Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Forty-sixth annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1982

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 ft N. tf  --!•'■-   S  FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT  ISSN-0317-0691  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  FOUNDED SEPTEMBER 4, 1925  COVER PHOTO  Plane Down in the Okanagan  Canadian Pacific Air D.C. 3, Flight No. 4, Vancouver to Calgary. Crashed on  Okanagan Mountain 1400 Hours, 22 December, 1950.  BACK COVER PHOTO  Starboard Wing — D.C. 3 Crash, summit of Okanagan Mountain.  © 1982 FORTY-SIXTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  ASSISTANT EDITOR  John Shinnick  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Victor Wilson  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Beryl Wamboldt, Vernon  John Shinnick, Kelowna  Charles Hayes, Penticton  Dolly Waterman, Oliver-Osoyoos-Oroville  Individuals wishing to subscribe to the Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society may have their name added to our mailing list. The Report will be  sent each year and the subscriber invoiced. Back issues of Reports 6, 7, 10, 11,  12, 31, 32, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, and 45, may be obtained from the Okanagan  Historical Society at $5.00 per copy. A charge of $1.50 will be made for  postage and handling. Please address correspondence regarding subscriptions  or orders to: Treasurer, Okanagan Historical Society, Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  V1T 6M3  Okanagan Historical Reports are available from all Branches of the  Society and most Museums in the Okanagan Valley.  All prices subject to revision. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PAST PRESIDENT  Jack Armstrong  PRESIDENT  Ron Robey  VICE-PRESIDENT  Mary Orr  2nd VICE-PRESIDENT  Harry Weatherill  SECRETARY  Robt Marriage  TREASURER PRO-TEM  Lee Christensen  BRANCH DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY  Oliver-Osoyoos: Carlton MacNaughton, Harry Weatherill  Penticton: Molly Broderick, Angeline Waterman  Kelowna: Tilman Nahm, Frank Pells  Vernon: Eric Denison, Doug Scott  Armstrong-Enderby: Jessie Ann Gamble, Craig McKechnie  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  Walter Anderson (effective May 30, 1982) for Pandosy Mission  Victor Wilson for Historic Trails  BAGNAL FUND  Olivery-Oysoos: B. Webber  Kelowna: F. Pell, D. Zolner  Vernon: D. Weatherill  Armstrong-Enderby: J. Armstrong  PARENT BODY EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Dolly Waterman, Charles Hayes, Brian Wilson,  Beryl Wamboldt, Ruby Lidstone. BRANCH OFFICERS, 1982 - 83  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1982-83  PRESIDENT: Ermie Iceton; VICE PRESIDENT: Hank Lewis; PAST PRESIDENT: Carlton  MacNaughton; RECORDING SECRETARY: Nan Mabee; CORRESPONDING SECRETARY:  Elaine Shannon; TREASURER: Frances Mitchell; EDITORIAL AND PUBLICITY: Dolly  Waterman, Jean Webber; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Harry Weatherill, Carlton MacNaughton; LOCAL DIRECTORS: Don Corbishley, Elsie Corbishley, Connie Cumine, Ivan  Hunter.  PENTICTON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1982-83  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Kathleen Dewdney; PRESIDENT: Dave MacDonald;  TREASURER: Peter Bird; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Molly Broderick, Angeline  Waterman; LOCAL DIRECTORS: Grace Whitaker (Honorary), Charles Hayes, Joseph Biollo,  Randy Manuel, Molly Broderick, Jack Riley, Hugh Cleland, Angeline Waterman, Bob Gibbard,  J. W. Pete Watson, Pat Gwyer, Dorothy Whittaker, Carl Harris, Joe Harris. CHAIRMAN  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Charles Hayes.  KELOWNA BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1982-83  PAST PRESIDENT: Tilman Nahm; PRESIDENT: Richard Hall; VICE-PRESIDENT: Dorothy  Zoellner; SECRETARY: Marie Wostradowski; TREASURER: Bob Marriage; DIRECTORS:  Walter Anderson, Anna Bach, Cedric Boyer, Mary Bull, Bill Cameron, Eric Chapman, Paddy  Clerke, Fred Coe, Don Fillmore, Bob Hayes, David Hobson, Brian Holmes, Sheila Jackson, Bert  Johnston, Wilf MacKenzie, Frank Pells, Hume Powley, Ursula Surtees; DIRECTORS TO  PARENT BODY EXECUTIVE: Tilman Nahm, Frank Pells; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  Brian Wilson, Anna Bach, Cedric Boyer, Bob Hayes, Dorothy Zoellner; AUDITOR: Mr. W.  Dorssers of Churchill & Co.; TREASURER OF "OGOPOGO'S VIGIL" ACCOUNT: Rosemary  King.  VERNON BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1982-83  PRESIDENT: Peter Tassie; VICE-PRESIDENT: Doug Scott; SECRETARY: Mrs. E. N.  Denison; TREASURER: Don Weatherill; PAST PRESIDENT: Ron Robey; DIRECTORS: Ken  Ellison, Edna Seright, Beryl Gorman, Eric Denison, Terry Lodge, Lee Christensen, Mavis  Cameron, Bob dePfyffer, Beryl Wamboldt, Stan MacLean; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl  Wamboldt, Anna Cail, Rae Banner, Beryl Gorman; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Eric  Dension, Doug Scott.  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH EXECUTIVE 1982-83  PAST PRESIDENT: Bill Whitehead; PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; SECRETARY-  TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; DIRECTORS TO PARENT BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Craig  McKechnie; DIRECTORS TO LOCAL BODY: Merle Armstrong, Bob Nitchie; EDITORIAL  COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone, Lil Sutherland, Dorothy Ward, Betty Johnson, Jessie Ann Gamble.  Newly formed branch at Salmon Arm was represented at Executive Council meeting on July,  18th by President Mrs. Helenita Harvey and Director Mr. Earl Tennant. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  Once again, it is my pleasant duty to launch another Okanagan  Historical Society's Report. And once again, I am deeply aware of the many  people who worked unselfishly, without pay, simply in order to make this  Report a reality. Many times during my term of Office, I have given public  thanks to my fellow editorial officers of the Report; and their help and advice  has been truly invaluable. But there are others, less visible to the public eye,  who none the less, represent to me, what the Okanagan Historical Society is  all about. There is the writer and researcher who has waited for ten years to  see publication; there is the sorrowing friend whose first attempt at writing a  biography constitutes a last service for his life-long comrade, now passed  away. There is the young student, who in first reading the Report, discovers  with wonder and enthusiasm, a deeper understanding of the Valley in which  he has lived all his life. There is the middle-aged housewife, astonished to see  a picture of her mother within the pages of a Report, which she has opened by  chance.  Sometimes, when one is grappling with the petty annoyances of publication, it is easy to forget the significance that each Historical Report has for  many, many people. Yet, as I prepare my last Report as Editor, it is the  remembrance of such people as these, which has made my task a very gratifying one.  Placing Telephone Cable Across Okanagan Lake at Kelowna, 1929  (Courtesy Ron Robey) NICK'S ACES"  1953 B.C. Softball Champions  Back row: Wilf Christie, Tony Spelay, Len Wolgram, Hap Shaeffer, Johnny Loudon, Mickey  Ogasawara, Dave Kineshanko, Norm Ogasawara, Carl Adams.  Front row: Ray Shaw, Morg. McCluskey, Bill Inglis, Nick Alexis, Ken Kulak, Gord Henschke,  Herb Gasperdone. Bat Boy - David Henschke. CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  PLANE DOWN IN THE OKANAGAN (John Peter Shinnick)     9  KELOWNA'S CHINATOWN (Albert H. Mann)     20 -  THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN KELOWNA (Helen Payne)     29 <  EARLY RURAL SCHOOLS OF VERNON AND WHITE VALLEY  (Lucy (Hill) McCormick)         38 *  VERNON JUBILEE HOSPITAL NURSE'S TRAINING SCHOOL 1904-1931  (V.J. H. Grads and B. Wamboldt)     45 ";  THE FIRST OKANAGAN COLLEGE (Douglas Scott)     55  GLADYS ELLEN HERBERT  68'  LETTER FROM WING WONG     73  OKANAGAN LOAN AND INVESTMENT TRUST COMPANY     74  CORRESPONDENCE OF FATHER CHARLES PANDOSY  LETTER NUMBER ONE    77  ESSAYS  THE SAGA OF THE NV4 OF THE NWJ4 OF SECTION 12 (Steven Svenson)  83  AWARD OF MERIT     87  THE STORY OF THE GLEN FARM (Alex Brown)    89  BIOGRAPHIES AND REMINISCENCES  HAZARDS OF THE HORSE AND BUGGY DAYS (J. L. (Larry) McKeever)  92  FARM YOUTH CLUBS IN THE ARMSTRONG SPALLUMCHEEN DISTRICT  (Mat Hassen)    97 -  THE NICK ALEXIS STORY (Stuart Fleming)    103'  THE OLIVER AIRPORT (F. C. MacNaughton, Research and Interviews by  Alex McPherson, Earl Watters, R. Hall)  108-  ENDERBY - THE 1922-23 INTERMEDIATE CHAMPIONS OF B.C.  (Gus Stankoven)  113  THE AMAZING STORY OF NURSE MARY WARBURTON SURVIVAL AND  RESCUE IN THE WILDS OF B.C. (Joan Greenwood)  117  A BACKWARD GLANCE (Ettie Adam)    124  H. R. DENISON - A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH (Stuart Fleming)  129  FAIRVIEW - THE TOWN THAT WAS (Dorothy Amor)  134'  SATURDAY NIGHT IN KELOWNA (1920) (Arthur Ward)     136'  OKANAGAN SUMMER SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS     139  CHARLES DONDALE, Ph.D. - Biographical Sketch     161  WALTER DOUGLAS CHARLES - Historical Sketch     162-  THE ARACHNIDS OF THE OKANAGAN VALLEY (W. D. Charles)    164'  BOOK REVIEWS  UNDER THE K: MEMORIES OF GROWING UP IN KEREMEOS (John Shinnick)   . 174'  RAINCOAST CHRONICLE NUMBER NINE (John Shinnick)     175  A SALMON ARM SCRAPBOOK (John Shinnick)     176 OBITUARIES      178  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1983  184  MINUTES OF THE 57th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1982  185  PRESIDENT'S REPORT 1981 - 1982 (Ronald Robey)  188  SECRETARY'S REPORT 1981 - 1982 (R. F. Marriage)  189  TREASURER'S REPORT 1981 - 1982 (S. L. Christensen)  189  EDITOR'S REPORT 1981 - 1982 (Carol Abernathy)     191  MEMBERSHIP LIST 1982  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY        200 HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  PLANE DOWN IN THE OKANAGAN  PART ONE: THE CRASH  By John Peter Shinnick  Assistant Editor, OHS Report  The year was 1950. The date was December 26, Boxing Day. On your  doorstep that morning you might have found a copy of the "Vancouver Sun."  If you had picked it up and glanced at the front page, the first thing you  would have noticed was a large half-page photograph of a wrecked airplane,  CP Air's Flight 4 to Penticton. The plane in the photo was hardly recognizable as an aircraft: merely twisted metal, debris, the remains of a DC-3. As  your eyes carried down the page, you might have read the photo cutline:  "Exclusive Picture of Fatal CPA Airliner Crash in Okanagan." Below the  cutline, you might have read the bolder headline: EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS OF CPA PLANE CRASH RESCUE. Then below that was yet  another headline in smaller type: Pilot, Co-pilot Killed, 16 Make Long Trek  Out.  Elsewhere on that page you might have read that the sun had been shining in Vancouver for the first time in twelve overcast days. An earthquake had  shaken Mexico City. A shopping centre had burned in Melbourne, Australia.  The U.S. Senate had met for 22 seconds. In Korea, a pair of camels betrayed  their Communist owners to an Australian fighter plane. The price of eggs had  fallen eleven cents and the Queen's horse, Manicou, won its third straight  race at Kempton Park.  The main focus of that page, however, was the crash of the DC-3 on  Okanagan Mountain. The complete story would not be known until after an  inquest. Two days later, the "Penticton Herald" began its front page news  with the headline: CRASH CAME WITHOUT WARNING, JURY TOLD,  Passengers Assured They Would Be In Penticton in Ten Minutes. Elsewhere,  the paper told readers that the city of Penticton was preparing for New Year's  Eve celebrations. A Summerland woman told of her experience as a passenger  on the plane that crashed. Penticton City Council was preparing to deal with  the construction of the Memorial Arena. Work began on a new hotel at  Nanaimo Avenue and Martin Street. At the bottom of the December 28th  front page, the "Herald" contained two stories dealing with the search for the  downed aircraft: FIRST SEARCH GALLANT FAILURE: RESCUERS WIN  HIGH ACCLAIM.  The story of the wreck of CP Air Flight 4 begins not with the actual crash  on Okanagan Mountain at 1:45 p.m., December 22, 1950, but several hours  earlier. At 8:15 that morning, passengers boarded Flight 4 at Vancouver's airport. It was three days before Christmas. They carried with them gifts of food  and drink for the people they planned to visit in the Okanagan and the  Kootenays. They were dressed in travelling clothes, wanting to look their best  when they met relatives on arrival. The women wore nylons and high heels, 10  the men wore lightweight jackets and trousers. They were in a festive mood,  looking forward to their visit.  The plane took off from Vancouver on schedule. It circled trying to gain  altitude but the landing gear failed to retract, adding to the air resistance and  preventing the plane from climbing high enough to cross the mountains. The  pilot turned back for the first time, landing shortly after takeoff.  Flight 4 then sat on the tarmack for an hour while the decision was being  made to transfer everyone to another aircraft. Once the baggage and passengers had been ferried to another DC-3 (this one identified by the letters  CF-CUF on its wings), Flight 4 again took to the air. Shortly after takeoff, the  pilot noticed that his second plane also could not climb to the proper altitude.  The wings were icing up, so he again made the decision to turn back to Vancouver. After a wait, weather conditions improved so that icing would not occur but not before several nervous passengers decided to disembark. For the  third time, Flight 4 taxied onto the runway. For the third time it would make  an attempt to fly its Christmas cargo to the Okanagan. It was the last time the  plane would fly from any airport.  In the cockpit, sat Thomas Quinton Moore of Vancouver, an experienced CP Air pilot. Beside him was Co-pilot Alexander Leo Doucette, also of  Vancouver. Behind them, taking care of the passengers, was CP Air  stewardess Lorna Franco from Manitoba. Seated in the cabin were fifteen  passengers: Iris McLelland of Penticton; I. R. Seymour of Vancouver;  Dorothy Butler of Summerland; Irene Thompson of Oliver; Mr. and Mrs.  Lipsack of Cowichan Lake; M. Wright of Rossland; Ora Blackmer, a nurse  Canadian Pacific Air D.C. 3, Flight #4 — Vancouver to Calgary.  Crashed on Okanagan Mountain 1400 Hours, 22 December, 1950. 11  from St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver; Maurice Langpap of Vancouver; F.  Savincoff of Nelson; C. Bond of Nelson; R.J. Fulton of Kimberley; E. Ostrum  of Lethbridge, Alberta; R. M. Dawson of Creston; and H. C. Clark of  Chilliwack. Of the passengers, ten were women, five were men.  Flight 4 lifted from Vancouver at 12:48 p.m. with 440 gallons of fuel.  The DC-3's total weight at liftoff was 25,772 pounds, narrowly within the  allowable limit of 26,200 pounds. The ground crew later testified that the  plane had been properly loaded, its centre of gravity was correctly positioned.  The plane's initial flight plan called for a cruising altitude of 11,000 feet. On  the ground, routine reports came at regular intervals from Captain Moore  and Co-pilot Doucette. At 1:37 p.m. the pilot radioed: "Pacific 4 by  Princeton leaving 15,000 feet." About this time, Flight 4 was in visual and  radio contact with Captain Black of CP Air's Flight 3 westbound from  Calgary: the two planes passed near Princeton.  Aboard the plane, the flight was progressing normally. A few minutes  after his last radio message, Captain Moore turned on his intercom to assure  the passengers: "Everything's all right. You will get to Penticton this time."  The plane began its descent into the Okanagan. It was scheduled to make a  turn above Okanagan Mountain, line up with a radio beacon as it made its  final approach to the runway, then touch down. But something happened  that even today remains uncertain in the minds of passengers aboard that  plane.  Seconds before the crash, Dorothy Butler of Summerland remembers  turning to her fellow passenger to ask, "Do you hear that scratching noise?"  The passenger nodded. Below the belly of the DC-3 the tops of jackpine and  Ponderosa pine scratched at the aluminum skin of the fuselage. Suddenly the  wings clipped the tops off other trees now clearly visible outside the plane.  The engines revved hard and fast leading some passengers to think that the  plane had managed to lift off and everything would be okay.  Dorothy Butler, in her story "Miracle at Christmas" (OHS Report #40)  remembered that instant, but out of the chaos of any disaster there is always  doubt about what actually happened, how it happened, what it sounded like,  what it felt like. Some witnesses remembered the engines speeding up, others  remember no engine noises at all. Some witnesses remembered the chaos in  the cabin happening simultaneously with the scraping of the trees against the  belly of the plane, others remembered the scratching then the chaos. Dorothy  Butler remembered it this way:  ". . . we tumbled around inside the fuselage, and caught glimpses of the  landscape twisting below us. Where was the line between the sky and the  mountains — between life and death itself — we were as a crumb of bread, a  grain of sand, a fleeting moment. The feeling was not of fear but of an unbelieving peace. . . Every part of the plane was struggling, straining, pushing.  There seemed a chance we would break into flight again ... we were heading  toward a giant pine tree ... a thunderous crash followed as a wing slashed  through the trunk and the tree, sheared and splintered, toppled sickeningly  toward us, brushing the wings as it came to rest in the snow."  This we know for certain: the plane struck a tree, turned slightly less  than 180 degrees and came to rest facing away from its proper course. The  cockpit had been sheared off, some of the seats in the cabin broke loose and  slid forward with hand baggage and the passengers themselves. The plane lay 12  *■      B^^^W  v      J  VX  1"~ "1   1  ■ T   •«"        •*»   f ■  K "    vi?  1  II /J  Is-' ^  1 *>-  BkiBJI  '^1  BSt  It^Ea*     Jirb'^**   \ *lMBL  *  Hi              ■  .#«»>  j^B  RESCUE TEAM  Left to right: Evett Burk, Frank O'Connell, Victor Wilson, Fred Savincoff (first survivor to come  off the mountain) 1720 Hours, 23 December, 1950.  shattered in three feet of snow on the east side of Okanagan Mountain at  about 4500 feet. The air temperature in Penticton that day was 39 to 43.2  degrees Farenheit, so the temperature at the crash site was in the freezing  range.  Although knowing at the moment of the crash that they were on their  final approach to Penticton Airport, Dorothy Butler wrote two decades later  that the dazed passengers had no idea where they were. Stewardess Lorna  Franco asked: "Is everybody all right?" A few passengers said they were bruised but okay. Others had blackened eyes: amazingly there were no broken  bones.  The plane was down, but how had it happened? The report following the  hearing and inquest concluded the following: "The aircraft crashed on the  northeast side of Okanagan Mountain, B.C., at about 4500 feet elevation at  approximately 13.43 hrs. PST. The aircraft was travelling at a speed of at  least 120 miles per hour airspeed. The aircraft struck trees while in cloud on a  heading of 173°T, almost immediately shearing off the port tail plane and  elevator. Approximately 200 feet further south, the port wing struck a large  tree and the wing was sheared off outboard from the centre section attach  angles. This started the aircraft into a violent left-handed rotation, grinding  the nose section and the engines off on the ground, sliding backwards and  coming to rest heading 353°T about 400 feet from first contact with the trees.  The aircraft did not catch fire due to (a) deep, wet snow on the ground and  the presence of snow-laden trees and (b) due to the nature of the impact, fuel  tanks were not fractured and the only escaping gasoline was from fractured  fuel lines." The underlying cause of the accident: "Aircraft was below  minimum altitude permissible when passing through Greata Fan Marker during an instrument approach procedure at Penticton Radio Range." 13  In the fuselage, the realization of the seriousness of the situation raced  through the minds of the dazed passengers. One man reportedly reached for  an axe to chop through the door. He was restrained by the stewardess who  opened the door without difficulty. Dorothy Butler recalls hearing the sound  of fuel sloshing in the tanks and someone yelling: "Run for your life!" For the  most part, the passengers left the plane quickly and without panic.  On the front page of the "Penticton Herald", Dorothy Butler was quoted  as saying: "There was a shuffling of many confused people, but they showed  no signs of panic. We all pushed out into the snow which was about three feet  deep in places. It was only then that we had time to look around and survey  the damage to the plane. The engine had completely disintegrated and many  parcels and packages tumbled out of the front storage passage." The engines  had not actually "disintegrated", as Butler reported, but had been broken  loose from their moorings on the wings.  Ora Blackmer, the nurse, despite the risk of fire and the immediate  danger to herself, rushed back into the plane to see whether there was  anything she could do for the pilot and co-pilot. Beyond the bulkhead that  separated the cockpit from the forward baggage compartment, little remained of the plane. Blackmer found Captain Moore dead and the co-pilot, Leo  Doucette, in critical condition. For the next thirty-six hours, she and Lorna  Franco, the stewardess, did everything they could to save Doucette's life but  his injuries proved fatal.  PART TWO: THE RESCUE  It was search and rescue policy in 1950 that when a plane was reported  missing it should be given enough time to use up its fuel before an intense  search began. This policy was intended to eliminate expensive and futile searches for planes that had managed to fly out of bad weather to land at alternate airports hundreds of miles from their destinations. A plane coming into  the Okanagan with a load of fuel could easily fly over the Rockies and land on  any of hundreds of small airports, landing strips or highways on the prairies.  Five minutes after the plane crashed on Okanagan Mountain, staff at CP  Air's Operations Office in Vancouver re-checked the flight plan to explain the  plane being overdue at Penticton. Finding no errors in their calculations, they  declared an emergency. They advised the Air Traffic Control Centre of the  Department of Transport in Vancouver, who then advised the Royal Canadian Air Force Rescue Co-ordination Centre at 2:50 p.m. Nearly seven hours  (because of the fuel on the plane) elapsed between the time of the crash and  CP Air's request that RCAF 12 Group Rescue Co-ordination Centre assume  responsibility for a search.  By 8:40 p.m. the authorities knew they had a downed aircraft somewhere  in the mountains of British Columbia, possibly on its flight path between  Princeton and Penticton. Beyond that, they knew nothing for certain. Find  the plane: this became the immediate objective of the RCAF 12 Group, CP  Air and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police in the Okanagan. At times over  the next crucial hours, the communication between the various groups  became tenuous at best and some of the searchers remember a rivalry between  the various search teams. 14  The first aircraft sent to search for the downed plane were an RCAF  Dakota piloted by Flying Officer Glaister and a CP Air Dakota piloted by  Captain Madden of Vancouver. Seven additional RCAF planes were placed  on standby to wait for daylight before joining the search, and a radio truck  was dispatched to a position between Princeton and Penticton to help coordinate the search effort. At 10:45 p.m. the RCAF Dakota began its search  along the north side of Flight 4's flightpath from Princeton to Penticton,  while the CP Air plane searched the south side of the same path. Both planes  reported fires on Okanagan Mountain at about the same time, with F/O  Glaister radioing the following positions: "Three fires in triangle position  494315N, 119353W. People seen running around waving firebrands. Height  4,000 foot level." The Dakota then landed at Penticton at 1:37 a.m.,  December 23.  At 3:30 in the morning a ground party, carrying 35 pound backpacks of  medical supplies and food, set off from the end of the Naramata Road to  follow old Indian trails into the crash site. Their objective was to check out  the fires on the mountain. Guiding them through the darkness was Staff  Sergeant Halcrow of the RCMP, who parked his radio-equipped car on the  Kelowna-Penticton stretch of Highway 97 and kept in touch via walkie-talkie.  In the ground party were three RCMP constables (D. H. Howell, S. A. Ram-  mage and Len Le Lievre) as well as three knowledgeable Penticton residents  (Avery King, an orchardist and woodsman; Art Hook, also an outdoorsman  and Dr. John Gibson, an MD who later became Penticton's coroner). They  were told that the plane was believed to be down somewhere between Paradise  Ranch (owned and operated at that time by Major J. V. H. Wilson, M.C.)  and Squally Point.  Unfortunately, this search party was guided toward slash fires that had  been burning at lower elevations of Okanagan Mountain for several days.  These fires were clearly visible from Sgt. Halcrow's vantage point across the  lake. The searchers broke trail through deep, wet snow in some of the roughest terrain the Okanagan has to offer. Corporal Le Lievre, who was also a  local game guide and who had been suffering from a back injury, was forced  to turn back shortly after the party began its search. The party reached one  fire, only to be disappointed that it was a slash fire. They continued on into  the night making slow, painful progress up the mountain with their packs, occasionally finding their way impeded by dangerous stretches of slippery ice.  Sixteen hours after setting out, the ground party wearily stumbled upon  a small cabin on Baker Lake where they all managed to spend the night of  December 23 jammed together in a single bed. Through the 42.3 Mc/s  walkie-talkie they were in touch with F/L Gibbs, co-ordinator of the search in  Penticton. Since they were not too well-equipped, food and snowshoes were  requested. A call put out over radio CKOK, Penticton, brought more than  were needed but the overcast and fog-bound mountains prevented a  parachute drop. For these men the search itself had become a gruelling  ordeal. They struggled back to Penticton — 40 hours after setting out —  hungry, exhausted and disappointed that their effort had been futile.  At first daylight on the morning of the 23rd, RCAF 12 Group despatched  a Dakota that, along with a CP Air plane, dropped supplies to the crash site  and reported seeing five survivors standing near the fuselage. Captain Mad- 15  den, pilot of the CP Air Dakota, reported to Vancouver that he had seen the  word "DOC" stamped into the snow near the crash. Madden's information  passed quickly to 12 Group and it became a priority to send another doctor to  the downed plan.  In Vancouver on December 22 when alerted for the search for the overdue plane, Sgt. J. W. Jameson, a member of the RCAF para-rescue personnel, prepared the equipment required for the search and rescue. He contacted Jumpmaster Sgt. Wright, who was working at the Vancouver General  Hospital, and advised him to stand by. LAC Jenkinson also stood by.  On December 23, all gear loaded, Dakota KK143 took off from Vancouver at 9:20 a.m. with F/L Gibbs at the controls. The wreckage was sighted  at 10:50. Gibbs made several passes over the wreckage to give the jumpmaster  a general view of the vicinity to determine a suitable area for jumping from  approximately 1500 feet. All agreed that the immediate area of the crash was  suitable and it was further agreed that Jameson should jump and radio back  information on what extra supplies were needed. As Jameson landed safely  within 200 yards of the crash the weather was closing in fast with severe icing  making it necessary for Sgt. Wright and LAC Jenkinson to drop the medical  kits and 3 boxes of rations and equipment and jump themselves.  As Sgt. Jameson entered the aircraft he found the stewardess, Lorna  Franco, and the nurse, Mrs. Ora Blackmer, already assembling a plasma set  from one of the medical kits which had landed within 20 feet of the aircraft.  Sgt. Jameson immediately prepared a syrette of morphine which the  stewardess administered to Doucette who shortly afterwards slept. The nurse  started the flow of plasma into his arm. Because medical kits could be lost  morphine was carried personally by para-rescue men.  The para-rescue team and some of the able-bodied survivors prepared a  meal from the rations and a para-teepee and lean-to for shelter during the  long night. The contents of the para-rescue team's trail packs was distributed  to aid the survivors to keep warm.  At Paradise Ranch (located at the boundary of what is now Okanagan  Mountain Park) Victor Wilson and his wife, Kitty, rose as if it were just  another day. The RCAF and CP Air planes were roaring overhead at what  seemed like treetop level, the only indication that something different was going on outside. Victor decided not to shave until later: he planned to do his  chores around the ranch and then shave before driving to the Penticton bus  depot to pick up his father-in-law, who would be staying at the ranch for the  holidays. As he looked out the window, he mused out loud to Kitty: "I wonder  if they found that plane?" He expressed confidence that Dr. John Gibson  knew the trails in the area, but he would not know until a day later that Gibson, King and the others had not reached the site. As he set out to do his  chores, Victor Wilson had no inkling of the role he would play in the drama.  Just as he started up his tractor to work near the south end of his ranch,  an RCMP vehicle acting as radio liaison with the aircraft stopped outside the  gate. The constable told Wilson that the previous night's sighting had been  confirmed by CP Air's chief pilot, Hollick-Kenyon, a distinguished RCAF  pilot who had been raised in the Okanagan and who had initiated the air service between Vancouver, the Okanagan and Calgary in 1948. Wilson told the  constable that he knew the area where the plane had crashed and volunteered 16  to help. Search Headquarters asked the constable to bring the rancher to Penticton as soon as possible.  "That was the fastest 17 mile drive that I've ever had," Wilson recalls today.  It was a surprise to Kitty Wilson to hear at 10 a.m. CKOK radio announce, "Here is the latest bulletin on the CPA plane crash near Chute Lake.  The police have just been out to Paradise Ranch and Victor Wilson is now at  the Penticton Armouries and will be leading a rescue party." A lot would  happen before Kitty saw Victor again. Her father appeared at Paradise  Ranch at 5 p.m. carrying his suitcase having walked two miles after the taxi  driver refused to venture farther on the road to Paradise Ranch.  Wilson was first flown over the crash site. "It was utterly disillusioning,"  he remembers. "Somehow an airplane looks huge at the airport but crushed  and jammed among the tall firs it looked minute. Trying to pinpoint landmarks to help in the ground search left me feeling desperately inadequate."  There was little time, however, for anyone to feel despair. A second ground  party was quickly organized, including: Dr. Jack Stapleton, a Penticton  surgeon; Mickey Grant, an RCAF pilot home for Christmas (who was helping  his father establish a search and rescue base camp); Frank O'Connell  (Wilson's ranch foreman); Everett Burk, who worked at Paradise Ranch and  Wilson who, at that time was O/C, "C" Squadron, B.C. Dragoons. The men  took turns breaking trail through deep snow.  Soon after starting up the mountain it became apparent that some members of the rescue party were having considerable difficulty on the crosscountry rugged terrain so it was suggested they follow at their own pace.  Travelling through brush country where no trail had ever been established,  the small search party proceeded by dead reckoning through dense forest  where visibility was a matter of yards. Snow continued to fall around them,  sometimes reducing the limited visibility to zero. All the time they felt the  urgency of getting Dr. Stapleton to the crash site: nobody knew how many injured were indicated by the cryptic word DOC the planes had seen from the  air. The men travelling with Wilson put absolute confidence in his sense of  direction. Five hours after setting out, the snow lessened and visibility increased. The men were soaked to the skin, exhausted and suffering from the kind  of leg cramps that come from constantly stepping into deep snow. Around  them the vast, silent Okanagan landscape made them feel they, too, were lost.  They had nothing to guide them, no smoke, no fires and no land marks,  nothing but Wilson's feeling about where they were going. Periodically they  stopped and yelled into the trees: "Call! Yell! Do something!" They hoped the  survivors would hear and give them a bearing.  Suddenly the silence of the still mountain forest was broken. They heard  a voice. They stopped, hearing only the pounding of their hearts, the  laboured breathing of their lungs. Had they really heard something? In  unison they yelled at the forest: "Call again!" Clearly, in the distance they  heard a voice. With a sudden burst of energy and excitement, they plunged  over rocks and fallen trees until they broke through to the small clearing the  plane had smashed through the forest.  The rescue party found survivors standing around small, inadequate  fires in thin suits, nylons and street shoes. Some of the women had removed 17  curtains from the plane to make crude overshoes. Later when the search party  reached the outside, word was quickly passed down to Penticton for people to  donate snow-boots but confusion arose because the first ground search party  had radioed for snowshoes to be dropped and the RCMP were snowed under  with about fifty pairs. (This was not the only time that the media found accurate details elusive. The "Victoria Times" reported rescurers trying to get to  the crash site in boats on Chute Lake — at that time layered in three feet of  ice — as well as a fictitious CP Rail rescue on the Kettle Valley Railway.)  At the crash site the rescuers were welcomed warmly and the rescuers in  turn went to work to solve a few immediate problems. Larger fires were built,  and when the third party arrived a short time later — following the trail  broken by the Wilson party — they managed to locate supplies that had been  air-dropped earlier. Some passengers had opened bottles of Christmas cheer  and were visibly intoxicated, while others were dining on Christmas turkeys  and cakes. Despite the tragedy of the moment almost everyone involved in the  rescue remembers a slightly hysterical air of festivity at the crash site.  Satisfied soon after his arrival that everything that could be done by the  para-rescue jumpers, Nurse Blackmer and the stewardess, Wilson set off  down the trail to the base camp. Soon he met the main rescue column with  Dr. Stapleton well in the lead. They were cheered by the fact that the aircraft  was only half a mile up the trail. Dr. Stapleton, unlike the others in the party,  was not an experienced woodsman. He was in fairly good physical condition  but the terrain was somewhat foreign to him. He had packed a few medical  supplies when first asked to join the Wilson party but had no idea, really,  what to expect at the site. In his pack he carried first aid supplies, Demerol  and Morphine to relieve pain.  "We knew," Dr. Stapleton remembers "that the air force had flown in  para-medics who had parachuted in a few things and started intravenous  therapy on the co-pilot, but that was the extent of what we knew." The copilot was unconscious when Stapleton arrived, and had only the occasional rational period when he could talk. The extent of his injuries was such that it  had been obvious to the nurse and stewardess looking after him that very little  could be done to save his life. Stapleton served the injured man until his death  at 1:35 a.m. on December 24.  PART THREE: THE AFTERMATH  Once the survivors had been led down the trail on foot from the crash site  and the bodies of the pilot and co-pilot had been carried down from the  mountain on toboggans, there were two additional efforts required to complete the story of the crash on Okanagan Mountain.  The recovery operation of the baggage and mail involved several dozen  Penticton residents, the RCMP and personnel from the Canadian Forces.  Once everything of any value had been removed, the fuselage of the plane,  the engines and the remaining debris burned to avoid any possibility of a  future rescue effort mistaking the plane for a recent crash. Then there remained only the fuselage which lay on the mountain for several years until  Jack Serwa of Kelowna salvaged it for an American firm that dealt in DC-3  parts. 18  After that there remained only a scar in the trees and a trail leading in  from the Chute Lake Road, mute testament to the crash and concerted efforts  of the determined people who put their hearts into the rescue. Only later,  after it was all over, would the magnitude of the operation hit home to those  involved. "Up to a point," Victor Wilson recalls, "the job had seemed such a  small and utterly personal undertaking. Suddenly it was obvious to all of us  that the combined resources of CP Air, the RCAF Search and Rescue Team,  the RCMP, the Militia and scores of men and women had made it all possible.  Finding that plane was not the work of any single man: it was the sum of a coordinated struggle by knowledgeable men and women who contributed their  special skills to the main task. We trusted each other and never lost sight of  the objective. The fortitude of Mickey Grant, Frank O'Connell and Everett  Burk stands out as a remarkable achievement. The survivors are deeply indebted to them."  Until that time, Penticton had always had a highly capable search and  rescue group which worked closely with the RCMP but suddenly it was just  how capable they actually were. It was a moment of great pride for the entire  town and the the Valley that had followed the drama via newspapers and  radio. Not before nor since has there been a rescue effort of this magnitude in  the Okanagan.  Because of the deaths of the pilot and co-pilot, the question of how the  accident occurred has never been clearly answered. The subsequent reports  and recommendations all skirted certain conclusions that could only have  been made with first-hand testimony detailing what actually happened in the  cockpit of Flight 4 in those last fatal seconds. Over a cloud-covered Okanagan  Mountain the plane was supposed to have picked up the radio signal, which  should have illuminated a small light on the instrument panel to tell Captain  Moore that he was in line with the runway. At that instant he should have  been high enough over the mountain to clear the trees; but, as we know, he  was not. Was there something wrong with his altimeter? This seems to be the  most logical conclusion. Normal procedure calls for the pilots to re-set the  altimeter periodically to make corrections for changes in air pressure. Were  these adjustments not made that day?  We will never know.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This story could never have been written without considerable research  prior to the Author's involvement. Material was gathered in the mid-seventies  by Ms. Jeanne Gibson of Penticton in preparation for a story intended for the  OHS Report, but that material, once gathered, collected dust in a file held by  Victor Wilson. Periodically Wilson did his best to con some poor hapless  writer into pulling it together. The Author, intrigued by the story itself and  encouraged by the fact that much of the legwork had already been completed, agreed to "tell the real story of what happened, particularly the contribution of the first search party," as Victor's sales pitch put it.  Material for this story comes from the "Penticton Herald"; the "Vancouver Sun" story by Paul St. Pierre; the RCAF accident report; the DOT  report; interviews with Dr. John Gibson, Dr. Jack Stapletqn, Avery King, Art  Hook, Dave Grant (the youngest member of the rescue team), Joe Harris  (Curator of the R. N. Atkinson Museum and Archives in Penticton), Bill Rit- 19  chie of Cawston (also one of the rescue party), and of course from Victor  Wilson of Naramata.  Some of the details of Dorothy Butler's involvement as a survivor have  come from her story in OHS Report #40, as well as her interview in the Penticton Herald of December 28, 1950.  There were scores of men and women who helped in the search and  rescue effort whose names have not been acknowledged in this account due to  the limitations of elapsed time and missing documentation. The Author  regrets not being able to include them all.  The account of Wilson's morning at Paradise Ranch is pieced together  from a story that Kitty Wilson wrote for "The Western Advertiser" in  December, 1979.  To everyone who helped make this story possible, the Author extends his  sincerest appreciation.  Chinatown — Abbott Street 1909  (Courtesy Kelowna Museum) 20  KELOWNA'S CHINATOWN  By Albert H. Mann  Some seventy five years ago a town was born within a town. It grew, prospered, declined and died. The faces were a little different from ours, the language entirely different. This happened in Kelowna, British Columbia, where  a thriving and colorful Chinatown once existed. To this British Columbia interior community nestled beside Okanagan Lake in the heart of the  Okanagan Valley, came the Chinese, seeking a livelihood in a foreign country  thousands of miles from home. By the year 1905 they had established a  Chinatown near City Park in Kelowna. They increased in numbers to a peak  of 400 to 500 in 1930 and then began to drift away until only 50 or so remained in 1960. Today in 1982, the Chinese year of the dog, new owners have now  torn down the old buildings to make way for development, and only vestiges  and memories of the old Chinatown remain.  The Chinese came for awhile and then they left. That theme of the formation of a community by an immigrant people and their subsequent dispersal is the subject of this paper. It will endeavor to sketch the saga of the  Chinese settlement in Kelowna, and how the Chinese affected the landscape  and the urban aspect of Kelowna.  Almost all the Chinese who arrived in British Columbia originally came  from the Chinese Province of Kwantung in the vicinity of Canton north of  Hong Kong. Stories of gold in California and British Columbia had quickened the move across the Pacific to what the Chinese called the "Mountain of  Gold." Penniless Chinese eagerly embarked for a foreign land, hoping to  make a small stake, and return to their families, or send for their families to  join them across the sea. Some Chinese came directly to British Columbia,  others after a period in California.  Some 5,000 Chinese were attracted to British Columbia by the Gold  Rush of 1858. Mostly from California, they worked the sand bars of the Fraser  River up and into the Caribou District, then on to Barkerville. Many worked  for other miners and for businesses which served miners. When the gold  petered out, railway building provided jobs for Chinese labourers. Between  1881 and 1884 Andrew Onderdonk contracted for some 15,000 Chinese  laborers needed for construction of the British Columbia section of the Canadian Pacific Railway, joining the new province to the older members of Confederation. On completion of this mammoth construction project, the  Chinese had to look elsewhere for employment. Most of them migrated to the  coastal cities of Vancouver and Victoria, but many remained in the interior of  British Columbia, drifting into towns and villages in search of employment.  In this way Chinese came to Kelowna, some to operate cafes and laundries,  most to work for farmers, orchardists and others who had need of their cheap  labor. Despite a constant coming and going, their numbers became sufficient  to form a small but dynamic Chinese community in the City Park area of  Kelowna.  During the time of the arrival of the first Chinese, Kelowna had been  developing as a small community on the shore of Lake Okanagan, being registered as the Townsite of Kelowna in 1892. The first sternwheeler, the  "Aberdeen" was making stops at Kelowna and a new hotel, the "Lakeview"  had opened its doors. Superior climate and energetic promotion by real estate 21  firms had resulted in rapid settlement of the surrounding area and establishment of a burgeoning orchard industry. By 1904 the thriving business community included Lequime's General Store, the Bank of Montreal, Leckie  Hardware, a Post Office, and Willets' Drug Store, to name a few. In 1909  Kelowna had approximately 1800 people.  And the Chinese were a part of Kelowna from the start. They had panned for gold in the Mission Creek as early as the mid 1800's, and both the  Lakeview Hotel and the Aberdeen sternwheeler had Chinese cooks. Table 1  shows the Chinese businesses of Kelowna listed in the 1920 B.C. Directory.  TABLE NO. 1  CHINESE BUSINESSES OF KELOWNA  LISTED IN 1910 B.C. DIRECTORY  Sam Lee Laundry  Sun Sing Laundry  Wo Yuen & Co. Chinese Merchants  Yee Fung & Co. Chinese Merchants  Ying Kee Laundry  Chung Kee — Grocers  Hop Lee Laundry  Kwong Lee Yuen & Co. Chinese Merchants  British Columbians were pleased to enjoy the benefits of cheap Chinese  labor, but were fearful that an unchecked tide of Chinese immigration would  create serious problems for the predominantly Anglo-Saxon population. Efforts to stem Chinese immigration took the form of a head tax of $50 in 1885,  increased to $100 in 1900 and to $500 in 1903. A specific Act in the same year  effectively ended Chinese immigration until 1947. The law permitted only  specially contracted Chinese labour to enter Canada. These measures  prevented most Chinese from bringing their wives to Canada, and allowed no  replacements for men who returned to China.  Some Chinese were able to save enough for a visit home to China, father  a son or daughter, and then return to Canada, but only a very few accumulated enough money to bring their wives and families to Canada. The population of Kelowna's Chinatown was thus more than 90% male, of which more  than half had wives in China and eventually returned home.  The Chinese in Kelowna obtained employment through enterprising  labour bosses who contracted with local farmers and other employers of  labour for the services of the men. If an employer needed labour, he would  simply make the arrangements with the labour boss and the required Chinese  labourers would be supplied. Occasionally the Chinese labourers found work  in canneries, but for the most part they performed field labour for the orchardists and farmers in the Okanagan Valley. Their labour took them as far  south as Osoyoos and as far north as Vernon, picking, pruning and building  water flumes. A number worked on the Kettle Valley Railway and a few on  the tobacco farms off Benvoulin Road. The pay was low and the labour boss  took his commission.  These labour bosses owned rooming houses in which they quartered their  men; they also grub-staked their men all winter long, causing the men to incur debts which insured their continued control. Some of the men had small  cubicles in the rooming houses and others shared larger rooms. Their fur- 22  niture needs were small: a chest for belongings, a wooden bed, a straw mattress and a blanket or two. Primitive tables and stools provided focal points  for the gambling which was the men's principal diversion when not working.  On the main floor of these dwelling houses, usually at the back, the owner  provided a communal kitchen, where the men individually prepared their  meals. Their diet consisted of basic rice, small portions of fish, pork and  chicken (rarely beef) and vegetables, preferably green, which they were careful not to overcook. In summer, they sun-dried vast quantities of green vegetables for use during the rest of the year.  In the evenings, and when no work was to be had, particularly in the  winter, the men passed the time gambling. Deprived of the comforts of family, and not generally welcomed into occidental society, they had little opportunity to learn the language and customs of the majority and turned inwards.  They played dominoes, mah jong and fantan for modest stakes. Long time  Kelowna residents remember well the Chinese passion for gambling and the  evident absence of cheating or "cardsharking." When they could afford to do  so, perhaps 50% of the men also smoked opium on occasion. This unhappy  habit they had acquired back in China, which European merchants supplied  with opium from India and Indo-China. Some say less gambling and opium  smoking would have occurred if the men could have brought their families to  Canada or if they had been able to participate more in Kelowna's social life.  The Chinese followed their own code of honour. To those who showed  them kindness, consideration and friendship, they responded generously with  gifts, often to the point of embarrassment. Their hurts and rejection they kept  to themselves in their inscrutable Chinese way. Tom Hamilton, Kelowna  Welfare Administrator from 1946 to 1974, knew the residents of Chinatown  well, and he recalls that no Chinese asked for or received welfare when no  work was to be had. Only in the rare case of chronic illness was assistance accepted. The Chinamen helped each other and the labour bosses advanced  funds against the next job. They saw the doctor only rarely when illness  struck, preferring to care for each other.  When death came for these lonely men they were buried in simple graves  in the old section of Kelowna Cemetery. In the early days of Chinatown, it was  customary after a period of three years, for the Chinese Benevolent Association to obtain a permit to exhume the bones and send them to China for permanent burial. The graves of others, however, identified by small markers inscribed with Chinese characters, remain to this day. Sometimes one sees a  nickel or a dime poking through the ground, left by old friends to provide a  little spending money in the new surroundings.  Kelowna's Chinatown was located near Kelowna City Park, in the block  north from Harvey to Leon Avenue and east from Abbott to Water Street. In  this block lived the bulk of the Chinese population, although they did spill  over the boundaries into the adjoining blocks. Figure 1 shows the Chinatown  area and identifies the main buildings in existence in the 1940's as the district  began to decline. Of interest is the fact that the lane between Harvey and  Leon was used as the main entrance way for the buildings on Harvey.  Among these buildings on Harvey, were the Masonic Hall, the Dart Coon  Social Club, and the little brick building in between which was used as a  hospital in the flu epidemic of 1919. Chinatown's main social activities  centered around the Dart Coon Club. Many occidentals were invited to at- <r  WATEPs   street  KWOK(r  LAV*»RY  VVON6-  HOust  I WASHITA  STORE  P  W0W6- T(N«  Heus£  LEE   Bow  8vil.PfN6-  QE3  Dart oo*  fcwcHum  Yuen Srete  hop Lee  Mar. re  23  "5  la  f!  ClTr   PARK  cninfse  pArrr  ABBOTT   STREET  orr   PARK  FlCrURE     I  Cnot      DffAw/V    TO    3cAt-£ )  Kelowna   Chinatown  HT5 (ate a)  3:  WONCr  Bat  He«f£  tend New Year's celebrations and other Chinese social events in the Club.  Last survivor of Chinatown's buildings, the Dart Coon Club was demolished  in 1979.  West of the Dart Coon Club, Kwong Lee Yuen operated the last Chinese  store in Chinatown; he closed the store in 1949, and went back to China. Tom  Hamilton's basement museum now displays the counter and cash register of  the Yuen store. 24  Kelowna residents remember well the City Park Cafe, formerly at the  corner of Abbott Street and Harvey Avenue. Popular as an after-theatre place  to congregate, the City Park Cafe was famous for its 90f steaks, back-room  gambling and for its gatherings of local people after dances and social affairs.  Kwong Tape, who died in China in 1938 at the age of 76, founded the City  Park Cafe soon after coming to Kelowna in 1929. His cousin, Jim and another  relative, Won (Fats) Kwong, operated the Cafe until it closed in 1964 with a  party still talked about in Kelowna. A new commercial building is currently  proposed for the site of the former City Park Cafe, now used as a parking lot.  North of the City Park Cafe stood the Kwong Sing Laundry, which the  proprietor, Wong Kem, later moved to Leon Avenue. Farther north on Abbott Street were two stores and rooming houses. At the corner of Abbott  Street and Leon Avenue stood a small building used as the local headquarters  for the Chinese National Party or Kuominton, during the years of President  Chiang Kai Chek, before he fled to Formosa under pressure from Mao Tse  Tung. The political leanings of the group which met in this building were not  shared by those who lived in the Dart Coon Club. The corner site is now occupied by the Park Medical Building.  Lee Bon, another well known Chinese businessman, owned a brick  building on Leon Avenue, across the lane from the Chinese National Party  building, which he used as a rooming house for the men who were attached to  him as their labour boss. The building later became the Elk's Hall but was  levelled after serious damage by fire in 1973. The site is now used as a parking  lot for the occupants of the medical building. Immediately to the east, a vacant lot, also formerly owned by Lee Bon, is today occupied by the Big-O Tire  building. The Courier on January 22, 1914, carried an item reporting the arrest of 23 for gambling in Lee Bon's premises. Magistrate Boyce fined Lee  Bon $50. but dismissed the 23 gamblers. Kelowna residents, mostly occidental, honored Lee Bon with a dinner at the old Royal Anne Hotel in 1947,  when he returned to China to live out his days.  East of Lee Bon's building was the house of Wong Ying, who came to  Canada in 1919 and worked for the Ritchie Orchard in the Glenmore area.  He married Sue Ling Lee Ping, widow of Wong Bat, and personally delivered  all nine of their children. One of them, Tun Wong, is Deputy Treasurer of  Kelowna, and lives in Lakeview with his wife Kathy and two children Cynthia  11 and Jeffrey 8. An outdoor family, they can often be seen cross-country skiing at Telemark after church on Sundays. Mrs. Wong, senior, again a widow,  moved to a new house in Lakeview near her son after the old house on Leon  was sold in 1970. It was torn down in 1971, leaving the site as a parking lot.  Next to the house of Wong Ying stands the building formerly known as  the Iwashita Store — notable for being the only Japanese business in Chinatown — and now used as a mission. East of the Iwashita Store stood the Wong  house, now demolished, and the Kwong Sing Laundry. Constructed in the  1940's, the latter building stands to this day with the name Kwong Sing Laundry on the centre front window. Behind it can be seen an old red shack,  constructed by a shoemaker, who occupied part of the main building. These  are the only authentic remnants still standing in the area of Kelowna's old  Chinatown.  Figure 2 shows the Chinatown area as it appears in 1982 with the new  buildings which have been constructed in recent years. Figure 3 indicates the 25  lots and blocks of the same area as they appear on a survey plan currently in  use by the Kelowna Tax Department. Table 2 comprises an extract from the  1930 Kelowna Assessment Roll, indicating the Chinese owners at that time.  Chinatown had its own tragedies and triumphs. During the flu epidemic  of 1919, seventeen Chinese died in a small brick building located between the  old Masonic Hall and the new Dart Coon Club. Wong Bat, a prominent  businessman and manager of the Kon Wo Company on Harvey Avenue, was  murdered in 1932. On a happier note the year 1906 saw the birth of "Kelowna  Lee" first Chinese child to be born in Kelowna. She now lives in Vancouver  and is an officer of the Eastern Star Lodge.  While the Chinese comprised a distinct and separate people, they did get  involved in some community activities. In one City parade, for instance, a  Chinese in ethnic costume amused himself and the townspeople greatly by  cavorting about as a coolie carrying two laden baskets suspended on a long  Water.    Street  '  -4  Auto  SAues  PAf-KlfiO  LOT  wcsrenu  NtCHT  CLUB  a  BuiLOINO-  %ooK 9roAt  Pa « kinc-  Lcr  Mission    eic- o  Tines  !  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Occidentals  got to know many of the Chinese by frequenting their laundries and cafes,  particularly the City Park Cafe. The Chinese entertained themselves by playing their own music on their own musical instruments. They had no temple in  Kelowna but were adherents of the Confucious and Buddist religions. Lum  Lock, a Chinese tobacco grower in the Benvoulin area, is remembered locally  for his dramatic ride on a white horse, leading a Chinese contingent to  welcome Dr. Sun Yat Sen, 1st President of the Peoples Republic of Chinai  who visited Kelowna in 1911. 27  One of the best-known Chinese who lived in the fringe area outside of  Chinatown was Mar Jok, who came to Kelowna in 1927 to open the Star Cafe  and to transfer his operation in 1929 to the Golden Pheasant Cafe on Bernard  Avenue near Ellis Avenue, just opposite the Old Post Office site. Mar Jok, at  the age of 12 in 1912, had come from Kwantung Province, via Hong Kong, to  join his father and grandfather, who worked out of Revelstoke as section men  for the C.P.R. When he was old enough, Mar Jok joined them on the section  gang before coming to Kelowna. He married a Canadian girl, now deceased,  and had a daughter May, who works as a lab technician in Kelowna.  After closing the Golden Pheasant in 1969, Mar Jok retired to his orchard property on the West side of Lake Okanagan. He is now married again,  to a widow from China. In good health at the age of 82, and in the company  of young grandchildren, Mar Jok grows cherries and asparagus and raises  turkeys and geese. Only once, in 1924, did he return to China for a brief visit.  TABLE     NO.    2  EXTRACT   FROM   KELOWNA  19 30   ASSESSMENT   ROLL  Assessors'  Valuation  LOT      BLOCK      PLAN  (32 0   Wong   Bat  Wong   Bat  321 Wong   Lung   Erk,  Charlie  Ming,   Chow  King   and  Wong  Bat  322 Quon  Kwong  Tape   and  Quon   Jim Ngo  Pel  A  &   B  of   1   &  2   4  P ar ce 1   D  of   1 4  462      $1,400  462        1,400  1,400  462  462  1,500  1,350  700  600  $2,100  2,000  3,300      4,700  1,800  1,500  3,150  $   73.50  72.00  74.70  87.75  32 3 Wong Guey   & Wong  Lon  Hai  Parcel  C  32 4  Wong  Guey  Wong  Guey  South   h   of  North   h  of  325   Quon  Kwong  Tape   and  Quon   Jim Ngo  &  Chon   Dan  462  462  1,250  900  900  462        1,800  750  1,300  2,000  2 ,200  900  2,800      4,600  60.00  40.50  329   Lee   Bon   &   Leon   Kwong  In   Trust   for  Chee  Kong  Long   (Chinese  Free  Masons)  6  5  462  700  2  000  2  700  61.50  330  Wing  Long  Chee  7  5  46 2  700  1  300  2  000  51.00  331  Kwong   Lee   Yuen  8  5  462  700  3  600  4  300  85.50  3 32  Wong   Chung  Lok   &   Wong  Bat  9  5  462  700  2  400  3  100  67.50  333  The   Jenkins   Co.  10  5  462  1,000  6  600  7  600  148.00  333  The  Jenkins   Co.  11  5  462  700  30  730  31.95  'ñ†I           ii               M  12  5  462  700  30  730  31.95  333  City  of  Kelowna  13  14  5  5  462  462  Nil  Nil  Nil  Nil  334  Meyaki   Tami  c/o  K.    Iwashita  15  5  462  700  1  500  2  200  58.00  335  Lee   Bon  16  5  462  700  700  31.50  336  Lee   Bon   &   Lee  Kim  17  5  462  700  700  31.50  ii           M               H  18  5  462  700  9  300  10  000  175.00 28  He has happy memories of his years in Kelowna at the Golden Pheasant, his  experiences as court interpreter for cases involving Chinese, not to mention  his pride at being the first Chinese to own and operate an automobile (a  Model-T Ford) in Kelowna. Mar Jok looks forward to many more happy and  fulfilling years in the country of his adoption.  Mar Jok estimates the gradual drop in Chinatown's population as  follows:  1930 400-500  1940   - 250-300  1950 100-160  1960 50-60  The decline occurred primarily because there were no replacements for  the men who died or returned to China and because there were so few family  units. But from these few family units sprang second and third generation  Chinese who have dispersed throughout Kelowna, British Columbia and  Canada. These descendants, together with the descendants of other  Chinatowns and of the many Chinese immigrants since 1947 now comprise a  solid, well-adjusted ethnic element, proud of being Canadians, proud of their  Chinese heritage, and especially proud of the Chinese pioneers who long ago  ventured so far from China and spent so many lonely years in the Chinatowns  of Kelowna and other British Columbia communities.  'ñ†  Tobacco Crop  Richter Street at Cawston Avenue, 1912  (Courtesy Kelowna Museum) 29  THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY IN KELOWNA  1894-1932  By Helen Payne  Tobacco is a native plant of South America and the Caribbean, and was  smoked by American Indians in Y-shaped pipes called "tabaca" long before  Christopher Columbus sailed to the New World in 1492. It is not surprising,  therefore, to discover that the Interior Salish Indians, natives of the Kelowna  area, grew tobacco for their own use, as far back as their traditions and folk  lore reached.  However, the growing of tobacco for commercial purposes did not begin  until the 1890s. The initiator was Louis Holman, who came to the Okanagan  Valley from Wisconsin in 1893. He observed the tobacco plants of Indian  planting and sent samples of them to experts in the United States. They declared that the plants were equal to anything grown in Wisconsin, where  Holman had been involved in tobacco growing for a number of years.  Holman recognized that the soil in the Kelowna district was the right texture  and fertility to produce fine tobacco, and the climate was ideal. The soil and  climate conditions that favour tobacco growth vary according to the kind of  tobacco being raised. Louis Holman recognized that the dark brown soil was  suitable for the growing of Burley tobacco, and more importantly that the  climate was ideal for air-curing.1 These two factors combined to make the  Kelowna area ideal for the growing of cigar tobacco.  Together with his brother, Holman had been on the point of starting  tobacco-growing in the Chilliwack district, but instead began some initial experiments in Kelowna in the year 1894. He used Spanish seed leaf tobacco for  these experiments, and was so encouraged by the results that in 1895 he leased  seven acres of land from the Lequime Brothers. This land was situated near  the Pandosy Mission opposite the Eli Lequime home and store. The capital  was provided by a young Englishman, named John Collins, who had experience with tobacco growing in South Africa and money to invest. A successful year resulted in a good crop and Holman was joined by Colin S. Smith,  who arrived here from the West Indies.  In March of 1897, the Kelowna Shippers Union approached John Collins  with regard to manufacturing the tobacco. Collins proposed that the Company take more than five hundred pounds of different grades, so that one  grade blended with another would make the same class of cigars. He also proposed that if after trial, the company should decide to continue manufacturing the cigars, it should take over the whole of his tobacco. For this, Collins  would receive 15f per lb., five hundred dollars of which would be paid in cash  and the remainder in Company shares. The proposed agreement was also to  include 25% of the net profits received from the sale of cigars, over and above  the price paid for the tobacco.  In March 1898, this agreement was ratified and the Kelowna Shippers  Union entered into contract with Collins and Holman. Here is a sample of  such a contract:  FOOTNOTE  1 Tobacco can also be fire-cured or flue-cured. Fire-cured tobacco is used to make smoking  tobacco, chewing tobacco, snuff, and strong-tasting cigars. Flue-cured tobacco, also called  bright tobacco, is used in cigarettes. 30  Kelowna, B.C. March 21st, 1899  Dear Sir:  The Company is prepared to purchase your tobacco crop for 1899, consisting of lbs. more or less, being the supposed yield of   acres of tobacco, on the undermentioned conditions:  1st. That the crop shall be equal in quality to the average crops supplied to  the company by Mr. Collins.  2nd. That the percentage of Wrappers & Binders shall be as follows:  —  Wrappers 15%, Binders 25%, or that the two together shall not be less than  40%.  3rd. That the crop shall be taken over after being properly cured, stripped  and bundled. No water is to be used during these processes.  4th. That the crop when ready to be taken over shall first be inspected by our  expert and samples taken for testing.  5th. That when a percentage of the crop is composed of the "Venlta Abajo"  or "Kelowna Havance" an extra price shall be paid for and made the subject  of a separate agreement.  I am authorized on behalf of the company to take your tobacco crop on  the above conditions being complied with and on receipt of a letter of confirmation from you.  Yours truly,  The first factory was in a small building next to the Kelowna Shippers  Union storehouse near the C.P.R. wharf, where the Regatta sign now stands.  In 1899, a more spacious building was erected across Bernard Avenue from  the wharf, next to where Ciccio's ice cream parlour is now situated. It later  became the Mayfair apartments, but has since been demolished. Office space  was rented on the ground floor of this building and cigars were manufactured  on the upper floor. The cigar factory employed 60 hands and the foreman  was William Wolz of New Westminster.  The first few years after this were encouraging, but the collapse of the  mining boom cut down sales in the main market, which was to the miners in  the Kootenays. The Kelowna Shippers Union was forced to close down the  factory in 1902.  Louis Holman continued to experiment with tobacco growing, renewing  the Cuban seed now being used, every three to four years. This was done in  order to maintain smaller leaves, because smaller leaves produce finer tobacco. Eventually he produced a new and very superior leaf, a little inferior to  the best Havana grown leaf in quality and flavour. He was convinced that this  would prove successful. In 1905, Charles Shayler, a former employee of the  Kelowna Shippers Union, opened his own cigar factory, and began to  manufacture an excellent brand of cigar from native Kelowna leaf. The demand for his product at first greatly exceeded the amount he could turn out.  Tobacco began to grow into a thriving industry and according to some  sources, looked like becoming the chief industry of the Kelowna area. It was  labour intensive and provided much needed employment. Labourers were  paid the sum of $2.50 a day for irrigating, hoeing or cultivating.  The seeds were planted in early April in hot beds. The soil had to be  sterilized before planting, because the tobacco seeds and the first plants were 31  so small that they were difficult to distinguish from weeds. In May when the  seedlings had sprouted, they were transferred to cold frames covered by  muslin, each frame measuring about thirty feet by fifteen feet. When the  plants were several inches high, they were planted out in the fields. Much of  the labour used for this was oriental. Three men were used for the operation,  one to drive a horse, which pulled a machine capable of carrying two men  and a large barrel of water. Seated at the back of the machine, one man  would pour water into furrows made by the machine and the other would  "puddle in" the baby plants. The plants were set far enough apart for a weeding machine to go around the plants. This machine was also pulled by horses.  The soil was cultivated several times to keep it loose and to eliminate weeds  and grasses.  Tobacco grows very quickly at the rate of about one inch a day. Once the  plants reach a height of three or four feet, they are "topped", that is, the tops  are cut off to prevent them from flowering and going to seed. This process,  done by hand, requires a fair number of labourers, as does the suckering process. In order to force the upper leaves to develop, the sprouts or suckers  which appeared in the crotch of each leaf had to be nipped off with thumb  and fingers. This had to be one of the stickiest and gummiest jobs on the  farm, because the nicotine or juice stained the fingers and coated them like  tar. The "topping" and "suckering" were done to ensure that the leaves would  not be deprived of essential nutrients.  The leaves had to be harvested at the right time for optimum flavour and  quality. The farmer could tell when the leaves were ready for harvesting by  their yellowing colour. This was usually in late August or early September.  Various methods of harvesting are used in tobacco districts throughout the  world, depending a great deal upon climatic conditions and the different  types produced. The method found to be best suited to the Okanagan Valley  was called "spearing." At harvest time, the plants were chopped down with a  machete or heavy knife and left in the sun for a few hours, so that they were  limp and could be easily handled without breaking.  While still lying on the ground, the plants were "speared" through the  thick base of the stalk with a special sharp metal point fitted to the end of a  lath. The stalks were threaded upside down on to the lath, twelve to twenty  plants to a lath, according to variety. The laths were then strung up on racks  in the fields, so that they could not become sun-burned and so destroyed. The  tobacco wagons were fitted with the same type of rack, so that the laths could  be transferred easily from field to wagon and transported in this way to the  curing barns.  These curing barns were a prominent feature of the landscape and there  are still two standing in the Benvoulin Road area. They were built especially  for the storing and curing of tobacco leaf and had some distinctive features.  The barns were made large enough for a wagon and team of horses to drive  right through. There were sets of doors at each end of the barn. The laths  were hoisted from the wagons by a team of three men, each standing at a different height and handing the laths from one to the other. The last man,  nearest to the roof, hung the laths from the ceiling on drying racks, where  they were left to cure. The most noticeable feature of the barns was the series  of hinged vents set in the roofs. These slats had to be opened each morning  and closed at night to provide air circulation. 32  The warm climatic conditions of the Okanagan Valley made it ideal for  this kind of air-curing. No artificial means of curing was generally necessary,  since nature did the work, but the growers did experience one year where the  fermentation of the leaf was only partially successful, due to variations in  temperature and the shortness of the season. As a result of this, Louis Holman  made a trip to Wisconsin, studied developments there and introduced a  method of artificially fermenting the leaf by the use of steam. However, this  method was only used if the air-curing was unsuccessful. Flue-drying, which  entailed burning charcoal, was never used in Kelowna, although it was used  in Sumas in the Lower Fraser valley, where the climate was unsuitable for air-  curing.  During the winter months of January, February and March, the leaves  were handed down from the roof of the barn and prepared for shipment. This  provided much needed winter employment for residents of the area. This process could only be carried out when the moisture content of the leaves was just  right, otherwise the brittle leaves would break and crumble when handled.  The leaves were stripped from the stalks, graded, piled into large bundles  about 120 feet long and wrapped in paper. The farmer then drove the  bundles by wagon to the factory, where they were weighed and the farmer received payment.  In the factory, the leaves were steeped in cold water and then transferred  to drying stands. The dried leaves were then stripped of the backbone and the  cigar-makers began the rolling process. The tools used were few and consisted  of a tobacco board and knife. The board was approximately twelve by eight  inches in size, and was made of laminated hardwood. The knife was of a  special design, quite short maybe about six inches, with a curved edge. A  cigar mould was used for pressing the cigar into a firm shape prior to wrapping with the outer leaf. Filler tobacco, used for the core of the cigar, was cut  and shaped, and held in place by a binder leaf, before being put into moulds  and pressed. Usually five moulds were worked on at one time, as this was a  hundred cigars. Two moulds were put into a press, while the other three were  being prepared. The two were then removed from the press and the other  three put in. While they were pressing, the outer wrapper leaf was put on to  the shaped filler of the two which had just been removed. In this way one  worker could complete his one hundred cigars, with no idle moments between  processes.  From 1905 to 1914, the tobacco industry in the Kelowna area flourished.  In April 1907, the International Tobacco Company was formed and purchased the Mission Ranch for $60,000.  In the same year, tobacco grown in Kelowna was highly praised in a  trade show in London, England. Louis Holman advertised in the local paper,  the Kelowna Clarion, in order to encourage farmers to grow tobacco. An example of an advertisement from a 1908 edition of the Clarion read as follows:  "FARMERS — ATTENTION, The Kelowna Tobacco Company is prepared  to sign a contract with you. We want to prove to you that it is the best paying  crop you can grow. Louis Holman."  By 1910, several farmers in the area had signed contracts with the  Kelowna Tobacco Company, and large fields of tobacco could be seen mainly  in the Mission area (close to the Pandosy Mission) but also near the downtown  area of Kelowna. For example, there was a large tobacco farm owned by 33  George Rose, where Kelowna Secondary School now stands, and another  where Christleton Avenue is now located. The industry began to make profitable returns and in 1910, the Kelowna Tobacco Company was gazetted as a  corporation under the "Companies Act" with a capital of $50,000 divided into 500 shares of $100 each.  In 1910, Kelowna's exhibit of cigars and tobacco received the highest  award at the Vancouver Exhibition. As a result, Kelowna's tobacco crop attracted the attention of the Province of British Columbia and was highly  recommended by the Governor-General, Earl Grey. He promoted the  Okanagan and British Columbia in general, at the Horticultural Show in  London in December 1910, both from the point of view of orcharding and of  tobacco-growing. Other areas heard of Kelowna's success with tobacco-  growing and wanted to plant the crop. For example in 1911, Louis Holman  went to Nanaimo to address meetings and give demonstrations on tobacco-  growing, with a view to establishing a tobacco plantation on Gabriola Island.  Meanwhile, the success of the tobacco industry in Kelowna had come to  the attention of the British North American Tobacco Company  (B.N.A.T.CO.), who noted that "British Columbia was the only province of  the Dominion of Canada where Cuban Leaf could be grown, so closely approximating the best Havana as to be impossible of differentiation by an expert." Mr. Alfred Bowser, the President and General Manager of the  B.N.A.T.CO., who had a great deal of experience in growing, preparing and  manufacturing cigars in the United States, Puerto Rico and South Africa,  came to Kelowna to undertake commercial and financial support of the tobacco industry.  Thus, in March 1912, the premises, equipment and stock of the Kelowna  Tobacco company were purchased by the B.N.A.T.CO. financed by British  capital, initially in the amount of $500,000. The brick built factory and offices were located on Ellis Street and were later taken over by Occidental Can-  ners. The B.N.A.T.CO. began successfully and employed over 200 local  residents, both men and women, with a weekly payroll of $5000. It had the  capacity to produce 25,000,000 cigars a year, but actually produced 800,000  at its peak. It carried out an extensive advertising campaign, both in Canada  and the United Kingdom, using words such as these1:  "The city of Kelowna is located in the best part of the Okanagan Valley,  which is situated between the Selkirks on the East and the coast range on the  West, extending from the main line of the C.P.R. at Sicamous, to the international boundary line, a wide plateau deeply intersected by lake and river,  varied by rolling and fertile plains. The climate of this sheltered valley is  among the best in all North America and the soil absolutely the finest for  Tobacco Planting.  It is in this favoured spot that the B.N.A.T.CO. have secured a proved  and profitable plantation, with options on the best of the adjacent lands. The  lands where this tobacco is grown, will be worth in a very short time upwards  of $2,000 per acre."  In support of their advertising campaign, the company drew up a list of  proposed profits, which they showed to farmers as an inducement for growing  tobacco:  lFrom "Tobacco Growing in B.C." a pamphlet issued by B.N.A.T.CO., 1912. 34  No. of lbs. of Havana grown on 20 acres 20,000 lbs.  Value of crop to factory at 50f a lb. $10,000.00  Total expenses $ 1,294.00  Net profit $ 8,706.00  Net profit per acre $      435.30  Type of tobacco grown Net profit per acre  Wisconsin Spanish for binders $355.30  Havana for fillers $435.30  Sumatra, for wrapper purposes $957.26  A display for leaf, manufactured tobacco and cigars from Kelowna created  attention and interest at the Tobacco Exhibition in Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, London, England in the year 1912. A report was written about  the display in the "Tobacco Journal" and part of it read as follows:  "There is a succulence about British Columbia tobacco that is absent  from every other country's growth, and which creates a flavour that must be  acquired to be truly appreciated. There is ample room in British Columbia  for enterprising agriculturalists, if only they will direct their attention to  tobacco planting.  When it is remembered that tobacco from every tobacco-growing country in the world was shown at this exhibition, the prominent place and extended notice given to Mr. Holman's exhibit must be highly gratifying to him  and to the people of the Okanagan Valley."  By the year 1913, five hundred acres in the bottomland areas of Mission  Creek, Benvoulin and Ellison were planted in tobacco. Mr. Alfred Bowser was  riding high and in February 1913 offered a prize of $100 for the best acre of  tobacco to be grown in the coming season. However, the appearance of prosperity was superficial for on February 12th, 1914, four lumber companies  issued a writ against the B.N.A.T.CO. for the recovery of $8,170.43. Mr. B.  Ronald King, one of the directors of B.N.A.T.CO. came to Kelowna in  March to try and sort out the tangled financial affairs of the company, but it  was the beginning of the end for the B.N.A.T.CO.  Unable to find markets for its high-quality cigars, the company decided  to send a large consignment to the Klondike with a salesman, in an effort to  sell them to the miners in that booming area. However, nothing was heard of  the cigars or the salesman again and by May 1914, the B.N.A.T.CO. was in  liquidation. British investors refused to supply any further capital. The tobacco industry was flourishing in Ontario and Quebec, and the British were not  prepared to pay the extra cost for Kelowna's product. Cost of transportation  across the Rockies was high and those who could afford a high quality cigar  preferred to buy their cigars direct from Havana. They firmly believed that  imported tobacco made better cigars. The Dominion Government tried to  offset this with a protective duty of 28f per pound on imported raw leaf, but  to no avail.  When he realized that the B.N.A.T.CO. was in financial trouble, Alfred  Bowser encouraged the production of Sumatra leaf under shade. This type of  leaf was used as a wrapper. Up until that time, Kelowna growers had  specialized in growing "binder" tobacco. Three kinds of tobacco are needed  to make a good cigar. A special brand is used for the core, the most important 35  part, a second for the binder to hold the core in place and third, the wrapper,  to form the outer part and keep the smoke in. In the opinion of Tom  MacQueen, cigar maker for the Kelowna Tobacco Company and for the  B.N.A.T.CO., the cigar industry in Kelowna would still be flourishing if the  Kelowna farmers had stuck to growing the "binder" type of tobacco. As it  was, the crop was diversified and farmers tried to grow all three kinds of cigar  tobacco. The various tobacco growing districts in Eastern Canada specialized  in the one kind of leaf most suited to their area. Tom felt that most of the  local ventures failed due to over-expansion and that Louis Holman was in too  much of a hurry to do things in a big way.  Whatever the reason, or combination of reasons, for the failure of the  B.N.A.T.CO., the growers were given notice that the Company would not accept any more leaves after the Spring of 1914. If this had not been the case,  the farmers would have experienced difficulty in the production of a crop in  1914, due to lack of available labour. One thousand men from a Kelowna  population of 1800 left aboard the S.S. Sicamous to fight in World War I.  The remaining farmers turned their attention to crops which required less  labour to produce.  Throughout the period of World War I, Louis Holman continued to  grow tobacco on his own plantation and manufactured his own cigars, which  he sold at 10* each. After the war, he campaigned to get the industry  restarted, using capital provided by Father Carlyle. By 1925, he was successful in persuading some Kelowna farmers to experiment in tobacco-  growing under the supervision of A. J. Mann of the Summerland Experimental Farm. There were fields planted in tobacco in Winfield, Glenmore, and  on the properties of Wynne Price, Casorso and Chamberlain.  However, there were no manufacturing or processing plants in Kelowna  at this time, so in November 1926 in Penticton, Louis Holman met with Mr.  O. R. Brener of Vancouver to make arrangements for the manufacture of  Kelowna tobacco in Vancouver. Holman was successful in persuading Mr.  Brener to come to Kelowna, where he met with Kelowna growers in the Board  of Trade room. The result of that meeting was that Brener purchased the  1926 tobacco crop of 60,000 lbs. at an average cost of 22p per lb. Two  carloads of tobacco leaves were shipped to the coast. The tobacco was  harvested in the same way as it had been prior to World War I, although now  there were more Japanese labourers than Chinese.  When the leaves were taken down from the racks in the curing barns,  they were stripped and packed into large boxes. Three pieces of string were  laid across the bottom of the box, butcher paper laid on top and the leaves  then packed tightly inside. Any children who were around were allowed to  jump up and down on the leaves to pack them tightly. When the box was full,  the lid which fitted just inside the top of the box, was tied on with the string.  When the entire crop was stripped and packed, the farmer would take the  boxes by wagon to the railroad station, and from there they were shipped to  Vancouver.  Most of the leaves grown at this time were used for pipe tobacco, and for  a time for cigarettes, mixed with leaf grown at Sumas. This product was processed and manufactured by the Canadian Tobacco Company and put into  tins and packages labelled "Kelowna Pride." A picture of a grizzly bear (the 36  name "Kelowna" is the Indian word for grizzly bear) was put on the tins and  tobacco labelled "coarse cut" or "fine cut."  The Kelowna Tobacco Growers Association opened an account with the  Bank of Montreal in July 1926, but they were still short of capital. Consequently, in February 1927, they applied to the Provincial Government for a  loan to finance the grading, curing and sale of the 1927 tobacco crop. The  Government declined the application, but a syndicate of Vancouver business  men agreed to finance the operation instead.  By 1928, tobacco-growing was beginning to flourish again in the  Kelowna area. Several more farmers planted their fields in tobacco, including  C. Casorso, F. Casorso, W. Barton, N. P. Casorso, H. Burtch, and J. Spall.  The Kelowna Tobacco growers became members of the B.C. Tobacco  Growers Association. In their report for 1928, they state that harvested crops  stored in the Exhibition building totalled 70,000 lbs. of Connecticut Havana  leaf and 30,000 lbs. of Burley.  In 1929, there were a total of 100 acres in Kelowna planted in tobacco,  yielding an average of 878 lbs. per acre. The total production for the year was  87,850 lbs. This area was small in comparison with the provinces of Ontario  and Quebec, as can be seen from the following report:  Canadian Progress Report 1930-1931  The Tobacco Industry  The tobacco producing industry has now become an important and  firmly established part of Canadian agricultural activities. Production is principally confined to the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, with small acreage  under cultivation in British Columbia and Alberta.  Total area and production of Tobacco in Canada (1929).  Province  Average  yield  Area  Estimated  lbs.  per  acre  production  B.C.  878  100  87,850  Ontario  799  26,910  21,418,500  Quebec  901  9,300  8,380,000  Totals & average  859  36,310  29,886,350  Exports of Canadian Tobacco 1925-30  Fiscal years  Quantity (lbs.)  Value ($)  To U.K.  1925  3,531,422  733,166  63  1926  2,860,413  1,045,673  92  1927  6,330,972  2,569,300  99.6  1928  6,079,606  2,215,916  99.6  1929  6,583,676  2,007,948  99.6  1930  —  1,543,975  —  (%)  Nevertheless, the outlook for the future of the tobacco industry in  Kelowna seemed promising and in 1931 a new factory was opened by Mr. P.  F. Pauly of Vancouver. Pauly Tobacco Products contracted for the purchase 37  of 40,000 lbs. of coarse cut tobacco in January 1932 and shipped samples  which could be used for both chewing and smoking, to the prairies. Cigars  were no longer manufactured from the Kelowna grown tobacco because of  the marketing problem. The fact that Kelowna tobacco was a superior product had no influence in a market where people could only afford to buy the  cheapest product available.  Even with the switch to smoking and chewing tobacco, however, the industry began to slump. The onset of the depression affected the sale of tobacco, just as it affected many other products. The remoteness of the Kelowna  area from Eastern Canada contributed to the problem. Machinery and tools  necessary for seeding, harvesting etc. had to be shipped from Eastern  Canada, which added greatly to the cost. The tobacco companies in Vancouver experienced a decline in sales to the United Kingdom market, since  tobacco products grown and manufactured in Eastern Canada, could be  bought more cheaply. Rising transportation costs and lack of suitable markets  gradually forced the tobacco factories to close. Thus the Kelowna growers  had no one to buy their tobacco crops and began instead to expand their  market garden products.  With the onset of World War II after the depression years, no one ventured to begin growing tobacco again in the Okanagan Valley. Mr. John  Kovac grew the last of the tobacco in the Collett Road area of Kelowna —  twenty acres in 1959. The only reminders of the industry, after the tobacco  boom ended, were the curing barns, some of which were converted to dairy  use or hay storage. Some farmers preserved them intact for a number of years,  hoping in vain for a revival of the industry. Several of the barns dried out  from lack of use and age, and were destroyed by fire. There are only two  barns still standing, one of which is scheduled to be preserved as a national  historic landmark on the corner of Benvoulin and K.L.O. Road. In years to  come, this may well be the only remnant of what was once a vibrant industry  in the Okanagan Valley.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Archives of Kelowna Centennial Museum  Cigar Making by Tom MacQueen, Kelowna Daily Courier  Diversified Crop Fatal for Tobacco Industry by Art Gray, Kelowna Daily Courier  Kelowna's Tobacco Crop Helpful to Economy of 50 years Ago by Art Gray, Kelowna Daily  Courier.  Museum Notes by Primrose Upton, Kelowna Daily Courier  The Tobacco Industry of Kelowna, Canadian Government Official Report, 1912  Tobacco by Primrose Upton, Kelowna Daily Courier  Tobacco Growing in British Columbia, pamphlet issued by B.N.A.T.CO. 1912  Tobacco Harvesting by Everett S. Fleming, Kelowna Daily Courier, August 6, 1974  Tobacco Journal, London, England, 1912  Tobacco Scent Lingers Still by Primrose Upton, Kelowna Daily Courier, August 1, 1969  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  This paper could not have been written without the help given in personal interviews by:  Pete Casorso, Fred Chamberlain and the Staff of the Kelowna Centennial Museum. 38  EARLY RURAL SCHOOLS OF VERNON AND WHITE VALLEY  By Lucy (Hill) McCormick  Geographically the schools ranged from Cherryville and Sugar Lake in  the eastern area, to Mabel Lake, Shuswap Falls, Trinity Valley, off Mabel  Lake Road, Medora Creek, Reiswig, Blue Springs, Creighton Valley, Wood-  ville off Highway 6 and the outer areas of Vernon, Keddleston, Commonage,  Sunnyside, Sunnywold, and Okanagan Landing.  The majority of these schools were built between 1898 and 1920 as the  settlers moved into the valleys and the need arose for education for the growing families.  The schools, all one room, became obsolete, as the districts were absorbed into School District 22. Their objectives were governed by the B.C. Public  School Act passed in 1872. The wording was "to give every child in the Province such knowledge as will fit him to become a useful and intelligent citizen  in after years." This Act sets out the basic structure of educational policy that  exists today.  This valley owes a great deal to its one room schools, teachers, pupils,  and rural boards of trustees. In many ways the rural schools of British Columbia had similarities with those of other parts of North America; the young  teacher, the isolation, the lack of amenities we now take for granted, and the  distances travelled by pupils from home to school and back.  The duties of the school board were to provide a suitable building if the  Provincial Department of Education granted permission to open a school;  often the required 8 pupils had to be rounded up by hook or by crook and I  mean that literally. In several instances we found that 4 year-olds were conscripted, and older pupils, who might be working or married, were sometimes  added to the register so the school would have its quota. The teacher was  hired by the board, which usually was made up of three members, one who  acted as secretary. The building was usually of log and will be described more  fully later.  Equipment and supplies were minimal; desks were often homemade benches, sometimes logs split in half, and were very uncomfortable, causing  much shuffling of pupils. Clouds of dust mixed with chalk dust rose from the  wooden floor.  On a bench at the back of the room, usually attached to the wall, stood  the water pail with floating dipper used by everyone. A tin or enamel basin  and a roller towel completed the indoor sanitary arrangements, while outside  the two holer stood at some distance from the school — this has helped make  us such a hardy race!  Originally, blackboards were black painted panels, but later proper  blackboards were installed. Some schools had a roll of maps on spring rollers  which, with wear and tear, shot up like cannon and had to be rewound with a  fork. The most commonly seen map was one of Canada, a complimentary one  from the Neilson Chocolate Company, advertising their chocolate bars; I  don't know how much the Company profited from this advertising in rural  schools. A photo of the King, a Union Jack, a globe, and a school handbell  seemed to be compulsory items of equipment. We would have been lost if we  had not been able to get wooden orange crates from the grocery store, as this  useful item could be used for many purposes. 39  Sugar Lake School 1930-31  Left to right: David Allen, John Allen, Bobby Specht, Colin Curwen, Mary Allen, Specht.  The pupils walked, or came by horse and buggy, or on horseback. There  was usually a woodshed, and children with horses brought a bag of hay. They  brought their lunch in the inevitable red lard pail, and in winter this was  often frozen solid so had to sit by the stove to thaw.  Recreation at recess was totally child inspired with a little direction from  the teacher, depending on his or her ability and interest. In winter children  often stayed indoors, especially if it was very cold or snowy, and played seat  and guessing games.  The duties of the teacher were many and varied. She, and it was usually  a girl in her first school, was as a rule caretaker, fire lighter, and general  custodian of the school, especially if it was in an isolated area. As the schools  were frequently used for Saturday night dances and for church services on  Sundays, on Monday mornings most of the desks would be in the wrong places  and had to be reorganized.  The teacher was expected to organize a Christmas concert, and every  child was drilled to perform something. Costumes were made, and many  varied outfits did the three Wise Men wear.  She had to deal with any emergency — if children took sick they had to  be made as comfortable as possible until it was time to go home with brothers  and sisters. Telephone service was non-existent, and medical services the  same, with no Public Health nurse to turn to. The Medical Officer of Health,  Dr. O. Morris, had such an area to cover that a school was lucky if they saw  him every second year. If hospital care was needed it was a long way from  Cherryville, Mabel Lake, or Trinity Valley by horse and buggy to Vernon.  At one time the Provincial Department of Health decided that iodine  tablets should be given to children in rural areas and this was another duty of  the teacher — this was before the days of iodized salt. It was also ordered that 40  soup be made for the pupils, so there goes the teacher, cook as well as nurse.  For all these disadvantages, children were not absent from school due to illness to any great extent. If an infectious disease struck, everyone came down  with it, including the teacher. I had never had childhood diseases, so suffered  from chickenpox, measles, and mumps during my teaching years.  The person whom the new teacher worried most about was the Provincial  Inspector. In most cases he was very helpful and supportive, but as his work  load was heavy, he often did not have time to see the classes in operation. Also  he usually left instructions with the teacher to approach the trustees regarding  improvements. This was not an easy task, and by the time the Inspector's official report was received the term was over and his suggestions were conveniently forgotten.  The teacher was on her own as regards professional help. In areas of  discipline she usually had the full support of the parents. She was very much a  part of the community and shared and was included in all its social life, often  being invited for weekends or meals where she was given tremendous amounts  of food. This intimacy with families helped her understand the emotional life  of her pupils.  One of the earliest buildings, because of its proximity to Vernon, was the  Commonage School, erected in 1898, so called because in this area Indians  and whites had equal grazing rights. The estimated value of the building was  $20, built on farmland by the settlers at no expense to the government. The  structure of logs, with hand-made desks, walls, and floors or roughly hewn  logs with "shake" roof, had a small porch where outer clothing was hung.  The fate of the Commonage School was that of several rural schools; as  the population dwindled, due to movement of families, and the required  minimum of seven children was no longer available, this school closed in  1912. The building was given to Paddlewheel Park at Okanagan Landing in  1975 as an historic building.  In 1920 a new school, Sunnyside, was built about 4 miles away from the  original Commonage as enough pupils were available. This was a frame  building and it remained open for approximately 7 years until shortage of  pupils again closed this second school.  Sunnywold, the third school on the Commonage, was closer to Carr's  Landing, about % mile from the wharf where the paddlewheel Sicamous called on her trip on Okanagan lake. The building was on top of the hill  overlooking the lake. This school suffered the fate of the other Commonage  schools, closing due to lake of pupils.  As a contrast, many schools at the east end of White Valley were in  operation until the formation of School District No. 22 based in Vernon.  Keddleston School was built in 1907 at the corner of Silver Star Road and  what is now Chew Road — a log building, with wood stove and benches and  tables. The first teacher was Miss Katherine Erskin, with 16 pupils in attendance. In 1913 a frame building was constructed farther up Silver Star Road,  and it continued in operation until 1926. A teacherage was built in 1920. In  1935 Keddleston School reopened and remained open until 1947, when it was  taken over by District 22, Vernon. It remained open until 1951, when  children were bussed to Vernon. Mrs. Margaret Thorlakson was a well known  teacher in 1939.  Both Mabel Lake School and Shuswaps Falls School were built in 1903 as 41  families settled along the Shuswap River. The original schools were built of  local logs with handmade furniture. Mabel Lake School was located near the  Procter Farm about 3 miles from Mabel Lake. A frame building was erected  at the junction of Squaw Valley Road and Mabel Lake road. This school continued to operate until the amalgamation of the rural school districts under  School District 22.  Similarly Shuswap Falls was originally on Shaeffer Road above Shuswap  Falls — a log school. Later a frame school was built on the flat just above the  Falls on the Lumby side of the bridge. When the power plant was opened in  1928, electric light was installed, making it the first rural school to have such  a luxury. It was the end of the sub-line which served the operators' homes.  This school had regular desks attached to long one inch by four inch boards in  rows. It had proper blackboards on the front wall. The stove was the usual  gasoline drum, set in a metal cradle. These drums held 3 foot lengths of wood  and were kept filled to the top. The drinking water was in the open pail with  tin dipper. I think children either must have been healthier than today's  pupils or else they had been exposed to so many germs that they were immune, for attendance was always good.  This building was later moved to Lumby and, with additions, serves as  the Municipal Office at the present time.  I taught at both Mabel Lake and Shuswap Falls Schools, and at the latter  school an incident happened which caused great hilarity at the George  Finlaison home where I boarded. On Thanksgiving weekend I left a window  open about two inches at the top. On returning to school on Tuesday morning  I found books from my desk scattered on the floor. Immediately I asked who  had been in the school on the weekend, and there were many denials from the  Part of the May Day Parade 1935  Left to right: Gladys Pitton, Leroy Routley, Albert Routley, Lloyd Richardson, Evelyn Fisher,  Routley, Arthur Fisher, Jackie Richardson, Mary Popowich, Teacher Lucy (Hill) McCormick,  Evelyn Richardson. 42  arriving pupils. In due time I rang the handbell and opened the drawer in  which the register was kept; to my dismay, the register was all chewed around  the edges, and as I opened the drawer more fully, a large bush rat peered at  me. It disappeared into other drawers which were full of apple cores, lichens,  cones, and tin lids — it had been a busy rodent over the weekend. As we were  hunting the rat after it got into the piano, I looked out to see other pupils  (who came in horse and buggy) flying out of the buggy as the horse ran away,  smashed the buggy, and finally ended up among the trees. I examined the  children and they appeared to be uninjured, and so the day began!  That night, as I sat at the dinner table with the Finlaison family and  several loggers working for them, Mr. Finlaison inquired as to why I was so  tired-looking. Without raising my head, I said "I had an awful day, the horse  ran away and the children were thrown out and a bush rat got into my  drawers." Loud and continued laughter!  Trinity Valley School originated in a home; later a log school was built  and opened in 1920. The first teacher, Mr. Kane, later became a priest, and  the third one was Miss Rita Insley from Vernon. The common practice then  for local boards was to request teachers from Vancouver or Victoria; many of  these persons were unaccustomed to country life and found conditions rather  rough. Local teachers were not so upset by the isolation and better fitted the  situation.  To the far east of White Valley was the area of Cherry Creek which was  well known for the gold and silver discovered there in 1870. As the mines  became less lucrative, the land with timber became more important, and  families moved in. (The Chinese had done most of the mining). A school  became a necessity, and Hilton School was built on the south bench of Cherry  Creek about 2 miles from the Shuswap River by volunteer labour organized by  the Hanson family in 1910. This school retained the name Hilton until 1948.  This area is divided into Richlands, east of Echo Lake, and Cherryville, where  the North Fork of Cherry Creek leaves Highway 6. The old Hilton School was  purchased by the Cherryville Community Club and has been restored. The  new Cherryville School still serves the community.  Richlands School was on Hammond Road and served the eastern area of  the Hilton subdivision. It was a frame building. This area had been laid out  as a township and advertised in the United Kingdom as a wonderful fruit  growing area. This, of course, was all in the minds of the promoters, and  quick fortunes did not materialize. The climate was too harsh and the soil was  unproductive for fruit growing. Richlands area soon became part of the  Cherryville when the original settlers moved away, and all children were then  accommodated in Cherryville School.  Medora Creek was one of the schools which served the logging community along the Shuswap River on the Sugar Lake Road. It was a log building  built around 1924 and survived a few years. As the logging camps moved, so  did the pupils, and it closed before 1930.  Sugar Lake School came into existence in 1924. Major Curwen had  opened Tillicum Inn and, as there were three Curwen children and a few  local ones, he boarded others at the Inn to make up the necessary number.  This school was a log building built against the mountain so that it was very  dark. Some children had to row across Sugar Lake every day, in winter walk- 43  ing on the ice. To get out, the teacher had to row or walk across the ice to get  to a car parked at the end of the lake and then repeat this on return. This  school closed about 1934 due again to lack of pupils.  Now we come to Woodville School, of which I am sure many have never  heard. It was located behind Bluenose Mountain. In the early 1900 there was  a community in this area. This was a frame building and is now part of the  Tri Lake Agency buildings. Mrs. Ann Wernicke was a pupil at this school for  a brief time, when she was a small girl. It was closed around 1920 so far as I  know.  Creighton Valley School was opened in 1930 near the Denison home.  Seventy-five dollars was allowed from the Education Department to furnish  the school, and the building was completed by community effort. The first  teacher was Miss Mildred Bush and, as at Sugar Lake, children were boarded  by the Denison family or came across from Blue Springs. To provide equipment dances were held, the music being provided by the Denison family  piano, moved from their home to the school by stone boat. This school closed  about 1940.  The original Reiswig School was on the Shuswap River at the bottom of  the long hill on the north side. It was named after the Reiswig family who  built the school; there was also a Post Office. As nearly as we could find out, it  was opened about 1905. One of the teachers was Miss Blanche Morand from  Lumby, who taught there in 1907 and boarded with the Rottacker family.  About the same time the Blue Springs School was built by the Shafer family  near the cross trail from Shuswap Falls.  These two schools moved with the families who had various sawmills, so  that in later years, around 1913, a new school was built near the old site of  Blue Springs School and known as Reiswig. Mrs. Dorothy Finlaison taught  there in 1914. Earl Quesnel taught there in the '30's, and I taught there in  1945. It was quite small and the children came from a widely scattered area.  I have not included in this brief history the three large schools in Lumby,  Lavington, and Coldstream as they are still in existence.  There are discrepancies, I am sure, in this record, as memories fade with  time, but I have received much help from several old-timers who are  acknowledged below.  Sophisticated education and modern transportation put an end to these  schools. In the hustle and bustle of the '80's we too easily forget that our  largest social institution was born from such humble beginnings.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Thanks are due to many people including:  Miss Annie Proctor, Mabel Lake  Mrs. Dorothy Finlaison, Shuswap Falls  Mr. Henry Rottacker, Reiswig  Mrs. Barbara Rottacker, Sugar Lake  Late Mrs. Ethel Dension, Creighton Valley  Mrs. Pearl Webster, collected the information about the Commonage  Schools.  Mrs. Ann Wernicke, Woodville, Bluenose.  Mrs. Marian Nelson, Medora Creek  Mrs. Pam Hughes, "The Keddleston Story" published 1974.  Mrs. Jenny Saunders, Trinity Valley 44 45  VERNON JUBILEE HOSPITAL NURSE'S TRAINING SCHOOL  1904-1931  By V. J. H. Grads and Told By B. Wamboldt  June 6th, 1982, marked the 50th Anniversary of the last class to graduate  from the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Nurse's Training School and receive V. J.  H. pins. Actually this class completed their training at the Royal Columbian  Hospital in New Westminster because the Vernon training school closed in  1931. The first year probationers training in Vernon at that time were given  their choice of going to either Kamloops or to the Royal Columbian, to take  the two years they still had to go to graduate.  When one of the 1932 Graduation Class suggested a story should be written about the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Training School for the O.H.S. Report  it became an interesting challenge. As she said, a great many people today are  not aware of the fact that for many years Vernon Jubilee Hospital was a training school for nurses. I soon learned that many of the graduates are living  either in Vernon or in the immediate area and were so wonderfully  cooperative that through their memories and pictures the following story has  emerged. . .  June 17th, 1897, was the beginning of Vernon's first Hospital, when the  Crowell House and lot was purchased, on Ellison Street (now 28th Avenue). It  was named Vernon Jubilee Hospital to commemorate Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, celebrated that same year of 1897. This house has been torn  down but the Nurse's Home built on the same lot beside it, is still there.  Mrs. Cameron was the first Matron at the new Hospital.  On June 23rd, 1898, the Countess of Aberdeen arranged to have two Victorian Order of Nurses take over the nursing services at the Hospital, a Miss  Henderson in the Hospital and Miss McKay as Matron and District Nurse.1  During 1904, the first probation nurses were accepted; the first nurse to  be enrolled in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital School of Nursing was a Miss  Morrison.  New Location  In the year of 1910, the new hospital on the hill above Poison Park was  opened and the School of Nursing continued there until 1912, when it was  discontinued. There seems to be no records as to why this happened. Two  years later the first World War began, probably halting any further training  plans.  In 1921 Miss Elizabeth Clark, R.N., came from the Vancouver General  Hospital to become Matron at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital and in 1921 the  Nurse's Training School was established once more and in 1924 that Class  graduated. They were Misses M. Cluness, Edith Teece, Smith, Fraser, Bert-  whistle, Walmsley, and White and in 1925 the Graduating nurses were:  Misses Young, Hayden, Belgrave, Ralph, Howard, Rendell and L. O'Brien.2  Winifred (Lowe) Uttke graduated from the V.J.H. training school in  1927. She lived in Oyama where her father had an apple orchard. Following  graduation she nursed at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital, leaving to become Mrs.  Walker and have two children. When Mr. Walker died she returned to nursing at the Vernon hospital, later marrying one of the patients there, and mov- 46  JL  Vernon Jubilee Hospital, Vernon, B.C. — 1948  ing to Oyama to live. Widowed again she continues to live in Oyama. Mrs.  Uttke came to see me and brought three pictures to use in this story.  Eleanor Bower (now Faulkner) graduated the day of her 21st Birthday,  June 6th, 1929, along with Lillian (Hembling) Thorn. Both visited me and  brought pictures and memories.  The Programme of Commencement Week for the 1929 Graduates is very  impressive.3  "Opening on Sunday, June 2nd, with Divine Service at 7:30 p.m. at Central United Church, Rev. G. G. Hacker, minister.  Tuesday, June 4th at 4 p.m. they were given a Garden Party at "Bella  Vista", Mrs. E. H. Cunliffe, hostess, and at 7:30 that evening there was a Dinner Party at the Kalamalka Hotel, hosted by the Lady Superintendent and  the Graduate Staff.  Wednesday, June 5th at 4 p.m., Mrs. E. D. Watts was hostess to the  "grads" at a Tea at "Eldorado Arms" and at 8:30 p.m. that evening the Class  of 1930 hosted a Fancy Dress Dance at the Nurse's Home.  Convocation was on Thursday, June 6th, at the Scout Hall; followed by a  Dance at the Country Club. Culminating the festivities on Saturday with supper and a boat trip on the "Coldstream" at 4 p.m., hosted by Mrs. Vin-  nicombe and Miss Ruby Howe.  This seems to have been the norm for each year up to the 1931 Graduation which seems to have been confined to the one evening in the Scout Hall.  The Depression was beginning to show it ugly head!  Eleanor Bower nursed in the Enderby Hospital, starting in the old  hospital, now an apartment house, and became Matron at that hospital. She  married Art Dill in the mid thirites but continued nursing. They had two  children, a boy and a girl. She was Matron at the new hospital in Enderby until she retired in 1967. Art had passed away and the children married, shortly  after retiring she married Bill Faulkner and continues to live in Enderby. 47  Eleanor recalls there being fifty beds in the Vernon Hospital when she  trained from 1926-29, coming there to train from her home in Radium Hot  Springs.  The Nurse's Home was situated on the edge of the grounds overlooking  Poison Park and a trail lead down the steep hill into the park. The Isolation  building was also on the edge of the grounds looking down to the park.  Another trainee describes her experiences in that building later in this story.  These buildings must have been torn down to build the new Hospital because  Winifred (East) Phillips said the Nurses home was situated where the lower  parking lot is today.  Eleanor recalls Doctors Collins, Harvey, Morris and Baldwin.  Lillian (Hembling) Thorn graduated with Eleanor Bower and nursed at  the Vernon Jubilee Hospital, becoming Matron or Director of Nursing, as is  the official term, through the years from 1949 to 1961 when she left the  hospital. Married to A. Thorn for 23 years, they had two sons. Mrs. Thorn has  many memories of her training days. One she recalls is having to scrub bedpans and urinals in the bath tub and after a long session at that unpopular job  one day her superior "rewarded" her by telling her she had made such a good  job scrubbing those out she was giving her the job of mopping the floors! She  had a bad habit of biting her finger nails but that scrubbing job cured her of  that!  Another time she recalls being "rewarded" with three consecutive  months of night duty, which ended a nice little romance she had going!  Winifred (East) Phillips describes beautifully the life of a nurse in training, from probationer, on to graduation: (Quote 1927-30).  "One September morning, September 1st, 1927, five British Columbia  girls, eighteen years old, entered the Nurse's Training School at the Vernon  Jubilee Hospital. They were: Hazel Bell and Ruth Hodgson of Vernon, Emma  Isolation Hospital Vernon Jubilee Hospital 1932  Nettie Ryan nurse-in-charge, and Lily Wilson visiting her from outside the fence. 48  Sveen, Enderby; Emily Fawley, Fernie; and (herself) Winifred East of Lavington.  We all survived our three months probation period and received our caps  and bibs and went on to graduate in May of 1930.  As probationers we wore blue shirtwaist dresses and white, full, starched  aprons and long, white starched cuffs. White starched collars and high, laced, black, low heeled boots completed our uniforms. We had two blue dresses  and twelve white aprons plus two foundation belts, so were able to have a  clean apron each day. At first we felt stifled in this outfit, but, later we came  to love the look and feel and sound of a freshly starched apron rustling as we  walked.  Our first three months were an endurance test, as we spent our time carrying meal trays, dusting wards, scrubbing urinals and bed-pans etc. and studying.  As the weeks passed we were allowed to answer bells and relay the requests to our seniors and practice a few practical procedures such as, making  beds, giving out wash water and giving enemas!  In those days patients were seldom ambulatory and required a great deal  of personal attention.  Also, as "probies", we occupied the top floor of the nurse's residence,  which meant climbing to the third floor on very tired, sore, feet each night.  Our duty shift was from 8a.m. to 8p.m., with two hours off for classes. In the  evening there was more studying to be done, but, in spite of the schedule, we  managed to have a great deal of fun. We learned to laugh at ourselves and at  each other, and at situations in life we never dreamed of.  After we were capped, we had to take our shift work which meant going  on night duty with a senior nurse. This meant learning to sleep in the day  time, not an easy task, night shift was from 8 p.m. to 8 a.m. and if we were  lucky we had one or two hours sleep and on day shift two hours off for class.  Once a week we had a "P.M." off and once a month we had a WHOLE day  off. Salary for the first year was $10.00 a month plus room and board. Second  and third year our salary was raised to $15.00 per month.  We lived in the nurse's residence, a three storey stucco building, starting  as "probies" on the top floor and moving down each year, ending on the  ground floor in our graduation year. Climbing stairs to bed was pretty hard at  first, as our feet became sore and tired from the constant standing and walking in those horrid shoes. After "capping" we were allowed to buy and wear  low heeled oxfords, a great relief. Black stockings were mandatory all through  our training period. White shoes and stockings came after the change from  blue dress to a white one at graduation.  As the year wore on we had a tour of duty on the maternity ward. This  was a semi-detached building where most of us learned to make gruel, change  diapers, and to bottle feed babies. Here we witnessed labor and birth for the  first time.' Mothers stayed in the hospital for ten days, at that time, so we  always became very fond of the babies and shed many tears when they finally  went home with their mothers.  Back in the general hospital we took turns at working upstairs in the  public wards and downstairs in the private wards. Public wards held ten to  twelve beds and entering one for the first time was always agony for me, until 49  I learned the art of poise. The men especially enjoyed teasing me because I  blushed easily!  There are so many ^memories of these wards: the little boy who died of a  ruptured appendix; the "boozer" who drank the rubbing alcohol and had to  be fed an emetic; the young man full of buckshot from a hunting accident;  the young man from the "hobo jungle" in Poison Park, who turned out to  have small pox. I was his nurse until he was diagnosed and isolated in "the  Hut." I had to undergo decontamination and every one, including the Doctors, had to be revaccinated. What "limping" and "wincing" as everyone tried  to protect their special re-action site, for the next few weeks.  But, miracuously, no further cases of small pox were found, either  among the trainees or the Vernon residents, the transients or anywhere in the  Province.  Another tour of duty was in the Operating Room. Some of us loved  surgery, while others passed out at the first sight of blood, and had to be ac-  customised the hard way. Included in O.R. duty were, preparing supplies and  running the autoclave, which broke down regularily just when you had a big  load. We also got to use the lift during our surgical tour! This was a hand  operated contraption which had to be hauled up and down by a self-locking  rope system. Great for developing the upper torso!  Pneumonia and infections were conditions regularily encountered as  these were pre-antibiotic days. Good nursing, plus mustard plasters and inhalations brought pneumonia up to a crisis, and hopefully, through this to  recovery.  Many fomentations were the secret for fighting infections. These had to  be kept at a simmer in the treatment room, and frequently burned. The smell  of burning wool would send the guilty nurse running to the rescue, knowing  full well that $2.00 would be deducted from her next monthly cheque.  Another deduction frequently encountered was $1.00 for each broken  thermometer. We soOn learned "butter fingers" didn't pay!  We did receive excellent meals and had a comfortable residence to live  in. Our small salary was treasured.  Our Matron was Miss Elizabeth Clark, R.N., a graduate of the Vancouver General Hospital Class of 1914. After working as Night Supervisor at  Vancouver General Hospital she came to Vernon in 1919 to take over the  Training School and stayed at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital until July, 1930.  When her successor, Miss McVicar, took over, the remaining classes were  divided, some going to Kamloops and some to New Westminister." — end of  quote.  Winifred East married the year after she graduated and became Mrs.  Phillips and the mother of two children. She nursed in the Vernon Hospital at  one time and still lives in Vernon.  The last class to graduate as a full class from Vernon Jubilee Hospital  Training School was the Class of 1931. Convocation was held on April 14th,  1931 at 8:15 p.m. at the Scout Hall and certainly emphasized the economic  times of the 30's. No elaborate affairs like the earlier grads had been treated  to. Following the program, which included an address by George Heggie,  M.L.A., a Reception was held at the Nurse's Residence.  Two of the five girls who took their final year at the Royal Columbian  Hospital in New Westminister and graduated in 1932 with Vernon Jubilee 50  I Members of the Graduating Class  — I  Angela  Josephine   Richards,   Vernon,   B.C.  Margaret Harriett Turnbull, Vancouver, B.C.  Jane Murray Johnston, North Vancouver, B.C.  Qfyt ©eraon Jubilee ^ogpttal Cratmng  Jkfjool for Jf^ursies  Conbocatton of Class 1931  SCOUT HALL, VERNON  TUESDAY EVENING, APRIL 14th, AT 8.15 P.M.  Programme  MUSICAL SELECTION   Miss E. Richmond  MARCH   Miss E. Richmond  Entrance of Training School  Entrance of Graduating Class  INVOCATION   Rev. H. C. B. Gibson  OPENING ADDRESS   The President  VOCAL SELECTION  7   Father Joly  ADDRESS   His Worship the Mayor  VOCAL SELECTION   Mrs. Daniel Day  ADDRESS TO GRADUATING CLASS -.Dr. O. Morris, M.D.C.M.  PRESENTATION OF MEDALS E. S. McVicar, R.N.  PRESENTATION OF DIPLOMAS  Mrs. F. G. de Wolfe  PRESENTATION OF SPECIAL PRIZE FOR GENERAL  PROFICIENCY IN NURSING   Miss A. T. Wilson, R.N.  FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE PLEDGE  Graduating Class  ADDRESS   George Heggie, M.L.A.  VOCAL SELECTION  W. H. Brimblecombe  NATIONAL ANTHEM  Receftion at the Nurses' Home 51  Last Class of Graduate Nurses to receive Vernon Jubilee Hospital Pins, also Affiliates of Royal  Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, B.C., May 1932.  Standing left to right: Helen M. Mutrie, Vernon, B.C.; Lily C. Wilson, Armstrong, B.C.; Mary  E. Smart, Tappen, B.C.; Sitting: E. Kathleen Birley.  (continued from page 49)  Helen Mutrie, Vernon, and Lily (Wilson) McKechnie of Armstrong. (Who  suggested this story). They are the only two living today.  Along with a picture of the Isolation Hospital at Vernon Jubilee Hospital  known as "the Hut" — came Lily's memories of the Isolation building, as  follows: 52  "One early February evening in 1930, I was just off duty for the day when  I was informed I was being sent up to this isolation building to care for an incoming scarlet fever patient.  Since the building had been empty all winter it was some hours before I  could get some heat to the rooms. In fact, my patient had a setback from the  chill she received that night.  This building was past its prime by this time. One entered a back door  into the kitchen, which did have running water and an iron cook stove  (wood). Next one entered the nurse's room with its iron cot, desk and armchair. Bathroom and lab were off this area.  Down the hall one came to a 2 bed ward. Next room to this was a one bed  room with a wood-coal heater. My patient had this room. Each morning  about 6 a.m. I made the rounds of removing the ashes from the three stoves  and getting more heat into the building.  Meal times were unique! Three times a day I appeared at the back door  with dishes, to receive the food from the pots etc., delivered from the general  kitchen by the janitors.  My patient recovered quickly but quarantine time had to be adhered to.  Since her schooling in English had been limited most of my time was spent  entertaining her.  I think I suffered more than she did for I had chilblains so badly, caused  by cold floors, the boards being just laid on the ground.  Just as I was looking forward to our release in two days the Matron phoned  to say that Dr. Baldwin's son, Bill, was on his way up with scarlet fever.  However when my patient was released we were allowed to leave and another  nurse was sent up to take charge.  I believe this was the start of nurses no longer being isolated with patients  but just on regular duty hours." — end of quote  When Lily McKechnie graduated in 1932 the Depression had really set  in. How happy she was to have a phone call from Miss McVicar for six weeks  duty in Vernon at $75 per month and two weeks following at Armstrong at  $65.00. By November 1932, Armstrong had to lower nurse's wages to $35.00  and this was not steady work, four girls took turns when jobs were available.  In 1935 all four were on duty and asked for a raise and thus received $40.00  that month.  At that time Lily left the hospital to marry David McKechnie and  become a farmer's wife.  There seems to be a great feeling of happy memories among the  graduates of the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Nurse's Training School. It was  known as a good training school. I can recall Dr. Walter Turnbull, Vancouver, telling my parents that he had sent his daughter, Margaret, to Vernon to train because he thought she would get a better training there than at  a larger hospital. Margaret Turnbull graduated with the Class of 1931.  Vernon Graduation Classes 1924-1932  1^24 Fraser  M. Cluness Bertwhistle  E. Teece Walmsley  Smith White 53  1925  Ralph  Young  Howard  Hayden  Rendell  Belgrave  L. O'Brien  1926  Katheleen Blakey, Vancouver, B.C.  Norma (Oxley) Beaven, Los Angeles, Cal.  Priscilla Kerr, Greenwood, B.C.  Alta Jones, Okanagan Centre, B.C.  Winifred Large, Hupel, B.C.  Jean Evans, Vancouver, B.C.  1927  Agnes Gibson, Vancouver, B.C.  Irene Bella, Victoria, B.C.  Mabel Axam, Greenwood, B.C.  Winifred Lowe, Oyama, B.C.  1928  Rita Cluness, Okanagan Landing  Lois Collins, Vancouver, B.C.  Lorna Christian, Vernon, B.C.  June Ellis, Vancouver, B.C.  Hilda Cochrane, Vernon, B.C.  1929  Helen McKinnon, Clan McDonald, Alberta  Georgina Lee, Greenwood, B.C.  Irene Stokes, Armstrong, B.C.  Eurnice Rayburn, Oyama, B.C.  Lillian Hembling, Oyama, B.C.  Eleanor Bower, Radium Hot Springs, B.C.  1930  Emily Fawley, Coal Creek, B.C.  Emma Sveen, Enderby, B.C.  Hazel Ball, Vernon, B.C.  Winifred East, Lavington, B.C.  Ruth Hodgson, Vernon, B.C.  1931  Angela Richards, Vernon, B.C.  Margaret Turnbull, Vancouver, B.C.  Jane Johnson, Vancouver, B.C. 54  1932  Lily Wilson, Armstrong, B.C.  Helen Mutrie, Vernon, B.C.  Kathleen Birley, Penticton, B.C.  Mary Smart, Tappen, B.C.  Christine McKenzie, Armstrong, B.C.  Graduated 1932 at Royal Columbian Hospital as affiliates from Vernon  Jubilee Hospital Training School and received Vernon pins.  Trainees that had two more years to train when the Vernon Jubilee  Hospital School closed were: Malmston; Liversidge; Page; Winny and Fuoca,  who moved to the Royal Columbian Hospital in New Westminister and  Sturgeon, D. Edwards and M. Hembling chose to go to Royal Inland  Hospital, Kamloops for their final two years, all graduating in 1933.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1 Vernon News, March 18th, 1954.  2 Programs of Convocations, Lillian Thorn.  3 Program of 1931 Class Convocation, L. McKechnie.  4 Memories: Winifred Phillips.  5 Memories: Eleanore Faulkner, L. Thorn, W. Uttke and L. McKechnie.  PICTURES  1 Vernon Jubilee Hospital in 1948.     (Courtesy W. Uttke).  2 Isolation Hospital and Nettie Ryan and Lily Wilson. Courtesy L. McKechnie.  3 1931   Convocation  Programme,   the  last  class  to graduate  in  Vernon.   Courtesy  L.  McKechnie.  4 1932 Class Graduation last to receive Vernon Jubilee Hospital pins. Courtesy L.  M.  McKechnie.  First and Second Graduating Classes, 1924, 1925 and Supervisors  (Courtesy L. Thorn) 55  THE FIRST OKANAGAN COLLEGE  By Douglas Scott  Up to 1879, the Baptist Churches of British Columbia were affiliated  with the Northwestern Baptist Association of the State of Washington and the  Northern Baptist Convention of the United States. But in that year the British  Columbia Baptists withdrew from their American "parent" associations and  formed the Baptist Convention of British Columbia, "because they could  receive no further support from that source."1  This breaking away from the older supporting organizations and "going  it on their own" was typical of the young church organizations, as the tide of  settlement moves northward and westward. It reflected their growing optimism and self-confidence, as the nineteenth century drew to a close, and indeed the prospects for the young province of British Columbia seemed bright.  The Cariboo was a fabulous land of gold mines and cattle ranches; the  Okanagan Valley was beginning the great irrigation projects which would  transform the cattle ranges of bunch grass and sage brush into fruit orchards,  and make it famous throughout the western world; valuable minerals were  being discovered in all parts of the province, and a great mining and railway  boom was rapidly developing. The young churches, busy forming themselves  into local congregations and regional "conventions", reflected this optimism,  and the Baptists were no exception.  Their feelings of confidence and optimism were soon reflected, at local  and regional meetings, in a project dear to the hearts of pioneer Baptists: the  provision of some kind of higher education for their young people. At every  convention there would be at least one delegate pushing hard for an institution of higher learning. In British Columbia one of the most active was a Mr.  A.J. Pineo, M.A. He was present at the founding convention of British Columbia Baptists in 1879, and proposed an ambitious plan for a Baptist university. But the early "boom" years were followed by difficult times, and many  grandiose plans had to be abandoned. Rev. K. Imayoshi states in his History  of Okanagan Baptist College:  "... the boom soon collapsed and with its passing went the dream  of a Baptist College. One anonymous Baptist gentleman remained  ready to part with a quarter of a million dollars to endow a Baptist  College, but his expected fortune slipped away before he had opportunity to realize his wish."2  Still, the idea of an institution of higher learning persisted, and the Convention of 1900 attempted a scheme of correspondence education. Classes  were held in churches, and selected pastors were responsible for the instruction. However, after two years, this work had to be discontinued as the load  became too heavy for the pastors involved. But the potential students were  there, the idea of a Baptist College remained, and in 1905 the voice of Mr.  Pineo was heard again, deploring the fact that "young men, studying for the  ministry were obliged to go East for study."3  The "break-through" came in the autumn of the same year, 1905, when  Rev. A. J. Saunders, District Superintendent of Missions for the B.C. Baptist  Convention, came to visit Summerland and "discovered the kind of Baptist  men he was looking for — the Ritchie Brothers."4 56  In reality, the Rev. Saunders had discovered more than the Ritchie  Brothers; he had discovered a whole community of people very much like  them. "Mr. J. M. Robinson", says Rev. Imoyoshi, "President of the Manitoba  and Northwest Baptist foundation, founded Summerland and settled it with a  select group of people."5 Other accounts, such as The Summerland Story,6  tell in more detail of the arrival of Mr. Robinson, newspaper editor and  legislator, in the South Okanagan. He was prospecting for gold, but hadn't  found any, and while eating a meal at Lambley's ranch, near the mouth of  Trepanier Creek, he was given some home-grown peaches, which he found  delicious. Suddenly an inspiration came to him. Why not irrigate this dry  range land, and raise peaches commercially? The more he inquired, the more  attractive the proposition seemed to be. He was already very much impressed  by the climate and the beauty of the country, and he now envisioned it  peopled with prairie farmers growing fruit.  He bought land, subdivided it into five and ten acre lots, and installed an  irrigation system with water from the surrounding hills. Back in Manitoba, he  was successful in finding prospective fruit farmers to buy the land. His  business prospered, and the Community of Peachland was founded. A little  later he did much the same thing a little farther south, at the mouth of Trout  Creek, and the town of Summerland developed, and, across the lake,  Naramata. By this time Robinson had found a number of partners, and his  Summerland Development Company included Sir Thomas Shaughnessy of  the C.P.R., G. A. Henderson, Manager of the Bank of Montreal in Vernon,  H. J. Cambie, Civil Engineer in Vancouver, and T. Kilpatrick, Railway  Superintendent in Revelstoke.  On every hand one finds references to what Rev. Imayoshi calls "A select  group of people", in these fruit-growing settlements of the South Okanagan.  Because of Mr. Robinson's position in the Baptist Church, he had many contacts among Baptists on the Prairies and in the East, and a great many people  of that denomination came to the new communities. Mr. James Ritchie came  from Pilot Mound, Manitoba, in 1903. He pre-empted land around Giant's  Head Mountain, in the Summerland area, and formed the Garnet Valley  Land Company. On the list of seventeen charter members of the Summerland  Baptist Church7 appear the name of James Ritchie and his wife Margaret,  and of Mr. and Mrs. William Ritchie, a brother. A third brother, Thomas  Ritchie, was a pioneer Baptist Minister in Peachland, and always had a close  connection with the Summerland Church.  After a conference with the Ritchie Brothers, Rev. Saunders was assured  of $20,000 and a free building site for the founding of a Baptist College in  Summerland. He immediately returned to Vancouver and presented this offer to the Home Mission Board. It was accepted, provided a "sustenation  fund" for the proposed College could be raised, and Rev. Saunders was asked  to proceed further with the project. He succeeded in raising $20,000 for the  sustenation fund, and a building fund of an equal amount was subscribed.  This paragraph from a subsequent (1907) Educational Report to the B.C.  Baptists Convention reflects the excitement of those early months of 1906:  Through most generous offers of a building site and pledges of  financial support made by the Ritchie Brothers and others, the  immediate building of the College seemed to be a glad possibility,  and the convention . . . thankfully and joyfully accepted those of- 57  fers and pledges, and decided to go forward at once with the  work.  During the year since last Convention the Educational  Board has become incorporated,  and is now vested with legal  powers to construct an educational institution. The construction  of a building to be known as Okanagan College has been commenced at Summerland, British Columbia, and is now well advanced. The concept calls for the completion of the building by  September 30, 1907.8  Rev.   Saunders continued his effort to raise money,   and  another  $10,000 was added to the sustenation fund, bringing it to $30,000. An executive committee of ten members for the college was selected from the Summerland district, and the site for the new College, chosen at the suggestion of  a special committee,  was half way up Giant's Head Mountain in Summerland.  It was indicative of their zeal for education that the Summerland Baptists decided to proceed with educational work immediately, without waiting  for the new college building. Classes were organized for the fall of 1906 by  Rev. A. G. Campbell, J. M. Robinson provided accommodation in Empire  Hall, and Rev. Estabrook enrolled some twenty-six students for high school  work.  The contract for the Okanagan College building was let on April 2,  1907, and called for completion by September 30, 1907. To stand at the bottom of College Hill in Summerland today, and look up at the remaining  buildings on the site, is to wonder how the task was accomplished at all  without the trucks, cranes and bulldozers that we associate with construction  projects today. And to know that the contract was completed in one summer,  and on October 10th twenty-six students and three professors began their  classes, with the whole building occupied and operating by the end of the  year, is to realize that we have come a long way from that day to our world of  cost over-runs, labour disputes, bureaucratic red tape and political buck-  passing!  In that early summer of 1907, the British Columbia Baptist Convention  was held in Summerland, and over a hundred delegates from all over B.C. attended, with sessions being held in a large circus tent which served as a church  for the remainder of the summer. During this convention a ceremony of  dedication for the new college building was held.  All the delegates and friends gathered around the rising building  on College Hill to witness an impressive and moving service of  dedication. Citizens of Summerland, those of Baptist persuasion  in particular, sensed a feeling of pride. A Baptist College and a  Baptist Church were being launched on what appeared to be a  glorious future.9  Certainly their "feeling of pride" was justified, for their accomplishments  were outstanding. Just two years earlier, in 1905, a small group of them,  seventeen in number, had gathered to form a Baptist Church. They had a  minister "shared" with Peachland, and met in a private home. Yet just a year  later they had a minister of their own, had been accepted into the British Columbia Baptist Convention, and had undertaken to build Okanagan College,  a Baptist institution for all of British Columbia. And now, after one more  year, their new church had been started and the new College building was 58  under construction to be completed and opened in a few months. Their  church grew and prospered; the "glorious future" for the college would be  short lived. But on this day of dedication in 1907 the little group of Baptists  from Summerland could not know that their dream of a great college would  not come true. They would work prodigiously for it — their efforts and their  loyalty could never be questioned — but in a few years forces beyond their  control would spell the end of Okanagan Baptist College.  The site of the College building has been a lively topic of conversation, often of controversy, from the time the idea first took form in  the minds of Summerland pioneers until the present day. It was  located on the flat piece of land on what was known as College  Hill, part of the larger mountain called Giant's Head, which  dominates the West Summerland area. (The name was given  because of its resemblance, from certain spots, to a huge  profile.)10  Rev. Imayoshi further describes the location:  The College building was two miles west of Okanagan Lake, and  about four hundred feet above it. To reach it one had to pursue a  winding up-grade tour through growing apple and peach orchards, over rocky bluffs and hills. Professor Aaron Perry was so  impressed with the site that he half jokingly wrote in the College  issue of the Western Outlook for 1908: "The student who, after  such a climb and after such a view, could not be inducted into all  the intricacies of mathematics, or instilled with all the beauties of  literature, is surely 'hopeless' educationally". The choice of the  site was influenced by the fact that Acadia (University) was also on  a hill. Hence Summerland became the "Wolfville of the West."11  Continuing his discussion of the College site, Rev. Imayoshi sums up the  arguments which were current at the time among the founders of the College,  favoring the site on Giant's Head Mountain in Summerland.  First,  they  defended the choice of Summerland itself,  as against a larger centre of  population such as Vancouver or Victoria. In these arguments much is made  of the "high moral tone" of the community, and indeed this is an idea which  one encounters continually with reference to the early settlement in Summerland, right from its beginning. For example, in The History of Summerland Baptist Church:  J. M. Robinson, who envisioned so many centres in the Okanagan  Valley and was an early president of the Manitoba and Northwest  Baptist Convention, was said to have "hand-picked" many of the  people he wanted to interest in becoming residents.12  The second argument in favour of the College's location in Summerland  was that the lack of "the attractive social events of a large city"13 would allow  the students a better opportunity to concentrate on their studies. Finally, a  small College in a small town would give students a better chance to come into  personal contact with their instructors, and form a fellowship not to be found  at large centres.  The determination of the Summerland pioneers to provide a sound intellectual and moral background for the College rising in their midst was  summed up by Rev. H. G. Estabrook, pastor of Summerland Baptist Church  and teacher at the College: 59  . . . they are determined on maintaining a type of life as strong,  pure, and invigorating morally as is the glorious mountain air of  our location physically — a life that shall be a worthy accessory to  an institution which is destined to figure prominently in moulding  the thought of our time.14  In addition to these persuasive arguments in favour of locating the College in their town, the Summerland Baptists had other advantages. They  could offer the land for the College as an outright gift as well as a substantial  sum of money, and the whole community seemed willing to undertake the  work and responsibilities necessary to establish such an institution.  As for the location up the steep Giant's Head Mountain, opinions are still  divided after seventy years. Professor Perry's remark in a previous paragraph,  about the exhilaration of the climb up the mountain and its effect on the  mental faculties, expressed a view that was very common amongst teachers  and students, and amongst the townspeople and visitors. There was a sense of  spiritual uplift, both in the arduous climb and in the glorious view at the end  of it. Many a delegate from outside the area was at first dubious about the  location, but went away as full of enthusiasm as the local people.  But alas! human institutions cannot live by dreams and aspirations  alone. Tn those early years, just as in our own time, the financial "bottom  line" was vital to the survival of even a religious and educational institution,  and when it failed with Okanagan Baptist College, the inspiring buildings on  Giant's Head Mountain became empty shells. In the inevitable "post  mortems", much blame was placed on the "impractical" site. Though he does  mention the high steep mountain "accessible only to hardy citizens and strong  horses",15 Rev. Imayoshi seems to place most of his emphasis on the location  of the College in a small town in a rather isolated area, given the transportation facilities of that day.  In the winter months particularly the College was difficult to  reach. The result was that most of the students came from Summerland and adjoining centers. Other localities like Vancouver,  Victoria and new Westminster were poorly represented, thus the  College reached only a small circle of people.16  Mr. W. C. Kelley, K. C, who made heroic efforts to save the financial  situation of the College in its last days, and dealt with the creditors after its  demise, has this to say of the location:  If the denomination had not appointed such a visionary, impractical committee which was responsible for choosing such a poor  site, there would be no great difficulty in making a fair sale.17  But at that time Mr. Kelley was obviously thinking chiefly of disposing of  the College property. Of the pioneers to whom I spoke about the College,  some had attended as students, and all of them were still enthusiastic about  the wonderful walk  and view on Giant's Head Mountain.   If other circumstances had been favorable, I doubt if the location on College Hill would  have been too great an obstacle.  The first College building, the object of the dedication ceremony at the  Baptist Convention in the summer of 1907, was named Ritchie Hall, in  honour of the three Ritchie brothers, James, Thomas and William, who had  played such a vital part in founding the institution. It was a frame building,  eighty by forty feet, with an "L" forty by thirty feet, and was three and a half 60  stories high. Some idea of the interior of the building may be obtained from  this first advertisement for the College, which appeared in the North-West  Baptist of August 15, 1907:  OKANAGAN COLLEGE, SUMMERLAND, B.C. A Christian  School for young men and women, situated amid surroundings  beautiful and inspiring and in a community of exceptional moral  strength. Regular course for University Entrance. Thorough  Commercial Course. Special advantages for Music. Competent instructors. Well appointed building, tastefully furnished, heated  with hot water, provided with bath rooms and improved sanitary  arrangements. Terms moderate. Fall term opens October 1st. For  further   particulars   address   the   Principal    at   Summerland.  E. W. Sawyer, M. A. Principal18  The cost of building Ritchie Hall was $26,000, with another $5,000 to  furnish and equip it. At the urging of the Principal, and through the help of  donations, many of them from the students, two more buildings were added  to Okanagan College in 1910. One of these was Morton Hall, the ladies'  residence, placed a few hundred feet from Ritchie Hall, and built to accommodate forty young ladies. The gymnasium was built at the foot of College  Hill, to serve both the College and the community. It was built on land  donated to the College by Mr. Thomas Dale, who with his family had joined  the Baptist congregation in 1906.  From its beginning, Okanagan College was blessed with a staff of well  qualified and dedicated teachers. The first of these was Rev. A. G. Campbell,  the regular Baptist minister in Summerland, who conducted the first College  classes in the 1906-07 term, before the main building was constructed. He  later resigned as pastor, to teach History and Modern Languages. He had an  M.A. From McMaster University, and after two years at the College he left to  take advanced studies at the University of Chicago. Rev. H. G. Estabrook  followed Rev. Campbell as minister in Summerland, and also taught at the  College. The founding Principal of the College was Dr. Everett W. Sawyer, a  graduate of Acadia University and Harvard, and Associate Professor at  Acadia. He was already in Summerland early in 1907, and was present at the  dedication of Ritchie Hall. He taught a variety of subjects at times, in addition to his work as Principal: Latin, Greek, Bible Studies, Mathematics and  English. His dedication to Okanagan College was complete, and in the  records of the time one finds nothing but praise for his devotion and intelligence. He remained Principal until the summer of 1914, when failing  health and eyesight forced him to resign, but he stayed on as leader of the  "Forward Movement", a group dedicated to raising funds now desperately  needed for the College, and he returned to the East after the College closed in  1915.  Professor Aaron J. Perry, House Master of Ritchie Hall, had an M.A.  degree in Latin from Acadia University and in English Literature from Yale.  After two years at Okanagan College he left to take post-graduate studies at  the University of Chicago, later returned to the College but after a year accepted a position as Professor of English at the University of Manitoba.  Professor C. D. Denton, M.A. came to Okanagan as Head of the  Mathematics Department. After three and a half years' service in the College  he had to resign because of ill health following the death of his wife. He later 61  returned to the College to teach part time, and worked with the church in  Peachland. In the Music Department, Miss Eunice Haines, piano instructor  at the College, was an honor graduate of Acadia Seminary. Miss Catherine  Davison instructed in vocal music and conducted choral classes in Summerland and Peachland.  These were the original teachers at Okanagan College. In later years  there were replacements and additions bringing the total teaching staff to fifteen in the year 1913. These teachers made a significant contribution to the  life of the College and the Community, and in the dark days before the institution closed, they made many sacrifices, financial and otherwise, to carry  on the work.  For a new and small College, Okanagan had an extensive and varied curriculum. Instruction in high school subjects was always a "staple" item. Many  young people in the area had missed the chance to get a high school education, and the College provided a good opportunity for this. With the formal  opening in 1907 a Commercial course, including Stenography and  Typewriting, was provided, as was a course in Music — instrumental and  vocal. In the 1909-10 session, University work to the end of the second year  was included, with the expectation that the College would soon be able to give  a B.A. degree through affiliation with McMaster University. Due to a  misunderstanding, the Board of Governors of Okanagan College was disappointed to find that this affiliation had not actually been granted. This  misunderstanding was eventually cleared up, and Okanagan was able to give  the first two years of University work, with syllabus and examinations to be in  accord with McMaster standards.  Enrolment at the College climbed from an initial 72 in 1907-08 to a high  of 121 students in 1911-12, with an unexplained drop to 64 in 1909-10. In the  peak year of 1911 -12, 104 of the students took a full year's work, and of these,  for the first time, the young ladies slightly outnumbered the men. Seventy-  eight of the 121 were Baptists. At one time every province of Western Canada  except Saskatchewan was represented; one student came from London,  England, and a few from the United States. But still the work of Okanagan  College was largely local. In 1908-09, for example, there were just over a hundred students, and of these 96 were from British Columbia, with 59 from  Summerland. After 1911-12 the attendance dropped each year to a final 59  for the last year, 1914-15.  What was it like to be a student at this first Okanagan College? For me,  the over-riding impression is one of high spirits and enthusiasm, combined  with seriousness of purpose and a great desire for self improvement.  Perhaps no other single source of information about the College life can  equal the College magazine, The Lyceum, which began at Christmas, 1908,  and appeared at irregular intervals until 1914, except for one year, 1912-13,  when it came out quite regularly every month, under the editorship of a Mr.  Frank Hayward. In these pages the activities of the students are faithfully  reported, and indeed the whole development of the College can be traced.  The March 1909 issue reported little progress with hockey, but "next year,  with the advent of the promised skating rink nearer town, we shall be able to  make better progress with winter games." But the same issue reports some  success with basketball, "in spite of wet weather and muddy grounds." The  new gymnasium was built in the following year, and basketball became one of 62  the great sport activities of the College. The June 1909 issue reports the  founding of a baseball league, with competition between the "Bean Eaters"  (College residents) and the "Hill Climbers" (Non-resident students). But soon  the College players went further afield, playing Summerland town,  Peachland and Kelowna. The games were close, but the College team won  only one of those recorded. "Our showing", says the sports reporter of the  final defeat by Summerland town, "is not so bad when we consider that the  Summerland players are a seasoned team, and hold the championship of the  Okanagan Valley." the story is the same with hockey and football and all the  other sports: tremendous enthusiasm, rinks, gymnasiums and fields packed  with spectators, and good sportsmanship.  The Literary Society was certainly one of the most active organizations in  the College. The March 1909 issue of The Lyceum describes the final gathering of the previous year:  "About two hundred invitations were issued by the members of  the society, and in spite of the darkness of a large crowd of young  people assembled in the College Chapel and Prof. Denton's lecture room . . . the first half hour was devoted to arranging partners for ten-minute conversations. The beginning of each topic  was signalled by music. Everyone seemed to enter into the spirit of  the   evening,   and   several   quiet   and   bashful   ones   did   some  astonishing talking."19  Just a month later, on January 20, 1909, the Literary Society is active  again, sponsoring an evening of recitations of the poems of W. H. Drum-  mond, by a Summerland minister, Rev. D. E. Hatt.  He held all spellbound as he depicted the moonlight scene in  "Johnnie's First Moose." One could feel the motion of the canoe  and the tense spirit of the hunter in sight of the game, and from  the startled cries of some of the ladies, the rifle shot must have  been almost real.20  On November 20, 1910, the Society sponsored a debate on the topic,  "Resolved that women suffrage would benefit society in general." The Senior  Matric Class took the affirmative side, the Freshman Class the negative. The  negative won. (It is interesting to note that all the participants in this debate  were men.)  It would seem that not all the activities of the Society were literary, as this  report from the March 1910 Lyceum might indicate:  The Literary Society took advantage of the last snowfall to treat  the students to a sleigh-ride on Wednesday, February 23. Four  sleighs were hired for the purpose from Messrs. Young and  Stephens, and were assembled in front of the Baptist Parkdale  Church at about 7:30 p.m. Each gentleman was allotted a young  lady after the fashion of the early French settlers, and everyone  seemed perfectly satisfied with his lot. As the gentlemen  predominate in the College this year, several ladies were invited  from town to make up the required quota. The officers in charge  are to be congratulated on their choice of a night, for a moon-lit,  starry sky overhead, and a well-packed snow underfoot, left  nothing to be desired. Prairie Valley was awakened first by the  merry revellers, and the fun continued without abate while the 63  Garnet Valley School-house was reached and the home stretch  began. The competitions between the rival teamsters resulted in a  very exciting finish. Refreshments were served on the return to the  Church, and a very pleasant time was spent talking in hoarse  voices over the coffee before the party broke up.21  But there is no mention of any ten-minute literary topics on this occasion!  Surely no organization in the College gave more pleasure to both performers and audience than the Choral Society. The Lyceum reports the first  concert of the 1909 season, held on Tuesday, February 2nd. The following  Saturday the group was off on a special tour to Kelowna.  The steamer Aberdeen was chartered for the occasion and left the  wharf about 2 p.m. Many citizens availed themselves of the opportunity of an outing and about one hundred persons boarded  the steamer. A number from Peachland also took advantage of  the trip. A crowded house greeted the society and the applause  showed how highly Summerland talent is appreciated in Kelowna.  On the return trip Kelowna was left about 11 p.m., the steamer  arriving here at 1:15 a.m.22  In addition to reporting the varied activities of the College, The Lyceum  published a steady stream of stories and poems by the students, as well as letters and articles by members of the faculty. The March 1909 issue, for example, contains two essays by the Principal, Dr. Sawyer, concerning the need for  a women's residence, a gymnasium, a reading room, science laboratory and  other necessary components of the new College. Already one can sense a certain anxiety about the financial future of the institution. The next issue, in  June, 1909, contains a review by Miss Georgena Logie of an interesting new  book which has just been published a few months ago — Anne of Green  Gables.  Nearly all issues of the Lyceum contain reports on the work of the  Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A., which were quite active in the College. The reports  describe weekly meetings at the College, visits by interesting outside speakers  such as Rev. A. B. Reekie, founder of the Baptist Mission in Bolivia, and Mr.  Kochaly, a Missionary to Persia, and evangelistic meetings with railway crews  working in the area. Religion played an important part in the life of the  students. From 1911 on there were Sunday evening services in the College  Chapel, and many students joined the local church congregations.  The graduation ceremony was an impressive climax to each year's work.  Sometimes these were lengthy affairs; the first one, in 1908, began on Saturday, June 6, with a recital by members of the Music Department and ended  on Wednesday, June 10, with a formal Commencement service. There were  Church services on Sunday, Choral Society concerts on Monday and Tuesday,  and a track and field competition on Wednesday afternoon.  In 1914 the graduation exercises were reduced to two days, from the  customary three or four. But the quality remained high. Nineteen students  received diplomas — fourteen in Matriculation and five in music. By this  time, too, Okanagan graduates were making a name for their College at  McMaster, the University of Alberta, and other centres.  The final graduation took place in the spring of 1915. The Great War  had deepened and darkened since the enthusiasm of the first few months. The  College enrolment had been drastically reduced to 59 from the 90 of the 64  previous year and the 120 of three years before. Yet the graduating University  class numbered fifteen, the largest in the College's history, the annual reception for parents and friends went ahead as usual, and Rev. N. McNaughton,  the new Baptist minister in Summerland, preached the graduation sermon.  Still, as Rev. Imayoshi says of this last ceremony,  As yet there was no official hint of the closing of the College, but  future prospects were growing steadily darker.23  In the final chapter of his thesis, Rev. Imayoshi discusses the closing of  Okanagan College. He suggests that its financial foundation was never really  firm enough from the beginning. Part of the reason for this was to be found in  the economic conditions in British Columbia during the College's lifetime.  While the province grew and prospered, it did not fulfil the dramatic promise  of the first years of the century, and times grew gradually worse toward the  opening years of the Great War. The site of the College has been discussed; its  location in the Southern Interior, while the centre of population developed in  the Fraser Valley and South Coast areas, prevented its enrolment from being  truly representative of the Baptist people of British Columbia. This could  have come about in only one way: if the people of British Columbia and of  Western Canada generally had really adopted Okanagan College as their institution, and given it support accordingly. Dr. Sawyer, the Principal, seems  to have recognized this fact from the beginning. Writing in the Baptist  Western Outlook of April, 1908, he has this to say,  For only as it the College obtains a large hold upon the hearts of  our Baptist men and women, can it do the work for which it is intended. Okanagan, like Brandon and like Acadia, must live in the  hearts of our people if it is to prepare us as a denomination to take  the part in the advancement of the Kingdom of God that rightly  belongs to us.24  Seeing the need to publicize the work of the College, faculty members  tried to visit as many churches as possible during the summer months, but this  does not seem to have been very successful. Rev. Imayoshi points to another  factor in the lack of support for the College among Baptists outside the  Okanagan Valley: the existence of plans for other institutions of learning.  One such plan was for a great Baptist university, providing training in both  Arts and Theology. This plan called for the raising of about $200,000. In  1912a Mr. John Morton gave some seven acres of land in South Vancouver to  the Baptist Union, to be used for educational purposes. Two years later a  Mrs. McArthur gave the Baptists a tract of land in Calgary, "for educational  purposes." The Baptist Union of Western Canada accepted this, proposed a  building, and appointed a principal to head the new school. Nothing came of  all this, because of poor economic conditions, but all these plans and proposals were sources of distraction for Okanagan College, struggling to keep  alive.  Even a brief glance at the financial condition of Okanagan College over  the years indicates that those responsible for its welfare were aware of the difficulties from the beginning. One of these difficulties was that the basic endowment for operating the College, the "sustenation" fund, as it was called,  was never quite large enough. There were no government grants to institutions like Okanagan College in those days; they had to live on donations from  their denominations. The report of the Board of Governors for the first ses- 65  sion, 1907-08, stated that the year "had been one of severe testing because of  poor economic conditions."25 This report showed an operating debt of over  $5,600 for the year. At the close of the next year the debt had grown by a  thousand dollars to over $6,000. During 1909-10 the building of the ladies'  residence and the gymnasium raised the mortgage and note indebtedness to  $47,900. But on paper, at least, the assets of the College were over $100,000.  It was the gradual falling behind in current expenses that seems to have  bothered Dr. Sawyer most. At the B.C. Baptists' Convention in 1910 he expressed disappointment at the lack of support for the sustenation fund. In  that year of 1910 the College raised a loan of $25,000 from the Okanagan Investment Company, on a mortgage on some of the College property and a  guarantee bond given by members of the College Board from the Summerland area. A Rev. C. Purdy transferred to College Board some 50,000  shares of Diamond Coal stock, "as endowment for educational purposes." But  in 1911 Dr. Sawyer told the B.C. Baptists' Convention that "lack of funds was  still Okanagan's greatest obstacle." A year later the Convention voted that a  Sunday in September be designated as Okanagan Day, and another year later  the Baptist Union of Western Canada authorized a campaign to raise  $150,000. But such gestures didn't solve the problem, and in July of 1914 a  committee including Dr. Sawyer made a report which for the first time raised  the possibility of having to close the College.  Even darker times were ahead. With the war, the enrolment began to  drop, but in spite of cuts in the staff, deficits continued to pile up, and  teachers were not being paid all their salaries. But most students were not  likely very much aware of such situations during the final year of 1914-15.  Academically it was a successful year, and as we have seen, the graduation  ceremonies took place as usual.  The final decision to close the College came at the British Columbia  Baptists' Convention, at South Hill Church in Vancouver, in June, 1915. The  Okanagan Committee met and deliberated for six hours before it came to the  decision not to re-open the College, "until funds had been obtained for  meeting the obligations now due and sufficient credit to carry on the work."26  Committees were appointed to deal with the creditors of the College, and  generally to settle its affairs. Some hopes for a re-opening of the institution  were expressed, but it was not be be. The impressive buildings on Giant's  Head Mountain remained, but the life of Okanagan College had ended.  What is left? What remains of the hopes and plans and dreams of a College which died after years of vital and promising life? First and most obvious,  the buildings. In 1919, part of Ritchie Hall was leased to the Summerland  School Board. Later, in 1941, while serving as a Home for the Friendless, it  was completely destroyed by fire. The gymnasium, after a varied career, has  been renovated and is now serving as a Youth Centre, still in its old locations  at the foot of College Hill. Morton Hall also served as a Home for the  Friendless, and a Senior Citizens' Home. At the time of writing, Morton Hall  has been completely renovated, and in a few days will be opened as Somerset  Inn.  But the real spirit of Okanagan Baptist College has always been, and  must always remain, in the hearts of the people who knew it. Many are still  with us, and certainly they are keeping the memory of the College alive. The  work, the sacrifices, the fun, the thrill of mental effort, along with the friend- 66  ships formed in youth — these are all part of the memories of Okanagan College which will not soon be forgotten, but will be passed on even to future  generations. It is in the hope that more people will hear the story of  Okanagan College that I have put together the materials for this article in the  Okanagan Historical Society Report.  FOOTNOTES  1 McLaurin, Rev. C. C. Pioneering in Western Canada. Calgary: Published by Author,  1939, page 315.  2 K. Imayoski, The History of Okanagan Baptist College, A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Divinity School, McMaster University, April, 1953.  3 McLaurin, page 317.  4 Imayoshi, page 3.  5 Imayoshi, page 11.  6 Dr. F. W. Andrew, Dr. W. H. B. Munn, and H. V. Stent. The Summerland Story, Summerland, B.C. 1967  7 Marjorie K. Vanderburgh, The History of Summerland Baptist Church Summerland,  B.C. 1955, page 2.  8 McLaurin, page 318.  9 Imayoshi, page 6-7.  10 Majorie K. Vanderburg.  The History of Summerland Baptist Church. Summerland,  B.C. 155. page 91.  11 Imayoshi, page 12.  12 Vanderburgh, page 5.  13 Imayoshi, page 12.  14 Imayoshi, page 13.  15 Imayoshi, page 44.  16 Imayoshi, page 44.  17 McLaurin, page 322.  18 Imayoshi page 5.  19 The Okanagan Lyceum. March, 1909, page 8.  20 The Okanagan Lyceum. March, 1909, page 8.  21 The Okanagan Lyceum. March, 1910, page 23-24.  22 The Okanagan Lyceum, March, 1909, page 9.  23 Imayoshi, page 42.  24 Imayoshi, page 44.  25 Imayoshi, page 47.  26 Imayoshi, page 53.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Fitch, Rev. E. R. ed. The Baptists of Canada.  Toronto: The Standard Publishing Company, Limited, 1911.  Imayoshi, Rev. K. The History of Okanagan Baptist College, 1907-1915  A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Divinity School, McMaster University, April 1953.  McLaurin, Rev. C. C. Pioneering in Western Canada.  Calgary: Published by the Author, 1939.  PAMPHLETS AND PERIODICALS:  Andrew, Dr. F. W. Munn, Dr. W. H. B. and Stent, H. V. the Summerland Story,  Summerland, B.C. 1967.  Vanderburgh, Margaret K. The History of Summerland Baptist Church Summerland, B.C.  1955. 67  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. 1, No. 1, Christmas, 1908.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. 1, No. 2, March, 1909.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. 1, No. 3, June, 1909.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. 1, No. 4, March, 1910.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. V, No. 1, December, 1911.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. VI, No. 1, November, 1912.  The Okanagan Lyceum, Vol. VI, No. 4, February, 1913.  Haskins, Frank. "Okanagan Baptist College at Summerland," Okanagan Historical Society  Reports, No. 13, (1949) page 169.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  In writing this account of Okanagan Baptist College I have received a  great deal of help from many people. The Rev. "Kutch" Imayoshi, a former  resident of Summerland and now minister at Grandview Baptist Church in  Vancouver, gave me complete freedom to use his McMaster University B.D.  thesis, The History of Okanagan Baptist College, 1907-1915. In writing his  thesis, Rev. Imayoshi did most the the basic research which I have used in this  report, and I would like to thank him for his generosity in making it available  to me.  Mrs. Mary Orr has been a good adviser and source of information about  the Summerland area. Mrs. Gertie Butler, curator of the Summerland  Museum, has made available a great store of information and artifacts pertaining to the old college. Mr. Bob Tingley, Mrs. Grace Whitaker and Miss  Ruth Dale, long-time residents of Summerland, have been very helpful in giving me first-hand accounts of the College years, and invaluable materials  from which to work, The staff of the Summerland Library have also been very  co-operative in giving me materials and information.  I wish to thank all these and the many others who have helped me with  this project. 68  GLADYS ELLEN HERBERT  Economic, intellectual and psychological themes  in her life from 1920 to 1935  This paper will discuss a number of events in the life of Gladys Ellen  Herbert from the year 1920, when she and her husband sold their farm at  Ninette, Manitoba and moved to British Columbia in pursuit of economic  stability, to 1935 when this ambition was realized. These were years of financial stress for the young couple. Yet this intellectual and highly motivated  woman responded by deciding to use and to extend her education to benefit  her family, at a time when it was unusual for a married woman, and mother  of a young family, to combine homemaking with a career in education or  business. Evidence for these explanatory themes came from interviews with  Mrs. Gordon D. Herbert and Mr. R. P. McLean, newspaper articles from  The Kelowna Courier, The Provincial Normal Annual, Public Schools  Reports, and a letter from a former student.  Gladys Ellen Herbert, nee Morris, the eldest of four children, was born  January 22, 1895 in Hamilton, Ontario to George and Dorothy Morris. When  Gladys was seven years old, the family moved to Rat Portage (now Kenora)  Ontario, where Mr. Morris was a train dispatcher with The Canadian Pacific  Railway. During the next five years, his work required the family to make a  number of moves from Rat Portage to Fort William (now Thunder Bay) and  back, as double track was being laid at this time between these two terminals.  In 1907, the family moved to Brandon, Manitoba where Gladys completed her High School and University training. In 1915, when Gladys  graduated with a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Brandon College, then affiliated with McMaster University, there were seventy-eight graduates, sixteen  of them women.1 One month after graduation, she married Gordon Daniel  Herbert.  Gordon took his bride to a farm he owned at Ninette, Manitoba, where  they spent the next five years, before selling it to the Soldier Settlement Board  and moving to British Columbia. Soldiers returning home after the 1914-18  War were provided with land, if they wished to farm.  Mrs. Herbert considered it "a privilege to be a mother"2 and was devoted  to Garnet (born 1916 at Ninette, killed in action 1943), to Donald (born 1918  at Ninette, deceased 1919), to Douglas (born 1920 in Vancouver), to Ralph  (born 1923 in Vancouver) and to their only daughter, Mona (born 1925 in  Vernon).  Hard times and inflation greeted the Herbert family in British Columbia. In 1920, there were sixty-four commercial failures with liabilities of  $1,151,756 in this province.3 The Herberts withstood two financial crises  resulting from Mr. Herbert's unfortunate adventures. Both altered Gladys'  life.4 In the first instance, (Vancouver, 1920) a partner in a real estate  business absconded with the firm's assets, necessitating a legal Judgment' to  protect the Herberts from being responsible for clients' funds which had also  been stolen.  They salvaged what they could and moved to the Okanagan, where Mr.  Herbert, with a partner who provided the money, established a vulcanizing  business in Vernon. This second business venture 'folded' at the end of a long,  cold winter. Sleighs had displaced cars on the roads, obviating any need for 69  the vulcanization of tires. Mr. Herbert had never imagined that he would ever  be in such economic distress. As a student in the Commercial Department of  Brandon College, he had been one of the "fortunate students with money."5 It  is understandable, then, that he was "overwrought and distraught"6 by these  two failures. Gladys heeded the "tremendous compulsion"7 within her to assist  in financing this active, growing family. Although she did not have a  Teachers Certificate for British Columbia, she applied for substitute teaching  work in the Vernon School District.  Her first assignment was to Okanagan Landing, which she reached by  horse and buggy, even through winter snow. The inability of her husband to  obtain suitable work and a further "series of misfortunes" led to her decision  to attend Normal School and obtain her teaching certificate.8 At no time did  her husband interfere or question her aspirations when she felt compelled to  continue her education.9  Gordon, who had been granted a First Class Teacher's Certificate for  Manitoba by Brandon College, decided to join his wife and attend Normal  School. Gladys' parents, who had always considered Education a most worthy  pursuit,10 assisted by caring for Douglas, aged two, in Brandon, while Gladys  and Gordon, with Garnet, set up a home in light housekeeping quarters in  Vancouver, and enrolled at the Provincial Normal School. Garnet attended  the Model School close by. Mrs Herbert was one of only four married11 women  who registered at The Normal School in 1922. Undaunted by the fact that she  became pregnant, she was able to convince her husband that they could complete their training. Gladys insisted that this was imperative to save the family  from 'going down the drain'.12 During times like this she displayed a quiet,  persistent nature, along with a tremendous desire for success. She and her  family were always surprised, on the other hand, by her keen sense of humor.  "My motivation for everything I ever did, my inspiration and strength to  do the things that had to be done, were my children and my husband,"13 she  said. Through all the anxiety and hardships that Gladys encountered, her appreciation for music, books, and her interest in humanity were very much  keynotes in her life.14  In 1923, after graduating from the Provincial Normal School, the  Herberts returned to Vernon, with one-month old baby, Ralph, where Gordon taught Grade V for the next seven years. Again, Gladys was forced to remain on the substitute list as, at that time, it was widespread school board  practice not to hire married women if they had a "well and able-bodied husband."15 This ambitious woman sought other employment as well as substituting to supplement her husband's meager starting salary of ninety dollars  a month.16 This time 'employment' sought her. For two years, 1925-27, she  played the piano with the Vernon Theatre Orchestra, to accompany the  'Silent Movies.' The daily two-hour-before-school practice stint at the piano,  over many student years, now brought its reward. Although she had hoped to  qualify for an A.T.C.M. degree (Associate of the Toronto Conservatory of  Music), the pressure of university work during the last two years, together  with the demands of Prairie Farm work after her subsequent marriage, forced  her to forego this ambition. However, short term substitutions in the Vernon  Public and High Schools was the life-pattern for some years, even in addition  to the duties in the Theatre. Fortunately, reliable and kindly household help  was available  at this time.  Still another source of income was a small 70  kindergarten she operated in her home, in the mornings, when Mona's  gregarious instincts needed to be challenged.  Throughout these years her husband clung to the hope, a dream begun  in his college days, of establishing a business college. Because Gladys had an  Academic standing and a compelling desire for a better life for her family,  she "acquiesced"17 in her husband's Business College wishes. While still in  Vernon, she commenced correspondence courses in Shorthand and  Typewriting that were offered by the Department of Education, Victoria.  During the Summer Session of 1931, she attended the University of British  Columbia where she studied all the commercial subjects offered. This was the  only source of Teacher Training for Commercial Teaching in the Province at  this time. While she was busy studying, her family moved to Kelowna and  established a home there.  Her husband and the boys spent their summer making the desks for the  'School' and by September 1931, the desks were ready, two rooms rented in  The Casorso Block and two new typewriters (with an additional two secondhand ones) were ready for the five students enrolled to begin study at Herbert  Business College. Gladys taught the Shorthand, Typewriting, English and  Commercial Law while Gordon taught Bookkeeping and Rapid Calculation.  Both Day and Evening classes were offered. As the number of student  registrations increased, more accommodation was required and this Business  College became a "highly-respected"18 learning institution in the city and  throughout the Okanagan Valley. Working together, the Herberts now began  to enjoy the economic security they had been seeking, and the family was well  launched.  Gladys was "bright-eyed, quick witted, and excited about the world  around her,"19 and always a student. She never stopped learning and improving herself as is evidenced by the fact that she attended classes at the University of British Columbia, and The University of California at Berkeley to obtain her Commercial Teachers standing. It was not only what they taught but  what they gave of themselves in their school that influenced the lives of their  students at the Herbert Business College. An early student has described their  approach as holistic and the impact they had on the lives of their students impossible to overestimate.20  "They gave us a sense of value, as human beings, that what we did  mattered,   that   we   could   change   things,   that   we   could   learn  anything, and that we owed it to ourselves to do our best, in whatever  we undertook."21  Gladys was a woman with an unassuming personality which was  recognized by both men and women with whom she came in contact. Her  modest character and intellectual prowess enabled her to succeed at a time  when it was unusual for a woman to have a career in addition to being a  mother and homemaker. When Gladys reached the upper grades in elementary school, her father began to plan for a suitable posting where his daughter  could attend a college or university. Hence they moved to Brandon, Manitoba  where, in 1902 at the age of twelve years she entered High School. Her student  potential had been recognized in Ontario, when in School Grades 6 and 7, the  Public School Inspector for the Fort William-Kenora School District gave her  top marks for general proficiency, which included a silver medal for each  year. This same situation continued into Grade 8, then called High School 71  Entrance, when she received a gold metal. The silver medals were earned in  Fort William (now Thunder Bay), the gold in Kenora.22  In addition to the Inspector's gold medal, the School Board of Kenora  presented Gladys with three leather bound books — Shakespeare, Tennyson  and Keats — the medals and books are still among her prize possessions, even  after seventy-four years.  Gladys Ellen Herbert's life was haunted by economic problems and hardships yet filled with devotion and love for her family. As a delicate person with  a "non-controversial personality";23 Gladys was a highly respected member of  the community where her intelligence was recognized and the indomitable  spirit and ambition she possessed were admired.  "A creature nobly planned  To warn, to comfort and command."24  All these have set the stage, as they influenced her life, for the prestige  she holds in the community today.  Eileen E. Ashley wishes to gratefully thank: Dr. William A. Bruneau,  Department of Educational Foundation Faculty of Education, University of  British Columbia, for his encouragement and constructive support to achieve  improved education status in the Province of British Columbia.  FOOTNOTES  1 McMaster University Arts Theology Calendar 1916-1917 (pages 132 - 162).  2 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 21, 1980.  3 British Columbia Manual 1930. Manual of Provincial Information Province of British  Columbia 1930 — Published by the Provincial Bureau of Information, Parliament Buildings,  Victoria, B.C.  4 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 11, 1980.  5 Ibid  6 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 21, 1980.  7 Ibid  8 Ibid  9 Ibid  10 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 11, 1980.  11 Provincial Normal School Annual, Vancouver, B.C. (1922-23).  12 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 11, 1980.  13 The Kelowna Courier 1971 by Mary Greer.  14 Ibid  15 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 11, 1980.  16 Public Schools Reports 1927-1931.  17 Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert, November 11, 1980.  18 Interview R. P. McLean, Publisher-Editor, Kelowna Courier.  19 Correspondence Medina,  Muryl,  7726 - 236th Street S.W.,  Edmonds, Washington  98020.  Ibid  Ibid  Interview Mrs. Gordon Herbert — Kenora Newspaper clipping.  Interview Mr. R. P. McLean, Publisher-Editor, The Kelowna Courier 1938-1978.  Provincial Normal School Annual, Vancouver, B.C. (1922-1923). 72  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Kelowna Courier, Kelowna, British Columbia.  Golden Jubilee Souvenir Edition, Monday, May 2, 1955.  The Kelowna Daily Courier, "Devotion to Husband and Children was Motivation for  Teaching Career" by Mary Greer 1971 or 1972.  Kelowna High School Annual — 1939.  Thirty-fourth Okanagan Historical Society Report 1970.  Normal School Annual 1922-23, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver, British Columbia.  Public Schools Report 1927-1931.  British Columbia Manual 1930. Manual of Provincial Information, Province of British Columbia 1930. Published by the Provincial Bureau of Information, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.  McMaster University Arts Theology Calendar 1916-1917, pages 132-162.  INTERVIEWS  Herbert, Gladys Ellen (Mrs. Gordon D. Herbert) November 11 and 21, 1980.  McLean, R. P. (retired), Publisher-Editor, The Kelowna Courier, 1938-1979 - November  18, 1980.  CORRESPONDENCE  Medina, Muryl, 7726 - 236 Street S.W., Edmonds, Washington 98020.  ioA S'af/a  Herberts Business College - 1931 - 1932 Class  (Courtesy Kelowna Branch Okanagan Historical Society) 73  LETTER FROM WING WONG  Editors Note: The following is a letter received by Victor  Wilson this spring. It refers to the recent publication of the book,  Canadians Behind Enemy Lines, by Major H. J. Legg. During  World War II, Major Legg was the Commanding Officer of the  unique Battle School located at Commando Bay on the east side  of Okanagan Lake. The story of Commando Bay is told in  Volume 41 of the Okanagan Historical Society's Report. This letter is from one of the Canadian soldiers of Chinese ancestry who  trained at Commando Bay in preparation for being dropped  behind Japanese lines in Borneo during World War II.  2778 E. 27th Avenue,  Vancouver, B.C.  February 15, 1982  V5R 1N5  Mr. Wilson,  Dear Sir:  I have intend to come and see you in person for some time. But I can not  make it yet. Mr. Legg your friend in England still going strong. I received a  card from him before Christmas.  Mr. Wilson, your community got something very famous which the rest  of Canada have not got. "Commando Bay" Also there is a book out called  "Canadian Behind Enemy Lines", and it give all the details about it.  Except there is no names of the Commandos that trained there. In the  book it mentioned twelve Chinese Volunteers Sargents went in for operation.  That is right, but who are they? So I am going to give you the list of them.  It will make your Community more famous. Please keep it in your community record.  Roy Chan, James Shiu, Tom Lock, Eddie Chow, Henry Wong, Norman  Wong, Raymond Low, Norman Low, Louie King, John Ko, Dug Jung.  Yours truly,  W. L. Wong. 74  OKANAGAN LOAN AND INVESTMENT TRUST COMPANY  Kelowna, British Columbia  Editor's Note: The following is a revealing set of notes made by  Mr. Ernest Waterman in 1923 or 24. At that time, Mr. Waterman  wished to purchase some orchard land and was making inquiries  on several pieces available. These notes provide us with an interesting comparison of real estate prices at that time with those of  today. In addition, they reveal the much broader variety of apples  then commonly planted in the Okanagan orchards. For the present day orchardist, it may prove interesting to compare the  number of trees-per-acre planted in the 1920's, with the usual  agricultural practise today.  OKANAGAN LOAN AND INVESTMENT TRUST COMPANY  Kelowna, British Columbia  K.L.O. (30 acres)  Eric Dart Place  Mcintosh 312 (6 yr.) 340 (5 yr.) 102 (2 yr.) 258 (7 yr.) 240 (21 yr.)  Delicious 140 (13 yr.) 30 (21 yr.)  Yellow Newtown 47 (13 yr.)  Wagner 50  Average 7,000 to 8,000 Boxes Price $15,000  K.L.O.  (10 acres)  Nalder Place  Over 10 Years  Trans. Crab  150  Yellow Newton             150     Delicious                    60  Wealthy  40  Young Trees (6-10 Yrs.)     Grimes                        80  Jonathan  160  Mcintosh                        60     Hyslop                        60  Wagner  60  Wagner                          60    Jonathan                   60  Delicious  60  Nused                       30  Price $ 5,000  GLENMORE  26V£ Acres. 14V6 Acres Planted  Mowbray Place  Delicious  Seven-roomed House  Mcintosh  Large Barn & Implement Shed  Jonathan  About 1,260 Trees  Grimes  About 4,000 Boxes                            About 5 \{ Miles  Spy  from Town  Price $9,000  14V* Acres at 500 = $7,250.00  House                             2,000.00  12 Acres Pasture  @ 5                                      60.00  $9,310.00 RUTLAND  Maude Roxby  Place  40 Acres  17 Orchard  4 Acres Delicious  4 yrs. old  200  1 Acre Delicious  2 yrs. old  50  3 Acres Wealthy  4 yrs. old  150  2 Acres Duchess  4 yrs. old  100  7 Acres Mcintosh  4 yrs. old  350  75  23 Truck Land  900  6 Roomed Bungalow with Bathroom Price $10,500  Okanagan Loan SLInvestment Trust Combany  y^ j o * —   yf./ & c^C*^ y<  ^*0  ill., 2 t-'-y b- ■  v J  /2 ,£.«_   P*Jc*<~ Jff_ fW^. 76  / p vt/^tsft**—-A  /k  ^fc^-^f^ -    ^U<r—t/u~x       ^y^-gu-'  //a  a—-L  <23  a^^f •£**—-v  Z  ^/  J~o  /i"o  f o   a  ^     *'<*   &*'  &  Sl^Lsl^C  'a   J  a—zj  Guy Bagnall, celebrated his 100th Birthday on October 7th, 1982. Mr. Bagnall is one of the  original members of the Okanagan Historical Society, founded September 4th, 1925. He has  donated a cheque of $5,000 as a foundation sum, to be known as the Bagnall Fund, for the sole  purpose of having a comprehensive History of the Okanagan written and published when  finances permit. (Courtesy Vernon Museum) 77  CORRESPONDENCE OF FATHER CHARLES PANDOSY  LETTER NUMBER ONE  PREFACE  Father Charles Marie Pandosy, born November, 1824 at Marseilles, was  the well-educated son of a French barrister. In addition to the usual studies of  a boy of his station in life, Pandosy was an accomplished musician and well-  versed in the practicalities of agriculture, skills needed by the missionaries in  the New World.  In 1847, Pandosy (now a 23 year old Oblate priest) left France for  Yakima, Washington, where he served the Indians of that region. A decade  later he was accused by the U.S. Army of helping an Indian uprising. A cache  of firearms was reportedly found buried on the grounds of his mission and the  young missionary was soon driven from the region. He spent the winter of  1857-58 at the Jesuit Mission in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, before moving to the  Pacific Coast. He wintered on Vancouver Island (1858-59) while awaiting  permission to establish a new mission in the interior of New Caledonia, as  British Columbia was then called.  In the spring of 1859, Father Charles Pandosy set off from Vancouver  Island to Colville, Washington, where he made his final preparations for a  trip to the Okanagan. He arrived at L'Anse au Sable — translatable as The  Sandy Cove, on October 9th of the year (1859). Travelling with him were  Father Richard, Brother Surel, Cyprian Lawrence and his native wife,  Terressa, Theodor Laurence, and William Pion. (All of these names have appeared more than once in the stories that fill the OHS reports, and a few  descendants still live in the valley.)  From L'Anse au Sable, the party moved to the south end of Duck Lake  (called Ellison Lake for many years) where they prepared for winter near the  Parson Brothers farm. (The Parsons had only been in the valley a year when  Pandosy arrived). That winter was bitterly cold. Game was scarce, hunting  was difficult at best. The missionaries slaughtered some of their horses to survive. In the spring they moved south and planted a garden while deciding  where to build the new mission. In November the Okanagan Mission was  established on the meandering Mission Creek flood plain. (The original mission site is said to have been somewhat southeast of the Pandosy Mission's present location.)  The permanent mission consisted of a mission house, a chapel and a  school. The buildings were constructed of logs, roofed with shakes and held  together with wooden pegs. On the lands surrounding the mission, Pandosy  and his entourage planted grain, potatoes, tobacco and apple trees. Their  work established the first Christian church, the first school and the first attempts at agriculture in the Interior of New Caledonia. Prior to Pandosy,  there had been only prospectors and fur traders, but once he demonstrated  the land's usefulness, new settlers followed and flourished.  A few stories survive that give a human view of what Pandosy was like.  He stood out among the settlers and Indians who came to his mission; his  voice was powerful and carried across the flat grassy flood. He was a strong  walker and thought nothing of walking to Penticton, Keremeos or Vancouver. The missionaries never had a comfortable life in this raw valley, they 78  were in conflict with the land, with the Indians, or with one another  throughout the years they operated the small mission. Pandosy is even said to  have (on at least one occasion) been involved in a fistfight with his guide,  Willian Pion.  In 1891, Father Charles Pandosy died while returning from a wedding he  had performed at Keremeos. His body was returned to the Okanagan Mission  by sternwheeler and he was mourned by settler and Indian alike.  Eventually the Pandosy Mission was abandoned when the work of the  Missionaries was taken over by others in the area. The site became overgrown,  the land was subdivided and passed from owner to owner. Then in the 1950s  the Okanagan Historical Society, spurred by Mr. H. C. S. Collett, convinced  the Diocese of Nelson to purchase the land and buildings. The Kelowna  Branch of the OHS and the Knights of Columbus began the restoration work  that continues even today at this historic site.  Also in the 1950s, a Kelowna resident, Mrs. Margaret Lapeyre, became  interested in writing a television script of Father Charles Pandosy. She researched the man's life on her own initiative, travelling to New Westminster  to read his correspondence at the Oblate Headquarters there, aided by a  small grant from K.A.D.A.C. and photocopying what she could. She  translated one letter with the kind assistance of her husband, Peter.  When Mrs. Lapeyre found a lack of interest in her script idea at the  National Film Board and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, she abandoned the idea and quietly closed her file. Until last year, few people even  knew she had translated one of Pandosy's letters and started work on a second. This letter is one of the few chances we have as modern readers to hear  Pandosy's voice (albeit his written one). Here are his thoughts, his hopes, his  observations on the missionary's life in those halcyon days of the wild west.  Several references are made to events that require more research to make  them understandable to the modern reader. It is hoped that by the inclusion  of this Lapeyre translation someone within our Society will, sooner or later,  pick up the baton and continue this valuable research effort.  JPS, Assistant Editor 79  Oblate Motto:  "To preach the Gospel to the poor — He hath sent me."  LETTER NUMBER ONE  (From the Territory of Washington)  Translated by Margaret and Peter Lapeyre  Colville, June 24, 1858  Monsignor and Most Reverend Father:  How many times, alas, must your fatherly heart have been torn with sorrow, thinking of your child! What tears have you not shed, picturing to  yourself his unhappy fate! How many times, perhaps, have you not believed  that the bonds of love which unite the heart of the father to that of the son,  imposed on you the obligation to pray for the repose of his soul! You counted  him already among the dead because of the reports published by the newspapers; these reports were so detailed that the slightest doubt about the reality  of his death seemed impossible, and his silence gave a certain air of truth to  the assertions of the press. Yes, it is true that Death has very often raised his  scythe to strike me, but his blade had not been sufficiently sharpened, the  steel was not well-tempered. It is not thus that one cuts off the days of an  Oblate of Mary Immaculate, the arm of his mother makes the life of the son a  great burden. I am then even by this, much more to blame in not having  poured the balm of consolation on the heart of the tenderest of Fathers, in not  having rescued him from the anguish into which the lies of the newspapers  plunged him. Oh! how often have I not wished for a dove so that I might  transmit to you by this medium the true state of things! But, alas! this dove I  did not have, and usual means of communication was intercepted either by  the Indians or by the Americans, whose fanaticism did not allow letters leaving our regions to pass from one post-office to another without an inspection  and this fanaticism led to their being easily offended, to say the least. It was  necessary then to submit oneself to circumstances, and to enjoin the "Comforter" to visit the heart of a Father by whatever means it would please Him to  employ.  Today, the stubborn silence which was imposed on me is broken; another  means of communication is opened to me by way of Vancouver Island, the  island where I am going to present myself at the beginning of next month, according to the orders of the Visiting Father. What is my destination? Am I  called to this island in order to go about the Holy Ministry or am I to be sent  from there to some other Mission? I do not know yet what the plans of God are  in respect to me. But whatever they may be, I am, thanks to God, seasoned  against all vicissitudes; the troubles raised up by hell against the works of the  Lord seem to do me some good; it is in tests like these that one feels more consolations, spiritual joy, inner joys; it is then that the soul rises as if by itself  towards the throne of God; it is then that one experiences all the charm of  "Deus Meus et omnia". (Note: Literally, "My God and My ALL" Reputedly  the words of St. Thomas the Apostle on touching the wounds of Jesus. St. John  20:28).  It is then that one understands how in the midst of so many labours and  fatigues, Saint Francis Xavier cried out: "It is enough, Lord, it is enough"). 80  I will not speak today of the beginning of the war nor of the providential  manner in which the Lord led us to Colville, because I think you are perfectly  well-informed about all these things.  Scarcely a month had gone by since our arrival among the Reverend  Jesuit Fathers, when I received a letter written by the Indian agent and dictated by Mr. Stevens, Governor of the Territory of Washington, in which the  country of the Yakimas is enclosed. The letter forbids absolutely that we sould  enter the Yakima country, under any pretext whatsover.  Such an order could not surprise us, on the part of a man who, like a second Pilate, recognized the Americans as the first perpetrators of the war,  and yet said, in speaking of the savages, "I find no cause of blame in them",  and nevertheless when one proposed to him a means of restoring peace,  replied: "Yes, Father, I will make peace; I will make peace by the fire and  sword, I will make peace when there is no longer a single Yakima!"  This order of the governor was for me a thunderbolt for I had the intention of going, in the course of the following spring, to visit my poor children in  order to work on their spirit.  I need not re-read this letter as if to persuade myself that I was mistaken.  But alas! there was no room for doubting the barrier this "Americanism" had  raised between the shepherd and his flock. The Mission of the Yakimas has  always been a stumbling block for the Protestants; the Methodists especially  bear it an implacable hatred.  I knew it; it was impossible for me to delude myself. Nevertheless, the  abandonment of my dear children weighed heavily upon my heart. I resolved  to visit them without infringing upon the ban imposed by the governor. The  letter forbade us to set foot in the Yakima country. I will go down into the  country of the Winatshapams, their neighbours. There, those who were baptized will find me and I shall be able to administer the Sacraments to them.  This idea pleases me, I embrace it and I begin to count the days and the hours  which will bring the spring.  Then I received a letter from Olympia. Having learned in what manner  we had managed to escape from the theatre of war, the Reverend Father  Vicar writes to me to remain at Colville until futher orders. I am then forced  to renounce my project. I am content because I am a child of obedience, but I  cannot lift from my heart the winds which transport it, without ceasing, to the  midst of what it holds most dear.  I see the tears run down their cheeks, I hear the cries by which they call  to their Father, I feel the emotions of their souls; can I not take pity on their  lot? The weight of their sorrow falls back heavily on my heart, which would  like to seize them and hold them firmly in a strong embrace.  Oh! my dear children, it is not for me to lighten your misery. My heart  has always been yours and always will be; there is not one of you but knows it.  But what can this love I bear you do at this moment? What's this I say? No,  dear children, no, I am not reduced to the impossible. I have a Mother who  loves me, who loves you tenderly; I'm going to find Her, I am going to speak  to Her in your favour. She will have to permit you to be present in the exercises of religion.  She can restore peace to you, She can do it. Since She desires it She will  restore it to you. Be at peace, dear children. I give you the assurance of it in  Her name! 81  As soon as I speak of the confidence that I have in an imminent peace by  the intercession of Mary, some have a glimmering of hope, others treat it as a  chimeral illusion. For the peaceful intentions of the government are only  too well known. The Reverend Father Joset, Jesuit, Superior of the Mission at  Colville agrees to the plan which I propose to him. The plan of establishing a  Brotherhood (Archiconfrerie) of the Very Holy and Immaculate Heart of  Mary; he tells me to announce it myself on the following Sunday. Already I  feel assured of my campaign against the spirit of anger and hate.  Sunday arrives; I preach to the whites of the Mission on the purpose and  the advantages of the Brotherhood; I enjoin them to enroll under the standard of Mary while showing them that peace is not only necessary to the poor  Yakimas but also to themselves. Mary touches their hearts, She captivates  them, and after the Mass they all come to ask me to enscribe their names on  the heart of their Mother as well as those of their wives and even little children  still at the breast, promising to recite for them the required prayers. On every  side, they ask me for copies of the consoling prayer of St. Bernard  "Memorare". (A prayer of intercession to the Virgin Mary, reminding Her  that Her protection and aid has always been available when invoked).  My heart sings with joy: it is a victory which promises me the great victory  which I await.The Indians of the Mission to whom I preach the devotions  come also to give their names. Could Mary be deaf to so many pleas? So many  are not needed by Her maternal heart; also I will dare to say that, from the  first moment she has heard our cries; as if, in her immense charity, to hear  and to grant is immediate. She has aided with our wishes. By Her I have no  doubt, an order issuing from the Cabinet in Washington, and signed by the  President of the United States, announces that a sum of several million  (dollars) is allotted to buy peace with the natives of Oregon. The general commanding the army of the West, (California and Oregon) is ordered to  negotiate the peace. Immediately the scourge of the country, some volunteer  troops, are licensed, some regular troops arrive in Vancouver, and Col.  Wright receives the order to march against the Yakimas, supported by Col.  Staptoe. The scouts with which this country is riddled in all directions go immediately to give the alarm in all the camps. They hasten to put the women  and children in a place of safety, then the warriors advance in front of the  American column, which has already forced its way to the heart of the country. A general volley brought the troops to a stop, who gave forth with cries of  peace. Some Metis, well-known by the savages, were sent unarmed into the  midst of the Indians, who, recognizing their friends, ceased their fire, and  opened their ranks to receive them, while a detachment of young people goes  to flaiik the army which had to suffer three vigorous volleys. The object being  the pacification of the country, the Colonel had forbidden them to reply. The  Metis used all their eloquence to persuade and convince the Indians of the  really peaceable intentions of the Army. They are granted only a feeble trust,  since the American spirit is considered by the savages as a lying spirit. Nevertheless hostilities are suspended.  A Yakama chief arrives at Colville; he announces to me the arrival of  troops in their country; the terms of peace made to the Indians by the Colonel, and he asks me what I think of the proposed terms, "Are they sincere or  are they not?"  "They are sincere," I tell him. "We have received here the word of the 82  great American chief. If the proposals had been offered by the chief of this  country, I would not trust in them too much. But I have seen the great papers  of the American country, (newspapers); it is their great chief who speaks and  the Americans who are here are obliged to do what he wishes; he has sent  soldiers to make peace; you have nothing to fear."  Two days later he left to return to his country; I sent with him a letter for  the Colonel, who was quite irritated by the order from the Governor of which  I informed him. What annoyed him was the fact that in spite of all the interpreters that he had at his service, the Indians would hear nothing. He sends  the chief back to me and gives me a letter in which he hires me to go down to  his camp, at forty miles from the main body of the army. The next day after  receiving this letter I leave Colville, and in three days I find myself at the first  hostile camp, forty miles from the main body of the army. I had made on  horseback a forced march of 60 or 70 miles per day. Peace was concluded and  all my children exploded into transports of joy and of gratitude towards the  tender Mother who was giving back a father to a numerous dear family of  which he was himself the well-loved father.  Now I leave to go and found a mission of the whites and savages in  British Columbia. What immense good remains to be done in its vast regions!  We indeed need to see augmented in our Vicariate of Oregon the number of  missionaries. We are almost all worn out by the work. We should be  multiplied, tripled, raised to the sixth power; one tries to do it, but does that  suffice? Let them send us then, as early as possible, reinforcements, or we  shall succumb to the excess of work. Most Reverend Father, if I have let slip  some expression which is not respectful, I ask you to pardon me, thinking that  it is an old uncouth veteran of wilds.  I have need of your indulgence and of your blessing which is asked very  humbly and at your knees by your most submissive child.  Charles Pandosy, O.M.I.  Note: A second letter, from the Okanagan, awaits publication. It  describes first attempts, by Fathers Pandosy and Richard, and associates to  settle in the Okanagan Valley near present-day Kelowna.  M.L. andP.L.  THANKS . . . The translators wish to thank the Oblate Fathers at New  Westminster for granting access to the Oblate Annals; J. P. Shinnick,  Kelowna and District Arts Council for their grant in aid, Father Mulvihill,  D'Arze and David Dendy, Mrs. Ursula Surtees, and numerous others for their  assistance and interest. ESSAY CONTEST  Editor's Note: Once again, this year, the Okanagan Historical  Society has offered $150.00 for the best essay on Okanagan  History submitted by a student. This year the winner of that contest is a remarkable young man, of Armstrong, B.C., now in  Grade 8 in that same city. His essay follows:  THE SAGA OF THE Ni/2 OF THE NWV4 OF SECTION 12  1910-1919 n   c# c  By Steven Svenson  The late George Maundrell who owned a butcher shop in the present day  Matt Hassen Building, along with a real estate business, sold a plot of land  comprised of 50 acres to the Coldicott family in 1910. All the good timber had  been logged off and the Coldicotts over the years, cleared off all the brush and  stumps except for about 6 acres. The Coldicotts paid $100.00 an acre, which  was $5,000.00, a large sum in those days.  The Coldicotts, Horace and Elizabeth Ann, had two children while in  England. Bob was three years younger than Blanche Coldicott.  The family immigrated to Calgary and tried homesteading for one year.  They moved three more times before settling in Armstrong. Once to Port  Haney, once to San Francisco, just after the earthquake of 1906, and then  back to Haney.  When the Coldicott family arrived in the Knob Hill area of Armstrong  they built a small shack approximately 100 feet from the present Cayford  place. The Coldicotts dug a well at the shack for their domestic water.  Before the Coldicotts came to Armstrong, Hallam Road was situated on  the north fence line. It was changed to the place where it is today to provide  access to acreages to the south. In the summer of 1911 the Coldicotts built a  big barn, the beams and uprights having been donated by the Maws and  taken from the Maw's bushland.  They tore the shack down and started the building of the house in 1912.  At this time they were living in the barn, but as it had no stove and was cold,  they moved into a wooden platform tent which had a wood stove. They were  ready to put the shingles on the house November 3 when it snowed 18 inches  and stayed. In the spring of 1913 they finished the first two sections, the house  having been planned to be built in three sections. Horace and Elizabeth Coldicott dug a root cellar under the first section of the house.  At that time the Coldicotts worked with a horse team which Bob Coldicott drove, and they obtained their water from the spring which was approximately in the center of the 50 acre piece of land.  In the summer of 1912 the Salmon River area was being settled. The settlers complained that Knob Hill and Hallam Roads were too steep and did  not provide good access to the Salmon River district. Then in 1912 the  residents of the Salmon River area petitioned the government to put a road  through. There was a bitter kind of war that went on between the government  and Horace Coldicott. The government wanted the road to go between the  Coldicott's barn and house. "The place wouldn't have been worth 5f," said  Bob Coldicott in an interview. However, Horace Coldicott eventually won his argument and the road was put in on the northern side of the house cutting  off approximately 8 acres which the municipality bought.  In 1919 a piece of land over at Lansdowne caught Horace Coldicott's  eye. He then sold his land to Mr. Floyd Hunter for $6,000.00 and then moved  to Landsdowne.  Work crews putting in Crawford Road in 1912.  The Author,  Stephen Svenson  with Bob Coldicott  son of Horace. 85  1919-1952  Floyd Hunter was born March 1887 and was raised in Armstrong. He was  married in 1916 to Helena Clinton. They raised three girls; Elma, Bernice,  and Noreen.  Floyd added the missing third section to the house and then dug a well  near the finished home. He also turned the front of the house to face south  and dug the root cellar bigger and deeper. The remaining brush on the property, which came to six acres, was cleared off and a rain water cistern put  under the house.  The Hunters had a few cows and sold cream and milk to their neighbors.  Mr. Hunter also sold grain, alfalfa and apples.  Mr. Hunter planted an orchard covering about one acre. Edgar Dock-  steader helped pack apples for Mr. Hunter. Frost helped kill the old trees in  1949-50.  Floyd Hunter worked at the Armstrong brick school as a steam engineer.  He also threashed grain with a steam engine.  In his leisure time he pleased his daughters by building them a small  playhouse.  The year 1952 was sad for Floyd Hunter and his three girls as his wife  passed away. He then sold his land to Bob Svenson.  A steam engine similar to   that operated by Floyd Hunter 86  1952-1982  Bob Svenson moved from Salmon Arm and bought the 42 acres parcel in  1952. Bob and Flo Svenson's two children Dianne and Brian worked on the  farm and went to school at the brick elementary. Brian tapped the Manitoba  Maples for maple syrup.  Mr. Svenson built a milkhouse in 1953 because he had a registered herd  of Jersey cows. The Greensward herd was one of the highest production small  herds in Canada. Bob Svenson was also a carpenter and worked on many local  projects. In 1959 he sold the dairy herd and went to work for the Department  of Agriculture. He is now a real estate agent in Armstrong.  One day when Bob Svenson was plowing the land he came across a  sunken depression. Careful examination proved it to be the abandoned well  that the Coldicotts had dug when they constructed their shack.  Mr. Svenson subdivided the property into five parcels in the earlier  1970's. The attached map represents the property as it is today and shows the  changes through the years.  In 1973 Dr. McLean purchased lot 1 and built a house. Shortly after that  Bob Svenson sold lot 3 with the original home to the Davidson family and  moved to the 13^ acre parcel where he had built a new home.  In 1980 Brian Svenson and wife Gayle with their three sons returned to  Armstrong, bought lot 5 and built a new home.  The Davidsons sold the original home to Minnhinetts in 1981.  This brings to a conclusion the saga of this piece of land from the early  1900's to the present. I did not realize there was so much history surrounding  my home. I would like to travel into the future 100 years and see what lies  ahead for the NV£ of the NWV4 of Section 12.  Brian and Dianne Svenson by the milkhouse 87  1955  The original home looking south  AWARD OF MERIT  The Okanagan Historical Society of British Columbia, today won a  National Award — an Award of Merit — for "more than 50 years of publishing Okanagan history and stimulating heritage preservation."  The American Association for State and Local History conveyed the  award at its Annual Meeting in Hartford, Connecticut in their nation's most  prestigious competition for local history achievement.  Award recipients were notified in special letters of congratulations, in  the form of "History-Grams," sent today following two days of deliberations  by a national selection committee. The committee, composed of leaders in  the history profession, reviewed more than 150 nominations in its annual deliberations.  Nominations originate at the local level and are screened at the state and  regional levels by a national network of judges. Only those nominees approved in these preliminary competitions are considered for national honors.  The American Association for State and Local History, headquartered  in Nashville, Tennessee, has given awards to local historians and historical  agencies since 1944. A non-profit educational organization with a membership of more than 7,500 individuals and institutions, AASLH works to advance knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of local history in the  United States and Canada. It publishes books, technical leaflets, HISTORY  NEWS, a monthly magazine, and holds seminars, workshops, and other  educational programs for professional and volunteer workers in the field of  state and local history. p    TO   o    -y  0 o  <t «i  a i/o  o  o  21   ^5      */.   /v\N     J °     -V a°d  NtM L-2J4J  -Z  ^  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interviews:  Coldicott, Bob - March 23, 1982.  Docksteader, Edgar - April 15, 1982.  Rees, Rita - April 18, 1982.  Svenson, Bob — April 8, 1982. 89  THE STORY OF THE GLEN FARM  By Alex Brown  My decision as to the subject of this report was an easy one, since the  farm that I live on happens to have a very interesting story. This story forms  an important part of our local history.  In the very beginning, there were three quarter-sections of land side by  side, situated just south-east of Enderby. They were owned as an investment  by a man named Smith, who lived in Toronto.  Mr. Smith rented this land to a pioneer named Andrew Glen. Andy Glen  had five members in his family. They were his wife, Clara, and his three  children Jean, Allan, and Betty. The family lived in Enderby at the time.  Mr. Glen used the three quarter sections for selective logging which, in  those days, was hard work and demanded skill. The hauling was done with  horses, and cutting down the trees had to be done with a cross-cut saw or an  axe. He usually sold the lumber to the sawmills in Enderby. Sometimes,  however, he needed lumber himself, in which case Mr. Glen rented a small  sawmill to cut the logs to the right size and length.  In 1924, Mr. Smith put the land that Andy Glen was now renting up for  sale. Mr. Glen himself having only a small lot in town to live in for a fairly  large family, was quick to seize the chance. He chose the northernmost  quarter-section since it offered a homesite which was sheltered from both  north and westerly winds.  Three years later, Andy built a house. The house was nestled among tall  pine trees at the foot of Quilakwa Hill, an ancient Indian battle ground, and  it had a sweeping view over the whole valley. Most of the lumber he used was  from the old B.C. Hotel in Enderby, which was being torn down at the time.  Even now, one of the lovely features of the house is the old stair rail which is  from the hotel. He designed it himself and put in all the plumbing. The wiring was done by a man called Billy Blackburn.  The heating was done with a wood-burning fireplace which was put in in  1938.  The water system was gravity-fed by run-off up in the hills. Mr. Glen  built a reservoir tank up in the mountain a short distance, and laid a pipe to  direct the run-off into the tank. In addition, of course, there was a pipeline  leading from the tank to the house, 2600 feet long. All the digging for this  system was done by hand. It did provide more than adequate pressure to feed  the house with water, and is, incidentally, still in use today.  One of the things that the Glen family is unique for is the fact that they  owned one of the first threshing machines in the area. It was driven by a  steam engine which burned wood. Andy Glen had brought it back from the  Prairies. He did some custom work with it, but not very much. He couldn't  rent it out because in those days you had to have special papers in order to be  allowed to operate a steam engine.  Though there was much hard work to be done on the homestead, the  Glens often found the time to enjoy (and host) house parties, balls and  dances. Almost all of their travelling was done either by horse and buggy or  cutter.  Later on in time, when Andy Glen was getting too old to properly run the  homestead, he turned it over to his son Allan, who gladly took over.  Allan,   too,  had now acquired a family of his own,  comprising six 90  members. There was his wife Elva, his oldest son, Keith; older daughter,  Sharon; his younger son, Vernon; and his youngest daughter, Audrey.  Allan Glen also made some improvements to the place. First, he had  George Rands, Jr. update the electrical wiring of the house. Next, he added a  pump and well to the water system for times when the run-off dried up. Then,  in 1967 he added an oil furnace to the heating system of the house.  Later on, when Allan was getting on, he sold the farm to the Solowoniuk  family. The Solowoniuks owned the farm for three years, and then sold it to  the Nelsons, who after a very short time sold the farm to us, the Browns.  Each family has in turn added to the charm and atmosphere of the house  and its surroundings, making it now a pleasant and happy place to live.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Interview with Mr. and Mrs. Allan Glen on March 29, 1982.  The Glen House taken in 1976 91  fclen Foj-m 92  BIOGRAPHIES AND  REMINISCENCES  HAZARDS OF THE HORSE  AND BUGGY DAYS  By J. L. (Larry) McKeever  While reading about all the car accidents and similar mishaps that take  place today, one tends to think of the horse and buggy days in times past as  being calm, peaceful and safe. Relatively speaking, this was so, but the horse  and buggy days had their hazards too, as I shall endeavour to prove.  But first it might be of interest to describe my first full day in Penticton,  as it was a bit unusual, to say the least. My father had been in Penticton for a  year or more and had just completed the building of the diesel electric power  plant on Main Street which was to supply the town with electricity until the  coming of the West Kootenay Power Company about 1924.  My mother, grandmother and I arrived in Penticton on a Saturday  towards the end of May 1913 via the S.S. Aberdeen, the newer Okanagan being in dock for repairs. My father had met us at Sicamous and on arrival in  Penticton, escorted us to a bungalow on Ellis Street rented from Mrs. Silk.  This house, without indoor plumbing and with much of the furniture improvised from chintz covered apple boxes and orange crates, was to house us  until our own bungalow on Main Street, about opposite the corner of Penticton Avenue, was completed. Who the previous tenants had been I don't  remember, but they had left their mark, as we soon found out that the house  was infested with bed bugs, and from then on my grandmother was never  without a tin of Keating's Powder in her hand.  On the Sunday, the day after we arrived, my father decided he would  show me around the town. I was a lad of 6 and had been registered to attend  the Edinburgh Academy, so I was all decked out in full uniform; grey shorts  and jacket, white shirt, blue and white Academy tie, Knee socks with blue  and white striped tops, and a grey felt hat with a blue and white band. How I  was to detest this garb, as I was made to wear it when first I attended Ellis  Public School. My life was made thoroughly miserable by the other kids until  my parents reluctantly relented and allowed me to wear the long black stockings and corduroy bloomers then in vogue.  However, to return to the Sunday excursion, all went well until my father  met a friend. It was probably at the corner of Winnipeg and Nanaimo. All I  can remember is that there was a garage near-by, and the wooden sidewalk  was flanked by a rather deep, very muddy, and quite smelly ditch. The  sidewalk had no railings, Dad and his friend were engaged in a somewhat  lengthy conversation, and I was thoroughly bored and inattentive. Without  thinking, I must have stepped backwards, for I suddenly disappeared from  view and landed on my back in the deep and smelly mud. I recall Dad hustling me back to Ellis Street, where I was put into a tub in the middle of the  kitchen floor and buckets of warm water were poured over me, Academy  uniform and all. Certainly a rather unique and humiliating introduction to  Penticton! 93  Now to horses and the hazards they presented. The first episode happened some months prior to our arrival. Dad was boarding with the Sutherlands  on Main Street, more or less across from the end of Edna Avenue and almost  next door to the new power station. He had acquired a rather wild roan  cayuse mare by the name of Grizel and he had ridden down town to get a  length of pipe, quite a long piece, which he tied to the saddle. Grizel didn't  take kindly to this sort of load and, just as Dad was mounting, she bolted and  Dad fell across the saddle face down, hung there by his belt which had caught  on the horn. Grizel headed for home at a gallop and Dad was suspended head  down for the whole distance. Just as they reached the Sutherlands' and Grizel  came to a halt, the belt broke and Dad fell to the ground, scared but  miraculously unhurt.  Shortly after our arrival, my mother, who had never ridden a horse,  undertook to practice on Grizel but the latter, in typical cayuse fashion, headed for the nearest fence and tried to rub Mother off. She there and then  decided that riding was not for her, and she confined herself to driving the  buggy which Dad had recently bought. This buggy was rather a handsome affair with yellow shaft and spokes and it was to figure in a number of mishaps  which I shall attempt to relate.  My brother Ronald was born in the old Fairview Road Hospital in  August 1914 and, when he was only a few months old, Mother and Dad had  taken Grizel and the buggy to visit friends on the bench, Mother holding  Ronald in her arms. On their way home as they began to descend the old  Hospital Hill to Eckhard Avenue, Grizel shied and then refused to budge. At  that time there was a bridge with a wooden railing across Penticton Creek at  the bottom of the hill and Dad, suspecting the trouble, walked down to investigate, leaving Mother in the buggy holding Ronald and the reins. Someone had left a bear skin on the bridge railing to dry and it was the smell of  bear that had stalled Grizel. As Dad lifted the skin to remove it, Grizel turned  in a flash. Somehow the buggy remained upright and Dad saw them disappear up the hill at a furious pace. He feared the worst, but eventually Grizel  tired and Mother was able to bring her under control. No-one was hurt but  Mother and Dad were badly shaken.  Western horses have a well-known antipathy to the smell of bear, but  ours at least seemed to have an almost equal antipathy to the sight or smell of  mules. There was an amiable character by the name of Grassie who performed a little sought after but nonetheless vital function in the town in that he  operated what was euphemistically known as the "honey wagon" which made  the rounds after dark to clean out the numerous "outhouses." This wagon was  drawn by a pair of mules and our horses at the sight of the Grassie entourage  would either shy violently or attempt to bolt. Thus if we saw or smelled  Grassie coming when riding or driving, we always endeavoured to avoid him  by going around the block.  The chronological sequence of some of these events may be faulty, but is  was a long time ago and accurate chronology is of no great consequence.  Grizel had proved to be skittish as a driving horse although she could  hardly be blamed for the bear-skin episode, so Dad sold her and acquired a  riding horse for me, Dickie by name, and a rather large and somewhat sway-  backed driving mare who went by the name of Lucy. Lucy, I recall, he 94  bought from the Richardsons who lived in the neighbourhood of Cambie or  Farrel Streets.  Dickie was a part cayuse, part standard bred, with a sense of humour. He  would stand as meek as Moses while a tyro mounted him, give an almighty  leap causing the rider to bite the dust, and then slowly trot back to the stable.  When approached, he would be calmly munching hay as if nothing had happened, and would turn his head and grin at the victim, or so it certainly seemed. I know because it happened to me when I was first learning to ride. Lucy  was a gently and reliable driver, but she too had her moments.  Once in the early years of the first World War, Dad driving Lucy and I  riding Dickie, had gone out to Dog Lake (Skaha now) to visit the Duncans.  The Duncans, a brother and two sisters, lived in a bungalow on the north side  of the road which went along the shore, and not far west of the government  wharf. As this road curved around by the wharf, there was a large slough on  the north side. On our way home, Lucy was trotting along beside the slough  and I was riding behind when, for some unknown reason, I took it into my  head to gallop past the buggy. As I passed them Lucy shied, went right off into the slough, and the buggy turned on its side, overturning Lucy as well. The  slough was some 3 or 4 feet deep and Lucy would have drowned if Dad hadn't  held her head on his shoulder. We tried but couldn't unharness her so I  galloped back to the Duncans for a saw so we could cut the shafts. This we  did, and Lucy was led out of the mud and water, none the worse for her dunking. I don't recall how we got home, but I do recall the buggy being towed to  town to Fetterly the blacksmith for new shafts. As the years went by, the  yellow-wheeled buggy being towed to town for new shafts was not an uncommon sight.  I did a lot of riding although I never became competent enough to ride  bare-back at a gallop the way some of my friends could. Most of my riding  was done in the company of Frank McCulloch, the younger son of Andrew  McCulloch of KVR fame. At the time of the next mishap though, my  companion was Bert Parrott, who lived across Main Street from our house. It  was Spring, and Lucy had spent most of the Winter pastured on the west side  of the east fork of the Dog Lake Road. Bert and I rode down to Dog Lake on  this particular day, he on my horse Dickie, and I on Lucy. Shortly after leaving the lake on our way home we decided to have a race, and the two horses  really entered into the spirit of the competition. Bert and I were enjoying it  and sitting easy in the saddle, when disaster struck me. As Lucy passed the  gate of the pasture where she had spent the winter, without any warning she  suddenly made a right-angle turn towards the gate. The laws of inertia being  what they are, I went flying up the road without change in direction, and  landed and then slid on my face and shoulder on the hard gravel. I was a sorry  sight but, with no bones broken, we reached home, I considerably shaken and  very, very sore.  A year or so later I had a real fright while riding in the hills although this  time I came to no harm. It was Winter, and Frank McCulloch, Bert Parrott,  and I (and possibly one other whose name I don't recall) went riding up into  the hills to the south of Ellis Creek. The ground was snow-covered and most of  it fairly steep, but for the most part the horses were able to keep a footing.  Coming home down-hill though was another matter. In places there was ice 95  under the snow and the horses started to slip. This made them nervous and  finally Dickie, whom I was riding, took a long slide and then bolted straight  for some heavily treed territory. There was nothing I could do to control him  except to try to keep his head up to prevent a stumble, and to keep my own  head down so that I wouldn't be brushed off by tree limbs. How Dickie kept  his footing at that headlong pace over rough and icy ground, and how I  managed to remain in the saddle, I don't quite know. Frank, who never gave  much thought to life or limb, came thundering along behind me, and eventually was able to head Dickie to a stop. For the remainder of that ride we all  kept to a much more sedate pace as the others, except perhaps Frank, were  almost as scared as I was.  Francis Scott, who lived above the Upper Bench Road just above the  Holden and Kelly houses and below the road to Perry's Mill, had been a  friend of my father in Scotland and we paid frequent visit to the Scotts, particularly for Sunday lunch. The Scotts had an enormous and totally unmanageable Airedale named Peter. Peter had an unfortunate habit of jumping up at a horse's head, sometimes with dire results such as when he caused  the overturn of Charlie and Alf Brown's buggy and ate their Sunday roast  which had fallen out. Peter was a menace but he was without malice: to him it  was all good clean fun.  Anyway, on the particular Sunday we had just arrived at the Scotts' and  got out of the buggy, when Peter started bounding about, barking, and jumping up at Lucy's head. Francis Scott roared at Peter and Peter, as usual, paid  not the slightest heed. Lucy could only take so much of this. She tore her  halter from our grip, made a lightning turn, and headed for the hills as fast as  she could go, with Peter barking delightedly at her heels. Mr. Scott yelled at  Peter at the top of his lungs but Peter was oblivious. Horse and buggy were  soon out of sight although the trail was visible as we started up the hill after  them. We found the buggy with shafts and traces broken, wedged between  two trees. Eventually we had to persuade some Indians to retrieve Lucy. The  buggy had to be eased down the hill and, once again, was towed to Fetterly's  for new shafts and other repairs.  I shall, out of consideration for the reader, omit a number of other  episodes of a somewhat similar nature, and end by recounting one which concerned me a little more personally.  My father had been bed-ridden for some time with what would now probably be called muscular dystrophy, and Mother drove very infrequently, so  Lucy spent a good deal of her time in the stable, eating more oats than her inactive state warranted. I was a shy and socially backward youth, but one summer became a bit smitten by a girl from Vancouver who was spending the  summer in Penticton. One day I summed up enough courage to4nvite this girl  to go for a buggy ride and, as I recall, we went down town and along the lake  shore. The thing I hadn't reckoned on was the effects of oats and inactivity on  Lucy. She was outwardly her usual amiable self, but her innards were obviously in turmoil. With every step she took it seemed, she broke wind and  then dribbled down the crupper and on to the Whipple-tree. The noise and effluvium combined were to me, mortifying in the extreme, and I couldn't get  the wretched horse home fast enough. I think the girl rather enjoyed it all,  particularly my discomfiture. Modern youth would take such a thing in their 96  stride and even some, in those days, probably might, but the effect on my shy  and backward nature was devastating!  I hope the comparatively few episodes I have recounted will help to  refute the notion that all was safe and serene in the days before automobiles  were commonplace. There really were hazards in the horse and buggy days as  well.  Andy Glen's Steam Thresher at work on Coltart Farm, Enderby — Early 1900's  (Courtesy P. Wamboldt)  Coldsteam Area by Kalamalka Lake  Kidston Orchard — P. Mackie's House and Barn Orchardleigh Lodge  (Courtesy Vernon Museum) 97  FARM YOUTH CLUBS  IN THE ARMSTRONG SPALLUMCHEEN DISTRICT  By Mat Hassen  In order to put the activities of the present day 4-H Organization into  some perspective a brief look at the history of agriculture in British Columbia  may be of assistance. The first white men to live in the Province were engaged  in the fur trade and had established posts for collection and transportation of  furs to the Pacific Coast. The Hudson's Bay Company in Oregon Territory  had commenced to produce certain of their food requirements at Cowlitz and  to a lesser extent at Fort Langley. It appears that there was a prospective  Junior Farmer in Fort Langley, since in 1842, Dr. John McLoughlin wrote to  Angus MacDonald at Fort Langley, in part, "You will let Archilbald  Spencer's eldest daughter have the loan of a tame cow to milk for herself, and  if there is any other girl who can milk, let each of them have a tame cow for  milk for herself."  Thus Dr. McLoughlin might be considered to be the first supporter of  "Junior Farmers" in B.C. He also exercised a control, as his instruction was to  "loan" a tame cow. No doubt the real intention was to develop on-going interest in agricultural production in a country not overly populated with  dedicated farmers, but in great need of self-sufficiency.  The Canadian Government was an early promoter of better agriculture  in B.C.; in 1899, the Canadian Commission for Agriculture picked the best  heads of grain from those sent in by boys and girls. The discontinuation of  this contest led to the development of "School Fairs," and the interest of the  youngsters had an outlet and reason for carrying on, and a start had been  made in selecting types and varieties best suited to local conditions in a new  land.  The Spallumcheen District was ideally suited to a wide range of farming  production, with a variety of soils and abundant water supply, and had for  the last 40 years of the 19th century been developing from cattle ranching to  grain and mixed farming. Settlers were coming in from Britain, Western  Europe, and to some extent from Eastern Canada and the United States.  Among the settlers were those who had been raised with different types of  farming, and of course their own familiar types and varieties of livestock, field  crops, and vegetables. Some brought or acquired seeds and plants, poultry  and animals of the familiar variety, and commenced their farming and home  gardening based on this material. Naturally some things responded better in  the soil and climate than did others, and for the most part these people were  sufficiently interested and progressive to want to compare results with their  neighbours. The Armstrong & Spallumcheen Agricultural Society had  established a "Fall Fair" in 1900 and it provided the opportunity for, particularly those of British origin, to continue their participation in an agricultural fair, to show what they had produced, to see what others were doing in  the same line, and of course to be able to trade and deal in that commodity,  with the hoped for result of improving their own results.  In the animal population, beef cattle predominated and horses were a  must for work and transportation, but mostly they were descendants of the  stock brought into the country with the beef drives supplying the Cariboo 98  goldfield and railway construction. A few arrived as "settlers effects", which  latter ones carried more of a particular breeding than did the first arrivals.  Poultry, sheep, and swine were of a similar non-descript quality and served a  purpose for family use, but left little for the cash flow. Milk was a household  item obtained from the family cow or from a can, and if from the cow, it was  a seasonal supply. It was in the nature of the cow to freshen in Spring, milk  long enough to raise her calf, and dry off in the Fall; and with the lack of  dairy breed characteristics as we now know it, few expected anything different. One old timer further remarked on the status quo of his early impressions: "The hens laid in summer and froze in winter."  A considerable number of the settlers in Spallumcheen had been raised  on livestock farms in Britain and had a good knowledge of the arts of raising  Pure Bred livestock, in showing them at Fairs in the Old Country, and had arrived in Canada by coming over as stock attendants with animals being imported to Eastern Canada and the Prairies. These men knew what could be  done to improve their particular interest in this country and became some of  our early breeders of Pure Bred animals and improvers of the type available  to them here.  In 1913 the B.C. Department of Agriculture started the organization of  potato growing competitions for children of members of Farmers' Institutes at  Cowichan, Saanich, and Chilliwack. In 1914 the first "Clubs" were organized;  however most of the activity was in the nature of competitions for youngsters,  sponsored by local organizations, schools, Fair Boards, but with some  assistance from the Department through their Field Staffs.  In the Armstrong High School one of the teachers was J. B. Munro, and  part of his work was teaching a course in agriculture. In later years he was  better known throughout the Province as Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of  Agriculture, a post he held for many years. Among his students in the High  School were Dudley Pritchard, Edward Patten, Hector Ford, Thomas Fowler,  Alfred Anderson and Frances Swanson. In 1921 J. B. Munro was instrumental  in having a Livestock Judging Team entered in the Provincial Exhibition's  Boys' Stock Judging Competition at New Westminster, with team members  Hector Ford, Dudley Pritchard, and Edward Patten who won the Silver  Medals. Frances Swanson was entered in Poultry judging at the same Exhibition and was also a medal winner. In 1922 a team of Alfred Anderson,  Thomas Fowler, and Hector Ford was entered in the Dairy Cattle judging  competition at the same Exhibition and was also a medal winner. In 1922 a  team of Alfred Anderson, Thomas Fowler, and Hector Ford was entered in  the Dairy Cattle judging competition at the Vancouver Fair. These young  people from the Armstrong District became the first of a great many local  boys and girls to be awarded what came to be the much coveted trips to many  large exhibitions across Canada and to the Portland International. Hector  Ford went on to University, graduated in Agriculture, and worked for the  Federal Department of Agriculture, Livestock Production Services in Alberta  and British Columbia, retiring as Head of the Service in B.C.  When the formation of Clubs was started in the District there was support for a locally interested group from the Provincial Agriculture Department, with the enrollment centred in the School. Youngsters wishing to join a  Club put their name on a list for the chosen Club and then had to avail  themselves of the animal or birds with which to complete the project. At first 99  it was for dairy calves, swine, and poultry. The dairy calf was a heifer of any  breed, or mixture, swine required a pair of market hogs obtained as weanlings, and the involved Club was the "Chicken" Club. In this one, the School  had a list of several breeds of chickens; the youngster selected the desired  breed and paid 50f for which the Department supplied a setting (13) of eggs  obtained from Pure Breeders from throughout B.C. There is no doubt that  the parents made the decision as to the Breed the youngster would select and  the choice was made on the desire of the family to obtain good foundation  stock for a farm flock. Here the choice was exercised according to the  previously established opinion of the parents and to some extent would be influenced by their original home. In the early period the youngsters were expected to rear and care for their project and show it at the North Okanagan  Fall Fair (now the Interior Provincial Exhibition). No record keeping was expected or demanded as a measure of education or success, but they were supposed to complete. In the case of the "Chicken Club", completion was a very  chancey operation; the setting of eggs arrived and a broody hen had to be  found and successfully settled. Poultry accommodation wasn't usually of the  best and a secure spot needed to be selected to protect the hen and eggs from  attacks of other hens, dogs, skunks, weasels, and weather. The hatch might  be anywhere between zero and 13, and as the mother hen was to range in  rearing the chicks, all of nature was still pitted against the budding  poultryman. In addition to the previous list of predators, one had to expect  hawks and owls, so that the exhibit at the Fair could easily be down to one  bird. The problems may also have led to a tendency to salvage a few fryers  during the rearing process rather than to chance a poor maturity rate without  having had some gustatory reward for effort.  The dairy industry was served by a creamery established by local  farmers, and thus provided a market for cream to be used in buttermaking.  The skim milk was a by-product, so was used as animal feed and encouraged  the raising of a few litters of hogs which became an integral part of the farm  operation where dairy cattle were the mainstay.  The "Kamloops" Bull Sale became the Kamloops Bull Sale and Fat Stock  Show in 1923 with the introduction of classes for finished market cattle, and  included a "Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Feeding Competition" open to  youngsters from all of B.C. and attracting entrants from Ladner, the  Kamloops area, and Armstrong in the first year. Entry required a statement  from a parent that the youngster had fed and cared for the steer or heifer for  a period prior to the show, except for the noon feeding while at school. Some  of the entries in the early shows were entered for sons or daughters of breeders  and contributors of Pure Bred bulls, and in the 1925 show considerable  discussion ensued as to the eligibility of a 3 year old girl. However the  Clansmen, being well represented and being substantial contributors to the  Bull Sale, won the day and the little tot was allowed into the ring and sale.  The first entrants from Armstrong in the first year of this competition  were my brother Romley and myself, and we continued exhibiting until 1929.  The first Armstrong girl to enter a beef calf in the Kamloops Show was  Marybelle Renyard, I believe in 1926. Beef Clubs didn't appear for quite a  number of years; however, in 1925 the Vancouver Fair Board started a  Winter Fair and it was mainly a market animal show and sale, with classes for  beef, swine, and sheep, no doubt as a means of providing specially fitted stock 100  to supply the Christmas trade. The Boys' and Girls' Beef Calf Feeding Competition was much the same as for the Kamloops show, but had two classes,  one for youngsters each from East or West of North Bend, with a Championship class. The Hassen brothers showed in this event and also in the swine class  at that first show. A group of interested Vancouver businessmen joined  together to purchase 25 selected steer calves and offered them to any B.C. boy  or girl who would raise them to show condition and exhibit them in the succeeding Winter Fair. Nine of the first group were taken by Armstrong boys  who might otherwise not have been able to obtain quality calves and gain the  experience of fitting a beef animal. On the sale of the entries the donors were  reimbursed for the cost of the calf and the remainder went to the exhibitors.  The onset of the depression of the 1930s ended the Vancouver Winter Fair  but it was continued, located at Kamloops. As the majority of entries had  come from the Nicola, Kamloops, and Okanagan, and prices had dropped, it  wasn't economical for exhibitors to pay the freight and personal expenses for  themselves and attendants to go to Vancouver. The Provincial Fat Stock Show  and Sale which continues to this day has enjoyed the support of the Vancouver buyers, the original supporters of the Winter Fair.  The "Club" activity in the Armstrong District through the 1920s, apart  from the actual work with the project, was largely centred on the "judging"  instruction and practice sesssions. Once each summer, and maybe a further  day for the top "judges", the District Agriculturist from Kamloops came to  conduct a one day tour of local farms, previously arranged, to give instruction  in judging classes of draft horses, beef and dairy cattle, swine and sheep, and  sometimes poultry. Businessmen and parents would provide the cars and  some farmers would undertake some of the instruction for types ;arid breeds  with which they were familiar, with the "D.A." being the principal instructor  and coach for writing reasons. All the youngsters would, following a short  discussion on the relative points to consider in placing the type and/or breed  of animal, make his or her own placings for the class presented, and write the  reasons for so doing. At the conclusion of the placing the instructor would  give his "official placings" with reasons, and so through the day. Placings and  reasons would be marked and the D.A. would have the results totalled and  take them back to Kamloops. Prior to entry closing dates, the results of the  season's judging would determine the membership of teams to attend at the  selected Fair's Boys' and Girls'Judging Competition. The first principal aim  of the youngsters was to be named to the team to attend the forthcoming Vancouver Fair where the competition required judging of the aforementioned  five main types of livestock. At the conclusion of the Vancouver competition  and when the trips to the Portland International and the Toronto Royal  Winter Fair were instituted, further descisions were made for representative  teams to compete as B.C. teams. The Portland International was similar in  requirement to that for Vancouver, while the "Royal" was for two-member  teams to judge one project only.  On the local level, the trip to Vancouver was a high-light as a 3-member  team could go from Armstrong, or any other point, each year, and in the days  when there were few cars and fewer dollars, many a local youngster had never  been more than 15 or 20 miles from home. The trip to Toronto was a real  dream of an opportunity, as was the journey to a foreign land so far away as  Portland, Oregon. It is little wonder that the Boys' and Girls' Club work was 101  well and enthusiastically undertaken by so many youngsters of the period; an  all expenses trip was truly worth working for and a further reward for caring  for the project, which was usually right in line with a farm youngster's daily  chore responsibilities.  We were fortunate in the quality and interest of the D. A.s assigned to the  task. The first was George C. Hay, followed by his brothers Angus L. and  Kenneth, all University graduates who were through their respective life  works, closely connected with the livestock industries of B.C. In 1928 George  W. Challenger assumed the post until leaving to join the B.C. Electric as  Agricultural Representative at Chilliwack. He was an enthusiastic instructor  and had been on University judging teams and was highly regarded for his  work with the Ranchers in his District. A little-known personal note that his  employers may not have been totally aware of at the time, and no doubt quite  a welcome opportunity for George, was that he was scheduled to take the B.C.  judging team to the Portland International in 1930, using the departmental  car. It was a double event for George as he had timed his honeymoon for the  same time, so the newly-wed Mr. and Mrs. Challenger arrived at Armstrong  to pick up H. D. (Jim) McCallan, Kingsley Game, and myself to go to  Portland. Jim won the high individual score and the team placed third; and  the reason Jim took high score was that he was ill the day we were being  coached in placing hogs on the American standards, which were based on  lard hogs rather than on the Canadian Bacon Type, so he wasn't confused  about how he thought they should be placed! Two other Departmental  Fieldmen who deserve mention for their assistance to local youngsters in Club  work and judging practice are Harry Evans and Maurice Middleton, both of  whom were Horticulturists at Vernon and because of the restrictions on  departmental spending at the time were required to take over the Kamloops  D.A.s work with the Armstrong groups. Maurice was the owner and operator  of a farm raising Holstein cattle so no stranger to animal husbandry, and  Harry had been raised on an English farm with Jersey cattle.  The Armstrong boys and girls were also fortunate in that there were  several local farms specializing in raising registered livestock: horses, beef and  dairy cattle, sheep and swine (with several breeds of each represented) and  also popular different breeds of chickens. They were always ready and willing  to accommodate the club members in providing instruction and classes for  judging practice, and no doubt their individual successes had a great influence in promoting the interest of the young person to one day aspire to  becoming a breeder in his or her own right.  The Toronto Royal was the aim of every young club member, and Armstrong had a great share in the number of Provincial teams making the trip.  The Board of Trade instituted an annual banquet many years ago and the  time was set so that the Toronto team would be on hand and freshly returned.  It was traditional that all Club members were the guests of the Board of  Trade (now Chamber of Commerce) and were to give an account of their  trips, and one can be sure that the younger members on hearing of all the  wonderful experiences of the returning teams made a firm resolve to work  toward winning the trips themselves. It cannot be denied that this kind of  community interest and support had much to do with the long success of the  endeavours, both before and after the formation of regular and recognized  Clubs. 102  In the early days of the "Armstrong" Fair, as is usual to most small fairs  in the less populous areas of Canada, the number of potential exhibitors is  necessarily small. As a result the prize list called for best cow, best bull, best  pumpkin or carrot or whatever, but there were those who aspired to being the  winners and lack of success led these people to obtain new stock which they  hoped would give them the coveted award. As dairying was coming into the  local farming practice and cream was the cash product, the Jersey became the  choice of several owners of dairy farms, and the enthusiasm was great enough  that those interested arranged to buy heifer calves with government support.  Since they were really only available in Eastern Canada to any extent and the  freight costs were high, they bought calves and turned them over to the boys  and girls to raise as the club project. A notable success in this particular venture was obtained by C. Foster Whittacker, for having drawn a heifer calf in  1921 by the name of Pretoria Oxford Janet; he raised her as his club project  and kept her to maturity. In 1925 Pretoria Oxford Janet completed her 305  day R.O.P. lactation as a 4 year old and had been awarded the World's  Record for butterfat with 872 pounds of fat and 14,935 pounds of milk, over  all ages of Jersey cattle.  In summation it can be said that the boys and girls from the farms of the  Armstrong District during the period when there was considerable free enterprise activity and a minimum of recognized and organized control did very  well from their own endeavours and, supported by a fine parental,  neighbourly and community spirit, were fortunate in having been raised in a  District that offered more than average opportunities because of the diversified nature of its soils, climate, and people. I haven't available to me the  names of all of the participants in the various activities and at this time many  of them, both adult and club members, would be unknown to the current  generation; however I hope that those who may see this article will realize that  the ones that they think of will have been recognized as part of the success of  the old as well as the new era in a most worthwhile junior activity. 103  THE NICK ALEXIS STORY  By Stuart Fleming  From the classical age of Greece when her sailors dominated the Mediterranean, Greek seamen have roamed the oceans of the world expanding their  horizons ever farther as exploration added new worlds to the knowledge of the  old. One such sailor was the first of the Greeks to make British Columbia his  home.  George Kapiotis from Kymi on the island of Evoio arrived in Fort Victoria in the 1850s. He liked what he saw and visualized the opportunities  awaiting in a new land.  In succeeding years he was followed by others who formed a growing  community of Greek citizens in Victoria. As they were joined by relatives from  the homeland the role of the Greek people in the evolution of British Columbia became firmly established.  Theodore Alexis, also from Kymi, arrived in 1907. He worked at  building sidewalks for the city of Victoria which enabled him to bring his wife  to Victoria in 1909. Soon after, he established a confectionery and fruit stand  which prospered and the family's future was secure. Three children were born  to Theodore and Catherine Alexis: Mary in 1913, Nick in 1914 and John in  1915.  While many families continued to make Victoria their home, others extended their interests to the mainland. After adventures in Alaska and the  United States, C. E. 'Gus' Haros, who established his first business in Victoria  before 1914, foresaw fresh opportunities in the Interior of the province. In  1921 he established the Haros' Kandy Kitchen in what is now the 3000 Block  of 31st Avenue and later the Palace of Sweets on Barnard Avenue in Vernon.  The Kandy Kitchen was destroyed in a major fire that devastated a  substantial part of the block at Christmas in 1924. The Palace of Sweets carried on and with its growing trade as a base, Mr. Haros with partner George  Mellos established the National Cafe. Over the next 35 years and more this  gathering place was to be a focal point for the people of the Okanagan who  made Vernon their commercial and entertainment centre.  By 1929 the growth of the cafe and the expanding potentials of Vernon  led to a major decision. That year Gus Haros was joined by his brother John  from Victoria and their partners Thomas 'Curly' Pulos and Len Tsintillos.  Under the guidance of this partnership the National Ballroom was added to  the cafe facilities. This large ballroom-theatre became the home of the Vernon Operatic Society's Gilbert and Sullivan productions and was the centre of  the city's gala occasions. Later the building was converted into what is now  the Towne theatre and a number of stores on Barnard Avenue were added.  While all this was going on, a young man in Victoria was completing his  schooling and wondering what the future would hold for him. By 1931 the  depression of the 30s had taken hold and prospects were uncertain. That  changed when John Haros on a visit to Victoria became impressed by the  dynamic youngster. At his suggestion Nick Alexis packed a bag and in a matter of days was embarked on a career that was to become part of the fabric of  Vernon life.  During the first year of long hours and hard work, Nick was introduced 104  to every aspect of restaurant operations. It was the period when the doors  were open 24 hours a day, when the railroads carried all the passenger and  freight traffic, when the stern-wheelers and tugs and car barges still plied  Okanagan Lake. All of this around-the-clock activity was reflected in the  operations of the National.  After a year of demanding apprenticeship, Mr. Haros invited Nick to  walk a couple of blocks down Barnard Avenue to discover what kind of future  he could create for himself in the Kandy Kitchen.  Tourist Hotel — November 1939  Tourist Hotel was the home of C. E. "Gus" Haros and family, Okanagan Landing.  The Kandy Kitchen was already renowed for its hand-dipped chocolates  and the varieties of confectionery that were made on the premises, and reached spectacular peaks of imagination at the holiday seasons of the year. It was  in this environment that Nick began to make the lasting friendships with  other young members of the community. From this vantage point he saw the  opportunities for community service that became a total commitment which  continues to the present.  With the co-operation of his business associates the National Aces were  formed and the long sponsorship of sports teams and leagues was begun. The  first sport was Softball. By 1938 when the National Aces became Nick's Aces,  basketball was added, to be followed by baseball and boxing and, most  recently, soccer ... all this before civic recreation programs as they are  available today had been visualized.  Nick was never the kind of sponsor who picked up the bills, signed the  cheques and let it go at that. He was active in every aspect of organization and  planning. He became the counsellor, confidant and friend of countless young  men and women of several generations, a role he continued to play.  Throughout this time his business interests in Vernon were growing. In 105  1939 he bought John Haros' share in the National Cafe and Kandy Kitchen.  His responsibilities mutliplied.  On the outbreak of war when so many of his closest friends were going into uniform he made a determined effort to join the Army. For medical  reasons he was advised to return to Vernon and fulfil a useful role there, as  any military service could only be limited. It was shortly after this disappointment that the Greek community in Vernon grew with the arrival from  Kamloops of Jeff Hurmuses, who bought Gus Haros' share in the National  Cafe while Mr. Haros devoted his time to other Vernon and district holdings.  The war years saw thousands of men and women pass through the training programs of the Vernon Army Camp and the Battle School. Nick and his  partners assiduously supported the interests and entertainment of the service  personnel while Nick, at the same time, kept his community sports programs  alive. He sadly missed so many upon whom he had relied for support and so  many of whom would not return.  It would seem that in the midst of all this activity Nick would have little  time for a life of his own. The Gus Haros family that had played so great a  role in his Vernon career was to play an even greater role in his personal happiness.  In 1923 Gus Haros had married Bertha Wernicke of Vernon. When Nick  arrived in 1931 their two young daughters, Helen and Irene, together with  their parents, became his second family. In July of 1944, Nick and Helen were  married. With her understanding and support his variety of interests increased. In time their two children, Nick Jr. and Margaret, entered fully into activities of their contemporaries and today live full lives of their own in Vernon.  As the demands of the various Nick's Aces teams expanded it became apparent that there was not enough playground space to accommodate them. In  1954 Nick initiated negotiations for the property now known as Alexis Park.  In close association with the late Fred Little, the greatly respected chief of  Vernon's Fire Department, volunteers were recruited, stands and fences built,  Softball diamonds created, and fresh impetus given to further activity. It  should be noted that in the midst of everything else Nick had joined the  Volunteer Fire Department.  He served the department for 22 years and only retired when physical  disability forced the end of this career. His memories of those years are among  his happiest, and today he continues his association as an honoured retired  member.  As the war ended, fresh business opportunities captured his attention.  With Fred Gaven, Tom Pulos and Gus Haros he became a partner in Vernon  Homes Ltd. The 150 acre development on Mission Hill to the south of the city  became the first major housing development in Vernon's postwar history. The  property was developed on a gradual basis as housing needs emerged, and was  planned in co-ordination with the city's growing plans and services.  At an early stage of the development four acres were given to the School  Board and became the site of the Mission Hill Elementary School. In 1974 a  further eight acres were given to the city in the name of the original partners,  of whom Nick is the only survivor, for the creation of a neighborhood park.  These gifts of land were in addition to the earlier gift of Alexis Park. Civic  employees, responding to Nick's initiative, made and donated all the equip- 106  ment necessary to create a children's playground at this site.  In the early 1960s, as the demands of her home and children grew less  pressing, Helen joined Nick in the operation of the Kandy Kitchen, still the  centre of all activity. With her mother's co-operation Helen continued candy  making and the flow of "house" specialties was sustained. Their association in  business continued until 1975 when too many years of long hours, physical  strain and illness convinced them that it was time to retire and to find a  quieter life. It was an interesting idea but the reality was different. In retirement the pace became, if anything, more hectic.  1975 Freeman of the City of Vernon  Left to right: Nick Alexis, Helen Alexis, Mayor Stuart Fleming 107  There was an interlude. In 1975 the citizens of Vernon, in recognition of  his outstanding role in the life of their city, conferred on Nick the Freedom of  the City. He was entitled to rest on his laurels.  It was soon after that he became a vigorous and active member of the  Vernon Jubilee Hospital Board, a director of the Historic O'Keefe Ranch and  Interior Heritage Society and he began to bring to reality his long held dream  of an Okanagan-Mainline Sports Hall of Fame. The flow of ideas and activity  had been only briefly interrupted. The flow of ideas continued and no  obstacles were insurmountable.  In retrospect, the place of Canadians of Greek descent in Vernon began  with the arrival of Gus Haros in 1921. Their role has been creative, enterprising and stimulating. That such a small number of families and individuals  could have had so great an impact on so many aspects of the community's life  must be unique.  Now, with the exception of Mrs. Tsintillos who lives in retirement in Vernon, all the first members of the families are gone. Nick and Helen, their  children and grandchildren, and Irene remain to remind the city of its debt to  those vivid personalties who created so much and built so well.  As for Nick, physical disability and pain which he chooses to ignore has  hardly slowed him at all. He continues a member of the Hospital Board, the  O'Keefe Ranch Board as it develops the society's Master Plan, and, this summer, 1982, the Sports Hall of Fame became a reality.  For a 16 year old who arrived in town with all his possessions in a single  bag, with only the prospect of hard work in depression times ahead of him, his  has been a remarkable record of service and achievement.  An interesting sidelight: The great grandson of that long ago Greek  sailor from Kymi who started a new chapter of history in British Columbia is  Dr. George Athans, one of Kelowna's most respected citizens and most  famous athletes. His sons are carrying on and enhancing a tradition, it is not  too far-fetched to say, that had it origins in the Golden Age of Greece.  Mr. and Mrs. C. E. (Gus) Haros  — in front of Tourist Hotel,  Okanagan Landing, 1942  (Courtesy Nick Alexis) 108  THE OLIVER AIRPORT  By F. C. MacNaughton  Research and Interviews by  Alex McPherson, Earl Watters, R. Hall  The story of the Oliver Airport starts back in 1929 even before the eventual acquisition of the land by the Dominion Government. The following is a  copy report from the Oliver Echo published in July, 1938.  "The building of the Airport at Oliver has opened a new era for the surrounding district, for today the town of Oliver stands on the threshold of  greater things to come.  Started through the efforts of the Oliver Board of Trade, the airport was  officially opened on September 6, 1937, Hon. Grote Stirling, M.P. for Yale,  performing the opening ceremony.  As early as 1929, Col. McLean was sent into the Oliver-Osoyoos district  to locate a landing field. Col. McLean contacted members of the Oliver  Board of Trade and found them keenly interested in aviation. A committee of  three was sworn to secrecy regarding plans in connection with the Airport.  The main object in view to keep the matter secret was to avoid the possibility  of the land, surrounding the location, soaring sky high in price.  Opening of Airport 1937, Oliver, B.C.  The land was taken over by the Dominion Government and even the  local project manager did not know what the senior government intended to  use it for. A few years later, a relief camp was established and development  work commenced. This work was done under the Department of National  Defence. The relief camp remained in operation a comparatively short time,  and in 1935, the camp workers were put on wages. G. T. Chillcott was engaged as engineer in charge and J. Wright as foreman, and in a short time the  airport began to take shape. The amount of labor used in the construction  (elementary) was the equivalent of 8000 man days. The amount of material  used and moved was approximately 150,000 cubic yards. Piled up, this  amount would build a mound 600 feet square and 34 feet in height. About 109  17,000 tons of rock were moved into fills to make the field level. The Airport  covers an area of about 80 acres and has three runways. The main runway is  3300 feet long and 600 feet wide; the other two are 2700 feet in length. Of  particular note in this matter is the fact that 2600 feet length in a landing  field is sufficient to land even the largest transport planes, so that even the  smaller runways on the Oliver Airport qualify.  Early this year the Airport was taken over by the Department of Transport who sublet it to Canadian Airways to form a link in the chain of landing  fields from Coast to Coast.  Radio Station  Considerable development has been made recently in the radio department at the Oliver Airport and at the present time the radio building is  equipped with modern machinery capable of meeting the requirements for a  two-way setup. Already there has been some $25,000 spent on radio equipment. There are two operators at the radio station and they are constantly in  touch with the planes that fly on the Trans-Canada route. These men are  Mike Meek and Ches Rickard.  Lighting of the Airport  A few months ago, a floodlighting system was installed at the Airport  and a tower standing 40 feet tall was erected. Atop the tower a revolving  beacon of one million candle power was set up. This beacon plus the side  identification lights cast their light for many miles and although it is not  lighted every evening at the present time, it is planned that before long, the  ray of light will shine from dusk to dawn. The flood lighting system consists of  lights set at intervals around the border of the Airport and this definitely  marks out the Airport for night flying.  Airmail from Oliver  A jitney service from Oliver, by air, may be operated in the future. When  this comes to pass, it will be possible to board a plane at the Oliver Airport  and connect with the Trans-Canada planes at Lethbridge or Vancouver. It  was impossible for the big planes to land at airports other than those in large  city centres. Too much time would be lost on Trans-Canada flights. This service would also carry mail from various points throughout the valley. Oliver  stands today on the ground floor of a great future, and as air transportation  of mail, freight and passengers advances so will Oliver."  (Note: Soon after this article was written automatic time clocks were installed and all field-lighting became automatic dusk to dawn.)  Since 1938, many changes have taken place. A regular service was  operated for both passengers and express by Yukon Southern Airways. The  city of Penticton found it hard to accept that a small town like Oliver should  have the first large airport in the B.C. interior and an intensive campaign was  launched to get their own airport. With their longer runway and more traffic,  it was inevitable that it would become the important air centre of the South  Okanagan.  Eventually the bulk of the air traffic went to Penticton. So did the beacon, the radio and other lighting; and over the years the Oliver Airport has  been stripped of buildings and equipment. However it is still used by many  small planes and on most Sunday mornings it is a hive of action. I think it's interesting history worth recording. Often small incidents and names crop up 110  which are directly hooked up with the names of people who came to Oliver  because of the construction and operation of the Airport and stayed and became part of Oliver's history.  The actual construction was begun in July 1935 when Earl Watters  moved the first dirt with a new diesel cat. For some weeks he worked on his  own and then more workers were brought in. In early 1936 two more cat  drivers went to work, namely Stan Reynolds and Paddy Herbert. Some of the  fill on the southeast side was as high as 25 feet. Hundreds of tons of rock were  hauled in by horse and wagon. Much of this rock came from the government  development orchards close by where the stones had been windrowed between  the rows of trees. Some of the teams owners were Archie Fleming, Cliff  Leighton and Bert Hall. There was also a small narrow gauge railway with  ore cars for moving material to the fills. A large machine shed was erected  and other buildings added.  The Bat Man, 1937.  Photos courtesy Edith (Barritt) Rienhart Ill  The Airport was opened in conjunction with a big Elks day celebration  with many activities, bands and food in the community park. Being opened  on September 6 we were right in the cantaloupe season and there were cantaloupes for everybody. Bands played and sports went on all day. The big feature of the day was to be the Bat Man, Cecil McKenzie, who was to jump from  his plane and dip and glide and loop and give everybody a big thrill. The Bat  Man was flown here from Chilliwack. At the appointed time he was taken up  to 12,000 feet. From there he jumped, made one 10 second glide and pulled  his rip cord. He landed in the cemetery, two miles from where anyone could  see him. On landing he was immediately arrested and put in jail for what  crime I'm not sure. On this same day some 20 planes flew in, some just for the  celebration and some to take people up for flights. Everyone was in good  spirits and if some of the kids didn't have the money, they got rides anyway.  Over a million dollars was spent building the Airport and it did have  some exciting times. Many famous flyers landed here through the years including such men as Sheldon Luck and Air Commadore Hollick-Kenyon.  Considering the number of aircraft that have used the Airport over the years  we have been singularly fortunate. We have had only one crash. This was a  Bob Nelson who ended up by the coal shed down next to the Co-op packing  house. No one was seriously hurt. There was considerable excitement when a  Trans-Canada plane (a Lockheed Hudson) made an emergency landing with  a burning motor. However they managed to land safely. Another Trans-  Canada plane came in and took the passengers on to Vancouver. After a few  days for repairs the plane went on to Vancouver. Another exciting event was  when a big four motor Lancaster landed and took Chuck Harvey to Vancouver for emergency treatment.  Cyril Huntly was the first manager-caretaker. I, (Carleton MacNaughton) took it on for a year following Huntly, and the third one was Dar-  cy McGee. By the time I was caretaker in 1940 the heavy traffic was over. It  was a one-man job. The radio was gone but all the lighting was still here. You  serviced the lights every day, checked them every night. You made weather  reports, checked planes, hauled the pilots uptown for coffee, collected the  landing fees, and kept the runways in reasonably good condition. One of the  major problems was to try and pack the gravel runways as when the large  planes left the hard surface runway to taxi up to the administration building a  lot of loose sand and gravel were blown around, sometimes doing considerable damage to the planes. To do this I used an old 8 foot high roller that  weighed tons. It came to us from the Highway department and used to be  used on the old gravel roads. In 1922 it was driven by the road foreman Mr.  Graham, father of Bill Graham, and was pulled by eight horses. I pulled it  with a small tractor but it was a struggle. The weeds were mowed with a tractor mower. The grass seed which was to have been planted was never used as  there was no soil or water and for many years tons of creeping red fescue grass  seed was stored in the old relief camp building until the mice destroyed the  whole pile.  Managing the airport became very casual as the traffic dropped off and  certainly the small remuneration forestalled anyone spending all their time  there. In as much as I lived only a mile and a half from the Airport and had  an orchard, when I heard a plane and it seemed about to land, I could get  there by Model A by the time the plane had landed and taxied up to the main 112  building, welcome him, register him, collect his landing fee and back to the  orchard.  I look back with enjoyment to the time I spent there, thinking of all the  planes and fliers I met and the problems of keeping all the lights working and  repairing the beacon up on that little platform in the dark in a driving rain  and wind storm with Bill Collen holding a flash light.  There will still be many details and stories that may come to light on the  history of the Oliver Airport and then this report can be amended. At present  there is an active Aero Club in Oliver and they have placed a new club house  on the west side of the airport. It is a good little airport and will probably  serve the area for many years to come; but remember it was the first, the biggest and the best in the interior in 1937.  Writer's note: If my recollection of events and times do not exactly jibe  with yours; please be kind and remember my memory is fallible and so is  yours.  August 4, 1919 — Pilot Captain Hoy — First airmail flight over the Rockies from Vancouver  (Courtesy Vernon Museum) 113  ENDERBY — THE 1922-23 INTERMEDIATE  CHAMPIONS OF B.C.  By Gus Stankoven  This year as Enderby is hosting the 1982 Provincial B.C. Bantam Tier  Two Hockey Championships from March 21 -26th inclusive, I can find no better time to pay tribute, respect and honour to our Coy Cup Winners who  brought provincial historical sports significance to our City of Enderby. I  would also like to dedicate this article to all those Senior Citizens who are still  living and treasure the past memories of this once exciting era, remembering  the support and interest shown to this memorable team.  Though the province has produced many great winning teams in almost  all sports and many great individual athletes of both sexes, few have ever captured the hearts of the fans in the Okanagan Valley as wholly as the Enderby  Hockey Team of 1922-23 (Intermediate Champions of B.C. and winners of  the emblematic Coy Cup).  ENDERBY HOCKEY TEAM 1922-23  Intermediate Champions of B.C. - Winners of Coy Cup  E. Sparrow, right wing; A. D. McQueen, substitute; M. J. Reid, defence; Geo. Sparrow, substitute; R. Sparrow, defence; Geo. Graham, goal; T. F. Adams, left wing; S. H. Speers,  manager; E. Broom, centre; Geo Jones, substitute goal.  *Sid H. Speers, who was manager, coach and trainer of this fine club as  well as the oldest member, is presently a wheelchair patient at the Strathcona  Extended Care Unit in Kelowna and is 95 years of age. The team members  were comprised of the three Sparrow brothers; Ed, who covered the right  wing position, is a retired pharmacist in his early eighties and resides to this  day in the City of Enderby on West Salmon Arm Road; brother Rod, who  played on defence, retired in Vernon as a government shop foreman, but is  now deceased; brother George, the right winger was then employed by B. J. 114  Carney Co., and later retired as a car salesman in Trail, today makes his  home in Genelle, a community close by. Archie McQueen, who played on left  wing, was an accountant in the local Bank of Montreal, retired as a Bank  Manager in Montreal. M. J. Reid on defence was Manager of B. J. Carney  Pole and is now deceased. Theo Adams at centre position and left wing was in  the real estate business; he later retired as a car salesman in California, and  just passed away last year. E. Nibby Broom at centre position was with the  C.P.R. Freight Department and is deceased. George Jones, substitute goalie  and left winger retired from the Department of Highways as road foreman  and made his home on Mill Street in Enderby, just passing away a few years  ago. Goalkeeper George Graham, also employed by B. J. Carney at the time,  retired as a government truck driver and presently resides in the City on  Regent Street.  The Okanagan League, at that time, consisted of teams from Salmon  Arm, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby and Enderby, and that season, Enderby  won the Championship of the league with a record of 10 wins, one loss and  one draw. The only loss suffered, was to Vernon by one goal which was scored  while Enderby was playing two men short and with only a minute left in the  game.  Hockey fans didn't have to go to the Coast to see a top notch brand of  hockey — as Enderby and District hockey enthusiasts enjoyed the best and  finest hockey right here in their own back yard. A few short of 500 fans many  times crowded the local arena which was situated on the location of the present Curling Complex and reservations for 100 fans or more from out of town  was a normal occurrence.  Enderby's club was, without a doubt that season, a fast, clean and very  good team — displaying fine hockey, both in skating acceleration and agility,  as well as all round offensive and defensive team play. Individual passing,  receiving, checking and shooting of the players was very well balanced  throughout the entire club.  At the latter part of that season and with the end in sight, the interest  and support became more exciting and intense as local residents were prepared to back up the home-town team to the limit. In the final game of the  season, Enderby citizens took off their hats to the people of Vernon in  acknowledgement of the splendid recognition paid by them to the hockey  team when they brought a special trainload of fans to see the game. In addition to the few hundred or more jolly hockey fans, they even brought the large  Vernon Band and all joined heartily in making the last game between last  year's Okanagan Champs, Vernon and the new Champions, Enderby, a huge  event, which was held on Tuesday, February 6, 1923. This game, incidentally, saw over 650 spectators in attendance. Can you imagine how that old small  arena must have been cramped and packed full, with people even hanging  from the rafters?  The Enderby Sparrow's, Okanagan Champions, were then slated to meet  head-on with the Vancouver Bluebirds, Intermediate Champions of the  Pacific Coast Amateur Hockey League who also boasted a record of suffering  only one loss in play at the Coast. The Vancouver Club were as fine a bunch  of sportsmen as ever handled the puck, but when they left the salty, sea air  and came inland to teach the neophytes how to play hockey, they themselves  had to brush up on the art of stick-handling and speed skating. The Bluebirds 115  put on a very attractive appearance on the ice and in practice, they had everything their own way. They looked rather formidable with the back and forward combinations, drop and check, pass and follow and all the rest of it. Actually though, when it came right down to the nitty-gritty of playing real  hockey such as checking, passing, shooting and getting the black disc between  the goal posts, the Enderby Sparrows could skate rings around the opposition.  For speed, back-checking, forward advancing and all the rest, the Enderby  puck chasers simply made the visitors look like Bluebirds.  Enderby fans were out in full support while carloads of fans came from  Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Salmon Arm and other Okanagan centres.  Residents of Grindrod, Mara, Deep Creek, Ashton Creek and Mable Lake  and lovers of this sport took full advantage of the opportunity to compare  Okanagan hockey at its best with the brand of Coast hockey. From the spectators point of view at least, the unanimous decision was in favour of the  Okanagan style of play — lots of good, fast action.  The two game total point series was played on Monday and Tuesday,  February 19 and 20 with the winners advancing to meet the Kootenay League  victors for the Provincial Title.  The only complaint of the visiting Bluebirds was that the home team of  Enderby did not play anything like the kind of hockey that they had been accustomed to and this could easily be seen as Enderby went on to win both  games quite handily by scores of 5-1 and 6-2, respectively.  To one looking on, it seemed that the only real difference in the play of  the Coast Champions and the Okanagan Champions was that the coast team  had a combination timed to "adagio tempo," while the Enderby Club displayed a unit set more to a "prestissimo time." Enderby's slowest skater could  catch the Bluebird's fastest player before he crossed the centre line, while  players such as Broom, Adams, Reid and George Sparrow left the others  behind.  A large community dance was held in honour of the Coast Bluebirds and  in recognition of the excellent hockey provided by the home team.  Enderby's Champion Intermediate Hockey team, after defeating the  Vancouver club on Enderby ice, were then set and anxious to meet the Trail  Tigers, who were Champions of the Kootenay Intermediate League. The  Enderby team left on the train from Sicamous for Arrowhead, then travelled  on the Arrow Lakes Steamer to Nakusp. On the train again at Nakusp to  Rosebery. At this point, the CPR Steamer took them to Slocan City, at the  south end of Slocan Lake. The CPR train once again met the boat at Slocan  City from where they travelled to Trail, where once again this was to be a two-  game total point series.  The first game was played on Saturday, February 24, in the Trail Coliseum before a packed house. Enderby jumped very quickly into a 4-1 first  period lead, but in the final two periods the Trail Tigers came to life and closed the gap, but the best they could do was come within a goal as the final  score read: Enderby 5, Trail 4.  Enderby all-star Nibby Broom was injured after being heavily checked  into the boards. Between the periods, about 50 Trail youngsters made their  way to Enderby's dressing room and called for "No. 4," and when Nibby went  out to speak to them, he was given three loud cheers by all the children.  Another incident worth recalling was when both Nibby Broom and 116  Merve Reid suffered injuries to their legs and there was doubt expressed as to  their being able to play the second and final game. Two Trail athletes hunted  up Manager Speers and offered their services to work on the injuries, which  were accepted. Following their successful treatments, both players were able  to play the final game in fairly good shape. The final match on Monday,  February 26, saw these Trail gentlemen rooting like mad for Trail.  The final contest saw Trail score the first goal, taking a 1-0 lead and  thereby tying up the total point series; the Trail fans nearly went hysterical  with delight. This was short-lived though, as Enderby retaliated strongly and  came back to take a 2-1 lead at the end of the first period. The final two  periods saw excellent action both ways but neither club able to score, and  thereby giving the victory and B.C. Championship to Enderby.  The two game point score was 7-5 in favour of Enderby and the contests  were reported to be the most spectacular event seen in the local Trail arena,  replete with a fine combination of excellent stickhandling, hard but good-  natured checking, dazzling bursts of speed and some of the best all-round  hockey seen in many a year.  On departure from Trail, the Enderby team was invited to Nelson, who  were incidentally the 1922 Coy Cup Champions, for an exhibition game.  Again Enderby added to their laurels by defeating the Nelson Club 3-2.  The residents of Enderby and district, with full band and colors, turned  out royally to welcome home their heroes and winners. As the train pulled  into the Station, which was located in the parking lot adjacent to the Happy  Day Supermarket, the engine crew showed their hearts were in the right place  by playing "The Conquering Hero Comes," or was it the "Indian Scalp Song,"  on the engine whistle. Nevertheless, it served the purpose as when the train  stopped and the players, all smiles, appeared with the Silverware and wearing  "Tiger Scalps," they received an ovation that lasted between 5 and 10  minutes. One of the happiest community events ever celebrated in Enderby  was the presentation supper and dance in the Opera House on Friday, March  19, in honour of the Enderby Hockey Team. Handsome gold watch fobs appropriately engraved were presented to each of the players and Manager  Speers, while a gold-mounted fountain pen was presented to wee "Kitchy  Antilla," the team mascot.  Most definitely, for the size and population of Enderby at that time, the  Enderby club record is one that is unlikely to be equalled by any hockey team  in the province for many years. They suffered one loss and one draw during  the entire season's play as they scored 105 goals while only 40 were scored  against them.  In conclusion, I'd like to say I enjoyed obtaining information for this  article from George Jones while he still lived, Sid Speers, and the City of  Enderby's archives.  *Note: S. H. Speers died in July, 1982. 117  THE AMAZING STORY OF NURSE MARY WARBURTON  SURVIVAL AND RESCUE IN THE WILDS OF B.C.  In the late summer of 1929 the unbelievable story of a lone woman's survival in the Cascade Wilderness, without food or shelter for five weeks, was  front page news from the Lower Mainland to the Okanagan. The men who  rescued her were heroes. A mountain was named after her. And then the  details were forgotten until, in 1955, while searching the files of the Vancouver Sun and the Daily Province I came across contemporary write-ups and  I was able to follow through by talking with the two men most involved with  the event, R. C. Barrington-Foote and F. F. Dougherty. From these sources I  put together the tale of Nurse Mary Warbuton's amazing adventure and I am  pleased, now, to assemble it all and offer it to the Okanagan Historical Society as recently requested.  I am no historian, there may be inaccuracies, but on the whole I am  satisfied this is the truth.  Joan Greenwood.  Mary Warburton came to Canada in the nineteen-twenties when she was  about 57 years old. She joined her brother in Vancouver and took up her profession of nursing, working mainly in private homes. She loved the outdoors  and she loved walking and she had long been accustomed to tramping in  Scotland and Ireland, mostly alone. Physically she was a vigorous 130 pounds;  by preference she was a believer in health foods and, as a Celt, she had a  streak of superstition that led her to telling her own future with a pack of  cards. She was self-confident and almost obsessively independent — every  person was responsible for himself and should meet trouble single-handed.  She may also have had a deep-rooted feeling of inferiority because of never  having been married or bearing children. As Mrs. Barrington-Foote said  later, when looking back over the years to her meeting with Nurse Warburton, "She was quite annoyed when I complimented her for being so brave.  'I'm not brave,' she said, 'you're the brave one. You have such a fine family of  children.' It struck me as odd at the time; after all, she had survived five  weeks alone in the wilderness. Everyone agreed she was brave. But her attitude may have been indicative of something, some sense of failure? Perhaps  that's why she was so hard to help."  It was August 1926, at the close of a long nursing session with a terminally  ill patient, that Mary Warburton decided to take a working vacation as a fruit  picker in the Okanagan. To make the holiday even better she would walk part  way, crossing from Hope to Princeton by the well-established pack trail and  camping out along the way. As usual she went alone and she arrived in Hope  on August 24. The weather was perfect. After discussing her plans with the  local Provincial Police she lightened her knapsack by leaving behind her poncho or groundsheet. She was suitably dressed in a khaki shirt and breeches  and she wore a wide-brimmed hat. Hiking boots were not readily available in  those days but her canvas shoes were sturdy; in fact the manufacturer was so  impressed with the way these shoes survived their wearer's ordeal that he exhibited them afterwards as an advertisement.  Nurse Warburton's supplies for her three or four day trek were minimal 118  but, as she despised over-eating, they were adequate. She carred a frying-pan,  a Billy, a spoon and a single-bladed pocket knife; she had a sketch map,  drawn for her by a relative of her last patient, and a compass; four packets of  Ryecrisp, half a pound each of bacon, butter and cheese, one pound of  raisins, two ounces of almonds and some tea made up her provisions. She also  had a pack of cards.  At some point on her first day out Miss Warburton met Bert Thomas and  Alf Allison of Princeton who were taking a small pack train through to Hope.  They told here they would be returning soon and offered her a ride when they  overtook her on the trail. On the next day, August 26, she came to Bill Robinson's cabin, twenty-three miles from Hope. It was early morning and Bill was  still in his bunk. She rapped on his door but did not wait for an answer and by  the time Bill had pulled on his trousers and opened up he was only in time to  see her brisk figure disappearing towards the east. Later, while investigating a  mining claim, he saw her footprints near Snass Creek. Another prospector,  named White, also met the lone woman hiker near the Snass and talked with  her briefly but it was days later before the two men, hearing of her disappearance, compared notes and informed the authorities.  It was at Snass Creek that Nurse Warburton's troubles began. She may  have used her compass here and referred to her hand-drawn map which showed Princeton clearly lying north-east while the pack trail swung positively  south, as does the Hope-Princeton Highway today. Added to this, recent  forestry work had established an apparent trail up the Snass valley along the  route of the old Dewdney. This was the one she chose, stepping firmly forward  into a nightmare that was to last for weeks.  Alf Allison was soon on the road home. He fully expected to overtake the  woman hiker and was surprised when she was not be be seen. Back in  Princeton he mentioned this but no one had heard of her. Allison dropped in  at the Provicial Police Office and discussed the matter with Constable R. C.  Barrington-Foote. It was inconceivable to these men that anyone could have  gone astray on such a well defined route. Perhaps she had turned back?  Barrington-Foote telephoned to Hope. No, the hiker was known there but she  had left on the twenty-fifth and should be in Princeton by now. Something  was wrong. Barrington-Foote offered to send a man back over the trail to look  for the woman and rookie Constable F. F. Dougherty saddled up and set off.  He found nothing. Nurse Mary Warburton had disappeared.  It was now the first week in September and the weather was on the  change. Clouds hung low over the six-thousand-foot mountains, there was a  new chill in the air and rain gusted up the valleys. From Penticton, Chief  Constable Fraser authorized a search to begin and soon volunteers and ranchers were moving into the hills. The newspapers took up the story and  Robinson and White told what they knew about seeing a few footsteps at the  Snass. Nurse Warburton's brother came up from Vancouver and joined in the  search but on September 16, three weeks after his sister had last been seen  alive, an unseasonable four-inch snowfall shrouded the hills. A week later  Chief Fraser ordered his men back. It was impossible that the missing hiker  could still be alive and there were rumours that she was no longer in the area.  It was suggested that Miss Warburton had turned south, down the old Whatcom Trail and entered the States. It was hinted that she was carrying out 119  FOOTNOTE  Mr. Harry V. Davis of Penticton is a nephew of Podunk Davis whose proper name was  Willard Albert Davis. Mr. Davis has in his possession the Bronze Royal Humane Society Medal  presented to Podunk by Premier John Oliver for his part in the search and rescue of Nurse Mary  Warburton. The medal will eventually be given to the Princeton Museum.  Editor  'Podunk" (Willard Albert) Davis, Nurse Mary Warburton  Rescue Camp, Paradise Valley, Cascade Wilderness  some kind of publicity stunt, that she had caches of food and would re-appear  eventually or that she was snug in some out-of-the-way trapper's cabin and  had no wish to be found.  Nurse Warburton — one of the most unlikely people in the world to plan  and carry out any kind of publicity stunt — had reached the Snass Creek area  about mid-day of August 26 and had turned away from Allison's pack trail,  but by nightfall she was in trouble. She had wandered into a tangle of blow-  down and crossed the black desolation of a burn. The forestry trail petered  out. If she followed up the Dry Lake creek-bed she was faced with a rough  tumble of boulders under the austere slope of Mt. Dewdney. If she took the  right-hand fork at Dry Lake she would find it curving around an undistinguished hillside through forest growth. She must have known she was  lost. She stopped and made camp.  Next day, instead of re-tracing her steps, she moved on and, from the  somewhat jumbled memories of her ordeal it is possible to sketch in her  motives and her actions. From her pencil map she knew that the headwaters  of the Tulameen lay ahead and that if she found the river it would lead her to 120  Princeton. She claimed, afterwards, that this had been her aim. At any rate,  with her compass and her map and her self-confidence she probably thought  she was capable of getting herself out of the predicament she had got herself  into; but one thing after another worsened her situation.  At one of her earliest camps she lost her matches and some of her food.  She wandered into a gully and kept on until the walls closed in and she had no  choice but to climb and scramble out. This frightened her, and tired her  enormously; she already had fears that made her nights miserable — snakes  and wolves haunted her imagination and she slept with her back against a tree  and her feet in her knapsack as a protection. When she came across some  blazes she recognized them as guide posts and followed them thankfully until  something caught her eye — and odd-shaped stump perhaps, or a particular  boulder — and she knew she had passed it before. The blazes were  topographical and had lead her around in a circle. She followed the cat's face  markings on various trees. She ate berries and, later chewed leaves. The  weather turned colder, but she never gave up.  By now, Nurse Warburton was wandering somewhere in the area of  Paradise Valley and there she stumbled on a rough cedar slab shelter thrown  up by a Princeton old-timer known as Podunk Davis. Inside the shelter  Podunk had left a tobacco can and inside the can was a note: "Might be of use  to someone, sometime." Wrapped in the paper there were matches. For the  first time in weeks Mary Warburton was almost in contact with another  human being. She took off her soaked canvas shoes, lit a fire and propped  them up to dry. Then she lay down, warm at last, and fell into a deep sleep.  Constable Fred Dougherty, Mary Warburton at Rescue Camp  Paradise Valley, Cascade Wilderness. 121  She woke to a nightmare. The whole shack was in flames! Grabbing her  shoes she tied them on again and staggered away, on and on and on.  When some of the searchers came across the burned shelter they knew  they must be on Miss Warburton's trail, and when they still could not find her  or get her to answer their calls they recognized the symptoms. The lost hiker  must have become "bushed", in the most dangerous sense of the word. She  was now running away from her would-be rescuers. She was hiding. She  might be within sight or hearing but by some twisted process her brain refused  to see them as salvation. Like an animal, she dodged away, leaving a slight  trail of broken branches or crude shelters but always evading her pursuers.  This, added to her strong feeling of self-responsibility — she must rescue  herself! — made the search next to impossible.  It was one September 15, three weeks after Mary Warburton had been  last seen alive, that snow fell. Her brother said it was time to give up. Officially, the rescue parties were called off leaving the hills empty — empty except  for one small figure struggling desparately among the underbrush and windfalls and snow, a ragged scarecrow with worn-out shoes, shivering in the cold,  armed only by a pocket knife against the animals she feared, but never quite  giving up as long as she had the comfort of her pack of cards that foretold a  better tomorrow every night.  Back in Princeton young Fred Dougherty had something on his mind. He  did not divulge this until many years afterwards but in the September, 1926,  it did not let him rest. He had a feeling that the failure to save Nurse Warburton's life was his fault.  When Constable Barrington-Foote had sent Fred back over Alf Allison's  pack trail in August, when she was first declared to be missing, he had not  gone as far as Bill Robinson's cabin. He studied the ground carefully as he  rode over it, and especially any small dirt slides or muddy areas where  footsteps might show but all he could see were hoof-prints from the pack  animals made as Allison came through. At last, shortly before Dougherty  reached the Snass Creek turn-off, he came to the conclusion that the hiker  had never reached the area; he was wasting time — perhaps he would sooner  have been home in Princeton than looking for something that wasn't there. At  any rate he turned his horse around and took the message back to his superior  that Miss Warburton must have changed her mind and headed back to Hope.  In other words, he felt he had not completed his assignment as fully as should  be done. When the enquiries and interviews with Robinson and White eventually showed that there had been footprints pointing up the Snass, Fred was  anxious to put his conscience to rest and be the first to find the woman. But  the days dragged into weeks. She was presumed dead. She must be dead. And  yet — he asked for permission to make one more search.  Barrinton-Foote agreed, and teamed Dougherty with old Podunk Davis  who knew the hills so well. They took an extra horse, "to bring the body out."  The two men headed for Paradise Valley where earlier signs of the hiker's  existence had been found. There were game hunters in the area and they  planned to camp nearby. However, the hunters had gone and Podunk and  Fred put up their tent alone, near a small creek. Podunk Davis was a short,  hearty man who wore his white beard and whiskers with the authority of a  Santa Claus and he was an ideal partner knowing the valley as he did and hav- 122  ing even built himself shelters here and there like the one Mary Warburton  had found.  Fred Dougherty began to build a fire, then stopped. He had heard a  sound that, somehow, didn't belong in those hills. It was like the sound of two  saplings, or two branches might make rubbing against each other in the wind.  But there was no wind. He stood up and fired his police gun into the air,  twice. In the silence that followed he heard the sound again. It was a human  voice!  Podunk Davis plunged toward the voice, splashing through the creek,  forcing bushes apart and, opening his arms in a huge embracing gesture he  folded the pathetic living skeleton of Mary Warburton to his warm, powerful  chest.  "You're like an angel from heaven" she was credited with saying as she  relaxed in Podunk's arms but later, apologetically and self-accusingly, she added, "I'd never seen the man before. I'd no idea who he was, and there we  were, hugging and kissing like family." Nurse Warburton's sense of decorum  and her inhibitions were, like her spirit, unquenchable.  The rescue was more of a miracle than Fred and Podunk knew. When  they chose this small clearing as their camp ground they couldn't guess that  on the other side of the creek the woman they had come to find was making a  pact with death. Her fortune-telling cards had at last shown her a way out.  They had allowed her the Ace of Spades. The Ace of Spades marked the end  of life. She would die.  Mary Warburton opened her pocket knife and felt the blade. It was  sharp enough. She would cut her arteries at the wrist, But, a trained nurse to  the very end, she reasoned that wrists plunged in cold running water would  feel less pain. She could hear a running creek. One last effort would take her  there.  And then she heard the sounds of Dougherty splitting firewood. She called! She fell into Podunk's arms.  The two men were almost afraid of what they had found. The little  figure was so frail they feared she might die that night. They boiled soup and  fed her by spoonfuls. Fred wrapped her in his police jacket and pulled his  uniform pants up over her legs while he wore the denim coveralls he had  brought as extras. They discussed how they could get her out and to medical  help. Luckily there was the horse for "packing out the body." They wouldn't  tell her why they'd brought it. If only she could last the night.  The two strong, trail-wise men need not have worried. The spirit of  Nurse Mary Warburton was as tough as a root of Scottish heather. She lived  through the night and, lifted to the back of the extra horse, she somehow  managed to ride out of Paradise Valley to the wagon road from Princeton  near Whipsaw Creek. At some point one of the men went ahead and notified  the town of their success. A cart was sent to meet her and Mrs Barrington-  Foote went with it, sensing that a woman's help might be what the exhausted  hiker would need.  Miss Warburton was taken to the Princeton Hospital. As a matter of  routine she was weighed and found to be a mere 80 pounds. Then, to make  her more comfortable, she was offered a bath. A nurse stood by to help.  "No thank you," said the indomitable victim of five weeks' starvation, 123  bitter weather and loneliness. "I'd enjoy a hot bath, but I'll take it myself."  And that is the story I was asked to assemble. I think it is as accurate as  could be expected. I believe it must have happened very much this way and if  some little bits are more mine than Miss Warburton's I still think that, in  essence, they are true. I am guessing when I suspect that, after her recovery,  she probably went on and picked apples in the Okanagan but it would have  been in character. It is a fact that she made the same hike successfully the  following year and perhaps fitting that, finally, she made one solo expedition  too many. Somewhere between Squamish and Indian Arm the Ace of Spades  came up again for Mary Warburton.  Miss Warburton's brother, as a gesture of thanks to Podunk Davis, gave  him a silver cigarette lighter. It was engraved with the words — "Might be of  use to someone, sometime."  Editor's Note  Joan Greenwood lives with her husband in Hope. She has walked  hundreds of miles on B.C. trails. In 1953 she holidayed by walking  with her dog, George Duffy, through the Yellowhead Pass to  Jasper before the Yellowhead Highway was built. More recently,  in 1979 with two companions, a guide and five burros, she walked  by ancient Inca trails and through the Rio Santa Valley in the  Peruvian Alps at altitudes from 10,000 feet to 15,000 feet. She  knows the Cascade Wilderness area where Nurse Warburton was  lost the first time and consequently is well suited to write about  her.  W. R. Megaw's McLaughlin-Buick Garage and Machine Shop  (Courtesy Vernon Museum) 124  A BACKWARD GLANCE  By Ettie Adam  It was the third day of July, 1913, and we were launched on the great  adventure. Dad and Mother had planned for some time to drive from  Kelowna to McAuley, Manitoba — Mother's former home. Our car, a  McLaughlin Buick, would be the first to make the trip on its own wheels. It  turned out to be quite an endurance test for both car and people as roads  were few and far between and none were paved.  The Yellowhead and Rogers Pass had not been built. The Dewdney  Trail, built in 1861 for the fur trade, met with a trail through the Crow's Nest  but much of it had fallen into disuse, so was not fit for a car to travel. This  was years before the bridge was even considered, so our journey started by  ferry, which was a fifteen minute trip across Okanagan Lake by barge and  tug, piloted by Captain Hayman. Westbank and Peachland were passed  without incident, but shortly after passing Peachland we ran into our first  obstacle. At that time the road followed the Lakeshore from Peachland to  Penticton and, to our dismay, there was a foot of water over the road, which  seemed to stretch as far as the eye could see. As Dad stood surveying the situation, an Indian drove up with a team and democrat. He looked things over  and said to Dad, "follow me", and proceeded to drive into the water. We edged forward slowly and found the water just came to the axles, so all was well.  That worry over, we went happily on our way singing, "Every Little Whitecap  Had Its Nightcap On", which referred to the choppy waves on the lake.  Our family at this time consisted of Father (Charles Clement), Mother  (Alice) and three children, brother (George), age ten, little sister (Alice), age  six, and myself (Ettie), celebrating my eighth birthday that very day.  That night saw us settled in the beautiful two year old Incola Hotel on  Penticton's lakeshore. By today's standards, it would take little more than an  hour to go that distance, but it was a fair day's drive over gravel roads at that  time. Next morning, the road took us through Okanagan Falls, which consisted of a hotel, a shack or two, with cattle ranches in place of today's healthy  community, and we passed Vaseaux Lake, with its overhanging rock, long  since gone, but then a novel landmark, as the road went underneath it.  Sagebrush and cactus took the place of today's orchards and the town of  Oliver, which didn't come into being until after the World War I. It was a  soldiers' settlement project which completely transformed the semi-desert into  an Eden of fragrant blossoms and lovely homes. The customs office was a couple of miles north of the border, at Osoyoos, where a cairn and plaque commemorate those early days. There were no fast food outlets, or even a  restaurant to refresh the weary traveller and that summer was very hot. After  clearing customs, we pushed on for some seven miles to Oroville to conclude  another day.  Since Anarchist Mountain road was still some years in the future, we had  been compelled to cross the line into Washington so we carried on south as far  as Tonasket then turned east to Republic and from there back into British  Columbia and on to Grand Forks for another night's rest. The following day  was to be one filled with excitement for we children especially. While it was  now the sixth of July, the Americans were still celebrating the fourth, or so it  appeared. We had made an early start from Grand Forks and arrived in Colville, Washington, late in the afternoon to find a sort of wild west atmosphere 125  with cowboys and Indians and even an Indian Pow-wow. We watched wide-  eyed while they circled, with drums beating and, in their colorful costumes,  chanting "hi, yih, yih yih", it was an unforgettable scene, and stands out in  my memory as the highlight of our trip. As the day wore on, it became quite  rowdy, with a lot of drunkeness in evidence and Dad was warned by the sheriff  that it would be as well not to stay the night, so we left for Spokane. Before we  were many minutes on the road, night had fallen and it was completely black  except for our headlights boring ahead. There were no long strings of lights  coming toward us, as there are in this modern age, so we pressed on until,  suddenly breaking over a slight rise, there before use was a sea of lights. A  fairyland to our enchanted eyes! It was Spokane, the first city we had ever  seen, and in a short time we had found food and lodging in a plush hotel. So  ended another day.  From here our path turned north again, and path seems to be the right  word, as the roads, even in the United States, were little more than wagon  tracks across sand and rock. Our objective that day was Sand Point, Idaho, a  busy little town on the old route to southern B.C. and the mining camps of  the eighteen nineties.  The next morning we kept on this road as far as Bonner's Ferry, another  well known stopping place of those busy and prosperous years. It was here  that our next adventure befell us. Dad had asked the ferryman which was the  best road to follow, as we turned south again. He was given directions which  led straight into a huge mudhole. A nearby farmer came with a team and  pulled us to dry land and then he said, "There is a worse hole ahead and for  five dollars I will pull you through that one." We were caught and could only  do as he said. We came to the conclusion that our friend the ferryman and the  farmer had a nice little racket going.  Before this day ended we had a near calamity. Rounding a corner on an  uphill grade we straddled a stump in the middle of the road, tearing off the  oil pan and, worse yet, throwing we children around like so much popping  corn. George flew into the front seat between Mom and Dad and we girls left 126  the car altogether. I landed in a rose bush and, as Alice was flying over my  head, I automatically grabbed her skirt and pulled her down which saved her  from a ducking in a nearby pound. A little bruised and scratched, but otherwise unhurt, we climbed aboard again and after Dad made repairs as well as  he could we limped into Libby, Montana.  Memory fails after so many long years but I think it must have been between Libby and Missoula that settlers were carving farms out of the bush,  and it was here that we ran into more difficulties. We came to a creek without  any sign of a bridge. Horses could easily ford it so a bridge was probably  thought to be unnecessary. About halfway across, the engine stalled and we  were stuck in the middle of nowhere. Some two miles back, we had seen two  men plowing a field, so Dad left us sitting in the car and trudged off in the  blistering heat to get help.  Just as we were settling down for a long wait, we heard someone calling  and as we looked around we saw a young woman standing on the bank. She  invited us to her home and gratefully we paddled ashore and followed her  back into the bush. Much to our surprise, there, nestled in the trees, was a  nice log house. We were enjoying her hospitality and the lemonade which she  made for us when we were startled by a herd of wild cattle stampeding madly  past the house. They tore down everything before them, including her garden  and a meat safe which had been hanging in a tree. A meat safe took the place  of a refrigerator in many homes in those early years. They were made of  wood, both top and bottom with screen sides to keep out the flies. We never  knew what had started the cows on their mad rampage but it was probably  flies or mosquitos tormenting them. Just as we began to fear that Dad had  been caught in the stampede and trampled to death, he returned with a man  and a team of horses. The man was the husband of the woman who had saved  us from a tedious wait and soon he had us out and on our way once more.  Missoula was a town of some importance even then, as it was the home of  Montana State University, founded in 1893. It was also the supply center for  the surrounding farming community and the many mines which were  flourishing at that time. Today Missoula has sugar refineries and flour mills.  It looked very attractive to us after the rough country we had just struggled  through. We spent several days resting and recuperating before tackling the  road to Helena with its 5800 foot mountain pass. This road proved to be less  trouble than expected, as, since it connected the two towns, it was better  maintained.  Helena had been the State Capitol since 1875. Earlier capitols were:  Bannack, 1864-1875, and Virginia City, 1865-1875. Gold was found in Last  Chance Gulch in 1864. It is now the main street of Helena.  Montana had been mainly forest and mountains up until now but by the  time we passed Great Falls a day or two later we were getting on to the prairie  and here we ran into troubles of a different sort. Cactus!  We had three punctures within a few hours of each other and, of course,  there were no handy service stations every few miles as we have today. So it  was a case of bringing out the repair kit, removing the tire from the rim, patching the inner tube, testing for more leaks and repairing any that were  found, pumping it up with a hand pump, returning it to the tire, mounting it  on the rim once more, then putting it back on the car. It was a hard day for  Dad, as there was little that Mother or we children could do to help. 127  In the meantime, Mother was suffering from a bad sunburn and there  was not a bit of shade to be seen for miles around. She had a jar of cold cream  which she lathered on her face but it only seemed to make matters worse. Sun-  tan lotion was another unheard of luxury in those days.  As the day drew to a close, we reached Sweet Grass and crossed back into  Alberta, Canada, only to lose our way in the dark, so rather than risk any  more problems we settled down for the night right where we were. The nights  were much cooler than the days so we children huddled together in the back  seat for warmth, while Mother and Dad tried to sleep sitting up in the front  seat. Suddenly the night was shattered by a string of oaths and there was a  man peering in at us. Apparently, we were as big a surprise to him as he was  to us and, after some inquiries, we found we were on the road to Cardston  rather than to Raymond which was the proper route. After he wandered off  in some confusion, we settled back to await daylight so we could find our road  again. Raymond was soon reached and from here we drove northeast to  Medicine Hat where we decided to stay for a few days to make repairs to the  car and have a much needed rest. Medicine Hat was founded in 1883 and its  name is the translation of the Blackfoot Indian word "Saamis", the headdress  of a medicine man. Legend says that a saamis was found on the site of the  city. Soon we were ready to conquer another lap on our journey and set out  for Maple Creek, Saskatchewan. Here the going was a little easier, but still it  was more of a trail than a highway.  Several days went by without incident — just miles and miles of wheat  and some flax which made a bit of color in the otherwise dun colored prairie.  Maple Creek, Swift Current, and Moose Jaw were passed and we were nearing  Regina when we stopped at a farm to ask directions and found a very friendly  welcome. We drank clear, cold water from a well and sat on the well cover  while they brought out a map to show us the way. Their name was Tracy and  they were very interested in hearing our story and asked all about Kelowna.  Several years later, Mother was at a Ladies' Aid Meeting and upon speaking  to a newcomer to Kelowna she was thrilled to find it was the same Mrs. Tracy.  This meeting led to a lifelong friendship.  In 1912 there had been a very bad cyclone in this part of the country and  as we reached Regina there were still many signs of the devastation wrought  that awful day. Over sixty years later we met a 96 year old lady who had been  pinned down with a beam across her legs during the storm and she was still  suffering from it.  Now we were nearing the end of our trip, but still had a few problems to  overcome. One stretch of road was like a dike with water on both sides and  Dad had to struggle with the wheel for perhaps a mile to keep from slipping  off into the water. His arms were very tired by the time he reached more solid  ground and we all relaxed with sighs of relief.  Within a mile or two of McAuley, we met a horse and buggy coming  toward us and as the horse seemed a bit skittish at the sight of our car, Dad  stopped at the side of the road and shut off the engine to let them by. Suddenly Mother was out of the car running up the road, calling back over her  shoulder, "its Uncle Bob and Aunt Mary", and then a huge bearded man was  out of the buggy and striding toward her. When they met he folded her in a  bear hug and as we children followed he leaned down to kiss us, and we were a 128  little frightened by his great size. However, we soon found that he was a gentle  giant. Then it was Aunt Mary's turn to meet Mother's family.  That night, after three grueling weeks, we were happily settled with  Grandpa and Grandma Baskerville. The next month was spent in meeting  aunts, uncles and cousins and many of Mother's old friends. It was a busy and  happy holiday and when the time came to leave, the car was loaded on the  train, and with Grandpa and Grandma returning with us for the winter, we  climbed aboard and took the easy way home.  H. R. Denison — Club Leader  Norman Lippincott Denison, Herbert Richard Denison, Herbert Francis Denison, Grace (Wood)  Denison, Grace Denison (later Nisbet), Marjorie Denison (later Schock) 129  H. R. DENISON  A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH  By Stuart Fleming  A lifetime of devoted and unremitting service to his community and his  country was the hallmark of Herbert Richard "Bert" Denison. He was true in  every sense to his remarkable heritage as a descendant of one of Canada's  earliest and best known families of English origin.  The founder of the family in Canada was Capt. John Denison of the  Yorkshire Militia, who brought his wife and children to Kingston in 1793.  Despite adversities, he envisaged new opportunities at York (now Toronto)  and moved there in 1796 and was soon a prominent figure and influence in  this new capital of Upper Canada.  It was one of John Denison's sons who founded the cavalry regiment that  was to become the Governor General's Horse Guards, but in Toronto known  simply as "Denison's Horse" — for the regiment had no commanding officer  other than a Denison for almost 90 years. Out of this and military action in  the War of 1812, the Rebellion of 1837, the Fenian Raids and expeditions to  the Northwest arose the family sobriquet, "The Fighting Denisons."  But military involvement was only part of the story. There have been  lawyers and judges, magistrates and members of parliament, seamen and  airmen, farmers and ranchers, writers and a variety of careers in commerce  and industry.  It was within this tradition that H. R. Denison's father, Herbert Francis  Denison, moved from Toronto in the early 1880s to settle in Calgary as a rancher. After service, providing transportation during the Riel Rebellion of  1885 he remained in Calgary for a further eight years until news of opportunities in the Okanagan reached him. He sold his property, which is now in  the heart of that mushrooming city, and moved with his wife and three  children to Vernon where he had purchased orchard land in Coldstream from  the Coldstream Ranch estate.  Thus it was, in 1893, that his life as an Okanagan pioneer began for H.  R. Denison, his brother Norman, his sister Marjorie and the first of the  Okanagan-born Denisons, their sister Grace.  In later years, Bert Denison recorded his first impressions of the newly incorporated City of Vernon. As a five year old, he was not much impressed by  the buildings because there were more of them and bigger in Calgary, but the  trees that grew everywhere and especially the trees along Barnard Avenue,  delighted him. They were very handy for hitching horses and the town's  numerous dogs enjoyed them too! Calgary couldn't match that.  He recalled as well that the water supply into the town ran in open ditches and wooden flumes and the people carried their supplies to their homes  and businesses in kerosene cans. The hand pumped fire engine with its crews  of eight and sixteen was primitive but exciting and, in time, he learned that  the orchards grew almost as many varieties of apples as there were trees.  His family's arrival coincided with the revolution in transportation that  transformed the Okanagan. The advent of the railway and the sternwheelers  supplanted the packhorse and wagon trails, and the era of the stagecoach was  soon to end. Trade and work for money was supplanting barter. It was an exciting time for a boy growing up on a new frontier and his recollections of  those years reflected the openness and honesty of society then. He recalled the 130  unique character that seemed to permeate the Okanagan; he watched with  regret the erosion of those qualities.  During his school years he worked on his parent's orchard and on  graduation he followed the land surveyor's path which led him to the surveys  in the Cherryville area and the western Monashee. In time, in that same country he joined with his brother in the acquisition of a substantial stock ranch in  Creighton Valley.  Although his was a life entirely different from those of his many relatives  in Central Canada, the family traditions remained strong in him. He joined  the Okanagan Mounted Rifles as a trooper in June of 1908. On the unit's  reorganization as the 30th B.C. Horse, he was appointed troop sergeant and  received his commission as an officer in 1912.  On the outbreak of the First World War, the regiment was again  reorganized, this time as the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles and Lieut.  Denison left for England on May 28, 1915 with the advance detachment and  the 2nd C.M.R.'s remounts.  September 1915, Marriage — Mr. and Mrs. Denison 131  He was in France by September of that year, but before that he was married.  Bert Denison had met Mabel Hamilton Warren in Vernon before the  war. She had come with a friend to the Okanagan in search of a new way of  life in a pioneer setting. She was an accomplished cellist and had entered  completely into the spirited life of a carefree society. The war proved no more  than an inconvenience in the plans of the young couple. In late June, in 1915,  they were married in Ottawa and soon after, the young lieutenant was in  France.  Within a year he was severely wounded at Sanctuary Wood, and soon  after was invalided to England, where he underwent a lengthy recuperation.  It is a measure of his service that he had been promoted to captain and then  to major in the field.  Major Denison commanded a number of training establishments in  England during his recuperation and returned to his regiment in France in  January of 1917. In March he was the victim of severe gas poisoning and was  again invalided to England and once again served in a variety of capacities  while regaining his health. During this time he qualified for the rank of Lieut.  Col. (Infantry) but after he was declared medically fit he was unable to return  to his regiment at the Front because the lingering effects of the gas poisoning  precluded strenuous activity.  He had been appointed a permanent Courts Martial Officer, but this service was not to his liking and he applied for seconding to the Royal Flying  Corps. He was posted to Montrose in Scotland where he qualified as a pilot  flying Camels. This led to him being appointed officer commanding ground  instruction at Montrose. From that time, until his return to the Canadian  Forces in June of 1919, he held a number of command posts in training and  education. This phase of his military career ended when he was demobilized  in September and placed on the Officers' Reserve with the rank of major.  He and Mrs. Denison, with their three small children returned to Vernon, but for them it was not a simple matter of picking up the strands of Major Denison's former life. His abiding love of the outdoors attracted him to  return to ranching and surveying, but the lasting disability caused by the gas  poisoning made that impossible. He soon established a life insurance business  in Vernon, but he never lost hope that surveying might be re-opened to him.  Despite disappointment, he and Mrs. Denison became involved in a  variety of community activities. As family demands permitted, the range of  their interests grew.  For Mrs. Denison there was music. She found a ready response to enthusiasm and, in the course of time, she as cellist, Mrs. R. A. Davidson,  mother of recent Vernon mayor Neil Davidson, pianist, and Miss Elaine  Jamieson, violinist, formed the Vernon Ladies Trio. They played together for  many years and were heard in recitals and concerts throughout the  Okanagan.  Major Denison was an early member and enthusiastic supporter of the  Okanagan Historical Society. Over the years he held the post of auditor, later  he was treasurer for six years and throughout all the period he was a regular  contributor of research and material for the annual reports.  Perhaps his most visible community role in the 1920s and 30s was the major part he played in the Boy Scout Movement in Vernon. He was always a 132  strong advocate of training and recreation programs for youth. He found active fulfilment of these ideas as a Cubmaster and as an executive of the North  Okanagan Boy Scout Association.  The 1st Vernon Cub Pack, which he led for 15 years until the Second  World War interrupted, was noted for its size and its waiting list. Until additional leaders could be found and trained he made a place for as many boys as  possible, considerably more than the regulations suggested, but he was reluctant to turn eager youngsters away if he could give them the opportunities  they sought.  He was a natural leader who believed in firm discipline mixed with  vigorous activity. His "graduates" who went on in Scouting under Charlie  Morrow and other leaders are to be found in all parts of Canada today. His  summer camps at Otter Bay (now Ellison Provincial park) were a landmark in  the Club program. He seldom took less than 60 boys to camp and the number  was far more likely to be 90 . . . the books suggested that 36 was a more  manageable number. There are hundreds of men in many parts of the country who can attest that those camps were the highlights of their boyhood summers.  In recognition of his service to the Scouting Movement, Major Denison  was awarded the King George V Jubilee Medal in 1935.  By the late 1930s, the shadows of the Second World War coloured his  life. When war broke out, his oldest son, Dick, had been serving in the Royal  Air Force since 1935 and his second son, Cecil, had joined in 1938. They were  among the almost twenty Vernon and District young men who had found no  opportunities open in the pre-war R.C.A.F. and had, with Major Denison's  assistance, found acceptance in England. Among his papers are the records of  all those who had turned to him for help in their desire to follow a flying  career.  He was disappointed in his wish to serve again with his old regiment, but  he found his own opportunity in the R.A.F. From 1943 to the end of the war  he served at Moncton as an indoctrinization officer for the R.A.F. in Monc-  ton. It was his responsibility to greet the drafts of recruits from the United  Kingdom who came to train as aircrew in the Commonwealth Air Training  Plan and it was his responsibility to give them their first insight into the  nature of the country in which they would be trained.  At war's end he returned to Vernon and soon resumed his activities in the  O.H.S. and the Boy Scouts. For seven more years he organized and led the  large summer camps. During this time also, as previously in his position as a  Justice of the Peace, he often presided over the city magistrate's court.  It wasn't long before a new interest captured his attention. In those days  Vernon had only limited facilities for senior citizens' social and recreational  pursuits. Major Denison joined the Golden Age Club in 1954 and soon  became a leader and inspiration for its members. There were difficulties and  disappointments, but he was untiring in his efforts and, with a group of  equally dedicated members, a high degree of success was achieved.  A centrally located clubhouse was acquired and Major Denison was instrumental in making it possible. This centre was a first for Vernon and, in  time, the value realized on the sale of the property was the foundation stone  on which the much more elaborate Senior Citizens Centre was built as part of 133  Vernon's Recreation Complex. Unfortunately, its most enthusiastic proponent did not live to see the ultimate realization of his tireless work.  Throughout their married years, Herbert and Mabel Denison knew personal heartbreak to a greater degree than most are expected to bear. Their second son died as an infant; their first daughter was only twelve when she succumbed to blood poisoning. Their eldest son, Wing Commander Richard  Denison completed a distinguished career in the R.A.F., only to lose his life  while flying commercially in the Northwest Territories. Flying Officer Cecil  Denison was lost in operations over Norway in September of 1940.  They bore their grief quietly and the family tradition of service continued. Both their daughters, Enid and Betty, served in the Women's Division  of the R.C.A.F. during the war and added to their parents' pride. More  recently their youngest son, Eric, in 1961 held the last Cub camp at Otter Bay  prior to the provincial government developing the present park. He thus  brought to a close the chapter in Cubbing history that his father had opened.  When H. R. Denison died in 1955, there were spontaneous responses of  tribute from every part of the country. His fellow citizens of Vernon and  district testified to the creative impact he had on so many aspects of their  lives, while young men recalled how much they owed to his influence in their  lives, whether in the Boy Scout Movement or in the services.  Major Denison not only grew up in Vernon, he helped to shape it. That  was something he could not have foreseen when he arrived as a boy of five to  enter a strange new world, what was once described as a sleepy little cow town  in a beautiful valley. In fact, he has left among his papers a description of his  inauspicious arrival: "I had my first meal in Vernon in the Coldstream Hotel  on October 3rd, 1893. I will never forget that meal as the fresh varnished  chair was stuck solid to my pants and when I got up with that chair firmly attached, about twenty pairs of eyes were turned in my direction and everyone  was laughing at my expense."  He might have added, for his humour came easily to the surface, he had  made his mark early.  The remarkable personal resilience that is constantly repeated over the  long history of the Denison family in Canada is graphically depicted in their  crest with its upthrust arm pointing to the Pole star and the motto  " Persever ando."  The Denison family record in the Okanagan is not complete in this single  biographical sketch. Major Denison's brother Norman and his wife Ethel  wrote another chapter as did their sisters . . . and those are stories still to be  told. 134  FAIRVIEW — THE TOWN THAT WAS  By Dorothy Amor  Those who named Fairview made a happy choice. A fair view, indeed,  greets all who scan the valley from the "Fairview flat."  Even in those days before the orchards added variety to the scene, it must  have been a sight to gladden the heart — the rolling hills across the valley,  and the lazy Okanagan River flanked by cottonwood and meadows, winding  southward to Osoyoos Lake, a blue gem in the distance. Against a backdrop  of wooded mountains whose depth hid the gold that was lifeblood to the  district, the town lay loosely scattered across the flat, although a townsite map  shows streets laid out, at least on paper. There were hotels, stores, offices, a  school, a church, a jail, and homes of various shapes and sizes. Such was Fair-  view in November 1902, when my father Arthur D. Hardie brought my  mother there as his bride.  For my mother, reaching Fairview from the outside world was an adventure in itself, entailing travel by sternwheeler down Okanagan Lake to the  hamlet of Penticton, then a tedious journey by open freight wagon, with a  stop at Okanagan Falls en route to change horses. On this day the journey  from Penticton took twelve hours, and the travellers arrived at the hotel tired,  cold and wet.  The accommodation was less than lavish, as my mother soon discovered.  But first, she had to run the gauntlet of inspection by the young bloods of the  town who turned out to welcome my father and his bride, and to size up the  one who had thinned their bachelor ranks. She passed with flying colours,  though at the time it was just one more ordeal in a day of strange experiences.  Indoors, supper had been set on the hotel dining table at the usual time,  without regard for the late hour of arrival. The sight of cold pork chops stuck  fast to the plates convinced my mother that she was not hungry, though she  tried not to offend the hosts before retiring. But the adventures of the day  were not over yet. Their room was directly above the bar room, and the  flimsey construction of the hotel, with single floor and walls, meant that sleep  was impossible before closing-time.  Eventually peace reigned below, mid sound of fading voice and footstep,  bolts shot home, fire stoked, landlord and his lady making their way upstairs.  But not for long! First a whine from the empty bar room, then a howl, told  that the dog had been shut in. Behind paper-thin walls the landlord's lady  suggested firmly to her spouse that he should rise and let the dog out. This  was not acceptable, and required forceful repetition. Finally he gave in, and  everyone in the hotel could hear him lumbering downstairs, expostulating at  every step with colourful language quite new to my mother's ears, describing  the dog, its antecedents, and its future! There followed the sound of the door  being unbolted, the yelp as the dog was booted out into the night, and finally  the angry stumbling back upstairs. After that, sleep was almost an anticlimax!  Such was my mother's introduction to this small mining town on one of  British Columbia's early frontiers. When in the morning she looked out and  saw the place that was to be her home for the next six years, with the sun glinting on frosty roofs and illuminating the friendly hills and quiet valley below,  she knew that this Fairview was to hold a very special corner of her heart ever  after. 135  Fairview today presents a sorry sight. Only a handful of older buildings  remain where once there was a thriving young community. Of these, but one  home dates back to the beginning, though of course there is that other sad little relic of former days, the jail-house, transplanted to its present site in the  middle of the flat — dilapidated and neglected, like Fairview itself, for so  many years past.  And yet, even now, there are signs of promised rejuvenation. New homes  are being built, as after three quarters of a century people of discernment are  again recognizing the worth of this fair view. Not they alone are gladdened,  for surely the ghosts of Fairview Town must rejoice to feel the old site come  alive once more!  Editor's Note  Since this was written, in 1976, the Fairview Jailhouse has been  moved to a permanent site in Oliver behind the Museum, where it  has been restored to a semblance of its old self.  Fairview Store and Post Office 1900  Courtesy Kelowna Museum 136  SATURDAY NIGHT IN KELOWNA (1920)  By Arthur Ward  In the early 1920's the more common use of the automobile and the usual  six day work week were a combination that made Saturday night shopping a  custom and a convenience. The stores were open until 10 p.m.  The social aspect of Saturday night cannot, however, be overlooked. A  bit conscious of their town clothes, the small fry were first to leave the family  car to head down the street on the way to spend their nickel or dime on candy  or popcorn. Their older brothers and sisters could go to the 7 o'clock show or  maybe buy a David Harem or airplane sundae at Alsgard's. Their parents,  who seemed to know everybody on the street, would do their shopping and  form little groups to compare crops and do a bit of quiet boasting about the  performance of their newly acquired auotomobile. A great number seemed to  sit in their cars all evening to watch the passing sidewalk parade.  So it was Saturday night again. Soon after five my father would arrive  home from work. With a showing of unusual diligence, my brother and  myself had already finished the chores — the cow milked, Jerry the horse fed  and watered, the wood box filled and the squawking chickens locked up for  the night. After supper, my father would get the Model T truck started, his  two boys having a brief argument over which one would have the honor of  turning the crank. With my mother's grocery order and a dime each spending  money, we were away to town. Sometimes two sisters could come.  Kelowna was only two miles away. The prime parking was two blocks on  Bernard Avenue west of Pandosy, and was already taken up, so my father  would park the truck on Lawrence, not far from Andison's Butcher shop  where we would see him buy tomorrow's roast and maybe some kippers for  Sunday morning breakfast. Then we were on the way to McKenzie's with the  grocery order. First a look at Glenn's Harness shop. There was new harness on  the simulated horse but there was also a Grey Dort car on display; so pretty . .  green with yellow wheels, and on the wall there was a large advertisement for  Avery tractors.  We paused at Willits' Drug Store to admire the sparkling green and  white floor tiles. They are still there after seventy years of wear. On the way  down Bernard Avenue was Knowles the Jeweller. The chronometer in the  window showed correct Pacific Standard Time. At Christmas time Mr.  Knowles gave away a railroad watch to the person guessing nearest its running  time on a winding — usually about thirty-two hours, plus or minus minutes  and seconds.  The next store of interest was Morrison-Thompson Hardware. In an era  when drug stores sold only drugs, prescriptions and writing supplies, this store  had diversified from hammers, saws, stoves, and washboards to feature the  Edison Phonograph. Most of the records, thick as stove lids, were double-  sided, but the popular artists of the day — Caruso, Melba, Tetrazzini and  Galli-Curci — would rate a one-sided record. The other side was as smooth as  a table-top, but the grooved side was supposed to sound pretty good.  Then to McKenzie's Grocery with the weekly order. Dick Johnson would  notice two boys drifting toward the candy counter. He would come over and  say: "Boys, how much can you spend tonight?" 137  "Ten cents, Mr. Johnson." The long glass counter started out with candy  canes and licorice whips for a cent each and ended at the chocolate creams at  forty cents a pound. We would point — "some jelly beans, put some black  ones in, some of these and some of those."  "Boys, your dime is used up," Mr. Johnson would say, adding two  chocolate creams to the bag.  We stopped on the sidewalk to extract the two chocolate creams from the  candy bag. J. H. Trenwith was beside McKenzie's. It was called "The Electric  Shop," and to take advantage of the coming popularity of electric power a lot  of lamps were displayed, but appliances had not come into general use.  Phyllis Trenwith and George McKenzie gave their vocal talents freely to assist  local entertainments. At those with a patriotic flavor, Mr. McKenzie would  sing "The Veteran's Song" and Mrs. Trenwith "Land of Hope and Glory."  A stop at the bright window of Butt's Cigar Store. The labels on the  Havana Cigar boxes were often on a classical theme and were very attractive.  The display of pipes ranged from clay and corn cobs to Dunhills of London.  My father was one of the few who smoked a clay pipe. They cost ten cents and  were probably mostly used for blowing bubbles. Cigarettes were not too  popular at that time, but there was McDonald's Plug, a compressed slab of  tobacco with the metal heart implant. It could be smoked or chewed. In half  pound round tins, Old Chum, McDonalds Briar and Kelowna Pride. In hip-  pocket tins Prince Albert and Forest and Stream, and in flat square containers Colt and Edgeworth. These tins were very useful and would be used  again to hold rivets and other small necessities. Bull Durham was always in a  cloth bag. With their drawstring opening these bags were prized by us boys to  hold the dubs and agates in marble season.  Mr. Haug would be on the corner of Water Street and Bernard, busy  with his Saturday night visiting. In a few years his place would be taken by his  genial son Roy, always smoking his cigar. Across the street was Lawson's  Clothing. My father had a charge account there. It would have been interesting to see George Meikle and Norm DeHart but we didn't go in unless  father came along. Norm was pitcher on the town ball team and also on the  fire brigade, so somewhat of a small boy's hero.  We went past Trench's Drug Store for a pause outside the Empress  Theatre. One could hear the piano — so often "Hearts and Flowers",  "Destiny", or "William Tell" according to the mood of the picture.  We had a nickel left for ice cream cones at Alsgard's which left nothing  to spend at Fumerton's popcorn machine. The corn would start at the top and  arrive at the bottom ready to go at 10 cents a bag.  Time had come to retrace steps on the curb side to take stock of the cars  parked solid for two blocks. Everybody seemed to need an automobile and  many were the arguments on the merits of different makes. Young people  who had only acquired their first bicycle would argue one make against the  other, even more than would their parents. For some of them it was the start  of a love affair with the gas buggy that would last a lifetime.  Painted in sombre black were the workhorses — Model T Fords so  numerous, the venerable and reliable Dodge Bros., the good Maxwell and  Chev. 490 just starting on a career that would lead to top sales. But there were  the exotics — McLaughlin, Overland, Grey Dort, Chalmers, and Studebaker,  usually in black but could be dark blue, green or maroon. They would call for 138  a step off the curb to see their dashboards, and a lot of wondering about how  fast they could go.  Back again to Willit's Corner. The next block featured first a large vacant lot where Fumerton's store now stands, then the Casorso Block which  took in the Sanitary Meat Market and Pettigrew Jeweller. At the end of the  block there was a large lot with a small frame cottage. The basement windows  were adorned with steel bars. It was the city police station complete with jail.  On the north of the street were three banks, the Palace Hotel, a  blacksmith shop, the post office, and real estate and other offices. The horse  trough with running water was a good place to have a drink and the Salvation  Army was holding their service by the Bank of Montreal. Maybe they would  sing our Sunday School favorites — "Hold the Fort", "Dare to be a Daniel", or  "Throw out the Lifeline." Time to sit on the Bank steps and figure out if there  might be some jelly beans left for the young sisters. They had not come to  town tonight.  Soon the clack-clack-clack of the Fords being started was a warning that  the hour was getting on to store closing time. Father would be visiting George  Tutt in his tailor shop. If the stores by chance were closed, the groceries would  be on the sidewalk in an orange crate. So round the block to pick them up and  home. Next week there would be one more Saturday night.  Kelowna, 1920  (Courtesy Kelowna Museum) 139  OKANAGAN SUMMER SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS  Minutes of the Regular General Meeting of the Penticton Board  of Trade1 for 12 November 1959 under New Business Record:  F. Laird drew attention to the operation of Banff School of Fine Arts in association  with the University of Alberta.  It was then moved by F. Laird and seconded by Alderman Elsie MacCleave  That the Board of Trade strike a committee to find ways and means of approaching  the University of British Columbia to establish one or more of their Fine Arts courses  in Penticton. CARRIED.  The following volunteered to serve on this Committee:  MRS.    MacCLEAVE,    MRS.    PARKER    AND    MESSRS.    HODGE,    LAIRD,  MOSTRENKO AND CARL HARRIS.  The Minute records the first official act in establishing the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts, an organization which in the summer of 1981 is celebrating its Twenty-first Anniversary.  The Laird family had moved to Penticton in 1928 when Frank's father  had received a posting with the Provincial Police Force of British Columbia to  the south Okanagan city. Frank Laird completed his secondary education in  Penticton, attended the University of British Columbia and the Victoria Normal School, then returned to the Valley to teach first at Kaleden and then  later in Penticton. With the exception of four years spent in the R.C.A.F.  during World War II, he served the school district as teacher, vice-principal,  and principal until he elected early retirement. The interest in community affairs, which had taken him into the Board of Trade where he was serving as  Chairman of its Education Committee in 1959, led him to engage in municipal politics. From 1968 to 1970 he served as Alderman and from 1971 to the  end of 1974 Frank Laird was Mayor of Penticton. The idea of a summer  school of the arts was his dream and he worked on its organization until a  board was established which would see the project through to completion and  then served, himself, as chairman of the 1960 program committee.  While visiting Banff during the summer of 1959, Mr. and Mrs. Laird  had been very impressed with the Banff School of Fine Arts. If the University  of Alberta could take advantage of the beauties of the Rockies to establish  such a school, why could not a similar school be founded at Penticton to take  advantage of the glories of an Okanagan summer?2 Penticton was already in  the business of attracting tourists and here was an opportunity to add something of substance to the "beaches and peaches" usually featured. When  Frank Laird proposed his idea he found members of the Board of Trade responsive.  The special committee set up on 12 November lost no time. The initial  contact with the University of British Columbia was made by means of a wire  signed by S. Hawkins, President of Penticton Board of Trade and addressed  to K. F. Argue, Director of Summer Services for UBC. It read:  CAN APPOINTMENT BE MADE BOARD REPRESENTATIVE F LAIRD MEET  YOU SATURDAY MORNING WIRE COLLECT TIME PLACE  The answer dated 18 November came back:  SUGGEST MEET F LAIRD TEN-THIRTY SATURDAY MORNING MY OFFICE  ROOM 204 AUDITORIUM  Frank Laird attended the meeting where he had the opportunity to discuss  the school proposal with not only Dr. Argue, but also Dean Curtis. 140  On 26 November, as a follow-up to the Saturday morning discussions, S.  R. Hawkins wrote to Dr. John Friesen, Department of Extension, UBC,  outlining the advantages for a summer school of the arts offered by the community of Penticton. He wrote:  The School Board has assured us that the full facilities of the Schools would be available for such a project.  Mr. Hawkins noted that Penticton had four hotels and 42 motels within the  city and two more motels were under construction. The letter continued:  A conservative estimate places the number of visitors at 2500 per day, and this  does not include those who camp, visit friends and relatives, or take rooms in private  homes.  With the scenic beauty of the area, the availability of necessary facilities, combined with the attraction of our beaches and climate it would appear that a Summer  School of Fine Arts would certainly be most popular here.  We would be happy to receive your advice on how best to proceed with this matter and your suggestions as to what courses might be made available for such a  school.  The Board of Trade wanted "to proceed with the matter just as quickly as  possible." They were preparing brochures and advertising for the coming season and they wanted to include information about the summer school in the  advertising material:  Dr. Friesen replied in a letter dated 8 December 1959. He had no intention of dampening the Board's enthusiasm for he wrote:  We fully share the enthusiasm expressed by your Board of Trade for a Summer  School of the Arts at Penticton as it seems an ideal place for such a venture, particularly with the involvement of the Board of Trade, the local School Board and persons in your community who have been keen to promote the various arts.  The weekend preceding the writing of the letter had been devoted to a planning session for the B.C. Arts Resources Conference (the fourth such annual  conference) and Eva Cleland of Penticton had attended. Mrs. Cleland had  had the opportunity to discuss the summer school proposal with Dr. Friesen.  Those who have known Eva's dedication to the arts through the years will recognize her influence in Dr. Friesen's phrase, "persons in your community who  have been keen to promote the various arts."  Dr. Friesen repeated, in his letter, remarks which he had already made  to Mrs. Cleland. The Extension Department, at that time, had a considerable  outreach program. Consultants and instructors were being sent into numerous British Columbia communities (Sidney Risk and Molly Bobak were two  currently engaged in this activity). In addition the University was running an  extensive on-campus Summer School of the Arts in which UBC co-operated  closely with the Vancouver Festival Society. Dr. Friesen wrote:  I pointed out that because of the costs and the potential demand from the B.C. communities, it would not be practical for our Department to set up University Summer  Schools throughout the Province. We have instead adopted a policy of assisting, in  whatever way we can, those communities who wish to undertake such a program.  Nelson is mentioned as an example of a community receiving UBC assistance:  We have provided several instructors, and Nelson is also in constant touch with us on  other aspects of the program.  The letter recommended that the Board get in touch with Mr. Edward Bar-  ravalle, the teacher in charge of the Nelson School of Fine Arts, which in 1959  held its second session, and inquire as to their methods of financing their ven- 141  ture. Dr. Friesen suggested that a panel of university people could visit Penticton. The letter said:  We want to assist you and I therefore suggested to Mrs. Cleland that a University  panel of three or four meet with your committee either on January 9th or on February  6th to discuss this matter further. You may know that we have for the past several  years conducted a summer painting workshop at Naramata for the Okanagan and it  may be that if your plans materialize, we could shift the workshop to Penticton. We  would also be pleased to assist you in obtaining other instructors.  We would suggest that the UBC panel meet with your committee for some hours, and  that you may wish to arrange for a public meeting in the evening and also give the  visitation and your project publicity through the press, radio and television.  On 18 December the committee met in the Penticton School Board office. Mr. A. Tyhurst, who was at that time Chairman of the School Board,  conducted the meeting. Mr. Laird, Mrs. Parker, and Mrs. MacCleave were  present along with three interested citizens who had been invited to attend:  Mrs. Cleland, Mrs. Kitty Wilson, and Mr. H. Hatfield. The committee moved, "That Dr. Friesen be informed that February 6th would be a desirable  date for his panel to visit Penticton." Again, on 26 January 1960, Frank Laird  assembled a committee to plan the public meeting which was by this time  scheduled for 5 February. Representatives of groups interested in the various  arts had been invited to attend. Present were: Grant McDonald, Mrs. Kenna  Rowland, Mrs. Ethel Joslin, Mrs. Eva Cleland, Mrs. M. Parker, Mr. A.  Schwenk, Miss Edith Sharp, Dr. H. Barr and Dr. F. Barr. The minutes record  the sentiment of the group:  If sufficient interest is shown such a school started in a small way could develop into a  Penticton School of Fine Arts comparable to the Banff School of Fine Arts.  The public meeting was advertised and handouts distributed which said:  AN OPPORTUNITY TO IMPROVE THE ARTS IN OUR COMMUNITY  In co-operation with local art groups, the Penticton Board of Trade has arranged for a University Panel, headed by Dr. John Friesen, Director of the Extension  Department, to discuss the possibility of forming a Summer School of Fine Arts in  Penticton.  A public meeting will be held in the High School Cafeteria, on Friday February  5th, at 8 p.m. to hear this Panel which will include, in addition to Dr. Friesen, Miss  Dorothy Somerset of the Drama Department and Prof. Hans-Karl Piltz of the Music  Department. Discussions will include Drama, Music, Art, Writing, Dance, Films and  Photography.  Please consider this your invitation to attend and invite any other interested persons. Evidence of local support is essential to the success of this endeavour.  F. LAIRD,  Chairman  Board of Trade Education Committee  The public meeting was a success. The Penticton Herald reported an attendance of 1503. Sixty-five had attended a luncheon hosted by the Board of  Trade earlier in the day. In an interview with the Herald reporter the UBC  team made clear that UBC's help with a school would be advisory rather than  financial. The Penticton Herald summarized the message thus:  If Penticton gets a summer school of fine arts it will be largely by its own effort.  Actually, as things turned out, the University was better than its word: not only did it integrate its painting workshop under Reg Holmes with the 1960  summer session, but it also sent Lister Sinclair to open the school and to spend 142  a week lecturing on creative writing. Mr. Sinclair was very much in the public  eye at the time. His radio plays were well-known; his play The World of the  Wonderful Dark had been performed at the Vancouver Summer Festival; and  his TV science series Explorations made him a household figure. His presence  lent prestige to the whole project and was a tremendous morale booster to  those engaged in making plans for the first session. But we are getting ahead  of our story.  Bill Stavdal headlined his report in the Penticton Herald of the 5 February meeting with  COMMITTEE FORMED TO PUSH SCHOOL OF ARTS.  His write-up catches the spirit of the evening:  A steering committee has been set up to work toward a summer school of the arts  in Penticton.  Announcement of the committee's formation climaxed a meeting Friday night  attended by 150 South Okanaganites from Summerland to the border.  They gathered in Penticton High School Cafeteria to hear the views of Dr. Hans-  Karl Piltz, professor of the University of B.C. Department of Music; Miss Dorothy  Somerset, head of the Department of Drama; Dr. John Friesen, director of the Department of Extension, and Professor Ian McNairn, head of the Department of Fine  Arts and president of the Vancouver Community Arts Council.  The foursome was invited to Penticton by the city's Board of Trade to discuss the  feasibility and requirements of a summer school here.  Summing up, Professor McNairn listed four requirements for the founding of.  such a school: "enthusiasm, a community arts council, a strong central executive and  a coordinator."  He declared there was plenty of enthusiasm in the South Okanagan, then listened as chairman Ralph Robinson, president of the Penticton Board of Trade, announced formation of a steering committee.  HELPED ORGANIZE  The three members are Mrs. Hugh Cleland, night school director Frank Laird  and prize-winning authoress Edith Sharp, all of them instrumental in organizing last  night's meeting.  What are the prospects for classes this summer?  "Something might easily develop, in a small way," said Mrs. Cleland today.  "The committee feels last night's response justifies it."  She emphasized that the issue is still only in the inquiry stage. Delegates from  virtually every arts group in the South Okanagan signed the register . . ..*  Each member of the panel addressed the meeting emphasizing the importance of the arts as an essential part of life, insisting on the need for high standards, and offering realistic advice as to such matters as minimum class size.  Before leaving Penticton Saturday afternoon the UBC professors held  conversations with those spear-heading the thrust for the school and, upon  returning to Vancouver, Dr. Friesen wrote summarizing the team's impressions. The Panel felt that a school was indeed feasible and, with careful preparation and with regional support — a condition of UBC participation — the  community would be ready to go in the summer of 1961.5  The UBC team had under-estimated Okanagan enthusiasm. Penticton  was ready to go right NOW. On 4 March thirty-three people attended a meeting held in the Rob Roy Room of the Prince Charles Motor Inn (now the Penticton Inn). Eight of them were from other Valley communities: one from  Kelowna, one from Okanagan Falls, two from each of Oliver, Summerland  and Naramata. Miss J. Topham-Brown of Vernon and Mrs. Muriel Ffoulkes  of Kelowna expressed keen interest and support, although unable to attend. 143  The Penticton group was obviously making an effort to establish a regional  base for the school. In the interest of establishing a co-ordinated support for  the arts, steps were taken at this meeting to form Penticton's Community Arts  Council and the organization which was to become the Okanagan-Mainline  Regional Arts Council. The minutes read:  Moved by Mrs. Steele, seconded by Mrs. Joslin that this meeting go on record as supporting the principle of local Arts Councils and an over-all Regional Arts Council.  CARRIED.  Moved by Mrs. Barr, seconded by Miss Dorothy Chipping that a Community Arts  Council be formed in Penticton. CARRIED.  Mrs. Cleland consented to act as Chairman of the Penticton Community Arts Council during the organization period, and was also unanimously appointed co-ordinator  of the Regional Arts Council.  It would be impossible to read of any activity in the arts in Penticton during the last forty years without coming across the name of Eva Cleland time  after time. Eva Sheere had come to the Valley first in 1928 as a Chatauqua  Supervisor and thus was probably the first professional arts administrator to  stay and work in the Okanagan. And a professional she was, trained by Mrs.  Nola Erickson to do the promotional and organizational work upon which the  whole Chatauqua idea depended.6 Eva's eyes had been opened to the world of  the arts when, as a teen-ager, she sat in the big Chatauqua tent in her native  Moosomin, Saskatchewan, enthralled by the week of music, drama, and elocution which the Erickson organization brought to the culture-hungry towns  of the Canadian west. After the Okanagan summer, Eva, recommended by  the Ericksons, accepted a position with the National Music League in New  York, an organization of patrons who wished to give students like those being  trained in the newly formed Julliard School of Music, the opportunity to perform. Eva's job was to approach schools, colleges, women's groups, and music  clubs in New York State and arrange for performances. Her six years in the  east afforded Eva not only an association with up-and-coming artists but also  the opportunity to attend the very best operas and concerts which the City of  New York had to offer.7  In 1936 Eva was back in Penticton, the wife of Hugh Cleland, whom she  had met during her stay in the Valley in 1928. In fact Hugh had served on her  Chatauqua committee. It was not long before Eva Cleland was active in the  local art scene, for in 1936 the Okanagan Music Festival, which had been  formed in Kelowna in 1926, was to be hosted by Penticton. Eva was secretary.  Eva Cleland emphasizes the importance of the Okanagan Music Festival to  the development of all the arts in the Valley and to the Summer School of the  Arts in particular. Through its organization individuals interested in the arts  in each community were identified and had learned to work together. Support extended beyond music to elocution, dance, and even drama, for, when  the Valley Drama Festival organization faltered, a day of one-act plays was  added to the music festival. Occasionally an art exhibit was included. When,  following the publication of the Report of the Royal Commission on the National Development in the Arts, Letters, and Sciences 1949-1951, generally  known as the "Massey Report," the British Columbia Arts Resources Conferences were called at the University of British Columbia, Eva Cleland was a  natural choice to represent Penticton. She attended all four conferences and  served on the continuing committee. This experience put her in touch with 144  those, like Ian McNairn, most concerned with and most knowledgeable about  the condition of the arts in our province.  Eva Cleland has been honoured for her work on behalf of the arts. In  1975, after the successful accomplishment of Okanagan Image, the City of  Penticton acknowledged the contributions Eva had made to her community.  The Okanagan Summer School of the Arts made her an Honorary Life Member but changed this to Life Member when they realized that they had deprived Eva of the right to vote.8 When Gail Mclntyre, in an interview for a  Vancouver newspaper 3 July 1963, suggested that Mrs. Cleland deserved a  great deal of the credit for the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts, Eva  protested, "I am only one of many." Those who know Eva know that she  meant it. In an interview 5 September 1980 she stated: "If I have done anything, it is that I've persuaded people that they can do these things."  At the meeting of 4 March 1960 Mr. Ralph Flitton reported on a visit he  had made to Mr. Edward Barravalle, Director of the Nelson School of Fine  Arts, during which he had discussed the operation of the Kootenay school. On  the twenty-second of the previous December, Mr. J. C. Donald, Secretary-  Manager of the Penticton Board of Trade, had written Mr. Barravalle inquiring particularly abcjut "financial responsibility," "schedule of fees," and  "administration." On 12 January 1960 Mr. Barravalle had written a substantial reply in which he summarized the Nelson experience thus:  The board has tried to come up with some concrete suggestions, but nothing more  than a great deal of daily hard work and sacrifice by all the members of the board  seemed to appear.  Mr. Flitton's report was more detailed than the Barravalle letter but its message was much the same. Mr. Flitton concluded his report:  The Nelson school is commencing this year its third year with a deficit and Mr.  Barravalle states that in his opinion, after the experience gained so far, patrons are a  must. The School cannot be self-supporting.  Penticton had been warned. Undaunted they went ahead. Mrs. Barr reported that the Independent Order of the Daughters of Empire was prepared  to make a financial contribution; Mr. Roy Hay stated that the Recreation  Commission was in a position to assist; and the meeting was told that the entire proceeds of a concert played in Penticton by the Vancouver Symphony  Orchestra (i.e. Penticton's share, which turned out to be in the neighborhood  of $190) would be turned over to the Summer School. The minutes record:  It was moved by Mrs. Alstead, seconded by Mrs. MacCleave that a Summer School of  Fine Arts, to be known as the Okanagan School of Fine Arts, be established with  headquarters in Penticton. CARRIED.  It was decided to set up a Directorate consisting of eight Penticton members  and two from each of the outlying communities. The following were then  named to represent Penticton:  Mr. George Gay  Mrs. Kitty Wilson  Mr. Frank Laird  Miss Edith Sharp  City Council Representative  School Board Representative  UBC Alumni Representative 145  Mrs. Cleland suggested that application to the Koerner Foundation be made  at once.  The next meeting in the interest of the Summer School was held 18  March and the minutes were headed:  Minutes of the first meeting of the Board of Directors of the Okanagan Summer  School of Fine Arts, held in the Penticton High School, on Friday March 18th 1960 at  8 p.m.  Those present were:  Mrs. Pam Field Osoyoos  Mrs. Elaine Dickson Osoyoos  Mrs. Ivy Mason West Summerland  Mrs. R. Alstead Summerland  Mrs. Marjorie Croil Summerland  Mrs. Grace Reid Oliver  Mrs. Grace Simpson Oliver  Mrs. Kitty Wilson Naramata  Alderman J. D. Southworth Penticton City Council  Mrs. Eva Cleland Penticton  Miss Edith Sharp Penticton  Dr. Hugh Barr Penticton  Dr. D. E. Yates Penticton  Miss Dorothy Chipping Penticton  Miss Chipping consented to act as Secretary. Reports were heard from out-of-  town Board members concerning public meetings which had already been  held or were about to be held in their respective communities to publicize the  Summer School. Dr. Yates was unanimously chosen as Chairman of the  Board of Directors. Committees were set up. George Gay was appointed Director (Principal) of the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts, honorarium  to be agreed upon by Dr. Yates, Mr. Laird and Mr. Flitton in consultation  with Mr. Gay.  New names appear in the minutes of 5 April: Mrs. Mary Emery, Mrs.  Dorothy Fraser, Mrs. Edith Chalmers. Out-of-town representatives often  varied according to the availability of delegates. Mr. T. McDermit attended  as he and Mr. J. Nordahl were to serve as the financial committee, with Mr.  Nordahl setting up the books and doing the actual accounting. Plans were  well underway for the session: Lister Sinclair had consented to come for the  first week; Mr. Reg Holmes would conduct a three-week painting course;  both of these instructors would be paid by UBC. Willem Bertsch, founder of  the Netherlands University Symphony and the Victoria Little Symphony, who  had the previous winter founded the Okanagan Symphony Orchestra, had  agreed to conduct a string program at a fee of $375 for the three weeks. Mr.  Victor Mitchell of Victoria, whom Miss Dorothy Somerset had recommended  for drama, would teach a children's course and an adults' for $375. Two-week  courses in classical ballet and character for children over 11 years were being  set up with the advice of Gweneth Lloyd, founder of the Winnipeg Ballet,  who two years previously had settled in Kelowna. Miss Lloyd recommended,  as instructor, Lucy Keith who had formerly been with the Canadian School of  Ballet in Winnipeg. Miss Keith was to get $100 a week plus travel expenses.  Other plans were afoot. A Livingroom Learning Group might be set up. Pub- 146  licity and promotion were under way. Letterheads with a map illustrating  Penticton's strategic location had been ordered.  The Official Opening of the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts occurred Friday, 8 July 1960, Alderman Bill Whimster acting on behalf of  Mayor Oliver. Actually classes had been conducted from the fourth. Mr.  Ralph Robinson, Chairman of the Board of Trade, offered his congratulations on the speedy organization of the School. Professor Ian McNairn of UBC  said that the evening was "an historic event for the Okanagan."  The main speaker of the evening was Lister Sinclair, mathematician,  poet, playwright, actor, scientist, lecturer — in short, what the Elizabethans  would have termed "the universal man." Mr. Sinclair talked about the  sciences and the arts combining to create "more perceptive, more sensitive  humans." He said:  The purpose of science is to increase understanding. The function of the arts is to increase understanding through the emotions . . . This makes us more human, more  worthy of life.9  Mr. Sinclair had come to the school directly from seven days in Europe where  he had been on Canada Council business. He had spent the week before this  Friday night presenting his formal lectures on creative writing, attending official functions, making speeches at garden parties, and generally sparking  enthusiasm. He invited Miss Edith Sharp and Mrs. Dorothy Fraser, who were  teaching courses on Creative Writing Techniques, each to lunch on separate  days. He found time to visit Osoyoos to observe Lazuli Buntings and to search  for Lewis' Woodpeckers under the expert guidance of Doug Fraser. The previous evening he had spent part of the evening playing Mozart duets with  Dorothy in the Fraser home. Earlier in the week, over breakfast, Mr. Sinclair  had said to Bill Stavdal, the Herald staff writer:  Seriously, the prime function of a summer school is not to produce great artists, but  to produce some people who will enjoy the arts a little more. The children who take  these courses may never be great, but they may have some idea of the things that  matter.  Mr. Sinclair felt that schools such as the Okanagan Summer School of Fine  Arts would help to bring coherence to Canada. He stated his personal aim  thus:  I hope to raise questions, and get people to talk.10  Courses and faculty for the 1960 session were as follows:  W. G. Gay Arts School Director  Lister Sinclair B.A., M.A. Feature Lecturer  Lucy Keith R.A. Ballet Instructor  Victor Mitchell, B.A., LGSM Drama Classes  Willem Bertsch, L.R.S.M. Music  Dorothy Fraser, B.A. Writing Techniques  Edith L. Sharp Creative Writing  Reg Holmes, B.A., Hon. V.S.A. Art Instructor  Mr. & Mrs. F. Sidebotham Ceramics  On 13 July the Penticton Herald quoted Mr. Gay as saying:  Today registration stood at 271, and next week's choral and band clinic is expected to  boost the total. When we began planning the school, we thought the most we could  hope for this first year would be 100 people. 147  These were heady days. The Board felt that this beginning deserved to be recorded. Mr. Hugo Redivo consented to make a movie of the school in action,  a movie which became an effective promotional tool in subsequent years.  Edith Sharp helped with the editing and she and Leland Fabish, an announcer at the local radio station, wrote the script which Mr. Fabish read.  Minutes record showings of the film in Edmonton, Burnaby, and at various  points on Vancouver Island.  When bills were in and paid the first Board of Directors found that they  had $664.06 left in the bank. Dr. Yates called a General Meeting for 13  January 1961 and with the call the following financial statement was circulated:  OKANAGAN SUMMER SCHOOL OF FINE ARTS  Statement of Income and Expenses  from Commencement to Dec. 31, 1960  EXPENSES  Honoraria  Printing, Stationery,  Advertising  Sundry Expenses, Travel  Expenses, Makeup, Sets,  Paints, Scores, etc.  ,757.50  843.97  736.70  INCOME  Registrations and Memberships   $3,986.25  (less rebates)  Donations  709.85  $4,338.17  Cash in Bank  to Balance  664.06  Misc.  306.13  $5,002.23  $5,002.23  DONATIONS 1960  HONORARIUM PAID 1960  Penticton Art Club  $ 40.00  L. Sinclair  $   250.00  Diamond Jubilee  V. Mitchell  125.00  Chpt. I.O.D.E.  50.00  L. Keith  230.00  Koerner Foundation  500.00  A. Falconer  107.50  T. Lloyd  5.00  V. Mitchell  250.00  T. W. Croil  9.85  P. Cooter  375.00  Stocks Camera  5.00  E. Sharp  150.00  F. C. Mechin  10.00  D. Fraser  150.00  Kiwanis  25.00  L. H. Slind  75.00  Anonymous (through Kiwanis)  25.00  W. Wilke  75.00  Rowland  25.00  F. Sidebotham  120.00  P. Gibson  10.00  W. G. Gay  450.00  E. Bradshaw  5.00  W. Bertsch  400.00  $709.85  $2,757.50  Misc.  Opening Concert  $184.70  Closing Concert  117.75  Profits on Refreshments  3.68  i  .13 148  Pencil notes on mimeographed copies of the Financial Statement among the  papers of George Gay and Eva Cleland suggest that the item "Opening Concert" for $184.70 is the amount turned over to the Summer School from the  Vancouver Symphony concert. The amount for "Closing Concert" includes  all concerts given during the session. Scholarships for $280.00 are not itemized. These came from individuals and service clubs. (Mr. W. S. "Scotty"  Ritchie of Summerland, for example, offered a scholarship to a member of  the Summerland Senior High School Band.) Notes also draw attention to the  fact that contributions from the Community Programs Department, UBC,  which would have included the salaries of Lister Sinclair and Reg Holmes, are  not shown. Neither is there an indication of the contribution of the school  district whose facilities made the school possible.  The first year of the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts had been  most encouraging. Frank Laird, as Nominating Committee, submitted his  slate to the first Annual General Meeting and the new Board of Directors was  elected, a board which looked very much like its former self. Dr. Yates was  again Chairman. Not only did planning for the 1961 session begin, but work  was begun on a constitution and by-laws. On 8 June 1961, somewhat after the  fact, the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts was granted incorporation  under the Societies Act of British Columbia, Mr. Howard Callaghan attending to the legal work on behalf of the School. Those signing the Constitution  were:  William Henry Stobbs Oliver, B.C. Merchant  Ivy Mason Summerland Housewife  D. Yates, M.D. Penticton Physician & Surgeon  W. G. Gay Penticton Teacher  John M. Webster Kelowna Retailer  From this point on the Annual General Meeting would be held in October.  The Board of Directors was to consist of 11 Penticton people, including representatives of the City Council, the School Board, and the Chamber of Commerce. Each participating community was invited to nominate two representatives who were subsequently appointed to the Board of Directors. The  thirty-first of December seems to have been accepted as the end of the fiscal  year until 1963 when the fiscal year was designated as 1 October to 30  September. In 1964 the Board of Directors was enlarged to 25, 15 of these to  be Penticton members elected at the AGM. On 20 December 1966 the name  of the School was officially changed to "The Okanagan Summer School of the  Arts."  The decision to incorporate was an act of faith in the future of the  School. But faith and even enthusiasm were by no means sufficient for the job  at hand. The 1961 Board settled into a pattern that was to serve the School  for the years to come, one which can be traced though in modified form to today's organization. Each member of the Board headed a working committee.  In 1960 Miss Edith Sharp had served as Promotion Chairman and Mrs.  Marjorie Croil as Publicity Chairman, with George Gay being active in a  number of areas. Responsibilities were more widely dispersed in 1961: Dr.  Flora Barr chaired Accommodation; Miss Marcia Rowland was Publicity  Chairman; the late Mr. Adolph Schwenk chaired a large Program Committee  which included Mrs.   Kenna Rowland for ballet,  Mrs.  Kitty Wilson for 149  Drama, Mrs. Eva Cleland for music, Mrs. Ivy Mason for puppetry, and Miss  Edith Sharp for creative writing. High praise for Mr. Schwenk's work over  several of the early years of the School is recorded in the minutes and Administrative Director's reports. Mrs. Betty Clough of Naramata followed Mr.  Schwenk as Chairman of this most crucial committee, undertaking an increasingly demanding job. As courses expanded, so did convenors. In 1966  five convenors reported on various classes in music alone.11 The sub-chairmen  were usually people involved in Valley activities in their particular disciplines.  Thus they knew something of the felt needs and interests of the people who  would support the classes being planned. There is ample evidence that sub-  chairmen sought professional advice in planning courses and finding instructors.  Once the session was under way, convenors were expected to follow the  fortunes of their particular classes, give instructors what help they could, and  report on the measure of the success achieved. Reports were based on interviews with faculty and students as well as on answers to written questionaires.  Just how candid these reports could be is illustrated in surviving minutes such  as those for 26 September 1966: the convenor reports Roy Kiyooka to have  been "an outstanding success;" St. Pierre was "an excellent instructor;"  another course had been "most successful;" the creative arts course should "be  geared more to children;" another instructor had neither "the training nor  the personality" for a particular class. Basic texts or music books for future  classes are recommended as well as the need for lock storage and display  space, and improved equipment. The implication of this method of setting up  and adjudicating instruction, of course, is hour upon hour of volunteer time.  Mrs. Margaret Colby, Administrative Director for 1964, reported her estimate of volunteer service, including that of School Board and City employees  as well as Board and committee members, to be 1200 hours.  Volunteer help has several advantages beyond the obvious one of economy: usually the volunteer is close to his community and can represent its interests and needs; also, the volunteer knows his community and therefore can  build bridges for the instructor and facilitate solutions to problems which  might arise. However any volunteer system is vulnerable to the possibility that  some participants might lack the knowledge, time, or sense of responsibility to  carry out the role demanded of them. As the School grew and more and more  workers were needed some of the deficiencies began to show. In 1967 Mrs.  Rosemary Holmes-Smith complained in her Administrative-Director's report  of "having to pick up the pieces at the last minute behind some dilatory convenors." She wrote:  This situation (volunteers not turning up) would have led to more confusion had not  my husband David Holmes-Smith, been on hand to act as furniture mover, handi-  man, projectionist, taxi-driver, electrician, and in numerous other capacities. This is  an area where hostel staff or janitors are not usually available, and as it kept him busy  for about 16 hours a day, I feel that provision should be made for someone to do this  job.  Mrs. Edythe Chapman, Administrative Director for 1969, reported:  The "convenor" arrangements are excellent in theory, but in fact too often, too late,  the load was borne by the administrative staff, usually at times when work was most  heavy. One convenor never appeared at all. However, in most instances I cannot offer enough praise. The work done by many was of such superior quality that it could  not have been surpassed. I also feel that in a course where there is unusually large  registration two convenors are necessary. 150  Mrs. Chapman's Administrative Director's report for 1970 tells of her overhearing one instructor remark: "If I hear 'volunteer help' again, I'll flip."  Yet, on the whole, the convenor system has served the school well. As the  years went by and arrangements for the program planning became more  streamlined the work of the convenor in planning and adjudicating "his"  course was modified, the volunteer assuming more of the role of assistant to  the professional instructor, a development which seems desirable. A copy of  the list of instructions circulated to convenors in 1974 remains in the files.  The list is as follows:  CONVENORS' DUTIES  - write a personal letter to your instructor telling him what his teaching facilities are  going to be.  - inform instructor plans for the opening luncheon and take him to the luncheon.  - take instructor to the school to look at the facilities; go over last minute organization before opening day.  - make yourself aware of the living accommodation that has been arranged for the  instructor.  - learn something about the course that your instructor is offering.  - during the school be on hand, if at all possible, the first session of each class and at  any other time you can.  - if it is at all convenient, invite instructor to your home and take him to the final  luncheon.  - at the end of the summer school write a thank you letter to the instructor.  Just how much the offices of these women meant becomes obvious in the  instructors' reports to be found in the files. In 1970 Len Weaver, in a report  that leveled some well-considered criticism at the school, ended with these  words:  A DIFFERENT NOTE: I would especially like to mention the kindness and consideration of my convenor, Joan Wigen, whose help and thoughtfulness continued  throughout the whole session. I met some wonderful people this summer and Joan  tops the list.  Robert Rogers, who taught piano in 1969, said in his report:  Finally, I wish to express my appreciation at having had the valuable assistance of so  capable a convenor as Helen Silvester, for whom my personal regard is matched by  my respect for her artistry.  The same year Bob Kingsmill wrote:  The generosity shown us "teachers" by some of the convenors was beautiful and shall  be remembered for a lifetime.  Unfortunately the 1974 modified list of convenor duties was too much for  some to fulfil. On 16 March 1977 Carol Sather reported on the need for convenors. However, there was one convenor who remained on the job, summer  after summer, adding to the responsibilities towards her own instructor, assistance to others for whom no convenor had been found. She was Mrs. Ivy  Mason of Summerland. In 1977 Mrs. Mason, having been forced to the realization that she was no longer "indefatigable," tried to resign. Understandably  the Board was reluctant to lose this "General Convenor of the Summer  School" and encouraged Mrs. Mason to continue on the Board and with her  work at the School. Reporting to the Board Meeting of 19 July 1979 the Principal stated:  I would like to thank Ivy Mason for all her assistance, which the office staff, instructors and students appreciated greatly. She always has an extra pair of helping hands. 151  Mrs. Mason had no means of getting from her home in Summerland to  the Board Meeting 6 September 1979. Therefore she sat down and wrote a  letter to the Board which is strictly to do with the welfare of the school. The  letter is remarkable both for what it tells us concerning the operation of the  Okanagan Summer School of the Arts and for what it reveals, so unselfconsciously, of Mrs. Mason. The letter says in part:  Dear Bert and Fellow OSSA members:  Comments on 1979 OSSA from my observations.  (1) STUDENTS. Because I'd no ASK ME — pinned to my blouse this year I'd less  direct contact with students. From superficial observations they seemed more mature  . . . From conversations heard, as I wrote the day's activities on the blackboard at the  entrance, many students were super-enthusiastic about their courses ... By the way,  weren't we to have two students at our July 26 meeting?  (2) MEALS AND KITCHEN STAFF Very good! ... the kitchen a pleasant place. I  lent a hand when necessary which this year was seldom. Jerry Summer's comments on  meals proves them v.g.  (3) INSTRUCTORS were easy to work with. I always visit each every day (except for  the music people who are a family that I'm sure looks after its own) . . . My self-imposed job has been to keep the wheels of OSSA running smoothly . . . When, at the  end of school, I apologized to the music instructors for not giving them the help and  attention I gave the others, the response was, "That's all right. What matters was,  you were always there." The heartfelt tone of those words made my day.  (4) OFFICE STAFF. Excellent. Despite pressure of work, always pleasant, willing,  relaxedly (apparently) efficient.  ANCIENT HISTORY.  When in 1960 the school began, volunteers were easy to find . . . After a few  years, convenors were less easy to find, and some were convenors in name only, not  looking after their instructors. Then I began helping more than my own instructor  until for several years I've looked after every instructor (except as above, for music).  This meant more and more to do, each thing not much, but altogether a lot.  Posters to make; things like rulers, chalk, paper towels, paint rags to find; the town to  search for books etc. . . . radio, T.V. talks to give (these I've not done lately); xeroxing to arrange for . . . 1001 things to do, and then, at the end, to help clean up —  and that, some years, has been an awful job. Not this year. Sometimes we've had an  errand boy, but usually I've been the "gopher," phoning . . . arranging final displays  and final lunch. Being the "indefatigable" I enjoyed the challenge until it just got too  much for me and two years ago I resigned.  For 16 years (we were in Quebec one year) I'd put Summer School before family  friends, garden, canning, jamming . . .  MODERN HISTORY  Was my replacement looked for? . . . Last year, reluctantly I returned because I  couldn't let the School down. I wasn't "indefatigable" any more — Father Time, I  fear . . . pneumonia . . . When this year there was still no one to take my place I said  I'd go for the first week. But . . .  When I asked for volunteers to help with the final lunch I was asked "Isn't that  women's work?" No, it was not! It was the Board's work.  VOLUNTEERS  P.S. I've just reckoned. I've driven 400 miles to and from OSSA . . .  SUGGESTIONS  The Board must be concerned with policy making and with liaison with other organizations.  But OSSA is for students and instructors and I feel half the members should be concerned with the program and with students and instructors during the session. 152  Maybe convenors could be enticed by reduced fees for their courses.  Good luck and prosperity always to OSSA.  Ivy Mason, "volunteer."  When Ivy Mason's letter was read at the Board Meeting of 20 September 1979  Bill Christensen remarked:  Ivy's work has been absolutely crucial and instrumental to the success of the school.  Important as the volunteers were to the smooth operation of the School,  it was the actual classwork which concerned the students who registered. In  1961, the curriculum was expanded. No courses were included which were  not of a serious artistic nature. Willem Bertsch was to return and teach both  master classes and beginners' classes in the strings, as well as giving a series of  evening lectures designed to sharpen the musical sensibilities of the listener —  "Musical Scratch Pad" he called it. Walter Carl Welke and Mrs. Rachael  Welke were to teach master and beginners' classes in brass and woodwind and  to conduct ensemble work. Two week-end workshops for band instructors  were set up. Dr. Lloyd Slind was to present choral workshops on two weekends. Miss Kathleen Bisshopp would teach puppetry to both adults and children. Drama would again be under the direction of Victor Mitchell, this time  with the assistance of Miss Myra Benson. Lucy Keith would conduct classes in  ballet and character. UBC, in lieu of supplying an art instructor, granted the  school $350 from its Community Services budget, an arrangement which continued until 1963 when financial pressures forced UBC to cut back on its outreach program. The money was put towards honoraria for Mr. Peter Aspell  who taught the adult art classes and for Mrs. P. M. Ritchie who taught the  children's class. Courses in sculpture, to be taught at three levels, were offered. The instructor was to be Robert Borsos, who had studied sculpture at  the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Budapest and painting at the University of  Innsbruck and who was, in 1964, a teacher at the Penticton Secondary  School. The Minutes record Mr. Borsos' support of the Summer School in its  early years, not only as an instructor, but also in his efforts to up-grade equipment and facilities. For example, he negotiated with the industrial education  department in his school for the construction of potters' wheels.12 Also included in the 1961 program was a two-week creative writing workshop under the  direction of W. O. Mitchell, author oifake and the Kid and Who Has Seen  the Wind? Mr. R. D. White was asked to serve as Administrative Director.  The 1961 Summer School brochure stated:  Born of a dream, nurtured by enthusiasm, developed by dedication — this is the  story of the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts.  An editorial in the Penticton Herald of 30 June 1961 picked up this sentence,  approved it as not exaggerated, and went on to suggest that a worthy slogan  for the School might be found in the words of Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam:  Culture is what is left after everything we have learned has been forgotten. It consists  of a deepened understanding, a breadth of outlook, an unbiased approach, and a  heart that has deep sympathy and strength of courage.  The supportive role played by The Penticton Herald is illustrated in editorials  like the above or like that published ten days earlier in which the writer picked up Dorothy Somerset's words, "Why Art? To live more humanly!" and expanded on that theme. 153  The School was opened officially on 14 July by Alan Jarvis, editor of  Canadian Artist, former director of the National Gallery of Canada, Rhodes  Scholar, former secretary to Sir Stafford Cripps, sculptor, founder-director of  the Mermaid Theatre. Mr. Jarvis had just attended a meeting of the Canadian Conference of the Arts in Toronto and hence was ideally qualified to put  his Okanagan audience in touch with the state of the arts in Canada. He was  optimistic about the future. He said:  There are several artists in Canada who are able to live on their painting alone, which  is a revolutionary thing.13  On the whole courses went well although ballet classes were small. Overall registrations were up to 360 from the 1960 figure of 325. Students had  come from Alberta, Oregon, Williams Lake, Vancouver Island, Vancouver,  the Fraser Valley, Kamloops, Kelowna, Summerland, and Oliver. An editorial in the Herald on 28 July under the heading "Summer School of the Arts As  a Year-Round Venture?" expressed the optimism and ambition of those interested in the project.  The star attraction of the 1961 School was W. O. Mitchell whose creative  writing classes attracted professional writers. Bethel Steele of Kelowna came  down for Mr. Mitchell's evening lectures and she wrote in the Kelowna  Courier:  It is a privilege, for which I shall be forever grateful, to sit at this man's feet, and I  wish to thank Penticton for bringing him to our valley.14  W. O. Mitchell told his class that the biggest job of the artist, particularly the  writer, is the refining of his work. Bethel Steele reported him as saying:  There is no new thing in the world, but it is the way that it is written, said, or done  that is important. Grace in writing is that art conceals art. The greatness of the writer  is the ability to polish what he has written under inspirational fire. And the writer's  intent should be that he writes because he cannot help it and that he has something to  say. To write is an affair of the heart.15  With two years of experience the Board of Directors were beginning to  understand the realities of the summer school business. For one thing the  1961 expansion had cost money. Receipts had lagged $336.05 behind expenses which had risen to $6,645.33. Fortunately the 1960 surplus cushioned  the loss. On 31 July the Administrative Director suggested to the Board steps  which he felt would improve the School. Mr. White's recommendations were  as follows:  - Travelling allowances to out-of-town representatives on the Board of Directors.  - One meeting each in Okanagan Communities, including Kelowna and Vernon —  short business meeting followed by program.  - Need for hostel for students.  - Need for cafeteria.  - Important to have variation in instructors from year to year.  - Peach Festival exhibition and float in parade next year.  - Possibilities be investigated of having motels allocate one or two units at winter  rates for students, also a floor of the Incola Hotel.  - It was agreed that the Chamber of Commerce be encouraged to maintain a comprehensive calendar of all events, in order that overlapping of dates may be avoided.  Experience indicated the need for strengthening the regional base of the  School, for publicizing the School and its activities, for having instructors who 154  could introduce fresh ideas and methods to the Valley, and, perhaps above  all, suitable accommodation for young people attending the School.  Through the early years of the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts  close contact was maintained with UBC. The advice of the Extension Department was sought and followed. When Dr. Friesen was invited to attend the  Annual General Meeting for 1961, he expressed his regret that he was personally unable to attend but he offered to send Professor Ian McNairn of the  Fine Arts Department, Miss Dorothy Somerset of the Theatre Department,  and Mr. Ian Docherty who was Fine Arts Co-ordinator for the Extension Department to assist the Board in evaluating their efforts to date. The team arrived on 20 October, made themselves available for consultations with arts  groups in the Valley, and attended the Annual Meeting in the evening. When  asked for their comments all three stressed the need for taking the arts seriously and for "striving for a high quality in instruction and in the atmosphere of  the School." Ian Docherty warned against thinking "of the school as tourist  bait." The Herald reported him as saying:  The main goal of the school is to create such a knowledgeable atmosphere about the  arts in the community that it would be impossible for an artist to give a poorly  planned or executed performance without general awareness of that lack of quality.16  Miss Somerset saw the school as "the first training ground for the very talented  artist, who would eventually find his way up to the top of his profession." Professor McNairn believed "the prime purpose of the school should be to encourage and provide an outlet for creativity in everyone." He advised the  school to concentrate on the young and described this as the greatest  contribution that can be made towards the future. The remarks of the UBC  team along with the reports of the Board of Directors led the Penticton  Herald to summarize the outcome of the meeting thus:  A serious attitude towards the arts, adequate student accommodation and a vigorous, large scale, advance advertising campaign constitute the keystones in the architecture of a successful Okanagan Summer School of the Fine Arts.1'  Upon their return to Vancouver the UBC team prepared a written report  expressing their impressions. They declared that they had found the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts to be "a well framed organization into which  have been incorporated actively interested representatives from three very important facets of community life: City Council, Chamber of Commerce and  the School Board." They welcomed the presence at the meeting of representatives from other Valley communities and stressed the importance of creating a  "regional quality" for the summer school. In music they encouraged the  school to build upon work being done in the various communities during the  winter months. The importance of having suitable facilities and materials for  theatre courses was stressed. With regard to the visual arts the report stated:  The school has been most fortunate in having two men — Adolph Schwenk and  Robert Borsos — bring their experience and knowledge to guide the visual arts  courses.  The report concluded:  The success of the Okanagan Summer School of Fine Arts during the two years of  operation must be considered a source of pride to the various interests involved in its  development and direction. The several forces at work within the organization and  promotion of the school should be kept at an equitable balance so that no hurried  decisions are made which might create an artificially expanded situation. At all 155  times, it must be remembered that the future of the Okanagan Summer School lies in  the support from and the service to the 200,000 people living in the valley. If this regional aim is emphasized constantly, it is felt that it will work to the advantage of all.  By the fall of 1961 not only was the procedure for planning and conducting the Summer School established but the philosophy underlying the activities of the School had been enunciated. The School was to be regional, catering to the interests and needs of Okanagan people and Okanagan organizations. Visitors were welcome and, indeed, sought after, but the bread and  butter enrolment were people in the Valley. Courses would range from those  planned for the rank beginner to master classes designed to upgrade teachers  in the arts. Classes would be planned for young people who were at that point  in their lives when they were just discovering what the arts might mean to  them as a vocation or an avocation.  Eva Cleland sees this grass roots attitude in the objectives and aims of the  School as a direct result of the intellectual and artistic ferment created by the  Massey Report mentioned above, which stated:  The work with which we have been entrusted is concerned with nothing less than the  spiritual foundations of our national life. Canadian achievement in every field depends mainly on the quality of the Canadian mind and spirit.18  It is the intangibles which give a nation not only its essential character but its vitality  as well. What may seem unimportant or even irrelevant under the pressure of daily  life may well be the thing which endures, which may give a community its power to  survive . . . the innumerable institutions, movements, and individuals interested in  the arts, letters and sciences throughout the country are now forming the national  tradition of the future.19  The Massey Commission had not confined its interest to the great institutions  like universities, museums, or strictly professional organizations. The Report  praised the part played by volunteer societies:  ... we found it encouraging to meet people pursuing interests with an energy, and  even with a fanaticism reassuring in a country where circumstances have exaggerated  the virtues of the conformist.  . . . Volunteer groups . . . reflect the general processes of democracy. The most striking characteristic of our voluntary groups, however, is the way in which they have immediately grasped and endeavoured to cope with a double problem discussed in the  previous chapter: sparsely settled areas and their separation from one another by  great distances.20  The Massey Commission declared itself interested in both producers and  consumers.21 Certainly those guiding the activities of the Okanagan Summer  School of the Arts have observed this same principle, giving attention to improving performance and skills, but also working deliberately to develop  understanding and appreciation of the arts through concerts, lectures, and  exhibitions. From the very beginning the distinguished artists who were the  School's instructors were presented to the public in concerts which were reviewed not only in Penticton and Kelowna papers but also in the Vancouver  papers. Distinguished Performers have included Jan Rubes, Madam Johanna  Janisch, W. O. Mitchell reading his own works, David Watmough, Helen  Silvester, Phyllis Schuldt, Dr. Arthur Loesser, Dr. Dale Reubarts, David  Mills, Margarita Noye and the Purcell String Quartet. In 1973 this String  Quartet treated Penticton to street-corner concerts during the day and in  1977 the Wind Ensemble entertained shoppers at Cherry Lane Mall and has  continued to do so each summer. The Penticton Herald reported an overflow  audience gathered 14 July 1965 to hear the Jenni-Linn folk singers in concert 156  with John Robert Colombo who read his own poetry. "The local population of  bohemians were sitting beside the collar-and-tie set" — a typical sixties audience. In 1974 an exhibit of the works of Summer School instructors was arranged by the Penticton Art Club. Now the Instructors' Exhibit is an annual  feature of the Penticton Art Gallery. It should be pointed out that the School  has frequently sponsored professional performances during the School session  and at other times during the year. Korean Classical Dance by Dr. Wong-  Kyung Cho and the Playhouse Theatre production oi Romeo and Juliet were  sponsored in 1966 and the Brno Children's Choir of Czechoslovakia in 1969,  the Harvard Glee Club in 1964, for example.  There seems to have been a tendency from the beginning for the School  to emphasize the holiday aspects of a stay in Penticton. The script for a promotional T.V. program scheduled for 14 June 1960 read in part:  In this resort centre a school such as this provides something for everyone to do in  vacation time.  Curriculum allows plenty of time for swimming and boating in Penticton's two lakes  or for sun bathing on sandy beaches.  In 1965 brochures which accompanied the calendar, under the heading  "Holiday with a Purpose," stated:  Have you every thought of making your summer holiday a Holiday with a Purpose? If so, we suggest that you try combining Fun in the Sun on the well-known  Okanagan beaches, with a class at the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts.  The Okanagan Summer School of the Arts was founded in 1960 by a group of  interested Penticton citizens and representatives of other Valley cities, with the help  of some of the professors from UBC. The response from the public has been so great  that from an original enrollment of 325, the number registered for classes last year  was almost double.  Classes take place in the Penticton Senior Secondary School, in an atmosphere of  informality and friendliness. As much as possible goes on outdoors: the art classes, of  course, but frequently also the instrumentalists try the sound of their music in someone's garden, and after hours people gather for a swim and a picnic.  Classes for advanced, classes for beginners or intermediates, we have people at  all levels, from the professional to the hobbyist. Sometimes all members of the tourist  family have taken different courses. A suggestion to tired parents might be: "Come  and lie on our beaches while your children use their energy creatively." On the other  hand, if the parents investigate the many activities at the Summer School, they themselves will probably want to join their children in A CREATIVE SUMMER HOLIDAY.  The tone of the article is calculated to entice art-shy or reluctant adults into a  trial of their artistic capabilities. George Gay has said, "We wanted people to  find out that the arts were to be enjoyed; that they could be fun."22 The ruse  worked. People came, came in increasing numbers. The "Holiday with a Purpose" slogan was used again and again. Others picked it up. For example, in  the summers of 1966 and 1977 the magazine Beautiful British Columbia published articles on the Summer School using the slogan for a title. The 1977 article started out with the following paragraph:  If you are travelling through the Okanagan Valley this summer, the sight of a full  string ensemble making music by the lakeside may bring you to a sudden halt. But if  you are a local or a frequent visitor to the southern end of this sunny valley, you will  continue nonchalantly on your way. Over the past 18 years, people in the Okanagan  have got quite used to seeing weavers by the lakeshore, painters on the hillside and  clarinetists on the beach. 157  It is possible that the holiday idea has somewhat distorted the perception  of the school in certain quarters for it tends to gloss over the extraordinary  qualifications of most of the instructors employed and the high seriousness of  many of the courses taught. When, for example, the brochure went out with  the article quoted above, the accompanying calendar advertised the second of  four annual courses given by Phyllis Schuldt of UBC for piano teachers. In the  summer of 1962 the School featured a Piano teachers' Seminar under the direction of Arthur Loesser. There are literally hundreds of Okanagan young  people who have benefited from these courses through piano teachers who  deemed it a privilege to have such superb instruction brought to their doorsteps. These are only two examples of master courses offered in piano and  other musical instruments, voice, drama, and the visual arts.  But enough of philosophy. Let us get back to the history of the School.  The 1962 year started out with a slight re-organization. Dr. Yates remained  chairman of the Board for one more year, to be succeeded by Mr. R. B. Cox  the following year. Mr. R. D. White accepted the job of treasurer and George  Gay was appointed to serve as Administrative Director for the 1962 and 1963  sessions. It was the feeling of those involved that the next two years were crucial. The novelty of the venture was over and now the durability of the idea  was to be tested. Early in January, with the 1961 deficit in mind, Dr. Yates  and Mr. White went to the City Council with a request that $500 be granted  the School. The Penticton Herald reported:  Dr. Yates added that increasing costs necessary to keep the school growing and successful made further revenue necessary. Since Penticton, site and original home of  the school, derives a great deal of benefit from the institution, local support must  now be obtained.23  In Board minutes for 20 February, Alderman John Coe is reported as saying:  City Council is appreciative of work being done by the School and has made a grant  of $500.00.  The 1962 and 1963 sessions were remarkable for the presence of Jan  Rubes. The first year Mr. Rubes could come for only four days. Mr. Gay was  instructed to make arrangements to have Mr. Rubes come for July 17 - 20 to  give lessons and to take part in "a seminar event" (a concert), at $50 per day  plus expenses. In 1963 Mr. Rubes returned to teach for two weeks, a course of  six individual lessons to intermediate and master students. The course began  one week earlier than other summer school classes to accommodate an engagement Mr. Rubes had following his stay in Penticton. Each student paid  $30! The Administrative Director, in his annual report, paid tribute to the  pace which Mr. Rubes set for himself. He said:  Only a physically strong and dedicated teacher could have stood the pace! All those in  the Vocal Class were very pleased with the instruction given and with the interest  taken in them as individuals. Several, who had had experience at other such courses,  felt that the provision of a forty-five minute individual lesson was very generous.  One young man, who came from Vernon to study under Jan Rubes, sleeping  in his pick-up which he parked beside the school gym, caught fire under the  inspired instruction and, artistically, has not looked back since. His name?  Steven Henrikson, now Dr. Steven Henrikson. In 1968 Steve returned to the  School to sing at the opening concert. His repertoire included songs in German, English and French. He had just finished a season with the Vancouver  Opera Association and was on his way to Toronto and an assignment with the 158  Canadian Opera Association.  A very interesting aspect of the third and fourth Summer Schools were  the musical productions performed by young people: Benjamin Britten's The  Little Sweep in 1962, and The Forest Prince in the following year. Rehearsals  for the former had been conducted during the previous winter and spring  under Mrs. Beatrice Leith and the whole brought to fruition during the summer session. In 1963 a cast of some fifty students ranging in age from six to  sixteen registered in classes taught by the Canadian actress Susan Douglas.  Willem Bertsch was the musical director and conductor for the Tchaikovsky  music on which The Forest Prince was based. Steve Henrikson sang the role of  Tzar Mikhail. Paddy Malcolm of Vernon was stage director and producer.  Artistic supervision was undertaken by Jan Rubes and Susan Douglas. All sets  and costumes were made by the school on a limited budget. The Herald report stated:  Of particular note was the harmony, three and four-part which these young performers achieved, crisp and clear.24  The 1962 School was noteable for the presence of Toni Onley and of Arthur Loesser mentioned above. Robert Borsos taught a course in silk-screen  printing in 1962 and, the following year, he taught a course in basic design.  In 1963 the Radio and TV Script Writing classes of George Jonas were attended enthusiastically. The Director reported that this was the first year in  which creative writing classes had carried themselves financially. The teenage writing course was also a success, some of the registrants being recipients  of the Jack Scott Young Columnist awards. The Vancouver Sun presented  each winner in the contest with a $50 Canada Savings Bond plus a scholarship  to the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts.  There were two features of the 1963 School which were to have far-reaching effects. The first was the Band Workshop and Camp under the direction  of W. Allen Fisher. The Band Camp was set up by Dr. Flora Barr with the  help of Mrs. D. Todd, using school facilities. Mr. and Mrs. Dave Lee served as  counsellors for the two weeks and Mrs. E. Chamberlain cooked the meals.  There were eight live-in band students who paid $30 for their board and lodging in addition to the $30 for instruction. The two Jack Scott award winners  joined the band students for the two weeks and were billeted in Penticton  homes for their final week. Thus the idea of a hostel for teen-age students was  born.  The second innovation was the establishment of the Social Committee  under the direction of Mrs. Carolyn Plecash. In the Board Meeting of 8 October 1963 President Reg Cox declared the Social Committee to have been  "absolutely wonderful." The Administrative Director was just as enthusiastic  for in his annual report he wrote:  Such ideas as the coffee parties for each class on the first or second evening of the  course, the regular provision of food and fruit for the Common Room, the individual  baskets of cherries for out-of-town students and instructors, and the special receptions following the "Seminar" features — all these, and more, contributed greatly to  the warmth of hospitality which so many of our out-of-towners commented upon.  No wonder people liked to come to the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts!  The next year, on 9 June, Mrs. Plecash reported that already 33 receptions had been organized with the help of the Rotary Anns. Actually 42 separate activities were carried out during the three weeks of Summer School 159  that year according to the minutes of 29 May 1965. Not only did the women  associated with the Penticton Rotary Club support Mrs. Plecash, helping,  baking, opening their homes, but so did the women of the Hospital Auxiliary.  Penticton was a lavish host. In 1965 a separate organization was formed called the Summer School Auxiliary. Membership lists and minutes as well as  catering lists were kept and reports made to the Board. Other duties besides  the strictly social ones were added to the Auxiliary's activities such as typing  and assisting with registration. In 1968 Mrs. Marion Moorhouse headed a  60-member organization. In her Administrative Director's report for 1966  Mrs. Mavis Bjornson wrote:  The year-old Auxiliary and the many jobs they did made one wonder how we ever  operated without one previously. They drove, baked, stuffed envelopes, helped with  registration and on and on. Many of them felt their contribution was small but it added to a tremendous number of man hours.  In 1967 Mrs. Rosemary Holmes-Smith reported that during the Summer  School Mrs. Betty Speers typed a large number of stencils and ran off 4360  music and song sheets for the guitar course.  Mrs. Rusty Gilchrist was President of the Auxiliary in 1967, followed by  Mrs. Doreen Hack the next year. At the November Board meeting Mrs. Hack  reported that the Auxiliary no longer wished to be responsible for coffee  breaks for instructors and in 1969 there was a marked curtailing of the  number of functions. Yet that summer the Auxiliary attended to the billeting  of the children of the Brno Children's Choir. In April of 1969 Mrs. Hack had  submitted a report to the Board in which she stated:  Our membership list, as it exists at present, is in desperate need of a boost. We realize  that with the pressure of summer activities, one's time is limited. With this in mind,  the Auxiliary to the OSSA have found it necessary to curtail their program to a  limited number of functions. This, we hope, will revive the interest of members and  encourage prospective members to join us in making this a successful 1969 session.  Still active at this time were: Mrs. Cecily Harris, Mrs. B. Kinsey, Mrs. Ann  D'Easum, Mrs. Julie Morris, Mrs. Ellen Bradshaw, Mrs. Marilyn Dewdney,  Mrs. Marion Moorhouse, Mrs. Vivian Hyssop, Mrs. Ruth Johnson. At this  time Mrs. Hack asked to be relieved of her post as Chairman of the Auxiliary.  However, minutes show that she was still active in October. On 20 October  1970 Mrs. Chapman, who was then Administrative Director, reported:  Many duties previously done by the Auxiliary must be attended to such as reserving  the Community Arts Auditorium, getting keys, arranging food . . . arranging final  displays.  On 18 May 1971 George Gay reported that there was little interest in the  Social Committee. He proposed that wives of the Directors help with the  necessary projects. Times were changing and it was obvious that things must  be done differeiitly.  From 1964 until 1970 George Gay served the School as Chairman of the  Board of Directors. Of all those who have given so generously and selflessly to  the Okanagan Summer School of the Arts none has done more than George  Gay. Each year, when he was not the Administrative Director or Principal,  has seen him on the Board or Chairing it, being a one-man promotion committee, turning out to meeting after meeting to publicize the School, spending the Easter holiday period in promotional trips to Alberta or to Vancouver  Island. In 1959 George was President of the Okanagan Music Festival As- 160  sociation and both he and his wife Bev were caught up in the newly organized  Okanagan Symphony Orchestra. George tends to decry his own direct participation in the arts although he sang in Mrs. Margaret Hendry's Male Choir.  He was born in Wales but grew up in Vancouver, attending UBC and the  Vancouver Normal School. He says that his early experience was in sports  rather than the arts, several of his pre-teaching years being spent in the Pro-  Rec Program. After teaching stints in the Peace River area and in the lower  Fraser Valley, George came to Penticton to serve as boys' counsellor in the  Penticton Secondary School.  George is essentially a "people" person. The individual matters. The arts  are important because they enlarge the individual and enrich him. Therefore  the arts don't belong in some remote ivory tower, but right here where people  are. When articles about the school talk of "the friendly and informal atmosphere" in which people paint, play, or study, they are speaking of an environment which is the direct outcome of George's philosophy regarding the arts.  With the exception of three summers when George was invited to serve in  UBC's Counselling Service and the year immediately following his retirement  which he and Bev spent in travel, George has been on hand for every session of  the School. Mrs. Mavis Bjornson, in her Administrative Directors report for  1965 paid George Gay the following tribute:  As the Officer Commanding of the Summer School is the type who never heard the  phrase "it can't be done," and who never hesitates to tell the lowly paid workers that  he appreciates their efforts, and whose enthusiasm it would be hard to match, the  pace and atmosphere for a bigger and better school is set long before the school  opens. I cannot overestimate how much the active interest and tremendous support  of Mr. Gay and the Board and Committees does to keep the morale of the school and  all involved at an extremely high level.  The number of registrations fell to 310 in 1962, but rose to 375 in 1963.  In comparing registrations one has to be somewhat guarded in one's conclusions as registrations may have been to a week-end workshop or a short series  of evening lectures. A large group enterprise might swell the numbers for a  particular year. In 1963, for example, 65 registered in Children's Art, 52 in  Children's Ceramics, and The Forest Prince was produced. Another aspect of  registrations is that the same person may be registered in more than one  course. In 1964 when registrations climbed to about 520, Mrs. Margaret Colby, the Administrative Director, estimated that this figure represented  approximately 450 persons. In 1971, 620 registrations came from 490 people.  Who took the OSSA courses and where did they come from? A portion of  Mrs. Bjornson's report for 1965 gives us some idea. The report reads:  Thirty-seven courses were carried on with the breakdown as follows:  Registrations 550 Pentictonites 274  Children 12 and under 136 Non-Pentictonites 276  Teenagers (13-19) 294 Repeats from previous years 71  Adults 120  Where do they come from:  19  81  2  A total of 200, of whom many took more than one course. An interesting point is that  in 1964 two-thirds of the registrations were from Penticton. In 1965 it was 50 - 50.  Vancouver Island  15  Central & Northern B.C.  Lower Mainland  40  Okanagan Valley  Southern B.C. (inland)  15  (other than Penticton)  Alberta  5  Saskatchewan  Powell River  23 161  CHARLES DONDALE, Ph.D.  Biographical Sketch  Dr. Dondale was born in 1927 at Princeton, Nova Scotia. He obtained  his matriculation at Annapolis Royal, and later his Degree of B.Sc. (Agric.)  from Macdonald College, at the University of McGill in 1952. At Ohio State,  he obtained his M.Sc. degree, and in 1959, he earned his Ph.D. at Macdonald  College.  Currently, he works as a research scientist in the Biosystematics Research  Institute, Canada Agriculture, at Ottawa. He has done wide research in  spider behaviour. One major field of research is in behaviourism, as tax-  onomic characteristics. Many of the genera resemble each other, making the  identification rather difficult. The courtship behaviour assists in separating  the species. The presence of pheromones in the insect world has been known  for a long time, but only recently in the spider world. In this area, he has  helped to establish the role of pheromones in the realm of spider behaviourism, and that mating among spiders is the result of pheromone attraction rather than chance, that had long been believed to apply.  Dr. Dondale has published considerable literature on spiders. One is a  major revision of the North American crab spiders. He is working on the revision of some of the North American wolf spiders with the help of Mr. J. H.  Redner. With the help of Mr. Redner, he has published two Identification  Manuals for students. These references are purchased by a wide spectrum of  users in Canada, and abroad. His publications are too numerous to mention  here.  He has, with the collaboration of Mr. Redner, developed the Arachnid  section of the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and  Nematodes to the point where it stands third among the Arachnid collections  in North America. This collection consists of about 150,000 curated  specimens representing all of the major regions of Canada and the United  States.  He is a member of the following scientific societies:  Entomological Society of Canada: Publications Committee  1980-82.  Entomological Society of Ontario, since 1961.  Acadian Entomological Society, since 1953.  American Arachnological Society, Member 1973-82,  President 1978-79, Member of the Board of Directors  1980-82, Member of the Editorial Board 1979-82.  British Arachnological Society, since 1968.  Centre Internationale de Documentation Arachnologique,  since 1968, Canadian Correspondent 1968-82.  Cambridge Entomological Club, since 1962.  He is married, and lives in Ottawa, where he works for the Institute.  One may wonder how I became interested in the study of spiders. My  wife does too! It began two or three years prior to my retirement from an active role as a District Inspector, Food and Drugs, in Edmonton in June of  1978. In the course of my inspection duties, I often found insects in foods, or  food manufacturing premises. These often required identification. Dr.  Morris Smith,  an Entomologist, was in charge of the seed laboratory for 162  Canada Agriculture in the Federal Building in Edmonton. He was a natural  to identify many of these insects. It was he who collected and released three  species of Chrysolina beetle for the biological control of St. John's Wort, or  Klamath weed near Westbank, and other areas in 1951, '52 and '54.  Morris and I became fast friends. My wife Mary and I often visited Morris and his wife Debora at their wood lot home near Stoney Plain. We often  discussed retirement plans together. "Why not", he said, "study spiders?"  "They have been considered unimportant economically, and have not been  studied extensively". "Besides", he said, "the Okanagan Valley is a unique  area in Canada. The area should contain many interesting species".  After retirement to Summerland in July of 1978, and after some consideration, I embarked on the hobby. I needed references, equipment, and  study. The hobby was hampered by my lack of Entomology as a background.  To start with, I wrote to various people who were working in the field. I had  the good fortune to write to Dr. Charles Dondale, of the Biosystematics Research Institute, Canada Agriculture in Ottawa. In my letter, I mentioned  that I was interested in the study of the spiders of the Okanagan as a retirement hobby. His response was most enthusiastic, and very helpful. He was  planning a visit to the Okanagan that Spring, and would call upon me. His  visit here in June of 1979, gave me the final push into this most interesting  hobby.  WALTER DOUGLAS CHARLES  Historical Sketch  Mr. Charles was born in the small prairie town of Castor, Alberta, on  June 29th, 1913, son of Mr. James Vernon Charles and Hazel L. Charles. He  was raised to age 14 on a mixed farm near Rosetta School, where he went to  school prior to moving to Summerland with the family in 1927. There, he attended MacDonald School first, and later Summerland High School, taking  his Matriculation in 1932, and later his Senior Matriculation from the Penticton High School. In 1937 he graduated from U.B.C. with the degree of  B.S.A., majoring in Plant Physiology and Horticulture.  Early in his life in Summerland he began to work in the summer holidays  for the family firm of Walters Limited: at first making fruit boxes for the  firm. After graduating from U.B.C, he continued to work for the firm as a  warehouseman, and later as foreman. In 1938 he married Miss Mary Munn,  of the well known Summerland family. They went to live in the cottage above  the George Gartrell home in Peach Orchard. During the time he worked for  Walters Limited he worked a great deal with pesticides, suggesting control of  orchard pests by their use. Dr. James Marshall was often called upon for help  in this work. In January of 1958, when he began to work for the Food and  Drug Directorate, this pesticide work was counted as 'related experience', and  was to become a major part of his Food and Drug Inspectorial duties. That  summer, the family was moved to North Vancouver where they resided for  five years.  In 1963 he transferred to Belleville, Ontario, as District Inspector under  Mr. Don Gray of Toronto. The first task on arrival in Belleville, was the de- 163  struction of a quantity of cheese subsequent to a court order. During that  year, forty cheese plants of the district were visited at least once. There were  other food plants to visit as well. During the same period several trips were  made to Toronto to fill in vacancies of supervisors. In June of the next year a  transfer was made to Toronto to assume charge of the Customs Section, under  Mr. Herman Blackwood. New Inspectors were often assigned to this section.  After one year there, a transfer to the Edmonton District office came  through. This was a three man office, the responsibility of which was to administer the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act over the Northern part of  Alberta, the Peace River Block of B.C. and the McKenzie District of the  North West Territories, considered to be the largest district territory in  Canada under Food and Drug control.  Two firsts occurred in what was now known as the Health Protection  Branch:  (1) The first successful prosecution for the illegal sale of the halucino-  genic drug L.S.D. and;  (2) The first successful prosecution for the advertising of distilled water  as a cure for various 'scheduled' human diseases.  Retirement time came on June 29th, 1978, after which in July, we moved  to the Okanagan, after purchase of the family home in Summerland.  Argiope garden spider in the typical resting  position  (W.Charles photo)  Araneid garden spider in her web.  (Steve Cannings photo) 164  THE ARACHNIDS OF THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  By W. D. Charles  "Arachnology, derived from the Greek 'arachne', a spider, and 'logos', a  discourse, literally means a dissertation or treatise on spiders. It has become  extended to stand for the study of spiders together with their nearest relations,  such as harvestmen, scorpions, mites and others. It was born in 1802, whenj.  B. Lamarck, the well-known French biologist, separated the spiders and scorpions from the Tnsecta Aptera' of Carl Linnaeus, and 'Les Arachnides', as  Lamarck called them, parted company from the insects.  In rather more than a century and a half arachnology has developed into  a comprehensive study of the eight legged terrestial small animals, and is now  universally recognized as having attained the status of a science in its own  right."1 page 1  The study of Arachnology, as in all other sciences, is divided into sections  such as Anatomy, Morphology, Taxonomy, Physiology, etc. I am interested  primarily in the Taxonomy of the spiders of the Okanagan Valley. However,  one cannot study spiders without becoming aware of the other Arachnids associated with them. For example, we found a Solpugid in one of the pan traps  in 1979, which was identified by Dr. Dondale, and reported. Dr. R.  Holmberg, of Athabasca University, who saw the report, called on me here,  and together we went to the site, where we found another in the trap. He began to search the area, and was able to find a juvenile female. You can  imagine his excitement when he related that, in his seven years of studying  these animals, it was the first time that the had seen a live solpugid. Owing to  the confusion over the taxonomy of the North American Solpugids, it's not yet  possible to report our species by name.  The history of spiders is full of myths. They have been mentioned in the  writings of naturalists from the time of Aristotle. In the thirteenth century, we  saw the rise of the myth of the tarantula and the remarkable effects of the bite  from this actually harmless spider, belief in which lasted until the seventeenth  century. The foundations of araneology were laid in France, where J. B.  Lamarck (1774-1829), P. A. Latreille (1762-1833) and C. A. Walkenaer  (1771-1852) all tackled the basic problem of classifying the increasing numbers of newly-discovered species. At the same time, there were in Germany C.  W. Hahn (1786-1836) and C. L. Koch (1778-1857) who produced the sixteen  volume work, 'Die Arachniden', with over five hundred coloured plates. Apparently this "was the first publication to bear a title that included the word  'Arachnid' in any form".1 In Britain, Arachnology was established by H. R.  Meade (1814-1900), John Blackwall (1790-1881) and Octavius Pickard-  Cambridge (1828-1917). In France, the greatest of all araneists, Eugene  Simon (1848-1924) devoted himself to the study of spiders from the age of sixteen, and became the author of two standard works, 'Les Arachnides de  France' and 'Histoire Naturelle des Araignees'.  On this continent, some of the workers of note are N. M. Hentz  (1797-1850), J. H. Emerton (1847-1931) and H.J. McCook (1837-1911). The  latter wrote the three volume work American Spiders and their Spinning  Work'. A few of the contemporary workers in America are Dr. Willis J.  Gertsch (Author of "American Spiders"), Dr. James E. Carico, Dr. Norman  Platnick, Dr. H. W. Levi, Dr. B. J. Kaston (Author of "How to Know the 165  Spiders"), and others. In Canada, we have Dr. Charles Dondale, at Ottawa;  Dr. R. Holmberg, at Athabasca University, Edmonton; and Dr. A. L. Turn-  bull at Simon Fraser University.  Dr. Dondale is working in the Biosystematics Research Institute of  Canada Agriculture, assisted by Mr. Jim Redner. He is working on the Taxonomy of spiders; Dr. Turnbull is working on the predation of Insects by  Spiders.  Arachnids (Class Arachnida) comprise the largest non-insect class of  Arthropod animals. They include eleven orders, with over 75,000 named  species world wide, including more than four hundred species in North  America. The first Arachnids appeared about 350 million years ago. They  differ from Insects in lacking antennae and wings, having eight, rather than  six legs. They have jaw-like, fang-bearing chelicerae in front of the mouth  and a pair of leg-like pedipalps at the sides. Unlike insects, which have three  body segments, the bodies of most Arachnids have two distinct parts — the  cephalothorax and the abdomen.  Arachnids commonly found in the Okanagan Valley are classified as  follows:  Order Scorpiones The Scorpions  Order Pseudoscorpiones The Pseudoscorpions  Order Opiliones The Harvestmen  Order Acari The Mites  Order Solifugae The Solpugids  Order Araneae The Spiders  Scorpions  These are among the oldest and most generalized of the land Arachnids.  The Scorpions are often called living fossils because they have changed so little since the Silurian Period, about 400,000,000 years ago.2 In the upper  Devonian period, about 345,000,000 years ago, they learned to live on land.  The curious mating dance of the scorpions is the effort of the male to  manoeuver the female over the previously deposited sperm mass, in order to  accomplish fertilization. The female produces living young which ride on the  back of the mother after birth, and remain there until after the first moult,  usually a week or more. When they leave the mother, they lead solitary lives  and forage on their own. They feed nocturnally on spiders and large insects,  which they seize with the large chelae of their pedipalps and sting them to  death prior to tearing the prey apart.5  The sting of our scorpions is not dangerous to man. However, several  species of Centroides in Mexico are responsible for the deaths of many  children.2 It is said that the best remedy for the sting of the scorpion is ammonia applied externally, and also small doses administered internally.5 One  species, identified by Dr. O. F. Francke as Paruroctonus boreus (Girard),  has been found in the Okanagan Valley, at Osoyoos. Specimens of scorpions  have been found as far north as Summerland.  Pseudoscorpions  These animals are so named because of their superficial resemblance to  true scorpions. They have enlarged pedipalps terminating in pinching chelae  or jaws, similar to scorpions, but they possess no sting. They produce silk, and 166  feed on small insects which they tear apart with the chelae and consume.  They are friendly little creatures. One used to live on the receipt machine that  I used in the Walters' Ltd., packing house in Summerland. It often came out  to look into my activities while I worked. I did note the enlarged chelae, and  it's curious sideways, backwards or forwards movements, but thought at the  time that it was a spider. A list of the species is not yet available for the  Okanagan Valley.  Because they are retiring little animals that often inhabit leaf litter, they  are not seen often by the casual observer. The numbers in leaf litter may be  relatively high, "up to several hundred per m2" in one study site.7 The authors  report that they apparently preferred young adult springtails (Folsomia Candida).  Harvestmen (or Daddy Longlegs)  These animals are familiar to most people, and are recognized by their  long, slender legs. ***They are quite numerous in the fall around the garden.  A close look will disclose that the body of the harvestmen consists of one division only. They possess the ability of casting legs, thus losing a leg to a predator, but allowing the animal to escape. Individuals have been noted getting  around on two leg