Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Forty-seventh annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1983

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 ■■r WfWm m/JWm ■PHr Wr OTr W ■PHr  Forty-seventh Report  /  ■'$•'.:  : .'• v^.-.A  i       ■ \  'iW  ERRATA  46th Report of O.H.S., 1982  Page     3   —   Branch Directors to Parent Body:  at "Oliver-Osoyoos" delete "Harry Weatherill", add "Don  Corbishley".  Page     4  —  Branch Directors to Parent Body:  at "Oliver-Osoyoos" delete "Harry Weatherill", add Don  Corbishley".  Page   12   —  Picture of Rescue Team:  Change to read "left to right: Evett Burk, Frank O'Connell,  Fred Savincoff, Victor Wilson."  Page   28  —  Picture of Tobacco crop, 1912:  Change "Cawston Avenue" to read "Harvey Avenue"  Page   73   —  Third and fourth lines of Editor's Note to read:  Canadians Behind Enemy Lines, by Roy MacLaren. During  World War II, Major H. J. Legg was the Commanding  Officer . . .  Page    87   —   under "Award of Merit":  Add: "News item: Sept. 21, 1982."  Page 200   —   under Life Members:  at "Lewis": change "Dorothy" to read "Dorothea."  NOTE:  Page   45   —   The author notes a lacuna in the records of the Vernon  Jubilee Hospital Nurses' Training School for the years 1912 -  1921 and concludes that training was discontinued during  those years. Since the story was published the names of  several nurses trained between 1912 and 1921 have been  supplied, among them that of my mother, Florence Ann  Browne (nee MacDonald). Fortunately, Mrs. Wamboldt's  story was written while knowledge of that period was still  recoverable.  Editor  FORTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT  ISSN-0317-0691  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4, 1925  COVER PHOTO  "The Old Richter Pass"  by  Joan Heriot of Vernon.  In pastel.  (This picture is in a private collection and is used with kind permission of the owner.)  © 1983 FORTY-SEVENTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Jean Webber  ASSISTANT EDITOR  Dorothy Zoellner  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Victor Wilson  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Helenita Harvey, Salmon Arm  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  Brian Wilson, Kelowna  Angeline Waterman, Penticton  Dolly Waterman, Oliver-Osoyoos  Individuals wishing to subscribe to the Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society may have their names added to our mailing list. The Report will be  sent each year and the subscriber invoiced. Back issues of Reports 1-5, 6,  7-10, 11, 12, 27, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, and 46 may be  obtained from the Okanagan Historical Society at $5.00 per copy. The price  of the 47th Report is $7.00. A charge of $1.50 will be made for postage and  handling. Please address correspondence regarding subscriptions or orders to:  Treasurer, Okanagan Historical Society, Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3.  Okanagan Historical Reports are available from all Branches of the Society  and most Museums in the Okanagan Valley.  All prices subject to revision. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Mary Gartrell Orr  VICE-PRESIDENT  Ermie Iceton  2nd VICE-PRESIDENT  Frank Pells  SECRETARY  Bob Marriage  TREASURER  Jim Green  PAST PRESIDENT  Ron Robey  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Armstrong-Enderby: Jessie Ann Gamble, Craig McKechnie  Vernon: Peter Tassie, Lucy McCormick  Kelowna: Hume Powley, Tilman Nahm  Penticton: Mollie Broderick, Angeline Waterman  Oliver-Osoyoos: Carleton MacNaughton, Don Corbishley  Salmon Arm: Helenita Harvey  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Walter Anderson (Pandosy Mission) and  Bruce Morgernstern (Historic Trails)  GUY BAGNALL FUND  Oliver-Osoyoos: Bernard Webber  Kelowna: F. Pell, D. Zoellner  Vernon: Don Weatherill  Armstrong-Enderby: J. Armstrong BRANCH OFFICERS, 1983-84  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-84  PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; VICE-PRESIDENT: Betty Johnston; SECRETARY-  TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; PAST PRESIDENT: Bill Whitehead; DIRECTORS: Merle  Armstrong, Bob Nitchie; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Craig  McKechnie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone (chairperson), Gertrude Peel, Jean  Schubert.  KELOWNA BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-84  PRESIDENT: Dick Hall; VICE-PRESIDENT: Dorothy Zoellner; SECRETARY: Marie  Wostradowski; TREASURER: Bob Marriage; PAST PRESIDENT: Tilman Nahm; DIRECTORS: Walter Anderson, Cedric Boyer, Mary Bull, Wm. Cameron, Eric Chapman, Paddy  Clerke, Fred Coe, Don Fillmore, Bob Hayes, Robert Hobson, Bert Johnston, Frank Pells, Hume  Powley, Ursula Surtees, Brian Wilson; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Hume Powley,  Tilman Nahm; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Brian Wilson (chairman), Cedric Boyer, Fred  Coe, Bob Hayes, Dorothy Zoellner.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-84  PRESIDENT: Ermie Iceton; VICE-PRESIDENT: Harry Weatherill; REG SECRETARY: Nan  Mabee; COR. SECRETARY AND PUBLICITY: Elaine Shannon; TREASURER: Frances Mitchell; PAST PRESIDENT: Carleton MacNaughton; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Dolly Waterman (chairperson), Dorothy Simpson; O.H.S. REPORTS: Ivan Hunter; DIRECTORS: Elsie  Corbishley, Connie Cumine; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Carleton MacNaughton, Don  Corbishley.  PENTICTON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-84  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Kathleen Dewdney; PRESIDENT: Dave MacDonald; SECRETARY: Dorothy Whittaker; TREASURER: P. F. P. Bird; PAST PRESIDENT: V. G. H.  Wilson; DIRECTORS: Grace Whitaker (Hon. Dir.), Sonni Bone, J. A. Biollo, Mollie Broderick,  Hugh Cleland, Doug Cox, Bob Gibbard, Pat Gwyer, Joe Harris, Mary Orr, Bruce Morgenstern,  J. F. Riley, Angeline Waterman, Pete Watson; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Mollie  Broderick, Angeline Waterman; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Angeline Waterman (chairperson), Dorothy Whittaker, Hugh Cleland, Sonni Bone; AUDITOR: Fred Arnot; REFRESHMENT COMMITTEE: Pat Cripps, Peggy Harris, Winnie Phinney.  SALMON ARM BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-1984  PRESIDENT: Arvid Kendall; VICE-PRESIDENT: Earl Tennant; SECRETARY: Judy Kendall;  TREASURER: Mac Drage; PAST PRESIDENT: Helenita Harvey; DIRECTORS: Irene Olson,  Florence Farmer, Bonnie McDonald, Don Byers, Carol Butchison; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  Helenita Harvey.  VERNON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1983-84  PRESIDENT: Doug Scott; VICE-PRESIDENT: Eric Denison; SECRETARY: Lucy McCormick;  TREASURER: Don Weatherill; PAST PRESIDENT: Peter Tassie; DIRECTORS: Anna Cail,  Hugh Caley, Leyden Christensen, Ed Cole, Betty Denison, Bob dePfyffer, Terry Lodge;  DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Peter Tassie, Lucy McCormick; REPRESENTATIVE TO  C.A.G: Ann Wernicke; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Wamboldt, Beryl Gorman. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  In preparing for publication the 47th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society I have followed fairly closely the arrangement of recent years.  Categories imposed on diverse materials can never be more than approximate. Some submissions fit with equal validity in several sections. Occasionally articles which complement each other have been clustered as with the  Battle Drill sequence.  Our "Biographies and Tributes" illustrate the heterogeneity of the  Okanagan settlers, the differences in background, education and capabilities.  But I think that all those whose stories are told have one thing in common:  each came to terms with the environment into which he moved and to some  degree helped to shape it. Each, when he died, left behind a community  which felt it had been enriched by his presence.  The Obituary Section, which during the past few years has occasioned some  editorial soul-searching, has undergone a change which is explained in the introductory note. Unfortunately changes sometimes have deleterious aspects as  well as advantageous ones.  History in "Tales and Reminiscences" is often implicit rather than explicit.  However, nowhere in the Report do we find more of the colour of life in  former times. It is common to think of "local" or "nearby history" as the raw  material from which professional historians fashion a more sophisticated  historical statement. We are apt to forget that our records are also the metal  from which a literature may be minted. How gratifying it would be to know  that we had supplied the realistic detail for a Canadian novel or play!  Before closing I wish to thank the Branch Editorial Committees, particularly their Chairmen; my Assistant Editor, Dorothy Zoellner; Anne Wight of  Oliver for her help in preparing the copy for the printer; and, above all, the  writers upon whose efforts rests our whole enterprise. CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  THE GRANITE CREEK FISH HATCHERY (Helenita Harvey)  9  SCOTTIE MITCHELL'S LETTERS     11  BATTLE DRILL TRAINING      WORLD WAR II     17  THE BATTLE SCHOOL ON COLDSTREAM RANCH (Walker MacNeil)    17  THE CANADIAN BATTLE DRILL TRAINING CENTRE, COLDSTREAM RANCH  (Col. David F. B. Kinloch)    19  WAR DIARY     22  ODE TO BATTLE DRILL (T. A. Phelps, Lieut., R. M. R.)  28  VERNON CELEBRATES NINETY YEARS OF INCORPORATION (Edna Oram) . 29  75th ANNIVERSARY, ST. ANDREW'S UNITED CHURCH, ENDERBY  (Sylvia Carlton)   31  ST. GEORGE'S, ENDERBY (Mrs. E. Revel)    32  OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN ECOLOGICAL RESERVES (P. Legg et all)   . . 34  UPDATE ON COLDSTREAM ERRATIC (Terry Lodge)    44  PEACHLAND GLAZED CEMENT PIPE COMPANY (Sheila Paynter)  46  THE BRICKYARD (Ettie Adam)     51  ARMSTRONG CHEESE CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION 1939-1961  (Mary H. E. Blackburn)    52  SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION (W.J. McPhee)     57  THE STORY OF DROUGHT SPOT IN APPLES (Dr. J. C. Wilcox)     63  FROM THE PEOPLE: A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE OKANAGAN INDIAN  CURRICULUM PROJECT (Jeffrey Smith)     66  SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL (William Ruhmann)  68  TRIBUTES AND BIOGRAPHIES  BURT R. CAMPBELL COLLECTION (Roy G. Campbell)     77  TRIBUTES    77  MY IRISH FATHER (Margaret A. Ormsby)     82  ONE PIONEER (Harvey L. Mitchell)  88  THE OLIVER AND EILEEN JACKSON COLLECTION (Sheila Jackson)    90  CAPTAIN ROBINSON RIDLEY (Janet E. V. Graham)     93  CHARLES AND ADA McCARTHY (E. Mason)  95  A SUMMERLAND-PENTICTON PIONEER (J. E. Phinney) (J- R- Phinney)  96  JAPANESE CANADIAN POET AND FARMER: Mr. Denbei Kobayashi  (Rev. G. G. Nakayama)     99  ROBERT JOHNSTONE McDOUGALL (G.J. Rowland)     104  JAMES HARPER MITCHELL (Carleton MacNaughton)     106  J. K. ANDERSON, 1878-1949 (Agnes M. Mabee)  109  ESSAYS  HISTORY OF THE I.P.E. (Tracey Skyrme)     115  THE SMITH HOUSE (Loesha Zeviar)     120  THE BEHNCKE HOUSE (Katherine Parker)     121  THE GEORGE MURRAY HOUSE (Dennis Heaton)     123  ENDERBY BRIDGE (Laurie Case)  125  BOOK REVIEWS  CHILDREN'S BOOKS ABOUT INDIANS (Joanne Tait)         127 7  TALES AND REMINISCENCES  WOMAN'S PLACE IS IN THE HOME (Kitty Wilson)  129  FROM SAGE BRUSH TO FRUIT TREES IN OSOYOOS (Adam Cumine)  131  JUICY TALE (Mary Orr)  137  FUN IN '21 (Cedric Boyer)  138  REMINISCENCES (Bill Knowles)  143  A BOLD INCISION (Paddy Clerke)  148  OKANAGAN SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS, Part 2 (Jean Webber)      154  OBITUARIES      177  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1984  181  MINUTES OF THE 58th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1983  182  PRESIDENT'S REPORT  185  SECRETARY'S REPORT  187  TREASURER'S REPORT  188  EDITOR'S REPORT     190  REPORTS OF THE BRANCHES  193  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1983  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY    200 Each year the Oliver Legion sponsors a special dinner for the veterans of Vimy Ridge and the  First World War. On hand for the occasion in April, 1982 were eight local veterans. Front left to  right: Clarence English, Frank Venables, Ted Dickson, and Ben Clarke. Back left to right: Bob  Allan, Jim Mitchell, Charles Parke of Penticton, Dave Whittet and Legion President Bill Kreller.  (Picture by courtesy of Oliver Chronicle)  i HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  THE GRANITE CREEK FISH HATCHERY  by Helenita Harvey  In about 1900 the Federal Government established a fish hatchery at  Tappen. This was the second one to be installed in British Columbia with the  first one being at Port Mann. The Granite Creek Fish Hatchery was on a small  piece of land immediately north of the mouth of Granite Creek which empties  into the northwest corner of Tappen Bay. David (Scottie) Mitchell was appointed manager of the project and remained to its closure in 1916. About  200 feet from the C.P.R. tracks, about half a mile north of the Kualt Mill a  large two story frame building was erected to house all of the hatchery's activities. Granite Creek ran right through the hatchery. Salmon eggs were  gathered by a government steam boat from weirs around the lake on the  Seymour River, at Anstey Arm and Scotch Creek and wherever a creek or  river of any size emptied into the lake. These were delivered to the hatchery  and there they were allowed to develop in wire meshed baskets especially  made for the purpose.  Trout eggs would be collected at the same time as the salmon roe. The  young trout would be put into milk cans, loaded onto the train at Tappen station and distributed by rail or by forestry trucks to little lakes all over the  mountains. The forestry crews hated it when these cans of fish were brought  to them in the spring. They would be required to take them as far as they  could by truck and then carry one of these cans perhaps as far as five miles!  This was not an easy task for there were no special carrying packs in those  days. The cans full of water and fish might weigh as much as 100 pounds and  half a dozen of them could be destined for the same lake. There were as many  trips in as there were cans. Two men carrying one can suspended from a pole  "... would have to go to beat the band . . ."as the fish had to be dumped into  the lake before they used up their supply of oxygen.  While it existed, this hatchery was a going concern. Around the main  edifice there were several outbuildings that housed the manager, his helpers  and a variety of supportive equipment. Along one side of the principal  building a canal was dug to facilitate the passage of boats right up to it.  Inside this structure there were troughs each about fourteen feet long  placed end to end in two rows on either side of a fairly wide aisle in the centre,  but the aisles between the side rows were barely wide enough for a person to  walk between them. There was a little bit of a slope to the floor, just enough  to keep the water running through the baskets.  The salmon eggs were red and the ones that were spoiling always turned  a light colour. As soon as they had a white spot on them they were picked out  by hand.  As the little fish grew to fingerling size they were let out into the lake. If  they were ready in the winter time a hole would be cut in the ice to pour them 10  into. Ling living in the lake would devour them but the men would spear the  ling, open them up and dump the still living fry back into the hole. It is said  that the dead ling would be piled like cordwood alongside the holes where, no  doubt, they would be found and taken away by Chinamen who considered  ling a great delicacy.  Shuswap Lake  Re the old place names along the north shore of the Salmon Arm of  Lake Shuswap.  The main sockeye runs have since time immemorial returned up the  Fraser and Thompson Rivers to Shuswap Lake and its tributaries to spawn. 11  Shuswap Lake is shaped somewhat like an H with the four arms joined at  the Narrows. Every autumn all of its tributaries were teeming with the red fish  spawning before the advent of the white man in this western-most province.  The southeast arm of the lake was named after the Salmon River which flows  into the head of the arm at the toe end of a boot shaped bay with the town of  Salmon Arm beside its mouth. Tappen Bay and Tappen settlement are  located at the heel.  When old timers reminisce they often speak of how the farmers would  take their wagons and hay forks to the river, load up with salmon and bury  them to fertilize their fields and young fruit trees.  The rock slide at Hell's Gate, occasioned by the construction of the  Canadian National Railroad in 1913 and the subsequent one in 1914, effectively blocked the returning salmon from making their way up to spawn on  the very strips of sand and gravel where they were born and from which they  had begun their long journey to the sea four years earlier. Not until the fish  ladders were built in the 1920's did the great migrations begin to build up  again.  Everyone who recalls the hatchery and the social activities which took  place there remembers Scottie Mitchell. He was an educated, capable Scot  whose interests and occupations covered a wide range of subjects. Each year  he wrote "sessional reports" on the undertaking that were published by the  Federal Government. He planted a beautiful garden around the hatchery and  in the open field beside the facility many picnics and sporting events were  held. These continued on into the 1930's after the closure of the project in  1916.  During most of its active years about a dozen men were employed year-  round. Spring and summer were the busiest times although operations continued throughout the winter.  After the enterprise was abandoned, the buildings were demolished and  the lumber re-used. The Annala home which stands just south of the railway  overpass at Tappen was built with lumber from there. Today, all that remains is a crumbling concrete foundation and around it some lilac bushes.  This article has been written with reference to Mr. Jack Wilson's notes and collected documents  as well as to interviews with him, his wife Peggy, Mr. Robert Carlin, Mr. and Mrs. Claire Morrow  and Mr. William Laitinen. I must also give credit to Mr. Kevin O'Neill who interviewed these  people and subsequently produced a comprehensive report.  TWO LETTERS WRITTEN BY DAVID SALMOND MITCHELL  Scottie Mitchell's interest in fish conservation lasted long after the closing  of the Granite Creek Fish Hatchery in 1916. He was particularly concerned  about the depredation of salmon stocks by American canning companies. His  concern grew during the 1920's when Canada and the United States were  negotiating a treaty to govern the fishing of Fraser River stocks.  On May 14, 1925 he wrote a 15-page letter (in a copy-book hand) to  Judge F. W. Howay of New Westminster. Excerpts are quoted below: 12  David Salmond Mitchell "Scottie"  Dear Judge Howay:  I am taking the liberty of sending to you a paper written about 1918.  Salmon and Shuswap  A story of the Fraser River's great Salmon Runs and their loss. Please  excuse its worn condition. Since written it has been in circulation among the  old timers, and others around the Shuswap Lakes.  * * *  On page 47, ninth line: writing of the Fraser Sockeye situation, I have  "She could even be stocked with fish (salmon) that would not get into  American traps". Several have asked me why I didn't say more about that,  and explain fully how it could be done. My reason for not going fully into that  subject, is that I believe it should not be made public knowledge.  Its value to B.C. is greater if known only to the smallest circle possible.  Many of the Fraser's canneries are only branches of big American corporations that would care nothing for B.C. after they got all they could out of  her. They are well satisfied that their American plants should get the first  chance at the Fraser's salmon.  My ideas are a scheme by which the salmon bred in the Fraser River  system could return to their native streams without interception by American  canners and fishermen.  Letters to Federal Ministry officials and their replies are  written in full into the letter. Scottie Mitchell continues:  I  also wrote  to  the  Minister again giving him some details of the  American interception of Fraser River salmon. 13  I referred to the scheme again and repeated the question "What reward  would the Government give for such a scheme after having proof of its practicability and moderate cost?"  Correspondence shows something of an impasse as the  government would not commit itself to rewarding Mr.  Mitchell until they knew more of his scheme and Mr.  Mitchell would not divulge his scheme without the governments assurance of a reward. The letter continues:  The Fraser has been in need of such a scheme for 25 years and mine has  been standing at their door for about seven.  * * *  Twenty-five years ago the American canners of Puget Sound started canning Fraser River sockeye salmon captured while they were passing through  American waters on their return home to spawn in their native Fraser River  streams.  By the year 1899, the American canners had caught up on the Canadians  in the business of canning Fraser River sockeyes.  I shall here give the American precedence, as they get the first chance at  the Fraser River's salmon.  Scottie's flowers at the Hatchery 14  Fraser River sockeye salmon.  1899  Americans 499,646 cases  Canadians 480,485 cases  1901  1909  1913  Americans 1,105,096 cases  Canadians 928,669 cases  Americans 1,005,120 cases  Canadians 585,435 cases  Americans 1,664,827 cases  Canadians 736,661 cases  For the last 17 years (from 1908) the Americans have held precedence,  canning about 2/3rds of the Fraser River sockeye salmon pack: the Canadian  canners putting up one third (1/3) of the pack, from the fish that had escaped  the Americans.  The Americans secured from $18.00 to $20.00 per case for their 2/3rds  of the Fraser River sockeye pack in 1924 while the Canadians only got from  $12.50 to $13.00 per case for their 1/3 of the Fraser River's sockeye pack.  Then, there are other salmon in addition to the sockeye species: there are  Spring salmon, Coho salmon, Pinks, Chums, and Steelheads.  * * *  I have written far too much. I hope you will have time to look the paper  over.  After a couple of weeks you could return it to me.  Respectfully Yours,  David Salmond Mitchell  In addition to the letter quoted above, Mrs. Harvey has furnished us with  a Mitchell letter written in 1938, the whole of which is printed below. The letter is in that elegant calligraphy which distinguishes earlier letters. However,  the grisly postscript obviously has not been re-copied. Still the writing is neat  and completely legible.  Ed.  Salmon Arm, B.C.  12th July 1938  P. Gorse Esq.  Salmon Arm, B.C.  Dear Sir:  Dr. Dawson gave the name Bastion Range to the mountains along the  North Shore of the Salmon Arm of Lake Shuswap.  It was not the habit of Dawson to give names to the individual peaks of a  range.  A summit had to stand out conspicuously to be given a name and then he  never turned down the millenial Indian name if it was at all pronounceable. 15  Scene near Salmon Arm, September 1900 by D. S. Mitchell  The Bastion Range is in two main divisions, the East and the West.  In pre-white-man times the Indian village of Has-aist-kn lay at what is  now called Sunny Brae.  The mountain overlooking it was anciently and still is called Mount  "Hup-ant": with the accent on the ant.  Its summit is 4,040 feet above sea level.  The eastern part of the Bastion Range has always been known as Quil-  eel-quila meaning Green Mountain.  Its summit is 5,360 feet above sea level. Anciently Quil-eel-quila was  covered with grass.  It is on Quil-eel-quila that rows (of) tower-like prominences suggested to  Dr. Dawson the name of "Bastion" for the range.  Dr. Herald's farm was the McKargar place for long years, and the creek  was known as McKargar's Creek.  The Indian name for it was Skit-tchich-ily-mioustn. Where the deer  swim across the lake.  The next creek further East is Noo-hool-whelchtin, meaning, where  the stones fall down.  The land at the mouth of Noo-hool-whelchtin Creek was homesteaded  by Carl Olsen a Norwegian, who, on his death at about 90 (he would only  drink the lake water) left his place to his old chum Wm. McKargar, who had  homesteaded West of him, "where the deer swim across."  McKargar, overtaken by old age sold the two places to Reinecker, who  was on a visit from the United States, and who soon returned after turning  over the two places at a profit.  It was during the short occupation of Reinecker, that people newly arrived at Salmon Arm, after visiting the Falls on McKargar Creek, referred to  them as Reinecker.  McKargar was an old placer miner from California, a gentleman, and  bounteously hospitable. He and Olsen had travelled together and worked 16  together for some years before they settled down on the North shore of the  Salmon.  To make a grub stake they ran a boarding house during C.P.R. construction at the 1st tunnel west of Sicamous.  "Canoe Point" (on the map) at the easterly extremity of the North Shore  had for ages, probably thousands of years, been called "Tallus-ess-ullh"  meaning built up with stone (like a wall).  The engineers saw an old dugout canoe there and in their notes called  the place after the drift canoe instead of after the cyclopean stone wall.  It may have been adrift again the same day, and who knows that they did  not name Canoe Creek, 5V£ miles away, on the opposite side of the lake after  the same old dugout canoe.  People should have to undergo an inspection and take out a license before being permitted to call places names, or build a boat without authorized  plans.  Tallus-ess-ullh was homesteaded by William Watson, a Scotsman from  Dumfries, during and after construction and was said to be the strongest man  in the company's service.  Yours Truly,  D. S. Mitchell  P.S. Carl Olsen (Charley) was frozen to death, and buried at Noo-hool-  whelchtin.  Some years later, newcomers to the Salmon Arm District discovered his  grave and noting unmistakable evidence of something having been buried  there (the ground had settled) something probably of great value: placer  gold?  Their fertile imaginations took charge and within a month they could  envision a great chest full of pieces of 8, and golden candelabra: the spoils of  Mexican and California missions.  In the dead of night they dug poor Charley up.  The member of the party whose enthusiasm had secured for him the  lion's share of the picking and digging gave me a detailed hair-lifting account  of the whole affair. "At last I got down to the great chest and broke a hole  through the rotten lid with the pick.  I rolled up my sleeve, and getting down on my knees in breathless excitement inserted my hand. O Gawd!"  My fingers instead of closing on a candlestick of Gold: closed on a thigh  bone" (violent shudder) "I could feel it in the underwear drawers."  That north Shore has quite a history.  'The Start', swimming race Tappen, B.C. with fish hatchery in the background. 17  BATTLE DRILL TRAINING — WORLD WAR II  THE BATTLE SCHOOL ON COLDSTREAM RANCH  by Walker MacNeil  I was born in Westfold, Nova Scotia, and I was employed in a coal mine  until Canada declared war in 1939. In September I joined the Pictou Highlanders and spent six months with them.  In the early spring of 1940 the North Nova Scotia Highlanders were being formed in Amherst, and a company of Pictou Highlanders went up to join  them. The North Novas were in the Third Division, Ninth Brigade, and our  company was A Company. We came from Pictou County, the other companies were from around Truro, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island.  Headquarters were made up from these groups, and we trained for a whole  year around Amherst, before sailing overseas in July, 1941. We spent the next  couple of years training in the Old Country, and in the spring of 1943, 125  senior non-commissioned officers were picked from different Canadian  Regiments and sent back to Canada as instructors. I remember the day we  were all lined up and the Brigadier told us where we would be going. He called my name out and told me I would be going to the Pacific Command in a  place called Vernon. After he passed me I turned to the fellow next to me and  asked him, "Where the heck is Vernon?"  At that time I was a Sergeant and later became a Sergeant-Major. I came  out with seven other fellows to this battle school. We landed in Vernon the  first day of June, 1943, and after a short course with the people who were  already running the school, we took over the instructing.  The battle school was situated in the Coldstream Ranch, on the south  side of the highway and the main gate was almost opposite where the mills  now are. We were under canvas, summer and winter, in tents with wooden  walls. The camp was under Major Nutter, from Boultbee Sweet and Nutter  and his regimental sergeant-major was Paddy Lilburn. He was the first person  I met when I got off the train, but he had little to do with us because we had  our own staff-major, RSM and so forth. Larry Carrier was our RSM, and the  rest were sergeant-majors and instructors. We had three platoons with three  or four instructors to a platoon. A class lasted a little over three weeks, with a  week off for us to recouperate.  We were instructing officers, mostly lieutenants and captains. The object  was to find out who would make good officers, what they could take physically  and mentally. It was not like an ordinary military camp, with drills and  parade square. It was a training centre for officers, which taught everything a  commando was taught, in other words how to kill.  They would all be lined up, wearing coveralls, and we would be wearing  shorts, a light shirt and helmet. We were allowed a certain number of casualties, and we used live ammunition, in four different areas, including the  BX and the Dixon Dam areas.  We would place a couple of men in a bunker up there and we'd fix their  Bren guns on a certain distance and fire at them, over their heads.  We had another "scheme" the other side of Lumby at Shuswap Falls.  There was a bridge there and we used to take a platoon in a truck and drop 18  them off a mile this side of the bridge, and another platoon a mile the other  side of the bridge, and we'd see which platoon could reach the bridge first.  Whoever did would take it and the other platoon would try to recapture it  from them.  Everything from the time our watches were synchronized was on the double. That summer was a terrifically hot summer, and I remember two of the  men actually had froth coming from their mouths, we drove them that hard.  Two "villages" were built on the Coldstream Ranch, one of them on the  way to Deep Lake, with seven or eight houses, where the men could practice  street fighting. We had people in the houses firing at people attacking, but of  course that wasn't live ammunition.  Some of the officers thought we were driving them too hard. We could  do or say anything we wanted, curse them up and down, call them yellow  cowards, just to see how they would take it. I'm only five foot five-and-a-half  inches but in those days I was in wonderful shape, and I could run up over  those hills like nothing.  One school in August was nothing but colonels and brigadiers. That was  something, because my old colonel was there, too. At that time he was a  brigadier. Old Colonel Murdoch, from Truro. But we were told to ease off on  them, because most of them were in their fifties. So we did.  Live ammunition included two and three-inch mortars, and some mortar bombs were never picked up, causing death and injury to people long  after the war.  Photo courtesy of Doug Kermode  Officers of the Canadian Battle Drill Training School 1942  Lieutenant-Colonel J. Fred Scott (centre back row) and members of the original staff of Coldstream Battle Drill School. 19  I helped the army here search for bombs after the war, and we found  some in the Cosens Bay area. We used to do a lot of firing to the south and I  knew there were a lot of duds there. When we fired and they didn't go off you  knew they were duds, but they would probably be buried in the soft dirt and  moss and we didn't have time to pick them up.  At one place in the Coldstream we had a simulation of a mother ship for  practicing what we did on D-Day. There were ladders to climb up and the  men would come down the net and get into the boat or landing craft. This  gave them an idea of what they had to do. The poles were greased, and this  was where we were allowed a certain percentage of injuries to people. If they  slipped off they could break a rib. There was a wall to be scaled, creeks to be  waded, fire pits to be climbed over and other hazards, and we were pushing  them all the time, with a Bren gun firing over their heads. One of the assault  courses was located on the Coldstream Ranch, on the north side of Highway  6, in the field where the ranch kept its bulls.  Training at the battle school was something like the training we took in  Scotland in the winter. It was cold up there and if you fell off the rope into the  creek — 25 feet or so — it was pretty miserable. There were none of the comforts of home there, because we were in a big estate with no central heating —  just fireplaces, and you had to dry yourself and be ready for the next morning.  Since we were to be assault troops on D-Day, our whole regiment was at  the battle school in Scotland.  One of the first things they taught us in Vernon was to catch rattlesnakes  on the range at Rattlesnake Point. We had a big wooden barrel and in that  barrel we usually kept five or six rattlesnakes. We did a lot of roaming around  these hills with our units and many of the boys didn't even know what a rattlesnake looked like or what he sounded like.  The men were from all over Canada, since there was no other school like  this in the country. It was supposed to be the second best in the British Empire. The school was going before I arrived, and continued after I left, I think  for another year. But the training was mostly in preparation for D-Day.  We used to have parties at the Coldstream Chalet, we'd have a bar and  dancing. I think the army built the chalet, it was there before I came.  Everyone in camp lived in tents, but I lived in town because I was married and  my wife had come out with me. That's how I got back to Vernon after the  war. I said if I ever get back home I'm not going back to that coal mine.  I was at the battle school from June to December 1943. After our tour of  duty in Vernon we all travelled back to Debert, Nova Scotia, where we spent  two months and then we were shipped overseas and I went back to the North  Nova Scotia Highlanders. I was back in time for D-Day and from D-Day on I  fought in France, Belgium and Holland. I was wounded October 13, 1944,  and that ended my fighting. I spent two months in a convalescent hospital  before coming back to Canada, and eventually to Vernon.  THE CANADIAN BATTLE DRILL TRAINING CENTRE  COLDSTREAM RANCH  by Colonel David F. B. Kinloch  During the First and Second World Wars the Vernon area became well 20  known across Canada as a military training centre, and soldiers from the  Maritimes to the Pacific remember with mixed feelings the time they spent at  Vernon Camp. They remember the heat and the dust and the rattlesnakes;  the long marches through the hills and the long hike up Mission Hill from the  town to the camp, in time for "lights-out." They also remember the good  times they had and the warmth and friendliness of the Vernon people.  There is a special group of World War II veterans whose memories are  more concerned with what was probably the toughest experience of their  lives, and this took place, not in Vernon, but at near-by Coldstream Ranch.  At the Ranch, in the summer of 1942 was established Canada's first and only  Battle Drill School. It was set-up to train officers and NCO's in the rigours of  modern warfare, under realistic battle conditions so that they could return to  their various units and introduce the new Battle Drill concept.  The concept of battle drill was first put forward by Field Marshall Sir  Harold Alexander in 1940, presumably as a result of the overwhelming success of the German "Blitzkrieg" tactics in Europe.  It became obvious that the type of infantry training in effect amongst the  Allied troops did not fit them to cope with the rapid movement and fluidity of  modern warfare. The requirement was to provide training to enable small  formations of Platoon size to fight as self-supporting units if required, without  having to rely on Company and Battalion organizations.  "The year 1941 saw the inception of this new and much more realistic  type of training. This was known as Battle Drill and Battle Drill Training.  Battle Drill was the reduction of Military tactics to bare essentials which were  taught to a platoon as a team drill with clear explanations regarding the objects to be achieved, the principles involved and the individual task of each  member of the team. Battle Drill Training . . . was more comprehensive. It  comprised special physical training, fieldcraft, battle drill proper, battle discipline and "battle inoculation"."1  Battle inoculation called for simulation of actual battle conditions and  involved the use of live ammunition fired over the soldiers' heads and simulated mortar fire and shelling by the use of "thunder flashes" and buried  electrically-fired explosives. Complete fitness was imperative for this type of  training. The purpose was to teach soldiers how to behave under fire and also  to develop the kind of mental and physical toughness necessary to cope with  the ruthless brutality of the enemy.  As a result of the concept, in 1941 the first Battle Schools were developed  by the British Army. The first Canadian unit to participate was the Calgary  Highlanders, who, after having instructors trained by the British, set up their  own Battle School. Their example was shortly followed by every Canadian Infantry unit in Britain.  Early in 1942 Lieutenant-Colonel J. Fred Scott, E. D., the Commanding  Officer of the Calgary Highlanders, along with a staff of instructors from his  Regiment, was returned to Canada to introduce the new training method. At  this time Lt. Col. Scott, a Calgary lawyer and Kings Counsel prior to the war,  and a Militia soldier for many years, was considered one of the foremost Battle Drill experts throughout the Empire.  On May 1st, 1942 "A31 Canadian Battle Drill Training Centre" was  "placed on Active Service", with Lt. Col. Scott in Command. The first location of the Centre was Courtenay, B.C. The staff got on with their task quick- 21  ly with the result that they were able to run their first course from June 6th to  27th.  Although the location at Courtenay appeared excellent for training, a  problem arose with fire hazard which would inhibit the use of live ammunition necessary for battle inoculation. In the meantime someone on staff  discovered the Coldstream Ranch which contained excellent training areas.  Mr. Tom Hill, the ranch manager, agreed to allow training to be carried on  throughout the 11,000 acres, including use of the pastures, fields and timber,  without remuneration to the Ranch.2 Subsequently the entire ranch was  declared a maneouvre area by Order-in-Council.  On the 27th of July, 1942, Lt. Col. Scott and his staff moved from  Courtenay and set up their Headquarters at Coldstream Ranch. Instructors  and Staff and demonstration platoons entered their new home, and with  great enthusiasm proceeded to alter the face of a large part of Coldstream  Ranch. They built a log village for street fighting, constructed a full scale  obstacle course and blasted a trench in the rock on the hillside where sections  would experience overhead fire from all platoon weapons. A dam was built on  Coldstream Creek to provide for river crossing drills, also concrete "pillboxes," slit trenches, barbed wire entanglements and many other projects  aimed at creating realistic battle conditions. Also areas were selected where  all platoon weapons, from rifles to mortars, could be safely fired.  Based on experience gained at the British Battle School at Barnard  Castle, Lt. Col. Scott set a very high standard at A31 BDTC. The emphasis at  all times was on physical fitness and mental and physical toughness. Col.  Scott's version of the theory of Battle Drill as defined in the School Training  Manual is enlightening. He introduces his subject with a quotation from Field  Marshall Alexander:  "As a nation of game players we all know the necessity of teaching young  people the orthodox techniques of sport . . . Surely a solider on the battlefield, beset by fear and doubt, is far more in need of a guide to motion than  any games player at . . . Maple Leaf Gardens. Better to know instinctively  some orthodox line of conduct than to be paralyzed by the uncertainty of  what to do.  Let us therefore study and draw up lines of conduct ... so that we may  ensure that our soldiers when faced with problems on the battlefield, will have  an answer to them."  Then Lt. Col. Scott outlines his procedure:  THE PLAN  1. To take each movement of war and analyse it . . . break it down to its  essentials.  2. Work out an ideal plan  3. Drill  4. Teach variations  Emphasis will be on 1. Drill 2. Speed — great powers of physical endurance, training guts and organization, qualities of leadership.  ALL Battle Drill is therefore tough - at all times AT THE DOUBLE.  In October 1942, A31 Training Centre was upgraded and became "S10  Canadian Battle Drill School", and as such it continued to operate until October, 1943, at which time it was disbanded on the formation of "SI7 Canadian School of Infantry", with headquarters in Vernon Camp. From then on 22  Battle Drill became one of the Training Wings under direct command of SI7,  and once again it was renamed, becoming "S17 No. 2 Battle Wing". The first  commander of the new School was Brigadier Milton F. Gregg V.C. The Wing  remained at Coldstream Ranch and carried on the same type of training.  During its time of operation, the School, as A31 and S10 Canadian Battle Drill School, conducted a total of 16 regular three-week courses and six  Senior Officers' courses lasting 10 days each.  In all, a total of 1,902 men received Battle Drill training.  SI7 School of Infantry remained in operation until the summer of 1945.  The Battle Wing training program was revised in 1943 to meet the many  changes in battle conditions that occurred as the war progressed. Duration of  the Battle Drill courses was extended from three weeks to six.  The primary object of the Battle Drill School in all its various phases was  to indoctrinate Officers and NCO's who could return to their units qualified  to introduce and teach Battle Drill Training. Candidates came from the  Maritimes to the Pacific Coast. There is no question that the School fulfilled  its aims and objects and that the type of training given was of great value to  the Canadian Infantry Units as well as to the candidates who survived the  courses, although they might not have thought so at the time. Certainly those  who eventually faced actual battle did so with a considerably increased  chance of survival, thanks to the excellent training they received at Coldstream Ranch.  FOOTNOTES  1 "Six Years of War" Volume I, by Colonel C. P. Stacey, Director, Historical Section,  General Staff.  2 Coldstream Ranch. The official version of the move to the Ranch gives credit to Mr. Tom  Hill, the manager, for permitting the use of land and facilities without remuneration. Credit  should also have been given the owner, the Lady Catherine Macdonald-Buchanan. While  managers of the Ranch have always had considerable autonomy, it is doubtful that such a commitment could have been made without full approval of the owner. (Lady Catherine was the heir  of James Buchanan, Lord Woolavington, who purchased the ranch from Lord Aberdeen.)  Apparently the Coldstream Ranch received neither remuneration nor compensation for  damage. They did, however, acquire all buildings left by the Battle Drill School.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  "Six Years of War" Volume I, Colonel C. P. Stacey  War Diary, S10 Candian Battle Drill School, Lt. Col. J. F. Scott  Letter — Col. G P. Stacey, Director Historical Section (GS)  Letter — Prof. R. H. Roy, Professor of Military History and Strategic Studies, University of  Victoria  Mr. E. T. Osborn, Manager, The Coldstream Ranch  Major B. F. Baker, Okanagan Centre, Staff of "S10"  Major D. W. Mitchell, Vernon, Instructor "S17 No. 2 Battle Wing".  EXCERPTS FROM WAR DIARY OF  A.31 CANADIAN BATTLE DRILL TRAINING CENTRE  Editor's Note: The following text is printed with the permission of the Public Archives  Canada, Ottawa, the custodian of the War Diaries. Typewritten entries were made  daily and initialed by the Camp Adjutant, Capt. W. E. Nutter M.C. The final entry  for each month is followed by the signature of the Commanding Officer who, for the  most part, was Col. J. F. Scott E.D. 23  21-07-42 Weather Hot. Arrived in Vernon. What a hell-hole after  Courtenay. Not one bit of shade on the camp ground and the students will  have to travel miles in order to get suitable training areas, which we had on  our doorstep at Courtenay.  22-07-42 . . . All being bitten to death by mosquitoes. Feel sorry for the  students of the next course if this heat keeps up.  24-07-42 Weather Extremely Hot. Getting straightened around. The trouble is, we will have to do it all over again within a month when our permanent  camp is ready.  2-08-42 Weather — Hot. Platoon schemes carried out by students. Mr. T.  Hill, Manager of the Coldstream Ranch invited Col. Scott, Capt. Nutter and  Capt. Christie to one of the lakes for a fishing trip Sunday. Very successful  day. We are receiving real co-operation from Mr. Hill. The entire 11,000  acres are at our disposal for training purposes.  4-08-42 First casualty at Vernon, Lieut. R. F. MacKay of Pictou  Highlanders shot in heel. Weather — Hot.  20-08-42    Rattlesnake shot on Coldstream Ranch.  No one hurt.  Gordon  Root of the Province Newspaper here for a story and taking pictures.  23-08-42    Half the camp moved to new location.  27-08-42 Total of 138 Officers and N.C.O.'s for 4th course which makes us  short 10 students. 4 not in fit condition for course and returned to units.  8-09-42 Col. Ten Broche visited training centre and watched two platoons  on the assault course. He was very much impressed with our training area on  the Coldstream Ranch. This course is a real tough one and anyone who goes  through it is in real good shape on completion. . .  12-09-42 Training as per syllabus. Halfday. Some of the boys helping out  with apple picking. Very little help available for the growers and our help is  appreciated.  16-09-42     Mess Dinner — Invited guests, Col. Cotton of the W.L.I.'s, Rev.  Mackie. Very pleasant evening.  17-09-42    Checkout of Students.  20-09-42    Most of the lads out picking apples. . .  25-09-42 Lt. Jukes hurt by Thunderflash. Apparently . . . defective as it exploded in his hand blowing the tip off his index finger.  27-09-42 Sunday. Number of men allowed to go apple picking. Mr. Hill of  Coldstream Ranch had to fire the Japs he had working on apple picking as  they were bruising the apples by thumb pressing.  30-09-42 . . . Preparing buildings at Coldstream Ranch.  10-10-42 Weather — Very cold in morning and some of the category men  are feeling it. The M.O. parade gets longer each day. Living in tents without  a stove is hard to take even in the best of conditions.  21-10-42    Meeting of all O.C.'s with General Pearkes. He favors Battle Drill  being introduced into Basic Training. One Hundred percent co-operation  from General Pearkes, who, we feel, appreciates the value of our school.  23-10-42    Checked over new location at Coldstream Ranch. Engineers have  most of the tent floors and sides up. . .  2-11-42    Sgt. Hanson . . . instructor . . . hurt with Thunderflash.  6-11-42 Snow Fluries. Getting camp ready at Coldstream. This makes our  fourth move. Hope we light somewhere soon. At the Ranch we will have much  better accommodation than at present but we still lack a permanent camp. 24  20-11-42    Getting settled in new camp. Weather — Cold.  22-11-42    Col. Scott shot his first deer. Capt. Nutter and his son Douglas of  the Merchant Navy accompanied him. We'll have venison for the mess dinner  on Thursday. Weather — Beautiful day.  24-11-42 Balance of students arrived making total of 105. Pretty fair looking lot. Gradually getting things in shape. The marquees with wooden walls  and stoves far superior to the bell tents. . .  26-11-42 . . . Mess dinner. Tom Hill, manager of Coldstream made  honourary member. Mr. Peters of the Okanagan Electric was present  together with Col. Husband, Major McDonald of the Engineers, the Padre  and Lt. Atkins. Very pleasant time. Weather — Fine and Cold.  30-11-42 Ten day course for Sr. Of. — Brigadier Martin, five Lt. Col.'s,  eight Majors, the balance of 30 made up of Captains and Lieutenants.  1-12-42 Ten day Senior Officers' Course started off with a bang. Brigadier  Martin, Col. Cotton and Col. Beattie taking everything and liking it. Others  feel it is a little tough but admit it is real training. Lots of snow all over the  ground and they all came in tired out after the first round. Weather — Fine  and cold.  4-12-42 . . . Sally Ann giving a moving picture show for us tonight at Coldstream Hall.  8-12-42 Obstacle Course; — No casualties. The seniors went over it —  some walking; others running. Lt. Col. Scott, the commandant, went over  like a twenty-one year old, followed by Lt. Col. Cotton, Lt. Col. Beattie M.C.  Nothing stopped them. They all looked like coal heavers who had been dropped in a lake. Glad to see them all get back with no ill effects. Weather —  cold.  9-12-42    All day scheme — for the 10 day course. A few sharp tempers at  the close of the day, both with instructors and students. . .  24-12-42    Half day in camp.  The residents of this area have been exceptionally generous with their invitations for Christmas dinner and most of  the students and staff have been asked out to private homes. . .  27-12-42    Real prairie blizzard with snow two foot high in places.  28-12-42    Students back on the job and had a tough day of it ploughing  through the snow. They trained as per syllabus.  31-12-42 Worked all day. The students have been invited out to private  houses preceding the dance at the Armouries. Mr. Shultes S.R. is giving a  party for the staff officers and their wives. A real time was had.  4-01-43 . . . This is the coldest day yet, almost zero. . . Training as per syllabus under difficulties. Four of the students with frozen feet. We are short of  equipment for this kind of weather.  12-01-43 Mr. Taylor of Bank of Montreal and Mr. Skinner Mgr. of HB Co.  invited guests. Our old friend Tom Hill was also present. We had a grand  time. The Colonel is getting real good at checkers.  16-01-43 Ten Below this morning and we're having a hell of a time trying to  keep warm. Why we ever left the Coast area no one knows. We knew what we  were up against before we left Courtenay. How we can carry on under present  condition remains to be seen. Hot as hell in summer with rattlesnakes and  below zero in winter without rum and trying to live in tents. One little stove to  each marquee.  18-01-43    . . . impossible to start training in this kind of weather. Twenty 25  below today.  19-01-43 . . . We have had to bed down the students in the recreation hut  and drying room until the weather moderates. One of the batmen had his ear  frozen while asleep in a marquee. Lots of nipped fingers and toes. Getting  warmer. Fifteen below today.  20-01-43 Here is what one student posted in the officers' mess: "I Suggest  That: 1. No students should be allowed to visit the outside urinal unless accompanied by at least three (3) others, all securely roped together and equipped with ice axes. This party should if possible be placed in charge of an experienced mountain climber, well versed in ice work. . . 4. That the name  "Sunny Okanagan will be made in future to read merely Okanagan."  21-01-43    30 below  22-01-43 Maj. McDonald, the engineer officer phoned. He had twenty more  stoves for us which is appreciated.  26-01-43 The old thermometer ran up today and we had our first day of  training. Some of the students felt it but most of them got by. Snow fluries  and getting warmer. 12 above zero.  28-01-43 Tough going through the snow. Weather — dull, 20 above zero.  29-01-43 More snow and more frayed nerves, both students and instructors.  We'll all be able to go to the Russian front after this course is over.  1-02-43 Weather warming up, 30 above today. Col. Scott left for Pacific  Command to discuss permanent buildings. Training as per syllabus.  2-02-43 Bullets and bayonets pretty tough going through the snow but  strangely enough we have few casualties and little sickness. Weather — snow  fluries.  4-02-43 Snowing again. Will it ever stop? . . . The name of this Centre is  changed to S. 10 Canadian Battle Drill School.  10-02-43 Assault Course — We had the worst accident to date. One of the  students K45554 A/Sgt. Feusi, A.H. caught his leg in a wire with a charge on  the end of it just as it exploded. It blew his leg off above the knee. . . The lad  was taken to the hospital in less than half an hour but when they got him on  the operating table found internal injuries. The poor lad passed away during  the evening.  11-02-43 Inquest held on the death of A/Sgt. Feusi, finding accidental with  no blame attached to anyone.  15-02-43 Last day of the 9th Course. All-day scheme and mess dinner. The  boys put on a skit which was quite amusing. Wish the O.C. had been here.  Beautiful day.  17-02-43 Had our first wedding. Lt. P. Hertzberg married Miss B. Corner.  Lt. Hertzberg wanted the wedding at the camp so we turned over the Officers'  Ante-Room. Officers' wives were in attendance and we all had a very pleasant  time. . . Weather — fine and warm.  26-02-43 . . . We had to stop the school today on account of sickness. Forty-  five NCO's had dysentery.  8-03-43 Major General G. R. Pearkes V.C., D.S.O., M.C., Brig. Hodson,  Brig. Colquhoun M.C. and Major Firminger spent the day with us. . . We  have a real friend in Gen. Pearkes. Before he arrived here we were crying in  the wilderness. . .  10-03-43 General Pearkes with us during the morning. He talked to the  students for three quarters of an hour and gave a most inspiring address. He 26  left no uncertainty as to where he stood regarding B.D. and it's the first time  since this school started, we have had a clean taste in our mouths and a feeling  we had a real man behind us 100%. We gave him three cheers which shook  the building and everyone meant it. Obstacle Course in the afternoon. Some  good and some bad. . . One major thought a few drinks would do him good  before running the course. He was open at both ends after crawling through  the smoke pit. Just one unholy sight. Capt. Stutt of the A. 16 CITC Calgary  broke a leg and Sgt. Filliter, one of the Instructors, hurt his hand with a  Thunderflash. Otherwise a pleasant time was had.  11-03-43 . . . We have sold all of our battle drill books, new issue — 324 this  makes a total of nearly one thousand. They sure grabbed on to them after  Gen. Pearkes' lecture.  The "books" were detailed training manuals, foolscap size, typed, mimeographed,  and bound by the school.  12-03-43 Spring is in the air and it looks as if it will warm up a bit. It's been  a tough winter but we got through it with only one week's delay in our school.  . . H. R. Cottingham and G. Watkins called regarding Red Cross drive. . .  21-04-43 One of the worst wind storms on record. It nearly blew our tents  down. Then rain. Training as per syllabus.  4-05-43 Had our Victory Loan rally. The boys responded splendidly. Our  total $2,950.00 and we haven't finished yet. . . We are giving a demonstration  to the citizens of Vernon, B.C. to help the Victory Loan along. . . Quite a  crowd to see Battle Drill and from all reports we put on a real show for them.  5-05-43 . . . We have reached a total of $4,350.00 in the Victory Loan  Campaign.  10-05-43     ... 47 observers of the Intelligence spent the day with us.  17-05-43    Col. Richmond, M.C. of the Small Arms School, Nanaimo, B.C.  spent the day with us. Capt. Rennie of the U.S. Army who got into coveralls  and enjoyed his two days' stay with us very much, expressed the hope to be  able to take the full course.  19-05-43 A big day for Vernon. His Excellency the Governor General and  Princess Alice visited the camp. Officers' wives were invited on the reviewing  stand to see the march past with the Governor General taking the salute. Brig.  Colquhoun, M.C. gave a luncheon with J. F. Scott our Commandant sitting  on the left of Princess Alice. They arrived at our training centre at 1500 hours  and the following demonstrations were given as per attached list. General  Pearkes V.C. was with them and the entire party got a real kick out of battle  drill. A tea had been arranged but Princess Alice was more interested in our  teachings than anything else. They are grand people. It is easily understood  how the Empire has been held together. Weather fine.  7-06-43 What a hell-of-a-mess we've been having with the 13th Course.  Someone went astray and sent us an additional platoon. No one knows who is  in the Carrier Wing as they weren't told nor were we advised. The 19th  Brigade is helping us out. Weather — Fine.  21-06-43 Cold with rain. This 13th Course is the weeds. Will be glad when it  is over. More withdrawals than any other course. Men being called back  almost daily. It is a good job we started with an overload.  1-07-43    We started off very well at the Sports Meet, RSM. Ferrier winning  the 6-mile race, one mile ahead of the next contestant. . .  10-07-43    Senior Officers came in, that is most of them. Our revered Adju- 27  tant is to take the Senior Officers' Course as a salve to his conscience.  29-07-43 Capt. Nutter returned from 96 hours leave. Hail and Hearty after  Senior Officer's Course. He lost 17 pounds all in the right places. Weather —  Hot. Two of the demonstration platoon boys — Pte. Zenyk G. and Pte.  Hockley V.S. were drowned in the lake at Kelowna. They were down there  helping to build the Assault Boat and after work went in for a swim. Hockley's  body has been found but no sign of the other.  2-08-43 ... In the evening we went to Kelowna, B.C. to see the landing of  our Assault Craft. Material given to us by the Kelowna people.  8-08-43 Beautiful Sunday. Col. J. K. Howard of the U.S. Army arrived to  spend a week with us. He appears to be a grand chap.  10-08-43 Col. Howard and Yank Levy out with school. They are very high  in their praise. Levy says our School is the best run in Canada. That's nothing  — the Governor General and Princess Alice think we're grand. Wish some of  the powers that be would think we were grand enough to give us buildings.  Over a year now living in tents.  13-08-43 Tried to have a pay parade but a big fire at Cosens Bay stopped it.  All hands sent out to check it. We noticed smoke coming up from the Cosens  Bay area at 1530 hours and immediately sounded the alarm and sent all  available men with equipment. As students hit the camp they were dispatched  immediately. The Fire Department in Vernon, B.C. was notified at 1600  hours and a truck was dispatched to the fire. Not much could be done by  them however as no hydrants are in the vicinity and the bay too far away to  pump water. . . The fire was brought under control at 1800 hours, but it will  still be a long night of fire fighting. . .  14-08-43    Fire under control. Tom Hill the manager of the Coldstream not  too excited about it but feels we should stop using smoke and flares until the  flash season is over. We decided to do this before he had mentioned it.  15-08-43    Col. Scott left for Calgary and then overseas. He will be greatly  missed by all. (Major I. H. Martin A/Commandant)  6-09-43 Tried out new obstacle course. Few sprained limbs and aching  bodies. Looks like a tough one.  7-09-43 Brig. M. F. Gregg V.C, M.C. arrived back today. He had meeting of the Instructors and explained the function of the Canadian School of  Infantry with the Battle Drill School as a wing. He complimented us on our  good work telling of the grand part we had played in training. We remain intact and as is. Weather fine.  18-09-43 Finishing of all night and day scheme. Some out in front, others  lagging behind after a 25-mile up hill and down dale grind.  22-09-43 Still a great turmoil with worried looking Officers with briefcases  rushing about. Evey tent and marquee seems to have its quota of conferees  like a Quebec Conference in miniature. We had Major Bartlett with us for  most of the day. A Forty foot flag pole was put up outside the Orderly Room  and adds to the camp considerably.  23-09-43 Today we were honoured by the presence of the C. of G.S. Lieut.  General Kenneth Stuart. Accompanying him were Major General G. R.  Pearkes V.C, Deputy Minister of National Defence Col. Currie and Lt. Col.  C. A. Parker.  27-09-43 . . . Captain W. E. Nutter left for "up the hill," i.e.: he is officially  taking over S. 17 as Adjutant and moving up there on the hill above Vernon. 28  The big machine is slowly getting under way.  4-10-43 The first day of the first course under the new school went as well  as everyone could expect.  6-10-43 A very important event today was the arrival of Field-Marshall Sir  John Dill, accompanied by Major General G. R. Pearkes V.C, Mr. Moodie  Western Superintendent of the C.N.R., Col. Ralston and various aides.  9-10-43 Five officers and two NCO's reported for the course after flying  down from Kiska. . . Today is the date of final "Part II", officially disbanding  the School on absorption by S.17 Canadian School of Infantry. Last entries in  War Diaries are traditionally nostalgic and backward looking, but there  seems to be no necessity for that here, as in being part of CS. of I. we are going forward to bigger and better things in all ways. So ends the separate existence of S.10 Canadian Battle Drill School.  C R. Clarke Major  A/Commandant  S.10 Canadian Battle Drill School  FROM THE WAR DIARY OF BATTLE DRILL CENTRE  JULY, 1942  ODE TO BATTLE DRILL  "You must go on!" is the endless cry,  On and on till you drop and die,  Sweat saves blood! Brains save sweat!  (Bet we haven't seen the brains as yet!)  With rifles up, five yards apart  We double along with racing heart,  Legs atremble and lungs aflame —  Wondering to C - . . . why we ever came!  Can you think of a greater Hell  Than to hear some bloody instructor yell —  As you stumble along 'neath a forty-pound load,  I'm a live grenade and Fm about to explode!  Bang! Bang! Bang! A Bren gun goes,  And you plough the ground on your bloody nose.  Down! Crawl! Observe! Fire!  Up to your neck in the stinking mire!  I could go on but I haven't time.  I know you'll pardon my little rhyme.  Of this, my tale, no more I'll give,  (I'm writing for a transfer to the Armoured Div.)  T. A Phelps, Lieut., R.M.R. 29  VERNON CELEBRATES NINETY YEARS OF INCORPORATION  by Edna Oram  Thursday afternoon, December 30, 1982, people flocked to the Recreation Centre to celebrate Vernon's 90th birthday. The city was the first to be  incorporated in the Okanagan Valley, the charter for incorporation being  granted December 30, 1892.  They came early, greeted friends, welcomed holiday visitors they hadn't  seen for years and settled in for an afternoon of light entertainment by choirs,  bands, dancers, and ethnic performers.  Activity for the children was at the outdoor skating rink and the indoor  swimming pool but you can swim and skate anytime so the children drifted in  and out of the auditorium to watch the colourful swirl of the entertainers. In  a corner of the auditorium three pre-schoolers put on a spontaneous dance of  their own. People for whom this was a working day, dropped in for a few  minutes and lingered on.  In formal dress of the 1890's, Ian MacLean was a great master of ceremonies. Mayor Hanson gave the welcoming address. Good Citizens and Freemen of the city, including 100-year old Guy Bagnall were invited to a place of  honor on stage and individually introduced. Winners of the birthday cake  contest were announced. The cakes were cut with a piece for everyone and a  cup of tea or coffee to enjoy while they mingled with the crowd.  Royce Moore, Chairman, and his Birthday Celebration Committee came  up with an afternoon of fun well suited to the multicultural talents and the  friendliness of Vernonites.  For the ensuing six weeks, visitors enjoyed displays in the Greater Vernon  Museum and Art Gallery, the foyer of City Hall and in a main street display  prepared by the Friends of History, showing photographs and stories of the  early days. Copies of an illustrated history — Ninety Years of Vernon — are  still selling well.  The first permanent settler was Luc Girouard who, in 1867 pre-empted  land which today encompasses the central core of the city. Other settlers  followed, mostly from the British Isles. They brought with them traditions of  law and order, culture, sports, pride in themselves and a strong sense of community responsibility that remain the cornerstone of life today.  The tiny hamlet of forty people in 1888 was in the right place at the right  time and had settlers with the foresight to take advantage of the coming of the  railway to Sicamous in 1885 and to Vernon and Okanagan Landing in 1892.  The railways and the development of a connecting boat service for travel  south opened the southern part of the valley to settlers.  For years Vernon was the centre of all provincial and federal government  services and was a distribution point for movement of people and supplies up  and down the valley. Today Vernon is a bustling city of some 20,000 and a  distribution and shopping centre for over 75,000 area residents.  A provincial Heritage Trust official says that Vernon has more historic  buildings than any other valley city. In addition to the beautiful provincial  court house, the CPR railway station, Park and Bearisto School and many  private homes, there are eighteen buildings within the central core awaiting  historic restoration. There are in business today eight firms founded in 1892,  some into the fourth generation of the founding family. Many descendants of 30  early settlers live in the original homes of their grandparents.  Superimposed on the base of settlers from the British Isles are more  residents of varied ethnic background than in any other valley city. Emigrants  are coming from uncertain futures in Europe and Asia. Retirees come for the  salubrious climate. Young families come to get away from the stress of life in  large metropolitan areas. Vernon is truly international.  Vernon has no desire to become a large industrial city. There is no large  single employer of labor. There are many low-profile small businesses, craft  workers, service industries and ever growing businesses catering to tourists.  Volunteer associations provide health, educational, religious, cultural, sport  and social services. There is a relatively sound economic base affected only  marginally by world events. It's just a pleasant place in which to live and raise  a family.  In 1904, on a trip from Manitoba to the coast, Sam Poison stopped over  in Vernon, with the result that he wired his family "get ready to move. I've  found the Garden of Eden." He is remembered today as the donor of the land  for the Vernon Jubilee Hospital and for the park that bears his name. Those  born in Vernon take the good life here for granted. Newcomers agree with  Mr. Poison.  VERNON,  YOU'VE COME A LONG WAY IN NINETY YEARS!  O'Keefe's - St. Anne's Catholic Church  Built in 1886 at the head of Okanagan Lake.  R. S. Manuel 81 31  75th ANNIVERSARY  ST. ANDREW'S UNITED CHURCH  ENDERBY, B.C.  They dreamed of a structure strong and true,  With a steeple that reached for the sky.  They gave of their substance and talents, too,  Be they much or little or many or few,  As they fashioned it wide and high.  In 1906 with a right good will  They laboured for many a day  With dedication and patient skill,  With lumber that came from the local mill,  And bricks from the native clay.  The cornerstone was laid that year  By Mrs. Fortune's hand.  Her husband, a sturdy pioneer,  In 1866 ventured here  To a wild and lonely land.  And since that time within its walls  Has flowed the stream of life,  And of death and of birth,  Of tears and of mirth,  And of marriage of man and of wife.  Recalling St. Andrew's history long  On its Diamond Jubilee,  We celebrated with praise and song.  God grant that it nurture a courage strong,  And a faith that is firm in Thee.  Sylvia Carlton  Enderby, B.C. 32  ST. GEORGE'S FIRST NINETY YEARS  by Mrs. E. Revel  On April 26, 1981, a special service was held in St. George's Anglican  Church, Enderby, to celebrate the church's ninetieth anniversary. St.  George's is the oldest Anglican church in the Okanagan still standing where it  was built in 1891.  Even before 1891, clergy left records which tell us much about the early  life in the area. Most settlers came from England, travelling overland by train  and arriving in Enderby via Sicamous and Mara. The records of the first  Anglican missionary date from 1883. The clergyman entered every text, sermon subject, the number of people attending and the name of the family in  whose home the service was held. The missionary rode to Mabel Lake and  preached to a few neighbours gathered there, then on to Lumby where a service was held in Mr. Lumby's home. Then he travelled to Priest's Valley (Vernon) and Grand Prairie (Westwold). He returned to Enderby through Salmon  Arm and continued to hold services in homes.  Because families settling in the Valley felt the need of a church, in 1891  they undertook the building of the present St. George's, using lumber from  the local mills and lovingly donating their labour. Men and women formed a  good choir. A harmonium was donated along with damask altar and pulpit  coverings, the latter being decorated with handmade lace and embroidery. A  huge wood stove heated the building. Lamps and candles provided light until  Okanagan Saw Mills began to generate its own electricity and offered to electrify the church. One member of the congregation donated the first light  bulbs. Beautiful carving was done by different men. The members' deep  pride in their church strengthened it and inspired Grindrod and Mara to  build churches of their own which were served by the resident clergyman from  Enderby.  In 1906, when Enderby became a city, Graham Rosoman who was a lay  reader in St. George's, became the first City Clerk. A city band was formed  and one of its first official functions was to lead a parade of 39 Masonic Lodge  Members through the muddy streets to a service in the Anglican Church.  Later on, the Knights of Pythias also paraded to a service. At that time, the  choir sang Stainer's "Crucifixion" for Easter. Many of the early choir  members had received voice training during their youth in Britain and loved  good music. This same group of people began an Opera House in Enderby,  which was later known as the K. P. Hall, and now is the Enderby Electric  building.  Gradually a regular routine of services evolved and a Sunday School was  held on Sunday afternoons. In the vestry books, special prayers and services  are noted: upon the death of King Edward VII, for coronations, because of  fear of war in 1914, for peace. A temperature entry of -42 degrees reveals  when the orchards were frozen. Another entry spoke of praying for rain as  forest fires burned all around and mills were being destroyed. Another entry  stated that Enderby Church was closed by the health authorities in 1920  because of an outbreak of smallpox.  Through the years, rectors have come and gone. Armstrong and Enderby have become one parish as the English community is less prominent and  fewer in number. Life has changed. Churches are no longer the hub of social 33  St. George's Anglican Church, Enderby  Oldest Northern Okanagan Church on original site.  life. But the small congregation of St. George's is still proud of its history and  service to the community through the years.  We ask God's blessing on its continued service and help to people of the  future.  TIME TO PRUNE  It's time you know,  Time to cut back the dead growth  of a relationship.  I have snapped off a few twigs  And found them brittle  With indifference  No sap of feeling  Flows through the limbs,  Even the blight of anger  Could not survive,  Time to prune  Ruthlessly  Right back to the stock  So fresh new relationships  May push out into bud,  And yet my pruning shears  Hesitate  And I peer closely at the  Dead  Blackened  Brittle wood  Eager for evidence  Of any tiny unnoticed  Green shoot,  My shears hesitate  And hesitate  And hesitate . . .  by Don Rees  (From I'll Meet You Under the Light of the Next Star) 34  OKANAGAN AND SIMILKAMEEN ECOLOGICAL RESERVES:  Elements in a World Program  Excerpts from "Wilderness: the passing of a dream"  by Tony Gaston  (Tony Gaston's article was first published in the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee's publication, Northern Perspective, Vol. 10, No. 4, June - August, 1982)  The concept of wilderness derives from a world-view which distinguishes  two categories of phenomena: the natural and the man-made. According to  this view the species Homo sapiens is so far removed from the rest of the  biological world that its actions must be treated as entirely separate from the  interactions of other animals with their environments. Wilderness is the name  applied to tracts of land not subject to any human influence and hence totally  natural.  Aside from the emotional arguments, there are also strong practical  arguments for the maintenance of wilderness. These have been summarized  recently in the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and  Natural Resources's World Conservation Strategy. This document is concerned with management of the entire biosphere, but some of the arguments  apply specifically to wilderness protection. The most important of these concerns the preservation of biological diversity. We use a huge range of animal  and plant species for food, medicines, construction, and the production of artifacts. Many of the substitutes for these natural products are fabricated from  fossil hydrocarbons, which constitute a rapidly diminishing resource. We are  reducing our future options by allowing animals and plants which might be of  value to us later to become extinct.  We can try to maintain representative animals and plants in zoos and  gardens, but this is universally acknowledged to be only a short-term solution.  The only way to ensure the survival of a good proportion of the world's present fauna and flora is to set aside areas in which natural ecosystems can  maintain themselves. Within a functioning ecosystem, each biological component supports every other within an intricate web of balance and counterbalance. The survival of the system itself is the best guarantee of the survival  of individual species.  A second practical argument for the preservation of wilderness focuses  on the significance of a narrower range of ecosystems — particularly those  which exist in marginal environments. Large areas of the Old World are  covered by desert or sparsely vegetated steppe.  There is evidence to suggest that the creation of these deserts resulted  from the destruction of pre-existing ecosystems which were maintained only  as a result of delicate adaptation to a physical environment close to its limit of  tolerance. Once the vegetation cover was destroyed, a short period of fertility  was followed by rapid encroachment of desert as the soil crumbled and blew  away. A similar process took place more recently in parts of the American  West (the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression).  A second class of marginal ecosystems is that of watershed forests on the 35  steep mountain slopes that stand at the headwaters of most of the world's major rivers. Destruction of these forests, which has taken place on a large and  accelerating scale in this century, leads to rapid erosion of soil, siltation of  rivers and reservoirs, and increased runoff of rain that causes flooding as well  as lower water levels during droughts. In both of these cases, it is in the best  long-term interests of everyone to maintain the natural vegetation intact. If  the vegetation is intact, then the preservation of the associated fauna should  be relatively simple.  \onapartA  L.    V     La  larriere  <:  In some ways, the destruction of wilderness can be compared with the  current squandering of fossil fuel resources. Both are being expended without  thought for future generations.  In twenty years, this planet will support six billion people, half as many  again as there are today. The energy to sustain this multitude must come  almost entirely from the sun, through the chemical factories of plants. Look  around at the world and where you see a leaf, cherish it. Every leaf is a tiny  trap to catch the energy of the sun and channel it into the cycle of life that  forms the biosphere. We must all become gardeners, with the whole earth our  garden. We must tend every part of the land. We must shepherd every type of  beast, because we are a part of the world, and if the world dies, we cannot  survive. 36  Only small remnants of wilderness will remain by the end of this century,  except perhaps in boreal and polar regions, but if we choose these areas wisely  and give them effective protection from human disturbance, then we may still  hope to preserve a large proportion of the world's fauna and flora. It would be  naive to think that we can achieve more than this in the face of the enormous  pressure on land for agriculture and silviculture. These Reserves will provide  us with reservoirs of biological diversity on which we can continue to draw,  and they will also be living museums to show the world as it was before man.  With the fragmentation of wilderness and its relegation to a state of existence on sufferance, I believe that a part of our vision will disappear. The  wilderness which I dreamed of in my youth — the vast undisturbed solitude  lying quiet under the sky, the forest, like a green sea, stretching from horizon  to horizon; the pathless prairie; and the whispering fen — all that is dead. It  was dead before I was born. The challenge of the wilderness is no longer to  confront and conquer, but merely to track any remaining wilderness down to  its last scattered lairs. For better or, more usually, for worse, man has radically altered practically every existing ecosystem. The wilderness was once our  master, then our enemy and now, finally, it has become our pensioner.  From the information sheet ECOLOGICAL RESERVES — BRITISH  COLUMBIA published by Ecological Reserves Unit, 1019 Wharf Street,  Victoria.  The history of Ecological Reserves in British Columbia  In the mid-1960s Canadian scientists and those of other nations became  involved in the International Biological Program. From this is a program  evolved to set aside natural areas for scientific research.  In 1971 the British Columbia Legislature approved the Ecological Reserve Act outlining the method and reasons for establishing an ecological reserve. British Columbia was the first Canadian province to give permanent  status to these Reserves.  What are Ecological Reserves?  Ecological Reserves are areas of Crown land set aside for:  — scientific research and educational purposes to study nature in an undisturbed environment;  — benchmarks against which to measure the effect of changes created by  man or nature;  — banks of genetic materials;  — preserving rare, unique and endangered native plants or animals in their  natural surroundings.  Ecological Reserves should not be confused with parks or other recreational areas, nor with wildlife management areas. While casual use is permitted in most Ecological Reserves, they are primarily intended for scientific purposes.  How an Ecological Reserve is established.  Proposals for new Ecological Reserves come from a variety of sources —  naturalist clubs, scientists, the general public or other government agencies.  The Ecological Reserves Unit of the ministry is responsible for screening  proposals with other interested agencies to resolve any possible conflicts. 37  An Ecological Reserve is formally established by Order-in-Council and  published in the B.C. Gazette.  Casual non-motorized uses such as hiking, photography, birdwatching,  etc., are allowed on most Reserves without a permit. Some sensitive Reserves  such as seabird islands are closed to the public. Contact the ministry's Ecological Reserves Unit at 1019 Wharf Street, Victoria, British Columbia.  Phone: 387-1859 for information if you want to visit a Reserve.  Ecological Reserves are needed to unravel and help understand some of  the basic ecological processes. As genetic pools they serve the function of a  nature museum. As man continues to modify the surface of the earth, some  plants and animals can become extinct before they are even known to science.  Used as benchmark areas against which to measure changes wrought by  man, they can teach us how to soften the impact of man on the environment.  ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN  by Peter Legg  Ecological Reserves in British Columbia are established under the  Ecological Reserves Act, Chapter 16, Statutes of British Columbia, which was  passed by the Legislature on April 2, 1971. The purpose of the Act is to  reserve Crown land for ecological purposes, including among other things,  areas that are representative examples of natural ecosystems within the Province and areas in which rare or endangered native plants and animals may  be preserved in their natural habitat. Since the Act was passed, examples of  such areas in all parts of the Province have been established as Ecological  Reserves and at the time of writing there are 111 of them.  No hunting or fishing or any industrial development is allowed in these  Reserves, and generally speaking no access is allowed by any type of motor  vehicle, which includes trail bikes, snowmobiles and power boats. The best  way to visit a Reserve is to walk in on foot. Thus the visitor has time and opportunity to discover the purpose for which the Reserve was set aside and he  can get a flavour of Canada in its natural state, or at least as close as we can  get to it in this age.  In the North Okanagan, if we can stretch the Okanagan north to within  16 kilometers of Three Valley Lake, there are nine Reserves. Starting from  the north and progressing southward we have:  No. 43 established in September 1972. This is an area of 1,376 hectares  at the north end of Hunters Range, stretching from the summit of Griffin  Mountain at 2,124 meters down the steep eastern slopes of the mountain to  the valley bottom at Wap Creek. It is sub-alpine in the upper reaches changing to forested slopes lower down the hill. The Reserve conserves an area representative of the transition zone between the dry interior and the Columbia  wet belt. Access to the lower levels is by the power line access road running  from Kingfisher east of Enderby to Three Valley Lake.  No. 49 established in June 1973. A Reserve of 1,441 hectares at the  headwaters of Kingfisher Creek and again in the Hunters Range area. At  elevations above 1,600 meters it lies above any merchantable forest and is  generally sub-alpine meadowland with marshy areas at the creek sources.  This Reserve also is in the transition zone between the dry interior and the interior wet belt, and plant species found there are typical of such habitats. Ac- 38  cess is by the old forestry road to the look-out on Mount Mara which is now in  very rough condition and passable only with four-wheel-drive vehicles. After  about five kilometers of rough track one parks the vehicle and takes off for a  cross-country hike of some two and a half kilometers to the ridge which lies to  the east of Mount Mara. Mary Woollam of Enderby worked for many years to  have a part of Hunters Range preserved.  No. 61 established in May 1975. This Reserve, 69.6 hectares in size is  situated athwart the Shuswap River about 40 kilometers north of Sugar Lake.  It preserves a stand of mature Western Red Cedar together with an under-  story of vegetation typical of the interior wet belt, and it contains some fine  old cedar trees, of which there are not many left. At the present time, with  lumber markets at the poorest they have been for years, cedar still commands  premium prices and lumber companies are combing the woods for what little  remains. Soon stands such as this one will be all that is left for observation and  study of the species. Access to the Reserve is by the logging road running  north from Shuswap Lake up the valley, and it can be found on the east side  of the road, on both sides of the river running north from the 40 kilometer  mark for about three kilometers. This Reserve, along with numbers 5 and 6,  was originally proposed by Vern Hopkins who was the Forest Ranger for the  Lumby District at the time and who was well acquainted with the forest inventory of his District.  No. 42, Mara Meadows, established in September 1972, of 189 hectares. Here is preserved a unique calcareous fen with pockets of peat bog transitions, one of the few, and perhaps the only one, remaining in southern  British Columbia. Along with plant species found in bogs and marshes with a  slightly alkaline water content, this bog is the home of several species of orchids and in particular the Yellow Wide-Lip Orchid (Liparis loeselii) which is  found in Eastern Canada and in Europe, but which has not been found elsewhere in British Columbia to date. Before this Reserve could be established it  was necessary to have the boundaries surveyed and this was done by Gilbert  Tassie who had a surveying practice in Vernon for many years, and of whom  many Okanagan residents will have fond memories. Gilbert was assisted by  members of the North Okanagan Naturalist Club, and I can well recall Jim  Grant, Jim Mack, Walter Cowan and Bill Beals with axe and saw clearing  lines for Mr. Tassie. Gilbert had retired from his business by then and had  volunteered his services for this work. Mara Meadows is the only Reserve in  the Okanagan to which access is restricted due to the fragile nature of the  meadow. Persons wishing to visit the Reserve must obtain permission from the  Ecological Reserves Unit in Victoria, and with permission they will be guided  to the Reserve by one of the wardens.  No. 30, Vance Creek, established in February 1972. This small Reserve  of 48.6 hectares is situated beside the Trinity Valley Road about 6.5 kilometers north of Lumby. It is typical of secondary forest growth in the interior  transition zone. Originally used by the Federal Department of Forests, Entomology Branch, which had at that time a station in Vernon, it is now used  extensively by schools in the Vernon District as an outdoor classroom for  education in the natural science subjects.  No. 108, Cougar Canyon, established in December 1981, a reserve of  550 hectares. This is a deep, steep-sided canyon enclosing a series of seven  small lakes linked by marshy areas, the whole lying on the east side of Kala- 39  malka Lake. The power line slash which is clearly visible across the lake is the  western boundary. In addition to the marshy areas, which contain, for instance, a pocket cedar swamp with skunk cabbage, the Reserve extends to the  top of the canyon wall where there is a narrow strip of Ponderosa Pine, Bunch  Grass habitat. Access to the north end of the canyon is through Kalamalka  Park which requires a walk of about 6.5 kilometers since there is no vehicle  access through the park. Access to the south end from Oyama is through private property where permission is needed. It is about three kilometers from  the gate of the private property to the south end of the canyon. We can thank  Joan Heriot, a well-known Vernon naturalist for her unceasing work over  several years in clearing the way for establishment of this Reserve.  No. 5, Lily Pad Lake, established in May 1971. A Reserve of 101 hectares containing an interior highland lake situated in the Buck Hills at an  altitude of about 1,400 meters. The lake has been flooded to a meter or more  above its natural level by a beaver dam at the outlet, resulting in some  marginal tree kill and an excellent example of a floating bog at the position of  the original lake margins. The water is rich in pond life and for the past few  years has been the nesting site for a pair of common loons. Situated about 16  kilometers south of Lumby and about a kilometer south-east of Nicklen Lake,  access is by the Harris Creek logging road which has not been used for some  years and is now so rough that it is accessible only by four-wheel-drive  vehicles. The lake lies off the road to the east and it is necessary to walk about  1.5 kilometers on a trail recently slashed out by members of the North  Okanagan Naturalist Club to reach it.  No. 6, established in May 1971, is a small reserve of 16 hectares created  to protect a fine stand of mature Western Larch together with associated flora  and fauna of the Okanagan Highlands. The trees stand on an interesting rock  formation, revealing that the surface of the Highlands in this area is an old  lava bed. The reserve lies across the Nicklen Lake Road about a kilometer to  the west of No. 5, and about 1.5 kilometers to the north of Nicklen Lake. The  reserve was surveyed by John Shephard and Joan Heriot of the North  Okanagan Naturalist Club.  No. 77, established in June 1977, a reserve of 113.8 hectares situated on  the west side of Highway 97 about three kilometers north of Oyama. The  reserve lies on a steep hillside, with a southern exposure, overlooking  Kalamalka Lake and is representative of the Ponderosa Pine — bunch grass  habitats of the dry interior. The reserve contains a rattlesnake den which has  been under study recently by scientists studying the ecology of the Pacific Rattlesnake. However, visitors need not be concerned. They are unlikely to see a  snake, let alone be bitten, as the rattlesnake is a shy reptile, generally nocturnal in habit and probably resting quietly in the shade during the day. Other  creatures which might be seen are the mule deer, coyote and porcupine. This  valuable area was donated to the Ecological Reserves Unit by Dr. Hugh  Campbell-Brown and his family. Dr. Campbell-Brown practiced medicine in  Vernon for many years and was known and loved by many older Vernon residents.  All the Reserves in the Okanagan, and in fact many of the Reserves in  the Province are monitored on behalf of the Ecological Reserves Unit of the  Ministry of Lands, Parks and Housing, situated in Victoria, by local volunteer  wardens. They visit each of the Reserves as often as necessary to see that the 40  conditions of the Act are complied with. Wardens are able to provide assistance to members of the public seeking information about Reserves. Wardens  for the nine Reserves in the North Okanagan are members of the North  Okanagan Naturalist Club, Peter Legg being the member undertaking the  duty at the present time, with Mary Mack of Enderby having a special responsibility for Mara Meadows.  ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN THE CENTRAL OKANAGAN  by J. Stephenson  The Central Okanagan Naturalists Club is warden for Ecological Reserves 34 and 51. Representative warden is Jack Stephenson (Telephone  768-3533).  Reserve 34, Big White Mountain, was established March 24, 1972, and  was surveyed by V. J. Krujina and Karen Eady. It is located primarily on the  north slope of the mountain and a parkland-like forest below. The boundary  more or less follows the 6,200 feet contour, and does include the summit of  the mountain at 7,603 feet. Total area is approximately 2,350 acres (951 ha.).  It features plant associations, and their fauna, of the upper elevations of the  E.S.S.F. zone and some alpine plant associations developed mainly in areas  with large deposits of snow of long duration. One hundred and thirty-five  species of plants and lichens have been identified. It is not fenced and is not  accessible by vehicle.  Reserve 51, Browne Lake, is located just north-east of Browne Lake,  and is accessible from the McCulloch Road, about 3.2 kms, from McCulloch.  This Reserve of approximately 307 acres, (124 ha.), was established in 1973,  and was surveyed by Mildred Wardlaw. It harbours an exceptional variety of  plant life, including sub-alpine meadow (marsh), with several orchids,  especially Cypripedium montanum and Calypso bulbosa. The Reserve is not  fenced, but perhaps should be in the future primarily to keep out cattle and  hunters, although there has been no evidence of cattle for at least two years.  An E. R. notice is attached to a tree at the south-west corner.  TROUT CREEK ECOLOGICAL RESERVE NO. 7  by Enid Maynard  Trout Creek Ecological Reserve is located about three miles SSW of  Summerland on the edge of Trout Creek Canyon. It is upstream from the  Summerland Research Station, and located on the southwestern slope of Con-  kle Mountain, which is visible from the town of Summerland. The geographical location is: 49¬∞ 33' - 33' 30" north latitude, and 119¬∞ 42' - 43' west  longitude. The elevation is 540 - 840 metres (1800 - 2800 feet).  The Reserve was proposed originally by Dr. Brayshaw, Mr. Keith Wade  of the University of British Columbia, and Mr. Doug Fraser, of Osoyoos. The  area was proposed to preserve the typical semi-arid Bunch Grass parkland  containing Ponderosa Pine and, at higher altitudes, ecosystems within the interior Douglas Fir Zone. It is considered a most interesting area for snakes.  Species found here are: wandering garter snakes, common garter snakes, 41  western yellow-bellied racers, Rocky Mountain rubber boas, bull snakes and  Northern Pacific rattlesnakes. In addition many of the typical semi-arid flora  and fauna occur, including a generous supply of cactus.  The Reserve was established on May 4, 1971 by Order-in-Council  Number 1569 by the Hon. R. G. Williston, Minister of Lands, Forests and  Water Resources. It was surveyed by Mr. T. C Brayshaw, of the B.C. Provincial Museum, and partially fenced by contract with a five-strand page-wire  fence.  The Ecological Reserves are managed by the Ecological Reserves Unit  headed by Dr. Bristol Foster, assisted by a very small professional staff. Very  early, it became evident that the staff could not oversee the Reserves. Because  of this concern, a system of local voluntary wardens was established. In 1981,  Miss Enid Maynard was appointed warden of the Reserve, and has been active  in the appointment ever since. In the spring of 1982, Miss Maynard found  that a 100 metre section of the fencing near the canyon, together with most of  the posts had been cut out and removed. Later on, together with Lynne  Milnes, a member of the Reserves Unit, she organized a work party to replace  the missing fencing.  Previously, some difficulty had arisen with local cattle owners because  the fence had prevented cattle from having access to water. When the fence  was repaired, a small gate was installed which allowed cattle to pass through,  but which barred access to wheeled vehicles from the area.  The Reserve is open to hikers and to those undertaking scientific study.  Recently a study was made of the rattlesnake population. The study included  measurements, sexing and counts. At present, a buffer zone of pasture land  borders the eastern border of the Reserve. Recently, a proposal was put forward to build a subdivision in this buffer zone. In the face of objections, this  proposal appears to be stalled. It is hoped that the area may withstand the  pressures of development.  ECOLOGICAL RESERVES IN THE SOUTHERN OKANAGAN  by Doug Fraser  The Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone, one of British Columbia's eleven Biotic  Zones, is a very special part of our natural heritage. It is an extension, just into British Columbia, of the Upper Sonoran Life Zone, which extends from  northern Mexico, up through the arid parts of the Western States, and runs  out in the southern Similkameen and Okanagan valleys.  The zone is characterized by low annual precipitation and hot dry summers, and its typical plants are those adapted to survival in near desert conditions.  The larger plants of the zone are greasewood (Purshia tridentata), rabbit  bush (Chrysothamnus nauseous) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata). All  have small leaves to reduce transpiration, and the limited moisture is, so to  speak, rationed by the growth habit. Each is at a distance from its neighbour.  The grasses are bunch grasses and, with the clumps of cactus (Opuntia  fragilis), are also at a distance from each other.  The greasewood, also called antelope brush, is regarded as the indicator  plant of the zone. It runs out in the vicinity of Kaleden, marking the zone's 42  northern limit. It, rabbit bush and cactus are plants of the southern  Okanagan, rather than the Similkameen, where sagebrush is the dominant  shrub. This difference is due to a soil difference, not a climatic difference.  Sage requires a heavier soil with greater moisture holding capacity. The difference in plant cover is the reason for the southern Okanagan being considered more typical of the Upper Sonoran extension and for the designation  "Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone".  Other distinctive plants are evening primrose, poison camas and  phacelia, also adapted for survival in light sandy soil. Where soil is heavier,  characteristic plants of the dry interior occur, such as the buttercup, yellow-  bell, shooting star, bitter-root, mariposa lily and sunflower.  Wildlife associated with the zone were the sage grouse, burrowing owl,  sage thrasher, Brewer's sparrow, jack rabbit and badger, all now gone from  the valley as man has taken over their living space for his purposes.  Writers for magazines, with a tendency to the dramatic, have called the  zone "Canada's Pocket Desert". While it is an arid or semi-desert area rather  than a true desert, it is nevertheless a distinctive part of Canada's and British  Columbia's natural heritage, and so it is important that two small areas of the  "Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone" have been set aside as Ecological Reserves before  all became orchard, vineyard or residential subdivision.  The two areas near the head of Osoyoos Lake, protected by status as  Ecological Reserves, are a four hectare lot on the west side of the valley,  known as the "Field Lease", and a one hundred hectare area on the east side  of the valley, known as the "Haynes Lease", north of the Indian Reserve  boundary. Not all of Haynes Lease is "desert", as it includes both wetlands of  the river bottom, and a part of rocky Inkameep Mountain, known locally as  Throne Mountain because of the flat bit part way up, resembling a large scale  high-backed seat.  The Field Lease was made an Ecological Reserve in 1972. Ten acres  behind the Field orchard had been leased from the Southern Okanagan  Lands Project by Mrs. Pamela Field and fenced as a personal ecological area  several years before the Province adopted a program of Ecological Reserves.  As the lease was Crown land, and not greatly in demand for commercial purposes, Pam Field's ecological area became Ecological Reserve Number  Thirty-three within months of a visit by an Ecological Reserves study team.  Securing of the Haynes Lease Ecological Reserve took fourteen years of  effort by the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society. The "Osoyoos Arid" committee, chaired by Stephen Cannings of Penticton and later by Douglas Fraser  of Osoyoos, was supported throughout by many individuals and conservation  groups. One of five founding goals of the Society when it was formed in 1966  was preservation of a representative area of the Osoyoos Arid Biotic Zone. Not  until December, 1980, did a part of the Crown land at the head of Osoyoos  Lake become an Ecological Reserve.  Fence posts and wire were provided by the Ecological Reserves Unit and  members of the Parks Society, the Oliver-Osoyoos Naturalists Club and the  South Okanagan Naturalists Club provided the work force to put up the  boundary fences. Protected thus from grazing, the Reserve should in time  return to and remain in a natural state, a living museum of the past for the  future.  Wardens of the Reserves are Joan and Harold King of Osoyoos. 43  SIMILKAMEEN  (Editor's Note: Technical description supplied by Dr. Bristol Foster, Co-ordinator,  Ecological Reserves Unit, Victoria.)  Ecological Reserve No. 27, Whipsaw Creek is a 32.4 ha. rectangle  situated southwest of Princeton on the Thompson Plateau. The elevation  ranges from 780 m. to 900 m. (2600' - 3000'). Travelling west from Princeton,  one can approach the Reserve by a road leaving Highway 3 just before Whip-  saw Creek bridge. The Reserve is west of the highway and north of the creek.  It is notable as a sample of interior Douglas Fir forest and includes a fine  stand of Ponderosa Pine. V.J. Krajina of U.B.C. surveyed the Reserve in conjunction with the Lands Service, Department of Lands, Forest and Water  Resources, Victoria. The Order-in-Council establishing the Reserve was passed July 27, 1971 when R. G. Williston was Minister of Lands, Forests and  Water Resources. Gail Ross, the head naturalist at Manning Park, oversees  this Ecological Reserve.  HIGH ON SPRING  Spring does it to me  The incredible burst of  Energy  After a winter of sluggishness,  The sudden energy of  Life renewal,  I'm spaced out  The colours so bright  Everything moves so fast  I have trouble taking it in,  Peach blossoms before they  fade and drop  Flowering shrubs in  early morning sun  Moving too quickly  from pink bud to petal drop  And I'm the viewer  at a slide show  With someone flashing them on the screen  too fast  And I want to go back and enjoy the previous slide  But it won't go back,  It's too fast  And all I have is  Memory  And a faith in next Spring  But I'm still high  and spaced out  On Spring.  by Don Rees  (From I'll Meet You Under the Light of the Next Star) 44  AN UPDATE ON THE GLACIAL ERRATIC IN THE  COLDSTREAM VALLEY  by Terry Lodge  The glacial erratic was reported in the first edition of the Okanagan  Historical Society Report, a large boulder sitting on a knoll west of the Coldstream Ranch Buildings and 100 yards north of White Valley Road (Highway  6). In 1877 Dr. G. M. Dawson had noted this "remarkable erratic" as sitting  on the glaciated surface of a small hill in the centre of the Valley. Its size at  this time was 22 feet long, 16V£ feet wide and 18 feet high with a volume of  6534 cubic feet. It was made of yellowish, highly calcareous schist, made up  of folded interbeds of feldspathic and quartzose rock, each interbed being approximately % inch thick and highly contorted. Such schistose formations are  found around Mara Lake and Dr. Arthur Lang theorized that the bolder had  been picked up by a large glacier which was creeping southward, scouring out  the Okanagan Valley, and dropped on the glaciated granite surface of the  Close-up showing 1935 Okanagan Historical Society Plaque  small rocky hill, where it now rests, when the ice melted — hence the term  "erratic".  Another theory is that the erratic was swept westward by glaciation from  the Monashee Mountains.  In the early days, it had a fir tree growing out of it but there is strong  evidence that this was struck by lightning during a severe electrical storm  reported in 1916, in which much damage was done in the area. Along with  the tree, a large portion of rock was broken off also, and tumbled down the  hill. Measurements at this time were 18 feet long, 14 feet high, and 12 feet  wide, or approximately 3024 cubic feet. 45  "-•■.:- ••,■-.  ."':■.'■'  Showing Erosion  Today the rock is not strikingly noticeable unless one knows where to  look for it. Because of the wastage by erosion, due to the bedding-planes and  fissures in which water collects and freezes, thus flaking off large fragments,  its dimensions are about one-half the size it was fifty years ago, or approximately 13 feet high, 10 feet wide and 12 feet long, or approximately 1560  cubic feet. It has three large clefts in it, and erosive action is evident by  numerous chunks of rock found around the perimeters of the erratic. It is  home to a family of yellow-bellied marmots.  A plaque placed at the site in about 1935 by the Okanagan Historical  Society, reminds us of its historic importance.  Dates  1877  1926  1982  22' long  18'long  12'long  16 V£' wide  12' wide  10'      wide  18'high  14' high  13'high  6534 volume  3024 volume  1560 volume  "Dancing is now held every Saturday night at the Acrodome in Naramata.  Admission is 50 cents per couple. Okanagan Lake Boat Co. runs special ferries leaving Summerland at 8 o'clock. Return trip 25 cents."  "Glimpses of the Past" - 1915  The Summerland Review 46  PEACHLAND GLAZED CEMENT PIPE COMPANY, 1910-1921  by Sheila Paynter  The time is 1910. Peachland is a municipality with a Reeve, W. A.  Lang, a Municipal Clerk, H. McDougall, a Council and four hundred residents. Some of them are trying to stir up interest in Industry and Progress.  There is already a C.P.R. wharf, C.P.R. Telegraph, the Lakeshore Telephone Company, and irrigration and light systems. Funds are scarce for promoting further development. Men like J. B. Robinson, who foresee fruitgrowing as a leading industry, must struggle for funds to advertise in  Okanagan and Prairie newspapers.  Already there are young orchards planted with rootstocks taken from the  following varieties:  Apples:   Ben   Davis,   Northwestern   Greening,   Snow   (Fameuse),  Tomkins, King, and Wagner.  Peaches: Belle of Georgia, Early Crawford, Triumph, and Yellow St.  John.  Apricots: Blenheim and Royal  Plums: Burbank, Pond's Seedling, and Tragedy  Cherries: Black Bigarreau, Republican, Tartarian, Governor Wood,  Royal Anne and Windsor.  Pears: Bosc, Clapp's Favourite, Howell and Winter Nelis.1  Interior of Factory  Water to irrigate these trees flows by gravity from lakes in the hills through  wooden flumes and ditches. Much of the water evaporates or leaks away. The  time is right for a more efficient irrigation system. Glazed cement pipe may be  the solution.  On February 11, 1910 a special meeting of the Peachland Municipal  Council is held. Reeve Lang had been ordered to make a trip to Victoria in 47  the interest of the Municipality. He reports on his mission as follows: Reeve  Lang has arranged with the Minister of Public Works for an interim appropriation of one thousand dollars to be spent on the Lakeshore Road with  an assurance that this would be supplemented later on. With reference to the  location of a factory for the manufacture of cement water pipe, he reports  having met a representative2 of the Pacific Coast Cement Pipe Company at  Vancouver and having made an offer to him for an exemption from taxation  and for, among other things, free light. He has arranged for the Company to  look over the ground and meet the Council to discuss the matter further.3  There is a piece of property on the lakeshore half a mile north of the  mouth of Trepanier Creek (legal description: Plan 2533 Rl773571 30) with  no road or electric light lines connecting it with Peachland. There is a sandy  hillside backing it with suitable material for making cement. The lake frontage is ideal for a slip for shipping by barge and boat.  In April 1910, after communication back and forth between the  Peachland Council and David McNair of the Pacific Coast Cement Company,  the latter purchases the land mentioned above and which appears on the tax  rolls assessed at $1181.11. During April, also, the Council refers the matter of  electricity charges for public buildings and for businesses to its Fire, Water,  and Light Committee. The usual charge is fifty cents per month for one light,  fifty cents for a second light and twenty cents for the third and each subsequent light bulb.4  In the spring of 1910 Mr. Alexander (Sandy) McKay arrives from the  coast via the railhead at Penticton and the S.S. Okanagan. He has been appointed by his cousin, Dave McNair, to manage the construction and operation of the cement works. He hires Mr. Keyes as carpenter-foreman and a  crew to build the factory, warehouse, cook-house, office and bunkhouse.5 He  also arranges for the hiring of his engineer, Jack McGregor, and a crew of six  Employees 48  machinists and labourers, Harold Miller, Alec Seaton, Will Aitkens, Ernest  McKay, Sandy McKay, Jack McGregor, and Lome Shaw.6  In June, 1910 the Council instructs the Fire, Water and Light Committee  to proceed with the construction of a pole line along the proposed road north  of Trepanier Creek to the cement pipe works. The motion has been put by  Mr. McCall and seconded by Mr. Vicary.7 Work is proceeding well on a  building fifty feet by seventy-five feet and on an adjoining structure which will  serve as a drier for the finished pipe. As the siding for all the buildings is made  of shiplap with no insulation the work year will run from March to November  only. At first supplies are unloaded at the C.P.R. dock at the foot of Townsite  Road (now Beach Avenue) and hauled by team and wagon to the factory site;  but soon the C.P.R. builds a slip for on-and-off loading of raw materials and  finished pipe. At the start of the season in 1911 the cement plant is in full  operation, producing pipe that varies in diameter from four to twenty-four  inches.8  Minutes of the Peachland Municipal Council for 1910 indicate a discrepancy regarding the tax relief promised by Reeve W. A. Lang and the figures  noted later in the assessment rolls. This matter comes up in January 1911. At  the first meeting of the year a motion by Jim Elliott, seconded by Mr. Huston  reads as follows:  Be it resolved that the clerk be instructed to write the Pacific Coast  Pipe Company informing them of the election of a new Council and  promising to take up the assessment as soon as possible.9  The motion carries. Council believes that taxes for light and land should be  imposed. By March this matter has not been resolved and the company has  still not paid its previous year's accounts. Correspondence continues through  the spring in connection with back taxes. Councillor W. J. Carraway and William Dryden of the Fire, Water and Light Committee meet with Sandy McKay and agree to furnish the plant with ten horsepower at the rate of sixty  dollars per month, to be paid monthly. John McLaughlan has been hired to  run the electric light station during the day at an added salary of fifty dollars  per month, he to furnish any extra help required.  On December 2 an agreement is drawn up and submitted to the voters as  By-law 27. Norman Pope is appointed returning officer at a remuneration of  five dollars for the day. Voting takes place on December 20 and the Cement  Company Agreement is accepted. The Reeve and his Council are happy to  come to terms with their new industry for they have other contentious matters  to debate, matters which have a familiar ring seventy years later. Dogs are  running at large. There are complaints of noisy parties. Young men are racing, in this case horses, up and down Main Street. To celebrate a successful  year, after the last meeting in December, the Council Members are invited to  "partake of their Reeve's hospitality by sitting down to an oyster supper at  Mrs. Ferguson's Boarding House.10"  The year 1912 is the high point of production for the Peachland Glazed  Cement Pipe Company. By the end of April the company is using forty dollars' worth of electric power per month. Mr. Arnold Ferguson is hired at the  Power Plant at a salary of sixty dollars per month. In August of the same year  Mr. Ferguson expresses concern about the pressure of use on his machinery  and asks, in view of the fact that lights for the evening use by the general 49  public have to be turned on by six-thirty, that the cement company be asked  to run their overtime in the morning instead of the evening to allow his  machinery to cool off.11  Other Okanagan communities are becoming aware of the Peachland industry. The Vernon News Special Holiday Number for 1912 reports:  There is also located here (Peachland) a cement pipe factory which is  turning out a large amount of pipe with an ever-increasing demand.  It is probable that the capacity of the plant will be doubled next  year. This cement pipe is doubtless to be used for drainage purposes,  as drainage becomes necessary through this irrigated country.  1913 sees a regular flow of pipe going to new plantings in the dry belts of  British Columbia.  The plant is still in full production during the first week of November  1913 when an incident occurs which is to be the first of three disasters that  eventually put the company out of business. The Kelowna Courier for  November 4, 1913, carries the following story:  On Tuesday evening, November 4th, 1913, a collision occurred near  the Penticton Dock between the S.S. Castlegar and the ferryboat  "Skookum" which was towing two barges loaded with cement pipe  down to Penticton. The "Skookum" was sunk almost immediately —  no lives lost. Both the Captain and engineer had broken legs and  other injuries. The crew of the ferry stated the C.P.R. tug was so hidden by the two large barges she was driving along that no lights were  visible and the big tug was on top of the "Skookum" before anyone  realized any danger. The incongruous feature of the accident is that  the "Skookum" had just been equipped with properly certified officers and complete life-saving fittings according to an edict from  federal authorities. She had been running for years previously with  an ordinary Skipper and engineman and haphazard equipment and  never even had her paint scraped. The owners will soon have another  boat to replace the well-known "Skookum" but her loss during the  busy days is particularly unfortunate.  Fred Topham Jr., a longtime Peachland resident, remembers the incident. He says that he and his father watched the rescue searchlights flashing  over the waters south of Squally Point. He adds that Alec Seaton, a cement  plant employee travelling with the barges, broke his hip in this accident.  In the spring of 1914 another accident happens. According to Kathleen  Aitken's History of Peachland it concerns the Jim Miller family on Miller  Flat in Trepanier. They had put in a pipeline from storage water in Miller's  Lake (now Silver Lake) across Trepanier Flat and up to their property. When  the water was turned on the cement pipes blew up. The Peachland Glazed Cement Pipe Company had guaranteed the pipeline would carry the pressure  and, if not, then Mr. Miller would owe them nothing. The cost of putting in  the pipe and cementing each two-foot length was tremendous and the loss  forced the company into bankruptcy. During the litigation Sandy McKay and  his brother Ernest took on the job of disposing of the large stock of completed  pipe on hand.12  Events in Europe put an end to the now-struggling company. When  World War One breaks out, hundreds of young men, many of them English,  leave their farms and join up. There is no market for glazed irrigation pipe. 50  When his own brother enlists, Sandy McKay resigns and is replaced by Mr.  Hayes. Mr. Tomlin acts as caretaker until 1921. Mr. Bob Iverson of Oliver  remembers living in the bunkhouse with his family. Mr. Tomlin rents the cement slab one hundred feet long and sixty feet wide as a skating rink each  winter that is cold enough for the making of natural ice. In the 1920's it is also  used as a tennis court. In the 1930's Mrs. Marion Mcintosh makes it the site of  Trepanier Bay Cottages, later owned by Mr. and Mrs. A. M. Moore. At the  present time the land is subdivided for residential use.  All that remains of the Peachland Glazed Cement Pipe Company are  souvenirs like the bell-type elbow and a double barge-load of finished pipe at  the bottom of Okanagan Lake south of Squally Point.  Two bell-type elbows with two of Sandy McKay's great grandchildren  L. Travis Paynter, R. Nigel Paynter  FOOTNOTES  Memo from Dr. Maurice Welsh, District Agriculturalist, Summerland, 1981.  David McNair, later one of the first sales managers of B.C. Tree Fruits.  Minutes of Peachland Municipal Council, 1910.  ibid.  Letters of Sandy and Dorothy McKay.  ibid.  Council Minutes, 1910.  Kathleen Aitkens, History of Peachland.  Council Minutes, 1911.  Council Minutes, 1911.  Council Minutes, 1912.  Peachland Museum files on "The Concrete Industry in Peachland." 51  THE BRICKYARD  by Ettie Adam  An interesting piece of Kelowna's history should not be lost to future  generations. It is the story of the brickyard started in 1905 by Messrs. Harvey  and Jackman. It flourished for many years almost in the heart of the old town.  It was situated at the foot of Knox Mountain where Knox Mountain Metals is  presently located. There are still remnants of the old kilns to be seen in the  walls of some of their buildings. There were three kilns each turning out  about one hundred thousand bricks every two weeks.  In 1910 my father, Charles Clement, rented the business and later  bought it with Mr. Herman Riggs as his partner. Mr. George Goldsmith who  had been foreman for the previous owners stayed on for about a year and  when he left, Mr. Lee Oakes arrived with his family from Nova Scotia to take  over the job.  From 1911 to 1914 business boomed and bricks were supplied for several  business blocks in town as well as schools, churches and private homes. A  number of these can be seen scattered throughout the city. The two on  Borden Avenue were built by Dad himself in 1912. The one on the corner of  Ethel Street and Borden Avenue was for his partner and the one near the  Buddhist Temple was for himself. He built a barn, too, which was turned into  a house many years ago, but at that time was occupied by a beautiful team of  heavy horses which he used in the business.  These two houses with the barn were the only buildings on the street at  that time and it was like living in the country. At the height of this activity we  often went with Dad to check on the progress of the brickmaking and the  great blasting furnaces were always a fascinating sight to us children. Digging  the clay from the bank above was a hot, hard job and we didn't envy the men  working with pick and shovel in the sweltering heat of a long summer's day.  The evening was the time we liked best to go with Dad as the kilns glowed  like fiery furnaces in the dark.  In 1914 World War I was declared and the building bubble burst. There  was no alternative but to snuff the fires and let the kilns grow cold. This  however was not the end of Kelowna's brickyard. The yard was re-opened  about 1919 by Mr. George Ward and Mr. Arthur Baldock and once more  Kelowna bricks were on the market. These two men carried on for several  years and then sold out to W. Haug and Sons who ran it in conjunction with  their building supply business. Under their management with new and more  up to date machinery and with increased volume, many types of brick and  tiles were made available to builders. Mr. Charles Goldsmith, the son of the  first foreman, was now in that position and stayed till the permanent shutdown of the business sometime in the late thirties. As time went by new  materials were invented and bricks went out of favor with the general public.  Today they are making a come-back but seem to be used more as decoration  than for complete buildings. 52  ARMSTRONG CHEESE CO-OPERATIVE ASSOCIATION  1939 - 1961  by Mary H. E. Blackburn  First settlers in the Armstrong district undoubtedly had cows, for milk,  for butter and for meat. The area lent itself to the keeping of dairy herds. As  early as 1902 settlers organized to build a creamery, money to be raised by the  sale of shares. The Municipal Council of the time was asked to support the  project, but turned it down. Later, the Council was asked to help by way of  exemption from taxes on the building to be erected. This assistance also was  refused. Despite these setbacks, the settlers perservered and a creamery was  built and equipped and a buttermaker hired. The first buttermaker was a  Mr. Hughes and later Mr. Alfred Slater took over full control of the venture  which prospered under his management. By 1923, the creamery, which was  situated on Davis Creek, just north of the city, was producing 12,000 lbs. of  butter per month. In 1924, after a great deal of controversy, the business was  sold outright to Pat Burns and Company, who took over on July 1, 1925.  On Saturday, September 3, 1927 a fire completely destroyed the plant of  the Okanagan Valley Co-operative Creamery, as it was then called. The Vernon City Council lost no time in giving Pat Burns and Co. large facilities and  concessions to centre the creamery business at Vernon and, as no such inducements or co-operation was forth-coming from the Armstrong City Council, the creamery located in Vernon and Armstrong dairymen had to ship to  Vernon or Salmon Arm or go out of business. Armstrong lost one of its most  vital industries.  This is the background to the establishment, in 1938, of a cheese factory  in Armstrong. The farmers, most certainly, and many of the businessmen of  the time felt very keenly the loss of "their dairy" as an outlet for their milk and  as a viable business for the community. 53  In 1937 Mr. Charles Busby, a cheese maker of good repute, moved to  Armstrong. He could see the possibilities of starting a cheese plant in Armstrong and, after much talking, planning and organizing, the idea was accepted. Money was very scarce indeed and they managed with considerable  difficulty to raise, by sale of shares of $10.00 each, enough money to cover the  cost of construction of the first plant. Messrs. Geo. Bawtinheimer and A. E.  Warner loaned money to pay for the machinery. There were many difficulties  to overcome as this was the only cheese factory in the province making cheese  on a large scale. The lack of working capital made things extremely difficult.  The project was also hampered by wild, unfounded speculation and rumour,  as is often the case when new things are attempted. In spite of all this, the  cheese factory commenced operation on Tuesday, February 1, 1938 with  Charles Busby as cheesemaker, with A. P. Slade of Vancouver as promoter  and with the entire output to be purchased by Slade and Stewart of Vancouver. Some of the interim Directors during the planning period were: Stan  Noble, A. E. Sage, E. A. Norman, Donald Graham, Geo. Bawtinheimer and  Ed Rochester.  The Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association was formally incorporated in 1939. Its first Board of Directors were:  President: A. E. Sage  Secretary-Treasurer:    J. W. (Jack) Evans  Board Members: Edgar Docksteader  A. E. Warner  E. A. Norman  H. W. (Bert) Pritchard  Mr. Evans served as Secretary-Treasurer until 1942. Then Mr. Pritchard took  on this office and served until 1945.  In 1941, Mr. A. P. Slade, on behalf of the Board of Directors, hired Mr.  Joe Mullen of Didsbury to take over as cheesemaker to improve the quality of  the product. Mr. Mullen had eleven years of experience with Burns and Company and was most highly recommended by the chief produce grader, who  was in the best position to know the quality of the cheese Mr. Mullen was producing. It is an interesting side-light that, in the letter to Mr. Mullen offering  him the position in Armstrong, two of the inducements listed were that Armstrong boasted seven churches and also had running water. Mr. Mullen accepted the position, sight unseen, and he and his wife Blanche moved to Armstrong in November 1941.  Joe Mullen arrived to find the following situation:  On the positive side of the ledger:  1. There was plenty of milk available  2. He was offered excellent co-operation from the producers of the area  On the negative side:  1. The financial affairs of the Association were in poor shape because at  the time of the original borrowing some funds had been borrowed at an exorbitant rate and these debts could not be retired until later borrowings, at a  lesser rate, had been repaid. This meant that the young Association was carrying a very heavy load of debt.  2. There was inadequate space in the building for the proper manufacture of cheese and for the curing and storing of the finished product. 54  3. Very little credit was available from the local banks and this meant  that the Association had to proceed very slowly indeed. Their only source of  funds was the Producers' Reserve Fund, a fund created by holding back a  small percentage from payments to producers for butterfat shipped. This  fund was the only money available for capital expenses, except for some very  small borrowing as the business gained in assets. Later, a small Dominion  Government grant was available to assist in the building of a cheese storage  facility.  In 1941 the staff of the Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association was  as follows:  Joe Mullen - Cheesemaker — His contract called for him to supply and  pay for all the help required in the manufacture of cheese. In return he was to  be paid 10f per pound on the cheese manufactured.  Syd Nash - Assistant Cheese Maker — $90.00 per month  Warren Graves - helper — $60.00 per month  Truckers - Ken Nash and Dan Popowich who were paid 15f to 18f per  cwt. of milk hauled.  During the next four years the business prospered. The volume of cheese  manufactured increased phenomenally as the following figures show:  1941 190,000 lbs.  1942 480,000 lbs.  1943 820,000 lbs.  By  1943  the co-operative was  the second largest producer of cheese in  Canada.  In 1941 the Association constructed a controlled temperature cheese curing room. In 1942 at the British Empire Show held at Belleville, Ontario, the  Association's cheese won two second prizes in an open competition for all  Canada in which there were 385 entries. In 1943 there was a fire in the plant 55  which caused some damage to the building. It was a matter of pride with  management that milk was shipped to Vernon for only one day after the fire  and then the plant resumed operation and commenced rebuilding on a larger  scale. During this rebuilding the plant was equipped with a larger boiler.  During the next few years a can washer was purchased and more milk vats  were added. Also added to the Association's equipment was a butter churn  and a whey separator. This last item enabled the dairy to recover butterfat  heretofore lost in the whey. This recovered butterfat was made into whey butter and marketed under the name of "Victory Brand", a name suggested by  Mrs. Stan Noble.  By 1944, Joe Mullen was named Manager as well as cheesemaker. "Armstrong Cheese" had now acquired a name for superb quality and was very  much in demand throughout the province.  In 1948 Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association expanded into fluid  milk processing by purchasing the City Dairy from Myers Fransden of Armstrong. This move resulted in increased returns to producers. A steady expansion into fluid milk processing in valley markets was as follows:  Penticton in 1951    Kamloops in 1953    Salmon Arm in 1954  Vernon in 1952        Kelowna in 1953  The Association was now producing a full line of dairy products including ice  cream and cottage cheese which were marketed under the brand name of  VALLEY DAIRY.  In 1950 Joe Mullen became General Manager and his contract was  changed from the percentage of cheese manufactured to a salary.  In 1952 the employees were experiencing considerable unrest. Union  organizers were working to set up locals. Noca Dairy had been unionized for  some time prior to this and were in the throes of negotiating a new contract  with the union. Not all Armstrong Cheese employees, by any means, favoured  joining a union and the matter was strongly argued over several months. Considerable pressure was put upon the staff and, finally, Armstrong Cheese Cooperative Association voted to form a union. This was early in 1953.  In 1954 Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Board of Directors, acting for  fluid milk members of the Association, asked and received the consent of the  B.C. Milk Board to control the Association's fluid milk production. The Milk  Board established the price paid to the producers each month for their milk.  These two factors, the unionization of employees and the control of fluid  milk prices by the Milk Board, drastically changed the operation of the Association. The Association had started and operated successfully as a cooperative, where, to put it in simple terms, the co-op purchased milk from  producers, processed the milk, paid all costs and expenses and returned the  remaining profits to the shareholders (the producers). Now, the producers  were paid a price set by the Milk Board; the employees were paid wages  agreed to with the union. Neither figure bore any relation whatever to what  profits, if any, the Association's business was producing. This might appear to  be an over-simplification of the situation, but it is certainly true that the Association was started on a downhill course.  For the years 1958, 1959 and 1960 the Association's books showed a loss.  Management instituted economies where possible, but their hands were tied  by the following irrefutable facts: the selling prices of manufactured products  had to be competitive; wages and conditions of employment were set by 56  agreement with the union and the price paid to the producers was set by the  B.C. Milk Board. Any small economies seemed fruitless.  General Manager Joe Mullen advised the Directors that the Association  should retract rather than continue to expand and that one or more of the  branch businesses should be sold. The Directors of the time did not agree with  this solution and felt that more expansion was the answer. As Mr. Mullen felt  that he could not continue as General Manager under these circumstances,  nor could he pursue a management policy so diametrically opposed to what  he felt was needed, he gave his notice to the Board.  Allen Sheardown was hired by the Board of Directors to pursue their  chosen policy. The business continued to lose. B.C. Central Credit Union, the  bankers for the Association, warned that the heavy overdrafts could not continue. Finally, on July 12, 1961, B.C. Central Credit Union called the overdraft which resulted in immediate closure of the plant. This foretold closure  was carefully timed to take effect when the accounts receivable funds were  most healthy and the Credit Union were able to recoup their loans. However,  the milk producers lost thousands of dollars that they never recovered.  This was the end of Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association. From  an idea, to a very small beginning, this co-operative effort of farmers and  businessmen and hundreds of enthusiastic employees had grown far beyond  the wildest dreams of its original organizers. The Association had stimulated  the growth of dairying in the region and had provided employment. Armstrong Cheese had become renowned for its superb quality and Valley Dairy  products were enjoyed all over the interior. The failure of this Association was  a crushing loss to many dairymen and a very cruel blow to the business life of  the community.  NOTE  The buildings of Armstrong Cheese Co-operative were purchased by  Dutch Dairies of Kamloops and operated under that name. They continued  to make Armstrong Cheese and had the foresight to register the trade name  "Armstrong Cheese" in every Province in Canada.  The business has since been sold to Dairyland together with the  registered trade name "Armstrong Cheese" and it is still possible to purchase  this excellent cheese in Western Canada.  Before a large audience in Empire Hall, Summerland, Prime Minister W. L.  MacKenzie King asked that the hand of government be strengthened in order  to make possible the carrying out of his western policy. He outlined in detail  what his government had accomplished for the west.  "Glimpses of the Past" - 1924  The Summerland Review 57  SUMMERLAND RESEARCH STATION  by Bill McPhee  A report entitled "The Summerland Laboratory of Plant Pathology  1921 - 1924" includes the following paragraph:  Up to this time there was no stenographer appointed for the Laboratory, but through the courtesy of Mr. Helmer, the Superintendent,  the Experimental Station stenographer was loaned to McLarty for  two days each week. This arrangement soon proved unsatisfactory  and wholly inadequate. At times Mrs. McLarty had to help with the  stenographic work and with the card indexing of bulletins. McLarty  protested, and some alleviation was promised. In January, 1924, Miss  May Harrison, the Station stenographer, resigned suddenly to take a  position in the local bank. To tide themselves over until a new  stenographer could be advertised for, McLarty and the Station between them hired Miss Ada Burritt on a laboring basis. Under this  arrangement the Laboratory and Station each paid Miss Burritt for  her time. When a new stenographer was appointed for the Station,  McLarty retained Miss Burritt, but still on an hourly basis. It was not  until 1927 that the position of Stenographer was created. Miss Burritt resigned in 1928 and Miss Zoe Fudge replaced her. Miss Fudge  resigned in the spring of 1940 to become Mrs. Frederick Beeman.  Miss Muriel Macready replaced her. Miss Macready resigned in the  summer of 1943 to take over the family business in Mara. Miss Gladys  Beeman replaced Miss Macready.  The paragraph typifies the personal style of earlier scientific writing which  was almost gossipy.  The following is a summary of the early history of the Plant Pathology  Section as condensed from the above mentioned report and the book Plant  Pathology in Canada, I. L. Connors, Editor.  The Summerland Laboratory of Plant Pathology, H. R. McLarty,  Officer-in-charge, was established on September 1, 1921. McLarty arrived in  the Okanagan in the late summer and immediately began supervising the  erection of the Laboratory building of which only the basement excavation  then existed.  Since there was neither building nor equipment, only field survey and experimental work could be undertaken. McLarty conscientiously applied  himself to both, thereby beginning a tradition of carrying on field experiments in grower-owned orchards which was to prove in the years to come  so very fruitful for the Laboratory both in results and in winning the growers'  confidence.  Although the Laboratory was established for the prime purpose of studying fire blight, by the time McLarty had facilities to conduct some studies of  the disease, a system of control which was considered satisfactory at that time,  had been developed and McLarty began working on non-parasitic disorders.  During the 1924 season, it was unusually dry and fungus diseases were  less in evidence than ever but there was bacterial disease of tomato (caused by  Phytomonas michiganense) which had appeared for the first time in B.C.  and a student from the University of British Columbia, T. M. C. Taylor, 58  came to the Laboratory for the summer of 1924 - 1925 as an unclassified  junior assistant to work on this problem. Many years later, T. M. C Taylor  became Head of the Department of Biology at the University of British Columbia.  While Taylor was the first assistant with any sort of University training to  be taken on at the Laboratory, Tom Joy had been employed since the spring  of 1922 as Laboratory Steward. Joy was an excellent mechanic and a man of  wide experience in several crafts. His association with the Laboratory, virtually from its inception, has probably had a greater influence on the development of the surroundings and the services now enjoyed than that of any other  one individual. The buildings, the workshop, and the designing of enumerable pieces of intricate equipment have all been his responsibility.  When Taylor returned to the University in the fall of 1924, Miss J.  Bostock replaced him. Miss Bostock, who was the daughter of Senator  Bostock, remained about a year. Her main contributions were making additions to the herbarium and making colour sketches of winter-injured buds.  In 1926, G. E. Woolliams had joined McLarty to become the first assistant plant pathologist and to be trained to take over responsibility for the  vegetable diseases. In addition, A. T. Davidson came on as a summer assistant for the years 1926 - 27. He was accidentally killed in Vancouver  thereafter.  In 1928, another assistant, J. C. Roger, was appointed. Roger's appointment came as the result of pressure from the British Columbia Fruit Growers'  Association to have work done on the control of crown rot of apple trees. In  1926, there had been on the Orr property at Winfield a loss of some 40 Mcintosh trees. H. H. Evans of the Provincial Service at Vernon, and McLarty,  had both investigated and neither had been satisfied that the loss of these  trees could be attributed to either winter injury of the crown or to any known  parasitic disease. Much interest developed among both growers and technical  men as to the cause and cure of the trouble, and it is most interesting to note  that it was a direct result of this trouble that the Experimental Station first  became interested in work on rootstocks.  Roger was well suited for the work. He had had considerable experience  in practical orchard work and had been employed in various capacities by  both Dominion and Provincial Governments. He was at the time of his appointment, assistant to the Penticton District Horticulturist, R. P. Murray.  When he came to the Laboratory, besides working on crown rot, he was  seconded to test the then new zinc chloride canker paint for fire-blight control  that had been developed in California; to continue the orchard spray tests for  mildew, and to assist McLarty with the work on physiological disorders.  For two months, July and August, in 1929, G. V. Van Tausk, Agriculture Instructor of the Penticton High School, worked at the Laboratory on  tomato breakdown. He was replaced in 1930 by Reg. Hammond who spent  two summers, 1930 - 31, working at the Laboratory.  McLarty left the Laboratory in August of 1929 to pursue graduate  studies at Chicago and did not return until June, 1930. In his absence Roger  acted as executive officer. In the winter of '31 and '32, Woolliams likewise obtained leave of absence to do graduate work. He went to Toronto.  1930 was another dry year. Losses from corky core were estimated at  200,000 boxes of the 4 million box crop (5%), but these losses of course would 59  not include fruit lost through die-back and drought-spot, nor did they give  the true picture of the predicament many growers found themselves in. The  losses in some orchards were putting their owners out of business. The situation was rapidly becoming worse.  About this time, the "Physiological Disorders Committee" was set up and  recruited several men who later had very successful careers. J. C. Wilcox, a  horticulturalist who was particularly interested in irrigation studies, later became Head of the Soils, Plant Nutrition and Irrigation Section at Summerland and achieved an international reputation for his studies of water requirements and irrigation of deciduous fruit trees; Irving C Smith, a chemist  who eventually became Comptroller of Monsanto Chemical Company; C. G.  Woodbridge, a chemist who now is Professor of Horticulture at Washington  State University. Dr. Wilcox is still actively engaged in research at the Station  at the ripe young age of 78.  By 1932, McLarty had become convinced that the troubles he was dealing with were caused by the inability of the trees to obtain a properly balanced mineral supply. He began injecting the common fertilizer elements directly  into the tree limbs. In the first trial no response was obtained to any of the  materials so injected. In 1933, he tried again extending the list of elements  and injecting 128 trees. The next year, 1934, three of these were free of  drought-spot and corky core. All three had been injected with the same compound, boric acid. More extensive experiments involving the injection of fifty  trees with various salts of boron were begun in the fall of 1934. So successful  were these that the committee decided at once to recommend the injection  method to growers, but with the warning that they should try it only on trees  so severely affected as to be commercially useless. Meanwhile soil applications  at various rates were made on experimental plots. These proved that one-half  pound of boric acid per mature tree was as equally effective as injected  material, and the next year (1936) this more practical method was advised.  By 1937, it was apparent that most of the irrigated orchard land of the dry interior of British Columbia was rapidly becoming deficient in boron, and that  summer a blanket recommendation covering the treatment of all land in orchard was made. Since that time no serious losses from corky core, drought-  spot, or die-back have been incurred so that the solution of that problem  would appear now to be complete and final.  While it is true that during the years 1931 to 1937 a very large proportion  of the time and appropriation of the Laboratory was consumed by the researches on physiological disorder, not all was so used. McLarty and Roger  spent part of their time on crown rot, on powdery mildew and on apricot fruit  scab. Moreover, in the years 1931 to 1936 apple scab was very troublesome in  the Salmon Arm and Lavington districts, 1932 and 1936 being particularly  bad years. The work on scab was assigned to Woolliams who carried it in addition to the work on vegetable diseases.  In the fall of 1932, J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, drew attention to a mottle leaf condition of sweet cherry which he had found in  Nelson, B.C. This disease quickly rendered the affected trees useless commercially. It was suspected to be of virus nature. Transfer experiments were  undertaken and by 1934 its virus nature had been established.  The position of the fruit industry of British Columbia with respect to  virus diseases had been up to this time a very happy one. Unlike Ontario, no 60  such troubles were known to exist and legislation governing the movement of  trees and fruit into the province from all areas where such diseases were  known to be present, was very strict. Obviously the spontaneous appearance  of a virus disease as destructive as mottle leaf promised to be, could not be  passed over lightly.  In 1931, to augment the staff, T. B. Lott was transferred from the  Saanich Laboratory to Summerland, and in 1935, M. F. Welsh, then an  undergraduate student at the University of British Columbia, was employed  as a general laboratory assistant for the summer months. The juniors somewhat relieved the pressure on the senior staff, and McLarty was able to devote  part of his time to survey and investigational work on the mottle leaf problem.  Unfortunately at this critical time, Roger, after a very brief illness, died  suddenly on November 11, 1935. During the winter of 1936 - 37, at the very  time when his researches on boron deficiency were producing valuable data,  McLarty himself was forced to take three months' leave of absence and leave  the Okanagan. During that winter, Woolliams also was away continuing his  postgraduate work at Toronto.  When McLarty returned in the spring of 1937, two major problems confronted him and his staff:  1. The problem of sorting over the host of miscellaneous disorders that  still existed and deciding which were due to boron deficiency and which were  not;  2. The problem presented by the presence of at least one very destructive  virus disease of cherries in the Kootenay district, which, were it to spread to  the Okanagan would endanger the much larger plantings here.  Besides these problems there were, of course, various miscellaneous services, such as diagnosis and spray testing, to be maintained.  In 1938, another student assistant, P. Salsbury, was taken on for the  summer. The work was then divided among the members of the Staff in the  following way:  1. Physiological disorders and diagnosis: McLarty — Fitzpatrick —  Woodbridge (Chemist)  2. Crown rot of apple: Fitzpatrick — Welsh  3. Survey of mottle leaf, etc.: Lott  4. Vegetable diseases and spray service: Woolliams — Salsbury  In 1939, Salsbury was replaced by Frances Mellor. Fitzpatrick withdrew  from active participation in the crown rot problem, so that Welsh might  devote his full time to it and use it as the research problem in the winters at  the University of Toronto.  With regard to crown rot, since 1940 it has been known that this is a  parasitic disease. Welsh's researches into the problem were extensive enough  to allow for their use in 1942 as his doctorate thesis. From 1942 onward, the  resistance of apple stocks and scions to the casual fungus have been tested,  this work being done at the request of, and in collaboration with the Summerland Station in the hope of finding immune material. To date, we know  of several varieties of very high resistance and it would seem that there is a  reasonable chance one or the other of these could be developed to give a  satisfactory solution to the problem. In Welsh's absence, Mellor and Fitzpatrick took over the crown rot problem.  During the 1940's and early 1950's,  a major revolution occurred in 61  agriculture. Since the discovery of lime sulphur in 1908 and the introduction  of the power sprayer in 1911, there had been no fundamental change in the  technique used in controlling pests and disease. However, at the end of World  War II the picture began to change. Organic pesticides were introduced. In  addition advances had taken place in the development of spray equipment,  much of the basic research in this latter case being carried out here in the  Okanagan Valley.  The survey for cherry mottle leaf which Lott began in 1938 coincided  with similar surveys and interests which were taking shape throughout the  Pacific States. In the decade which intervened between the original researches  on mottle leaf and the present day, a host of new fruit tree viruses have appeared in British Columbia or are threatening to do so. Some of these we  diagnosed ourselves, others we were told of by our colleagues in the United  States. Some are apparently of little import, a few are potentially dangerous,  and one at least might be disastrous if it ever reaches the Okanagan. This latter one was, of course, the now infamous "Little Cherry".  Welsh and Andison, and later D. B. Waddell who replaced Andison, did  the early work on the "Little Cherry" virus. So devastating was this disease in  the Creston area at that time that trees free from "Little Cherry", to be used  for research, were extremely difficult to find. In the out-of-the-way places  where healthy trees were available, there was competition from Grosbeaks  who ate the fruit buds, deer who stripped the foliage from the trees, natives  who often got to the fruit before the researchers and bears who sometimes  gobbled the fruit, breaking down the trees as they reached or climbed.  From the 1950's, the staff at the Research Station has grown to include 2  dozen scientists who represent a number of specialties and many of the men  recruited about this time are now Section Heads and well known to the  growers in the Valley.  In conclusion, I go to the appendix of the "1921 - 1944 Report", which  states in part:  As to the future:  The primary services of the Laboratory must be, as they always have  been, to diagnose and to prescribe, and when insufficient is known to  do either, to investigate. In the past most requests for assistance have  come from individual growers. To a large extent the evaluation of  the urgency of any particular problem has been made, not by the  growers themselves, but by the Staff of the Laboratory. In British  Columbia the growing strength of farmer organizations is rapidly  changing this picture. It is not difficult to foresee that, as these  organizations develop, it is they, not the Laboratory staff who will  evaluate the merits of the individual problem. This, while it will have  many advantages, will have one definite drawback. It will tend to bring pressure almost exclusively on those problems which are immediate, and so may very well operate to leave certain equally important but long-continuing projects unsupported. We believe that  such a situation can best be met by a frank admission of the danger  of its arising. And, let us hasten to add, we believe that a full explanation of the value of any project, however long-continuing, will  always obtain a sympathetic hearing from the leaders of our grower 62  organizations. What is true for the plant pathological service is, of  course, equally true for the other branches of Science Service and for  the Experimental Farms Service.  The strength of the farmer organizations in the Okanagan is obvious today and their participation and cooperation with the Research Station is encouraging. Based on the 1978 "feelings" of the industry, the 1945 fear that  strong farmer organizations "may well leave certain important but long continuing projects unsupported" underestimated the foresight of the present-  day leaders of these organizations.  Photographer: G. H. E. Hudson    Held By: L. Leathly Collection - Kelowna Museum. 63  THE STORY OF DROUGHT SPOT IN APPLES*  by J. C Wilcox, Summerland  *This article has been prepared especially for the Okanagan Historical Society with  the idea of illustrating how scientists go about solving problems and finding out new  facts.  What is drought spot? Only the old-time tree fruit growers are really  familiar with it. Its symptoms are as follows: (1) russetting, spotting or pitting  of the fruit. In severe cases the apples are small, gnarled and split. (2) Corky  core, a browning of the tissue around the core, often spreading outward toward the skin. (3) Leaf scorch and shoot die-back, resulting sometimes in  death of the tree. In this article all three of these are included under the one  term, "Drought Spot".  In the early 1920's my dad had an orchard at Salmon Arm and our first  experience with corky core was in our Mcintosh apples. It was so bad at times  that we had to cut open several apples from each box and the presence of corky core meant discarding the whole box. As time passed, corky core appeared  in several other varieties, then typical drought spot symptoms appeared on  the surface of the apples. Finally, severe leaf scorch and die-back affected one  block of Mcintosh grown on sandy soil.  We did not know what to call these symptoms, nor what caused them;  nor were we aware that the same problems were being encountered in the  Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys.  When I graduated from U.B.C my dad said: "Jack, you now know all  about pruning. I want you to go up to Block 11 and prune the Mcintosh trees  there." Well, I couldn't believe what I saw! The shoots had died back, and  from below each dead shoot a mass of new shoots had grown out. Each tree  looked like a brush pile. I did the best I could but thought to myself, "I'll bet  that dad doesn't know how to prune these trees".  Growers Ask For Research  During the early 1920's, orchards in the Okanagan Valley and elsewhere  became affected with drought spot. So the growers asked for help to find out  the cause and cure.  Dr. R. H. McLarty, head of the Plant Pathology Laboratory at the Summerland Research Station, decided to investigate it. He found that, in  general, it was worse in some varieties than others; worse on sandy soils; and  the corky core symptom was worse in dry years. He tested badly affected fruit  for infectious diseases but found none. In other words, it was not a true  disease. So what was it? He concluded that it must be a "physiological disorder". But what kind?  Dr. McLarty read the "literature". He found that similar symptoms had  been reported in different parts of the world; in fact, as far away as New  Zealand. But nobody had reported the cause or the cure. Speculation was  that it was caused by a deficiency of soil moisture. Hence the use of the term  "drought spot".  Dr. McLarty also asked growers what they thought might be the cause. It  so happened that that year drought spot was not as bad as usual. One grower  said he had plowed between the rows and this had reduced the drought spot.  Another had quit all cultivation with the same result. Another had pruned  heavily, another had quit pruning, and so on it went. One grower said that he 64  never had drought spot on the trees at the back of his house. Why? Because  his wife threw her wash water there. In East Kelowna, where an oil well was  being drilled, there was general opinion that oil fumes were seeping up into  the tree roots and causing the trouble. After all the information he received,  McLarty decided he would have to start from scratch.  More Complete Research Program Needed  The British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association pressed the federal and  B.C. governments for an all-out research effort. This the two governments  agreed to carry out. Late in 1930 the research officers at the Summerland  Research Station and three Okanagan provincial horticulturists made preliminary plans.  Early in 1931 these plans were put into effect. Dr. McLarty was asked to  head the research and a supportive committee was named. It consisted of  Dick Palmer from Summerland, Maurice Middleton from Vernon, Ben Hoy  from Kelowna and Bob Murray from Penticton. They looked for a suitable  orchard in which to conduct field experiments and, with Ben Hoy's help, the  Spencer orchard in East Kelowna was selected. A lease arrangement was  made whereby the orchard would belong to the federal government after six  years. The trees in this orchard were 20 years old and most of them had  drought spot symptoms. The orchard is still called the East Kelowna Substation.  The supportive committee acted for the six years that it took to solve the  drought spot problem. When Mr. Middleton retired, his place was taken by  Harry Evans of Vernon.  The Initial Research Program  Help was needed for Dr. McLarty. Accordingly, an experienced orchardist (Trimble) was hired as orchard foreman; a graduate horticulturist  (myself) to put into effect the research program in the orchard; and a chemist  to work in the Plant Pathology laboratory on soil, leaf, fruit and bud tissue.  During the investigation there were five chemists, the main contributors being  Irving Smith, Jack Stewart, Cyril Woodbridge and David Ashby. When Trimble retired, Spencer Dyson replaced him as orchard foreman.  With the help of his committee, McLarty developed a comprehensive  program for the Substation. It included a large number of plots. Just the right  amount of water was applied to one plot, twice this much to another, and half  as much to another. The trees in one plot were pruned normally, in another  severely, in another not at all. Similarly, light medium and severe root pruning was done. Different plots received moderate fertilizer, no fertilizer, and  excess fertilizer (20 pounds per tree). This was done in separate plots for  nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers, while in other plots all three fertilizers were applied together. The applications per tree were thus as high as  60 pounds.  Dr. McLarty also collected small roots from both healthy and sick trees.  These were examined with a microscope to determine differences in health of  the root hairs.  During the life of this experimental work, careful records were kept on  all trees, of tree growth, yield of good fruit, yield of fruit showing drought  spot and corky core, and symptoms of leaf scorch and die-back. 65  Results Obtained  There was some evidence in 1931 that heavy applications of potash were  improving the health of both trees and fruit. On the other hand, nitrogen  made the disease worse. So also did too little water. None of the other  treatments appeared to have any effect on drought spot, though nitrogen increased tree growth and root pruning reduced it.  In 1932 Dr. McLarty decided to follow up the possible effect of potassium on drought spot. He made auger holes into tree trunks and big branches, filled each hole with a chemically pure potassium compound in crystalline  form, and sealed it with asphaltum. The only results he got were some burning of the bark above and below each hole.  So, back to the drawing board again. After consultation with his chemists, he wrote to the company that manufactured the potash fertilizer (Comin-  co at Trail), and received from them a long list of the impurities that it contained. Included were some major elements like calcium and magnesium,  and a long list of minor elements. It seemed certain that there must be one  element in this list that would tell the story. But which one?  The following year a few of these elements were injected singly into apple  trees, and the rest were lumped together into groups that were mixed and injected. One of these groups produced a cure!  In 1934 the constituents of this group were injected separately into different trees, and the cause of drought spot was found to be a lack of boron. In  other words boron (such as borax or boric acid) cured the drought spot.  That fall Dr. McLarty prepared a report for the growers in British Columbia, outlining the results obtained and the procedure used in obtaining  them. At several sites in the fruit growing areas he also gave demonstrations of  how to inject borax into the trees. He warned growers that this procedure  could cause some burning of the bark. Being a very careful research worker  he did not yet publish his results in a scientific journal.  Work Done Since 1934  In 1935 Dr. McLarty tried different amounts of borax and boric acid, to  find out how much was needed for each size of tree to accomplish a complete  cure for drought spot, corky core and die-back. The minimum required for a  complete cure was 1.4 grams of borate (BO3) per 100 square centimeters of  cross-sectional area of the trunk. He also tested the use of boric acid on the  soil, and found that it required 8 ounces for a large tree or 30 pounds per  acre. This was his final recommendation at that time.  Tests were also made by spraying boric acid onto the foliage. This was  found to effect a quick cure, and has been used by many growers since then.  By 1936 Dr. McLarty had all he needed to publish two comprehensive  papers on the use of boron compounds for curing and preventing the occurrence of drought spot and related disorders. This gained him international  acclaim. In subsequent work, boron has been found to be essential for other  tree fruits and for alfalfa and vegetables.  Dr. McLarty had only one regret. If only 15 or 20 growers had reported  to him that wash water had cured the disease, he could have solved the problem in much less time. You see, the cleaning material put into the wash  water at that time was usually borax. 66  FROM THE PEOPLE  A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE  OKANAGAN INDIAN CURRICULUM PROJECT  by Jeffrey Smith  The Okanagan Indian Curriculum Project (or O.I.C.P.) officially began  in 1979 after two full years of trying to convince educators that: first, we were  totally committed to presenting history to our children from the native point  of view and, second, we were determined to carry out this idea regardless of  the acceptance or rejection of the idea by the funding agencies. The  Okanagan Tribal Education Committee decided to give the Project priority.  The Committee was experienced in the political arena, having worked at the  local, provincial and national levels prior to 1979, and members knew that  education both attracts and embraces politics. This experience was, I believe,  the primary reason why the negotiators for O.T.E.C were so successful in  dealing with the sometimes four and sometimes up to six school districts of the  Okanagan that participated in the Project. The dealings which the Committee had had with both the federal and the provincial governments over educational issues, including the matter of Indian control of education, provided  training in negotiating. The O.I.C.P. was just one aspect of an overall plan  outlined by the Central Interior Tribal Councils in their study "Major Steps  Towards Self-sufficiency", a document which put forth a plan for assuming  Indian control of economic, educational and social matters relating to the  bands and their members. I believe that a major step in this direction has  been achieved. The next stage of work to be done is ready to be discussed  seriously by the various band councils and members at large.  The Project was initiated to deal directly with the appalling drop-out  rate of Indian children. By 1979 there was also a new phenomenon, juvenile  suicide. The numbers of young people, particularly teenagers, taking their  own lives was appalling. We thought that we should do something constructive because the situation was desperate. We had to think of teaching strategies that would reinforce and, in some cases, recreate Indianness, that is  Indian identity. After the first year of research was completed, the next thing  that was studied was traditional Okanagan teaching and child rearing practices. The O.I.C.P. took off from there. Marina Joe wrote the initial drafts of  an elementary curriculum and Don Fiddler along with Rita Jack, Jeannette  Armstrong and myself revised the units after they were field-tested in many  public schools. Primary resource material was prepared by Jeannette Armstrong, Delphine Derrickson (Baptiste), Barb Marchand, and many others.  But, in truth, everyone got involved in writing, brainstorming and editing.  Secretaries became experts in critiquing; administrators conducted curriculum workshops. Units for the Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum  (Grades 8 through 11) involved many more people, but the work was accomplished and the material will be in use by the fall of 1983.  We have been excited by the books which were prepared. We thought  that Jeannette Armstrong's book Enwhisteetkwa was publishable and that the  curriculum units were educationally sound. Enwhisteetkwa is now in the  bookstores. We have been told that the curriculum materials, which include  teachers' guides, students' resource guides, video tapes, audio tapes and a  16-millimeter film, were of professional quality. We have discovered that 67  there are many talented Indian people in the valley! There are artists, singers,  writers, administration people and audio-visual experts. However, much of  that talent hadn't really had an opportunity for expression until the O.I.C.P.  provided one. The quality of the teaching materials was important to the Project's survival, especially in the current economic situation. Otherwise, the  whole idea might have been scrapped because students, today, expect a high  standard in their study materials. The curriculum units for Kindergarten to  Grade Six are now being used in schools in every district in the Okanagan, as  well as throughout the Province and in other parts of Canada. Since Theytus  Books has taken over the publication and distribution of the secondary school  material, these items have been sold in the United States and Europe and  have been distributed even in mainland China. One of the most significant  aspects of the O.I.C.P. is that the curriculum was produced almost entirely by  Indian people. Not only are the stories literally the tales and experiences of  the Okanagan Indians, but the designing of the teaching units, the molding  of the materials for classroom presentation and, finally, the production were  accomplished by Indian people, many of whom had at one time dropped out  of the educational system. These people had significant educational experiences in their lives, however, having been trained in the traditional  educational disciplines of the Okanagan people.  The O.I.C.P. has truly been a community effort. Hundreds of people  have worked on the Project and are proud to have volunteered their time and  made their own contribution. In this way the Okanagan Indian Curriculum  Project is truly from the people.  1?. mflistUtrt Ho  Podunk Davis's Trapper's Cabin on the Podunk River (upper Tulameen).  For Podunk Davis's part in the rescue of Nurse Warburton see the 46th Report pages 117-123.  R. S. Manuel 68  SOLDIERS OF THE SOIL  Recollections — The Activities of Vernon Boys  1914 - 1919  by William Ruhmann  Editor's Note: William Ruhmann, who now lives in Lake Oswego, Oregon, lived as a  boy in Vernon. The following is a portion of his account of the activities of teen-age  boys during the First World War. The full text, which includes the names of many of  his friends and the specific jobs they held, is housed in the Vernon Museum. The article begins with a visit young William made to his grandparents at Kelowna.  A few days later, I came home to find Grandma weeping — Granddad  angry! Germany had attacked Russia! England and France had declared war  on Germany.  The next day, August 5, 1914, my Grandparents put me on board the  paddle-wheeler S. S. Sicamous for my trip back home to Vernon. My homecoming, as I remember, was rather restrained. Questions about my visit seemed to be perfunctory. There were no smiling faces — the shock of war was  already changing our lives! The newspaper headlines were: VOLUNTEER!  JOIN UP! SERVE KING AND COUNTRY! For the youth of the land, fun,  games and laughter were lost.  The several squadrons of the Okanagan Valley reserve regiment, the  30th British Columbia Horse which consisted of more than 500 cavalrymen,  were called into active service. A training camp was established on Mission  Hill south of Vernon, British Columbia. Row on row of white bell tents were a  constant reminder that our soldiers were in training.  After the establishment of this camp, an internment camp for enemy  aliens was constructed. This ten-acre camp, enclosed by a high barbed wire  fence, was located at the intersection of 27th Street (Mara Avenue) and 43rd  Avenue. Soldiers walked on guard duty to and fro between the sentry boxes.  Each guard would call out the hour and, on a descending note, "All's Well!"  How the internees and townspeople endured that hourly call for more than  four years is impossible to say. Each day there was a changing of the guard.  Those at the internment camp were replaced daily by a new unit from Mission  Hill.  The marching group which escorted the guard unit was a drum and  trumpet band which had been organized in 1916. It was trained and led by  Sgt. Tommy Vaughn. The group, with the exception of Vaughn, Marriott,  Pruitt, Newell, Treadgold and Western, were high school boys.  Trumpeters: Corporal Spence Newell, Lance Corporal Frank Marriott,  Walter "Wally" Mattock, Robert "Bert" Mattock, Ted Pruitt, William May,  Horace Foote, Alan Robey, A. G. "Bert" Treadgold, Wilfred Phillips, Arthur  Phillips, Cecil Phillips.  Side Drums: Wilfred Moffat, Stuart Jenkins, Leslie Dodd, Sidney  Braird, Homer Conn, Albert "Spud" Murphy, W. Western.  Bass Drummer: Maurice Mitchell.  All band members were Vernon boys with the exception of Western and  Treadgold who were from Kelowna.  In December 1916, a fourteen-year old high school boy, Thomas E.  Jessett, joined the 30th B.C. Horse. Because of his self-taught stenographic  skills, he quickly advanced to Orderly Room Corporal. Tom, with a glint in 69  his eye, years later commented, "My rank caused problems at home — Dad  was just a private in the same regiment!"  The battalions in training on the Hill grew as recruits from throughout  the Province arrived by troop trains. Soon there were soldiers everywhere!  They were marching on the parade ground, attacking dummies in bayonet  drills, performing long marches with full packs and shooting on the rifle  ranges. Those in the signal corps practiced sending messages with flags and,  when the sun was shining, by heliograph. At night, messages went from one  hill to another by lights blinking dots and dashes. Boys who had learned the  Morse Code made clandestine watches — hoping to intercept a secret communication.  During the summer of 1916, a group of about ten school boys organized  to deliver the daily paper to the men in the camp. This was strictly a business  venture. They made arrangements to have the two town jitneys (Model T  Fords with the tops removed) at the station when the noon train arrived from  Vancouver. Each boy grabbed fifty papers when the bundled newspapers  were thrown out of the baggage car. They jumped aboard the jitneys for a  noisy race to the Hill, down Barnard Avenue and up 32nd Street (Seventh  Street) with horns blowing. They raced to the camp gate where the soldiers  were eagerly waiting.  . — - ■ MBUm'  Tom Kyte packing house September 1917.  (Left to right) Tom Kyte, W. Ruhmann, and Charlie White 70  Four years of close contact with soldiers had a noticeable effect on the  youth of the community. Men in uniform were everywhere — on Barnard  Avenue Saturday evening, at church on Sunday, as guests in homes and, during the summer, relaxing in the sun on the beach at Kalamalka Lake. Four  battalions trained at the Central Mobilization Camp at Vernon. By the winter  of 1916, the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles, the Okanagan's own battalion,  and the 172nd Battalion, called the Rocky Mountain Rangers, were overseas.  The 158th, the Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles left in November. Still training on the Hill was the 225th Battalion made up of recruits from the  Kootenay and the Boundary. Almost every boy collected mementos such as  officer swagger sticks and the bronze hat badges of the various regiments.  The war was seriously depleting the work force of the Okanagan Valley.  More than 22 per cent of the manpower had enlisted. At that time fruit crops  were the mainstay of the area. Harvesting the agricultural crops, especially  apples, became a serious problem. On January 4, 1917, Thomas Richmond,  chairman of the Farmers' Institute, reported that the Department of Agriculture was advocating the establishment of training schools to teach high  school boys and girls how to pack apples. Making boxes in the packing houses  was a job that boys enjoyed. Hammer-damaged thumbs were proudly exhibited!  In Vancouver at a Consumers League meeting, it was proposed that  women from that area help with the harvest of the apple crop in the  Okanagan. "What kind of dress would be worn in the orchards?" a woman  asked. "Overalls," someone shouted. There was a ripple of laughter from the  group. "Yes, this would be one time when women will be permitted to wear  overalls," said the chairman.  During the Easter vacation six of us boys had a job picking up prunings  in an orchard on the Silver Star Road. Our employer transported us in a  Model T Ford. It was more than a little crowded. Conscription came in May  1917. In June, Mrs. J. C Kemp, president of the local Consumers' League,  reported that 500 boys could be used to help with the fruit harvest in the  Okanagan. Schools, she suggested, could extend the summer vacation into  October in order that this labour force be available. Pickers were paid four  cents or five cents a 55-pound orchard box, and she thought that an energetic  boy should be able to pick sixty or more boxes in a ten-hour day.  The Vernon News reported:  June 28, 1917. American troops in France.  School report: Vernon grade school children contributed $207.20 to the  Prisoner of War Fund in the past six-month period.  The end of the school year brought a scramble for jobs. About half of the  boys of working age were members of households operating family farms. Occasionally, these farms needed additional help with haying, picking fruit, or  harvesting vegetables. Boys from town filled these spots as they arose.  Generally, those not connected with a farm found work picking fruit, tending  gardens, in packing houses or doing odd jobs.  Women were very adept at packing fruit and they pre-empted the  tedious job of sorting apples as to grade and size on the beltline tables. Many  of the older boys worked in the packing houses. Packing apples and making  boxes were piece work. Those strong enough to do so operated hand trucks to  move packed fruit into storage or into boxcars for shipment. 71  A few of the larger farms had living quarters and cookhouse facilities.  Generally the jobs on these farms were year-round. Most of the help were  adults who were exempt from military service or were school dropouts.  Transportation was no problem for boys on summer jobs. If you didn't have a  bicycle you walked.  Charlie White and I, just out of the sixth grade, got a job on the Dr.  Reimer twenty-acre orchard located three miles north of town on the Swan  Lake Road. It had been leased by Tom Kyte. Since navy beans were in demand for overseas shipment, Kyte had planted several acres in rows between  the orchard trees. Our job was to pull the weeds. After finishing the weeding I  worked also as chore boy. The Kytes boarded me. This ended my daily six-  mile walk. I split the firewood, carried the water from the spring for Mrs.  Kyte, hilled about a half-acre of potatoes and helped prepare the packing  house for the apple harvest.  By mid-summer, apple picking was under way. We had some trees of an  early variety and women from town, including my mother, were our pickers.  Charlie and I helped to load the fruit in the orchard for the haul by wagon to  the packing house. When the packed fruit was ready to be hauled to the Vernon Fruit Union for shipment to market, we helped with the loading.  In the orchard nesting hornets harassed our pickers. I volunteered to  burn out the nests. I used a birch bark torch on the end of a stick, timing the  job at dusk when all the insects were at home for the night. Incredibly I survived without a sting.  It was announced on August 16 that schools would open on September 4  instead of the scheduled August 27. Also, it was announced at Victoria that  41,883 men and 1,270 officers had volunteered to serve in the armed forces.  By early 1918 the drum and trumpet band, along with the 30th B.C.  Horse, was disbanded. Those over sixteen and those too old or too disabled to  serve overseas were transferred to the 11th Battalion Canadian Garrison Regiment. They were stationed at the internment camp doing guard duty. Three  members of the band in the sixteen-year bracket, trumpeters Alan Robey,  Horace G. Foote and Robert "Bert" Mattock, were transferred to serve as  buglers. In December, Alan Robey followed Corporal Thomas E. Jessett into  the position of Orderly Room Corporal under Major Nash. Robey served as a  guard in the transfer of the last of the war prisoners to Europe. Before returning home, he was able to visit relativs in England.  By 1918 ways of increasing the food supply were being considered. Alderman Galbraith suggested that unused fenced city lots be utilized for gardens.  The work of the Chinese in developing marginal new land was of considerable  help. The onions and potatoes grown by the Chinese were processed at the  "evaporator" plant for overseas shipment.  On March 4, 1918, the formation of a national organization was announced. It was to be called Soldiers of the Soil. This was a plan to bring  boys thirteen to eighteen years of age into a work force to assist farmers. Boys  who were available for summer farm work were asked to register by William  E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture. Thus a labourer bank of approximately 25,000 boys was formed. The Rev. J. H. Miller of Cloverdale was appointed head of the Provincial organization.  In April 1918, Mayor S. A. Shatford announced that to date 130 Okanagan Valley boys were registered. By May it was also reported by Clarence 72  Fulton, grade school principal and eighth grade teacher, that thirty-four Vernon boys had enlisted in the Soldiers of the Soil. So far eighteen had been  placed on farms. These boys would receive a Government Service badge.  When spring planting time arrived, Thomas Richmond, President of the  Farmers Institute, met several of us on Saturday at a lot at 34th Street and  22nd Avenue. In his wagon was a plow and harrow. We went to work cutting  potatoes for planting. When the ground was ready the seed potatoes were  dropped in the furrow behind the plow. After completing this job I rode with  Mr. Richmond on the wagon to a fenced lot at the east end of Pine Street  (39th Avenue) near the 12th Street intersection. After plowing and harrowing  this lot, I was given a bag of navy beans to plant.  I kept close watch on my bean patch. On Saturday I discovered that cutworms were leveling my crop. Catastrophe! What could.I do? I went to the entomology office in the Court House for help. They prepared a bucket of  poison bait — bran mixed with molasses and sprinkled with Paris Green (copper arsenite). Up and down the rows I spread this toxic lunch for the worms. I  don't know if the worms ate the bait because of its beautiful green colour or  because they simply liked molasses. My bean patch was saved!  That summer the government sent a bean thresher through the  Okanagan Valley to harvest the enormous crop. The Hon. E. D. Barrow,  Minister of Agriculture, travelled with the thresher and operated it. This, he  said, was an ideal opportunity to get away from the political scene at the Provincial capital.  In spring, as farming activity accelerated, many SOS boys were excused  from school to take the jobs assigned to them. Hector Richmond noted in his  diary that he left school on May 16.  When grade school closed in June, I was hired as chore boy at the Vernon  Orchards. It was a 250-acre fruit ranch located on the slopes on the east side  of Swan Lake. Pol LeGuen*, a native of Brittany, France, was manager of the  orchard and Frank Lucas was foreman. Ranch teamsters were Leonard "Len"  Rice, Jack Brown and Len Parent. Farmhands for the summer were Camillo  and Angello Gaspardoni. We lived in a two-story bunkhouse. The  "plumbing" was outside and water was by bucket from the hand pump at the  horse trough. The washstand was on the porch and the dining room was in  the manager's residence. Our cook was Mrs. Jane Roze.  I was paid $15.00 a month to milk two Holstein cows, clean the barn and  care for a saddle horse and a driving horse. I also had several pigs to tend.  Each Saturday morning in a corner of the barnyard over a wood fire I cooked  a large vat of pig slop. During the summer I helped with the fruit harvest and  the haying. When school reopened, after milking the cows, feeding the pigs,  cleaning my share of the barn, and having breakfast, I would hitch Caesar,  the driving horse to the democrat and drive to school with the three Lucas  children, Bill, Dorothy and Donald, as well as Bernie Roze, the son of our  cook. I was in eighth grade.  In 1918 the influenza epidemic swept across Canada and on October 21  our school was closed. Now life on the ranch became boring. There wasn't  Tol LeGuen, though a naturalized British subject, was called up by France  to serve on the front in his old regiment. He was invalided home in 1915. 73  much to do between the 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. milkings. To pass the time I  would go down to the lake and trap muskrats. I did very well until the lake  froze over. Harry Blurton, a trapper and fur buyer from Enderby, would  come by every few weeks and buy my furs. I got 20 cents a pelt for my rats.  One teamster who lived with me in the bunkhouse was Len Rice. He had  his own saddle horse which he kept in a box stall. The horse was a wild, mean  animal, sixteen hands high, but with Len in the saddle he responded beautifully.  Often Len's brother, Harry, rode in to visit on weekends. On Hallowe'en,  he and Len thought it would be fun to ride into town. I got permission to take  "Queenie". Len and Harry were real cowboys. Len had bat-wing chaps and  Harry wore black angora long hair ones. Each had a big Stetson hat. Their  spurs jingled and their horses pranced. I felt a bit subdued — me with my  grade school knickers riding Queenie who had the "heaves". When we rode  up and down Main Street a couple of times, however, we sure attracted a lot  of attention. We put on a real show! After entertaining the intermission crowd  at the theatre, we rode down Coldstream Avenue to 33rd. I was told to ride  down 33rd to the next intersection and to wait.  The street was alive with Chinamen.* We were in Chinatown. On each  side of the street were unpainted, boxlike, two-story buildings. They were  dimly lit. In the background, the unfamiliar tones of a stringed instrument  were heard and there was the drone of sing-song voices in the air. Seated on a  porch were a couple of men with lighted punks in hand sucking on their  gurgling water pipes. Noise coming from one building told us that a gambling  game was under way. Everything was serene.  As I rode down the street, doors opened and men came out to investigate  the rising crescendo of chatter. Then two "phantom horsemen", their horses  rearing and plunging in an apparent uncontrolled charge, emerged from the  shadows. The men standing in the street lunged in all directions. The commotion was unbelievable! When Len and Harry reached me they were  laughing so hard they could hardly speak. "We sure broke up their fan-tan  game, didn't we?"  November brought cold weather. I had just received my new heavy  belted jacket from T. E. Eaton Co. It cost me nearly a month's pay, but when  school opened again my trips to school would be much warmer.  One morning I was given the job of taking a wagon load of harness to  town for repair. As I drove down Barnard Avenue, I thought it strangely  deserted. No one was about. No automobiles were moving. Arriving at the  Okanagan Harness and Saddlery Co. shop, across from the Empress Theatre,  I backed the wagon into the sidewalk as the harness was too heavy to carry I  intended to drag each set into the shop.  I had hoped for help but the two men in the back of the shop, for some  reason, made no move to assist me. Several pieces of harness were still lying on  the sidewalk when I was startled by a huge explosion. It shook the ground. I  jumped to stop my team from bolting. At that moment, the two men dashed  'The immigrant Chinese work force in the Vernon area was estimated to be  about 500 persons. 74  out of the shop and ran in the direction of the blast. The once-deserted street  was now alive with excited people.  I quieted my team and pulled the remaining harness into the shop. As I  turned to leave I saw my wagon — my team and wagon — going up the street  on a dead run. There was another explosion. Then I heard the fire bell clanging madly — and church bells, the bells of the Presbyterian and Anglican  churches on Mara Avenue.  "My team, my team — someone's stealing my team and my brand new  jacket in the wagon!" I shouted. The horses disappeared around the corner at  the Post Office. Running was not easy. I was wearing my ankle-height,  cleated rubber boots and oversox with under-the-knee drawstrings and tassels  which gyrated as I ran. Another explosion! It was in the Post Office block.  When I made the turn at the Post Office I saw a group of men standing  in front of the Police Station, the Mayor, the City Clerk and some aldermen. I  ran up to Chief Constable R. N. Clerke who was wearing his cavalry officer's  uniform. "They stole my team — didn't you see them?" The fire bell was  clanging — there was another explosion — Chief Clerke had an odd expression on his face. "The war is over Billy-boy! We're celebrating — don't you  understand? — the war's over."  Mayor Shatford put his hand on my shoulder. "Billy-boy, we are  celebrating. We are going to build a big bonfire across the street. I suppose  someone took your team to help build the fire. Don't worry, Billy-boy, you  will get your team back."  "But, I said, "I have to haul a load of oats back to the ranch." I still  hadn't realized that the war was over.  The Mayor took me over to the Police Station and telephoned my boss,  Pol LeGuen. "Pol," he said, "you have heard the news?" — wonderful isn't it!  Say, your Billy-boy is here with me — eh — Bill is here with me. We would  like to borrow his team to help build the bonfire for the celebration this evening. Thanks, Pol."  "Well, Bill, we're all fixed up. We can use your team and you have the  day off." That day, Monday, November 11, 1918, I made the big jump —  from "Billy-boy", fourth grade marble-shooting champ, to eighth grade  "Bill".  Mayor Shatford placed the following announcement on the bulletin  board on the Avenue side of the Post Office building where, throughout the  war, battlefront movements were posted and casualty lists made known:  A GLORIOUS CELEBRATION  About nine o'clock this morning our citizens were brought the  realization that official and authentic news of the signing of the Armistice had been received, the joyful news being heralded by the  ringing of bells at the Fire Hall and in the city churches, the prolonged blowing of all factory whistles, salvos of dynamite and the explosion of fire crackers. Mayor Shatford declared the day a Public Holiday.  Across from the Fire Hall they were building a crib of poles about thirty  feet square to hold the trash being gathered for the bonfire. After watching  awhile I ran to the haybarn behind the Royal Bank. Jim Vallance and Jim  Silver were exploding dynamite. Once, deciding to make a bigger bang, they 75  enlarged the powder charge. Unfortunately, several windows in nearby buildings were shattered. I was fascinated. So were Ron Cull and Doug Glover who  were watching with me.  The Bronze Badge given to Soldiers Of The Soil Boys.  It was getting cold and, since I had left my toque and my new coat in the  wagon, I decided to go home. Being home I missed the afternoon activity.  However, in January 1981, Rev. Canon T. E. Jessett, S.T.D., who had been  the Cpl. Thomas Jessett, Orderly Room Corporal mentioned above, wrote a  letter which said in part:  Bill, did I give you the details of the Armistice Day Parade? I typed  the orders and we marched down town at 2:00 p.m. I was the right  hand man in the front rank. Someone let off a stick of dynamite as  the front row was wheeling around the Post Office corner. We didn't  miss a step although the rear ranks were startled as they were closer  to the noise.  We were to fire three volleys after an address by the Mayor and  others, but Captain Carl Grossman, the Adjutant, reported, after we  had waited for some time, that those who were to participate were  drunk — so we just marched back to camp — ending my last chance  to fire a rifle while in the B.C. Dragoons.  Until I received this letter I had no idea what I had missed.  Night fell — an expectant crowd filled the area around the bonfire.  About 7:00 the fire was lit. "Kaiser Bill", hanging in effigy by the  neck on a gibbet, disappeared in the roaring falmes — there were no  cheers. The fire burned down — the crowd dispersed.  Soldiers of the Soil — those boys who signed up to work on farms —  received recognition at a ceremony held at the Court House. Dr. K. C. MacDonald,  MLA,  congratulated the boys and presented each with a small 76  bronze lapel button provided by the Dominion Government.  Those boys  receiving honours were:  Bentley Dodds Ralph W. Heggie  Maurice Meredith Philip French  Leslie Riley Roy G. Campbell  Stanley Pateman Wm. Ruhmann  Hector A. Richmond Fergus Mutrie  Douglas Gillespie Charles White  Arthur Fryer Horace Mattock  Richard Hammond Louis Norris  James H. Moore L. G. Edwards  Edward Foster Geoffrey Balcombe  Solvi Thorlakson Jonn L. Webster  John M. Edwards Xel Monsees  John Thorburn John B. Stewart  Of 1,671 British Columbia boys who took part in the Soldiers of the Soil  program 200 were from the Okanagan Valley and twenty-six from the Vernon  Area. While thirty-four had enlisted it is possible that all were not able to attend the ceremony and hopefully received their badges at a later date.  Many other boys contributed to the war effort working on farms and in  packing houses but these, through poor communication, were unaware of the  requirement to sign up and thus did not receive public recognition. Not to be  forgotten are those boys who left school to serve in the army — at home and  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The Vernon News, 1914 through 1919. Many assisted with recollections  covering the activities of Vernon boys during the war years. Appreciated is the  help given by Geoffrey Balcombe, Hilda Cochrane, Beryl Gorman, Harry  Rice, Will Phillips, Ron Robey, Arthur Langstaff, Bernard Roze, Dolly  Greig, Zel Monsees, John B. Stewart, John Webster, Capt. John Thorburn,  Mrs. Horace G. Foote, J. R. Kidston, all of Vernon; and Alan Robey, San  Francisco; Maurice Cochrane, Fairfax, Virginia; Roy G. Campbell, Vancouver; H. W. Ryan, Willits, California; Frances Powell, Windsor, Ontario;  Kathleen Jeal, Tappen, B.C.; Hector A. Richmond, Nanaimo; Horace Mattock, Penticton; James Treadgold, Kelowna; Mrs. M. Shatford, Kelowna;  Rev. Canon T. E. Jessett, S.T.D., Seattle. 77  TRIBUTES AND  BIOGRAPHIES  THE BURT R. CAMPBELL COLLECTION  In February 1983 the Campbell family, in honour of their parents  Mr. and Mrs. Burton Roy Campbell, presented a complete set of  original Okanagan Historical Society Reports, number 1 to 45, to the  Parent Body of the Okanagan Historical Society. The set had been  designated "The Burt R. Campbell Collection" and is to be made  available to present and future editors.  Mr. Campbell made an extraordinary contribution towards preserving the history of British Columbia's Interior as well as meeting the  demands of family, career, and community service as will be seen in  the story below written by his son, Roy G. Campbell.  Editor  THE BURT R. CAMPBELL FAMILY  Burton Roy Campbell was born on April 28, 1878 in Gladstone,  Manitoba. He first came to Kamloops, as a boy, in 1891. Burt started work as  a delivery boy for the Inland Sentinel, which then served the whole interior  — and Burt's delivery route covered the small city itself. He was soon promoted, after training, to typesetter — a very laborious process at that period  when it was all hand-set. The editor of the Sentinel was James W. Vail.  At that time only intermittent employment was available at the Sentinel,  and Campbell therefore, in 1894, went to the Vernon News for a short  period. He then returned to the Sentinel, but in June 1895 he was appointed  to the Kootenay Mail, then under Vail, in Revelstoke.  In 1897 the Revelstoke Herald was started in political opposition to the  Mail, and both papers had to struggle for their very existence in a community  barely large enough to support one. Vail, aged 70, had now retired, and the  paper was owned, published, edited and printed by the partnership of Campbell and B. R. Atkins — a hectic effort!  Campbell, being a minor, could not at first attain legal ownership, but  in 1899 Atkins moved, and he became sole owner at the age of 21. It was not a  very profitable business and he sold out in 1901, although he was never paid  in full. After an effort to start an insurance business, which was not successful, he returned to the Inland Sentinel.  He was married in 1903 and went back to the Kootenay Mail, where the  pay was higher, and at the end of the following year continued his career in  Vancouver. In 1906 he went to Washington State to learn operation of the  new Mergenthaler Linotype machine, and on December 1, 1907 moved to the  Vernon News, in which he installed the first such machine in B.C. Campbell  returned to the Sentinel in 1922, and remained there until his retirement.  Before going on we should return to 1903 and the marriage of Dad to  Annie Scott who had been born in Essex County in Ontario in 1880. After  some years on a farm with her family in Saskatchewan, she migrated with  friends to Kamloops where she was married on April 13, 1903. Ultimately a 78  Left to right: Miss Muriel Campbell (Kamloops), Mrs. R. (Ruth) Derrick (Kamloops), Leslie  (Castlegar) died 1977, Eldon (Ted) (Kamloops), Roy (Vancouver), Mrs. B. E. (Ida) Conner  (Vancouver), Mrs. R. F. (Dora) Burton (Kamloops). Mr. and Mrs. Burt Campbell. Taken on  50th Wedding Anniversary 1953.  family of seven, three boys and four girls, ensued, of which three were born in  Vancouver and four in Vernon Jubilee Hospital.  All her life Mother was a very ardent church worker in the Methodist  Church and, later in the United Church. Another of her most serious interests  was the Women's Christian Temperance Union. The above interests, of  course, were second to the care and welfare of her husband and family.  Mother was courageous. One summer she took her family of seven to  camp in a large tent on the beach at Kalamalka Lake. The youngest would  probably have been at that time less then two years old. Imagine the difficulties that would ensue in providing meals prepared on a camp fire. Dad  continued his work six days a week and went home to do the chores which in- 79  eluded milking a couple of cows.  During the period 1919 to 1922, Dad was away part of the time searching  for work at his trade, after moving the family to a rented farm at Hullcar near  Armstrong and later to Grindrod. At this latter location the family, with the  aid of mother, milked twenty cows and the cream was sent to the Salmon Arm  Creamery. As stated earlier Dad returned to the Kamloops Sentinel in mid  1922 with the family following him in December of that year.  At Kamloops he was very active in the community, serving in the Knights  of Pythias, the R.M.R. band, and as a Director of Royal Inland Hospital.  He was very active in the Okanagan Historical Society serving as an officer as well as a writer, and also wrote for the prestigious B.C. Historical  Quarterly. In 1950 he was elected president of the B.C. Historical Society —  a very rare honour for an interior historian.  At home he was elected vice-president when Kamloops Museum Association was formed, and served as president 1941 - 1951, keeping it alive almost  single handed during the difficult war years. He served again in 1953, but  retired the next year because of failing eyesight and health. His Museum  specialty, in addition to his writing, was the establishment of our Archives. In  particular he collected, identified, and catalogued about 3,000 photographs,  the most important part of the present large collection, still in regular use by  modern researchers. During his term as a member of the Hospital Board in  Kamloops, a method was devised whereby families and single persons paid  $12. per annum to obtain free hospital service. This plan was kept in effect  until August, 1948 and was, we are informed, a great assistance to the financing at the hospital.  Among his treasures still retained by the family is a diamond signet ring  from the Revelstoke Independent Band which was gifted to him in 1903. The  inscription inside the ring reads R.I.B. — 1903. He also had a 50 year badge  from the Knights of Pythias. Being an ardent union man he also had a 50 year  button from the International Typographical Union which he had joined in  1897.  Burton Roy Campbell (Dad) passed away September 13, 1955 and was  followed by Annie Campbell (Mother) December 9, 1955.  Published Articles of Burt R. Campbell  Okanagan Historical Society Reports  1948 "History of Okanagan Newspapers"  1950 "Kamloops, Gateway to the Okanagan"  1939 "The City of Vernon: First Year of Incorporation"  British Columbia Historical Society  1951 "The Kootenay Mail: Revelstoke's Second Newspaper"  (Vol. XV, No. 1 & 2).  1946 "From Hand-set Type to Linotype" (Vol. X, No. 4). 80  VERNON BRANCH LOSES VALUABLE WORKERS  During the past year the Vernon Branch has lost three men who have  contributed greatly to the Society. A fourth, though not a member of the Vernon Branch, is appreciated for his contribution to the Parent Body.  On November 7th, 1982, J. E. P. (Jock) Henniker passed away after a  year of hospital care following an auto accident in October, 1981. A member  of an Enderby family he moved to Vernon upon retirement after forty years  with the Bank of Montreal throughout B.C. He was active in the Vernon  Winter Carnival, Okanagan Historical Society and the O'Keefe Ranch as a  Director. He worked also for the CESO assisting the Indian Bands of the  Okanagan and Shuswap. He was Treasurer for Vernon Branch Okanagan  Historical Society for a number of years.  On February 2nd, 1983, Richard Guy Pearse Bagnall passed away at the  age of 100 years. He came to Vernon in 1906 following service in the Boer  War and the Natal Rebellion. He also served in World War I. During his  more active years Mr. Bagnall worked in many community services. He was  one of two surviving members of the original founders of the Okanagan  Historical Society at the time of his death. The other is Horace Galbraith".  George Henry Melvin passed away on March 4th, 1983 at the age of 77  years. Mr. Melvin came to Vernon following World War II after he had been  stationed at the Vernon Army Camp. An alderman, 1970 Good Citizen and  chief organizer of the first two Winter Carnivals, 1978 Freeman of the City,  Chairman of the Vernon Museum Board for 25 years as well as an active  member of Royal Canadian Legion, Rotary and Chairman of the Red Cross  Blood Donor Clinic as well as an active member of the Okanagan Historical  Society.1  Frederick Kenneth McKenzie passed away on March 2nd following a  heart attack at the age of 64. Mr. McKenzie was a man who believed in making his home town a better place to live in and gave of his time and energy to  do so. He gave of his expertise freely as accountant and auditor of the  Okanagan (Parent Body) Historical Society, working with Treasurer Ley  Christenson. Fred McKenzie was mainly responsible for starting both Minor  Football and Minor Lacrosse in Vernon through the seventies. He also contributed his time as an accountant and auditor to the Vernon Carnival and  the Art's Council.  Each one of these men will be missed. Each had left his own distinctive  mark on the Okanagan Historical Society.  'George H. Melvin will long be remembered among those interested in the history of  British Columbia for his book The Post Offices of British Columbia, 1858 - 1970.  Mr. Melvin researched the material for the book, wrote the book and published it  privately.  Editor  MORE APPRECIATIONS  Gertrude Butler, a resident of Summerland since 1939, died July 13, 81  1982 in Summerland. Mrs. Butler was a member of the Okanagan Historical  Society, Secretary of the Summerland Museum Society, and, for three years,  Curator of the Summerland Museum. A graduate of the Royal Jubilee  Hospital in Victoria, Mrs. Butler nursed at the Summerland Hospital becoming Matron and Nursing Director. In 1967 she helped the transition from the  old to the new hospital.  David Jones, a long time resident of Enderby, died November 12, 1982 in  New Westminster in his 89th year. For many years Mr. Jones was active in the  Okanagan Historical Society. In 1977 he published In the Shadow of the  Cliff, a history of North Enderby.  Edna Mary Weatherill died in Oliver July 27, 1982 in her 70th year. Mrs.  Weatherill was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth McKenzie, pioneer  residents of Penticton. After returning to the Okanagan in 1973 Mrs.  Weatherill became active in the Okanagan Historical Society and was a Past  President of the Osoyoos Museum Society.  Wallace J. Smith died in Penticton on November 25, 1982 in his 84th  year. Mr. Smith was a member of the Okanagan Historical Society and a Life  Member of the Parks Society. He was also a dedicated worker in many community affairs. He started the first newspaper in Oliver in 1934, had an orchard and wrote a weekly column "Orchard Run" for 25 years.  Dr. Hugh Ivie Campbell-Brown died February 25, 1982 in Vernon in his  81st year. Dr. Campbell-Brown was known for his numerous community services as well as being a beloved doctor and co-founder of the Vernon Medical  Clinic. When he retired from medicine in 1963 he returned to university to  study anthropology, participating in archeological digs in the Lytton-Lillooet  area. In 1975 Dr. Campbell-Brown gave a portion of his family farm at  Oyama to the people of B.C. for a park in memory of his parents. The land is  designated the Campbell-Brown Ecological Reserve and is described elsewhere in this Report.  It is well within the remembrance of many people when the first car of coal  was brought into Summerland. This coming winter, however, indications are  that many car-loads will be consumed locally, both in furnaces and in small  stoves. There seems to be a general shortage of cordwood, and many people  are laying in a stock of coal rather than risk a wood famine when the really  cold weather comes. Both the genuine hard coal, and the soft kind from Merritt and Princeton, are being used locally.  "Glimpses of the Past" - 1916  The Summerland Review 82  MY IRISH FATHER  Margaret A. Ormsby  My father was one of those Anglo-Irishmen whose presence in British  Columbia was so apparent in colonial and pioneer days. Like others in this  group he came from a family that had held land in Ireland since Cromwell's  time. But in his case the family holdings were lost about the time of the Irish  Famine. One estate was alienated to settle one of his grandfather's cardplay-  ing debts; title to two others was lost through treachery. The family moved  from Galway to County Mayo in the 1860's. Thirty years later my father  would make a still greater break with the past when he left Ireland. Canada  with its varied scenery he liked better than the verdant Isle, and the Canadian  people with their open, friendly ways appealed to him more than many of his  countrymen — particularly those whose outlook was warped.  Ballycastle, County Mayo, where George Lewis Ormsby was born on 16  April 1879, is inland from an Irish port. The harbour must have been already  silting up at the time that he was a boy, and after 1890 there probably was little commercial activity. By Canadian standards, the town is small. It is  dominated by a huge Roman Catholic Church. Across the street stands the  Church of Ireland, which is now closed. The population is overwhelmingly  Catholic. My father, who was educated privately, seldom ventured on to the  street after being stoned by Catholic school-boys.  Beautiful strands of red sand lie at the foot of the town, and not far away  is the lovely beach at Killala where the French invaders landed in 1798. I  never once heard my father mention the beauty of either the seascape or the  valley where the ruins of "Ballycastle" lie. All his memories of his childhood  were painful.  He was the only son of George Lynch and Susan Tighe Ormsby. He had  five older sisters, and a younger sister, who was born on Christmas Day, 1881.  When the baby was three weeks old, she was baptized with an old family  name, Margaret Anchoretta. Her mother died almost immediately afterward. A strong bond developed between my father (who was only two and a  half years old at the time of his mother's death) and his infant sister. In the  course of time it would be strengthened when their father took as second wife  the heiress to the lands of Ballycastle. A son born of this marriage was given  the eduation at Winchester School and Trinity College, Dublin, that was  denied my father.  All the children of the first marriage detested their stepmother. "My  stepmother", my father wrote, "hated me and I hated her, her children had  no affection for me (the eldest son); only my father cared for me". The  children were convinced that their stepmother was demented and blamed her  for the death of their youngest sister on 23 December 1896. My grandfather  came to the conclusion that it was necessary to ship his five eldest daughters to  their aunt in Brooklyn, New York. My father struck out for himself. Dressed  in a tailored navy-blue suit, wearing his gold chain and watch, and carrying  his silver seal for his letters, and his silver pen-holder, he ran away to  Scotland. He intended to enlist in the Gordon Highlanders. But he was rejected as being under age. He then boarded a trans-Atlantic liner which had a  cargo of brood-mares and a stallion for a Western Canadian ranch. 83  Later he confessed: "I came to Canada when a boy in my teens, devoid of  education as people should be educated, and also of common-sense; and with  only an insane desire to kick up my heels and have my fling like a colt let  loose. The vast illimitable spaces of this grand Dominion appealed to me and  I revelled in its depths. For eight years I roamed the woods and prairies, sailed  the Great Lakes, prospected for gold, explored the northern wilds, and finally  wound up on the Pacific Coast where I could go no farther".  In August, 1897 George Ormsby, eighteen years old, arrived from Montreal by train at Sudbury, then a village of one hotel, a few shops, and some  boarding houses. At Sault Ste. Marie he was offered a job as the deck hand on  a large sailing vessel being loaded with dynamite for the Hudson's Bay Company's post at Michipocoten River. The voyage proved a great adventure. At  Batchawana Bay he stopped at an encampment of Chippewa and Algonquin  Indians, "finer looking specimens of manhood of any nationality I have never  laid eyes on". At the mouth of Indian Harbour he visited the lighthouse, and  there "experienced the wonderful hospitality of the Canadian people". The  following morning the boat sailed out of the harbour with a fair wind, but an  hour later she was becalmed. "It was then that I saw my one and only mirage.  Ten or fifteen miles to the south appeared a high sandy beach shaded with  Eastern palms. Along this shore sailed a dozen ships with high poops rigged  like Spanish galleons". In actual fact, the southern shore of Lake Superior was  300 miles distant. Soon the boat was engulfed with high seas as a violent electrical storm and a wind of cyclone proportions endangered her. Finally Gros  Cap harbour was made. But throughout the night the high wind continued,  and trees in the hundreds were uprooted. He had been introduced to life in a  rugged country.  At Michipocoten he obtained a job as assistant to a mining engineer and  mineralogist in the employ of the Lake Superior Consolidated Company. He  was now taught how to test mining samples and instructed in mining  methods. He was extraordinarily observant and an eager learner. To his  knowledge of minerals he added observations of trees in the Boreal Forest. He  was entranced with the flaming beauty of the autumn glory, and determined  to be able to identify every tree.  His first winter in Canada (1897) was spent in taking charge of the Company's warehouse at Michipocoten Mission. For the first time he experienced  the bitter cold of a Canadian winter. By dogteam he delivered supplies to  camps where shafts had been sunk. He discerned that profitable gold-mining  depended on the introduction of new methods of extraction, and formed the  opinion that other mineral prospects were more promising. This conjecture  proved true when "a whole Mountain" of iron ore was discovered at Wawa,  eleven miles north of Lake Superior.  Following this discovery the Company decided to send an exploratory expedition north in 1898. Its course was to be down Moose River to James Bay,  and north from there to Albany River. It would mean travelling some 2,000  miles, and spending two or three years in exploration. When navigation on  Lake Superior opened on 27 April 1898, the expedition set out. It comprised  eight employees and two Indian canoemen. The summer was spent in prospecting and surveying, and the following winter in stripping a quartz vein  and sinking test pits. When supplies ran low, my father volunteered to take 84  the dogteam to a distant cache. On the return journey he lost his trail in a  blizzard. An Indian rescued him and carried him to his family to have the  frost-bite healed. In the household was an aged grandfather, estimated to be  at least 100 years old, who claimed that he had fought on the British side at  the battle for Detroit!  In 1899 the party penetrated far north of the C.P.R., ran survey lines,  and located a feasible route for a railroad through the Moose River Valley to  James Bay. By summer's end their arduous life had tired the men. Only 100  miles south of James Bay, they decided to quit. Before they left, their camp  was suddenly encircled by a giant forest fire. They escaped by finding a way to  the river. Even the director of the expedition was now ready to leave the  wilderness. After seven weeks' paddling down the rapid-filled river, the men  reached the C.P.R. line at Missinabie. Instead of taking the train, my father  travelled the rest of the way by canoe. He and the canoeman were swept overboard at Michipocoton Rapids. When they finally reached "the Soo", they  heard of the Klondyke gold discovery and of the Boer War. For the second  time my father attempted to enlist. He was rejected as being physically unfit.  He had now made up his mind to travel west.  A serious attack of diphtheria delayed his departure. He had a long illness and convalescence in the Company hospital. During his recovery he  became friendly with the Company doctor, Dr. Fred A. Young, later a Winnipeg physician, and the Chancellor of the University of Manitoba. He  became Dr. Young's assistant when the epidemic spread. The two young men  celebrated Christmas Day 1899 by taking a trip to Wawa. My father's natural  interest in medicine was stimulated by this friendship, and if he could have afforded it, he would have entered medical school at this time. His recovery was  slow, and his health was permanently undermined. Shortly, he discovered  that he did not have sufficient stamina to work in the harvest fields of the  Northwest.  In the autumn of 1902 he travelled by C.P.R. across the Rockies. His  first stop on the western slope was Golden. There he was introduced to Albert  E. Johnstone, one of three brothers from the Ottawa Valley who were now  engaged in the new logging industry in the north Okanagan. Albert  Johnstone's Mabel Lake camp was supplying logs to S. C. Smith's new sawmill  at Enderby. Logs collected at Sugar Lake were floated down Shuswap River  and over Shuswap Falls to Mabel Lake, rounded into rafts there, and then  floated down the Spallumcheen River to Enderby.  My father's career in lumbering began when he accepted Johnstone's offer of a job as "clerk of the drive". Much of his time was spent in the Enderby  office, but during the spring "drives" he was out on the creeks. In the course  of time he learned a good deal about timber-cruising and became a professional log-sealer. In 1903 the Kamloops Lumber Company, formed by a syndicate headed by George McCormick and George E. Foster, two members of  Parliament, absorbed Smith's mill and expanded operations. In 1906 George  Ormsby was appointed mill manager at Savona.  The friendships he had made reinforced his liking for the north Okanagan. As a very green Irish logger, he had been made welcome at the Johnstone camp at Mabel Lake. Fred and "Fanny" Finlaison had also been  hospitable at their ranch at Shuswap Falls. Fred was often engaged by Euro- 85  pean game-hunters, and my father was included in big-game hunting trips to  the high mountains.  A year before he moved to Savona, George Ormsby saw the most beautiful woman he had ever met. It was in April, 1905. The water in the creeks was  high, and the forest floor was carpeted with wild flowers. On the bridge near  Lumby over Bessette Creek, Fred Finlaison appeared driving a horse and  buggy. He was returning from the Vernon train station with the school  teacher appointed to finish the term in the new one-room school at Shuswap  Falls.  Margaret Turner McArthur, aged nineteen, had just graduated from the  Vancouver Normal School. She was the daughter of Hugh and Catherine  Rowan McArthur, originally from the Highland Scottish settlement at Kincardine, Bruce County, Ontario, but now of Sea Island. Her Rowan uncles  were pioneer Fraser River salmon-cannery owners.  There was a dancing party at Finlaison's on the evening that Mother arrived. With her strict Presbyterian upbringing, she probably had never danced before. Temperance was practised in her home, and drunkenness terrified  her. Thus when the company became boisterous, she fled from the  unwelcome attention of a drunken logger to the arms of the tall Irishman she  had just met. The ensuing romance was to change my father's life. He would  be allowed to indulge his wanderlust just one more time.  In 1906 my mother was teaching at Malakwa, a Finnish settlement near  Sicamous and a comfortable day's train ride from Savona. To impress the  pretty school teacher whom he visited on Sundays, my father turned himself  into a dandy. He had his suits tailored at Kamloops, and ordered no less than  24 pairs of hand-crafted shoes. Crates of oranges were sent to break the  monotony of her steady diet of potatoes, onions and turnips, obtained from  storage in the root-house. Novels by Scott, Thackeray and Dickens were mailed. Finally he was victorious over another ardent suitor. On 2 October 1906  George Lewis Ormsby and Margaret Turner McArthur were married by Rev.  John A. Logan at the picturesque little Presbyterian church on Sea Island.  For eighteen months they lived happily at Savona. They often entertained at dinner friends of my father who were patients at Tranquille Sanatorium  (T.B. was raging in B.C. at the time). Then, without much warning, my  father decided to resign his position and strike out for the north again. Like  other Irish immigrants before him, he was in search of landed property.  In the spring of 1908 my parents set out with a covered wagon and a  Swedish guide for the Nechako Valley through which the Grand Trunk  Pacific Railway was expected to construct its line. For 350 miles they  journeyed along the old Cariboo Road. At Quesnel Mother scrambled along a  mile of the east bank of the Fraser River, lowered herself into an Indian  canoe, and was swept swiftly downstream to the landing place on the opposite  bank. Then, with two saddle ponies and four pack-horses, they began to  follow the Klondyke Trail. They had gone 250 miles when they reached  Cluculz Lake, south of Nechako River. My father purchased 900 acres of  Crown land at that place for $2.50 an acre.  Cluculz Lake was the finest paradise my father had yet seen. The trout-  fishing was excellent; geese, duck and grouse abounded; and deer, moose and  bear were everywhere. Mother felt no such sense of exhilaration. The winter 86  was so bitter that water spilled from a bowl froze into ice before it reached the  cabin's mud floor. Before the expected birth of her child the following June,  she insisted on being taken back to Quesnel where there was a doctor (Dr.  Allen Beach, later of Salmon Arm). When my parents arrived back at  Quesnel they found the only habitation available was the decaying log cabin  at the forks of the Quesnel and Fraser Rivers, the original home of a pioneer  family. The daughter born there was given the name of my father's youngest  sister.  My father hitched two ponies to a buggy to drive his wife and child 400  miles to Ashcroft to catch the train to Vancouver. He then returned to his  property; but his wife refused to join him there. At the height of the B.C. land  boom, its sale yielded a profit of $12,000.  The northern trips had been too strenous for my father, and his health  failed once more. He was advised to move to the Dry Belt, to sleep summer  and winter in a tent, and to bathe in a creek that was ice-covered in winter.  He chose to go to the French Canadian settlement at Lumby which he had  known in his lumbering days. There in December 1912 he opened what the  Vernon News described as "a magnificent store worthy of any city, with a  stock of goods valued at $30,000. A feature of the building is that over the  store is a large hall running the length of the building and seating 500. This  hall (which also contained a dance floor) supplies a long felt want, proof of  which is seen in the fact that it is already well let for the season". Ormsby Hall  was to serve for years as the centre of social activity at Lumby.  At the time my parents went to live in Lumby, the village was on the  verge of a real estate boom. Land deep in the woods, which had been advertised as fruit-bearing in Britain, had been bought by prosperous British settlers at remote locations such as Blue Spring and Creighton Valley. James  Bardolph, the step-son of Sir James Buchanan (of Black and White whiskey  fame), the new owner of the Coldstream Ranch, was engaged with T. A. Norris in selling sections of the Coldstream meadows above Lumby for farms. The  Bardolph and the Catt families had erected fine residences. The automobile  had made its appearance on the dusty road from Vernon, and attendance was  good not only at the dances at the Country Club on Long Lake, but at the  Lavington general store and at Ormsby Hall. To the Lumby dances the "bank  boys" brought the pretty and flirtatious belles of Vernon.  Life remained gay in Lumby throughout 1913, though business was  becoming slack because of the general depression. As late as Easter 1914 my  parents were carefree when they went with young friends on a camping trip to  Mabel Lake. Only three months later, on 12 August my father, who had successfully passed the medical examination given him by the local druggist, put  on the ill-fitting uniform of an army private.  With the outbreak of war, my father joined the 30th Regiment of the  B.C. Horse. Simultaneously, most of his Vernon and Lumby friends joined  up. Many had spent the last two summers in peace in cavalry training at the  Vernon Military Camp, and they were commissioned at once. They offered  the influence of their friends and relatives on his behalf, but he declined  favours. He ordered my mother to sell his fine riding horse "Spanker", dispose  of his merchandise, and close out his business. 87  My mother spent the winter of 1914 at Victoria while my father was in  training at The Willows. She and her two small children crossed the Gulf of  Georgia on the same day early in 1915 that his troopship was escorted to Vancouver by one of Premier McBride's submarines. In Vancouver she learned  that her Irish husband was to be transferred to the 48th Highland regiment,  15th Battalion of Toronto. As part of the First Canadian Contingent, this  regiment was given the briefest possible training at Valcartier in Quebec and  Salisbury Plain in England, and landed at St. Nazaire on 11 February, 1915.  At the Ypres Salient a few weeks later, my father experienced the first  poison gas attack. Though his lungs were already badly damaged, he returned to the trenches to fight in some of the great battles of the war, among them  Festubert, Givenchy, Messines, Sanctuary Wood, and the Somme. For almost  two years he served in the trenches without a break. He had one short leave  and employed it to visit his father's cousin, an eminent surgeon in Dublin.  The Easter Rebellion broke out, and he had to go into hiding. Short leaves  were also spent with English relatives at Huthwaite Hall, Wortley, Yorkshire.  The connection of this family was replete with generals.  My father fought as a machine gunner. Twice his battalion was almost  wiped out. All his commanding offcers were either killed or severely wounded. On 3 June, 1916, he himself was wounded in the hip at Hill 60 and on 26  September at the Somme he received eight severe shrapnel wounds, one of  them through a lung. After three operations and nine months' convalescence  at Birmingham, he was invalided home in June, 1917. Further hospital treatment was given at Braemar, converted into a hospital, Vancouver. Declared  100% disabled and unfit for military service, he was discharged from the army on 20 February, 1918. A man now almost forty years of age, he had three  dependents, no savings (his army pay even in the "front line" was never more  than $1.10 a day); his lungs were badly damaged and his body was filled with  poisoned lead; yet his characteristic optimism led him to believe that the best  of life was before him.  And so it proved to be.  Cars were swishing past on the fine new Okanagan highway, and a provincial  policeman was directing traffic on Wednesday afternoon at Westbank, as Dr.  Margaret Ormsby, president of the B.C. Historical Society evoked the dusty  Okanagan Fur Brigade Trail of long ago. Several hundred people attended to  see the unveiling of the cairn erected at the northside of the village of  Westbank. It has been installed by the Historic Sites and Monument Board of  the Dominion Government.  "Glimpses of the Past" - 1949  The Summerland Review ONE PIONEER  by Harvey L. Mitchell  Alanson Martin Mitchell was one of twin boys, born March 6, 1866 in  Marion County, Oregon, U.S.A. His parents, William and Martha, had  driven over the Oregon Trail from Indiana a few years earlier.  When Alanson, or Lance as he was known to his relatives, was in college,  training to become a mechanical engineer, it was necessary for him to have  surgery for a bowel problem. This ended his education but it gave him a  lifelong appetite for apples. He was told to include plenty of roughage in his  diet, hence his habit of eating four to seven apples a day during the last eighteen years of his life in Summerland, B.C.  After being forced to leave college he became a saddle bum and travelled  alone over most of Oregon and Washington and often mentioned Colville  Valley as being a wonderful place to farm. He finally married Lucina Smith  at Hartline, Washington and started a homestead twelve miles out of Hartline  about 1890. He later sold the homestead for $1700 and bought a young apple  orchard in the Grand Coulee southeast of Steamboat Rock. Picnic tables now  stand beside the highway where the farm buildings stood.  Lance's main income in the early years was from the sale of venison to  hotels in Spokane. At daylight he would lie in wait near the top of the only  trail leading to Steamboat Rock and shoot his wagon-load of deer.  His first son, my father, Lawrence Lyman Mitchell, was born on January  12, 1892. My father recalls taking a trip into Canada with his father about  1898. They shot a wagon-load of deer on Fairview Flats west of the present  town of Oliver, B.C. They gave the deer to other hungry settlers on their way  home to the Grand Coulee.  My grandfather knew the Okanagan Valley well as he and his friend,  Frank Morris, wintered their cattle in the Osoyoos area for many years. In  April, 1896 late snow and cold killed most of their herd.  He was conversant with the Indians; he trusted them and they returned  his trust. These Indians, he told me, were of the Spokane tribe who had chased the Okanagan Indians into the north Okanagan. The Okanagans in turn  chased the Shuswap Indians north from their home and all this happened because the white man settled in the Northwest states and depleted the game.  Good camping spots were used by everyone passing through the  Okanagan Valley and one of these was just below the Okanagan Falls on the  east side of the river. My grandfather camped there on two occasions with Joe  Brent who had the contract to carry mail by horseback from Kelowna to the  Osoyoos-Oroville border crossing.  Another such campsite was near the mouth of Garnet Valley in Summerland. When I first saw it, it was the site of a cement apple storage building  on property owned by Isaac Blair. The snow could get very deep on Siwash  Flats, (Summerland townsite) enough to stop a horse. Pack trains of gold ore  travelled the valley and the richest sample grandfather ever saw was on the  trail over the Garnet Valley divide. He never did find where it had originated.  In the year 1904 my grandparents were divorced. My grandfather left the  U.S.A. to live in Canada, taking Lawrence with him. They finally settled on  the banks of Little Red Deer River, twenty miles west of Olds, Alberta near 89  Westward Ho Post Office. There, after a few years, my grandfather married a  widow, Mrs. Alice Watson.  After the First World War the family sold and came to Summerland in  1920. Here he bought an orchard in a small valley west of town which the  pioneers named "Shoestring Gulch." The ridge to the east was named "Billy  Goat Hill". At its top was the large home where Major Hutton lived.  My grandfather lived until 1928 and is buried beside his wife Alice in  Peach Orchard Cementery. Summerland was his favourite place.  X  -. "v.  Penticton Indian Mission Church  R. S. Manuel 90  THE OLIVER AND EILEEN JACKSON COLLECTION  by Sheila Jackson  Pop was born with the ability to create as is evident from the wealth of  artifacts he has left us.  Oliver Jackson was born at Cley-Next-The-Sea, in Norfolk, England on  September 23rd, 1899. His education was brief. Times were hard and he  earned only pennies herding sheep as a young lad. He was one of eleven  children, nine boys and two girls. His mother taught each one of them to knit,  sew and embroider.  Perhaps it was Captain F. S. Brereton's books on the west that fostered  his interests in the native Indian culture. Whatever the influence, at the age  of eight he made his first Indian costume. Even the fringe from the living  room curtains was put into use for this outfit, and no doubt his mother's  hands were put to work in this direction.  While herding sheep in the fens, he learned to fill in his time whittling  wood. He continued to do this in Germany and Belgium during World War I  when there was leisure time.  He came to Canada in 1920 and spent most of that year in Saskatchewan  working for a man named Jackson. He arrived in Kelowna late in 1920.*  He cowboyed at the Christian Ranch for Countess Bubna. He also worked at the cannery and on the Price Ellison Ranch before taking out soldiers'  settlement land which he unfortunately lost due to hard times.  The cowboy and indian theme is evident in his work even then. He  created beaded buckskin costumes and even made a teepee which he shared  during his bachelor days with his very good friend Jack Johnson. Judging from  the photographs, they must have had a great time.  In 1928, Pop married Eileen Claxton who had come from Ireland on July  1, 1922. Their first child, John, was born in 1929. While he was still a wee infant, Mom and Pop decided to relocate in the Cinema-Hixton area. They  travelled by covered wagon. On arriving at Hixton, they found the mosquitos  unbearable, the cabin rat-infested, and the soil useless. They decided to trade  the covered wagon for a Model T Ford and headed back to the Okanagan.  Arriving back in Kelowna, they bought land in the Rutland area, where  they raised a small flock of sheep and worked at the K.G.E. Packing House.  Our Rutland home still stands today, although several changes have been  made to it. Two more children, my sister Barbara and I, were born.  The depression was in full swing by then and Pop once again felt the  need to create with what was available. A spinning wheel was made from old  flume lumber. After using wool from an old quilt in an effort to spin, Dad accepted the suggestion of Mrs. Alistair Cameron that they use raw sheep wool.  Soon they were in business knitting sweaters. A loom was the next creation.  Then the spun wool was dyed and woven into blankets and fabric.  Dad joined the army during the Second World War. The farm was sold,  and Mom took us to live with her father, John Claxton, on Fitzgerald Road.  Mom helped on the farm while Pop's army travel took him to Vernon, Vancouver, Montreal, Bella Coola and Kleena Kleene, where communication  lines were installed. Mom kept the spinning wheel turning and the needles  clicking as she spun and knitted socks for the minesweepers. The mitts could  be wet, wrung out and still provide warmth for the sailors' hands. 91  After the war, Mom and Pop purchased the old Hall farm on Hall Road.  Hall had been a stage coach driver between Kelowna and Vernon and had  cleared the land. A landmark for over thirty years was the osprey's nest in a  stately old dead tree on the property. We all worked at getting the farm going, and times were still hard. In working the land, Indian arrowheads began  to surface. As Pop had never lost his interest in the Indian culture, these arrowheads only increased his desire to learn more about those who had made  them.  Spinning wool also continued along with the knitting of Indian sweaters  which were in great demand. Mom had the unique system of knitting the  sweaters in one piece. Even the arm was grafted in and knit from the shoulder  to the cuff so there were no seams. There was a great demand for her  sweaters, and there was little idle time left when the farm work was done.  Dad again tried painting in oils and watercolour as well as carving in  soapstone and wood. Whether it was an animal, a bird or a person, he was  able to capture the motion of his subject.  More Indian costumes were made over the years, and these were always  in great demand for Regattas, Riding Club Pageants, Lady of the Lake  Pageants and Parades. Sometimes it was a great scramble to provide outfits  for fifty or so riders. Dad often road as a chieftain in the parade. His cavalry  training in the 11th Hussars during World War I was very evident in his bearing. Many enjoyable hours were spent by Mom and Dad at these events.  In 1955, John became ill and passed away in August of 1956. Shortly  after this, Mom and Dad made a trip back to Ireland to see many of Mom's  relatives. They also went to England where Mom met the eight surviving  members of Dad's family with whom she had been corresponding since 1928.  Oliver Jackson 1930s  fackson Collection Interior Photo Bank 92  Oliver and Eileen Jackson 1970's  Credit: fackson Family Collection Interior Photo Bank  On their return home, the desire to continue farming was beginning to  wain. The land was eventually rented out. The machinery was sold and the  old implement shed was converted into a museum, thus unloading the house  which was by this time bursting at the seams. Soon an addition to the museum  was needed to accommodate Pop's new creations.  The museum, though unpretentious, was always an amazement to those  who ventured inside. People from all parts of the world and school children  from all over British Columbia visited the museum. Dad's costumes found  their way to different parts of the world. Mom and Dad enjoyed entertaining  their interesting guests, rousing the wonder of the school children, and being  able to work with the Indian people.  Mom began to suffer from Parkinson's disease and, in 1978, the year of  their 50th wedding anniversary, Mom became a resident of Still Waters Nursing Home. It was a very hard time for Pop, but his many hobbies helped him  to fill the lonely hours. He passed away on October 18, 1982 at the age of 83.  Up until the night before entering the hospital, he had been doing bead work.  Now Barbara and I are left with a vast collection of carvings, paintings,  beaded Indian costumes, and original artifacts. We hope to see this collection  housed in a suitable building where it will be preserved and displayed for the  enjoyment of the people of Kelowna and visitors to the area.  Unfortunately the central figures, Eileen and Oliver, will be missing. We  sometimes think that they were the main attraction! 93  CAPTAIN ROBINSON RIDLEY  by Janet E. V. Graham  When Eileen Heather Ridley (now Mrs. VanParks living in California)  visited Kelowna in October 1982, after an absence of some sixty-five years, she  was wishing to find her birthplace in East Kelowna. Happily I was invited to  the home of friends to meet her. Learning of her quest, I was able to share  with her early memories of our district known then as the KLO Benches.  My family, the Moodies, first lived here from 1910 until August 1914,  when World War I changed the way of life for so many of us.  This area of East Kelowna was best known as the KLO Benches because  it had been developed by the Kelowna Land and Orchard Company. The  very large KLO Orchard, in all its glory and in its prime, was the centre of activity. The large house for the Manager had its own lodge at its gates. In 1910  the E. M. Carruthers family were resident there. I have a picture of the three  Moodie and the three eldest Carruthers children sitting on the bunch grass  under the pine trees. Later, Captain Brush and his family resided in the KLO  House.  Many of the orchards on the Benches were owned by young British  emigrants, who, in August 1914, on the outbreak of war in Europe, took off  like a flock of birds to their homeland to take part in its defence.  In those days the KLO grade (the mile-long up-hill gully road) between  the old red wooden bridge over Mission Creek and East Kelowna was in spring  and summer a sea of clay mud. Where the East Kelowna Community Hall  stands today there was an impressive store, with living quarters above, known  as Captain Ridley's store. There is an excellent enlargement of a photo of this  building amongst the many historical enlargements displayed in the KLO  General Store, now owned by Charles and Joan dePfyffer. Eileen Ridley saw  this photo, and through the kindness of Brian Wilson at the Kelowna Centennial Museum, she is delighted to have been given a copy of this picture of her  birthplace. Seeing her Mother with a babe in her arms on the upstairs verandah, she wondered if that baby might be herself! Eileen took pictures of Black  Mountain, with orchards in the foreground, the view very much as her  parents would have know it.  I remember the kindly Captain Ridley, who gave my little brother  Campbell, a box of chocolates for his fourth birthday in 1910. Because the  box itself was a bright "Paddy green" in color, my brother decided to give it to  his Irish Mother for Christmas and he carefully hid it away until then. Recalling those days, Jeanetta Reekie remembers that Captain Ridley loved children  and it was his habit to hand out treats from "under the counter" to his little  friends. I have no recollection of knowing that there was a young Ridley family in the dwelling space above the store.  I asked Eileen VanParks to give me her Father's story in writing, so that I  might record it correctly for our Archives. And here it is:  "My father, Captain Robinson Ridley, was born in Devon in 1862, and  went to sea in 1877 as a cabin boy on the old sailing ships. He worked his way  up to become 'Extra Master' with the Leland-Cunard Lines, and was in command of the largest ship in existence, sailing between Liverpool and Boston.  At age forty-five, probably having become enchanted with the glowing stories  published in London (in the early years of the 1900's) on the great oppor- 94  Captain R. Ridley Store, East Kelowna  Credit: Held byf. E. Graham Collection Kelowna Branch O.H.S.  tunities in Kelowna, he quit the sea and put all his savings into a farm and orchards in East Kelowna. Not having any farming experience, he was easily  persuaded by a remittance man from London to take him in as a partner and  let him run the ranch. A short time later, he met and married my mother,  Hilda Heather, who with her brother, Freddie Heather, had come out to stay  with a cousin."  Eileen told me that her Mother's wedding gown had been made in  England and sent out to her; and that the wedding had been a memorable  one. Then followed a honeymoon on Okanagan Lake. The idea of a honeymoon on a pristine lake must have been especially appealing to a man who  loved boats and sailing. Another couple followed the same pattern in those  early years, camping nightly on the lakeshore as they circumnavigated the  lake in a small boat.  To continue: "When they left on their honeymoon on Lake Okanagan,  my father gave his partner power-of-attorney to keep the ranch operating  while they were gone. When they returned to Kelowna from their honeymoon, a terrible shock awaited them; the remittance man had drawn out all  their savings, sold the ranch, let the cattle die from lack of food and water  and absconded. They had to go and live in a tent, and the Captain had to do  menial labor to keep them in food. He was fortunately able to get money from  relatives in England and built a store, which was located on the spot where the  East Kelowna Community Hall is today. They had a Post Office in the Store  and my Father drove the mail route. The family of four children lived over  the Store and this is where I was born in 1914."  Yes, the outbreak of war changed many things. Captain Ridley found his  opportunity to return to the world of ships at the Coast, where, doubtless, he  had much to contribute. Later the Ridley family moved to California. In  time, Captain Ridley had the pleasure of going to sea again, this time on the  Pacific, as the guest of one of his sons who had followed in his Father's  footsteps.  Captain Ridley lived a full life of seventy-nine years, and Hilda Heather  Ridley reached the age of eighty-seven years, blessed with their family within  reach. 95  CHARLES AND ADA McCARTHY  by E. Mason  The old McCarthy house between Richter and Bertram has been demolished. To those of us who knew and loved the old home it was a sad day to  see it succumb to the wrecking gang.  Charles McCarthy and his brother Sandy came from a seaport town,  Skibereen, County Cork, in southern Ireland. They landed in New York,  worked their way to Canada and arrived in Winnipeg in 1882. They both got  work, one with a team of horses and the other with a team of oxen. They  worked on the right of way for the C.P.R. They followed this line of work until the railroad arrived in Maple Creek.  They both decided to homestead in the area south of Piapot and secured  properties about one mile apart on Bear Creek. In the early days almost  everyone located on or near a creek which would assure him of a water supply.  Charles McCarthy's place was in a beautiful fertile valley. He soon established himself as a rancher and progressively built up herds of cattle and  horses. Horses were needed by the settlers being brought in by the C.P.R.  Charles specialized in pure bred Clydesdale stock.  Ranching was lonely business, so before long Charles and Sandy married  Ada and Laura Bertram. The Bertram family had just arrived in Maple  Creek. The father, who was a captain in the army, had just returned from the  Boer War and was in charge of the detachment at Maple Creek.  Charles and his bride moved to the ranch and lived in a log cabin with a  thatched roof. Eventually, in 1904, they built a large house. The couple had  four children, two boys and two girls.  Because the McCarthys lived twelve miles from the nearest school, a  governess was always on hand. This was fine until the children started to grow  up and then Charles decided to sell out and move to an area with a warmer  climate and where the children could get a good education.  This decision was made in 1917. At that time the Army was buying all  the horses they could get, both heavy draft (Clydesdale) and riding horses for  the cavalry. All the horses were sold, also the ranch, and the decision was  made to settle in Kelowna.  They purchased the Rembler Paul Estate, which comprised eight acres  fronting on Bernard Avenue and Richter Street. There was a large house facing on Bernard, set well back from the street. There were also two houses facing on Richter, a large barn and chicken houses. One of the conditions of the  purchase was that the gardener for the Estate was to have one of the smaller  houses for as long as he lived. He was a grand old man who really worked hard  to keep the grounds beautiful.  Kelowna was a small town in those days. The McCarthys were very active  in the Church and were founding members when the Methodists and  Presbyterians amalgamated to form the United Church. Mr. McCarthy also  served on the School Board.  Coming from Saskatchewan, the children did not know how to swim so a  membership was secured in the Aquatic Club. Every morning, except Sunday, Charles would take the children to the Club, where they soon learned to  swim and dive.  Things went well until the mid twenties. Because people who had bought 96  the ranch on the prairies were having some tough times, they had not made  any payments on the place. The father had died and none of his five sons were  interested in the farm. When they gave up the place in 1926, Mr. McCarthy  and the eldest son Bartlett went back and took over. Other investments also  turned sour. In order to pay the taxes, the estate in Kelowna was sub-divided.  One piece of property was given to the Scouts and a Scout Hall was built.  This became the centre of activity for the Scouts and for basketball. Several  other lots were sold and, after Mr. McCarthy's death, the big house was turned into a boarding house and a home away from home for many young ladies  and men. In 1940, Mrs. McCarthy sold out and moved to one of the smaller  houses.  After his retirement from the Army, Mrs. McCarthy's father, Captain  Bertram moved to Kelowna. The City honored him by naming Bertram  Street after him.  Two members of the family, Grace Mason and Bartlett McCarthy are  now deceased. Howard McCarthy is now retired in Calgary and Florence  Disney is retired in Surrey.  JAMES EDWIN PHINNEY  A SUMMERLAND AND PENTICTON PIONEER  (From an account written by his son, the late J. R. (Bob) Phinney)  My father, James Edwin Phinney, was born in Newcastle, N.B., on June  11, 1861. At an early age he moved with his family to Sackville. At the age of  19 he went to work for J. L. Black and Company, General Merchants, whose  business consisted of supplying every commodity required in the district.  There he remained for 27 years to become general manager of the company.  In 1881, April 27, he married Annie A. Embree from Amherst, N.S.  In the early 1900's J. M. Robinson was promoting Peachland, Summerland and Naramata. As a master salesman and promoter, his glowing  remarks about the Okanagan sold my father on the idea of coming west. This  was a big undertaking and a hard decision to make. His immediate family  consisted of ten children, five boys and five girls, as well as his father and stepmother, and he would be going to an unknown land. However, he would be  accepting a position as general manager of the Summerland Supply Company  which he was well qualified to fill.  In April, 1907, my father and one of my brothers, Norman, left Sackville  for Summerland. They arrived by train at Sicamous, continued down to  Okanagan Landing by rail and then travelled on the S.S. Okanagan to Summerland.  In September his family joined him in Summerland. Besides his wife and  children and his father and step-mother, the group included his brother,  Charlie with his wife and year-old son, and Fred Borton with his wife and  young son. The group travelled by private day coach. Their household effects, including a rubber-tyred buggy, a Jersey cow, chickens and lumber to  finish a house my father was building followed in a box-car. The house still  stands on Lipsett Crescent in Summerland. The property bordered the steep  sidehill of Peach Orchard Gulch and the Jersey which had to be tethered, 97  grazed too near the edge. The unfortunate beast was found one morning  hanging by her neck over the cliff and quite beyond human help.  In 1907, the townsite of West Summerland, formerly called "Parkdale"  by James Ritchie, had been sub-divided. The first building erected was a  branch of the Summerland Supply Company and it was this store that my  father came to manage.  In 1915, he went into business for himself, but sold out in 1919 and moved to Penticton to manage a grocery store for J. H. McWaters. This store was  later sold to Thomas Syer and in turn operated by his son, Marvin.  Finished with merchandising, my father went to work for the Kettle  Valley Railway in 1920 as a ticket clerk under J. H. Kirkpatrick who was the  K.V.R. agent at that time. In 1926, my father retired from the railroad. Too  active to call it quits, in 1927, he went into the auctioneering and secondhand furniture business on Front Street in Penticton. His place was known as  "J. E. Phinney: The Auctioneer and The Better Quality Store".  It was live entertainment to attend the auction sales of this active little  gnat of a man for he was a fluent and quick-witted talker. His descriptions of  some of his merchandise made many a female buyer blush. Townspeople  always knew when an auction sale was being held for waving proudly in front  of "The Better Quality Store" was a big Red Ensign. When news that "War is  Over'" broke on V. J. Day, out came father with his flag to join the parade of  joyful citizens on Main Street.  My father loved sports. He was an ardent curler in his younger days, a  fine skater, an enthusiastic supporter of the Penticton Baseball Club and the  local basketball team. In those days most games were played on Sundays and  no admission could be charged. However, "Dad" Phinney was the chief collector at the gate and no one escaped his quick eye and his collection box.  One Sunday when a prominent businessman was first to arrive for the game  J. E. Phinney in 1914 Ford, with his son, J. R. "Bob" Phinney  Courtesy R. N. Atkinson Museum 98  ,r«V^'  <fr«^  Penticton, V-J Day, August 14, 1945. Left: Post Office, Bank of Commerce, corner Main Street  and Nanaimo Avenue. James Edwin Phinney with Red Ensign. Drummers unknown.  with a full carload of friends, father's keen ear detected that the sole coin  dropped in his box sounded very light. Upon investigation he found one  nickel. He strode across the entire length of the field to return it to the embarrassed donor saying, "My good man, you must need this more than the Ball  Club."  Although father was a staunch supporter of the Baptist Church which he  attended regularly, he was intolerant of ministers whose sermons grew  lengthy. At such times one could hear my father's pocket watch being opened  and closed frequently with a loud click, accompanied by impatient mutter-  ings. He was also a teetotaller. On one occasion an elder son returned home  for a visit and took his brother (me) "out on the town". We arrived home  rather late to be confronted by an irate, pyjama-clad father and the following  admonitions: "You two guys are a heck of a pair! Last night you didn't get  home till this morning and if you are going to stay here you had better get  out!" — notwithstanding that we were fully grown men.  In April, 1941 father and mother celebrated their sixtieth wedding anniversary. Their complete family of five girls, five boys and all their grandchildren celebrated the occasion. My mother died on January 23, 1942 at the  age of eighty.  James E. Phinney was a member of the I.O.O.F., Lodge No. 58, Summerland and in June, 1910 was appointed District Deputy Grand Master of  District No. 31.  In 1942, at the age of 81, my father sold his business on Front Street and  retired. He continued as a well-known figure on the streets, talking and  whistling at anybody and everybody until he died on December 18, 1957. 99  JAPANESE CANADIAN POET AND FARMER  MR. DENBEI KOBAYASHI  by Reverend Nakayama, Toronto, Ontario  Denbei Kobayashi was not only a leader of the Japanese community at  Okanagan Centre, but also of those who love the "Haiku" (Japanese poems).  He was a poet, teacher, farmer and a gentleman who lived in a small Japanese  community at Okanagan Centre.  Mr. Kobayashi and his wife, Hiro, were the leaders of this community.  Both were respected and loved. Their home was situated on a farm overlooking Okanagan Lake and had a lovely view. They received visitors with kind  hospitality and their house was also used as a community meeting place.  Mr. Kobayashi taught many to write "Haiku" poems and through such  cultural activities diverted them away from gambling which was rampant in  those days.  Denbei Kobayashi was born in 1878, the second son of Tonezo and Kin  Kobayashi in Nishimura, Chiisagata gun, Nagano-Ken, Japan. After graduating from the intermediate school of the village at age eleven, he helped to  care for younger children. Later, when he was old enough, he worked at a silk  factory and travelled all over Japan selling silk worm eggs. He also worked at a  gold mine in Hokkaido and finally in 1906 set sail on a CP. steamship for  Canada, landing in Vancouver, B.C. He wanted to go to the United States  but, finding that if he went fishing on the Skeena River he could make at least  one thousand dollars in two months, he went fishing. He worked very hard,  but as his partner gambled and drank away both their shares, Mr. Kobayashi  had nothing to show for his efforts. Back in Vancouver he joined a C.P.R.  work gang. The leaders of the group were Messers. Koshiro Hamaro and  Yoshitsugo Ono. The work gang was sent to the C.P.R. Okanagan branch  line. After working at Enderby, they were moved to the mainline at Sicamous.  There they were engaged in blasting rocks for the new railway. This work was.  very dangerous and physically tiring.  When winter arrived, they could not work, so they spent that winter in a  box car at Notch Hill Siding. They suffered extreme discomfort as the temperature went down to nearly forty degrees below zero, and the box car was  not built for such weather conditions. In the spring of 1907, the work gang  moved back to the Okanagan branch line near Vernon after they finished  blasting rocks.  One day they visited a big orchard at Coldstream which employed a  group of Japanese workers. The boss at this camp was Mr. Eijiro Koyama.  Mr. Denbei Kobayashi and his friend Mr. Osuke Takizawa were hired by the  Coldstream Ranch at a wage of one dollar and forty cents a day for ten hours  of work. The Coldstream orchard employed more than forty Japanese and  many were people from his native prefecture of Nagano. Heiji Yamazaki,  Takataro Tada, Sugitaro Sugiyama, Shimanosuke Kakegawa, Shumpei  Totoki, Kenichi Koniatsu, and others joined this group. Denbei Kobayashi  learned how to care for the young fruit trees, including grafting and pruning  procedures.  As the winter approached, most of the newcomers left the orchard,  because there was no work for them.  In July, 1907, the Honourable Chonosuke Yada, the Consul of Japan in 100  Mr. and Mrs. Denbei Kobayashi  Vancouver, visited the Japanese immigrants in the Okanagan area. As he  came to the Coldstream Ranch earlier than expected, the people of the camp  did not have enough time to prepare for a proper welcome. They asked the  camp cook to make something special, so he baked a sponge cake in a great  hurry. When the cake was brought in, they discovered many black spots in it.  Mr. Kobayashi found that these were black ants which were in the flour. He  apologized to the Japanese Consul, but the Consul smiled and said, "It's all  right, this cake is delicious and I was told that if you eat ants you get  strength." Mr. Kobayashi remembered this incident that had happened sixty  years before.  Mr. Kobayashi was naturalized as a Canadian citizen in April, 1908,  and, after two years in the Coldstream orchards, he was employed in another  orchard at Oyama, a village named after the Japanese General who was renowned as a great hero of the Sino-Japanese War. After working in Oyama,  he moved to Okanagan Centre and built fences for the big OK Valley Ranch.  A worker for this project could earn two dollars and fifty cents per day, while  many were unemployed due to the depression. Even some of those who were  lucky enough to have jobs were being paid only a dollar a day.  In 1913, Mr. Kobayashi went to Japan and was engaged to Miss Hiro  Yanagisawa. They married on February 5, 1914, and the newly married couple left Japan on March 17, 1914. Tired after travelling by ship, train, boat  and on foot, they finally came to Okanagan Centre. A reception party was  held the following day with Mr. Fukumoto, the camp members from the  Rainbow Ranch and others. After the reception, Mrs. Kobayashi had to start 101  -fir ^ -*& ^t^ *-°'f-x ^ * ^ *4,  v /^u>^ sj^ap^1 '7??y <*^ ^>*  ^4^  $k(tf $(&*%■ ±%L%f '£?,  ><7 i      a- J       //too ?f' A?-/»-7{-rrf=*e3t~M"»  work as the cook of the O.K. Valley Land Co. She must have found this job  very difficult.  Interested in Japanese plants, Mr. Kobayashi brought early cherry blossom trees (higan sakura), Japanese peonies (botan), persimmons (kaki), bamboo butter burrs, coltsfoot (fuki) and Japanese asparagus (udo) to Canada  from Japan. Due to the severe winter conditions, all plants died except the 102  cherry, fuki and udo. The early cherry blossom trees reproduced and he sent  plants to many parts of Canada, where today they are admired each spring in  parks or along boulevards.  The fruit trees which six Japanese workers planted under the supervision  of Denbei Kobayashi at Okanagan Centre grew into trees which are still bearing fruit.  During the early years of their marriage, the Kobayashis were blessed  with a son and a daughter. They faced difficulty in raising their children in  the crowded camp, so they bought and moved onto a ten acre farm at Okanagan Centre in the summer of 1914. When the First World War started and  his neighbour, a white man, Mr. Cyril Wentworth, enlisted, Mr. Kobayashi  looked after his neighbour's twelve acre orchard. When the war ended, his  neighbour returned and found the orchard in good order.  By 1921, many Japanese moved into the Okanagan Centre area, so they  needed to start an organization. And thus in the same year, an association  called 'Koyukai' (Friends and Fellowship Association) was formed. The first  director and officers were Mr. Eirjiro Koyama, president; Mr. Kakujiro  Koide, secretary; Mr. Denbei Kobayashi, chairman; and six others as directors. At the annual meeting in 1922, Mr. Denbei Kobayashi was elected the  president and he held this office for thirteen years. While he was the president, the organization published a monthly bulletin called "Taiko No Kishi"  (Shores of the Great Lake), and during this time he and nine other Haiku enthusiasts established another association called the "Aoba". In 1962 "Aoba"  celebrated its fortieth anniversary by publishing a book of Haiku poems.  In 1924 the Kobayashis bought their neighbour's orchard for $15,000  and settled down to bringing up their family in Okanagan Centre. Mr.  Kobayashi sponsored many workers from Japan who helped him work the orchard. The Kobayashis were blessed with three sons and four daughters and  were doing very well with their business.  Unfortunately Mrs. Kobayashi suddenly became ill with a stroke and was  bedridden for six long years. She was cheerful in spite of her illness, and her  husband did his very best to care for her. Mrs. Kobayashi had another stroke  in May, 1960, and passed away peacefully on July 18, 1960.  Mr. Kobayashi retired from farming in 1961, and transferred ten acres  of his property to his second son, Hiroshi, and twelve acres to Sakuji and  Sachio Koyama, his son-in-law and daughter respectively. He visited Japan in  1961, 1963 and 1967. He published his autobiography and a collection of his  Haiku poems in 1963.  Mr. Denbei Kobayashi passed away peacefully on January 4, 1968 at the  age of eighty-nine.  His contributions as a leader of his community and teacher of Haiku will  not be forgotten by his many friends and followers.  Editor's Note: The Haiku is sometimes defined in English as a  17-syllable poem written in three lines of 5, 7 and 5 syllables. This  prosody is only approximate but, perhaps, as close as we can come  given the structural differences between the Japanese language and  English. There are other conventions such as implying the season.  However, the principal objective is to record and recreate the emotional high of the poetic experience. In other words, the brief poem 103  must be the very essence of what, in English, might be a much longer  poem. The Haiku may be, according to H. G. Henderson in his Introduction to Haiku, "grave or gay, deep or shallow, religious,  satirical, sad, humorous, or charming."  The origins of the Haiku are lost in antiquity. By the seventeenth  century, when the master Basho was writing, the form was well  established. Haiku writing remains an important cultural activity.  Because of the poem's brevity, allusion and symbolism are important  in conveying thought and feeling. These do not always come across in  translation.  Below are a few of Denbei Kobayshi's Haiku translated by Rev. S. S.  Osterhaul M.A., Ph.D., D.D., Superintendent of Oriental Missions  West of the Great Lakes.  ' JH £ }■ £, fa V * 3 *£. **/$£_  -K^, t^, --c '£ - ?? ur<~-~^ 5  "Increasing glory and peaceful light now shine in the Garden of God as the  Yamato cherry bursts into bloom."  (The Yamato cherry being emblematic of the spirit of aspiration)  '■fa *% <* % fSfe^t-f £,•%#&,  "After the bitterness of frost and snow, plum blossoms now scatter fragrance.'  (Plum blossoms signifying purity of desire)  Effective July 15 the "rule of the road" in the B.C. Interior will be changed to  conform with that of the provinces to the east and the states to the south.  District No. 1 Vancouver and Vancouver Island will change December 21st,  1921.  "Glimpses of the Past" - 1920  The Summerland Review 104  ROBERT JOHNSTONE McDOUGALL  by G. J. Rowland  When R. J. (Bob) McDougall retired as the publisher of the Penticton  Herald he was tendered a banquet by the Board of Trade. He had acquired  the newspaper in 1914 and had made it known throughout the nation,  notably in the winning of the Mason Trophy — a sort of blue ribbon bestowed  by journalists, a recognition of excellence in the weekly field. He left the  Herald on a sound basis and the newspaper was awarded the Mason Trophy  later under a different publisher. The groundwork had been well laid.  It was now in the early spring of 1940 when the Board of Trade offered a  testimonial salute at its banquet. As read by H. T. Griffiths, then secretary of  the Board, this presentation went beyond comment on Mr. McDougall's  quarter of a century direction of the Herald. It offered the claim that he  could have had "any gift the nation might yield" had he sought it.  The implication was that Mr. McDougall should have been in politics.  And indeed there was much to underscore this feeling, for he was a splendid  public speaker, as he occasionally but not pretentiously demonstrated over  the years. A strong pleasing voice coupled with a logical reasonableness and a  persuasive turn of mind made him a formidable presence on any platform.  But, as it turned out, he confined "politics" to the municipal sphere.  After retiring from the newspaper, he served as Reeve of the district  municipality in 1941 - 42 and again in 1945. There were the difficulties of the  war years (during which he lost his elder son Roy). Flooding (or its continuing  threat) was only one among many complexities. Dear to Reeve McDougall's  heart was his scheme to divert Ellis Creek. But, despite his presumably persuasive powers, he never succeeded in getting the project past the voters.  Apart from council matters, over the years he served on a great number  of bodies. Indeed, when the Penticton branch of this Okanagan Historical  Society was formed in 1945, he was the secretary.  He had begun his newspaper work in Winnipeg. Later he joined the  Vancouver Province where he became the legislature correspondent, city  editor, and news editor, before confining himself to the Herald of which he  had meanwhile secured ownership.  Born on the prairies he grew up from infancy in Peachland and always  loved the area. Old timers still are disposed to suggest that he bagged every  deer before leaving the highlands thereabouts. He loved fly-fishing and  returned often to the lakes of the same area. Some of his oldest and best  friends were those cronies who shared a penny-ante game of poker with him in  a small cabin at the end of a day's search for a few trout.  His zest for fishing may have been best demonstrated when he suffered a  stroke on one such lake expedition high in the mountains. He found that he  could not use one arm at all. But the "rise" was on and the trout catch prospects splendid. He continued to cast with the arm that wasn't paralyzed. But  he didn't do too well, he later admitted to companions. It was the bother of  also trying to manipulate the oars in the boat, all alone, with that one surviving good arm. Somehow, this remains a measure of the man.  He had a long convalescence, and it was indeed this that motivated him  to sell the Herald. In time he enjoyed a complete recovery. These were the  years of his municipal service, after which he moved to Vancouver where he 105  died in his ninety-fourth year on October 4, 1982.  He was predeceased by the companions of two marriages and by his flyer  son, Roy, in the air force. Surviving are his son Glenn, of Vancouver, and his  daughters: Mrs. Mildred Putnam of Seattle; Mrs. Edna Lawrence of Vancouver; and Mrs. Jean Davis of Kaleden.  HERALDS OF SPRING  When Winter grips the valley fast,  And thoughts of spring like fly are cast,  I think of days that do foretell,  The sunlit days in glade and dell.  Yellow sunflowers upon a hill,  A squirrel's chatter loud and shrill,  A pheasant strutting through the grass,  Preening and posturing to all who pass.  A scent of wood smoke in the air,  A mountain track now almost bare,  A flight of geese in a cloudless sky,  The fleeting glimpse of a snowdrop shy.  An old folks' garden with tulips gay,  The breath-taking beauty of a flowering May,  The laughter of children in the sun,  The gossamer thread of a cobweb spun.  An altar decked with Easter flowers,  A radiant bride — cool April showers,  The hoot of an owl in the silent night,  A cherry tree all dressed in white.  The purr of a mower shearing a lawn,  First light of the sun and promise of morn,  The gurgle of water in the gorge below,  The startled gaze of a frightened doe.  Pink and white blossoms — a billowing sea,  The insatiable quest of a honey bee,  A graceful yacht with foaming wake,  A rainbow mirrored in a lake.  May we hold in trust for others to see,  This wonderous beauty and wild life free,  The good clean air and the fertile earth,  For these are the things of priceless worth.  Ivan E. Phillips, Box 773, Summerland, B.C., Canada 106  JAMES HARPER MITCHELL  by F. Carleton MacNaughton  As I review the life of the late J. H. Mitchell, I find that his life has a  natural breakdown into four parts: his community and social life, his military  career, his scouting career, and his judicial life. Other than my own family,  Mr. Mitchell was my closest friend, and we spent countless campfires together  during our scouting careers.  He had four definite titles, all fully earned and richly deserved. Mr. J. H.  Mitchell, Oliver's Good Citizen for 1953; Captain J. H. Mitchell, C. O.  B.CD.'s "C" Squadron (Resv); Regional Commissioner J. H. Mitchell, Boy  Scout Association; and Judge J. H. Mitchell of British Columbia. However,  because of our close association, I will make this biography simple and refer  to him throughout as "Jim", for this was how so many of us knew him.  Jim was born at Bridgend, Wales, on May 11, 1896, first son of Mr. and  Mrs. Archibald Mitchell. His mother was Marion Harper. Jim had two  younger brothers, Charles and Archibald, and a sister, Grace. The family  moved to Canada and settled in the western prairie provinces while Jim was  still very young. Here his father took a great interest in encouraging prairie  people to plant trees, and at one time was running a lecture car on the  railway, stopping on rural town sidings and giving illustrated talks which  stressed the need for tree wind-breaks around prairie homes and buildings.  This work proved very successful. It was in this environment that Jim grew up,  with a love of trees and a working knowledge of growing them.  After serving in the first World War, Jim was convalescing because of his  badly gassed lungs in a sanitorium in Alberta, when he met and fell in love  with one of his rehabilitation nurses, Miss Gwendolin Carter. Jim and Gwen  were married February 23, 1927. Sadly Gwen died in the following year,  within days of giving birth to their son David.  It was not until 1946 that Jim married again, his bride being Miss Evelyn  Frances de Lautour, by whom he is survived, as well as by his son David, a  brother Archibald and sister Grace, three grandchildren, and many nieces  and nephews. Throughout the thirty-six years that Frances and Jim had  together, Frances was a tower of strength, and I am sure it was her love and  care that kept Jim going to the good age of 86 years.  The Mitchell family came to Oliver in 1922 and purchased twelve acres  of raw land, here they planted an orchard, and, on the death of his father,  Jim took over the operation of the orchard.  For a veteran who had a 60% disability, he assumed a community workload that was little less than miraculous. I list here some of his responsibilities:  he was a Charter member of the Oliver Rotary Club; worked as a director on  the Oliver Community Club, the Victorian Order of Nurses, the Oliver Cooperative Growers Exchange, and the B.C. Fruit Growers Association; served  as chairman of the Grasshopper Control Suppression Board, and the Oliver  Cemetery Board. On the 25th of October, 1929, Jim was appointed Stipendiary Magistrate in and for the County of Yale, and served until he retired in  1971. He became one of the longest serving judicial officers in the province of  British Columbia. Jim Mitchell seems to have been involved in just about  everything worthwhile. 107  James Harper Mitchell  In his capacity as Magistrate and Judge, Jim was brought close to the bad  results of over-indulgence and worked hard for prohibition whenever the opportunity arose. In his religious life he was fond of the old church rituals he  had known in his youth. He was a supporter and hard worker of the Oliver  United Church, where he sang in the church choir for many years. He was  also a member of the South Okanagan Historical Society and the South  Okanagan Choral Society.  In his military career Jim joined the Calgary Highlanders in 1916 while  attending agricultural college at Claresholm, Alberta. He went overseas in  1917 where he became a machine-gun specialist and transferred to the First  Canadian Motor Machine-gun Brigade. He went to France just after the battle of Vimy Ridge and was in action at the battle of Paschendael and in the  March retreat of 1918. He was gassed and came out of the line in the summer  of 1918 but rejoined his brigade in time for the Armistice. After service for a  short time in the Army of Occupation on the Rhine he was invalided to  England and then to Canada with damaged lungs. After his arrival in Oliver  he became active in the Canadian Legion, and was president of the Oliver  Branch 97 in 1941. When the second World War broke out Jim immediately  joined the British Columbia Dragoons "C" Squadron (Resv). He had kept up 108  his keen interest in the army and was most proficient in mapping, commanding men, and in the use of machine guns and armoured vehicles. He quickly  rose to the position of 2 I.C and when, towards the end of the war, the CO.  retired, he took over "C" squadron (Resv) until the end of the war. He was a  stickler for detail, smartness and dress, and ran a first class show. All training  was well planned and run to a strict timetable, and we always knew that, if a  first choice failed, there was always a well-planned second choice ready. The  army was one of his great loves, and he worked at it with a passion hard to  equal anywhere. In 1978 the Legion honoured him with a fifty-year service  badge, and in 1980 with a Life Membership. The November 11th Armistice  Day (or Remembrance Day as it is now known) parades will never seem the  same without Jim there in some leadership capacity.  Jim had been a Scout as a boy, and when the Scout Association was seeking leaders in 1937 Jim volunteered to help and received his Scout Master's  Warrant on November 11, 1937. It was here as another scouter that I came to  know Jim so well, and we scouted together for 45 years. Jim persuaded me to  take over the Oliver Troop and he went on to administration work, taking all  the courses in training he could find and advancing the training program for  leaders throughout the Okanagan. He was a Gilwell Scout, receiving the  Woodbadge in 1951. In all, he took some twelve advanced courses and countless local courses. He held the Long Service Medal with three bars, the Medal  of Merit, and the Silver Acorn. Jim was Chief Scout at more than one Gilwell  course and Assistant Chief at many more. He played a key role in setting up  Scout Regions in the Province, and was the First Regional Commissioner of  the Interior Region. He was probably one of the most able scouters British  Columbia has ever had.  Jim was only 33 when he was appointed a stipendiary magistrate in and  for the County of Yale, and in 1952 he was appointed Judge of the Juvenile  Court for Similkameen Electoral District. In 1962 he became a Magistrate for  the Small Debts Court. Jim Mitchell retired from the Bench in 1971. On his  retirement he was presented with an engraved gold watch by the Province of  British Columbia, and was honoured at a testimonial dinner where he was  presented with a colour television set and other gifts, and many tributes extended from Provincial officials, the judiciary, the legal profession, Inkameep  Indian Band members, the Scouting officials, R.C.M.P. officers and private  individuals.  What kind of a judge was Jim? He was eminently fair, and longtime  friends, newcomers, several-time offenders and first-timers were all treated  the same. On the one hand, he would sentence an offender, and on the other  hand, an hour later help him in any way he could. Many repeaters came up  before Jim and were sentenced for their offences, but all agreed that they had  had fair treatment, and most would say a good word for him. He had a great  sense of humour and often found it hard to keep a straight face with some of  the evidence tendered when he knew full well the truth. On many occasions,  people who had served their terms came back to him, at his home, and asked  for help and advice to get back on the right track and become good citizens,  and he never turned them down.  And so, on October 14, 1982, Jim's years of service to his community and  to his fellow-man came to an end. We will miss him, and surely this whole  area will be a better place for his having been here. 109  J. K. ANDERSON 1878 - 1949  by Agnes M. Mabee  The Young Man  I knew my father as a quiet, gentle man who never raised his voice in  anger, even when it was necessary to remonstrate with me. He did not even  yell at horses, cows or dogs and we all know they can be exasperating in the  extreme. However, this gentle man, who spent almost all of the last twenty-  eight years of his life in the Oliver-Osoyoos area, was not lacking in the spirit  of adventure in his youth.  He was born in Montrose, Scotland, May 16, 1878 and christened James  Kinnear. He was known to most of his friends as J.K. and to his wife as Jim.  James Anderson Sr., died when his son was a small child and in those pre-  welfare state days this meant that the boy was taken from school at age fifteen  and apprenticed. The apprenticeship was to a pharmacist and did not appeal  to young Jim. He stuck it out for four years, during which time he was apparently subscribing to the weekly Vancouver Province newspaper.  What he read in the paper must have fired his imagination, because in  August, 1898, he sailed for Vancouver. The following account is quoted from  notes my mother took one evening when she tried to get Dad to tell of his  adventures.  "Mr. Philip, Real Estate Agent, gave letter to Mr. Wells at Chilliwack.  Job there at $10.00 per month - milking cows, feeding pigs at Edenbank  Farm. Stayed there 6 months till nearly spring, then went on strike for more  money. Went to Edenbank Creamery for $20.00 in 1899."  "Read about Gold Fields - discovery of Atlin - still milked cows - promoted to driving team."  "May 1899 - down to Vancouver and enroute for Skagway just after  death of Soapy Smith. Had a chum now called Jacob Christian. Train went to  summit of White Pass - new railway - $5.00 for ten miles. Mushed from there  to Bennett City - head of navigation. Waited there for navigation to open -got  on sternwheel steamer - down Lake Bennett - stranded at Caribou Crossing -  no berths. Down a string of lakes - walked a portage to Atlin Lake - ferried to  Atlin City - collection of tents with 5,000 people. Short sojourn there!"  "Headed for the Creeks generally. Met up with a man disgusted - bought  his outfit for $10.00 - pick, shovel, gold pan, month's grubstake and his claim  thrown in!! (This was June, 1899)."  "Interesting trip - crossing divides - deep snow in June. Could walk across  snowdrifts in early morning but sank after sun-up. Found little specks of gold  - lots of digging - never did much. Couldn't go to Klondike without $500.00  cash. One terrible camp - picked up couple of old prospectors and the four  camped under a tarpaulin 8' square in slushy snowfall. Beans, rice, bacon,  flapjacks, dried apples and prunes, coffee."  "Atlin proved no good - no Gold Commissioner - no work possible so J.K.  broke away - down to the coast - broke."  "Picked up two Newfoundlanders - whalers - also fed up and wanting  out. They built a boat - camped in woods ten days with a whipsaw to saw up  enough lumber. J.K. was the cook. Just enough cash for nails and oakum -  good boat 18 feet long, dory pattern. Mosquitoes - 'Oh my heaven! You don't  know anything about mosquitoes!' Sailed to Bennett." 110  "J.K. walked to Skagway, 40 or 50 miles on the railway track. Got a job  as longshoreman for 11 hours a day at $5 V£, which made enough to buy a  ticket to Vancouver for $15.00. This ship, the Humbolt, was an American  boat and had to go to Seattle - broke - given a meal for 10f. Arrived at Vancouver next day - home to Paul's (his cousin). Offered job right away - haymaking at $1.50 a day and food at Lulu Island with a dozen others in a  bunkhouse. Good stake there, then back to Vancouver working in a box factory."  "Sore hand - then lumber - hated city in winter. Off to Kamloops to  ranch - bad luck, no pay given. Another good haying job - then to Shuswap  feeding cattle - $20.00 a month and keep. Shipping horses to prairie - went  along as keeper - to Alberta. Took a homestead until 1909. Went home to  Montrose in 1908."  "Fed up after trip home - decided to go West again."  J.K. Anderson went almost as far west as possible - he went to the Queen  Charlotte Islands. There he opened a small store at Tow Hill in 1909. In her  book, The Queen Charlotte Islands 1774 - 1966, Kathleen Dalzell explains  that all travel between Skidegate and Masset was by way of the beach. Since  Tow Hill was a four hour walk from Masset, Jim Anderson's store became "the  logical place for people ... to break their journey." Soon Jim was providing  an overnight stopping place, complete with meals. The guests slept in a tent  on bunks which had fresh branches for mattresses. From 1912 - 1914 the  meals were cooked by a settler's bride to whom Jim had shown the mysteries of  baking bread, pies and cakes. While at Tow Hill Jim also acted as Notary  Public, Post Master and Telephone Operator. He was appointed to take the  census of 1911. This involved travelling the stormy waters of the west coast to  enumerate the loggers and settlers of that isolated area. K. Dalzell states that  travel was so difficult that very few of the scores of eligible voters made it to  Masset on Election day. Ill  In 1915, J.K., then 37, returned to Vancouver where he enlisted in the  Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles. In order to get overseas quickly he transferred to the RASC where he became a driving instructor. I remember Dad telling me that a soldier passed his driving test if he could start a lorry on a hill  without rolling back. I think he applied the same test to me when he taught  me to drive! Those early trucks had a different mechanism because Dad also  told me that if one got the speed just right one could change gears without using the clutch. However, his superiors stopped him from using this as a test - it  was too hard!  Romance entered J.K.'s life in 1920. He was home in Montrose on  demobilization leave when he attended a dance. Amongst all the young ladies  present was one in a pink silk chiffon, beaded dress. Janet Mitchell had not  wanted to attend the dance but her mother's wishes prevailed and so the die  was cast. I don't know if it was love at first sight but it must have been close to  it because it seems an 'understanding' was reached before Jim returned to  Vancouver. However, it wasn't until the spring of 1924 that Jim was able to  send the money for Janet's fare to Canada. She arrived in Vernon May 5,  1924, met Jim the next day and they were wed two hours later. They had a  two-week honeymoon to Vancouver and Seattle before going home to Oliver.  Another stage in development.  The Oliver Businessman  In the spring of 1921 J.K. had arrived in Oliver, B.C. The construction  crew was busy building the irrigation canal, known to us all as 'the ditch' and  Sandy MacPherson had a store in the work camp on the east side of the river.  Therefore the distinction of having the first store on the Oliver townsite 112  belongs to J. K. Anderson. His first building, the Oliver Cash Store, was on  the corner where the Smuggler's Den now stands. As the photograph shows, it  was a most unpretentious building.  Later in 1921 or 1922, J. K. Anderson and CD. Collen went into partnership in a store next to the Oliver Hotel on the east side of Main Street. Mrs.  Collen told me recently that the partnership was dissolved in 1922 because  J.K. wanted to sell groceries and CD. wished to stick to dry goods. It was probably at this point that J. K. Anderson erected a more permanent building on  the corner diagonally opposite the present Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.  The new building was a grocery store until 1928 at which time Dad went  out of the business and took over the operation of the B.C. Telephone Exchange. We lived in the rear of the building and I have a faint memory of the  grocery counter with open boxes and bags in front of it. A much clearer  memory is of myself at age four or five climbing up before the switchboard  and being allowed to plug in the jack when the bell rang and the little  numbered flap fell down. I can still remember the lady whose phone number  was 4! She was a great friend of my parents and a great talker.  A little later, I think in 1929, Dad got a local girl to help with the switchboard and he started to work in the summer as a 'ditch-rider'. This entailed  patrolling a certain length of the irrigation canal and controlling the flow to  the various orchards. I often accompanied him on his round during the approximately twelve years that he continued with this job.  J. K. Anderson and daughter probably 1925 or early 1926. 113  The Orchardist  In 1930 Dad started to make a dream into reality with the purchase of  twenty acres, beside the highway at the head of Osoyoos Lake. I remember  being taken to view the expanse of sagebrush that was to become an orchard.  Although I don't remember it, probably the brush was cleared off that fall. I  distinctly remember Moving Day, April 1931.  It was just after my sixth birthday that Dad, Mother and I, complete  with kitten and puppy, loaded into the Ford tourer with the isinglass curtains  and drove down to 'the ranch'. I discovered that our temporary house was a  new one-room shack. I thought this was fun; no plaster or paint to be careful  of, no cupboards or closets - just drive in a nail when you wanted a hook. This  state of bliss lasted only the summer as we moved into the new house on the  hill (now Norcross') in the fall.  What Mother felt about abandoning inside plumbing and electricity she  never said. Her only complaint was that Dad had to work so hard carrying  water pails up the hill from the lake for the next eight years. The summer  wasn't so bad as irrigation water was used to a great extent. A water cistern  was built in 1939 to store water from the ditch and that, although it still  meant economizing with water during the winter, ended the backbreaking  labour with the shoulder yoke and the pails. In 1944 the West Kootenay  Power and Light Co., finally supplied electricity so we said good-bye to Coleman, Aladdin and ordinary oil lamps. We were not sorry.  During those years from 1931 to 1944 my father worked hard to support  his family but was still able to make time for the community as well. Although  he always said he hated meetings he served for several depression years on the  Osoyoos School Board. I remember one year he had a suitcase full of applications for one position. He said one day "I don't know what to do - they all  seem good. I think we'll give it to . . . because she's from Oliver." The choice  was made and no one was dissatisfied as the young lady turned out to be a  good teacher and popular, too.  Later, when the Osoyoos Red Cross Society became active during the  war, Dad took the position of treasurer and my mother became the secretary.  They continued with these tasks until the end of the war.  Father and Mother did not neglect recreational pursuits. While in Oliver  they played golf, tennis and badminton and after the move to the orchard  continued with badminton in the hall in Osoyoos. Dad kept up with badminton until one day he came home and said "I think it's time I quit. The young  men are calling me 'sir'!" During the summer lawn tennis was played Sunday  afternoons at the homes of Mr. and Mrs. R. G. Tait and Mr. and Mrs. H. R.  Wright. Major and Mrs. H. A. Porteous also had a tennis court (clay, I think)  which was later replaced by one of the first swimming pools. The Taits did the  same thing with their court when the tennis playing years were past. We enjoyed many pleasant afternoons, sitting in the shade, watching the games.  Less strenous activities included frequent bridge parties and other party  games such as charades-old style. Sometimes Dad was persuaded (forced?) to  take part in one-act plays, directed by Mother and usually put on to earn  money for the Red Cross. One such memorable effort was Box and Cox, in  which he played the landlady. And very convincing he was. 114  Retirement  In September, 1945 I was about to enter U.B.C. As Dad was finding the  orchard work more and more tiring, he and Mother decided to move to Vancouver. It was hard to leave all their old friends but a house was found in the  Dunbar area, the orchard was rented and the move was made. A new phase of  their life had begun.  To fill his time, Dad took up golf again after a lapse of fifteen years. He  spent many happy hours on the University Golf Course with new friends. He  was so proud the day his score, less handicap, was 73 for the par 71 course  that my mother kept the score card in her keepsakes.  He also put in much time improving the garden, but his health began to  deteriorate somewhat. This fact, coupled probably with a certain amount of  homesickness for the Okanagan, led to the purchase of a house in Penticton.  In the summer of 1948 we moved back to more familiar surroundings,  close to old, dear friends. Once again Dad devoted himself to caring for the  garden in the summer and the furnace in winter. He took up lawn bowling  but did not have long to enjoy his new companions for he passed away suddenly July 16, 1949, just two months after he and Mother celebrated their  Silver Wedding Anniversary.  I would like to end with one of mother's poems.  Beautiful hands — those that do  Work that is earnest, and brave, and true,  Moment by moment, the long day through.  Beautiful feet — those that go  On kindly ministries to and fro  Down lowliest ways, if God wills it so.  Beautiful shoulders are those that bear  Ceaseless burdens of homely care,  With patient grace, and daily prayer.  Beautiful lives are those that bless  Silent rivers of happiness,  Whose hidden fountains but few may guess.  Beautiful twilight — at set of sun  Beautiful goal, with race well won,  Beautiful rest, with work well done.  Beautiful grave — where grasses creep,  Where brown leaves fall, where drifts lie deep  Over worn-out hands — oh, beautiful sleep.  J.B.A. 115  ESSAY CONTEST  Editor's Note: We begin our essay section with this year's winning  essay, Tracey Skyrme's "History of the Interior Provincial  Exhibition". Congratulations, Tracey, for your industry and congratulations to the A. L. Fortune School which encourages such projects.  Following Tracey's essay are four essays held over from last year.  Three are about old Armstrong houses and contain information  which we would not like to see lost. What a fine project for Grade 7  pupils in a community with a relatively long history of settlement.  Congratulations Len W. Wood Elementary School.  Laurie Case's essay "The Enderby Bridge" is notable not so much for  Laurie's findings as for her awareness of the problems of the historian. Already she has learned that memory can play tricks. Even  written statements need questioning. Laurie knew where her facts  could be verified but she discovered that people engaged in today's  problems do not often have time to dig through old records. Hence  the value of institutions like archives and museums whose business it  is to organize, store, and make available to researchers historic  material. However, Laurie did discover one of the great strengths of  personal reminiscences: their colour. Personal memories make  history come alive.  THE HISTORY OF THE INTERIOR PROVINCIAL EXHIBITION  1900 - 1980  by Tracey Skyrme, Grindrod  "Fresh apples; cotton candy; the smell of fresh fruit and preserves.  Mother on one side talking about the competition from 'way down  the valley;' and Pa, he just had to see this here thing called a Hoist ein. And you . . . well, you came to see everything. "  Ever since 'way back when', one of our valley's major industries has been  agriculture. One man set out to better the next in quality and quantity. To  satisfy all involved, the pioneers found it necessary to organize an annual fair.  This 'Fall Fair' saw its first light in 1900.  At first, the fair was limited to agriculture, focusing on livestock in later  years. The farmers who attended the event had previously shown their entries  at a smaller fair in Vernon.  Wanting to keep their fair unique, the pioneers appropriately named it  the Armstrong-Spallumcheen Agricultural Society Fair.  Because the fair dealt principally with agriculture, the main attraction  in 1900 was called a Table Show. This consisted of tables and tables of fruit  and vegetables. The judges would walk down the aisles, judging as they saw  fit. After a few years passed by, sewing and cooking were added to the roster.  These displays were similar to those of the fruits and vegetables. 116  Balloon at Armstrong Fair 1908  By now, farmers were following the so-called 'Agricultural Footsteps'  with their livestock:  1. Find a product  2. Find its practicability  3. Cross breed it; experiment  4. Take it to the fair  5. Later, sell it to any interested buyers  When some land was acquired, barns and shelters were built to house  livestock entries. As the years rolled on, it seemed that there was a new  building or two for every fair.  In addition to cattle, the horse market was picking up. Horses provided  power for the farmer, therefore becoming 'big items' on the fair circuit.  There were no particular breeds of cows in the North Okanagan at the  turn of the century. There were just two basic types: the milk cow and the  meat cow. Sheep, hogs, and poultry fell into similar categories.  Immigrants, the majority being from Great Britain, settled in our area  and began to show their products at the Fair. They were very conscious of the  results and placings their exhibits received, an indication of whether or not  people would buy their products from them. The new farmers wanted to find  out how their products stood up in comparison to what other farmers had  produced, and they took the competition very seriously.  Each sowing and harvest time was different, as were the soil conditions.  If a farmer was growing peas, he wanted to know how his neighbours' peas  were doing, the quality and yield that developed told him whether he should  keep growing this product or purchase seed from his neighbour.  What started as a relatively small table show graduated to the outdoors,  where with rope in hand, a farmer led his animals to the fair to show. 117  In 1919, the first purebred cattle were shown. Jersey dairy cattle were imported from Ontario. The new interest in livestock breeding soon spread to  the beef industry and the Kamloops Bull Sale was organized. Now, people  who had beef cattle were interested in getting a better bull. Short horn was  the most popular breed at that time, although occasionally one could catch  sight of an Angus or Hereford. As times changed, the Hereford became the  predominant animal of the range.  Draft horses were a great necessity in the active farmer's life. The two  main breeds were Clydesdales and Percherons. The farmer was very proud of  these horses and he wanted to stir interest in the public eye.  Everyone had horses and buggies, but there were no particular breed of  light horses. The grade horses made up the biggest part of the show. These  grades were heavy draft, general purpose, and agricultural horses. These  horses were grouped into categories according to their weights.  At this time, the provincial vegetable market and export market were  growing rapidly. Vegetables were grown here and shipped out to such places  as Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, and even as far as Toronto. Celery was  grown and shipped to Hawaii.  Seed propagation was introduced and many varieties were introduced.  The fruit business was becoming big in the Okanagan Valley. Investors from  England sent money to real estate agents to buy property for orchards. The  Okanagan Valley had built up an illustrious reputation as being the 'Land of  Plenty' or 'Garden of Eden'. Surveys at the turn of the century divided much  of the valley's land into ten acre parcels. Ten acres, at this time, was considered to be the maximum size orchard that a family could handle. Some of  these parcels were not used for fruit growing purposes at all, but instead were  used for raising hay and grain.  As the population in North Okanagan towns boomed, so did the popularity of the dairy business and the demand for dairy products increased. At  this time, the farmer would take his bottled milk into town and sell it to merchants and townspeople. Other farmers would produce milk and separate it,  thereby supplying cream to their various customers. With the leftover skim  milk, a slop mixture would be made for the pigs.  The Jersey was the best dairy cow from the standpoint of butterfat.  Jerseys were, however, not used to the weather and soil in our area, making  them a little less popular and the farmer a little more wary.  Captain Dunwaters, a man of Scottish origin, promoted the Ayrshire  cow. Generally, the Ayrshire was more suited to the precipitation, foilage,  and climate of this area, and became very popular.  The next cow to emerge into the Fair picture was the Holstein. At the  time, there were very few Holsteins in the area. This cow gave a very large  amount of milk, although the milk was quite thin and had a bluish tint.  As the population rose steadily, the dairies took over the producing and  handling of fluid milk. They continued in this fashion until none of the farm  dairies were left. Fluid milk production for human consumption became the  mainstay in milk production. Because so many people wanted so much milk  so fast, the Holstein became more popular. The pig business suffered greatly  because there wasn't much skimmed milk to feed the hogs.  Vegetable culture changed, too. New modes of transportation were be- 118  ing found, meaning vegetables no longer had to be stored for long periods of  time. In Armstrong there were eight packing houses, all with storage. The  vegetables could be shipped to Vancouver, and from there to the city stores.  As the vegetable industry declined, the fruit industry rose to the fore.  The prize lists had five pages of varieties. The Fair helped to bolster this  growth and it helped to eliminate the strains of apples that were impractical.  After World War II, vehicles and roads improved, and people south of  our border had a climate where they could produce vegetables year-round.  The bigger grocery chains bought most of their fresh produce from the States.  A decline in vegetable growing followed.  From the marketing standpoint, we could provide apples nearly year-  round. Some apples were so hard at harvest time, that it was like trying to eat  a brick. In February, these apples would start to mellow. Pears and vegetables  were much the same. The 'keeping varieties' of vegetables were grown for late  harvest and were stored for winter.  In the first fifty years of this century, many farmers came to the North  Okanagan from foreign countries. In their countries of origin, the farmers  had used a great variety of different breeds and crops. They brought these  new varieties and breeds with them to Canada, introducing great variety to  the IPE.  The war years saw a lot of change. The horse went out and the tractor  came in. Farm dairy route was replaced by the commercial dairy route.  Vegetable/fruit marketers got into situations where they only wanted to sell a  boat-load of one particular product. They restricted their production to very  few varieties. There were many beautiful varieties of fruit for cooking, but today nobody produces them.  The name of the Fair started out as the Armstrong-Spallumcheen  Agricultural Society. Under the Societies Act, people had to reside in the area  that was encompassed by the charter of the Society. The name changed once  more, to the North Okanagan Fall Fair. People who lived outside of the Society's area could not be voting members. My grandfather was keenly interested  in the Fair, but was not entitled to a membership. In 1929, the final name  change took place. It was changed to the Interior Provincial Exhibition and  any people residing in B.C. could become members.  The first president was Percy French. He was a beef, horse, and fruit  producer. To add to his credentials, he was an agricultural school graduate.  Because transportation was developing, people could bring livestock and  produce in from greater distances. Therefore, competition became more  keen.  Consolidated Mining and Smelting was milking 300 Ayrshire cows in  Trail to supply milk for the lead and zinc mines. They were breeding them  and showing them, and every year the company put some of their animals on  the show circuit. There were also producers from eastern Canada who showed  their produce and livestock.  In my opinion, one of the favourite areas of any fair is the midway. A fair  just isn't a fair without the ride that scared Grandma half to death, or the  barker enticing you with promises of things never seen before. The first man  to bring a midway to Armstrong was Bill Badley. He had a midway on  wagons, pulled by horses. After a few years, the midway came to Armstrong 119  by rail. The final change in midway transportation was the switch to motorized caravans, similar to what we have today.  Bill Badley's midway had a few games and the occasional ride. For  sound, he might provide an organ grinder. Popular games included Crown  and Anchor and the Baseball Pitch. The prizes were kewpie dolls and balloons, and the odd ornament. As the cost of an attraction was very expensive,  the show organizer could not afford it unless he had another source of income, so he incorporated what is called a 'money game'. This was a game  such as the Baseball Pitch or the Wheel of Fortune. The organizer might be  allowed two of these if the price of his ride was low.  The midways we have today, such as the M. F. Wagner Shows do not  own the rides you see. They have contracts signed with the I.P.E. executives,  and many of the individual rides are sub-contracted from private owner-  operators.  Religion played an important part in the I.P.E. Preachers would come to  hold tent meetings for the Fair personnel. Every year these people would  gather to hear the ceremony and it became almost a tradition. Today,  however, the tradition has long since faded away, but is relived in the lives of  many fair goers as they exclaim after the Fair, "Thank God I never brought  the other pay cheque!"  As was the case with most fairs, the trends of the local economy were  reflected in the gate attendance. If the economy was in poor condition,  chances were the fair attendance would be down.  Recently, the I.P.E. Association members approved a motion allowing  the executive authority to purchase adjacent property or to develop a new site  altogether. The concept of looking at other sites was a major policy move by  the I.P.E. Several directors have been pursuing this move over the past few  years. The Fair site as it is now is just too small, and because of this, fair exhibitors and visitors may no longer continue their support. This is not a recent  problem. For some time now, exhibitors have been complaining about the  lack of space. The exhibitors in the Hassen Memorial Hall can no longer accept many more entries, which seems to take away the original purpose of  those first fairs.  The Fair is the best advertising that the agricultural industry could have.  The consuming public can attend and see what is on the market. They can  appreciate the hard labours of our farmers and the great variety of products  available. The I.P.E. has been an important part of our past; it is an important part of our present; and it will continue to have a place in our future.  "By appreciation we make excellence in others our own property."  — Voltaire  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  My deepest appreciation goes out to all the people who so kindly gave of  their time and patience in helping me prepare this article for the Arm-  strong/Enderby Historical Society.  My special thanks to: Mr. Matt Hassen, Mr. Jack Armstrong, Mrs. Ruby  Lidstone, Mr. Ed Goldstrom  — Tracey Skyrme 120  THE SMITH HOUSE  by Loesha Zeviar, Armstrong  The T. K. Smith house was constructed by T. W. Fletcher in approximately 1902. The house was built on stone foundation and the rest on concrete. The lumber for the house was acquired from T. K. Smith's sawmill.  Upstairs there are two bedrooms, a dressing room, and a bathroom. All  woodwork is done in fir. There is an attic, but it is unfurnished.  On the main floor there is a parlor with a bay window, a drawing room,  and a dining room. There is also a kitchen, wash room, and a pantry. All of  the woodwork, again, is done with fir and the floors are oak. The wall paper  in several parts of the house is embossed.  The house is hot-water heated, first by slab wood, later sawdust, and now  it is heated with natural gas.  There is a huge veranda across the front (north side), and the side of the  house. There are a great number of windows throughout the house. Several  are stained glass, such as in the parlor and front hall.  On the exterior of the house there is fir siding — and it is painted brown  with cream trim.  After the house was built, it was sold to Mr. Mark Hill who occupied it  until 1910. When Mr. and Mrs. T. K. Smith, (owner of the Armstrong Saw  Mill), bought the house from Mr. Hill, it was renovated, and looks as it stands  now.  The Smiths occupied the house until 1948, when Mrs. Smith passed  away. The present owner is Miss Lillian Fraser, who lives with her sister Miss  Jessie Fraser, nieces of Mrs. Smith.  Residence of Miss Lillian Fraser (as it stands now) 121  THE BEHNCKE HOUSE  by Katherine Parker, Armstrong  The House  The Behncke house was built in 1905 by Joe McDonald for the James  Wright Family. The original building underwent a change in 1912. The top  of the house was expanded because the Wright family had grown larger. The  cost of this renovation was $2,000 which was quite a large sum in those days.  Lumber for the top was acquired at the T. K. Smith Sawmill. Jack Leslie and  Tommy Becker were employed to do the renovation.  In the early 1900's, many games were played on the property. Tennis  courts were placed at the back of the house. In winter, owners of the house used to skate on the small, frozen pond. The men had an organized golf club on  the 5 acre property and played golf behind the house.  The house was heated by a big wood stove at one end. Of course, around  the stove it would be warm, but in other rooms it could get very cold in the  winter.  Home of Judge Behnke after removations. (1982)  Many well-known people of the Armstrong area have lived in this house.  James Wright, first mayor of Armstrong, George Dunkley, postmaster, Peter  Smith, garage operator and the present owner, Jurgen Behncke, lawyer and  judge.  The Families  The Wrights  James Milton Wright was born on January 10, 1869, in Halifax,  England. In 1890 James emmigrated to Canada, at which time he was 21.  James arrived in Armstrong and worked as the assistant postmaster from  1892 - 1897. James took over the job as postmaster in 1897. He continued on 122  J. M. Wright  until 1937 at which time he retired. Jim Wright received a silver medal from  King George V for his 40 years of service to the Canadian Post Office.  James married Nora Rabbit of Nova Scotia in 1899. Jim and Nora had 4  children, Frank, Winnifred, Nellie, and Nora.  J. M. Wright held many civic jobs in Armstrong. He held the office of  first mayor of Armstrong for 7 years. He was also treasurer, alderman, and  again mayor. James worked as a member of the school board for 30 years. He  was one of the main organizers of the Brick Consolidated School. This was the  first school in British Columbia that country children were bussed in to.  James Wright died in 1939. An estimated 1,000 people attended his  funeral to show their appreciation for his dedication in developing the town of  Armstrong.  The Dunkleys  George Dunkley was born on October 6, 1888 in London, England. He  married his fiancee, Hilda, on June 22, 1916. They had four children, George  Cyril, Melvin John, Stella Joyce, and Peter Melling.  Like James Wright, George was postmaster and a prominent member of  the Armstrong community. He was an executive member of the committee  that built the Armstrong Swimming Pool. George received the Legion's  Meritorious Service Medal, a very high honor. George was a member of the  school board for four years. Perhaps George's largest contribution to Armstrong was his 18 years of service as postmaster. He started in 1937, taking  over from James Wright. George retired in 1955 at which time his son,  Melvin, took over his job of postmaster. Melvin Dunkley recently retired  himself in 1975. The Dunkleys can be considered very important in the  growth of Armstrong.  The Smiths:  In 1950, Peter Smith and his wife moved into the house with their  mother, Mrs. Cooke, and 3 children, David, Garth and Terri. Peter Smith,  his father and his grandfather owned the A. Smith and Son Garage, which used to be on the site of the present Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce. The  business was sold in 1963 and the Smiths moved to Sechelt, B.C., where they  are residing. 123  The cost of the house was in the area of $10,000 in 1950. It is much more  costly now.  Peter sold the house to Judge Jurgen Behncke and left Armstrong.  The Behnckes  The Behncke family moved into the house in 1963, and are the present  owners. Jurgen Behncke is a lawyer and judge in Vernon, B.C. The Behnckes  have been living in the house for 19 years.  Judge Behncke and his wife Dorothy, have 3 children. They are Patricia,  Richard and Dianne. Judge Behncke is a well known figure in the Armstrong  area.  I chose to write about this particular house and the families that have lived in it because I stayed with the Behnckes for six weeks during the summer of  1975. I enjoyed the roomy atmosphere I felt during my visit. I know this house  quite well and doing this essay has helped me to know it even better.  THE GEORGE MURRAY HOUSE  by Dennis Heaton, Armstrong  The Family  George Murray and his family moved from Lansdowne to Armstrong in  1892 where they lived in a boarding house until a house was available for  them to move into. After one year a house in the downtown part of Armstrong  was empty and available, so the Murrays moved into the house. This house  was small, so some of the 12 children had to sleep in the rooms above the Murray Meat Market. They moved from the house in the downtown of Armstrong  The Murray Family 124  The Murray House  to a house on Okanagan Street where they lived until a fire destroyed the  house in 1920. Fortunately the fire was slow burning so the Murrays had a  chance to get all of the furniture out of the house. For nine months the Murrays lived on the corner of Okanagan Street and Rosedale Avenue, while Mr.  Cavars built them a new home on the same property as the burnt house.  The House  The house was a two storey building with one bedroom on the lower floor  and a large dorm type room the length of the house on the top floor. This  room was then split into two. The bricks for the house were made by George  Murray and Fred Fimpgelp out of one part cement to four parts sand giving a  unique white colour to the bricks. The two men made 1,000 bricks daily and  there were 30,000 bricks used in making the house. The bricks were laid so  that there were two layers of brick with a two inch air space to keep the house  warm (because there was only one fireplace). The house was on five acres of  land, but the Murrays then sold 3 acres on the east side of the property. The  lumber for the floors and frame of the house came from Vancouver, and the  T. K. Smith Saw Mill. The social events that happened in the house were the  tea parties that Mrs. Murray had for her friends and the birthday parties for  the children.  After a while the upstairs bedroom was turned into an apartment where  Mrs. Jack Evans lived for many years.  Gordon Murray and one of his sisters lived in the house until 1976 when  Gordon moved to the Willowdale Old Folks Home in Armstrong. The house  was then bought by William Smith. 125  THE ENDERBY BRIDGE  by Laurie Case, Enderby  It was 8:15 a.m. I was riding to school on Mr. Lloyd's regular school bus  run. We were half-way across the Enderby bridge when all of a sudden there  was a jolting bump. The bus skidded and screeched to a halt cross ways on the  bridge, just inches from the bridge railing. A plank had come loose breaking  the drive-shaft. To all of us riding on the bus, this was a very scary experience;  but to our city fathers, this one incident really started the ball rolling with  negotiations to acquire a new bridge.  For years Enderby has seen the need for a new bridge. Many discussions  have been held just as to where the new bridge should be built. Should it be  built farther down stream or should it be built farther up stream, in order to  by-pass Main Street? If a new bridge was built in a different location, more  land would have to be acquired from the Spallumcheen Indian Band.  Meetings were held between Band Council and City Council. These meetings  started more meetings; this time involving the Chamber of Commerce and the  Department of Highways. No agreement could be reached.  Because of the near disaster of the school bus, the fate of the Enderby  bridge became a hot news item. Mr. Lloyd, the bus driver, even appeared on  T.V. to tell the story. This publicity resulted in large vehicles being prohibited to cross the bridge. Eventually, on December 29, 1981, Mayor W. At-  tlesey announced that Enderby was to get a new bridge to be built in the same  location. A temporary Bailey Bridge would be constructed to take care of  bridge traffic until the completion of the new bridge.  Because no research had ever been done on the Enderby bridges, I really  had to start from scratch. With Mom and Dad's help, we talked to many old  timers in the Enderby area to see what they could remember. Since many of  the stories conflicted with one another, somehow I had to find some statistics  to straighten out the stories. So I went to City Hall. They sent me to the  Department of Highways. The Enderby Department couldn't help me so they  sent me to Vernon Department of Highways. Unfortunately, they were too  busy to look for information that I needed. I then went to the Museum in Vernon and found out that a new span was added to the first bridge in 1897, raising it four feet. Apparently, the ice in winter and the logs moving downstream  to the mills used to take the bridge timbers out. I was really disappointed  when that was the only information in the Museum I could find.  The Vernon News couldn't help me and the Enderby Commoner felt  that if I had some specific dates I might be able to find some news items, but  these papers were stored in a basement in Armstrong. I was later told that  there had been a fire many years ago and many of the Commoner's old copies  had been destroyed.  Here are the stories as told to me by some of Enderby's Oldtimers:  Most remembered that the present bridge was built in the bitter cold  winter of 1942 - 1943 with temperatures falling to 40¬∞ below zero. I later  found out from Mr. Stenquist, who was road foreman at the time of construction, that it was built in the winter of 1943 - 1944. At least the temperatures  were the same in all the stories and there was a World War going on.  Some told us that the second bridge was built in 1910 or 1911. Others  said 1919. 126  One story told me that a temporary bridge was built farther down stream  while this one was being built. After the completion of the new bridge, the  temporary bridge was being dismantled, and a car load of boys from  Kelowna, not knowing the new bridge was finished, drove off the end of the  remains of the temporary and drowned. Later stories revealed that a six foot  bridge was used while the bridge before this one was being built, and it was  while the bridge before this one was being built that the temporary bridge was  used, and that it was a car load from Salmon Arm that went off and only one  was drowned. The others were rescued, some of whom were girls.  The Historical Society says the first bridge was built in 1875, but a  granddaughter swears on her grandfather's grave that when her grandfather  came to Enderby in 1884, there was no bridge. She remembers him telling her  how he had to wait until the river froze over in the winter to haul large items  across.  Mrs. Beryl Gorman of Vernon said that her mother was the first white  child born in Enderby. So, on the opening day of the first bridge, she was carried across in her mother's arms as part of the opening ceremonies.  The Historical Society reports the first bridge was contracted out for  $900.00. The surveyors I saw working on the new Bailey Bridge probably used  up $900.00 in a matter of hours.  The third and present bridge was a rough construction. There were six  men who travelled all over the country building this type of bridge. Since  more men were needed, farmers of the north Enderby area were hired as extra help.  Mr. Bill Faulkner remembers being time-keeper. Another of his duties  was to order food for the cook-house. He told how, when the cook quit, he,  himself was hired as a temporary cook until a new cook could be found. After  two months of cooking, he asked when they were to get the new cook only to  be told they had never been fed so well. So, Mr. Faulkner became the permanent cook.  Mr. Jim Mack told the story of the 6 inch by 12 inch timbers that came in  as 12 inch by 12 inch by mistake. Two men had to be hired to whip-saw these  timbers down to the correct size. This little job took two months.  I wonder how many pounds of salmon were caught off the bridge over  the years? We'll always remember the sight of the Enderby bridge in the early  fall with the many different shelters built along the catwalk to house the ardent all-night fishermen from the elements of the weather.  I may not have found the information I set out to find to write this essay,  but I really learned a lot more about the people and the town I live in.  Enderby needs a new bridge and is getting one. I am sure we are saddened to lose the historical landmark that became not just a means to cross the  river, but a diver's challenge, an artist's delight and a fisherman's paradise. 127  CHILDREN'S BOOKS ABOUT THE INDIANS OF THE OKANAGAN  Reviewed by Joanne Tait  Cycles, circles, the roundness of the full moon, and the blazing sphere of  Grandfather Sun are the things of life itself — a wonderful, truthful theme  for "Enwhisteetkwa", the story of a young Okanagan Indian girl by writer-  artist Jeannette C Armstrong, who is a member of the Penticton Indian  Reserve Band.  Initially written for the Okanagan Indian Curriculum project and used  as a guide for grade five social studies, this fictional narrative covers the years  1959 - 60, as seen through the vulnerable eyes of Enwhisteetkwa, a name  which means, in Interior Salish tongue, Walk in Water.  Even the story's geographical setting is circular: Enwhisteetkwa's family,  in their quest for survival, move from Penticton, their winter home, south to  O.K. Falls, then to Osoyoos, then north and west to White Lake, Tulameen,  and returning eastward to Penticton again in the late fall (including a side  trip to O.K. Falls for the salmon run).  The Indians are guided in their perpetual search for food by the moons  of the seasons, given names like Snowtime, Greenleaf, Bitterwood, Salmon,  and once again by the late, autumnal Crisp on the Face Moon.  The recurring rhythms of work, rest, and travel are about the rhythms of  survival, and of the vital need for nourishment. Armstrong, by simply telling  how the sunflower seeds are pounded into flour, how the wild berries are  dried in the sun for winter storage, and how the salmon heads are cooked into  a hearty soup, conveys her message: the Okanagan Indian respected, and felt  directly responsible to, the physical environment.  In this story, the Indians' spiritual and almost stately way of existence  with the sun, moon, and earth is disrupted by the arrival of the Semas, the  "black robes", the "hairy-faced ones with pink faces". Upon news of the white  men's appearance, travel customs are abruptly changed; there is a meeting of  the regional tribes in Penticton to deal with this intrusion, and the feelings of  the Indians, duly recorded, are far from positive.  Although her story is a fictitious one, Armstrong has stated that details  are based on historical accounts. She researched related events carefully, apparently cross-referencing the tales of the old Indian people — the Elders —  with written ethnological records.  At the time of the Greenleaf Moon, Enwhisteetkwa goes to stay with her  wise grandmother at Inkameep to learn skills and to listen to the old tales of  her people. The Elders, as part of nature's all-pervading cycle, are not a  passive feature of "Enwhisteetkwa"; they are the revered teachers and trainers  of the young; they are indeed a part of the action. Again a message from the  author, and again conveyed with a subtle yet graphic simplicity.  Armstrong's writing has a cadenced thoughtfulness, and is at times, like  her pictures, rather somber in style. "Enwhisteetkwa" is likely not a book that  young people would discover and devour on their own, but if guided by an interested adult, they would find much to absorb and enjoy.  There is considerable enjoyment to be derived from reading another  Okanagan story, "The Tale of the Nativity", as told by the Indian children of  the Inkameep Reserve School in the 1930's, and recorded with the guidance  of their dedicated teacher, Anthony Walsh. No small part of this delightful 128  booklet are the exquisite drawings by Sis-hu-lk,  the highly regarded artist  whose son is the present Chief of the Inkameep Band, Sam Baptiste.  Although Mr. Walsh's loving, skillful influence is evident, who but a  child could have observed, "Although Mary was very tired she just washed her  face and went and cooked supper." and; "A deer and her fawn . . . stood by  Mary and breathed on her to keep her warm."  The Indian Baby Jesus is presented with a tiny canoe, and sweet smelling  pine gum from the hill men, and lovingly watched over by Topkan the coyote,  who later carries the young toddler on his back. There is really no contrivance  to this tale of the nativity, only spontanaeity and an Okanagan Indian child's  way of seeing.  Three fascinating booklets about the Interior Salish people are available,  under the series title "Lak-La Hai-Ee", meaning "to tell" in Shuswap Indian.  They have been produced by Ursula Surtees, curator of the Kelowna  Museum; and the late Gwen Lamont, a well-known Okanagan artist.  Volume One, on Interior Salish food preparation, is an engaging account of the uses of wild berries, flowers and roots, as described by three  Shuswap Indian women: Mary Thomas, her mother, the late Christine Allen;  and Teresa Purdaby.  "Building a Winter Dwelling" — a Kekuli — is the title of Volume Two,  and is of particular interest because it outlines so clearly, with the aid of La-  mont's striking illustrations, the actual, intricate reconstruction of a Kekuli  by the Salmon Arm Indian Band in 1974. It was an event of some  significance, as Kekuli-building had come perilously close to being a lost art.  The spiritual aspect of the Indian's hard life is beautifully captured in  Volume Three, '"Small One' and the Fall Fishing", written by Surtees, who  acclaims the skill of the native Salmon Arm fisherman, after spending many  hours and walking many miles to learn of this elaborate yet highly practical  ritual.  In all these publications, there is a specialness, a uniqueness to be  acknowledged and treasured. These are the stories of our Valley, the stories  and accounts that set the Okanagan Indian apart from other native peoples,  and make him central to the purpose of maintaining and enriching the  natural environment of our Okanagan Valley.  The above mentioned publications are available at the Kelowna Centennial Museum.  Enwhisteetkwa, Walk in Water —Jeannette C. Armstrong, Okanagan  Indian Project, 1982, also available at Okanagan Book, Penticton.  The Tale of the Nativity — as told by the Indian Children of Inkameep, also available from Osoyoos Indian Band, Oliver, B.C. $2.95.  Lak-La Hai-Ee — Volume 1, Interior Salish Food Preparation $2.00  Volume 2, Building a Winter Dwelling $2.00  Volume 3, '"Small One' and the Fall Fishing" $2.00  Produced by Ursula Surtees, and Gwen Lamont. Published by Lamont-  Surtees, June 1979. 129  TALES AND REMINISCENCES  WOMAN'S PLACE IS IN THE HOME  by Kitty Wilson  The following story, reprinted from The Western for December 26, 1979, is a  sequel to last year's feature story, "Plane Crash on Okanagan Mountain."  At Paradise Ranch, north of Naramata, 6:30 a.m., December 23, 1950.  Young Mrs. Wilson was still half asleep when her husband stretched, yawned  and got out of bed to close the window and put on his longjohns. He felt his  chin.  "I'll shave later, before I go to town. You don't mind?" his chin was  rough against his wife's cheek. She laughed quietly "Shave before lunch-  breakfast I can bear. Is it still misty or just dark?"  "Still misty. I wonder if they found the plane — hard country to get them  out if anyone's hurt, but John Gibson knows all the trails." he said.  "I'm glad we don't have a phone or I bet you'd have gone, Victor!"  "Of course I would Katherine. You'd be fine."  "Oh Victor, who would do the milking? And you know I can't start the  generator. We'd be back to candlelight."  "The kids would love it."  "What are you going to do this morning?"  "Work."  "But where? What? I never know."  "Well you know that right now I'm lighting the kitchen fire, stoking the  furnace, going over to milk, separating, eating my breakfast and then — well  I guess I'll be in the south field if I can get the tractor up the hill."  "Will the car get up? Oh Victor, I do hope father's visit goes smoothly.  You will be at the bus in good time?"  "He'll be able to talk to someone at the bus depot if I'm late."  "But he never would. He would just sit there and think how disorganized  we are . . . Who's awake? Didn't I hear someone? Brian? Guy! Sandy? Mummy's coming ..."  10 a.m., the Christmas music and advertising on the radio was interrupted by a news announcement. Mrs. Wilson got off her knees where she was  waxing the big dining room floor and called the children to come and slide.  "Help Mummy polish the wood nicely for Grandpa . . . very quietly, so I can  hear the radio."  "The latest bulletin on the CPA plane crash near Chute Lake. The police  have just been out to Paradise Ranch and Major Victor Wilson is now at the  Penticton Armouries and will be leading in a rescue party. The Major knows  every inch of these hills, he has just been flown over the area by Okanagan  Helicopter, and will be starting in a few minutes. There may be a need for  snowshoes, they should be left at the armouries within the next half hour. The  jeeps are now leaving the armouries, Major Wilson is giving the V for Victory  sign. There are survivors, we repeat there are survivors, they have lit a big fire  and supplies of food and medical aid have been dropped. The weather is very  foggy at that level, but the Major is confident they will get in and out before  dark." 130  Mrs. Wilson cranked the old phone that connected her with the  foreman's house where Marion O'Connell was looking after her three year old  twins — and planning to go to Penticton that afternoon to finish her  Christmas shopping.  "Did you hear that broadcast?" asked Mrs. Wilson.  "Yes" said Marion, a gentle girl who never made a fuss.  "Did Frank go too?"  "I guess so, he went up the hill with Victor. I think maybe they hoped to  be called in."  "I bet they did! Were you noticing if Victor refuelled the generator?"  "No, he didn't. They were in a real rush to get tip the hill. I guess the  police found them waiting at the gate!"  "Well, we'd better go easy on electricity. I just finished my wash."  "So did I. Whereabouts is the plane? Near the road?"  "Who knows. I just hope they will be back in time for Victor to meet  Father's bus. And you have shopping. I guess I should be thankful that I'm  not one of the people up there in the snow, maybe hurt. I wonder if any of  them were ki — oops, one of the kids is screaming, I have to go," and she rang  off.  11 a.m. It started to rain at lake level. Snow on the benchland, deep  snow higher up where the crash site was, obliterating the SOS tromped out  the night before, and dampening down the fire the survivors were huddled  around.  12 noon. Lunch time and no further bulletins.  1 p.m. The children down for rests. "Have a little sleep now, and maybe  you'll be awake when Santa comes tonight."  2 p.m. "Hi Marion, come on over while it is still light. I took my washing in and I've finished the floors. We can sit around the open fire and have  tea and oranges and save the electricity for tonight."  3 p.m. "Well kids, Daddy will be back soon and he'll bring back Gran-  pa from the bus depot I bet. Shall we have a game or a story. No, it is too dark  to go outside to play and much too wet. We can't even see the lights of Summerland."  4 p.m. "Maybe you should start the chores now Marion, I know it is  awfully early, but it may take you awhile on your own, and I'll watch the kids  here, and give them supper if you aren't back from the barn before they get  hungry. Better take a lantern in case the electricity goes off, I know it can't  last much longer, but with all these kids I don't want to have lamps. . . Okay  kids, who needs to go to the bathroom? How many still dry? No one?"  5 p.m. A knock at the door.  "Santa" shouted the kids.  "Victor" prayed Mrs. Wilson. "Or Marion, but then she'll go back to her  house and I'll be waiting alone."  The figure in the doorway was an old man, carrying a big heavy suitcase,  but he wasn't wearing a red suit and a jolly smile.  "Father! Look, it's Grandpa, come in, I'll make tea! Victor's up at the  plane wreck. These are the O'Connell children, two of them — Frank is at the  plane wreck too. Marion is doing the milking. . . Oh father, I'm so sorry, how  far did you have to walk?"  "The last two miles. The taxi wouldn't come any farther. I . . ." 131  Marion arrived at the door with the milk buckets.  Suddenly, silently all the lights went off.  Silently the old man took a box of matches from his pocket and handed  them to his daughter, silhouetted against the glow from the fireplace.  "Thank you father," she said in a shaky voice. I know we don't seem very  organized, but we do have some matches — somewhere."  FROM SAGEBRUSH TO FRUIT TREES IN OSOYOOS  by Adam Cumine  Osoyoos and Oliver, as most of you know, were started by Premier John  Oliver for the veterans of the First World War. The irrigation canal was  started in the early 1920's when the property consisting of several thousand  acres was purchased from the Tom Ellis estate, which had been a large cattle  ranch, extending from the border to Okanagan Falls. The area that I settled  in was a barren waste of sagebrush and greasewood. For the first sixteen years  there wasn't any electricity in Osoyoos. We used coal oil lamps, the old sad  irons and for fuel the wood from the mountains. During the summer we used  the water from the canal for domestic purposes. Many a time there would be a  dead animal in it which the Ditch Rider would have to remove. On one occasion I had to rescue a deer by lassooing him, and after so saving him, he  charged me. Another time I pulled out three live sheep from the canal and  they promptly jumped right back in again. Until we got a well dug I hauled  water from the lake with a stoneboat and barrel. In time we started cutting  and storing ice for refrigeration. In those days the ice on the lake could be  from 18 to 24 inches thick.  With respect to myself, I joined the Army in 1914 and was discharged in  1917. After that I returned to the Cariboo Country where I had gone as a boy  in 1912. I think I should mention this as an incident took place which was  largely responsible for my coming to the Okanagan Valley. At that time I was  foreman on a ranch on the Chilcotin River. Girls were as scarce as hen's teeth  and we thought nothing of riding 50 to 60 miles to a barn dance in hopes of  meeting a girl.  One day as I was riding along the high bank of the river, far below I saw  a girl on horseback. I happened to glance up the river and spotted another  rider who saw the same thing. This called for drastic action — the trail was  steep and crooked. We jabbed the spurs into our respective horses and over  the bank we went, taking all the short cuts. The other rider was close behind,  but, to make a long story short, I reached my objective in a cloud of dust. The  outcome was I married that girl two years later in 1928, in the little Anglican  Chapel in Penticton.  I came to Kelowna in 1926 and got a job thinning apples. This type of  work was entirely new to me. I couldn't understand why you had to hire a  man to pull apples off a tree when you were lucky enough to have a crop.  After that I went down the valley and landed a job at the Experimental Farm  at Summerland. While there, one day I went up into the hay mow to pitch  some hay to the team of horses I had been driving and suddenly I heard an  agonizing yell. It came from a foreman who was indulging in a siesta under 132  Rosemarie Com — January 22, 1930  the hay. I was then and there given a dishonourable discharge. I moved on  south to Oliver and as I looked down the dusty street it reminded me of old  Barkerville. Finally a man came out of one of the buildings. This man was  Henry Parsons whom many of you will remember. He directed me to the  Government Office as I was wanting information about available land. The  first person I saw was Major Earle who had been in my regiment in France. I  then came to Osoyoos with Mr. Mutch and after looking around I chose a 12  acre lot close to the canal and about 3/4 of a mile north of Osoyoos.  In those days there was only a small store with Post Office by the bridge,  plus the Customs House and corrals. On a hill to the west stood a log building  which had been a Hudson Bay Post, a jail and now a school house.  One of the residents was an old Irishman called Joe, who lived in a cabin  and subsisted largely on the profits from bootlegging. He kept his stock in a  hole in the sand. When a customer came along, he picked up his shovel, dug  up what was required and promptly covered the hole. Joe was arrested on  many occasions. If arrested in the summer he paid his fine, but if arrested in  the fall he chose Oakalla, as it meant free lodging and a new pair of boots  when discharged. Joe had another source of income. He owned a pair of the  meanest mules I have ever seen; they could kick, strike and bite with deadly  accuracy. He would periodically sell the mules to some unsuspecting customer  and in two or three weeks the mules would be back on the hillside at Osoyoos.  He eventually sold them to a man going to Saskatchewan, he tied them  behind a wagon and after much pulling back they had left Osoyoos for good. 133  During the prohibition era a good deal of liquor was smuggled across the  line, by boat on Osoyoos Lake, by pack horses and by Model T. The American purchaser would meet the bootlegger in some remote area on the boundary, make the transfer and the bootlegger would depart for another load.  On one occasion some friends of ours were out in a row boat on the lake on a  moonlight night, when they spied two bootleggers with a row boat full of liquor. For fun, they gave chase, the bootleggers were close to shore so they  dumped the load and scuttled into the brush.  Alongside of the land which I had purchased was an old construction  camp, known as Camp 10. I looked over all the buildings and found one that  did not leak and decided to move into this shack while I did some work on my  new homestead. I ordered some fluming lumber and built an irrigation  system on the place. Towards fall I was getting short of money, so I decided to  take in the harvest on the prairie. I was not in a position to buy my complete  fare, so I rode the rods most of the way. The crop around Calgary was still  green, so with several other gentlemen of the road, we caught a fast freight to  Lethbridge. In a few days the crops there were ready to cut. I was put in  charge of a crew of stookers and finally it was time to start threshing. This was  a big operation powered by a Case steam engine. I asked for the job as spike  pitcher which paid top wages. We ate breakfast in the dark and with three  meals and two lunches in between we worked till dusk. We slept in a travelling  caboose in two tiered bunks with all our clothes on. The air in that caboose by  midnight was terrific. We worked our way northward, threshing for farmers  along the route and finally, late in the fall, we had to stop for snow. I returned to Osoyoos with $700.00 and moved into the shed in Camp 10.  The next job was to build a house, as I was going to get married in the  spring. I decided on a very small house as I needed money to start farming.  This noble structure, which was 12 feet x 12 feet, held a bed, a couple of apple boxes for chairs and a stand in one corner for a gasoline pressure stove.  There was also room for my future wife's trunk, and a goodly supply of nails  driven into the walls for hanging clothes.  The next thing was to get a horse and some harness. I bought an old  black in Osoyoos for $35.00. I then went across the line and after some stiff  bargaining with a Jewish second-hand dealer, I bought a second-hand horse  collar, a set of names and traces and a piece of rope for lines. The fabulous  outfit cost me $3.75. I also bought a six inch plow which the black horse could  handle.  The next job was to plow up four acres of land for the coming crop. My  knowledge of this type of farming was nil. How to plant cataloupes or what  they looked like, I hadn't the slightest idea. Nevertheless, I planted 4 acres of  cantaloupes and much to my surprise they came up beautifully.  Now I was ready to get married, so I went to Penticton to meet my future  bride. I met her at the old railroad station, along with her loaded down  trunk, a half-grown black dog and an oldtime gramaphone. That afternoon  we were married and the next morning we came south in Arnott's stage. We  disembarked from the stage, and as we neared our house, my wife commented on an unpleasant smell. I informed her that it was an over-ripe can of  sourdough sitting on a fencepost. Much to my disgust she bought yeast in  packages from that moment on. 134  Because the mice had been eating some of the cantaloupe plants, my  wife spent her honeymoon transplating cantaloupes. Well, we had a wonderful crop of melons; we packed out 1,000 40-pound crates. On my visits to the  packing house it seemed to me they were packing the culls and tossing out the  good ones. The net result for my work was $400.00.  We then decided to go up the valley and find work. To do so, we would  need a car, so we bought a disreputable old Model T for $175.00. Neither of  us could drive, so we practiced by driving on the open prairie below our farm.  We then started north with the black dog, some pots and pans and some blankets. The first job was picking peaches for C A. C. Stewart in Oliver. We  then continued up the valley. A few miles from Westbank the old car started  to act up. How we managed to get on the ferry, which was a small scow, is  now beyond me. We drove up Bernard Avenue in Kelowna in a rather erratic  manner. We soon learned what dirty spark plugs did to a Model T.  In Kelowna my wife got a job sorting fruit and I went to work at the  Black Mountain dam. We returned in the late fall with $800.00.  When we got home I built a small greenhouse and decided to grow  tomatoes. Much to my amazement we grew a nice lot of plants. I was told that  unless I had them early the results would be disappointing; yet, if I planted  before the snow was gone off Mt. Kobau we could have frost. I decided to take  a chance and put out 3,000 plants and they appeared to be doing well. Some  nine days later the weather turned cold and there was every indication of  frost. I harnessed up the old black horse, hitched him up to the little plow and  went up and down the rows of tomatoes and plowed a light layer of soil over  the plants. We had three nights of heavy frost. On the fourth day I started to  uncover the plants. After two days on my hands and knees, I was back in busi-  1928 —" Our first crop — cantaloupes grown between rows of corn for wind break.  We harvested 1,000 - 40 pound crates of cantaloupes for which we received $400.00! 135  ness. That year we were first on the open market and made some $1,200.00.  The next year I bought 3,000 second-hand gunny sacks, cut them in half and,  as I planted, laid a half sack by each plant. That year we again did very well.  That spring we had also planted 1,300 young fruit trees. The following  winter was extremely cold and by the following spring we had lost them all excepting some 65 or so trees. This was a severe blow.  Our little farm was an oasis in the desert so we had a good crop of rattlesnakes. A portion of the place was in hay, and I was compelled to wear gum  boots. Several people were bitten but all survived.  We had a doctor in Oliver, very able, but extremely shy. One day I went  up to him with a badly cut hand and found him out in the middle of the dusty  street with his feet protruding from under a Model T. He took me up to his  shack and, as we entered the door, a snake started to rattle. He was experimenting with a large rattler and bull snake which he kept in an old trunk. He  reached under his bed, pulled out an apple box, and selected what he wanted  to dress my hand. He never sent out any bills and was compensated with  vegetables and the odd meal.  During the early twenties several families lived on Richter Mountain.  They had homesteaded their land and grew wheat, but we were entering a dry  cycle, and eventually they all left excepting Miss Mackenzie.  This remarkable woman had been born in Boston and as a girl had  developed T.B. She and her brother had decided to come west. They arrived  in Osoyoos and went on to Phoenix in a covered wagon. She worked in  Phoenix for some years washing clothes for the miners. When the mine played  out she returned to Osoyoos and homesteaded on Richter Mountain. She was  very religious and considered moving picture houses as places of evil. When  she left Boston she had bought a pair of reading glasses and had them all her  life. Over the years one of the lenses had developed a bad crack. She became  so shortsighted, that she practically had to put her nose on the subject.  Her log cabin was a rather drafty affair and at night one could see the  stars through the cracks. No wonder she recovered from T.B. On one of my  visits I found her mixing some concoction in a skillet. With her right hand she  stirred the mixture and in her left hand she held a large old Bible. With her  nose practically touching the page she mumbled her interpretation of the  written script.  One bitterly cold spell, after paying us a visit, she insisted on going home  despite the fact that there was every indication of a blizzard. She got caught in  the blizzard and spent the night in a doorless cabin without a fire. The next  morning, guided by the telephone line, she battled her way to the top of the  mountain and to her cabin. This remarkable woman lived to a good old age.  As not enough veterans settled in the valley the land was thrown open to  everyone. This brought in a large influx of Europeans. In the early years we  had an unwritten law that we would not allow Orientals into the valley as they  would soon put us out of business. Eventually, a lone Chinaman arrived in  Oliver. After a conference it was decided to remove him and a certain party  was appointed to do the job. While the Chinaman was asleep a sack was placed over his head, he was put into a Model T and taken to the top of the mountain and dumped in the brush. This solved the Oriental problem.  My knowledge of Doukhobors was nil. One day I hired a young man to 136  help me with the crop. After a week he failed to show up for work so I went to  his cabin and I could see that there had been a scuffle. A few days afterwards  I received a scribbled note to the effect that he had met the same fate as the  Chinaman. However, during the next years we depended entirely on Doukhobors for orchard help.  During the early twenties a fast talking individual came into the valley  and assured the farmers that if we were to grow tobacco, he would arrange to  sell it. Consequently a large area of tobacco was planted and a fine grade of  Viriginia and Burley leaf was produced. The Government was induced to  build large barns to store the crop. A call went out for someone who understood how to cure tobacco. A man called Jim was discovered in New  Westminster and brought to the valley. This man was a typical Carolina hill  billy, and a very dangerous character when drunk. He made his own brew  and as I lived across the road from him, I therefore saw a good deal of him.  When in trouble, which was quite often, he invariably called me. He told me  that as a boy in Carolina, a family who lived in the next hollow, and with  whom his kin folk had been feuding for years, had one dark night, broken into his papa's house and killed his brother and daddy. Jim escaped into the  woods. Then and there he decided to leave Carolina and he finally settled in  New Westminster. One day, some years later, he saw one of the family that  had killed his kinfolk. Jim procured a gun, walked up to the man and shot  him dead. He was tried and found guilty of murder. After the judge had  heard his story, he was given life imprisonment. While in prison, he asked the  warden for permission to grow a vegetable garden and he was so successful  with his work, that he became a model prisoner. In view of his good  behaviour, he was released after serving nine years.  In Osoyoos he built a high, narrow shed, installed a woodburning stove,  and demonstrated to us all how to cure tobacco. He certainly knew his  business. The outcome of all our work was that the crop was never sold and  for years we were smoking our own tobacco.  Old Jim had a run-in with a Swiss neighbour and, when drunk, swore he  was going to gun him down. We took good care that he never got his hands on  a gun. He referred to the Swiss famly as "them there Switches." Delicious apples he referred to as "them there Malicious."  One day he fell off the roof of his cabin and had a deep gash on the top of  his skull; it was a deep and nasty wound. I heard him calling and rushed up to  his cabin and found his head and face covered in blood. I suggested bandages  until I could get a doctor, but he would have no such thing. He told me to  reach under his bunk for a dark bottle. He then told me to turn the bottle upside down and to pour a good portion of the contents into the wound. He then  asked for a bottle on the shelf and he had a good drink of the contents of that  bottle. I asked him, later on, what the first bottle contained and he replied  that it was "Sloan's horse linament" and the second bottle was home brew. He  recovered fully, and again vowed to get them there "Switches". He died in his  nineties, still full of hell.  Eventually the orchards in the valley began to bear fruit and ground  cropping faded out. The years of depression finally receded and semi-  prosperity came to the valley. 137  A JUICY TALE  by Mary Gartrell Orr  "Remember the 'Clay Cliffs' in the Fortieth Report? I forgot to tell you  the juicy bit.  There were and still are many deep, dangerous potholes which result in  such news items as that from 'The Summerland Review' of October 22, 1926.  'Mark Scurrah's dog fell into a pothole while he was hunting pheasants and  Mark's brother, Phil, went down a rope about sixty feet to rescue her'.  Across the road from the Landry Farm meadows at the north end of  Trout Creek Point steep clay cliffs rose to flatten out into the orchards of the  W. A. Caldwell family.  During the 1930's codling moth had got out of control and as there was  at that time no use for cull apples, Mr. Caldwell and his sons got the contract  to dispose of the culls. In addition, in 1935 early heavy frosts froze between 20  and 30,000 boxes of apples so these, with the culls, were dumped into the  potholes bordering the Caldwell property. In the spring they were covered  with a foot of soil. Gradually the apples rotted and fermented. The weight of  the soil forced the juice out and it seeped down through the potholes, under  the road into the fields below.  Grazing on the Landry Farm meadows was a herd of Jersey cows.  The pungent odors from the fermented juice drew clouds of frantically  buzzing bees and wasps and we natives remain convinced those Jerseys showed  varying degrees of intoxication."  The writer is indebted to John Caldwell for assistance with the fruit  dumping details.  The Landry Barn and Silo as sketched by Jamey Mitchels, February 1982 for the Heritage  Poster Competition sponsored by the Summerland Heritage Advisory Committee.  Jamey Mitchels was a Grade VII student at Trout Creek Elementary School when he made his  sketch.   Since then the silo has been torn down. 138  FUN IN TWENTY-ONE  MEMORIES OF A BOYHOOD IN KELOWNA  by Cedric M. Boyer  My maternal grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. J. L. Doyle, came to Kelowna  in 1905 and purchased five or six acres with a house bounded by Ellis Street,  Doyle Avenue and St. Paul Street. My grandfather went to work for D. W.  Sutherland in his furniture store and later became the first city assessor.  Mr. and Mrs. G. E. Boyer, my parternal grandparents, arrived in  Kelowna in 1903 and purchased a farm on Benvoulin Road. Grandfather was  a staunch member of the old Protestant Church on this road, and I understand he donated the church bell. He sold the farm and built a house on Glenmore Road, then known as the Old Vernon road. Subsequently he purchased  the corner of Glenmore and Bernard Avenue (where Peoples Food Market  now stands) from the Bankhead Orchard Company, and built a home on it.  They moved in before the plaster was dry and grandfather developed  pneumonia from which he died.  Prior to being the customs officer in Kelowna, my father was the agent  for Layritz Nurseries for several years. This was the period when there was a  great flurry of orchard planting in the valley. He had a ten acre block for  nursery stock on the Barlee Stretch where Orchard Park now stands. Also he  owned an acre on the corner of Harvey Avenue and Glenmore Street which  was planted with the ornamental shrubs that he sold. On this property he  built the home in which I was born, in 1910.  In 1921, I was 11 years old, about the age that most things that a boy  does are based on fun. Today there is a great emphasis on organized sports  and they often cost a fair amount of money. In my youth the family budget  did not allow much for recreation, but it seemed that there was always  something for a boy to do in Kelowna in 1921.  When spring opened up it meant that we could get outdoors again after  spending a lot of time playing cards and getting our stamp collections in  order. This was the time to visit the endless number of ponds and sloughs  around Kelowna and see all of mother nature's creations awaken. Pollywogs,  beetles, water bugs, turtles and garter snakes have always fascinated small  boys.  An interesting sidelight here deals with a question I have often heard asked — Why is Pandosy/Lakeshore such a crooked road? In those days to get  from one point to another there would be a cattle trail, then a people trail  and finally a wagon road. These would follow the high ground and bypass the  swampy areas. Many roads were much more twisted than they are today.  When the gates were put on the river at Penticton to control the rise and fall  of the lake, many of the swampy areas dried up and they could take the kinks  out of some roads. An example of this is the high gravel ridge running  through Gyro Park indicating where the road used to be. Before the flood  gates at Penticton, there were few homes built on the lakeshore. There was  too much flooding.  One of our favourite haunts was Dr. Boyce's muskrat farm at the corner  of KLO Road and Lakeshore Road. It took in a large area of swampy ground  including the Mission Park Shopping Centre area. Besides the many  muskrats, it was full of water fowl and other birds. 139  Going for hikes in the spring was an anticipated pastime. On the north  side of Knox Mountain, down on the lakeshore, a German gentleman of  means owned a beautiful piece of property. Rembler Paul built a cement  vault with a steel door in the hollowed out rocky hillside. When he died he was  interred there and the place was known to us as Paul's Tomb. Because the  mountain dried up early, it was one of the first locations for a hike. There  were two ways to get there, by a trail along the lakeshore, or up and over the  mountain. The south slope was covered with the earliest spring flowers and  cactus. Another destination was up and over the Turtle's Back, a large rock  outcropping on the centre of the mountain. Nestled on top was Kathleen  lake, named for Kathleen Morrison.  A fascinating hike was to Bear Creek on the Westside, but this was not  made as often for it meant taking the ferry. It seemed a long way from home.  We would make our way up to the falls which are hard to get to, but well  worth the trip. We were always warned to keep a sharp lookout for rattlesnakes which were fairly common.  Another spot that was interesting was Gallagher's Canyon. As it was some  distance away, bikes were used for part of the trip. Because the Kelowna area  is a large flat delta, most kids had bicycles. We would walk up the creek as far  as we could go, up to the rapids and falls. We passed a mineral spring on the  north side that gushed out of the gravel into the creek staining all the rocks a  yellow-brown. Also the trip took us through the old workings left by the  Chinese gold miners years before.  This reminds me of another thing we used to have a lot of fun doing. We  would go to Mission and Bear Creeks with our gold pans. We always got colour and each kid had his little vial with a very small quantity of gold dust. I  began to realize the fascination that drove the prospectors to the bonanza over  the next hill.  The blacksmith shops were regular stopping places for us boys. There  were two in town, one on Water Street and the other on Bernard Avenue. The  smell of scorching hooves as the shoes were fitted and the sparks that flew  when the brawny smithies were at the forge were odours and sights never to be  forgotten. I'm sure we all wondered if we would ever grow up to be that  strong. One of the smithies, Max Jenkins, was known as the most powerful  man in town. Although I did not witness it, the story goes that one Saturday  Max was to lie on his back on the main street, and one of these new-fangled  automobiles was to be driven over his chest. I understand that a sloping ramp  was built up to his chest and the feat was a complete success.  Marbles and kites were sure signs that spring had arrived. As soon as the  streets and sidewalks were dry enough, groups of boys were on their knees  playing marbles. We carried our glass shooters and our clay dubs in Bull  Durham sacks. The blustery winds that dried up the last of the wet spring  fields were the signal for us to build our kites. Few were purchased from stores  as we had so much fun constructing our own, and such a great feeling of accomplishment when they flew well.  Almost every year the circus came to town and usually it included a  parade down the main street with the band, clowns, acrobats and wild  animals. It was fun to go to the chosen site and watch the men and the  elephants raise the big top. On a couple of occasions several of us pooled our  small change to pay the admission to the big tent at show time for a couple of 140  fellows. When they got in, their job was to quietly sneak behind the seats and  raise the canvas when the coast was clear. When I think back, I am sure the  circus people knew what was going on.  Airplanes were a very novel and fascinating thing to young boys. The  first one I ever saw up close flew over town heading south and landed on the  polo grounds, a large field approximately where the Shasta trailer court is today. We ran all the way from town to stare in amazement. A few years later,  the first float plane arrived on a barnstorming trip at Regatta time. I went up  in this plane for a ride. It was an open cockpit and the pilot was charging by  the pound (I think it was a cent a pound). What a thrill! I remember the other  kids who went up being so envious of me because when the pilot came in to  land he had to go up and around again for a sailing race was in progress  where he normally landed.  One of our favorite games was nobbies. It was based on lacrosse but the  equipment was inexpensive. Each player had a stick. This was a carefully  selected sapling about % of an inch thick and about three feet long. The bottom end of the stick was cut off so as to leave two inches of a branch on it at an  angle. It was shaped something like a miniature hockey stick. The nobbies  consisted of two pieces cut from a rubber garden hose, each about one inch  long tied together with a stout piece of cord. This game was played on any  empty field with anywhere from three to a dozen players on each side. You  could see nobbies hanging on the telephone and electric wires all over town.  We also played a lot of soccer, provided we could find a friend who owned a ball.  Baseball and softball raised the same equipment problem — we had to  have someone who owned a ball and a bat. Baseball gloves were few and far  between, but the odd catcher's mitt was around. When I look around now for  the fields we played on, I find they are covered with homes, apartment blocks,  and condominiums.  In summer, swimming was the big thing. The whole lakeshore was ours,  from Poplar Point to the Mission area, and we used most of it. A few of us put  our talent to commercial use. We would go down to the CPR wharf and meet  the old paddlewheel Sicamous when she came in. We'd dive for nickles and  dimes that the passengers threw in. This was spending money. We each had a  spot on a beam among the pilings where we stored our treasure while we went  after another nickel or dime. No one ever touched anybody elses hoard. The  odd money tosser would get cursed for wrapping a copper in silver paper. A  couple of places we liked to go swimming were Sterling's wharf — Sterling's  Island. This was a sandy spit in low water which became an island in high  water. The other place was at one time called Rotary Beach. Actually it was  on Indian land immediately south of the old ferry dock on the west side. The  problem here again was the ferry. The last one in the evening was at 11:00  p.m. so if there were girls along we had to be darn sure we didn't miss it.  Some of us belonged to the Boy Scouts and the annual scout camp was  eagerly anticipated. It usually lasted about ten days and was held on the  lakeshore delta at Cedar Creek about ten miles south of town. We seemed to  be so isolated out in God's country. A great deal of gratitude must go to the  late Bud Weddell, the Scout Master for years, and to the late Alistair  Cameron who every year supplied the pack horses and was our guide on two  or three day hikes. We learned so much from these tolerant men. Two 141  memorable hikes were to the top of Little White and to the top of Terrace  Mountain.  Many of the sports we indulged in were not known to our parents or there  would have been some premature greying. A favorite after-school activity was  running the log booms, jumping from log to log. The booming grounds was  where the yacht club moorage is now.  At night we played a game called "Duck on the Rock." The kids in the  area would gather under a street light after the evening meal. Again no  equipment was required. A rock as large as a baseball was placed on top of a  much bigger rock and a line was drawn about 15 feet away. Each kid had  their own throwing rock and in turn stepped up to the line and tried to knock  the duck off the rock. This would go on until ranks thinned out as the parents  called them home.  And there was always fishing. We would go to the back door of the local  bakery and get some bread dough. This, a fishing line and a hook and we  were set to fish from the CPR wharf or the sawmill wharf next door. We  caught greyling, carp, suckers and squaw fish. If any of these was any size we  took them down to Chinatown and sold them for a few cents to the Chinamen  — another source of spending money.  Summer passed all too quickly and fall was upon us. When the Viriginia  Creeper leaves turned red we knew the Kickaninny would be running in Mill  and Mission Creeks. We made a gaff from a fairly long pole, to which we attached a length of sturdy wire bent into a hook and filed to a very sharp point.  From the sides of the creeks we would gaff the fish and put them on the bank.  In those days I don't think it was illegal to gaff Kokanee, but if it was the local  authorities turned a blind eye.  The Fall Fair was something no one missed. It was a well organized event  lasting about three days. The Exhibition Building in the north end of town  was built to accommodate the fair. There was a track for horse racing and  chutes and an enclosure for rodeos.  Hallowe'en was eagerly anticipated. I never saw any real damage or vandalism, but plenty of pranks — gates hanging on telephone poles, outhouses  tipped over, windows soaped and similar things. Once we opened a school  window and passed in enough cord wood to pile every teacher's desk high. We  went to bed that night with a great feeling of accomplishment. Next morning  we found we were all detailed to pack it back out and pile it. We had help  though because all the boys in the school were suspect.  Basketball started in the fall and carried on into the spring. Kelowna was  a basketball town for a good many years. The scout hall and every church hall  that was big enough was used almost every day after school and every evening.  Soon winter arrived. I've often heard people say that we had a lot more  snow back then. I wonder if perhaps it was that our legs were so short as kids  that we remember snow up to our knees.  As soon as there was snow on the ground to stay, we were off to the  Bankhead hills. There were a lot of wonderful slopes in that area for  sleighing. Some kids had sleighs, a few toboggans, and many arrived with a  cardboard box or just a sheet of cardboard. Later, as they got a little older  some of the venturesome fashioned skis from barrel staves. No matter what  equipment was used we arrived home late, starving and frequently soaking  wet. 142  Skating was not a really big thing back then because skates and boots  were expensive and being dependent on outside ice could be chancy. Some  winter seasons were short. I remember some green ones and some mild ones,  and I also remember a couple when the lake froze over. On one of the latter,  quite a few of us skated across the lake at the narrowest place, where the  bridge now lies. The Sicamous passed through cutting a channel about 40 feet  wide. We had to wait until the blocks of ice froze together again and then we  crossed jumping from block to block. There was a large roaring bonfire on  Siwash Point on the westside. We got thoroughly warm and then returned.  Most of the winters there was ice along the lakeshore and on Mill Creek.  There were also a few ponds that provided skating for a short time. These  have almost all been filled in now. Some of the older boys played hockey on  Whittup's Pond and Bankhead Pond. The latter could only be used until  Henry Burtch started cutting the ice for storage. The large blocks were packed in sawdust in a large ice house adjacent to the pond. When the following  summer arrived he delivered these blocks to the homes in town with a horse  and wagon. We used to run to follow the ice wagon and were rewarded with a  piece to suck on.  One of the last fun things that we used to do before the year ended was to  go out into the bush and cut our own Christmas tree. Of course we didn't have  far to go to get a nice one. Some of us would go out and cut trees and gather  Oregon Grape and Cedar boughs which we sold around our neighborhood for  our Christmas shopping money.  Yes, we did have a lot of fun. I sometimes wonder how we managed to fit  so much into our days because we had to attend school and we all had chores  to do at home. There were wood boxes to fill, coal to bring in, hen houses to  keep clean, lawns to cut and potatoes to hoe. So many things to be done  around the home seemed to be designed to keep us out of mischief — I  wonder how we always managed to get into so much!  St. Stephen's Anglican Church - Summerland.  R. S. Manuel  Built around 1910. 143  MY EARLY DAYS IN KELOWNA  by Bill Knowles  As I have passed the 3 score and 10 I think I am entitled to reminisce  about my early days in Kelowna.  My Father J. B. Knowles and Mother Annie Louise MacKinley were born  and raised in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia. Mother lived on the edge  of the Avon River (Bay of Fundy) at Hansport and Dad a few miles away at  Windsor.  Life was hard in those days. On Mother's side diphtheria claimed three  of her brothers and sisters in ten days. I have a picture of the tomb stone. On  Dad's side his father had a successful newspaper business in Windsor. He  developed T.B. and passed away in his early 40s leaving a widow and six  children. The next year the oldest boy died and the following year the only  girl died. As if that wasn't enough the town of Windsor burned. They salvaged one tea cup out of the ashes and of course there was no insurance.  About 1905, when the boys were old enough they all moved west: one to  Chicago, one to Victoria, one to Vancouver and Dad to Kelowna. He served  his apprenticeship with Geo. E. Trorey (now Birk's) in Vancouver and then  wrote Mother that there were three towns open to start up a jewelry business.  She said if Kelowna was on a lake don't go any farther. She had lived too close  to the Fundy to want to give up being near water.  They met in Revelstoke, got married and came here to spend the rest of  their days. I recently came across an old clipping dated March, 1906, which I  think is worth including. It goes "Mr. J. B. Knowles arrived on the Aberdeen  with his bride from Revelstoke, where the marriage took place. His friends  punished him for being married away from home with showers of rice, to the  regret of the Chinese standing about, who evidently thought it was a waste of  good food."  Our home made canvas covered canoe. 144  Mother was 40 odd years ahead of her time. She was a career woman and  worked at Dad's side till they retired. They opened up the store across from  Ogopogo at the foot of Bernard Avenue which in those days was the busy end  of town. Their first house was not quite on the outskirts of town but nearly. It  was on the corner of Ethel and Bernard. A year or so later there was a rumor  that I may be making an appearance into this world so they built a larger  house in the same field. It still stands. There were very few houses in that  area. The David Lloyd and the Curt houses were also on the corner of Ethel  and Bernard. Across a field from our place stood the big Dave Leckie house at  781 Bernard Avenue, near the United Church.  Sunday was truly the Sabbath day and, not being satisfied with just going  to church, a group would end up at our house to sing hymns around the  piano. The one lady that used to stand out in my mind was May Duggan. She  married Percy Harding. Result: Gwen, Lynn, Terry, Roy, Ken, Doug and  Joyce Harding.  Traffic on the main street posed no problem for kids. I used to ride my  pedal car in front of the house and if a car should come along you could hear  it for blocks and it was probably only going ten miles an hour. The odd horse  and buggy went by in the summer and horse and sled with bells jingling in the  winter.  When I was three or four we moved to a rented house on Ethel Street  about two blocks away. I never heard exactly why we gave up that place as it  was a hushed subject but I always felt it had something to do with the death of  my sister.  Horses being the bane of my life, I have a lot of memories of them during  our stay on Ethel Street. Thursday being a half holiday we often used to drive  out to the ranch at Rutland. The worry was, "Will we meet a car?" If we saw a  stream of dust and smoke coming towards us we knew we were in trouble. As  the snorting and backfiring drew closer the horse would start going into its  gyrations, twisting and curling in the shaft while Dad gently tugged on the  reins trying to console the terrified animal. Finally when the iron monster  drew up beside us the horse would rear up on its hind legs and often end on its  rump in the middle of the road. When the dust cleared Dad would get out  and try to pull up the beast by the reins.  One day the Peltons and ourselves drove off in our buggies for a picnic in  the hills. The Peltons were ahead when their horse started to act up. Trouble  was coming. Possibly a chipmunk crossed its path. Anyway, I can still see Mr.  Pelton jump out of the buggy, grab his wife and lift her out just as the horse  and buggy went over the bank rolling several times with the picnic basket,  cutlery, napkins and thermos all taking to the air. So much for the picnic.  Another incident involved the very popular businessman, the late Jim  Haworth, yes, of Haworth and Son Jewellers. Jim served his apprenticeship  with Dad. I'll include part of a letter from Dad dated August 22nd, 1917 re  Jim's application. The letter states:  Mr. J. Haworth  Vernon, B.C.  Dear Sir:  I am in receipt of your letter of the 20th inst. Believe from what  you write that you suit me nicely, and would offer you $60.00 sixty 145  dollars per month with an increase as you progress. Should like you  to assist some in the front shop. Think it would be nice as soon as  possible to get yourself watchmakers tools. Your position would be  permanent.  Yours very truly,  J. B. Knowles  One day Jim was delivering a grandfather clock on Charlie Nichol's dray. Little Willy sat on the back for the ride. As we crossed Pandosy Street bridge I  found myself sitting in the middle of the road. Turning around I could see  Jim running behind the wagon holding up one end of the clock and yelling  out to Charlie to slow down. Jim was a good runner which was proved by the  fact that he saved the clock.  Runaway horses were quite a common occurrence. It is hard today to  realize how quiet the town was but someone would call out "Runaway horses"  and several blocks away you'd see a team take off minus the driver. Often they  would end up between somebody's fence and a tree.  The most scary incident that happened was when Mother drove up to the  house, got out of the buggy and started to unharness the horse. For some  reason the horse bolted, knocking her down. Both wheels ran over her. The  buggy took the gate and part of the fence with it as the horse raced for the  store. Poor Mother was laid up for weeks as iron rimmed wheels on those buggies were lethal weapons.  We had a collie dog named Sailor, a true Nova Scotia name. Sailor was a  harmless creature, but he had a nasty habit of always sleeping in front of the  store door and people were loath to step over him. Very bad for business. As  he was scared to death of a gun or thunder, Dad hit on a clever idea. He went  over to Chinatown and got a package of 100 firecrackers. They were legal  then. He tied them to the dog's tail, lit them and then watched it take off up  Bernard like a rock. Every firecracker was music to Dad's ears as he knew  business would return to normal.  Dogs were a plague then as now, but they were handled a little differently. I had some pet rabbits which were being killed off too regularly to suit us.  This happened in a very wet spring when everything was covered in mud.  Finally, in desperation, Dad got out the double barrel and laid low the dog  but in the process blew quantities of mud on the neighbor's house. They never  could figure out how it got there. Cats were a nuisance sometimes too. If they  got too boisterous on your roof the same elimination process was used  sometimes necessitating a few new shingles if the aim was too low.  As you probably gather, Ethel Street was very rural. We lived just about  where Martin meets Ethel. I remember only the Patterson house between our  place and Knox Mountain. It was located about where the Saint Pius X  Catholic Church is on Glenmore Street. The rest was hay fields and orchards.  When I was about seven we bought a lovely Dutch Colonial house on  Glenn Avenue (now Lawrence). That was my introduction to indoor plumbing, which was great until the really cold weather set in. The bathroom wasn't  designed for this climate being on the north side and over the front hall. Insulation was unheard of. During dinner sometimes there would be a bang and  a hiss. We knew what had happened and Mother would run for the bucket 146  and mop and Dad would head for the basement to shut off the water. The  plumber did well out of us.  Joking aside it was a lovely house especially for parties. The dining room,  large front hall and living room were across the front, all divided by double  sliding doors which made it nice for dancing. We probably would have kept it  for a long time if the depression hadn't set in. Dad lost it, the property on  Bankhead, the store and the business. They had to start over again by making  the camp at Manhattan into a house. That is where we live today.  It was on Glenn Avenue that we finally got rid of the horse and buggy. It  was traded in on a used Chevrolet 490. The 490 stood for the price it sold for  when new. The one reliable thing about the car was that it might let you  down, but it wouldn't run away on you. It couldn't. Thirty-one miles per hour  was its limit.  A few years ago I tracked down an old school friend, Alf Alsgard. He  told me how fed up his Mother got with his Dad for filling the yard with trade-  in horses and buggies. Probably our hay burner was amongst them.  When I was fourteen Dad and I built a canoe. We got round wooden  cheese barrels and sliced them in 2" pieces for ribs. We made patterns to  shape it. We ran strips Vi" x 2" from bow to stern. Then the whole was  covered with canvas and painted. However, because we had not steamed  them, the ribs tended to work their way back to the original barrel shape with  the result that the canoe was terribly cranky. One day Jack Packham and I  took it out and tried to catch up to Russell Leckie and his girl (whom he later  married) in his sail boat. I warned Jack not to kneel but he did and over we  went. We left the canoe at the Aquatic Club and had to walk through town in  our soaking clothes. After one more accident like that I had to get rid of it  and next year Dad got me a nice Peterborough canoe for $85.00 from Joe  Spurrier's Sport Shop. The next few years some of us fellows canoed the lake  from one end to the other. One year Frank Fumerton, Gordie Meikle, Russell  Williams and I took two canoes to Penticton, down the winding Okanagan  River to Dog Lake (Skaha) and camped at the mouth of the river. We had the  whole area to ourselves. Not a soul for miles.  That canoe that Dad made me started me on a recreational activity  which was to last a long time. Later Joyce and I took up canoeing quite  seriously after our girls left home. Among the rivers we have run are the Kettle from Rock Creek through Washington to Grand Forks, the Red Deer from  Red Deer to Drumheller, the Similkameen, the Kootenay, the Parsnip, South  Thompson, Yellowstone in Montana, Colorado below the Hoover Dam,  Okanogan from Oroville to Brewster in Washington and the Fraser from  Lillooet to Lytton, plus the Clearwater and Azure Lakes, Dry Falls Lake in  Washington, Mono Lake in California and Cameron Lake in Alberta. All this  because of that small canoe made of cheese barrels.  Around 1923 we managed to aspire to a new Star car. Cars were coming  into their own by then and were fairly dependable. I always remember one  family, the Elmores, who pooled the money they made from working in the  packinghouse and bought a new 1925 Star. The car had balloon tires and  power to spare. Les asked me to go out on the Barlee stretch with him to see if  we could go 55 miles per hour. What a disappointment! Going up we could  only get 51 miles per hour, so we turned around about opposite Orchard Park 147  and headed down. Hanging on to the doors to keep them from flying open we  roared it up to the magic 55.  As we old timers are prone to say "Things were relaxed in those days."  The Aquatic in summer was the centre of our swimming and evening entertainment. On Saturday nights, weather permitting, we would paddle over to  the dance and hopefully talk a girl into sitting in the canoe to listen to the  music over the calm waters.  One year I played the drums in an orchestra there and made $7.50 for  three hours work. That was big money compared to what I made working in  the sawmill for 25 cents per hour for 10 hours a day 6 days a week and no coffee breaks.  After the dances we'd use the red light at Manhattan Point as a beacon to  paddle home. There were no lights from the power house (Yacht Club parking lot) to Manhattan so you needed the light for a guide as there were several  wharves protruding out for the CP. and C.N. tugboats and barges.  In closing I feel I have lived in the most interesting era in history and certainly in the nicest town that the folks could have picked out. The steamship  was just really coming into its own. The automobile was a novelty. I have seen  it grow from a horseless carriage (there is one in our museum) to what it is today. The kids have their electronic age ahead of them which I am sure will be  terribly exciting, but I have no regrets coming into the world in the early 20th  century. We thought it was a fast age. Really, now, wasn't it when you could  go 55 miles per hour providing the grade was right, compared to a horse and  buggy's plodding pace?  Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Grindrod.  The church was built in 1924.  R. S. Manuel 148  A BOLD INCISION  by Paddy Clerke  I purchased the Kelowna Veterinary Hospital on January 1, 1954.  Although I had worked with the former owner since the previous August, I  asked him to stay on with me until the end of February so I would have the  comfort of his experience in practice for the additional two months.  March first came early that year. So early, in fact, I'm not sure if there  was even a January or a February in 1954. March first fell on a Monday, and I  suppose that was as good a day as any to strike out in practice all by myself. At  least it was the first day of the working week but I didn't really feel that that  was of any particular significance. The closest veterinarian was thirty-three  miles north in Vernon. He may as well have been in Halifax for all the comfort that gave me. There was no practitioner in Penticton forty miles south.  The closest diagnostic laboratory was in Vancouver and the only veterinary library was my own incomplete collection of books. Even my mother,  to whom I had always gone during times of difficulties and danger lived in  Vernon.  I was absolutely on my own; no one to talk with about diagnosis; no one  to help or direct me during anaesthetics and surgery. I was the sole proprietor  of a very busy, long-established, mixed practice. Even more frightening was  the new mortgage tucked away in my safety deposit box at the bank, the  figures of which I couldn't even comprehend.  Except for my wife and two small children, I was alone. Every time someone came through the office door or every time the phone rang, I was the sole  person responsible for a decision that was going to affect the well-being of  some valuable animal or some faithful pet. I was petrified. My wife and  children were depending on me. My banker was counting on me. There was  just no way I could allow myself to fail. In my hour of truth, I had to be  resolute. I had no other choice.  On March first I was up shortly after it got light, made breakfast and  checked the dogs and cats in the hospital below our living quarters. Soon the  phone started to ring. As I was doing between fifteen and twenty-five artificial  inseminations a day for dairy farmers in the area, most early morning calls  concerned this part of my practice. That was fine. I could handle that easily.  My first patient was a sick chinchilla. Then I had to bloodtest a bull,  check a sick cow I had been treating for a few days, mix and dispense different medications for three farmers, treat a sick dog and amputate the tail of  another dog. Whew! I handled everything and had no problems. My confidence was building and I felt this practicing bit wasn't so difficult or nerve-  wracking after all.  Then I remembered: I was only at the end of day one. Days two to nine  were routine too. I was beginning to think practice was super fun and I loved  it. At eleven o'clock in the morning of day ten I received a call that brought  me down to reality.  "This is Mrs. Ring speaking from Woodsdale. We have a cow that has  been trying to calve since early this morning and she doesn't seem to be making any headway. She's a week overdue, too, so I'm a bit concerned. My husband, Harry, is away at work and won't be home until after five this evening.  Before he left this morning, he asked me to call you by noon if she hadn't calv- 149  ed. I just couldn't wait another hour. I hope you can come and see her soon."  "Is this her first calf, Mrs. Ring?"  "No. This will be her third or fourth calf. She's seven years old."  "I'll be right out," I answered.  Because I had not been to their farm before, Mrs. Ring gave me directions. It was about fourteen miles north of Kelowna, near the south end of  Wood Lake, on Ring Road. According to her, I couldn't miss it.  I was pretty excited when I hung up the phone. This was going to be the  first calf I had delivered without someone to back me up if there were problems. I had delivered many calves before but had always had another veterinarian around in case there were difficulties with the delivery. I realized again  that I was on my own, but that didn't really concern me. Difficult deliveries in  cows were usually due to an improper positioning of the calf; it was usually  just a matter of straightening a leg or two, or lifting or turning a head, then  pulling the calf out. Occasionally, difficulties were due to incomplete  contractions of the uterus and it was just a matter of delivering the calf with a  pull. As it was not their cow's first calf, (usually the most difficult) I was confident everything was going to be routine. Within the hour, my youthful confidence was shattered by my inexperience.  After I gathered a few items together, I left my wife, Sheila, in charge of  the office. Together with my assistant, Gordon, and my daughter, Maureen,  who wasn't yet three, I took off for Mrs. Ring's farm in my station wagon.  Gordon didn't usually accompany me on large animal calls, but for some  reason he came that day. Maureen was almost always with me when I went  out in the country to see a sick cow, sheep, pig, goat or horse. She was always  well-behaved and I enjoyed her company. Besides, it was easier for Sheila to  look after the office and Maureen's younger brother if I took Maureen with  me. As for Maureen, she loved these outings.  Because it was a miserably cool, overcast March day, Sheila bundled  Marueen in her pink, down-filled snow suit with a fur-trimmed parka. It was  fortunate that Sheila had the foresight to put our daughter in her heavy  winter clothes, because poor little Maureen was destined to amuse herself in  my station wagon for the next four hours.  Even in the last days of winter, the Okanagan Valley is beautiful. Stark,  perhaps, but still very attractive. On our way to Woodsdale, I couldn't help  but notice the surrounding hills below the tree line were like a brown and  white patch-work quilt. Patches of snow still remained in sheltered spots but  the brown bunch grass of the previous summer showed through in the open  areas where the snow had melted. The tops of the surrounding hills, although  less than two thousand feet above the valley floor, were shrouded in low cloud  that seemed to creep into the gullies and ravines of the hills like ethereal  blankets of gray mist. South of Winfield, Duck Lake was still frozen over, but  was covered with a multitude of small squares where snow had been cleared  by skaters and hockey players during the winter.  Between the villages of Winfield and Woodsdale, a small creek bordered  by red dogwood bushes meandered between the side road and the highway to  the west of us. Just as we turned left on to Ring Road a flock of mallards flew  over my station wagon and landed on the creek, the green heads of the drakes  contrasting with the general grayness of the sky above.  The Ring's farm was typical of so many small holdings in my practice 150  area. With only about ten to fifteen milch cows, Mr. Ring's operation was not  economically viable enough to warrant his full time. Consequently, he worked  out, a practice which meant long hours each day: the cows had to be milked  each morning before work and each evening when he got home. He had to  feed all the livestock, clean the barns, and attend to many other farm chores.  This was a difficult way to supplement a family's income, so I had nothing but  admiration for the Rings and other small farmers like them.  The Ring's house was neat and tidy, freshly painted white and green,  and not too big. I knocked on the varnished door and Mrs. Ring, who wasn't  much older than I, answered. She told me the cow's name was Roany and that  she was in the barn across the creek. I returned to my station wagon, drove  over the wooden bridge, and parked close to the barn.  The barn was small with few windows and the sides were unpainted fir  shiplap boards. The roof covered a hayloft above the cattle and was layered  with old cedar shingles, their natural red colour faded to a weatherbeaten  gray by constant exposure to wind, rain, snow and sunshine.  On one side of the barn was a fresh manure pile which had been shovelled out from inside the barn. On the other side was a large pile of old shavings  mixed with manure, which had been piled up by the front-end loader on their  tractor from the outside barnyard. Chickens of various breeds, sizes and ages,  feathers ruffled against the cold, scratched around the area looking for some  special morsel of feed. A cock pheasant sat on a cedar fence post across the  field behind the barn. He seemed to be sitting there to get out of the mud that  was everywhere. There just hadn't been enough warm weather to dry the  winter moisture.  Inside the barn, the odour of the cows and chickens and the pleasant  aroma of the hay was barely noticeable through the ammonia smell of  manure. The whole area was laden with dampness. Moisture clung to the  cows, windows, walls and cobwebs that hung from the corners of the rafters.  Whitewash covered the shiplap and two-by-fours up to the height of the cows.  Above that, the dry wood had never seen a coat of paint.  The cow I was about to deliver was very large, red-roan in colour and of  mixed breeding, but looked mostly like a dual purpose shorthorn. Roany was  a good name for her. She was in excellent condition and on entering the barn  I saw her unsuccessfully strain to deliver her calf. She was fastened in her stanchion in a row with other milch cows.  The moment I examined Roany, I was certain I was going to have problems. The calf was extremely large. For a big cow, Roany had a very small  pelvic area. I was sure the calf was dead. At least it didn't respond to my  pinch between its soft hooves.  I tried to deliver the calf by normal means but soon realized that was  completely hopeless. I had to do a caesarian section. But I had never done a  caesarian before! I had seen some done, knew how to do one, but had never  actually done one myself. There was a lot of difference between reading about  the operation in a text book or watching someone else do the surgery and doing it myself.  Gordon knew I had never done this operation before but his encouragement and confidence spurred me on.  "We can't do her in here," I said. "She might choke in the stanchion if 151  she goes down. Besides, there isn't much room or very much light in this  barn."  I went outside but all about was a sea of mud. The only reasonably dry  spot was on the slope of the large shavings and manure pile scooped up from  the barnyard. Instantly, I decided that had to be the place to perform a piece  of surgery I had never before attempted. There was no other choice. I clipped  the hair off the right side of the cow.  Later, I would not often do caesarians on the right side because of the  location of the intestines on that side. However, because of the size and fatness  of this cow and my concern about getting by the rumen or paunch on the left  and the amount of help available, I decided to operate on the right side.  General anaesthetics are not given to cattle. They do not tolerate the  usual types of anaesthetics used for horses and other animals. Consequently, I  had to use a local anaesthetic, freezing all the nerves coming down the side of  the cow, injecting beside and around them soon after they left the spinal  column.  With Roany in a standing position, Gordon holding her halter, and  Maureen trying to keep warm and amused in the station wagon, I made a  bold incision through the skin of the patient. My surgery professor at university always told his students to make a BOLD incision in surgery. So I made a  bold incision — eighteen inches long! Then down through the three layers of  abdominal muscles of the peritoneum or heavy membrane-like lining of the  abdominal cavity. The cow never flinched or moved, so I knew the  anaesthetic was good. Another bold incision and I would be through the abdominal wall.  The instant I made that last bold incision I was overcome with sheer  panic. Not only had I cut through the peritoneum but I had completely  transected a loop of intestinel Oozing out of each end of the cut bowel and all  over the inside of the abdominal cavity was green liquid ingesta. I dropped  the scalpel on the manure pile, hoping to never see it again, and grasped the  two ends of the severed bowel and pulled them to the outside so they wouldn't  dribble any more ugly green contaminant inside the abdominal cavity. The  odour of the intestinal contents struck my nostrils like a red hot poker.  For a moment, I stood in absolute confusion pondering my predicament.  With an end of a completely severed intestine in each hand I couldn't even  focus on the surgical field in front of me. Like my mind, the red blood and  green ingesta was swirling in circles on the white fat of the membranes  holding the intestines in place. The resultant mixture looked like yellow  vomitus containing small green bits of well-masticated hay. This cow would  be dead within three days from a horrible infection. Of that, I was certain.  "My God", I thought, "I don't have any of the special forceps to control  the drainage of ingesta while I suture the two ends together. I don't even have  the proper intestinal suture material. I have never done an end to end  anastomoses. Hell, I've never even seen it done. I've just read about how to do  it and seen, diagrams of the proper stitching procedure." No end of bizarre  and frightening thoughts ran through my mind.  "We've come to watch you deliver the calf."  Suddenly, I was jerked out of my trance. Leaning over the rail fence not  twenty feet away was Mrs. Ring and three of her friends. Fortunately, they  couldn't see what I had done. 152  Because of the gravity and tension of the situation I was unexpectantly  caught in the humor of the moment. Four attentive and enraptured women  gazing over the weathered rail fence at the mighty surgeon adroitly performing his feat on the manure pile in their barnyard. It was ludicrous. I couldn't  help but smile to myself. I thought someone should surely be watching my  next efforts in surgery, because the technique employed and the instruments  used as not likely to ever be seen again in the annals of surgical history.  "It will be about forty minutes before I'm ready to deliver the calf," I  said, confidently. "Come back then and you'll be able to see me bring the calf  out. It's pretty cold for all of you to be standing out here that long. Go back to  the house where it is warm. Besides, I don't think the calf is alive." Mrs. Ring  and her friends returned to the house. Thank goodness. I didn't need an audience to watch me fumble through the next forty minutes.  Somehow, but I'm not sure how, I managed to improvise, with the  instruments and materials at hand, a rejoining of the two ends of intestine.  When I finished and there didn't seem to be any leakage from the bowel, I  proceeded with what I had started to do.  Mrs. Ring and her friends returned just as I pulled the huge stillborn calf  from the side of the cow. I cleaned all the abdominal cavity as best I could,  loaded the area with antibiotics and closed all the incisions. I knew there still  had to be many small bits of chewed hay lost forever among the myriad folds  of the intestines. The digestive juices that leaked out were going to be extremely irritating to the sensitive tissues in the abdominal cavity. Infection  was sure to follow and possibly, in a few days, the death of this beautiful big  animal.  I looked at the neat row of white stitches I had painstakingly placed  down the red side of the big cow. When I thought of what had happened inside, I felt sick. Behind the languid cow lay the dead bull calf stretched out on  the dirty wet shavings and manure pile which had served as our operating  theatre. The whole situation looked pretty sad.  I suppose my feelings were not very different from those of any veterinarian (or physician for that matter) who has been privileged to attend a  birth. The process that is repeated time after time in the animal kingdom is  nothing short of a miracle. The development from two single cells to a highly  complex organism, all in a matter of a few months, is an incredible happening. I often wondered during my studies in embryology why any creature is  ever born normal. There are so many developmental processes that can go  wrong anywhere along the way. Yet, normalcy is the rule, not the exception.  For each animal I have delivered, I have stood in awe at the wonder that has  happened before me. Humility and honour were part of every delivery I have  ever made.  "Maureen is pretty cold," said Gordon, bringing me back to reality. "She  sure has been one super child. Not a peep out of her in four hours and  nothing for her to even play with in the station wagon. Too bad she was too  shy to go in the house with Mrs. Ring when she asked her."  "She's a lot like her father," I replied with half a grin.  Without being called, but with great trepidation, I was at the Ring's  farm early the next morning, even before Mr. Ring left for work. Roany was  back at her stanchion in the barn contentedly eating hay. Her eyes were  bright, her temperature normal, her incision clean and dry. 153  "Don't expect much milk from her for awhile," I told Mr. Ring.  "She's almost up to full production this morning," replied Mr. Ring.  "She's going to be fine. It's just too bad we lost her calf, but mother here is going to be great."  I wished I could share his confidence.  Daily, for the following ten days, I visited this very special patient. I  pumped Roany so full of antibiotics I thought she would float away. Incredibly, she never looked back. She was up to her normal milk production by  the third day and never missed eating one strand of hay or one grain of feed.  The anticipated infection never happened; her temperature never rose above  normal; the incision never wept.  I suppose I was the only thing that wept. I cried from gratitude on the  tenth day after the surgery when I removed the sutures and saw Roany for the  last time. I couldn't explain how or why but I was humbly grateful this case  had turned out so well.  This whole experience was a tremendous lesson for me during my early  years in practice. Although I realized my error in technique, that caesarian  section gave an unbelievable boost to my confidence. No longer did I want to  run and hide behind my mother's skirt and peek out at the real world. It no  longer bothered me that the closest veterinarian was thirty-three miles away  or that the nearest laboratory was three hundred miles away.  I grew up a lot that cool, cloudy, March day in 1954 on the manure pile.  However, no matter how smoothly or easily my practice went along, there  were always cases that burst my bubble of euphoria and placed me face to  face with reality.  In the years that followed, I travelled the fourteen miles to the Ring's  farm many times to treat other animals. Roany bore several calves after her  caesarian, with no further problems. Eventually, the hard work and long  hours got to Mr. Ring and he sold all his livestock and became an orderly at  the Kelowna General Hospital.  Many years after I performed my 'miraculous' piece of surgery on Roany,  I met Mr. Ring in the hospital when I was admitted for surgery on my knee.  Mr. Ring stood at the foot of my bed telling me, as he had often done before,  that I was the best and most attentive veterinarian ever and that my barnside  manner was second to none.  "I've never had anyone take better care of my animals," Mr. Ring offered. "Remember how often you came to see that cow you did the caesarian  on? Every day, until you removed the stitches, you came to see her and you  only charged me $35.00. I'm sure you never charged for any of those follow-  up calls you made. I told every farmer I knew how good and how reasonable  your charges were."  "Mr. Ring," I said, "it is almost exactly, to the day, twenty-three years  since I did that caesarian on your big red cow. I think the moment of truth  has come for both of us. I have a long story to tell you about that particular  piece of surgery. "When I was a student in university, our surgery professor  always told us to make a bold incision ..." 154  OKANAGAN SUMMER SCHOOL OF THE ARTS, PART 2  by Jean Webber  The history of the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts was written  in 1981 as a part of the celebration of the 21st Anniversary of the  School. Publication was a joint undertaking of the Anniversary Committee of Okanagan Summer School of the Arts and of Okanagan  Historical Society. The first half of the history appeared in the 46th  Report (pages 239 - 260). The history is completed below. Footnotes,  bibliography and appendices including lists of Board Members may  be found in Okanagan Summer School of the Arts separate printing  which is entitled Venture.  Editor  Mrs. Margaret Colby served as Administrative Director for the 1964  School, attending to the summer school work along with her duties as Director of Adult Education for the Penticton School Board. Mrs. Colby addressed  the problems of registration and office procedure as well as emphasizing the  importance of evaluating the School's efforts in various directions. For example, she questioned registrants as to where they had seen advertisements  for the School and noted that by far the greatest response had come from two  advertisements in the Vancouver Sun. No response had come from ads in The  Seattle P.I., Writer's Digest, Saturday Review, and B.C. Teacher. For future  advertising she recommended two ads in each of the following: Vancouver  Sun, the Victoria papers, Edmonton fournal, and Calgary Herald. Mrs.  Colby declined to serve again as Director. The School's term being in July  meant that she must go without any real holiday as in August she must begin  preparing for adult education courses to be given the coming winter. An  interesting feature of the 1964 School was the production of the Mozart  operetta under the direction of Mr. Millard Foster. The cast consisted of 18  youngsters supported by adults back stage.  During 1965 and 1966 the Summer School was under the direction of  Mrs. Mavis Bjornson. Again in the annual reports there is evidence that Mrs.  Bjornson was ready to stand back and evaluate the success of the School and  to pin-point the type of student who was finding the School congenial. In her  1965 report she paid tribute to her office assistant, Mrs. Millard Foster "whose  efficiency and work beyond the call of duty made things so much easier for  me, and whose sense of humour so often came out at the right moment to put  things in their proper perspective." Although the annual report for 1966 is  good-humoured and uncomplaining it is clear that the administrative director's job was indeed gruelling. The report stated:  During the actual operation of the Summer School it is very difficult to evaluate the  overall picture. There is such a steady stream of people through the office with problems to be listened to, schedules to be straightened out, paper work to be done and  the legion of small things that need to be settled to keep the maximum number of  people happy.  Complaints during the 1966 session were often related to problems arising  from the renovations being carried out in the building. Mrs. Bjornson found  herself trying to manage a school of 767 with the same office help as the previous year when registrations had been 550. In her report she paid tribute to 155  the "Auxiliary, the members of which drove, baked, stuffed envelopes, helped  with registration and so on."  During the years of peak registration, Mrs. Rosemary Holmes-Smith of  Oliver was Administrative Director. Mrs. Holmes-Smith had been owner-  manager of Fine Art Enterprises, a company which dealt in prints and original paintings. Thus she brought to the OSSA position a serious interest in the  arts, business experience, and some knowledge of the expectation of artists.  She and her husband had previously served on the Board of Directors of  OSSA, David Holmes-Smith being Treasurer for several years. In 1967 the  family moved up to Penticton for the month of July and David Holmes-Smith  and both their young people registered in courses. A committed family! The  registration of 867 in 1967 and of 840 in 1968 strained the resources of the  School to the utmost, even with the use of the Community Arts Centre as well  as School Board properties. There were misunderstandings with members of  the Penticton School Board, but there is ample evidence that the School was  exhilarating. Mrs. Holmes-Smith was not intimidated by the huge school. Today she remembers the summers as "exciting." It was the period of "happenings" and the School had its happenings in the gym at which the various disciplines co-operated to create a feast of the arts. The beauty and comfort of the  Penticton summer were exploited. On one evening students gathered at the  Schwenk home. Ballet dancers performed at the cliffs edge with the sunset  for a backdrop while a group of potters, not far away, fired their raku pots.  Another evening a group gathered at Summerland for a party at which all  conversation had to be in French (French was being taught at the School that  year.) Mrs. Holmes-Smith pays tribute to the Board of Directors who were  very supportive, many of them spending hours at the school. The atmosphere  was stimulating and attractive. In the Penticton Herald Vacation Guide for  1968 Brian Kieran paid tribute to Mrs. Holmes-Smith when he wrote that she  was "also responsible for the continued expansion of the school."25 It is interesting to note that the 1968 School was officially opened by Bruce Howard  M.P. Mr. Howard had served on the OSSA Board as Secretary for several  years prior to being elected to Parliament.  Mrs. Holmes-Smith showed no inclination to gloss over administrative  deficiencies for in her 1967 report she wrote:  Our major problems in the overall running of the school stemmed from two things:  (1) The physical spread and layout of the school facilities with attendant locked-  door situation that occurred last year, and  (2) The lack of communication between instructors, convenors,  and administration.  As a result of (1) the instructors did not get together enough and there was not  enough contact between the various departments. In effect there was a lack of cohesion and singleness of purpose. As a result of (2) the problems were more far-reaching, and ranged from lack of financial control to simply bad administration.  Mrs. Holmes-Smith recommended cutting course offerings back from 20 to  12, limiting the curriculum to the pure arts and seeking only the serious student rather than catering to the holidaymaker. She recommended that the  hostel be limited to 125. Bethel Steele reported 160 in the hostel in 1968.26  Again, after the 1968 School Mrs. Holmes-Smith brought up the matter of  limiting the enrolment and spoke against dissipating the energies and the finances of the School in extra concerts. She wrote: 156  Our first duty is towards the best instruction for our students and anything that impairs this function should be avoided.  It was her view that first class instructors warranted first class students. In her  1968 report she spoke of "our highly-qualified instructors with a student body  of exceptional ability." Mr. Franklin White's ballet classes are an excellent example. Two of his Vancouver students came to the Okanagan Summer School  of the Arts for the session and then went on to professional schools in the  autumn: Nadine Tomlinson had been accepted by the Robert Joffrey Ballet  Company in New York27 and Valerie Clarke was accepted by the Royal Ballet  School in London, England.28  Another recommendation of the Administrative Director was that some  courses be extended to 4 weeks because 3 weeks were not sufficient for the  realization of artistic goals. A minute for the Board Meeting of 19 November  1968 reads:  Dr. Yates moved, seconded by Mrs. Oliver that the session be extended to 4 weeks.  After much discussion the motion was defeated.  The program committee and finance committee will discuss this suggestion further.  In the spring of 1969 the Penticton Herald published a substantial article on  the Summer School in which it quoted Mrs. Holmes-Smith as saying:  The School is almost at capacity. Integration rather than expansion, and quality  rather than quantity may be the future policy.29  The Penticton Herald, under the heading "Okanagan Summer School Seeks  to be Year-Round" stated:  The Okanagan Summer School of the Arts is now in its 10th season with the directors  continuing to stress growth in quality and looking forward to eventually establishing  a year-round school.30  Looking back, Rosemary Holmes-Smith believes that the Summer School was  at a point where it might well have taken off and become a truly prestigious  school. However the implications of such a development were improved facilities and equipment. Provisions for the hostel, for one thing, were scarcely  equal to the demands put upon them. Rosemary, herself, although she saw  great possibilities, felt that she could not continue as Administrative Director.  Her children were at an age when she wanted to spend the summer with  them. All July of 1968 was taken up with the school. Often it was midnight  before a function was finished and all buildings were securely locked. Then  she would start off for Oliver, knowing that she must be in her office again  before nine the next morning.31 In December 1968 she asked to be relieved of  her position "for personal reasons" but offered to stay on, on a monthly basis  until a replacement could be found and initiated. In January she made a promotional trip to Kamloops and on 17 March she was back in Kamloops with  her successor, Mrs. Edythe Chapman. Arrangements were made for both of  them to be in Vernon 25 March.  Mrs. Edythe Chapman became Administrative Director officially on 1  April 1969 and served for three schools. She found her first year "traumatic,"  according to her report to the Annual Meeting. Added to the usual challenges  was the fact that inflation was becoming noticeable. She said:  As you all know costs have sky-rocketed in nearly every instance this year — food,  supplies, transport, etc. One could go on indefinitely.  Some courses had not paid their way in spite of efforts to increase their en- 157  rolment early in the season when registration was lagging. Mrs. Chapman's  conclusion was:  I am of the opinion that we should merchandise for a season or so — give the public  what they want instead of what they should have. The courses can always be re-instated if the need arises.  Mrs. Chapman's second year was hardly easier, but her final report  shows her increasing understanding of the school in the wealth of specific  detail which it contains. There was the usual hectic conversion of facilities for  the Summer School. Keys were again a problem, keys to get into rooms and  keys to lock rooms. On one occasion Mrs. Chapman found a lad "merrily running a band saw," no adult about. She also found that:  It is necessary to make constant classroom attendance checks, especially in the craft  courses. People are inclined to drift in and try their hand, like it and stay, all without  the benefit of registration.  The office, even with two people to help her necessitated "long, unscheduled  hours." Like Mrs. Bjornson, she praised her staff for possessing "a sense of  humour."  In the fall of 1968, with the prospect of the school's tenth anniversary in  mind, Eva Cleland suggested that an appropriate way of marking the occasion might be the training of a first class band which would represent British Columbia at Expo 70 in Osaka, Japan. The idea was received with mixed  feelings to be sure, but there was sufficient support to warrant its exploration.  George Gay was among those who found the proposal "imaginative" and "exciting." Leonard Camplin was willing to undertake the artistic direction. On  15 April 1969 Mrs. Cleland reported to the Board:  (a) A letter has been received from Japanese authorities indicating interest in the  OSSA Concert Band.  (b) Mrs. Chapman reported that many inquiries regarding the trip have been received.  It was decided that young people participating must be responsible for their  own expenses, $490 to cover "return jet travel and accommodation in Japan  plus meals, except lunches, and transportation between Tokyo and Osaka."32  Students took all manner of jobs to raise their fares and were often helped by  the communities from which they came, the communities being 32 in  number. Minutes for 20 January 1970 reported the formation of a Parents'  Committee. A simple uniform which included flared trousers for the boys and  jumpers for the girls and which could stand up to the rigours of travel in all  weathers was designed by a group of four parents and purchased through a  local store. A grant from the B.C. Cultural Fund covered the cost of the uniforms.  On 21 April Mrs. Cleland reported that $4300 had been remitted to Jet-  Away Tours, with whom 75 seats had been reserved for the flight out on 17  August and return 1 September. The party would be comprised of 55 band  members and the escorting adults — the conductor and his assistants, the  tour director, chaperones, business manager, two nurses, boys and girls counsellors, parents, and spouses. Each adult paid his full fare. Before their departure the OSSA Band was designated an official representative of Canada  and of British Columbia as well as an official guest of the Japanese Government. All these honours included financial support. In all, the budget for the 158  trip amounted to over $75,000. In planning the band, Captain Camplin felt  that a membership of 55 would afford a desirable balance of instrumentation.  Of the students registered in the 1969 band program about 45 indicated their  interest in the Expo 70 trip. These were auditioned by Leonard Camplin and  his assistant Errol Gay. Thirty-four were found to be satisfactorily qualified.  The others were told that in 1970 they would be auditioned again and given  first chance to qualify for the remaining places. A winter of concentrated effort was indicated and most responded and took their places in the band. To  balance the instrumentation, band teachers throughout the province were  notified of instrumentalists still needed and arrangements were made for  auditions in the students' home-towns by Leonard Camplin during his tours  with his army band. Failing this, students were invited to submit tapes of their  playing. During the 1970 School Leonard Camplin was assisted again by Errol  Gay and also by Miss Sigrid Ann Thors, who, on the trip, doubled as girls'  counsellor.  There were other student bands from British Columbia at Expo 70, but  none had gone through the rigorous weeding and selection from the entire  province as had the OSSA Concert Band. In all the band played 13 concerts  at Expo, which included concerts in the B.C. Pavilion, the Canadian and the  Quebec Pavilions, as well as in the Japanese Pavilion. The Band was honoured, "because we sounded so good and looked so good," said Mr. Gay,33 by  being chosen to appear on the National TV Network of Japan. The concert  program had a distinctively North American flavour, including works of Gershwin, Giannini, Rodgers as well as the Canadians B. Gimby (Canada - Centennial Song), R. Milneant, and arrangements by H. Cable. A selection based  on folk music of Japan was included.  Band and string programs have been an important part of the Okanagan  Summer School of the Arts from its inception. Willem Bertsch initiated the  latter and has been followed by such distinguished musicians as Dr. Hans-  Karl Piltz, James Rickey, and, since 1973, Victoria Kereluk and the Purcell  String Quartet. The band program was conducted by Prof. W. C Welke and  Mrs. Rachel Welke in 1961. Mrs. Welke returned to several summer schools  after that. In 1963 W. Allen Fisher conducted the first Band Camp and  Workshop. In 1965 Leonard Camplin taught at the School for the first time,  returning the next year. It was a happy day for the Okanagan when OSSA  brought Leonard Camplin to Penticton for during that first summer arrangements were made for him to conduct the struggling Okanagan Symphony, an  organization which has not looked back since. In recent years the wind ensemble has been conducted by Jerome Summers and a group of musicians he  has gathered about him.  One reason for the success of OSSA's music program has been its integration with the needs of the Okanagan Symphony and with the school band  program throughout B.C. The School has been fortunate in having people on  its Board who have strong associations with these groups. Another factor in  the success of these programs has been the hostel for young people between  the ages of 13 and 17. The "band camps" worked so well in 1963 that student  accommodation has been offered every year since. The hostel operation must  be credited with being one of the most satisfactory aspects of the school,  thanks to the professionalism of those who have acted as staff as well as those  who have overseen arrangements such as George Gay and Dave Swanson. The 159  Board's Personnel Committee in 1971 stated in their report: "We would encourage that the director of the hostel have a background in academic education."  The students slept in classrooms converted into dormitories. For several  years beds were borrowed from the Canadian forces until the school invested  in its own beds and foam mattresses. Meals were cooked at the school with the  exception of one year when meals were contracted out, a procedure which  proved unsatisfactory. The general plan was a friendly but firm hand, a minimum enrolment of 12 hours of classes each week, and interesting recreational  activities in which each student was expected to participate — swimming,  trips to local industries, horseback riding, sailing, discussions in the common  room. On 15 July 1976 Mr. Danny Majors, the Hostel Director, reported that  four recreational events had been scheduled for each day.  Of course the success of the hostel program has depended on the house-  parents, cooks, counsellors, and recreational directors who have served for the  summer sessions. A very special kind of person is needed: one who enjoys  young people, who is equal to teenage energies, and, above all, one who  knows how to be both firm and sympathetic. It is impossible to list all those  who have made the hostels viable but a few of the gallant band are: Mr. and  Mrs. Dave Lee, Mrs. E. Chamberlain, Mrs. Violet Rodger, Mrs. R. F. Raikes,  Jan and Jennie Kordes, John and June Wallace, Ed Wilson, Dorothy Lamb,  Sherry Workman, Anne Pearson, and Mrs. Richardson.  Naturally such an activity has not been without its problems. Some years  students have reported not being able to get enough sleep. Pilfering was a  complaint until Mr. R. Armstrong, who succeeded David Holmes-Smith as  Treasurer, set up a student bank and managed it himself. In 1968 long distance calls amounting to $178.85 were run up and not paid for. One year Bob  Kingsmill, the potter, complained of the way in which some of those serving  food spoke to the young people. Another year Mrs. Violet Rodger, housemother, submitted a report protesting that not enough consideration was  given the girls, who were very much in the majority, when recreational activities were planned. The young people were not without their champions! In  1971 there was a drug incident. The student responsible was identified, sent  home, and the RCMP notified. One year a permissive housemother and recreational director made matters more difficult for everyone, but, considering  the turbulence of the 60's the hostel was really quite remarkable. Parents  could send their young people to OSSA with reasonable assurance that they  would be well looked after. Some typical enrolments in the hostel are as  follows: 1963, 10; 1966, 120; 1967, 135; 1968, 160; 1969, 100; 1970, 123;  1971, 85; 1976, 87. Generally costs have been carefully controlled and the  hostel has done slightly better than break even each year.  Flushed with the success of the Expo 70 trip some felt that a B.C. tour for  the Band might be arranged during the Centennial '71 celebrations. However, enthusiasm was not general enough in the face of the estimated cost of  $12,500. After some consideration the idea was dropped. Minutes of 4  November 1970 stated:  Mr. Gay felt in time a national Youth Band could be developed, centred in the West,  comparable to the National Youth Orchestra. The same financial backing which  supports the Orchestra might support the Band.  In his instructor's report for 1971, Leonard Camplin pointed out that, while 160  the school had an adequate number of qualified staff for the band program  and good playing facilities, a program could not be truly successful unless  there was "a minimum of 55 students offering balanced instrumentation and  playing ability." He outlined practical steps which might be taken to achieve  such an objective and finished with: "A gigantic test [sic] as this is acknowledged, however the rewards could be exciting." The idea was not pursued.  Those caught up in the Expo '70 project naturally found the 1970 School  an exciting and fulfilling session. However, among those who were not involved there is evidence of some dissatisfaction. Some instructors complained  of a lack of communication. Even Bev Harris who praised the school warmly  and who obviously enjoyed his pottery classes complained of a discrepancy  between the hours specified in his contract which were used as the basis of his  pay, and those required of him in the school's timetable. Len Weaver wrote a  long and thoughtful criticism in which he suggested that microphones, tape  recorders, and record players should be easily accessible; classrooms should be  open 15 minutes before classes were scheduled to begin. His report intimates  that when he resisted the pressure to prepare students for performances he felt  a threat that his classes might be cut another year. His answer was as follows:  The guitar courses appeal most heavily to youngsters from middle and lower income  groups, both groups hardest hit by the economic conditions prevailing in B.C., and  in Penticton particularly, at this time. The guitar classes in the preceding four years,  due to their very heavy enrolment carried the expense for many other courses which  were under-subscribed, but due to their "cultural impact" were continued. To not  give the guitar classes a similar consideration would leave me with a very different impression of the professed aims of your school to that which I had heretofore.  SPIRIT: I have been involved in four of your ten years of operation, and I feel that  my impression may be valid enough for your consideration. This year I noticed a considerable lack of effervescence which was so noticeable before. Some of this lack may  be accounted for by the fact that the band students were too busy to partake of other  courses. They are a high-powered lot whose absence was certainly felt in my classes,  and I assume, in others. Some of the lack of spirit could possibly be accounted for by  the present administrative arrangement which seemed to lack that close personal  touch of years past. It may also be only a reflection of the general economic gloom affecting all B.C. at this time. I can only hope that in your deliberations you will again  impart that bubbling spirit which was so evident in the earlier years.  Then Mr. Weaver finished with the gracious acknowledgement of the help  given him by his convenor, Joan Wigen, which was quoted above.  During the summer of 1971, Mrs. Chapman served once more as Administrative Director, but for that year George Gay was hired during the course of  the Summer School as Program Director. This is the first formal acknowledgement of the two aspects of running the school: the business and academic. George obviously had in mind the instructors' reports of the previous  year. An account of his activities paints the picture of a hectic three weeks.  Here is a small part of of what he wrote:  I tried to see, even in passing, every instructor at least once a day . . . [to] forestall  complaints.  Each morning I called in at the Penticton Herald to feed material . . .  Each morning I appeared for a 5 minute "slot' on Cal George's program on CKOK.  Mr. Norman Audley, Penticton Park Supervisor, helped re carvers. I kept close contact with carvers' work and living conditions.  Four 'Ksan carvers were working on a totem pole at the bandshell.  In spite of George Gay's efforts George Norris, the sculptor, regretted that  there was "very little opportunity to meet other instructors or Board Members 161  on a meaningful level." Mr. Norris queried the use of the term "community  school" as applied to OSSA. He wrote:  This is not a true "Community School" as I understand the term. Direction of development of school into a true "community school" directly involved in the life of the  town, adding zest and celebration, spirit and style to those areas of the community  where the public congregate and into the public institutions — library, City Hall.  Post Office, etc., the beach fronts and parks.  Commenting on the School's purpose and philosophy Mr. Norris said:  What are the objectives of the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts? If the school is  trying to run a summer camp with a subsidiary art program for the teenagers whose  parents want to "keep them out of trouble" (and who can afford to send them) then  the school is a success. If the school is attempting to bring to Penticton first rate artists in a wide range of artistic activities as instructors - then the school is a success.  It is questionable, however, whether these two objectives are always compatible and  in the latter case I wonder whether full use is made of the assembled talent in a way  that serves the community-at-large or affords conditions for a cross-fertilizing of  those creative minds. Creativity is a disease that is spread by contact and exposure.  A much more experimental approach to the school would be desirable.  OSSA, which had had such an exciting conception and birth followed by  a vigorous and happy childhood, was obviously suffering the pangs of adolescence. There is abundant evidence of soul-searching, of attempts at self-  definition. On 16 July 1969 the Board Members had invited the instructors to  a special meeting at which the future of the School was discussed — "the mid-  session confrontation" as Bob Kingsmill called it. In his instructor's report for  the year Mr. Kingsmill wrote:  The mid-session confrontation was a valid experience, in which valid questions were  thrown into the ring, but the questions aren't mine to discuss, they are yours. What  are you organizing, why, and where are you going?  The same year Jack Darcus proposed putting all the painting students into a  single class to enable all to have more studio time in daylight hours.34 Evenings could be devoted to seminar-discussions covering art history and the history of ideas related to the arts. Mr. Darcus favored the extension of the  School to 4 or 5 weeks. He wrote:  I feel that OSSA offers a unique possibility for art education. The tremendous potential is evident and is exciting, its range can be extended, its subject matter deepened.  Michael Minot felt that the School had too many facets for one person to control it efficiently. Eric Nicol found most things about the School "good" except his teaching area which he termed "abominable (heat)." He felt the  School should become "less academic, more involved with larger holiday  scene." None of this ferment shows in the administrative reports at the years'  end. In 1971 Mrs. Chapman wrote: "I thought the instructors were great. A  competent co-operative lot. There were no unreasonable demands ..." The  same year George Gay wrote:  This was a rewarding Summer School - with a happy atmosphere generally, among  both instructors and students. There were no major areas or incidents of complaint  (except heat).  The operation of the School went smoothly and all signs point to a satisfactory financial situation.  The members of the Board were by no means unaware of the problems  which the School was facing. Numerous committees were set up to examine  procedure, draw up duties of officers and volunteers, to make recommenda- 162  tions about the future of the School. A document remains in the files which  seems to belong to a period of about 1969. It begins:  Several outgoing members of this Board with a genuine concern over the future of  this Summer School feel that some guidance and recommendations should be given  to the new Board of Directors. We have discussed the operation and planning of the  School at some length and make the following recommendations as firm directives ...  The calibre of instructors is important but the calibre of student is even more so. We  are not attracting the serious and professionally oriented student and it is embarrassing and detrimental to the image of the School to hire first rate and "name" instructors and then supply them with the "holiday" and "housewife" type of student . . . We  have spread ourselves too thin and are exhausting the time and talents of our staff  and volunteers.  The document is precise about a number of matters and finally concludes  with several "housekeeping matters":  (a) Committee chairmen should come to Board meetings with definite recommendations based on serious study . . .  (b) Correspondence of committee members and the Board members should be done  through the office or at least copies should be supplied for the office file.  One would think that these last two recommendations should go without saying in an organization with the responsibilities of OSSA.  In September of 1970 the Board decided to establish job descriptions for  Board Members. An Advisory Committee of past Board Members was suggested. The Minutes for 20 October report a discussion.  Mrs. Cleland mentioned that the philosophy of the Okanagan Summer School of the  Arts was to constantly explore courses and extend when feasible.  It was felt by Dr. Plecash that specific needs rather than permanent needs be met at  this time. Mr. Swanson agreed that we study immediate needs.  In November 1970 three committees were established to examine and  evaluate certain aspects of the School: a Personnel Committee, a Curriculum  Committee, and a Promotion Committee. On 10 February 1971 the Personnel Committee presented a long and carefully prepared interim report  which said in part:  In order to get a proper perspective of the Administrative functions of the Summer  School it is necessary to review the overall development:  (a) A voluntary phase in which all administrative participants gave of their time  without remuneration, as this was the only method of keeping the school solvent  in early years.  (b) A second phase in which there was a small remuneration to certain administrative personnel to compensate for their time.  (c) We have now entered into a third phase in which more professional help is required to carry on a more detailed operation. This has resulted in employing  more personnel on a salaried basis.  It is the feeling of this committee that the school will continue to expand, and we feel  that in order to do this it will be necessary to have more professional and administrative personnel working for the Summer School on a salaried basis and that the general administrative overall costs of the school will be increased. Many factors are  responsible for this including a normal expanded growth of the school, a more departmentalized structure in the School, and the fact that we are now in a very competitive market. In order to attract good personnel both as students and teachers it will  be important that this School operate at maximum administrative efficiency to ensure a happy student, teacher, and school relationship at a minimum cost.  When Mrs. Chapman resigned 19 October 1971, the Board appointed 163  Mrs. Carol Sather Executive Secretary, her duties to be part-time throughout  the year. George Gay resigned from the Board and became Principal of the  School, his paid period being the weeks just before, during and after the session. This was the beginning of a working partnership which was to last for  some years, George working some summers in a paid position, others as a  Board Member and volunteer. Carol was with the School under various titles  — Administrative Director, Executive Secretary, Acting Principal, and Principal — until after the 1980 session. For one year she resigned to take a position as Director of Okanagan College for Summerland, but remained on the  OSSA Board as Vice-Chairman, doing publicity write-ups and preparing the  brochure and calendar for publication as a volunteer.  Mrs. Sather brought to the School not only the inherent interest of a person who had grown up in Penticton and attended the School as a child, but  also the training in office management which her degree in Business Administration from the University of Calgary implied. It was she who introduced  the forms and initiated the practice of pre-registration which did away with  much of the confusion of the first days of classes. Both office procedures and  office equipment were up-graded. Carol contrasts the present comfortable office at Leir House with her first office — a windowless basement room containing a filing cabinet, an old desk and a broken down typewriter. During  the years she scrounged furniture, sometimes refinishing it herself, and talked  friends into building shelves, etc. In addition to managing the office, Carol  assisted with the preparation of budgets, participated in the recruiting of staff  and instructors, surveyed the artistic needs of the community, and participated in Board meetings. She assisted with all phases of promotion and publicity including radio, TV, and newspaper interviews in the Valley and on  longer trips which took her as far as Alberta. Then, of course, there was the  setting up and managing the actual summer school, a job which saw her at  the School generally from 7 a.m. until 10 p.m. each day.35 It would appear  that support staff, at least during the year, was not always as plentiful as it  might have been for on 18 May 1977 we find this Minute:  Mr. Stevenson brought up the question as to who was doing the typing in the office. It  was pointed out to him that Carol has been performing secretarial duties as well as  promotional and principalship.  Mrs. Ivy Mason, who served the school as convenor for most of its years of  existence and was perhaps better able than anyone else to assess the general  atmosphere during the session, said that few people appreciate the contribution which Ms. Sather made to the school.36  The Board Minutes for 27 September 1972 include the report of a Principal's Committee which dealt with four questions:  1. Should we work to keep the OSSA in existence in some form?  2. Should OSSA work, without prejudice, on the location of a campus of the Okanagan Regional College in Penticton?  3. Should there be discussion with the Naramata Centre re a liaison or co-operative  program?  4. Should the OSSA program continue much as it has been, or should there be a  shift in emphasis?  The answers to the first three questions were a resounding "Yes." No answer  had been arrived at for the fourth question and there is no record of a subsequent meeting to discuss it in reports which are extant. 164  In July of 1973, Mr. Allan Hammond of the Glenbow Foundation visited  the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts. A report of his visit and his impressions of the School are to be found in the Minutes of 27 July. It read:  Dr. Barry welcomed Mr. Allan Hammond of the Glenbow Foundation.  Mr. Hammond said he was delighted to come to the Okanagan Summer School of the  Arts. Mr. Gay took him around the school and visited and saw the classes in action.  Mr. Hammond also had a chance to look over our scrap books and commented on  how active the group has been over the years.  Some of Mr. Hammond's comments from his observation of the school  are as follows:  • everyone seemed to be enjoying themselves - both instructors and students were relaxed and happy.  • George has tremendous energy and enthusiasm — maybe too much of your working power is in one place here.  • I think your objectives should be more clearly defined. If you are giving the people  artistic and craft courses for three weeks in the summer and that is all — this is  perfectly valid if this is what you want. However, if this is to be a unique school  then the OSSA must be different from all the other summer schools being run.  • where is this organization going to be 25 years from now? You have to know what  you are selling.  • you are spread over too much territory as to what you are trying to do artistically —  is this your purpose?  • you have to have a unique product to receive special grants. You