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Okanagan history. Fiftieth report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1986

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 Okanagan History  50th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society  Okanagan History  FIFTIETH REPORT  ISSN-0830-0739  ISBN-0-921241-00-3  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4, 1925  COVER PHOTO  Naramata Mural  designed by Frances Hatfield  (see story in this Report)  © 1986  Printed in Canada,  Wayside Press Ltd.,  Vernon, B C FIFTIETH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Jean Webber  ASSISTANT EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Ron Robey  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Aileen Porteous, Oliver and Osoyoos  Angeline Waterman, Penticton  Hume Powley, Kelowna  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong and Enderby  Membership  The recipient of this Fiftieth Report is entitled to register his or her membership in the Fifty-  first Report which will be issued November 1, 1987.  For Membership Registration and Membership Certificate forms see the insert in this book.  Buying Reports  Reports of the Okanagan Historical Society are available from the Treasurer of the Parent  Body (Box 313, Vernon), from Branches of OHS and, as well, from most museums and book  stores in the Okanagan.  For availability and prices of back numbers see order form on insert. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Ermie Iceton  VICE-PRESIDENT  Dorothy Zoellner  SECRETARY  Robert Marriage  TREASURER  James W. Green  PAST PRESIDENT  Mary Gartrell Orr  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver & Osoyoos: Don Corbishley, Carleton MacNaughton,  Harry Weatherill (rep. Branch President)  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Angeline Waterman  Kelowna: Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley  Vernon: Robert dePfyffer, Lucy McCormick  Salmon Arm: Jim Shaver, Mac Drage  Armstrong & Enderby: Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Nitchie  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Walter Anderson (Pandosy Mission)  A. Juergen Hansen (Historic Trails)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Don Weatherill, Jack Armstrong,  Frank Pells, Dorothy Zoellner, Bernard Webber OHS LOCAL BRANCH OFFICERS  1986 - 1987  OLIVER AND OSOYOOS  PRESIDENT: Ermie Iceton; VICE-PRESIDENT: Harry Weatherill; PAST PRESIDENT:  Carleton MacNaughton; RECORDING SECRETARY: Nan Mabee; TREASURER: Frances  Mitchell; CORRESPONDENCE & PUBLICITY: Elaine Shannon; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Aileen Porteous; DIRECTORS: Ivan Hunter (OHS Reports), Connie Cumine (Social),  Peggy Driver, Joan Wight; DIRECTORS OF PARENT BODY: Don Corbishley, Carleton MacNaughton, Harry Weatherill (rep. Branch President).  PENTICTON  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Harley Hatfield; PRESIDENT: Dave MacDonald; SECRETARY:  Olive Evans; TREASURER: Jack Riley; PAST PRESIDENT: Victor Wilson; DIRECTORS:  Jessie Allen, Joe Biollo, Elizabeth Bork, Molly Broderick, Hugh Cleland, Doug Cox, Bob Gibbard, Pat Gwyer, Allan Hyndman, Mary Orr, Phil Stannard, Polly Stapleton, Jim Strachan, Angie  Waterman, J. W. (Pete) Watson; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Angie Waterman, Evelyn Lun-  dy; AUDITOR: Fred Arnot; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Molly Broderick, Angeline  Waterman; REFRESHMENTS: Pat Cripps, Polly Stapleton.  KELOWNA  PRESIDENT: Dorothy Zoellner; VICE-PRESIDENT: Frank Pells; SECRETARY: Alice Neave;  TREASURER: Gifford Thomson; DIRECTORS: W. F. Anderson, Cedric Boyer, Mary Bull,  Wm. Cameron, Eric Chapman, Fred Coe, Joan Chamberlain, Dick Hall, Robert Hayes, Robert  Hobson, James Horn, Robert Marriage, Tilman Nahm, Duane Thomson, Ursula Surtees, Marie  Wostradowski; EDITORIAL CHAIRMAN: Hume Powley; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY:  Sheilagh M. Jackson; Gifford Thomson, Hume Powley; Auditor: Willie Dorssers, I/C ACCT.  FOR OGOPOGO'S VIGIL: Rosemary King.  VERNON  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Mrs. A. E. Berry; PRESIDENT: Hugh Caley; VICE-  PRESIDENT: Robert dePfyffer; SECRETARY: Lucy McCormick; TREASURER: Don  Weatherill; PAST PRESIDENT: Doug Scott; DIRECTORS: Bud Anderson, Pat Bell, Pat Collins, Jean Humphries, Phyllis McKay, Margaret Ormsby, Libby Tassie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Wamboldt; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Robert dePfyffer, Lucy McCormick: BAGNALL FUND: Don Weatherill; AUDITOR: Jack Hairsine. ARMSTRONG AND ENDERBY  PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; VICE-PRESIDENT: Betty Johnson; SECRETARY-  TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; PAST PRESIDENT: W. Whitehead; DIRECTORS: Mel  Johnston; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Robert Nitchie; EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone (chairman), Gertrude Peel, Jean Schubert.  SALMON ARM (MUSEUM EXECUTIVE)  PRESIDENT: Don Byers; VICE-PRESIDENT: Errol Tomyn; SECRETARY: Irene Olson;  COUNCIL   REPRESENTATIVE:   G.   Roy;   DIRECTORS:   Jim   Shaver,   Mac   Drage.  PAST PRESIDENT HONOURED  Mary Gartrell Orr, Past President of the Okanagan Historical Society, was honoured  September 9, 1985 by the American Association for State and Local History when the  Association, at its annual meeting in Topeka, Kansas, conferred upon her one of its Certificates of Commendation. The citation reads: "For Dedicated Support of the Okanagan  Historical Society and the Museum Community of British Columbia.  Mrs. Orr was one of two B.C.-Yukon recipients who were chosen from a group of 138  nominees.  The other recipient was fack Rippengale of Victoria. OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITORS  JAMES C. AGNEW  MARGARET A. ORMSBY  G. C. TASSIE  J. C. GOODFELLOW  F. T. MARRIAGE  H. A. PORTEOUS  D. A. ROSS  G. J. ROWLAND  E. D. SISMEY  J. E. FRY  D. THOMSON  CAROL ABERNATHY  JEAN WEBBER  1926-1931, 1937  1935, 1939, 1948-1953  1941-1945  1954-1957  1958-1960  1961-1968  1969  1970  1971-1973  1974-1976  1977-1978  1979-1982  1983-1986  Reports 1-5, 7  Reports 6, 8, 12-18  Reports 9-11  Reports 18-21  Reports 22-24  Reports 25-32  Report 33  Report 34  Reports 35-37  Reports 38-40  Reports 41, 42  Reports 43-46  Reports 47-50  Reports have been published in the years 1926, 1927, 1929-1931, 1936,  1937, 1939, 1941, 1943, 1945, 1948-1985. The Sixth Report includes many  articles originally printed in the first five Reports. The Seventeenth Report  is really a reprint of the First and Second Reports as the original runs for these  were small, 100 or 200 copies. (For a few years we printed as many as 3,000  books, but in 1984 this number was cut back to 2,000). In the Foreword of  the Seventeenth Report tribute is paid to Leonard Norris and Frank M.  Buckland for launching "a vigorous historical society," for serving as "chief  officers of the Society", and for being "the main contributors to its first two  publications."  Since 1953 Reports 1 - 12 have all been reprinted. Many of the later  Reports are now collectors' items. The Thirty-ninth Report, published in  OHS's fiftieth anniversary year, honours the first ten editors by having photos  of each on its cover.  In 1982 the American Association for State and Local History presented  the Okanagan Historical Society with one of its Awards of Merit for "more  than 50 years of publishing Okanagan history and stimulating heritage preservation." In 1985 the Heritage Society of British Columbia presented our Society  with one of its Annual Awards for Significant Contribution to the Conservation ofB.C.'s Heritage, citing our "60 years of preserving written local history." EDITOR'S FOREWORD  We've achieved our Fiftieth Report. That is quite an accomplishment  as anyone associated with the production of these volumes knows right well.  In celebration we list, on page six, all those who have served as Editor,  remembering always that behind each one stands a host who have assisted.  Among the biographies you will find the story of James C. Agnew, our first  Editor, and of Hugh Porteous who holds the record for the longest period of  continuous service as Editor. Nor should we forget on this special anniversary  the contribution made to our Reports by Dr. Margaret Ormsby.  Readers of Okanagan History look forward to another kind of celebration, too — the publication of a comprehensive index to our first fifty Reports.  As I write, this enormous task is now nearing completion under the able and  dedicated chairmanship of Dave MacDonald. With the new index researchers  will be able easily to lay hands on treasure buried in old reports. The complete  sets held in various libraries and museums will, from now on, be truly accessible.  Congratulations to Past President Mary Orr for the prestigious award conferred upon her by the American Association for State and Local History. The  citation draws public attention to the importance of local history; recognizes  the Okanagan Historical Society; and, in particular, acknowledges a person  who has devoted herself to our Society and to the museums of the Valley.  As in former years, I wish to thank those who have made this volume  possible: the writers of the articles appearing here; the Branch Editorial Committees, especially their Chairmen; and Beryl Wamboldt, Dorothy Zoellner,  and Ann Wight who have done special service in preparing copy for the printer  and in proofreading.  Jean Webber  As we go to press members of the Okanagan Historical Society are shocked  and saddened by the dreadful accident of June 15 which took the lives  of three valued members:  Merle Armstrong, Enderby  Helenita Harvey, Salmon Arm  Ethel Blackburn, Salmon Arm  Our sympathy goes out to the bereaved families.  Jean Webber CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  WATER, LIFE BLOOD OF THE OKANAGAN (D. A. Dobson, P.Eng.)  11  WATER QUALITY IN THE OKANAGAN BASIN (Jean Webber)   13  WASTE MANAGEMENT AT VERNON (Doug Kermode)  18  EARLY HISTORY OF WATER MANAGEMENT ON TROUT CREEK  (Mary Gartrell Orr)  19  OSOYOOS ORCHARDS LTD. (Douglas Fraser)   21  TRUCKING ON THE OLIVER-OSOYOOS IRRIGATION PROJECT (Joe Biollo) 24  LINES FROM ' 'A POET VISITS THE OKANAGAN'' (Clem Battye)  24  DOCUMENTS RE IRRIGATION: HOLDINGS OF THE KELOWNA MUSEUM  (Wayne Wilson)  25  LINES FOR GOING AWAY (Isabel Christie MacNaughton)  26  EARLY IRRIGATION DITCHES IN KELOWNA (Bill Knowles)  27  THE OLD BLACK IRON STOVE (Magda Rice)  31  THE GUISACHAN WATER USERS' COMMUNITY (Tilman E. Nahm)  32  A NOTE THE AGRICULTURAL JOURNAL  34  BOYHOOD MEMORIES OF THE UPPER BANKHEAD  WATER USERS' COMMUNITY (Tilman E. Nahm)  35  IRRIGATION IN THE ELLISON AREA (J. H. Hayes)  39  TWENTY STICKS OF POWDER (Sheila Paynter)  44  GREEN PASTURES (Beryl Wamboldt)   48  THE STEPNEY (W.J. Whitehead)  49  CONSTRUCTION IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY (Paul Koroscil)  53  NEW ZEALAND TO THE OKANAGAN (Cedric M. Boyer)  58  THE ORDERLY MARKETING SYSTEM (Arthur Garrish)  60  THE NARAMATA MURAL (A. Waterman)  66  MAY DAY IN NARAMATA (S. J. Barry)  68  THERE'S A "LINO" IN MY BASEMENT (Bernie Hucul)   68  THE KINGFISHER KITCHEN BAND (Isobel Simard)  71  GLASSROOTS RECYCLING IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN  (Rita Campbell)  74  SACRILEGE (Dr. John C. Dubeta)  77  MEMORIES OF TRINITY CREEK AREA IN THE 1920s (Stan Wejr)  78  CONSOLIDATION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN ARMSTRONG  AND ENDERBY AREA (O. B. Carlson)  80  EARLY SCHOOL DAYS IN OSOYOOS (Douglas P. Fraser and  Margaret A. Driver)  81  SUNSET OF AUTUMN STORM (Guy V. Waterman)   87  SOME HISTORICAL NOTES ON 1st SUMMERLAND SCOUT TROOP  (D. V. Fisher)  88  STUDENT ESSAYS  THE COQUIHALLA SUB-DIVISION (Tracy St. Claire)     99  EARLY SCHOOL BUSES AND THEIR DRIVERS (Owen Romaine)     102  BOOK REVIEWS  SLASH (Frances Knapp)    107  THE HISTORY OF VERNON (B. Wamboldt)   107  THE DITCH: LIFELINE OF A COMMUNITY (Karen Bruder)    108  TWISTED TALES OF NORTHERN TRAILS (J.W.)   109  CHURCH OF CHRIST THE KING PARISH (J.W.)   109  SUMMERLAND IN THE BEGINNING AND PIONEERS BEFORE 1905 (J.W.) 110  SITTIN' PRETTY: OSOYOOS THROUGH THE YEARS (J.W.)   110  A WILD FLIGHT OF GORDONS (J.W.)   Ill  MY AMERICAN COUSIN (Bernard Webber)     112  THE CRANES HERALD SPRING (Isabel Christie MacNaughton)    114 TRIBUTES AND BIOGRAPHIES  JAMES C. AGNEW (Stuart Fleming)  115  "THE UNFORGOTTEN YEARS" A TRIBUTE TO  MAJOR HUGH PORTEOUS (Elizabeth Kangyal)  116  EXCERPTS FROM "OLIVER PEPYS' DIARY" (Hugh Porteous)  120  CAPTAIN EDWARD ARTHUR TITCHMARSH (Elizabeth Slingsby)  122  TRIBUTE TO JIM LAIDLAW, SCOUTER (Harley Hatfield)  123  GARNET EDWARD WILLIS (Grant Willis)  124  DON MacKENZIE — AS I REMEMBER HIM (Alice Neave)  125  THE REVEREND AND MRS. W. S. BEAMES (T. B. Beames  and A. Waterman)   127  DOLLY WATERMAN: A LIFETIME LOVE OF GUIDING (N. J. Newman) .... 137  THE BIRD CARVINGS OF JOHN GERVERS (Muriel DuFeu)  139  WILLIAM JAMES WILCOX OF SALMON ARM (Jack Wilcox)  142  HILDA CRYDERMAN (Nancy Jermyn)  146  THE WILLIAM BEADLE STORY (Rudy Lidstone for Charlie Carey)  149  MRS. W. BEADLE (Gertrude Peel)   151  WILLIAM AND CATHERINE MIDDLETON, 1849-1936 and 1855-1924  (R. M. Middleton)  152  TALES AND REMINISCENCES  A KALEDEN BOYHOOD (Fred King, M.P.)  158  FIRE (Don Corbishley)   163  OKANAGAN TIDAL WAVE (Olive Evans)  164  FLASH FLOOD AT PARADISE RANCH - 1941 (A. Waterman)  166  A LITTLE NEIL STORY (Harley Hatfield)   167  LITTLE NEIL GOES CANOEING (Harley Hatfield)  168  LITTLE NEIL'S RETRIEVER (Allan Roadhouse & Harley Hatfield)  168  SABOTAGE (Don Corbishley)  169  "STRETCHING THE WALLET NOT THE DOLLAR"  A DITCH RIDER'S EXPERIENCE Qim Gould)  170  LETTER FROM JERRY ENEAS  171  BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1987  172  MINUTES OF THE 61st ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1986  173  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  175  EDITOR'S REPORT  177  SECRETARY'S REPORT  178  AUDITOR'S REPORT  179  REPORTS OF THE BRANCHES  SALMON ARM  182  ARMSTRONG/ENDERBY  182  VERNON  183  KELOWNA  184  PENTICTON  185  OLIVER/OSOYOOS :  185  REPORT OF FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE - 1985  186  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE:  FINANCIAL STATEMENT  187  REPORT OF INDEX COMMITTEE  188  PROMOTION COMMITTEE REPORT  189  OBITUARIES  WE SHALL MISS THEM  191  WHEN I NO LONGER LABOUR (Guy V. Waterman)  198  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1986  199  ERRATA AND ADDENDA  208 10  HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  Inkameep Corn Field. A portion of the 520 acres of Inkameep Indian lands broken for the first time  in 1984. The irrigation project was financed with $430,000 from A.R.D.S.A., $60,000 from  A.R.D.A., $100,000 from Osoyoos Band Funds, and a loan of $329,000 at 13 percent from Department of Indian Affairs. The land is under a 15-year lease to Southern Interior Beef Corporation for  growing silage crops. Photo by courtesy of Oliver Chronicle 11  WATER, LIFE BLOOD OF THE OKANAGAN  by D. A. Dobson, P.Eng.  After the glaciers retreated following the last Ice Age a large lake remained,  stretching from the present City of Kamloops to the north to Mclntyre Bluff, a  few kilometers south of the City of Penticton. Gradually, the barriers at either  end of this huge lake were worn down and the water drained away leaving a  number of smaller lakes connected by a meandering river along the valley floor.  Remnants of the ancient lakeshore can still be seen in the form of terraced benches  along the valley walls.  The lakes as we know them today start at Wood Lake-Kalamalka Lake in  the north, Okanagan Lake, Skaha Lake, Vaseux Lake and ending with Osoyoos  Lake in the south. Water to feed the lakes is supplied primarily from the melting  of the winter snow in the surrounding hills. The change from winter temperatures of as low as - 25 ¬∞C to a summer high of + 30 ¬∞C can occur very quickly  resulting in a rapid melt in the mountain snow packs. Under these circumstances the valley lakes would fill and flooding occur to adjacent lowlands.  Due to an annual precipitation in the valley bottom of only 25 centimeters,  as the valley became settled, water was soon recognized as the "life blood of the  Okanagan." The flooding in the spring was soon forgotten when replaced by  the hot, arid days of July and August. These seasonal fluctuations are compounded by the annual variations. Too much water one year may be followed  by too little water the next.  In 1942, as a result of agitation by the towns and municipalities throughout  the valley, a Joint Board of Engineers was formed by the governments of  Canada and British Columbia. The task confronting this Board was to study  and report on flood control measures for the Okanagan Valley. The Board  determined that the natural river system was not able to handle the peak spring  flows and therefore flooding was an annual occurrence. They also determined  that, as a result of no storage capacity in the main stem lakes, there was a shortage of water for irrigation purposes during July and August when water was  sorely needed.  The Board recommended that the following measures be implemented to  overcome the shortcomings in the system:  1. a control dam be constructed on the Okanagan River at Penticton to  provide a control range for Okanagan Lake of 1.2 meters and storage  capacity of 270,000,000 cubic meters;  2. a control dam be constructed on the Okanagan River at Okanagan Falls  to provide a control range on Skaha Lake of 0.6 meters and a storage  capacity of 8,000,000 cubic meters;  3. a control dam be constructed on the Okanagan River at Mclntyre Bluff  to provide a control for the diversion of water for the South Okanagan  Lands Project;  4. the Okanagan River between Okanagan Lake and Osoyoos Lake be  contained within a properly designed channel with adequate dykes to  safely pass the high spring flows. 12  The difference in elevation between Okanagan Lake and Osoyoos Lake is  64 meters. The new straight channel which replaced the old meandering river  was found to be 23 kilometers shorter and therefore had too steep a gradient. To  maintain the original water surface gradient over this shorter, steeper channel  required the integration of seventeen smaller structures known as vertical drop  structures, between Okanagan Falls and Osoyoos Lake.  It was also recognized that the Okanagan River is an important spawning  stream for sockeye salmon that migrate up the Columbia River. To protect this  salmon run a 2,700 meter section of river north of the Village of Oliver extending to the Mclntyre Dam was left in its natural state to provide spawning and  rearing habitat.  With all the facts collected the final report by the Board was submitted and  accepted by the two governments in 1950. The first construction contract was  called in September of 1952 and the final phase was completed to Osoyoos Lake  in 1958.  The results of this work have been a flattening of the spring freshet peaks  through better flow and storage control and through the ability to manipulate  the various lakes, individual peaks can be managed to advantage.  Downstream of Osoyoos Lake, in Washington State there is another small  dam on the Okanagan River known as the Zosel Dam. This dam, constructed  in 1927 to provide a log sorting pond for the Zosel Lumber Company created an  artifical level on Osoyoos Lake. In 1945 the International Joint Commission  issued an order to affect control of Osoyoos Lake levels since the lake is an international water body. The control level is 277.66 meters at the dam forebay.  However, this level is complicated by a backwater condition when the Similkameen River is in flood. The Similkameen River joins the Okanagan River 5  kilometers downstream of the Zosel dam, south of Oroville. When this  backwater condition occurs water cannot drain from Osoyoos Lake and flooding  may occur around the lake.  The primary function of the Okanagan Flood Control System is to  minimize flooding throughout the Okanagan Valley. Therefore when Osoyoos  Lake levels near the flood stage for example, the flow can be dramatically reduced by minimizing the outflow of the Okanagan River from Okanagan Lake at  Penticton. By storing water in Okanagan Lake it may be possible to prevent  major flooding on Osoyoos Lake and wait for the Similkameen River flows to  recede. During extreme events such as those that occurred in 1972 this is not  possible because there is just too much water available.  It should be noted that the old wooden Zosel Dam is being replaced by a  new structure immediately upstream. Construction commenced in April of this  year and should be completed by early 1987. The new dam will not eliminate  the problems associated with the Similkameen River but will help to minimize  their effect. When the new dam is operational it will conclude the work on the  flood control system for the Okanagan Valley that began 35 years ago.  Flood control is not flood elimination; it is a practical approach to minimize  the undesirable effects of our climate. The quality of life in this valley as a result  of the Okanagan Flood Control Project attests to its source. 13  WATER QUALITY IN THE OKANAGAN BASIN  by Jean Webber  (Prepared from reports of the Ministry of the Environment and in consultation  with Dick Nickel, Okanagan Water Quality Project Manager.)  In a news release dated September 23, 1985 the Government of British  Columbia announced that the Okanagan Basin had been declared an environmentally sensitive area and eligible for special funding to assist with capital  costs of controlling sewage discharges into area lakes. The Minister of Environment Austin Pelton stated: "Under the terms of this new designation, cities like  Penticton, Vernon, Kelowna and other Okanagan Communities will be required to develop waste management plans . . . The plan includes public  participation, and in this case provides for a valley-wide approach to phosphorus  controls through co-ordinating individual municipal and regional district waste  management plans." Consumer and Corporate Affairs Minister Jim Hewitt announced: "The province will pay 75 per cent of the capital costs for advanced  waste treatment facilities for the Okanagan under the special environment  designation. This will amount to about $26 million over the next three years."  Official concern for water quality in the Okanagan Basin on a valley-wide  basis goes back at least to 1969 when a federal-provincial study was initiated. In  a report, dated May 1985 and released by the Ministry of the Environment in  September 1985, entitled Phosphorus in the Okanagan Valley Lakes: Sources, Water  Quality Objectives and Control Possibilities we find the following:  Of all of the regions of the province, the Okanagan has probably been  the most intensively studied with regard to water resources. There  have been three major studies.  The Okanagan Basin Study,  a  federal-provincial study, was done in 1969-1974. The data gathered in  this study provided the first basic technical information on the lakes.  Next a provincial study of the Wood-Kalamalka Basin was carried  out in 1971-1974. Finally the federal-provincial Okanagan Basin Implementation Study (1977-1982) was undertaken to implement the  recommendations of the Basin Study. Changes in water quality,  which had taken place as a consequence of sewage treatment improvement at Penticton and Vernon, have been monitored. Numerous  other studies have been carried out and the Waste Management  Branch Regional Office in Penticton has continued to monitor water  quality at numerous sites on a routine basis. (Page 1)  As in all government reports not only do the individuals of the highly trained  technical staff remain faceless, but also those dedicated members of our communities who sounded the first warnings of a problem and worked through  municipal governments and other organizations concerned with the quality of  life in the Okanagan. Without such citizens senior governments would never  become interested. The stories of these men and women of the Okanagan and  their efforts are fitting stuff for future Okanagan Historical Society reports.  In November 1980 the Okanagan Basin Implementation Agreement  Public Task Force submitted their final report to the Okanagan Basin Implementation Board. The following excerpts have been taken from that report.1  1.     Report on the Okanagan Basin Implementation Agreement Appendices, Vol. 1, pp. 113-118. 14  LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY  There has been much attention paid to nutrient loading to the main-  stem lakes from macro sources (i.e. municipal outfalls and industrial  pollution). However, when we consider nutrient loadings from all diffuse sources (e.g. septic tanks, forestry, agriculture, urban development) these could be significant even though any one has generally  been considered insignificant in the overall picture. The correction or  improvement in the amount of nutrients from diffuse sources may  often entail only administrative corrections avoiding large capital  costs. It would appear that direct sources are now well on the road to  implementation, and that attention should now be directed toward  improving the amount of loading from diffuse sources, with not only  the view to improving water quality, but also the aesthetic conditions  in and around water courses . . .  1. Forestry Practices  . . . Formal infield guidelines need to be developed and circulated to  all practising Forest Service and industrial personnel. Such guidelines  should consider location of roads and skid trails, drainage, slope logging, and barring of roads no longer in use . . . Monitoring of streams  for siltation and erosion caused through poor forestry practices has not  been done effectively . . . The Ministry of Forests should be more active and knowledgeable in their administration role in reporting on  detrimental practices to the watersheds, and to be aware of and practice high standards of watershed management.  2. Agricultural Practices  Improvement of pollution from agricultural sources is also largely a  matter of administration and education. The main sources of  nutrients appear to be from feedlots, faulty practices in and around  stream banks (including diversions and minor works, as well as allowing cattle and other livestock in watercourses), stream bank denudation, irrigation and runoff, uses of fertilizers, herbicides, and  pesticides . . . More effective guidelines (re pesticides and herbicides)  thanpresently exist, should be developed and put into practice. The  policing of such policies is essential.  3. Urbanization  . . . Construction is often in process near streams and lakes.  Associated with construction are streambank destabilization, debris  washed into storm sewers, and excessive drainage into streams. There  is virtually no policing of these practices, as the building inspectors do  not monitor these practices. Urbanization also brings pollution from  other diffuse sources such as street washing and bacterial contamination fed through storm sewers into nearest stream or lake . . .  WATER QUALITY FOR CONSUMPTIVE AND  NON-CONSUMPTIVE USES  There appear to be no decisive answers regarding the overall status  (improvement or degradation) of the water quality of the Okanagan 15  watershed system. Nutrient loading from all sources have been contributory to increasing changes in the limnology of various receiving  waters. It is imperative that water quality standards (with particular  emphasis on Health Standards) be enforced throughout the Okanagan  system. Such standards apply not only to drinking water but to the  fecal coliform levels at public swimming beaches . . .  Enforcement of standards also begins with the education of all water  users within the Valley.  Among the specific recommendations of the Task Force is the following:  Resource courses in both high schools and colleges should include curriculum data in various aspects of water quality and the overall  management of parameters affecting same.  Although there are a number of quality characteristics which may be of  concern such as bacteriological count, suspended sediment, aquatic weeds, the  present thrust for maintaining and improving water quality has to do with the  control of phosphorus levels. On page 1 oi Phosphorus in the Okanagan Valley Lakes  the report states:  The primary water quality concern is phosphorus inputs into the  lakes, since phosphorus is the key nutrient controlling the amount of  algae. Algal growth directly determines important aspects of the lakes  such as water clarity, aesthetic attractiveness, recreational suitability,  amount of drinking-water treatment, and aspects of fisheries production and habitat suitability. However, a reduction in phosphorus concentration is unlikely to affect nuisance weed growth.  In explanation of Nitrogen: Phosphorus ratios we find on page 40 of the same  report:  The ratio of the concentration of total nitrogen to total phosphorus  (N:P) can indicate which of these nutrients is the limiting factor in  algal production. Ratios greater than 10:1 or 12:1 generally indicate a  phosphorus limited system, while ratios of less than 5:1 indicate a  nitrogen limitation. When nitrogen is limiting, decreasing the  phosphorus level increases the N:P ratio and causes phosphorus to  become the limiting nutrient again. For this reason, and because of  the difficulty in controlling nitrogen loading, phosphorus levels rather  than nitrogen levels are always managed in the lakes.  Of all the treatment plants in the Valley only that at Kelowna removes  nitrogen as well as phosphorus. This plant represents new technology and is  proving highly effective.  The section on "Waste Discharges" in the report Phosphorus in the Okanagan  Valley Lakes advances the following conclusions: 16  1. Loading from direct discharge by municipal sewage treatment  plants in 1984, when compared to 1970 loadings, have been reduced  70% to Okanagan Lake, 80% to Skaha Lake and 100% to Osoyoos  Lake. No direct discharges exist to Ellison, Wood and Kalamalka  Lakes.  2. Loading from agriculture and septic tanks are the most significant  sources of controllable phosphorus to Wood, Kalamalka and Osoyoos  Lakes. They are more significant than municipal sources in Okanagan  and Skaha Lakes.  3. The reliability of estimated loadings is best for municipal sources,  followed by agriculture and septic tanks. Prior to any action being  undertaken to reduce loadings from diffuse sources, more accurate  estimates of these and of natural loadings will be required. The appropriate sources and locations of nutrient inputs can then be prioriz-  ed for corrective action, (page 17.)  It is necessary to ensure that all treatment and disposal works for the various  municipalities have capacity for future community demands and function consistently over the long run. The next major thrust for improvement must be  with respect to those parts of cities not served by sewers and to urbanized areas  adjacent to cities or between them. Control strategies must be developed also to  reduce nutrients entering the system from agricultural operations and forestry  as well as from septic tanks.  The respective contributions of phosphorus to the Okanagan Lake Basin  are as follows (estimated values in kg/year):  1970  1984  Municipal discharges                                      54,500  19,000  Indirect controllable  (diffuse sources)                                          11,130  30,180  Indirect non-controllable  (diffuse sources)                                          45,900  38,100  TOTALS                        111,530  87,000 17  Lake  Ellison (Duck) Lake  Wood Lake  Kalamalka Lake  Limnology of Okanagan Lakes  Concentration of Total P  0.040 to 0.080 mg/L  0.040 to 0.080 mg/L  0.010 mg/L  Okanagan Lake (except  Armstrong Arm) 0.010 mg/L  Armstrong Arm (North Arm) 0.025 mg/L  Skaha Lake 0.025 mg/L  Osoyoos Lake 0.025 mg/L  Classification  Eutrophic  Eutrophic  Oligotrophic  Oligotrophic  Mesotrophic  Mesotrophic  Mesotrophic  A comparison of the total phosphorus values in Okanagan Lake with  values in other large lakes in British Columbia puts these values into perspective. Buttle and Adams Lakes have concentrations from 0.004 to 0.005 mg/L,  Cowichan Lake is in the 0.005 to 0.006 mg/L range, Kootenay Lake is in the  0.007 to 0.008 mg/L range, while Quesnel Lake has only about 0.003 mg/L.  Thus, for a lake of its size Okanagan Lake has a relatively high total phosphorus  concentration.  (Phosphorus 1983. p. 33)  LIST OF OKANAGAN BASIN IMPLEMENTATION AGREEMENT  PUBLIC TASK FORCE MEMBERS  Doug Fraser, Osoyoos; Harry Sheardown, Osoyoos; Dave Evans, Oliver; Art  Garrish, Oliver; George Creighton, Okanagan Falls; Ted Swales, Kaleden;  Chris Bull, Penticton; Dr. John Gibson, Penticton; Harold Thomson, Penticton; Ivan Cumming, Naramata; Dr. Dave Stevenson, Summerland; Sheila  White, Summerland; John Woodworth, Kelowna; Gary Huva, Kelowna; Dave  Lovdahl, Kelowna; Bill Parchomchuk, Kelowna; Lorna Young, Kelowna; Bob  Harrison, Kelowna; Shelley Hansen, Kelowna; Garth Maguire, Vernon; Bert  Nilsson, Vernon; Albert Saddleman, Vernon; Dr. Max Smart, Vernon; Agnes  Sovereign, Vernon; Olive Woodley, Vernon; Bob Graham, Armstrong. WASTE MANAGEMENT AT VERNON  by Doug Kermode  In keeping with the problems that numerous communities had in responding to Waste Management (or Sewage Disposal) requirements, Vernon was no  exception. The original system appears to have comprised a septic tank constructed in 1909. Shortly after a rock filter, using a system of troughs and perforated trays, was added to improve the plant, or so it was hoped. The early  engineering records describe constantly "clogged filters" and open pits that  were "better imagined than experienced."  The building of a cannery in 1926 made matters worse, so in 1929 an additional settling tank with a capacity of 150,000 gallons was installed. A chlorina-  tion system, to offset the fouling of Kalamalka Creek and Okanagan Lake  beaches was considered and rejected. Finally, with the ever increasing number  of new sewer lines, it was essential a new plant be constructed. The technical  description of the layout dealing with a digestor, clarifiers, sludge pumps,  underdrains, etc. just meant one important thing to the layman. It was an efficient method and had gravity feed advantages with its location at the west end  of the city. Operations started in November 1939. Probably these facilities  would have taken care of the city's growth for some years but the development  of the big army camp in the early 1940s necessitated the doubling of its capacity.  These needs were provided by the army during the early war years. Improved  facilities have been constructed in stages following the war period, leading eventually to the spray irrigation system advocated by then City Engineer, Dave  MacKay.  In 1971 the Vernon waste disposal plant had a capacity of 2.3 million  gallons per day. A pilot system to study the spray irrigation method was put into  operation. One of the requirements for this system was a large winter storage  basin. Vernon was in the fortunate position of being able to develop such a retaining reservoir on the Commonage area to the south of the city. Then, in  1976, two factors demanded urgent attention. Firstly, the capacity of 2.3 million  gallons had been reached; and secondly, tertiary treatment of disposal was required in the Okanagan Valley.  The six-year pilot project had shown that treated effluent formerly discharged into Okanagan Lake could be utilized for irrigation purposes. As a  result over 1,600 acres of relatively barren land now yields high quality pasture  acreage and grassland that is regularly cut. Vernon's project has been studied  by many communities.  Basically the system is composed of two main parts: the supply lines and  reservoir with a capacity of 7,000 acre feet for winter storage, and the mobile  sprinkler irrigation units. The city has produced an excellent brochure that  outlines in detail how this project operates. Vernon has successfully incorporated its spray irrigation system into the first long-range management plan to  be approved in British Columbia. The plan's office is appropriately named the  David S. MacKay Environmental Centre, in memory of the City Engineer who  devoted so much time and effort to put this scheme into effect. 19  EARLY HISTORY OF WATER MANAGEMENT ON TROUT CREEK  by Mary Gartrell Orr  Water has been the life-blood of the Okanagan Valley — first for transportation then for colonization. The first settlers at Trout Creek (Summerland) lost  no time in arranging for water for domestic and agricultural use.  Many references to the coming of the James and Mary Gartrell family are  to be found in the Okanagan Historical Society's annual books of Okanagan  history.  While spending two years on the Ellis cattle ranch at what was to become  Penticton, Mr. Gartrell looked around for a large tract of land which could  become his own. His preference to get into fruit-growing rather than cattle ranching was evident.  The wooded delta at the mouth of Trout Creek Canyon influenced him to  leave the Ellis Ranch in 1887. The timing was right. The Provincial Government recognized the petitions sent in regarding grazing rights and was preparing to change the status of the land between Trepanier Creek (River) and Trout  Creek (River) from common pasturage for stock belonging to white settlers and  Indians, to pre-emptions.  Tom Ellis had a strip of twenty-nine acres on the north to allow his cattle  access to water at Okanagan Lake. Duncan Woods and James Gartrell acquired  the remaining land on what is now known as Trout Creek Point, Woods taking  the southern portion and Gartrell the northern portion, the dividing line running east and west. Woods gradually subdivided his portion but much of the  Gartrell land is still possessed and lived on by descendants of James and Mary  Gartrell. 320 acres was the size of the Gartrell pre-emption.  James Gartrell is considered to be the first to irrigate a fruit orchard in the  Okanagan Valley and the first to have a commercial orchard. Many records of  Water Rights on Government of B.C. letterhead among the archival treasures  of the Gartrell family give historical details and establish the fact that Duncan  Woods and James Gartrell were the first to hold Water Records on Trout  Creek, at the mouth of the canyon. One document is dated 18th December  1888, notified by W. Dewdney, Government Agent, signed by L. Norris,  Government Agent, Vernon. Woods and Gartrell Water Records were updated  and additional water approved 9th April 1890.  The next to receive Water Rights on Trout Creek were:  Arthur Day, 20th December 1890  George N. Barclay, 11th December 1891  Okanagan Tribe of Indians, Penticton Band, 20th January 1897.  The water was in all cases for irrigation and domestic purposes for a period of 99  years and each document listed the number of inches to be drawn.  James Gartrell then proceeded to apply from the Headwaters area twenty  miles west of Peachland and, on 29th October 1906, obtained the first Water  Record on Headwaters Lake. This water emptied at the foot of the lake by a  natural water course running into Trout Creek, according to the document signed by L. Norris, Commissioner.  The waters of Trout Creek rushed from the hills unobstructed through the  Trout Creek canyon to the delta of Trout Creek Point. In order to harness this  resource the settlers had much work to do. The first efforts of Woods and Gar- 20  Photo of James Gartrell's pond west of their home, taken about 1908. The orchard was fully bearing.  Note the pair of swans. The ice-house is at the extreme left of the photo.  trell at damming the creek were probably the forerunners of dams as we know  them today. Their method was to create a crude dam by the use of logs, sticks,  boulders and dirt to hold back the water until time to release it into ditches to  flood the lands.  My brother, Lloyd, remembers the stories the men told of their rough dam  being washed out every year by the Spring freshet and they had to work up to  their waists in the ice cold water to replace the dam.  At the mouth of the canyon, Trout Creek separated into the main stream  as we know its direction still and the north fork which cut off in a north-easterly  direction through the Gartrell property where there were two ponds in hollow  spots connected by a small creek which flowed for quite a distance before  reaching the lake.  My youthful recollections include skating with friends on Grandad's pond  west of the house. Ice was harvested in the winter and stored in sawdust in the  nearby ice house. Over the years silt filled the ponds and irrigation practices  changed. I wish my Grandmother was here to tell me if barrels were filled with  water and brought to her for household use. Water management will never be  the same again in this district. 21  OSOYOOS ORCHARDS LTD.  by Douglas Fraser  Osoyoos Orchards Ltd. was formed in 1919, but to put things in perspective we have to go back to 1905. In that year, Leslie Hill, a civil engineer from  Nelson, visited the Okanagan. Like many others he fell in love with the valley,  and saw its future as a fruit-growing area, rather than the cattle range it then  was.  Accordingly he went to Penticton and obtained an option to purchase the  Ellis cattle ranch. Tom Ellis had bought the Haynes ranch in the 1890s and had  added it to his own extensive holdings until he was "monarch of all he  surveyed" from Naramata to the border. Hill then went to England to raise the  rest of the required capital, but by the time he returned the option had expired,  and Ellis had sold most of his land to the brothers L. W. Shatford of Fairview  and W. T. Shatford of Vernon, who carried on cattle ranching under the name  of South Okanagan Land Cattle Company. Val Haynes, son of the original settler, "Judge" Haynes, was for many years their ranch manager.  But what of Leslie Hill? Ellis, to make up to Hill for what had been lost on  the option, let him have land which Ellis had retained on the east side of  Osoyoos Lake. This consisted of about 1200 acres between present Highway 3  and the border, and went back from Osoyoos Lake to the base of the mountains.  In 1907 Hill planted 40 acres of what was to be a model orchard on the  delta of Haynes Creek. The land was irrigated with spring water from the creek  and later in the season with water pumped from the lake. The house built by  Haynes in 1878-1882 was on the 1200 acres, and Hill with his three daughters  came from Nelson to spend the summers in Osoyoos. When not supervising the  developing orchard, Hill lived the life of a country gentleman — riding, fishing  and boating. A boathouse contained a motor launch and a beautiful 4-oared  clinker-built rowboat, with a steering rudder and corduroy cushions. He left  behind such luxury items as Hardy fishing rods.  Hill died in 1916, and in 1917, my father, George J. Fraser, leased the Hill  ranch for three years. In March 1917 we moved down from Penticton to the Hill  (Haynes) house.  In 1919, my father got together a group of men to form Osoyoos Orchards  Ltd. in order to purchase the Hill estate, with the plan of putting in an irrigation  system to cover the possible orchard land fringing the lake. The cost of the estate  was $50,000.  The members were: G.J. Fraser, Osoyoos; R. H. Helmer, Summerland  Experimental Station; D. E. Burpee, Penticton; R. H. Plaskett, Alberta; R. D.  Fraser, Alberta; Rev. J. F. Millar, Penticton; C. L. Carless, Penticton; Leo  Hayes, Kelowna; E. R. Dawson, Penticton; W. T. Hunter, Summerland Experimental Station; W. McConnachie, Penticton.  Later arrivals were Harry Martin, Rev. Arthur Elliott from England, F. L.  Goodman who took over from Elliott, and Ad vena Hearle who bought from  Plaskett.  The system of distribution of lots, which had been surveyed by Dufresne,  was unusual. Each applicant put in a bid for each of the lots, and the highest bid  for each was accepted. By mutual agreement, members made low bids for the  Haynes house lot so that George Fraser might retain it. 22  My father acquired 28 acres, but deciding that 28 acres were too much, he  sold 14 acres to R. H. Plaskett who had decided to give up cattle ranching in  Alberta for fruit ranching in B.C. R. H. (Bert) Plaskett duly planted his 14  acres, but after a year became impatient with the slow progress of fruit trees and  sold his lot to Mrs. Hearle. R. H. Plaskett then bought a part of the already  planted Hill orchard which had been acquired by Leo Hayes (an absentee  owner), and became an "instant" fruit-grower.  Another member of Osoyoos Orchards was the Rev. J. F. Millar, who  drew the lot now occupied by Mountain View campsite. As he was an absentee  owner too, my father undertook to look after the young orchard, and I was frequently given the chore of irrigating it. The land was fairly level at the top, then  descended steeply to flatter land below. The soil was very light and within a  short time the water in the irrigation furrows dug miniature Grand Canyons  and the soil came down and filled the lower furrows. I spent my time frantically  hoeing out these lower furrows in a crying rage against hopeless odds. The planting was soon abandoned and only re-established when sprinklers made irrigation possible on steep slopes.  In 1920 the irrigation system was installed. Its heart was a single-cylinder  gasoline engine of 10-inch bore, located on the lakeshore near the present East  Osoyoos Irrigation pumphouse. This engine, with 6-foot flywheels on either side  powered a belt-driven centrifugal pump. The water was pumped through a  12-inch wood stave pipe up to an elevation of 50 feet. Here it went into a big  square wooden box. From this tank wooden flumes carried the precious water  north to present Highway 3, and south to the lot now fronted by Brookvale  campsite. The spring run-off from Haynes Creek was used for early irrigation,  a wooden flume bringing this water to the distribution box.  The main flume, as I remember, was 16 inches wide, with the junction of  the two 8-inch wide planks covered by a 1x4 batten. Each section was 16 feet  long, on a 4x4 junction base, and the side walls were supported by 2x4 braces.  Each grower had a connecting flume to bring the water to his land.  The lumber came from a mill on Anarchist Mountain near the Kehoe  Ranch. As a boy of 12, I once accompanied my cousin Ken Plaskett, then 17,  on one of these trips. We left early in the morning with team and wagon, and  got to the mill in time for a late lunch. This gave the cook time to talk, and she  commiserated with us for having to live in the valley. She herself had been to  Oroville the year before for the Fourth of July celebrations, and "it was so hot  I was sick to my stummick." I remember thinking that that was not how a lady  would describe what had happened.  On our way back we pulled off to the side of the road at a crossing of  Haynes Creek to water the horses. While they were drinking, the wagon wheels  sank into the looser gravel of the road shoulder. To get underway again, we had  to unload half the heavy planks, get the wagon back on the firmer centre, and  re-load.  As soon as the spring flow from Haynes Creek diminished, the pumping  plant had to be started up. This required two men to stand on the spokes of the  flywheels to generate sufficient compression for the engine to fire. Once started,  it went bang, bang, bang, all summer at about 15 second intervals. The ear  became accustomed to the regular bangs, and it was said you never heard it till  it stopped. 23  Mark Bain, who had been Leslie Hill's steady man, had remained to work  for G. J. Fraser, and now took over the role of engineer. The gasoline engine  had to be fueled at intervals, and there were oil reservoir cups of shining brass to  be filled, and grease cups to be attended to. Mark fixed himself a bed and a kitchen under the engine's roof. Why he didn't become completely deaf in a couple  of years is a miracle.  One problem with this length of wooden flume was, of course, leaks along  the way, so that often the grower at the far end found himself short of the needed  water. He usually prepared for this by collecting a couple of gunny sacks of  horse manure from the hillside above the flume. Pulverised, this material did an  excellent job of stopping small leaks till the next time around.  Contrasting personalities among early east-side orchardists were E. W.  Dawson and Bill McConnachie. During the winter, Dawson was out pruning  with the first light, and did without lunch to make the most of the short winter  day. McConnachie by contrast was very much the casual fruit-grower. If spring  overtook him before he'd finished pruning, it is said that he would hang up his  pruning shears in a tree to indicate where to start again the next year.  Another pair of contrasting growers were my father and D. E. Burpee, our  next door neighbour. My father believed in feeding the land to make it produce,  and was always scouring the country for sources of manure. Burpee could not  see the point of growing extra wood all summer just in order to cut it out in the  winter's pruning.  Our neighbour on the other side, Mrs. Hearle, had her own theory of irrigation. Once she had conducted water down a furrow to the end of the row,  she decided that the row was now irrigated, and shut it off. As a consequence, a  tree row looked like a large family of children, the trees diminishing in size from  those nearest the flume to those at the end of the furrow.  F. L. Goodman, a trained horticulturist, and a man of broad interests, first  of all looked after W. T. Hunter's fruit-tree nursery, then took over the land of  the Rev. Arthur Elliott when Elliott returned to England in 1922. All the farm  operations were done with horses, but in 1924 Goodman was the first person to  obtain a caterpillar tractor, which incidentally was still in use twenty years later.  Dawson, Fraser and Hearle descendants still farm the original lots, and it  is not long since Plaskett and Goodman descendants sold their holdings. 24  TRUCKING ON THE OLIVER-OSOYOOS IRRIGATION PROJECT  by Joe Biollo  After WWI in the early 1920s the Soldiers' Settlement Board started an irrigation project for the Oliver-Osoyoos area for returning war veterans. The  project started at Mclntyre's Bluff west of Highway 97 south — the south end of  Vaseux Lake. This was a concrete water canal which was about 5 feet deep by  12 feet across that continued past Oliver and on to Osoyoos.  Even in the early days we called that area a desert because of the heat in the  summer and the difficulty in getting water onto the land and benches. Now it is  known as the Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone.1  Cement and supplies for the various campsites along the way were hauled  by Penticton contracting firms: Robert Parmley's Penticton Dray and Express,  Hatfield's Interior Contracting Company, Brophy Bros, and others. The supplies were loaded from the south Penticton railroad sidetrack on Hastings  Avenue. All the trucks hauling cement had hard rubber tires. Travelling on  rough gravelled roads they got up to 10 and 15 miles per hour on the level.  Loading of the trucks would start at 5 or 6 a.m. although some drivers  preferred to load the night before and jack up the back of the truck so that the  weight would not be too hard on the back springs overnight.  Loading and unloading of the cement was done by hand: 85 lbs. per paper  sack. Sometimes the men would show off their strength by carrying two sacks at  once. But that bravado would not last very long because heaving the cement out  of the box cars and on to the flat deck trucks was a tough job in itself.  On Saturday or Sunday when I could get off work at Ma Sheridan's I  would go along with one of the truck drivers as company on that slow, rough  ride to Oliver. A five or six hour trip like that over rocky roads and through  choking dust was an adventure; it was something to boast about to your friends  when you got back.  LINES FROM "A POET VISITS THE OKANAGAN"  / stopped at Oliver village, to have a cup of tea,  namedfor Honest fohn Oliver, once Premier of B.C.  I was told of the early twenties, the area's arid soil,  redeemed by ample water, brave and honest toil.  The Premier of our Province, ready with helping hand,  perceived the need for Veterans, to settle on the land.  In the year of nineteen twenty, a plan would then unfold,  a vision of arable acres, a source of wealth untold.  A dam on Okanagan river, ditch and flume of ample size,  to irrigate this fertile valley, was feasible and wise.  Our brave lads were returning. From overseas they came.  They 'd fought for home and freedom, these men of  worth and fame.  For them the fertile acres, available at cost,  a chance to rehabilitate, regain the youth they 'd lost.  Clem Battye  '. OHS Report #47, p. 34: Okanagan and Similkameen Ecological Reserves. 25  DOCUMENTS RE IRRIGATION:  HOLDINGS OF THE KELOWNA MUSEUM  by Wayne Wilson  In the summer of 1983 I was hired by the Kelowna Museum, through the  B.C. Heritage Trust Student Employment Program, to examine the development of irrigation systems in the Okanagan Valley. From the outset, the project  was clearly archival in nature — equally evident was the lack of any overall  understanding of the significance of irrigation to the historical development of  the region. Given these circumstances, the project became one of collecting any  and all available material that related to Okanagan irrigation.  The results of the summer's work are now housed in the archives of the  Kelowna Museum under four main headings: Photographs, Maps/Draft Plans/  Elevations, Library and Archival Files. Outside of, perhaps, the historic records  of the Registrar of Companies in Victoria, the Kelowna Museum's collection  certainly constitutes the largest holdings of such material in the province. This  collection is growing continually and, even now, demands the attention of all  creditable research on the topic.  Following is a brief outline of those holdings:  Photograph File  The photo file was established to collect and catalogue irrigation photographs from the entire Okanagan Valley. Hence, the various Irrigation Districts, Museums and Water Management organizations were approached and  asked to allow the museum to acquire prints of their photo collections. At present the file holds over 500 photographs. These range in subject, from dams to  distribution works; in area, from Vernon to Oliver; in time, from the turn of  the century to the 1960s. While the cataloguing of the file is not yet complete,  the collection is open to researchers.  Maps/Draft Plans/Elevations  This collection holds almost two hundred irrigation related documents. Included are: i) Maps in various formats (blueprint, office survey originals and a  few original field survey maps on linen); ii) Draft Plans of a wide variety of irrigation hardware such as dam sections, trestles, flumes, headgates and  syphons; iii) Elevations (or, "grade" change records) of conveyance and  distribution rights-of-way for a few of the Valley's Irrigation Districts.  Library  The Library consists of a series of published and unpublished works of both  a technical and historic nature, and the majority of these relate directly to irrigation in the Okanagan Valley. In all there are well over 100 books, articles,  academic papers, government publications and unpublished documents.  Archival Files  Some of the material collected under the project would not fit readily under  any of the above headings. Hence, a series of Archival Files was generated with  headings that include most of the Valley's Irrigation Districts and its major land  development companies from the pre-World War I era. 26  This set of files contains a hodge-podge of written material that is generally  historic in content. A file at random may contain sheets of historic notes,  reprints of technical or popular articles or photocopies of old newspaper articles.  For obtaining an outline history of many of the Valley's Irrigation Districts,  these files are the best and quickest source.  One tangible outcome of the project was the publication, in 1984, of a  Bibliography of Okanagan Irrigation. This 27 page booklet, available through the  Kelowna Museum, contains a listing of most material in the Irrigation Library.  The booklet is indexed and, in addition, carries a list of all of the topic headings  outlined above.  The Kelowna Museum has taken a great step and a great responsibility in  venturing into the subject of Okanagan Irrigation. But this is a valley-wide  topic, and sensitivity to that context, by all Valley Museums and Historical  Societies, is the real key to a continually improving and useful collection.  LINES FOR GOING AWAY  / sit and embroider wild flowers  on pillowslips for my youngest daughter,  buttercups and forget-me-nots  like the pattern on my Spode china —  and a line of sand rose beige  for the Okanagan hills.  She has grown up on these flower-strewn  buttercup hills — the yellow bells,  star flowers, bluebells have been a  springtime carpet under her eager feet.  With gentle and careful stitches  I weave in my prayers with each petal  that the lines fall unto her always  in just such pleasant places,  and the springtime carpet be ever  beautiful, under her going-aw ay feet.  Isabel Christie MacNaughton 27  EARLY IRRIGATION DITCHES IN KELOWNA  by Bill Knowles  How many of you readers can remember when there were apple trees  growing on the corner of Bernard Avenue and Ellis Street, where the Credit  Foncier Trust building is now? Or do you remember Rembler Paul's pear orchard on the site of part of the Woolworth store, the Christian Science Church  and almost up to the new Credit Union building? Do you remember tomatoes,  onions or tobacco being grown in the vicinity of the Hospital?  When I was a youngster nearly all of Kelowna from Knox Mountain to the  Golf Course, to the Parkinson Centre and Sutherland Avenue and west to the  lake, was either raw land or orchards or vegetable and hay fields. The few  houses and stores were mostly on Bernard Avenue from Ethel Street to the lake,  with many vacant fields in between, with wild flowers growing on them. A few  houses were scattered about on farms on Richter Street, Ethel Street, Glenmore  Street and Pandosy Street.  Naturally, the need arose that water, and lots of it, was required for irrigation. Pumps were in their infancy so it had to be by gravity from Mill Creek.  Actually, there was no water system in Kelowna at that time, and where we lived on Bernard Avenue near Ethel Street, we had a hand pump in the backyard.  Mother said she could always tell who got up first by the squeak of their pump.  Everyone had a different tune.  I remember a lot of ditches and wooden flumes around town and will pass  their locations on to you. The large ditch that served the town came from what  was known as the "town dam," located on Mike Johnson's farm, now the  Parkinson Recreation Centre. Fortunately, the old concrete walls have been  preserved and are still in place behind the recreation hall. It has a foot bridge  built over it. The large ditch from that dam ran through the football field, then  through the present Four Seasons Racquet Club, across Burtch Road and  around the hill opposite Hambleton Galleries. A large portion of the hill was  removed when they built Highway 97 and the sand used to fill in a pond on  Burtch Road by the 3 Links Manor.  About where Highway 97 goes by Hambleton Galleries was a diversion  gate to divert the water to different locations. One ditch served the Pridham orchard between Highway 97 and Sutherland Avenue. More was sent down the  Pridham orchard (Shops Capri) across Gordon Drive and down Laurier  Avenue. More on that later. Rod Pridham was telling me he still holds the  original water rights certificate that his grandfather took out on the creek for  their orchard. Another line followed the hill through the Ferrier (Mary Robertson) property, crossing Bernard Avenue by the First Baptist Church on Bernard  and Richmond. That went into a reservoir known as Bankhead or Stirling  pond. It has since been filled in and subdivided. Its location was across from  Lawson and Richmond. A branch line went down Bernard Avenue from about  Richmond to the present 7 Eleven store opposite People's Market. It served the  orchards on the south side of Bernard Avenue. The only remaining piece of  ditch on the whole system that I was able to locate is on the lane between the  Full Gospel Church and Mary Robertson's house. It is still visible but fast being  filled with brush and debris. 28  A JtH^iiiAi  Bankhead or Stirling Pond in Bankhead - 1909.  Bankhead Pond served as a reservoir for the Bankhead Orchards and part  of the north end. The Bankhead Orchards ran from Bernard Avenue almost to  Knox Mountain and from Gordon Drive to the pond which was a swimming  hole in the summer and a skating rink in the winter. Henry Burtch cut ice from  the pond in winter, stored it in sawdust in ice sheds, and delivered it around  town in the summer to those who were fortunate enough to own an ice box.  A branch from the reservoir came through the Bankhead Orchards, crossed Gordon Drive by the Patterson House (now Pius X Church). Pattersons  owned 10 acres. The line then went to the 10 acre Glenn orchard and hay field  on Ethel Street by Stockwell Avenue. I remember the orchard well. A lot of that  area was very wet and swampy.  If you stand on Gordon Drive by Laurier Avenue, you will notice the road  slopes both ways from that spot. A large ditch came through the Pridham Orchard (Shops Capri), crossed Gordon Drive and ran down Laurier a few hundred yards, crossed behind the present motels and under Harvey Avenue  (Highway 97) to Glenn Avenue (now Lawrence). It ran about halfway to Ethel  Street, branched off and crossed Bernard Avenue through the present Vista  Manor by the David Lloyd-Jones Home to Billy Lloyd-Jones' house and crossed  Ethel Street near Martin Avenue. That watered the Lloyd-Jones fields, the  Tucker orchard and several tomato fields. We kids used to lie in the ditches to  keep cool in the summer. One of my favourite fishing spots was where the big  ditch crossed Gordon Drive by Laurier Avenue.  Another line took off from Harvey to Ethel and along Ethel to Lawrence,  down Lawrence to the Glenn Avenue School on Richter Street, crossed in front  of the Armory and United Church, across Bernard Avenue, and went almost to  Knox Mountain to water Ernie Hill's orchard. One line branched off in front of 29  Irrigation flume and syphon at corner of Glenn Avenue (now Lawrence) and Richter St. Present Armory shown in background was one of the early schools in Kelowna. Circa 1910.  the Armory (see picture), crossed Richter and ran down behind Safeway to  water the fields and orchards in that area. Another line served Rembler Paul's  orchards and another line served the McMillan 10 acres. The McMillan house  was located about where Doyle runs into Richter. A lot of hay was grown there.  Dan McMillan was telling me that his parents came to Peachland in 1898  and in 1906 to Kelowna. When his dad built their first house, just behind the  present Royal Bank, he would row up from Peachland, work on the house for  the week and then row back for the weekend till the house was ready for occupancy. That concrete block house and the old Baptist Church were torn down  a few years ago.  When I showed Charlie Pettman, the former fire chief, a picture of the  flume running in front of the Armory and United Church, he said that his dad  was coming down the lane between the two buildings in his horse and buggy  and the buggy wheels broke through the underground flume or syphon, throwing his dad out of the buggy. He never regained consciousness.  Rembler Paul owned a lot of acreage in Kelowna from Bernard Avenue to  Knox Mountain, and in a 1915 paper there is a rather interesting note,  "Rembler Paul offers 160 acres of land a few miles north of Kelowna with  lakeshore, as a site for a home for disabled veterans." He had made a previous  offer of this property for use as a site for a home for the aged, but received no  reply. That area includes Paul's tomb where he and his wife are buried.  Just to divert, I will say a little about "Rembler's Tomb." Jim Patterson  was telling me that when his dad built the tomb and had it almost completed he  was putting the steel door in place. In securing the door, wet concrete was  poured between the frame and the concrete opening. He went inside to put on 30  Early irrigation ditches in Kelowna. Circa 1910.  the finishing touches and closed the door behind him. It locked and, as he was  all alone, he had no choice but to push out the whole frame and start over again.  Our house on Lawrence between Gordon and Ethel was on a half acre lot.  A 1909 advertisement said, "Why pay $400.00 for a 50 foot building lot when  you can buy a half acre lot on Glenn Avenue (Lawrence) for only $800.00.  These lots are planted in fruit trees which should be bearing nicely this year."  These lots ran back to the centre of Leon Avenue which was non-existent in  those days. Our irrigation came from the ditch on Harvey Avenue, and as we  had a large garden and lots of water, one of the packing house men suggested I  grow cucumbers. I planted, watered, weeded and nursed them all summer, and  in the fall lugged them to the packing house. In the spring I received a cheque  for $4.44. I've hated cucumbers ever since.  During irrigation season we always had a flooded basement. We always  knew when they started irrigating the Pridham orchard and filled the ditches on  Glenn Avenue and Harvey. First we would see little seams of moisture in the  concrete and a week later there would be 12 to 15 inches of water. That would  last all summer.  For those of you that are interested in following some of the old ditches I  will mention a few. In the flat part of town they are all gone. East of Spall Road  by the railway crossing, a ditch can be seen going towards the city public works.  The dam site is covered with the public works buildings. Above the railroad on  Spall Road can be seen a large pipe. If you follow it and the ditch along the bank  below the cemetery and past the city public works, and almost up to Dilworth  Drive where it crosses the railway,  its source is opposite the Westwood 31  Manufacturing and Seven-Up buildings on Leckie place. The old concrete  headgate is still there. This ditch served the upper Bankhead area.  In closing I would like to say that most of the area south of Highway 97 was  under irrigation, but as I was not conversant with it someone else will have to  write that story.  I would like to thank Dan McMillan, Ernie and Winnie Hill, Mary  Robertson, Jim Patterson, Rod Pridham, Charlie Pettman and Tilman Nahm  for the help they gave me in rounding out this story.  THE OLD BLACK IRON STOVE  The black iron stove in our kitchen  It truly was wondrous to see,  Its top was so clean and so polished  Our faces we almost could see.  Our lives were all centered 'round it,  We fed it the very best wood  So that mother could do all the cooking  And bake our bread yummy and good.  And sometimes in Spring for some reason,  On a shelf right behind its warm charm  In an old granite pan lined with flannel  Were wee downy chicks keeping warm.  I must not forget the dear kettle  That bubbled and sang all the day  And the old coffee pot full of welcome  For travellers who might come our way.  Our mother would bathe a wee baby  On her lap by the wide oven door  Where a wee shirt and diaper hung warming  While she lingered to play and adore.  I loved that old stove in the kitchen  How at night when the lamps were all out,  It signalled its place in the darkness  With lights here and there twinkling out.  Magda Rice 32  THE GUISACHAN WATER USERS' COMMUNITY  by Tilman E. Nahm  The Guisachan Water Users' Community and its predecessor 'The  Guisachan Ditch', as it "was called, has been in the irrigation water distribution  business in the Kelowna area since 1892. From the community's old files it is interesting to note the changes that have taken place over the years in a geographic  area that has seen tremendous growth and change, from farms and agriculture  to that of subdivision and urban development. The area served by the  G.W.U.C. comprised most of District Lot 136 in the City of Kelowna, bounded  by Richter Street on the west, Glenwood Avenue and Mill Creek on the north,  Burtch Road on the east and Wardlaw Avenue on the south.  An assessment for raising money for work to be done in 1913 shows 419  acres of land on the roll. A water licence issued by the Provincial Government in  1933 records 332.5 acres of land under irrigation with approximately 21  members. A Water Rights Branch map drawn in 1959 shows in excess of 250  acres still being irrigated by the community. Soon after this, rapid urban intrusion into the area served by the community chipped away at the farmland until  today there are only 60 or 70 acres being watered by two users, one being the  author.  The original water licences on Kelowna (Mill) Creek take precedence from  the 6th of July 1892, which is probably when the Earl of Aberdeen, who owned  the Guisachan Ranch, took out a licence and built the original ditches and  flumes to convey water to his estate.  It appears that the Earl subdivided his Guisachan estate about 1902 or  1903 into four parcels. Parcel A was the land to the south of a right-of-way called  Rosedale Avenue, subsequently and presently called Guisachan Road. In 1903  parcel A was sold to William C. Cameron, father of the late W. A. (Alister)  Cameron and the late G. D. (Paddy) Cameron, well known pioneer farmers  and members of the Okanagan Historical Society. The eastern portion of this  land is presently still in agriculture, being a purebred Limousin cattle and hay  operation run by Ray Nicholls of Kelowna.  The three lots north of Guisachan Road, parcels B, C and D were sold to  Messrs. Rowcliffe and Stillingfleet and others. These parcels were quickly subdivided and resubdivided during the course of the next few years to form smaller  homesites and farming units.  The first written records of the water users appear in the form of a Bank of  Montreal Kelowna Branch savings account book commencing in November  1912, under the name of'H. B. D. Lysons Flume Account'. Mr. Lysons owned  a 13 acre farm and greenhouse business on Ethel Street, between Glenwood  Avenue and Guisachan Road, where the Cottonwoods Extended Care Hospital is now located. The first entry of minutes of a meeting appear dated 7 April  1916. At this meeting it was decided to make repairs to the ditches and flumes.  According to bank records and minute books, Mr. Lysons appears to have  been the unpaid Secretary-Treasurer of the 'ditch holders' and subsequent Gui-  saschan Water Users' Community from 1912 until his retirement from the  greenhouse business in 1947 — certainly an outstanding record of community  service.  After the retirement of Mr. Lysons, Paddy Cameron undertook the Secretary-Treasurer duties which he carried on until 1978. It must be noted that Pad- 33  dy was also water bailiff and manager for many years, being responsible for the  operations of the system. There are many entries in the minutes over the years,  "Mr. Cameron to take charge of the work," — another example of many years  of dedication to the community.  For almost 80 years the main source of water supply was Mill Creek. The  community also held an excess or floodwater licence on Mission Creek dated  May 5th, 1920. The point of diversion for this licence was the Smithson  Alphonse Water Users' Community dam on Mission Creek. Water was  diverted via the Smithson Alphonse ditch to Dilworth Creek or, as it was more  commonly called, 'Dry Creek' which flowed along where Canadian Tire Store  is now, crossing the Vernon Road (Highway 97 North) at the Kelowna Toyota  sales lot and entering Mill Creek near the present site of Okanagan Beverages,  at Leckie Place and Dilworth Drive. This was used when there was excess water  available in Mission Creek in order to augment the Mill Creek supply.  At Mill Creek a wing dam constructed from rocks and boulders, probably  dredged from the creek bed, diverted water through a headgate located on Mike  Johnson's 'Willowbrook Farm', now the Parkinson Recreation Centre. The intake structures were located a few feet from where the present footbridge crosses  the creek just northeast of the recreation centre building. The ditch ran through  the farm parallel to Mill Creek, crossing the 'Vernon Road', now Highway 97  North, just west of the present day Mervyn Motors Volkswagen dealership, and  winding through the fields back of the present Copytron building. Behind  Dayton Street, where the Trans Canada Glass now is, was the point of diversion  where the Ritchie Brook intake was located. Ritchie Brook was a secondary  licence obtained by the community in 1949. This brook is fed from Allan's  Spring, located underneath the parking lot of Orchard Park Shopping Centre.  The brook is now piped underground through various subdivisions and  developed areas until it surfaces at the present point of diversion just east of  Burtch Road.  From Burtch Road the water was diverted west and south through various  main ditches and laterals to the members of the community. The entire system  utilized ditches and flumes laid to grade to provide the users with water by  gravity. The members distributed the water by small ditches in the case of row  crops and orchards and by flooding pastures and hayfields. In August 1953 a  special meeting was held to consider an application by one member to use  sprinkler irrigation, which was approved. In succeeding years more users installed electric or gasoline pumps along the ditch and commenced using portable  sprinkler systems. This new technology made the work of irrigation much easier  and more efficient resulting in greater crop yields.  During the 1950s and 1960s considerable subdivision began in the area  north of Guisachan Road. This was due to the natural expansion of the city of  Kelowna and affected water users served by the north lateral ditch. The lack of  legal right-of-way easements through the lands being subdivided caused many  problems for affected members downstream. It was just too costly for the financial resources of the small group of users to expropriate lands for easements.  Some of the affected users along Mill Creek installed pumps utilizing water  directly from the creek. Others dug wells and used groundwater pumping  systems as their source of water until the demise of their own farms by development and subdivision. 34  In 1971 construction of the Parkinson Recreation Centre commenced and  as the water users' community did not have easements on this property they  were forced to abandon the intake and ditch there, and with it the licence that  had been held on Mill Creek for almost 80 years. By this time the community's  acreage and water use had shrunk to the point where the secondary source, Ritchie Brook, was sufficient to maintain an adequate supply to the remaining  users. The present remaining works of the community are, fortunately, on  dedicated rights-of-way and easements, creating a stabilizing effect for the small  area that is left under irrigation.  During the last few years the two or three remaining water users have been  plagued with problems arising from the inevitable conflict of land use that comes  about from intensive urbanization intruding into agricultural areas. On the one  hand, urban residents view the ditch as unsightly and aesthetically displeasing,  whereas the water users become upset with certain actions and activities of city  dwellers. Such is the price of progress in a rapidly growing and changing  community.  In reading through old minute books, files and letters one begins to realize  and appreciate the extraordinary amount of work and effort that was expended  by many individuals in order to obtain and utilize the water resource that was  required in the Guisachan area to make agriculture viable. This short history of  the Guisachan Water Users' Community is dedicated to the recognition of their  efforts and perserverence.  A NOTE  from The Agricultural fournal, Dept. of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. V7 n. 10,  December 1922. p. 232.  The following is among the resolutions presented by the Advisory Board of  Farmers' Institutes and the Legislative Committee of the United Farmers of  British Columbia to the Agricultural Committee of the Provincial Legislature on  November 3rd, at 8 p.m., in the Members' Room:  Irrigation — Whereas farmers in the Province who rely on water as a means of  carrying on their operations are seriously hampered by the difficulties arising  and the uncertainty of their position under the present laws:  Therefore be it RESOLVED, That the Government be asked to appoint a  Royal Commission to inquire and report as to the whole question of water-  supply and irrigation in the Province with a view to placing the law on a staple  and satisfactory basis; and, further, that we are of the opinion that the Commission should comprise two farmers who have a practical, thorough experience of  the subject, a financier, an engineer, and a lawyer. 35  BOYHOOD MEMORIES OF THE UPPER BANKHEAD  WATER USERS' COMMUNITY  by Tilman E. Nahm  I have many fond memories of the Bankhead ditch from the days of my  youth in the 1930s and '40s.  It was an exciting and wonderful place for a young growing boy to play. As  a pre-schooler I would explore and play along it close to our home property, a  small farm and orchard located in the present Bernard Avenue, Braemar Street,  Cherry Crescent area. As I grew older and bolder in my explorations I would  venture further afield discovering new areas, eventually covering most of the  system. When I became a schoolboy I went to the source and discovered Mill  Creek and fishing in those long, lazy, hot summer days of the early 1940s.  The Upper Bankhead Water Users' Community irrigated the Bankhead  Farm as well as several other farms and orchards in the Bankhead area, including my father's place.  A qLl  afi  ml  J&  -   ■nA.'rr  istM-f  <&J^sS7SVM//wJ/4mM/JL   ftiLl %,Li,L  i n.> ijl*  /iaaum*..^/  «/}.<■  id fhrK.   ffyv     0Q- (j Onm  /  ftf  )t  Cu.fKn.  )'>  J. * &.,Lj                         .*_ u      Q  9 *  ij  n  ■a ,itUi,{i.L                f_ *  ri  uo  (*h   n  . £_««£_»A~_4&>.J/!r           11. -J  10 i  10  '!'  *: u MlTM                      .it - J  !,t,  cm  t/n  t(\  .n  60  f »j£. rJ                  i _ s  'k  4"  1  'SJj.ld S.ftL^J.             Ll -   o  nfffff  60  1  1  to  lleXe^^A     i°n:i lors ewl-    ClLkJu    /J       ''  M  xi*. auLft«*fci«Jl  ■juAk  ''     a L.r^JL: a..,  J  04,'i  rf<  &>      ULtJl/rCLfrJ   Kjj^AlM^L.  l(r  C C  I  I  1  1  The Bankhead Farm was sold during the war to provide small acreage  holdings with homes on them for the veterans returning from the services. Eventually these V.L.A. holdings were further subdivided into city lots creating the  residential area as we see it today.  On the flat lands west of the Bankhead farm was the Bankhead Orchard  Company with a large pear and apple planting which eventually became Lom-  bardy Park Subdivision.  The Upper Bankhead Water Users' Community was a gravity system  utilizing ditches, flumes and inverted syphons to deliver water to its users. The  water intake was located on Kelowna (Mill) Creek across from the present  Westwood Manufacturing plant on Leckie Place. A rock wing dam diverted the 36  water into the headgate and ditch. The old abandoned concrete headgate works  are still there today. From there the ditch crossed under the C.N.R. tracks  following a grade at the base of the clay banks below the city of Kelowna  cemetery through Archie Hardy's farm, now the city of Kelowna works yard.  On the big sand bank just east of the Spall Road railway crossing you can still  see remnants of the old corrugated steel culvert that had to be installed when the  C.N.R. made the cut in the bank to bring the tracks into town in 1925. The  ditch and flumes wound along Spall Road and the south side of Bernard Avenue  to a point just east of the overhead railway bridge where it crossed by culvert  beneath Bernard Avenue to water the S. C. Cosens orchard, now Petretta's  farm, and the Dilworth Crescent subdivision. Along the north side of Bernard  Avenue part of the old ditch is still in evidence today, including the concrete  catch basin for the inverted steel syphon which went under the railway tracks at  this point. After exiting the syphon at the west end of the bridge, the ditch again  crossed beneath Bernard Avenue to the south side following the grade on the hill  above the present Apple Bowl and Dr. Knox schoolyard, again crossing to the  north side by culvert to where Cherry Crescent East intersects Bernard. Here  there was a headgate controlling the west lateral going due west to the Bankhead  Farm barns and bunkhouse in the vicinity of the Highland Drive South and  Edgewood Drive intersection. The north lateral went along the present route of  Cherry Crescent East on a long wooden flume mounted on a trestle to where  Cherry Crescent intersects Vineland. Here it split, one branch going north and  again crossing the railway tracks through an inverted steel syphon. This line  watered the Bankhead Farm lands north of the railway tracks. The old concrete  pylon on the north side of the right of way which is still standing today supported the steel pipe. The second branch, another wooden flume built on a very  high trestle, carried the water westwards until it again hit high ground and  became a ditch to water land in the vicinity of Highland Drive South.  Ditch and syphon irrigation, Cosens orchard.  Photo courtesy Kelowna Museum 37  The Bankhead Farm grew hay and forage for their livestock and milk cows  as well as raising vegetable crops grown on a share crop basis by Japanese  families. The Bankhead area in its original, natural state was much more hilly  than now, with numerous ponds and marshes in the low spots. The coming of  the bulldozer age has changed the topography considerably since the 1940s  knocking off many high spots and filling in the low spots. Because of the hilly  and sandy nature of the farmland, the fields were small and inefficient and it  was an arduous and difficult task to water the crops adequately, all irrigation being done by gravity and furrows. Nevertheless, heat loving crops such as  canteloupe, tomatoes and peppers did well in the warm light soil during those  hot summers of the 1930s. The Cosens Ranch was a cherry orchard until the  1930s when a series of cold winters killed the trees. It was then replanted to  grapes which were themselves subsequently removed during the 1950s and  1960s. The remaining unsubdivided farmland is now devoted to vegetables and  hay crops.  Mr. Henry Snowsell was the conscientious secretary manager and water  bailiff of the water users. A friendly man of smallish stature, I can still see him  in my mind's eye, wearing his felt fedora hat, a perennial cigarette with a long  ash in his mouth and the ever present long handled round-point shovel slung  over his shoulder. He often walked the ditch once, sometimes twice a day,  checking for blockages, or leaks from muskrat holes in the ditch or opened seams  in the wood flumes. It was his job to adjust headgates, allocate water to the  various users, settle disputes and keep everybody happy. He had to make sure  everything was in good working order from the intake at the dam to the very  end of the system which was the tailwater ditch carrying surplus water into a  handy slough or pond.  As mentioned before, on a gravity system in a hilly area there were many  wood flumes connecting the ditches through the low spots and breaks in the topography. The flumes varied in size according to the volume of water they were  required to move and were carried on trestles made from 4" by 4" rough sawn  timber. Good rough and dressed lumber for flume construction was plentiful  and cheap until the 1940s. The large old growth Douglas Fir and Ponderosa  Pine growing at the lower elevations in the valley had long branchless trunks  and clear knot-free lumber was cut in widths up to 16 inches or more and  lengths up to 20 feet, making excellent fluming material. Labour to erect the  trestles and flumes was very cheap, a journeyman carpenter's wa^es amounting  to a few dollars per day. However, during the mid 1940s lumber and labour  became more expensive, and because of the short lifespan and high leakage rates  from the untreated wood flumes, the community began renewal with prefabricated concrete flumes.  My younger brother and I had a lot of fun cooling off on those hot summer  days by playing in the ditch. Mr. Snowsell, being a very kindly man, didn't  seem to object just as long as we didn't create blockages or upset the regulation  of the water. I can well recall when I was 9 or 10 years old, creating a naval task  force of battleships and cruisers using lengths of spruce 2 by 4's for hulls, with  gun turrets carved from wood blocks and finishing nail gun barrels. Two by  fours with a veneer deck made model aircraft carriers and I cut and bent little  toy airplanes with tinsnips from old tomato cans to create a large fleet air arm.  My brother and I fought many a fierce naval battle within the confines of the  Bankhead irrigation ditch. 38  If there was a cool rainy spell during the summer, Mr. Snowsell would shut  down the ditch for a couple of days and put in a crew of men to cut the grass and  weeds to prevent blockages and increase water flow. If you went along the ditch  just after the shutdown you could often catch a few nice trout, marooned in the  receding waters. You could also take your fishing pole along and catch some  more trout in the tailrace of the dam on Mill Creek. That would make my  mother happy and we would have a great supper that evening. It was sure a terrific way for a young boy to spend a summer afternoon.  One thing you had to be very careful of was to avoid the patches of Poison  Ivy that grew in the damp spots along the ditch or underneath the flumes. The  flumes being nailed together and often not well caulked would invariably leak  and create a moist environment beneath. This promoted the growth of an abundance of moisture loving wild shrubs and flowers such as wild roses, red  dogwood, solomon's seal, milkweed, fleabane and goldenrod which brightened  the countryside.  By 1944 my boyhood days were ending, I was becoming a teenager, and  had already started working in orchards during the summer holidays. The  Bankhead Farm was being subdivided into veterans holdings and roads were being built through it using some of the first bulldozers operating in the Kelowna  area.  After the war ended and the returning veterans took up the land it became  evident that the Upper Bankhead Water Users' Community system was totally  inadequate for the newly subdivided lands. The new owners had a lot of difficulty trying to utilize what was by then essentially an obsolete and outmoded  system, and something had to be done.  By 1951 the newly incorporated Bankhead Irrigation District took over the  water distribution in the Bankhead area. Securing P.F.R.A. (Prairie Farm  Rehabilitation Act) assistance they had installed a pressurized pipe system using  an electric pump located at the 'Old Town Dam' on Mike Johnson's Willow-  brook Farm, now the Parkinson Recreation Centre. This system is still in use  today serving mostly urban dwellers in the Bankhead area as well as City of  Kelowna parks properties and Petretta's farm, the last remaining agricultural  enterprise in Bankhead. The old ditches have been covered in over the years,  the flumes torn down and burned and so the era of the Upper Bankhead Water  Users' Community came to a close. 39  IRRIGATION IN THE ELLISON AREA  by J. H. Hayes  Some pioneer orchardists and farmers in the Okanagan have been known  to compare 'irrigation' with 'gold' in value. It is therefore very evident how important this utility has been to the agricultural and horticultural industry. I submit far too little recognition has been bestowed upon those orchardists and  farmers who, over the years, had the foresight to realize if the land was adequately watered, crops could be grown in the Okanagan Valley second to none  in quality and quantity.  Until recent years, a trustee elected to the board of an irrigation district,  particularly the smaller ones, had to be a 'jack-of-all-trades'. He was a quasi-  engineer, good with tools to effect repairs, a financier and diplomat. Those  dedicated persons in the Ellison area, who, over the years, allowed their names  to stand were certainly no exception. Being on the board of trustees involved  much more than attending a couple of meetings a year to set irrigation rates.  There were no maintenance staffs on the payroll. If there was a break in a flume  or pipe, a clogged ditch or screen, etc. a trustee was expected to immediately  leave his orchard or farm to attend to the necessary repairs. There was no  thought of remuneration for time spent on repairs, or mileage for personal vehicle use. It was indeed a "labour of love"!  For many years the Ellison area was served by two separate irrigation  districts: 'Scotty Creek Irrigation District' and 'Ellison Irrigation District', each  with its own autonomy through Letters Patent issued by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for British Columbia.  Realizing crop returns were not keeping pace with the cost of production,  the trustees of both irrigation districts through careful budgeting managed to  keep rates at an absolute minimum; in fact in the 1950s and 1960s the charges  per acre were among the lowest in British Columbia. It was not until about 1952  that a jointly funded water bailiff was engaged to serve both irrigation districts  on a seasonal basis. (E. Bielert faithfully served in this capacity for 25 years.) It  is also interesting to note as late as 1965 the labour rate paid for casual help  working on the distribution works was in the area of $1.50 to $2.00 per hour.  In general terms the boundaries of Scotty Creek Irrigation District may be  defined as follows: the northwest boundary Ellison Park; northeast boundary  'Scotty Creek'; southwest boundary the 'Simpson Ranch'; southeast boundary  part of Latta Road. Also included was the extreme northeasterly property  known as the 'Sunset Ranch'.  Ellison Irrigation District boundaries may be defined as follows: the  southerly boundary 'Scotty Creek'; the westerly boundary Old Vernon Road  north to 'Mill Creek'; the northerly boundary 'Mill Creek'; and the easterly  boundary adjacent to Postill Lake and Anderson Road.  It should be also noted historical sketches of these two irrigation districts including their activities etc. in the earlier days of existence were previously written and included The History of Ellison District — 1858 to 1958 published by the  Ellison Centennial Committee to commemorate our province's centennary. The  late J. J. Conroy, a trustee for many years, whose family came to the Okanagan  in 1884 wrote a comprehensive history of Scotty Creek Irrigation District.  The late W. T. J. Bulman with lengthy service on the board of Ellison Ir- 40  rigation District, whose father bought the George Whelan Cloverdale Ranch in  1907, has recorded in detail the early history of that district. It would be both  unethical and inappropriate for me to 'steal their thunder' by incorporating in  this treatise even excerpts from their chronicles. However, I shall try and outline  the highlights of both irrigation districts between 1947 and 1976 during which  time I was actively involved in their deliberations.  A word concerning how my involvement came about. Being a transplanted  easterner I scarcely knew an apple from a pear and had absolutely no knowledge  of irrigation, but like 'Topsy', my knowledge sort of 'Growed'! The late D.  McDougall, B.C.L.S. who was secretary-treasurer of both districts had to resign  due to ill health. The respective boards were faced with the problem of securing  a replacement, which was only a part time appointment. About May 1947 the  late R. D. Booth, Ellison Irrigation District trustee, asked me if I would write a  'couple of letters' for them. Those couple of letters increased to several more.  Other administrative duties were added. Before I realized it, in 1948 I was officially appointed secretary-treasurer, assessor, and collector for Ellison Irrigation District. Not to be outdone, my brother-in-law, C. D. Clement, a trustee of  Scotty Creek Irrigation District, pointed out that since I was helping out Ellison  Irrigation District, why couldn't I do the same for his district? (Believe me a  brother-in-law can be very persuasive at times!) In 1948 I was appointed  secretary-treasurer, assessor, and collector for Scotty Creek Irrigation District.  My initial stipend was $15.00 per month from Ellison Irrigation District and  $20.00 per month from Scotty Creek Irrigation District. I had to use my home  and personal telephone in performing official business.  Scotty Creek Irrigation District  Water for the district still comes from Trapper or James Lake as it is  sometimes known. However, at one time, to augment the supply, water was  also diverted from Twin or Green Lake as it is also called. The dam at Trapper  /James Lake has been raised twice at considerable expense to provide a greater  storage capacity. A regulating reservoir was later built as well as a chlorinator to  purify the irrigation water when a domestic system finally became a reality.  The distribution was originally open ditch with some concrete fluming.  This was later succeeded by wooden flume and ultimately by partial  underground pipe with some metal flume above ground.  One of the first tasks confronting the trustees each spring was to visit Trapper Lake to determine its level. Thus they would know if there would be a sufficient supply of irrigation for the ensuing season. If the run-off and rains were  light the trustees had much 'soul searching' to do to ensure a sufficient supply  for the needs of all water users. In 1971 the level of Trapper Lake was very low  following a poor run-off. Fortunately for all water users in the district, Clement  Farms Ltd. had sunk a well on their property capable of producing 800 G.P.M.  to service their land not under irrigation. An arrangement was concluded  whereby water from this well was diverted into the district's distribution system  utilizing some 3,500 feet of pipe. Thanks to the co-operation of Clement Farms  Ltd. the water users were able to irrigate all summer, thereby eliminating the  hazard of reduced crops due to inadequate moisture in the soil.  In 1973 another potential water shortage was circumvented when a supplementary supply was diverted from Black Mountain Irrigation District. The 41  district's minute book covering the period 1947 to 1976 name the following  Ellison residents as serving on the board of trustees: the late J. F. Bell; the late  R. W. Berry; and the late J. J. Conroy. Those still alive at time of writing were  E.J. Bornais; C. D. Clement; R. Herding; G. F. Klein; R. Sali; A. Schock;  and S. C. Tower.  The following is a comparison of rates charged over a 25 year period:  1949:       Grade 'A' $4.50 per acre (724 acres)  Grade 'B' $0.25 per acre (120 acres) Land irrigated but not  through the district's distribution works)  1955        Grade 'A' $4.00 per acre (second lowest in B.C.)  Grade'B' $0.25 per acre  1965:       Grade'A'$10.00 per acre  1974:       Grade'A'$15.00 per acre  In 1949 approval was granted for each trustee to be paid a stipend of  $25.00 per annum (to cover all duties), and in 1960 it was increased to $50.00  per annum. In 1971 the water users approved a rate of $20.00 for each meeting  attended.  In 1959 remuneration for the secretary-treasurer was authorized at $25.00  per month, and in 1968 an office and car allowance was granted.  Ellison Irrigation District  In 1946 the water users applied to the Comptroller of Water Rights for  B.C. to incorporate a Water District pursuant to the Water Act. The Letters Patent issued designated this improvement district as 'Ellison Irrigation District',  with the late J. F. Anderson, R. D. Booth, and A. H. Green appointed trustees.  (The original Ellison Irrigation District was actually a private system built by  the late Thomas Bulman. Pertinent details are found in The History of Ellison  District — 1858 to 1958.)  Irrigation is currently supplied in co-operation with Glenmore Irrigation  District. Both improvement districts hold water rights on Postill, South, and  Bulman Lakes. By mutual agreement the water therefrom is shared on the basis  of 75% for Glenmore Irrigation District and 25% for Ellison Irrigation District.  Improvements to the Ellison Irrigation District's distribution system slowly  but steadily evolved with only minimal increases in irrigation rates. The district  changed from a flume and ditch distribution system to a closed pipe gravity  system. Later a chlorinator was installed preparatory to irrigation water being  used for domestic purposes. In co-operation with Glenmore Irrigation District  an automatic revolving screening system at the headgate to clean the water was  installed.  Many well known Ellison residents at some time sat on the board of this irrigation district. The official minute book for the period 1947 to 1976 includes  the following: the late J. F. Anderson, the late R. D. Booth, the late W. T. J.  Bulman, the late A. H. Green, and the late A. L. Green. Those still living include D. R. Booth (who succeeded his father in 1963), H. Buchenauer, B. A.  Clement, M. C.Jennings, H. Krause, F. RiegerandJ. F. Stewart. 42  Prudent budgeting resulted in increases in irrigation rates being kept to a  minimum. The following is a comparison of rates charged over a 22 year period:  1952:       Grade 'A' $8.00 per acre (472 acres)  Grade 'B' $7.05 per acre (190 acres)  1962:       Grade 'A' $10.30 per acre (470 acres)  Grade'B'$ 7.95 per acre (190 acres)  1972:       Grade 'A' $18.00 per acre (542 acres)  Grade 'B' $45.00 minimum per parcel (4 parcels totalling 7  acres)  1974:       Grade 'A' $21.00 per acre (711 acres)  Grade 'B' $45.00 minimum per parcel (6 parcels totalling 11  acres)  In 1965 a regrade fee of $150.00 per acre to change land classification from  'C to 'A' was introduced. Regrading was limited to the availability of  irrigation.  In 1970 approval was granted by the water users for each trustee to be paid  an honorarium of $12.00 for each meeting attended.  That same year the trustees set up a committee to study the basis of  remuneration paid the secretary-treasurer, and in 1971 the stipend was set at  $25.00 per annum plus a car and office rental allowance.  Domestic Water for the Ellison Area  It is traditional that those who derive their livelihood from the soil are not  particularly interested in improvement frills such as sidewalks, or street lights.  Their main requirements are reasonably decent roads on which to transport  their crops or produce, and an adequate supply of irrigation and domestic  water.  For years farmers, orchardists, and their employees had to rely upon wells  for year round domestic water, a situation which in some years was very unsatisfactory. Alternatives were cisterns or storage tanks filled periodically with irrigation water. To utilize untreated irrigation as a permanent source of domestic  water would, for obvious reasons, have been an unhealthful move. As the postwar population density increased in Ellison the problem became more acute.  In 1971 the boards of trustees of Ellison Irrigation District and Scotty  Creek Irrigation District convened a joint meeting to address this problem. One  alternative worthy of investigation was the feasibility of purchasing water in bulk  from Clement Farms Ltd., who proposed the sinking of a second well on their  property. A hydrographic study indicated a virtually unlimited supply from an  underground river. The well would be capable of pumping a minimum of 1,000  G.P.M. However, a joint engineering report recommended to both boards that  the well be purchased outright rather than just buying the water in bulk. This  recommendation Clement Farms Ltd. were not prepared to agree to, so the idea  was scrapped. (It will be noted this 'second well' would have been in addition to  that noted herein under Scotty Creek Irrigation District.) 43  In 1972 a development company that was creating a subdivision of some  300 lots in the Ellison area offered to sell a well located on its property, purported to be capable of serving not only the water users in both irrigation  districts, but the development with domestic water. However, engineering  reports could not confirm there was an adequate supply to serve these requirements, and as the purchase price was considered excessive this idea was  also dropped.  Following numerous joint meetings with officials of the Water Rights  Branch and recommendations from consulting engineers, it was resolved that  each irrigation district would individually apply for A.R.D.A. (Agricultural Rehabilitation Development Act) financing to help defray the capital cost of installing separate domestic water systems, utilizing chlorinated irrigation water.  Following lengthy negotiations with the two senior levels of government, approval was finally received, and in 1974 the water users of each irrigation district  overwhelmingly approved the construction of separate domestic water systems  as A.R.D.A. projects. One cannot comment too strongly on the untiring effort  put forth by both boards of trustees in seeing this difficult undertaking come to  a successful conclusion.  What is the status of these two irrigation districts today?  Ellison Irrigation District still operates as a separate entity. At time of  writing veteran trustee D. R. Booth is still on the board. His service together  with that of his father, the late R. D. Booth, total over 40 years. The other encumbent trustees are K. Bielert, and H. Krause. R. Scott, C.A., is secretary-  treasurer. It is interesting to note the installation of master flow control valves at  the irrigation outlet of each property eliminated the need for a water bailiff on a  continuing basis.  Scotty Creek Irrigation District, however, surrendered its Letters Patent to  the Comptroller of Water Rights in 1979 and amalgamated with Black Mountain Irrigation District, following an 80% favourable vote by the water users. At  time of dissolution the trustees were K. C. Clement, G. F. Klein, and R. Sali.  Mrs. C. Bielert was secretary-treasurer. An accolade is certainly in order to  long-time trustee C. D. Clement who contributed 32 years of faithful service —  a record of achievement difficult to emulate!  Due to the pressure of administrative duties at Kelowna City Hall, I regretfully retired in 1976 after 29 years of service as secretary-treasurer to both irrigation districts. While never owning property in Ellison, I nevertheless always felt  I was an integral part of the community served by these irrigation districts and  experienced a sense of satisfaction in the knowledge I had been part of their  growth and development. 44  TWENTY STICKS OF POWDER  by Sheila Paynter  Westbank Irrigation District in the Central Okanagan has taken its water  from Powers and Bear Creek watersheds for over sixty years.  When the first trustees held their inaugural meeting on July 10th, 1922 the  Okanagan Valley was in a cycle of hot, dry summers and low winter snow pack.  The minutes of early meetings are similar to modern ones in many ways. Six  main concerns are on the agenda in every decade, the question of providing  water to the Indian Reserve, wage settlements, cemetery care, stolen tools, complaints of high taxes, and, most important of all, threats of water shortage.  The first water rights on Powers Creek were held by the Gellatly family  who had an acre of greenhouses and a box factory on the delta land at the mouth  of this creek. Directly west, on a flat above Gellatly Point, land was owned by  Leonard Featherstonhaugh, R. A. Pritchard, Henry Holmberg, Martin Lund-  in and Herbert Thacker. They used water from Jackpine and Gellatly Lakes.  1922 was an important year for Westbank residents who managed their  water supply from Horseshoe Lake. They formed a Westbank Irrigation  District. The first trustees were George Mackintosh, Washington Brown, Jack  Jones and Ira Howlett, with H. B. Ewer hired as secretary at $10.00 per month.  At that time there were 600 acres of domestic and arable land to supply. Today  there are 1,125 acres under irrigation alone.  Eligibility of voters has changed with the years. At the end of the 1920s.  Clause 17 of their Letters Patent stated that:  "The persons entitled to vote at a meeting are those who are British  subjects, the full age of 21 years and are owners of land within the  district, and are not of Chinese, Japanese, or other Asiatic or Indian  race."1  In 1986, in order to vote, you must be an owner of land within the District,  19 years of age or older and entitled to be registered as a voter under the Election Act.  The first by-laws passed were to establish the District legally but the main  business was to get more water.  The first work crew went up to Horseshoe Lake to build a crib dam at the  end of July, 1922. Ira Howlett was the foreman. The men in this first work party were B. Lyon, Albert Drought, C. Mackay, E. C. Paynter, Bert Robinson,  E. H. Smith and Thomas Wells. The consulting engineer was Mr. Norrington  of Kelowna. He favoured a concrete dam as it would be more permanent, but  the trustees decided on a wooden one for reasons of economy.  At a meeting held in the schoolhouse in June 1923 it was moved and  seconded by trustees C. Mackay and G. Mackintosh that storage licences be applied for, covering all lakes at the headwaters of Powers Creek. In August, the  same year, they hired Mr. J. Moffat at $4.00 per day to be the first bailiff to let  down storage water from the lakes. The District would pay to have him packed  in and out by members of the McDougall family.  Water has always been a contentious matter in this part of the country. At  a December meeting in 1923 By-law No. 20 was passed. It allowed the District  1 Minutes A.G.M. 1930. 45  to collect tolls from water-users who carried their water supply from neighbours'  taps.  At an annual general meeting the following month Chairman Grieve Elliot  asked that, "Discussion be maintained along constructive lines, the practice of  indulging in aimless criticism being strongly deprecated."2 Shades of the 1980s  when the Community Hall fills up with several hundred concerned and lively  voters.  In February 1924 the District applied for a license on a tributary of the  Nicola River. The Douglas Lake Cattle Company objected. There was a hearing in Victoria attended by Mr. Ewer. The dispute was settled in favour of  Westbank.  Cabin and dam-site at Paynter Lake.  In July of the same year E. C. Paynter reported finding another lake 2 Vi  miles south of Horseshoe. It was full of water due to a beaver dam on the north  end. The trustees quickly applied for a water licence on it. Two years later the  fruit-growers were faced with an unusually hot, dry summer. On June 9th, 1926  the worried trustees passed the following resolution:  "Moved by Washington Brown, seconded by Charlie Butt, "that we  get a pair of rubber boots, a bucksaw and twenty sticks of powder for  Mr. Paynter. Carried."3  By mid-August the main water supply had dried up so the gun-powder was  used to blow up the beaver dam. A two-weeks' water supply kept the orchards  alive and the harvest secure for that year. This water from Paynter Lake helped  but did not cure Westbank's water shortage. At the same time there was a  deficit of funds in their accounts. They ruled that no more land could be supplied with water without further storage facilities. There was talk of using Shannon Lake as a reservoir.  There was help in sight. One was a grant from the government and the  other was the result of E. C. Paynter's practical experience and foresight during  his early years exploring the watersheds.  2 Minutes A.G.M., Jan. 19th, 1924.  3 MinutesJune9th, 1926, W.I.D. p. 21. 46  o¬±J&  Bailiff's cabin at Paynter Lake in the 1930s.  On June 4th, 1930 the secretary received a letter from the Hon. J. W.  Jones in Victoria with news of an $11,000 grant from the Conservation Board to  construct Paynter Lake dam. Hewlett Brothers received the contract to do the  work and T. B. Reece to supply materials.  In 1931 E. C. Paynter, representing W.I.D. as bailiff, requested permission from Water Rights in Kelowna to make a diversion ditch from Bear Lake  to Powers Creek. He was told, "Yes, you may do it, but it is impossible!" Mr.  Paynter had faith in his dream and in his own capabilities. With a hand-held  level, and pick and shovel he diverted Bear Lake into Powers Creek. His son  John remembers helping him during the summer holidays.  By late spring, 1932 there was great enthusiasm over plans for a Bear Lake  dam and application for 250 acre feet storage and 700 acre feet diversion. But  the local board was still having money problems. In May 1932 they reduced the  secretary's salary from $30.00 per month to $26.25. The incumbent, J. Oliver,  promptly resigned and was replaced on a month's trial basis by H. O. Paynter  who kept the position for the next ten years.  (L. to R.) Matt Hicks, Dorothy Hicks, Lily Hewlett, Pat Hewlett, E. C. Paynter in mid 1930s while  building the Northend dam at Bear Lake. 47  Those ten years were exciting ones. They included enlarging the Bear Lake  Diversion ditch and the building of two dams on Bear Lake. This solved  Westbank's water supply problems for many, many years. A few more sticks of  powder and modern machinery rather than one man with a shovel were used to  achieve that 'impossible' dream of obtaining water from Bear Lake. The orchards and gardens of the community of Westbank blossomed and bore fruit  again.  Acknowlegement: My thanks to Pat Poulin and staff, Westbank Irrig. Dist.  Files—1922-1932.  Glazed Pipe Cement Co., Trepanier Bay, circa 1912. See story by S. Paynter in 47th O.H.S.  Report. 48  GREEN PASTURES  by Beryl Wamboldt  Rural irrigation is a familiar sight today to tourists and our younger  generation but this was not always so. Vernon and the Coldstream area had the  Vernon Irrigation System and the Oliver area in the south had a large irrigation  project but in 1944 only 20% of the Okanagan farmers had electricity. 1,415  farms were without any form of electric power. Following the end of World War  II and beginning in 1947-48 practically all rural districts in the North Okanagan  became electrified under the B.C. Power Corporation.  Electricity brought modernization to both the farm home and to the farm  buildings. A great deal of the modern equipment had to deal with the water  supply, water systems for the home brought modern bathrooms and household  appliances and, for the barn water bowls, hot and cold water for the dairy.  Probably the biggest impact for rural farms with an ample supply of water  available was the sprinkler irrigation system. In 1948 the Dominion Range Experimental Station pastures project was set up six miles out of Kamloops on the  road to Tranquille. The main purpose of the station was to find ways and means  to improve grazing for sheep and cattle and still conserve range lands.  Okanagan dairymen visited this project in August of 1952 when NOCA  Dairy sponsored a tour to the station. When the dairymen viewed the permanent pastures that had been developed and heard how grassland management  had produced amazing results, and dividends in greater meat production per  acre, it did not take them long to translate it into milk production. NOCA  wanted to increase fluid milk sales so needed more milk and dairymen wanted to  produce more milk to sell. Both meant financial returns would be increased.  The following February (1953) a "Green Pastures Program" meeting was  organized by T. E. Clarke of NOCA and chaired by G. (Gabe) A. Luyat,  Supervisor of District Agriculturists, Kamloops, B.C., the district designated to  be the area between Kamloops and Kelowna. Participating were Dr. J. Wilcox  of Summerland Research Station and R. G. Garry, Soils and Irrigation  Specialist, Kelowna, B.C.  A big boost to the new program came in July 1953, when the Honorable  Kenneth Kiernan, Minister of Agriculture for B.C., turned the valve sending  gallons of water through 8,000 feet of aluminum pipe and 200 sprinkler heads to  irrigate 200 acres of Tierney O'Keefe's historic O'Keefe Ranch. By 1965 B.C.  Hydro's Richard Collins reported B.C. Hydro had 3,000 farms on rural electrification and nearly 1,500 horse power pumping water in summer months to  North Okanagan pastures and orchards; 1,000 h/p of this was made up of 1 h/p  to 15 h/p bracket, proving a small unit could be preferable for farm use.  Dairymen found more irrigated pastures produced better grazing, healthier  animals and greater milk production which in turn brought higher monthly milk  cheques. Along with green pastures control, came more grass silage and green  chop feed.  A "Green Pastures Competition" became an annual event co-sponsored  by the Dept. of Agriculture and NOCA. A field tour was held and field crops  judged with prizes presented. This is still an annual event and keenly contested,  last year being the 32nd annual "Green Pastures" competition and field day.  Excellent judges from Agriculture Departments throughout Western Canada  have participated and added much knowledge and advice over the years. 49  Percy and Beryl Wamboldt farmed for many years at Enderby. With respect to water on their  property Beryl has written the following note:  Note:  As we had no large amount of available water essential for sprinkler irrigation we had to  depend on nature's basic source, subterranean watershed from our timbered hill on the  west side of the farm. The timber gave us a good watershed and grew good crops. Any  timber cut through the years of family ownership 1897 to 1967 was cut carefully to  preserve that watershed. This provided us with three good wells that never went dry in  our farming days.  In the past few years houses have been built on part of our hill and artesian wells  have been found by drilling, a water source that both government water experts and  water witchers failed to find.  THE STEPNEY  by W.J. Whitehead  A solitary road marker is the only visible reference to the location of a property which, in earlier days, was recognized as one of the largest farms in the  North Okanagan.  Stepney Ranch, beginning on the southern fringe of the Spallumcheen Indian Reserve, then stretching up the valley toward the district later to be known  as Lansdowne, included some 1,600 acres in all.  From its beginning in 1869, until the final subdivision of the property in  the late 1920s, this farming enterprise produced superior crops of hay, grain and  cattle. There was also an interval of fruit production beginning in the late 1890s  that was brought to an abrupt end with the killing frosts during the winter of  1915. The eventual subdivision of the ranch into smaller farms has not taken  away from the ability to produce from the rich acres. Grain, hay and dairying  are still the main industry of this part of the Okanagan Valley.  The initial development of this farm began in 1869, when Moses Lumby in  company with the brothers Preston and Fred Bennett, and encouraged by the  suggestion of a friend, Mr. A. L. Fortune, came to the valley of the Spallumcheen in search of opportunity.  Mr. Fortune will be remembered as the first white settler in the North  Okanagan. One of the famous Overlanders, and inclined to Christian as well as  farming pioneering, he had settled near the banks of the Spallumcheen  (Shuswap) River in 1866.  Lumby arrived in the west in 1861. He tried mining in the Stikine and the  Cariboo districts, but, meeting with little success, he returned to Victoria, formed a partnership with his old school mate, Preston Bennett and his brother Fred  Bennett, and took up farming some twenty miles up the South Thompson River  from the Hudson Bay Co. trading post at Kamloops.  Preston Bennett came to the Cariboo in 1862, met with little success as a  miner, then for a period worked as a clerk for the H.B.C. in Kamloops. Looking for a more lucrative return for his labour, he and his brother joined with  Lumby in the development of the aforementioned farm at Ducks, now better  known as Monte Creek. Preston Bennett married a daughter of Donald  McLean, a one time Hudson Bay trader, and father of the infamous McLean  brothers who were hanged for the murder of Constable Usher. Fred Bennett has 50  left little imprint on historical records apart from one or two merger references  in early records, and seems to have quietly faded away.  In the fall of 1869, Lumby and the Bennetts began their move to the  Okanagan, Preston travelling overland by way of Grande Prairie (Westwold)  and into the district through the upper Salmon River valley and thence into the  Spallumcheen.  Moses Lumby and Fred Bennett chose to travel the water route. Paddling  a canoe, they worked their way up the Thompson River, into the Shuswap  Lake, and camped at the mouth of the Spallumcheen (Shuswap) River. For  reasons not recorded, Fred Bennett chose to camp there, while Moses Lumby  decided to travel by land to Fortune's. This decision proved to be much more  difficult than he had anticipated and because of his unfamiliarity with the route,  he spent two nights and three days without food, before arriving at his journey's  end.  The next few years were spent in pioneering the establishment of the farm,  the laying out and then increasing of the boundaries of a farm that would grow  and develop into a holding of some 1,600 acres. These years were difficult and  slow, and progress was not as evident as might be desired. However, through  the application of hard work and perseverance, they were able in 1877, to acquire better machinery and thus attain a higher degree of proficiency in  farming.  The development of the trans-country railway was in the early stages in  eastern Canada at this time, and the future effects of such a system of transport  was not lost on Lumby and Bennett. When the C.P.R. was completed in 1885,  a connecting link to the Okanagan Valley was high in the priorities of Moses  Lumby.  In 1882, Preston Bennett died rather suddenly from a tubercular hemorrhage. He was forty-one years of age and had just recently been re-elected as  M.P. It is of interest to note that following his death, his properties were awarded to his brother rather than to his widow. No further record of Fred Bennett  seems to be available and it would appear that Lumby became principal owner  of the farm. Preston's widow later married Vic Guilloune of Kamloops, his  daughter Caroline married George Loney, and his son Vic Bennett became active in prospecting and other business ventures in the Kamloops district.  The star of Moses Lumby continued to rise in the financial and political  heavens of the province. He was a prime supporter of the construction of the rail  line from Sicamous into the valley and subsequently was appointed vice-  president of the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway Company. This branch line  was completed to Okanagan Landing in 1892 and then leased to the Canadian  Pacific Railway. In 1884 Lumby was appointed chief commissioner of Yale  District and in 1886 was granted a requisition to represent that district in the  Provincial Legislature, but withdrew in favour of Hon. F. G. Vernon. About  1888, Lumby's interests became so diversified he decided to dispose of his  holdings in the ranch to Leonard Norris.  Norris was born in Brantford, Ontario, in 1865. He came as a child of nine  years to Langley Prairie, and as a youth of seventeen to the Okanagan Valley in  1882. It had not been his intention to settle here, but he so admired the qualities  of the pioneer settlers, and formed such a deep appreciation for the hospitality  found with them, that he changed his plans and took up a pre-emption of 640 51  acres near Round Lake, just off the Vernon-Kamloops road. Soon after coming  to Round Lake, Norris received an appointment as Provincial Police Constable  at Lansdowne, followed by a further appointment as collector of Provincial  Revenue Tax.  These appointments led to an association with Mr. Robert Wood, storekeeper and landowner at Lansdowne. Following the death of Mr. Hermen Wit-  cher, prominent landowner and farmer at Lansdowne, Norris and Wood  became holders of the Witcher Estate. In this same year, 1890, Norris disposed  of his interest in the Lumby holdings to Sir Arthur Stepney.  Stepney, a wealthy individual from Scotland, held a variety of land investments throughout Canada and the United States, and travelled extensively,  looking after the management of his many holdings.  Norris removed his interests to the more prominent centre of Vernon,  where he became the new Government Agent, a position he held until his retirement. This post had been held by Lumby from the death of Mr. Dewdney in  February, 1892 until his own death in the Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, Thursday,  Oct. 26th, 1893. Among his many contributions to the valley, Mr. Norris is  remembered most as a founding father of the Okanagan Historical Society.  Financial means was not a problem for the new owner. Arthur Stepney set  about improving the ranch with stock and modern implements, and at this point  in time the name Stepney was affixed. Although the ranch has long ceased to exist as one complete holding, the district still retains his name, as does the railway  siding that bordered the eastern limits of the ranch. Also, the road traversing the  broad acres of this once noted farming empire is now called Stepney Cross  Road. The ranch buildings, residence, and the tower supporting the large cast  bell that called the men to meals fronted on this road. These have long disappeared and today the site is occupied by the modern home of Mr. and Mrs.  Graham. Stepney remained owner of the ranch for twenty years. He passed  away suddenly one summer morning in 1910, while sitting on a bench in front  of a railway station down in Texas.  With his passing, the control of the estate ended in the hands of a syndicate  and these principals continued to operate the ranch for the next decade and a  half until the ultimate subdivision took place and was completed.  Up to this point we have reported on the various owners and developers of  Stepney, and while the ranch itself has no great historical significance to cause  it to be remembered for all time, the men who passed through and departed its  portals have contributed more than just a little to the shaping and development  of our valley.  Bennett, Lumby, Norris and Stepney, all should be remembered for their  place in our local history, but just as important and perhaps more so, the men  who did the work and managed the operation for those many years should not  be forgotten.  We do not have a register of all their names, but many have been recalled  to mind and their names will stand not only as a monument to their own efforts  and success, but also to those who go unrecorded.  Almost from the beginning the work was carried out under a system of  managers, hired men and casual help.  Mat Russel managed from 1869 to 1876. His brother George Russel then  held the position for the next eleven years. George Hutchinson was next in line, 52  continuing until 1894; during this period he entered into a partial rental agreement for some of the years he spent there. Following this venture, he ran a produce store in the new village of Armstrong for a short time.  The next to hold the position of manager was a Mr. Palmer, but his tenancy was rather short. It seems Sir Arthur held a great fear for the possibility of fire  that he did not share and this lead to the departure of Mr. Palmer.  Mr. George Heggie, another Scot, and a young man of 23 summers was  the next manager hired. He held the position until 1912, and then became  manager of the L. & A. Ranch at Larkin, where he continued until his  retirement.  The list continues through the years, Harding, Skyrme, Holliday, Hardy,  Plumbly, McCallum, all well known in the district, the majority for their contribution and ability as farmers.  Add to this list the many who worked as farm hands, many of whom were  immigrants from the British Isles and Europe. One of the early ones was Tom  Williams, a young lad from Wales without previous farming experience. He  stayed at Stepney from 1895-1905, then settled in the Edmonton area, where he  married and raised his family. He died in the early "thirties," but his daughter  tells of how he used to reminisce about his days in the Okanagan and how he  would like to have retired here. Another name recalled is that of a Mr. Ham-  shaw, who worked at the ranch the same time as Williams. Other names included Gillick, Tompkinson, Blackburn, Murray; these and many others whose  identities have been lost, provided the manual power so necessary to the success  of the operation. In addition, a large contingent of casual labour was needed  during the harvest months. The men from the neighbouring Indian reserve  usually filled this need, and in return Stepney Ranch provided for their necessity, through the provision of an opportunity to work.  Wages for work in those days were not great when compared to present-  day salaries, and while it is often offered in rebuttal to this opinion that you  could buy so much more for your money, it could also be said that they produced a lot more in labour. Twelve hour days and more were not unheard of, and  six day working weeks were the normal measure of employment. Forty to fifty  dollars a month was considered good pay, and less than half of that was quite  common.  With the ending of the Great War in 1918, it soon became evident to the  shareholders of the syndicate, that further operation of the farm would not furnish the returns desired. Subsequently the land was put up for subdivision and  sold off through the next few years to an influx of new settlers. For the most part  these were farmers from Saskatchewan of Ukrainian origin. They were receptive  to hard work, good agriculturists, and their efforts are reflected in the fine farms  and buildings that dot the former fields of Stepney.  Sources of information:  Kamloops, the History of  Armstrong Spallumcheen Museum collected notes  Okanagan Historical Society Reports  'Grassroots of Lumby', Edited by Mr. & Mrs. L. Gamble. 53  CONSTRUCTION IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  by Paul Koroscil  Apart from the establishment of the orchard economy, the one industry  that was extremely important in the growth of the Okanagan was the construction industry. On the orchards, houses, storage facilities, barns and other outbuildings needed to be built while in the towns, hotels, stores, government  buildings and other structures were required for the growing population. To  meet their requirements individual settlers were constantly concerned about  good architects, building materials, labour costs and problems of building in the  dry belt. These concerns of the settlers not only occurred during the boom  period of growth from the 1890s to the Great War but they were also discussed  by residents after the war. Two such individuals who were faced with these  kinds of construction problems were J. C. Dun-Waters of Fintry and A. Har-  man of Kelowna.  James Cameron Dun-Waters arrived in the Okanagan in 1909 and purchased 1,174 acres at Shorts Point on Okanagan Lake, from Sara Boyd Audain  and Major Guy Mortimer Audain, for $22,500. The Audains had acquired the  property in 1908 from Sara's parents, the Dunsmuirs. Her father James  Dunsmuir, the Scottish coal baron and former premier, had purchased the property as an investment in 1907 when he was the Lieutenant-Governor of the  province.  Prior to emigrating to the Okanagan, Dun-Waters resided in Scotland and  England. In Scotland he inherited his wealth from his family's business and land  investments. He was the major shareholder in the Glasgow Herald and he owned  the Culcreuch and Craighton Estates, which comprised over 6,000 acres at Fintry, Stirlingshire. The farms on his estates were basically involved in sheep and  cattle raising. Dun-Waters took a particularly keen interest in the Ayrshires that  were being raised on his estates and the knowledge that he gained about these  animals proved beneficial to him when he settled in the Okanagan where his  Ayrshire herds were often prize-winners at the agricultural exhibitions.  Aside from the agricultural economics of his estates the one occupation to  which he devoted a great deal of time during his entire life was sport, particularly hunting. The land on his estates was ideal for shooting grouse, partridges,  snipe, woodcock, hares, rabbits, pheasants and roe deer. His organized hunting  parties were well known throughout the area. In 1901 he sold his estates and  moved to Plaich Hall, Church Stretton, Shropshire, where he spent the next  eight years refining his sporting activities which culminated in his appointment  as an M.F.H. (Master of Fox Hounds).  After visiting the Okanagan in 1909, he was not only impressed with the  development of the orchard industry but he was overwhelmed with the potential  that the Okanagan offered for the devoted sportsman. The opportunity to hunt  big and small game animals immediately convinced him to settle in the Valley.  Apart from the interruption of the Great War, Dun-Waters spent the next thirty  years of his life enjoying the pleasures derived from his sporting activities and  overseeing the development of his Canadian Fintry Estate which grew to 2,500  acres.  From 1909 to 1914, the development of the estate included the planting of  a hundred acre apple orchard, the construction of his manor house, packing 54  Manager's Tudor house, designed by Honeyman, Fintry, Okanagan.  house and a number of small cottages. After the war Dun-Waters continued the  expansion of his estate. He engaged J. Honeyman, a Cambridge classmate, who  had an architectural firm in Vancouver, to design a large tudor house which was  to be used as one of the manager's residences and a unique octagonal dairy barn  to house his prize Ayrshire cattle.  In 1924 Dun-Waters commissioned Honeyman to design an additional  room for his manor house that would accommodate his sporting trophies.  In late June, while the tradesmen were working on the new addition, a fire  occurred which gutted the entire house. Honeyman had to redesign the entire  house. On July 15, Dun-Waters visited an ex-military friend, A. Harman of  Kelowna. During the Great War both Dun-Waters and Harman were commissioned as captains. In the course of their conversation that evening Dun-Waters  and Harman discussed the problems of construction in the Okanagan. At the  end of the discussion, Dun-Waters asked Harman if he would convey the experiences that he encountered in building his home to Honeyman.  The following letter written by Harman to Honeyman provides a vivid account of construction problems in the Okanagan such as labour, material costs,  and building in the dry belt. The irony of the contents of the letter is that sixty-  one years later, many of the same construction problems exist in the Okanagan  Valley today.  Unique octagonal barn designed by Honeyman, Fintry, Okanagan 55  TUMHULA, R.R. 1, Kelowna, B.C.  16th. July, 1924  J.J. Honeyman, Esq.  850 Hastings Street West  Vancouver, B.C.  Dear Mr. Honeyman,  I am writing to you at the request of Captain Dun-Waters, who  was staying with me the night before last.  Whilst here he cross-examined me on how I set about building  my house, where I got my labour, material and so on, and asked me  to jot down on paper what I had told him and to send you a copy of it.  I feel somewhat diffident writing to you on what you might call  hints on house building in the Okanagan but very often even the  amateur can give the professional an occasional hint.  As soon as my architect had got out the plans and specifications I  called for tenders locally, I had a price limit of $6,000.00, also a time  limit of three months since I wanted to be installed before the cold  weather set in.  I then saw my architect and asked him if it would not be possible  for him to get me a man in Vancouver who would undertake the job,  bring up all his own men, pay their own fare both ways and I would  arrange for their board and lodging, board to be at the rate of 40c a  meal.  A foreman builder (?) was found, I had two interviews with him  and eventually he agreed to do the work, I was to pay his men Union  wages, but I was not to insist on Union hours, I agreed to this so long  as there was no overtime to be paid, that suited him too, his object being to get through the job as quick as possible and get back to the  coast.  I called for tenders in Vernon, Kelowna and Penticton for  lumber, hardware, plastering work, bricklaying, etc. I also got my architect to do the same at the coast.  I built in July 1920 just the same time as the Godwin's house was  being built, everything was I think at the time at the peak of all prices.  The only local tender I accepted was the plumbing that went to J.  Galbraith of Kelowna, who gave an excellent job.  The whole of the lumber was bought at the coast from Robertson  and Hackett, their tender was such that I got all the lumber laid down  in Kelowna for about 35% less than the local mills would supply, in  addition to this I got excellent lumber, all of which was cut square and  to length which the local mills do not do as a rule.  Hardware I got from Mc. and Mc. (McLennan, McFeely and  Prior) and thereby saved nearly 40% on the local prices.  Paints and stains and varnishes I called for tenders for and gave  that to Ayres of Vancouver again saving about the same on local  prices. 56  All my windows, doors, mosquito blinds, the verandah mosquito  frames, etc. were made for me in Vancouver and sent up with the  lumber, not a thing was broken.  I made one bad mistake and that was importing a painter from  the coast, he was far too expensive as for so many days there was  nothing for him to do, and there are some good local men to be had.  The plasterer was a Penticton man who had worked for the  foreman before and did good work and very cheap compared to  tenders I had got elsewhere.  I have had all my windows and doors fitted with Chamberlin's  weather stripping which can be bought from Ashdowns at Calgary, a  friend of mine here who built at the same time and a house just about  the same size did not use this metal stripping, on comparing costs of a  furnace for heating the house I was a good five ton to the good of him  and found absolutely no difficulty in keeping the house even at 20  below at an even 65 degrees. Here again I made a mistake I tried letting the contractor put in the weather stripping for me, Ashdowns  having advised to let them send their own man. The contractor and a  mate at the end of one day had put in only two windows and not well  at that. Ashdowns' man came in and did the whole house including  the doors in about 14 working hours, so in spite of having to pay the  man's fare and time I was a long way ahead by getting him to come  and do the work.  The greatest difficulty we all have in this dry belt is the matter of  ventilation, I have only seen one house where it is really good and they  attribute their success to having ventilators in their chimney stacks in  the attic, these ventilators open and shut and have, I believe, a fine  wire screen on the inside to prevent sparks, etc. from the chimney  blowing into the attic, it is also, I maintain, essential that there be a  through current of air in the attic, the attic is kept as cool as possible,  if a one storey house it will always be too hot in summer and if a two  storey house the upstairs will be too hot in summer, this I know from  bitter experience, and it is only when one has lived in this dry belt that  one appreciates how essential it is to have the very best of ventilation  in the attic.  I strongly advocate no built-in pipes in this country, in my old  house the water pipes etc. were all built in and out of sight, it was a  mistake for frost etc., in my present house they are all exposed, ugly as  it may be at first, one soon gets used to it and the advantages I need  not mention.  Another thing I have realized is that the water system should be  fed from below, I wonder will you understand what I mean? If you get  your water out of a cistern in the attic there should only be the one  main downpipe and all the wash basins, baths, toilets, etc. are then  fed from the cellar up, again the convenience of this is great, should  you ever want to leave your house empty in the winter you can drain  the whole system out and be sure it is drained, this I have also learnt  to my cost.  Dun-Waters also asked me to tell the size of our doors, they are 57  six foot ten by two foot six, also he was much taken with the small  medicine cupboards I have let into the wall over each washbasin.  These little cupboards are 18 x 25 inches and have a mirror in the  door, the shelves are 3-1/2 inches wide.  When it comes to the plastering there are some excellent Italians  in Kelowna who are artists at putting on laths, I paid them so much a  thousand, I believe there is a union price for this work.  My architect personally supervised the loading of the materials at  the coast, the foreman rechecked everything both at rail head and  again when delivered on the proposed house site, the estimates were,  I thought, pretty accurate when I only had to buy about two hundred  feet of tongue and groove and a few pieces of shiplap, and with the  oddments that were left over I was able to put up a small ice house,  this building is very much of the Heath Robinson type as only any  odd bit of lumber was used for it.  I hope I have covered all the points I was asked to and that I have  made myself moderately clear.  We are very badly off for finishing carpenters in the valley, they  are very slow and consequently very expensive.  I hate not recommending local firms and builders, but I fail to see  why one should pay more and get worse work done just for the sake of  employing local talent, I never have been a philanthropist and after  being burnt out and losing everything I was a perfect Jew.  I had the pleasure of meeting your daughters at lunch on the boat  yesterday.  Yours sincerely,  "A. Harman"  Sources:  1 Authors own research on Dun-Waters in Scotland and communication with Douglas S. Wilson,  Croftinstilly, Fintry, Stirlingshire.  2 Letter uncovered in box of papers from Stuart estate, Catherine Stuart, secretary to Dun-Waters  and her brother, Geordie Stuart, Dun-Waters Fintry estate accountant.  3 David Falconer, "Dun-Waters of Fintry," 38th Annual Report of the Okanagan Historical Society,  1974, pp. 96-100.  4 Ursula Surtees, Curator, Kelowna Museum.  5 Annette Wruth, Land Titles Office, Kamloops. 58  NEW ZEALAND TO THE OKANAGAN  by Cedric M. Boyer  In the middle fifties, Dr. James Marshall was invited to New Zealand by  the N.Z. government to explain the principle of low volume spraying as it applied to orchards. While there, he heard of, and went to see an apple orchard  operation where the grower was using a novel idea for harvesting his crop and  delivering it to his orchard packing house.  This consisted of a 4 foot x 8 foot rectangular box lined with linoleum. It  carried about one ton of apples and was mounted on large surplus bomber  wheels. On arrival at the warehouse, a gate at the rear of the container was  opened, and the fruit rolled out onto a belt that carried it to the sorters and  packers.  He was so impressed with the ease of handling and the minimum amount  of bruising, that, on his return to the Okanagan, he made a tour of all the  grower organizations to report on his findings. He found it very difficult to convince others, partly because of their inventory of thousands of bushel boxes that  they would have to scrap, and the money involved in re-tooling for the new type  container.  After a couple of years of frustration, he began to get results. To check further, it was decided to send to New Zealand two growers from the B.C.F.G.A.  or B.C.T.F., one observer from the Provincial government and one from the  federal government. Dr. Marshall had requested that an agricultural engineer  should be one of the investigators sent down. This did not take place, but upon  their return, the tone of their report being one of extreme optimism, the ideas  were put in the very capable hands of a qualified engineer, Al McMechan of the  Summerland Experimental Station.  After a couple of years of experimentation, he and his assistant came up  with two containers that from now on will be called bins. They were built of  lumber and plywood. The one for apples and pears held 900 to 1000 pounds.  The one designed for soft fruits was the same square size but one half the depth.  Each of these proto-types had a hinged gate on one end. This was subsequently  done away with, because a better method was later devised to get the fruit to the  sorting tables, namely flotation.  The bin was to be, from an economic standpoint, one that would give the  maximum volume for the least expenditure. Also, it must be of a size that could  be handled manually, or with available machinery.  Plywood is manufactured in 4 foot by 8 foot sheets. By sawing a panel in  four equal pieces, each 2 feet x 4 feet, the sides and ends of the bin were formed  without waste. They were glued and nailed together, using triangular corner  posts. A four foot square piece of plywood was the bottom. This box then had to  be put together and supported in such a manner as to be lifted when filled with  a half ton of fruit. This was accomplished by mounting the box on two lumber  skids, each 3 inches x 4 inches x 48 inches long. Glue, nails, rivets and some  metal straps and brackets were used to fabricate the entire unit.  The plywood that was chosen was spruce. It is a tough-fibred, resilient  wood that is lighter and less brittle than fir, cheaper and available in unlimited  quantities. The logs were steam heated before peeling. By keeping the knives on  the veneer cutting lathe very sharp, the plywood face was smooth enough that 59  sanding was not necessary. Thickness was a consideration. After the trial and  error process, Vi inch was to be used for the sides and ends and % inch for the  bottom. The first bins had % inch x 12 inch slots cut out of the bottom edge of  the sides and ends. This was to create free passage of air through the fruits and  for drainage of excess moisture. Later experiments proved that these slots or  vents were better located on four sides of the % inch bottom.  The packing houses, at this time, were using fork-lift trucks for the palletization of boxes of apples etc. Forks could be attached to the orchard tractors,  making the entire operation mechanized and feasible.  Two important changes were made to the original four foot square trial  model.  Because of the large bulk of the empty bin, they realized that, instead of being 48 inches x 48 inches square, if it was made to a measurement of 43 inches  x 48 inches, one bin would nest within two, thus saving one third of the storage  space.  The solid 3 inch x 4 inch lumber skids only permitted two-way entry by the  fork lifts. Four-way entry would make it much more versatile, so they devised  skids that were each formed of one piece of lumber 15/16 inch thick glue-nailed  to three blocks each approximately 3 inches x 3 inches x 6 inches long.  After a great deal of discussion and experimentation, this design was adopted and the S.M. Simpson Company, under the capable direction of its president, Horace Simpson, began producing the lumber and plywood parts, all cut  to size. These were delivered to the various packing houses with the glue, nails,  and hardware to be assembled by the employees during the off-season.  For several reasons, the assembly procedure did not always result in a uniform  product. The people were not accustomed to this type of work. Specially built steel  jigs were required to hold some of the component parts in place, while they were  glued and nailed. Adequate space to work was sometimes a factor. Cold conditions  at that time of year combined to make the assembly more costly than had been projected. I had first-hand knowledge of this, for I was a foreman in charge of  assembly at one of the larger warehouses.  Horace Simpson, through specially assigned people, worked hand in glove  with Al McMechan and all of the innovators, packing plants and growers. It became a pet project of his, to the extent that his engineers and staff came up with a  much simplified bin, using fewer component parts. They saw the great potential for  the new bin and immediately had it patented.  It was about then, the early sixties, that Horace was asked if he would consider selling the bin fully assembled. He agreed to do this and a bin shop was set up  in the premises the company owned on Smith Avenue, hehind the Kelowna Community Theatre.  I was asked in 1963 to become the foreman in charge of production in this  shop, under Len Smith, the manager of the newly-formed bin and pallet department. This started 10 years of happy employment in a new venture.  One of my first tasks was to create realistic piece-work rates for all the various  jobs that were involved in the assembly. Most of these required two man crews. I  chose a pair of average steady workers and put them on one given operation. After  a few days, I had a good idea of the number of items that could be produced in an  hour. By dividing this into the average going rate for hourly mill workers, a piece  work rate for each job was set and duly posted. This worked out to benefit all. The 60  men soon realized that if they wanted to put out a little extra effort, they could  make a better than average wage. The company also knew exactly what it was  costing to fabricate the bin. An additional job performed by us was the dipping of  the containers in a preservative solution which was a mixture of Monsanto Rez and  varsol. This penetrated the surface for about 1/8 inch and acted as a barrier to the  sun's ultra-violet rays and helped preserve the wood against weathering. When the  customers learned that this dip came in many colours, they each chose a different  one as a good way of identifying their own. This created a big problem. After each  order, the dip tank had to be drained and thoroughly cleaned before a new order  could be processed. This made an increase in the cost. The firm's answer was to  dip all bins the same colour but to print in large black letters the packing house logo  and year of manufacture.  Under the capable management of Len Smith, the bin and pallet division prospered. I spent about three years as foreman of the plant and then went into the office, where I was pricing and designing. Selling and trouble shooting were added to  my job. This made it very interesting because it put me in direct touch with the  customers for whom I had helped to fill orders in the past.  We branched out, making plywood and lumber pallets and containers for  every conceivable product from large furniture vaults to small crates holding  specific motor parts.  The backbone of the business always remained the fruit harvesting bin.  Thousands of these were made for the United States market. I think it was  about 1970 when we made and sold our one millionth bin. It went to Lake Chelan  Fruit Growers Inc. in Chelan, Washington.  Those made for the U.S.A., and all distant markets, were partly assembled  and dipped, requiring a small amount of final assembly at destination. This cut  down on the freight costs. We could ship 440 of these on a flat deck truck, as opposed to about 40 to 50 fully assembled.  Horace Simpson was right to have faith in his "baby". Through the changes  in ownership from S.M. Simpson Ltd. to Crown Zellerbach to the New Zealand  owned Crown Forest Co. the bin shop still operates successfully on Smith Avenue  in Kelowna.  The following is the essence of a talk given by Art Garrish to the semi-annual meeting of the  Oliver-Osoyoos Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society held in the old C.P.R. Station in Oliver  the afternoon of November 4, 1984.  THE ORDERLY MARKETING SYSTEM  by Arthur Garrish  (President, B.C. Fruit Growers' Association 1951-1966)  It is many years since anyone has asked me to speak on anything to do with  the fruit industry. The story of the Three Wise Men, Haskins, Barrett and  Hembling, and the tremendous contribution of A.K. Loyd was the stock routine  of any previous speeches or talks, and nothing much had changed in the fruit industry and nothing much looked like it would change. The orderly marketing  system which had been the product of so much blood, sweat, toil and tears in the 61  thirties seemed to be so firmly established as to be irreplaceable. But changes  have taken place, and for over ten years we have had our share of coverage in  the news media on the issue of pedlars, fruitleggers, and so on. In addition,  charges have been laid under the Combines Act against the British Columbia  Fruit Growers' Association, British Columbia Tree Fruits, and almost all the  packing houses and leading industry officials of conspiring to control the  marketing of fruit and restricting the use of industry facilities. The alleged practices had been carried on since the start of Central Selling under the Natural  Products Marketing Act of 1936 which exempted the Marketing Boards from  the provisions of the Combines Act.  What they are being charged with under the Combines Act is conspiring to  combine to set prices and that is exactly what the organization was set up to do  and had been doing. I have pointed out to some of those charged that the best  thing they can do is plead guilty and throw themselves on the mercy of the  Court if the Natural Products Marketing Act no longer provides an exemption  from the Combines Act.  Combining to set prices is the whole story of the Fruit Board, B.C. Tree  Fruits, and the organization that was built up by the B.C.F.G.A. That's what  it was all about, for setting prices was the only way to protect the position of the  producer.  I know that most of you, if not all, are as familiar as you probably want to  be with the story of the organization that took place in the thirties, and how the  Fruit Board finally survived the many tests in court, and out of that came B.C.  Tree Fruits, the sole selling agency, all of which was run by the B.C.F.G.A.  Many growers have never understood how the set-up was organized or how it  operated: that the whole thing has come to pieces at the seams in the last ten or  twelve years is, I suspect, not fully recognized even yet by the bulk of the  growers who are involved and whose livelihood is at stake.  There are those who are still thinking of one monolithic authoritative  organization such as existed until 1974. That was the B.C.F.G.A. controlling  B.C. Tree Fruits, Sun-Rype Products Limited, and also having control over the  B.C. Fruit Board. It was a monolithic organization for the purpose of running  the show, and it ran the show, I thought, very efficiently. Some growers differed  occasionally, but that was beside the point. The main point was that it was being run for the benefit of the whole industry, and allowing for a few who  endeavoured from time to time to run a little fruit out and avoid the controls, it  worked.  The sixties by everybody's standards was a relatively affluent period. It  came to an abrupt end for the fruit industry in the 1969-70 crop year. The  1969-70 crop was the signal that something was awry, and the wonderful days of  prosperity were not going on the way they should. The advances were made in  the fall of 1969 until early December, but from that point on the money flow into the industry dried up and nothing came through to the growers. By February  and March we had gone for quite some time with no sizable amount of money  coming down to the packing house level to distribute to the growers. The three  houses that existed in this end of the valley — Oliver-Osoyoos, Monashee and  Haynes — sent a message out to their growers pointing out that we were aware  of this situation but we had been unable to get any satisfactory explanation of  what was going on. Clearly the growers were becoming very restless because 62  they were used to having regular amounts of money sent out to them and  nothing was coming. What had happened, of course, was that we had a sizable  crop, the market had turned down, and competition from other areas had pretty  well shut us out of certain of our normal outlets. The money simply wasn't coming in. This was an unthinkable situation for an industry that had been doing  very nicely for the last eight or ten years.  From that period — the 1969-70 crop — a time of unrest developed. Some  of the growers literally were out of business. They didn't have any reserves and  they found the going very heavy. They started the one tactic which in all the  years that the control system had been in effect, I think we had all recognized  was the area in which the scheme was most vulnerable, i.e. to defy the Fruit  Board controls publicly and openly. Those growers who felt that they had little  to lose set out to defy the whole structure.  By 1972-73 the movement was gaining considerable ground and in 1973 a  caravan was loaded up with fruit and dispatched to the coast. This move received excellent TV coverage and the defiance of the whole regulated system under  the Fruit Board was now a public fact and was being done in broad daylight.  This put the newly elected Provincial Government squarely on the spot because it now had to support the Fruit Board in the enforcement of the regulations or see the controlled marketing scheme destroyed. The Government declined to come down with a heavy hand. It was a situation which nobody enjoyed; certainly the Fruit Board had avoided this sort of confrontation situation  as far as it possibly could over the years that it had been in operation. It was now  being publicly defied and it was up to the Government, through the Attorney  General, to decide whether or not it was going to support the Fruit Board in enforcing the regulations. The issue was the right to stop vehicles and search them  on the public highway. There was a legal question involved and the Attorney  General was not anxious to get into the middle of it.  The result of this confrontation and of other activities was resolved only in  the summer of 1974 by a deal which was made whereby the Provincial Government went into the field of Income Assurance. We had had Crop Insurance for  a number of years, but the Government went into the field of actually insuring  the grower's income. It set up a program of Income Assurance and in exchange  for this the B.C.F.G.A., while not agreeing to throwing the Fruit Board out as  such, did agree that it would no longer enforce the regulations of the Fruit  Board, providing it had an Income Assurance scheme in place of it, and providing that the Income Assurance scheme only applied to those who stayed with  the organization and supported it. Now this raised some very big questions. The  biggest one was always the question of how to decide who supported the organization and who didn't: but this was the deal that was made. It was made with  the active participation of the Minister of Agriculture who was striving to put  together a whole farm program.  I don't think the Minister fully understood the ramifications of what we  were getting into. At a special meeting in June of 1974 in Penticton the industry  (whether it really understood what it was doing or not) did ratify this deal,  whereby in exchange for an Income Assurance scheme that would be confined  to members of the B.C.F.G.A. — those who were prepared to stay with and  support the marketing program — the Fruit Board would cease to enforce Controlled Marketing. Where it was a little naive, was in assuming the growers 63  would declare which position they were taking, i.e. to be in the deal or outside  it.  Growers were told over and over again that under the deal, they couldn't  have it both ways, — that they couldn't play the free deal to whatever extent it  suited them, and then play the organized side of the deal whenever that suited  them. Charlie Bernhard, President of the B.C.F.G.A., repeated it so often that  it became known as the Bernhard Doctrine, but he never said (and I don't suppose he knew) how to make it stick. And of the growers who were told "You  can't have it both ways", there was a high percentage that said "Who said so?"  And that is the situation we moved into, one parallel to the early days of the Associated Growers back in the 1920's where those who supported the deal found  themselves carrying the umbrella for those who either were entirely outside —  which was legitimate and accepted — but also for a much larger number who  were half in and half out. These people had one foot in the organized deal to  whatever extent it suited them and one foot in the free deal to whatever extent  that suited them. They played it from day to day whichever way was to their  best interest. From that day to this, nobody has yet found a way of controlling  this situation, and it is still racking every organization in this industry either at  the packing level or the marketing level in a whip-sawing effect.  This is the situation as it stands today and it will continue to stand: that  anybody who wishes to do so (providing he has no ethics) can play both sides of  the deal to whatever extent he wants. Now the industry is still struggling with  the problem of how it is going to stop this, and how it is going to insist that the  growers do one or the other, but as of this moment nobody has come up with a  better answer than the one brought up in the last ten years, which if it is as  serious as they say it is, then the industry had better go back and ask the  Government for full authority and co-operation to reinstitute the Fruit Board  because nothing else works. The only reason we went to the Fruit Board in the  first place was because nobody knew how to cope with this fifteen or twenty per  cent who wouldn't co-operate voluntarily. That's what the Fruit Board was all  about. We still have the Fruit Board, a Chairman and two members and they  presumably hold meetings and I'm told they even designate B.C. Tree Fruits as  the sole selling agents, knowing full well that there are at least twenty others  operating right here in the industry, buying fruit, taking it on consignment or  doing whatever they want with it.  I thought that it might be of interest just to explain to people that the Fruit  Board still exists and the B.C.F.G.A. still holds its annual conventions and B.C.  Tree Fruits gets its name in the papers from time to time even if only in connection with this Combines case. It really is a shell game; all that is left is the shell.  The facade is there, the names are all still there but somebody took all the guts  right out of the thing about ten years ago, and it has been trying to operate that  way since, and it hasn't been doing it too well. You may say "The growers  haven't suffered too greatly." True, some haven't. The ones who have played  it both ways have done very nicely. Even the ones who have had an ethical problem and have stayed with the deal and have lived up to its terms, in due  course, under the slow workings of the Income Assurance Program have, by  and large, received enough to keep them reasonably solvent. In fact, a side effect  that is most interesting is that it has brought into the picture the Federal  Government to a degree which it never would have done before. Until the Pro- 64  vincial Government definitely went into the field of what boils down to Price  Support, the Federal Government had no great interest in price stabilization in  horticulture.  It is a redistribution of funds that is all part of the social structure that we  have today. The Provincial Income Assurance Programs, where they were instituted — and British Columbia was in the forefront — forced the Federal  Government to reconsider its position and to participate much more directly  and much more actively than it had been prepared to do.  Gene Whelan wasn't terribly happy about this and we have yet to find out  what the new Minister of Agriculture will think about it. That is one of the problems he has inherited from these changes, which are not confined to the fruit  industry. The role of marketing boards in society is being given another look  and many think the whole issue will be reopened. In connection with this reexamination, they can re-examine us all they like; there is nothing left to  change. The valid question is, how long is the Government going to be prepared  to use the institution of the Income Assurance Scheme in lieu of a regulated  marketing program. Both levels of Government may find it far more convenient  or cheaper to go back to regulated marketing than to support the industry  through an Income Assurance Program. These are issues that are going to have  to be resolved over the next four or five years.  As we stand at the moment, and to summarize the whole controlled marketing scheme that we were so proud of (and I make no bones about that), I  think the industry as a whole was very proud of the set-up. I think the industry  took a lot of credit for something that was possibly largely due to a combination  of geography and history. It took credit for having accomplished things that  other people hadn't been able to do. But then not everybody lived as far away  from their markets as we did, and had as few methods of getting their fruit to  market as we had. In fact, this historic building (the restored C.P.R. Station in  Oliver) we are in at the moment has as its main claim to fame the fact it was one  of the key points for the enforcement of Fruit Board regulations, because anybody at this end of the valley who attempted to ship fruit out independently in  defiance of the regulations was only able to do so through the C.P.R. All the  Fruit Board Inspector had to do was to go down each day and see who was doing what. He had the whole record right there. This fact of geography had much  to do with the ability of this industry to obtain control of and to regulate our affairs to the degree that it did. The end was in sight when the Hope-Princeton  Highway was opened and the truckers could run back and forth at will, and certainly the one thing that really tore the whole deal wide open was the opening of  the Trans-Canada Highway. There was a great influx of Alberta and Saskatchewan people in here to see what we had, and there was a tremendously improved ability for people to get back and forth in all manner of vehicles — trucks,  campers, trailers and everything else — all of which could carry fruit. Possibly  all that happened was that we anticipated the inevitable. As of this time we are  in a situation where we have the form, and we still go through the rituals of a  system that is almost totally gutted. What is going to be the outcome of the  Combines investigation time alone will tell, because it will be next spring when  this matter will formally come to trial.  For thirty odd years it was accepted that a scheme such as the one operated  in the fruit industry or in the egg deal or wherever, was specifically by law ex- 65  empted from the provisions of the Combines Investigation Act.  It was recognized when both the Acts were passed, back in the thirties, that  the two principles were in conflict. The principle of the Combines Investigation Act was very simple — it was to stop people entering into a combine to  gouge the public, whereas the other principle was that the state of unregulated  marketing in farm products was proving so disastrous and so impossible to live  with, that the only solution was to embark on a program of regulation under legislation. Of course the two were incompatible, and were not applicable to each  other. Now we have the situation where, in fact, charges are laid and the case is  pending. If it goes against the industry then, of course, it will have its application to other forms of marketing control in other industries.  I hope that my message is not entirely negative, but having extolled the virtues of the Orderly Marketing System built up by the fruit industry in British  Columbia to many groups over the years, maybe it is time to get up and admit  that the system is not here anymore.  Editor's note: Hope-Princeton Highway opened 1949. Rogers Pass opened  1962.  (The following article appeared in THE OLIVER CHRONICLE  on November 14, 1985, and gives the result of the trial.)  OLIVER CHRONICLE - Nov.  14, 1985  COMBINES CHARGES COST  INDUSTRY $250,000  It cost the Okanagan tree fruit industry about $250,000 to  defend itself against charges levelled under the federal Combines Investigation Act, BCFGA executive member Ken Ziebart  told Oliver growers last week.  A B.C. Supreme Court decision found the BCFGA and its  affiliated packinghouses not guilty of the charges, and federal  Crown prosecutors recently dropped their appeal against the  decision. The accused had been charged with conspiring to limit  or deal in tree fruit storage facilities from 1975 to 1980.  Despite the verdict, the $250,000 cost to the industry in legal  and other expenses is not recoverable. 66  THE NARAMATA MURAL  by A. Waterman  When the Naramata Co-operative Growers decided to add a cold storage  plant to their fruit packing complex, they chose the most convenient site. Unfortunately when they prepared the site in 1981 the pioneer Methodist church had  to be razed and a fine grove of mature maples felled. These radical changes in  the heart of the village of Naramata resulted in an uneasy stir and caused local  artist, Frances Hatfield1 to conceive the idea of a mural on the 100' side of the  cold storage plant. This could transform the starkness of the new facility to  beauty, record history and mobilize community effort in this village work.  The executive and management of the Naramata Co-op were informed  and permission was granted for her to do the mural; the Naramata Citizens' Association agreed to support it.  In December 1982 Frances asked the Canada Council — Exploration Division — for part of the funding of this project. In May 1983 the entire amount  specified was granted. But this did not obviate the necessity for fund-raising by  the Naramata Citizens' Association. Letters requesting donations raised sufficient money to pay for all paints and varnish for the mural.  Frances said it was all very well to be struck by the inspiration that you  could design a mural but the technique and know-how posed a problem. After  asking several American muralists for work as an apprentice or helper, it was  Judy Baca of Los Angeles who invited her to work on a church mural with her.  Judy Baca is best known for creating a mural with the help of young people on  the subject of ethnic minorities in California. Painted in the Tujunga Wash in  North Los Angeles, this work is now almost half a mile long.  Frances Hatfield is Okanagan-born and a graduate of the Vancouver School of Art. She studied  at the Ontario College of Art and has taught at Kootenay School of Art and in other parts of B.C.  and Ontario. She lives high above Naramata in her studio/home "Stonecrop". 67  The rest of the winter was spent in studying murals in Mexico and Frances  returned to Naramata in the spring with a number of designs which she discussed with the Co-op and the Naramata Citizens' Association. After some public  in-put the present design was prepared. Cartoons of the design had to be drawn  and divided into squares (2040 of them). Orchardist-house-painter, Horst Franz  prepared the wall with a ground coat. Scaffolding was erected and plumb lines  dropped vertically and placed horizontally on the wall surface to reproduce the  grid of the cartoons. Then the design could be accurately transferred to the wall.  Wet days were a loss and the too hot sun was a problem but the mural was  painted in two months by three people: Frances Hatfield, Betty Warnock and  Robert Magenis with some local volunteer helpers who needed steady heads for  working on scaffolding up to thirty feet from the ground.  The 34' x 60' mural is painted with acrylic paint on the south wall of the  cold storage plant. It depicts a pioneer fruit grower planting an apple tree;  women bench-packing in the old way; dry cultivation by harrowing the good  Okanagan soil; the seasonal changes from stark leafless trees in snow through  blossom to harvest. The pioneer Methodist church commemorates the past  while children dance around the Maypole celebrating youth and spring. It is  designed to be seen from a distance since it is more practical for the public to  view it from outside the gate of the Co-op property. However, a legend of the  parts that make up the mural is lettered on it for those interested.  A section of the mural was given a protective coat of acrylic varnish which  is being given time to demonstrate its qualities before being applied to the entire  surface.  On August 21, 1983 the Naramata Village Mural was dedicated. Mr.  Duncan McDougall, Chairman of the South Okanagan Regional District Board  spoke and introduced the Board member of the Canada Council, Mrs. Ruth  Schiller. She dedicated the mural and spoke of the part art plays in the life of the  community. Mr. Bernard Webber of Osoyoos read from the Apocrypha:  "All these (craftsmen) rely upon their hands,  and each is skilful at his own craft.  Without them a city would have no inhabitants;  no settlers or travellers would come to it.  ... But they maintain the fabric of this world,  and their prayers are about their daily work."2  And Frances, herself, closed the dedication ceremony.  Approximately 200 people attended the dedication. As well as Naramatians  other interested people from Kelowna, Penticton, Summerland and Osoyoos attended the ceremony. They chatted and photographed the brilliant mural and  enjoyed the chilled apple juice and cookies so hospitably offered by the  Naramata Packing House and ladies of the village.  Ecclesiasticus, Chap. 38, verses 31-34. 68  MAY DAY IN NARAMATA  From Mrs. S.J. Berry, Naramata to A. Waterman, Penticton  Since 1923 the celebration of May Day rites has demonstrated the strong  community spirit of the people of Naramata. Elementary school children select  candidates for the May Queen and her princesses. On May Day the retiring  Queen and her entourage parade into Manitou Park where she crowns the newly elected Queen. The ceremony is celebrated by school children dancing  around May poles. Great credit is due to dedicated teachers who, year after  year, teach May pole dancing. Without doubt some Naramatians are watching  their grandchildren dance.  After lunch games are played and races run. In the evening the May Day  dance is opened by a grand march of children and their parents.  This charming and simple celebration is one of the few surviving in B.C.  THERE'S A "LINO" IN MY BASEMENT  by Bernie Hucul  It was during the late months of winter in 1970, while delivering freight to  the Salmon Arm Observer, that Denis Marshall, then publisher of the newspaper,  called me aside. "Going to haul freight all your life?"  "Not sure," I replied, "Not a bad job but I guess there's not much future  in it."  "We're looking for an apprentice printer. Why not give it a try?"  Well, why not I thought, and the following day Marshall took me back to  the composing room and introduced me to the foreman, Floyd Cary, and the  rest of the printers. That was it, sounded like a job with a good future, a chance  to pick up a trade while learning to be a journeyman.  The Observer was still making up the paper by the "hot metal" process and  the first few months were literally hot. The apprentice found his first job was to  "kill" the previous week's edition. That meant lugging heavy chases of type onto the composing stones, ditching all the lead type, and saving the spacing material and various cuts or ads for a future date. Then the lead had to be melted  down in the melting pot and new "pigs" were poured for use in the production  of next week's edition. On a 90-degree day in July, pouring molten lead, which  comes from the melting pot at about 500-600 degrees Fahrenheit, made one  wonder just what kind of trade this really was.  But the apprentice had to learn all of the trade, so I made my way around  the various facets of the industry. As time went on I found myself learning to  cast national ads into lead from mats in a casting box; setting headlines and ads  on a Ludlow, a linecasting machine used to set larger sizes of type; "learning  the case", as the Observer still used some handset type; tailing the press on  Wednesday and stuffing papers, along with delivering them around town and to  the post office.  And, of course, I was introduced to the Observer's two linotype machines.  Like nearly everyone who sees one of these typesetting marvels in operation, I  became fascinated with all of its moving gears and cams and the whirring, clicking, jingling sounds. 69  LINOTYPE  The advent of the hot-lead typesetting machinery in the newspaper industry could be compared to the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus.  Hand-setting type was just that: picking up each piece of type one at a  time, inserting it in its row in a hand-held form called a stick and spacing the  line between the words. Every single letter had to be returned to its case (correctly) so that the type could be used in the next week's edition. Sometimes type  faces were very similar in face and size and, even with printers who knew their  type, often there were mix-ups with wrong type getting into the wrong place in  the cases, a circumstance which lead to the arduous work of re-sorting the type,  not to mention the possibility of making typographical errors.  Then came the invention of the famous Mergenthaller hot-lead typesetter,  the Linotype. This machine was a marvel in its day. It lead directly to the  growth of weekly and daily papers around the world, and here in the Okanagan-  Shuswap areas. The main reason was that with handset type a printer could only set perhaps three columns of type per day and thus it just wasn't possible to  produce a very large newspaper.  By comparison the new machine could spew out hot slugs of lead. A whole  line of reading matter was set at once, and the machine was capable of producing six lines per minute. Thus one operator could set three columns in about two  hours. These lines of type did not need to be re-distributed one letter at a time.  The lines of type were just melted down and the lead used again and again.  The printer had new type to work with every week; no more worn battered  type. There was no shortage of type: sore fingers were a thing of the past, and  many of the type cabinets disappeared. As the linecasters were not very efficient  for large type sizes and matrices (molds for the letters) were costly, for most  small offices, like those throughout the valley, handsetting of large type did not 70  disappear until the offset process became common during the late 1960's. More  prosperous shops purchased a Ludlow typecaster, which could efficiently set the  larger type-sizes for headlines and display advertisements.  Of course, with the new production possible from printers, newspaper editors could up their output of news. As a result, from the turn of the century until the late sixties, papers grew quickly in size.  MECHANICAL WONDER  The linotype keyboard bore no resemblance to the typewriter. It was divided into three sections of thirty keys each. The left side held all the lower case  (small letters) arranged so that the most-used letters of the alphabet were closest  to the operator's flying left hand. At the right were the capital letters, while the  centre section held punctuation marks, spaces and numerals. One slight touch  of a key brought down from a series of channels a brass matrix (mat) with the required tiny mold of that letter. These molds were contained in a magazine  located directly above the keyboard.  The operator selected the width of line desired. When he had keyed a full  line of type, he would lift up a handle which elevated the line of matrices into a  mold. Automatically the machine would pump molten lead into a mold containing the mats where the lead froze, immediately forming a lead slug. At the same  time the slug was being ejected from the mold by an ejector blade which pushed the slug out onto a pan. Thus the lines of type were assembled. While the  slug was being ejected, a second elevator dropped down to pick up the mats  from the finished line. All the matrices passed through a distributor box and a-  long a matched-keyed bar then dropped into their respective channels, ready to  be recalled by the typesetter.  Of course, it was not as easy as it sounds. A linotype operator was more  than just a typesetter; he had to know all the idiosyncracies of the machine. If  the line was not filled out enough, hot lead would squirt between the letters, and  literally had to be chipped off. If the line was filled too much the machine would  jam and had to be backed up to the starting point. Those squirts of molten lead  realy kept the operator awake, as a shot of hot lead on the foot was pretty  painful.  The lines of linotype slugs were justified (spaced so letters were flush with  the margin on both sides of the column) by means of a spaceband. The space-  band was a wedge-shaped device which was keyed in between the words formed  by the mats. As the line was being sent to the mold a bar pushed up on the bottom of the bands forcing the words apart and thus filling the lines flush left and  right.  The temperature of the molten lead was crucial to the production of a good  "slug" and the operator was constantly keeping an eye on the slugs for indications that the machine was running either too hot or too cold. As well as temperature, the composition of the lead was important. With linotype lead being composed of lead, tin and antimony, thus making it much harder than straight lead,  shops had to monitor their lead to the right consistency or a resulting softer slug  would mean disaster when the type reached the pounding of the press.  For an apprentice printer learning to run a linotype was an exciting experience. Unlike today's computers and photo or laser typesetters where flash- 71  ing lights and beeping tones tell the operator when he has keyed the wrong information into the machine, a linotype operator's first indication of a wrong line  measure or a tight or loose line was a splash of hot lead which brought him back  to reality.  The apprentice, too, had to keep an eye out for pranksters bent on initiating greenhorns. One day while completely engrossed in setting a galley of  type I was just about to send a line into the machine, when an object shot out  from deep in the bowels of the monstrosity, passing within inches of my face. I  leaped from my chair expecting to feel a splash of hot lead sear my body. And  then I heard a roar of laughter from one of the journeymen who had crept up  behind the linotype and shoved a long cleaning brush through the frame of the  machine just to see if I was awake.  The era of the linotype died out with the advent of offset printing. It was several years after beginning my apprenticeship that the Observer began talking about  going over to the new method. No one was happier than the apprentice. It  meant no longer having to melt lead, to kill heavy inky type forms or to perform  all the drudgery of the hot metal process. But of course it meant a lot of the  heavy old machinery, including the linotype, would have to go to make way for  the new. As in many industries which have undergone technological change, a  lot of romance went along with the old hot-lead process.  At this time the Observer decided it would retain one of its two linotypes for  commercial printing purposes, a task it still performs today. The other machine,  a Model L, had to go.  It was discovered that selling it for scrap would bring a meagre $35.00, and  as no one wanted to buy the thing, what to do? Well, the apprentice and his brother, who was to follow in apprenticing, having a strange attachment to these  old machines, made an offer. "We'll pay you $35.00 for it and move it out of  the way for you.'' That was all it took! A few days later we had disassembled the  ton-or-so of cast iron and reassembled it in the basement of my home.  Yes, much to my wife's chagrin, I have a LINO IN MY BASEMENT.  THE KINGFISHER KITCHEN BAND  by Isobel Simard  It all started twenty-two years ago after reading an article in the Free Press  Prairie Farmer about a group of ladies who formed a kitchen band and enjoyed  travelling here and there on the Prairies playing for conventions, at carnivals,  concerts, and dances. At that time we were having problems finding good music  at a reasonable price for our dances at Kingfisher Hall, so at one of our meetings  I suggested we try to form some sort of similar band to supply our own music,  and invited several members to my home to see what we could do about it. Each  one chose a kitchen utensil, such as a rolling pin, scrub board, wash tub,  wooden spoons, fridge rack, ancient dinner gong, funnels with kazoos attached,  many of which came from my husband's museum. With these in hand we commenced to beat an accompaniment to the selections our talented pianist, Joyce  Potrie, chose to play by ear on our ancient piano. Every Monday morning we 72  The Kingfisher Kitchen Band  met here to practise the old familiar tunes as well as the new, and soon we were  going here and there to provide something different in the way of entertainment  at Senior Citizen homes, conventions, parades, and dances. We all wore similar  old-fashioned dresses in different colors, complete with white aprons, and hats  made of kitchen gadgets.  The "Kingfisher Kitchen Band" is named after the community where we  all live, twenty miles east of Enderby near Mabel Lake.  There are often embarrassing moments upon arrival at a hall where we've  been asked to play. One evening as we carried our ancient-looking kitchen paraphernalia towards the stage a man remarked to his friend, "I shall not be staying here long!" As it happened he was one of our most enthusiastic listeners that  evening and stayed right to the end! Another day at an opening of a drop-in  centre, we heard a lady say to her husband, "Oh, I didn't know there was to be  a sale here today!" We really were stared at when we entered the Calgary Inn  with our antique instruments refusing the help of the hotel's attendants who  came to meet us, and again at the Calgary television station where someone  said, "What has W.O. Mitchell got us into this time?" Our band is so different  that it is no wonder they stare!  There are seven of us in the band: our pianist, Joyce Potrie, for whom  there is no substitute; Mary Dale, a vivacious washboard artist; Dorothy Clark,  our unique drummer lady; Nada Potrie, accomplished fridge rack strummer;  Barbara Ramsey, bass fiddle thumper; with Jacky Clark, our most recent addition, and myself blowing the "trumpets" (funnels with kazoos attached) and  shaking the rolling pin and saucepan.  Former members and substitutes in our band over the years have been:  Mary Boots, Betty Dack, Barbara McLuchlin, Akka Zijlstra, Rusty Jones,  Cora Prevost, Nadine Old, Irma Gillard, Grace Lundquist, Elsie Warren, Bonnie Potrie, Vi Heyland, Doreen Cawley, Dora Chantler, Maxine Dale, Marian  Dale, Vera Mazer, Nina Boulter, Muriel Fast who was with us until recently  from the very beginning, and, last but not least, Jack Dugdale. 73  Over the years we have entertained at many affairs, including appearances  on TV at Kelowna and at Calgary. And now, believe it or not, we've been  chosen to play at Expo! Never did we think those many years ago that we'd ever  be playing anywhere else but at Kingfisher.  Excerpts from "Our Trip to Calgary to Appear on TV, January 1977"  Now that we are back to earth again from cloud nine and our trip but a  wonderful memory, we can realize that it was all made possible by a chain of  events resulting from a visit here back in the fall by W.O. Mitchell1 and Sid  Adelman, a Toronto Star reporter. When I happened to remark about the  Kingfisher Kitchen Band, Sid said something about appearing on the television  show "Ninety Minutes Live." Nothing more was said at that time but around  the beginning of December a telephone call came from a lady, Celena Dack of  the CBC at Toronto, asking if we would like to appear on a show being televised  live at Calgary, January 17th. Needless to say we were really excited, and we all  agreed that we should accept the invitation. We asked Wayne McLeod to come  out here to make a 45-minute tape of our music which I promptly sent to Celena  a week or so before Christmas. As we didn't hear anything more until well into  January we thought it was all off, but finally word came from Celena at Edmonton that indeed we would be on! Next I contacted our son David at Vernon,  asking if he could rent a van to take us to Calgary, and the following Sunday he  and June arrived and we were on our way.  We arrived at the television station at the dot of two for our audition, carrying our band dresses, hats, and instruments. After signing the register at the  desk amid surprised stares from the attendants we were conducted to the dressing room where we hung up our things to be worn for the evening performance. Next we were taken to the television room where we took up our positions in front of a grand piano ready to play. Cameras were directed towards us  from everywhere it seemed and we were to "freeze" as if in a picture and upon  a certain signal to start playing our two selections, "Anytime" and "Shanty  Town". Then we were finished, with instructions to return at seven that evening. From there David took us to Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell's home where we'd  been invited for tea. We were all interested in viewing his collection of exotic  plants including his orchids — his specialty.  One of those to be interviewed was Calgary's mayor who shook hands with  each in turn before sitting down beside W.O. Mitchell to await his turn. First on  the programme was a folk singer Ruzicka and his band from Edmonton. At last  our turn came to go on stage. We took our positions, "froze" as instructed, then  played our pieces. Mr. Mitchell who had been interviewed by the host of the  show, Peter Gzowski, just before we went on then introduced us in turn presenting each of us with one of his orchids as he did so. Mary got her "wee kiss"  (totally unrehearsed) also Joyce, then off the stage and back to the green room  we went to watch the rest of the programme.  W.O. Mitchell had a summer home at Mabel Lake. 74  GLASSROOTS RECYCLING IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN  by Rita Campbell  Community service recycling in the North Okanagan Valley is the story of  community spirit at its best, a story well worth recording, for its development  did much to change local attitudes towards the disposal of solid wastes. A  gradual change towards waste disposal had begun in the 60's throughout North  America. Re-use became a new concept for some — a renewal for others. Many  survivors of the Great Depression and World War II, when everything was reused until no longer usable, began to see that built-in obsolescence and throw-  away attitudes of post-war years had to end. They believed recycling was one  way to further this idea. Whatever the catalyst may have been, community recycling began in Vernon in 1971. The local branch of the Society for Pollution  and Environmental Control (SPEC) did a pilot study to see if residents would  support a recycling program. The answer was 'yes'. A director was given the  task of setting up a committee to find a warehouse and to secure government  support.  The Vernon recycling program was fortunate in that a commercial glass  manufacturing plant was located in nearby Lavington. This meant low haulage  costs of used glass (cullet). Another advantage was the generous offer made by  the Bulman family of free space in their former cannery. The city's contribution  was removal of cullet to the glass plant. Dave MacKay, city engineer in those  days, and a visionary in matters of waste disposal, was a constant supporter of  the fledgling recycling effort. Much of its early success is attributed to his  foresightedness.  But above all were the innumerable volunteers, mostly housewives and  teenagers, who gave so generously of their time. One example was that of a  young man, Bill MacAllister, who spent much of his limited holiday weekends  breaking bottles at the depot.  Early primitive methods to break bottles would have made a doctor cringe.  The bottles after being carefully cleaned of contaminants were thrown into 45  gallon metal drums donated by Sun-Rype, Kelowna. Then with an iron rod  welded to a car wheel hub, volunteers smashed bottles into finer particles.  Luckily minor cuts and ringing ears were the only results of this form of Russian  roulette.  Youth groups from Guides, Scouts, school bands, churches and sports were  the main source of cullet. They were paid on a sliding scale, dependent on how  much they did to 'clean' the bottles. Every bit of metal, foil or heavy plastic had  to be removed from each and every bottle. Though removal of paper labels was  not required, many enthusiastic contributors gave sparkling, de-labelled bottles.  Other bottles came in encrusted with chicken droppings and dust, or with indecipherable evil-smelling contaminants; but then there is always some foul with  the good. Some ardent recyclers brought in empty liquor bottles in brown paper  bags which they insisted had been salvaged from their neighbours' garbage  cans. Committee members in those early days often made housecalls to those  with no means of transport. This had to be discontinued as volumes increased,  but by that time there were weekly bottle drives and convenient drop-off centers  in rural and city locations.  After glass recycling was well underway, salvage of paper wastes from the 75  commercial areas was started. This required more than volunteer labour. The  John Howard Society was approached. Since the project was mutually  beneficial, the two groups became co-operators in a depot. Through federal  labour grants Howard Industries supplied a small truck and a few labourers.  SPEC provided the depot supervisor, a volunteer housewife, Rita Campbell,  who acted as Chairman and later as Secretary of the Vernon Recycling  Committee.  Accounting expertise was provided by Mel Garbutt of the Howard Industries' staff. Perhaps the most vital contribution to this cause was the large  stationary paper-baler donated by Vernon Rotary. Custom-made from reclaimed steel at a cost of $6,000 it put in ten valiant years. First it was used for cardboard until volumes exceeded its capacity and age, then later for shredded-paper  baling only. The BAY provided on loan a smaller mobile baler which was used  for many years for baling 'ledger' or bond-paper waste.  As the years passed it seemed to the volunteer directors that, despite such  generous community support, one step forward often meant two backward.  Costs began to escalate. The Bulman warehouse, prior to final sale and demolition, had to charge $500 monthly rent. Transport costs rose as products were  shipped to Vancouver for local or overseas markets. Always the constant need  was there to change public and private attitudes toward recycling.  The committee, now chaired by Ross K. Whitney, former Howard Society  Director and a bulk-oil businessman, was faced, as was most of the western  world, with rising energy costs. Market demand was increasing as industries  perceived the economy of re-use. Despite this, many still believed recycling to be  an unrealistic 'motherhood' idea doomed to failure.  In 1981 a hallmark was struck when Vernon was chosen as the western city  in a Federal Energy Conservation Program (NRS ACTION). Vernon, it was  said, had been chosen because of the conservation interests of its people, as exemplified by the Dave MacKay spray irrigation method for disposal of liquid  wastes and the actively supported recycling program.  This federal recognition and the constant lobbying by recyclers to all levels  of government gradually changed the political will. The City of Vernon and,  later, the Regional District government paid a sum somewhat less than the  amount required to bury equivalent tonnages into fast-diminishing landfills.  These 'diverted credits' were increased by 10% after the first decade while  volume of salvage rose nearly 10% annually.  Between 1972 and 1975 the provincial government established a province-  wide recycling fund of $100,000. This allowed a limit of $10,000 annually to any  local government sponsoring non-commercial recycling. This funding continued  until the mid-eighties. The Vernon area received this annual grant from 1974 to  1981 in diminishing amounts, until by 1983 the funding ceased. Federal labour  grants were received now and then through the years but due to their short time-  span were not relied on for day-to-day operation but rather as a means to expand programs and increase public awareness.  Through all of recycling's development, the media gave excellent free support. Growing public participation was due in large measure to this continuing  support.  In December 1975 the Bulman property was sold. Frantic efforts were  made to find another location or money to build on land hopefully to be provid- 76  ed by government. After seven months' shut-down, another depot was found.  This facility, set in a sea of mud or dust as weather dictated, was cold, windy  and too small. Under the competent management of Phyllis de Boice, a former  director, the dedicated staff ignored it all as they strove to increase productivity.  The now autonomous and newly constituted Vernon Community Recycling Society continued to look for a permanent site, one free from escalating rents  and designed for recycling. Proposals to senior governments proved fruitless,  although several government studies on recycling were initiated. Much of the  acquired knowledge of the Vernon experiment was central to these studies, but  no direct benefit to Vernon resulted, other than perhaps greater recognition.  The search for a depot was unsuccessful and once again the local government was approached. In 1981 the city agreed to erect a pre-fabricated  aluminum warehouse on land adjacent to the regional landfill. Interior  finishing, furnishing and some landscaping was to be done by the Society.  THEN THE AXE FELL! The equipment, much of it secondhand, all of it  requiring expensive overhaul, succumbed to aging and over-use. Recycling  seemed to be doomed. Money for capital costs had never been accessible to the  Society nor was it at this critical time, despite innumerable petitions to governments, benevolent foundations and corporate citizens. The Board of Directors  knew they could no longer continue to fight the good fight. Ten years of struggle  against odds faced by few comparable businesses, at a time when product was in  demand and success near at hand made the apparent apathy discouraging to say  the least.  BUT A MIRACLE HAPPENED! Colleen Pringle, a former teacher, called together 35 people to form the Committee to 'Save Recycling'. The most  astonishing fund-raising in the region's history began. The local cablevision  owner, George Galbraith, volunteered to put on a TELETHON — the first in  the Interior. From this $26,000 was garnered. It involved hundreds of participants. Other fund-raising events such as raffles, craft sales, barbecues, and  penny carnivals involved school children, housewives, businesses, entertainers  and as always, the media. This paid for a $36,000 KILSON automatic baler.  Volunteers finished the building with materials donated by other ardent  recyclers. Vernon Rotary once again contributed a vital piece of equipment —  a $30,000 forklift at a dollar-a-year rental. Personal donations of as much as  $1,000 each flowed in. It is estimated nearly $200,000 was given directly in free  labour and in kind, or through taxes by the people of the North Okanagan area.  The newly-named society, NORTH OKANAGAN RECYCLING, contracted  with Vernon City at $1,000 per month to repay the city's borrowing costs for  the building's purchase. When repaid, the depot will officially belong to those  who built it, the people of the region who so obviously believed in recycling.  A new decade began with a directorship of 18, chaired by Gerard A.  Landers, an Armstrong teacher. The Board included a broad cross-section of  committed recyclers. One of the former directors, who had done so much fine  work as Publicity Chairman for the mammoth fund-raising, Ann Clarke,  became a member of the Vernon City Council in 1983 and acted as liaison to  the Recycling Society. Mr. James Foord represented the Regional District  Board.  In 1983 an Environmental Award was received from the provincial government. The depot had become a stop of interest for recyclers from the States and 77  throughout Canada. Many communities emulated its methods.  Although obvious benefits of the recycling program were preservation of  landfill space and resources in general, its auxiliary programs were valuable  components. Many mentally and physically disabled persons assisted as  volunteers from 1976 on. Young offenders worked off their community service  hours at the depot. The Society also initiated an active in-school recycling program throughout the school districts of Armstrong and Vernon in 1975. Not only through this avenue did young people become more aware of the need to  recycle but also through their involvement with weekly drives. These latter provided funding for the groups' own community service work. A large group  could net as much as $2,000 or more in one day's collection. Once 'cleaned' the  product was purchased by the depot at fair brokerage prices.  After 15 years the recycling depot with its many convenient drop-off bins  and sub-depots plus its unique social services was one in which residents could  take pride. They began it, they worked for it and they could say without immodesty, 'It's the best in the west' . . . and the story was just beginning.  Addenda: The depot was sold to a Hong-Kong based paper company, International Paper Co., as of Jan. 1, 1986. This company has  a recycling operation in Vancouver and also is a buyer for interior  paper wastes and our biggest buyer. The monies for our equipment  came to about $62,000 and we have put it in a trust account under the  care of the N.O.R.D. Other monies made from sale of product will be  kept in term deposits and used for research and p.r. as the three years  pass which are the term of contract between N.O.R.D. and International Paper. Ironically, after years of having governments refer to  any money paid to us as "diverted credit monies", "grants", or  "subsidies" all of which we denied it to be, now such money paid to a  private business is being called "a fee for service", terminology which  we ourselves always used.  R.C.  SACRILEGE  / have seen God's gifts to man despoiled,  His bounties hurled back in His face;  Wanton destruction of Earth's Gardens of Eden  Question Man's sanity, and add to the disgrace  For building factories, banks and warehouses  Where luscious peaches and apricots once grew;  For uprooting cherry and citrus orchards,  To provide some housing for the few  Who could find love of home, tranquility  Where Heavenly fruits can never grow;  And thus preserve the Manafor our children  And protect the gifts that Gods bestow.  Dr. John C. Dubeta 78  MEMORIES OF TRINITY CREEK AREA IN THE 1920'S  by Stan Wejr  When we were small, Ashton Creek district seemed very far away (about  2 Vi miles from our house) so we as kids knew very little about this far away  place.  I was born 3 miles east of Enderby at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Stamberg.  There being no hospital available in those days, Mrs. Stamberg helped bring  many of us into this world. Prior to my mother and I being loaded into a wagon  to come home to Trinity Creek a young lady used to wheel me around in a baby  buggy. That same lady (Mrs. Charlie Carey) lives at Swan Lake near Vernon.  When my father first came to live on the land he purchased from a Mr.  Goodchap, there was no road east of Enderby and no bridge across the river so  his mode of travel was by canoe on the Shuswap River. All the early farms had  river frontage and the houses were along its banks so the supplies would not  have to be carried very far.  By 1920 the community was getting filled up mostly by people of Czech  origin. Most of them were people who worked in the coal mines in the Crows  Nest Pass and after a series of explosions in the mines in which quite a number  of the miners lost their lives, the ones who were spared decided they would go  farming in British Columbia. Some bought out trappers' homesteads and some  homesteaded Crown land. There were about 15 families who came and settled  south of the Shuswap River. Most of these settlers had families. Quite a number  were of school age but there was no school nearby. These people petitioned the  government for assistance to build a small school. This was done in the summer  of 1920. The area was inspected by a school inspector and the local M.L.A.  These men saw there was a strong need for a school and in the winter my dad  received a letter from Victoria saying the government was willing to assist with  a donation of $150.00 for the building of the school and after the building was  completed that it would furnish half the monies needed for books, desks and any  other items that were absolutely needed. I know the strap must have been one of  the items as I saw and felt it used on several occasions.  In the spring of 1921 a work crew of six men went out and cut the logs for  a log building. These were cut and peeled nearby then skidded with horses to  the chosen site. A big cedar tree stood near by and it supplied all the shakes for  the roof. The rafters were made of poles. It was then the carpenters took over  and built the log building. The boards for the floor, the windows, nails, bricks  and doors came out of that $150.00. By June the school was completed. A  school district was formed east from Baxter bridge to the extent of private property along what is now known as Hidden Lake Road and south along the  Trinity Creek-Lumby Road to the railway belt. Each home owner in this  district was assessed $10.00 to help with the initial expenses.  A teacher was advertised for and our first one was a Miss Houston from  Victoria whose English accent was far stronger than any Englishman's in  England.  Now the Czech people would always speak their language at home, the  result being that when some of the first graders went to school they did not know  a word of English. The only words of English that I knew were some choice ones  I learned as I followed the teamsters driving their horses. Most parents knew 79  how to speak English but there were a few women who did not. My dad was the  secretary of the school board for many years and he kept two sets of minutes,  one in English and one in Czech, the latter being for the ones who could not  read English.  The Czech customs were kept up at home until all the old timers passed  away and the youngsters grew up and intermarried with boys and girls of  English, Scottish or Irish origin. After the first year of school the youngsters  always spoke English amongst themselves and some, which was a pity, forgot  their mother tongue altogether.  The first day of school, 21 pupils attended all the way from six years to sixteen years of age and with grades from one to eight. The teacher's salary started  at $600.00 per year and out of that she had to pay room and board. Believe me  that teacher earned her salary.  Some of the children walked 2 V2 miles to school and in those days the roads  were never plowed in winter and in the summer the mosquitoes were so bad one  had to run to school to keep ahead of them. There were no screens on the windows the first year at school and they got really thick inside.  The favourite pastime was to see who could fill up their inkwell with dead  mosquitoes first, with ones that were killed while feasting on hands, legs and  face.  The old school still stands and is used for a storage shed by Mr. Van  Dalfson who acquired the property from the school district.  We had a tough time getting a dollar or two in those days but we always  had lots to eat as everybody had a large garden, their own animals to butcher  and lots of cream, butter, eggs, hams, bacon and some farmers had their own  wheat made into flour at the mill in Armstrong. The main source of a few  dollars was the monthly cream cheque plus selling some logs, poles, cordwood  or fence posts.  We had no TVs and very few people had a radio so we made our own fun.  We played cards in the evenings and on Saturday nights there was always a  house party or a dance in the school. We were very fortunate in having some  good musicians in our district who not only played at dances but would put on  concerts which were held in the school in the winter and, in the summer, on  somebody's lawn.  I still consider myself very lucky to have grown up in the Trinity Creek  district in the early part of the twentieth century. 80  CONSOLIDATION OF SCHOOL DISTRICTS  IN ARMSTRONG AND ENDERBY AREA  by O.B. Carlson  Armstrong made educational history in British Columbia in 1922 when the  consolidated Armstrong Elementary School was opened. All the rural schools in  the farming area surrounding Armstrong were closed and the pupils from these  schools, all in Spallumcheen Municipality, were bused into the Armstrong  Schools, and have been ever since. I have a personal interest in this change that  took place in 1922 since my sister, Agnes, who was teaching at Otter Lake  School, was one of the teachers transferred to the new school. I was reminded of  this by the photo of that first teaching staff of the consolidated school that used  to hang in the hallway.  There were several hundred School Boards in B.C. in those days and when  Trustees on a Board could not agree among themselves or with the Department  of Education, the Department often appointed an Official Trustee to run the  school or schools as the case might be. There were great differences in the school  buildings and equipment, and in the quality of teaching, due to a great extent to  the vast difference in the availability of funds to the School Boards scattered over  our far flung province.  To improve this situation, the Department of Education adopted the  recommendations of the Cameron Report which came into effect April 1st,  1946. It created over 70 large school districts in the province, each of which had  at least one high school.  In 1946 School District No. 21 included Armstrong City, Spallumcheen  Municipality, Enderby City, seven rural schools north and east of Enderby, and  the Indian Reserve south and east of Enderby. The first Secretary-Treasurer for  School District No. 21 was Mr. Reg Ecclestone, a retired bank manager, who  took the job pro tern. Wanting a change from teaching, I applied and was fortunate to receive the appointment from March 1st, 1947.  The School Board's major concern was a building program as the old high  school in Armstrong was a fire trap and was eventually condemned. A site was  purchased west of the present Highland Park Elementary, but it was discarded  as too small and too swampy for a high school. As years passed without any  building being started, the feeling grew that District No. 21 would get farther  ahead if it were split, with Enderby and the Rural Area going its own way.  To achieve this a referendum was drawn up with a large high school planned to be situated between Armstrong and Enderby plus some building in Enderby and the Rural Area around Enderby. The total cost, of which Victoria would  pay approximately half, was turned down very decidedly by the ratepayers of  the whole District in 1952.  This gave the School Board the excuse it needed to have District No. 21  split and, under Inspector Towell's guidance, this was done. School District No.  78 (Enderby) was created as from January 1st, 1953 and Armstrong-  Spallumcheen School District reverted to its original borders.  Mrs. Vera Hiles, who had been my assistant, became Secretary-Treasurer  of District No. 21, and I assumed that position for the Enderby District.  Now it became the immediate goal of the Armstrong School Board to draw  up a much reduced referendum to get a new high school for Armstrong and 81  Spallumcheen. By including the purchase price of the Armstrong Recreation  Hall in the referendum, they avoided having to include a gymnasium in their  plans, and by obtaining permission to use the fair grounds for playground purposes they were able to avoid having to purchase more land for the school playground. Armstrong's referendum passed easily in 1953, and building the new  high school was started as soon as the legal waiting period had passed. (This is  the school that was torn down in 1984.)  Enderby's problem was not as simple as they had to acquire more property to the north for a new 6-room elementary school with gymnasium attached,  the gymnasium to serve the high school in the brick building as well as the new  elementary. They also had to build three one room schools in the Rural Area as  well as make improvements to the other schools. There was a considerable  amount of opposition to the cost. The night of the vote on the referendum was  an anxious one and got more so as the votes came in. With all polls reported in,  except Grandview Bench, the vote was 59% for the referendum, but 60% was  needed to pass it. There was no telephone at Grandview Bench then so we had  to wait until the Deputy Returning Officer returned to her own home to phone  in the results: 18 votes — 18 in favour. The referendum had passed. What was  in the referendum for the one-room Grandview Bench School? $1,000 for improvements — linoleum for the floor, a new chimney, new heater and complete  redecoration.  In closing I would like to pay tribute to the School Inspectors, or District  Superintendents as they are now called, for their patience and much valued assistance. I particularly like to remember Mr. Towell and Mr. W. Mouat with  whom it was a pleasure to work. I would also like to remember all the school  Trustees for whom I worked. They served faithfully because they felt it was their  duty. For those early Trustees there was no monetary return.  EARLY SCHOOL DAYS IN OSOYOOS  by Douglas P. Fraser and Margaret A. Driver  We begin with a word picture of the Osoyoos of 1917.  Above the bridge, about where the Liquor Store is, was the Customs Office  with living quarters, where lived the Dr. G.S. Jermyn family. A hundred yards  away, above the island, the William (Billy) Richter family lived in the large  house built by Theodore Kruger in 1887. A mile away, on the east side of the  lake, was the third habitation, the house built by J.C. Haynes in 1878. In it lived the G.J. Fraser and E.A. Helps families. Completing the infrastructure, so to  speak, was the empty government building on the site of the present elementary  school.  The most serious problem confronting the few residents that made up  the population of Osoyoos in 1917 was that of education. Ten children  of school age, resident in the district, was required before the Department of Education would sanction the establishment of a school. We  could muster five only and as there was no prospect in sight of additional settlers in the immediate future the chances of getting a school  in Osoyoos in 1917 were anything but rosy. (Fraser, p. 148) 82  The five of school age were Grace, Chester, George and Verda Jermyn and  Douglas Fraser. The Richter children were under six, as was Peggy Fraser, and  Katie Helps was of marriageable rather than school age, and was soon to be  married to handsome Ed Lacey of Kruger Mountain.  The possibility of having children from Kruger Mountain attend  school at Osoyoos was thoroughly canvassed and abandoned because  of the difficulty of transportation. During the summer a family by the  name of Hobbs with ten children, five of them of school age, moved  from their ranch on Fairview Mountain to the Richter Pass district.  This gave Osoyoos new hope and no time was lost in interviewing Mr.  and Mrs. Hobbs who reacted favorably to a suggestion that they move  to Osoyoos where living quarters would be found for them and thus  the possibility of a school at Osoyoos to start at the beginning of the  fall term seemed well within reach. (Fraser, p. 148)  Fairview Mountain was an area of settlement on the south slope of Mt.  Kobau, where several families had homesteaded in the early 1900's. A school for  this settlement was named Boundary Valley, and it will be less confusing if the  area is referred to as Boundary Valley rather than Fairview Mountain.  Mr. Anstey, school inspector for the Okanagan was sent in by the  superintendent of education to investigate and report on the advisability of establishing a school at Osoyoos. Mr. Anstey was impressed with the future possibilities of the district and reported favorably. The department he said would pay the teacher's salary and he  would recommend a grant of one hundred dollars to be used for such  furnishings as seats and blackboards. The settlers would have to provide suitable quarters, supply fuel and meet other sundry expenses.  (Fraser, pp. 148-149)  Following Mr. Anstey's visit, a public meeting was called on July 30th,  1917, for the purpose of electing a board of trustees.  "Osoyoos July 30, 1917.  A Public meeting of the residents of Osoyoos Lake District was held at  the Customs Office, Osoyoos on above date for the purpose of electing  a Board of School Trustees and transacting any other business relative  thereto.  A letter from Dr. Alexander Robinson authorizing the formation of a  School District and the election of School Board was read. Dr. G.S.  Jermyn was elected Chairman and G.J. Fraser Secretary of meeting.  Moved by George J. Fraser and seconded by Wm. Richter that Dr.  Jermyn, Wm. Richter and Geo. J. Fraser be elected Trustees of  School Board to serve until the first regular annual meeting. Carried.  Meeting adjourned.  A meeting of the School Board was at once convened. Dr. Jermyn was  elected Chairman and Geo. J. Fraser Secretary. 83  On Motion of Dr. Jermyn and W. Richter the Secretary was instructed to advertise for a teacher.  Meeting adjourned.  (Minutes, July 30, 1917)  There was luck for the board in the matter of finding quarters for the  school. The old government building, prominently located on the  bench above the road leading south from the town was taken possession of without any questions being asked. A further bit of luck for the  new school was in getting a blackboard and some seating from the  abandoned school on Fairview Mountain, the first school the Hobbs  family had been instrumental in getting started.  This pioneer building, erected in 1892, was designed to serve as  residence and office for the Provincial Government Agent, plus a section for a two-cell jail.  The walls, including an inner one between the jail and office were of  heavy log construction. Entrance to the jail was from an outside door  opening into a hall from which there was entrance to the cells. There  was a small window in each cell protected with iron bars set in the  heavy logs. There were stout locks on the heavy cell doors and the  doors when closed were further secured by a heavy iron plate across  them about midway up. The floor of the jail was made of two by four  scantlings on edge and well nailed together.  The board decided on converting the jail into the school room and  renovating the rest of the building for living quarters for the Hobbs  family. (Fraser, 149)  Actually, only five school age children of the Hobbs family came to live at  the school with the eldest, Wave, a Grade Eight pupil, in charge of the four  younger brothers and sisters, Glen, Ernestine, Smith and Edward.  Boundary Valley must have had pleasant memories for the Hobbs, as twice  in recent years various members have made a pilgrimage to the area of their  childhood home. The last visit was made last year, 1972, and they also visited  the museum where part of the Osoyoos school building is preserved.  One of them was Wave, and I was dumbfounded to find that the big Grade  Eight girl of 1917 was a little bit of a thing who hardly came to my shoulder.  Owing to there being no other possible help in the district the three  trustees had to do all the work involved in the remodelling and the job  was hardly complete when school started.  The first teacher was Miss Dorothy Evans of Kelowna and it was her  first school. The board made no mistake in the choice of Miss Evans.  She proved an excellent teacher and was very popular with both  scholars and parents.  A new door had been procured to replace the heavy jail door but it  was not in place on opening day and Miss Evans tells that when some  range cattle came browsing around the building she had her table  placed across the doorway lest any of them should take a notion to  walk in. (Fraser, p. 150) 84  Many present will recall the Valley Historical Annual Meeting held here in  the Community Hall seven years ago, when Dorothy Evans Crawford was a  guest speaker.  During the second half yearly term, the Hobbs family who had come  to B.C. from Washington state returned there and the school board  was faced with the problem of maintaining the average attendance of  six which was essential to ensure the Government's payment of the  teacher's salary. The immediate difficulty was met with the importation of a scholar from the coast and the starting of (Peggy) Fraser, who  was then just five years old. On one occasion the monthly report forwarded to the Department of Education showed the average attendance slightly below the required minimum of six and the Board  forthwith received notice that cancellation of the grant would follow  should the minimum requirement not be maintained. Needless to say  it never again fell below figure six.  There was no financial problem to worry the school board in those  good old pioneer days. The Department of Education paid the  teacher, a bee would be organized to cut the season's fuel, the teacher  and the scholars did the janitor work, while the odd chalk box would  be a gift from whoever happened to be going to town when chalk was  needed. It would be a good guess that the teacher bought most of the  chalk. (Fraser, pp. 150-151)  It is interesting to note that school was carried on on the same basis of  voluntary support for the next eleven years. I can remember being on a woodcutting bee on Anarchist, I think in 1927 — at any rate I was big enough to take  one end of a crosscut. Two small items give an idea of how the Board got along  without cash. A second blackboard was needed. A sheet of heavy building board  and some black enamel appeared, and the school had another blackboard. The  curriculum required models of a cube, a cylinder and a cone for still life drawings. Dad put in a few evenings with saw, spokeshave and wood rasp, and the  school had the necessary models.  The era of getting along without money ended in 1928. From the minutes  of July 12th, 1928:  The annual meeting of Osoyoos School District was held in Mr. C.L.  Carless' car at the School Ground on above date.  Mr.  C.L. Carless was appointed Chairman and Geo. J.  Fraser  Secretary of the meeting.  The Secretary reported that the boundaries of Osoyoos School District  had been defined by the Department of Education and that we were  now constituted as an organized school district with the privilege of  making assessments for school purposes.  A letter was read from Inspector Hall advising that we make an assessment beyond what was needed for ordinary expenditures and the  surplus used to start a fund for a new school.  The matter of improvements to the present school was discussed. It  was felt that the present building could be improved and made 85  suitable to meet requirements for a few years.  On a motion of Messrs. Fraser and Burpee the sum of $400.00 was  the amount fixed to be raised by local assessment.  On motion of Messrs. Fraser and Carless, Mr. Burpee was elected to  succeed himself as Trustee.  It was pointed out that election of an auditor would be necessary now  that we were an organized district and raising funds by assessment.  On motion of Messrs. Burpee and Fraser, Mr. D. Barnes was appointed auditor without remuneration.  (Minutes July 12, 1928)  Of interest is this item from the Minutes of July 9, 1921.  A motion by G.J. Fraser seconded by William Richter was carried  that a levy of $1.25 per scholar be made to meet the deficit in  operating costs for the year passed.  (Minutes July 9, 1921)  The old building continued to meet the needs of the district until 1932,  when a modern one-roomed school was built on Main Street. By 1934, the increasing population necessitated the addition of a second room, and the days of  the one-roomed school passed into history.  Before closing the story, mention should be made of the many other ways  the old school building served the community. It was used for church services by  the United, Lutheran and Pentecostal denominations, as a Scout Hall, on occasions as a polling station and as a residence. Part of it, the log structure in the  Museum, helps us to picture life of pioneer days.  Among early teachers were Miss Dorothy Evans, Miss Anna McKenzie,  Miss Mona Mude, Miss Annie McLaughlin, Miss Emma Parkins, Miss Carol  Mason, Miss Stewart, Mr. G. Hunter, Miss Rena Dawson. The last to teach in  the one-room school was Miss Winnie Lynds. Compiled from memory, the list  is not necessarily complete, nor in chronological order.  Among very early pupils, in addition to those already mentioned, were Billy, Ella and Lucille Richter, Crae Dawson, Dennis Elliott, Bob Lang, Pat  Fraser, Elsie, Molly and Billy Sim, Dorothy Fraser.  Among early trustees, in addition to those already mentioned, were R.D.  Fraser, Mrs. Jermyn, A.S. Elliott, F.W. Fraser, F.L. Goodman, Dr. Coristine,  R.A. Lewis.  Sources:   Story of Osoyoos by G.J.  Fraser and School District Minutes  1917-1929.  Reminiscences — D. P. Fraser  The last day of the school year was a very important one, being the day on  which one learned whether or not one had passed. Also, on this day, three  Honour Rolls were presented — for Proficiency, Deportment, and Attendance.  These were accepted with mixed feelings, as outside the classroom the Proficiency recipient would be labelled Teacher's Pet and the Deportment recipient,  Sissy. 86  When not in class we played passionately, at recess and noon hour, year in  and year out, a game we called "Sticks" — a variation of "Prisoner's Base." A  quick and nimble six-year-old girl could be as valuable a member of a team as  the biggest boy in the school, so everyone had a role and a place.  A day that stands out in memory is November 11, 1918. Dr. Jermyn  brought word to the school of the signing of the Armistice. In the hollow below  the school, about where the Jack Shaw Gardens are, was camped a homesteader  family on their way north. The teacher, Miss Anna McKenzie, sent us down to  spread the news and we tore down the hill yelling "The War is over, The War  is over."  One's progress through Public (Elementary) School in those days was  marked by the succession of Primers and Readers. One was in the Third  Reader, etc. The last year of Public School was known as "Entrance." If one's  education was to be carried further, one had to write government exams in five  subjects for entrance to High School.  My teacher in "Entrance" was a Miss Stewart, a typical spinster  schoolmarm of uncertain age — and a product of a rigorous Ontario school  system. Nothing less than perfection was acceptable to Miss Stewart. Sensing I  would have trouble with the Grammar Exam, she put me through the hoops, in  class and after school, and she piled on the homework.  When the Entrance results came out in the Penticton Herald a great weight  was lifted from my shoulders. I had not disgraced Miss Stewart, my family, or  myself.  One is amazed, in looking over the text-books of that period, at how much  was demanded of elementary school pupils.  My "Public School Grammar" by S. E. Land, M.A., authorized for use  in the Province of B.C., required, for example, in the study of verbs, a  knowledge of transitive and intransitive verbs, strong and weak ones, active and  passive voice, mood, tenses, agreement, gerunds and infinitives, auxiliary verbs  and participles.  Obviously in those days, no one worried about overloading the young  mind.  Reminiscences — Margaret A. Driver  Going to and from school in those early years was in itself an adventure  and an education.  Mustering your courage to pass a herd of range cattle grazing in your path,  or a party of revellers escaping from prohibition which was then in force in the  United States.  Sliding on the ponds along the roadside as the first ice formed and watching  the flocks of geese and ducks in migration. Skating to school when the lake was  frozen and, if you were lucky enough to have a strong wind in your back, opening your coat as a sail and gliding all the way like an ice-boat.  Pausing on the bridge, both going and coming, to watch the fish in the  crystal clear water below.  In the afternoons inspecting the corrals behind the Customs to see what  stock was awaiting clearance.  In the spring, discovering the first tadpoles in the ponds along the way and 87  monitoring their development.  When the spring floods arrived, the road on both sides of the bridge would  be under water. We had to remove shoes and stockings, wade to the bridge, put  them on again to cross the splintery planks, then remove them once more to  negotiate the water on the other side. Great fun, especially if the teacher had to  do it too!  Education after Grade Eight required leaving home or studying in the local  school with the teacher helping when she could spare the time. I remember Elsie  Sim and myself taking all our Grade Ten Physics experiments one Saturday at  the Oliver School, under the supervision of my brother, and with Carleton MacNaughton bouncing a basketball up and down the aisle while waiting for us to  finish.  SUNSET OF AUTUMN STORM  Here we have watched the wheeling ranks of grey  Marshalled and ordered and as quickly thrown  To wild confusion, heard the green pines moan  The brilliant loss of autumn with this day.  Bright gold the banners of the poplars stay  A challenge to these winds, with comrades flown  The rear guard still is battling for its own  Throwing brave colours in the darkening fray.  Here must we chastened feel that we allowed  A summer's joy to careless slip away.  This last of rosy sunsets on the screens  Will, ere the morning, to the winds have bowed:  We may go down in gold where poplars stay  Or face cold winter with the evergreens.  Guy V. Waterman  Greenwood, B.C., 1934 SOME HISTORICAL NOTES  ON 1st SUMMERLAND SCOUT TROOP  D. V. Fisher (former Scoutmaster)  Recently, on July 6, 1985, the 1st Summerland Scout Troop celebrated its  75th (really 76th) anniversary at a reunion held at Camp Boyle west of Summerland. A special surprise on that occasion was the attendance of one of the  original 1909 Troop members, Mr. Gordon Ritchie. (See photo No. 1). The  Scout Movement was founded by Lord Baden-Powell in 1907 and 1908 in  England, and spread rapidly overseas. In 1909, three troops were formed in  B.C., one of them in Summerland. I do not know where the other two were  located, but one of the original Scoutmasters, Mr. John Tait, told me one was  in the Kootenays and the other the Lower Mainland.  1st Summerland Troop started in the fall of 1909 with 30 boys meeting on  Friday nights at 8:00 p.m. in the Empire Hall, Lower Summerland. The  original Group Committee consisted of Dr. F. W. Andrew, Rev. J. Hood,  Adam Stark, Rev. H. A. Solly and others. The Scoutmaster was Mr. Cliff Bor-  ton with Mr. John Tait as his assistant. The following year, Mr. Tait became  Scoutmaster, a position he held for the next nine years. In a letter dated May  20, 1957, Mr. Tait named a number of Scouts he remembered. This letter,  together with conversation with Mr. Gordon Ritchie, identifies a number of  names of those enrolled in the original Troop. Besides Mr. Ritchie, those included Clarence Adams, Douglas, Frank and Roy Steuart, John and Leighton  McLeod, John Mclntyre, Harvey Phinney, George Dale, Levi Johnson and  Ted Logie. It was a number of years later that the B.C. Provincial Council, Boy  Scouts of Canada was formed and formal data for Scouting in B.C. thus placed  Photo No. 1 Former Scoutmaster Al Landriault greets original 1909 Scout Gordon Ritchie at  celebration of 76th year of 1st Summerland Troop. Photo taken at Okanagan South District Campsite, Camp Boyle, 13 miles west of Summerland, July 6, 1985. 89  on record. Prior to that time scouting was operated on a local basis by Boy Scout  Associations sponsored by parent/community groups or other organizations.  After a short period of inactivity in the 1930s, it was at the suggestion of the  Rev. H. Pearson in March 1938, that Summerland Branch No. 22, Royal  Canadian Legion sponsor the Scout Troop. Shortly after, a Group Committee  of five Legion members took office, namely H. Pearson, W. R. Boyd, T. Charity, C. A. Gayton with H. Clough as Chairman. The Group Committee proceeded to re-establish the Boy Scout Association, and the Legion donated $50.00  as start-up money. It cost a dollar to belong to the Association and Legion  minutes of March, 1941, indicate that Mr. Ned Bentley was given one dollar by  the Legion to join the Association and be its official representative. The Association proceeded to raise funds by various means and in short order the $50.00  was repaid. Legion minutes also record a summer camp of 25 or more boys was  held the same summer, 1938, at Miller's Point.  Since 1938 and up to the present, the 1st Summerland Scout Group has  been sponsored by Branch 22, Royal Canadian Legion. However, even after  1938, for many years, it was called the Boy Scout Association. This sponsorship  represents a noteworthy record of almost 50 years, for which 1st Summerland is  most grateful.  We are fortunate in having a record of the Scoutmasters who served from  1909 to the present time, and also names of many, but not all Assistant Scoutmasters. In fact, many Assistant Scoutmasters, in time, graduated to the position of Scoutmaster.  Photo No. 2 1957 marked the 100 year anniversary of the birth of Lord Baden-Powell, founder of  the Scout Movement. Here is pictured one of the two original Troop Scoutmasters, Mr. John Tait,  2nd from right. In honor of his visit a number of former Scoutmasters of the Troop are shown. L to  R: Gordon W. Blewett, 1945-47; Earle B. Wilson, 1926; David M. Munn, 1952-54; Cecil Cope,  1928; John Tait, 1910-19; D. V. Fisher, 1948 -52, 1954-57, 1960-65, 1967-70. Photo May 14, 1957. 90  In 1957 Scouting celebrated the 100th anniversary of the birth of its  founder, Lord Baden-Powell of Gilwell. In recognition of the occasion, the  Troop was favored by a visit from Mr. John Tait, Scoutmaster from 1910 to  1919. Former Scoutmasters were invited to attend the Scout meeting, greet Mr.  Tait, and hear him reminisce with the boys. Photograph No. 2 shows Mr. Tait  with some of those leaders.  The Cub Pack was started in 1921 by present Penticton resident, Mr.  Carlyle E. Clay, assisted by Mr. Bernard Taylor of Vancouver, but there seems  to have been a gap between that year and 1942 when Mr. Art Advocaat (resident of Keremeos) re-formed the Pack.  Under the new Scout program (1968), Venturers (age 14-17) was formed  and we also have a record of their advisors. Beavers (age 5 - 7) was started in  1974 under auspices of the Summerland St. Andrews United Church, and were  united with 1st Summerland in 1980. Their leaders are also on record. No attempt is made here to depict the fine record and activities of the Beaver, Cub  and Venturer sections. This may be dealt with in another story. In addition, a  record of 2nd Summerland and the Trout Creek Troops also should be recorded  as well as a presentation of the role of' 'Cubbing.''  The following is a chronological list of Scoutmasters from 1909, Cub-  masters from 1921, Venturer Advisors from 1970 and Beaver Leaders from  1975 to 1985.  Scoutmasters, Cubmasters, Beaver Leaders, Venturer Advisors in  1st Summerland Scout Troop  Scoutmasters  1909  Clifford Borton*  1946  G. W. Blewett*  1910  John Tait*  1948  D. V. Fisher  1919  Otto Zimmerman*  1952  D. M. Munn  1921  Percy Tees*  1957  G. M. Weiss  1923  Capt. H. H. Creese*  1958  R. B. Towgood  1925  J. G. Struthers*  1960  D. V. Fisher  1926  Earle B. Wilson*  1966  T. P. Decie  1928  Cecil Cope*  1967  D. V. Fisher  1929  Tom E. Harris  1970  D. H. Wright  1930  J. H. Clarke  1972  Victor Smith  Troop Lapsed  1974  A. A. Landriault  1938  J. H. Clarke  1978  E. R. Osborne  1940  G. C. G. Flamank  1981  Thomas Maye  1941  W. R. Boyd*  1983-86  Terry Sabourin  Cubmasters  1921  C. E. Clay  1956  Dr. J. M. McArthur  1942  Arthur Advocaat  (later Trout Creek  1949  J. F. Bowen  Group)  1951  Mrs. Isabel McCargar  1958  F. M. Trussell*  (previously 2nd  1959  Colin J. McKenzie  Summerland  1965  E. Sandback  Group)  1967  Mrs. D. Rolston  'deceased 1973  David Smith  1980  Frank Miletto  1975  C. R. Hart  1981  George Sutton  1976  Mrs. Carol Maye  1982  Clinton Jones  1978  D. Christie  1985  Terry Sabourin  91  Beaver Leaders  Under United Church Sponsorship  1974 Mrs. J. Lavery  1975 Mrs. B.Johnson  1976 Mrs. Mavis Dunn  1977 Mrs. Marlene Hikitchi  Venturer Advisors  1970-72   N. Abernethy  1978 Al Landriault  1979-81   J. Kane  1983-85   Sgt. M. McCague  Under 1st Summerland Sponsorship  1978 Mrs. B. W. Hoven  1979 Mrs. Emmy Lakatos  1982         Mrs. Clinton Jones  1984-85    Mrs. Margaret Wilson  Unfortunately I have no record of all Assistant Scoutmasters but am aware  of the following names: J. Allen Harris, A. (Doney) Wilson, A. Williams, D.  Orr, J. Buck, J. E. Beech, J. May, Bill Barkwill, R. Howe, J. Charity, J. E.  Miltimore, R. Walsh, H. A. McCargar, F. E. Brinton, J. H. Bennest, A.  Elliott, Art Jacques, Harold Wiens, Howard Wiens, Gunther John.  Photo No. 3    Scout Concert, 1921, at Okanagan College Gym (now Youth Centre).  R. Purvis  J. Smith Moe Saycox  Ivor Harris E. Hobbs Chick Chisholm  Mel Munro R. Reid A. Marshall A. Smith  B. Munn        W. Gayton       J. Gayton       J. Marshall        A. Harris 92  Over the years the Troop met successively at: Empire Hall (Lower Summerland), Okanagan College Gym (now Summerland Youth Centre), Ellison  Hall, Royal Canadian Legion, Old High School Gymnasium, and since 1949 at  the Summerland Youth Centre. Photo No. 3 shows a pyramid of boys at a concert in Okanagan College Gym in 1921. Names are given and age of boys is obviously older than that of present Scouts.  Important features of scouting in Summerland have been camps, especially  summer camps, which, in the early days, were at Miller's Point between Summerland and Peachland (now Okanagan Camp Picnic Site), Osoyoos, Trout  Creek Point, Okanagan Falls and Brent Lake. Photo No. 4, taken at summer  camp in 1913, shows Scoutmaster John Tait, Rev. H. A. Solly and 22 boys.  The names of most of those in the picture were identified recently by former  1909 Scout Gordon Ritchie.  Photo No. 4 Scout Camp, 1913, located along Trout Creek, Summerland, end of present Nixon  Road. Back row, L to R: Scoutmaster John Tait, ?? Bill Angove, Gordon Ritchie, Rev. H. A. Solly,  Jimmy Kean, Howell Harris, ???.  Second row, L to R: Roy Elsey, ?? Leighton McLeod, John Pierre, Dwight Ritchie, Harvey Phinney, ???.  Front row, L to R: Ted Logie, J. Allen Harris, Bernard Taylor, ???.  Later summer camps were held near the mouth of Peachland Creek, Fish  Lake, Headwaters No. 1 Lake, Osprey Lake, Chute Lake, Brenda Lake, Nickel  Plate Lake and Cathedral Lakes. These summer camps represented the  culmination of the scouting year and usually involved around 20 boys and  several leaders. Boys camped by patrols in canvas 9x12 foot tents, built their  own camp facilities and sometimes had a camp cook. For a number of years the  Troop benefitted from the services of Mr. Jack Ellis (along with his two  chihuahua dogs in the side pockets of his coat) who cooked dinner while the boys  cooked their own patrol breakfast and lunch. This was Jack's big event of the  year and he did it until almost age 90.  Fall, winter and spring camps also were popular and well attended. I  remember in 1949 taking the whole Troop of 32 boys for a weekend camp in 93  October to Kelly's Mine back of Summerland, leaving after school on Friday  and arriving at the campsite after dark. Fortunately the Patrol Leaders had  reconnoitred the site previously for their tent sites. Winter camps were a 3-day  event held between Christmas and New Year's which no boy ever missed except  for very pressing reasons. These camps were held somewhere in the general  Headwaters area at elevations of 4,000 to 5,000 feet where everything was transported by backpack except food supplies, tents and tarps which were hauled on  toboggans. Needless to say everyone wore snowshoes. The boys learned how to  set up camp by tramping down a tent area in the snow, and how to light a fire  on top of the snow, cook meals and keep warm. Camps always were located  near a cabin which was used for evening get-togethers and in case of illness, but  everyone including leaders slept outside at temperatures as low as 0° - 15°F.  ( - 18° to - 27 °C.) Ice fishing and tobogganing, and later, snowmobiling were  favourite occupations.  Summer camps involved swimming, fishing, canoeing, rowing, wide  games, and earning such badges as Swimmers', Rescuers' and Athletes'. Patrol  competitions were very keen and the Pat Nisbet trophy for the winning patrol  was much prized. Cost of the summer camp including a dollar for canteen (pop  10<p, chocolate bars and gum 5c) was usually $8.00. Winter camps cost about  $2.50.  Photo No. 5    Official opening of 1st Summerland cabin at Faulder, Oct. 26, 1958. At door, Alex  Watt, Chairman of Group Committee.  For many years the Troop used the Faulder Campsite across the railroad  track at Faulder. This was a delightful spot along Trout Creek for spring and fall  camps, a location only 7 miles from downtown Summerland. Eventually a renewable lease for one acre was obtained from the owner, J. Hofert Ltd. of Seattle. The lease also allowed roving rights over the whole 120 acre parcel of land.  In 1958, a 2-storey cabin was built on the property by the Scouts aided by one of  the boy's fathers, Mr. Ralph Smith, and the Scoutmasters. (See photo No. 5.) 94  Most materials except shingles, chimney blocks and concrete were donated and  the cost of the 14 x 18 foot cabin was $200.00. This was used extensively as  headquarters for Cub and Scout Camps and also for three International Camp-  orees. About 1975 the property was sold and along with it the cabin, which proved  too expensive to move.  However, in 1967, a new campsite of 120 acres located beyond Meadow  Valley on the road to Darke (Fish) Lake, was bought by Mrs. C. Boyle of Penticton from Mr. Sandy Fenwick of Summerland. This was dedicated in memory  of her late husband, Mr. H. H. Boyle, and developed for Okanagan South District Council, Boy Scouts of Canada, by the Kinsmen Club of Penticton. Basically the property was intended for use by the sections of the Boy Scout and Girl  Guide movements, but the Kinsmen also specified it must be available when  possible to other supervised youth groups. The facility with its large central  meeting hall and dormitory facilities is very popular and is fully booked most of  the year, providing outdoor campsites for summer use and indoor accommodation for winter use. It is used by 1st Summerland Troop on many occasions,  recently for the celebration of 76 years of Scouting in Summerland.  Scouting in Summerland has emphasized achievement. This has been evident, especially since the 1940 era, by the large number of boys who have  achieved the King Scout or Queen Scout badge, and since 1970, the Chief Scout  Award, the highest distinctions in scouting apart from Bushman's Thong. The  following is a list of these recipients.  1st Summerland King Scouts  1921  Gordon Blewett  Ronald White  1950  Ross Tingley  1951  Geoffrey Solly  1942  Pat Nisbet*  Richard Blewett  George Brake  1944  Hugh McLarty  Laverne Higgs*  1947  Gerald Adams  1952  Bill Lewis  Neil Woolliams  1948  Richard Lewis  *deceased  1949  Gordon Younghusband  Glen Younghusband  Rob Towgood  Don Blacklock  Les Bingham*  Victor Smith  Vernon Campbell  George Pohlmann  Lome Carston  Graham Munn 95  1st Summerland Queen Scouts  1956  Harold Oxley  John Woolliams  Ted Hannah  1957  Stan Krause  1958  David Woolliams  Don McArthur  1961  John Beaven  Jim Fiske  Ronald A. Bangma  1963  Fredrick E. Trussell  Roger Ivan M. Blagbome  Neil Mason  Michael Lopatecki  1965 Francis Andrew Fenwick  Michael Inch  Gordon Harvey Lackey  1966 Howard Lloyd Wiens  Allen Heinrichs  1970        Douglas Forster  Neil Andrews  Brett Chomat  Alan Fisher  Since 1970, the Queen Scout Badge has been replaced by the Chief Scout  Award. Recipients have been:  1980 Kim Schroyen  1981 Sergio Falzi  Peter Wiens  Andrew de Boer  1982  Tim Leardo  Until 1970, King and Queen Scouts had their way paid to attend an official  investiture by the Lieutenant-Governor at Government House in Victoria. It is  my understanding this was revived this year (1985) for recipients of the Queen's  Venturer Award. This trip was always an exciting event associated with achieving this award and thoroughly enjoyed by boys and parents who could attend.  It is my observation that recipients of these awards have in many cases  achieved great successes in life, and contributed strong leadership to their communities or professions. In particular I think the main credit is due to the great  dedication over the years of leaders who have given freely of their time,  resources and knowledge to make the program a success.  The Scouting Program is designed to appeal to the interests and to  challenge the achievement levels of the average boy. It is therefore not unreasonable to expect (or perhaps hope) that most boys achieve the Pathfinders'  (former 1st Class) or Chief Scout Award (former Queen Scout.) Achieving these  badges reflects initiative on the part of the boys, dedication of leaders and encouragement at home. 96  Photo No. 6     1st Summerland Troop contingent prior to attending 1st Canadian Scout Jamboree,  Ottawa, July 11-18, 1949. (Largest contingent from any Scout Troop in Canada, all 1st Class or  King Scouts.)  Top Row, L to R: Gordon Younghusband, Richard Lewis, Glen Younghusband, Lome Carston,  Les Bingham, Gordon Pohlman, Gerald Washington, Graham Munn.  Bottom Row, L to R: Rob Towgood, Victor Smith, Don Blacklock, Scoutmaster D. V. Fisher,  Walter Thompson, Les Younghusband, Vern Campbell.  Throughout the world, there are about 15 million boys involved in  Scouting which is encouraged in all but communist countries. In Canada, the  Governor-General is the Chief Scout. Scouting, like all organizations has its ups  and downs. Summerland always has been a Scouting town and 1st Summerland  Scout Group currently provides a full program for Beavers (age 5 - 7), Cubs  (age 7 - 10), Scouts (age 11 - 14 +) and Venturers (age 14 - 17).  1st Summerland Scout Troop has sent boys to many Canadian and World  Scout Jamborees. In fact, at the first Canadian Scout Jamboree held at Con-  naught Camp near Ottawa in 1949, the Troop sent the largest contingent in  Canada, 13 boys, all of 1st Class or King Scout rank. (See photo No. 6.) This  was a memorable event for Robert Towgood, Leslie Younghusband, Gordon  Younghusband, Glen Younghusband, Leslie Bingham, Donald Blacklock,  Graham Munn, George Pohlman, Gerald Washington, Lome Carston, Walter  Thompson, Victor Smith and Vernon Campbell. Great fund-raising efforts  were expended to ensure that these boys attended at a total cost each of $150.00  which included train fare, meals and 10 days at the Jamboree. The boys still  recall the "colonist" train car accommodation they shared with many other  boys from B.C. and the excitement of this national event.  Since that time the following boys have attended World, Canadian, B.C.Yukon, and Scottish Jamborees at the locations indicated: 97  World Jamborees  1951    Austria: Richard Lewis  1955    Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.: Harold Oxley, Ted Hannah  1957    Sutton Coldfield, England: David Woolliams, Donald McArthur,  John Woolliams  1971    Asagiri Heights, Japan: Ken Powell, Eric Munn  1975    Lillehammer, Norway: Mark Inouye  Canadian Jamborees  1949    Connaught Range, Ottawa: 13 boys already listed  1977    Cabot Park, P.E.I.: Kim Schroyen, Corey Schroyen, Sergio Falzi,  Andrew de Boer, Marty Austin, Dwayne Connolly, Pat Jaffray, Alex  Elliott, Philip Balcaen, David Maye *  1981    Kananaskis Park, Alta.: Brian Strachan, Travis Korecki, Peter  Wiens, Bill Boerboom, Andrew de Boer.  1985    Guelph, Ont.: Gordon McCague  B.C. -Yukon Jamborees  1966    Penticton, B.C.: Howard Wiens, Gary Davis, Nigel Blagborne  1979    Douglas Lake, B.C.: Tim Leardo  1983    Sooke, B.C.: David Gustafson, Gordon McCague, Craig Bidwell,  Mark Meheriuk, Mike Lakatos  Scottish Jamboree, Kibblestone Scout Camp, Scotland  1970   Jeff Estabrooks, Lee McLachlan, Shaun Gibson  As time goes by, Jamborees continue to be held, often in exotic places, but  the cost of attendance, even for B.C. and Canadian locations, often proves prohibitive. There can be no doubt, however, that these Jamborees have great advantages in widening personal contacts and seeing new places. Boys see how  scouting operates under different cultures in other areas and countries, but with  the same basic guiding principles.  Over the years the Troop has engaged in various fund-raising activities  which have included the usual paper, bottle and battery drives and distribution  of phone books. However, two projects carried out over a period of years have  proven very profitable. Apple Day in April from 1947 - 1980 enabled Scouts and  Cubs to raise from $75 to $250 a year. In some years, Apple Day was a cooperative project between 1st and 2nd Summerland Groups.  The other project was sale of Christmas trees. Starting in 1958, boys supervised by leaders and parents, and under the direction of professional forester,  Mr. Sandy Fenwick, cut in designated areas near Summerland. Later the trees  were cut by adults only and sold by the boys. Sale of the trees was arranged with  the 41st Vancouver Troop and returns shared equally.  When Mr. Abernethy was Group Committee Chairman, a "Christmas  tree farm" lease was worked out in 1966 with the Municipality, in an area west  of Summerland where trees were cut for a number of years and young trees replanted. The tree availability declined, and for a period, additional trees were  bought and cut on the Rolston property. More recently, Christmas trees have 98  been obtained from commercial sources and sold locally, especially through the  good offices of Petrocan dealer, Mr. Nick Konno, and the Rev. Matthews of the  Anglican Church. This project continues to be a good fund raiser.  Throughout the years, the Scouts and Cubs have turned out on the Saturday before Remembrance Day to work with their sponsor in the sale of poppies.  The greatest strength of any Scout Group lies first with the Group Committee which provides liaison between the sponsor (in our case, Branch 22,  Royal Canadian Legion) and the various Group units, i.e. Beavers, Cubs,  Scouts, Venturers. 1st Summerland has had excellent and dedicated Group  Committees over the years. The Group Committee is responsible for administration of funds, money-raising projects, leader procurement and general  back-up to sections in the way of ideas, transportation, equipment and liaison  with the sponsor. Unfortunately records of minutes are missing prior to 1938,  but from 1938 onward the list of chairpersons is provided below:  Group Committee Chairpersons  Before 1938  Minutes lost  1965-1969  1938-1946  H. Clough  1969-1970  1946-1949  S.W.J. Feltham  1971-1972  1949  Dr. H. R. McLarty  1973-1974  1950  B. A. Sladen  1975-1977  1951  S. R. Cannings  1977-1980  1952-1956  Dr. D. L. Mcintosh  1980-1981  1956-1958  A. W. Watt  1981-1983  1958-1960  Dr. D. V. Fisher  1984-1985  1960-1963  R.J. Barkwill  1985-  1964  W. Milne  N. Abernethy  Dr. D. R. McGregor  H. Hughes  Dr. D. V. Fisher  George A. Wardle  H. de Boer  Dr. M. Meheriuk  Mrs. Helen Leboe  Mrs. Clinton Jones  Mrs. M. McCague  Because a Group Committee consists normally of six to 10 adults (usually  parents) it is impossible to provide the names of all those involved over the  years. This is no reflection on their importance; they, in various roles, have all  played distinctive and important roles.  Much more could be written about 1st Summerland Troop but what is  presented here in large measure reflects the era in which the writer was heavily  involved. I am sure other persons could, in future, provide additional anecdotes  to supplement this account.  A display of records, photographs, names, artifacts, books, etc. is now in  place in the Summerland Museum which has agreed to be the permanent  repository of 1st Summerland Group historical materials. 99  STUDENT ESSAYS  STUDENT ESSAYS  First Prize and Winner of J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award  — Senior Division —  THE COQUIHALLA SUB-DIVISION  by Tracy St. Claire  Penticton Secondary School - Grade 11  The Coquihalla Pass is one of the most interesting sub-divisions on the  Kettle Valley Railroad, originally called the Kettle River Valley Railroad. The  Kettle Valley Railroad (KVR), from Brody (eight miles out of Brookmere) to  Hope, was officially finished on December 31, 1915, after five years of hard  work. The first engine was run on the KVR in 1915, though the Coquihalla still  had two and one-half miles of track left to be laid. The last tie on the Coquihalla  was completed on July 1, 1916.  The Coquihalla sub-division was the hardest and most expensive piece of  track on the KVR to maintain. Its costs were shared by the Great Northern  Railway in a fifty-fifty split, though. In return, the Great Northern got track  rights for 999 years.  Snow was the major problem on the Coquihalla Pass. The snowdrifts were  sometimes as deep as the trains themselves, so they had to use blade ploughs  and dynamite, rather than a wing plough to clear the snow. The gangs (crews of  men working on the railroads) would plant between fifteen and twenty sticks of  dynamite in a hole dug in the snow in front of the engine. Then, the engine  would quickly push the snow forward a little ways before reversing the engine so  it wouldn't get stuck in the drift.  As snowslides were quite frequent occurrences along the Coquihalla, they  had men inspecting the track at all times. These men pumped velocipedes up  2.2 grade, which meant that the hill rose 2.2 feet per 100 feet. After inspecting  a certain length of track, they would report the track's condition to the dispatcher on track phones. If the track wasn't clear, they wouldn't allow trains to  pass on that section of track.  On Thursday, March 11, 1945, a track inspector left with his dog for mile  35 (near Jessica Bridge), on the Coquihalla sub-division. There was a light  snowfall making the climb up the 2.2 grade harder than usual, but not  impossible.1  When the inspector failed to phone into the dispatcher within the expected  period of time, the dispatcher just dismissed it as difficulties with the snow or  lack of a working track phone. But when the inspector's 20:00 to 4:00 shift was  over and there was still no sign of him, the dispatcher started to get worried as  there were other slides reported in the area.  Though no trains could pass in the sub-division, the railroaders started a  search for the lost inspector. When they went out to mile 35 on the Coquihalla  1    A true story taken from the files of Mr. Jack Petley. 100  Pass, they found a 100-foot snowslide. After surmising that the inspector wasn't  anywhere else in the area, they started digging. They were elated to find the inspector's dog under the slide, still alive, but as they kept digging they found the  inspector and his derailed velocipede on the side of the track.  Today, a story like that would get big news coverage by the media, but  back in 1945, very few people heard about the dead inspector because the CPR  kept it to themselves, and an occurrence like that wasn't so irregular.  Problems similar to this led to the closure of the Coquihalla Pass in  November of 1959. The gangs had to see to the upkeep of more than fifty  bridges, a dozen tunnels and sixteen snowsheds. The CPR figured that it would  be more costly to maintain the pass than to use another route to get to Spence's  Bridge and the coast.  After F. W. Alexander's survey of the Coquihalla sub-division in the  1950s, it was found that the sub-division was closed an average of nearly one-  fifth of the year. For example, in 1916, the first year it was in service, the Coquihalla was closed a total of 76 days. F. W. Alexander also published the  snowfall per year. The worst year for snow was the winter of 1932 when there  were 720 inches of snowfall. Since 1949, the average snowfall has been 579 inches in the Coquihalla Pass. As McCullough did most of his surveying for the  railway in the summer of 1910, there is no doubt that he had never imagined the  problems in store for the Coquihalla sub-division.  Andrew McCullough had an interesting life as the key figure in the  development of the KVR, and as one who played a major part in all CPR  management. Born in 1864, in the United States of America, he started his  career with the CPR on May 1, 1887, at the age of 23. After contributing 46  years of his life to railroading, he retired on February 3, 1933. Two years earlier  he was already thinking of retirement as indicated in this poem found in his  diary from 1931:  I'm getting old, my eyes are bad,  Gone is Spring's springy tread  I have a misery in my chest,  A vacuum in my head.  My shooting days are nearly done  My back's humped like a hummock,  A comprehensive fishing trip  Bring, a misery to my stomach . . .2  Fourteen years later McCullough died at the age of 81.  Many people who worked under McCullough on the KVR project became  established as leaders in different aspects of the Canadian Pacific Railway. A lot  of people attribute this to their hard work on the Kettle Valley Railroad. The  KVR gangs had to face much more severe conditions than other areas of the  CPR with almost crude equipment. Most of the workers on the railroad knew  how to fix most things by themselves while railroaders from other areas needed  to be supervised. These men became a team that made the almost impossible  seem possible again. They did an outstanding job of keeping the railroad running through ten feet of snow or a 100 foot snowslide.  2    Poem written by Andrew McCullough and taken from one of his diaries kept by Mr. Jack Petley. 101  Four of these men who received prestigious positions which they rightly  deserved were: L. R. Smith, Senior Regional Vice-President; Bill Presley,  General Manager of the Prairie Lines; Bill Thompson, General Chairman of  Bridges and Building, and Danyluck, Chief of Track in Canada.3  Though these men did an excellent job of running our own Kettle Valley  Railroad it wasn't really a surprise to anyone when the Coquihalla sub-division  of the Kettle Valley Railway was closed down in November of 1959. After losing  the support of the Great Northern Railway in 1945, the Coquihalla was much  too costly to maintain. Although taking the Coquihalla Pass to Hope cut about  100 miles off the trip to the coast, this route actually caused more problems with  its steep grade and heavy snowfall than it was worth.  The Coquihalla sub-division will never be forgotten by anyone who ever  worked on it and will live on in peoples' memories as the spirit of the Kettle  Valley Railroad.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Barrie Sanford, McCullough's Wonder, Whitecap Books, Canada, pgs. 124, 125, 160, 243.  Robert D. Turner, Railroaders, Sound & Moving Image, Canada, pgs. 16, 17.  PENTICTON — Years to Remember, B.C. Heritage Trust, Canada, pg. 17.  Interview with Mr. Jack Petley.  Picture by Mr. Harrison St. Claire.  Runner-up for Senior Award:  Bev Ewoniak — "Medicines of the Okanagan Indians."  Double Tracking into a snowshed.  3    Names and positions given by Mr. Jack Petley.  Courtesy of R.N. Atkinson Museum, Penticton 102  First Prize and Winner of J. W. B. Browne/CKOV Award  — Junior Division —  EARLY SCHOOL BUSES AND THEIR DRIVERS  by Owen Romaine  Len W. Wood Elementary School - Grade 7  Most people in North America are familiar with the yellow and black bus  with bright red flashing lights travelling on the highways between September  and June. However not many people are aware that school bussing in British  Columbia originated in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen area after the one room  schools were closed and the "Big" School in town was opened.  School bussing in Armstrong was started because of the 1921 consolidation  of all the country schools in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen area. The idea of consolidation was started by Jim Wright who was chairman of the School Board  and Mayor of Armstrong at the time. Mr. Wright had gone across Canada and  over the border to the United States to see how they were running their school  systems and after seeing that most of the areas were still in rural schools Mr.  Wright decided to consolidate all the rural schools into what is now the red brick  Armstrong Elementary School. The schools that formed consolidation were  Lansdowne, Knob Hill, Pleasant Valley, Hullcar, Bennet Creek, Larkin, Deep  Creek, and Otter Lake. Armstrong became the first consolidated school system  in British Columbia and the first school system in all of Canada to use school  busses to transport the children from out of town to the consolidated school. The  new school was opened in September 1921.  The first five bus drivers in Armstrong were George Mason who had the  Knob Hill route, Joe Glaicar who had the Grandview Flats route and who,  when he retired, had the longest record of bus driving in all of Canada and  Mr. Joe Glaicar and his first bus and children in 1921. 103  possibly the United States. George Game won the tender for the Hullcar route  and Jack Macleod who had the Stepney route had Macleod Road named after  him. The fifth of these drivers was Jack Jones who had the Mountain View  route.  In November of 1921 Mr. Glaicar's bus became overcrowded so A. Smith  & Son put the sixth bus into operation with Sam Watt as driver on the Otter  Lake route. In a few months a seventh bus became necessary, this being  operated by R. J. "Bert" Fletcher.  In 1926 the expansion fleet of busses came in, one of the drivers of this fleet  was Gordon Gray, who retired at the same time as Joe Glaicar and Sam Watt  after forty-three years of driving. In 1971 the first female busdriver started work.  Her name was Martha Dinwoodie and she is still driving to this day.  Most of the children were picked up at their road until the new law came in  saying that there had to be a certain distance between each stop. Some children  however had to walk up to two kilometres to get to their stop.  Mr. Joe Glaicar with his school bus in the winter of 1922.  A bus driver would leave at about eight o'clock in the morning to have the  children into school by a quarter to nine. The busses would come back to the  school at three o'clock to have the children home by a quarter to four.  A bus driver's wages were about $80 a month. With this money he had to  pay for gas and maintain the bus because the busses were owned by the drivers  until they became commercially owned in 1945. As a result of the low wages  most of the bus drivers had other jobs like farming for other people outside of  town-  When bussing first started, the busses were very simply built. The construction was just an old chev or chassis with a wooden box built onto it. The  box was made of wood reinforced with iron and angle iron. The top was made  out of wooden slats covered with leatherette. 104  Mr. Joe Glaicar and his school bus ploughing the route.  The seats were arranged two lengthwise along the bus and most of the  children had favorite seats and would sit anywhere they wanted to. Sometime in  the 1950s each child was given a designated seat which he had to sit in. That  rule is no longer in use today.  At the rear of the bus there was a door. From this door a string ran to the  front of the bus so the driver could open the door for the children. This entrance  system was banned around 1928 because the School Board said it was a safety  hazard.  The only heating system on the bus was a one and one half inch exhaust  pipe running through the centre of the bus. As a result of the tremendous heat  from the exhaust pipe the children often had blisters on their feet when they  tried to warm them on the pipe. This also caused parents to complain about  having to buy their children new pairs of rubbers. There was often an awful  smell of burnt rubber in the bus.  The early busses didn't have any glass windows. Instead canvas curtains  rolled down over the window spaces. These curtains were little protection,  however, in temperatures which would sometimes get as cold as - 40 ¬∞F. When  the busses were in their very first year of use, some of the busses didn't even  have a roof for a few months.  The early busses had solid rubber tires which could be very bumpy on the  old roads. There was even one accident where a tire came off one of the busses  causing it to come to a stop in the middle of the road.  These busses were capable of carrying up to thirty-five noisy children, who  would sometimes bring bags of cherries, peas, and even turtles onto the bus.  These would probably be used for pranks to play on the teachers at school.  One of the problems for the busses was the winters because the busses  couldn't get through the snow on bad days even with the snow chains on. This 105  problem was partly solved when Joe Glaicar invented the snowplough. The  snowplough was placed in front of the back tires on his bus. He would get up at  five o'clock in the morning on a bad day and snowplough his route so he could  get the children into school. But generally he would just plough his route as he  went. Later on he started to plough all the bus routes in Armstrong. This  resulted in a new problem, because numerous companies were hauling ice from  Otter Lake and when Mr. Glaicar ploughed all the snow away the people hauling the ice couldn't get through with their sleighs. Around 1930 the Spallumcheen and local government banned snowploughs on the busses. Since Mr.  Glaicar wasn't allowed to use a snowplough to plough his route he would use his  tractor and plough his route with that.  In the early days safety was not a high priority. Some of the children would  hang out the windows or hang out the doors and some would even sit on the  steps outside. Yet, only one person was killed.  If the bus was stuck in the mud the children would have to get out and push  the bus out. One funny incident was when the bus was stuck in a mud hole and  the driver told the children to get to the other side of the bus. One very fat girl  who had trouble getting over just stayed on the other side until they all shouted,  "Flora get over." As soon as she moved over, out came the bus. You can imagine how they teased Flora after that.  Jack "Squeaky" Macleod, who had the Stepney route was a real joker and  as an annual April Fool's joke he would pretend to be stuck in a ditch. He would  then tell all the children to get out and push. When all the children were in the  ditch, ready to push, he would drive off and the children would have to walk up  the ditch and run to the bus which would be waiting a few metres up the road.  One annual Christmas event that all the busses would compete in was a  singing competition. Each bus would compose a song about their bus driver and  Mr. Joe Glaicar and Mr. Sam Watt at the time of their retirement in December, 1969. 106  sing it at their school Christmas presentation. The first verse of one of the songs  about Mr. Glaicar went like this.  Mr. Glaicar, Mr. Glaicar  He's the driver of our truck  We are always there to help him  Whenever he gets stuck.  In December of 1969 three of the most dedicated bus drivers, Joe Glaicar  and Sam Watt retired after forty-eight years behind the wheel and Gordon Gray  retired after forty-three years of bus driving. In honour of their accomplishment  a banquet and ceremony was held and they all received letters of recognition  from the Prime Minister of Canada, Doug Stewart, who was the M.L.A. in the  area at the time, the School Board and other people in and around the  community.  As you can see, the history of the school busses in Armstrong is both funny  and interesting, but, it should also be known that our present school systems  owe a great tribute to the early school bus drivers for their hard work and  dedication.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Armstrong Advertiser: February, 1921.  June 30th, 1960.  February, 1968.  December 24th, 1969.  August 25th, 1976.  Armstrong Museum File on Armstrong Schools.  Interview with James Watt on February 10th, 1986.  Interview with Mrs. Marjorie Glaicar on January 26th, 1986.  Letters and Telegrams of Recognition:  Lillian Debeck, December 7th, 1969.  Mabel and Bill Huroff, December 10th, 1969.  Doug Stewart, December 17th, 1969.  Pierre Elliot Trudeau, December 17th, 1969.  Mrs. W. Wallace, June 16th, 1969.  The R.C.M.P. Quarterly, Volume 33, No. 3, January, 1968.  Vernon Daily News, June, 1969.  Serra, John, The History of Armstrong. Wayside, 1967.  Runner-up for Junior Award: Scott Fuller- "Armstrong's Hotels. 107  BOOK REVIEWS  SLASH (Theytus Books), by Jeannette C. Armstrong  Reviewed by Frances Knapp  If any non-Indians have romanticized or, at the other extreme, have been  ignorant or intolerant of the frustrations encountered by the North American  Indian in finding his path in life today they owe Jeannette Armstrong some  gratitude for giving us this frank insight. Herself an Okanagan Indian, and a  veteran of the movement of dissent of the past two decades she writes with  authenticity of the fictional hero Tommy, young son of strong and wise parents,  as he starts out in search of change.  Tommy felt within himself the call to balance the values learned in his  home, and from listening to the talk and stories of the old people when he was a  boy — to balance these against the attitude of some of his schoolfellows who  elected to join the imposed system and get the best out of it. Intuitively he realized that, while not a leader in the speechmaking sense, he could be a catalyst  to find the way for his people to live with self-respect in contemporary society, to  be strong and proud once more. But the route Tommy traversed to fulfill his  quest was circuitous and dangerous. Being known as "Slash" and complete  with long hair, the headband, and "shades" he accompanied his friends as they  attended AIM meetings, took part in protests and sit-ins on both sides of the  border, and joined the demonstration caravans that converged on Washington  and Ottawa. There were fatal consequences for some of Slash's friends and he  himself, although working on the perimeter of the groups, was arrested and  spent time in jail. Eventually he came to understand that the two-hundred-year-  old hurt of his people must be healed from within.  The author, in recounting the resolution of Tommy's spiritual quest,  demonstrates finesse and versatility in handling the change in tempo, drawing  him away from the fringe of the restless young warrior group, and full circle  back to his people into the role Tommy sees for himself as quiet teacher-leader-  by-example, with time for tenderness and with hope for the future vested in his  son, Little Chief.  Jeannette Armstrong has written two previous books, both for children,  one of them being Enwhisteetkwa. Now that she has demonstrated the breadth of  her writing interests we may well ask, "what next"?  THE HISTORY OF VERNON — 1867 - 1937 by Edna Oram  Soft Cover, $9.95. 132 pages  Reviewed by B. Wamboldt  This smooth-flowing book tells the role of the Vernon area in the opening  to settlement of the entire Okanagan Valley.  Vernon is the oldest incorporated city (1892) in the valley and was, for  many years, the centre for all federal and provincial government services.  Roads were very poor. Pioneers with their families, household effects and  business equipment, travelled by the Canadian Pacific Railway across Canada 108  to Sicamous, thence via a spur line to Okanagan Landing, and by boat down  Okanagan Lake. Thus the settlement south of the valley was intensified. From  1892 until the mid 1920s, the majority of newcomers passed through Vernon.  This book tells of the early settlers, who carved a home out of the  wilderness, and laid the foundation for the thriving valley we enjoy today.  For those who grew up years ago, the book is a trip down memory lane.  For children and parents it is a glimpse into the past. It tells where Kalamalka  Lake got its name; why Poison Park is so named; what it was like to grow up in  the Okanagan.  Available from the Vernon Museum, book stores throughout the  Okanagan Valley, or direct from the author, #112, 3020 Allenby  Way, Vernon, B.C. V1T 8L4  Note: Edna Oram is Vernon's Good Citizen for 1986. The Mental Health Association has named  their new building after her in gratitude for all her volunteer work in their organization. Miss Oram  is no stranger to O.H.S. where she has served as Treasurer to the Parent Body as well as filling other  offices. She has been a staunch supporter of the Vernon Museum.  Edna Oram is to be congratulated on getting into one readable volume so much of Vernon's  past. One could wish that some of the source material had been examined with a more critical eye.  Maria Brent's account of the granting of the Indian Reserves bears little resemblance to the historic  record. J. C. Hayne's reports, one written in his tent at the head of Okanagan Lake where he had  gone with N'Kwala for the express purpose of cutting back the reserve as laid out by Cox, can be  read in the Provincial Archives. N'Kwala himself is a controversial figure. As one Indian who has  done a good deal of research into Okanagan history has said, "N'Kwala liked presents."  THE DITCH: LIFELINE OF A COMMUNITY by Julie Cancela, 1986  Can be purchased at the Oliver Heritage Society Museum, Imperial Books,  Okanagan Books, Kelowna Museum $4.95  Reviewed by Karen Bruder  The Ditch: Lifeline of a Community traces the span of time from when the  "ditch" was barely a concept, through a 60 year evolution to the modern irrigation system the South Okanagan has today.  Immediate construction of the irrigation system finally began only after the  22,000 acres of land was sold to the Provincial government.  To prove that B.C. was proud of its young men returning from World War  I, the Premier, at that time John Oliver, campaigned strongly for the 'Soldiers  Land Act' which was passed in 1918. It was this act that enabled the Provincial  government to purchase the 22,000 acres of land from Mclntyre Bluff to U.S.  boundary. By the same act, soldiers were given special purchasing privileges  and an abundance of job opportunities to work on the "ditch" project which  became known as the Southern Okanagan Lands Project (SOLP).  A continued theme one cannot help becoming aware of is that the ditch is  not just a water system, but that it is the source upon which Oliver thrives and  without which Oliver would never have replaced the earlier Fairview.  This enjoyable booklet was well researched and written by Julie Cancela of  Oliver, in cooperation with the Oliver Heritage Society Museum & Archives  and B.C. Heritage Trust. 109  In reading the booklet, one will discover that the construction of the ditch  has been an extremely long, frustrating, and costly process, but that its eventual  existence has poured magic over our once fruitless desert valley.  Also included are pictures of the valley and various stages of the ditch  under construction, as well as local histories of Oliver, and gold mining towns,  Fairview and Camp McKinney.  TWISTED TALES OF NORTHERN TRAILS  by Jim Gould  Reviewed by J.W.  Twisted Tales of Northern Trails reminds us, who are old enough, of the world  before every comfortable sitting space was filled with radio or TV sound. Jim  Gould's little book (62 pages) is a collection of yarns some of which are in verse,  some in prose.  The author was born in Saskatchewan in 1911. He tells us: "The whole  Gould clan migrated to the Okanagan in 1919, taking 100 days in two model  T's and one McLaughlin Buick."  Some of the tales have to do with work about Summerland when Gould  was young — ditch walking, pheasant shooting, finding bee trees. Many are  about his experiences in northern B.C. where he made his living as trapper and  guide. Always there are animals — Old Cruiser the dog, the blaze-faced  stallion, the skunk who chewed at the hanging moose meat while three hunters  watched helplessly. In Gould's world men and creatures relate to one another.  The most exciting writing is the description of a prairie fire in the story  "Dad." The depiction of the relationship between the father and Hans  Boughten is a little masterpiece.  Who would enjoy reading this book? Just about anyone, young or old. It  would make a delightful gift for an overseas friend who might enjoy a taste of the  Canadian backwoods. Photographs are interesting and the line drawings by  Marcel Leduc appropriate. More careful proofreading would improve the text.  On the whole I preferred the prose to the verse but the following is rather  neat:  Take the case of the stupid young rabbit,  He runs in a circle from habit.  But the coyote knows  Where ever it goes  If he waits where he's at,  He can grab it.  CHURCH OF CHRIST THE KING PARISH  by Elizabeth Renyi Kangyal  Reviewed by J.W.  This 36-page booklet records the history of the Roman Catholic Church in  Oliver, beginning with the first mass celebrated by Father W.J. Cullinan at the  home of Mortimor Sebastian (Paddy) Kelleher in the spring of 1931. By May  1934 the congregation was in its own building. While the work of enlarging the 110  church several times and of providing a rectory is recorded the emphasis is  always on people, on the priests who served the parish and the lay people who  supported their efforts — a fitting reminder that a church is better defined by its  activity than by its structures.  The choice of Mrs. Kangyal as historian for the Golden Anniversary of  Church of Christ the King was a happy one for she has participated in church  activities from their very beginning. However, the author's research extends far  beyond the borders of Oliver as is evident in the thumbnail biographies of the  various priests who have served the parish. The writing is simple, direct and  economical. Readers will be interested in the impact of Vatican II on the parish;  in the establishment of St. Martin's Hospital which, under the Sisters of St.  Ann, supplied nursing care in the South Okanagan from November 1942 until  1973; in the integration of the Portuguese into church activities, their hymns  and the annual celebration of "Our Lady of Fatima" having now become a  regular feature of the services.  The numerous pictures in the booklet must be an added joy for those who  have participated in confirmation classes and parish organizations.  SUMMERLAND IN THE BEGINNING AND PIONEERS BEFORE 1905  Compiled by Summerland Museum Archivist Group  and hand-printed by Iris Steuart.  Reviewed by J.W.  This 54-page booklet lists Summerland's first pioneer families, tells where  they lived immediately before coming to Summerland, names family members,  notes those descendants who live now in Summerland or nearby, and indicates  the economic activities of the first settlers and the particular contribution of  some to the community. 1905 arrivals are listed on page 52.  The booklet will certainly interest anyone whose antecedents were among  those first families. As a part of Summerland history the book has been a worthy  project of the Museum. The general reader finds here some of the color of the  early community and recognizes the Summerland connection of those who have  been known in other contexts. He will be interested to learn that Robert Service's Sam McGee was not consumed by his cremation but, after thawing out,  made his way from Whitehorse to Summerland, arriving in 1902.  Poems by Okanagan writers and photographs of old homes add to the  booklet. Mrs. Steuart is to be complimented on her hand printing!  SITTIN' PRETTY: Osoyoos through the years  Osoyoos Community Arts Council  Reviewed by J.W.  There are other ways of presenting history besides books and films. In May  1986 the Osoyoos Arts Council presented a capsule of Osoyoos history in the  form of a review which saw over 160 people on stage. The producer was  Osoyoos's good citizen of the year, Ethel VanDuzee. The book was written  mainly by Joyce Perry and the musical direction and choreography handled by Ill  Victoria Warfield and Susanne Christel respectively. Doreen Janko was a  charming and very effective narrator, linking the various scenes. Of course, the  history was a very simplified version but the main ingredients were there  although one wonders why more was not done with the cattle raising era. In the  second act an overview of Osoyoos today was presented.  A WILD FLIGHT OF GORDONS by Archie Gordon  5th Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair. London. 10.95 pounds  Reviewed by J.W.  Residents of the Okanagan familiar with the contribution made to our  history by Lord and Lady Aberdeen will enjoy these vivid accounts of "odd and  able members of the Gordon families." The author, Archie Gordon, was born  in 1913 and is the grandson of our Lord Aberdeen, the 7th Earl and 1st Marquess. The biographies are objective, carefully researched and written with  energy and economy. Each manages to bring alive its moment of history and to  illumine its Gordon subject. Quotations are apt. The first chapter is more interesting after reading the book.  Nowhere is the research material more skilfully handled than in the chapter  devoted to the 6th Earl who left Britain for America within a few months of  becoming head of the family. In Boston he assumed the name George Osborne,  an identity which he kept hidden from his family, and pursued a sea-faring life.  George Osborne died in January 1870 when he was washed from the deck of his  ship somewhere near Sable Island. Gradually the story unfolds. No fiction could  be more intriguing. The mode is tragic.  The final chapter, entitled "From Inheritance to Insolvency," presents  Osborne's brother, the 7th Earl and 1st Marquess and his Marchioness. Here  the mode tends to the comic. How else to treat a pair, "We Twa" of their  autobiography, who inherited, when the Earl was twenty-five, 75,000 acres of  Aberdeenshire, Haddo House and its treasures, salmon fishing rights on the  Dee, etc. and whose personal estate when the Earl died in 1934, was valued at  204 pounds? Where did the money go? High living and open-handed hospitality  took much. But a great deal went to the various causes that the Aberdeens  espoused: Promotion of Irish industries, improving the lot of their tenants including building schools, building churches, establishing the Victorian Order of  Nurses, supporting the World Council of Women, and so on. It must be  remembered, too, that the public offices which the Earl held — twice he was  Viceroy and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and once Governor General of Canada  — required that the incumbent subsidize the pomp and circumstance from his  private means. The Okanagan investments at Guisachan and Coldstream absorbed some of the family fortune and yielded no financial return. References to  the Okanagan estates are brief but interesting. As early as the 1880s some of the  Scottish lands and paintings were sold off to meet deficits.  Archie Gordon is able to speak of his grandparents with benevolence, keeping himself emotionally distanced from the decline in the family economic position. As the second son of a second son he did not grow up with great expecta- 112  tions. He takes pride in the fact that he and his father were "self-made" men.  Of Lady Aberdeen he writes: "In her widowhood Ishbel unburdened herself a  good deal to this grandson . . . One day she said: T suppose we made many  mistakes; but I like to think we did more good than harm.' Amen to that." We  in the Okanagan would be inclined to concur.  MY AMERICAN COUSIN  by Bernard Webber  Hundreds, perhaps, thousands of Okanagan folk have seen the film "My  American Cousin," written and directed by Sandy Wilson, originally of  Naramata. They have shared her pride in the six Genie awards, emblematic of  pre-eminence in Canadian cinematography, won by the film this year, including best screenplay and best director. Earlier, in September 1985, "My  American Cousin" had won the accolade of "Critic's Choice" at the Toronto  International Festival. By any criterion, the film is an outstanding achievement.  The photographs of the Penticton-Naramata region of the Okanagan  Valley, the locale of the film, has rarely been surpassed, especially in the light of  the scale of the filming. As with Thomas Hardy and Wessex, the Okanagan  becomes a character in the film. Lovingly protrayed, its mood is the opposite of  the menacing ambience of Hardy's countryside, being warm and comforting,  almost like a cocoon into which Sandy retreats when she wishes to meditate  upon life and its caprices. Sandy Wilcox, in the film, the alter ego of Sandy  Wilson, is played with penache and insight by Margaret Langrick.  Sandy Wilson captures teenage fickleness, not to say contrariety. Cocky  self-assurance dissolves into apprehension and dismay when the American  cousin Butch (played by the Toronto actor, John Wildman) pretends before the  girls on the beach that he is swimming in the lake naked. Sandy's hauteur,  sedulously cultivated, scarcely survives her spitting out of cherry pits. After  dalliance with the slightly more mature vamp Shirley (played by Camille  Henderson), Butch is challenged by her outraged boyfriend (played by T. J.  Scott). Youthful hangers-on troop after the protagonists in joyful expectation of  a scrap. As so often happens with the young, anticipation is far more exciting  than the reality. Nothing much happens except much symbolic circling.  One could go on reciting the deftness of touch in the depiction of the ways  and anxieties of pre-teens and teenagers. Although the film is set in 1959 when  Sandy herself was twelve, rising thirteen, there is a timelessness and universality  about youthful behaviour that Sandy Wilson has unerringly recorded.  Perhaps the habit among younger teens of over-simplifying everything, on  the one hand, and believing on the other that they already know more than their  elders, especially their parents, leads to what this reviewer sees as a problem  with the structure of the film. Adults are drawn as caricatures, or, in P. J.  Kavanagh's phrase, as "playing card figures." Note the characterization of  Butch's Californian parents. The father can think of nothing more momentous  to say, on first looking over Okanagan Lake, than "What a view! What a  view!" He is everyman's stereotype of a certain kind of stage American male. 113  The same general criticism applies to the portrayal of Sandy's parents.  They are too two-dimensional. In life, they are far more appealing, more complex, blessed with a sense of humour and a gift of repartee, than appears possible from their film personae. Only on rare occasions as when the Major  enlightens Sandy about "man's uncontrollable urges," or he levels with Butch,  do either of the parents come across as warm and compassionate human beings.  Maybe the author was trying to portray the embarrassment of parents when faced by the not-so-wide-eyed innocence of the young. Even in the scene about  what animates males, Sandy contrives to come off the victor.  Maybe this exiguous characterization of adults was deliberate, intending to  show how youthful eyes view the inexplicable actions and opinions of their  elders; of the gulf, that is to say, that exists between the generations. Maybe, it  was intended to focus attention on the inchoate attitudes of the young. While  these thoughts might explain, they do not wholly remove a dramatic problem  within the play. Playwrights, Shakespeare not least, have always known the  value of a distinctive sub-plot to give relief from the main plot, to heighten  suspense, to provide emotional relief, to add a comic counterpoint, or to serve  several other dramatic purposes. Think of the Malvolio — Sir Toby Belch —  Sir Andrew Aguecheek sub-plot in Twelfth Night. Such a sub-plot must be sufficiently potent and memorable to hold its own against the main plot. There is no  notable sub-plot in "My American Cousin," but it might have had its genesis  in a more rounded characterization — with appropriate dramatic action — of  Sandy's parents.  Still, who am I to cavil about such things? By any standards, this film is a  delight. It wears well on subsequent viewings. It offers an added spin-off for  South Okanagan audiences. So many residents had minor parts in the film, or  knew someone who had, or who owned a period car or motorcycle used in the  film. It was fun to see the film during its run in Penticton and to hear spontaneous ejaculations as first one, then another, or maybe a group in the audience saw something or someone he, she, or they recognized.  It remains only to congratulate Sandy Wilson on this immense step forward in an already distinguished career in writing and film-making. She has  done fine things before, but this is of a scale and scope that demands wide attention. She has helped to crack the dominance of American films in Canada. It is  good to see a Canadian film earn such plaudits on our own turf as has "My  American Cousin," but doubly good to learn how well the film has been received in the United States. 114  This cartoon, which appeared in the Victoria Times-Colonist, is reprinted here with the permission of  the cartoonist Adrian Raeside. Not only does the cartoon indicate something of the impact which the  film has had on our society but it also, as an art form in its own right, fixes the film in the political  context of the mid 1980s.  THE CRANES HERALD SPRING  by Isabel Christie MacNaughton  "In March, when the brown earth patches are dark on the snow, the  cranes come flying and calling on the wind."  "It is the sound of the cranes," mutter the Bear people from their beds in  the winter caves.  "It is the sound of the cranes," they say again, as they turn over and tumble into the pale spring sunshine.  And the world is no longer asleep, for the sound of the cranes is a sign of  the coming of spring.  When the small talk had drifted around to sandhill cranes, and the wondering if they had ever been "story-birds", Mrs. Shuttleworth told the above little  folk-tale which she remembered hearing her father tell when the sandhill cranes  flew over in the olden days. 115  TRIBUTES & BIOGRAPHIES  JAMES C.AGNEW  by Stuart Fleming  The first editor of the Okanagan Historical Society Reports, James Currie (Jimmy) Agnew, was a Civil Engineer and Land Surveyor whose intense interest in  all facets of life in his adopted home contributed greatly to the early success of  the Society.  He was born in Argyleshire, Scotland, and grew up in Glasgow where he  was educated. He moved to London in 1896 where he was employed as a draftsman. The prospect of farming on the Prairies drew him to Canada and in the  company of two friends who were to share the venture with him he arrived in  Canada in 1902. A brief experience of the Prairie climate quickly altered the  original intention and later that same year he arrived in Vernon.  After eight years of farming on the Commonage south of Vernon he took  the B.C. Land Surveyors' examinations and joined A. P. Cummins, C.E. in  the partnership of Commins and Agnew Civil Engineers & Land Surveyors.  (Mr. Cummins had been a construction engineer during the building of the  C.P.R. and was one of the group present at the driving of the last spike.)  In 1914, Mr. Agnew was married to Edith Warren in February and when  war broke out in August he went into training with the 2nd Canadian Mounted  Rifles which he had joined shortly after its inception a few years before. He later  transferred to the Royal Canadian Engineers with whom he served to the end of  the war. He returned to Vernon in 1919 with his wife and four-year-old  daughter and resumed his professional practice.  His range of interest and activities in the life of Vernon and the Okanagan  was wide and varied. His knowledge of the topography and geography of the  region was extensive and led to a number of articles in the early Reports. He  edited the first five Reports and, as well as contributing articles, he provided  many untitled notes and comments.  The Depression years were difficult professionally and although he moved  to Vancouver to enter business in 1935 his interest in the O.H.S. continued as  he was an Associate Editor of the comprehensive Sixth Report which was edited  by Dr. Margaret Ormsby.  He returned to Vernon in 1938 and was soon employed by The Department of National Defence as a surveyor throughout the Second World War. His  health was failing in the late 1940s and he died in Shaughnessy Military  Hospital in January, 1950.  Throughout the founding years of the O.H.S. Jimmy Agnew was a key  figure. Even though his own affairs were unsettled he resumed the editorship  with the Seventh Report. Among the articles he supplied in the early years were:  "Indian Picture Writing," "Lakes of the Okanagan," "The Okanagan Arc."  The range of his notes and comments covered everything from the discovery of  fossils to the fate of the iron safe W. G. Cox, the gold commissioner, brought to  Rock Creek in 1860.  (The foregoing is based on information provided by Mr. Agnew's  daughter, Mrs. Doreen Abernathy of 2296 Ottawa Ave., West Vancouver,  B.C. V7V2S6.) 116  "THE UNFORGOTTEN YEARS" a Tribute to Major Hugh Porteous  By Elizabeth Kangyal  This year, during which the Okanagan Historical Society publishes its fiftieth report, is a fitting occasion to pay tribute to a specially valued member.  Associated with the Society from its earliest years, and having held various offices, Hugh Porteous was also editor of the annual report for eight consecutive  years, from 1961 to 1968 inclusive, the longest stint of service in that arduous  capacity by anyone. In 1969 the Society honoured him with life membership.  Born in Gait, Ontario on October 3rd, 1893, Hugh Porteous spent a happy  childhood there with his parents, a younger brother and a sister. In 1912, he was  enrolled in the faculty of Forestry at the University of Toronto. Professional  forestry, under the guidance of Dean Fernow, was then in its infancy. As Germany was the home of this field of study and all the relevant textbooks were in  German, the undergraduates had to learn that language. Hugh remembers with  gratitude how Mrs. Fernow, wife of the Dean, helped the seven "embryo"  foresters with their German studies in her own home.  In learning the principles of forestry, practical experience gained during the  summer months was of paramount importance. Hugh found himself crisscrossing Canada in the employ of the Canadian Pacific Railway on their  numerous tie reserves. He was introduced to the magnificent Rockies while  working in the Crows Nest Pass and in the hamlet of Kimberley.  Other summers were spent in North-Eastern Manitoba, making a reconnaissance survey of the forest resources. The area worked was some 7,500  square miles between Lake Winnipeg and the Ontario border. Transportation  was generally by canoe and tents the usual shelter. The outdoor life was both  wholesome and adventurous, affording the opportunity to become acquainted  with Indians and others who made their home in the wilds.  Late in the autumn of 1915, through the good offices of Vincent Massey,  Hugh and a handful of other young men from the University of Toronto, upon  enlisting, were granted commissions in the British Army.  Having passed all preliminary tests, the future officers of His Majesty's  Army sailed on the old CPS Melita from St. John, New Brunswick, to Britain.  Intensive officers' training completed, Hugh was sent to France and took part in  the battles of the Somme and Grindy. Thereafter, he was sent to join the 9th  Devonshire Regiment, a unit of the famous 7th Division which ranked with the  Guards as the elite of the British army.  After eighteen months of active service in France, Hugh was sent back to  Norfolk, England, where he was to assist for six months with the training of a  territorial battalion of the Royal Dalton Yeomanry. It was during that time he  met his future wife, Winnifred Warren. Although her home was in Dereham,  she had spent some years at Abbot Academy in Boston, Massachusetts. This  American background helped foster a lasting friendship. However, Hugh again  went back to active duty in France. Then in 1918, with the war in Europe obviously winding down, he applied for transfer to the Indian Army. Having been  accepted, he was ordered to await posting and sailing orders. He returned to  Norfolk to be with Winnifred for a few more weeks before sailing for India in  October, 1918. 117  The long journey by sea and rail to destination Calcutta was most eventful  and a boyhood dream to see the East was materializing for the twenty-five-year-  old man. At Fort William, Hugh was attached to the 2nd Battalion of the 7th  Duke of Connaught's own Rajputs. He was assigned a man-servant named  Shaukat Ali who, for the next two years, was devoted to him.  As no English was to be spoken, Hugh found himself studying yet another  language, the Urdu, which he mastered passably well. These were exciting  times for him. As transport officer for the regiment, he always had good horses  at his disposal and it became a pleasant form of recreation to see the adjoining  countryside on horseback.  A posting to Puri, Allahabad and side trips on leave enabled Hugh to explore a good portion of India and to include an unforgettable trip to the  Himalayas. Another posting to the Shattel Arab, where the Tigris and  Euphrates meet, found him in the Garden of Eden, birthplace of the human  race.  It was in the spring of 1921, while stationed at Bagdhad that Hugh became  entitled to six months furlough. He made the long journey back to England and  married Winnifred Warren in St. Clements Dane Church, London, on April 27th.  When the furlough was up, the young couple sailed back to India on a P. &  O. Liner and to a new posting to the 1st Battalion stationed at Santa Cruz, just  outside Bombay. Peacetime soldiering in India was pleasant. Hugh was appointed quarter-master of the regiment and put in charge of rations, two jobs  which required a weekly trip to Bombay. Winnie generally accompanied him.  Early morning horseback rides and field hockey were among the sports enjoyed.  In the spring of 1922, the Prince of Wales made an official visit to India.  While in Bombay at a full dress parade, the Prince presented regimental colours  to Hugh's Battalion which took place on the Bombay Cricket Oval amidst great  pomp and ceremony.  Life was pleasant for the young Porteous couple, but the winds of change  were blowing. In mid-1922, an official of the British Columbia Government was  out briefing all those soldiers who might be interested in the beauties and potential future of the Okanagan Valley. Slides were shown specifically of the  Southern part where Oliver was just in the process of being opened up for  returned soldiers. Captains Hugh Porteous and E. A. Titchmarsh took up the  challenge, resigned from the Indian Army and, in October 1922, accompanied  by their respective wives, sailed on to a new destination on the Empress of Asia.  (In his memoirs, Hugh speaks fondly of the people of India and the many  cherished friends he made during his tenure of four years.)  The Titchmarsh couple settled in Penticton, while the Porteous couple purchased 12.5 acres of land in Oliver. After a pleasant interlude of winter months  spent in Edmonton with Hugh's parents, they returned to Oliver and stayed in  the Oliver Hotel (as did many other pioneers) where they enjoyed the hospitality  of proprietors Harry and Hettie Fairweather during the several weeks it took to  build a two-room cottage on their new land. This original building is still the  nucleus of today's "Deerholme."  Hugh and Winnie Porteous proved to be of sound pioneer stuff, planting  the first orchard up on the Bench (now known as Road 2L) and growing the  usual ground crops of cantaloupe and tomatoes between the rows of young fruit  trees. Hugh also worked on the irrigation project. There were few amenities, 118  such as indoor plumbing, telephones, electricity. The weekly shopping meant a  two-mile trek into the village. Still, life was good and friends plentiful.  Their first son, John, was born on December 22nd, 1925 in the Penticton  hospital.  Finally, the so-called cabin was enlarged to become a roomy bungalow.  Hugh and Winnie worked hard on the landscaping. Spacious lawns, shrubs and  flowers were put in and eventually a tennis court established. Tennis became the  weekend recreation, played at home or on courts of neighbouring friends.  In 1927, Winnie's parents sent her travelling fare to England so that they  could see their first grandchild. Hugh joined them for Christmas. After this  pleasant holiday, it was back to the Okanagan Valley again. Their second son,  David, was born on March 27th, 1932, also in Penticton. (Oliver was not to  have its first hospital, the well-loved St. Martin's, until 1942.)  The Porteous family contributed much to the growth of Oliver from  sagebrush and cactus to a thriving community and progressive village, lush orchards yielding delicious fruit under the dry hot sun. As the burgeoning fruit industry faced many problems, Hugh became seriously involved on the executive  level, not just at his packing house, but also in the marketing arm through the  B.C.F.G.A.  In the late thirties, the senior Porteouses moved here from Edmonton to  retire. Another house was built for them on the orchard. Grandfather Porteous  was an avid gardener. As well as landscaping around his new home, he also took  great interest in the orchard. This turned out to be an ideal arrangement  because, when World War II broke out, Hugh and his family moved to Vernon  for a year where he served as basic training instructor at the military centre.  This was followed by an assignment to the National Headquarters in Otawa  where he joined the staff of Directorate of Military Training. It was in Ottawa  that Hugh received his majority, G.S.O.2.  During this final stint of military service, the elder Porteouses looked after  the orchard holdings and gardens, so that everything was ship-shape when the  family returned from Ottawa in 1945.  Again, the Porteous family became immersed in life at home and in the  community. There was a very sad and wholly unexpected jolt when, following  a brief illness, Winnie died in the spring of 1947. This was a devastating time for  Hugh. Family and friends rallied around him. In 1948, the tennis court was  dismantled and a swimming pool put in.  Son John married Marion Miller of Penticton in 1952 and moved to  Cleveland, Ohio, for a few years before returning to Canada. They had five  children: Robin, Wyckham, Kitty, Simon and Alistair. When news of a first  grandchild's birth came from Cleveland early in 1954, Hugh loaded a suitcase  plus Zanetta, his French poodle, into the Baby Austin and made the long trip to  see Robin. On the homeward journey, he stopped off at various places of interest from Toronto to Fernie. It was in Fernie that he met Aileen Osborne-  Smith Gray at the home of her brother-in-law and sister, the Rev. and Mrs. R.  E. M. Yerburgh. A friendly contact was established. Son David married Barbara Buckmiller of Oroville in 1955. They have three children, Bruce, Diana  and Joanna.  In 1956, Hugh and Aileen Gray were married in Oliver. Aileen brought a  lovely teen-aged daughter by her former marriage, Patricia, into the new 119  alliance and Hugh adopted her legally in 1961. Patricia married Bruce Rowland  of Penticton in 1967. They have two children, Kindrey and Scott. In addition to  the ten grandchildren, Hugh also has eight great-grandchildren.  The sixties and seventies were most rewarding years for Hugh and, in his  various endeavours and accomplishments, he found Aileen both helpful and  supportive. As a team they served the community in many ways and were particularly active in St. Edward's Anglican Church where Hugh served as Vicar's  Warden for Rev. Yerburgh. Apart from short annual trips to various parts of  Canada and the United States the couple made their longest and final trek by  car in the Fall of 1979 when Hugh took Aileen back to Toronto where they looked up his old haunts of university days.  Hugh is the last surviving charter member of the Fairview Golf course. He  served on the Board of St. Martin's Hospital. He has been an active Rotarian.  Oldtimers also remember him as a debonair actor in the Community Players'  annual presentation which, in those pre-TV days, was the highlight of the  winter social season.  Hugh's flair for writing led him to be Oliver's correspondent for the Penticton Herald for almost a decade from the mid-fifties on. His weekly column "This  week in Oliver," later changed to "Pepys' Diary," was widely read. He told it  as it was and with a sense of humour.  In 1971, when Oliver celebrated its golden jubilee, it naturally fell to  oldtimer Hugh Porteous to prepare the commemorative booklet. The result was  a well-researched readable book, tracing the history of the district back to the life  and times of Fairview in the 1800s. The documentation was, in fact, so complete  that in 1979, when the Oliver Chamber of Commerce put out another booklet,  "Oliver, Yesterday and Today," they left the original text by Hugh intact and  simply updated items with brief insertions.  The Porteous orchard passed on to new owners in the sixties. A subdivision of two acres has preserved the original "Deerholme," where Aileen still  makes her home. Now in his nineties and in failing health, Hugh has become a  resident of the Extended Care Unit in the South Okanagan Hospital. He still  enjoys visits from Aileen, other members of his family and old friends, while the  nursing staff ensures that he has all the comfort he so richly deserves.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Unforgotten Years by Major Hugh Porteous. An autobiography in manuscript.  Interviews with Aileen Porteous. 120  EXCERPTS FROM "OLIVER PEPYS' DIARY"  by Hugh Porteous  (The Diary was a weekly feature in The Penticton Herald for ten years)  1964  SUNDAY (The Lord's Day) Up of a morne of rare beautye and with my wife  abroad to our Sabbath duties. So, after taking a little breakfast, without to a  cherry tree to pick a handful of cherries to garnish the patio table. While searching here and there fell deep in meditation on the strange perversity of nature.  Forasmuche as in most of the two years agone, rain at the cherry harvest time  has spoiled the crop: but forsooth, this year, with the crop badly damaged by the  winter's chilling frosts, the season couldn't be better. Soon within, with the bowl  of cherries, and there to find friends of my wife from Victoria . . .  TUESDAY So at my stint and then for refreshment to the coffee house.  WEDNESDAY Earlie up and to my office to put things together against anon  forasmuche as before the mid day mouthful took coach abroad to Osoyoos  where My Lords PHILLIP GAGLIARDI and FRANK RICHTER were come  with other high priests of the land to make open, midst great fanfare on the part  of the Osoyoos citizenry, the Richter Pass cut-off. Muche buffoonery on the part  of Mister Gagliardi and sentimental reminiscences by Mister Richter.  1965  MONDAY Earlie up of a sunshine morne and to the office where sat all morning despatching business. Earlie home in the evening to put on my best doublet  and neckpiece and make myself tidy again, with my wife, taking coach abroad  to Kelowna where I to meet with committee members of the Okanagan  Historical Society and discourse long on matters of Okanagan history. Mighty  pleased to see the young people taking part, for we of riper years won't last  forever, and moreover the happenings of today will be the history of tomorrow.  It was with troubled mind driving home late at night to perceive how ill-  mannered northern motorists are taking little heed of oncoming drivers by little  thought of dimming lights. Past midnight home and so quickly to bed without  prayers for which may Almighty God forgive me.  WEDNESDAY Rising this day with full design to mind naught else but scriven  on some matters demanded of me. So at my desk where all day laboured, and  wearie home to a beaker of wine with the evening meal. After washing the  dishes, at some reading, and in turn discoursing with my wife. Fell to talking  about things to be done about the home and garden; some, mayhap, this year  and some next. Methought never to be finished is a healthful state; it seeming to  me that always having something ahead to strive for keeps the spirit young, and  a better thing than just to sit and wait.  MONDAY (17th October) . . . and so read in the news-sheets of the passing of  V. GREEN who, forsooth, was a life long resident in the Twin Lakes area.  Recalled how well nigh two score years agone I helped at the laying away of his  father on a high hill overlooking the lakes, that being his wish, there to be laid 121  away astride the land he had made his home. Not being accessible by motor  carre, the casket was carried a half mile and more over a mountain traile in a  procession headed by Rev. WILL BEAMES to the chosen spot where the last  rites were read.  1968  TUESDAY (October 29th) All day at my labours and so finished betimes and  put on my good suit and abroad to the city to suppe with the Rotary Club and  give ear to Cap Capozzi discourse on his Horatio Alger story of rags to riches.  Mr. Capozzi, an immigrant from Italy late in the 19th century, said Canada  had been good to him. "It's a land of opportunity," he saith, "specially for the  young-folk." He saith that the goal is here and that hard work and fair play is  the road to achievement. Paid rapt attention and then fell to wondering . . .  1969  WEDNESDAY (February 12th) With this day cometh the 46th anniversary of  the day I came here to make my home. I recall it as now, bleake, colde and  snow, but warmth glowed from the hearts of the People in suche measure that it  was never to cool with the passing of the years which have brought joys and sorrows, successes and disappointments . . .  FRIDAY (February 14th) Awoke to a morne of lowering skies, the clouds pregnant with snow. Alone in a quiet house sat deep in meditation yearning for  Spring and the bourgeoning of the buds. Turning back the pages of memory, I  cannot recall in this well nigh half century of time a period so long plagued by  the inconvenience of Winter.  1970  SUNDAY (October 18th) . . . and so sat at the wireless shocked by the telling of  the dastardly killing of Monsieur LaPorte; a shabby and shameful thing to have  been done in this fayre land and I can only hope and pray that the doing of it  will unite our peoples of all races in the determination to stamp out the inculcation of doctrines designed to divide and destroy the well-being of our countrye.  THURSDAY (October 22nd) Today read with muche pleasure the tribute accorded F. Venables last week in Victoria on his pending retirement from active  participation in school affaires. For two score years and more he has given  devoted service not only here at home but all across the nation. I deem no more  fitting tribute could be paid here in his own community than to have the  auditorium in the High School here named officially "The Frank Venables  Auditorium" so to give permanent recognition to a life-time devotion to the  welfare of our youth.  1972  TUESDAY (December 5th) ... in the evening my wife and I, we to the city  there, together with many others, to be thanked by the Sisters of St. Ann for the  part the people of the community played in assisting them in some form or  another in caring for the sick and ill-disposed of the district. Soon the old order  changeth yielding place to new, but God reveals himself in many ways and it is 122  my hope and prayer that when the new hospital opens, some niche will still remain wherein they can, in some manner, continue to serve with the same loving  care and devotion.  SUNDAY (December 17th) Lay later than is my custom even for Sabbath  morne by reason of some roystering on the night before. Howsoever rose up and  into my Sunday clothes and with my wife, we abroad to morning worship.  Christmas musick was the order of the service and I sat in mute silence for a  time giving eare to the musick, much of which composed or arranged by Oliver-  born Lloyd Fairweather, a grandson of one of Oliver's pioneer businessmen.  Prayers over we home and having eaten a good dinner I to lie down and rest a  bit.  SUNDAY (December 31st) And so this morning sat afront the wireless eyeing  the funeral service for Mister Pearson and I trow the beautye of it all did cause  my eyes to fill with tears, in especiale when the parson, in his eulogy, did tell of  the humility and wisdom and the part suche played in the life of a great  statesman and servant of humanity; characteristics I trow too seldom found in  our publick men today, arrogance and pride being much more their manner of  life. More than aught else I deem his quiet sense of humour did muche to  smooth the turbulent seas of statesmanship.  1973  TUESDAY (April 24th) And so today cometh the news of the passing of R. Tait  which grieved me to the verie heart forasmuche as over a half of century agone  he came to my door and as the closest neighbour extended the hand of welcome  and fellowship. Those were the days when naught but very little was here and  together we have seen the sage brush and cactus give way to luscious orchards  and vineyards. I recall the olde days when we played hockey together on frozen  ponds; golfing on the olde historick golf course and tennis on one or the other's  courts.  CAPTAIN EDWARD ARTHUR TITCHMARSH  by Elizabeth Slingsby  Capt. Edward (Teddy) Arthur Titchmarsh, a former alderman of the City  of Penticton, passed away peacefully at the South Okanagan General Hospital  on December 17, 1984 at the age of eighty-eight.  Capt. Titchmarsh started his life with the intention of becoming an  engineer and, during his apprenticeship period, he worked on the engines of the  ill-fated Steamship Titanic.  At the outbreak of World War I Capt. Titchmarsh joined the Motorcycle  Corps of the British Expeditionary Forces and saw active service in France in  September 1914. He was wounded in 1915. He then attended Military Staff  College at Quetta, Baluchistan, India and received his commission in the Indian  Army. He served in the Indian Army until his voluntary retirement in 1922. He  was on active patrol at the time of Gandhi's first arrest, and saw duty in  Mesopotamia during the Turkish uprising. 123  Capt. and Mrs. Titchmarsh came to the Okanagan in 1922 to look over the  newly created Oliver Soldier Settlement Project, then under construction, with  the intention of settling there. They decided to purchase an orchard in Penticton  and resided there until 1979.  Capt. Titchmarsh is best known for his active involvement in the fruit  growing industry, serving in various executive positions on the BCFGA and as  president of the Penticton Co-operative Growers. The Titchmarshes often talked about the hail damage done during a storm in the 1920s. He picked the fruit  and his wife sorted it all on the orchard as, otherwise, the damage was so severe  that the packing costs would have been prohibitive. Remembering this over the  years, his dream of forming a Hail Insurance Company became a fact in the  early 1950s. Capt. Titchmarsh held Share #1 in the company, He presented the  brief to the Provincial Legislature the day W. A. C. Bennett crossed the floor to  become an Independent Member. The Hail Insurance Company was purchased by I.C.B.C. and also evolved into the present Crop Assurance Plan.  Capt. Titchmarsh is survived by his wife Mary ("Billie") who is in the  South Okanagan General Hospital and by his daughter Liz of Osoyoos.  TRIBUTE TO JIM LAIDLAW, SCOUTER  by Harley Hatfield  Jim (James B.) Laidlaw went home, as Scouts say, in March of 1986. He  was one of those people who keep the truly civilized world going, his shoulder  always to the wheel in sunshine or storm. He asked no special favours and  sought no special awards. Those awards, and there were a number, came  because so very obviously earned.  He served his employer, the Canadian Pacific, with care and diligence and  with courtesy to the public for forty years. For his chief community interest, the  Boy Scouts, he gave many years of time and devoted service in a wide variety of  positions, little ones, big ones, tough ones, as the need arose.  A member of O.H.S. he recorded more of Scouting history in our locality  than anyone else has made time to do. Another of Jim's interests was the  Geological and Lapidary Club where again he used the opportunity to help  young people.  All who knew this quiet, all-round man and good citizen, join with his wife  Grace and son Kenneth, in appreciation for his life and in sadness at our loss. 124  Garnet Edward Willis.  GARNET EDWARD WILLIS  by Grant Willis  Garney Willis, one of the true pioneers of the Similkameen Valley, died  October 27, 1985, in Penticton. He was born in 1894 in Chilliwack where his  parents, Abe and Alvina Willis, owned a large dairy operation. In 1912 he and  his brother Ernie moved to Princeton to ranch out on Wolf Creek. Abe Willis,  Garney's nephew, is still there.  In 1915 Garney Willis left Princeton and headed to Keremeos. Except for  a short stint in the army, he lived there for the rest of his life. From 1927 to 1971  he owned and operated the Willis ranch. He started with sheep and after World  War II switched to cattle raising.  All his life Garney had his beloved horses. He recognized the need for good  horses in the area and for many years brought in Thoroughbred and Quarter  horse stallions to upgrade the local stock.  If you like horses you usually like rodeos and in the early years Garney had  a good rodeo string in partnership with Hans Richter. They supplied stock for  a number of rodeos in B.C. and Washington. They helped start the Keremeos  rodeo that later became the Elks rodeo. In recognition of this Garney led the  Elks parade until 1984.  Sheep ranching created a need for range and this lead to the opening up of  the high country around the Cathedral Lakes. Garney and his crews spent many  years opening trails and building bridges throughout the Ashnola. Many of  these trails are still used today.  Garney's retirement years were spent with his wife Jean in Cawston. His  friends were legion, his stories legendary. He will be missed by all that knew  him.  For further information see:  McCague, Mae, South Similkameen Saga. Similkameen Spotlight Publishing Co., Princeton. 1975.  Sweete, Barbara Willis, Cowboys Don't Cry. Rhombus Media Inc., Toronto. 1984. Video. 125  DON MacKENZIE — AS I REMEMBER HIM  by Alice Neave  I was listening to quiet music this past October when a news broadcast announced a helicopter had crashed in Edmonton and that one of the deceased was  Don MacKenzie. It was hard to accept that one of my close classmates had passed away. Don was born in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), Africa, on  September 16th, 1933. He spent the first 12 years of his life there on the Cop-  perbelt where his father was manager of the Roan Antelope copper mine. He  came to Canada in 1945 with his parents and two sisters, Mary and Janet. That  is when I met him, a nice looking, blond boy, who was in my class at school. He  became class president and I was secretary under the ever-watchful eyes of Miss  Ball. We saw each other often in our junior high and senior high school years.  Don was on the basketball, track and field teams and participated in swimming and any other sport he could fit in. In grade nine he was on the executive  of the athletic council as was Royce Moore, Joyce Turk and myself. I can  remember when we were skiing and Don and a close friend, Doug Mervyn, got  their jumping skis. What a thrill it was to watch these boys practice on our jump  on Black Mountain. They made it look so easy and graceful. We were both  lifeguards and swimming instructors at the Kelowna Aquatic and on the swimming team for several years. Over the years we made many trips to various  parts of B.C. and Washington. Don was always a smiling, happy leader and  friend to us all.  Don's one dream was to be a pilot and in 1953 he gained his fixed wing and  instructor's licence. He flew off and on for CP Air from 1955 to 1959 and in  1960 he joined Okanagan Helicopters.  Kelowna High School. Back (L. to R.): Don MacKenzie, Royce Moore, Mr. C. Larson (teacher).  Front (L. to R.): Joyce Turk, Miss Jill Fournier (teacher), Alice (DePfyffer) Neave. 126  Our paths crossed several times over the years. He piloted in the north for  a short time and in 1962 he was posted to Nelson. By this time he had met and  married Edna Oliver. In 1962 Don was made the base manager for Okanagan  Helicopters in Nelson where he stayed until 1969. He then was sent to the  Okanagan's first eastern IFR offshore operation, where he set up the operation  with four pilots and four engineers under him.  While in Sydney, Don won the highest award in the annual citations of the  worldwide helicopter association. He was named "Pilot of the Year." Don was  cited for his "highly skilled professional decisions," which saved 14 lives in landing on the heliport of an oil rig 125 miles off the east coast of Canada after his  Sikorsky S61N experienced a tail rotor failure in April, 1971. He was presented  with an award and a special plaque at the annual convention in Disneyland,  Anaheim, California.  In 1975 Don and family returned to Vancouver where he served as the first  International IFR Check Pilot. Later that year be became Chief Pilot. Don  returned to Kelowna with his family once in a while to visit family and friends.  He was here on June 30, 1983, for our 30 year class reunion. This brought back  many good memories about our school days and summer holidays as we met  and renewed old friendships. At that time we had a golf fun tournament and  Don actually hit a bird on a hole where he got a birdie. He and his two school  buddies, Royce Moore and Jim Scantland, performed a skit which they had  done together in high school so many years before. In May, 1985, he was cited  for his 25 years of dedicated service with Okanagan Helicopters.  Don met his untimely death doing what he enjoyed most, flying. In Edmonton he was attempting, with another senior pilot, to determine the cause of  a previous accident in the same type of machine — a 214 Bell Helicopter. The  following remarks are from people who knew him in his profession:  He was a leader, a pilot's pilot, a man's man and such a kind, caring  person . . . My phone rang every day from St. John's to China to  Bombay with nothing but respect and admiration for Don. He is going to be missed by so many.  Jean Bains, Secretary, Okanagan Helicopters.  I deeply valued his friendship and share your grief. He will be missed  by all who knew him and by the profession he so admirably  represented.  Robert F. Daniell, President and Chief Operating Officer,  United Technologies Corporation.  Don will be remembered by all who came in contact with him — his wife  Edna, daughter Kathy, sons Bruce and Scott, his parents, Mr. and Mrs. W.J.  MacKenzie, his sisters Janet and Mary, and his many, many friends. 127  THE REVEREND AND MRS. W. S. BEAMES  by T. B. Beames and A. Waterman  Another golden summer Sunday was drawing to a close and the service in  St. Saviour's Anglican Church in Penticton, British Columbia, murmured comfortably along as William Stanley Beames prepared to mount the pulpit. Six feet  tall, wearing full canonical vestments of black cassock, snow-white surplice,  preaching scarf and academic hood, Mr. Beames was an impressive and well-  loved figure. The congregation sat relaxed as their rector placed the Bible on the  bookrest and cast a speculative look over their heads. Suddenly he raised his  hand — a strong hand that had known how to handle an axe — and brought it  down on the open Bible with a thwack that smashed book and bookrest from  their place and shot them into the air, only to be snatched back and slammed  down triumphantly on the pulpit's ledge.  Bristling at the indignity of such a shindig the congregation jerked upright,  shoulders straightened and heads turned towards the source of the commotion.  "Well," beamed the rector from his stance above them, "Better a wave of  righteous indignation than a sea of apathy!" And began his sermon.  Later, speaking with friends, the rector's wife, Gertrude, smiled and said,  "You know how Will was." And if you were not fortunate enough to know how  Will was, you had missed an unique experience.  William Stanley Beames was born April 30, 1886 to Catherine Mary  Beames in London, England. Within three months he travelled with his mother  to join his family in the Indian hill country near Darjeeling where his father,  Henry Blunt Beames, was a non-indentured civil servant.  At the age of six the boy was sent to England to be educated. He travelled  on one of the early steam vessels with side paddle-wheels and remembered the  silence that ensued when the engines were shut down and the ship surged forward under canvas. In England Will was enrolled in a dame school — a small  private school run by a woman — until old enough to enter Dulwich College for  Boys, where he studied to become a military engineer specializing in mining.  In 1905, his imagination fired by highly coloured immigration information  which promised fortunes in the gold fields of B.C.'s Kootenay country, the  young man left school and set off for Canada, despite the pleas of relatives and  teachers that at least he complete his graduation. Even the discomforts of a  C.P.R. immigration car did not dull his enthusiasm. The immensity of the  prairies fascinated him as did the harvest activities he witnessed.  By September Will was in Rossland, then a booming, wide-open, goldmin-  ing town. The shops and saloons lining the steep main street, noisy and lantern-  lit at night, seldom closed. Despite the activity Will could not find work. Upon  hearing of a job hauling supplies for a teamster in Greenwood, Will set off on  foot for the town. He arrived late the next afternoon and found the teamster at  one of the hotels. "Do you know anything about horses?" "Of course, just  about everything," came the prompt reply. "Very good. The bays at the end of  the stable are my team. Have them fed and harnessed by six o'clock tomorrow  and you're hired."  By 5:30 Will Beames was in the barn still struggling with a tangled pile of  cruppers, hame straps, reins and traces. By six o'clock he had the collars on but  one was upside down. The teamster took one look and doubled up laughing. 128  "You may know everything about horses," he gasped, "but you know damall  about harness!" Despite the rude beginning he found the raw-boned youth  ready and willing to learn.  Other jobs followed including work for the West Kootenay Power and  Light Company. When in Rossland, Will attended the Anglican Church. There  he met the Rev. John A. Cleland and his family. An invitation to share the  Cleland's Christmas dinner marked the beginning of an enduring friendship  that grew through nearly eighty years.  Will worked for the famous LeRoy II mine and in various capacities for the  Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. In 1906 he was drawn to the  lovely Slocan country where he rawhided silver ore from the Alamo Consolidated Mines. He tried his hand at baking and later worked as an ore  sampler. Over the next few years he ranged from Sandon to Phoenix in the  Boundary country as the fortunes of various mines rose and fell.  In spite of the unsettled nature of his life Will was an active churchman,  serving when opportunity afforded as church warden, lay reader and as lay  delegate to the Anglican synod in Nelson.  In 1910 Will found steady employment in the assay office of the CM. and  S. Company. He batched with his friend and mentor, the Rev. H. W. Simpson,  rector of St. George's Church, Rossland. This friendship was to have a profound influence on Will. No longer a greenhorn but a husky, often brash young  man, he continued to work actively in the church as server, lay reader, Sunday  school teacher, member of the choir, the church committee and the first  Anglican Young People's branch in B.C. Again he became a delegate to the  church's synod.  During this period Will met the bubbling, attractive Gertrude Elizabeth  Brown. Gertrude had been born in 1895 in Tacoma, Washington and, while  still an infant, had been brought to Rossland where her family hoped that the  mountain air would heal Mrs. Brown's tuberculosis. Unhappily Gertrude's  mother died in childbirth. Mr. Brown, unable to manage the care of Gertrude  and her older brother, Bill, in Rossland, returned with the children to his home  in Hull, England. After a fruitless search for work he left Gertrude with an aunt  and returned to Rossland with his son. Two years later Mr. Brown re-married  and brought his daughter back to Rossland where he had established a dry  goods store.  In 1901 Gertrude started school in the new Cook Avenue School and attended Sunday school in the original Father Pat Church on Columbia Avenue.  She was an active girl, skating, cheering at hockey matches, to say nothing of  enjoying clandestine runs down the infamous "Zip" where toboggans raced in  winter. In a note she reminisced, "Father must have been a DON'T man.  Don't go near the Chinese laundry (next door). Don't go near the Hoochie  Coochie (sic) tent when the circus comes to town. Don't go near the saloons and  don't look at the ladies walking the streets on payday!"  After completing high school Gertrude worked as a reception-assistant in a  doctor's office. Like many others, she doubled as a nurse during a 'flu epidemic.  While teaching Sunday school she met the brash young Englishman with the red  hair and rich baritone voice. It was the start of a lifelong romance and working  partnership. By 1914 they were engaged.  The outbreak of World War I forced major decisions on Will. By then he 129  was determined to enter the ministry of the Anglican Church yet all his training  and traditions demanded that he defend his land and all that it stood for. He  missed the counsel of his friend, the Rev. H. W. Simpson, who had returned to  England. Finally, he applied and was enrolled in St. Mark's College, a forerunner of the present Vancouver School of Theology. While a student he was placed in charge of St. Stephen's, West Vancouver. An inscribed silver watch bears  appreciative testimony to his work, especially as Sunday school superintendent.  By July, 1915, the need to serve his country directly took precedence and  he joined the Royal Canadian Engineers, 2nd Division. On October 14, Gertrude and Will were married in St. James' Church, Vancouver by the Rev. F.  E. Perrin, Vicar of North Lonsdale. He was 29 years old and for the next three  years, in the mud and blood of the trenches, he absorbed more wisdom about  men under stress and the value of inner faith than he could ever have learned in  college. Fortunately he came through the war with nothing more serious than a  minor wound and a light dose of mustard gas. After the armistice he stayed on  in Europe to serve with the army of occupation.  During the war years Gertrude worked at Fry's chocolate factory; did  various kinds of war service and, with a friend, took alternate nights tending the  light at the mouth of the Capilano River that marked the entrance to Vancouver  Harbour. This latter duty required rowing out to the light regardless of weather,  filling the lamp with oil, trimming the wick, cleaning the globe, re-lighting the  lamp and rowing back to shore, often against a heavy tide.  Will was, 1919. Difficult months followed during  which he cut shingle bolts, wheeled cement for the Capilano suspension bridge,  cleared land for Spencer's store or did any work which came to hand. The  couple established a home in North Vancouver and on March 1, 1920, Thomas  Bernard was born.  Will was then working in the drafting offices of Wallace's Shipyards in  North Vancouver. In 1921 the Canadian Pacific Steamship line decided to use  Prince Rupert as a design and construction site for a series of barges needed in  the coastal service. Wallace's Shipyards received the contract. This necessitated  the young couple's first move and Gertrude's first experience — one often to be  repeated — of packing up her home and unpacking at a new location.  Everything had to be packed by the householder, crated and shipped at his  expense.  On September 9, 1921, Henry Denys (known as Denys) was born in the  land of eternal rain and muskeg. Shortly after, work petered out and the family  returned to West Vancouver.  Following their return Will, with his wife's full support, made his final  commitment to study for the priesthood. He re-entered St. Mark's College  where he continued his theological studies until the students transferred to the  new Anglican Theological College on the U.B.C. campus. There he completed  his studies under such eminent theologians as Dr. H. Trumpour and Dr.  Vance.  After his first year of study, Will's drafting job closed down. To keep food  on the table he assisted in local Vancouver churches. During the summer holidays the young couple undertook mission work at Athabasca Landing on Lesser  Slave Lake. The town was the transportation hub of the north country. Flour  and other supplies moved north during the brief summer to various Arctic posts 130  and ports. Furs and minerals flowed south to Edmonton either by the easterly  Athabasca River route or by the westerly Peace River route. In summer travel  was by boat, horseback or horse and buggy. In winter, though horses were used  to some extent, travel was mainly by dogteam and sled. In addition to the  Anglican and Roman Catholic missions, the town consisted of the Mounted  Police barracks, a post office, a few stores, two hotels and the ubiquitous  blacksmith shop and livery stable.  Church buildings existed in a few small towns but sectarianism was of little  importance. Priests were few and far between and when one arrived a service  was soon arranged in schoolhouse or home to which all the neighbours came.  Mission work involved touring the country in a buckboard in the back of which  lay two squirming urchins bedded in a suitcase, its lid propped open, the whole  double-wrapped in mosquito netting to keep the babes from flies. At two cents  a dozen, eggs were used for barter or were fed to the horses with their mash  which kept their coats glossy.  The Rev. and Mrs. W. S. Beames in Penticton, circa 1940.  During those two summers of mission work the embryo priest began to  develop that ecumenical approach which was to mark his whole life. An Anglican by training and tradition he was first and foremost a Christian ministering  to Christ's people. He was ordained Deacon in St. Mark's Church, High  Prairie, Alberta in May, 1925.  At the end of his final year, Will received his Licentiate in Theology degree  as well as a prize for scholarship and another for Hebrew and Greek studies.  Posted to High Prairie the family cheerfully returned to take up its work. This  demanded long, hard hours in the saddle through every kind of weather. Will  was always grateful for the gift of a buffalo ridingcoat from a Mountie friend. In  winter he more than once reached home by giving his horse its head lest both be  lost. All winter a life-line ran from the back door of the house to the stable so  there would be no danger of getting lost in a blizzard while caring for the horse. 131  1926 was an eventful year for the Beames family. In May, Will was ordained priest at St. James' Church, Peace River. On June 3, a daughter, Katherine  Mary Elizabeth (Betty) was born. Then during that summer Will was forced to  leave the people and land he had come to love.  Conditions in the north were primitive. Water was usually hauled in a  wooden barrel from the nearest slough to the back door of the farm house.  There it sat, an enamelled dipper beside it, until the barrel needed refilling. Like  others, the new priest drank contaminated water and came down with the  typhoid fever that all but ended his life.  Gertrude's loving care kept Will alive when the standard fare for typhoid  patients was a raw egg in a saucer of brandy. As well as caring for Will she was  nursing her new baby. At this inopportune time both Bernard and Denys  developed measles. Nothing but mutual love and their strong faith in God could  have carried the young couple through such a trial.  To convalesce, Will was ordered to leave the Peace country. Gertrude was  left with an infant daughter, two young boys and all the packing arrangements.  With the help of Gertrude's father the family was re-united in Rossland where  they stayed long enough for Will to begin to get back on his feet. In August they  packed tents, pots and pans and, with Gertrude's sister, (Mrs. E. Paul) and the  family cat, entrained for Slocan City where Will's old friend and former mining  partner, Mr. J. Owen Clay, met them with horse and wagon to take them to  Valhalla Ranch. That summer of rest and sunshine on the banks of the Slocan  River strengthened Will.  His health restored, Will accepted an appointment to East Trail. An easy  move. In 1927 the parish extended from the present Fruitvale, to Ymir and the  Boundary. Slowly spirits rose, life regained some semblance of normality and  old debts began to be repaid. When a church was needed in East Trail, Will used his engineer's training to design the little mission church-hall that was built  on a site donated by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. The last  of the boys, Hugh William (Bill) was born on November 13, 1927 in East Trail.  The following spring Mr. Beames was appointed to the parish of St.  Peter's, Revelstoke, where he served throughout the bitter days of the great  depression. Gertrude's sense of humour and ability to cope with day-to-day routines punctuated by assorted emergencies ranging from the humourous to the  sad were tested to the full. There was son, Bill, the escape artist. Tied in his  harness and tethered to a stake on the front lawn, he'd be gone in twenty  minutes only to be found scooping at the bottom of the last jar of jam or visiting  a neighbour in search of a handout! Once he was herded away from the river  bank by Laddie, the family dog.  At Revelstoke there were no northern lights and howling huskies: no  Mounties in their white and green parkas1 arriving by dogsled to maintain the  law during the great days of the moochigans2, no excited watching and waiting  for the arrival of the boat from Fort Vermilion, rather the endless procession of  cold, hungry and too often ill-clad men stumbling off the freights in search of  warmth, food and shelter. The rectory became one of the major calling points  1 The Curator, RCMP Museum, Regina: "It is very possible that the parkas of the (detachment) members stationed at Athabasca were white trimmed with green, possibly made by someone in that locale for the detachment."  2 Dances. 132  for men in need — in need of food, clothes and spiritual sustenance. Life  became a grim struggle to find work for willing workers; to maintain their  courage and self-respect. Friendships from those frustrating times endure to this  day.  The children were accustomed to wearing hand-me-downs or bargains  from jumble sales but when unexpected guests shared their meals they rather  resented their mother's signal, "N.M.I.K, kids!" — no more in the kitchen, so  no second helpings.  But it was not all bitterness and hardship. Again Mr. Beames put his early  training to use by designing and overseeing the construction of St. Peter's  church hall and raising much of the money either directly or indirectly. A fine  string of concerts remains a fond memory for participants still alive. A splendid  choir and a strong Sunday school were established. Badminton became a part of  community life. Boy Scout outings and hearty bean feeds that followed are  recalled by many.  Early one Sunday morning the peace was shattered by the roar of the rector's voice: "Gertrude, where the deuce is my clean shirt?"  "Will, I told you yesterday that if you gave that shirt away you would not  have a clean one for today."  "Don't be ridiculous, woman. Where's my clean shirt? You know I can't  go into the sanctuary in this filthy thing I wore yesterday."  "Then you'd better wear your nightshirt because you simply do not have  one clean shirt left. There is one in the wash, there's the one you wore yesterday  and the other you have given away.''  Probably for the first time in his life the rector entered the sanctuary of the  Lord wearing a shirt that was not spotlessly clean.  In that old brick rectory in Revelstoke Mrs. Beames' strange ability to  predict the visits of dignitaries was manifested — especially those of the Bishop.  This same ability was reflected, too, in her uncanny facility in guessing games  which were so cheap and hence so popular.  1932 was a banner year. The family with Gertrude's sister, Elsie, luxuriated in its first-ever holiday at Okanagan Landing. All enjoyed the swimming but none more than Mrs. Beames as she floated flat on her back, a straw  hat tilted over her eyes and a book propped on her breast. Laddie was a constant  companion on the beach, in the boat or in the hills. Strange birds were observed, turtles found, neighbours enjoyed. Some sort of truce prevailed between  Laddie and a family of skunks which "lived in:" the Beames above, the skunks  below. Hours were spent lazily watching the stern-wheelers, Okanagan and  Sicamous, majestically plowing the lake streaming smoke in the sky and spume in  their wakes.  In the following year the last big family move was made from Revelstoke to  Penticton, with all the excitement of the trip by Chapman's truck to Okanagan  Landing and the glorious trip down the lake on S.S. Sicamous with Captain  Weeks at the helm. Mr. Beames was installed as Rector of the Parish of St.  Saviour's on June 26, 1933, and the family settled into its new life with relish.  But the country was still suffering from the depression and Penticton, a  divisional point on the K.V.R., had its share of men seeking work, food and  shelter. The new rector soon made an arrangement with Messrs. George and  Sam Drossos at the old Kandy Kitchen: they agreed to feed men sent with a 133  note from Mr. Beames and submit the bills to him. The arrangement worked  especially well because those two big-hearted citizens charged only half the  menu price.  People in trouble and in joy came to the rectory door. One day Public  Health Nurse Joan Appleton3 arrived with a fretful, ailing baby whose  distracted young mother needed rest. Mrs. Beames cuddled the infant as the  nurse set down a box of medication to relieve colic and other symptoms with appropriate lists of instructions. Mrs. Beames listened to the nurse's instructions  as she rocked the baby. When the mother had recovered, Miss Appleton  reclaimed a happy, gurgling baby from Mrs. Beames' arms. "And the box of  medicine?" Mrs. Beames was puzzled. "What box? Oh yes, I remember. I put  it under the crib."  In 1937, the last of the Beames family, Caroline Helen (Carol) was born on  December 11, in the old hospital (now the Haven Hill Retirement Centre.) The  family continued living in the old rectory on what had originally been part of the  Tom Ellis estate off Fairview Road and is now Preston Avenue. Although the  house had been enlarged it was still far too small for its many occupants and  functions. At the beginning of World War II, it was replaced by a large, comfortable house opposite St. Saviour's Church4 on Winnipeg Street.  In addition to his services in the city during this period, Mr. Beames was  responsible for the parishes of Keremeos, Oliver, Okanagan Falls and Kaleden  to the south as well as Naramata to the north. Sunday was indeed a busy day,  especially before the Rev. F. C. Briscall took over duties in Oliver. Tales of  those days are legion; memories of the rector's escapades on the road are  endless.  Joan Norris recalled a Christmas when the Beames family was to enjoy  Christmas dinner with her family. Father Beames was late returning after a  morning service in Naramata. While chatting, Mrs. Beames was inwardly praying for his safety and hoping the worst explanation was that the rector had  forgotten. When he finally arrived he explained that he had skidded into a ditch  to avoid a flock of sheep. He was quite happy stuck there because the pastoral  scene had stirred thoughts of what Christmas was all about and how much could  be learned from sheep.  After considerable discussion, in 1934 the surviving members of the Ellis  family gave permission to move the original St. Saviour's from Fairview Road  and attach it to the south wall of the new church. Again Mr. Beames' experience proved valuable as he supervised the dismantling of the original Ellis  Church. The transept inserted by the Rev. J. A. Cleland5 to enlarge the church  in 1908 was removed. And so the little church, restored to its original design was  re-erected and dedicated on September 23, 1934, as the Ellis Memorial Chapel  to the memory of Thomas Ellis, his wife, Wilhelmina, and her brother, Alfred  Wade.6 The charming proportions of St. Peter's Church in Naramata were  designed by Mr. Beames who supervised its erection. It was consecrated by  Bishop Walter Adams on June 28,  1926. In 1936 the rector designed St.  3 Mrs. Joan Norris, nee Appleton.  4 O.H.S. Report No. 28, p. 100-101. According to Hugh Cleland church records give the date as  1908.  5 Will's rector in Rossland.  6 O.H.S. Report No. 34, p. 72. According to Hugh Cleland church records give the date as 1908. 134  Saviour's parish hall which still serves as a useful part of the Anglican Church  establishment.  Throughout these years and for years to come the rectory doors were  always open, tea or coffee always brewing. You never knew how many were going to sit down to a meal. Guests varied from the feisty former mayor of Ottawa,  Charlotte Whitton, to disillusioned war brides heading back to England; from  the Archbishop of Canterbury to little old ladies needing warmth, nourishment  and a little bit of love. And there was a constant stream of young people. To  double up or move out to friends was never a novelty to the family children.  Carol Robb, nee Beames, recalls: "Miss , a spinster whose water  pipes had frozen and burst so that the floors in her little house were a sheet of  ice, was brought home by dad. He wrapped her in quilts and put her by the fire  to thaw out. Mum put a potty under her bed in case she couldn't find the  bathroom in the night. Brother Bill came home from a late shift at the radio station and heard strange noises emanating from the guest room. He peeked in to  find poor old Miss struggling to get off the potty. Mum of course, rescued  her."  The Reverend W. S. Beames on the steps of St. Saviour's following a christening, circa 1944.  The years of World War II were full of terrible stress, not least in the rectory. Tom enlisted in the RCNVR and Denys joined the RCAF. Denys was  reported missing and the months of uncertainty were bitter indeed for the rector  and his wife until their son was declared dead, killed in action. Characteristically  throughout this ordeal their first concern, their thoughts and prayers were constantly with Denys' wife and child in far-off England.  The fearful stream of telegrams advising families that loved ones had been  wounded or killed had to be delivered — many, many of them by the parish  priest. Displaced persons needed help to adjust to their new surroundings.  Using his knowledge of classical Greek, Mr. Beames picked up enough modern 135  Greek to be able to offer services in their own language and in their own form of  religious service to Greek refugees. As well as the shared griefs and fears there  were shared prayers and hopes for the safe return of others, shared thanksgiving  for those safely returned. Life went on: always interesting, often tiring, endlessly  rewarding.  At the end of the war the family endured another heavy blow when their  eldest daughter was killed in a car accident. Again their grieving was matched  by their concern and love for the driver of the car.  Still remained the unmitigated joy of reunion when friends and loved ones  returned on leave or discharge. Those enriching moments of lives deeply shared  were recalled by Betty Burgess on her return from overseas service.  Over the years the Beames had been supportive friends of the Burgess  family and when the widow Burgess died, sisters Betty and Kay came to live in  the rectory. Betty remembers that the house was always full of music. Dad  Beames starting "La donna e mobile" in his study on the ground floor, Mum  Beames picking it up while making beds on the second floor, and Bill joining in  somewhere in the attic!  The only house rule that Betty recalled was that you went to church — the  church of your choice — but to church. When she left to return to Europe she  asked, "How can I ever repay you for all your kindness?" Dad Beames replied,  "Pass it on, Betty dear, just pass it on to someone else."  When Betty boarded the Queen Elizabeth there were five letters from five  members of the Beames family, one to be opened each day of the crossing. She  read the first and it cheered her so much she opened the flap of the second to  read: "Quit cheating: this ain't Tuesday!"  The Beames continued to live in the big rectory until Mr. Beames' retirement from St. Saviour's in 1951. In spite of its size it was often too small for the  people it had to serve, but none was ever turned away and it never lacked for the  warmth and companionship of the Rector and Mrs. Beames. As Mary Costley  has said of Mrs. Beames, "If you happened to meet her in the street, or at tea,  or coming in or going out of the church, she had a way of doing you good just  with her greeting . . . Mr. Beames' compassion was absolute for those who  mourned or suffered intolerable stresses but at weddings and baptisms his eyes  sparkled with the joy he shared with those present. Nevertheless he was stern  when the principles or rules of Mother Church were trampled.''  When Father Beames retired as Rector of St. Saviour's in 1951 he certainly  did not retire from life! He continued his active ministry for another fifteen years  in parishes as far apart as England and St. Mary's, Oak Bay, as well as  throughout the Kootenay and Okanagan country. And always by his side  Mother Beames walked her own unique way, supporting and counselling. She  continued dismantling and re-making homes one after the other, her sense of  humour never failing. And through it all her service with the Women's Auxiliary continued. She was recognized in later years with an honorary life  membership. She also enjoyed her participation with the Women's Auxiliary to  the Royal Canadian Legion and the many friendships formed among the ladies.  Like his wife, Mr. Beames was a longtime Legion member and for years was  chaplain of the Penticton branch. He, too, was honoured by his comrades with  the presentation of a framed certificate of merit, a silver ash tray and a life  membership. 136  While the Beames served Naramata from 1964 to 1966, a generous Anglican donated the lumber to build a cottage on the beach looking north to  Peachland. This was the first home they owned. Will, of course, designed it and  was prepared to build it on his own but when construction started, people from  every walk of life from miles around turned out to help build the Beames' retirement home. It immediately became another parish home where Mr. and Mrs.  Beames continued to welcome friends and to share the ever ready tea, the pot of  Mother Beames' famous "beach stew," the music and pleasures of shared  reminiscences.  In 1966, Mr. Beames finally retired from active service in the ministry of  his Lord and Church. From 1906 to 1966 — sixty years of faithful, willing service and almost as many of shared life and love. To quote from one of his letters:  "Throughout my ministry, my wife and I have worked as a team ..." And  again, "In Athabasca and Peace River we were paid at the end of each quarter.  Hence, we were continually out of funds. Since nobody in the north had funds,  we were sharing the common lot. The people's only riches were their hearts of  gold. Driving (by team) and riding hundreds of miles, in temperatures ranging  from 105° in summer to 62° below zero in winter, gave considerable, and  sometimes exciting variety to life. Farmers often used to fill our larder. On mail  days they came back and helped us eat the last crumb. So the round began  again. Above all our memories are the people — their courage and their  friendliness."  When no longer able to drive from Naramata the couple moved permanently into Penticton, to a snug ground-floor apartment a stone's throw from  St. Saviour's and the former rectory.  In March, 1982 the Rev. W. S. Beames died in the Penticton Regional  Hospital after a long illness during which he was tended with the compassion  and loving care his own life had exemplified. His passing was celebrated in a  triumphant funeral service conducted and attended by old and young, by family, friends, Legion comrades, rich and poor. They came from Vancouver Island  and from the northern reaches of the land, from the Kootenays and the  Okanagan to pay their last respects to one who had in some way enriched their  lives.  Death came mercifully swiftly to Gertrude on May 16, 1983. Only the day  before she died she asked to be taken for a drive along her favourite waterfront,  past the old beached hull of the Sicamous — as if she knew the end was in sight  and wanted one last look at the scene she had enjoyed so often. Once again St.  Saviour's Church was packed as loving friends from across the land came to say  farewell to one they had known as an abiding friend and faithful companion.  Acknowledgements:  Miss E. M. Burgess, Mr. Hugh Cleland, Mrs. Mary Costley, Mrs. Joan Greenwood, Mrs. T.  C. Melville, Mrs. Joan Norris, Mrs. Elsie Paul, Mrs. Carol Robb. 137  DOLLY WATERMAN: A LIFETIME LOVE OF GUIDING  by N. J. Newman  Having been asked to speak with Dolly Waterman about her years in the  Girl Guide movement, I recently found myself being served tea, cookies and  most interesting memories by this special lady. She said that she wasn't quite  sure what to tell me, then began to chronicle her experiences through the years  in detail, her lovely smile lighting her face at a cherished memory or as likely a  recalled bit of mischief.  A love of nature was the initial attraction guiding held for a young Dolly in  Princeton in the early 1900s. Having heard of the first Canadian Company in  Toronto in 1910, Dolly was most interested in becoming part of a group and its  activities. During a serious illness an English friend, Mrs. Spooner, had been  very kind and Dolly worked at getting her to become a leader. Mrs. Spooner  agreed and felt at least ten girls were needed. This was achieved (the group  eventually numbered eighteen) and a friend who had no family of her own  assisted. Both Leaders and Guides were enthusiastically enrolled by a clergyman  from Thetis Island in the Princeton Courthouse in 1915, the Scouting movement having begun there the year before. The Guides met once a week (paying  dues of five or ten cents) in a house owned by Mr. Waterman. The uniform,  which had to be ordered from Toronto, consisted of a navy skirt, white middy  blouse, red scarf tied in a reef knot, wide brimmed navy hat and the first pin, a  small trefoil. They carried a six foot staff marked off in one foot lengths.  Dolly Waterman in her Girl Guide uniform, 1915. The staff is regulation and is marked off ii  feet and inches. 138  Their most ambitious project was a concert entitled, "Cinderella and  Flowerland," which told the familiar story with most of the characters representing different flowers. Dolly went through the play for me and described all the  costumes. She was the Page, Robin Red Breast, and wore a brown satin suit  with tight knee britches, a red buttoned front and plumed hat and carried a  tasselled horn to announce the Prince's arrival. Accompanied by Mrs. Waterman, the concert was a great success and all of Princeton attended at the Oddfellows Hall. The first of a lifetime of fondly remembered camps came during  their second summer. The girls tented along the Tulameen River learning trail  signs, smoke signals and first aid, and enjoying games and campfire sing-alongs.  Dolly was suffering from laryngitis and was dosed with olive oil morning and  night by Mrs. Spooner. The parents arrived the last evening with a treat of ice  cream.  Mr. Spooner joined up in 1917 and his wife moved to Vancouver. Guides  did not get going again in Princeton until the early 1930s, with Dolly, Lieutenant of a Company of twenty or twenty-five girls captained by a friend. In 1934  Dolly moved to Osoyoos and later became involved with the movement there.  Dolly Waterman circa 1970 when she was Camp Adviser.  Over the next thirty years Dolly took part in many camps, accepting increasing responsibility and eventually taking many camps herself. With wonderful recall she talks of camping in Naramata, Peachland, at the Wagon Wheel  Ranch near Bridesville, at Johnston Creek and at Jewel Lake. She remembers  Guides from the Similkameen, the Okanagan, the Boundary and Kootenay  areas, how many attended and their daily routines. She speaks of others who  loved and worked for guiding — Mrs. Gammon, Mrs. Midgley, Dorothy  Fraser, Jessie Plaskett, Topsy Gee, Dot Lewis, Louise Abel, Emily McLennan  and Edna Bonnett to name some. Encounters with skunks, porcupine and  bears, wild storms, nocturnal male teenage visitors bent on knocking tents down  — all are relished.  In the early 1960s Edna Bonnett donated sixteen acres on Jewel Lake near  Greenwood to the Guides for a camp. Dolly was one of the people who walked 139  the brush putting in the stakes which marked the boundaries of Camp Bonnett,  and one of a large group of volunteers who donated time, money, goods and  labour over the years to improve the facilities. Dolly recollects that while moving  a frame building given to the Guides to its site at the camp, it became necessary  to cut off the corners with a chain saw in order for it to pass through the tunnel  at Greenwood.  Dolly was a Lone Guider for eleven years. This involved writing a Guide  meeting once a month, complete with tests and things of interest and mailing it  to girls who lived away from organized activity. Dolly said that six girls were all  that she could lead at one time and that she often had to do some pushing to get  a girl to complete her tests and mail the work on to the next, getting independent verification where needed that some tests had indeed been passed. She has  kept in contact with one family from an area sixty miles into the bush from  Prince George whose daughters were Lone Guides.  From girlhood days in Princeton to the present time, Dolly's love of and  dedication to Guiding has enriched many lives as well as her own. She is a Life  Member of the Canadian Girl Guides and has been awarded their Badge of  Merit which she keeps with all the pins and badges gathered through the years,  including that small trefoil that began it all. Last year being the Seventieth An-  niversay of Guiding, Dolly Waterman was asked to cut three different anniversary cakes — one in Osoyoos, another in Summerland and yet another at a  gathering for eight hundred people in the Peach Bowl in Penticton.  Note: In 1984, Dolly Waterman was given a Life Membership in O.H.S. for  her work on behalf of our Society.  THE BIRD CARVINGS OF JOHN GERVERS  by Muriel DuFeu  Wrhen my father, John Gervers died in Auckland, New Zealand, in 1964,  he left a legacy of carved birds in homes scattered throughout Canada and the  United States.  Some would have been brought from outlets in Victoria, Vancouver, Banff  and Halifax, others acquired through articles written in Canadian and  American newspapers, and yet others sent as gifts.  Whatever the motive for possessing these attractive, life-like models — be  it one of art or love of birds — they bought great pleasure to their owners.  No doubt many of them are still there — on the mantelpiece, shelf, or  cabinet.  Perhaps there would be a killdeer poised in graceful flight, a meadowlark in  full breasted song or an oriole lifting its song of praise to the summer sun.  Some may have been bequeathed with other family possessions. The new  owners may not know who carved them or if they see my father's name printed  on the stand they may wonder, "Who was this John Gervers, carver of birds?"  I am sure that if my father had not been afflicted with arthritis he would  have remained a farmer to the end of his days. His affinity with the soil showed  in his productive farming and in his flourishing flower and vegetable gardens. 140  This picture shows the process of carving a Magpie: the block with the bird marked on it, the cardboard cutout, the bird sawn out, and John Gervers beginning to carve by hand.  They say good comes out of evil. So out of his disability came this absorbing, artistic hobby.  I can remember, as a child, how it started. On a family fishing holiday he  whittled a little fish out of a piece of wood he picked up in an idle moment.  Rough as it was he had caught the sinuous movement of a trout. Encouraged by  his family, he carved bigger and better fish. One, a Kamloops trout, hangs on  my wall today.  But because of the limited shapes and colours of fresh water fish, he was  soon looking for new challenges.  His thoughts turned to the many species of birds that inhabited his property, the Old Brent Farm. From his favourite chair on the lawn, he could watch  the busy wrens building their nest, the robins looking for worms, the swallows  and kingbirds alighting on the telephone wires and the woodpecker drumming  in the maple tree.  Further afield he could observe the magpie building its clumsy nest in the  thorn tree and the sparrow hawk searching for its prey over the fields.  From being a bird watcher he became a bird carver.  A rough table in front of a window overlooking his garden became the birthplace of many beautiful carvings.  He spent many hours there perfecting his art. He found that soft, yellow  cedar and cypress were the best mediums. An outline of the bird was traced onto  a block of wood which was then cut out on a band saw. Using fine carving tools  he shaped it into its natural form. A coat of flat white paint was next applied and  allowed to dry. Oil paints mixed with a little turpentine were used to capture the  feathers' natural colours. Under his brush his birds "came alive". His keen eye  for colour and shape produced a very life-like model. 141  His carved birds were placed in natural positions. Woodpeckers were  mounted on door knockers. Chickadees and nuthatches clung to knotted  wooden lamp stands. Perching birds such as orioles, bluebirds, waxwings,  robins, etc. decorated bookends. Others on stands were placed in characteristic  poses. A crossbill contemplated a fir cone and even a hummingbird in flight sipped nectar from a flower.  With success came recognition.  In his home town, Kelowna, his birds appeared in shop windows. They  were sold and requests came for more.  James Fenwick Lansdowne, one of Canada's outstanding bird artists, admired his work and gave him great encouragement. Allan Brooks, another  famous Canadian artist, described his hobby as "a fascinating form of  sculpture".  The demand for his birds grew until twenty years after he started with the  little fish he was marketing birds across Canada and in fourteen states of the  U.S.A. His hobby had become a business.  Amongst the gifts presented to Princess Margaret when she opened the  Okanagan Bridge in 1958 was a mountain bluebird from his collection.  A happy result of his success was a trip to England for himself and his wife.  "I whittled my way to England," he jokingly said.  Lamp with Chickadees, Rufus Humming Bird and Red Pole. Shade is made of birch plywood.  Design is perforated to show light. 142  In the late 1950's a Boys' Club was formed under the directorship of Herb  Sullivan. Volunteer tutors were needed to teach the boys crafts and skills. Seeing  an opportunity to pass on his art to the younger generation, my father offered to  conduct a combination nature-skill course.  "The youngsters carve models to scale of real birds they see in the fields.  This teaches them to be observant as well as giving them skill in using tools in  their work," he said.  His involvement with the Boys' Club became a rewarding and enjoyable  extension of his hobby. In 1960 he was presented with a certificate for distinguished public service in "Building Citizens of Tomorrow".  Although it is over forty years now since he began his hobby, it seems but  yesterday that my brother and I came home from school to find yet another lifelike model of our "feathered friends" completed for our pleasure and  admiration.  WILLIAM JAMES WILCOX OF SALMON ARM  by Jack Wilcox (Dr. J.C. Wilcox)  My dad, William James Wilcox, was born in 1854 into a large family in  Ontario. His ancestry goes back to 1750 when four brothers moved from  England to Vermont.1 After attending school he articled in carpentry but switched to storekeeping. In 1881 he married Mary Clingan of northern Irish  forbears.  In 1882 my dad moved to the prairies. As the C.P.R. was far from complete he had to travel through the northern states and then north to Winnipeg  and by C.P.R. to Virden. He saw that the railway was moving rapidly towards  the Rockies and since he wanted to locate at the best spot for a general merchant  he followed the construction from Virden to what is now Swift Current. He travelled much of the way over rough tracks in a squealing Red River cart halting  to buy a lot at each promising townsite. At the end of the journey he returned to  Virden, decided to locate there and to dispose of the other lots.  Before the site of the C.P.R. station was chosen, dad used a tent for a store.  Soon he bought a small house-and-store combination in the village and sent for  his wife and their new baby to join him.  Mary Wilcox with baby Frank had an adventurous trip, especially for a  young mother. The route was similar to that taken previously by my dad. At  one point Mary's train hit a freight in the middle of the night and at Emerson  there was delay because the engine was encased in ice. She was very tired after  about four days of travel.2  In 1885 a site for a permanent home was purchased beside a pond near the  village. A large house was built. During the years that followed my mother bore  eight more children: three girls, Ruth, Ida and Laura and five boys, George,  1 The four Wilcox brothers who moved from England to Vermont settled there. But at the time  of the War of Independence, Amosa moved to Toronto or nearby as a United Empire Loyalist.  He bought 720 acres of land at a public auction. My dad, W. J. Wilcox, was a descendant  of Amosa Wilcox.  2 I am indebted to Mrs. Ida Clingan for her description of this journey in her book "The Virden  Story". 143  Arthur, Ralph, Allan and me. In addition to caring for her family she made  good use of the comfortable home by developing her talents as a gracious  hostess.  As my dad was a successful merchant his business expanded rapidly. Over  the years his partners included well-known names like Ramsey, Carscadden,  Bothney, Clingan and Scales. He enjoyed life in Virden, liked his independence  and did well financially. Unfortunately, in the severe winters, he suffered from  asthma and finally his doctor advised him to move to a milder climate.  As he had in 1882 in Manitoba my dad made an assessment tour of B.C. in  1905. He fell in love with the Okanagan Valley and bought two lots in Summerland. The last place he visited was Salmon Arm where he was told that he  would be making a mistake settling in the Okanagan because of the high cost of  irrigation. He was given to understand that in Salmon Arm no irrigation was  needed!  So he bought 132 acres of lakeshore and hillside land on the east side of  Shuswap Lake, about three miles from town. This area included two small  cleared lots owned by Mrs. Tetlock and Mr. Bjorkman with a dwelling on each  lot. Above the lakeshore area ran the C.P.R. main line. He returned to Virden  that fall3.  In July and August 1906 dad took his wife and two of his children, Ruth  and me, to Salmon Arm where we lived in the Tetlock house. He started  building a temporary frame house on Wilcox Point between the lake and the  C.P.R. This house was completed early in 1907. We returned to Virden for the  winter and in May 1907 the family came west to settle in Salmon Arm. My  sister Ida, attending Pickering College in Ontario, came later. Frank was  already in business in Salmon Arm.  On arrival at Salmon Arm this time we were escorted through heavy rain  and unilluminated darkness to the Coronation Hotel. On the second floor we  tried to sleep through the sounds of public revelry below while above carpenters  hammered at repairs to a leaking roof. In the morning we drove over four miles  through deep mud along Lakeshore Road to reach the ranch. Later we named  it the "W.X. Ranch" using the first and last letters of Wilcox.  My dad, still vigorous in mind and body at 53, undertook the herculean  task of supervising the clearing of the land for orchards and pastures. Trees were  felled, trimmed and hauled by horses to the lake where they were boomed and  finally sold to a mill at Kault across the lake. East Indians helped with the clearing one summer and in about two years the clearing was accomplished. During  the next summer or two stumps were pulled and the land at the WX Ranch was  prepared for planting.  Dad believed that the best kind of investment was real estate. Accordingly  he bought other land in the Salmon Arm district, ranging from north Broadview  to Silver Creek and Gleneden.  My dad's successful experience with small fruits in Virden proved useful in  Salmon Arm. The Bjorkman lot was ideal for strawberries and vegetables for  the house. Also planted there were sugar beets and mangolds for the cows and  horses. Other plantings above and below the Tetlock house included red raspberries, yellow raspberries, blackcaps and three species of blackberries, all of  which thrived.  3    I am indebted to my sister, Ruth Raven, for much of the above information. 144  William and Mary Wilcox, Salmon Arm, 1908.  Dad had not been trained in large-scale farming so he set out to train himself. He asked local growers for advice; he got bulletins from the B.C. Department of Agriculture and, later, from the Summerland Research Station. He also  got bulletins from Ottawa and from stations in the United States. He pored over  all this information, picked out what he thought was good and ordered his fruit  trees accordingly.  Among the earliest plantings of fruit were grapes on a slope above the  C.P.R. So far as I know, this was the first commercial planting of grapes in  B.C.4 As further clearing progressed up the hill, he planted apples, pears,  plums, peaches, apricots and cherries. The total number of varieties planted was  about 100. To handle all this work three dwellings were made available for the  workmen and their families.  For several years the fruit trees grew vigorously and the crops were heavy  and delicious. The cold winter of 1915, however, caused extensive injury. The  peaches and plums were wiped out and only hardy varieties of apples such as  Wealthy, Mcintosh, Rome Beauty and Spy survived. There followed extensive  re-planting of hardy varieties, mostly Mcintosh. Some sour cherries and apricots had survived and most of the grapes. More grapes were planted higher up  on the hillside; and later, some peaches.  Until the early twenties sales were good but decreased because of a temporary recession. Nevertheless crops continued to be good. A packing house with a  storage basement had been built in the centre of the orchard area where we did  our own packing. My dad had business connections on the prairies and he sold  carloads of fruit to these outlets. As much as possible he provided different kinds  4    O.H.S. Report #45, p. 24. 145  of fruit within each shipment. When sales were difficult, he sold to a Vernon  company that re-sold to retailers in England.  Our early sorting and packing were handled from the orchard box directly  into several other boxes for separation by size and quality. This method was  very slow and expensive. To increase efficiency dad bought a grader that sorted  for size into bins. Each packer sorted for quality from these bins. The rate of  packing increased phenomenally.  As time passed more and more problems were encountered. With cover  crops present the trees were likely to wilt; hence it became necessary to clean  cultivate — an expensive job. More and more insects and diseases appeared requiring more kinds of spray material and more frequent applications. Apple  scab, peach leaf curl, peach borer, pear leaf blister mite, aphids, mites and finally the codling moth all aggravated the spraying problem. I remember one year  when a block of pear trees became infested with blister mite. Dad did not have  the right spray so he used lime-sulphur. This cured the blister mite problem —  it also defoliated the trees. Fortunately the foliage grew again and a good crop  was obtained the following year.  The last straw was the appearance of drought spot for which no cure was  known at that time.5 Each year presented a new challenge.  When the Great Depression hit us in 1929 my dad found it very difficult to  sell fruit to the prairie retailers. The prairie people were suffering financially  themselves and many could not afford fruit. Rumour had it that many of the  smaller towns were not receiving B.C. fruit so dad went on a trip of investigation. He came back saying that everywhere he went he found fruit in the stores  selling slowly. Fruit had become an expensive luxury.  To add to our problems a three-year drought resulted in small-sized fruit.  Actually there were parts of the Salmon Arm district where streams had been  tapped for irrigation. And in places water from a nearby mountain flowed  underground. But we had no such luck and it was easy to look back and wish  that we had settled in the Okanagan where irrigation could be obtained.  Dad's losses ran into thousands. He could not pay taxes on any of his outlying properties nor could he sell them. The municipality auctioned these off.  Obviously owning a lot of property had not protected us.  During all the previous years dad had been able to hire help; some of it  steady, some of it for picking and packing only. During the depression he was  lucky to have his son-in-law, Donald Raven, to help him manage the ranch.  As well as fruit we had four work horses to care for and usually four cows to  milk. And in addition to a large stable there were two storage buildings for hay.  By 1934 dad was in his 80th year and his reflexes were no longer those of a  young man. One Sunday evening a neighbour woman phoned saying that her  house was on fire and that she needed help quickly. Don Raven hurried up the  hill ahead of dad. By this time a train was approaching the crossing. Dad crossed ahead of it but was not quite fast enough. The engine hit him and threw him  up the bank, killing him instantly. For my mother the trauma of the accident  was magnified when the engineer asked her to identify the body. For the family,  dad's death was a grievous loss.  With the consent of the family, Don Raven took over the complete man-  5    O.H.S. Report #47, p. 63. 146  agement of the ranch and he made a very good job of it. As the years passed he  paid off all of dad's debts and eventually bought the property. More recently he  sold Wilcox Point with the big house on it and a number of other subdivisions.  The remainder he had sold to a prairie man. The Ravens have made a home  out of the packing house and, though retired, are still living there.  So far I have said very little about my mother. Without her, dad could not  have accomplished all he did. Quietly and efficiently she tackled the tremendous  job of looking after our successive homes. Whenever dad was having a rough  time, she supported and cheered him. When we children were young she  mothered us in sickness and health. Before we went to school she read stories to  us, helped us to learn to read, write and do arithmetic. Always proud of our  mother our gratitude towards her grew with our years. Whenever I left home,  we corresponded every week.  Mother continued to be an excellent hostess but once, when our minister  phoned to ask if he could bring two visiting ministers out to see our place, she  said, "You will be welcome." After hanging up she held up her hands in horror  exclaiming, "Three preachers all at once? They'll eat us out of house and  home!"  This story of my dad is typical of the lives of many pioneers who settled in  the West. They recognized opportunity and made the best of it. It is a tale of independence and hard work.  HILDA CRYDERMAN  by Nancy Jermyn  Hilda Cryderman passed away at Vernon, on December 15, 1985, at the  age of 81 years, bringing to a close a lifetime of leadership and service that  touched many lives. She will long be remembered by all who had the privilege  of knowing her. Hilda had an ongoing and active concern for people of all ages  and in all walks of life and for the quality of life in her community and her country. This concern lead her to participate actively in many organizations, local,  provincial and national.  Recognition and appreciation of her dedication and service has been  manifested by the many honors and tributes she received during her lifetime,  including:  The Order of Canada, presented to her by Madame Sauve, Governor General of  Canada, at an Investiture held at Government House, Ottawa, on October 30th, 1985.  The Latin motto of the Order proclaims the aspirations of its members who, in their lives  and work, have shown that "they desire a better country" — "desiderantes meliorem  patriam."  The Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal — 1977.  The Fergusson Memorial Award for outstanding achievement and service in the field of  education. The highest award given by the British Columbia Teachers' Federation.  1971. (Hilda Cryderman was the first woman to be president of the B.C.T.F.) 147  Honorary Member of the Native Women's Association of Canada and presentation of  their beaded medallion, a very special honor and rarely given. 1972.  Honorary Member of the Delta Kappa Gamma Society Alpha Province of Canada. An  international organization of women educators — "in recognition of her contribution  to the advancement of women in all fields but more particularly her oustanding service  in improving the status of women in the teaching profession."  Honorary Member Delta Kappa Gamma Society Zeta Chapter, Vernon. 1975.  Honorary Life Membership in the British Columbia Teachers' Federation. 1969.  Honorary Life Membership in the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association. 1967.  Honorary Life Membership in the Canadian Federation of Business and Professional  Women's Clubs. 1958.  Honorary President, British Columbia Parent Teacher Association. 1954-55.  Named "Woman of the Century" by the Vernon Business and Professional Women's  Club in recognition of "a career of distinction in Education, Sports, Music, Leadership  and Public Service and her inspiration to her students and to her friends." 1982.  First Honorary Member of the Human Rights Institute of Canada. 1985.  Hilda Cryderman was born on May 10, 1904, in the little Cottage Hospital  on Coldstream Avenue (28th), in Vernon. Of United Empire Loyalist descent,  she was the daughter of William and Ella Cryderman (nee Donaldson of  Okanagan Landing) who came to Vernon in 1892 and 1890 respectively.  The Cryderman home was on 7th Street (32nd) where the Silver Star  Motel is situated today. Her playground extended from there over to where the  Recreation Centre stands today.  Hilda attended school in Vernon and took her teacher training at the Victoria Normal School. She held a Bachelor of Arts Degree from the University of  British Columbia, specializing in History, Economics and Political Geography  and did Post Graduate studies in Vocational Guidance and Counselling.  At the age of 19 she was appointed Principal of the Coldstream School and  13 years later, when the Poison Park High School was completed, she was asked  to accept the position of girls counsellor and taught business law, social studies,  international studies and Canadian history to Grades 11, 12 and first-year  university.  At the outbreak of the Second World War, she was asked by the late Dr.  Shrum, of U.B.C, to supervise a group of 100 girls to pick the berry crops near  Mission in the Fraser Valley. These berries were processed and sent in barrels  to England where they were made into jam for the Armed Forces. Hilda was  then drafted by the Canadian Legion Educational Services to serve as Educational Counsellor to the Women's Forces in the Pacific Command. This involved organization and supervision of on-station and off-station evening vocational  and handicraft classes, occupational therapy classes at rest centres and educational and vocational counselling on correspondence courses. Her headquarters  were in the old Hotel Vancouver (Vancouver Barracks) and her job to aid ser-  vicewomen who wanted to extend their education in preparation for their return  to civilian life. She travelled to all Armed Forces stations throughout B.C. and 148  had 45 classes going in these Army, Navy and Airforce stations, military  hospitals and rest centres.  Hilda returned to her teaching position in Vernon in 1945. In 1946 she was  asked to be chairman of the Okanagan Valley Teachers' Association salary  committee, and through arbitration proceedings, obtained equal pay for rural  teachers with urban teachers and equal pay for women teachers with men  teachers. A first in Canada.  During the summer months Hilda gave lectures and instruction on  counselling and group guidance at the University of Victoria Summer School.  In 1967 Hilda took early retirement from teaching when she was appointed  to Federal Commissioner on the Public Service Staff Relations Board in Ottawa, the Yukon and Northwest Territories — a seven-year appointment.  Hilda was a knowledgeable and interesting speaker and received many invitations to address meetings throughout Canada and the United States, including, Canadian Clubs, Rotary Clubs, Chambers of Commerce, Women's  Institutes, Parent Teacher Associations, National and Provincial Conventions  and political meetings. (She was a Liberal candidate in three Federal elections.)  Hilda excelled in sports and music. She coached her student teams to  championship level in soccer, basketball, baseball and hockey. Her school choirs  won the rural school choir championship, winning the Jacques Silver Cup, for  eight consecutive years at the Okanagan Valley Musical Festival.  Hilda possessed a rich and beautiful contralto voice and was a member and  soloist with the Trinity United Church Choir for many years, beginning when,  as a small child, she stood beside her father who was a choir member in the early  years.  A member of the Vernon Operatic Society, she sang the Contralto solos in  the Gilbert and Sullivan Operas presented by the group. The late Dr. Harvey,  Mr. Brimacombe, Major Maguire and Jim Holt also took leading roles in these  performances. Another well remembered operetta was "The Runaway Girl,"  in which Hilda starred with Alan Davidson.  Hilda was a member of the Okanagan Valley Festival Committee for many  years and served a term as President of the Vernon Committee. In 1927 and  1928 she won a gold medal and the Okanagan Valley Championship Spencer  Cup for best solo performance at the Festival. Also in 1927 the trio of Jean  Johnson, Bernice Briggs (Reid) and Hilda won silver medals. In 1919 and 1930  Fergus Mutrie and Hilda won silver medals in the duet class for Contralto and  baritone. Hilda sang the contralto solos in many presentations of Handel's  "Messiah" throughout the Okanagan Valley, directed by the late Anne Temple  (Day) with Ella Gaunt Stevenson (Richmond), the organist. There were also  numerous concerts in church and community halls from Deep Creek to Oliver.  In one instance, for a concert in Armstrong, Hilda was billed as an "added  attraction".  Hilda Cryderman's publications include:  "World News" a weekly column in the Vernon News Weekly, in the early years of World War II (Mr. Harris, Sr., was publisher of the paper  at that time).  Articles in the B. C. Teacher and the Business and Professional Woman. 149  Chart: "Individual Ability Achievement Measurement Chart" to  measure student effort, culminating 15 years research on the correlation between reading comprehension and achievement in the secondary school level.  A critical analysis of the Canadian Human Rights Bill C-25, with  recommendations for change.  THE WILLIAM BEADLE STORY  by Ruby Lidstone for Charlie Carey  In Whistle Stops Along the Columbia River Narrows — History of Burton we find  the following:  Wild Bill Beadle, as he was known in the Burton City area, was a colorful figure in the early days of pioneering. He was a giant of a man,  six feet tall and over two hundred pounds with an enormous black  beard plus being one of the finest axemen to ever live here. He was  noted for his prowess with an axe and was always called on when any  bridge work or log buildings were built. He has been seen to drive an  axe into a tree right to the hilt with every blow. He came with the  goldrush men and built a cabin on the right hand side of the road  about halfway between Goat Canyon and Mineral City, just on the  south side of what was called the Big Timber. He had a fairly large  dog that was his most faithful friend right to the end. If Bill got drunk  and lay down by the road or whatever, which he did fairly often, the  dog would stand guard over him and no one would dare touch him  until he came to. He left his dog with Bill Schaefer for awhile and  there was close to a murder (because) of this incident. When he  returned Schaefer told him his dog was dead. Whether Schaefer  poisoned it or not was never known. Wild Bill made Schaefer go up in  the hills and pack the dog on his back to Wild Bill's cabin and bury it.  After this was over, Bill Beadle moved to Enderby where he married  and lived to a ripe old age. One incident in Enderby was that he won  a log chopping contest when he was eighty years young.  Bill went to the 1914- 1918 War and when he returned he went to Burton  in the Kootenay area near Nelson. Later he came to the Okanagan where he  became established, finding a homestead east of the Andy Glen property near  Enderby. When he had his cabin ready he went back east and returned with his  wife Dolly. Dolly and her two brothers, who were Pennsylvania Dutch and had  come to Canada from the United States, had been dairy farming.  The government had not given Bill access so he had to pass through Glen's  barnyard to get to his property. Sometimes when he passed through during the  night he would forget to close the gates and Glen's milk cows would be missing  in the morning. 150  I made Bill's acquaintance in July 1925. I was a field pitcher on my first  day on Glen's threshing outfit. Bill came down from his homestead with his  team and wagon to haul sheaves. I had had seven years' experience on threshing outfits in Alberta and Saskatchewan where grain was the main product.  When I walked out into the field I noticed several teams and wagons with teamsters standing on the racks. This was new to me. WThere I was trained they gave  you a team and hayrack which you loaded yourself from the ground and hauled  them to the separator. I noticed Bill waiting so I went over to him and started to  load. He took his fork and began to place the sheaves. I told him just to drive the  team and I would do the rest. This pleased old Bill so much that from then on  we became good friends. His rack was a gravel box with wings on each side and  end gates. Dolly had lined the gravel box with gunny sacks so Bill went home  each night to unload the wheat that had shelled out. This seemed to upset the  farmers for they didn't realize that their racks just fed the grain back onto the  field as they went along.  During the winter of 1925 - 26 I was working in Glen's bush cutting railroad ties. I was living in a granary and on Christmas morning Andy Glen came  out and asked me if I would go up to Bill's place with Dr. Keith as Dolly had  come down to say Bill needed medical attention. The homestead was on the  mountainside so I walked up the hill with the doctor and on the way he noticed  "bare" foot tracks in the snow — Dolly's shoes were not giving her adequate  protection. When we arrived at the clearing she was out there to meet us. Bill  had got onto the back of Paddy, his old stallion, intending to fetch water from  the creek. Paddy unloaded him part way down and Bill's ribs struck a big  stump. Somehow Dolly had dragged him into the cabin and put him to bed.  The tears ran down her cheeks as she explained to us just what had happened  for she wanted to make sure that we would not think there had been any foul  play.  Dr. Keith taped up Bill and said he would have to go to the hospital. I harnessed old Frank and Paddy and hooked them to the front bob of the sleigh. I  tied on a spring and mattress, loaded old Bill and we headed for town. Going  down the hill every time we hit a stump, Bill would holler "Whoa" and the  team would stay still until I hit them with the whip in order to proceed. Finally  we pulled up at the hospital steps where the matron, Miss Teece, was expecting  us. Old Bill stuck his head out from under his horse blanket covering and wished  her a Merry Christmas. We helped him into the hospital and to a ward where he  made the matron take away the sheets — he would only go to bed if grey  blankets were provided for he was superstitious that people always died in  sheets. A few days later, after returning home, Bill walked down the hill to  thank me for my efforts. Often, when I tired from swinging the broad axe, I  would follow Bill's tracks to the cabin and have a little visit with him and Dolly.  Later in the winter I went with Bill for a weekend to his other property in  Deep Creek where he had three large trees in his clearing which were too large  for Dolly to pull on her end of a six-foot cross-cut saw. During those three days  the two of us really became acquainted. His cabin had not been used that winter  so we moved in with the mice and bush-tail rats. Bill, as a seasoned oldtimer,  made me sleep in my overcoat with cap and rubbers. It was hard for me to get to  sleep so Bill obliged by telling stories.  While he was in the Nelson area he became friendly with the hotel keeper 151  who asked him to try and bring in a little bear cub as a tourist attraction. One  Sunday morning Bill walked into town with the legs of his mackinaw pants tied  and a little cub down each leg. Bill himself wore only his Stanfield's underwear,  his mackinaw pants being slung over his shoulder.  One time when Bill was in trouble with the police of Enderby, Constable  Jerry Smith went to his cabin to arrest him. Bill took the constable by the back  of the neck and seat of his pants and threw him out through the screen door.  They subdued Bill with a 2x4. Later in the winter I had a ride to town with Bill  on a small bundle of cord wood that he was taking to town to leave behind the  Peoples Store owned by Mr. Wilson. When we were ready to return home a  bottle of Lemon Extract was waiting for Bill on the woodpile.  I lost contact with Bill for two years when I went to Ashton Creek. Upon  returning to the area I learned that Bill, having imbibed too freely while in  town, was to be locked up in jail to sober up. It took four men to carry him up  the street face down to put him in seclusion. All night long Bill kept the townspeople awake shouting for his poor little woman on the hill. The city fathers  agreed not to repeat this episode so next time he was locked up in the Provincial  Jail at the outskirts of town where Constable Smith subdued him with a garden  hose. No doubt he shivered through the night.  Logging sports annually on May 24th found Bill, even at eighty years of  age, sharpening his axe to compete with the young fellows. It took him a little  longer but he made a nice neat job.  When I returned in 1943 from the Forestry Corps, the first one on the  Enderby streets to welcome me was Wild Bill. The second time I returned, in  1945, to a Welcome Home party Bill had passed away but there was a parcel  awaiting me from Dolly Beadle. The package contained Bill's saw filing tools  along with an invitation for me to build myself a home on part of her property. .  Bill and Dolly Beadle were two unique characters who have become a little bit of  the history of the North Okanagan area. Many of us will not forget them.  MRS. W. BEADLE  by Gertrude Peel  Mrs. Beadle was born and raised in the northern part of Ontario. Her father was a pig rancher and she was the only girl in a large family of brothers.  Despite her tiny size of about 4' 5" she said she could throw sacks of grain to  feed the pigs as well as her brothers. Her dad called her Little Dolly.  After the First World War she married Bill Beadle who was a big man well  over six feet tall, very strong and tough and he freighted for the mines in Northern Ontario. He was always known for his strength and endurance to cold  hard winters and was nicknamed "Wild Bill".  When coming west they first lived at Nelson for a short period, later moving to the Hullcar district and then taking up a homestead on the mountain  above Andy Glen's farm. Here they built a little one-room log cabin which had  a dirt floor. Inside was an old iron bed wired together, a cook stove, a table  under a small window which overlooked the valley. At any point in the room 152  Mrs. Beadle could reach the stove, the bed or the table. On the small table  rested the old family Bible. Outside was tied their old dog by a heavy chain. He  ran around and around in a circle always barking and had worn a path down  three or four feet deep.  From the time she was married, Mrs. Beadle made her own clothes and  hats. The latter were wide-brimmed and made of black taffeta. She stated that  she had to keep in fashion because her Will had been quite a dude in his day!  She was a wiry little soul and always helped her husband hewing ties, cutting cordwood with a broad axe, and sawing logs with a cross-cut.  Every month they made a trip to town in a little two-wheel cart with an old  worn-out horse, to get their groceries. Coming to town Will was the driver and  she always sat primly by his side. But after spending the afternoon in town  drinking whatever he could find, mostly extract, Bill was in no condition to  drive, and would be weaving back and forth in the little cart, she beside him,  with her high squeaky voice screaming at both the horse and her husband as  well.  On some occasions when she came to town for groceries she would buy  some lemon extract. This she said was for her Will's cold. Her remedy for this  was to put the extract in a bowl of hot water. He would hold his head over the  bowl and inhale the fumes and his cold always would go away.  Another time when they returned from their trip to town in the winter Bill  fell off the cart at the bottom of the hill. She was unable to get him up so she got  a logging chain, tied it around his feet and, with the help of the old horse, skidded him up the hill to the cabin, approximately one mile straight up.  But there were happier times. Once on a trip to town Will bought Dolly a  new dress as compensation for his outing. It was a beautiful silk dress, she said,  and it had pretty flowers all over it but when he gave it to her it was stuffed in  the bottom of an old paper bag with groceries on top. Anyway she was pleased  and her Will was out of the dog house.  After Will's death Dolly continued to live up in the bush, summer and  winter, all by herself, cutting her own wood and only coming to town once a  month for groceries. Very often the local merchants would deliver groceries to  her and check to see if she was O.K. Finally after several years she was compelled to move into town where she was very unhappy living under city conditions.  She never lost her homestead hats, or her high squeaky voice, or her memory of  her beloved Will who was a "dude in his day".  WILLIAM AND CATHERINE MIDDLETON  1849-1936 and 1850-1924  by R.M. Middleton  William and Catherine Middleton came to the Okanagan Valley in 1892.  He had been born in the parish of Lumphanon, not far from Aberdeen on October 21, 1849, a descendant of David and Mary (Adam) Middleton. Scots by  the name of Middleton had lived in Aberdeenshire and Kincardineshire for at  least five hundred years. They were a "sept" of the clan Innes.  William Middleton married Catherine Smith on June 21, 1876 in Lum- 153  phanon. She was one of three children of Morrice Smith and Eliza Fraser and  was born on April 5, 1850. She and William subsequently moved to the parish  of Echt. Their five children, Louisa Alexandra, Morrice Smith, Mary, Elsie and  William Alexander were born between 1879 and 1887.  William and Catherine Middleton would have lived out their lives farming  in the peaceful Scottish countryside if it were not for the Earl and Countess of  Aberdeen. In 1890 the Aberdeens had visited British Columbia, and liked it so  much that they bought without even seeing it — the Guisachan Ranch in  Kelowna. They returned the following year to examine their new purchase and  were so taken with the Okanagan that they decided to expand their holdings in  the Valley and to buy the Coldstream Ranch near Vernon for 50,000 pounds.  Here they would plant "orchards on a big scale, sell off land in lots and thus  bring profit to themselves and their neighbours", as Lady Aberdeen later wrote.  Described as "intense and passionate, confident and aggressive" Lady  Aberdeen was eager to begin developing the ranch. On their return to Scotland  in 1891 she asked the Middletons if they would go to Vernon. The Aberdeens  initially wanted William Middleton to look into the prospects for establishing a  dairy herd at the ranch, but they also offered to sell him land as well. In the  time-honoured tradition of pioneer accounts it would be tempting to say that the  Middletons leapt at the offer but this would only be partly true. Catherine Middleton, infected by Lady Aberdeen's enthusiasm was anxious to go, but William  was more cautious and uncertain. His attitude was perhaps understandable as  he, as the head of a family of five, was being asked to give up a familiar and  comfortable life in Scotland and begin, in his early middle years, a new life in a  new country. His wife quietly but forcefully argued the case for the move. Family legend has it that William took to his bed for a couple of days to underscore  his objections to the idea and, to test her resolve, left some of the travel arrangements to his wife to handle. She proved more stubborn than he and in the end  he relented. They booked passage, and by steamship and rail, arrived in Vernon in June 1892.  Little is recorded of their trip other than a letter written by Lord Aberdeen  to William Middleton on what he could expect en route. Amongst other things  he described the passenger train between Sicamous and Vernon, whose track  had only been laid the previous year, as "very slow". It remained slow for the  next sixty years of its existence. Their youngest child, Bill, could still remember  in his eighties that they were met at the train in Vernon by a wagon and a team  of roans called Dan and Isaac. Almost as importantly to a five-year-old they  were also met by Lady Aberdeen's brother, the Honourable Coutts Marjoribanks. A colourful figure splendidly dressed in chaps and a large Mexican  hat, he became an instant hero to a young Scot.  It did not take William Middleton long to discover that a dairy herd was  not a very viable proposition. Vernon, the proposed market, only had a population of 2,000 or so and virtually every family had its own cow. Five months,  therefore, after he arrived he bought from Lord Aberdeen 30 acres of land two  miles from Vernon at the corner of the Lumby and Aberdeen roads. The agreement of sale was dated November 1, 1892. It is not known what he paid for it  but in an entry in her diary in October 1894 Lady Aberdeen said, "We have a  lovely little valley to divide up into smaller 40 or 50 acre lots . . . $30 per acre is  the lowest that has been paid." It is believed that William Middleton was the 154  first to purchase land from the Aberdeens as the acreage he bought was at the  northwestern extremity of the Coldstream Ranch's property. They named their  property Midmar Ranch after a castle and parish in Aberdeenshire with which  they had had long associations.  To serve as their first house the Middletons bought the old (probably the  second) Hudson's Bay trading post in Vernon. It was about to be pulled down  and replaced by a large two-story building at the corner of what later became  Barnard Avenue and 32nd Street (which in turn was razed a few years ago).  William Middleton spoke to Charlie Simms, the Hudson's Bay factor, who told  him he could have it for its removal. Wheels or logs were somehow placed under  the trading post and it was pulled with several teams of horses two miles uphill  to its new site. It was enlarged with one or two rooms, served its new purpose  until replaced with a brick house in 1906 and remained standing until it was  torn down in the 1940's. The Middletons also built a log barn, a wagon and  buggy shed, a "packing house" as it was called where fruit and vegetables were  packed and stored and a bunk house for hired men. One or two of these structures still remain.  The Middletons expanded their property over the next ten or twenty years.  They acquired the northern slope of what is now Middleton Mountain and purchased in 1903 or 1904 another sixty acres on what is now the south-eastern  edge of Vernon. This land later became the farm of their son, Morrice. They  moved a little further afield and bought 110 acres in the BX from "BX" Mac-  donnell and eighty acres of bush land at Lavington around 1909. They also preempted about 400 acres in the Commonage overlooking Okanagan Lake. In all  the Middletons owned at one time or another and in one place or another about  a thousand acres. This was not large in comparison to some ranches, but it  represented a certain amount of initiative and enterprise over a relatively short  period.  They initially raised beef cattle, but at a fairly early stage planted fruit  trees. As much of the district was unfenced the cattle roamed freely and the two  Middleton sons and other hands had the job of keeping track of them. The Middleton cattle brand was a simple XX at the end of an iron which the family still  has. As mentioned earlier Lord Aberdeen planted orchards and for this purpose  ditches were dug and flumes laid to bring water from the mountain lakes south  of Lavington to the Coldstream. By an agreement made in 1899 Lord Aberdeen  extended the irrigation system to the Middleton property. Shortly afterwards  William Middleton planted his first seedlings. Following the practice of the time  he probably planted as many varieties as he did trees. The orchard did not reach  any commercial scale of production until after World War I.  Life was pleasant enough for the Middletons in the 1890's and 1900's.  They retained their ties with the Aberdeens. Lord Aberdeen, who had been appointed Governor-General of Canada in September 1893, visited the Coldstream Ranch with his family in 1894 and 1895. Lady Marjorie Gordon, their  daughter, recorded in her diary that on the last day of their stay in 1894 Lady  Aberdeen visited the Middletons at their home. A year later she spoke at length  of attending the wedding of "Beatrice Myott who was staying with the Middletons" and Richard Lowe. "We picked her up looking very nice and drove to  the Presbyterian church where Georgianna (a member of the Aberdeen's party)  and Louisa Middleton, her bridesmaids, were waiting for her . . . Father gave 155  her away . . . and received the guests at the wedding breakfast."  The Middleton family grew up. Sadly though, the eldest daughter Louisa,  two years after the wedding just described, died in an epidemic of typhoid fever  that broke out in 1896. She was exactly seventeen years, seven months and  seven days. She was the first to be buried in the family plot in the then newly  established cemetery in Vernon. Her epitaph was written by her maternal uncle  in Scotland. The four remaining children attended the local schools in Vernon.  One of Bill's teachers was the celebrated Clarence Fulton, then a young man  who had just arrived in Vernon from Nova Scotia. In the 1900s the two  daughters, Mary and Elsie, married respectively Fred Godwin and Benjamin  Richards. The sons, Morrice and Bill, were sent three thousand miles east to attend university. By the standards of the day this was a considerable undertaking. Morrice spent four years at the Ontario Agriculture College at Guelph  and Bill followed him. In later years he admitted that he was perhaps keener to  see the world than pore over his books, but a judicial mixture of parental  pressure and curiosity persuaded him to attend OAC from 1906 to 1908. After  two or three years in the United States he then went to McGill in 1911 to complete his studies and was graduated with a BSA in horticulture in 1913.  The year that they dispatched their youngest son to the east the Middletons  began to build a new house of brick just in front of their first home. At the base  of Middleton Mountain it looked over the BX as well as up the valley towards  the Coldstream. In its construction, conveniences and other features it was not  untypical of other houses built in or near Vernon around the turn of the century. The early and fairly difficult period of the Okanagan's history had been  completed and now the pioneers could build houses of reasonable comfort. The  Middleton house was Victorian in style, two and a half storeys high. It had a full  basement and a lower and upper verandah on two of its walls (removed in the  1940s). A mason, Bill Inkster, spent a summer laying the foundations which  were almost three feet thick. They were cut from stones collected nearby and the  mortar was made by a Johnny McClennan from a small limestone quarry in the  hillside behind the house. The bricks, which were twice the usual size for some  reason, were made at the Brickyard Hill about halfway between Midmar and  the centre of Vernon. The house had twelve rooms in all including a central hall  with an open staircase and a fireplace whose oak and tile facing was presumably  imported from the east. The kitchen, presided over by a Chinese cook, was in  the basement and the food was passed to the dining room above by a dumb  waiter — a well-engineered contrivance of weighted pulleys which slid up and  down on its tracks. The house was lit by an electric generator — a fairly recent  innovation in the Okanagan in those days. Lombardy poplars, elms and maple  trees were planted around the house and over time helped to soften its vertical  lines. Pine trees were also planted on one side of the driveway which curved up  the hillside from the main road about three hundred yards away.  Most of the life of Catherine and William centred around their family and  home. By family accounts William Middleton was a handsome man, with striking blue eyes, sideburns and slightly reddish hair. Conservative by temperament  he managed his affairs with good judgment and apparent success. While hesitant about starting a new life in the Okanagan there is no evidence that he ever  regretted the step. As was often the case with pioneer families, Catherine Middleton probably had more imagination and sense of purpose than her husband. 156  Certainly Catherine was anxious to take advantage of what the turn-of-the-  century offered in new technology and ideas: the new house reflected that interest. She also had her lighter side and on one occasion took it into her head to  import a Newfoundland bitch from Newfoundland itself. This large and amiable  animal was a nuisance to family and visitor alike, but a star attraction at certain  times of the year to every lovesick dog downwind from the ranch.  Catherine Middleton's health began to fail in the early 1920s. While out  walking she suffered a stroke in March 1924, and died at home on November  24, 1924, with all her family present. Her funeral was held at St. Andrew's  Presbyterian Church. Her obituary in the Vernon News said that while of a retiring nature she had a large circle of friends. She was a great reader and took a  very keen interest in politics and in the history of the royal family of which she  had a profound knowledge.  In his advancing years William Middleton began to turn over his affairs to  younger members of his family. After teaching at UBC his younger son, Bill,  ran the ranch from 1924 to 1927 and again from 1933 onwards when he returned  from Nova Scotia. William died at his home in 1936, at the age of 87. Besides  their own children William and Catherine Middleton were survived by ten  grandchildren: Louise (Mrs. Burridge), Earl, Lester and Eileen Godwin; Cecil,  Morrice and Catherine (Mrs. W. Thompson) Richards; Holly Middleton, the  only daughter of Morrice Middleton; and William Douglas and Robert Morrice, sons of Bill Middleton.  In the early 1960s the Committee on Geographical Names of the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys in Ottawa recognized the contribution of  William and Catherine Middleton to the early years of the North Okanagan by  officially designating as Middleton Mountain the land and range with which  they had been associated for so many years. 157  Pioneer Swan Lake rancher Neil M. "Mac" Mavill and Mrs. Thomas Greenhow's grandson Sammy O'Neal and Mac's prized Percherons — Diamond and Nelly. The picture was taken in 1920, in  front of the O'Neal residence which stood where the Vernon Lodge now stands. Neil Mavill arrived  in Vernon, April 5,  1913. Picture courtesy of Mrs. G Piche, daughter of owner of team 158  TALES & REMINISCENCES  A KALEDEN BOYHOOD  by Fred King, M.P.  Okanagan Historical Society 60th Anniversary Address  I am particularly delighted with the privilege you have extended me today.  I hold in high esteem the character of the work which you do as a society —  because of its quality, of course — but also because of the type of person who  has been attracted to participate and contribute to the preservation of our local  history and heritage.  And so I suppose that I judge you all by those of you I have known best and  whose lives have touched my own:  Harley Hatfield, a man with a large burden and conscience for Central British Columbia, its heritage and environment. He was the son  of Kaleden's first postmaster.  Harry Corbett, no longer with us, a superior citizen of Kaleden and of  Canada, who helped me in so many ways while I re-established myself  after returning from war service; and  Victor Wilson whose years at the Kaleden School affected beneficially,  not just my children, but Audrey and me as parents as well.  Others of you, not associated with Kaleden, we know and appreciate as well.  And it is in this context that I feel honoured in being with you today.  I have had considerable misgiving however concerning what I would say,  that my remarks not seem inconsequential by the standards which you have set.  As a result I have been searching the reaches of my mind for those memories  that would provide appropriate material. Everyone should be required to go  through such an exercise in recall. God's great gift to us, of the capacity to  remember, is too infrequently invoked, as we allow today and tomorrow to  dominate our lives. How rich has been the experience of rethinking the period  of my youth and young manhood wrapped as it has been around the community  of my birth — Kaleden.  Last Sunday morning I had an emotional encounter with my past as I marched down Whitehall in London with 7,000 Burma Star Veterans to a  commemorative service at the Cenotaph. There were few without wet cheeks as  7,000 male voices joined in singing the service hymns, ending with "Land of  Hope and Glory" which produced stirrings in the heart and throat accentuated  by the remembrance of so many who loved country and freedom as sincerely  but were not there to march and sing with us.  A not dissimilar emotion is raised when one thinks of home — of parents  — of neighbours — of friends — of school — of church — and of all those  elements which so touch one's being and form the directions one's life takes. I  believe it is when we consider those events and persons who have, knowingly or 159  unknowingly, deliberately or by happenchance, brought quality to our lives, we  are better able to appreciate the influences our own lives can and perhaps are  playing in the lives of others, because, "No man is an island."  I have been fortunate indeed in many of life's experiences — not the least  of which is my present occupation. But the exercise of thinking my life through  has brought me to realize that the twenty-nine years when Audrey and I ran the  post office in Kaleden is probably a period of my life that I would exchange for  no other. It is the special and intimate relationship with community neighbours,  which that position provides, that is so very precious. Combined with my  boyhood years these are the source of the memories I would like to share with  you, somewhat in the example of the Nakusp Museum whose scribbler library  so effectively records the special memories of citizens of that area. I suppose that  if I had a title for today it might be simply something like "Random Musings  about Kaleden".  In Chew Magna, near Bristol, a man came into the Billiard Club where  my dad and Wilf Watts and others were playing and told them, "I have just  come back from a place called Summerland in Canada. It's the finest place on  earth, lads."  Soon after Dad was occupying a tent near the present location of the  Anglican Church in Summerland. The very first day there Harry Tomlin came  to say, "They tell me you are a joiner, sonny". And my father had his first job  in Canada, working on the college buildings on Giant's Head Mountain, one of  which remains today. That was in 1910.  The following year he moved to Kaleden to work with Jim Ritchie in its  development. Many homes and buildings stand as memorial to his productive  years there, including the church, the concrete remains of the once proud hotel,  the old Lapsley store — now the 1912 Restaurant, and the home in which I  grew up and in which my father, aged 96, still lives tending his garden, the produce of which he shares with his friends and his family. Every community needs  its builders and formers. Billy King was that to Kaleden.  And every community needs its Aunt Kate as well. "Aunt Kate" she was  to every child in the community. She was a beautiful lady in every respect, a  nursing graduate of Winnipeg General Hospital who came to Kaleden to care  for her parents, a dedication which caused her to remain single. She was always  prepared to answer any call for medical help — whether for a child's cut or  scrape, a fever, or even a birth. When a typhoid epidemic struck Stewart in northern British Columbia and a call went out for volunteers, Aunt Kate went there  until the crisis was over. Most communities have such a person. Kaleden had its  Catherine Maude Findlay, R.N. — Aunt Kate to us all.  The Prestons lived in Kaleden. The Bert Prestons, Grandma T. R.  Preston, the Robert Preston family, the Harold Preston family, the George  Preston family, and Edith Preston married Billy Dunn so there was the Dunn  family, and Annie Preston married Gordon Mackenzie, so there was the  Mackenzie family, and there was the Archie Preston family as well.  In those days every orchard was protected from roving cattle by barbed  wire fences. Long before Kaleden residents received telephone service, the  Preston family homes scattered all over the community were connected to each  other with a barbed wire telephone system. A hand crank instrument in each  home, a little insulation under each staple holding the barb wire strand chosen 160  to carry the signal, an over-the-road connection where necessary, and the  Preston ingenuity brought about the wonder and the envy of the community —  their very own Preston Barb Wire Telephone System.  When I think of Kaleden in the 20s and 30s when I was a lad, I think of  things that kids today know nothing about. And I think that I must have lived in  the best period possible. I hope today children will look back and feel the same,  but I wonder.  We had 'leak holes' to enjoy. They don't have them today and I suppose  that is progress. The wood stave pipes that carried water underground to the  homes and orchards developed leaks. Jack Swales, for thirty or forty years the  water bailiff, would come riding bareback on his horse Bess, with a shovel over  his shoulder, with a pail slid down the handle — a pail containing a hammer  and some little blocks of wood from which Jack whittled the wedges which he  would drive into the holes in the pipe that was causing the leaks. First he would  have to dig down to the pipe. Then he would have to bail out the hole with the  bucket and, finally, drive in the plugs to stop the flow. But the leak often continued at a very slow rate even after the wooden plugs swelled sufficiently to  stem the flow. The hole in the ground would not be filled in and remained full of  water, eventually to become inhabited by frogs and tadpoles and skating  spiders. What a delightful and happy playground for boys.  Kids today don't have lard pails. We used them for lunch buckets, the lids  were our frisbees, and my pal Wayne and I made storm lanterns out of them by  placing the handle on the side and mounting a candle inside where it would  never blow out. The dim light it gave was very comforting on a dark winter's  night when two young lads had to walk up to Coltmans to get the milk and the  coyotes were howling ominously in the hills.  And apple boxes — what a shame that my grandchildren don't have piles  of apple boxes to play in — making forts and secret hiding places, and using  them to construct wagon cars and other ingenious inventions. Someday someone will write a book on apple boxes and their place in Okanagan society. Every  home had its apple box preserve cupboard in the basement and when we had  more company for dinner than we had chairs we kids would run out and get apple boxes to make up the difference around the extended dining room table. I  think that there is a great story there just about those boxes and the people who  made them, like Jud Findlay and Clem Battye in Kaleden.  Now kids don't have the fun of the annual pruning burn as we used to have  because prunings are being mowed up in the orchard. That, too, is progress,  but what fun those great fires were, down in the gulch where dad hauled tons of  prunings each years. I remember the way the green wood would whistle as it  heated after being dumped on the red-hot embers of yesterday's burn, and the  warmth on your cheeks as you pressed as close as you dared. Finally, when the  fire was over after several days of burning, we would bury potatoes in the hot  coals. Never did baked potatoes taste better as we scalded our fingers to peel off  the ash-covered skins.  And kids don't roll hoops as Wayne and I did. They have bikes almost  before they can run. I ran everywhere because you can't push a hoop with a  crossed stick unless you run. Maybe that's why they often see this well-dressed  sixty-year-old man in a top coat running down Metcalfe Street in Ottawa. I still  like getting places in a hurry. 161  I wonder if every boy today carries a jack-knife and waits for the sap to run  in the Saskatoon bushes so that the bark will slide off the wood easily. We could  whittle out our whistles with their varying tones and musical charms.  And Kaleden youngsters no longer own the Kaleden Hill in the winter as  we did. What a shame — and what a waste of such a valuable asset! In our day  there was no winter road maintenance. When it snowed, as I am sure it did in  much more abundance in those days, the few cars that there were in Kaleden  ventured out only infrequently, and then only with chains on. The hill was ours,  its icy surface made the more so as the runners of our sleds turned it into the  perfect course for high-speed thrills. Jim and Georgie Robertson built a bob sled  complete with lights that would hold fifteen people, the ride on which was a terrifying experience for the brave adults such as Jim Goodwin and Edith Dunn  who would make one trip annually with the youth. Now the mile-long hill is  sanded and salted — totally barren of its legitimate and traditional winter usage  which holds such memories for so many of us.  A community is of necessity made up of many persons who all contribute  to its character, but who do not all receive equal recognition. In closing I would  like to tell you about one person in Kaleden who was not outstanding in many  ways and whose record might simply slip away and be lost to view because with  his own death, preceded by that of his bachelor brother and tragically that of his  son David, who was shot down on his first mission over France, the Goodwin  name has been extinguished. Jim Goodwin was a character — a delightful man  who had had all the rough edges honed off by the buffetting of a hard life — a  man who never had a bad word for others — a man whose philosophy and approach to life touched me in many ways from boyhood to manhood.  I don't know exactly when Jim came to Kaleden. I do know that he was a  freighter up in the Peace River District just before he came to Kaleden, and that  he met Jessie who came from Owen Sound to teach school up in the Peace River  District. And they were married. When they came to Kaleden they settled in the  apartment over the top of the Lapsley Store that was built in 1912, that my dad  helped to build. Jim worked for Colonel A. K. Robertson in his orchard doing  the irrigating and the chores that are necessary around the orchard.  They lived close to the lake, close to the wharf where the barge came in,  and the wharf where all us kids would go to swim. Jessie took it on as a burden  of her life to stand out on the verandah or sit out on the verandah and watch us  as we swam to make sure that none of us, the kids of Kaleden, got into difficulty  in the water.  My first real experience with Jim was when his dog Gyp had pups, and I  asked my parents if I could have one of those pups. I went down to Mr. Goodwin's home and told him of my desire. He took me down to the basement. It  was the biggest basement, probably in the Okanagan. It was 50 x 50 feet,  because it was the biggest house in the Okanagan, I am sure, being three storeys  high including the basement. He showed me the puppies. The one I picked out,  he had chosen for himself to retain. When the one I finally chose proved to be  blind, Jim Goodwin gave me the one that he had picked for his own. And so I  appreciated that and we had a special rapport as Jim watched not only me, but  my dog, whom I called Rip.  Later on, one day, I was walking up the hill just across from the old packinghouse which was at the top of the hill in those days. I saw a little red Austin 162  van coming down the road. The van had "Toronto Star" on it and the driver  stopped and said, "Do you know any lad who would like to have a paper route  in Kaleden?" I volunteered very quickly and as a result I became Kaleden's first  paper delivery boy, delivering the Toronto Star and later the Penticton Herald,  and made the rounds once a week.  One of my customers was Jim Goodwin. I remember one night when there  was a blizzard and it was snowy and blowing — terrible conditions. I was very,  very late making my rounds. When I climbed up those stairs where Jim and  Jessie lived on the second floor, I knocked on the door and Jim said, "Come  in," and then Jim said to me, "Mother and I were just talking about you, Freddie. Mother said Freddie will never be around on a night like this, and I said to  Mother, 'Freddie will be here.' " That remains — the impact of that statement  remains with me because I remember walking home — that was the last place of  my delivery — feeling the effort was so well worth it. Someone was counting on  me and I hadn't failed.  And then later in life, when I had the Post Office, and Jim and I were daily  visitors in that Post Office, Jim said to me one day, "Fred, I'm getting too old  to run that orchard. Why don't you buy it?" And I said, "Mr. Goodwin, you  know I haven't any money. I couldn't buy anything." And he said, "Fred, you  think about it. You tell me what you can do. I'm asking $3,000 for it, but you  tell me what you can do." So a few days later he said, "Have you given it any  thought?" "Well," I said, "I've been to the bank and they'll lend me $1,000  and if you'll let me owe you $1,000, I'll give you $2,000 for it and we'll pay it off  as quickly as we can." And Jim said, "If that's the best you can do, Fred, that's  all right by me."  And that too touched me rather deeply because of a lesson that I think I  learned, and that is, "Don't ask people to do more than they can. Be willing to  accept the best they can offer."  Just one other brief anecdote, if I may, which reveals something of the  character, I think, of Jim Goodwin. It would be the Christmas of 1948. In the  Post Office we gave out lots of mail, out of the wicket of Kaleden Post Office.  Jim Goodwin came in and there was a registered package for him. He was signing for it when Bert Mutch came into the Post Office to get his mail, and he said  to Jim, "What a lucky man you are." — no — "Some people have all the luck,  getting a nice package at Christmas time." Jim, with tears rolling down his  cheeks, turned and said in a rather sharp way, uncharacteristic of him, "Yes indeed, Bert, I'm a lucky man taking David's medals home to his mother at  Christmas time." David had been killed over France. Well, he then went out  before losing any more of his composure, and Bert and I were silent. And the  next day, when Jim Goodwin came in, he said to me, "Fred, I hurt Bert Mutch  yesterday. I shouldn't have done that. Bert didn't mean anything by it, and I  hurt him. I wish I hadn't.  Another lesson that Jim Goodwin taught me is that hurting people hurts  yourself as well, pehaps more deeply, and when the Bert Mutch tragedy happened soon after that, Jim Goodwin would often say to me, in the Post Office,  how much he regretted that the last time he really talked with Bert, he hurt him.  Well, this is just a brief look at Kaleden in the days when I grew up.  Nothing very spectacular but deep and abiding memories that I am pleased to  have shared with you today. 163  FIRE  by Don Corbishley  It was the spring of 1930. I had come down from Penticton to prepare my  land and have my first go at growing cantaloupes, cannery tomatoes and early  potatoes.  I gazed in awe at the tall, dry, second-year growth of sweet clover completely hiding my two-year old cherry trees. I had made arrangements with a  neighbour, Mr. Jim Wyllie, to hire his team, plow and discs to turn this massive  growth the next day. I wandered happily through this thicket planning where I  would grow the various crops.  My north fence line bordered on raw land with grease wood, sagebrush  and bunch grass. This unbroken land extended one half mile to the Garrison  Creek Spillway bordering on Mr. Frank Venables' orchard.  A light north wind was blowing and I could smell smoke, the wind increased and an acrid smelling cloud billowed out.  People in cars (there were very few automobiles in those days) stopped to  inform me that someone was attempting to clear the land by fire up by the  spillway and it looked as though it had got out of control. They hoped it could be  stopped before it got to my fence.  Shortly afterwards neighbours came with hoes, shovels and axes to clear a  swatch on my fence line. Mr. Wyllie, realizing the seriousness of it all sent Geor-  die Webster, a recent arrival from Scotland, with a team and a plow to score a  few furrows north of my fence. We could hear the roar of the oncoming flames.  Then some men lit the grass in front of the furrows for a back fire. I watched  with a sinking heart, at what I felt was a futile effort to save my orchard. Suddenly to my amazement the little flames grew bigger and raced to meet the oncoming wall of fire. My orchard was saved.  I had not known before that an on-rushing fire would draw the air from in  front of it and thus suck the fire guard to it.  I learned my lesson. I could have been wiped out and have lost my whole  orchard of young trees. Disc your cover crop in while green, not dry. Don't  have dry grass or rubbish around your buildings or orchard. A casually dropped  match can ignite it and cause damage.  Since this episode I have been almost over-cautious with fire. At all times  one should treat fire with respect. 164  Note trees still standing after slide into Okanagan Lake.  Photo courtesy Muriel Reading  OKANAGAN TIDAL WAVE  by Olive Evans  Friday, July 21, 1951 will always stand out in the minds of Dr. and Mrs.  Myles Plecash. They had recently moved to Penticton and were renting a comfortable lakeside cottage slightly south of Three Mile Beach on the east side of  Okanagan Lake. They considered themselves fortunate to have found such  idyllic rental accommodation.  About 6:45 p.m., while his wife prepared dinner, Dr. Plecash read a bedtime story to his three-year-old daughter Penny. Baby Gail, not quite a year old,  lay sleeping in her crib in the children's bedroom.  An intense rumbling broke the silence. Glancing toward the window Dr.  Plecash was horrified to see an immense wall of water rapidly bearing down on  the cottage. Even as he shouted a warning to his wife it broke against the house,  smashing in the window. Snatching up the terrified Penny who had been washed off her feet by the inrushing water, he fled through the rear door and  scrambled up the steep incline close behind the cottage. Placing Penny as high 165  on the bank as he possibly could, he admonished her to remain there until he  returned for her.  The water receded as quickly as it had come. Racing back to the house,  Dr. Plecash found his wife, dazed and badly shaken, wedged beneath a chaise  lounge on the veranda. Fortunately the railing had kept her from being swept  away.  The door to Gail's room was jammed shut and Dr. Plecash scrambled  through the broken bedroom window which also faced the lake. Inside he found  by some miracle the mattress from an upper bunk bed had settled atop the crib,  protecting Gail from chunks of wood and other debris which lay piled on top of  the mattress and about the room. Gail's only injury was a quarter inch cut on  her forehead.  In the interior of the house a partitioning wall was broken, the bathtub,  ripped from its proper place, sat wedged in the hallway, while the livingroom  and master bedroom furniture lay smashed and splintered beyond repair.  When insurance adjustor, Clement Battye, conducted his investigation he  found silt imbedded in linen on the top shelf of a floor to ceiling cupboard, indicating water had entirely filled the house when the wave crashed over it. As  well, dead fish were found on the roof.  Outside, a half mile of beach lay ravaged. The doctor's car parked on the  driveway which led at an angle down the bank to the rear of the house, was  picked up, tossed about and came to rest at the lake edge.  A two-ton sailboat lay canted over on the beach a hundred feet from her  mooring, while a four cylinder marine engine was found fifty feet from its stand.  Sailboat ripped from her mooring a hundred  feet away and left on beach by slide.  > Photo courtesy Muriel Reading  Doctor's car ended up on edge of lake. Note motor  boat swamped in the background. Extent of slide  almost reaches r. h. margin of picture.  Photo courtesy Muriel Reading 166  A boathouse and brick wall were demolished, and large cracks were plainly visible in a nine inch retaining wall close to the Plecash home.  The tidal wave was caused when an estimated acre of the Eric Bomford orchard slid into Okanagan Lake. Penticton City engineer blamed the slide on  continual irrigation, explaining, "Seepage of irrigation water down to an impervious layer of blue clay allows the overlying soil to slide en masse much as a ship  slides down a greased way."  Extensive repairs to the cottage restored it for comfortable occupation. It  still stands, staunch and serene on its secluded beach.  FLASH FLOOD AT PARADISE RANCH - 1941  by A. Waterman  Spots of rain as big as saucers plopped in the dust as we carried full buckets  of milk from the barn to to the house. Then the sky darkened and the rain  streamed down as I put the separator together and poured in the milk.  Gran put her head out the kitchen door, "Better take a hoe to the ditches."  The dirt road wound down gradually from where it crossed Pine Creek  bridge to wharf level and the house which had grown as needs demanded. A few  yards up, the road was cut by a couple of ditches which drained surplus rainfall  away from the house and wharf.  Before even one ditch was deepened water was over my ankles. As the rain  sheeted down a few nephews and nieces appeared shrieking with delight. Hoeing accomplished nothing and the water swirled up to my thighs. I was trying to  ignore the small stirrings of fear when, as if a tap was turned off, the flood subsided. It had all happened in less than ten minutes.  Gran who had wisely thrown sacks against the kitchen door for protection  suggested we should make sure that cows, calves, horses and chickens had not  suffered.  There were about a hundred pullets at the no-down/no-feather stage and  the chicken house floor was slushy wet. The pullets were not only wet but cheeping and shivering in panic.  Nephew Terry Smith's curiousity had betrayed him into following me and  reluctantly he helped carry cartons from wharf to chicken house. We crawled in  the slush under the roosts to haul out hysterical survivors and tossed them into  the cartons — not too many in each carton for fear of suffocation. By supper-  time eight or ten cartons stinking of wet chickens were ranged around the warm  kitchen while we dug into bowls of hot soup.  It was generally agreed that somewhere in the hills a cloudburst had drained  into Pine Creek which, unable to accommodate the flood, had flowed over its  delta . . . and then someone remembered the unseparated milk. 167  <**<J***  Sketch by Joan Greenwood  A LITTLE NEIL STORY  by Harley Hatfield  In the south Okanagan of sixty years ago and more there was a little Scot  from Prince Edward Island called Neil Campbell. He was known as Little Neil  to distinguish him from another Neil Campbell known as Big Neil. Little Neil  was a born story-teller.  Allan Roadhouse and I were resting my Uncle Christie's team and eating  our lunch on the road from Penticton to Kaleden at a time when no one was  bothered by passing traffic. Little Neil pulled his team in and joined us. We  talked of hay crops and these reminded Little Neil about working in the Nicola.  He had a quick, staccato way of speaking, leaving the listener to fill in unessential words.  "One time was working for farmer over in Nicola — mean sort of guy — I  had to bring cows home at night — no saddle horse — had to walk — this time  cows sort of nervous-like — couldn't see anything wrong — coming down little  draw — some aspen — few big pine — cows started run — looked behind —  big bear coming — cows run — I run — bear run — getting close — almost feel  his breath — come to big pine — jumped behind tree — bear ran right against  it — put one paw around each side — I grabbed paws and there we were —  stayed there all night — daylight farmer came out. 'What you got there Neil?'  'Got a bear.' 'I'll get the rifle.' 'No!' says I. 'Been here all night. You hold him,  I'll go for gun.' So he came and took the paws.''  Neil stopped and Allan asked, "Hey, what happened then?"  "Don't know — haven't seen him since." 168  <$&  /  Sketch by Joan Greenwood  LITTLE NEIL GOES CANOEING  by Harley Hatfield  My dad in the early Kaleden days had a small office, complete with  western false front, post office, notary public, etc. near the lakeshore. Little Neil  came in one day and asked if he could borrow a canoe. He wanted to go across  the lake to visit Johnny Matheson. Dad was a bit dubious but did not want to  refuse a favour to an old timer. On assurance from him that he had used canoes  lots back in P.E.I. Neil was told to go to the boathouse and help himself.  As Neil paddled out dad watched from the office window. Not far out the  canoe went over and Neil into the lake. Holding the paddle he swam back  pushing the canoe. He emptied it and put it back on the rack, no doubt wringing out his shirt and pants in the boathouse. As he came up to the office dad  said, "Guess you don't want the canoe, Neil?" "No thanks — don't want her  — you can have her!''  Sketch by Joan Greenwood  LITTLE NEIL'S RETRIEVER  As remembered by Allan Roadhouse and Harley Hatfield  The discussion was on dogs, their intelligence and characters. Neil told  about one they had at their home in Prince Edward Island when he was a boy.  "Little sister and I went for a walk — took the dog along — came to a lake  — small pond really — anyway there was a duck with a whole flock of little ones  — dog was a retriever — went after the mother duck — killed her — I was so  mad grabbed a club — beat the dog hard — sorry after but dog seemed dead —  we went home sister crying all the way — me feeling worse all the time — sister  cried all night — morning came father said, 'Neil, you go get that dog — bring  him home dead or alive.' So I had to go — part way to the pond saw something  coming up the path — got closer and there was dog headed for the house with all  the little ducks coming along behind." 169  SABOTAGE  by Don Corbishley  I was sitting on the doorstep of my shack one May Sunday morning in  1932 at Road No. 13, Oliver, when an agitated and worried fruit grower named  Paddy Neil drove up. He blurted out, "Someone has slashed a lot of my fruit  trees. I am going into town to inform the police. Please go down and see if you  can save them." I drove south with misgivings. I had grafted trees, repaired  trees that had been girdled by mice both in British Columbia and across the line,  but this problem I was faced with was just the weirdest of all. Yet I could not  doubt Paddy's word.  In a short time Paddy and the police arrived and we proceeded to the far  end of his apple orchard. Sure enough there was the damage — some fifty trees  stripped of their bark from lower branches to the ground. We then proceeded to  the young orchard and this time some 250 trees had been cut and pushed over.  It seems that a young immigrant named Seager had stayed in one of Pad-  dy's cabins. He was well-dressed, arrogant, and irked the neighbours to the  point that he was dubbed "The Hitler Youth". He had fallen out with Paddy  and left in a huff. He moved to the town of Oliver where he batched with a  Canadian boy.  On the Saturday night Seager told his friend he was going down to Neil's  ranch to fix his trees for him. He reasoned that Paddy would not go out in the  orchard on Sunday and that when he went round on Monday morning it would  be too late to save them.  Seager was shortly arrested and put in jail. In the trial in Oliver the  evidence was so overwhelming against him that the judge sentenced him to a  year in the Oakalla jail. However in a short time he was deported back to Germany. Guess what his nickname was in Oakalla — George Washington — the  man who cut down the cherry tree.  As for the trees, I bridge grafted and saved every one of them. It is a drastic  way to get trees into production but young and old were a mass of bloom the  next year.  Twenty years later I bought the young orchard and was pleased to see the  success of my repair work.  Editor's Note: Mr. Corbishley learned tree surgery from Dr. Palmer at the Summerland Research  Station and practised in the South Okanagan and Similkameen. 170  "STRETCHING THE WALLET NOT THE DOLLAR"  A DITCH RIDER'S EXPERIENCE  by Jim Gould  About 1946 following World War II, I was employed by the Municipality  of Summerland in the Water Department. The following is a true story I would  like to share.  While riding the south main flume which controlled the water level in the  reservoir, I used to put my wallet in my shirt pocket so I wouldn't lose it out of  my back pocket while riding my saddle horse. The gate from the flume into the  reservoir, which was at the west end of Prairie Valley, had to be adjusted quite  often to maintain the proper level for domestic use and irrigation flumes which  were also fed from the reservoir.  One day while fixing the gate across the Kettle Valley Railway line from  the reservoir (lake) I had to lean over the water. My shirt pocket was not buttoned down and my wallet dropped into the flume. By the timel got off the flume  it had about a fifty-yard start toward the large pipe under the railway line.  I couldn't manage to retrieve it before it entered the four-foot pipe which  discharged the water on the reservoir side of the railway. The water fell about  ten feet onto a gravel bank, where it had dug a hole about fifteen feet deep and  the water was all white and boiling like crazy. From there to the edge of the lake  there were about a hundred yards of brush and trees. Here the water spread out  in several streams.  A week later the water had to be turned off for repairs to the flume. The  boss, Ace Kercher, and I went down to the deep hole below the railway and it  was still full of water. We cut a couple of long poles and drove nails through  them to make hooks. Then we started fishing.  After about ten minutes we hooked what I thought was an old inner tube  but it turned out to be a stretched-out English calfskin wallet. It was nearly three  feet long. The stitching had all given way but the wallet had been cut from one  piece of leather.  Having met with this success, Mr. Kercher and I decided to go hunting for  the contents. There were small dams in the brush of twigs, leaves, etc. We  found all but one of the bills draped over limbs and caught in these small dams.  I was very skeptical of being able to pass the bills so I took them to the Bank of  Montreal where I told the employees about their adventure. There was no trouble  getting them replaced although they were well-washed and faded.  The Boss said if the money had stretched as far as the purse perhaps we  should try it again! 171  LETTER FROM JERRY ENEAS  Okanagan Historical Society,  Narcisse Bone was born about the year 1890. Narcisse Bone is a descent  from the Okanogan Indian Tribe. Narcisse Bone is the son of Narcisse Bone  Jim and Julie Isaac Sam.  Narcisse Bone and Margaret George were united in marriage about Oct.  24, 1924.  Narcisse Bone was working for Val Haynes during the early years of 1900.  Val Haynes owned a cattle ranch south from Vaseaux Lake. This cattle ranch is  on the west side of Highway 97.  There was a brush fire or forest fire on the hill or mountain somewhere  west of Oliver, B.C. There were cattle on the hill or mountain and the cattle  were close to the fire. Narcisse Bone was trying to save the cattle from the fire.  Narcisse Bone try to bring the herd of cattle away from the fire. Narcisse Bone  and his saddle horse got caught in the ring of fire. The saddle horse of Narcisse  Bone die in the fire. Narcisse Bone was burned and needed medical attention.  Narcisse Bone never die during this time. Narcisse Bone got burned from the  fire sometime during the years of 1920 or early years of 1930.  Narcisse Bone die from cancer on the day February 11, 1956, at Spokane,  Washington. Narcisse Bone and his sister Madeline Wells, are buried in the Indian cemetery at Charlie Eders ranch about 3 or 4 miles north from Oroville,  Washington.  Joe Bone was born on the day, January 20, 1907. Joe Bone is a descent  from the Okanogan Indian Tribe. Joe Bone is the younger brother to Narcisse  Bone.  Joe Bone and another Indian and his name is Aberaham Alex were hunting in the hills or mounains on the Indian Reserve somewhere west of Penticton,  B.C. Joe Bone was attacked and mauled by a Grizzley bear. Aberaham Alex  was carrying a big rifle, maybe 30-30 Winchester rifle. Aberaham Alex ran to  the Grizzley bear from behind. Aberaham Alex aim at the head of the Grizzley  bear, and Aberaham Alex shot the Grizzley bear. The Grizzley bear fell down  and died from the gunshot of the big Winchester rifle. Joe Bone never die from  the Grizzley bear attack during this time. Many thanks to a brave Indian of the  Okanogan Indian Tribe, Aberaham Alex.  I wonder if the story of Narcisse Bone and the fire on the hill or mountain  was ever printed in the newspaper.  I wonder if the story of Joe Bone and Aberaham Alex and the Grizzley bear  was ever printed in the newspaper.  Can you help me? Thank you.  Send information to Sarah Bone McCraigie, Route 2, Box 65-P, Omak,  Washington 98841. Sister to Narcisse Bone and Joe Bone.  Jerry Eneas,  son of Sarah Bone McCraigie,  sister to Narcisse Bone and Joe Bone 172  BUSINESS & ACTIVITIES  OF THE HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE  of 62nd Annual Meeting  of  Okanagan Historical Society  1987  Business a