the  farmer and his family and the other workers who lived in nearby cottages.  Sometimes we even took part in some of their activities.  As the dark days of winter approached, we passed the time with various  games, cards, or darts competitions with the neighbours. The women knitted  a lot of socks, scarves, balaclava helmets, or gloves to be sent to the men in the  forces.  Mother did not drive, so the family car was locked away in its garage in  town. We managed very well with an all day Saturday shopping trip into Louth  by bus, and during the week by the tradesmen's vans, butcher, baker, or  greengrocer who made regular round of all the farms. Our Saturday trip was  a welcome break for all of us, combining shopping with a movie and lunch in  a cafe and a visit to the local library.  No bathroom didn't mean no baths. A galvanised tub was set by the fire  and was a communal affair, mostly for the benefit of the three boys each taking his turn. The ladies preferred to take their jug of hot water upstairs and  have a sponge down in the privacy of the bedroom.  With the coming of spring, we began looking for a bigger house. We all  liked living in the country and mother was concerned about all her furniture  in town. Through a grapevine of friends we heard of a large farmhouse that  was available for rent and mother went to look at it. She was so pleased that  we lost no time in making arrangements to move in. The furniture arrived  from Grimsby, and there was plenty of room for everything and everybody. My  Grandma came to live with us too, a cheerful gossipy energetic old lady of  generous proportions who loved having her family around her again. We had  electricity and running water here, and much appreciated they were.  89 WAR BRIDE  This house was on the main road between Louth and Grimsby, in a little  village called Utterby. There was hourly bus service right past the door, a vegetable garden, fruit trees and an assortment of outbuildings.  We also became aware of the war.  This part of the country is mostly agricultural. Except for the large port  of Grimsby, and sister port Hull on the opposite side of the Humber Estuary,  any military targets were miles away inland. Except for a couple of bombs on  the railway station, Louth and the surrounding countryside never suffered  more than a few stray attacks.  In France, a terrible battle was being fought as British and French  troops retreated to the port of Dunkirk to be evacuated. Although warships  were there waiting, only vessels of shallow draught could get in close enough  to the beaches to reach the men who waded out as far as they could. What followed was what was called the Miracle of Dunkirk, for hundreds and hundreds of little fishing boats, pleasure boats got the word somehow and took  off across the Channel to ferry those men to safety, with the entire operation  being under air attack the whole time. This was in early June 1940, and immediately afterward there began the intensive daytime Luftwaffe raids and the  valiant attempts to head them off by a few squadrons of fighter aircraft. This  was the Battle of Britain, which lasted well into the autumn when heavy losses  forced the enemy to change their strategy.  Many nights the sound of anti-aircraft fire would wake us, and we'd  hurry into some clothes and gather downstairs until all was quiet again. If  we'd been in town, we would have been aroused by the air raid siren and  stayed alert until the All Clear sounded. As we expected, both the ports of  Grimsby and Hull suffered many raids in the next few years. Besides high  explosive and incendiary, another nasty device put in an appearance following a raid - the anti-personnel bomb. It was disguised, and we were warned  never to pick up anything off the street that looked like a torch or fountain  pen - they were designed to explode as soon as they were moved. I saw one on  a street in Grimsby once, it was surrounded with sandbags and the area roped  off until the Civil Defence people could dispose of it safely. Our old home suffered a near miss - the house was O.K., but the air raid shelter in the back garden had been damaged. If we had stayed in town we would most likely have  been in it.  Great Britain is a country of countless churches, most of them hundreds  of years old; from the great cathedrals to the tiny village churches the bells  were rung to announce services. Their sound travelled for miles, in field or  valley, no matter where you were. Following the Battle of Britain, it was  expected that an invasion attempt would be made, in the case of our island,  the landing of parachute troops. Because of their very universality, the sound  of the church bells was to be our signal that an airborne invasion had started.  So throughout the war years, they were silent, and thankfully the occasion for  the breaking of that silence never arose.  90 WAR BRIDE  The men in our family were all serving in one service or another. They  came home for their leaves, and we heard many stories of their experiences.  All of them returned home safely after the war.  I was employed in the administration department of the local  Emergency Hospital for most of the war. It was an old infirmary that had been  upgraded for the reception of civilian casualties and service personnel. Part of  my work was interviewing the service people, taking care of the paperwork  and seeing they got transport back to their units. Eventually, all single women  were required to do some form of war work or to join the women's branches  of the services.  We stayed about three years in the Utterby house, but another change  was coming. It became necessary for mother to supplement her income in  some way, and when a business friend mentioned he needed a manager for a  small pub in Louth, it appeared to be a way out of her difficulties. There were  spacious living quarters above the public rooms and some older men employees to do the heavy work. She had the rest of us to help out as well.  So we moved into town to a lifestyle which revolved around the opening  and closing times of the business. It turned out amazingly well though. The  owner was obviously satisfied because mother was there for several years after  the war. We were always busy, had many regular customers even amongst the  service people, particularly the air crews who tended to pick a favourite pub  and make it an off-duty gathering place. The dart board was the centre of  attention in the bar room and was seldom idle. The Canadians sure took to  the game and were soon beating the locals.  As you can probably guess, this was where Len and I met, late in 1944,  when he and one or two of his crew began coming in whenever they were off  duty. He and I began dating, but he also made himself welcome with my  family.  He was flying bombing missions over Europe at the time. You had to  know when a raid was on. Louth was surrounded by aerodromes. The whole  evening sky from horizon to horizon was filled with the thunder of engines,  rising to brief crescendoes when individual planes roared over the town.  Then, suddenly he got word that his crew was being posted to  Scampton, near Lincoln. This was quite a jolt, but it happened all the time.  Many a wartime romance petered out when the fellow got posted elsewhere.  However, we kept in touch with letters and phone calls and managed a few  meetings. Len had obviously made up his mind, but I was still quite unprepared when he asked me to marry him. The thought of leaving England and  my family for a strange country so far away made me hesitate. I think I hesitated for about two weeks.  It was clear that the war was almost over. It was late in April, and there  were no more bombing missions. Instead he was making daylight mercy  flights over Holland. Beginning April 29th food supplies were dropped on  the Hague, the Racecourse and Rotterdam. Len told me later the strange  91 WAR BRIDE  experience of crossing the Dutch coastiine without encountering any opposition. They flew low over the enemy anti-aircraft batteries, which remained  silent, the crews idle.  Many years later, when Len  was serving as a Member of the  British Columbia Legislature, he  met a gentleman who remembered those food drops; he was a  young lad at that time and ran to  help pick up the food. That man  happened to be William  VanderZalm who eventually  became one of the province's  Premiers. And on another occasion, the 40th anniversary of the  freeing of Holland, Len was honoured at a special celebration  dinner given by the Canadian  Dutch Association in Kelowna.  They had been trying to locate  any of the air crews who had  made those food drops, to  express the gratitude of all the  Dutch people. Len was very  moved by such a gesture made by  people who still felt so strongly  after so many years.  It was left up to me to plan  our wedding, for Len was moved  again, this time up into Yorkshire.  May 5th was Victory in Europe Day. Celebrations were held throughout  the country. Len and I went to a dance at Louth Town Hall that night, and for  the first time in almost six years, the blackout curtains remained open, lights  showing everywhere. The Town Council arranged to have the Parish Church  floodlit. We all crowded to the windows to gaze at the brilliantly lit spire. Two  months later on July 2nd, we were married in that same beautiful church.  Weddings at that time were usually very spartan affairs. But it was amazing how many well wishers we had. I was offered the use of a pre-war lace wedding gown and veil. Another friend baked and iced a wedding cake. The  owner of a nearby restaurant offered to provide a meal and the use of her  rooms for a reception. And because of the scarcity, the local florist made my  bouquet of red roses and my bridesmaid's of sweet peas from his own garden.  The photographer let us use his garden for the wedding pictures.  Len and Ruth Bawtree on their wedding day, July  2, 1944. Photo courtesy of Len and Ruth Bawtree.  92 WAR BRIDE  Len had managed to acquire a tiny little Ford car, and it served us very  well in the next six months as we moved around Yorkshire, living with people  who were willing to rent us a couple of rooms. Len had arranged to stay in  England for as long as possible. So, he was involved in the cleaning up  process, as stations were closed down, bombs disposed of in the North Sea,  aircraft ferried to dispersal points, and an occasional trip made to fly home  prisoners of war from the continent.  Time ran out as the year ended, and he received orders to return to  Canada. We had Christmas with the family, and then set off for Bournemouth  on the south coast. It was our last trip in the little car. It had gone a lot of  miles and at times carried more people than it was ever designed for. The  tires were pretty bald and when we had the occasional flat, Len only had to  loosen the nuts and lift up the end of the car while I slid the spare into place.  Ruth and Len Bawtree in January, 1946. Their little car that served them so well is in the background. Photo courtesy of Len and Ruth Bawtree.  Bournemouth was bitterly cold with a howling gale and several degrees  of frost. The only source of heat in the room we stayed in was a gas fire that lit  up when a shilling was fed into the meter. It took an endless supply of  shillings to make the room bearable. We spent the next few days in cafes,  pubs and movie houses trying to keep warm. On our last day, Len sold the car  and put me on the train for Louth. January 7th, 1946, he left England on the  Queen Elizabeth.  Once back at home, I wrote to the Wives Bureau in London and started  the paperwork on getting my passage to Canada. Several weeks passed filling  out forms, providing birth and marriage certificates, before finally getting a  letter stating that I was now on a priority list and would eventually receive a  93 WAR BRIDE  WARNING LETTER - capital letters - informing me to be ready to leave on 24  hour notice. The Wives Bureau sent me many books and pamphlets, including one titled Welcome to War Brides that was just packed with information  about Canada. I still have the booklet..I'll just quote you the opening paragraph:  From the Atlantic to the Pacific a warm and sincere welcome  awaits the girls whom Canadian fighting men have married in  Britain. The people of Britain opened their hearts and homes to  the boys of Canada's Armed Forces. You will find that the hearts  and homes of the Canadian people are open to you. Going away  from Britain to make your home in a new world will prove quite  an experience; but you will have the advantage of starting out with  the best of prospects. Not only will there be a welcome for you  yourself but there will be extra warmth in it because your husband  has gained a place of honour in the minds of his fellow Canadians  through serving his country in war.  The Canadian government really did a wonderful job in helping us  make the transition.  Several months passed, with me watching every post. Then I came down  with a persistent sore throat and the doctor said my tonsils would have to  come out. It was maddening, but it had to be done while I prayed that my  WARNING LETTER wouldn't come until I was recovered.  It was June before my notice came, my trunks were sent ahead together  with the suitcase I would need on the boat. After tearful goodbyes, I was on  the train to London where I was directed to a waiting area where there was a  crowd of young women and children obviously making the same trip. We  were bussed to a hostel for a wash and brush up and a meal, then put on the  boat train for Southampton. We got off at the dock, and made our way to the  gangways of an enormous ship that was waiting there. It was the Aquitania, a  pre-war luxury liner that had been transformed into a troopship. In fact, as  Len told me later, he had travelled to England in 1943 in that same ship.  It was Sunday June 23,1946 when we finally sailed. A band on the dock-  side played "God Save the King" and "O Canada" as the ship slowly moved  away. We gathered on deck and watched the land slip away behind us, everyone very quiet, until a voice piped up, "I wonder what we're having for supper?" With laughter and anticipation, we went down to find our seat in the  great dining saloon. I've forgotten what the actual menu was, but I know  there was lots of meat, a great dessert, and soft white buns with real butter.  I know we thoroughly enjoyed all our meals on board, relishing all the things  we'd missed for the last few years.  I shared a cabin with seven other girls, and had our own bathroom.  Some of the other girls were sleeping 20 to 30 to a room in tiers of bunks, and  communal showers and toilets.  94 WAR BRIDE  The ship was full of returning service personnel, a very few civilian passengers and 1500 war brides, many with children. There were deck games,  and in the afternoons after the sun burned away the fog, we stretched out on  folding chairs in sheltered parts of the deck. It was possible to buy candy and  cigarettes at a canteen. There was a laundry facility, a hairdresser, and a cosmetic shop. There were big lounges where we could get together and visit,  play cards and listen to music.  We docked in Halifax on June 28th, and then waited on board while  they got us sorted out and put on the various buses and trains we'd be taking  to our destinations; a few of us had formed a group on board ship, and we  kept together when we boarded the train. None of us had ever travelled like  this, with beds being made up every night and a dining car. Each carriage had  its own black porter, and they sure had their hands full coping with babies,  bottles and diapers and toddlers always underfoot. They were most obliging  men, and tried to answer all the questions we fired at them.  The weather was extremely hot, and we were unaccustomed to such  high temperatures. There were fans at each end of the carriage, but they just  moved the hot air around, and we couldn't leave the windows open because  smuts blew in. The pillow slips were always dirty by evening. Sleeping on a  train was a brand new experience, and trying to dress and undress in a berth  was hilarious.  The wide variety of scenery as we crossed the country was absorbing,  except perhaps the prairies. The actual distances covered didn't really register  until we were instructed to retard our watches another hour, one more time  zone had been crossed. After the flatness of the prairies we were all eagerly  awaiting the sight of the Rocky Mountains. We were awake early as soon as it  was light enough, craning our necks trying to get a glimpse of the snow peaks.  We had all heard about the Rockies and pictured them in our minds, but the  reality was breathtaking.  The carriages were almost empty by now, wives and their children had  been dropped off at stops all across the country. The girls in my own little  group had all left. My first wedding anniversary had passed while still in  Alberta.  I had arranged to get off at Salmon Arm. As the train finally came to a  standstill, the porter helped me off with my suitcase. I looked up and down  the platform for Len, and there he was looking along the carriages for me.  But he looked so different. Gone was the neatly tailored blue uniform with  the wings and decorations on the breast and Flight Lieutenant's rings on the  sleeves. Now he looked very sunburned in casual shirt and slacks. The  bomber pilot I had said goodbye to six months ago had changed into a logger  and farmer.  He had borrowed a friend's car to come and fetch me, but before starting home I had to get some lightweight clothes to suit this climate. I'll never  forget the store he took me to, it was the EM. Shop where we explained to the  95 WAR BRIDE  saleslady my problem, and she and I had a wonderful time choosing what she  thought I would need. Then it was home to Ashton Creek for lunch with his  family. Len's mother had roasted a chicken and there were fresh vegetables  from her garden, and strawberry shortcake with her own strawberries and  cream from their cows. Although Len's dad had been in Canada since a  teenager, his accent proclaimed him English from his first words. I found it  reassuring.  After lunch, a neighbour, Bob Cunningham, arrived to take us up to  Mabel Lake for a few days holiday. The trip was "enlivened" as we rounded  one of the sharper bends and met another vehicle occupying most of our side  of the road. We wound up perched precariously beside a steep drop. The  other vehicle carried blithely on. Simard's pole crew was following, and they  all piled out and surrounded the car and heaved us back on the road. For  some time after that, people were fond of asking Len's English wife what she  thought of our mountain roads.  Then back to our new home which had been built by Len's grandparents. His grandmother, Mrs. Julius Bawtree, had passed away only three  months previously.  This was where my first taste of country living in the early days of the  war came in handy — no electricity, running water or bathroom here either.  It took a long time to cook a meal on the wood stove, it kept going out - mostly because I kept forgetting to add more wood. I was always having to relight  it. But summer and winter, the stove radiated heat, so much that together  with an open fireplace, it was our sole means of warmth for part of that first  winter. But in the summer, I soon caught on to doing as much cooking as possible in the mornings, then letting the stove go out.  Len's mother got me started on baking bread, washing the separator,  churning butter, and using the buttermilk. And that was only in the kitchen.  Since their home was just across the road, I was continually back and forth for  help and advice. We had a mutual love of all kinds of handicrafts. She introduced me to the art of quilting and took me to my first "quilting bee," where I  met most of the women of the community. They were all so friendly and  eager to make me feel at home here. After getting one of the quilts finished, I  discovered it was her wedding gift to us.  It didn't take long to meet everyone in the communities of Ashton and  Trinity Creeks. Invariably, their first question was: "Well! What do you think of  Canada, Eh?"  I found that there were many other war brides around Enderby and district, and the Enderby Legion Ladies made a point of having all come to an  afternoon tea and social to get acquainted. The nearest one to me was living  in Trinity, a Scottish girl, Etta, who married Stanley Wejr and had already  been a year here.  My first winter here was a revelation. The snow was so deep and lasted  so long, looking exactly like a Christmas card. And the cold! This was an  96 WAR BRIDE  entirely different matter from the few degrees of frost we'd experienced in  England. Sometimes you got a funny sticking sensation in the nose, that usually meant that it was down to Zero Fahrenheit, and the snow squeaked. Len  added a sawdust burner to the old furnace in the basement to help with the  heat. There was no insulation whatever and just single-pane windows. In spite  of all we could do, the fires burned out during the night and there would be a  coating of ice on the blanket where our breath froze.  Our first child, Angela, arrived in 1948, and son Leon in 1951, and a  second son in 1959. My mother re-married and came to visit us in 1952 and  again in 1975. We managed two trips back to England in 1973 and 1991.  Len's dad died suddenly in 1960, and his mother in 1989 in her 90th year. My  own mother reached the age of 92 and passed away just last year. We had visited just in time.  We have had our share of tragedy. Our youngest son, Peter, and  Angela's baby boy died in a house fire in 1979, and more recently, in 1991,  another grandson, Leon's eldest boy, Lauren, was killed in a motor accident.  When people asked me, as they frequently did: "Ruth, you must have  been dreadfully homesick when you first came here," I could honestly reply,  "Not for a minute." I've been too busy and interested to look backwards. I had  the best in-laws a green young wife could wish for, and a solid marriage that  will be 48 years old this summer.  From left: Len and Ruth Bawtree, Mavis and Dick Smith of Salmon Arm, in March 1979.  97 Kelowna, 1910  by A.R. Lord  The year was 1910. British Columbia schools reopened for the autumn  term on the third Monday in August and, as the just- appointed principal in  Kelowna, I arranged to arrive on the previous Friday, and so departed from  my home in Ontario with my railroad ticket and some thirty-odd dollars in my  pocket. When I reached Sicamous junction on Thursday evening and found  the south- bound train left the next morning, my remaining money gave me a  choice to make: should I eat or sleep? I ate.  Friday, a slow train to Okanagan Landing and a delightful sail down  Okanagan Lake, together with an excellent meal on the S.S. Okanagan  brought me to Kelowna, interested and curious because all day heavy smoke  from forest fires had prevented me from seeing more than a few feet, and  worried because my money was now exhausted and I badly needed a night's  sleep in a comfortable bed.  A.R. Lord was school principal in Kelowna from 1910-14. In later years, he was  instrumental in establishing the Faculty of Education at U.B.C. and served as president of the Canadian Education Association. He retired in 1950.  Editor's Note: This manuscript was originally offered to the Kelowna Daily Courier on  the occasion of Kelowna's seventy-fifth anniversary by Mr. Lord's daughter, Mrs.  Helen Colls. About ten years ago, it came into the possession of Mr. Frank Pells, a  member of the OHS Kelowna Branch, who thought it should have a larger audience. More recently, parts of this manuscript have appeared as Chapter 9 in Alex  Lord's British Columbia: Recollections of a Rural School Inspector 1915-36, edited by John  Calam (Vancouver: UBC Press 1991), pages 103-11. The Kelowna Daily Courier and  the UBC Press have kindly given us permission to reproduce it here.  In her letter to the Kelowna Daily Courier, Mrs. Colls writes: "During the forty  some years he worked in British Columbia, he taught in Kelowna and inspected  schools in the North, the Cariboo and Chilcotin, in the Okanagan, and in the Fraser  Valley, and up and down the B.C. coast. He made lasting friendships wherever he  went, and maintained his contacts with students and teachers over his lifetime in the  teaching profession. However, Kelowna remained as his favourite spot in the  province, and I think his Kelowna friendships were the strongest and best for him.  We managed to get back to Kelowna for every holiday, and my childhood memories  are of visiting the Trenchs, the Capozzis, and the Carruthers, as well as many other  Kelowna families...Do whatever you want with it - if it can contribute to Kelowna's  history, I will be very pleased, but I will leave it up to you. I would be very glad to  hear from you, and if I can offer any information, I will be glad to cooperate. As an  aside, I have bought property north of Kelowna (Carr's Landing) and if I'm lucky, I  may get to retire there."  98 KELOWNA, 1910  Half-an-hour later, I was convinced that British Columbia was a wonderful province and that Kelowna was the best part of it, opinions which forty-six  years later have only been strengthened. Tom Lawson, school board chairman, was on the wharf; he greeted me with: "Are you a Presbyterian?" 'Yes."  "Are you a Mason?" 'Yes." "Are you a Grit?" 'Yes." He beamed his satisfaction  and led me up the street to the Palace Hotel (predecessor of the Royal Anne)  and introduced me to Mine Host Peabody with the remark, "We'll find a  boarding-house for him in a few days." Then with, "Maybe you'll need this, it's  your August salary," he handed me a cheque and departed. The cheque was  for $100.00. Later, I was to learn that in British Columbia salaries were paid  for every month and that the August cheque went to the incoming teacher.  Both the amount and the method of payment seemed generous, tor in my  last Ontario school, where my "wages," to use the local term, were $550.00,1  was paid $100.00 in June and the balance in December.  My qualifications for the principalship of what, in those days, was not a  small school were meagre enough, since they consisted only of a degree from  Queen's University and three years' experience in Ontario rural schools. My  degree did meet the legal requirements for, in the absence of a provincial  university, a graduate of "a university in the British Dominions" could receive  a certificate to teach. I had, however, enclosed with my application a document which turned out to be much more important. Two or three years earlier, I had tutored the son of the Dean of Queen's Medical School; when he  passed into high school, I received an envelope which contained a surprising  cheque and a letter, and that letter was the enclosure. Dr. WJ. Knox, a member of the Kelowna School Board, was a graduate of Queen's, knew the Dean,  and the Queen's men, then at least, were clannish.  Kelowna, in 1910, had a population of 1650, as we proved later in the  year when the pupils of the Entrance class and High School conducted a census. There were, perhaps, two hundred Chinese, of whom two or three were  wives and half-a-dozen were children who would soon attend school. Natives  of other parts of Canada were in a majority, especially from Saskatchewan  whose recent "boom" had enriched many and enabled them to escape from  the rigours of the prairie winters to the fabled Okanagan. They brought  money, bought established businesses or opened up new ones and began  such ambitious developments as Central Okanagan Lands and Kelowna  Irrigation initiated by J. W.Jones and W.H. Gaddes.  The Kelowna district, as distinct from the town, was predominantly of  old country birth. Lord Aberdeen's investments in Coldstream in the 1890s  had been widely advertised in Great Britain and his purchase of the  Guisachan Ranch near Kelowna, which gossips still insisted was his refuge  from domestic importunities, extended the interest. Many of the people who  came to setde had independent means, not enough to live "at home" as they  might have wished to live, but ample for the needs of a new country. A ten or  twenty acre fruit "ranch," planted with many varieties, a couple of hired men  99 KELOWNA, 1910  to work it, and no economic worries about fruit prices induced something  close to a care-free existence. Cricket, polo, tennis, rowing, the Kelowna Club,  the Aquatic Association, along with the more Canadian baseball, lacrosse and  hockey provided, in part at least for the ranchers' considerable leisure time,  as did in winter the excellent and successful Music and Dramatic Society  which each year produced a Gilbert and Sullivan opera, a "Charlie's Aunt" or  a Music Hall performance with a really professional touch.  There was another side to this ease of living. It produced what  Archdeacon Greene of Kelowna's Anglican Church described as "Okanagan  inertia." Independent incomes did not tend to strengthen either exertion or  initiative and the fruit industry was to experience deep tribulations when,  later on, it had to be self- supporting. When World War I came, British-born  men went "home," usually at their own expense. Many did not return, and  the incomes of those who did were drastically reduced.  Few children of English-born parents attended Kelowna Elementary  School, which from the viewpoint of their fathers, was the equivalent of the  English "Board School" and socially undesirable. Some went away to  Boarding Schools, but the majority were taught in small local private schools  or occasionally by a governess. Because of this situation and also because of  the considerable proportion of bachelors in the area, I opened school on that  August morning in 1910 with only 235 youngsters divided among five rooms.  Kelowna Elementary School circa 1910. Presently it is the Brigadier Angle Armory. Photo  courtesy of the Kelowna Museum.  Four of these rooms were in a wooden building, which, I believe, still  stands just behind the United Church, at the corner of Glen Avenue and  Richter Street. Built in 1904, it was Kelowna's second school; the first, a one-  room building, was on Bernard Avenue, about opposite where the Post Office  now stands. It was there that D.W. Sutherland taught for a good many years  before going into business and becoming the city's well-nigh permanent  mayor.  100 KELOWNA, 1910  The fifth room was just across the street in the, as yet unfinished, new  school, a six-room brick building and externally, an architectural monstrosity.  The high school was also there, occupying one room which was fully adequate  for its one teacher and 21 pupils. It had been established in 1907 with  Elizabeth McNaughton in charge, a teacher whose record of consistent success has seldom been excelled in the province's history. Single-handed, she  taught all subjects in the three-year high school programmes for five years  until 1912 when L.V Rogers was made her assistant. At her own insistence,  the two exchanged positions in 1917, and Miss McNaughton continued as  assistant until her retirement.  Throughout those years, the standing of her pupils in departmental  examinations was always high, and of greater meaning, she retained the affection and respect of both pupils and parents.  L.V. Rogers was a Barnado Home lad who never definitely knew his own  age. As a small child, he was placed in a farmer's home in Ontario's  Northumberland County, attended the local "little red schoolhouse," and  passed the High School Entrance Examination. His high school course, in  which he had to support himself, was interrupted by two years of service in  the South African war and was followed by teaching in rural schools in  Ontario and Saskatchewan.  In 1911, he graduated from Queen's University and came to Kelowna.  When he left nine years later, he was President of the Board of Trade, a ranking officer of the provincial Masonic Lodge, and had twice been a Liberal  candidate for the Provincial Legislature. The rest of his life was spent as principal of Nelson High School, where the "Leslie V. Rogers High School" honours his memory.  During the four years of my Kelowna tenure, the growth of the school  was regular, and for those days, rapid. The new six-room school was soon  filled and the wooden building divided its four rooms between the high  school and elementary classes. In the summer of 1913, a twelve-room building  with auditorium was opened by the local Minister of the Crown, the  Honourable Price Ellison, with the optimistic assurance 'This structure will  meet Kelowna's needs for all time." Yet school opened in the autumn with  twelve classes enrolled and thirteen teachers. It was a daring innovation in  1913, to provide an additional teacher solely for music and art.  The problem of new arrivals was not one of classroom space, but very  much more of absorbing a great variety of backgrounds into our classes as  they were constituted. Hardly a week passed without the arrival of a father or  mother to enrol their children from Ontario, from Scotland, from Tasmania,  from Nova Scotia, from Northern Rhodesia, from Seattle, or from dozens of  different parts of the world. Few brought report cards and even when these  were presented, they referred to "Forms" or "Grades" which were not easily  translated into "Second Primary" or 'Junior Third Reader."  101 KELOWNA, 1910  For a few months, we applied a rough-and-ready formula: "How old are  you? How long have you been in school?" Then we placed them one term  behind our own pupils of the same age and experience. Occasionally, we had  to accede to an indignant parent as with the mother from London's  Shoreditch who refused to allow her "almost 7 year old" to enter First Primer  because he had been three years in school "already. In general, however, we  stood firm, confident in our position that these newcomers must secure the  facts of arithmetic or language or history which the British Columbia course  of study provided, and which their own did not. It seemed logical, it was the  general practice in the province, and in fact, as we were sadly aware, our own  pupils were usually "put back" if they transferred to, say, Vancouver.  Then, I learned a lesson. Early in January, a father and his son came to  the school. "We have just arrived from Fort William," said the former, "and my  boy will go in the Entrance class." I was starting to explain why he would have  to enter the Junior Fourth, when he added, "Here is his Report Card."  Ordinarily, the fact that the report showed a rank of fourth in a class of forty  in an Ontario school would have had no influence, but the name of the  teacher who had signed this one did. It was William Southon, who had taught  me for three years in my two-room Ontario school and who was my ideal of all  that a teacher could be. When he said a boy was good, he was good whether  he was in British Columbia or Ontario; nor could I face the possibility that  some day Will Southon might learn that I had questioned one of his pupils.  The lad from Fort William joined the Entrance Class in January, halfway  through the school year. He had taken no nature study and little art; his  knowledge of British Columbia history and geography was as fragmentary as  ours was of Ontario; the Ontario texts in literature were different, yet in June,  he passed the Entrance Examination near the top of the class. Thereafter,  newcomers entered the school with the standing they brought with them;  only rarely was a change necessary, and when one did occur, it was as likely to  be forward as back.  So came my first doubt of the perfection of a course of study, and for  that matter, of the infallibility of any educational authority. Thirty-five years  later, I was to find almost the other extreme in England, when London's  Chief Education Officer, Sir Graham Savage, introduced me to two of his  schools: in one, mathematics permeated the curriculum from top to bottom;  in the other, English was all important. I asked, "What happens to a pupil who  transfers from one school to the other?" The reply, "Transfers are common,  but pupils adjust readily. Teachers are much more important than what they  teach." They are indeed! Two Okanagan pioneers stand out in my memory:  Paul Murray and Clarence Fulton.  Paul Murray was more than an Okanagan pioneer. He once told me  that he had taught in Maple Ridge from before 1892 until 1906, when the  school board decided he was too old and suggested he resign. The next six  years, he spent in Peachland and was the wise and kindly mentor of novice  102 KELOWNA, 1910  teachers as they arrived; his advice saved me from several troubles during my  first two years in Kelowna. Next, he went to Union Bay, and in 1915, to Pitt  Meadows where he ultimately retired, only to be elected as Reeve of the  Municipality.  Thousands of pupils passed through his hands; hundreds made their  mark in the professions, in business and in public service. Perhaps the one to  win most distinction was his son and only child, Gladstone Murray, who  matriculated from Vancouver's King Edward High School to McGill  University, won a Rhodes Scholarship, finished World War I as an Air Force  Major and spent several years with the British Broadcasting Corporation  before being enticed to the management of the Canadian Broadcasting  System by the Prime Minister, R.B. Bennett. It is an indication of Paul  Murray's wisdom that he was strongly opposed to his son's acceptance of the  Canadian proposal.  Clarence Fulton came from Nova Scotia with a Dalhousie University  degree in 1902 to be principal and sole teacher of the Vernon High School.  Ten years later, he was dismissed after considerable school board debate  which was fully reported in both the local and coast papers. With the quick  decision which was characteristic of him, he retired to his fruit ranch. Six  months later, he came to Kelowna to apply for a vacant position on our staff. I  told him, "It is a Junior Third Class and the salary is $65 a month." His reply,  "I don't care what it is. I want to show them I can make good." He was with us  for a year and a half to our interest, satisfaction and occasional amazement.  These are illustrations: The janitor was called away suddenly. For a week,  Clarence took charge, stoking the furnace, sweeping and dusting; he saw a  job to be done, and he did it.  His family continued to live in Vernon. In the early spring for some special reason, perhaps his wife's birthday, he wished to spend a weekend at  home. Vernon was thirty-seven miles over a rough road and in 1913 there was  only one way to go. He left the school at four o'clock on Friday afternoon, fortified with two hard-boiled eggs in his pocket and walked home in ten hours.  On Sunday night, he made the return trip, and Monday found him as enthusiastic and energetic as after any other weekend.  "Closing day" in June meant many visitors: members of the school  board, civic dignitaries and scores of parents. This time, Mayor J.W. Jones -  twenty years later to become the province's Minister of Finance - whispered to  me that he had promised one dollar to each pupil in his daughter's class who  would make ninety percent in spelling. "How many dollars will I need?" She  was in Clarence's class, and I thought I knew, but it seemed wiser to ask. It was  fortunate we did for the Mayor had to go to the bank for thirty dollar bills.  He had satisfied himself and "them" that he had made good, and at the  end of June, he returned to his ranch, but his yen for teaching was strong. In  September, he was appointed to the Vernon Elementary School, a few years  later, he was made principal and finally rejoined the high school staff, where  103 KELOWNA, 1910  one day in the late 1940s, I last saw him. Ernest Lee, then Director of Physical  Education was with me when we met Clarence in the main hall. "Ernie," I  said, "I want you to meet a man who can teach Physical Ed. at sixty-five." He  replied, "Sixty-five nothing, I'm seventy and I taught Physical Ed. every day  this week."  Clarence Fulton was never a conformist. His methods of teaching were  his own and if they were in accord with the pedagogical theory of the  moment it was accidental. Time tables to him were a convenient reminder,  but nothing more. His pupils' examination results were fair enough but never  startling. Ifet, for me, he was one of the half-dozen best teachers I have known.  Some anonymous genius wrote of Mark Hopkins that "he sat on one end of a  log, a farm boy sat on the other" and made a university, for "education is making men." Today, the faces of Clarence Fulton's old time pupils light up when  they hear his name. He made men..  Central Elementary School, Kelowna.  104 HAPPY 25TH "RITA JOE"  by Dick Clements  Canada, in 1967, celebrated her Centennial. Across the line, President  Johnson struggled to build the Great Society and to end the Vietnam War. Dr.  Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy were still alive. In Mississippi and  Alabama, people were marching and singing "We Shall Overcome." White  Unitarian minister, James Reeb, and black civil rights worker, Jimmy Lee  Jackson, died side-by-side on the streets of Selma.  Canada had a new flag and the Canada Pension Plan, thanks to Prime  Minister Lester Pearson. Justice Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau, having  declared that the state has no place in the bedrooms of the nation, bid his  time to be anointed Pearson's successor. The term Canadian Playwright  ranked with Patagonian Hockey Player for incongruence and irrelevance!  However, in British Columbia, a United States citizen, Malcolm Black,  while serving as artistic director of the Vancouver Playhouse, had a 1966 clipping from one of the newspapers telling of the murder of a young native  woman in the city's tenderloin. With the idea of a season of original  Canadian plays dancing in his mind, Black passed the clipping to radio-television playwright George Ryga, with a commission to write a full length stage  play to be included in the Centennial Year schedule at the theatre. Easter  1967 found George Ryga sweating at his Summerland home overlooking  Okanagan Lake, to complete the first draft of the requested drama before the  deadline date for submission. The house was full of the usual quota of itinerant guests engaged in animated conversation, travellers' tales or singing folk  songs while enjoying the informal hospitality of their host. The playwright  sometimes listened intently, waiting for a line, a thought, or other inspiration  for the incomplete page sitting in the typewriter -downstairs!  The author finally triumphed and the first draft was ready to deliver. So  I offered to chauffeur the playwright and the script in my Volkswagen bug  (which had brought me safely from Grande Prairie, Alberta to Summerland).  The little-car-that-could proved equal to the challenge and we arrived at the  Vancouver Playhouse production centre. For Rita foe's creator, there was a surprise to find Malcolm Black departed and Canadian theatre stalwart Joy  Coghill occupying the artistic director's chair!  Dick Clements, a free-lance actor, met Mr. Ryga in October 1954. Retired from acting and following 20 years as a social worker in Alberta and B.C., Mr. Clements lives  in Summerland and is a member of the Okanagan Writers' League. Author's Note:  Playwright George Ryga was born in 1932 near Athabasca, Alberta. In 1962, he  moved to Summerland where he lived for 25 years. Mr. Ryga passed away at  Summerland November 18, 1987, leaving his wife Norma, two daughters, Leslie and  Tanya, and three sons Campbell, Sergei and Jamie. George Ryga travelled extensively throughout the world and was very well known in the theatrical circles of North  America as an esteemed playwright. Editor's Note: A fine collection of George  Ryga's writings has recently been published. Please see the book review on page 166.  105 HAPPY25TH "RITA JOE'  By autumn, decisions were made. George Bloomfield (who had worked  with Ryga in television productions of his work) would direct the Playhouse  production. Chief Dan George, well-loved for his portrayal of Old Antoine in  the CBC-TV episodes of Paul St. Pierre's Caribou Country, would play Rita's  father, David Joe. The title role finally fell to Saskatchewan born Frances  Hyland, a veteran of West End London theatre. August Schellenberg took on  the role of Jamie Paul, Rita's boyfriend and there was Henry Ramer as the  magistrate. Robert Clothier (later better known as Relic in The  Beachcombers), played the Roman Catholic priest. Wally Marsh portrayed  Mr. Homer who ran the Indian Centre. The cast included Rae Brown (who  became Molly of Molly's Reach on The Beachcomers), Patricia Gage,  Claudine Melgrave, Bill Clarkson, Merve Campone, Alex Bruhanski, Jack  Leaf, Jack Butterey, Leonard George, Frank Lewis and Paul Stanley. Anne  Mortifee and Willy Dunn sang and played the original lyrics and music.  The first audience attending Rita Joe came to the Playhouse on  November 23rd, and it was almost Christmas before the run ended. A couple  of years later, the cast was reassembled, with some new faces, by another  Playhouse artistic director, David Gardner. He directed the production for  presentation at the National Arts Centre in Ottawa, to celebrate the official  opening on July 9, 1969, with all manner of dignitaries and celebrities in  attendance.  Other glories lay ahead. The two Vancouver Playhouse productions  were choreographed by Norbert Vesak. This connection led to the Royal  Winnipeg Ballet mounting the Ecstasy of Rita Joe as a ballet that would tour  Canada, the U.S. and Australia. The Washington Theatre Club presented the  U.S. premiere of the stage play in the U.S. national capital on May 2, 1973.  Gratien Gelinas translated the drama into French.  Rita Joe has come a long way. Actors who were not born when George  and I travelled to Vancouver and presented the script to Director Joy Coghill,  have since portrayed Rita Joe on stage in a diverse and scattered collection of  communities throughout the land. There is an annual National Playwrighting  Contest now. There is a Union of Canadian Playwrights, who publish a catalogue of Canadian plays. In that long list, Rita Joe is among the most recog  nized and longest living  George Ryga at work in his home at Summerland.  106 The Big Windstorm 1932  by Doug Kermode  Some events of the past seem to create a lasting impression in one's  mind, and my memory harks back to an event I experienced July 10,1932.  It concerns the air pageant held in Vernon Saturday and Sunday of that  weekend; a follow-up to the very successful Air-Show held on September 30-  October 1-2, 1931. On that occasion, Vernon was the aviation centre of B.C.  for the two days of festivities. Over 6,000 witnessed this earlier colourful event,  but owing to the inadequate restraining barriers, probably no more than half  paid the 50 cents admission.  For the show in 1931,1 had finagled the committee into letting me be  the night-watchman over the various planes parked on the field, where the  high-sounding name of 'Vernon Airport" was posted. The site then, was to  the west of the current Cadet Camp. It was comprised of the main north-  south runway (gravel) and a corrugated-iron hangar, whose dimensions just  accommodated the folding-wing Gypsy Moth biplane operated by the Blakely  Flying School, under pilot Lowell Dunsmore (he later married a Vernon girl,  Jessie Langstaff and following the war became chief test pilot for T.C.A.).  Alongside the hangar was a wooden-floor-walled tent-topped shed complete'  with a tin heater and projecting stove pipe. This "office" was used primarily as  a meeting place and registry for aircraft. Assisting me for this 1932 pageant,  for which I again had the watchman job, was Frank Pearson, whose dad was  the instructor for Vernon and District School District Manual Training. Frank  himself later served in the Air Force training pilots in instrument flying.  During the night patrolling, Frank and I alternately huddled around  the tin stove, as we were experiencing cool evenings. Late that Saturday night,  as the dance for the pilots was breaking up, Fred Galbraith, chairman of the  1932 Air Show committee suddenly showed up with a steaming jug of hot coffee, a gesture we greatly appreciated.  Soon after he left, about 3:00 a.m., we heard a suspicious noise at the  northern edge of the airport. Flashlights in hand, we went over to investigate.  Here we saw a Swedish-born pilot, who had left the party, and with a trace of  hangover still apparent, was folding up the wings of his razor-back Fairchild.  Using our flashlights, we assisted him in his unsteady gait. Frank and I smiled  at the apparently unneeded attention he was paying to his craft. He thanked  us with admixture of Swedish and English, a hiccup or two and steered his car  in the general direction of his hotel downtown.  Doug Kermode is a past-president of the O.H.S. Vernon Branch. A retired professional photographer, flying has long been one of his hobbies.  107 THE BIG WINDSTORM 1932  Excepting for a few visitors en route to Kelowna, who gathered around  the lone street lamp to view those planes near it, the night was without incident. All aircraft had the customary wing and tail tie-downs driven into the  sandy-clay soil, except the big Lockheed Vega, stationed immediately behind  the temporary large metal hangar near the Gypsy Moth "bunk." The craft,  owned by Shell Oil Co. and piloted by Bill Fletcher, was resting with its prop  almost against the metal wall. A low-wing Aeronca, that was parked adjacent  to our tent "office," faced the south end of the field.  Our friend, the Swedish pilot, must have been psychic because soon  after 5 a.m., I noticed that a fair wind had risen, coming from the south. So,  as I checked the air-speed indicator of a nearby Waco biplane, I got a reading  of 40 m.p.h. My gaze then fell on a large six-place "Breese" craft that was now  rocking violently in the ever-increasing wind.  I headed for the lone telephone in the small hangar. I contacted the  National Hotel and advised the clerk to arouse all the pilots pronto and get  them up to the airport immediately. Leaving the phone, I noted that now the  finer-sized gravel was being propelled in my direction.  The gale-force wind had lifted the big "Breese" so now it had one wing  and a damaged stabilizer. Then, by climbing hand-over-hand on the high  wing side, my weight was just able to bring the wheels back to the ground.  Meantime, Frank, with the assistance of three or four visitors, who had come  along at that early hour, was attempting to turn some of the nearby craft  around so that the tails were into the wind.  Two of these early birds happened to be Eldon Seymour and Ernie  Buffum. They had positioned themselves on each wing of the low-wing  Aeronca which had not been tied down. They managed, after much buffeting  from the storm, to turn its tail into the wind.  Near the hangar was the concession stand of Gus Haros, one of the  founders of Nick's Kandy Kitchen. He had been dispensing chocolate bars,  cigarettes and ice cream during the two-day event. In that high wind, the canvas top was taking a terrific beating, sounding like a kettle drum. As I again  approached the hangar, it appeared that the telephone line had parted company with the adjacent pole.  Jack Taylor's taxi appeared, literally out of a cloud of dust, and four  pilots pushed against the headwind towards their Vancouver Aero Club Fleet  Canucks. Three of the pilots were still in their pyjamas. They managed to  untie their bucking machines and get them positioned—tail into the wind. At  this moment, there was a loud crack, and the canvas top from Gus' concession stand did some flying of its own. It was found the next day up in trees in  Poison Park about three quarters of a mile from the airport.  It was only pure good luck of having those early-bird visitors plus the  rush phone call, that prevented the mass destruction of thousands of dollars  worth of aircraft. The only plane temporarily out of commission was the big  white Breese, whose damaged tail was taken to the S.C. Smith Mill by local  108 THE BIG WINDSTORM 1932  pilot Bill McCluskey. He and his helpers worked all day and into the night to  put it into shape so that its pilot and crew could get away to their home-port  of Seatde the following Monday afternoon.  Another potential tragedy was averted that day when the gale- force  wind blew down the southwest brick chimney of the original Central (now  Beairsto) School. It crashed through the roof into a storage and classroom  below. Fortunately, being a Sunday and in the holiday season, the building  was empty. Later, when it was rebuilt, it and the other three chimneys were  reinforced with steel braces.  Central School in Vernon circa 1930s. Note the chimneys.  The storm blew down numerous trees throughout the district. It was the  most violent wind in the memory of many old timers.  The only thank-you I received for my efforts at the airport came from  Pat Reid, Canadian aviation pioneer and then pilot of the Imperial Oil Puss  Moth. He sidled up to me prior to leaving that Sunday afternoon, and in his  thick Scottish brogue asked if I would like to "Hawee a rride." So for a wonderful half an hour, I was his guest in the immaculate Puss Moth.  Neither Frank nor I can recall getting paid in those days for our night  watchman duties. It was an opportunity to be around the pilots and planes;  just to whiff the scent of freshly painted "aircraft dope" was enough for two  young airplane buffs. In retrospect, I'm sure that if a type of grass ever grew  on that old runway, it must have been the four-leaf clover variety because  good luck in large doses was needed on that occasion.  109 PEACE CAME SLOWLY TO SALMON ARM  by Roland Jamieson  Captain Louie maneuvered the C.R Lamb up to the Salmon Arm wharf  on the last trip of the season. It was not often that the lake was free of ice as  late as the middle of December. The boat would make one more trip to  Seymour Arm with a load of provisions for the settlers and logging camps to  last them through the winter ahead.  Among the passengers getting off the boat in Salmon Arm was a lean,  muscular logger named Ollie Anderson. He strode off the boat and up to  town, where he registered at the Canada Hotel on Hudson Street. Proprietors  Yip Chong and his cousin Yrp King looked at each other and exchanged a few  words in Chinese, undoubtedly remembering the visit the Seymour Arm logger had paid them the year before.  The Canada Hotel in Salmon Arm in 1932. The gentlemen on the porch are (from left): Yip  King, Yip Chong, and Mah Yick, a laundry owner. Salmon Arm Insurance now sits on this site.  Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson.  Several days later, Bill Quinn, a man from the Grande Prairie (now  Westwold) area, registered at the same hotel. He was followed a day or two  later by his brother, Art. With each new arrival, the two Chinese hotel men  looked worried, and spoke to each other in subdued voices. They decided  they had better move the player piano from its customary place in the lobby  sitting room to a back storage room, leaving only a small table and six chairs,  all ranged around the flat-topped cast iron wood-burning heater.  Roland A. Jamieson moved to Salmon Arm from Calgary in the 1920s. After 35 years  in the plumbing and heating business in Salmon Arm, he retired to Canoe in 1979.  This article was originally published in the December 23, 1986 edition of the Salmon  Arm Observer. It is reprinted here with their kind permission.  110 PEACE CAME SLOWLY TO SALMON ARM  As was his custom at Christmas, a week before that Hallowed Day, Yip  Chong set off to deliver, in person, a turkey and a box of Chinese ginger to  the Mayor, the City Clerk, and the Chief of Police. Yip's generosity extended  to many people in Salmon Arm throughout the year. No one was ever turned  away from the hotel hungry, and many of the rooms were occupied by men  from the relief camps at Annis and Tappen.  Following his own Christmas custom, Ollie Anderson had borrowed a  large enamelled pot from the hotel kitchen and had it simmering atop the  heater in the lobby. The known ingredients in the brew were cider, rum,  oranges and raisins. Those who expected to share it were asked to make a liquid contribution to the pot, and as time passed, the brew became more  potent and the fumes spread throughout the hotel.  The Quinn brothers, in their own Christmas tradition, were quarrelling  over a widow from Tappen, each claiming her affection and company over  the holiday season.  Several fights of lesser magnitude were in progress on the front porch  of the hotel, brought on with the drinking of that unsavoury mix, fuming  away on the hotel heater.  Most days I met Jim Brewster, my friend since elementary school days, at  Yrp's after Jim had finished work at the Overwaitea Grocery Store. Yip's regular customers sat at a large table at the end of the big hotel kitchen. Here,  over numerous cups of tea and an occasional piece of apple pie, we solved the  problems of the world. On into the night, we speculated on empires won or  lost, and how much longer the Depression was going to last.  This night, though, was Christmas Eve. The noise, and the fumes in the  lobby, were overpowering. I entered the hotel and walked toward the kitchen  at the back. Jim arrived a few minutes later. He looked at me and said,  'Trouble tonight!"  We decided to stay around, and it was a good thing. Yip would need  help before the night was over.  Just after seven o'clock, the quarrelling Quinn brothers were standing  at the foot of the stairs opposite the front door when in walked Ollie  Anderson and the widow from Tappen.  We heard a loud splintering of wood and angry shouts from the lobby,  followed almost immediately by the screams from the widow, who burst into  the kitchen shouting, 'Those crazy men are killing each other!"  Yip King ran to his bedroom and locked the door. Yip Chong began crying quietly as he tried to prepare a meal for one of his late customers. They  knew that the fears they had when these men checked into their hotel were  about to come true.  With the bravery of youth, Jim and I ran to the lobby and pushed the  combatants out through the shattered door onto the porch, where the fight  continued.  Ill PEACE CAME SLOWLY TO SALMON ARM  Yip Chong on left with Yip King his cousin inside the Canada Hotel Dining Room in 1932.  Photo courtesy of Roland Jamieson.  Ollie appeared to be winning, alternately punching the two brothers  who were still fighting each other as well, until the Quinns decided that Ollie  was the common enemy. The conflict had now moved out onto the street and  a crowd began to gather. Peace did not reign on Hudson Street, despite it  being Christmas Eve.  Jim and I went back through the hotel to the kitchen to reassure Yip  that everything would settle down. Gathering up three long pieces of slab  wood, some spikes and a hammer, we returned to the front of the hotel,  picked up the shattered door and spiked it closed, reinforcing our security  with the slab wood spiked across the doorway to the door frame. We returned  to the kitchen to console Yip, and stayed with him for a couple of hours. By  now the hotel was quiet. Several men were sleeping on the floor in the lobby.  The widow had disappeared, vowing, in the future, to stay away from drinking  loggers at Christmas time.  We dismantled our security job on the front door, making repairs of a  temporary nature, so that the door could be used again. Then we said good  night to Yip and started walking home. Jim said he had to check the coal-  burning heater in the Overwaitea Store, and would see me tomorrow. A sharp  wind was blowing small snow flakes that stung my face as I turned and  watched Jim walk toward the Overwaitea Store.  As I stood there, a man emerged from the Monte Bello Hotel. With his  head down, he walked into the wind diagonally across the street to where I  was standing on the corner of Hudson and Alexander. He stopped and asked,  112 PEACE CAME SLOWLY TO SALMON ARM  "Would you like to earn a dollar?" I had been laid off my job as a plumber's  helper in 1931 and had been without regular work ever since. It was now  Christmas Eve 1933 and I would do almost anything for a dollar. I recognized  the man. He was John Lacey, Notary Public, former mayor, and organist at St.  John's Anglican Church. He wanted me to accompany him to the  Presbyterian Church, which is now the Scout Hall on Harris Street, to pump  the organ while he played. I readily agreed.  Pumping the organ was something I knew how to do. Just six years  before, I had been substitute pumper at this same church. The organist, Mrs.  Pickering, had asked my mother if I could come to church a little early so she  could show me how. The pumping must be steady and regular to maintain a  constant air pressure. Her grandson, Herbie, whose job this was most  Sundays, was down with a bad cold. Our family had been Presbyterians for  generations, but had voted for church union and were now adherents to the  United Church. For a thirteen year old, one church was as good as another.  The wind had subsided and clearing skies revealed a nearly full moon  and a multitude of stars. We walked to the church in silence, entered without  turning on the lights, and mounted the stairs to the raised platform at the far  end of the church.  Mr. Lacey played for over an hour. Much of the time his eyes were  closed, and his face shone from an inner glow. I recognized some of the  music, having heard it in Sunday School, but it was when he played the  Hallelujah Chorus that I felt an exhilarating uplift. The moonlight, shining  through the windows, appeared brighter for a brief few moments and the little church seemed almost to be filled with angels. It was early Christmas  morning and at last peace had come to Salmon Arm.  113 Tributes and  Biographies  THE HERIOT  AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  by Joan E. Heriot  It is one hundred years ago this year since my father, Allan Douglas  Heriot, came to Canada at the age of sixteen. He was born in Highgate,  London, England, of an old Scottish family. In Berwickshire there is still a  large Heriot parish through which runs "Heriot Water," a tributary of the River  Tweed.  My father was the youngest of four sons in a family of six. My grandfather  was himself the youngest of seven sons. His oldest brother, my great-uncle  Robert, was co-partner in Hambro's Bank, and my grandfather, being able to  speak and write in six languages, was the translator for all the bank's foreign  correspondence. It was a general tradition in Scottish families that all the boys  received good schooling, with a year in Germany to complete their education.  My father, being the youngest, was "sent out" to Canada to make a life for himself, and in 1892 went to live with some cousins, the Hansons, to help on their  ranch.  Mr. Hanson had been, of all things, a banker in Constantinople, but had  been encouraged by two sons already cattle-ranching at Pincher Creek,  Alberta, to take up land for catde-ranching at Cannington Manor in southeastern Saskatchewan. Here his two sons joined him and the rest of the family.  Together they had become well-established, and were running a prize herd of  Angus catde. They also had some very fine horses imported from Ontario.  This essentially British settlement was some forty miles south-west of the  railhead at Moosomin and could be reached only by wagon trail across the  prairie. This sounds easy, but the wagons always had to negotiate the very steep  sides of Pipestone Creek. Nevertheless, grand pianos had managed to be delivered. By the time my father arrived, the Hansons had built a lovely stone house  Joan E. Heriot is the daughter of Allan Douglas Heriot. Retired, she lives in Vernon.  114 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  with "all English comforts." It was large enough to accommodate a family of  six, which included three grown-up sons and a teenaged daughter. Living and  working as part of the Hanson family, my father earned $15 a month, often  labouring from dawn to dusk.  Curiously enough, my father never spoke of the Hanson family individually, nor of the social life of the area, which was a total transplant from  Victorian England — with cricket, tennis, and even riding to hounds! The  things my father talked about were the fierce winter blizzards or the wide sky  with its magnificent sunsets or the abundance of wild flowers.  After perhaps three years with the Hansons, my father and Ernest, the  youngest of their three sons, came west to seek adventure. They pre-empted  some land at Deer Park on the Lower Arrow Lake. When I asked why was it  called Deer Park, my father said the magnificent climax forest made it exactly  like a park (now underwater, alas). What they were doing there is best  described by Dr. Jim Marshall in his obituary to my father: "Life as a prospector  in the mountains around the Arrow Lakes was much to Allan's lildng and he  and Hanson spent nearly four years at it, camping beside remote creeks and  emerging to make a grubstake with the onset of winter. They never struck it  lucky but they loved the life..."  While they were enjoying  themselves mightily in the West  Kootenays, the two young men  heard about the Klondike Gold  Rush, and that was it. At the age  of twenty-three, my father and  Ernest soon found themselves  humping their gear over White  Pass. This must have been in the  spring of 1899, because my father  always mentioned with a shudder  Dead Horse Gulch, then full of  dead horses.  My father and Ernest were  up in the Klondike until 1903.  They probably did a bit of  prospecting and gold-panning,  but as far as I can tell, they went  looking for adventure rather  than gold. Always ready to try  anything, they spent at least some  summers working on the paddle  steamers plying between  Whitehorse and Dawson, and the  winters cutting wood for the Allan D. Heriot in 1908 building his house  same, in Coldstream. Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot.  115 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  In 1903, having saved enough money, my father went home to England  for the first time, but this was just a short visit to see his family. Certainly, he was  back in Canada very soon, this time in Alberta at Pincher Creek, perhaps with  the idea of cattle-ranching with Ernest. It was there they met Captain "Teddy"  Wilmot, who had already taken up ranching. Almost at once, they heard about  the Coldstream Ranch offering land for fruit growing, and in 1904 they bought  18 acres of land straddling Coldstream Creek. Apparently it was their glowing  tales that persuaded Captain Wilmot and his family to follow them in 1905.  The land was already under cultivation as a wheat field, so they soon had  ten acres planted with apple trees, but there was still much to do. The creek  bottom, which was a good part of the property, was all bush. It was hoped this  fairly extensive bottom land could be cleared and planted, too.  Meanwhile, Ernest had married an English girl, and my father built them  a house overlooking the creek. But alas, Ernest's wife didn't take to life in  Canada, and in no time she dragged him back to England. So, much to his distress, my father lost his old friend and partner of many years and the "place  next door" was sold.  Luckily, he found a new partner in an old friend, Alec Reid, and together  they cleared the land and built a stable, a rig shed, and a chicken house. They  "batched" in a shack on the site of our future front lawn, and had some novel  methods of housecleaning. They bored holes in the floor which they fitted with  corks. When the floor needed washing they uncorked the holes, flung down  buckets of water, and swept the water through the holes!  In the summer of 1906, Mrs. Denison invited "Reidy" and my father to  dinner, "...to meet our charming new governess." There they met my mother,  Jessie Adeline Paulden, who was born in the Yorkshire town of Knaresborough.  She was the eldest of six — two boys and four girls. My grandfather died when  my youngest aunt was three, and my grandmother, who was a partial invalid,  died when my mother was only nineteen. At this age, she and my Aunt Ethel,  seventeen, went to earn their living while an aunt and uncle with a family of  four boys and two girls provided a "second home" to the rest until they finished  school.  It was after my Aunt Lucy had a job as a "lady companion" in Germany,  and my youngest aunt had finished college, when my mother felt really "foot  loose and fancy free" that Dorothy Chesshire suggested the two of them go out  to Canada. Dorothy had seen in a Colonial paper "...that some people in  Vernon want a governess and someone in Armstrong wants a lady help. Ydu can  be the governess, and I'll be the lady help. I find these two places are quite  close together so we could see each other now and again." My mother instantly  jumped at the idea - for one thing she longed to travel and for another she  could probably earn enough to go on to New Zealand to see her brother before  returning to England. So she applied for the job and got it! Thus in the summer of 1906, my mother came out to the Denisons to be governess to their  youngest daughter.  116 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  Mr. Herbert Francis Denison came from an old Toronto family. While  homesteading near Calgary, Mr. Denison had married Grace Burton Wood  from Chislehurst in Kent. In 1893, they came to the Coldstream with a family of  three.  By 1906, they were well established with a large house, a garden, orchards  and a flourishing dairy farm. Their two sons, Herbert and Norman, were eighteen and sixteen respectively and their daughter, Marjorie, a lively fourteen. My  mother's pupil-to-be, Florence Grace (she was known as "Babe" throughout her  entire life) was born in Vernon in 1896. Besides the family, there were the boys'  tutor, Mr. Hutchinson ("old Mr. Hutchy") and a French maid. So, with my  mother, it was quite a houseful.  Mr. and Mrs. Denison were very hospitable, often giving dinner parties to  which eligible bachelors were frequently invited. These parties were followed by  musical evenings, at which many, including my  father, sang and played. Miss Warren  ("Warrie"), later Mrs. Herbert Denison, played  the cello. And so it was that, soon after her  arrival, my father and Reidy received their invitation.  That evening proved a momentous occasion. On the way home, my father said to Reidy,  "I'm going to marry Miss Paulden."  Even while this plan occupied my father's  mind, there was still much to be done on his  land. The little apple trees had to be pruned,  irrigated and cultivated. The creek bottom was  still being cleared. All water had to be carried in  buckets up a fairly long hill from the creek. It  was Reidy who had the brilliant idea of having a  large barrel placed on wheels so that a reasonable supply could be hauled up by their horse.  So Reidy walked into town with the horse, and Vernon's blacksmith, Mr.  Bell, did the job. Walking this contraption back along the road, he decided to  try riding in the barrel. Having forgotten itwas made to tip, he soon found himself in difficulties! Useless as a chariot, the barrel did great service hauling water  until a domestic supply was, at last, available.  Life was certainly not all hard work, for there were many and varied distractions. In 1908, for example, it was decided to stage The Country Girl, the  proceeds to go towards helping to pay for the All Saints Anglican Church  organ, which is still in use. The operetta was a huge success, and people talked  about it for years.  Meantime, my father's wooing took a good two years! My mother was  thoroughly enjoying life at the Denison's, free at last from all family cares.  There were horses she could ride, and she rode all over the district! There  Jessie Adeline Paulden in 1909.  Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot.  117 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  were picnics on Okanagan Lake, where old Mr. Hutchy had a cabin and a  boat somewhere beyond Okanagan Landing. In the winter, they all went to  parties in the big sleigh, snuggled under buffalo robes and with their feet on  hot bricks. This was the life! Furthermore, she still wanted to visit her brother  in New Zealand. But it was not to be. My father persisted, and finally decided  the moment had come to "pop the question!"  My mother consented. Accompanied by Reidy, who also wanted to visit  England, she returned to her old homeland to obtain her trousseau, see the  rest of her family, and meet her future in-laws. She gave a wonderful description of her interview with all the Heriot aunts, sitting "...bolt upright like  Grenadier Guards." When Aunt Emma asked what she would like for a wedding present, my mother, thinking of the (then) excruciatingly cold winters in  a house without central heating, immediately suggested blankets. "Blankets!"  exclaimed the old lady, adding "Why not boot-blacking!" So Aunt Emma gave  them a pair of enormous silver fish servers. "Not much good" was my mother's later comment, "when Allan and I sat down to a piece of salmon you  could put in your eye!"  My parents were married in June 1909, in Vernon's All Saints Anglican  Church. The reception was in the Denison's garden. They went to live in the  house newly built by my father, on the edge of the bank overlooking the  creek. The site was beautiful, but life was far from easy. For one thing, there  was still no domestic water. The water main was only laid along Coldstream  Creek Road about 1911, and our pipe connecting us to this had to be laid in a  ditch at least four feet deep and some  hundreds of yards long. For my father,  who did all the work, digging this ditch  became a labour of Sisyphus. By the time  he had nearly reached the house, he was  having to dig through pure gravel which  was continually caving in. Since it was  already late fall, he put in a stand-pipe,  intending to finish the job in the spring.  But when spring came, there were more  pressing jobs to be done, and the pipe  remained for many a year!  In order to make some money  while the trees were coming into bearing,  sometime around 1910, my father put up  two fairly large greenhouses in which to  grow early vegetables. To keep them heated, he had to get up during the night,  often in zero weather, to stoke the furnace, using vast quantities of wood which  he had to cut himself. He grew lots of  Allan and Jessie Heriot (sitting) with Joan  in 1918. Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot  118 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  early vegetables, including cucumbers and tomatoes. After two or three years,  he found himself having to compete with Vernon's florist, Mr. Gray, who put  up a number of far larger greenhouses on his land on the south side of the  city. Thus, in the end, our early vegetables were just given away to friends!  Besides the greenhouses, "catch" crops were planted in the orchard:  strawberries (pecked by the robins) or tomato plants (caught by a late frost). I  remember the evening my parents were frantically making caps out of newspaper in the hope of saving them. As for the newly-cleared and planted creek  bottom, it proved to be a disastrous frost pocket and finally became the  horse's paddock. In some years, even the orchard blossoms were frozen -  meaning no apple crop at all that year. It was my mother's teaching and my  father's carpentry that kept the wolf from the door.  In 1910, my father built the teacher's cottage and several other things  for the Coldstream municipality and was often asked by friends to make additions or alterations to their houses. The Mackies, the Rev. Austin, and Mr. and  Mrs. Hugh asked him to build a large dormitory area onto the house they  were to use for their new prep school. He also built David Kinloch a garage  and later turned his bachelor shack into a presentable house when David  married Winifred Giles in 1921. At about that time, Miss Le Gallais asked him  to build a private bathroom onto her room at St. Michael's Girls' School,  where she was the headmistress.  In 1922, he built a house for my aunt and uncle to replace their "camp."  This house still stands at 13422 Westkal Road, and I lived in it for eighteen  years on my return to Canada in 1967 (my aunt had left it to me). Over the  years, he built sixteen houses in Vernon, one of which was for Mrs. Grace  Denison, after she had sold the farm and moved into Vernon in 1927.  Our own house, of course, often needed my father's attention! My  mother very soon asked for a bay window in the living room, and throughout  my childhood the house was altered so often I have difficulty remembering its  various phases. During the First World War, there was actually money to be  made "in fruit," and shortly after the war, the house underwent its final drastic  alterations, and the interior was lathed and plastered. While this was being  done, we couldn't live there, so we rented the large marquee tent that had  been used for part of the pickers' camp (of which more later). The winter of  1920-21 came very early, and the plasterers couldn't plaster, so we found ourselves living in the tent through at least two months of extremely cold weather. The inside of the canvas became encrusted with ice — I can now believe  an igloo must be quite comfortable for we never remembered being in the  least cold! For some reason work was still held up during the spring and early  summer — it was then that we suffered considerably from the heat!  The pickers' camp just mentioned was a wartime effort to get the apple  crop picked in the absence of so many men. Women came from all over,  many from Vancouver: teachers on holiday, nurses, secretaries — none, of  course, expecting any fairly hard work such as heaving sixteen-foot ladders  119 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  and forty-pound boxes of apples about. Some gave up in a few days, but most  persisted — many coming back in following years. My father was given the job  of secretary. He saw to their needs and dealt with their complaints. The  women were sent out in groups to the various growers, some of whom gave  them a very good time, taking them for Sunday picnics or swimming in the  lake. There was no lack of talent among them. At the end of each season they  put on a hilarious skit where individual growers were caricatured, and the  words of popular war songs were changed to refer to the vicissitudes of picking. These camps continued for a year or more after the war until enough  men were again available to pick the fruit.  The outbreak of war had led many families to go back to England when  their men joined up. Amongst those that did so were the family next door to  us, the Armstrongs, and the Grieves, while the Homer-Dixons left their small  daughter, Peggy, in the care of her aunt, Mrs. Kirkpatrick.  As my mother had decided to teach me the three R's herself, she was  soon asked to teach Peggy, too. So, every day, rain or snow, my mother and I  walked the two miles to the Kirkpatrick's for morning lessons. After the  Grieves returned in 1918, they asked my mother to teach their daughter,  Verity (Mrs. Clendon Jackson). By that time, Peggy was home with her parents  again, and our lessons continued, turn and turnabout, between the three  homes. This continued until we were all about ten, when we were sent to St.  Michael's (Miss Le Gallais') School in Vernon. My mother continued teaching the small children of her various friends, and it was quite a number who  passed through her hands: Daphne Grieve, Geoffrey and, later, Paddy Mackie,  Michael and, later, Jenny McGuire, Chris Brayshaw, Arthur Peter Venables,  Alison Layton, Geoffrey Tozer, Penelope Bailey and finally, Billy Jo and Peter  Tassie.  I believe it was in 1935, when I was in England, that my mother went to  teach at the Mackie's (Vernon Preparatory) School in the Coldstream. She  was always given the youngest boys who could not yet read, and the principal,  Mr. Austin Mackie, would often add a new boy after she had her class well  started — until she begged him to stop, and he agreed. One day, however, he  said "I'm sorry, Mrs. Heriot, but there is another new boy in your class, and  I'm afraid he can't read." In great annoyance, my mother walked into her  classroom, to find, sitting at one of the front desks, and wearing the school  tie, our black Labrador dog, Tinker! My mother taught there until she retired  in the mid-1940s.  While my mother was enjoying such a wonderful life with the Denisons,  she encouraged my Aunt Ethel to come out too. She arrived in Vernon in the  spring of 1908. In June 1913, she married Joe Edgar, Vernon's first and, for  many years, only electrician. They bought a lot on Long Lake (now Kalamalka  Lake). There they built a "summer camp," in which they had decided to live  permanently.  120 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  The Edgars' "Summer Camp" on Kalamalka Lake circa 1920 with their dog, Meggy, in the  foreground. Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot.  The camp was literally a large tent over a wooden frame and floor, the  side walls barely waist high. The canvas could be rolled right up on two sides.  This tent included quite a large sitting room and bedroom with a small bathroom tacked on behind. The little kitchen was separate, across a narrow alley.  It had a shingled roof and a large flap in its outer wall which could be raised  to make a large window. It was all very rough and ready at first, but my aunt  soon made it charming, with pink curtains and hanging baskets of flowers. A  little tent (still there) on the lakeshore was used as a (summer) spare bedroom and as a dressing room for  bathers - and the bathing parties  were frequent!  My aunt had a canoe, and  bought an ex-lifeboat with a centreboard which she intended to  sail. But in those days the summers  were extraordinarily calm, with  only an occasional sudden gale  springing up out of nowhere. I can  just remember her dropping the  sail as she came in and saying "It's  no good." Yet that same boat, with  its small outboard engine, carried  numerous children and their  mothers for picnics down the lake!  Before the railway to Kelowna was  built in 1922, there were several  delightful small coves with red-  a k       u       tl    jr 'Ģ             -l Mrs. Etne' Edgar in her ex-lifeboat/motor boat  sand beaches. Ihe Kirkpatnck drca 1918 on Kalamalka Lake. Photo courtesy  girls, Dallas and Phyllis, had built of Joan Heriot.  121 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  themselves a camp in one of these and we often went there. We also went to  Jade Bay on the other side of the lake. With a boatload of children, my aunt  never went very far, but on our own we would go far down the lake or to the  beach in Cosens Bay. Uncle Joe loved to fish and a favourite place was Carr's  Rock, about halfway down the east side of the lake.  During the big forest fire of 1917, which burned right across the far hillside and east for miles along the plateau, my aunt was quite often asked to  ferry some of the fire fighters to the scene of the action, since hers was one of  the very few motorboats on the lake at that time.  During the winter, the camp was battened down and my aunt would  have such roaring fires going in her two stoves that doors had to be flung  open even in zero weather. When friends grew chilly skating on the lake, they  would seek my aunt's little kitchen for a warm-up. I remember how the path  up to the camp was always cut this way and that with people walking up and  down on their skates. As for my aunt, she was out skating like a bird as soon as  there was any ice at all.  Aunt Ethel was not only good at skating, but also she was a crack shot,  often winning prizes. During those early years, my aunt was a keen photographer, developing and printing her own photos. In later years, she rather jokingly took a few painting lessons from Miss Topham Brown. Somewhat to her  surprise, she succeeded in producing some promising water colors.  Looking back, I wonder how she managed to do so much. From at least  her twenties she suffered quite paralyzing bouts of migraine headaches which  would last three or four days, and in later years had to be endured three or  four times a month. Yet, as soon as they were over, she would emerge shaken,  but ready for anything - a picnic down the lake, a camping expedition, or  whatever was suggested. She died in the spring of 1953, aged 72.  Christmas was always prepared and looked forward to for weeks ahead.  In the evening, my mother and I would sew little gifts for my aunts in  England, while my father read aloud, often from Dickens, but also from Ball's  History of the Heavens, which my mother said made her feel dizzy. There was  always a very merry Christmas party either at home or with Aunty and Uncle  Joe in their house at the lake. Children's parties were held at different  friends' houses, my father often being asked to be Father Christmas.  In our own house, my father's tradition was to have a Goblin to give out  the presents. My father made a goblin glove-puppet out of one of my old toys  and manipulated it from behind a corner grotto decorated with fir boughs  and Oregon grape. He devised a way of moving its eyes which made it  extremely life-like and many times the children, who had long ceased to  believe in Father Christmas, were quite convinced it was a real gobjin - some,  indeed, were a little afraid of it at first! But my father, in his assumed goblin  voice, laughed and chuckled and made so many jokes, they soon came up for  their presents, and even shook hands with it! On these occasions, my father,  having resumed his normal appearance, would often sit down at the piano  and sing comic songs which he had heard as a boy in England.  122 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  Although there were many play readings, perhaps the first play ever  staged in the Coldstream was a comedy called Freezing a Mother-in-law in  1916. My aunt was the mother-in-law and Uncle Joe the son-in-law. I am told  that the stage was the Wilmot's verandah and the audience sat on the lawn. I  remember vaguely seeing only a part of a rehearsal.  The Cast of The Country Girl in 1908. Front row from left: Miss Jessie Paulden (Mrs. A.D.  Heriot), Miss Ethel Paulden (Mrs. J. Edgar), Joseph Edgar, Miss Cameron, Russell Venables,  Mrs. "Early" Paton, Mrs. Richmond, Doug Pikarin, Mrs. Hodges. Back row from left: Allan D.  Heriot, Mrs. Holland, Captain Holland, Bert Denison, ? , Mr. Hodges, Mrs. E.S. Bate, Captain  Hutton (director), Rev. Lamber (producer), Miss Lumsden, Jack Reynolds, Mrs. Lambert, Miss  Tuck, Audrey Schoen (off picture), Carnac Morris, Jim Schoen. Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot.  What I do remember very clearly is when the Kalamalka Players began  in 1924. My father directed some of the plays and always had difficulty with a  certain lady who always wanted the leading part. Three plays in particular  have stayed in my mind: Eliza Comes to Stay, with Effie McGuire as Eliza; The  Maker of Dreams in which my father took the name part; and A Pair of  Spectacles in which he and Elizabeth Armstrong (The future Mrs. McClean)  had leading parts. I also remember the Players' 1927 Follies at the Vernon  Prep School. When there was a male singing part it was nearly always taken by  Uncle Joe Edgar. It seems to me the Kalamalka Players put on a play in  Vernon every year and then toured the area — perhaps going as far afield as  Penticton! The Players came to an end sometime in the 1930s after the death  of Harold Beattie, who was one of their regulars. Many others had moved  away.  Almost at once the Vernon Operatic Society was founded, and continued through 1939, performing Gilbert and Sullivan operas. By this time I was  in England, but I heard all about the wonderful performance given by Uncle  Joe as the judge in Trial by Jury. With the outbreak of war in 1939, the  Vernon Operatic Society came to an end. There was a blank of several years,  until the Vernon Little Theatre was founded in 1948.  123 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  My uncle directed one of their plays, but in the 1950s he became very  much involved in the B.C. Drama Festival Association, of which he became  the chairman. Jean Colebrook was the secretary, and Rita Campbell, Dennis  Leary and Fred Worth were the representatives. This meant a great deal of  work. The group was responsible for all the drama festivals involving groups  and schools from all over B.C. At the time, there was a particular interest in  these drama festivals which brought acting of a very high calibre to the B.C.  Drama Finals. As a result of all his activities and his encouragement of drama  groups, in 1960, Uncle Joe received the highest award given by the Canadian  Drama Association: the Association's gold pin and scroll.  The most unflappable of men, he must have been under considerable  pressure, for on his retirement he astonished Dennis Leary by saying, 'Thank  God I don't need to deal with the public any more!" At about this time, Uncle  Joe developed heart trouble, and he was not very well when my mother and I  came back from England for a visit in 1961. Nevertheless, after I had insisted  on caulking and painting his beloved boat (put away in a garage), he was  delighted, as I had expected, to take us for several runs down the lake - almost  like old times, but sad without Aunty Ethel, who had died eight years earlier.  Uncle Joe died the following spring, in 1962.  Ethel Edgar in June 1950. Photo courtesy of Joan Heriot.  Amongst the 1894 settlers were Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Frank Venables  with a family of three teenaged sons and a younger daughter, Vera. The eldest  son, Francis, quickly moved away but in the early days Russell and Peter  Venables were two of my father's closest friends. Peter with his wife Olive,  remained life-long friends. Peter was always interested in insects. When I was  six, he showed me his pinned collection of beetles and I was immediately  determined to become an entomologist, but it was my father in the end who  became the entomologist.  Peter had a job with the Dominion Entomology Branch with its office  and laboratory in the Court House in Vernon, and so had another friend, Art  Downes. These two men took me out "sugaring" for moths and gave me  124 THE HERIOT AND EDGAR FAMILY HISTORIES  Two Entomologists in the field. Allan D.  Heriot on left with Peter Venables.  Photo courtesy of Rita Campbell.  books of insects until I was thoroughly hooked - and so was my father! In 1928  or 1929, he was given a permanent job in the Dominion Entomology Lab. As  he had absolutely no scientific training, he started off as a sort of glorified  lab assistant. In no time at all, they discovered he was capable of high-powered research. Luckily, he was an  excellent draughtsman and well able  to produce the detailed drawings  required for his published papers. Dr.  Jim Marshall, later head of the branch,  writes in my father's obituary: "As an  entomologist, he was entirely self-  trained. Nevertheless, starting at the  age of 53, he did more original work  than some university-trained entomologists manage to accomplish in their  most productive years. But he was no  ordinary man..."  Shordy after the war, my father retired. The winter of 1948-49 was an  exceptionally cold one, and the main water pipe into the house froze in the  ground, compelling my parents to move into town for the rest of the winter.  As I had been unable to find a job in Canada that would allow me to  return, my parents decided to sell our old place and move to England. This  they did, and in the fall of 1949, they found themselves in a rented cottage in  Cornwall belonging to the sister and brother-in-law of Miss Jessie Topham  Brown. Finding the winters there rather too windy, they soon moved to a  small apartment in Mousehole, pronounced Mowzell, near Penzance, and  there they stayed until I found them an apartment close to my own.  Having seen the best of Canada, my father thoroughly enjoyed being  back in England, but my mother, who on the contrary had often felt homesick in Canada, now badly missed her many friends. The stairs to my parents'  Brighton apartment soon became too much for my mother, and a year or two  later my parents found a ground-floor apartment with a little garden on the  outskirts of the town.  From 1948 on, my father had a series of operations for cancer,  between which he always seemed to recover completely, but in 1955 his  condition became inoperable and he died in August 1955. I then went to  live with my mother. As mentioned earlier, in 1961, my mother and I came  back on a visit to see Uncle Joe and all our friends, and we had a wonderful  summer. We had planned a cruise down the Rhine for 1962, but, to her  intense disappointment, this was not to be. My mother suffered a stroke  which left her somewhat helpless, and worst of all, unable to read. She died  just before Christmas 1962.  125 THE TOZER FAMILY HISTORY  by Anita Tozer  William Arthur Reginald Tozer, known to one and all as 'John", was the  youngest son of Captain Morgan Price Smith Tozer. Captain Tozer was  named for his famous/infamous ancestor Morgan, the Pirate, and was very  proud of the fact. He was a Naval Officer and, later, "Surveyor of Wrecks" for  Lloyds of London. While he was in the navy, Captain Tozer felt that managing the family's money would be too much for his wife to handle so he hired  an estate agent. Unfortunately, the unscrupulous agent made off with most  of the family fortune!  John was born in  Bristol in the 1870s, educated  at Clifton College in Bristol  and then attended  Dartmouth Naval College  where he was dismissed for  smoking! Captain Tozer was  very upset by this turn of  events, so sent him off to  Canada to make his own way.  John Tozer arrived in western  Canada in 1892. He worked  at various jobs until the outbreak of the Boer War, when  he returned to England to  enlist in the British Army. He  served in South Africa as a  Lieutenant, but was wounded  and invalided home to  England. His father was sure  that the climate in western  Canada would be better for  his recovery, so, once again,  WAR. John Tozer in 1915. John headed for Canada  While in Africa, he had met Charles Watson who became his life-long  friend. Charles had told him about the Okanagan, and as he had cousins  there, the Stirlings, he felt this would be a good place to choose.  Anita Tozer is the daughter of W.A.C. Bennett and the daughter-in- law of W.A.R.  John Tozer. She resides in Kelowna.  126 THE TOZER FAMILY HISTORY  He arrived in the Okanagan in the early part of the century and  worked on the boats on the Shuswap Lakes and the Thompson River, tried  his hand at mining, helped to build irrigation projects and even worked on  catde and sheep ranches. At two different times, he managed to get back  home to England. Once, he signed up as Quartermaster on a Blue Funnel  ship, despite the fact that he had no seagoing experience! On his second  return, he joined up with the Stokes brothers to develop a pre-emption near  Nahun.When World War I was declared, and the news reached the  Okanagan he, along with many other British ex-patriates, left to fight. He  joined the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles in Vernon and went with them to  England for training. There, they were un-mounted and had to fight in  France as infantry. George R. Pearkes (later General Pearkes, V.C.) joined  the CMRs at about the same time. John was over age to enlist, but he lied  about his age and did not mention his previous experience and commission  in Africa and so was accepted.  Once again he was wounded, and gassed, but returned to Canada this  time. He went to Vernon in 1919, and like so many veterans in Canada, was  not allowed to reclaim his pre-emption. He worked on fruit ranches as they  were called. Ranches sounded much larger and more "romantic" than  orchards to the British. He managed several fruit ranches before he moved to  Kelowna in 1929.  He met young Molly Surtees in Okanagan Centre in 1919. Jane  Maureen (Molly) Surtees was born in 1900 in Sussex, the third daughter of  William Villiers Surtees and Mary Baker White. She was educated in France  and in Bedford College, Canterbury, England, but had no practical training.  During the war, Molly had worked in the Land Army and, when she was  seventeen, drove an ambulance in London.  After the war, her family decided she needed a change of scene so  made arrangements for her brother, Allen Surtees, who was already camping  in a tent in the Okanagan Mission area, to build a house for Molly. She, who  had never cooked a meal or done any housework, was sent out to keep house  for Allen and herself (Ursula Surtees now lives in this house).  When she arrived she discovered a large pack rat had moved in first.  Allen refused to remove the animal so Dorothea and Willie Walker took pity  on her and moved her into their house with them. Mrs. Walker felt that  Molly should not be forced to remain in this pioneer setting, but by the time  her letter to Mrs. Surtees in England had been answered, giving Molly permission to return, Molly was having too much fun and refused!  Social life at this time was strangely formal; there were many single  young men and not many single women so that every dance could be a social  triumph for a young girl! The men worked hard in the various ranches, doing  whatever jobs they could get, but most of them had very little money. Each of  them did have, however, a dress suit which came in handy for dances, teas and  other events. Many families dressed formally for dinner, even if there was  nothing much to eat and the surroundings were rough and uncivilized!  127 THE TOZER FAMILY HISTORY  In order to stay on, as she wouldn't stay with Allen and couldn't continue to stay with the Walkers, Molly went to Okanagan Centre with her friend  Nora (soon to become Nora Phipps) to work in the packing house there.  That was how she met John Tozer who was dazzled by this sparkling red head.  After Nora married, Molly went to stay with the Marjoribanks in Vernon  (Allan had married Ishbel Marjoribanks).  John and Molly married in 1921. The wedding was in Victoria, where  many of the young folks spent their winters. They saved their cash in order to  have a week or so in the Empress Hotel, enjoying all the comforts and customs of home.  John and Molly lived in the Coldstream area for the first few years of  their marriage. Geoffrey Howard was born in 1922 and Allen Hugh in 1928.  Worried that, because they could not afford to send Geoffrey to the Vernon  Preparatory School, a true bastion of British tradition, they might not be  accepted in the "proper" social circles, they moved to Kelowna in 1929.  John continued to  manage fruit ranches, and  later, became a Federal  Fruit and Vegetable  Inspector. He held this position until his death in 1953.  (Dr. William Knox, one of  Kelowna's pioneer doctors  wrote on the death certificate: "A very nice man, a  true gentleman and a hard  worker.") Molly continued  to work in the packing  houses, as did nearly every  woman in the Okanagan at  that time. Their third son,  William Anthony Robert  (Tony), was born in 1931 in  the new hospital. Their  three sons attended the  WAR. John Tozer with his three sons in 1931. William Kelowna public schools,  Anthony (Tony) is on his knee; Allen Hugh is at rear; and each graduating in turn  Geoffrey Howard is standing on the right of the picture.        from Kelowna Secondary  During their years in Kelowna, they lived in several different houses.  The first one belonged to Mr. Stallard who lived in a smaller place down the  street. They were very close to the site of the current Dorothea Walker School.  Their second house was on the corner of Patterson and Abbott Street, three  houses down from the Gore's Kelowna Steam Laundry. They lived in various  other houses on the south side and were on Royal Avenue for several years.  128 THE TOZER FAMILY HISTORY  The moving habit continued even after John died. By 1955, both Geoff and  Hugh were married and Tony was the only one still living at home. They lived  in several more homes before Molly died in 1972. Her last home was 278  Mathison Place.  Geoffrey Howard signed on as Cadet on one of the Canadian  Steamships in 1939 and continued in the Merchant Navy until 1950. He was  aboard the Empress of Asia when it was sunk by the Japanese in Singapore  Harbour, but managed to escape to Australia with the second mate and a few  others. In 1950, he went to the North West Territories to work as mate and  captain for Yellowknife Transport on the Mackenzie River, running from Hay  River as far as Tuktoyaktuk for several years. He married Anita Bennett,  daughter of Hon. WA.C. Bennett, in 1952. They have two sons, William and  Allen.  Anita and Geoffrey lived in Hay River, NWT, until they moved back to  Kelowna in 1955, and became motel owner/operators. Their first motel was  the Restmor Court, which they operated until they built, in partnership with  Bill and Audrey Bennett, the Inn Towner Motel in 1958. This motel opened  the day before the Okanagan Lake Bridge was declared open by Princess  Margaret. It is now known as the Abbott Villa. In the 1960s, with four other  couples, they built the Hi Arrow Arms in Casdegar. In 1972, Geoff and Anita  retired and moved to Lakeview Heights.  Their first son, William Russell Hugh was born in 1954 and spent his  first summer in Hay River. He is a Business Management graduate of  Okanagan College. Bill is a musician and now works for Sun Tropic in  Edmonton. Allen Richards, their second son, was born in 1956. He married  Linda Laird in 1981. They have two daughters, Laura Ashley and Alexa Mae.  Allen is Manager of the Capri Hotel.  Allen Hugh, John's second son, joined the Canadian Steamship  Company as Purser after graduation, and later, moved to Whitehorse where  he was Purser on the sternwheelers. He returned to Kelowna in 1952 and  became a salesman at Bennett's Stores before he went to work at Inland  Natural Gas (now B.C. Gas). He became Office Manager of the Gas  Company, a position he held until his early retirement in 1991. He married  Susan Agnes Kosolofski, a nurse at Kelowna General Hospital, in 1955. They  have three sons: George, Geoffrey and James. Hugh died in 1992. Susan still  resides at their family home on Francis Avenue.  Their first son, George Anthony Tozer, was born in 1957. He became a  Financial Planner and Manager with Investors Group in 1986. He married  Janice April Radelja in 1983. They have two children, Aaron Andrew, born in  1987 and Nikolette Olivia, born in 1992.  Geoffrey John Tozer, born in 1959, is in his last year of a Computer  Engineering degree at U.B.C. He hopes to start his own company in a related  field upon graduation.  129 THE TOZER FAMILY HISTORY  James Bruce Tozer was born in 1962. James has been working at Shaw  Cable since 1977. He started as a volunteer at age 17 and since 1981, has been  a fulltime employee. Currently he is employed as a Programmer, Producer  and Director.  John and Molly's third son, William Anthony Robert, took on the  responsibility of looking after his mother until her death. After high school,  he worked for Johnston's Grocery before he became a salesman at Bennett's  Stores. He soon became the Manager of Apex Finance, a position he held  until he became Executive Director to Premier Bill Bennett in 1975. Tony was  active in the B.C. Dragoons for many years. He became an Aide-de-Camp to  the Lieutenant Governors of B.C., a position he still holds.  Lieutenant Governor George R. Pearkes chose Tony to be.one of his  Aides soon after he attended a B.C.Dragoons summer camp in Vernon.  General Pearkes had been invited to become honourary Colonel to the  B.C.D.s and visited the camp to learn more about the regiment. He spied the  name, W.A.R. Tozer on the roster and asked to meet him. When Tony  appeared the General was most surprised as he had been expecting to meet  'John!" Two weeks later, Tony was asked to become an A.D.C. Tony married  Marleen Lins in 1975. They have two children, Robin and Trisha. Tony  became Government Agent for Kelowna in 1983.  Their first child, William Allen Robin, was born in 1976. He and his sister, Trisha Maureen Bennett, born in 1979, attend K.L.O. Secondary.  John Tozer, that nice, quiet, hard-working gendeman, has left his mark  in Kelowna; Tozer Avenue and Tozer Court were both named after him. His  children and grandchildren continue to live in the beautiful Okanagan  Valley, the place he chose so long ago.  Mr. & Mrs. Tozer Circa 1950  130 THE EVANS FAMILY OF OLIVER  by Agnes Sutherland  In July 1926, the Evans family began pioneering in the Oliver district.  We left our four-year home in the Green Timbers, as the area was known  then, between Whalley's Corner and Johnston Creek. Coming from a farm in  northern Alberta, we felt very confined. The memory of interminable rain  persists to this day.  One of our first impressions upon moving to Oliver was the lovely sand  you could squirm your toes into. Dad would say, "Do not go barefoot, there  are plants in the sand with spikes to grab you." Did we listen, brother Tom  and I? Of course not, and Dad, using the biggest pliers he could find, pulled  out the spines.  We lived in tents that first summer under a wonderful Ponderosa pine  tree, camping! We loved the experience as do the family to this day. On one  particular day, mother was serving a meal when dad said, "Don't move."  Mother stood still and dad whacked a dangling black spider with a lath from  just above her head. We have been cautious ever since.  Night-time we were serenaded with coyotes singing to the moon. We  would see their pad tracks in the sand. No doubt they were curious about us.  One day, Tom and I, being typical venturesome kids, scrambled up the hill  behind Fairview to the west of our eleven acres and there we found a cabin  near which we found nine coyote pelts stretched out in the sand.  Those days, one could hear the occasional mountain lion; always an  eerie sound. We never came closer than getting a whiff of the animal and seeing tracks.  Not long after we arrived, Grandfather Patenaude and foster brother  Alfred Ackerman joined the family which, at that time, consisted of Mom and  Dad, Tom, Esther, Evelyn and me. Olive, David and Clarke arrived later.  Grandfather Patenaude, who came from Quebec, had always worked in the  forest industry. He served as millwright at Savona and later he worked for  Pemberton Mills from which he took his retirement. However, after coming  to Oliver, he was persuaded by Harry Fairweather to help set up the first box  factory at the Oliver Sawmill. Finally, he retired altogether.  Agnes Sutherland is a musician and artist who lives in Oliver. In February 1992, the  Oliver Chamber of Commerce and the Oliver/Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society presented a pioneer award to the Evans family. Family members  present were Tom, Esther (Dawson), Evelyn (New), Olive (Barrett), David, Clark,  and Agnes (Sutherland).  131 THE EVANS FAMILY OF OLIVER  David and Georgiana Evans in 1943. Photo by Lumb Stocks, courtesy of Agnes Sutherland.  Among the friends that he made were Bill Graham, the Carmichael  boys and Billy Jones. These fellows were delighted to learn that mother was a  musician and that we owned an upright Grand Heinzman piano with a moveable keyboard. This keyboard enabled the pianist to alter the pitch of the  piano mechanically, thus saving the work of transposing to accommodate a  singer. Later, I discovered that Dorothy Amor's family also owned such a  piano.  On dance nights, the men would hoist the piano onto a truck, mom sitting in the cab. Dad would follow with the family. Off we would go, up to one  of the remaining large buildings in Fairview which stood opposite the Phelps'  home, where Ernie Dumais now lives. There was a room for dancing, one for  tots and babes, and another for refreshments. The ladies all supplied the  food.  The two Hoogstra brothers never failed to ask Russell Shaw's mother to  dance whenever a polka was announced. The couple would make great  swoops around the floor. Watching, I wondered how Mrs. Shaw ever kept in  stride with her partner. During refreshment time, the youngsters not sleeping  were in their element, serving. Mother would team with Bruce Skelton on the  fiddle and provide the music. Great fun!  We were a dancing, singing family. After chores, two or three evenings a  week, we would gather around the piano, mother playing. We sang, and if it  was a dance tune, dad would have one of us up on the floor. Mom was blessed  with what we term perfect pitch and a lovely mezzo-soprano voice, and dad  had "happy feet."  132 THE EVANS FAMILY OF OLIVER  In the era of the dirty thirties, as history has termed the ten "lost years"  from 1929 to 1939, life was bleak for many. Somehow, because of a diligent  and talented mother and an able father, we were a secure and happy family  considering the circumstances.  Dad came from a roving family. His father had been a mining engineer.  When dad was ten, the family moved from Pennsylvania to the Indian territory of Oklahoma where they remained for the next ten years. In those years,  the Workers' Union was formed. As I understand it, when the pressure was  put upon management, the mine owners just closed it down.  After three years of waiting, Grandfather Evans heard of the opening of  the North West Territories (which at the time included Alberta and  Saskatchewan). About 20 families of the Evans group moved from the deep  south to northern climes. Three of the families, including dad's, took up  acreage 60 miles north of Edmonton in Wesdock. Grandmother Evans and  dad stayed on the farmland and grandfather followed his engineering career.  After losing his first wife and child, Dad met and married Georgiana  Patenaude, the daughter of two French Canadian families. The Patenaudes,  descended from a Theodore Patenaude who came to Canada in 1666 from  Paris, finally settled at Tois Rivieres, Quebec. The maiden name of Mother's  mother was LaPlante. From this union mother inherited her many talents.  Her schooling was at a day convent where her talents were developed. Mother  always encouraged her children, even during the most trying years, to learn  all they could and to become as useful as possible. Needless to say, the ability  to create has been demonstrated through the crafts and a certain amount of  writing.  Those first years, Dad kept the larder filled. Because he was a good  hunter and fisherman, we were not without meat. Usually he brought home  one or two deer each year and my mother would preserve the venison in cans.  She would dry beans and corn, preserve fruits and make jam.  Grapes were planted the first year. I can still see the grapes in drying  racks hanging above the kitchen range. Wonderful raisins.  Into the eleven acre block, Dad brought bits of Oklahoma. He grew  peanuts, yams, various melons, besides the tomato and cucumber crops.  Sugar cane! As far as I know we were the only ones to have our own sorghum,  made from cane. Dad made a press and it was quite the operation rendering  the juice of the cane into sorghum through boiling. It was part of our diet for  several years.  In the early days of Oliver, tobacco was another crop to be tried. As Dad  had once lived in the deep south, he went along with the others. We grew  tobacco on the south acreage. Needless to say, another failure. Dad remarked  that both tobacco and cotton depleted the soil quickly, rendering it always in  need of fertilizer. After three years, three great barns were built by the government to store the tobacco bales, but there was no market so the venture  133 THE EVANS FAMILY OF OLIVER  failed. It kept dad in smokes though. One of our jobs was to remove the suckers from the plants, a task we enjoyed with Grandfather Patenaude early in  the morning.  Pioneering was a busy life for all families. Nothing was easy. There were  no push buttons or super markets. We had the South Okanagan Supply,  owned and operated by Sandy MacPherson, a canny Scot. Many blessed him  for his generosity and kindness for he never failed to help if possible. He was  not above giving credit. One of Sandy MacPherson's way of saying thank you  when paid was to give the children a bag of candy, to their delight.  The Evans Family in 1979: David (seated on left) and Evelyn; (from left) Agnes, Esther and  Olive; (rear left) Thomas and Clarke.  134 H.O. WEATHERILL  by Harry P. Weatherill  This is the story of my father, Harry  Ockenden Weatherill, a pioneer in the  fruit and vegetable industry in the  Okanagan Valley.  H.O. Weatherill was born at  Redcar, Yorkshire, England, July 26,  1884, the son of Henry and Agnes  Paxton Weatherill. His father, an architect of some repute, practised largely in  the areas of Stockton on Tees and  Middlesbrough. Public buildings in  these communities still stand today a  tribute to his design.  The family home was in Stockton  and young Harry grew up there along  with four sisters. His schooling was not  out of the ordinary and his only claim to  fame during these years was his prowess  as a swimmer, evidenced by several gold  medals that he won in competition.  Due to poor health, his father found it necessary to move the family to  Harrogate where he took treatments. During this period, Harry, as a teenager,  attended school in Harrogate for two terms.  He was not inclined to follow his father's profession, and in 1903, he  joined a firm of rug merchants in Sheffield to learn the trade. Life was pleasant enough but in the spring of 1907, his close friend, Bill Worsnop, persuaded him to come to Canada which, at that time, was being widely promoted by  the Canadian Pacific Railway. Mr. Worsnop had an uncle in St. Catherines,  Ontario, and this was the initial destination of the young men.  Work in the Niagara fruit belt was plentiful and the summer of 1907  found my father working in the canning factory of Dominion Canners in  Grimsby. While there, he boarded with a family called Chambers, and it was  there he met my mother, Flora Edna Grace Book, the sister of Mrs.  Chambers.  H.O. Weatherill.  Harry P. Weatherill, the son of Harry Ockenden Weatherill, left the Okanagan  Valley in the service of the Royal Bank of Canada. He returned to the valley upon his  retirement and now resides in Osoyoos with his wife Stella.  135 H.O. WEATHERILL  My grandfather had been crippled and worked from a wheelchair for  many years and, following pleas from the family to return to England, my  father did return late in 1907. After two months of suffering the weather of  North England and realizing that Canada was the scene of his future, he  returned to Grimsby never to go back to England.  Having decided that Canada was to be his home, Harry felt he should  see as much of the country as possible. In the spring of 1908, accompanied by  his future brother-in-law, Jack Chambers, he left by C.P.R. for Vancouver.  Harry and Jack travelled colonist class, carrying their own bedding and cooking their meals aboard the train. The first stop-over was Calgary, which they  found to be a rough and ready wide-open town where the water was not fit to  drink. After a few days, they went on to Vancouver.  Here they found a bustling community with plenty of job opportunities.  Being short of cash, they quickly signed up for a three-month stint in a logging camp up the mainland coast. As greenhorns, they found the work hard,  but it did provide a grubstake. They worked out their contract, then returned  to Vancouver. Jack Chambers carried on with logging, but my father answered  an ad for a travelling mail clerk on the Great Northern Railway running  between Vancouver and Seattle. The work was not too rewarding, and by the  end of the year, he was ready to return to Grimsby.  The Dominion Canners had decided to start an operation in the  Okanagan, and early in 1909 chose Ed Todd of their Grimsby factory to open  a canning plant in Peachland to put up local fruit. Mr. Todd asked my father  to go along as an assistant and this was his introduction to canning in the  Okanagan.  A small pack, largely peaches, was put up that year and my father stayed  on to get it shipped out. When this was accomplished early in 1910, he  returned to Grimsby.  Dominion Canners were encouraged by the operation, and, as a result,  took an option on a canning plant in Kelowna controlled by a local group  including the Fraser brothers and others. To monitor their interests, the company decided to send my father back to the Okanagan, and he left for  Kelowna early in 1911, after being married at the end of December 1910.  Settled in Kelowna, Harry soon became involved in all phases of the  canning operation which also included a soft drink bottling plant.  Subsequently, this last section was sold to J.A.S. Tilley, who carried on the business as Kelowna Bottiing Works.  In the early years, the principal pack was tomatoes and ketchup, a few  other vegetables and apples. With the outbreak of war in 1914, there was a  call for dried vegetables, and the company built an evaporation facility that  worked around the clock producing dried apples, potatoes, onions and  carrots.  136 H.O. WEATHERILL  By this time, my father was in charge of all production. The General  Manager was E.L. Cross. The company, after the war, decided to expand its  Okanagan operation, and arranged for canneries in Penticton, Oliver and  Cawston. This involved my father's travelling to these points frequendy to service operations. In 1923, he succeeded E.L. Cross as General Manager of  Interior Operations for Dominion Canners and became a member of the  Executive Committee of all British Columbia operations.  In late 1927, my father was offered a senior position with the Company  in Vancouver. He reported there early in 1928, but soon found there were  serious misunderstandings in respect to the position and provision for moving his family from Kelowna. The upshot was that he resigned from the  Company and took a position in Kelowna with Occidental Canners, his former competition.  In 1928, Thomas Bulman, who operated a fruit dehydrator in Ellison,  decided to expand his company, Bulmans Ltd., by building a new cannery  and dehydrator in Vernon. To cover the cost, public financing was required,  and with the help and guidance of Pemberton Securities in Vancouver, an  issue including bonds, preferred shares, and common shares was sold. To  make the issue attractive, the bond portion carried the guarantee of the City  of Vernon. The community would benefit from the new industry and large  payroll.  One of the conditions stipulated by Pemberton was that an experienced  person was to be engaged to run the plant and be a consultant on design. My  father was approached to take the position, and he took up his duties in early  1929. The family moved to Vernon in July 1929, after school closing. The  plant was built by Dominion Construction of Vancouver and was operative by  mid- summer.  The cannery handled a wide range of locally grown vegetables, the  largest packs being tomatoes and beans. The dehydrator processed fruits,  largely apples, and vegetables such as potatoes, carrots and onions.  The early 1930s were depression years, and the company struggled to  survive. The management personnel made heavy sacrifices in time and  money, but the plant continued to run and proved to be a solid contributor  to the economy of Vernon and district.  The outbreak of war in 1939 proved a great boon for the company.  Orders for canned and dried foods pressed the plant capacity to the limit,  and it was a prosperous time.  My father, who carried the title Vice President Operations, stayed on with  the company until he reached the age of 75 in 1959. In the latter years, he  acted more in an advisory and liaison capacity with the industry. During his  working life, he took an active role in promoting processing improvements  and public awareness of food values. To this end, he attended seminars on the  subject and served for many years on the executive of the Canned Foods  Association including terms as president. He died July 26,1963 in Vernon.  137 H.O. WEATHERILL  No review of my father's involvement in the canning industry would be  complete without mention of my mother, Grace Weatherill. Born in Ontario  of United Empire Loyalist stock, she was married and came west to Kelowna  with my father in 1911.  During his years in canning, my mother was always at his side. During  the canning seasons, she was in the plants both in Kelowna and Vernon carrying on in the position of Forelady. It was her responsibility to ensure an adequate and effective female work force for the proper preparation of the various food stuffs for processing. In addition, she provided first aid care and sanitary guidance.  The Weatherills worked as a team, and left their mark on the food processing industry in the Okanagan.  138 DR. WALTER F. ANDERSON  An Eulogy to Dr. Walter Anderson -1910 -1992  by Dr. Ronald Ellis  Today, we celebrate the life  of Walter Frederick Anderson. We  will miss him, but take some comfort in having known him. He was  a truly special person. Walter lived  a long and a good life, a life of service to his community and his profession. His contributions were  many. His background helped  make him special.  He came from the historic  part of Canada, Nova Scotia. Born  June 8, 1919 in Pictou N.S. of  Scottish descent, his father was a  medical doctor, as was his paternal  great-grandfather and his maternal  great-grandfather. Walter's father  died when Walter was still quite  young, but he was able to attend  Pictou Academy and Acadia  University for his Bachelor of Arts Degree. Walter had never seriously thought  about becoming a doctor despite his background, but a chance event at  Acadia decided him. A college roommate became ill, the doctor was called,  and after the visit the roommate felt much better. Walter thought, "What a  nice profession, to help people."  So he decided to study medicine and, just like Walter, he decided to go  to McGill in Montreal. He could have gone to Dalhousie in Halifax, but he  thought that had he done so he would have likely returned to Pictou and carried on as did his father. He wanted to broaden his horizons and make his  own way.  As a medical student, he obtained a summer job as a room clerk at  Wenakee Lodge in Ontario. It was there he met a petite young woman from  Alberta, Katherine Kirkpatrick. Katherine was a telegrapher and worked in  the newsstand of the lodge. She saw this young man and she thought, "He  looks interesting!" Interest was obviously on both sides as the meeting led to  Dr. Ronald Ellis has a practice in Kelowna specializing in Internal Medicine.  Dr. Walter F. Anderson.  139 DR. WALTER F. ANDERSON  instant romance and later, a long and happy marriage. When Walter died on  June the 8th, 1992 at his home with Katherine by his side it was on a special  day for them both - their fifty-seventh wedding anniversary. To love and to  cherish until death do us part; they kept their vows.  After McGill, Walter interned at the Montreal General Hospital. It may  have been Katherine's influence, but he came west to the Vancouver General  Hospital and Shaughnessy to further his training. He practised in Cranbrook  for a time, and then had the opportunity to come to Kelowna in 1938 to join  Dr. Stan Underhill. His association with Dr. Underhill was a happy one.  During the war years, for a time, there were only two physicians in  Kelowna: Walter and R. Stan Henderson. Dr. Underhill was a recruiting medical officer in the Air Force and for a time Dr. Knox was away due to illness. It  must have been a very busy and challenging practice.  Walter was always a caring and compassionate physician. As a surgeon,  he was particularly pleased when, in 1947, Dr. Jim Rankine came to Kelowna  to practise with him and with Dr. Underhill. These were the doctors who were  the founding members of the Underhill Clinic. In 1948, Dr. Hector Moir  came to join Dr. Knox, and that became the Knox Clinic. These doctors laid  the cornerstone of modern medical practice in Kelowna. Another happy day  was when Ewan Carruthers joined him to provide expertise in internal medicine and that just made it a little more fun for Walter. I know that he has been  very pleased that the younger doctors carried on the name of the Underhill  Clinic and are helping still to provide good medical care in Kelowna. It is  hard to believe that Kelowna now has more than one hundred and eighty  physicians. We know how much our town has grown, but we forget just how  much the medical profession has also grown to keep pace.  Walter liked obstetrics because, as he said, the patients were always  happy. And he loved nurses, and he appreciated that they were very special in  helping provide good obstetric care. As the medical community grew, he was  able to confine his practice more to obstetrics and gynaecology, although he  also helped out as an anaesthetist. He kept track of his deliveries: three thousand, four hundred and seventy-seven babies. Now that's a lot of night calls, I  am sure.  Walter was on the staff of the Kelowna General Hospital from 1938 until  he retired in 1986. In his latter years, when he retired from office practice, he  enjoyed doing surgical assists. In his profession, Walter was an example to his  colleagues. He was a member of the American College of Obstetricians and  Gynaecology and he kept up-to-date not only in his own field of interest, but  also in the broader range of medicine. He was president of the British  Columbia Medical Association in 1970, and he was made an Honourary Life  Member of the Canadian Medical Association in recognition of his service.  His community involvements were numerous, and I will not attempt to  list them all. Whatever organizations he joined benefitted from his input. He  was president of the Cancer Society, the Gyro Club, and the Kelowna  140 DR. WALTER F. ANDERSON  International Regatta Association for four years. He was appointed Regatta  Commodore in recognition of this.  Walter and Katherine were gracious hosts for many other Regatta activities during the summer months, and they did have wonderful garden parties  to do with the Regatta.  In 1981, he was made a Freeman of the City of Kelowna, a singular honour for his contributions to the community. In all of these activities, Walter  remained very modest, but he was always a very moving force.  In later years, he became interested in maintaining Kelowna's heritage,  and he was a member of the Heritage Society. His particular "baby" was in  helping preserve the Benvoulin Heritage Church and Guisachan Ranch sites,  and he was a past president of the Okanagan Historical Society, Kelowna  Branch.  Walter was also active, as we have heard today, in the life of this  Presbyterian Church, as was Katherine. Katherine was an organist for twenty-  six years; music was very much a part of the Anderson household. Walter  served as an elder for many years. Walter was always very positive; he felt very  strongly and was positive about the planned move of this church to North  Glenmore, and he regarded it as a necessary step in the growth of the church  community in Kelowna.  Another keen interest of Walter's was politics. Some of us used to joke  that there were only one or two good Liberals left in Kelowna, and Walter was  one of them. He was a very active member of the local Liberal party, and was a  delegate to two federal leadership conventions. It was always very educational  to talk politics with Walter; he had the long view, and he hoped, and I know  that he felt, that Canada would remain a united and a strong country.  Walter was always a voracious reader. He was expert at listening to other  people's points of view, but he usually countered them with a very factual,  terse comment.  Walter had coronary bypass surgery in 1985, and he said that he felt so  good after his open-heart surgery, that he felt everybody should have one. He  never worried and he knew that he was in good hands.  Unfortunately in 1988, Walter had a stroke, which left him with an  unusual complication which is termed "cortical blindness." He could see, but  he could not interpret what he saw, and I think that people didn't really know  that Walter couldn't see because he never let on. And I used to have difficulty  sometimes in knowing whether he could really see or whether he couldn't.  He became very expert at identifying his friends by their voices - you just have  to say, "Hello, Walter," and he would zero in and know who you were.  When he was unable to read, of course, he was unable to drive, and  Katherine rose to the occasion and became the chauffeur. They could often  be seen, driving around the town. At first, they had big, old Henry, and in  recent years they had little Chubby and Charlie, in the cars as companions.  Walter could be seen in the district, taking his little dogs, Charlie and Chubby,  141 DR. WALTER F. ANDERSON  for a walk or do you think it was the other way around? On some occasions he  would get lost and he would return home and say, "Oh, I got lost again!" On  one occasion a little boy said, "Mr. Anderson, Abbott Street is over that way."  He always found his way home.  Walter did not remain cloistered in his home, despite his inability to  see, and he continued to enjoy outings. Until shortly before his death, he and  Katherine would go out on a regular basis for lunch, and it was an occasion  for them to chat with old friends. Night driving was a problem and other  friends would take him to political meetings, Gyro meetings or symphony  concerts. His last public outing was to attend the Okanagan Symphony, which  he always enjoyed, just five weeks before his death.  He never complained, as all of you who knew him know, and he maintained a positive attitude throughout his life.  Walter was very fortunate to have some good women in his life; his  mother, his grandmother, and particularly Katherine, and because he did  such a good job in selecting a mate he had three wonderful daughters, of  whom he was very proud. He determined that they should all acquire a good  education, so that they could be independent, and they all did that. All of his  daughters were musical; they all say they're not nearly as musical as  Katherine. They all became good swimmers. They are all great gals, and he  was very proud of them and their families. He had a special god child, Sharon  Walrod, and all of this family were very much loved by Walter.  Walter always had a keen sense of humour. He had a delightful chuckle  and this helped him cope with things. At the end, he just got tired and weakened. His wish was to remain at his home, and he was able to do this because  his loving wife Katherine and his daughters, Marietta, Genevieve, and  Cynthia, rallied around him. I thought they did just a wonderful job. In all of  this, Walter was most fortunate, and we also are most fortunate in having  known Walter. May you rest in peace, o'good physician, your work is done!  142 RONALD RUPERT HEAL,  AN APPRECIATION  by Graham Campbell Blair Baillie  Often an appreciation of a person's character and achievements does  not entirely emerge until after his or her death, when family and friends are  moved to contemplate the extent of their loss.  The composite memory of his close survivors must certainly reveal  Ronald Rupert Heal as having been an exceedingly thoughtful man who had  grasped life firmly and lived it as plentifully. That life began in 1923 in the  eastern portion of the Fraser Valley in the settlement of Rosedale, where his  father and mother, Steven and Gertrude Heal, had a prosperous berry farm.  It was here that Ronald first attended school with his older brother Jack, now  deceased, and his younger brother, Geoffrey, presently of Portage La Prairie,  Manitoba. Friends made at this time in his life remained his friends throughout all the years to follow.  His father, Steven, was a hard-working, prudent Englishman who strove  to advance the well-being of his family in an era when agriculture in the  province was undergoing substantial organizational changes and when a  severe business depression was gripping the whole of North America.  Ronald's mother, Gertrude, was a woman of strong character who saw to it  that her children were able to take full advantage of whatever educational,  cultural, and religious opportunities were open to them, primarily in their  farming community and, when possible, in the nearby city of Vancouver.  In 1936, in association with Vancouver businessmen, Ernest Buckerfield  and Austin Taylor, Steven Heal became a part owner and the manager of B.C.  Pea Growers Ltd., a company formed to produce, process, and market peas,  beans, and lentils, with headquarters at Armstrong, B.C. The family moved to  Armstrong in that year, taking up residence on Pleasant Valley Road in a  handsome tudor-style house, "Bank House," designed by architect Samuel  Maclure and built by the Bank of Montreal circa 1910 on three acres of treed  land.  Ronald thus commenced his adolescent years in the North Okanagan  Valley, consciously enveloped by its great beauty. There, his outstanding  scholastic and musical skills soon became evident, and the foundations of his  lifelong commitment to the United Church were laid. However, notwithstanding his father's new business responsibilities, times were such that Ronald and  his brothers were obliged to help out by working in the family firm.  Graham Campbell Blair Baillie is a retired lawyer and businessman who resides in  West Vancouver. Blair, Ron, and Sandra were all members of the Players Theatre  Club at the University of British Columbia, and they remained close friends throughout the years. This tribute is a composite of eulogies delivered at Penticton and  Armstrong on 9th and 10th November, 1992.  143 RONAID RUPERT HEAL, AN APPRECIATION  In 1941, Ronald began his freshman year at U.B.C.in its Faculty of  Agriculture, having won the David Thom Bursary for Students in Agriculture.  His undergraduate career was marked by high academic standing as well as by  enlistment in the campus Canadian Officers Training Corps, and membership in the renowned Players Club - a centre of intellectual, dramatic and  musical interest in the university. He was acclaimed in leading roles in several  plays, including Sheridan's The Rivals, which was presented in Vancouver  and in various locations throughout the province in 1942. Ronald Heal loved  the society of people and because of the genuine interest which he took in  them, he made friends easily among his fellow students.  Consonant with his high sense of personal responsibility to family,  friends, and country, Ronald terminated his studies in mid-1943 to join the  Canadian Air Force, graduating as a Flying Officer and serving in the Atlantic  Theatre War until the end of W.W. II.  Returning to U.B.C. after the war, he graduated with first-class honours  as a Bachelor of Science in Agriculture in the spring of 1947. On September  9th, 1947, he was married at St. James Church, Vancouver to the lovely  Alexandra Effield Gordon whom he had met several years previously in the  Players Club. Almost immediately thereafter, they departed for Minneapolis,  Minnesota, where Ronald commenced his post-graduate studies in  Agriculture and where he was granted his Master of Science degree in  Agronomy and Plant Pathology in 1949.  Sandra and Ron Heal at the Kalamalka Lake lookout in 1948.  144 RONALD RUPERT HEAL, AN APPRECIATION  Ronald and "Sandra's" eldest son, Stephen Bruce, now living in Salmon  Arm, was born in Minneapolis in 1948. Upon his return from Minnesota,  Ronald worked in the family business with his father and with his brothers,  Jack and Geoffrey.  Ronald and Sandra lived for a few years in the old Presbyterian manse  in Armstrong. Some time in the early 1950s, they moved to a little farmhouse  in Spallumcheen. These were happy times, Ronald having written to a friend  in Vancouver that he and Sandra were finding life "very rewarding." During  the years they resided in these two little houses, their children, Alexandra,  now of Creston, Jane, now of Clearwater, Thomas, now of Armstrong, and  Edward, now of Creston, were born.  In the early 1960s, Ronald and Sandra purchased Bank House from his  father and resided there until 1989, when they retired to Penticton. Yningest  child, Philip, was born in 1967 while the whole family lived on Pleasant Valley  Road. By 1985, all the children had grown up and left their home. Philip now  lives in Vancouver.  Ronald's life in Armstrong was a complete one in every sense, containing as it did, a full measure of service to and concern for family and community.  His love and care for Sandra, who predeceased him on 9th September  last, their 45th wedding anniversary, and for each of his children, their spouses, and his grandchildren, were pre-eminent. His desire for his children was  to provide for them an environment in which they could develop physically  and mentally and become the best they could be.  An earnest Christian, Ronald served Armstrong's Zion United Church  as a Trustee, Elder, Sunday School Superintendent, and sometime Choir  Master. He was especially known for the quality and length of his contribution  as church organist. He was a friend and confidant of most of the ministers  assigned to that church down the years, and took an active interest in the  affairs generally of the United Church of Canada.  The range of his other community service and interests remained wide.  Included were terms as Chairman of the Armstrong-Spallumcheen School  Board, as alderman of Spallumcheen Municipality and as Worshipful Master  of the historic Spallumcheen Lodge Number 13 of the Order of Freemasons.  Music, of which he was a serious student, held a special place in  Ronald's life. The organ, piano, and his own splendid voice were his instruments which enhanced the rituals of his church and which gave his family  and friends much pleasure. In the course of his adult life, he earned an  Associateship with the Royal Conservatory of Music of Toronto (with respect  to the piano) which, because of his other duties and responsibilities, he was  obliged to pursue gradually over a period of years.  An interest in the French language was also followed over a period of  years, his studies finally culminating in a diploma from the Institute of French  Studies at Tours, France, in 1982.  145 RONALD RUPERT HEAL, AN APPRECIATION  In addition to all the above and to running a demanding business after  the death of his father, Ronald found some time for such recreations as boating, fishing, and swimming. He was a keen bridge player and golfer. Though  he played to win or succeed in everything, it was never at the cost of fairness,  good sportsmanship, or friendship.  It is important to know about Ronald Heal's achievements, but also  important to understand that all these activities took place in the more or less  constant presence of various threatening illnesses and other disabilities  throughout most of his adult life, one of which claimed that life on Friday, 6th  November, 1992. He bore these impediments with uncommon courage and  determination because he played, as in all else, to win the game of life. It is  amply evident that he did so in accordance with the highest standards commended to all those who profess to be Christians.  On one or two occasions towards the end of his life, Ronald remarked  to a friend that he had not really done enough - implying that he had not suf-  ficientiy utilized the advantages given him by God. Surely the evidence is all to  the contrary and that he accomplished more than enough for himself and for  all those whose lives he touched.  The Bank House circa 1930s. Built by the Bank of Montreal for its manager, itwas located on  Pleasant Valley Road and was home to several generations of the Heal family for over fifty  years. Photo courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  146 Dr. Ragnvald "Roy" Haugen  by Dawn Jamieson  Many years ago a quiet young  man, Ragnvald "Roy" Haugen, left his  home in Norway to travel to the  University of Manitoba where he had  been accepted to study medicine.  Though Norwegian was his first language, Roy Haugen attended instruction in English and graduated with  honours in 1934.  Roy's attentions were not exclusively on his studies in Winnipeg. He  met Edna Magnusson, a young  woman of Icelandic origin, and they  began a lengthy courtship. The couple were finally married in Kamloops  in 1936.  Dr. Ragnvald "Roy" Haugen.  Roy completed an internship at Victoria Hospital in Winnipeg, another  at Fort William, Ontario, and a third, focusing on surgery, at the Vancouver  General Hospital. He Also practised medicine at Tranquille in Kamloops.  After the wedding, Roy gave Edna instructions to go to the Woodward's  Store and buy a year's supply of groceries. The newlyweds were moving to  Alexis Creek, west of Williams Lake, where there weren't any stores.  After the Alexis Creek sojourn, the Haugens moved to Enderby where  Roy practised medicine for two years.  In April 1939, the couple moved to Armstrong where they made their  home for the next 53 years. "Doc" established a busy practice in the small  rural community and, for many years, was the only doctor in town. This often  meant 24-hour work days and being constantly "on call." In his quiet way Roy  dedicated his life to the community he had chosen. His residence was within  a few steps of the hospital.  Roy did not let his attention to the community be limited by his medical  practice. He served terms as president of the local Cancer Society and the  Chamber of Commerce. His dedication to Armstrong was recognized in 1971,  when he was named a Freeman to the City, and again in 1993, when he was  posthumously awarded a Canada 125 Medal in recognition of service and  community effort.  Dawn Jamieson, a teacher and school psychologist, lives in Armstrong. Her husband,  Jack, is the third generation editor and publisher of The Armstrong Advertiser.  147 DRRAGNVALD "ROY"HAUGEN  Long before Participaction was a word in Canada, Roy was constantly  encouraging his patients to live a healthier life style. For a patient who  entered his office feeling down and looking for a magic pill to cure his ills,  "Doc" might gently suggest that "9 holes of golf wouldn't hurt." Roy tried to  live what he recommended. He golfed, curled, and enjoyed bicycling for most  of his life.  "Doc" firmly believed that the mind as well as the body needed exercise.  He enjoyed bridge, though his games were often interrupted when he left to  attend to the needs of a patient. The study of languages was a lifelong pastime  for Roy. In Norway, he approached his second language, English, in some  courses at university, and this interest continued as he studied French,  German, and Italian.  His quick mind also had an inventive bent. If he did not have just the  gadget he needed for some activity, he would often manufacture something.  Nurses at the old hospital often tell of the baby incubator that he made up  quickly one evening when one of his small patients needed a little extra environmental control. "Doc" made a few trips between his basement and the  hospital, collected an old apple box and a spare light and produced instant  environmental enhancement.  Roy and Edna raised two children: Ann (Walter Del Blanco), who  resides in Montreal; and Roy (Helene), who is in Kamloops. Dr. Haugen's  influence of service in the medical community has passed to another generation for Ann is a dietician working in a hospital, and Roy practises medicine  in Kamloops.  Dr. Haugen was born at Skjak, Norway on 24 November 1908. He died  12 August 1992 at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital after a fall at his home. The  community of Armstrong quietiy mourns a great man.  The Armstrong Hospital. Photo courtesy of the Armstrong Museum.  148 MARY ELIZABETH ORR 1910 -1992  by Doreen Tait  Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Gartrell Orr  was born at Trout Creek Point near  Summerland on July 24, 1910. She was  the daughter of Fred Gartrell, who came  as a child to Summerland in 1886 with  his parents, Mr. & Mrs. James Gartrell.  Her mother, Anna Elizabeth, came to  Summerland in 1902 with her parents,  Mr. 8c Mrs. R.H. English. The Gartrell  family were long time orchardists in the  Summerland area.  Educated in Summerland, Mrs.  Orr went on to attend Vancouver  Normal School, but due to her mother's  illness she never taught in the regular  school system. She did teach Sunday  School at the Lower Town United  Church and was involved with the  church for over thirty years. As well, she  worked with the Canadian Girls in  Training. She was a Rebekah, becoming  Noble Grand of Faith, Rebekah Lodge  #32. In 1939, Mary and Donald Orr were  married and operated an orchard in  Summerland. They have one daughter,  Elizabeth (Rod) Souder of Peachland.  Mrs. Orr's intense interest in the history of British Columbia, and especially the Okanagan Valley, led her to become involved in many historical  associations. She was a founding member of the Summerland Museum and  Arts Society, and served as a director. She was later honoured with a life membership in that organization. She was also a life member of the British  Columbia Museums Association, and an active member of the B.C. Historical  Federation. From 1983 to 1987, Mary was member-at-large of the B.C.  Historical Society.  Her most notable contribution to the preservation of local history was  her work with the Okanagan Historical Society. She held key executive positions between 1977 and 1991, being president in 1983-84. She was a life member of the Society. She continued to serve as a Director for the Penticton  Branch, and Branch Representative to the Parent Body until her passing.  Doreen Tait is a member of the O.H.S. Penticton Branch Editorial Committee. She resides  in Summerland and is a Past-President of the Summerland Museum & Arts Society.  Mary Elizabeth Gartrell Orr in  1985 receiving the Certificate of  Commendation from the American  Association for State and Local History  for her work with the O.H.S. and the  museums community in B.C. Photo  courtesy of the Summerland Review.  149 MARYEUZABETH ORR 1910-1992  On September 9, 1985, Mary was honoured by the American  Association for State and Local History at its annual meeting in Topeka,  Kansas, when she was presented with their Certificate of Commendation. The  citation reads: "For Dedicated Support to the Okanagan Historical Society  and the Museum Community of British Columbia."  In 1985, along with two other couples, Mary and Donald Orr were honoured as Good Citizens of Summerland.  Mrs. Mary Elizabeth Gartrell Orr passed away in Summerland, May 19,  1992 at age 81 years. She is survived by husband Donald, daughter Elizabeth  Souder, two grandchildren, one brother, Lloyd Gartrell, and numerous nieces  and nephews. She was predeceased by a brother, William Frederick Gartrell.  i  ifj  g^^^^^^^^                                                                                               T% T»f #i>  ^^^^^                 Wttffj  pmn  d  KB  ■  11' OMffl  i\\  i&  HiTM  M  -  jwHf  Mary and Donald Orr in 1985 on the occasion of being honoured as Good Citizens of  Summerland. Photo courtesy of Elizabeth Souder.  150 EUGENE HUGH CLELAND 1900 -1992  by Mollie Broderick  Mr. Eugene Hugh Cleland was an important contributor to the  Okanagan Historical Society, the Penticton Museum and St. Saviour's  Anglican Church. He is sadly missed by his many friends and the community  in which he lived.  Born in Eugene, Oregon on November 20,1900, he moved with his parents first to Comox then to Rossland, arriving in Penticton when his father  was the first permanent minister of St. Saviour's Anglican Church (then located on Fairview Road) from 1907 to 1921.  At age 14, Mr. Cleland began his working career in the Canadian Pacific  Railway's Penticton office as their first telegraph messenger, but later was promoted to secretary to the Superintendent of the Kettle Valley Railway, Andrew  McCulloch. In 1945, he had become Chief Clerk. He then retired to tend his  orchard on the Upper Bench in Penticton.  However, his love of the railway drew him to accept further employment  with the C.P.R.'s Penticton office and he was then appointed Chief Clerk and  Office Manager of the railroad's real estate department in Vancouver (which  subsequendy became Marathon Realty), a post from which he finally retired  in 1957.  A kind and generous man, a gentleman in every true sense of the word,  Hugh Cleland was a loyal friend with a ready smile. His friends and associates  were legion. Never ruffled and always willing to assist others, his sense of  humour and kindly advice helped many community organizations to achieve  their goals.  Mr. Cleland was a former member of the Penticton School Board, a  long time member of the Penticton Gyro Club, a sixty-year member and Past  Master of Orion Lodge No. 51 Masonic Lodge, and a Past District Deputy  Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of British Columbia. He became a director  of the Okanagan Historical Society, Penticton Branch in 1969; its president  from 1972-74 and a member of the Editorial Committee. He was also,  archivist of St. Saviour's Anglican Church.  Mr. Cleland met Miss Eva Shure in 1928 when she visited Penticton with  the Chautauqua, and following a long distance romance carried out between  Penticton and New York, they were married in New York in 1935. The  Munson twenty acre orchard later became their home, and there they raised  their family.  Hugh and Eva Cleland were honoured in May 1991 by the City of  Penticton and Penticton Arts Council for their tremendous contributions to  community life and the arts.  Mollie Broderick has been active in OHS for many years at the executive level. She is  retired and lives in Okanagan Falls.  151 EUGENE HUGH CLELAND 1900 -1992  Mr. Eugene Hugh Cleland passed away at his home in Penticton on  February 20, 1992. He is survived by his loving wife Eva, a son Hugh of  Toronto and daughter Marilyn Barnay in Penticton; four grandsons and several nieces and nephews. He was predeceased by his brothers, Dr. John  Cleland and Dr. Harold Cleland, both of Pordand, Oregon and his sister  Mary Cosdy of Penticton.  Hugh and Eva Cleland in 1982.  152 IRVINE ADAMS 1902 -1992  by Doreen Tait  Mr. Irvine Adams was born in  Swan Lake, Manitoba and came to  Summerland with his parents, Mr.  8c Mrs. Silas Adams, in 1904. His  schooling began in the one-room  Garnet Valley School. He started  painting as a young man and was  largely self-taught, except for two  semesters at the Faulkner Smith  School of Applied and Fine Arts in  Vancouver. His preferences were  with watercolour, ink and pastel.  Mr. Adams is best known for  his pastels, becoming internationally recognized in the early 1950s,  when he was represented in a Paris  gallery on the first of seven occasions. His work was hung by the  Royal Society of British Artists and  the Royal Institute Galleries of London, England, and the National Gallery in  New York. He is listed in Who s Who in American Art, Who s Who in the West,  and in the Dictionary of International Biography.  His Okanagan and mountain scenes capture the subtle changes of  nature. Many of them are now an important record of local history. His works  are part of many public and private collections in the Okanagan, other parts  of Canada and the United States.  Mr. Irvine Adams passed away in Summerland, June 5, 1992. He is sur-  Irvine Adams in 1956 on the occasion of  Summerland's Golden Jubilee.  vived by his wife, Doree  n. Irvine was alw  ays read  y to  give encourage  ment to  young artists.  Doreen Tait is a member of OHS Penticton Branch,  and  a member of its  editorial  committee. She resides in  Summerland and  is a Past- President of the Summerland  Museum and Arts Society.  .  153 Donald Sherman McTavish  by Staff Reporter for the Salmon Arm Observer  Funeral services were held March  29 for Donald S. McTavish, a lawyer who  handled the affairs of generations of  Shuswap residents, and influenced the  lives of many more Canadians through  his long service with the Royal Canadian  Legion.  McTavish died March 24, 1993, at  the age of 82.  Born November 4, 1910 in  Vancouver, Don McTavish attended UBC  and Oxford Universities, launching himself on a law career spanning four  decades.  During World War II, he served in  the RCAF, much of it air search/rescue  work, stationed at Malta, where he met  and married his wife, Cinie.  He was discharged in 1946 with the rank of Squadron Leader, and  shortly thereafter, moved his family to Salmon Arm where he established a law  practice.  Over the years, McTavish had considerable influence on local affairs. He  served as municipal solicitor, was active in Rotary, was an instigator and  founder of the Rotary Village Seniors Housing project, and arranged acquisition of the land on which it was built.  He served as president of the Shuswap Housing Society, and was a  founder of the Mika Nika Club, active here many years with the aim of bridging the gap between our white and native residents. He was also long active in  the Chamber of Commerce, which he served as president; was a founder and  early president of the Arthritis Society in the Shuswap, and served as president of the Yale Bar Association.  Don McTavish was for many years a leading light in the Liberal Party, for  whom he sought a federal nomination and ran provincially.  Donald Sherman McTavish.  The Salmon Arm Observer has given the Okanagan Historical Society permission to  reproduce this article.  154 DONALD SHERMAN McTAVISH  It was through his Royal Canadian Legion activities, however, that  McTavish reached out most broadly. His energy and enthusiasm saw him rise  rapidly at the local level and beyond. He served two terms as president in  Salmon Arm. In 1945 he was elected fourth vice-president of the Provincial  Command. He became first vice-president in 1949 and Provincial president in  1951. Continuing his efforts he became third Dominion vice-president in  1954, second vice-president in 1956 and Dominion vice-chairman in 1956,  spending those years fighting for and influencing veterans' legislation at the  national level. He then returned to the provincial council, serving as  Provincial chairman for six years and as Dominion representative for the  Pacific Command, before resuming activities at the local branch level.  He inaugurated the Legion Travelling Gavel program which still carries  on in this zone, was instrumental in writing the foundation that every Legion  Branch uses in drafting bylaws, and convinced the North Okanagan zone to  purchase the land and establish the Gardom Lake Veterans' Rest Camp.  He was a recipient of the Legion's Meritorious Service medal and was a  life member of Branch 62, Salmon Arm.  He is survived by his wife Cinie, and four children, Donald Paul, Ian,  Charles, and Gillian.  155 Introduction  The student essay contest was ably chaired this year by Ron Willey.  Working with Dr. Duane Thomson of the Department of History at  Okanagan College in Kelowna, they prepared a package of documents for  students to interpret. The winning senior level essay by John Redenbach of  Osoyoos was an interpretation of that material. One of the letters has been  reproduced here to give readers an idea of the challenge presented to the  students.  The winning junior level essay by Graham Jantz of Summerland was  on the early history of the Coldstream Ranch.  The prizes this year were donated by Jamie Browne in honour of his  father, J.W.B. Browne, the founder of CKOV in Kelowna. We are grateful  for his continued financial support. We would also like to thank the teachers who took time to work with their students on this interesting and  important project.  Robert Cowan  Editor  From left, Graham Jantz, the Junior Essay winner from Giant's Head Elementary in  Summerland, John Redenbach, the Senior Essay winner from Osoyoos Senior Secondary in  Osoyoos, and Robert Cowan, editor, at the Annual General Meeting in Kelowna, May 2, 1993.  156 STUDENT ESSAYS  Letter of Charles Mair to G.T. Denison  Kelowna  Okanagan Mission, BC  6 Oct 1892  My Dear Denison,  I have had more than my "handful" since I came here, examining this  region, building, receiving a larger stock of goods, trading etc. and haven't  been able to write a decent letter even to my wife & children. I did launch out  in a business letter to Robert Gault who, thinking it very good description,  went 8c published it. The consequence is that I am inundated with letters  from all parts of eastern Canada greatly to my disgust. I never knew anything  like it. Why can't a friend get a letter from a friend, read it 8c stow it away if he  esteems it, without sticking it into the newspapers? I have had enough of this  experience in time past in the North West, 8c want no more of it. I am going  to write no more descriptive letters to anybody — not even to you, or Gault,  or anybody else.  There are glorious mountains here, swarming with grizzly bears, jump  ing deer and wapiti, with here and there big-horns & goats; the lake beside  me rivals Loch Lomond, only that it is 75 miles long; there is a climate which  might fetch the angels down to build their tepees here; there are Siwashes,  half-breeds, English bloods spending their money 8c dreaming like cow-boys  — the thing is like nothing I have ever before seen. I am delighted, though I  have not seen things fairly yet. My son-in-law is with me and we are doing well  and shall have our time fully occupied, for we are starting another post in the  heart of the gold-mining below here. This is the gold range 8c lies west of the  Selkirks. Placer digging is going on a few miles from this point 8c large purchases have been made by an English syndicate below here of a group of  claims whither stamp mills and other appliances are being sent by every trip  of the Lake boat. Next year will see wonderful excitement in this region, for it  is a gold-bearing, not a silver, country. The valleys spread everywhere among  the mountains this Okanagan valley being the most extensive in the Province.  They are not large, but are very productive. Every kind of fruit matures here  except oranges & lemons 8c I fancy they will ripen too. The almond tree is in  full bearing 8c melons, mush 8c water, Cantaloupes, etc. are fed to pigs. I never  saw such hops as are grown on the Aberdeen Estate — only planted this  Spring. What with fruit, fine vegetables such as tomatoes, hops, vines 8c winegrowing, this region will be a exceedingly rich one. The one draw back is that  a lot of political shysters at Victoria, and old chaps who packed in over the  mountains from Oregon & Washington have got hold of all the best land,  both bottom and mountain. These people know nothing of Canada. In fact,  they deride everything Canadian and the sooner the country is municipalized  the better so that they may be forced to sell to better men.  157 STUDENT ESSAYS  One thing I am satisfied about that this Country will support a very large  population yet, for the area is great, and it is important that Canadians should  come in. But they must have plenty of money. This is no country for a man  without means. Bottom lands sell at $60 an acre, and mountain (range) land  in proportion. But on the other hand a family can not only live but make  money easily on the 20 acres of good bottom or bench land here. The mining  enterprises springing up make an easy 8c good market right at the door 8c  there is the whole North West to supply with fine fruit etc. It will be a very rich  Province, but it must be Canadianized. It is not that yet. The feeling is "British  Columbia", —first, last 8c always, 8c the people know nothing of the mixed  farming industries of the East. There are thousands of cows 8c no butter or  milk. Butter is all imported. Milk is tinned. But I have not time to go into matters. I may say there is no politics here, which is a blessing in one way. You  never hear the word Canada, and you never hear the word "annexation." It is  a province sui generis, each valley with its little secluded community, shut off  until yesterday from the outer world, and resembling, in some ways, the Swiss  Cantons. As for morality there does not appear to be any at all. Two brothers  here, originally from Denmark, have quarrelled over an incestuous intercourse with a half-witted sister, and the half- breeds hold that at certain stages  of entertainment, or, as a matter of hospitality, women — wives or sisters —  are common community. It is a sort of patriarchal simplicity. There are good  people, too, and numbers of nice old country families — all sorts of people  come here to enjoy the scenery & sport. The wife of the Archbishop of \brk  was here two weeks ago and all sorts of other big wigs. I fancy chalets and all  that will spring up and that many will winter here by and by. If Aberdeen is  Governor there is no doubt he will make this his summer and autumn home.  His fruit ranch and bungalow is right by here, and he has invested in the  region in purchases & improvements over $300,000.00. His fruit ranch is  managed here by a Mr. Smith. His brother-in-law, Marjoribanks, stays mostly at  the Vernon ranch, but comes here for sport. He is the most extraordinary  specimen of an immortal given to drink you ever saw, and not a bad fellow  either, though too utterly gone for my taste. I have an obscure atom of social  decorum in my composition, but this chap has none. But I must wind up,  reserving further matters for future letters.  I had a letter from Cecil yesterday. He is hard at work again, having  gready enjoyed his holidays. I had also a letter from Principal Miller telling  me how much he is liked by them all. I do believe there is future greatness in  the lad. I only hope he will be free from his father's faults. I shall give him  every opportunity educationally.  I enclose cheque on B. of B.C. for amt. of your outlay. I am glad you like  the boy. He is in love with Garnet 8c they will be great friends hereafter.  This is a queer sort of world, and a puzzle. Tom Spence, who edited  Riel's "New Natation" (sic) is here, and a brother of Scott, not our Scott, but  the delegate who went to Ottawa with Pere Richot. Poor Spence is the oppor-  158 STUDENT ESSAYS  tunist, and as needy as ever. I try to put all I can in his way; but fear he will  not make a living here. He has talent, too, but a wrong, "adventurer's" use of  it, and knows it, which is bad. He is verging on 70.  But I must close. I hope Helen 8c the baby are both in good health. A little care 8c the worst will be over with her. Ed's baby came through a terrible  crisis, 8c is now a crowing stout child, if one can judge by a photograph. I  shan't believe it till I see it. I send love and wishes for the best, and my hopes  that Helen is over her trials at last. It is a cruel world, and for my part I shall  hail the end with joy.  Maude was well when I heard last from her, but afterwards was laid up  with bilious fever and Mabel had measles. They are both well again, thank  God. My wife leaves with family on the 10th for here. The only stumbling  block was renting "Holmewood". This Archdeacon McKay has done & we can  breathe freely. Great numbers are gong in there and I may be a millionaire,  like the Yankees, some fine day. With love 8c regards to all,  Ever Yours,  C. Mair  Kelowna Main Street in 1890's  159 STUDENT ESSAYS  Charles Mair:  a Canadian nationalist in the 1890s  by John Redenbach  Senior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W.B. Browne Award  From the collection of letters written by Mr. Charles Mair, who briefly  resided in Kelowna, to Mr. G.T. Denison, his long-time friend in Toronto, I  would describe the nature of Mair's Canadianism as highly influenced by his  connection with the Canada First nationalist movement. The Canada First  nationalist movement was founded in 1868 by five individuals, two. of them  being Charles Mair and G.T. Denison. The founders of the movement saw  confederation as a political transaction among the elite. During the 1869-70  Red River Rebellion, the group helped provoke the reaction against Metis,  Catholics, and French which swept Ontario when Thomas Scott was executed  by Louis Riel. Canada First also campaigned for exclusively British immigration, as they envisioned an Anglo-Saxon and Protestant race for Canada. The  founders of the movement wanted complete independence from the United  States. They placed great emphasis on Canadian autonomy and self-reliance.  Mair's vision of Canada and the philosophy of Canada First comes  through very strongly in his letters to Denison. These personal letters were  written more than twenty years after the founding of Canada First, proving  that Mair continued to firmly believe in that extreme Canadian nationalistic  movement.  In every letter, Mair very freely expresses his political feelings and attitudes to Denison, knowing that he had the same viewpoints on the future of  Canada. Mair's skill as a writer certainly comes through. This skill was an  important factor in his ability to promote his views on Canadian nationalism  through letter writing and poems. His education, training and connections  with the elite or wealthy is evident throughout the letters.  Mair always speaks favourably of the wealthy, as in the case of Aberdeen  who had invested $300,000.00 in the Okanagan region in purchases and  improvements. Even though Aberdeen's brother-in-law, Marjoribanks, drinks  too much, Mair refers to him as a good fellow or "not a bad chap." It is likely  that Mair also was very friendly with Aberdeen whenever he visited the  Okanagan. He knew Aberdeen would be a good connection as he was very  wealthy and influential in the area.  Mair's letters reflect complimentary attitudes towards the English and  Welsh. He writes: 'There are number of English families here, very nice people..." or "They (future Welsh-in-laws of his daughter) are both very  nice...thorough specimens of the old British Aristocracy..." and "In the meantime, if there are more young Welshmen like my son-in-law I hope my growing girls will get them. They are fine people."  John Redenbach is a Grade 12 student at Osoyoos Secondary School.  160 STUDENT ESSAYS  However, to anybody who is not English or Welsh, he has derogatory  remarks as follows: "The primitive people are Siwash Indians, half-breeds  ancient uncouth farmers..." or 'The one draw back is that a lot of political shysters at Victoria and old chaps who packed in over the mountains from Oregon  and Washington have got hold of all the best land, both bottom and mountain. These people know nothing of Canada. In fact they deride everything  Canadian and the sooner the country is municipalized the better so that they  may be forced to sell to better men..." and "As for morality there does not  seem to be any at all. Two brothers here, originally from Denmark, have quarrelled over an incestuous intercourse with a half-witted sister, and the half-  breeds hold that at certain stages of entertainment, or, as a matter of hospitality, women — wives or sisters — are common property." Mair also described the  Okanagan Indians, 'They are very well off, but are a strange 'foreign' looking  dumpish lot..."  Later, he referred to the Americans as "The rotten hulk to the south of  us that seems on its last financial legs." It is in keeping with Mair's anti-  Americanism and as a Canada First founder, that he has little good to say  about the United States. He regularly takes the opportunity to make negative  comments. Also, the play "Tecumseh," which he wrote, sympathized with the  natives against the advances of the Americans towards the western regions of  the continent.  Mair refers to the school question in Manitoba. The Manitoba Act was  passed to raise taxes to support and build public schools. Mair states, "...the  schools were separate, supported from without and there was no legislation  affecting them." Mair goes on to say "to the extent of the old limits of  Asiniboia,, the RCs have a right by practice but no further." Because Mair was  so very pro- Protestant, it is clear he was anti-Catholic in his views, a Canada  First principle.  At the time of the Riel Rebellion, as part of the Canada First philosophy,  he had taken an active part in trying to put down the Metis' claims in  Manitoba, as recorded in the Canadian Encyclopedia.  Mair thought very highly of British .Canadians, writing that it was important that Canadians should populate the Okanagan Valley. He felt British  Columbia was a rich province, "...but it must be Canadianized. It is not that yet.  The feeling is 'British Columbia'."  Later on in his letters, Mair states "Canadian feeling is taking deep root  in this remote country and you need feel no fears as to Annexation sentiment  here. They are a loyal people and are rapidly becoming Canadianized." Mair is  against Free Trade with the Americans. He infers throughout his letters that he  desires Canadian autonomy and self-reliance within an imperial federation.  In the letters, I get the feeling that although Mair wanted a strong  Canada, he yet had a great respect for the British Empire and the values of this  Imperial connection. He even considered Cecil's future as possibly an officer  in the Imperial armed forces.  161 STUDENT ESSAYS  From Mair's letters it is obvious he had a good education and knew  influential people. He realized the importance of this and wanted his children to have this advantage also. Even though he was unable to see his son,  Cecil, for years, he thought it was more important that he stay in Ontario and  continue his education. If Mair could have afforded it, he would have liked to  have sent Cecil to the military college and to McGill, but times were very  depressed. He writes, "I cannot dispose of any land and require every dollar  to tide over the impending hard times." Mair also was concerned about his  three daughters' education and in his last letter was making arrangements for  Mabel, the second daughter, to possibly attend Bishop Strachan Ladies  School in Ontario. I have no doubt that his children had good training and  married well.  As a member of the elite educated class with British roots, Mair certainly  seems to take advantage of his friendship with Denison. This is shown by:  1) His only son, Cecil, stays with the Denisons during school  vacations.  2) Mair wants Denison to write a letter recommending his  son for a position in the Molsons Bank as Mair knows that no recommendation could carry more weight than Mr. Denison's.  3) Mair asks Denison to deliver a parcel to a lady when he is  travelling in Wales.  4) Mair requests Denison to make a good arrangement for  Mair with some good publisher in London to publish  'Tecumseh," together with selections from "Dreamland" and all of  Mair's later scattered poems. He wants Denison to "...interest  some of your big friends in England to help me on in getting  before the reviewers."  5) Mair wants Denison to get some information as to Bishop  Strachan Ladies School as Mair wants Mabel to go to school that  fall. This school, undoubtedly, is in Ontario so I am sure eventually Mair will be asking if Mabel can stay with them during the holidays as his son, Cecil, did.  In conclusion, this collection of Charles Mair's letters to his long-time  friend, G.T. Denison, is easily seen as reflecting the political ideas of the  Canada First nationalist movement of which both were founding members.  The elite attitude toward political and economic matters really does come  through. To have British roots was very important, along with Imperial connections, but with a definite attitude that Canadians of Protestant Anglo-  Saxon background should control Canada. The United States comes in for  particular criticism, whereas other nationalities are merely brushed off as  morally inferior and generally beneath people of British background.  162 STUDENTESSAYS  Early History of the Coldstream Ranch  by Graham Jantz  Junior Contest - First Prize and Winner of J.W.B. Browne Award  The Coldstream Ranch lies in the valley to the east of Vernon and  Long Lake, later named Kalamalka Lake. Forbes and Charles Vernon, original owners of the property, sold the 13,261 acre ranch to Lord Aberdeen in  1891 for 40,000 pounds.  The early history of the Coldstream Ranch is interesting to me because  my great grandfather immigrated to Canada in 1910. He answered an ad in  an English newspaper for orchard help and went to work for John Kidston in  the Coldstream Valley. His name was Bertram Clarence Palfrey. He started  farming for himself in 1918 and slowly built up the family farm to 60 acres of  fruit trees and pasture land for dairy cows. My grandfather and mother both  grew up on the farm which is beside the Coldstream Ranch.  In 1893, Lord Aberdeen was installed for five years as Governor  General of Canada. This term was later extended to six years. Lord  Aberdeen often tried to find time in the fall to visit the ranch. His last visit  was late in 1898 before he went back to Great Britain. In 1908, Lord  Aberdeen became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; he remained in that office for  nine years. He had great memories of holidays spent in "...gloriously beautiful country as to scenery and climate," and of all his visits to Long Lake,  "...the most lovely lake in Canada." His farewell visit was during World War I,  in December of 1915. The Municipality named a part of the section of Long  Lake Road, Aberdeen Road. My parents owned their first home on  Aberdeen Road.  When Lord and Lady Aberdeen bought the Coldstream Ranch they  thought they were benefitting British Columbia and Canada by promoting  settlement and by breaking up the cattle ranches. They wanted "...to plant  orchards on a big scale, sell land in lots, and thus bring profit both to themselves and to their neighbours." They preferred freeholders "of very good  class," not tenants as Lord Aberdeen's lawyer, G.A. Jamieson, suggested. Even  though they were democratic aristocrats they didn't want to sell their land to  local people, who would never be able to keep up "...with instalment payments." Lady Aberdeen observed that it would be hard, "...for the governor  general to turn them out." Canadians with experience and adequate means  were always acceptable: the first sale was to a Canadian family, Mr. and Mrs.  J.L. Webster and Webster's brother. Lady Aberdeen considered them "very  superior people" who have travelled a lot and have finally picked this as the  choice place.  Graham Jantz is a Grade 7 student at Giant's Head School in Summerland  163 STUDENTESSAYS  Coutts Marjoribanks was made manager of Coldstream Ranch by Lord  Aberdeen. Coutts took charge of 150 acres of orchard. The "West orchard"  was planted with 100 Northern spy apples, 300 Kings, 200 Greenings, and 244  Wealthies. Some of the varieties were better off in the soil and climate conditions in Ontario. Plums, prunes, crabapples, and cherries were grown in the  orchards run by Coutts for the jam factory, owned by Lord Aberdeen. A beekeeper was hired for the ranch.  Large changes were made in 1893 when the B.C. Cattle Company  refused to buy cattle from Coldstream Ranch because of the poor cattle  weight. C.W. Hozier was made head cattleman and the herd was reduced in  size. William Middleton was dairyman in charge of the Jersey cows bought in  the Fraser Valley. E.W. Kelly, manager, had the assistance of Newton Spicer,  "...gentlemanly man who had been unlucky..." on his Armstrong farm. Frank  Rayburn from Washington State came in 1898 to see the orchards, and in  1907, he and his excellent staff had a tree nursery started. R.L. Palmer and  Peter Mehling were part of Rayburn's staff. They were trained at the Layrilz  Nurseries at Victoria.  The young apple trees began to yield good quality fruit, about 50 tons.  There was no local market for the apples, the demand being in the Northwest  Territories and cities on the nearest coast. The shipping costs were too high  so a contract was made to provide fruit and vegetables for the dining cars, the  C.P.R. hotels, railway stations, and lake steamers. By 1900, with new trees coming into production, the yield rose to 279 tons.  The greatest expense to the ranch was for irrigation. The King Edward  Ditch was built to take water from King Edward Lake to the orchards. Later a  dam was built on Aberdeen Lake and the Grey Canal was constructed. These  systems joined together and later irrigated most of the valley. Lord Aberdeen  proved that he could grow fruit trees on dry arid benchlands with irrigation.  He earned the title "Father of the Dry Belt."  The Coldstream Ranch has continued all these years as a profitable business.  It is still owned by shareholders in  England, but is currently for sale. My  grandfather, Frank George Palfrey, was  employed on the Ranch for the last 15  years of his life. He was responsible for  orchard spraying, hauling fruit to the  packing house in Vernon, and some field  work. The last piece of property sold by  the Coldstream Ranch was bought by the  Verna (nee: Carver) and Frank provincial government. It is now a park  George Palfrey, Graham Jantz's called Kalamalka Lake Park, with Cosens  grandparents, in 1983. Frank Bay, Juniper Bay, and Second Bay and is  worked for the last fifteen years of enjoyed by everyone,  his life on the Coldstream Ranch.  164 Book Reviews  Nature Power In the Spirit of an Okanagan  Storyteller  by Harry Robinson, compiled and edited by Wendy Wickwire.  Vancouver, Douglas & Mclntyre, 1992.  Reviewed by Jean Webber.  Readers who enjoyed Harry Robinson's Write it on Your Heart must have  been delighted to learn that Wendy Wickwire has edited another collection of  Harry's stories and published them under the tide Nature Power: In the Spirit of  an Okanagan Storyteller. The first book came off the press a few months before  Harry Robinson's death on January 25,1990. This second book is, of course, a  posthumous publication made possible by Wendy Wickwire's copious tape  recordings of Harry's stories. Once again the editor has given us an interesting and informative introductory essay.  As in the earlier book, we find the same imaginative presentation of the  text which enables us to catch the sound and manner of Robinson's voice.  However, with Nature Power the reader may experience some disappointment  with regard to the variety of the subject matter and the quality of the tales.  Whereas the earlier volume dealt with creation myths, legends of the period  when humans still lived in close relationships with the animals, some power  stories, tales resulting from contact with white traders and settlers, this current volume deals only with stories about power or shoo-MISH.  Moreover, while the earlier stories had the finish of presentation pieces,  the tales in Nature Power with their frequent redundancies and confusing personal pronouns are more in the manner of unrehearsed yarns. Wickwire, in  her introduction, tells us that Harry Robinson told the creation story of his  first volume many times throughout their years of collaboration. The published version reflects this polishing process.  Nature Power, however, has much to offer the reader interested in the  Indian conception of reality and in what is meant by the phrase "Native spirituality." "Nature power" was the life- sustaining spirituality that guided Harry  Robinson throughout his life, according to Wickwire. While Robinson,  Jean Webber is a past editor of Okanagan History. A retired educator, she resides in  Osoyoos.  165 BOOK REVIEWS  himself, did not have shoo-MISH, he had a great respect for those who had.  The Indian doctors he describes, such as Susan (Go Get Susan) and John  Kwee- LA-kin (Sing Your Song), are selfless in their efforts to help the sick  who seek their services. John Kwee-LA-kin, before he attends his dear cousin  and friend Paul Terbasket, purifies himself in the sweat lodge, fasts from food,  and abstains from sex. As he approaches Paul, he does not allow the presence  of other concerned friends and relatives to distract him.  Harry Robinson's stories are told against an awareness of continental  geography and history. John Kwee-LA-kin, for example, works for Allison  [J.F.] on his pack trains travelling between Hope and Princeton "Long time  ago/ 1860s and 1870s, along that time." Historians will be interested in the  importance of Omak to the natives of the Similkameen and southern  Okanagan. The Methow Valley, through which the Indians of the  Similkameen believe they entered the valley which has become their home,  features in one story. One wishes here that the editor had given Pateros its  correct modern spelling. Lists are always interesting as is the one of goods  given to the Shuswap in compensation for the disturbance caused by the coming of the train - rice, bacon, potatoes, and matches.  Then there is that gentie ambiguity which saves any embarrassment and  is so typically Indian as when the mother-in-law counsels the young wife who is  puzzled by her husband's behaviour as he prepares for a healing mission:  "Never mind  If he say that, he might know what he's doing."  Harry Robinson has been described as a native writer of the transition  period between the old and the new. How fortunate we are that he decided to  tell his stories in English and that a perceptive and sensitive ethnographer,  Wendy Wickwire, was there to record them and bring them to us.  Summerland  by George Ryga, edited by Ann Kujundzic, Talonbooks,Vancouver, 1992.  Review by Robert Cowan.  This book is not George Ryga's history of Summerland. Instead, it is  Ann Kujundzic's finely edited text of some of Mr. Ryga's writings while a resident of Summerland from 1963 until his untimely death in 1987. She has  selected a varied cross section of his plays, autobiographical sketches, short  stories and letters. She also provides the reader with a helpful and sensitive  introduction to this complex and compelling man.  Robert Cowan is editor of the 57th Report and chairman of the Enderby and District  Museum Society.  166 BOOKREVmWS  George Ryga passionately believed in the importance of developing a  distinct Canadian culture. His medium was theatre: 'The beginnings of my  contribution started with them (CBC radio dramas under the direction of  Rupert Caplan and Esse Ljungh, editor's note). I did not know Canadian theatre when I began writing drama. Fifteen years later, I still know nothing of  Canadian theatre. There is a collection of theatre literature — of which a  company here and there periodically produces an item — but there is no  Canadian theatre I know of. There is a lot of transplanted English and  American theatre...A viable national theatre must strive for nothing less than  a vanguard position in expression of national ideals and international humanism. In this, we have a long way to go, for we are easy victims of our own lack  of confidence in our heritage and quickly dazzled by seeming advances which  are no advances at all." (pp. 195-96)  George Ryga spent his life attempting to correct this situation. Some of  the plays included in the text touch on major events in western Canadian history (young as it is) such as the Overlanders, the Frank Slide disaster, or the  Vancouver riots of 1937. But these events are seen through the eyes of tangential players (often immigrants). The larger events are treated as part of life's  experience. The characters are laced with a profound sense of human frailty  and nobility.  No doubt much of his ability to create such believable characters came  from his prairie childhood, and being the son of Slavic immigrants. He was  also an astute observer whether in Canada, Mexico or Europe.  One can imagine that he cherished his role as a gadfly in Canadian theatre or in Summerland. "I have my problems with establishment, not unlike  problems I have with God: namely — with such credentials, why are they so  prone to mistakes?" (p. 239) At one point, he called into question the  Summerland School Board's decision to exclude a Canadian history course  from its curriculum (p. 206), and at another, he wrote a letter-to-the-editor  defending the right of workers to strike at Summerland schools (p. 201).  For Ryga it was difficult to separate literature/art and politics: "Where  are the raging, possessed poets and novelists whose obligation is to become  not only writers, but the "second government" of a nation, expressing the  authentic fears, preoccupations and exaltations of the people? How many  writers roared their disapproval at the arrogance and adventurism of the  proclamation of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis?" (p. 208)  Yet he was not doctrinaire. During a visit to Communist China, he  argued with his host/guide, Mr. Lien, "Serious art in the People's Republic is  as outflanked by tradition and expediency as it is in Canada. If art cannot  lead, then it must follow. What I saw tonight was a politicized version of the  American western, which is an extension of the medieval morality play. It is  not enough!" (p. 245) He reflects at another point in his visit that China  seems obsessed with its class struggle: "It is more than a struggle against classes no longer extant in the country. It is a struggle against a state of mind and  167 BOOK REVIEWS  personality which creates separations and advantages. On more than one  occasion I have wondered if it is not a struggle against nature itself..." (p. 244)  We are less without this profound thinker/playwright/proud Canadian  in our midst, but fortunately this fine collection of his writings while a resident of Summerland will be a lasting reminder of his brilliance and his challenge to us to put art/literature at the front of the struggle to create a  Canadian identity and a more humane world.  Ninety Years of Golf  - A Chronology of Golf in Kelowna  by Evelyn R.(Bartlett) Metke. Ehmann Printing Ltd., Kelowna, B.C., 1992.  Reviewed by Dorothy Zoellner.  In the foreword to her work, Evelyn Metke states: "Anyone who shuts  out the riches of historical knowledge of golf in Kelowna can never appreciate  the distance we have travelled in 94 years of evolution. In order to know  where we are today and fully appreciate our enviable position, we should first  know where we came from in a span of time that is fast approaching one cen-  tury.  For twenty-five years, Ev Metke and her husband, Eric, have enjoyed the  game of golf at the Kelowna Golf and Country Club. This book has been a  true labour of love for Ev as she records a history of which she has been an  important part.  Ninety Years of Golf is a well-researched work with incredible detail,  thanks in part to the minutes preserved at the Kelowna Golf and Country  Club. At the Club, Ev has established an archive to make these records available to all.  The 213 pages of large print and bold headings make for easy reading  and research. The chapters are arranged by year and denoted in the Table of  Contents with chapter subtides. Many photos are interspersed throughout the  text in chronological order. There are lists of Club presidents, professionals  and competition winners. Also there are course and clubhouse diagrams.  Other local golf courses are also listed.  Throughout the text, entertaining stories have been skilfully intertwined with the historical information to keep the reader's interest. Ev has  done an admirable job of providing the reader with an enjoyable and rich  account of golf in Kelowna.  Dorothy Zoellner is a past president of the O.H.S. A retired educator, she regularly  enjoys a game of golf at the Kelowna Golf and Country Club.  168 BOOK REVIEWS  Published by Ehmann Printing Ltd., copies of the book can be obtained  for $15.00 from various Kelowna retail outlets including Mosaic Books,  Marika's Books, the Book Company, the Kelowna Museum and the Kelowna  Golf and Country Club Pro Shop or Office. Copies can also be purchased  directly from the author at 1970 St. Andrews Dr., Kelowna, B.C., V1Y4T4.  RMH - Memoirs of Bob Hayman.  published by Gordon Hayman, Friesen Printers, Altona, MB., 1991.  Reviewed by O. Arthur Strandquist.  For anyone having lived in the Okanagan barely more than twenty  years, the thought of reviewing the work of one of our native sons, and a  lawyer, is intimidating. However, over a ten year period, I was bookkeeper for  Alan Winstanley Bilsland, a local lawyer, who had lived here since 1956. More  senior still on the rolls of the Law Society was Bob Hayman, who had returned  to Kelowna in 1946. He would often come in to confer with Bilsland. When  he was required to wait, which was often since he never made an appointment, he would sit in my office. He always found my supply of pipe tobacco  and cigarettes. I soon determined that by asking a critical question about the  past, civilian or military, he quickly decided that he had found one who  required some educating. Thus began my education of the history of  Kelowna.  The publication of his memoirs vividly brings his visits back to mind.  There are, undoubtedly, many people living in Kelowna today who would be  able to tell as many stories about the "old days" as Hayman, but very few could  make them as interesting. There are ten chapters, segments or divisions of  thought. The first have to do with his early years, including his experiences as  a choir boy, working in Overwaitea cutting 50 lb. boxes of butter into one and  three pound bricks or putting together a dance band called "Bob Hayman  and His Ambassadors."  There is another section with vignettes of his parents, siblings and his  own daughter and sons. Another segment is devoted to what he called  "Kelowna Characters," including Bob Knox, Bob Willis, Don Poole, John  Hindle, Tiny Walrod and others. In one segment, he explains the trials and  tribulations of being a seaman from some deck handling on the Kelowna-  Westbank ferry, two summers on the CPR Pentowna, and ninety days shore  training in Halifax. He was released from the wartime navy in 1945 as a  Communications Officer.  O. Arthur Strandquist is a retired military officer residing in Kelowna. He is  currently Secretary of the Okanagan Historical Society.  169 BOOK REVIEWS  There is one small complaint about his composition. It appears to be  130 pages of starts and stops, almost as though he had been keeping notes for  many years and finally just committed his thoughts to paper in rough categories. While this form could bother some readers, it did not detract from the  enjoyment I received while reading it. As a newcomer to Kelowna, it gave me  a much better picture of life in this community in the years gone by.  170 OBITUARIES  We Shall Miss Them  ABEL, Mary Theresa (nee Marchand). b. Vernon, d. Vernon, 30 April 1993. Survived by sons  Victor Antoine, Louis Fred, Dave Hope; daughters Rose, Hilda, Kathleen. She was a  renowned Artisan of Native Crafts.  ADAMS, Irvine. Please see tribute on page 153.  ADAMS, Raymond Stanley, b. Kimberly, 1928. d. Vernon, 4 April 1992. Survived by wife  Thelma; sons, Kent, Clayton, Darren; daughters, Sherri, Dawn, Kimberley. He was a  practising lawyer in Vernon for 40 years. He was an avid outdoorsman.  ALDREDGE, Edgar Wilfrid, b. England, 1901. d. Penticton, 7 May 1992. Predeceased by  wife Winnifred. He was a photographer, journalist, radio reporter, and OHS supporter.  At age 72, he was awarded City of Penticton's Merit Award for his contributions to the  community.  ALLEN, Charles, b. Salmon Arm, 6 February 1906. d. Kelowna, 10 September 1992. Survived  by brother William; sister Mary Thomas. He worked at many jobs throughout his lifetime, and enjoyed the company of his many nieces and nephews. A Shuswap native  Indian, his greatest love was the vast solitude of the forest and streams. Living with  nature and the telling of legends of earlier times was the heritage of the Allen family.  ALLEN, WILLIAM, b. Penticton, 13 November 1907. d. Keremeos, 28 March, 1993. He grew  up and went to school in Allengrove, where he took over the ranch from his father, R.L.  Allen, who pioneered there in 1905. He was the last survivor of the founding members  of the Southern Interior Stockman's Association.  ANDERSON, Dr. Walter Frederick. Please see tribute on page 139.  ARNDT, Caroline (nee Missal), b. Vernon d. Vemon, 1 April 1993. Predeceased by husband  Arthur in 1966 and son Harold. She trained as a registered nurse in Alberta, and was an  ardent gardener all her life.  ATKINSON, Francis Edward, b. Vancouver, 15 September 1905. d. Summerland, 2 May 1992.  Survived by wife Ina; daughter Frances Beulah. He came to Penticton at age 7. He  began work at the Summerland Research Station in 1925 where he was in charge of the  Food Processing Department until his retirement in 1965. He was Alderman on  Summerland Council 1945-54 and Reeve from 1954-62. He helped establish the  Summerland Youth Centre Association. Mr. & Mrs. Atkinson were recipients of  Summerland's Good Citizen Cup.  ATTLESEY, William, b. Seattle, Washington, 17 February 1920. d. Enderby, 14 November  1992. Survived by wife Thursa; son Rodger; daughters Trudie, Miriam, Penny. He served  as the mayor of Enderby from 1974-1985. He was a past-president and life member of  the Okanagan Mainline Municipal Association. He was also a past-president and service  officer for the Royal Canadian Legion.  BATTEY, Herbert (Bert) Reynolds, d. Vernon, 20 May 1992. Predeceased by first wife  (Pauline) in 1974. Survived by wife Gladys; son Bob; daughters June, Carol; step daughters Muriel, Zaida, Thelma, Nora, Maureen. He started A-l Machine Shop, and was  founding member of N. Okanagan Model Railway Association.  BAVERSTOCK, Anna, b. 1898. d. Vemon, 23 July 1992. Survived by son, Ronald; daughter,  Marion. She was a resident of Vemon for over 70 years; a volunteer worker at Vernon  Jubilee Hospital manyyears, as well as with the First Baptist Church.  BEER, Helen I. (nee Ledingham) b. Indore, India, 21 February 1900. d. Salmon Arm, 10  September 1992. Predeceased by husband Clinton in 1962. Survived by son George. She  came to Salmon Arm in 1932, and with her husband operated Beer's Department Store  for many years. She was active in the United Church, especially with the children.  171 OBITUARIES  BERARD, Percy J. b. Kelowna, 27 January 1921. d. Vancouver, 20 April 1992. Survived by wife  Joyce; daughters Wilda, Patricia. He left Kelowna in 1939 to join the navy. He was a  member of the pioneer Berard family.  BIEBER, CLARENCE WILFRED, b. Neudorf, Saskatchewan, 27 March 1922. d. Armstrong, 5  May 1992. Survived by wife Noelle (nee Bawtree); sons Ken, Ron, and Allan; daughters  Bernice Whiting and Anita Vallee. He came with his parents to their Stepney area farm  in 1937. He served overseas in the Armed Forces between 1942 and 1945. He was  employed by Armstrong Sawmills (later Crown Zellerbach) most of his working life. He  enjoyed sports such as curling, fishing, and baseball.  BOURKE, Shirley (nee Chambers), b. Grimsby, Ontario, 7 August 1903. d. Kelowna, 17 March  1991. Predeceased by husband Harold in 1964. Survived by son Harold; daughters  Marion Goldhawk, Doreen Carritt. She came to Kelowna in 1909 and was a charter  member of the Royal Canadian Legion, Kelowna Branch.  BULLEY, Dorothy (nee Harvey), d. Toronto, Ontario, 13 August 1992. Survived by son Ross;  daughter Barbara Wingfield. She was the daughter of Charles Harvey, pioneer of  Kelowna, builder of the Harvey home on Sutherland and Richter. Harvey Avenue is  named after her grandfather.  BUNCE, Frederick Thomas, b. Raymore, Saskatchewan, 10 February 1910. d. Kelowna, 22  September 1992. Survived by wife Helen; son Robert; daughter Sharon Davis. He came  to Kelowna in 1944 and was a very respected member of the Kelowna School system as a  teacher and principal.  BREWER, William (Bill) Francois, b. Lumby, 1911. d. Houston, 10 July 1992. Predeceased by  wife Agnes McCall, April 18, 1991 and sons, Ronald, Bill; survived by twin daughters,  Donna and Darlene. He was a life time resident of the Lavington-Lumby area.  BURTCH, Beatrice (nee Harvey), b. Kelowna, 9 January 1905, d. Kelowna, 12 January 1993.  Predeceased by husband Stanley, 1 January 1984. She was a very ardent curler and was  very active outdoors.  CARLIN, Robert Jennings, b. Kandiyohi, Minnesota 31 October 1896. d. Salmon Arm, 7  March 1993. Survived by wife Clare; daughter Jane Ukrainec. He was a pioneer of the  Shuswap area, having arrived here in 1898. His father was the superintendent of the  Columbia River Lumber Company's mill at Kault. The Carlin School, Carlin Hall, and  Carlin Orchards in Grindrod are named for his family.  CARRUTHERS, Walter Howard, b. Kelowna, 1908. d. Kelowna, 26 October 1992. Survived by  wife Ola; sons Ted and John; daughter Wendy Bryden. He was the son of Kelowna pioneer, Edward Maurice Carruthers, J.P. After an accounting career with Cominco, he  retired to Kelowna in 1970 where he was an active member of the Kelowna Golf Club,  St. Michael and All Angels' Church, and the Kelowna Hospital.  CARRUTHERS, Ola Luella (nee Dale), b. Alberta, 1907. d. Kelowna, 21 November 1992.  Predeceased her husband Walter Howard, 26 October 1992. Survived by her sons Ted  and John; daughter Wendy Bryden.  CHARLTON, Henry, b. Trepanier, 1907. d. Summerland, 20 September 1992. Survived by  wife Donna; daughter Iris and foster-daughter Marian. He was employed many years  with the Municipality of Summerland.  CLARK, Stewart Maurice, b. Carol, Manitoba, 5 February 1913. d. Salmon Arm, 5 July 1992.  Survived by wife, Pearl; sons Jim and Ray; daughter Shawn. He came to Salmon Arm  from Winnipeg after the W.W. II, with his brother Bill, and Howard Piggott. They established Salmon Arm Sheet Metal and Supply in the former bowling alley on Ross Street.  Later he went into business for himself as Stew's Repairs, working from his home on  North Broadview.  172 OBITUARIES  CLELAND, Eugene Hugh. Please see tribute on page 151.  COOPER, Mrs. E.W.A. (Lalaih). b. 1887. d. Mount Vernon, Maine, 25 December 1992.  Survived by son Everrard; daughter Irene Crowson. She was a resident of Penticton for  over 70 years.  COUSINS, Daniel Clifford, b. Moubray, Manitoba, 18 December 1902. d. Kelowna, 5 January  1993. Survived by wife Beatrice (Polly) (nee Topham); son Clifford; daughters Kathleen  Penner, Shirley Greig, and Karen Martin. The Cousins were very active members of the  sports community of Peachland for many years.  COWAN, Thomas Walter, b. Kelowna, 1917. d. Vemon, 31 May 1992. Survived by wife Alys;  son, Donald and daughter, Deanna. An Okanagan Telephone Co. pioneer, he was a  member of the O.H.S., and many Vernon groups.  CRAIG, G. Everett, b. 1900. d. Penticton, 6 January 1992. Predeceased by first wife Olive in  1973. Survived by wife Margaret; daughters Evelyn Riley and Gwendy Fleet. He was a resident of Penticton since 1921 and played an active role in community business and service club affairs.  CUSHING, Orpha. b. Dewatto, Washington, 4 January 1892. d. Kelowna, 8 March 1993.  Predeceased by husband Albian Finch in 1930 and husband John Cushing in 1948; son  Thurba Cushing in 1952. Survived by sons Gordon Finch and John Cushing; daughters  Vera Barner and Joan Bruce. In her life in Kelowna, she was active in many organizations including the Order of the Eastern Star, and gave a lot of her time and energy to  good causes.  DAVIS, Janet A. b. Winnipeg, Manitoba, 1896. d. Kelowna, 10 August 1992. Predeceased by  husband Gilbert 1976. Survived by son Jon. She was a long-time member of the  Okanagan Mission community, arriving there in 1904.  DAY, Kathleen (nee McCarthy), b. Winfield, 6 December 1907. d. Kelowna, 13 November  1992. Survived by husband George; sons Ephriam (Art), George Ernest, Douglas,  Kenneth and Colin; daughter Kathleen Marshall. She was a member of the pioneer  McCarthy family of Winfield and a long time resident of Rutland.  DAY, Marguerita (nee Baillie). b. Shuswap, 12 November 1905. d. 13 July 1992. Predeceased by  her husband Joe in 1982. She lived an active life, travelling and fishing with husband  Joe, and was one of the original organizers of the Senior's Hall in Canoe. She was a  granddaughter of Alexander McBryan, who was one of the early pioneers of the South  Thompson river area.  DORRELL, Cedric. b. Clinton, d. Vernon, 11 March 1993. Survived by wife, Sheilah; son  Gordon; daughter Maeve. Over the years, he was president of the B.C. Beef Growers  Association, secretary of the B.C. Hereford Association, and secretary of the Clinton and  District Cattleman's Association.  DOWNTON, Martin William, b. 1916. d. Summerland, 3 April 1992. Survived by wife May;  sons John, Bill, George; daughters Ann, Pat, and Laveme. He was raised in Summerland  where his father was a pioneer butcher.  DRAGE, Malcolm (Mac) b. Sidney, Manitoba, 16 May 1917. d. Salmon Arm, 8 September 1992.  Survived by his wife Marion; sons Bob, Harry, and Maury. After W.W. II, he returned to  Salmon Arm. He was for years business manager of the Salmon Arm Medical Clinic, and  members have fond memories of "Mac" and Marion who each contributed so much to  the pleasant and cooperative spirit in the front office. He served as treasurer of the  Salmon Arm Museum Society for many years.  173 OBITUARIES  DUCKETT, HERBERT MICHAEL, b. Enderby, 30 October 1922. d. Vemon, 22 October 1992.  He lived all of his life in the EnderbyNArmstrong area and operated his own business in  both communities. He had the Summit Creek Store at Danforth's Corner in  Springbend and the Rosedale Grocery in Armstrong.  DUGDALE, Charles Alexander, b. Enderby, 10 July 1915. d. Enderby 18 November 1992.  Predeceased by wife Sylvia; daughters Ethel and Edith. Survived by sons: Edward, Ernie,  Eric and Earl. A logger and cat operator, he was well known as the dmmmer for the  Enderby City Band and the Swingsters.  EAST, Margaret Olive (nee Carswell). b. Vemon, 17 December 1907. d. Vemon, 10 July 1992.  Survived by husband Charles; son Ronald; daughter Mary Lou Gardiner. The Carswell  family came to Vemon in 1891.  ENGLER, Jacob (Jake) Stephen, b. Stealer, Alberta, 24 November 1910. d. Vemon, 2 March  1993. He moved to the Okanagan with his parents in 1928. Jake and his brother, John,  owned and operated a sawmill and ranch until 1968. Jake then worked for Tolko until  he retired.  FARQUHARSON, Gladys Rose. d. Vemon, 4 April 1993. Predeceased by husband William in  1951. Survived by daughter Heather. A resident of Vemon for over 80 years, she was a  bookkeeper for many different businesses and an active member of Trinity United  Church.  FITZPATRICK, Bessie Henrietta (nee Duggan). b. Builth, Wales, 27 July 1901. d. Kelowna, 3  December 1992. Predeceased by husband "Doc" in 1968. Survived by son Hugh; daughters Marie Green and Kay Sladen. She was a tireless worker for the community of  Rutland and district.  FLEMING, John A. b. Penticton 1917. d. Oliver 3 Jan. 1993. Survived by wife Martha; sons  Kevin, Cary, Duane, and Greg; daughters Sylvia Weichel, Kathy Zinger, Shannon Mader,  Susan Vermeulen. He came to Oliver as a young child. Later he managed the family  orchard. He was known as a sportsman and active member of SOSA.  FLEMING, Stuart Archibald, b. Vemon, 1920. d. Vemon, 2 February 1993. Survived by wife  Marie. His first career was as a reporter for the Vernon News. During W.W. II, he was a  navigator with the R.C.A.F. He was elected as a member of parliament, and in the early  1970s, he was the Mayor of Vemon. He was a member of numerous organizations. At  the time of his death, he was researching the history of the Okanagan for the O.H.S.  ERASER, Irene Gertrude (nee Ivey). b. Manitoba, 14 December 1909. d. Vemon, 8 January  1993. Survived by husband Steward; son Fred. She was a major contributor in the forming of "My School" and of 'Venture Training Centre" for the retarded in Vemon.  FULKS, Reg. Sr. b. Peachland. d. Kelowna, 17 September 1992. Survived by wife Jennie; son  Reg; daughter Jeanette Hynes. He worked most of his life in the woods as a logger for  S.M. Simpson and for others in later years.  GRIFFIN, Rosetta Mary Ann (nee Bissett). b. England, 1887. d. Vemon, 21 July 1992. Survived  by son Russell and daughter Marion. She came to Vemon in 1912, and was interested in  the S.P.C.A.  GRIFFITHS, Nellie E. (nee Dore). b. Pincher Creek, Alberta, 24 February 1910. d. Kelowna, 3  July 1992. Survived by husband Kenneth; son Brian; daughter Shirley. She was  Kelowna's first Lady of the Lake.  GUERARD, William Edward Anthony, b. Port Arthur, Ontario, 1905. d. Penticton, 19 August  1992. Predeceased by son Robert in 1982. Survived by wife Nora; son Douglas. He  owned and operated Guerard's Furniture in Penticton, and was active in community  business and service clubs.  174 OBITUARIES  GUTOI, Enrico Joseph, b. Kelowna, 18 August 1917. d. Kelowna, 25, March 1993. Survived by  wife Mary; sons Peter, Tim, and Chris; daughter Cathy Springer. He was a great softball  pitcher in the 1930s, and was a long time employee of Calona Wines.  GUTOI, Rudolph Peter, b. Italy, 1912. d. Oliver, 2 April 1993. Predeceased by wife Mae 1990.  Survived by sons Gordon and Peter. He came to Kelowna as a young boy. In 1931, he  moved to Oliver as a teacher and served as principal of Oliver Elementary School for 38  years. He was a past president of Oliver Rotary Club and recipient of Rotary  International Paul Harris Fellowship Award. In 1971, he was Oliver's Good Citizen of  the Year. He was a well known tenor soloist, singing at weddings, funerals, musicals, and  area nursing homes. For many years, he was choir director for Christ the King Catholic  Church.  GURR, Nellie Mary. b. Chase, 2 January 1910. d. Salmon Arm, 17 March 1993. Predeceased by  husband George. Survived by son Joe. She will be fondly remembered by the many  young campers at Pierre's Point on Shuswap Lake, where she lived with her aunt and  uncle, Victoria and Pierre Moyese. After her marriage to George Gurr, she moved off  the reserve and lived by Foothill Road, where she had a large garden and many flowers.  HADLEY, Blanche Donelda. b. Lumby. d. Vemon, 2 September 1992. Predeceased by husband Fred, December 15, 1986. Survived by daughters Doreen, Beverly, Naideen and  Esther. She was a lifetime resident of Lumby.  HAMMOND, Iris Naoma (nee Winters), b. Armstrong, 2 May 1925. d. Vernon, 5 October  1992. Predeceased by her first husband Joe Popowich. Survived by second husband  Stan; sons Donald and Lyle. She worked in the grocery store business in Armstrong for  many years, first at Harrison's IGA and later at Askew's Shop Easy. She was a member of  the Rebekah Lodge and St. James Anglican Church.  HANSON, Mary Annie (nee Hopkins), b. Spallumcheen, 1921. d. Vemon, 31 January 1993.  Predeceased by husband Iver in 1991. Survived by sons, Albert, Jim and Bob. She was a  longtime member of the Pythian Sisters and the O.H.S.  HARSENT, Henry Daniel (Harry), b. London, England, 28 May 1898. d. Kelowna, 13  December 1992. Survived by son Barry; daughter Linda Dillon. He was well known for  his work with the South East Kelowna Irrigation district and as a fruit inspector.  HARVEY, John Alexander, b. 1912. d. Vemon, 26 June 1992. Predeceased by wife Elizabeth in  1975. Survived by daughter Rosemary Stevenson. He was a resident of Vemon for over  75 years and Game Warden for many of those years.  HAUGEN, DR. RAGNVALD "ROY". Please see tribute on page 147.  HAYES, Darby, b. Kelowna, 2 May 1915. d. Kelowna, 4 June 1992. Survived by wife Janet  Margaret (nee Johnston); son Eric. He was a pioneer of the Okanagan fruit industry,  and was General Manager of the Occidental Fruit Co. from the 1940s to the 1960s. In  1950, he helped establish the Kelowna Yacht Club.  HEAL, ALEXANDRA "SANDRA" EFHELD (nee Gordon), b. London, England, 9 April 1925.  d. Penticton, 9 September 1992. Survived by husband Donald; sons Stephen, Edward,  Thomas, Philip; daughters Alexandra Head and Jane Olson. A long-time resident of  Armstrong, she was involved in leadership roles with the Cubs and the Girl Guides. She  served on the Okanagan Regional Library Board as Armstrong's representative for  seven years.  HEAL, RONALD RUPERT. Please see tribute on page 143.  175 OBITUARIES  HOBBS, Phyllis May (nee Brown) b. Reaboro, Ontario 18 August 1895. d. 7 February 1993.  Survived by sons Donald, Arnold, and Clarence; daughters Inez Raven, Meta  Williamson, and Shirley Timpany. She and her family farmed in the Mount Ida area of  the valley, and Phyllis was a relief teacher in district schools. She served on the school  board for several years. She was a member of the Mt. Ida Women's Institute, the Baptist  Church Women's Group, and the Social Credit movement.  HUGGINS, FREDERICK HALLAM. b. Armstrong, 1 October 1910. d. Armstrong, 25 August  1992. Survived by wife Janet; sons Allan, Norman, Ian. He served overseas in the Royal  Canadian Medical Corps during W.W. II, then returned to Armstrong to work in the  sawmill and to farm. He was active with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, the  Royal Canadian Legion, the Boy Scouts, and was on the Boards of the Armstrong Co-op  Society and the Armstrong Spallumcheen Credit Union.  HUME, John Robert (Bert), b. Kelowna, 1921. d. Pender Harbour, 13 March 1993. Survived by  wife Audrey (Baron); sons Brian, Allan and Cyril. He was the son of a pioneer Glenmore  family, and served in the RCAF overseas as a flying instructor. He was a school trustee  (1958-62), a cub and scout leader, and a Glenmore Irrigation District trustee and chairman (1966-78). He was in the fruit business for over four decades and operated up to 60  acres in the Glenmore valley.  HUNT, Sidney Frederick Ray. b. England, 14 Feb. 1893, d. Oliver, 21 Jan. 1993. Survived by  wife Hjordis Johanna; daughter Christine Schacter. He was a veteran of W.W. I who took  up land and planted an orchard in the Oliver area in the early 1920s.  HUNTER, Kenneth Andrew (Ken), b. Souris, Manitoba, 1906. d. Salmon Arm, 23 November  1992. Survived by wife Jan; son Bruce; daughters Lorraine Ross and Joanne Armstrong.  . In 1935, he purchased the Salmon Arm Drug Store, which, as Hunter's Pharmacy,  served the community for thirty years. He was president of the Chamber of Commerce  for several years, a Rotarian, and most notably was a charter member, president and  director of the Salmar Community Association, owners of the Salmar Theatre.  JEWELL, Charles Frederick, b. Union, Ontario, 2 September 1903. d. Salmon Arm, 6 August  1992. Predeceased by wife Jennie Emelia (Millie) in 1986; daughter Mary Riddle in  1988. Survived by sons Bill, Roy and Glen; daughters Dorothy Jackson, Marina Reynolds,  Margery Syme and Jean Smith. He came to Salmon Arm in 1942 and was a member of  the Old Time Dance Club and the Curling Club. He operated Jewell's Sand and Gravel  for many years. It was he who built the cement water tank on "Tank Hill."  JOHNSON, Eric George, b. St. Albans Herts, England, 8 November 1907. d. Kelowna, 15  March 1993. Survived by wife Jean (Amos); daughters Caroline Nobbs and Jennifer  McDougall. He was employed by B.C. Tree Fruits and was very active in the military.  JOHNSON, Samuel Douglas, b. Quesnel, 28 August 1927. d. Salmon Arm, 2 February 1992.  Survived by wife Christina; sons Glen and Dale; daughters Vicky Poppe, Brenda Savage,  and Sherry Block. In 1928, he came with his parents to Silver Creek, and lived all his life  in the area. He worked for NOCA Dairy in Salmon Arm until it closed, then continued  working for NOCA in Vemon. He gave freely of his time in service to his church, the  First Baptist, holding various positions in the church over the years.  JONES, David Lewis, b. Enderby, 20 April 1919. d. Enderby, 16 November 1992. Survived by  son Stanley; daughter Jennifer Edwards. He was a life-long resident of the Spallumcheen  Band Reserve. He was a retired logger/river driver, veteran, and member of the Royal  Canadian Legion Branch 97.  KAREN, Walter, d. Vernon, 19 July 1992. Survived by son Michael; daughters Brenda and  Andrea. A teacher in Vernon for more than 30 years, he was a life-long musician  involved with the Okanagan Symphony.  176 OBITUARIES  KASSA, John. d. Maui, Hawaii, 22 January 1993. Survived by wife Sheila; sons Hamish and Don;  daughter Jeanne Austin. He was a founding owner of Silver Star Mountain Resort and  had been active in Vernon community affairs.  KNIGHT, Jane Watson Henderson Crockart (Jean), b. Scotland, 1902. d. Vernon, 28  December 1992. Predeceased by husband Harry in 1979. Survived by sons George and  Stan. She was a resident of Vemon since 1907, and a lifetime member of the ladies aux-  . iliary of the Royal Canadian Legion.  KREBS, Walter Herman, b. Salmon Arm, 13 October 1909. d. Salmon Arm, 14 April 1992.  Survived by wife Ethel; son Bill; daughter Edith. He farmed the homestead, and in 1938  took on a full-time job with the Department of Highways. After 38 years of continuous  service to the community, he retired in 1973.  LANGSTAFF, John Currie. b. Trout Lake, B.C., 16 May 1899. d. Vernon, 28 August 1992.  Predeceased by wife Rose. He was a well known athlete and long time employee of  Okanagan Telephone Co. The "Langstaff Line" helped win the Coy Cup (Hockey) in  1927 and 1928 for Vemon.  LEDUC, Sarah (nee Plett). b. Russia, 18 August 1921. d. Vemon, 19 August 1992. Survived by  her husband Tom; son Charles. She was an Armstrong resident who was active in the  bowling league, the Zion United Church, and the Rebekah Lodge.  LONG, Harold Richard, b. Nelson, 15 May 1916. d. Kelowna, 14 May 1992. Survived by wife  Una; sons Richard, William (Bill) and Trevor; daughter Georgina. In 1953, he purchased Brown's Pharmacy, and in 1956, opened Long Super Drugs. He retired in 1975.  He was a very active community worker in curling, golfing, and St. Michael and All  Angels Church.  LUNDY, Evelyn Maude, b. Nanaimo, March 1902. d. Penticton, 11 January 1992. Survived by  husband George; son John. She joined the Penticton teaching staff after graduating in  1924. She was a teacher in Penticton and Oliver for many years. She was also a member  of OHS, serving on the editorial committee of the Penticton Branch.  MABEE, George Ernest, b. Penticton 1920. d. Oliver 12 Feb. 1993. Predeceased by wife Nan  1991. He served in the RCAF during W.W. II, after which he returned to Oliver where  he planted and managed an orchard for some years. Later he spent twenty years cattle  ranching at Midway.  MacDONALD, Eva Elizabeth (nee Jenkins), b. Kelowna, 5 November 1911. d. Kelowna, 21  June 1992. Predeceased by husband Ian Sturrock McDonald 1986. She was the daughter  of Max Jenkins, Kelowna's first Fire Chief.  MACDONALD, Mary Ellen, b. Kaslo, 1897. d. Summerland, 6 January 1993. Predeceased by  husband S.A. MacDonald for whom MacDonald School in Summerland is named.  Survived by sons Donald and David; daughter Dorothy Fisher. She was a resident of  Summerland for 74 years. She attended Victoria Normal School in 1916.  MADDOCKS, MARY ELIZABETH (nee Bassett). b. San Francisco, 7 July 1921. d. Vemon, 27  February 1993. Survived by husband Tony; son Barry; daughters Beverly Bowes and  Donna Mihalcheon. She was an active resident of the Armstrong area for over 40 years.  She belonged to the Rebekah Lodge, the St. James Anglican Church, and served as  director for the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  MALLACH, Erna Dorothy, b. Burstull, Saskatchewan, 7 October 1921. d. Kelowna, 22  December 1992. Survived by husband Clarence; sons Fred and Robert; daughter Peggy  Burnell. She was a columnist for the Daily Courier, and began her writing career with  the Rutland Progress. She was secretary of the Rutland Centennial Committee, part of  the inaugural committee which formed the Rutland Public Health Society to oversee  the building of the Rutland Health Unit in 1965. She, along with her husband Clarence,  was honoured as Rutland's Citizens of the Year in 1970.  177 OBITUARIES  MARRIOTT, Frank Maurice, b. Calgary, d. Vernon, 14 January 1993. Survived by wife  Margaret; daughters Fran Buksa and Eva Earl. He moved to Vemon as a child. He was  an ardent music lover and long time member of the Old Time Fiddlers Association.  MARSHALL, Willa Florence (nee Petrie). b. Elora, Ontario, 27 September 1898. d. Armstrong,  19 May 1992. Predeceased by husband Frank in 1959. Survived by sons Tom, Bert, Dick,  Norman; daughters Frances Husband, Bernice Burrell, Jean Skobalski, Alma Marshall,  Kay Morin. She came to Armstrong as a child in 1906. She married, raised her family,  and helped her husband farm in the Lansdowne area. She was a member of the Red  Cross and the Rebekah Lodge.  MAXON, Hilma. b. 1897. d. Langley, 2 June 1992. Predeceased by husband, W. R. (Waldo) in  1980, daughters, Lois Postle and Marguerite Peterson. Survived by son Howard. She  arrived in Kelowna in 1919 as a bride of W.R. Maxon, Kelowna's first Game Warden.  McALPINE, Mary Elizabeth (Molly), b. 1914. d. Oliver, 27 June 1992. Predeceased by husband  Hugh in 1983. Survived by son Bud; daughter Mary Jeanne Hofmana. In 1936, she came  from Calgary to Osoyoos where she and her husband owned and operated for many  years the family orchard in E. Osoyoos. She served the community as librarian and was a  volunteer at the Health Unit and Baby Clinic.  McCLOUNIE, Marion Kathleen (nee Ripley), b. Vernon, d. Vernon, 1 February 1993.  Predeceased by first husband E.W. "Ted" Grahame in 1979 and second husband Collin  McClounie in 1985. Survived by two sons Walter Grahame and Alf Grahame; daughter  Bev Chapman. She was a life long Vernon resident.  McCLUSKEY, William Herbert Victor, b. Vemon, 13 March 1920. d. Vemon, 31 March 1993.  Predeceased by son James. Survived by wife Olive; son Ken; daughters Carol Robinson,  Colleen Goertzen. He was a veteran of World War II, serving with the Royal Westminster  Regiment. He was also a member of the Royal Canadian Legion, Branch #25.  McDOWELL, Charles, d. Vemon, 8 December 1992. Predeceased by wife Ruth (Fanning) in  1992; son, Don (1978). Survived by sons George, Mickey, Ted; daughter, Charlotte. He  was a well-known auto mechanic and dealership owner; active in lodges and community  work; an Air Force Veteran, and former president of the Legion. He was active in politics and ran as a Liberal candidate.  MCKECHME, LILY CHRISTINA (nee Wilson), b. Elgin, Manitoba, 18 April 1909. d. Vernon,  25 June 1992. Predeceased by husband Kenneth in 1976. Survived by sons John, David;  daughter Joan Thompson. She lived in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen area from 1910  until her death. She was one of a few nurses who graduated from the Vemon Jubilee  Hospital. She was a member of St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, the Red Cross Circle,  the O.H.S., and the Women's Missionary Society. Her father, J.H. Wilson, was mayor of  Armstrong from 1943 to 1946, first Freeman of the City, and active in the early days of  the O.H.S.  MCKENZIE, Jessie (nee Tullett). b. 1912 d. Summerland, 24 May 1992. Survived by husband  Allan. She was a dedicated community worker.  McPHEE, Robert Duncan, b. Kelowna, 1927. d. Penticton, 9 January 1993. Survived by sons  Bruce and Thomas. He was the son of George and Ila who were long time residents of  Kelowna. George ran the stage from Kelowna to McCulloch for many years.  MFJUtDTffiLD, William Henry, b. Balfour, B.C. 1912. d. Vemon, 18 November 1992. Survived  by wife Mary. Employed as a carpenter, he worked for the C.P.R. at Okanagan Ship  Yards, which is now Paddle Wheel Park.  MERVYN, Helen Mary. b. Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, 1911. d. Kelowna, 8 August 1992.  Survived by husband Gil; sons Doug, Glen and Hugh; daughter Marcia Finn. She was  active in St. Paul's United Church, and an enthusiastic singer in the Kinette Choir.  178 OBITUARIES  MIDDLETON, Thomas Henry (Tom), b. Vancouver, 1906. d. White Rock, 25 April 1992.  Survived by his wife Thelma. A long time community leader, he served for twenty years  as a Salmon Arm alderman, and for nine years on the board of the Shuswap Lake  General Hospital. He was active in the Chamber of Commerce, the Masonic Lodge, and  was a past president of the Rotary Club. During the war he served overseas with the  Seaforth Highlanders from 1943 to 1945. He was active in the Salmon Arm Legion, as  well as the Crescent Beach Legion #240 after his retirement to White Rock.  MISKA, Bessie (nee Zamish). b. Hillcrest, Alberta, 18 July 1910. d. Enderby, 6 February 1993.  Survived by husband Joe; sons Frank and Jim; daughter Esther Folley. She lived most of  her life in the Ashton Creek area working with her husband on their farm. She was  active in the Ashton Creek Ladies Club and the I.O.D.E.  MOEN, Else Johanne. b. Denmark, 22 November 1904. d. Victoria, 31 August 1992.  Predeceased by her husband Ivor in 1982. Survived by daughter Bergithe. She was an  outgoing talented women with many community involvements. She belonged for many  years to the Girls Hospital Aid, as well as Farm Clubs, the Fall Fair committee, Brownies,  Red Cross, Cancer Society. She taught sewing in night school, and Home Economics in  Sicamous and Enderby.  MORRISON, Thelma Ethel (Quesnel). b. Lumby. d. Victoria, 26 August 1992. Predeceased by  husband Fred in 1965. Survived by son Earl. For 22 years, she worked as a secretary for  several schools in School District 22.  NEEDOBA, CLAYTON JOHN. b. Salmon Arm, 3 April 1922. d. Enderby, 1 December 1992.  Survived by wife Irma; sons Ken and Garry; daughter Karen Dambrough. He farmed  most of his life in the Grandview Hats area near Armstrong and in the Enderby area. He  was an outdoorsman who enjoyed hunting, fishing, camping, and snowmobiling.  NEEDOBA, Emil David, b. Melville, Saskatchewan, 17 February 1907. d. Salmon Arm, 9 March  1992. Survived by wife Marjorie; sons Don and Larry. He was a life-long resident of  Salmon River, where he engaged in logging and mixed farming. He was well known for  his prize-winning potatoes.  NICKEL, Leopold, b. Poland, 1907. d. Vemon, 16 November 1992. Survived by wife Emily;  sons, Harry, Ken and Alvin. He lived in Vemon for 63 years and was active in the Elks  and Lions Clubs.  NTVENS, Arthur Law (Art), b. Aberdeen, Scodand, 22 July 1902. d. Vemon, 1 March 1993.  Predeceased by wife Rhoda Vyvian, 6 January 1993. Survived by daughter Marjorie  Garrett. He was married in Princeton in 1923, moved to Vemon in 1927, and began a  long career in the grocery business. He owned his own store Nivens Cash Grocery.  NTVENS, Rhoda Vyvian (nee Suggitt). b. 1902. d. Vemon, 6 January 1993. Survived by husband  Art; daughter Marjorie Garrett. She has been a resident of Vernon since 1927, and  shared a great interest in gardening with her husband, Art They were members of the  O.H.S.  NORDSTROM, OSCAR WILLIAM, b. Stockholm, Sweden, 22 September 1897. d. Armstrong,  20 January 1993. Survived by wife Margaret; sons Eric, Thomas, and David. After farming in Spallumcheen from 1935 until 1961, he and his family moved into Armstrong for  their retirement. He was a founding member of the local Egg Pool and Credit Union,  and was active in the Co-operative Society. He was a Past Master and Life Member of the  Masonic Lodge.  179 OBITUARIES  NORRIS, Albert Harry, b. Kelowna, 15 February 1921. d. Vancouver, 9 December 1992.  Survived by wife Dorothy (Carlson); daughters Sheilagh Hudson, Sharron Wortman,  and Andrea. He was an avid outdoorsman and son of Ellison District pioneers, Howard  and Jessie Norris.  NUMADA, Tomiyo (nee Ishida). b. Fukushima-Ken, Japan, 2 January 1898. d. Kelowna, 4  March 1993. Predeceased by husband Ryutiro, 1978. Survived by son Joe, daughters  Ethel (Hiko) Kinoshito and Emma Naito. She was one of the pioneer Japanese farmers  of the Rutland area.  ORR, Mary Elizabeth. Please see tribute on page 149.  OUCHI, Seiki. b. Vemon, 1929. d. Vemon, 31 May 1992. Survived by wife Susie; son Tom;  daughter Susan. He was a well-known Vemon resident, active in Japanese Association,  Judo Club, and a trustee of Vemon Irrigation.  PEACHER, Edward William, b. Princeton, 4 February 1916. d. Vemon, 17 September 1992.  Predeceased by first wife, Tillie, in 1979. Survived by wife Pat; stepsons Edward Smith,  David Link, and Mark Link; stepdaughter Shirley Bradford. He moved with his family to  the Trinity Creek area east of Enderby in the 1920s. After service in W.W. II, he  returned to the Enderby area where he farmed, hauled cream, and logged. In 1952, he  rediscovered the Enderby Coal Mine and began its development. He was active in the  Enderby Lions Club.  PEEL, Ernest (Ted) Nevin. b. Enderby, 18 May 1907. d. Enderby 1 January 1993. Predeceased  by wife Gertrude. Survived by son Randy; daughter Bobbi. He trained as a bookeeper,  later became a Notary Public, and sold life insurance. He built and operated the  Enderby Groceteria and later Log Cabin Ceramics. He served as alderman for the City  of Enderby, and was a member of the Oddfellows Lodge, Masonic Lodge, Eastern Star,  and Enderby Museum Society. For his work in local history, the ArmstrongXEnderby  Branch of the OHS honoured him and his wife with a special commendation in 1991.  PENTY, Sydney Walter, b. 1919. d. Penticton, 2 April 1992. He was a lifetime resident of  Penticton. Predeceased by wife Phyllis in 1984 and daughter Linda in 1985. Survived by  daughter Cheri Murphy. A businessman in feed and garden supplies, he was also active  in community clubs, and in organizing the West Bench Irrigation District.  POSTILL, Russell William, b. Vemon, 1916. d. Vemon, 30 November 1992. Survived by wife  Isabel; son Brian; daughter Brenda. He was Mayor of Coldstream for 16 years; involved  with Silver Star, Chairman of the North Okanagan Regional District, Agricultural  Society, Okanagan Water Board, Knights of Pythias Lodge. He was a horseman and businessman.  PRITCHARD, H.D. (Dick), b. 1904. d. Penticton, 22 May 1992. Predeceased by wife Jean.  Survived by son David; daughter Maureen. He began his career in education in 1924  and was principal of Penticton High School for 24 years before he retired. Very active in  community affairs.  QUIGLEY, Joy Bell (nee Heming). b. Summerberry, Saskatchewan, 12 November 1897. d.  Kelowna, 21 November 1992. Predeceased by husband William in 1975. Survived by sons  Orville and Ken; daughters Wilma Pumphrey, Freida Stranaghan, and Bev. Turner. She  and her family lived in the Hollywood district of Rudand for many years. Quigley road is  named in their honor.  RANDS, George Alfred William, b. Enderby, 16 February 1920. d. 100 Mile House, 12 July  1992. Survived by wife Marion; son George; daughters Barbara Nadrozny, Beverly  Fincaryk and Julie Collins. He began his working career as a mechanic in his father's  garage, but later taught Industrial Education in Salmon Arm, Lumby and Enderby. He  was active in the Ashton Creek Community Club and church group. OBITUARIES  RANDS, Reverend Ernest, b. 4 June 1906, MacLeod, Alta. d. Penticton, 27 March 1992.  Survived by wife Tess; son Paul; daughter Carol Dobson. He was Minister of Penticton  United Church, author of a book about the Church, Discovering the Roots of the Past, and  was active in community affairs.  RILEY, Ruth Evelyn (nee Redfern). b. 19 September 1911. d. Penticton, 18 October 1992.  Survived by husband Jack. She was very active in community affairs: received Red Cross  citation and plaque in 1984; won Best Actress award at Okanagan Drama Festival for her  role in The Boy With The Cart with Penticton and Naramata Players Clubs.  RITCfflE, William Ronald, b. Summerland 20 April 1907. d. North Vancouver, 12 February  1993. Predeceased by wife Margaret in June, 1990. Survived by daughters Kathleen and  Janet. He was the son of James and Margaret Ritchie, early pioneers in the Summerland  and Kaleden areas. After various experiences in logging, scaling, truck driving, steam  engineering and ship repair, he came to Cawston in 1944 to supervise the construction  of a new cannery. He was married in 1945 to Margaret Williams, the Public Health  Nurse in the Lower Similkameen, and together they ran the Cawston store and Post  Office. Bill was Postmaster from 1948 until his retirement. He was active on the  Community Hall Board, the Board of Trade and the O.H.S.  ROADHOUSE, Allan, b. Penticton, 15 December 1903. d. Penticton, 28 February 1992.  Survived by wife Eileen; sons Bob and Rich. Predeceased by son Don. The Roadhouse  family were early pioneers in the Penticton area. Roadhouse Hill on Hwy. 3A honors  their name. Employed with the Kettle Valley Railway, he operated an orchard at Poplar  Grove.  ROTTACKER, Henry, b. Harley, N. Dakota, 18 November 1901. d. Vernon, 23 September  1992. Survived by wife Barbara. He came to Vernon in 1903 and lived mosdy in Lumby-  Sugar Lake area and was on log drives from Sugar Lake to Enderby before Wilsey Dam  was built.  RUTH, Lyla Margaret (nee McDiarmid) b. Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, 6 June 1892. d. Salmon  Arm, 11 March 1993. Predeceased by husband Percy in 1981. Survived by son Douglas;  daughter Dorothy Bennett. She arrived in Salmon Arm with her parents Stuart and  Catherine McDiarmid in 1909, and was a life long resident. She was a devoted wife and  mother, and a kind and thoughtful neighbor.  SANDERSON, Beatrice Sadie (nee Eutin). b. Kelowna. d. Kamloops, 13 January 1993. Survived  by sons Gene, Roland and Maynard. She was a very accomplished musician and was part  of a family orchestra in Rutland in the late 1930s early 40s. Before moving to Kamloops  in 1970, she and her family resided in Naramata where she was an active member of the  Christian Leadership Training Centre.  SCHUNTER, Bill (Sr.). b. 1900. d. Vernon, 9 November 1992. Predeceased by wife Kathleen in  1991. Survived by sons Bill and Bob. He lived in the Sugar Lake, Creighton Valley, and  Lumby areas all his life.  SCHWEB, Walter, b. 1898. d. 9 November 1992. Predeceased by wife Olive in 1981. Survived by  sons Bert, Ernest, Archie, and Jesse; daughters, Olive and Winnifred. He was a descendant of Charles Schweb, who settled in the Salmon River Valley in 1892. The family took  up land at Schweb's Bridge in 1895.  SHEPHERD, Lola Grace (nee Coonfer). b. Dalemead, Alberta, 25 June 1915. d. Vernon, 29  April 1993. Survived by husband John; daughter Lois Crown. She attended the Olds  Agriculture College and came to Armstrong as a bride in 1939. She was always active on  the family farm, enjoyed curling, bowling, and her crocheting. Grace was a worker and  supporter of the Zion United Church.  181 OBLTUARmS  SKELLY, Ernest Samuel, b. Belfast, Ireland, 18 December 1892. d. Vernon, 24 May 1992.  Survived by wife Adeline; son David; daughters Betty Cooper, Tena Pitt-Brooke,  Florence Mann. He established the Enderby Creamery in 1925, and the Creston  Creamery in 1940. He returned with his family to Enderby in 1943. He was a member of  the Elks Lodge and St. Andrew's United Church, where he was choir director for many  years.  SPACEMAN, Norman, d. Vemon, 24 April 1992. Survived by son Nigel. For 10 years, he was  host of "Counter Point Musical Hour." He was past President of North Okanagan  Naturalist Club and the Vemon Film Society.  STERLING, Alice Ellen (nee Norman), b. Armstrong, 16 April 1918. d. Armstrong, 11  September 1992. Survived by her husband Joe; son Russell. A member of the pioneer  Norman family, she enjoyed her knitting and her work for the Armstrong Hospital  Auxiliary.  STEWART, Ernest William, b. Nebraska, 20 March 1894. d. Salmon Arm, 22 April 1992.  Survived by wife Irene; sons Lloyd, Wilbert, Ross, and Earl; daughter Enid Rolin. He and  Irene came to Salmon Arm from a Saskatchewan farm in 1935. They purchased the  Palmer farm, one of the early commercial farms that shipped vegetables and milk to  Kamloops and Vancouver.  STEWART, Victor, b. Kelowna, 1920. d. Kelowna, 1 August 1992. Survived by wife Shirley  (Grey); sons Thomas and Michael; daughter Colleen Harder. He spent a lot of his life as  a salesman of agriculture equipment and a heavy equipment operator. He served in the  RCAF in W.W. II.  STEWART, Winnifred Mary (nee Wright), b. Armstrong, 28 June 1898. d. Vernon, 20  November 1992. Predeceased by husband Charlie in 1988. Survived by son. Jim; daughters Nora Freeman, Ann Stewart. She was a life-long resident of the Armstrong area,  working in the Post Office as a young woman, then marrying and raising her family. She  was an avid gardener and lover of books. She was always active in St. Joseph's Catholic  Church. Her father, James Wright, was the first mayor of Armstrong in 1913.  STOWELL, Velma (nee Simpson), b. New Brunswick, 1903. d. March 1992. Predeceased by her  husband James, 19 October 1989. Survived by sons Harold and William; daughters  Loma Atkinson and Irene Dougans. The Stowells were pioneer fruit ranchers in the  Oliver area, Jim having arrived from England in 1925. He served in the Royal Navy  during W.W. I.  STROTHER, Mary Olive, b. 1903. d. Vemon, 24 March 1992. Predeceased by husband James  in 1978. Survived by sons Ted, Art, Bob, and Gary. She was a resident of Vemon for over  65 years and was active for manyyears with the United Church Women's groups.  SUTHERLAND, Mary G. (Day), b. Consort, Alberta, 18 July 1921. d. Kelowna, 18 September  1992. Survived by husband Douglas; son Cameron and daughter Christine. She was a  volunteer for many organizations and spent many hours as a worker for Red Cross  Blood donor clinics. Along with her husband, she owned and operated the Royal Bakery  until 1976.  SWENSSON, Vivian Ruth (nee French), b. Vemon, 1918. d. Seatde, Washington, 14 May 1993.  She taught school at Rutland. Her parents Percy and Frances French were Vernon  pioneers.  SWIFT, Thomas, b. Vernon, 1905. d. Vernon, 5 June 1992. Predeceased by wife Helen in  January, 1991. He worked for the C.P.R. until retirement. He was a descendant of  Reuben Swift who came to the Okanagan in 1889.  182 OBITUARIES  TAIT, Mildred (nee Laidlaw). b. 1910 d. Summerland, 23 December 1992. Predeceased by  husband Eric in 1986. Survived by sons Donald and Ian. She was an R.N. and an active  member of the Women's Institute.  TAIT, Samuel McPhail (Mac), b. Manitou, Manitoba, 15 December 1905. d. Sandwich, Illinois,  8 September 1992. Predeceased by wife Blanche in 1986 and son Alex. Survived by  sons Jack and Rodger. He lived in Kelowna and Vancouver alternately 1943-1972, then  setded in Kelowna. He was a founding member of the Kelowna Kinsmen Club.  TAYLOR, Edgar John. b. Peachland, 18 August 1906. d. Peachland, 30 December 1992.  Survived by wife Betty. He was an avid outdoorsman and bowler.  THORNTHWArrE, Rita. b. 1912. d. 5 January 1992. Survived by son Basil; daughter Nan. She  was a resident for 80 years. Before her marriage to Harry Thornthwaite, Rita taught in  the one-room school at Trout Creek Point in 1916.  TITCHMARSH, Mary Dudley (nee Billie). b. England, 1896. d. Oliver, 21 February 1992.  Predeceased by husband Edward and two sons. Survived by daughter Elizabeth Nundal.  She came to Penticton in 1922. A music teacher, she was one of the pianists who accompanied the silent films in the Front Street Theatre. She was Choirmistress for St.  Saviour's Anglican Church, looked after the Anglican Cemetery on Fairview Road; and  was honoured by Scout/Guide Divisions.  TOZER, Hugh. b. Kelowna, 1928. d. Kelowna, 25 August 1992. Survived by wife Susan; sons  George, Geoffrey, and James. He worked many years for Inland Gas Co. He was the son  of a pioneer family.  TUCKER, Albert Douglas, b. Edmonton, Alberta 31 May 1925. d. Vernon 20 March 1993.  Predeceased by his first wife Donalda in 1974. Survived by his second wife Moyreen; sons  Don and Darryl; daughters Dianne MacDougall and Dan Baumle. Survived also by  stepchildren Robert McKechnie, Heather King, and Barbara McKechnie. In 1966, he  and his family moved to Armstrong where he was employed by Armstrong Sawmills in  road construction and later by Crown Forest/Fletcher Challenge as a logging contractor. He was a director of the Interior Provincial Exhibition, a School Trustee, and was  involved with the Armstrong Curling Club, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, and  St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church.  TUTT, Cicely, b. Batde, Sussex, England, 1905. d. Kelowna, 4 January 1993. She was a telephone operator most of her life. Her father was a pioneer tailor in Kelowna. She came  to Kelowna in 1908.  VOGT, Violet Grace (nee Lidstone). b. Winfield, 8 July 1911. d. Vernon, 2 June 1992.  Predeceased by first husband Austin Wheeler Blackburn in 1953, and second husband  Ben Vogt in 1976. Survived by daughters Judy Farynuk, Marie Olich, and Dot Davyduke.  At a very young age she moved with her family to the Grandview Bench area north of  Enderby, and lived there until she married Austin Blackburn in 1932. They lived and  farmed in the Hupel, North Enderby and Ashton Creek areas. She was active in St.  Andrew's United Church.  WEDDELL, John Phillip, b. Kelowna, 1925. d. Kelowna, 19 May 1992. Survived by wife  Elizabeth (Reece); sons Grant and Phillip; daughter Cheyne. He worked for Chapman  Transport for many years in Kelowna and Salmon Arm. He was a past president of the  Kelowna Basketball Asso., past president of the Kelowna and Salmon Arm Kinsmen  Clubs, and active in the Kelowna Regatta and Snowfest Associations.  183 OBTTUARIES  WFJR, Rose (nee White), b. England 1906. d. Kelowna 1 January 1993. Predeceased by husband Nelson in 1933. She and her parents, Louise and Charles White, were instrumental in starting the Salvation Army in Kelowna. She became a Major in the Salvation Army  and was posted to various locations, but returned to Kelowna to care for her parents.  WEJR, Stanley Edward, b. Trinity Creek, 17 November 1914. d. Vernon, 23 August 1992.  Survived by wife Etta; sons Ian and Ross; daughters Allison Albrecht, Moira MacKenzie,  and Barbara Wejr. He began his life-long career in forestry working for Harry Danforth  in Enderby. His career choice found him working in Scotland with the Forestry services  during W.W. II. It was there he married Etta MacKenzie in 1943. He returned to  Enderby to work as a forest ranger, wood supervisor for Riverside, and later Ganzeveld  Sawmill. He served on the Hospital Board, the Credit Union board, and as secretary of  the Masonic Lodge in Enderby for 18 years.  WHITTINGHAM, Helen, b. Dolac, Hungary, 20 January 1903. d. Kelowna, 21 April 1992.  Predeceased by husband John in 1989. Survived by son Jack; daughter Vera Morphy.  She was a resident of Kelowna for over 70 years.  WTOCOX, Bessie, d. November 1992. Survived by daughter Eileen. Before her marriage she  taught at Kelowna High School. In 1984, with two couples, Jack and Bessie were chosen  Good Citizens of the Year in Summerland.  WBLCOX, Dr. (Jack) John C. b. 1900. d. 23 September 1992. Survived by daughter Eileen. He  was a member of a pioneer Salmon Arm family. He started work at Summerland  Research Station in 1931 in the Plant Pathology Department, later transferring to Soils  and Irrigation Section, from which he retired in 1966.  WITT, J.A. (Jack), b. Maple Creek, Saskatchewan, 15 November 1909. d. Kelowna, 8  September 1992. Survived by wife Dorothy (Harvey); son Bren. He founded Orchard  City Press and Calendar Co. He was also one of the developers behind such subdivisions  as Westview Heights Estates and West Kelowna Estates in Westbank.  YERBURGH, Archdeacon Richard Eustre Marryat (Dick), b. England, 1908. d. Oliver 29 April  1992. Predeceased by his wife Marjorie (nee Osborne-Smith) in December 1989.  Survived by sons, Richard and Christopher. Of the Archdeacon's 59 years of ordination,  he served on active duty during W.W. II and during the Korean War, in Enderby after  W.W. II and in Oliver 1948- 50. During this last period, the Church of Edward the  Confessor was built. He also served appointments as chaplain to the Royal Canadian  Legion.  ERRATA  For the 56th Report:  Page 57     Kilkinney Beach should read Killiney Beach.  Page 147   ARMENIAN, Harold should read ARMENEAU, Harold.  Page 148   CHRISTENSON, Soren Leyden (Lee) should read  CHRISTENSEN, Soren Leyden (Lee).  184 Business of the  n  a     -mar 0 0 «w ^f**^ ®  Historical Society  NOTICE  of the 69th Annual General Meeting  The Okanagan Historical Society  1994  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  Sunday, May 1, 1994  at 10 A.M.  in St. James Catholic School  near St. James Catholic Church  on the corner of 28th Avenue and 27th Street,  Vernon  Luncheon at 12:30 P.M.  All Members and Guests are welcome.  185 O.H.S. BUSINESS  MINUTES OF THE 68TH ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF  THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Sunday, May 2,1993  President Bob de Pfyffer called the meeting to order at 10:00 a.m. A minute of silence  was observed in memory of those who had died since the last annual meeting including  Life Members Mary Orr of Summerland, Dr. Walter Anderson of Kelowna, and Victor  Wilson of Naramata. We also lost Stuart Fleming of Vernon, our designated author, who  was engaged to write a history of the Okanagan for publication. They will be missed. Fifty  members attended the business session in the Lodge Motor Inn, Kelowna.  1. NOTICE OF CALL  was read by the secretary. Agenda was presented by the chairman.  2. MINUTES  of the 67th Annual Meeting were adopted as printed in the 56th Report.  3. BUSINESS arising out of Minutes. Nil.  4. CORRESPONDENCE: Nil.  5. REPORTS OF OFFICERS: see below. In the absence of the Treasurer, in hospital, the  financial statement for the year ending December 31, 1992 was presented by Gifford  Thomson. Following a number of questions, it was regularly moved by Gifford  Thomson, seconded by Val Rampone that the report be accepted as circulated.  Carried.  6. BRANCH REPORTS AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES: see below.  7. UNFINISHED BUSINESS: Nil.  8. NEW BUSINESS:  (a) Charles Finch, representing the host branch, Similkameen, asked for approval of  a tentative date, 20 June 1993, for a picnic at the Keremeos Grist Mill. There are a  museum and several other points of interest. It was pointed out that the date suggested was the same as the Boundary Historical Society's (BHS) celebration of the  100th Anniversary of Midway. Since we had, in the past, alternated with BHS, and  since it might be a nice idea to try to revive this custom, it was moved by Dorothy  Zoellner, seconded by Hume Powley that we cancel our plans, and make every  attempt to support the BHS Picnic and then extend an invitation to BHS to join  us in our Field Day in Keremeos in 1994. Carried. This, if agreed to by both  Societies, would restore the custom of the past.  b) It was suggested that the Executive Council seriously consider the inclusion of  Falkland and Lumby into our Society and if agreed by all concerned, the amendment of the Constitution in due course.  c) The book, Pioneer Orchardist, a history of the Hall family, was promoted as  recommended reading.  d) Bernard Webber stated that he had just attended the annual meeting of the B.C.  Historical Federation where a motion was passed allowing for affiliated membership for $50.00 per year. He suggested that perhaps the time was now right for us  to help strengthen the forces of history and heritage in the province by joining  the Federation.  e) Dorothy Zoellner reminded everyone that Kelowna is again planning their Fall  Tour aboard the Fintry Queen on Saturday, September 11,1993 at 8:00 a.m. Early  bookings are encouraged.  186 O.H.S. BUSINESS  f) Ermie Iceton asked if there was any chance that the Parent Body could pay for the  books given to life members instead of invoicing the Branches. Referred to the  Executive Council.  9. ELECTION OF OFFICERS: Immediate Past President, Bernard Webber,presented a  full slate. Elected by acclamation were as follows:  President Jessie Ann Gamble  1st Vice-Pres A. David MacDonald  2nd Vice-Pres Denis Maclnnis  Secretary O Arthur Strandquist  Treasurer Elizabeth Tassie  Editor Robert Cowan  10. APPOINTMENT OF AUDITOR:  Moved by Gifford Thomson, seconded by Robert Cowan, that Leonard G. Miller be  appointed to serve as Auditor for the ensuing year.  11  COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS:  Moved by Robert Marriage, seconded by Ermie Iceton, that the usual complimentary  resolutions follow the customary format. Carried.  12. SETTING DATE AND PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL MEETING: Jack Morrison of the  Vernon Branch asked to host the 1994 AGM on Sunday May 1,1994. This would be in  accordance with the schedule set up several months ago.  ADJOURNED at 11:56 a.m. on a motion by Jack Morrison.  Respectfully submitted,  0. Arthur Strandquist,  Secretary  LUNCH PROGRAMME  About 90 members and guests sat down to luncheon of Grilled Breast of Chicken  served by the Lodge Motor Inn with Robert Hayes, President of the Kelowna Branch acting as chairman. The banquet room was attractively decorated with centre pieces of white  apple blossoms, surrounded by large shining Red Macintosh apples. Following the singing  of "O Canada," Fr. Charles Mulvihill asked the Blessing. Robert Hayes then introduced the  head table guests. Councillor Robert Hobson brought greetings from the City of Kelowna.  The retiring President Robert de Pfyffer thanked Kelowna for hosting this meeting. He  then acknowledged the Life Members in the audience. This year's nomination for Life  Membership was Kenneth V. Ellison. Unfortunately, he was unable to be present because  of ill health. The caretaker of the Father Pandosy Mission for ten years, Judy Toms, was  presented with a special Award of Merit.  The President-elect then presented the out-going President with a Past President  Certificate. Robert Cowan was then called upon to present awards to the Essay Contest  winners: Graham Jantz from Summerland, Junior Essay Winner, who wrote on the early  history of the Coldstream Ranch; John Redenbach from Osoyoos Senior Secondary,  Senior Winner, who wrote "Charles Mair: a Canadian Nationalist in the 1890s." The guest  speaker, Tracey Bethune, spoke on "Father Charles Pandosy - His Mission" in a lively and  informative manner. The proceedings closed with the singing of "God Save the Queen."  Respectfully submitted,  Robert Hayes,  Chairman  187 O.H.S. BUSINESS  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  The Okanagan Historical Society has had another successful year. Our most recent  Annual Report was probably the best that we have ever produced, thanks in large measure  to our editor, Bob Cowan. He also brought us into the electronic age, which is a major step  forward in the publication of the Report. Our Report is made possible by people, like you,  who contribute articles for publication, and I would like to thank all of the contributors for  their work.  As you can see from the auditor's report, our Society is in a healthy financial position.  This is the result of hard work by your executive and the diligent attention to detail given  by our treasurer, Libby Tassie. Unfortunately, at the moment, Libby is undergoing treatment in Vancouver for a heart ailment. We wish her a speedy recovery.  Many members deserve our thanks for their efforts on behalf of the Society and I  would like to mention a few of these people. Denis Maclnnis and his Pandosy Mission  Committee deserve our thanks for the quiet and efficient manner in which they operate  the Mission, which we are leasing from the Roman Catholic Bishop of Nelson. Carlton  MacNaughton and his volunteers from the Oliver- Osoyoos Branch deserve praise for their  maintenance of the park on our lots in the old Fairview Townsite. Then Olive Evans and  the Penticton Branch must be applauded for supporting the restoration of the old C.P.R.  sternwheeler Sicamous.  Many events organized by the branches of the Society deserve praise. One event, in  particular, deserves to be mentioned and that was the Okanagan Lake cruise aboard the  Fintry Queen organized by Alice Lundy and Dorothy Zoellner of the Kelowna Branch. For  those of you who missed last year's cruise, make sure that you get on board for this year's  cruise.  Then there were the bus tours, sponsored by various branches, all of which were well  received. They take a lot of work to organize by many dedicated volunteers. To everyone  who wrote articles for the Report, worked on our historic sites, helped to maintain our  parks and cemeteries, sat on our various committees and executives or organized our bus  tours, I want to say thank you.  No year passes without some problems. The break-ins and computer thefts from B.C.  Tree Fruits Ltd. during the past year forced the company to install new security systems. As  a result, your executive had to find a new location for our three meetings a year. Thanks to  Hume Powley, who took charge, a new location was found in the Water Street Senior  Centre, Kelowna, and the transition was made without a hitch. Our Society would like to  thank B.C. Tree Fruits Ltd. for giving us the use of their board room to hold our executive  meetings in the past.  Four well-known members of our Society died during the past year. Past Presidents  Mary Orr of Summerland, Dr. Walter Anderson of Kelowna, and Victor Wilson of  Naramata. We also lost Stuart Fleming of Vernon. They will be missed.  This is my final report as President of your Society and in conclusion I would like to  wish your new President and Executive every success in the future.  Respectfully submitted,  Robert de Pfyffer,  President  188 O.H.S. BUSINESS  EDITOR'S REPORT  Ladies and Gentlemen:  The production of the Report using computer technology has not been without its  problems. Last year, we used a desk top publisher, E. & E. Marketing in Vernon, to produce the 56th Report. The quality of the photographic reproductions were not up the  standard associated with our publication. It did, however, give us substantial cost savings.  This year, we have determined not to use a desk top publisher. We put the production of the Report out to tender. The successful bidder was Ehmann Printing in Kelowna.  They promise photographic reproductions of the quality we're accustomed to at a price  similar to last year's experiment with desk top publishing.  By using computers and going to tender, we have reduced our cost of production to  the level of about a decade ago. It is a pleasure to realize these savings and pass them onto  you through keeping the price of the Report unchanged. Had we not gone to electronic  publishing and tendering the Report, I suspect you would be facing another price increase  in the book.  We could maximize these savings even further if we could sell more books. Today we  publish 1500 copies. If we published 2000 copies, the 500 additional books would cost the  Society about $2.00 per book. Our margins would improve greatly; however, it is foolishness to go to a larger press run if we cannot sell the books.  To facilitate sales, I hosted a workshop on marketing the Report last fall. We had a  very interesting guest speaker, Trish Meiers, the salesperson for Radio Station CKIQ in  Kelowna. She had lots of good ideas including the use of radio talk shows, radio advertising that could be had for half price for non-profit societies, press releases, readings in  senior citizens homes, or the creation of a poster using the front cover. Unfortunately,  there was a very small attendance for this important topic, so I guess we will continue to  produce 1500 copies of the Report.  I also hosted a student essay contest workshop last fall to introduce Ron Willey, our  new student essay chair, to the various branch editors and student essay people. Dr. Duane  Thomson of Okanagan College attended and provided the group with the package of documents for this year's contest. He also gave his thoughts on how the package might be presented and used. It was a very useful and interesting morning. I think some of the success  of the current essay winners can be traced to this workshop.  Once again, I wish to thank the various branch editors for their help and their excellent co-operation in the change to electronic publishing. These editors include: Cass  Robinson in Cawston, Jean Webber in Osoyoos, Betty Bork in Penticton, Hume Powley in  Kelowna, Lucy McCormick in Vernon, Lorna Carter in Armstrong, and Yvonne McDonald  in Salmon Arm.  Respectfully submitted,  Robert Cowan, Editor  189 O.H.S. BUSINESS  SECRETARY'S REPORT  The minutes of the 67th Annual Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society, along  with reports of the various officers and committees have been circulated by publication in  the 56th Report. The Complimentary Resolutions have been sent out following the customary format and I would repeat my predecessor's request that each branch send a complete list of outlets where our Report is sold, plus the correct call letters and address of  each radio station, TV station, newspapers, and any other oudets that are used for publicity.  Three quarterly meetings of the Executive Council were held with an average attendance of 22 executive officers and directors. All correspondence was dealt with as directed  by the Council.  Respectfully submitted,  O. Arthur Strandquist,  Secretary  AUDITOR'S REPORT  To the Members of the Okanagan Historical Society  Attached are the Financial Statements of the Society for the year ending December  31, 1992, including the General Account, Bagnall Trust Account and the Father Pandosy  Mission Committee.  All the pertinent banking records and statements, revenue and disbursement vouchers have been examined in this audit procedure. These records have been verified as a  true and correct accounting of the financial business of the Society as presented by your  treasurer, Elizabeth M. Tassie.  Your statements are usually presented on a cash basis, however, a change was made  this year to show and include the actual moneys due to the Society and payable to its creditors at the year end.  Therefore, Accounts Receivable and Payable have been set up, thus presenting the  true picture of the business affairs of the Society for 1992.  Leonard G. Miller  March 22,1993  Accountant  Statement of Receipts and Disbursements  (General Account)  Year Ended December 31,1992  RECEIPTS  1992  1991  Memberships and sales  Armstrong/Enderby  $ 2,360.38  $3,504. (with S A.)  Kelowna  2,960.64  3,600.00  Oliver/Osoyoos  1,080.00  1,680.00  Penticton/Summerland  2,059.37  4,200.00  Vernon  3,215.00  1,804.00  Salmon Arm  1,047.78  (with A/Enderby)  Similkameen  60.00  0.00  Treasurer Index Sales  63.00  0.00  Treasurer and commercial  3.997.25  2,926.  16,843.64  17,714.00  190 O.H.S. BUSINESS  Interest and exchange  2,323.34  2,580.00  Prepaid Insurance  195.00  0.00  G.S.T. Rebate  454.03  0.00  Essay Contest  400.00  0.00  Postage and Handling  265.50  0.00  Donations  225.14  252.00  20,706.65  20,546.00  DISBURSEMENTS  Honorarium  750.00  750.00  E. & E. Marketing  2,140.00  0.00  Postage and office supplies  507.94  1,220.00  Wayside Press  9,709.18  13,669.00  Essay Contest  400.00  150.00  Audit Expense  756.28  734.00  President's Expenses  320.79  0.00  Secretary's Expenses  323.63  0.00  Treasurer's Expenses  947.31  0.00  Insurance  400.00  0.00  Annual Meeting Expense  60.00  0.00  Index Committee  1,521.55  0.00  Telephone and miscellaneous  128.02  714.00  18,261.75  17,237.00  EXCESS OF RECEIPTS  OVER DISBURSEMENTS  2,444.90  3,309.00  CASH ON HAND  BEGINNING OF YEAR  30,551.00  27,242.00  CASH ON HAND  END OF YEAR  $ 32,995.57  $30,551.00  FINANCE COMMITTEE REPORT  The committee has been restructured to make it more manageable and includes the  table officers and our secretary, who has no vote. A Chairman is appointed by the  Executive Council. We meet two weeks prior to the Executive Council meetings. This committee has only the responsibility to recommend action to the Executive Council. I take  this opportunity to thank all those participating for their dedication to the affairs of the  Society and we look forward to another successful year.  Respectfully submitted,  Gifford Thomson  ARMSTRONG/ENDERBY BRANCH REPORT  Our branch experienced another year engaged in our usual activities. We feel we  have a good group of people in both towns.  We had some very interesting local people speak at our fall meeting in Armstrong,  November 13th, on the history of farming in our area.  Our Annual Meeting and Pot Luck Supper at Enderby this spring was well attended.  We enjoyed an exciting and interesting presentation by Mr. John Woodworth of Kelowna.  He showed slides and spoke on the Alexander Mackenzie Trail. The university students  who have traversed this route in part each year since 1989 intend to complete the final leg  of this journey in the summer of 1993, and arrive at Bella Coola in July to mark the 200th  Anniversary of Mackenzie's trek.  191 O.H.S. BUSINESS  We did very well selling last year's Report, as well as many back copies at our  Christmas Sale at the local supermarket. So well, in fact, that we purchased several hundred back copies from Vernon and Kelowna Branches and will continue to market them.  We look forward to another good year and wish all our fellow members the very best  in their continued endeavours to preserve and promote the history of our valley.  Respectfully submitted,  Jim Sharman, President  KELOWNA BRANCH REPORT  What follows is a brief overview of the activities of the Kelowna Branch, Okanagan  Historical Society, for the year 1992-1993. It was indeed a very busy year, and for the sake  of brevity I will list the activities of our Branch:  1) fall lecture series held at the Okanagan College;  2) our Branch published and distributed two newsletters to our members;  3) we again offered our Bus Tours/lectures as well as a boat tour on the S.S. Fintry  Queen;  4) the Branch has just about completed work on the video tape of local history;  5) our Street Names Committee has assembled enough information to put together a  book in the not-too-distant future;  6) our Branch has continued to work closely with the local Military Museum;  7) we have continued to lobby local governments to include local pioneer names on  new streets;  8) we have been well represented at meetings of the Parent Body, OHS;  9) Kelowna Branch will host the 1993 OHS Annual General Meeting;  10) our Editorial Committee has worked at assembling a number of articles to do with  the history of the Central Okanagan;  11) our Executive has been vigilant of the local media, in their presentation of our history;  12) the Jackson Totem pole has been restored, as a result of our concern;  13) the Kelowna Branch has maintained a friendly relationship with a number of other  history-minded people and groups;  14) March 15, 1993, our Branch held its Annual General Meeting, with some 215 members in attendance. Bob Cowan was guest speaker.  It has been a most productive year. I have been privileged to work with a very dedicated, hard-working Executive, supported by our members. I would like to take this opportunity to express my thanks and appreciation to my Executive and the members at large. It  has been a pleasure to serve as your Branch President, and I look forward to the year  ahead.  Respectfully submitted,  Robert Hayes, President  OLIVER/OSOYOOS BRANCH REPORT  The branch held two general meetings and five executive meetings during the year.  All meetings were well attended.  I must commend the membership of our branch for their support of our activities  and those of the Parent Body. There were twenty members in Kelowna for the Okanagan  Lake Cruise on the Fintry Queen and there are nine members here for the Annual  Meeting.  192 O.H.S. BUSINESS  In October, we manned a booth at the local Home and Trade Show and successfully  sold a number of the Reports. This is proving to be a popular way of advertising our presence in the community and a good way of marketing the Reports.  Our semi-annual meeting in November was to feature Randy Manuel and the restoration of the S.S. Sicamous. However, Randy was unable to attend. In his place, Carlton  MacNaughton gave a very interesting talk on the beginnings of the irrigation system in the  south end of the valley and some personal recollections of his father's involvement with  the supervision of the ditch. Our meeting also included a very interesting talk by Emily  McLennan, a long- time resident in Oliver. Emily spoke of her recollections of the early  history of the South Okanagan.  Our Annual Meeting in March did feature Randy Manuel of the Penticton Museum  with a talk on the restoration of the S.S. Sicamous and the history of the railroads in the  South Okanagan.  Our Pioneer Award is now in place in both Oliver and Osoyoos and is being well supported. We work with the local Chambers of Commerce in the presentation of the awards.  The preservation of the Fairview and McKinney cemeteries has received good press  coverage and we have received numerous favourable comments. Our thanks to Carlton  MacNaughton, Bernard Webber, and their committee members for their efforts.  We are currendy supporting the effort of a local native artist in the development of  murals to depict the history of the native and white societies in the South Okanagan. The  artist, Fred Stelkia, has developed a model of the mural and has presented his concept to  us, the Heritage Society, the local Town Councils, and Chambers of Commerce. All  responses have been favourable.  Just to brag a little, it is interesting to note that in the current Report, seven of the  twenty-five names on the Life Membership list are from the Oliver-Osoyoos area.  Respectfully submitted,  T.J. Sarell, President  PENTICTON BRANCH REPORT  Penticton Branch has enjoyed an active year. Three General Meetings and three  Executive Meetings were held. Penticton Government Agent, Jim Torrance, spoke to our  November Meeting on the role of the Government Agent in B.C. Enabelle Gorek presented a slide show and told of her year teaching at the Academy of Science and Technology  in Shanghai at our second meeting. Father Pandosy was the subject of Denis Maclnnis's  talk at our AGM.  We hosted the Strawberry Social at the first S.S. Sicamous Heritage Day last May. In  June, a bus tour to Princeton Castle was sponsored by the branch. Both were profitable  ventures allowing us to make the following donations:  $250.00 Memorial Donation to Penticton R.N. Atkinson Museum to aid in the construction of their natural history diorama;  $50.00 Memorial Donation to the Summerland Museum;  $50.00 to the Princeton Museum;  $100.00 to the K.V.R. Heritage Society to help construct the wharf to the tug  Naramata.  We shared a booth with the R.N. Atkinson Museum at the first Seniors' Symposium  sponsored by the City of Penticton in October. This gave us a marvellous opportunity to  present the background and aims of the Society to a large segment of the population.  193 O.H.S. BUSINESS  In conclusion, with help from George Harry of the Penticton Museum, our advertising programme was upgraded, resulting in increased sales of our publications through our  major outlets, at our meetings, and at our Mall Sale.  Respectfully submitted,  Olive Evans for John Ortiz, President  SALMON ARM BRANCH REPORT  The Salmon Arm Branch has had its share of good and bad this year. Early in our season, our president, Joan Idington, had to resign because of a painful back condition. Then  we lost our treasurer, Lillian Smiley, when she and Harold moved to Anglemont, which  was too far out to come in to meetings. Our vice-president Tom was too involved as president of the Naturalists to assume his place as president. The result was that our secretary,  Nancy Gale, became a secretary-treasurer, and I was drafted to the position of interim president.  We held six meetings during the year, including a social for the general membership,  taking the form of a pot-luck supper at the Peterson home.  I attended the Marketing Workshop in Kelowna in October, where we discussed ways  and means of presenting the new Report in our areas, to familiarize the public with it, and  to increase sales.  We were pleased to note that, at our urging, the feature in the Salmon Arm  Observer known as "Early Files" was reinstated. It had been dropped when the paper  changed ownership, and was missed by many.  The District Council has been most co-operative with our bid to have street names  included with the numbered street and avenue signs. They expect to be able to do around  six each year as old signs are replaced. The committee is hoping a book will result from  their research.  Our AGM was considered very successful, with around seventy persons attending. The  talk by Ken Mather of the O'Keefe Ranch on the early setdement of the valley with the cattle industry was very much enjoyed.  We are welcoming three or four new younger members to our executive, and have  high hopes for the upcoming year.  Respectfully submitted,  Yvonne McDonald, President  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH REPORT  The Branch has had a successful year beginning with a pot-luck picnic held at the  Grist Mill in Keremeos last June, at which Alice Tweddle presented her childhood memories of the sale of horses to Russia. We are now meeting quarterly, and at subsequent meetings William "Pinkie" Foster treated the members to a very entertaining talk about his  experiences growing up in Olalla, and Dick Coleman addressed our February meeting on  the various locations of the town of Keremeos, particularly in reference to his family's  involvement.  The Branch sponsored a research project during the year, and as a result, an annotated index of Similkameen references in the Annual Reports has been prepared and placed  in the Similkameen School Library and the Regional Library for the use of researchers.  We are continuing with interviews of local pioneers and are accumulating a library of  tapes from which we hope to be able to make submissions to the annual Report.  194 O.H.S. BUSINESS  An endeavour was made to encourage participation in the Student Essay Contest.  This was not particularly successful, but it is a start and perhaps next year we will have better response.  We have tried to take advantage of the opportunity to market past Annual Reports  and took part in the Christmas Light-up with a table featuring the Reports and presenting  information on the OHS. This drew more interest than sales, but did result in a few new  members. At our last meeting a historian, Michael Burn, was appointed to save and record  accounts of current events of historical interest for the future.  We are looking forward to hosting the annual picnic of the OHS and will be finalizing  plans at our meeting on May 16th.  Respectfully submitted,  Charles L. Finch, President  VERNON BRANCH REPORT  What, at the moment, appears to have been a successful 1992-93 season for the  Vernon Branch, has now concluded, and having had the honour of serving as Vernon's  Branch President during that period, I will submit this brief report, endeavouring to summarize those 12 months of activities. The first major project was, of course, the Valley  Annual Meeting of May 3rd, 1992 held in conjunction with Vernon's Centennial. It was  among the first of numerous events that were hosted by our City Fathers for the big occasion. All branches in the Valley were on hand, under President Bob de Pfyffer. Many were  decked out in period costume, in keeping with the Centennial theme.  We were blessed with a host of willing helpers under the guiding hand of Mary  Ellison Bailey, as convenor for the banquet and festivities. We featured the occasion with a  slide presentation by Father Thomas Lascelles, illustrating the early Oblate Missions to the  Interior of British Columbia. It also provided a fitting occasion for Jean Webber, a past editor, to make a floral presentation to Dr. Margaret Ormsby. Dr. Ormsby has now been a  member for over 50 years and a long-time editor for many early issues of the popular  Annual Report.  Throughout the year, several of the popular bus tours were again organized by Bob  de Pfyffer and Jack Morrison, with sell-outs for each trip. A big dint was made on the surplus supplies of Reports by book chairman, Phyllis McKay, and her many willing helpers.  Two outlets at Poison and Village Green Malls, during the Christmas Season witnessed  many getting their first glimpse of the interesting true stories of local history, and at bargain basement prices. Also, several committees were struck to assist with local and civic projects.  We were blessed with some very knowledgeable speakers for the latter months of  1992 and the January to April months of 1993. Included in that array of talent were: John  Denison of "Ice Roads" fame; former Vernon Mayor Anne Clarke, on the subject of  "Forest Alliance;" Manager-Curator of the historic O'Keefe Ranch, Ken Mather, on the  "Early Cattle Drives Along the Fur Brigade Trail;" Carl Wylie, probably the area's most  noted authority on pre-war early skiing, on "Skiing Silver Star." Both Carl's and Ken's talks  were accompanied by a slide presentation. Also giving a most timely topic for our  Centennial Year was a veteran of the OHS, Hilda Cochrane, speaking on 'Vernon's First  City Council."  These speakers were followed in March, 1993 by a video presentation of "The  Okanagan Valley, British Columbia's Orchard Playground," a 16 mm Government of B.C.  film produced circa 1944. This copy was presented courtesy of Mary Ellison Bailey to the  195 O.H.S. BUSINESS  Vemon Branch in honour of her father, Vernon Ellison. The final speaker for our Annual  General Meeting was Mr. Ron Candy, newly- appointed Curator of our Vernon Museum.  He gave a slide and video presentation on "Historic Barkerville."  I believe the calibre of speakers we have been able to present to our membership during the past year, together with the diligent work of our dues and membership teams have  added greatly to our swelling member and visitor banks each month. Add to these, a loyal  executive and unfailing committees, and I am deeply grateful for their help and suggestions during my term in office.  Respectfully submitted,  Doug Kermode, President  HISTORICAL TRAILS COMMITTEE REPORT  The committee has the following to report:  1. Okanagan Brigade Trail: For some years the committee has taken an active role in  promoting the recognition and preservation of the Okanagan Brigade Trail, with the support of the executive. For this role the committee has worked with the Regional District of  Central Okanagan on a study to identify and recommend linear parks and heritage conservation on the west side of Okanagan Lake, including the Okanagan Brigade Trail.  A consultants' study is now under way to note specific recommendations and has met  with opposition from some of the west side residents.  The committee wishes to reiterate its support for preservation of significant portions  of the Okanagan Brigade Trail and for significant heritage features, although it recognizes  it may not be possible to retain a continuous linear corridor.  2. Ketde Valley Railway Corridor Project: The fourth phase of the project, the recommended management plan, has been completed. It recommends that the significant historical sections of the railway at Myra Canyon and the tunnels at Adra become provincial  parks, and that no motorized vehicles be allowed on them. The committee concurs with  this recommendation.  The committee suggests that once the recommended management plan is in place,  that the Society undertake the monitoring of historically significant sections, carry out trail  clean-up, and advise the Province on matters that require their attention. The Society has  carried much on of this work elsewhere at Fairview.  3. Chairman's Resignation: The Chairman advised the committee that he wishes to  resign from the committee, inasmuch as he took over from Harley Hatfield about 15 years  ago. He will serve for an interim period until a successor can be found.  4. Future Committee Activities and Composition: The committee suggests the following: a) that the membership be broadened to include a representative from each branch;  b) that the committee look at other significant historical trails of the Okanagan and  Similkameen; c) that the committee, at the beginning of its term, prepare a list of objectives which can then be evaluated at the end of the term.  Respectfully submitted by  Pat Carew, Member, Kelowna  Harley Hatfield, Member, Penticton  Bernard Webber, Member, Osoyoos  Dorothy Zoellner, Member, Kelowna  Peter Tassie, Chairman, Vernon  196 O.H.S. BUSINESS  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE REPORT  Once again we have experienced a successful year at the Mission.  Our donations for the year seem to remain the same and we believe they will continue at this level as long as they are on a volunteer basis. By taking advantage of the government Make Work Grant, we employed a qualified Tour Guide with historical research abilities. This cost us extra, but we believe it to be well worth while at this stage of our development.  Again, maintenance and repairs continue to drive down our savings. We had to  replace the main lines and septic field piping for the caretaker's house. We repainted and  reorganized the main display section in the Christian House (this will be completed this  spring). We also assumed the financial responsibilities for the utilities for the caretaker's  house. It is our responsibility to insure the building on the site against fire. This is an additional cost of $900.00 per year. The Father Pandosy Knights of Columbus have agreed to  fund this for one year. Nevertheless our bank account still stands at $3,300.00.  Our volunteer crew, consisting of OHS and Knights of Columbus members, continues to answer the call. Particular mention must be made of the work and dedication of our  volunteer caretaker, Judy Toms, who does an excellent job in maintaining the site and is  knowledgeable and pleasant to all.  Respectfully submitted,  Denis W. Maclnnis,  Chairman  INDEX COMMITTEE  The 56th Report has been indexed but has not yet been put in a publishable form.  When the next Report comes out, we may consider publishing an index of Numbers 56  and 57 in a pamphlet form.  Respectfully submitted,  A.D. MacDonald,  Chairman  BAGNALL COMMITTEE  Nothing of substance to report except that Dr. Duane Thomson continues work on  his book, which now will be organized around a series of letters each dated from a significant period in our past stretching back into early pioneer days. It is thought that this  should fulfil Mr. Bagnall's wish for a book that will be suitable for schools.  Dr. Thomson has recendy had conversations in Kelowna with a representative of the  UBC Press, who seems to be very much taken with the format for the book.  Respectfully submitted,  Bernard Webber  FAIRVIEW LOTS COMMITTEE  The Oliver-Osoyoos Historical Branch inherited the care and development of these  lots because they fall within the bounds of our area and because we fought the government Tax Office for about three years and got them off the tax roll. In dollars and cents,  our branch has spent very little money on this project. Everybody donated labour, material, and pictures.  197 O.H.S. BUSINESS  One of our members has donated his time in watering the row of pine trees we planted, and they are growing well. The Oliver Museum sends many groups up there, and our  annual count runs around 800 -1000 signatures from all over the world.  The view from the lots is obviously where Fairview got its name. The only major  expenditure was for the rock-proof plexiglass that covers the bulletin box (8' x 4') costing  $300.00.1 believe it was a very worthwhile project and although the value of the lots on the  assessment roll has gone way up, they are tax free.  Respectfully submitted,  F. Carlton MacNaughton,  Director  PIONEER GRAVEYARDS  CAMP MCKINNEY AND FAIRVIEW  These projects were a joint project between the Heritage Club and the Oliver-  Osoyoos Historical Branch. Pictures of these were circulated around the tables. The cairns  were very nice rock-faced cement pillars built on a 4' x 4' x 8" base and the upright pillar  was 1' x 2' x 3" high with sloping top in which the two very expensive plaques were imbedded. Both graveyards are fenced and look very good. These markers, if not vandalized,  should last for hundreds of years.  We would like to extend our thanks to the Provincial Heritage Branch of B.C., the  Oliver Heritage Branch, and to Bernard Webber who helped us in so many ways.  Respectfully submitted,  F. Carlton MacNaughton,  Director  PROJECT INTERVIEW  There is not a great deal to report at this time and it would be effrontery to propose  to the members sitting here that they should get out and tape pioneers before they pass  on. My wife has been prodding me about this for the last six months or more, and I  haven't been able to get out and see anybody. I think that's what happens to us... we put  things off and then we show a great deal of regret when people that we know ought to  have had their experiences recorded, pass away. So I am going to make a personal resolve  to try to do my bit in interviewing people, and I hope that many in our Branches will do  the same and that you will take back the hope that we will be able to get quite a number of  things on tape, as I understand that Similkameen has done, while we still have time.  Respectfully submitted,  Bernard Webber  198 O.H.S. BUSINESS  O.H.S. LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS  1993-1994  SALMON ARM  PRESIDENT: Yvonne McDonald; VICE-PRESIDENT: Tom Smith; SECRETARY/TREASURER: Nancy Gale; DIRECTORS: Florence Farmer, Mary Wetherill, Ron Willey; EDITO  RIAL COMMITTEE: Yvonne McDonald, Roland and Jean Jamieson.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY  PRESIDENT: Jim Sharman; VICE-PRESIDENT: Gerrie Danforth; SECRETARY: Kathy  Fabische; TREASURER: Eleanore Bolton; DIRECTORS: Pat Romaine, Ellen Laine; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Lorna Carter, Bob Nitchie, Jessie Ann Gamble, Bill Whitehead.  VERNON  HONOURARY PRESIDENT: Dr. Margaret Ormsby; PRESIDENT: Jack Morrison; VICE-  PRESIDENT: Phyllis MacKay; SECRETARY: Helen Inglis; TREASURER: Betty Holtskog;  DIRECTORS: Graden Alexis, Pat Collins, Audley Holt, Paddy Mackie, Doug Scott, Julia  Tessier, Russell Hamilton, Bob de Pfyffer; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Lucy McCormick,  Carol Mellows, Beryl Wamboldt.  KELOWNA  PRESIDENT: Robert Hayes; 1st VICE-PRESIDENT: Alice Lundy; 2nd VICE- PRESIDENT:  Art Strandquist; SECRETARY: Joan Chamberlain; TREASURER: Gifford Thomson;  DIRECTORS: Pat Carew, Joan Chamberlain, Eric Chapman, Mona Dow, James Hayes, Bill  Knowles, Robert Marriage, Val Rampone, Jack Ritch, Peter Stirling, Doreen Tait, Marie  Wostradowski, Dorothy Zoellner; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Hume Powley, Fred Coe.  PENTICTON  HONOURARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; HONOURARY DIRECTOR: Angie  Waterman; PRESIDENT: John Ortiz; VICE-PRESIDENT: Enabelle Gorek; SECRETARY:  Frances Yolland; TREASURER: Bob Elder; DIRECTORS: Louise Atkinson, Joe Biollo,  Mollie Broderick, Bob Gibbard, Dave McFarland, Randy Manuel, David MacDonald, Polly  Stapleton, Jim Torrance, Ethel Tily, Betty Williams; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Betty  Bork, Claude Hammell, Effie MacRae-Fraser, Diane Truant, Olive Evans, Doreen Tait.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS  PRESIDENT: T.J. (Terry) Sarell; VICE-PRESIDENT: Joan Casorso; SECRETARY: Elaine  Shannon; TREASURER: Alice Francis; DIRECTORS: Fran Allen; Connie Cumine, Stanley  Dickson, Blaine Francis, Aileen Porteous, Leslie Doerr, Willa Doerr, Cyril Headey; EDITO  RIAL COMMITTEE: Doris McDonald, Victor Casorso, Jean Webber.  SIMILKAMEEN  PRESIDENT: Charles L. Finch; VICE-PRESIDENT: Richard Coleman; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Hildred E. Finch; DIRECTORS: Alice Tweddle, Ross Innis, Michael Burn,  Dorothy Clark; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Cass Robinson.  199 MEMBERSHIP UST1993  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  LIFE MEMBERS  Berry, Mrs. A.E., Vernon  Broderick, Mrs. Mollie, Okanagan Falls  Cochrane, Mrs. Hilda, Vernon  Corbishley, Donald, Oliver  Ellison, Kenneth, Oyama  Gamble, Mrs. Jessie Ann, Armstrong  Gardner, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Harris, Joseph, Penticton  Hatfield, Harley R., Penticton  Iceton, Mrs. Ermie, Oliver  Lewis, Mrs. Dorothea, Osoyoos  MacDonald, David, Penticton  MacNaughton, F. Carleton, Oliver  Marriage, Robert, Kelowna  Ormsby, Dr. Margaret, Vernon  Powley, Hume M., Kelowna  Robey, Ronald, Vernon  Tassie, Peter, Vernon  Wamboldt, Mrs. Beryl, Vernon  Waterman, Mrs. Angeline, Osoyoos  Waterman, Miss Dolly, Penticton  Webber, Bernard, Osoyoos  Webber, Mrs. Jean, Osoyoos  Whitehead, William J, Armstrong  Zoellner, Mrs. Dorothy, Kelowna  INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS  Abel, William & Edith, Winfield  Advocaat, Bertha, Keremeos  Akrigg, Helen, Vancouver  Allen, Mrs. B., Langley  Allen, Fred, Vernon  Allen, Mr. & Mrs. Herb, Penticton  Allen, Mrs. Jessie A., Kaleden  Amis, Dorothy A, Hot Springs, Ariz.  Anderson, Elof, Kelowna  Anderson, Irene, Salmon Arm  Anderson, Robert Ivo, Vernon  Andrews, G.M., Burnaby  Archer, Earl & Marta, Wilamet, 111.  Archer, Norma, New Westminister  Armstrong, John, Keremeos  Armstrong, Julia, Enderby  Arnold, David 8c Nancy, Eugene, Ore.  Askew, R.L. & D., Salmon Arm  Atkins, Fay & David, Vernon  Atkinson, Mrs. William, Summerland  Baird, Marion, Enderby  Baird, Rose, Enderby  Balcombe, Stella, Vernon  Barkwill, Harry J., Summerland  Barman, Jean, Vancouver  Basham, Dave & Betty, Creston  Basham, John & Annie, Kelowna  Batten, Marion, Osoyoos  Battye, Clement, Penticton  Bawtree, Len, Enderby  Beames, T.B., Ladysmith  Beaubien, Mary, Vernon  Beckett, Bernice, Armstrong  Bedwell, Sid, Salmon Arm  Beecroft, Lucille, Cawston  Bell, John, Kelowna  Berger, Carol, Salmon Arm  Berkholtz, Velma, Armstrong  Berry, Eldred, Vancouver  Berry, Jane, Oliver  Bethane, Tracey, Kelowna  200 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Blackburn, W. David, Armstrong  Blackburne, Ernest and Sylvia, Kelowna  Blackwood, Roy H., Sidney  Blake, Mrs. Vera, Sidney  Blow, Robert W., Armstrong  Bogert, John, Enderby  Bolton, Bruce & Eleanore, Vernon  Booth, Mrs. Margaret, Salmon Arm  Bork, Elizabeth, Okanagan Falls  Borrett, Alan & Liz, Kelowna  Boss, Bernice, Armstrong  Boss, Rawleigh, Armstrong  Bowen-Colthurst,  Mr. & Mrs. T.G, Ladysmith  Bowsher, A.P., Calgary, Alta.  Bray, D.G, Salmon Arm  Brent, Fredrick J., Burnaby  Brighouse, Tom, Salmon Arm  Briscall, Miss CM., Vancouver  Breeder, Vern & Alice, Salmon Arm  Brown, Mrs. Ada, West Vancouver  Brown, Alice, Enderby  Brown, Mrs. J.C, Deep Creek  Buchleitner, Max, Enderby  Bull, Mary, Okanagan Mission  Bunce, Helen, Kelowna  Burkholder, B., Vernon  Burns, R.E., Armstrong  Burtch, A.H., Winfield  Bush, Mrs. Agnes S., Cawston  Cail, Anna, Vernon  Cain, Mrs. G, Armstrong  Caley, Hugh & Ruth, Vernon  Caley, Michael & Patricia, Osoyoos  Caley, Robert & Penny, Kelowna  Cameron, Mae, Vernon  Cameron, W.J.V., Kelowna  Cannings, Jean & Steve, Penticton  Carbert, Maynard, Enderby  Chamberlain, Trevor W., Guelph, Ont.  Chapman, Eric W., Kelowna  Chapman, Ian E., Kelowna  Chapman, KD., Armstrong  Charman, Mrs. B., Kelowna  Christensen, D.B., Vernon  Christensen, G.R., Fanny Bay  Christensen, KL., Vernon  Christensen, Violet, Vernon  Clark, Cindy, Enderby  Clark, Janette, Enderby  Clarke, Anne, Vernon  Clarke, KD., Kelowna  Clarke, Peg, Salmon Arm  Clayton, F. & M., Salmon Arm  Cleaver, William H., Kelowna  Clemson, Veronica, Armstrong  Clerke, Robert, Vernon  Coe, Mr. & Mrs. E.W., Kelowna  Coe, Fred, Kelowna  Collins, Patricia, Vernon  Collins, R.S., Keremeos  Colquhoun, Gordon, Vancouver  Constable, Mr. 8c Mrs. Frank, Kelowna  Cooper, I., Armstrong  Corner, John, Vernon  Cossentine, Jack, Penticton  Cousins, Verne M. & Jean, Peachland  Couves, C.S., Kelowna  Cowan, Bob &Joani, Enderby  Cowan, Evangeline, Palo Alto, Calif.  Cox, Doug, Penticton  Craib, Norman, Quesnel  Crawford, Elmer, Celista  Crerar, R.D., Parksville  Cretin, Harry W., Kelowna  Crosby, Beryl C, Parksville  Crowe, Mrs. D.A.S., Parksville  Crozman, Ray & Grace, Vernon  Dale, Marion, Enderby  Davies, H.E., Armstrong  D'Avila, Joseph M., Oliver  Davison, Ruby & Henry, Enderby  Davyduke, Ruby, Enderby  Dawe, Arthur S., Kamloops  Deboer, Hank, Mara  Delcourt, Darryl, Kelowna  Delcourt, Diana, Kelowna  Delcourt, Glenn, Kelowna  DeMontreuil, Mrs. John, Kelowna  Denison, Eric, Vernon  de Pfyffer, Charles, Kelowna  de Pfyffer, Robert L., Vernon  Deuling, Phyllis, Lumby  Dewdney, Jim & Connie, Penticton  201 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Dillon, Carol, Kelowna  Dillon, Edith, Kelowna  Doeksen, Rijn & Bessie, Kelowna  Doerr, Leslie, Oliver  Donnelly, John, Vernon  Douglas, George T., Vernon  Douillard, Leo, Kelowna  Downing, Dr. & Mrs. AG, Osoyoos  Downs, Art, Surrey  Duggan, Dorothy, Burnaby  Dunkley, M.J. & N., Kamloops  Dyson, Robert T., Vernon  Eagan, Mrs. C.E., San Leandro, Calif.  Eichinger, Paul, Enderby  Elk, Charles, Flint, Mich.  Ellington, Fred, Enderby  Ellington, Tammy, Enderby  Elliott, Doreen, Vernon  Elliott, Douglas, Oyama  Embree, Alice, Vancouver  Embree, Rev. Dr. Bernard L.M.,  Coquidam  Emeny, Jim & Alice, Enderby  Emerson, Marybelle, Kelowna  Enderby Lions Club, Enderby  Evans, W. Robert 8c Olive, Penticton  Farmer, Florence G, Salmon Arm  Farmer, Pat & Joy, Enderby  Favali, Marjorie & Mike, Kelowna  Finch, C.L., Keremeos  Finch, Hildred, Keremeos  Finch, J., Vernon  Findlay, Raymond W. Kaleden  Finnson, Betty, Surry  Fisher, D.V. & D.E., Summerland  Fleming, John, Vernon  Fleming, Stuart, Vernon  Fletcher, Nora 8c Phillip, Kelowna  Foord, Mrs. T.J., Vernon  Forster, Tony & Winnie, Enderby  France, Jean, Vernon  Fraser, Dorothy, Osoyoos  Fraser, Phil, Salmon Arm  Fredericks, Mildred, Enderby  Freeze, Russell, Armstrong  French, Margaret E., Kingston, Ont.  Fridge, Anne, Peachland  Fuller, Mr. & Mrs. Cecil, Thorndale, Ont.  Fullerton, Mr. 8c Mrs. J.A., Salmon Arm  Gaddes, Joyce S., Victoria  Gajerski, Elizabeth McCulloch, Kamloops  Galbraith, Lillian, Vernon  Gale, J.L., Penticton  Gamble, Bruce, Evanston, 111.  Gamble, Jennifer, Armstrong  Gardner, R.W., Enderby  Garlinge, Beth, Peachland  Garrod, Wally, Enderby  Gartrell, Dr. Beverly, Vancouver  Gawne, Bill & Goldie, Penticton  Gee, Harvey & Betty, Vernon  Gibbard, L.R., Naramata  Gibson, Paul M., Calgary, Alta.  Gillard, David A, Ottawa, Ont.  Gislason, Dr. & Mrs. I.L., Orange, Calif.  Glaicar, Marjorie, Armstrong  Glanville, J.B., Grand Forks  Gledhill, Susan K, Vernon  Godwin, W. Lester, Penticton  Gonchais, Walter, Armstrong  Goodfellow, Ruth & Eric, Princeton  Gordon, Rae A., North Vancouver  Gore, R.C., Kelowna  Gore, Mrs. W.B., Westbank  Gorse, Helen, Salmon Arm  Graham, Beatrice, Mission  Graham, Glenn, Penticton  Graham, Mrs. Janet E.V., East Kelowna  Graham, Marie, Vernon  Gray, J.E., Vernon  Green, George, Enderby  Green, James & Katherine, Vernon  Green, Marie, Kelowna  Green, Vicki A., Vernon  Gregory, Dr. David, Summerland  Griswoldjune, Enderby  Gustafson, Elizabeth, Fort Nelson  Hackstetter, Rene, Toronto, Ont.  Hagardt, Eleanor, Enderby  Hall, Dennis R., Osoyoos  202 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Hall, H.M. (Sonny), Lumby  Hall, Mabel V., Kelowna  Hall, Norman & Helen, Salmon Arm  Hall, Richard, Kelowna  Halt, Eleanor, Enderby  Halvorson, Elmer, Enderby  Hamilton, Arthur L., Osoyoos  Hamilton, H.R. & C.K, Vernon  Hamilton, W.D., West Vancouver  Hammell, Mr. T.C., Penticton  Handcock, Gerald, Enderby  Hanet, Mr. 8c Mrs. Alfred, Kelowna  Hanna, Janet, Salmon Arm  Hansen, Gullan, Salmon Arm  Hanson, Mary, Vernon  Harper, Dave, Salmon Arm  Harper, H.I. & R., Salmon Arm  Hart, Suzanne, Tappen  Hawrys, George & Nora, Grindrod  Hawrys, Joe & Kay, Enderby  Henry, Irma, Salmon Arm  Holmer,Jean, Burnaby  Hooper, Mrs. Anne, Salmon Arm  Hope, D. & M., Armstrong  Horn, James T.F., Kelowna  Howes, Edna, 100 Mile House  Hucul, Bill 8c Nancy, Salmon Arm  Huggins, Ian & Karen, Armstrong  Huggins, Janet, Armstrong  Humphrey, A.C., Vernon  Humphreys, Jean I., Vernon  Hunter, Winifred, Vernon  Iceton, Eddie & Helen, Okanagan Falls  Iceton, Mark & Elaine, Whitehorse, Y.T.  Iceton, Russell 8c Connie, Black  Diamond, Alta.  Iceton, Terry 8c Shirlee, Olds, Alta.  Iceton, Tim & Lorena, Edmonton, Alta.  Idington, Joan, Tappen  Imbeau, Irene, Enderby  Ingles, Muriel, E., Kelowna  Inglis, Helen, Vernon  Inkster, Jim, Vernon  Innis, Ross, Keremeos  Jackson, H.W., Vancouver  Jackson, Margaret, Salmon Arm  Jackson, Margarite, Enderby  Jackson, Merv, Enderby  Jackson, Sheilagh, Winfield  Jamieson, Al & Georgie, Salmon Arm  Jamieson, E.E., Vernon  Jamieson, Mr. & Mrs. R.A., Salmon Arm  Jamieson, John M., Salmon Arm  Jamieson, Ken & Pam, Nanaimo  Jefferies, Frank, Kelowna  Jenner-Parson, Michael, Duncan  Jensen, Roily M., Kelowna  Johns, A. and N, Kelowna  Johnson, Dr. G, Kelowna  Johnson, Robert T., Okanagan Falls  Johnston, Ben, Enderby  Johnston, Mary, Penticton  Johnston, Mildred, Keremeos  Jones, Cleo, Enderby  Jones, Mrs. Kathy, Victoria  Jones, V. & D., Vernon  Kelly, Colleen, Kelowna  Kennedy, Trina, Salmon Arm  Kenyon, Gordon & Nan, Penticton  Kilpatrick, Ron, Vernon  King, Avery & Daphne, Penticton  King, Rosemary, Kelowna  Kingston, Nina, Salmon Arm  Kinloch, David F.B., Vernon  Knowles, C.W., Kelowna  Kobayashi, Anthony T., Winfield  Koskimaki, R.H., Enderby  Koroscil, Paul, Naramata  Laine, Ellen, Enderby  Lambert, Ben M., Oliver  Latrace, Ernest & Ethel, Armstrong  Lauer, Frank J., Summerland  Laviolette, Ernie, Cherryville  Law, Mr. & Mrs. C.E., Keremeos  Lawrence, Mrs. George, Keremeos  LeDuc, Barb, Kamloops  Leonoff, Cyril E., Vancouver  Lipscombe, Dudley, Summerland  Lloyd, Glen, Enderby  203 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Lockner, Bradley, Oshawa, Ont.  Loomer, Mr. & Mrs. Ian, Penticton  Lougheed, Joe & Pat, Enderby  Lowe, M.E., Salmon Arm  Lundquist, Hank, Enderby  Lundquist, Hilding, Enderby  Lundy, Alice, Kelowna  McBeth, R. & L, Baldonnel  McCallum, Richard, Armstrong  McCann, Leonard G, Vancouver  McComb, Margaret, Kelowna  McCormick, Lucy, Vernon  McCoubrey, Mrs. Patricia, Winfield  McCrady, David G, Winnipeg, Man.  McCulloch, Elizabeth, Kamloops  McCullough, Mrs. Vera, Vernon  McDonald, Brian, Grand Forks  McDonald, Dawn, Salmon Arm  McDonald, Dr. Sheila, Kelowna  McDonald, Vivian, Salmon Arm  McDonald, Yvonne E., Salmon Arm  McEwen, Don, Grindrod  MacFarlan, Edward, Calgary, Alta.  McFarland, June 8c Dave, Penticton  Maclnnis, Denis, Kelowna  Mcintosh, R.D., Victoria  MacKay, Phyllis, Vernon  McKeever, James L. & Katherine,  Vineland Station, Ont.  MacKenzie, Mrs. D.R., Mission  McKenzie, Fern 8c Ron, Kelowna  McLachlan, Mr. & Mrs. Joe, Summerland  McLarty, R. Hugh, Kelowna  McLaughlin, Mr. & Mrs. D., Princeton  McLennan, Mary 8c Don, Kelowna  MacLeod, Kathleen, Kelowna  MacLeod, Len, Vernon  McLeod, Muriel, Kelowna  McLure, Mrs. Leona, Enderby  McMaster, Sheila, Salt Spring Island  McMechan, AD. & M.L., Summerland  McMechan, Paul, Winfield  McMynn, J.D., Penticton  McNee, Mrs., Casdegar  McPherson, Stan & Barbara, Penticton  McQuarrie, Roy Daniel, Salmon Arm  McQueen, Lillian, Enderby  Mackie, Patrick, Vernon  Madryga, Marcia, Kamloops  Mallon, Most Rev. Peter J., Nelson  Malpass, George, Vancouver  Malpass, Olive, Enderby  Manheim, Dr. 8c Mrs. E., Kansas City, Mo.  Marshall, Mr. 8c Mrs. Bert, Enderby  Marshall, James, Summerland  Marty, Arthur, Kelowna  Mason, Ann & Doug, Vernon  Mason, Gladys M., Vernon  Mathieson, Nellie, Salmon Arm  May, Ken 8c Kathleen, Vernon  Mayhead, Mr. & Mrs. J.W., Auckland, N.Z.  Maylor, Bill, Grindrod  Maylor, Bill, Neilburg, Sask.  Melling, Mrs. Barbara, Eagle Bay  Meirs, Trish, Kelowna  Melanson, Heather, Enderby  Messenger, Doug, Armstrong  Middleton, Doug, Winfield  Miller, Mr. & Mrs. E.J., Winfield  Millin, Mrs. Molly, Penticton  Mills, Dorothy E., Kelowna  Mills, Mrs. Monica, Vernon  Minshull, Edward, Keremeos  Moffatt, Doug, Kelowna  Monford, Ken 8c Meryl, Kelowna  Monford, Lome, Kelowna  Montfort, E.J., Vernon  Moody, Mrs. E., New Westminster  Morgan, Cecil 8c Dorothy, Summerland  Morrison, J. G, Vernon  Morrow, George, Vemon  Moss, J. Patrick, Kelowna  Mott, Doris, Enderby  Mugford, Kay, Kelowna  Munro, David, Sidney  Munson, Stan 8c Fenella, Kelowna  Murrell, Holly M., Kelowna  Nahm, Gerry 8c Irene, Vemon  Nahm, Tilman & Mae, Grindrod  Naylor, E.E., Victoria  Neave, Greg, Didsbury, Alta.  Neave, Len, Edmonton, Alta.  Neave, Paddy, Lethbridge, Alta.  Neid, Mr. & Mrs. J J., Blind Bay  204 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Newell, Geoff, Salmon Arm  Newton, Jim & Betty, Summerland  Newton, Peter, Kelowna  Nitchie, Robert, Armstrong  Noble, Margaret, Canoe  Norcross, Mr. & Mrs. N.C., Osoyoos  Norman, W., Armstrong  North, Ab., Kelowna  Obee, David, Calgary, Alta.  Oberle, A.M.J., Armstrong  Olson, Arvid, Salmon Arm  Olund, Henry, Enderby  Ord, Louise, Enderby  Ortiz, Mr. & Mrs. John E., Penticton  Osborn, Bill & June, Vernon  Oswell, Michael G, Victoria  Oviatt, Murriel, Enderby  Painter, E.P., Campbell River  Painter, M.F., Vancouver  Patterson, Alan, Kelowna  Payne, Harvey, Vemon  Paynter, Sheila, Westbank  Peebles, Jack, Enderby  Pelletier, Salmon Arm  Pells, FrankJ., Kelowna  Peterman, Art & Anne, Oliver  Peters, Robert, Enderby  Peterson, Alf A, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Floyd B., Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hjalmar, Salmon Arm  Peterson, Hubert, Salmon Arm  Phillips, Betty, New Glasgow, N.S.  Pickard, John, Chase  Pizzey, Martha, Enderby  Polichek, Vic, Vernon  Porteous, Mrs. Aileen, Oliver  Price, Anne, Enderby  Price, Doris & Harry, Kelowna  Price, H. Alex, Kelowna  Pringle, Dr. & Mrs. S.L., Penticton  Prosser, Alice W., Kelowna  Raboch, Phyllis, Vemon  Rampone, Val & Elsie, Kelowna  Rands, Marion, Enderby  Reece, Daryn, Westbank  Reid, Dennis, Salmon Arm  Reid, Donald, Dugald, Man.  Reid, Loma &Joe, Grand Forks  Rendell, Mada, Vernon  Richards, Mayme, Victoria  Richards, R.F., Penticton  .Ritchjack, Kelowna  Roberts, Lois, Enderby  Roberts, L. Donna, Naramata  Roberts, Lyle, Salmon Arm  Roberts, Peter, Enderby  Robinson, Cass, Cawston  Rolke, Richard, Vemon  Romaine, J. Patrick, Armstrong  Ross, Dr. Douglas A., Victoria  Russell, Opal, Vernon  Rutherford, Elsie M., Kelowna  Saddler, Delta, Langley  Salter, Rev. Derek & Mrs. Jill,  Okanagan Falls  Salter, R.D., Salmon Arm  Sanbom, Kay, Grindrod  Sanderson, Mr. W.B., Peachland  Scales, James, Salmon Arm  Scargill, E.M., Victoria  Schubert, Trevor, Kamloops  Schultz, Marg, Armstrong  Scott, Babs, Grindrod  Seaton, Mr. Justice Peter,  West Vancouver  Seaton, W.D., Vemon  Sengotta, Grace A., Vemon  Sharman, Jim, Armstrong  Sharp, Edith, Kelowna  Sharpe, Wenonah, Port Ludlow, Wash.  Sheardown, Mrs. S.M., Osoyoos  Shelley, Nan, Kelowna  Shepherd, D., Kelowna  Shephard, Jean, North Vancouver  Shepherd, John & Grace, Armstrong  Sherk, Dennis, loco  Shillam, R.B., Vernon  Shilvock, Winston, A, Kelowna  Silver, Louise, Salmon Arm  Simard, Mrs. Isobel, Enderby  Simpson, D.R., Penticton  205 MEMBERSHIP UST  Simpson, George, Cawston  Simpson, Horace &Joan, Kelowna  Simpson, Pat, Tompkins, Sask.  Sinclair, Don, Salmon Arm  Sladen, R.W., Cobourg, Ont.  Sladen, Vema, Keremeos  Smith, Neil, Abbotsford  Smith, Tom & Ruth, Salmon Arm  Smith, S.R., Enderby  Spendlove, Rosemary 8c David, Ottawa,  Ont.  Stankevich, Jo, Enderby  Stapleton, Polly, Penticton  Steward, Mrs. F.M., Summerland  Steward, Mrs. Lynette, Vemon  Stickland, Irene, Enderby  Stirling, Peter, Kelowna  Stocks, Peter A, Victoria  Stoneberg, Margaret, Princeton  Stranart, J.C, Keremeos  Strandquist, 0. Arthur 8c Dorothy,  Kelowna  Stubbs, John N, Vancouver  Stubbs, R.H., Vancouver  Summers, Bob  Tailyour, Joan, Kelowna  Tapson-Jones, M.L., Salmon Arm  Tassie, Elizabeth M., Vemon  Terkelsen, Joyce, Armstrong  Thom, Mrs. Lillian, Vemon  Thomas, Gordon, Kelowna  Thomson, Gifford & Brenda, Kelowna  Thomson, Ken 8c Dorothy, Kelowna  Thorburn, Herb & Loma, Kingston, Ont.  Thorlakson, Ben, Carstairs, Alta.  Thorlakson, Margaret, Vemon  Thomeloe, F., Kelowna  Thorsness, Mr. & Mrs. Keith,  Bredenbury, Sask.  Tidball, W., Kelowna  Tily, Bill & Ethelyn, Penticton  Timm, Phil, Salmon Arm  Tischik, Gary, Armstrong  Todd, Mr. & Mrs. Jeffrey, Peachland  Tomlin, E.V., Oliver  Tompkins, Tom & Michelle, Regina,  Sask.  Tooley, Olive, Salmon Arm  Topham, Peter, Peachland  Truswell, Byron, Wenatchee, Wash.  Turnbull, Nora, Merritt  Turner, Ronald H., Salmon Arm  Tweddle, Alice, Keremeos  Tweeddale, Elsie, Salmon Arm  van Blaricom, Dilys, Keremeos  van Vreumingen, Peter, Kelowna  Vig, Raymond, Vemon  Waddington, J.D., Richmond  Waddington, Kathleen E., Vancouver  Walker, Harvie L., Vancouver  Walker, W.John D., Victoria  Wall, Joan K, Victoria  Walsh, Rita, New Westminister  Walton, Cecil & Katherine, Penticton  Wardrop, J.R., Victoria  Warhurst, Ted, Enderby  Watt, Elizabeth, Vemon  Weatherill, Miss AG, Vemon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Bob, Vemon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. David, Vemon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Don, Vemon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Gary, Vemon  Weatherill, Mr. & Mrs. Gordon,  Vancouver  Weatherill, Harry & Stella, Osoyoos  Weber, O. Melba, West Vancouver  Webster, Garth, Richmond  Weeden, Vera, Revelstoke  Weeks, Mrs. Madge, Vemon  Wellbourn, H., Victoria  Wells, Don, Grindrod  Wells, Peg & Don, Newport Beach, Calif.  Wernicke, Ann H., Vemon  Wetherill, Mary, Salmon Arm  Whiskin, J.W., Naramata  White, Barbara, Port Alberni  Whitehead, Fran, Kelowna  Whitham, J. Gordon, Calgary, Alta.  Whitting, Iva & Maud, Kent, England  Wiebe, V.J., Abbotsford  Willis, Jean, Cawston  Willson, Mrs. William E., Coquidam  206 MEMBERSHIP LIST  Wilmot, Nancy, Kelowna  Wilmot, Penelope, Squamish  Wilson, Brian, Penticton  Wilson, Elsie & Jack, Vemon  Wilson, M.B., Victoria  Wood, Elizabeth, Salmon Arm  Woodd, H.S., Vancouver  Woods, J.A. & Doris, Salmon Arm  Wort, Margaret, Kelowna  Wostradowski, Marie, Kelowna  Wright, Jean, Enderby  Yandle, Anne, Vancouver  Zamis, F., Enderby  Zoellner, Mr. W.J., Okanagan Mission  INSTITUTIONAL MEMBERS  Allan County Public Library,  Fort Wayne, Ind.  Burnaby Public Library, Burnaby  Greater Victoria Public Library, Victoria  Library of Parliament, Ottawa, Ont.  Metropolitan Toronto Reference  Library, Toronto, Ont.  National Library of Canada,  Ottawa, Ont.  Newberry Library, Chicago, 111.  Okanagan Regional Library, Kelowna  Penticton Public Library, Penticton  Spokane Public Library, Spokane, Wash.  Tacoma Public Library, Tacoma, Wash.  Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ont.  Vancouver Public Library, Vancouver  Victoria Public Library, Victoria  Westminster Abbey Library, Mission  B.C. Archives 8c Record Service, Victoria  Enderby & District Museum Society,  Enderby  Glenbow - Alberta Institute, Calgary,  Alta.  Kelowna Centennial Museum, Kelowna  Oliver Heritage Society Museum, Oliver  Penticton Museum, Penticton  Royal British Columbia Museum,  Victoria  Salmon Arm Museum & Heritage  Association, Salmon Arm  Summerland Museum, Summerland  Vancouver City Archives, Vancouver  Wisconsin State Historical Society,  Madison, Wis.  Berge & Company, Kelowna  Church of Latter Day Saints, Salt Lake  City, Utah  Kelowna Genealogical Society, Kelowna  Muriel Ffoulkes Learning Centre,  Kelowna  Salmon Arm Sheet Metal, Salmon Arm  Salmon Arm Observer, Salmon Arm  South Okanagan-Similkameen  Health Unit, Kelowna  Weddell, Horn and Company, Kelowna  AL.Fortune Secondary School, Enderby  B.X. Elementary School, Vemon  Charles Bloom Secondary School,  Lumby  Clarence Fulton Secondary School,  Vernon  Highland Park School, Armstrong  Kalamalka Junior Secondary School,  Vemon  Kelowna Secondary School, Kelowna  Len Wood Elementary School,  Armstrong  M.V. Beattie Elementary School,  Enderby  Okanagan Mission Secondary School,  Kelowna  Pleasant Valley Secondary School,  Armstrong  207 MEMBERSHIP LIST  South Kelowna Elementary School,  Kelowna  Summerland Secondary School,  Summerland  W.L. Seaton Secondary School, Vernon  Eastern Washington University,  Cheney, Wash.  Okanagan College, Kelowna  Queen's University, Kingston, Ont.  University of British Columbia,  Vancouver  University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.  University of Victoria, Victoria  University of Washington, Seattle, Wash.  University of Windsor, Windsor, Ont.  Washington State University,  Pullman, Wash.  Yale University, New Haven, Conn.  208  Hudson's Bay Co.  Trading Posts  Penticton  Airport  Salmon Arm  Women's Institute  War Bride  Okanagan Mission  Post Offices  Spallumcheen  Student  Essays  Book  Reviews  Okanagan History, the Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, has received  the following recognition of excellence:  1982      Award of Merit from the  American Association for State  and Local History.  1985      Annual Award for Significant  Contribution to the Conservation  of B.C. 's Heritage from the  Heritage Society of British  Columbia.  1987 Special Award for the 50th Report  from the British Columbia  Historical Federation.  1988 Certificate of Merit from the  Canadian Historical Association.

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