Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Thirty-fourth annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society Nov 1, 1970

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 Thirty-Fourth Report  ^1  November 1, 1970 4 PENTICTON (R.M. Atkinson} MUSEUM  785 MAIM STREET  PENTICTON, B.C.   V2A5E3  THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Founded Sept. 4, 1925  Cover picture: One of the earliest glances at an emerging Keremeos. The  view is from Pudding Head Mountain,  with  the  Central Hotel,  fittingly,  in the centre.  November 1, 1970 r THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  HONORARY PATRONS  Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C, LL.D.  Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia  The Honourable W. A. C Bennett, P.C, LL.D., D. Pol. Sc.  Premier of British Columbia  The Honourable Frank X. Richter  Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources, and  Minister of Commercial Transport  PATRON  Mrs. Charles Patten  HONORARY PRESIDENTS  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Mr. H. C S. Collett,  Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. G. D. Cameron,  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. Harold Cochrane.  PRESIDENT  Mr. Kenneth V. Ellison, Oyama, B.C.  IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Ave., Penticton, B.C.  VICE PRESIDENTS  Mr. J. E. Jamieson Mrs. Duncan Tutt Mr. Victor Wilson  SECRETARY  R.F. Gale, Box 24, Pineview Drive, Kaleden, B.C.  TREASURER  Mr. John Shephard, Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  ESSAY SECRETARY  Mr. E. D. Sismey, 1348 Government St., Penticton, B.C.  AUDITOR  Mr. T. R. Jenner, 3105 29th Ave., Vernon, B.C  DIRECTORS  Vernon: Mr. E. B. Hunter, Mrs. Harold Cochrane, Mrs. Harry Gorman  Kelowna: Mr. D. S. Buckland, Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. G. D. Cameron  Penticton: Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Mr. E. D. Sismey, Mr. H. Cleland  Oliver-Osoyoos: Major H. Porteous  Similkameen: Mrs. Ray Walters  DIRECTORS AT LARGE  Mrs. A. E. Berry   Rev. E. Fleming  Mrs. H. C Whitaker  Mrs. Ray Walters Major H. Porteous  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Editor: Mr. G.J. Rowland, 186 Nanaimo Ave., W., Penticton, B.C.  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney Mr. Harold Cochrane Mrs. T. B. Upton  Major H. Porteous 1970-71 BRANCH OFFICERS  VERNON   BRANCH  President:  Harold Cochrane, 3106 32nd St.  Vice-President: Mr. Kenneth V. Ellison, Oyama, B.C.  Secretary: Mrs. H. Gorman, 3503 Barnard Ave.  Treasurer: Mr. H. Cochrane, 3106 32nd St.  Directors: E. B. Hunter, Mrs. M. Middleton, Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. K.  Kinnard, Mrs. A. E. Berry, Mrs. H. Cochrane, Mr. W. A. Martin.  Editorial Committee: Mr. Harold Cochrane, Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. G. P.  Bagnall.  KELOWNA   BRANCH  President: Mr. J. L. Piddocke, Rittich Road, R.R. No. 2.  Vice-President: Mrs. T. B. Upton, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Secretary: Mr. R. C Gore, 480 Queensway.  Treasurer: Mr. J.J. Conroy, 2259 Aberdeen St.  Directors: Mr. G. D. Cameron, Mr. F. G. DeHart, Mrs. Duncan Tutt,  Mrs. John C. Surtees, Mr. H. K. Keating, Mr. J. L. Neave, Mr. J. S.  Duggan, Mr. J. E. Marty, Mr. L. N. Leathley, Mr. Fraser Black, Mr.  William Spear, Mr. Allan Lansdowne, Mr. Eric T. Sherlock, Mr. D. S.  Buckland, Mr. Hume M. Powley.  Editorial Commmittee: Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mr. A. W. Gray, Mrs. J. C  Surtees.  PENTICTON    BRANCH  Honorary Life President: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, 273 Scott Ave.  President: Dr. W. H. White, 702 Winnipeg St.  Vice-President: Mr. Hugh Cleland, Upper Bench Road.  Secretary: Mrs. G. P. Broderick, 1825 Fairford Drive.  Treasurer: Mr. D. H. Gawne, 91 Newton Drive, West Bench.  Directors: Mr. R. N. Atkinson, Mr. H. O. Rorke, Mr. R. F. Gale, Mayor  F. D. Stuart, Mr. E. D. Sismey, Dr. J. J. Gibson, Mr. Wells Oliver, Mrs.  H. C Whitaker, Mrs. Donald Orr, Mrs.  Louise Gabriel, Mrs.  F. A.  MacKinnon, Mrs. Faye Scott, Mr. J. R. Phinney, Mr. Morris Thomas.  Director at Large: Mr. Victor Wilson.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. E. D. Sismey.  Delegate to Arts Council: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney.  OLIVER - OSOYOOS    BRANCH  President: Mr. D. Corbishley, R.R. No. 1, Oliver, B.C  Vice-President: Mrs. H. Lewis, Osoyoos, B.C.  Secretary: Mrs. P. M. Field, Osoyoos, B.C.  Treasurer: Mrs. P. M. Field, Osoyoos, B.C.  Directors: Mr. Carleton McNaughton, Mrs. H. Porteous, Mrs. Peggy  Driver, Mrs. E. M. MacLennan, Mrs. Retta Long.  Historian: Miss Dolly Waterman.  Editorial Committee: Major H. Porteous.  Director at Large: Major H. Porteous.  SIMILKAMEEN    BRANCH  President: Mrs. Ray Walters.  Vice-President: Mrs. Arthur Advocaat.  Secretary: Mrs. L. Innis.  Treasurer: Mrs. Douglas Parsons.  Directors: Mr. G. Cawston, L.  Innis, D.  Parsons, R. Walters, Mrs.  Arthur Advocaat, Mr. S. Manery.  Editorial Committee: Mrs. Ray Walters.  Director at Large: Mrs. Ray Walters. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  The frequent quotation and even more frequent misquotation from  three centuries ago, informing us that life in a state of nature is "solitary,  poor, nasty, brutish, and short" only emphasizes that Thomas Hobbes, the  famous philosopher whose well-worn phrase we yet again invoke, was not  spared to meet Mrs. Grace Worth of Trinity Valley.  Mrs. Worth would be the one to explain, no doubt impatiently, that she  certainly had experienced the wilds and every state of nature, as well as  some solitude and hard times. But, with many another pioneer whose stories  are told in the following pages, her memories hold nothing of the nasty or  brutish. And as for life being short? Well into her nineties, a typewriter by  her side, she received the editor of this current report with zestful interest  when he called at her Vernon home to cautiously discuss an abridgement of  the second and so-called concluding part of her autobiography, which at the  time seemed as unquenchable as her own spirit. It may suffice to add that,  hours later when the editor left, it was with even more manuscript from her.  So "unquenchable" may indeed be the operative word. Persistence  was what sprang from pioneering days. There was endurance through many  years. We think of Joe Kass (who also tells his own story in this issue) who is  in his nineties in his retirement at Vancouver. And of Joe Richter, nearing  the century mark, who looks to the hills from his home now in Penticton and  thinks of the bucks he used to hunt. And of many others whose records are  essentially the same—in the overcoming of odds.  If the spirit of persistence would seem to be a valuable matter for  consideration we would ask the reader to give more than a passing glance to  one small reference in Mrs. Sharpe's history of Deep Creek, and to the  woman with mail who, in the event of a mis-delivery, would return over her  22-mile route to correct her mistake. Somehow, in reading this in the midst  of this summer's postal discords, your editor was suddenly moved to refill  his pre-dinner drink.  It was for a toast. To the pioneers.  There are these and other stories before you.  —G. J. Rowland CONTENTS  LIST OF OFFICERS  3  CAWSTON'S PIONEERS (Manery)  9  JOSEPH RICHTER (Sismey)  13  THE HARD TIMES BALL  16  WITH MANY A MEMORY (Walters)  18  L. S. COLEMAN REMEMBERED  19  THE SIMILKAMEEN INDIANS (McGlashing)  23  LACHLIN GILLANDERS (Sismey)  25  HE WITNESSED DISASTER (Walters)  28  57 YEARS IN OKANAGAN CENTRE (Upton)  28  THE SACRED HEART CHURCH (Sismey)  29  MEDICINE AMONG THE INDIANS (Watkins)  30  CELEBRATED HUNDREDTH BIRTHDAY (Upton)  32  QUIL'STEN ("Observer")       33  FERDIE BRENT  35  MINEOLA (Emery)  36  TO A WILDFLOWER (Estabrooks)  39  PIONEER DAYS (Holden)  40  AT 106 YEARS OF AGE  44  OKANAGAN FALLS PIONEER  44  H. & K. TRADING COMPANY (Atkinson)  45  FRANK OSCAR McDONALD (Dewdney)  47  MAJOR HUGH FRASER (Sismey)  50  E. O. ATKINSON (R. N. Atkinson)  55  CHARTER MEMBER PASSES ON (Upton)  61  STREETSFUL OF MEMORIES (Bone)  62  HISTORIC CHURCH MARKER (Dewdney)  67  FESTIVAL OF REMEMBRANCE (Phillips)  73  AN HONORED DOCTOR (Orr)  77  JAMES GAWNE (Dewdney)  79  MY OWN STORY (Sismey)  81  THE GELLATLY PIONEERS (Gellatly)  85  LOGGING AT WESTBANK (Bouvette)  89  FATHER PANDOSY TREK (Upton)  91  THE STORY OF THE AUXILIARY (Gale)       93  A DISTINGUISHED DIPLOMAT  100  LAWN BOWLING IN KELOWNA (Whillis)  101  A GRIZZLY ENCOUNTER (Drinkwater)  105  A GOLDEN WEDDING (Upton)  109  CHARLES MAIR, POET AND PIONEER (Gray)  Ill  OKANAGAN LANDING SCHOOL DAYS (Hodgson)  116  SINCE 1910 (Worth)  120  HISTORY OF DEEP CREEK (Sharpe)  141  REMINISCENCES OF MABEL LAKE (Simard)  145  ON SILVER STAR (McAllister)  156  MY LIFE IN THE ENDERBY AREA (Kass)  159  ALFRED WADE STARTED IT (Atkinson)  166  NORTH OKANAGAN OBITUARIES (Cochrane)  168  KELOWNA AREA OBITUARIES (Upton)  170  FORT OKANOGAN MEMORIAL CEMETERY  173  THE MINUTES  174  ANNUAL MEETING NOTICE  190  MEMBERSHIP LIST  191 ILLUSTRATIONS  Cawston Medal Winners       8  Joseph Richter  13  Keremeos Pioneers  17  Mary Jane Foster  18  Keremeos Scenes 20, 21, 22  Lachlin Gillanders  25  Indian Church at Chopaka  29  Mrs. Gabriel, Donald Watkins  30  Quil'sten Views  34  Mineola Townsite  ?7  The Wheeler Sawmill  38  Eustace C. Holden  40  Holden Original Home  42  H & K Plant  45  The HK Trademark  46  Frank McDonald  48  Major Hugh Fraser  51  Mr. and Mrs. Atkinson       56  Ethel and Fred Bradburn       62  Original St. Sqviour's Church  67  Frank Lefroy and Mrs. Dewdney  68  Ellis Memorial Chapel  71  Canon Harris, Rev. Norman Tannar  74  St. Stephen's Church  76  Dr. W. H. B. Munn  77  James Gawne  79  Eric D. Sismey  81  David Gellatly, and House  86  Eliza Gellatly  87  Father Pandosy's Trek  92  Kelowna Hospital Opening       94  Auxiliary Garden Party  99  Kelowna Lawn Bowling Club  102  Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Tutt  109  Charles Mair's Family  110  Bernard Avenue in 1894  112  Mair's Benvoulin Store       113  Mair with C. D. G. Roberts  114  At the Landing  117  Harry and Grace Worth  120  Getting Ice  124  Mother and Worth Sons  128  The Worth Meadow       135  On Mabel Lake Road, 1908  146  The Well-Dressed Traveller  149  The Frog Ranch       150  Mrs. Hall's Store  150  Launching a Canoe  153  Rest Period  154  At Falls Creek  158  Marker for the "Unknown"       173  Essay Contest Writers  179  Mrs. Frank Richardson       179 CAWSTON'S PIONEERS  Centennial medal winners of the Cawston area, from left seated: W. D. Lang, Mrs. Chris  Tickell (now of Penticton), Mrs. Gertrude Sutherland (Vancouver), Joseph Richter (Penticton);  standing: Samuel R. J. Manery, Mrs. Mollie McDonald, Mrs. Elizabeth McGowan (Vancouver),  L. V. Newton (Penticton). Mrs. Newton, Michael Thomas Terbasket (deceased), and Robert  S. Wainwright (deceased) also merited medals.  L CAWSTON'S PIONEERS 9  CAWSTON'S PIONEERS  By S. R. Manery  Pioneers of the Cawston area were honored recipients of centennial  medals, then were given congratulations in the following year (1968) by their  fellow residents.  The following are thumb-nail sketches of these long-time residents,  who did so much to build up the name of their part of the expanding country.  MRS. CHRISTOPHER TICKELL  (Nellie Manery)  Born in Kelowna, June 12,1890, she was the second of ten children. She  was brought over Mission Mountain from Kelowna via Penticton to the lower  Similkameen when she was three weeks old. Nellie was raised on the old  Manery Ranch and received her education in the little old red schoolhouse  south of Cawston.  She became Mrs. Christopher Tickell in 1915 and lived in Cawston until  1929 when she moved to Kelowna with three children. Later a fourth child  was born to Mr. and Mrs. Tickell. They moved to Penticton in 1935 where  they still reside.  SAMUEL R.J.MANERY  Sam was born on the old Barcelo Ranch in Cawston, March 14,1888. He  was the fourth white child born in the Similkameen and the eldest of ten  children.  He was raised on a cattle ranch seven miles from the Boundary at  South Similkameen. Primary education was in the little red school house. He  attended Columbian College, New Westminster in 1907 and 1908 where he  received his diploma as a full fledged accountant.  In 1911 he married Mabel Elizabeth Broder and the raised two sons  and four daughters. Sam's parents had been married in Ontario, his mother  being the former Mary Ellen McCurdy. They travelled, to Kelowna then by  horseback down the east side of Okanagan Lake to Penticton and over to the  Similkameen Valley.  Sam entered the fruit and vegetable canning business in New Westminster in 1912; moved to Nanaimo where salmon and clams were canned;  from there he went to Vernon where he and his brother-in-law installed and  operated a fruit cannery.  He continued with the canning business in Okanagan Centre and  Kelowna and was in charge of the apple and pumpkin canning department  for Western Canners in Kelowna.  In 1923 he became manager and processor for the Cawston Canning  Company and held that position until 1933. Owing to the very strong opposition from the Dominion Canners, the cannery operated periodically.  For eleven years Sam was trustee and secretary of the Cawston School  Board. In 1920 he purchased an orchard and is at present residing on the  same property.  LOUIS VICTOR NEWTON  Born in Alliston, Ontario, December 10, 1885, the third in a family of  five children, he received his primary education in Alliston and North Bay.  In 1905 Mr. Newton finished his apprenticeship of four years in  Pharmacy and came west to Winnipeg the same year where he worked for  twelve months. 10 CAWSTON'S PIONEERS  He travelled to Victoria but opportunities in the East called him back  and he was employed in Ontario until 1914 when he decided to come west and  to Cawston.  Mr. Newton operated a store and postoffice there in conjunction with a  ten acre orchard until 1927. He then moved to Penticton and entered into  partnership with H. D. Neve. Four years later Mr. Neve passed on and Lou  Newton operated the pharmacy under the name of Neve-Newton until 1948  when he retired. He is still living in Penticton.  MRS. MABEL NEWTON  (Mrs. L.V.)  Mrs. Newton was born in Crystal City, Manitoba in 1887, the fourth in  a family of seven. She received her education both primary and high in  Crystal City and taught school for a short time before her marriage. One  daughter, Dorothy (now Mrs. B. Boyle) was born while the Newtons were  residents of Cawston. Along with her husband she is residing in Penticton.  MRS. MOLLIEMcDONALD  Born Mary Lillico Bickerton in Elkhorn, Manitoba, August 24, 1884,  she received her education in Two Creeks school, Manitoba. She was the  fourth child in a family often children and is the mother of four.  She married A. J. Swan at Hargrove, Manitoba in 1906 and lived in  Elkhorn until 1934. She came west to Cawston in the same year and married  D. C McDonald. After his demise she carried on in Cawston still living in the  old home.  ROBERT S. WAINWRIGHT  Mr. Robert Wainwright was born in the village of Stapleford, Nottinghamshire, England, on December 13, 1870. After leaving school he  worked a year in the office of the Midland Railway, and then at the age of 17  he left to join others of his family who had come to Canada and the U.S.A.  earlier. His first job in the New World was as a shipping clerk with a cotton  goods plant at Fall River, Mass. From there, about a year later he went to  Winnipeg to join his brother-in-law and started his career in Canada as a  helper in a bake shop. In 1889 he became a member of the C.P.R. Telegraph  staff in Winnipeg and stayed there until 1912 by which time he had become  chief clerk. From 1912 to 1920 he was with the C.N.R. Telegraphs and a firm  of auditors. In 1916, influenced no doubt by the glowing accounts of fruit  growing in the sunny Similkameen, he bought a lot in Cawston and moved  out in 1920 with part of his family to take up a new life. While fruit-growing  never provided too great a monetary return it did provide a very happy  period of his life and many cherished friendships.  Mr. Wainwright was married to Marion Wicks in Winnipeg in 1892, and  had three children. The eldest, Frank, now lives in Toronto. Harry lives in  Montreal and is a frequent visitor to Cawston. Arthur, who came out to the  valley with his father in 1920 still resides and farms in the area. Mrs.  Wainwright predeceased her husband in 1956 after 63 years of happy life  together. Mr. Robert Wainwright passed on in July of 1966 in his 96th year.  WILLIAM DICKSON LANG  He was born on a farm near Ottawa on October 1, 1874 and came west  in 1890 with his parents and settled at Indian Head, Sask., where he farmed  for 30 years.  He was married at Indian Head on Valentine's Day, Feb. 14, 1906 to  Jessie Hellen Stewart who passed away in 1956. He has one son, J. Stewart CAWSTON'S PIONEERS 11  Lang, Vancouver, and four daughters, Agnes (Mrs. J. N. Bush), Cawston;  Jean (Mrs. G. E. Willis), Keremeos; Lilian (Mrs. R. C Gibbs), and Frances  (Mrs. E. C Maynard) both of North Vancouver.  In 1920 Mr. Lang came to B.C. and settled at Cawston where he planted  an orchard and engaged in fruit growing until 1956. He now lives in  retirement with his son-in-law and daughter, Mr. and Mrs. J. N. Bush on the  old home place at Cawston.  JOSEPH RICHTER  Joseph Richter was born in the lower Similkameen Valley in 1874. His  pioneer father, Francis Xavier Richter, left his home in Bohemia in 1853,  and eventually made his way to this valley, crossing the border at Osoyoco  driving 42 head of cattle over the Richter Pass, in 1864, and settling on 320  acres, the present Cawston Ranch.  Joseph is the son of Francis and Lucille Richter. He attended the only  government school in Okanagan and Similkameen, at Okanagan Mission. He  then joined his father and brothers on the ranch. In 1910 he married Sarah  McCurdy, the daughter of another Similkameen pioneer, and his wedding  present was the Ingram Ranch near Midway, Sarah died in 1915, and Joseph  later married Gertrude Henderson.  Like all of the Richters, Joseph was an outstanding athlete, sportsman  and horseman. As a young man he was known as a champion foot racer, and  has never missed a hunt since he was old enough to carry a rifle, or failed to  bring home a buck. He has won many medals for trap shooting, and remains  to this day good competition at local shoots. (His life is more extensively  featured in a special article in this report.)  MRS. JAN ELIZABETH McGOWAN  (nee Dunnet)  Mrs. McGowan was born on Victoria Avenue, Eglinton, North  Toronto, then the family moved to Youn Street, Bedford Park. She attended  Eglinton Public School and Jarvis Collegiate in Toronto. In 1908 the family  (there were four children of which she was the third) moved to Indian Head,  Saskatchewan. Here she held the newest baby born to the Lang family who  were friends and this baby grew up to be Mrs. Agnes Bush.  Due to the illness of a brother the family moved to Cawston where he  died one month later. Mrs. McGowan drove the first four students to high  school, then six students for a number of years. After the death of her  parents, she carried on with the ranch and Guy Lepingwell managed it for  her. In 1955 she married her cousin James Grant McGowan who died  December 17,1966. Guy Lepingwell, who had continued to manage the ranch  died November 2, 1966. The property was sold to Arthur Wainwright in 1966.  MRS. GERTRUDE SUTHERLAND  Mrs. Sutherland was born Gertrude M. Kemp in Winnipeg, Manitoba.  Her birthdate is the same as the city of Vancouver, April 6th, 1886. Her  parents cameto Winnipeg from Ontario before the railroad arrived.  She has two sons and one daughter. Her oldest son, Gordon works as a  projectionist for Odeon Theatres for B.C. Her daughter is married to Mr.  Paulsen's oldest son, Karl Paulsen with whom Mrs. Sutherland now resides.  She has been a resident of B.C. since 1919.  MICHAEL THOMAS TERBASKET  (better known as Tommy)  He was born on the Frank Superant ranch in Keremeos, better known 12 CAWSTON'S PIONEERS  as the Frank Richter ranch, and a pioneer settler in the Similkameen, in  1882.  Tommy sawthe first light of day in an original Indian tee pee made of  willow poles and skins. He lived on Blind Creek, east of Cawston on his  parents' property for many years. He attended school at the Similkameen  school house for a number of years.  He acquired property on the Indian reserve and raised cattle. He took  part in many cattle drives out of the Valley. He was first in a family of  fourteen and was the father of ten children. He passed away at home in 1966. JOSEPH RICHTER  13  JOSEPH  RICHTER  By ERIC D. SISMEY  Joseph Richter celebrated his birthday in Penticton on February 22,  1970. He was 96 years old.  Joe was born in the Lower Similkameen in 1874. His four brothers have  passed on but a much younger half-  brother, The Honourable Frank  Richter, has represented the  Similkameen in the provincial  legislature since 1953. He is Minister  of Mines and Petroleum Resources.  Their pioneer father, Francis  Xaxier Richter, left his home in  Bohemia, at the age of 16, for the  New World in 1853. Landing at  Galveston, Texas, he worked for a  short time in San Antonio but finding  the job uninteresting hit the trail for  the silver mines in Arizona. During  the civil war while serving as a scout  he was captured by the Apaches. He  escaped but was wounded by two  arrows. After recovering from his  wounds he journeyed west, and  learning of open land and good range Joseph Richter  in Canada, came north.  In 1864 he crossed the border at Osoyoos driving 42 head of cattle.  Learning of good land in the Similkameen he crossed over what is now  Richter Pass where he filed on 320 acres of land — the present Cawston  Ranch.  Richter planted the first fruit trees in the Similkameen and cultivated  produce for sale in 1880. Other orchards were set out in 1886 and 1897. Fruit  did well in the sunny, warm climate and in 1906 the Richter ranch won  twenty-three prizes for fruit and vegetables in the New Westminster  Provincial Exhibition. But it was cattle, branded "O" on the left hip, known  from Fort Hope to the Kootenays, that was the mainstay of the Richter  ranch.  Over the years, reaching into the 20th century, the original Richter  holdings grew from the first 320 into 10,000 acres of farm and range in the  Similkameen, Okanagan and Boundary country, one of the great farms and  cattle empires in the history of British Columbia. This was the heritage that  F. X. Richter passed on to his heirs.  Joseph Richter, hale in his 96th year, remembers his boyhood clearly.  He talked to me from an easy chair in front of a wide window. .It was cold  outside, but his electrically-heated living room was cosy. A television set  against one wall was awaiting the turn of a switch to bring news or entertainment. In the kitchen a refrigerator hummed softly and a coffee  percolator gurgled on the electric range.  "When I was little", he said, "coal oil was brought 70 miles from Hope  on the backs of horses. It was used sparingly. My mother made candles in a 14 JOSEPH RICHTER  special mold and after the cotton wick was threaded it was filled with our  own tallow. She made soap from waste fat and lye. Some of our clothing was  made from buckskin traded from the Indians. Mother fashioned into coats,  shirts and pants. Take it from me, buckskin garments are warm, soft and  comfortable".  Ranch-churned butter was packed in ranch-made tubs. It sold for a  dollar a pound at Hudson's Bay posts from Fort Hope to Fort Sheppard in  East Kootenay.  When school days came Joe attended the only government school in  Similkameen and Okanagan at the Mission, later Okanagan Mission. It was  a two day ride to school stopping half way at the Tom Ellis ranch in Penticton. Joe and his brothers boarded with the Frederick Brents near the  Mission. After Joe finished seven years schooling he joined his elder  brothers to do a man's work around the ranch. There was lumber to cut in  the whip-saw pit, snake fences to build and repair, cattle to tend and hay to  mow by hand. Timothy, red-top and clover grew waist-high in the lower  meadows, head-high oats waved in the fields and alfalfa flourished on the  irrigated bench lands.  At first hay was mowed with a scythe, grain crops with scythe and  cradle—a forked device attached to the snaith, that gathered the falling  stalks holding them until dumped at the end of the swath. Grain was  threshed on the barn floor — sheaves were laid crossways and horses driven  round and round for about half an hour or until the grain was trodden from  the straw. After straw was forked away the grain was winnowed by a hand-  cranked machinethat blewthe chaff and alien seeds away.  "Our first wagons were ranch made; wheels were cut from rounds of  large logs. Oxen were used for draft animals until work horses could be  imported from the United States. Later when proper machinery became  available it was taken apart at Hope, packed on horses to the ranch, where it  was put together again," Joe recalled.  By the turn of the century, with machine aid now, one thousand tons of  hay was cut and stacked for winter use and cattle grazed the meadows after  harvest days were done.  During the mining boom along the Boundary in the '90s, fat cattle  drives from the "R" ranch were frequent. One drive in the fall of 1892 Joe  remembers particularly. Two hundred and fifty head were driven from  Keremeos to West Kootenay where Pat Burns waited to receive them. The  drive followed the Dewdney Trail from Keremeos over Richter Pass to  Osoyoos, up over Anarchist Mountain to Rock Creek through Midway,  Greenwood and Grand Forks over the hill to Rossland where fifty head were  leftatthe slaughterhouse. Joe and his brother Ed, together with the drovers  spent the night where the city of Trail now stands and in the morning the rest  of the herd was driven to the Columbia River (Castlegar) where two Indians  were hired to help take the cattle across. By prodding and pushing about  twenty head at a time were forced into the river and with a canoe on either  side the cattle swam to the opposite bank (Robson) where they were  coral led.  Thedrivetook twenty days, ten miles being a fair day's travel. On the  trail the cattle followed a bell-mare, packed with the cook's supplies. They  plodded behind her in a long string, never wandering or hesitating when  passing through frontier camps and settlements.  Trail camps were no more than a cooking fire, saddles for pillows and JOSEPH RICHTER 15  saddle blankets for cover. At night the horses were hobbled and the mare's  jangling bell kept the drive together. Soon after daylight the drive was on the  trail again for another ten mile trek and when it was delivered to Pat Burns  the animals were in excellent shape and not a single head had been lost.  Joe smiled when asked how much cattle were worth in those days.  "About $35 a head," he replied. Today they bring 25 cents a pound.  "At first our only neighbours were Similkameen Indians. We often  hired them to help in the fields or on the range. Fluency in Chinook jargon  was necessary and I learned to understand but not to speak the Okanagan  tongue.  "On one occasion", Joe chuckled, "when I was trading deer hides for  buckskin gloves I heard the kloochman say to her husband in Okanagan,  'These are very good skins.' But when he turned to me he said in Chinook,  'Yaka skin tenas kloshe' (skins not much good).  "Oh! Joe said. "Your kloochman just told you that they were good  skins. After that I got the trade I expected."  "I suppose" Joe remarked, "that today most people would think that  our early days were rough. We worked hard, we had everything we needed.  We were a closely knit, affectionate family, self-sufficient, yet depending on  one another, each respecting the other's worth under the guidance of wise  parents.  "Our dealings with the natives were those of mutual respect. They  regarded our father astheir friend and trusted counsellor.  "I shall never forget those early ranch days." Joe spoke softly as if  talking to himself. "The valley was all ours, our lush meadows, hay fields  and miles of bunch grass range, dotted with cattle, stretched as far as we  could see, to be broken here and there by snake fences. Near the house our  saddle stock and milk cows grazed in the rich home pasture.  "Along the river great cottonwoods grew and from the far bank Goat  Mountain reared straight up to dizzy heights until its summit touched the  clouds. As winter came we watched the snow creep down until it blanketed  the meadows and when the cottonwoods budded green the snow line ran  away.  "This is the picture I remember, more beautiful than anything else in  the world. This is the picture I want to remember and to keep bright, not the  blossoming Keremeos orchards, beautiful though they are!"  When Joseph Richter married Sarah McCurdy, daughter of another  Similkameen pioneer, in 1910, his wedding present was the Ingram Ranch  near Midway. This fine 600 acre ranch was complete with a large log house,  farm buildings, stables, machinery, cattle and horses.  Sarah died in 1915 leaving Joe with three young daughters — Juanita,  Mrs. H. M. Moll of North Surrey; Josephine, Mrs. E. Scheibner of San Diego,  and Jean, Mrs. W. Harper of Los Angeles.  Later Joseph Richter married Gertrude Henderson, an English girl,  and their family was two girls and a boy. Inez, Mrs. R. A. Johnson of  Rossland and Joan, Mrs. H. Morrish of Trail. Their son Joseph, was born in  the United States and is, in consequence, an American citizen. He enlisted  when he was 17 in the United States Marines and saw police action in the  Pacific after the last war. He lives in Canada now and following his father's  footsteps, holds a responsible position with a large cattle company in the  Nicola Valley.  Joe and Gertrude Richter lived on the Midway ranch until 1945 when 16 JOSEPH RICHTER  the ranch work and its responsibilities became a bit too much for his advancing years. After the ranch was sold in 1945 they lived in Nelson,  Rossland, and in other Boundary towns before finally settling in Penticton in  1958. Here they live in quiet comfort looking forward eagerly to the regular  visits of their children, twelve grandchildren and six great-grandchildren.  Joseph Richter, like all the other Richters, was an outstanding athlete,  sportsman and horseman. In the days before stampedes were commercialized bronco busting was not only fun but a necessary part of ranching, Joe was among the best. As a young man he was known from the  Coast to the Kootenays as a foot-racer. He showed me one medal for a  quarter mile sprint won at the Caledonian Games at New Westminster in  1898.  When I asked about hunting I learned that he had never missed a hunt  since he was old enough to carry a rifle and that was 83 years ago. Since then  he has never failed to bring his buck; more than one in the old days. Joe took  several awards from a drawer. Among them a silver medal for Greenwood  City Rifle Match in 1915, a gold medal for the district shoot in the same year,  and in 1918 he won the Old-Timers Trap Shoot at Greenwood.  At Rock Creek he played low handicap golf and his musical accomplishments, first learned from Father Pandosy at Okanagan Mission,  were always in demand at Boundary entertainments.  In 1963, at a public shoot sponsored by the Penticton Fish, Game and  Rifle Club 89 year old Joe Richter bested many of the younger fry. In open  competition he took home bacon — literally, too — for he went away with a  slab of bacon under one arm and a turkey under the other.  In 1969, Joe, accompanied by his son, took his usual hunt in the Merritt  Mountains. This hunt included a twenty mile ride on horseback. His deer was  shot with a .300 Savage rifle without optical help, either telescope sights or  eyeglasses.  Recently when last year's hunting was discussed he asked if I had  been hunting. When I replied in the negative he said. "If you want to go  hunting this fall why not come with me?"  THE HARD TIMES BALL  When a Hard Times Ball was given in Raymer's Hall in Kelowna on  Thanksgiving Night of 1905 (with dancing to start at 8 o'clock) the following  advance publicity heralded what lay ahead.  "Prizes will be given to the most appropriately dressed lady and  gentleman. Every lady who comes must wear a poverty gown or some dress  equally appropriate. No gentleman with boiled shirt collar will be allowed in  unless he pays the fine.  "Ladies wearing evening dress, jewelery, white kid gloves, no gloves,  fancy hair pins, new dress, glasses, or using perfume will have to pay a  penalty of 10 cents for each violation.  "Any gentleman wearing the following list of wearing apparel or  articles or violating the rules will be fined 10 cents for each offence: Evening  dress, white kid gloves, no gloves, jewelery, creased trousers, flowers,  glasses, red sox, silk tie, using perfume, making love or flirting.  "Tickets 50 cents." '  KEREMEOS CENTENNIAL WINNERS  17  KEREMEOS PIONEERS  Recipients of medallions in Canada's centennial posed together to comprise  a picture of Keremeos pioneering. From the left, seated, were Mrs. Joseph  DuMont, Lachlin A. E. Gillanders, F. M. Barnes, Lome S. Coleman,- and at  rear, Mrs. Harry Robinson, Mrs. Harry Lawrence, Mrs. Herbert McGuffie,  and Mrs. William F. Corkle. Mrs. William Foster and Mrs. L. V. Newton,  not in the picture, were also awarded medallions. 18  WITH MANY A MEMORY  WITH MANY A MEMORY  By MRS. RAY WALTERS  (Mrs. Mary Jane Foster)  Mrs. Mary Jane Foster, born Mary Jane Newman, in Tilbury, Ontario, in Jan., 1880, emigrated to the United States at an early age with her  parents and three sisters.  There she married Mr. Foster in Grand Rapids, Michigan—on the first  day of the 20th Century—New Year's Day of 1900.  Mr. and Mrs. Foster gradually moved west until they settled in the  state of Washington where their family increased to six.  By 1912 glowing reports of homesteads opening in the Merritt-  Princeton area, lured the family to Canada just before the First World War  broke out.  Many a story Mrs. Foster can tell of homestead life with its joys,  sorrows and adversities. The nearest town, Merritt, was 17 miles away with  its stores, doctors and dentists, but the Fosters being a healthy family, a  doctor was seldom needed, and a shiny pair of forceps was used by Mr.  Foster to extract aching teeth, when required.  A school was soon established in the Aspen Grove area after the  arrival of the Fosters, the Newmans and the Marshalls—all relatives. As  many as ten of the native people also learned "the three R's" at the Aspen  Grove school.  The Fosters moved to the Okanagan in 1918 where the family—eight  by this time—could have an opportunity for better schooling.  After the war and the returning soldiers were put to work on the South  Okanagan Lands Project at the young town of Oliver, Mr. Foster established  Mrs. William (Mary Jane) Foster (left) chatting with Mrs. Dorothy Barnes. '  WITH MANY A MEMORY 19  a barber shop and watch-repair business on the Main Street of Oliver, in a  small building that he erected himself.  The family meanwhile lived in a tent at the back of the lot, where the  Oliver Variety store now stands. Comfortable living quarters were built  at the rear of the shop, before the winter set in.  Mrs. Foster was called many times to help Dr. Kearney, with nursing  cases or just to help nurse sick people and children back to health, since no  hospital or nursing service was established until much later.  Mr. and Mrs. Foster retired to Sidney on Vancouver Island, in 1945,  where Mr. Foster passed away within a few years.  Mrs. Foster returned to Oliver shortly after that, where she could  enjoy her friends of many years and make new ones.  Now, past 90, she has an apartment in Keremeos close by her  daughter. She still keeps house for herself, enjoys her radio, writing to her  family, reading and visiting. Her mind is unusually alert for one of her  years.  L. S. COLEMAN REMEMBERED  Funeral services were held on February 29 at St. John's Anglican  Church, Keremeos, for Mr. Lome Stanley Coleman who passed away in  Penticton Hospital on February 26,1968. Pallbearers were Jim Wheeler, Sig.  Frambach, Frank Manery, Wally Parks, Jack McKay, Len Innis. Interment  was at Keremeos Cemetery.  Mr. Coleman was retired, living in Penticton since selling property a year  before his death. He was pre-deceased by his only sister Mrs. Mable Cavers  in 1965 in Ontario.  Born in Stayner, Ontario, December 4, 1890, he came to Pincher Creek,  then to Trail, B.C. in 1897, where hrs father was a druggist. He moved to  Keremeos in 1905, and attended high school in Vancouver. Mr. Coleman  enlisted in 1914 with the C.M.R.'s.  He returned in July 1919 and took up business as surveyor and engineer,  then in 1920 took over a general store from his father and operated it till 1946.  He was married to Miss Marguerite (Rita) Kirby in 1921, the first couple  married in St. John's Anglican Church, Keremeos, and of which he was  secretary for 40 years.  An active community worker, well-known and highly respected, Mr.  Coleman was Superintendent of Keremeos Irrigation District for 23 years,  until retirement in 1960. He was a member of B.P.O. Elks Lodge No. 56,  Exalted Ruler in 1946; a member of Hedley Masonic Lodge No. 43; and  recipient of the Centennial Medallion in 1967.  He is survived by his wife, Marguerite, son Dick and two grandsons of  Victoria; two nieces, Mrs. Webb Thomas and Mrs. Howard Williamson both  of Falconbridge, Ontario; one nephew, W. Cavers, West Indies. 20  KEREMEOS SCENES  Ezra Mills is in the foreground of the well-known Keremeos store, in 1926.  This was Coleman's store, "The Big Store," in 1910. Later it was Armstrong's  store, and Pauline Johnson sang in the hall. KEREMEOS SCENES  21  Pioneering in 1906. The picture shows Mr. and Mrs. Ezra Mills and family  on the Green Mountain Road.  Keremeos was well on its way, in this picture of its Main Street in  1926. 22  KEREMEOS SCENES  Few buildings date back close to a  century ago.  Here is the Keremeos  grist mill, built in 1877 by Barrington Price.  There were babies, indeed there were, as Keremeos itself grew up.  This is a baby clinic in 1922. INDIANSOFTHESIMILKAMEEN 23  THE SIMILKAMEEN  INDIANS  By GREG McGLASHING  Editor's Note:—Greg McGlashing, a Grade 8 student of Keremeos, tied for a  first prize for his submission in the Historical Society's essay contest last year.  His essay was illustrated with many detailed drawings.  Indians survived by using their wits and could find food in bleak,  barren and rocky areas where white men would starve. The Similkameen  Indians were nomadic in their travels. They stayed as long as food held out  and then moved on to a new area. It is interesting to note the ways these  Indians lived, hunted and trapped.  The perfection of many of the flint arrowheads and other objects has  long aroused the admiration of many. Flint nodules were found along creeks,  and sometimes the arrowhead material was broken from rocky ledges.  Jasper, chalcedony and obsidian were also used in making arrowheads. A  hammer stone was used to split the flakes from the larger stones. These  were sometimes roughly shaped by chipping their edges with an antler  mallet. Sometimes the flakes were buried for a time in moist earth to make  them even-tempered and to prevent them from drying out. A common  chipping tool was made from an antler point or a piece of bone. Sometimes  this chipping tool was struck with the mallet, but as the arrowhead  developed, smaller bits were chipped away by pressing the chipping tool  against the edges. A piece of thick glass can be chipped in the same way.  When primitive man picked up a stone and used it to break or crush an  object, he discovered both tool and weapon. No one can tell how many years  passed in the history of man before this happened.  The Indians often made axe handles from saplings. The tough bark  was left on, for the end of the handle wrapped around the stone head. This  was cut then to make it pliable. It was then bound tightly (to make it pliable  rawhide was soaked in water) with rawhide or sinew, which shrank as it  dried, fastening the handle to the stone head. Sometimes the stone head was  grooved so that it could not slip out of the handle binding, once it was bound  tightly in place.  Sometimes the Indians made a small saw from roughly shaped flint.  This was used in cutting up bone and wood. Sometimes Indians used the  shoulder blade of a deer for a saw. With a piece of sandstone, notches were  cut into the thin edges of the blade.  The coming of the white man perhaps produced more conflict among  Indians in a few generations than had taken place in scores of centuries. The  white man drove various tribes from their established homelands into those  of their neighbours. He also turned tribes against each other in his drive for  supremacy. Thus some Indiansturned againstthe white man.  In this valley, it has been said, when Indians raided at night, a pumpkin with a candle in it set on a fence post "scared the Indians willy." Such a  meek defence hardly seems able to hold off hordes of Indians but this must  have been an "evil spirit" to the Indians.  A favourite weapon of the Indians was the war club. These were made  in various styles but one favorite was made by tying a sapling into a knot  near the roots and then allowing it to grow. Thus a little Indian boy could  knot a sapling in his childhood and when he had grown and was old enough  for the war trail, his war cub was ready too. He simply cut off the roots and 24 INDIANSOFTHESIMILKAMEEN  trimmed the handle to the proper length.  With only a knife an Indian could easily get through a winter by  making traps, a shelter, and getting food. All Indians preferred a good steel  knife but if this was not available they would use what was at hand.  The main way Indians obtained their food was by trapping. Other  ways were to shoot game with guns, pistols or bows and arrows.  Indians waited in ambush at game trails, water holes or salt and  mineral licks for deer, goats, mountan sheep, the odd moose, bear and  smaller game including grouse, coyotes, bobcats and ground squirrels.  Sometimes Indians had rabbit drives. They beat the sagebrush and  scared rabbits into waiting nets, pits and clubs. Deer sometimes were driven  into dead end canyons and were speared, shot with rifles and with bows and  arrows. Birds such as grouse were netted or shot with arrows. They were  also snared and trapped. Ducks were caught by nets or lured close by decoys  and then shot. One way to attract deer is to imitate a buck beating on shrubs  and trees. This lures other challenging bucks into range of rifles and arrows.  Trapping not only fed the Indians but gave them wealth in furs. Along  streams, Indians trapped mink, marten, weasel, fisher, bobcat, coyote and  other animals. Grouse and other land birds were snared, or killed in deadfalls. Even the powerful bears would be killed instantly by heavy deadfalls.  Deer sometimes were killed in pits. Rabbits were easily killed in nooses  placed carefully along their runways.  Before dams were put further down in the United States, Indians had a  river abounding with fish of all sizes. These were speared or netted, or  caught in wire traps. Indians obtained some metal hooks for fishing by  trading. If no metal hooks were available they were made from thorns or  bone. They made feathered jiggs and lures from metal pieces, feathers,  wood and other material.  In Indian life the death of a chief was a very tragic event. A special  place was selected for his grave. They laid him in and everyone came and  laid a valuable possession beside his body. All this was for his trip to the  "happy hunting grounds". Some of the objects were bows, arrows, knives,  rifles, food, beads, shields, spears, gold, precious stones, coins, copper ornaments and his favourite horse was shot by his grave so he would have  something on which to ride to those "happy hunting grounds."  Most of the Indians in the valley used a tent as a shelter. These tents  were large enough to accommodate many people and a fire. Rocks were  often used to keep the ends of the tent down. Sometimes stakes were used.  Many of these circular marked depressions are still visible. The rocks are in  a circle, these are called "Kee-quillee Holes". Many of these holes are  visible today, some of these remain untouched up Ashanala.  From all these bits and pieces of our history of the Indians we ha  learned much about their everyday habits and there are still more facts to be  uncovered.  Chief's Death — His Grave LACHLIN GILLANDERS  25  LACHLIN GILLANDERS — 80 YEARS IN  THE SIMILKAMEEN  By ERIC D. SISMEY  Eighty-eight year old Lachlin Gillanders and his younger half-brother,  Jack Woodward Barber, are Similkameen pioneers. They live at Keremeos  in a cottage surrounded by a colourful garden. You'll not see their place as  you drive through town because it  lies at the foot of a tall mountain on  the other side of the river.  Lachlin Arthur Ernest  Gillanders — who has never been  known either as Art or Ernie — was  born in what is now Chilliwack of  November 15, 1881. After the death  of his father Lachlin's mother  married John Barber and in 1890 the  family, which included an elder  brother, William, moved to Chopaka  in the Similkameen where John  Barber had taken up land. He served  for a time as Canadian Customs  Officer.  Lachlin does not remember  the details of the trip nor the exact  number of days on the road. The  first part from Chilliwack to  Okanagan Lake was first by train,  by steamboat and then by wagon.  When the family stepped from the train at Sicamous it boarded the little  stern-wheel steamer "Red Star" belonging to R. P. Rithet which ferried  them up the Spallumcheen river to Fortune's Landing — it's Enderby now.  From there it was by wagon over a bumpy road to Okanagan Landing.  Lachlin has never forgotten the voyage down Okanagan Lake on board the  new, twin-screw, S.S. Penticton owned jointly by Captain Dolman Shorts and  Thomas Ellis of Penticton. He had never seen so much water nor hills so  devoid of trees.  There was nothing at Penticton, a landing was made on the beach.  From the lakeshore the family with all their possessions was moved by  wagon to the Tom Ellis ranch house where the night was spent. In the  morning, after a farmhouse breakfast, the journey continued. Dog Lake, it's  Skaha now, along by Billy Kruger's place on the Reserve to the benchlands,  now known as Kaleden Flats, past the freighter's barn at the Junction ranch  and up the long hill leading to Hiram Inglee's place at White Lake where  they had lunch. From there the road skirted Horn Lake ducked down  through Olalla to Keremeos and along the Similkameen valley to Chopaka  about a mile west of the Boundary. It was dark when the log house was  reached; Lachlin's home for many years.  In pioneer days schooling was usually patchy. If the parents had little  themselves there was likely no schooling at all. However, Lachlin and elder  brother, William, were fortunate for while the kitchen table was the school  Lachlin Gillanders of Keremeos 26 LACHLIN GILLANDERS  desk and mother the teacher she grounded her two boys thoroughly in the  three R's while their step-father taught them the ways of farming, of haying  and horses and cows.  Through the 1890s and into the present century Fairview was booming.  In 1896, when Lachlin was only 15, he, with elder brother William, tooled four  horse teams from the Chopaka ranch with loads of hay and farm produce to  the booming camp. While on the road he learned to recognize the first  pioneers of Similkameen and lower Okanagan; Theodore Kruger, Customs,  postmaster and storekeeper at Osoyoos; Okanagon Smith who planted the  first orchard on the shores of Osoyoos Lake in Washington in 1857 and who  sold fruit to mining camps on both sides of the line, even as far as Rock  Creek, in the late 1880s. Then too, F. X. Richter, R. L. Cawston and W. H.  Lowe, Similkameen ranchers.  When Lachlin was there Fairview was the largest town in the Interior.  People had money to spend; they spent it on luxury goods, for gee-gaws and  the clothing fashions of the day displayed in Shatford's general store. Then,  too, a lot of money was shoved over the polished mahogany bars in the  general saloons. Yes! Fairview was booming; it was noisy too. By day and  by night the stamp mills slam-banged at the Stemwinder, the Jim Dandy and  at half a dozen other mines. Wagons rambled down the Gulch loaded with  cordwood to feed hungry boilers and machinery, supplies and materials  were freighted down from Okanagan Falls.  In the Oro (Oroville, Washington) newspaper, Madre D'Oro, Volume  1, Number 1, dated August 27, 1892, an advertisement showed that S. T.  Stanton's Oro-Penticton stage made the journey north to Penticton in eight  hours on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Elsewhere in the same first  issue we find: "This camp (Fairview) is on the same gold belt as we are, and  it proves beyond a shadow of a doubt that this is the most extensive gold belt  in the world" . . .  But Fairview did not live up to the promise printed in the paper. Soon  after the turn of the century, after the rich surface gold lodes had been  worked out, the town slowly faded away. There is nothing left there now but  the shell of the little jail house, the ruins of Moffat's log saloon a mile or so up  the Gulch and the pile of ashes, tumbled down bricks and twisted iron left  after the Hotel Fairview, the Big Teepee, burned to the ground in 1902.  In 1900, Lachlin Gillanders accepted a job in Shatford's well stocked  store. He saw Fairview during its upswing but like so many others failed to  recognize the beginning of the end. But, no matter, during the year he served  behind the counter he decided that this was not the sort of work he wanted to  follow. So he left the store and he never did see much of Fairview again.  It can hardly be expected that Gillanders should remember details of the  work he followed 50-60 and 70 years ago. Besides freighting from the  Chopaka ranch to Fairview he worked a number of years for Dave Innis at  Keremeos frequently driving Dave's four horse rigs from Princeton to the  workings at Copper Mountain. Time has changed the Innis livery and  freighters barn to a Shell garage and service station. At other times he drove  for Harry Tweedle whose Keremeos Center hotel and livery buildings stood  deserted at the forks of the road until a few years ago. One summer he drove  from Kelowna taking supplies to the irrigation dam under construction on  Canyon Creek.  In 1916, Lachlin Gillanders, he was 35 at the time, answered the  Canadian Army call for experienced outdoor men. He enlisted in the 69th LACHLIN GILLANDERS 27  Forestry Battalion. The 69th sailed for Europe on the S.S. Olympic. Most of  Gillanders army service was spent in the Vosges mountain forests where  timbers were cut, lumber sawn for front line dugouts, for duckboards and  other military use. When the German army was at the gates of Paris in 1918  the rumble of gun fire was plainly heard and the fire flash seen at night.  After armistice in 1918 the 69th battalion returned to Canada on board the  S.S. Scotian.  Now it is necessary to back-track a bit. While freighting has been  mentioned, Lachlin Gillanders spent a great part of his life as a professional  trapper. Beginning in 1910 and for the next forty years — that's close enough  — his trap line extended from Ashnola Forks into and through the Cathedral  Lake country. Early in the game he used Harry Tweedle's cabin for several  years but eventually built cabins on Gillander's Creek and Pine Flat.  Several lakes adjacent to his trap line, and originally barren, were stocked  with trout which he moved from one lake to another in a bucket. There is  good fishing in these lakes today.  Soon after, about 1910, after Lachlin arranged his affairs to his  satisfaction he devoted his entire time to trapping. Summers were spent in  the maintenance of cabins, line shelters, trap line trails and extensions.  Food caches, firewood stacks and other chores arranged in preparation of  winter. He always trapped alone. Sometimes the weather at the top of his  mile-high line was mighty cold and on one occasion when the thermometer  outside the cabin door read 40 below he noticed a porcupine a dozen feet up in  a tree. Several days later, the cold snap still unbroken, porky was alive, still  there and seemingly not bothered at all by the cold.  In reply to a question Lachlin remarked that he had always made a fair  living, had been his own boss while living in a country he loved. This, in his  philosophy, is as much as any man should expect. His catch consisted of  marten, mink, otter, weasel, lynx, bob-cat and skunk. All of which fetched a  good price, especially mink before fur farming days. One winter he trapped  25 coyotes and on another he took a cougar which brought a bounty in addition to the value of the skin.  Lachlin Gillanders' Ashnola country shelters a large band of California  Bighorn. Early railroad construction and westerly migration in the United  States exterminated them except for those in a few isolated pockets in  British Columbia. Even here they were almost wiped out by senseless 19th  century slaughter, often by Europeans. Among them Arch Duke Ferdinand  of Austria whose assissination at Sarejevo, Servia, triggered the first war.  After strict protection in the closing years of the last century he watched the  bands recover only to be shocked after return from the war in 1918 to find the  bands decimated again. Protection restored he has seen the bands recover  slowly.  Lachlin has done his share of hunting and shooting. He only killed for  the pot, and who is more entitled to a spike buck hanging in the meat house  than a lone trapper thirty snowshoe miles from the nearest store? Firearms  have always interested him, the 30.16 being his favourite. He always shot  hand-loads with bullet weights suited to his particular needs. On the trap line  he carried a lighter arm.  Gillanders is glad to see an area, far too small at the moment, once  part of his trapping territory, set aside as Cathedral Lakes Park. It is not  nearly large enough, he claims. Too much of the fragile alpine flora and  Bighorn range is unprotected from grazing cattle. More of its mountain 28 LACHLIN GILLANDERS  majesty,  unsurpassed  in  Canada,  should   be   included  within  the  park  boundaries.  Surely, he maintains, we should match park areas with those on the  Washington side. "This is my country! I want to see it preserved for others  to enjoy; a place to climb, to scramble as I did in my younger days for no  other reason than to gaze in silent wonder to the mountain fastness and the  snowy heights around me."  HE WITNESSED DISASTER  By Mrs. Ray Walters  Born in Ontario in September, 1885, Mr. Francis Malcolm Barnes has  lived on both sides of the U.S. Border but has made his home in British  Columbia since coming back to Canada in the early 1900's, where his parents  settled at Armstrong.  Mr. Barnes has followed the lumber and saw-milling line of work and  still has an interest in a small saw-mill in the Keremeos area.  With his wife and children, he lived at Blakeburn during its prosperous  years, and there he witnessed the tragic disaster when over forty miners lost  their lives.  In Blakeburn, Mr. Barnes produced the logging to shore up the walls of  the mine tunnels, some of the shafts being over a half mile into the hillside,  and requiring thousands of board feet of timber.  His family, two sons and a daughter, are still living near their father,  within a radius of 150 miles from Keremeos.  57 YEARS IN OKANAGAN CENTRE  Mrs. Jessie Ross Goldie was born in Toronto on April 27, 1888, a third  generation Canadian. She died on July 22,1970, at her home at the Rainbow  Ranche, Okanagan Centre, where she had lived for 57 years.  She first visited the Okanagan in the summer of 1912, accompanying a  friend who was visiting a brother, James Goldie, partner and manager of the  Rainbow Ranche. She next returned as a bride in the spring of 1913 having  been married to James Goldie in Toronto on Feb. 20,1913.  She loved the Okanagan, but hated to see the holdings and ranches  subdivided, and industrialization started. Her early memories were of  travelling to Vernon or Kelowna by launch, and of riding for miles in the  countryside without being stopped by a fence.  A very warm person, interested in people, she had the faculty of being  a good listener, and she could recount many stories about old timers.  Visitors and strangers alike were always made welcome at the Goldie home.  She followed the careers of her grandchildren with avid interest.  She is survived by her husband who came to the Okanagan in 1908;  Mrs. Sidney J. (Anne) Land, Okanagan Centre; Mrs. Peter F. (Nancy)  McDonnell, Vancouver; Robert N. Goldie, Galiano Island; one sister in  Toronto; seven grandchildren and two great grandchildren. (Primrose  Upton). THE SACRED HEART CHURCH 29  THE SACRED  HEART  INDIAN  CATHOLIC CHURCH  AT CHOPAKA  Researched by ERIC D. SISMEY  In the early days it appears that both Chopaka and Incameep were  served from St. Mary's Jesuit Mission at Omak, 40 miles below the Border.  Rauffer's book—Black Robes on the Last Frontier—includes a map  following page 178, drawn by Father de Ronge showing the Jesuit Missions  served from St. Mary's. Both Chopaka and Incameep appear on this map.  On page 205-206 this is found: 'Chopaka church probably built by Father de  Ronge in 1892-1893. (1).  Father Collins, the present missionary at Penticton has a personal  record which reads: "The old church at Chopaka has disappeared. (2) The  present one was built by Father Marchal in 1890. It was moved by the  railway company when the Great Northern ran their line from Oroville to  Princeton in 1907. In 1923 Father Collins put a cement foundation under it  and builta sacristy in the rear and living quarters for the priest.  (1).   Date based on a 1965 interview Mrs. Lacey of Osoyoos to an old timer.  (2).   No doubt this refers to an earlier church built by Father de Ronge and which had disappeared.  From color slide by John Barber, Keremeos, October 1968  Sacred Heart Indian Catholic Church at Chopaka.  This church is serviced by the missionary on the Penticton Indian Reserve. 30 THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE AMONG INDIANS  THE  PRACTICE OF MEDICINE  AMONG THE  INDIANS  By DONALD WATKINS  Editor's Note:—As was pointed out in the 33rd report, Mr. Watkins is working  for his doctorate in linguistics and has chosen the Okanagan language as the  subject of his thesis. "He has completely mastered the delicate nuances of  unfamiliar Okanagan sounds," wrote Eric D. Sismey in an appreciative comment  last year. The limitations of usual typography cannot give full scope to certain  techniques Mr. Watkins has evidently devised to convey such nuances, and his  own spelling is therefore not reproduced with complete faithfulness in the  following article. But it is approximated as closely as possible. Mr. Watkins  himself has praised the co-operative assistance he has received from Okanagan  Indian participants in the valuable project which is of such interest to the  Okanagan Historical Society.  Sickness of one kind or another has plagued mankind since his  beginnings. Attempted cures have been practiced for an equally long time.  While today the practice of medicine has become a science, it was in the past  an art carried on with a good deal of success. One estimate has it that almost  half of natural remedies have proved to be effective.  There are numerous examples of Indian remedies preceding modern  techniques. In South America Indians used the coco plant to alleviate pain.  Today this plant is a constituent in the manufacture of cocaine and  novocaine. Curare was used as an arrow and dart poison, and today is an  effective adjunct in anaesthesia. The bark of the quinoa tree was used in  Mrs. Louise  Gabriel discussing  with   Donald  Watkins  the  various   plants  used by Okanagan Indians for medicinal purposes. THE PRACTICEOFMEDICINEAMONG INDIANS 31  medicines; later on, quinine was derived from it. There is also an account of  how Jacques Cartier on his voyage to Canada lost twenty-five men as a  result of scurvy, and saved the remainder of his crew through use of an  Iroquois cure consisting of pine bark and needles — a rich source of Vitamin  C  Among the Okanagan Indians sickness was believed to be the consequence of a breach of taboo, or the intrusion of a disease-causing spirit, or  the loss of a person's soul. Individuals who believed they understood the  cause of a sufferer's illness often made use of plant remedies, frequently  with good results.  But when special healing skills were required, Okanagans went to  their shaman. A shaman was an Indian possessed of great powers. They had  been acquired after a long and demanding period of training which included  fasting and the taking of steam baths, a purifying process which cleansed  him of bad bodily humours. Today the Indians used the word chaAlix to  describe this ceremonious cleansing. Later in his training an Indian spent  long periods alone on the mountain communing with the spirits. On the  successful completion of such preparation, an Indian became a shaman or  tl'akwelix, as the Okanagans called him. Both men and women became  shamans, deriving their powers directly from the spirit world.  The skill of the shaman was required in cases of loss of soul. If an  Indian offended the spirit world his soul wandered away and the shaman  was called in to restore it. Curing was often a ceremonious affair where the  patient was laid out near a fire and the shaman went through a ritual of  dancing and singing of power songs, sometimes wrestling with the spiritual  powers. These powers resided in animal spirits and frequently worked at  night time, departing when the sun rose. Surrounded in this way with  darkness and supernatural power the shaman became a figure of awe  commanding respect from tribal members and often returning their  reverence with harsh and mean acts. The more powerful shamans were  believed possessed of the power of inifinite endurance, capable of returning  to life even after their bodies were dismembered and remains burnt.  To restore a lost soul a shaman blew or breathed on his patient, thus  curing him. This act suggests that Indians distinguished the living from the  dead by the presence or absence of breathing. Today we talk of the breath of  life and apply it in reviving victims of drowning. The Okanagan word pohunt  still has two meanings, to blow and to cure.  In cases of less serious illness the powers of the shaman were not  required. Herbal remedies were applied instead. The remedies that follow  were commonly used in the Okanagan Valley and are still well known to  most elderly Indians today.  sqalqalqw or spruce bark. Used as a spring tonic when boiled and  taken internally. Also used as a medicine for any chestor lung affliction.  Iloxllxweyllp or wild cherry. These cherries were dried and used for  making tea. Asa hot drink the beverage was useful for alleviating coughing.  tikakallekst or wild sarsparella. The leaves of this plant were  gathered and carefully cleaned. When boiled the resulting liquid was used to  help cure internal injuries.  xaxalawxops. A small pretty red flower found growing on the hills  around the Okanagan Valley. These flowers were used as a cure for constipation.  sinsinsatkillp'aqan or Prince's Pine. The name of shoots at the top of  young pine trees. These shoots were boiled and taken as a tonic to help fight 32 THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE AMONG INDIANS  the aches and pains that appeared during the damp weather of spring.  skoles or bearberry, and skolsellamlix or the bearberry leaf. These  were medicaments for counteracting diarrhoea.  skikowellp or Rose bush leaf. When suffering from a bee sting, an  Indian would chew this leaf and apply it to the afflicted spot to reduce  swelling and pain. Skikowellp was also used in food preparation. The leaves  were broken up and placed under spetl'am, bitter root, a food that looks  much like maccaroni. In boiling, the juices of the rose leaves rise and add to  the flavour of the spetl'am.  qolqolamnellpor mature sage brush. Parts of this plant were placed in  boiling water. When breathed by the cold sufferer the steam loosened up the  nasal passages and made breathing easier.  papallmilx or young sage plant. This was also used for the relief of  colds. In addition, the plant was used for making tea, and when drunk helped  dispel colds and other spring afflictions.  t'ets' and sinlakw known as pine pitch and bear grease. These two  substances were mixed together and were used in a poultice or as a salve for  the curing of sores.  kowaraxkinekst. This is a plant found growing in marshes and other  boggy places. When blossoming, it has a green flower amid its broad leaves.  These leaves are cut up and used as a poultice on septic sores.  ponllp or Juniper. The tips of the Juniper bough are gathered, chopped  up and softened in hot water. The shoots are wrapped in a cloth and applied  to arthritic joints. A green sap escapes through the cloth and fries on the  skin, thereby giving relief.  ntetayexaya' or Milkweed. Sap from this plant was believed to be a  sure cure for warts.  staktakxwellp or thorn shoots. These shoots were sought out and taken  internally as a cure for diarrhoea.  CELEBRATED HUNDREDTH BIRTHDAY  The death occurred on July 6, 1970, of Charles Edward Weeks. On  April 23 of this year he had celebrated his 100th birthday when he received  messages from Her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth 11, the Dominion Government  of Canada, Premier and Mrs. W.A.C Bennett, and many messages and  telegrams from England and other points.  Born in the village of Woodchurch near Ashford, Kent, England, Mr.  Weeks came to Canada in 1891, settling first in Brandon, Manitoba. He came  to the Benvoulin district near Kelowna in 1906 where he was a successful  market gardener.  For a number of years he was on the School Board as a Trustee of the  Benvoulin (Okanagan) School.  In the Kelowna Centennial Museum is a sterling silver medal which  Mr. Weeks won for the second prize for the largest apple in the first  Canadian National Apple Show held in Vancouver in October, 1910. In 1938  Mr. Weeks moved to Burnaby. Mrs. Weeks predeceased in 1946. Of Mr.  Weeks' six children three survive. They are Charles B. Weeks of Kelowna,  Mrs. Sylvia Cowan of Burnaby, and Mrs. Florence Kenney of Vancouver,  and eight grandchildren, twenty great-grandchildren.  (Primrose Upton). QUIL'STEN OKANAGAN STEAM BATH 33  QUIL'STEN —  OKANAGAN  STEAM  BATH  By"OBSERVER"  Shiny white bathrooms in new homes on the Penticton Indian Reserve  do not take the place of the traditional quil'-sten or sweat lodge in the minds  of middle-aged Okanagan Indians.  It is difficult to say what quil'-sten is currently used for unless you  know an owner. And unless he has complete confidence that your interest is  genuine and not frivolous, you will see nothing, learn nothing, and questions  will be answered by a stare or a shake of the head.  Quil'-sten is much more than a steam bath; it has a ritualistic  significance. A bath is taken not only to cleanse, but the sweat-house is also a  place to meditate, to contemplate and to seek "shoo-mesh" (spiritual  strength). In the old days it had a function in curing sickness. It is a retreat  for both temporal and spiritual purification and is one of the most venerated  Okanagan institutions.  The construction and use of the sweat-house are governed by strict  rules, said to have been originated with Coyote (Sin-ka-lip), the great lawgiver and to break any of the rules is to invite misfortune, if not disaster.  Only after a period of continence may the builder of a new quil'-sten begin  his work. The structures are dome-shaped, circular at the base, from five to  eight feet in diameter. Willow shoots, saskatoon, or other pliable stems are  planted round the circumference, bent, then tied together at the top with  strips of bark. There must never be less than eight ribs. This frame is  covered with any suitable material, quite often finished with a topping of  sod.  Fir bough whisks, if obtainable, are regarded as strong medicine  which give the bather strength.  As with other Indian people — Athapaskans from the north through to  Arizona — the Okanagan quil'-sten faces east. This is traditional and  associated with the birth of another day; a gift from the great spirit, Amot-  gen. The most auspicious time to take a steam bath and the time when the  bather is most likely to gain shoo-mesh, is at dawn.  Inside the quil'-sten (body warming place) is a small pit (skl-ch-ch-is'-  chn) which serves as a receptacle for stones heated outside in a dedicated  fireplace. Fist-sized stones (ska-list), smooth and unchipped, must be dry  land stones, never river rocks which would explode. Quil'-sten stones are  saved, used again and again, carefully stored outside where they are held in  high regard. No Indian would ever defile them.  In preparation for quil'-sten (Sklalo-sist) a mat of fir boughs is lain  outside and over the dirt floor. The boughs are never burned but are  carefully piled outside after use where they are left to rot and return to  mother earth again.  When the stones are sizzling hot they are forked inside. After the  bather enters he pulls the covering (tup-chin) over the entrance, sprinkles  water over the hot stones and stays in the dense hot steam supplicating the  spirit of Quil'-sten for as long as half an hour. Leaving the steamy interior he  crawls outside to dip in the cold creek, or in winter roll in the snow. 34  QUIL'STEN OKANAGAN STEAM BATH  _8!^BK'*8(?*-"' <  Two views of a typical Quil'-sten.  Photographs by Eric D. Sismey  And this is the legend of Quil'-sten which was recorded nearly a  hundred years ago.  Tle-tla-hep  (The Old One)  was travelling over the earth,  visiting QUIL'STEN OKANAGNAN STEAM BATH 35  people and putting things to right. He taught the people how to sweat-bathe  how to make sweat houses (Quil'-sten). He told them. "When you sweat-  bathe, pray to Quil'-sten that you may be healthy and obtain success in  hunting."  Soon after this he met Quil'-sten and said to him: "Henceforth people  will make sweat-houses and when they sweat-bathe they will supplicate you,  to whom the mystery of sweat-bathe belongs. When they pray for relief from  pain, for health, lightness of body, fleetness of foot, wisdom, wealth, success  in hunting and in war, grant their desires, gather their sickness when they  are in the sweat-house, take it from their bodies and cast it to the winds."  Then the Old-One visited water and said to him; "when my children  wash and bathe themselves draw sickness from their bodies, heal their  wounds, refresh them and while they pray to you, answer their supplications. You shall be the guardians of those who constantly seek you".  Tle-tla-hep also visited the fir tree and said to him: "When my  children take your branches to wash themselves may your mysterious  power help them".  And that is why Okanagan people use fir branches, and sweat-bathe  and plunge into cold water to the present day.  "FERDIE" BRENT LAID TO REST  Ferdinand Brent passed away in the Penticton Hospital on December  4, 1969. He was 84.  Born in Okanagan Mission, on June 24, 1886, he was the grandson of  Frederick Brent who built and operated the Brent grist mill, Kelowna's first  industry.  He was the eldest son of Joseph Brent of Shingle Creek Ranch. In 1898,  in company with his father, mother, brothers and sisters he moved to  Okanagan Falls where he drove freight team for his father and for the  Basset Brothers. In 1902 he and his father staked part of what is now the  Shingle Creek Ranch, and in 1903, he, with his uncle, John Brent, moved to  Shingle Creek and started development. The rest of the family followed in  1904.  Ferdie, as he was known to his many friends, moved later to Allen  Grove where he was an active member of the Allen Grove Cattlemen's  Association and also a school trustee. In 1950 he moved to Peachland where  he resided until his death.  Through the early 1900s Ferdie Brent was a well known figure at  British Columbia stampedes. He held championships for saddle bronc riding  on more than one occasion, and there have been earlier references in the  Historical Reports to his life. 36 MINEOLA  MINEOLA  By DON EMERY  Editor's Note — A nostalgic look at a part of the Okanagan, once  flourishing, now obliterated by time, won for Don Emery, of Penticton, a  Grade 11-B student, the first prize in the Okanagan Historical Society's 1969  essay competition. This young author gives credit to Ben Mayne, N. L. Barlee, and  E. Campbell, of Summerland, and to E. Campbell, Ed Walker, and Findlay Munro,  of Penticton, whom he interviewed in carefully preparing his essay.  We often read and hear a great deal about the early mining towns of  the British Columbia Interior which have contributed greatly to the  development of our country. Such familiar names ar Barkerville, Fairview,  Granite Creek and Sandon have been remembered as a result of the roles  they played in promoting the settlement which opened up the province.  Another type of town, perhaps more significant to the growth of  British Columbia, has been all but forgotten over the years. This was the  early lumber town. These short-lived towns, scattered throughout British  Columbia, were essential to her rapid growth as they supplied the necessary  lumber to build the towns, bridges, roads, railways and flumes which  developed her into a prosperous province. One of these towns was Mineola.  Mineola, first called Meadow Valley, is in a picturesque, level valley  surrounded by high tree-clad mountains. It is situated about ten miles from  Summerland, about the same distance from Peachland and five miles from  the Kettle Valley Railway siding of Faulder.  In earlier days the valley was the route of the Hudson's Bay Company  Fur Brigade Trail, as it afforded an excellent camping ground, feed and  water for the horses, an abundance of fish and game as well as good shade.  Thomas Ellis, the first white settler in Penticton, was the first land  owner in the valley. He used it for a summer range for his growing cattle  empire.  Lumbering initially started in Meadow Valley in 1904 when the  Thomas Greenhow Ranch of Vernon built a sawmill to supply lumber to a  growing Summerland, and for use in the construction of irrigation flumes.  In 1910 a new lumber company was founded by two associates, J. W.  Wheeler and Ben Mayne. The company known as the Mineola Lumber  Company, bought the original Greenhow Mill and named the site Mineola,  after Mr. Wheeler's former home town in New York State.  The miR was a wooden structure covered with a shiny tin roof. Near  the mill, towards the centre of the flat stood, and still partially stands, the  mill's mortar and stone beehive drying kiln. This was used to dry the cut  lumber before hauling it away.  There was a bunkhouse and mess hall for the single men employed at  the mill. These buildings were operated by Chinese who were reputed to be  "clean and tidy" and the food was "of the best".  The mill was operated by the sole use of steam power. Sawdust and  shavings from the previously cut lumber were burnt to produce the heat to  generate the steam, which powered the engines. Fifteen to twenty men were  employed in the mill while a number of others worked in the bush falling and  hauling the logs. Some of the men who worked at Mineola in the early days  still live in Summerland. These include H. Rennie, H. Milley, and Ben  Mayne. MINEOLA  37  nifte-elcu /owAsiTg  (JJ     C-.itt&><_.   Ci^ii-TdPi.  ©  r.ii ti%.-k*kf  ©        k}U«Jor   Wi'll     G~o.    ^jo.ww*    6c_*jt M*w<   ~ws/  tft-S  HeU-  ©    tow bin..  (2)    nui _L».f> vLi  0/       Cki»i«.st/ Cowtii  @        ScAcol .  The timber cut for the mill was all choice pine, and is still readily  available today. In summer the logs were hauled in specially constructed  wooden wagons equipped with side bunks and pulled by four-horse teams.  Sleighs were used in late fall, winter, and early spring under conditions of  snow. As many as twenty-two teams of horses were utilized to haul the  timber in this season of the year. Timber hauled to the mill in the winter was  stored in large stockpiles beside the mill to await cutting. These operations  were carried on throughout the year, only ceasing for short periods in the  event of severe weather conditions or an extreme forest fire hazard. 38  MINEOLA  When the Wheeler Mill started producing lumber in 1910, the wood was  only utilized by the nearby districts and municipalities. Mineola lumber was  used in the construction of most of the houses of West Summerland and the  flumes of the outlying agricultural areas, along witb the first Summerland  Co-operative Packing House. The completion of the Kettle Valley Railway  through the Okanagan and Trout Creek Valleys in 1915 altered this situation  for a time. Mineola lumber, then priced at sixteen dollars per thousand  board feet, was transported for use to many other parts of the Valley and the  British Columbia Interior, as well as for the construction of K.V.R. water  towers.  Soon after the close of World War I, the company decided to diversify  their interests into the fabrication of box shook. A factory was built at  Mineola to supply shook to the numerous small packing houses then in West  Summerland such as the Occidental, Mutual, K.Y., Agnew, R. Pollock and  A. Stevens fruit companies. The shook was hauled from the factory at  Mineola to the packing houses at West Summerland in wagons similar to the  eariy grain wagons on the prairies. A round trip consumed the greater part  of a full day and often proved quite dangerous as the drivers encountered  many steep and hazardous hills and bends on the road.  Supplies for the company store and post office as well as the mail were  brought back with the wagons on their return trip.  In 1920, after the business was in full swing the company purchased  two trucks called, "Republics". They had solid rubber tires and rode very  rough but proved beneficial in the hauling of shook.  A school had been built by the farm and mill families of the area, with  the government supplying a small cash grant of $150, the desks, and a  teacher. Professor J. J. Baker, M.A. was the first teacher. Some of the  families whose children attended the school were those of Findlay Munro, J.  Photo by E. F. Smith  The Wheeler Sawmill under construction at Myren in 1922. It operated  in 1923 with machinery from the Mineola Mill which was similar in  design and size. MINEOLA 39  W. Wheeler, S. R. Darke, Aubrey King, Herbert Dennis, H. V. "Paddy"  Acland, Charlie Campbell, and R. M. H. Turner.  The Wheeler Mill at Mineola shut down in 1923 and moved operations  to Myren. The same year the box factory moved to Summerland where it  became the Pacific Box Company.  The families moved away from Mineola, the buildings fell and all but  disappeared. The small lumber town of Mineola, which ledth the growth and  development of part of the Okanagan, has since been obliterated by time.  TO A WILDFLOWER  By Mayda D. Estabrooks  Wee flower abloom amid the summer grass,  Could it be you're watching as I pass?  Your tiny face records no fear  Lest I, in passing, might approach too near.  Lightly - clinging roots in sandy bed  Upbear a stem as fine as silken thread.  With golden heart that does not droop or doubt,  Lone—and erect you stand in rain and drought.  O, shy inheritor of lowly state,  Unnoticed, delicate and feather-weight,  Although excluded from that favored throng  Of flowers much praised in poetry and song,  You share a home in Spirit's boundlessness  Where dwell all things in loving usefulness.  With "lilies of the field" you are joint-heir—  Not lost in vastness or a vague "somewhere."  As low I stoop to scan your sunny face,  My m ind sees more than my eye can trace:  On planet earth you take so little room;  But you are great—because God made you bloom. 40  PIONEER DAYS OF HOLDEN  PIONEER DAYS OF  EUSTACE C HOLDEN  By CLAUDE W. HOLDEN  It was while turning up the furnace control to 70 on getting up this  March morning in the year 1970, that the thought occurred to me of what I  should have had to do to get warm in the era of 1910 to 1913, when my parents  and   myself   arrived   in   the   South  Okanagan. The contrast is so surprising that I feel it is worth while to  jot down a few recollections of the  days of nearly 60 years ago and of  the life of the fruit pioneer of that  time.  It was in the summer of 1910  that my father, a consulting  engineer of Bolton, England, first  arrived in Canada to scout out the  land to try and find a climate where  peaches could be "picked off the  trees" and the sun shone for more  than one day per week.  After touring the Kootenays  and Vancouver Island, he was told  by the authorities that the South  Okanagan should fill the required  specifications. Seventeen acres of  raw land were purchased on the  Naramata Rd. from Mr. I. M.  Stevens, after which my father  returned to Bolton to sell his  business. It was not until the fall of  1911 that my father "Eustace" and  his wife Kitty accompanied by a  large number of packing cases  marked "settlers effects" actually  disembarked from the lake steamer. They put in at the Penticton Hotel on  what is now known as lower Vancouver Ave.  In retrospect, his choice of land, dictated very largely by the view and  considering his astonishing lack of knowledge of fruit growing, or indeed, of  any kind of farming whatsoever, proved fortunate.  In this he was perhaps not exceptional in that his neighbors and  friends arriving from all points of the compass, from the Yukon to Bonnie  Scotland were little better informed as far as fruit growing was concerned,  though some had more farming experience.  It was widely maintained, without successful contradiction, that the  prairies alone could eat all the fruit that the Okanagan could possibly  produce and that only the production of the fruit stood between a grower and  a golden reward.  To return to the Penticton Hotel and the fortunes of our 40 year old  Eustace C. Holden, of Range Gate  Orchards, Naramata Road,  Penticton. PIONEER DAYS OF HOLDEN 41  pioneers, whose two sons had been left in England until a house had been  built on the orchard property, it was immediately evident that transportation was necessary. A bay cayuse, by the name of Johnnie was purchased for $70 with buggy and taken out to he homesite which being near the  gate onto the range to the east was named "Range Gate."  Johnnie proved a good buy although his persistent liking for every  hitching post in front of the bar did nothing for his former owner's reputation  as a well-known "man about town".  It was found not possible to start the house immediately so a shack  was decided upon of single board construction with lean-to on the side of it  for Johnnie. Packing cases were hauled out and a few unpacked and made  into chicken sheds for the 36 birds. They were of a special strain that had  been ordered from a well known poultry king of Bolton, Lanes. A neighbor  came and helped with the shack construction for 25 cents per hour. An  earthen stream for irrigation, the main ditch, passed through the estate, the  shack was built along side for domestic water purposes. The shack was  furnished with coal oil lamps, a heater and a cook stove, both for wood.  There was an outdoor toilet, and water was drawn by a bucket from the ditch  and the wood came from a dead pine tree above the shack. The tree was cut  up laboriously by man-power.  In short, this couple of not too young city-bred folk faced the oncoming  Canadian winter of which they knew nothing, with very little but complete  self-confidence as did many others of their kind.  The winter was to test their mettle but in few cases to break it. Several  times the temperature slipped to zero and turns were taken during the night  to keep the stove going with more wood and the kettle from freezing. The  combs of the prize white leghorns froze and fell off and Johnnie kept his feet  warm by kicking the side of the shack nearest the bed with an unholy tattoo  but there was no thought of returning to the Penticton Hotel. How could the  chickens and Johnnie be brought through the winter if they were not cared  for? The pioneer maxim of "do it yourself or do without" was a very real  testing ground of Penticton's early fruit growers but in the main they  emerged more experienced and stronger from their amateur efforts.  In February of 1912 the boys were "sent for" from England and were  parked on friends in Summerland until the house could be built and made  liveable. The big job of planting the orchard loomed ahead and the question  of what to plant carefully over. The final decision being Jonathans and  Wagner apples with a few Spitz and Newtons. Also some white-fleshed  peaches to "pick off the tree". While these would be some years away from  producing anything whatever in cash, one acre was laid aside for small  fruits; 200 raspberries, 200 snider blackberries, 200 gooseberries bushes  were ordered. Improvements were planned for the chicken buildings.  With the emergence of Spring in March, 1912, the building of wooden  flumes with a carpenter at 30 cents per hour was commenced. These were 2  by 8and 2 by 6 nailed together in 16 foot lengths. The local lumber being very  green these eventually warped into fantastic shapes under the Okanagan  sun. Intermittent water and mud was helpful but not very and in the trestles  the footings washed out. As the orchard had considerable raw land to the  east of it above the irrigation ditch it was decided to make use of its "bunch  grass" and a cow was purchased and named "Jill". She shortly produced a  calf naturally named "Jillette". The wealth of golden sun-flowers in April  had an unfortunate effect of Jill's milk, making it of a stringy, chewing gum 42  PIONEER DAYSOF HOLDEN  appearance which, while it had no noticeable ill effect on Jillette was far  from popular with our few bachelor customers. This complication and a  remark from one of our disgruntled neighbors re "milk fit for pigs" inspired  the happy thought of "bacon and eggs" and ten small pigs were purchased to  reduce our milk overflow and go with the de-combed leghorns produce.  The fluming was finally finished and water was ready for the spring  planting - holes were dug on about 12 acres and fruit trees planted. The 600  small fruit bushes, chicken houses, were erected and the pig styes built. The  day was never long enough for all the work to be done. The boys were  detailed to milking chores, wood cutting. Another horse "Joe" was brought  to make up a team for cultivating and plowing the orchard. The spring tooth  and harrow were in great use to maintain the precious water for the trees.  The irrigation system, so called, of that day, was unbelievably  primitive and needs a little explanation, unlike today's effecient sprinklers.  The basis of this system was 2Vi acre feet guaranteed the growers by the S.  O. Land Co. via the Municipality of Penticton and was their right on buying  the land and paying the irrigation rate each year.  However the fly in the ointment was that no time was specified as to  when this should be delivered. The result of which was that the water  petered out in some years by the end of July leaving the growers with no  water, for August and September in an area which was a natural desert.  Without irrigation the only way in which the trees could be saved from  drought and an early demise was by continuous cultivation of the soil  maintaining a 6-inch mulch to prevent evaporation. After a few years of this  the soil had no humus left and was ready to drift.  As was previously stated the main ditch flowed through Range Gate,  and itwas in one of those hottest week ends that the pigs got away and some  The original living-quarters of the Holden family, 1911. With some minor  changes it is still standing above the Naramata Road. PIONEER DAYS OF HOLDEN 43  fell in the flume and were carried away — one of which got stuck in a pipe  line and effectively shut off the water to 120 acres further north. The howls of  rage from the deprived orchards were conveyed to Range Gate by the  irrigation superintendent in no uncertain terms.  The main ditch debouched from Penticton Creek at De Beck's orchard  and discharged occasionally into Four Mile Creek at the North Boundary of  the Penticton Bench. No proper measuring devices were used to regulate  each orchardist's supply except that the ditch rider "set the gate" which  gave one so many days' water over a week periodically. The result of this  casual measurement was that the unfortunate four milers saw their water  diminish by 10 a.m. and not return till 10 p.m. When evaporation ceased and  interference with the gates diminished "indignation meetings" were held in  Poplar Grove School House where offspring from Naramata Rd. to Paradise  Ranch were to gather for educational purposes.  A resolution was presented to have Jackson fired. This Mr. Jackson,  superintendent of irrigation, was generally to be found, if at all, on a lean  white horse with a rocking horse motion anywhere between the south end of  Dog Lake to 4 Mile Creek someten miles by slow motion. His day being from  dawn to dusk itwas impossible to catch him at home so protests awaited his  arrival at every orchard gate. This continuous murmur of complaint induced in him a taciturn manner and a melancholy mein. It may have had  something to do with the generally held opinion by the growers that,  "something should be done about Jackson." Though how much more he  could have done, under the circumstances seems hard to imagine.  In pursuit of his duties Mr. Jackson carried the tools of his trade, one  long handled shovel over his shoulder, a hammer, saw, and a piece of 2 by 4  for patching purposes tied to his saddle. After a spirited discussion and some  upholding of Jackson problems by the council member in attendance — the  resolution to fire him was lost, whereupon one H. C Rose and suggested that  if Jackson wasn't to be fired there was something the council should do for  him. "What is that?" inquired the councillor. "Buy him a new piece of 2 by  4," said H. C. The meeting broke up in confusion.  After the unfortunate episode of the "Pigs in the Pipe", Range Gate  turned to less risky projects and decided that in such a dry climate turkeys  should be a natural. Fifty eggs of broad breasted bronzes were purchased  and placed under sitting hens — some 41 were actually hatched and 40 grew  up to full size. The odd one was discovered when quite small half way down a  rattlesnake jaws. What could have been a good photo was spoiled by my  brother cutting the snake in half with a hoe. These turkeys were one of  Range Gate's better efforts. They roamed around the range east of us and  lived on grasshoppers a good deal. They perched in a large pine tree some 50  feet high, outlined against the full moon, well out of the way of the coyotes  who were abundant at that time and whose yapping would waken us up  especially in the winter.  The role of the horse in that era is hard to exaggerate. Not only was he  the essence of transportation but also of labor in the orchard. A good team  was much admired and was well known to all and its abilities in handling  loads much quoted. The trading of horses became an art surpassing the car  salesman and our delight in a good trade of a white horse who rolled on the  purchaser within 48 hours very keen.  The local Indians were a big part of the Penticton of that era as their  horsemanship, winter pasture and hay were all appreciated by the fruit 44 PIONEER DAYS OF HOLDEN  growers. Our neighbor turned out his mare with them, and got her back in  even better shape then he had expected! The Indian's comment "that there  would be no extra charge for the inconvenience," anticipated Gaglardi by at  least thirty years.  In the summer a team and democrat could be spotted half a mile off by  the cloud of white dust and if there should apper C A. C Steward's  McLaughlin Buick, runaways would be the order of the day. Hauling of loads  up Vancouver Ave., then very steep in the spring mud and ruts, was a test of  man and beast. Descending Vancouver Ave. with loads of fruit, a good test of  brakes and breeding.  And so drew to a close the summer of 1912 with the orchard planted,  the house built, a lot of sweat, some experienced gained, some good friendships started. Justa brief sketch of a family of amateurs in the early days of  getting established in what is now the City of Penticton and its beaches and  peaches. I believe the ground work was well laid.  AT  106 YEARS OF AGE  When Christine Joseph died in her home in Marron Valley on  February 22,1970, she had reached the age of 106.  Born in 1864 on what is now the Penticton Indian Reserve she lived in  the Okanagan all her life. Left motherless in infancy she was brought up by  an elder sister.  Christine helped clear the land now part of the Penticton Airport of  trees and brush, then to plough it with the help of two oxen and to seed it to  grass.  She remembers her father telling of the strong earthquake that rocked  the valley in 1865 and which brought rocks tumbling down from the mountains at Chopake and through the Similkameen.  Mrs. Joseph lived and died an Indian; she never learned English. It  was her wish that her funeral be conducted the old way and that she be  buried on her own land and close to the log cabin where she had lived most of  her life.    ,.e cabin itself was a century old.  Christine Joseph is survived by two sons, Charlie and Willie Armstrong of Penticton, and one daughter, Maggie Stelkia, of Oliver. Also surviving are 29 grandchildren, 48 great-grandchildren, and eight great-greatgrandchildren.  OKANAGAN FALLS PIONEER  Margaret Allison Basset of Okanagan Falls died on August 15, 1969.  The Falls had been her home for 71 years. Her husband Richard, known far  and wide as Dick, predeceased her.  Margaret, to her many friends, was a member of a pioneer Okanagan  Falls family. Her father, John McLellan, arrived at the Falls in the mid  1890s. The 1899-1900 British Columbia Directory and Gazetteer lists him as  the village postmaster. An imposing mountain on the west side of the river  and overlooking the town perpetuates the McLellan name. H&KTRADINGCO. 45  H. & K. TRADING CO.  By R. N.ATKINSON  English capital has always been recognized as a large part of the  success of many western towns and Penticton certainly came into this  category. In many instances this wealth was poured in by investors who  never saw or expected to see what they were about to acquire.  This was not the case with Eustace Holden and Archie Kelly who  arrived here in the spring of 1913 at the time when the Kettle Valley Railroad  was making rapid strides towards completion and the first orchards were  reaching a period of maturity when the crops would be ready for distant  markets and some would require storage.  Holden & Kelly hailed from the Bolton district in Lancashire. Major  Holden was a steam engineer and his partner Archie Kelly an electrical  engineer. After a careful survey of the district they foresaw the immediate  need for refrigeration and cold storage to handle the perishable crops being  produced in the area, and without delay purchased a site for their plant  immediately east of the government dock at the foot of Van Home St. on the  foreshore of Okanagan Lake. At the same time they purchased adjoining  acreage on the upper bench near the present outlet of the pipe from Randolph Draw diversion on Naramata Road. Here each built a comfortable  home and the two families soon settled down to a new life in the west.  The plant was equipped with English machinery and was modern in  every respect. It was designed to produce artificial ice, for which there was  a good demand, and also to manufacture soft drinks, which featured a white  oval label with black and gold printing and the wording HK trade mark  means "High Klass".  As soon as the plant commenced operations the firm opened three  retail stores on Front St., just north of the Empress Theatre, a retail liquor  store was opened with Wm. T. Pope, a former Londoner, in charge. A but-  H &K Plant in 1912 46  H& K TRADING CO.  cher shop was opened too, the first manager being Geo. H. Maundrell, who  later was killed in France in the first World War. Mr. Billie Raincock also  worked there. A confectionery was opened near where Syer's grocery store  is today. Miss Esther Sinclair of Keremeos had charge of the shop.  The first book—keeper at the plant was Frederick Maurice Smith,  afterwards reeve of the town during 1918-1919. The chief engineer was Ulric  Guilbeault, who remained there many years. W. T. Fleet was salesman and  representative for the firm at Kelowna. Following the first war Mr. Fleet  served many years as a Dominion fruit and vegetable inspector and subsequently retired as supervisor for the South Okanagan and Kootenay area.  After the outbreak of war in 1914 both partners returned to England for  service. Mr. Kelly never returned here. However, the effects of the war on  the business forced them into liquidation and it was taken over by Chas. E.  Burtch and associates and became known as the Penticton Ice & Cold  Storage Co. It changed hands several times, later operating under the trade  name - Penticton Purity Products.  Mr. Claude W. Holden is the lone survivor of the firm in this country.  Now retired he devotes his spare time to raising roses, at which he has been  very successful. His younger brother, Tom, lost his life many years ago as  the result of a logging accident. His first brush with death resulted in his  losing an arm in a shooting mishap.  The  HK trademark meant  "High  Klass' f.o. Mcdonald ai  FRANK OSCAR McDONALD  By KATHLEEN S. DEWDNEY  The Okanagan lost one of its most active and respected citizens when  Frank Oscar McDonald of Penticton died on January 17,1970.  He was born at Armstrong, B.C. on February 20, 1897 of United Empire Loyalist stock. At the age of eleven he moved with his parents to Penticton. His father, Joseph McDonald, was a master builder, a craftsman and  a pioneer of the North Okanagan. (1)  Frank McDonald received his education in Penticton and Vancouver.  He taught school in Penticton for two years before joining the 172nd Battalion, Rocky Mountain Rangers, in the First World War. Later he transferred to the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles.  He joined the Royal Flying Corps as a pilot, and served in France.  Upon his discharge he taught school in New Westminster until 1920 when he  returned to Penticton and helped his father with the construction of the  C.P.R. dock on Skaha Lake.  In 1921 and 1922 he was in the trucking business between Penticton and  Oliver. During this time he married Hannah Hanson of New Westminster.  Then he worked for a short time for the West Kootenay Power & Light Co. at  Bonnington Falls, B.C.  He returned once more to the Okanagan, bought an orchard at Winfield and in 1927 became manager of the Winfield Co-op packing house. In  1934 he came back to Penticton to become manager of the Pyramid Co-op  packing house, and later manager of the Penticton Co-op.  In 1954 he went to Oliver to manage the Southern Okanagan Lands  Project and lived there until his retirement in 1964, when he returned to his  orchard in Penticton. Here in his comfortable home overlooking Okanagan  Lake and the City of Penticton he and Mrs. McDonald were genial hosts to  their many friends. (2)  Mr. McDonald in speaking of his retirement said that it was just  another tangent to turn and not a declining period.  As a participant in Penticton's Community affairs he was an alderman for two years and a trustee on the School Board for several years.  As the Okanagan was his birthplace and permanent home, Mr. McDonald took a keen interest in the Okanagan Historical Society which he  served as President in 1960 and 1961. He was a director of the Penticton  Branch and also a director of the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch. He contributed  articles of historic interest to the Annual Reports, and he was the officer in  charge of restoration of the old Inkameep (Division) Church. (3)  Mr. McDonald was the first president of the Interior Regional Council  of the Boy Scouts Association. As a boy he had been a member of the first  Scout troop in Penticton, and remained interested in Scouting all his life. In  1912 he became a King Scout and his badge was presented to him by the Duke  of Connaught, Governor General and Chief Scout for Canada, who patted  him on the shoulder and said, "God bless you, my boy." For several years he  was Scoutmaster of the Penticton Troop. He was presented with a Scroll  from the British Columbia Yukon Provincial Council of the Boy Scouts of  Canada in recognition of his long and devoted service for Scouting in B.C. He  was especially commended for his leadership in the Interior Region, after  this area of the Province was organized for the expansion of Scouting, and  for the effective manner in which he acted as the first President of the 48  f.o. Mcdonald  Photo by Stocks  Frank Oscar McDonald, 1897-1970, a former president of the  Okanagan Historical Society. f.o. Mcdonald 49  Region in 1963. At a ceremony held in 1967 he was given an Honorary Life  Membership and a "Thanks" badge. He was on the Regional Council at the  time of his death.  Music played a vital role in Mr. McDonald's life. He played the  trumpet in the Penticton Band for many years and eventually became  bandmaster. He was president of the Penicton committee of the Okanagan  Symphony Society, and in 1969 he served as president of the Okanagan  Valley Music Festival Association.  Oliver and Penticton Rotary Clubs elected him at different times as their  president. Because of his interest in Rotary and in music, a music  scholarship was made available, after his death, by the Penicton Rotary  Club to the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Valley Music Festival  Association.  He was a meber of the Penticton Branch of the Canadian Mental  Health Association. In April 1970 the Association honoured his memory by  making a donaton to the Penticton City Library.  He served as the Penticton representative on the Board of the  Okanagan Regional Library and was one of the prime movers behind the  library's transfer from the Regional Library to the City Library. He was a  member of the Trustees Section of the British Columbia Library  Association. To honor him, voluntary memorial donations to the library  have been made by individuals.  Mr. McDonald was one of the original organizers of the Penticton  Peach Festival and Square Dance Jamboree. He served as its president for  two years.  He was a member of the Penticton Industrial Committee; the Penticton Chamber of Commerce; the Southern Gates Masonic Lodge of which  he was a secretary; the Royal Canadian Legion; and the Okanagan-  Similkameen Parks Society.  Frank McDonald loved to travel the Valley's highways and by-ways  that wind through picturesque scenery, to roam familiar hills, and to hunt  and fish with friends.  In all his activities he was a dedicated and conscientious worker, and  was always friendly and optimistic. He was a good husband, a good father, a  good friend and a good citizen who will be greatly missed.  Surviving are his wife Hannah (Brownie); one son, Ramsey of  Cawston; two daughters: Marion, Mrs. James Menzies, and Norma, Mrs.  William Johnston, both of Vancuver; 10 grandchildren; one brother, A. E.  McDonald of Oliver; and one sister, Mrs. R. G. Rutherford of Kelowna. 50 MAJOR FRASER  MAJOR HUGH NEIL FRASER  OF PENTICTON  By ERIC D. SISMEY  Major Hugh Neil Fraser's paternal ancestors began leaving their  marks on Canada more than 150 years ago. Great Grandfather Captain Hugh  Fraser, attached to the Royal Engineers at Berwick-onTweed, Scotland, was  ordered to Canada with a detachment of his regiment in 1810. Captain Fraser  served through the war of 1812 and in return for his service was awarded a  grant of Crown land near Ottawa; it was Bytown then. Army service  fulfilled, the family moved to Pembroke, Ontario, where Captain Fraser  practiced land surveying and was also engaged in engineering details  surrounding the building of the Rideau Canal.  In 1842, his son Alexander, the present Major Fraser's grandfather,  began work, at the age of 12, in the general store belonging to Hiram  Chamberlain of Westmeath where he lived while learning all he could about  the lumber business in which Chamberlain was interested. Ten years later  Alexander Fraser entered the lumber business for himself. This decision  was influenced by his father's professional knowledge for he had built the  first dam on the Ottawa river at McGillivray's Lake 12 miles from Pembroke and it was apparent that the water behind the dam would facilitate  floating large logs and timber squares to market. In this operation  Alexander's brother John was a partner.  By 1870, Alexander Fraser, having acquired large timber limits, was  in the square timber business-domestic and export-in a large way. Usually  he logged only the largest and best timber and after this was done sold the  limits to sawmill operators who cut lumber rather than squares and large  beams.  In 1885, Alxander Fraser disposed of certain timber interests to his  sons who operated in the name of Fraser Company, one of whom was John  Burns Fraser, Major Hugh Fraser's father.  In the meantime Alexander Fraser's other business interests continued to expand. This made a move in 1892 from Westmeath to Ottawa  imperative. Fraser was one of the founders of the Lachine Rapids Hydraulic  Company; the Lachine Light, Heat and Power Company; the Bank of Ottawa (1874) in which he was a director for 27 years, and the Keewatin  Lumber Company. He was also one of the founders of the Ottawa Trust and  Deposit Company serving as president until it was taken over by the Toronto  General Trusts Company. Fraser was instrumental in the establishment of  the Hull Electric Railway and with other business men founded the Rideau  Club of Ottawa in which he retained membership until his death.  Meanwhile the firm, Fraser and Company, under the joint control of  John Burns Fraser and hi«> brother, William, prospered.  Hugh Neil Fraser, the present Major Fraser of Penticton, was born in  Montreal on October 30, 1885. Serious schooling began at Asbury College in  Ottawa and was completed by graduation from McGill University in 1912. MAJORFRASER  51  ■,v^;>;"^'^  iii__HHks>f:-fl__f B ____■  [ J iftiP*_Ai_M jflflbjl  \)M- ,v             '^v    ♦IB  III  I  UJk\&§m£k^? '•■   f t\iw  *TM lli j  ■'"■"'                            ■■  -  »*'wl  £/Q___0iS^-r"     ■  %   s  K^i'v^-- ■• fl|  ■  :•"'■".":■:;■   .  '   .'■"■  ^  f-   __f^f*' ^C; ^^ ■        _____   __■!__  If                 i    *   i    \_W                      ^|     ^V   1  ___fJ'    ' Hw  TM  pHpH|  ^                                    »   ■    ^                                        lIlM           B     ,:■  ■ J  -^iiii i^H-P  _____                           HBP?^             ^_____F   :: ___i  fi f...  I i  91  v  JH___St*k'  md  K|^Mttg|  .  :-■   '  ■K'   '                     te^MM||^HH@B^      "^  ''            V'"  •■; • ■... ■< ... ,..  Ma/or Hugh Neil Fraser of Penticton  Photo by Hugo Redivo 52 MAJOR FRASER  After graduation Mr. Hugh Fraser engaged in accounting until the  outbreak of war in August 1914. He enlisted immediately and was commissioned in the 2nd Battalion. The several battalions of the First Contingent  were mustered at Valcartier for initial training. From there he went  overseas to Shorncliffe in the south of England, and to France before the end  of the year.  In France Lieutenant Fraser spent nearly two years in and out of front  lines around Ypres. He was there when the Germans first used gas in April  1915. Early in 1916 he was attached, with a commission of captain, to the  staff of General Williams of the Third Division with headquarters at  Bethune.  On June 6, 1916, when General Williams, together with his staff, was  making an inspection of front line positions in Sanctuary Wood it was captured when the Germans launched a sudden attack and before the counter  attack recaptured the position, the staff, which included Captain Hugh  Fraser, had been whisked far behind the German lines.  For the next two years Captain Fraser lived from time to time in one  of three prisoner of war camps for commissioned officers; there were  French, Russian and British. In the main prisoners were fairly well treated  but a lot depended on the nature of the camp commander. One camp,  Schramstedt, was quite bad, but the camps at Hochlinden and Crefeldt were  fairly good. Discipline was strict, exercise and games permitted, but Captain Fraser remembers men being shot while trying to escape. During 1918  the quality of food fell off badly but our Red Cross parcels helped out.  Just before the end of the war a prisoner exchange of commissioned  officers was being arranged through Swiss Red Cross. Captain Fraser,  together with other officers, was moved to the Hague while a similar number  of German officers were at Rotterdam. But before arrangements were  completed the Armistice was signed and it was not long before Captain  Fraser was back in England.  Soon after Captain Fraser was returned to Canada in 1919 and  discharged with the rank of major he accepted an invitation from C.C.  Aikins, a playwright of wide fame, to visit Naramata. During his stay Major  Fraser decided that the Okanagan was where he would like to make his  permanent home. After a thorough survey of the southern end of the Valley  he purchased the 320 acre Hawthorne place on the mountain of that name on  the west side of the river above Okanagan Falls. Later he bought an additional 160 acres from the Thomas brothers.  Major Fraser realized that this could never be a successful commercial venture but it was, however, a delightful place to make a home and  where a few cattle could be raised. The small house on the Hawthorne place  was built into the enlarged three bedroom, two bathroom house and where  from its lofty position a magnificent view stretched the length of Skaha Lake  to Penticton; a view always fresh from day today, season to season.  Recently the existing water supply being unsatisfactory an electric  pumping plant on the Okanagan River was built to lift water 400 feet to the 20  acres of good land around the house. This land is now planted to grapes. MAJOR FRASER 53  Major Fraser has always taken an active interest in community  projects. Often in those that could well have failed but for his generous help.  At Okanagan Falls he initiated the founding of Christie Memorial Park; he  contributed materially towards the Community Hall built from lumber  salvaged from the old Alexandra Hotel; he contributed to the Legion Hall;  was president of the Red Cross for five years and the stained glass window in  the Okanagan Falls church memorializes his mother.  In Penticton where Major Fraser has lived for the last 15 years he has  been a patron of the S.P.C.A.; its president for five years. He has served the  Penticton chapter of the Red Cross as a director for 10 years and has made  several very worthwhile gifts to the Penticton Museum where his collection  of old fashioned hand guns and a show case containing porcelain figurines  and a glass piece of more than usual historic interest are displayed with  identification of the donor.  Major Fraser's home on Forestbrook Drive shelters a treasure trove  of memories. Unkike so many who keep photographs and newspaper clippings in an old shoe box Major Fraser has them all carefully mounted in a  large album, and it reads like a Canadian "Who's Who". Invitations dated  from 1910 through to 1914 to State balls and State dinners addressed to Mr.  Hugh Fraser and mounted on album pages are from Her Excellency  Countess Grey of Rideau Hall; the Countess of Minto; Governor General  Grey; Lady Shaugnessy; the Duke of Connaught and Princess Patricia and  others. There are acknowledgements, written in the Spencerian script of the  day, of bon voyage bouquets sent to Lady Sybil Grey and Lady Winifred  Gore. And elsewhere in contrast to invitations to State functions is an entry  card to the inner gaming rooms at Monte Carlo.  Another album contains photographs taken in the war time prison  camps in Germany; groups of fellow prisoners, French, Russian and  British; sketches by Captain Bairnsfather - also a prisoner - and one which  shows Captain Fraser's prison bedroom, not luxurious but at least tolerable.  Major Fraser's furnishings, pictures and bric-a-brac reflect his virtue. Heirloom tables, sideboards, an ancient grandfather clock, a guilded  French folding screen are among the larger items while argillite carvings  from the Queen Charlotte Islands and Eskimo soapstone carvings share  table-top space with polished agates, porcelain knick-knacks, Tody jugs and  miscellaneous souvenirs. Another treasure is a scale model of the famous  Nova Scotian schooner "Bluenose".  Pictures and paintings almost cover the walls of the living rooms.  Among those which particularly interested me were: marines in water  color, one by W. M. Birchall, the other by W. L. Wyllie, R. A,. Peter Ewart of  Prince George is represented and two large paintings of Major Fraser's two  prize Scotch collies, Lassie and Goldie, executed by Penticton's Karl Michel,  grace one wall of the study.  Beside a bookcase filled with leather bound titles a framed letter on  Buckingham Palace stationery, signed by the late King George V. expresses  appreciation for service rendered in the war and nearby, in another frame, a  silver medallion commemorates the Silver Jubilee of King George V, on 54 MAJOR FRASER  May 6, 1935. And of more recent date a scroll addressed to Major Hugh  Fraser signed by Premier Bennett on the occasion of the British Columbia  Centennial in 1958.  There is much more, far too much that would be of particular interest  to an older generation, to catalog here. And when I leave the house after a  pleasant visit Major Fraser's 19 year old parrot usually bids me "Bye" and  the major always reminds me, which is quite unnecessary, to go and take  my leave of his two beautiful collies.  FROM EARLY FILES  The following are items from the Kelowna Clarion and Okanagan  Advocate, in its issue of October 12, 1905:  The work of painting the front of the Leckie Block is completed and it  looks very attractive—The Rev. Mr. Greene returned on Tuesday from his  monthly visit to Peachland.—Frank Fletcher, bar tender at the Lake View,  left on Tuesday for a visit to his parents at Silverton.—Mr. and Mrs. DeHart  returned from the Fair (at New Westminster) on Monday.—Mr. Lloyd-Jones  has disposed of his residence on Barnard Avenue to Mr. Geddes.—C C.  Josselyn has a 40-pound mangle in his window that was growing in the  garden of D. Lloyd-Jones.—We understand some of our young bloods are  contemplating organizing a dancing class in opposition to the present dance  club, something not so exclusive.—Kelowna now has three Chinese ladies,  two having arrived last week.—Mr. Whiteacre's residence on Barnard  Avenue is nearing completion.—C. Small shot four geese in two shots with a  rifle one day this week.—Messrs. Stillingfleet and Fraser bagged ten  chickens on the Rutland property last week. This is the biggest shoot  reported.—B. F. Greene, who has a claim near Beaverdale, says caribou  and bear are very plentiful.—The appearance of the post office has been  much improved by a coat of paint, the work being done by Mr. Fuller. E.O.ATKINSON 55  E. O. ATKINSON  July 5,1868 — December 25,1955  By R.N.ATKINSON  A long interesting life came to a close late of Christmas Day 1955 in  Penticton with the passing of Edward Octavius Atkinson at the good age of 86  years and six months. Born at "Eldon House", Woodhouse Land, Leeds,  Yorkshire, he was the eighth son of Dr. Edward Atkinson, F.Z.S.; F.L.S.,  F.R.C.A. Eng. and his wife Fanny. Ted as he was best known to his family  and friends received a classical education at the Leeds Grammar School  where he was a top scholar but unlike most of his brothers and in spite of his  father's urging to follow in his footsteps, he chose to have a go at farming  and decided to try the Canadian Northwest.  For generations the family had been closely associated with the  professional life of Leeds. In fact my grandfather's death in 1904 terminated  a period of 137 years during which the family had been continuously connected with the Leeds Infirmary as surgeons.  The large well-kept house in Woodhouse Land where my father grew  up amid the comforts and traditions of Old Yorkshire had been the rendezvous for many notable men of the age. One of the frequent visitors, Henry  Rider Haggard, afterwards Sir Henry Rider Haggard composed much of the  manuscript for his popular novel "King Solomon's Mines" while a guest at  "Eldon House". Clement Flower, R. A., was a frequent visitor, a friendship  which endured for many years through the doctor's efforts and assistance to  Flower when he was a struggling young artist. Lord Alfred Tennyson also  knew his way to Elden House. Much of the foundation work and early  planning of lectures for the St. John's Ambulance Society was worked out  there too. Many of the ideas advanced for this work were the results gained  during the Crimean War where grandfather served throughout the campaign with Florence Nightingale.  Once a decision was made to come to Canada Ted was articled to a  Leeds firm of cabinet makers and joiners for six months in order for him to  gain some firsthand knowledge of hand tools and the fundamentals of carpentry and wood-working to better equip him for his new adventure. Another  family friend, Sgt. Alfred Taylor of the Northwest Mounted Police and  formerly of the crack Briish Cavalry regiment the 17th Lancers, was  stationed in Calgary and sweating on his discharge from the force to become  effective in the fall of "88. Even though there was a great difference in age,  my father and Taylor had agreed to take up land together. With final  arrangements completed he set off for Liverpool early in February 1888  accompanied by his elder brother, Fred, who later had a long service record  with the Standard Bank of South Africa.  At Elden House they had grown accustomed to members of the family  leaving home for far-away places. Already one son was firmly rooted in New  Zealand and two others had raced off to South Africa with the gold fever. In  all, the old house had boomed to the noise, music and laughter of ten sons.  Three of them were destined to settle in British Columbia before the turn of  the century, and a fourth came later in life and finished an eventful career on  Vancouver Island.  Father chose the worst winter in living memory to face a trans-  Atlantic crossing and the long slow train journey on the newly completed 56 E.O.ATKINSON  *** <m  -* ^ *  phcto copy by Eric D. Sismey  Mr.  and Mrs.  E.  O.  Atkinson  Canadian Pacific railroad to Calgary. The Allan liner "Sardinian" took  eleven days to complete the crossing during which they encountered storm  after storm. Like most immigrant ships in those days this one suffered from  the chronic complaint of overcrowding with sickness and death resulting.  This ship became famous in 1901 when Marconi picked up the first message  ever transmitted across the Atlantic while a passenger.  After arrival at Halifax they were greeted with more severe weather.  On the trip west aboard an Intercolonial train they ground to a stop in northern New Brunswick and remained stationary for three days in giant  snowdrifts. A broken axle held them up another day west of Sudbury. The  trying trip came to an end at Calgary on March 19 where they were met with  heavy snow and 40-below-zero weather.  He was met by his friend Sgt. Taylor and within a few days set out to  view the property which Taylor had chosen. It was in the Pine Creek area  approximately 17 miles from Calgary. They called on the Miller family who  were to be their nearest neighbors, and with these small formalities over  went back to town.  Calgarian hospitality in the early pioneering period was always 'high  class', a standard which has endured ever since and a large contributing  factor in making the Stampede City of the foothills the fine and popular city  of the West that it is today.  Young men predominated in the young town with a good portion being  of Old Country stock. Among the first sports to be organized was cricket and  the N.W.M.P. expected to field a team but were short of one player. The  vacancy was filled by adding father to the team, which no doubt met with  general approval.  Summer was still young when tragedy struck causing plans to be E.O.ATKINSON 57  altered completely. My father's partner who was considered an expert  gymnast slipped while practicing on the parallel bars in the recreation yards  at the old log barracks and broke his back. He lingered six weeks but died in  August 1888 believing to the end the only man who could save him was Dr.  Atkinson in Leeds.  Father had found another attraction in Calgary in the person of Miss  Annie Sophia Jacques who was to become his wife and counsellor, his right-  hand guide in all his undertakings for more than sixty-one years. She and her  brother Bob were twins, the eldest children of Edward and Charlotte  Jacques, descendants of Huguenots who settled in England in the sixteenth  century. They arrived from Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire, the same year as  father. Mother's father was the youngest brother of the Rev. George  Jacques, early Methodist missionary to the Indians in the prairie foothills,  and father of the well-known jewellers of Calgary and Vernon who both  served as C.P.R. watch inspectors for many years. Another son, Jim  Jacques, will be remembered when he was a partner of Jack C Fleming, his  brother-in-law in the Penticton Hardware and Tinshop, the first to open in  Penticton. F. B. Jacques, a pioneer of Vernon, was a shareholder in the  South Okanagan Land Co., Penticton, and purchased one of the first lots in  the "300 block" when the Shatfords placed the Ellis holdings on the market.  Father gave his half of the Pine Creek property to Taylor's sister who  came out to settle up the estate, and in the spring of 1889 moved to Victoria, a  move he never regretted.  His first job was to lead to a long period of public service with the  Postal Department. He commenced as a mail clerk on the Esquimalt and  Nanaimo (E. & N.) Railroad. After nine months he transferred to the Chief  Postal Inspector's Office, that of a Mr. Rooney in Victoria, where he  remained until he started on the C.P.R. mainline in 1890. He was the seventh  mail clerk on the western division and the regular schedule was two round  trips to Calgary each week. The mail and express clerks shared a car and  they were usually a lively lot. Each run produced something new for excitement but most of it was kept in check by the nerve-racking experiences  that accompanied each trip on the new railroad.  No doubt the biggest experience of all came with the late spring thaw  and subsequent run-off resulting in the disastrous flood of 1894. Many stories  have been written and vividly described in the past, but only those who  actually played some active part could fully understand the suddenness, the  immensity and the appalling conditions that it caused, but fortunately with  very little loss of human life. There was a serious loss of live stock, crops and  buildings besides lumber stocks. The same conditions existed throughout the  West but the Fraser River Valley with its rich farming area was turned into  a vast shallow lake.  Father was in charge of the first mail cars to leave Vancouver after  the flood. The train pulled out of Vancouver with two life-boats on the top of  each car. It was normal to return in three days. Instead it took 14 days to  reach Calgary after crossing and recrossing both the Fraser and Thompson  rivers around twenty times in dugout canoes usually manned by Indians.  Each transfer across the rampaging river was not only a perilous  adventure but required very careful and close supervision of the precious  cargo. Daily new mails caught up from the coast adding to the load. The  biggest single lot arrived following a C.P.R. Empress docking from the  Orient with a heavy Old Country mail. Finally they reached Calgary and Her 58 E.O.ATKINSON  Majesty's Mail was safely delivered.  Father and mother were married by the Rev. E. P. Flewelling on  October 3, 1891. They were the third couple married in the first St. Paul's  Mission Church which was built on Hornby Street in what was then known as  Yaletown. The Rev. Flewelling was the first rector, 1889, and remained until  1894. The church was moved in 1898 to Jervis Street.  They lived in several parts of Vancouver before building the first  house on Alberni Street, "The Nest". This home they shared with a mining  engineer, W. T. Newman, who wrote "Hidden Mines and how to find them",  a collector's gem. I was born there in 1897.  In later years they loved to recall the happy times they enjoyed in  early Vancouver. Holidays were mostly devoted to picnics at Second Beach  or in Stanley Park berry picking or up on Shaughnessy Heights or Marine  Drive which was wilderness. Sometimes a basket of shrimp or smelts would  be the reward for a walk on the beach near Jericho. For the time they lived  over at Moodyville and fished as they rowed across. They both loved the  outdoors.  In 1898 the gold fever had reached into every town and hamlet of the  West. The Klondyke was drawing thousands of eager men, and closer to  home rich strikes were reported in the Kootenay and Boundary Country  creating wild excitement. Father caught the fever and asked for leave of  absence to become Secretary-Treasurer of the British Columbia Mining  Institute. Mr. T. R. Hardiman who ranched for many years at Canford in the  Nicola Valley was president, the company held options on a number of  promising properties in the Kootenay and Boundary Country and were going  along very well until Hardiman met an Irish M.P. who held a seat on the  London Stock Exchange. This promoter had an unsavory reputation but they  got the news too late and lost everything. The day after my father got word  from London that they had failed he was offered LeRoi (Rossland) stock for  7 cents a share but refused it. It reached $7.00 within weeks!  He went back to the Post Office and soon had charge of the forwarding  department. This meant he was required to accompany all mails leaving the  Port of Vancouver for Australasia and the Orient to Victoria and then return  on the C.P.R. coast boat. In 1906, although he was Asst. Postmaster of  Vancouver, he acted as the Postmaster for the year during the incumbent's  illness.  Some time in 1902 we moved to Beach Avenue just a fewdoorsf rom the  Park entrance on the seaside of the thoroughfare. Here my younger brother  Arnold gained in health and Ted was born. How well I remember when workmen came and started to clear an area for the Park Keeper's Lodge. Each  night the huge fires were banked up around the logs with limbs and other  broken spars to ensure that the fire would continue to consume the beautiful  trees which had to be removed to make way for the lodge. Here and there  small beds of embers provided boys of the neighborhood with heat in which  to roast potatoes-blackened morsels that tasted much better than potatoes  prepared at home!  English Bay and the Park were lovely spots in those days and the  summers were spent on the beach where Joe Forte kept his watchful eye on  all youngsters who became a bit too venturesome. The Park had its  fascinations too, the flowers, birds, and watching the fishing fleet with their  white sails as they crossed and crisscrossed the sea from Point Grey to  Bowen Island. E.O.ATKINSON 59  After his mining experiences my father became much more cautious  and began making small investments in real estate. One of his best investments was a 2-acre lot on Lansdowne Avenue, North Vancouver,  together with its huge cedar stumps and brambles, but when sold it returned  a handsome profit. By 1905 he began to find indoor life was undermining his  health and his doctor advised a move to the dry belt and suggested the  Okanagan. When he was in the mail service he had always envied the  passengers who got off at Sicamous bound for Okanagan points.  When the Dominion Exhibition opened in September that year at New  Westminster he spent a day going through the agricultural displays and met  Mr. L. W. Shatford who was introducing the new Penticton subdivision of the  great Ellis Ranch to the public for the first time. Shatford was either a  forceful salesman or my father was a determined buyer; at any rate he  became the first buyer Mr. Shatford had at the show, something he always  remembered. Lot 73 at the top of the long hill on Vancouver Avenue, later  Lower Bench Road, became the home property for nearly 50 years.  Father resigned from the Vancouver Post Office in the spring of 1907.  His last day of duty was climaxed by a dinner given in his honor by the Post  Office Department at which he was presented with a Remington double-  barrelled shotgun suitably engraved on a silver shield. The wording reads  "Presented to E. O. Atkinson by the P.O. Staff, Vancouver, B.C., March 30,  1907." We left Vancouver on April 6 and arrived in Penticton via the S.S.  "Aberdeen" in the evening of April 7 at the "Old Wharf". While here on a  short visit the previous February my father had engaged two carpenters,  Messrs. Martinson and Gough, to build a temporary house and this was  partially up when we arrived but it was a prett flimsy affair. However, my  mother couldn't settle down to life in the hotel and so on the fifth day after  arrival our shipment of "settlers' effects" were hauled up from the wharf  and an entirely new life for all was commenced. Everything was dry and  deep with dust. The only tree bigger than the sage brush of which we had a  full supply was an old lovely pine which stood to the north of us on the next  lot. Through it all Mother coped with every new situation as it arose.  The previous winter had had been a severe one and spring was late but  when it came it burst like a bomb and everything burned up fast. The newly  created road allowances and plowed fields soon were veritable dust bowls  which almost drove new arrivals to distraction. South winds in April carried  clouds of dust 300 feet high over the newly ploughed "Benches".  The only water supply, domestic or otherwise, came in a wooden  flume which ran by close to our house but after its long journey from the dam  on Penticton Creek it was quite warm. The ditchrider, Mr. Lancaster, kept  just enough water running to keep the flume wet to prevent it from leaking  when we were not using it for irrigation. This lateral flume supplied about  seven of the lots, for Mr. Jim Creighton, Mr. G.G. Jellard, Mr. Blarney  Stevens, Mr. R.R. Thompson, Dr. CA. Jackson and Capt. Ivan Stevens, but  only three of them lived in their lots at the beginning.  Public utilities were almost non-existent. There was no telephone for  about five years, domestic water and electricity came about the same time.  You went for your mail or depended on a good neighbor to bring it as well as  groceries and all other supplies. Mail order houses handled a large portion of  the household appliance business.  Within a few weeks our young orchard broke into leaf and the garden  containing all the staple vegetables and some flowers (sweet peas being a 60 E.O.ATKINSON  real favorite in those days) burst into production like a miracle; and of  course to my mother's delight. Coupled with fresh milk and cream and new  butter derived from a little Jersey cow bought from Mr. D. A. Hatch we were  living in clover.  The sudden surge in population in Penticton and area served by the  local post office required much more experienced staff and Father was  approached by Jim Schubert, who had the post office in his store, to run it for  him which he did for over three years, finally resigning when the orchard  began to bear in paying quantities.  On arrival here father quickly associated himself with St. Saviour's  Church, then on Fairview Road, and joined the choir. He had an uninterrupted record of well over 50 years of choir singing in British Columbia.  On arrival in Victoria he had spent a year singing in the same choir as Sir  Matthew Baillie Begbie, the famous judge. He continued in Vancouver until  we moved to Penticton. He was a faithful member of St. Saviour's choir for  more than 40 years, frequently one of a small number who turned out in bad  weather to a service.  He served on the vestry for many years and was People's Warden  during the building of the new stone church on Winnipeg Street. Before the  church was completed the great depression hit the district and it became a  very difficult task to get in the many promises in order to complete the work.  He struggled on and eventually completed it with a lot of patience.  Father was the first candidate for initiation into Orion Lodge No. 51  A.F. & A.M., Penticton, July 1st, 1908, served as secretary in 1911-12, and  was elected the first life member.  Throughout his long residence in the Okanagan he took a keen interest  in fruitgrowers' activities and operated his own shipping agency, Atkinson  & Sons, for thirty years besides introducing a high quality of candied fruits.  On several occasions he was a successful exhibitor at the old Provincial Fair  at New Westminster, and locally at the Penticton Agricultural Exhibition.  He won the Gold Medal for the largest apple in the show (Spokane Beauty)  several times and worked hard to establish a Poultry Show, and the Penticton Poultry Association put on several excellent shows between 1912-1921  at Steward's Hall.  Among his many accomplishments he had a very good knowledge of  botany, and like most Englishmen loved all flowers but his favorites were  roses, followed by carnations and 'mums.  During World War I he brought in, at considerable expense, a pen of  Mammoth Bronze turkeys from Pennsylvania. The torn weighed 42 pounds  on arrival. These birds greatly improved many local flocks then being raised  by local farmers. He also brought in a registered Duroc Jersey boar and two  young sows. These turned out to be a disappointment.  During 1913-14 he was Chairman of the Penticton School Board when  the Ellis School was built. The cornerstone was laid by the Hon. Price  Ellison, member for North Okanagan and one of the valley pioneers. In  politics he was a staunch Conservative.  In his declining years he derived a good deal of pleasure from wood  carving, and insisted in using hardwood for everything he worked on.  Several walnut trees on one fence line, planted in 1907 on the home orchard,  had to be removed. These were carefully harvested and the choice pieces  were ripped at the local sawmill. From this stock the better pieces were  selected and when well cured he turned out some beautiful pieces of fur- E.O.ATKINSON 61  niture. Panels with floral design were worked into the doors and frames of  his cabinets from his own drawings.  Mother and Father celebrated their 60th wedding anniversary October  3, 1951, Mother passing away the next April. Father remarried but this  marriage only lasted about eight months. His second wife predeceased him  by five weeks.  Ted Atkinson was a quiet-mannered little man who had a hard time to  toe 5 feet 6 and seldom, if ever, weighed 140 pounds. He had that wonderful  faculty of making friends and keeping them. He was very proud of his  Yorkshire ancestry and never tired of giving Yorkshire toasts, and enjoyed  repeating old stories in true Yorkshire brogue.  The family has kept faith with the Okanagan and none of them have  strayed very far afield except for education or calls of duty.  R. N. (Reg) in latter life has been well known for his efforts in  establishing the Penticton Museum, and his daughters, Mrs. Sid Hodge of  Kelowna and Rae, Mrs. Charlie Banner, are both well known; Roy the only  son was killed in Italy while serving with the 9th Armoured Regiment in 1944.  A. P. (Arnold) was in the orchard business for many years but is better  known as a stockman and his successful management of the Penticton  Peach Festival Rodeo. His son, Dennis Atkinson, and family live in Penticton. F. E. (Ted) was at the Research Station at Summerland for approximately 35 years, established the Processing Laboratory and has been  active in starting several valley industries. He served on the Summerland  Council for 17 years, eight of which as mayor. Their daughter Frances and  her family, the Peter Beulahs, make their home there.  CHARTER MEMBER PASSES ON  By PRIMROSE UPTON  The Okanagan Historical Society suffered a great loss when G. D.  Herbert of Kelowna died on June 4,1970, after a lengthy illness.  A charter member of the OHS, he has worked hard for the Society over  many years and always been keenly interested in its progress. For a number  of years Mrs. Herbert has been Essay Contest Chairman for the Society.  Mr. Herbert was born in Mitchell, Ontario, in 1890. He met his wife  Gladys E. Morris at Brandon College and their marriage was the first to be  solemnized in Brandon College Chapel (now Brandon University). Mr.  Herbert taught at Vernon for seven years before moving to Kelowna where  with Mrs. Herbert, they founded the Herbert Business College in the Casorso  Building in 1931 and continued until 1959.  Always interested in young people he was the secretary of the Student  Assistance Association for School District 23 from its start in 1949 until ill  health forced him to retire from this in 1969. He was one of the earliest  members of the Kelowna and District Credit Union, and a member of the  first CCF group in Kelowna. He was a city alderman for a short time. He was  also a member of the Kelowna Rotary Club for 31 years, and an active  member of the First United Church. He will be much missed by the  organizations for which he worked so hard. 62  STREETSFULOF MEMORIES  STREETSFUL OF MEMORIES  By SONNI BONE  Bring out the old wooden sidewalks that tipped as you walked along  their edges. Stroll Penticton's Main Street, a dirt road with cows and calves  pasturing along its edges — dining whenever possible on the hay and grain  from the backs of the wagons of any  who dared leave wagon and team  unattended.  Pass the now invisible  shacks and  tents that housed  the  nearly 800 people, sixty-some years  ago.  And there you are, somewhere  amid the memories of widow Mrs.  Fred Bradburn, who arrived in  Penticton aboard the S. S. Okanagan  with her husband on Sept. 17, 1912,  from village Hapton, near Burnley,  Lancashire.  Fred and Ethel had been  married three years earlier in St.  Leonard's Church, Padiham,  Lancashire. They had lost their first  son, James, who had died as a baby  in 1911, and were coming to the New  World to make a new life.  Fred's first job was aboard  the S. S. Okanagan, and his second,  in 1914, aboard the S. S. Sicamous.  First he worked as a paint washer —  washing all the white paint on the  boat and cleaning the brass. He  worked as a quarter-master, a  trucker running freight off the boat  to the different landings, and as a  stevedore. He was making $34 a month. Later, in 1916, he was to join the CPR  where he spent the rest of his life.  But this story, Mrs. Bradburn's memories, is not a story of Fred's and  Ethel's life — the fact that they raised five children in Penticton, four boys  and a girl, three of whom still live here. This is a story of this and that, that  and this — recollections from the past as important, or unimportant, as life.  Many of them have only one link — streets. Penticton streets.  Consider their first home, on Burns Street, where they lived for six  months. "We used to rent a shack for $4 a month from Eric Murray, who  worked for the Herald newspaper. The shack was shiplap, three sides  already papered with The Herald. The fourth side I papered with new  Heralds," said Mrs. Bradburn.  "When Mrs. Art Marlow Senior came to visit, she asked why three  parts of the walls were dark, and I said,' Well, that's the antique and this is  the modern.' I could lie in bed at night and read them," she said.  "The men had to work during the week, so they did their house  Ethel  and   Fred  Bradburn,   photographed at Southport,  Lancashire,  on their July holidays of 1910. STREETSFULOF MEMORIES 63  building on Sunday. I remember the police came round to tell them they  couldn't build on Sunday because it was too noisy. It was the people holding  religious services in their houses that kicked," she said.  "In 1913, Mr. L. was building this house behind Heywood Street. He  used to collect these five-gal Ion oil cans, cut out the top and bottom and down  the seam — then straightening them out for shingles. My sister and I went  over one day when the roof was finished. It was raining — and oh dear, what  a racket.  "Another man went out every day to pick up wooden forms left when  the old brick kiln went out of business, and he built a two-room house on  Burns Street with them."  If basically, wooden sidewalks — the streets — were meant for people  to walk along, and kids to tip, they also played other roles. For instance,  once, following a town murder, the dark crevices beneath these often-  slivered and weather-worn slats was a perfect place to cache the jewels.  "Before we came to Penticton there had been a murder of a W.  Zimmerman — in 1907 — a jeweler who had his shop on Front Street. When  we arrived, they still hadn't found the murderer," Mrs. Bradburn explains.  "Ten years later, the one-time night policeman confessed. His confession was put in a Vancouver paper — how he used to go and visit Mr.  Zimmerman most nights and gave a cup of coffee, then one night they  quarreled and the policeman killed him; took trays and boxes of rings and so  on, and hid them under the old wooden sidewalk near Mr. Abbott's laundry in  the 100 block on the west side of Ellis Street.  "But before the policeman confessed, two men working for the  municipality — it didn't become a city until 1948 — were digging up the old  sidewalk and found these trays and boxes of jewelry.  "Neighbor women I knew would have rings on three fingers of each  hand. Men had lovely ruby signet rings and so on. So, I asked one neighbor,  'Why have you so many rings?'  "She said, 'Don't you know Mr. So-and-So and Mr. So-and-So found  trays and boxes of jewelry under the old wooden sidewalk near Abbott's  laundry? If you want to buy some we can get them to come to your house and  show you what they've got.'  "They were selling the rings for 25 cents to a dollar — wither they  were 10, 14 or 18 carat gold. But I had no money to spare, so I din't buy  anything," Mrs. Bradburn recalls.  However, if Front Street housed a murder, it also housed one of Mrs.  Bradburn's sweetest memories. That of Candy Jack. A big man with a little  mustache, there he would be outside the Empress Theatre, his candy tray  strapped round his neck.  In his tray were slabs of pink and white rock candy, which he would  break into delectable, mouth-size pieces with a little steel mallet. In his own  mouth was the inevitable wad of tobacco which he chewed mercilessly, its  juices streaming down his moustache, and he spitting it to the right, to the  left.  "But it tasted good, whether there was tobacco juice on it or not," is  how Mrs. Bradburn remembers it.  "Inside the theatre, Beatrice Leith would be playing on the piano to  the silent pictures. We heard more of the piano than you ever saw of the  pictures because they kept breaking down. She'd be playing away, waiting 64 STREETSFULOF MEMORIES  for them to fix up the motor. They'd just get it started, and then out it would  sputter again."  The Empress wasn't the first theatre in town. That honor went to the  Wonderland Theatre on Main Street. That the town (incorporated as a  municipality in 1908) was small, and that theatre management at least  didn't expect too many strangers to be riding into town was evidenced by  their advertisement in The Herald, which read at the bottom "Tickets in the  usual place."  A place to cache jewels, te board walks of Ellis also held another claim  to fame. Along tis street lived Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Smith — parents of  movie star Alexis Smith who was born in Penticton in 1921. Mrs. Bradburn  remembered seeingthe famed star on a return visit, strolling the street arm  in arm with her parents. The memory of Alexis herself and her beauty was  somewhat faded, but the memory of her parents, and an attempted burglary  at their home, was something else again.  "He, Alex Smith, was in with Thomas Syer in his grocery store on the  200 block, Main Street. He and his wife were tall people — at least compared  tome. They used to live in the 300 block on Ellis."  One day they started down the back alley. Then suddenly Mr. Smith -  remembered something he had forgotten and had to go back. He caught a  burglar in the house. Mr. Smith kicked him right through the screen door.  "Everyone in town went down to see the hole in the door," says Mrs.  Bradburn.  When the first of July rolled round, it was time to celebrate. "There  was racing — harness and tandem down at the fairgrounds where the arena,  Queen's Park, is now. There was sulky racing, bicycle racing, races with  potatoes on spoons, races where you tried to thread a stocking needle as you  ran down the track . . . The Indians were good riders — there were Indian  and white jockeys.  "Under the grandstand was a booth where they sold ice-cream and  pop. The band would be playing. The judge's stand was across from the  bandstand.  "One day a man in the stand asked all the women with long hair to come  down to the track. There were about six of us. We had to take all the hairpins  out of our hair. Mine was 38 inches long. We could sit on it. There was one old,  old lady with us. Do you know that old lady had hair down to the back of her  knees? She got a box of chocolates . . . And then, there we were, all going  back up into the stand trying to do up our hair, trying to put the hairpins back  in," she said.  The early days in Penticton were also days of superstition, it seems.  "The Indians told us if a person drowned in a lake or river to put a  rooster in a rowboat, then to row out on the water and wherever the rooster  crowed you would find the body."  It did work twice — once when a young man in a canoe was crossing  from Naramata to Summerland and his canoe turned over. The rooster  crowed at a certain place and the body was found in 10 feet of water.  Two children were found the same way. They had been standing hand  in hand when the river bank gave way. The river was very high, having  overflowed its banks. A rooster was taken out and the two children were  found in some backwater where the flood water had swept them.  "Years and years ago I was given a long poem about a denizen of the  deep in Okanagan Lake. It had to do with the Indians. They used to put food STREETSFULOF MEMORIES 65  for the serpent out on a rock at Squally Point on the east side of the lake. It  was said that this serpent would come up and take and eat the food. It was  supposed to appease it. There is a light, or used to be for years, at Squally  Point."  And the early days were days of prohibition. Almost. "These men  knew prohibition was coming in so they went out and bought liquor. Four  men at least had it cached in their places. The police found out they were  selling it and said they were going to raid the houses. So the liquor was  hidden in a certain church building," Mrs. Bradburn reports.  "In the early days they didn't bring the whiskey in here in bottles. It  came in barrels. One time somebody shipped four barrels of rye whiskey to  Mr. D. S. Riardon at the B.C. Hotel. The barrel were sitting on the wharf,  and somebody drilled through the bottom of the wharf into one of the barrels  and drained it."  When it came to eating, prices were pretty good, the product  sometimes pretty bad.  "If you went to a cafe on Front Street, it was 50 cents for soups, meat  on a dinner plate, potatoes in a very small dish, vegetables in another small  dish, and still another small dish for dessert. I remember one man saying to  a waiter, 'If you don't hurry up and bring my dinner I'll eat these samples.' "  There used to be a market place on the corner of Westminster and  Main. The place smelled of fruit, vegetables, meat. Anyone that had  anything to sell, sold it there. Mrs. Bradburn once bought a suckling pig, but  when she cut it open itwas all fat. She got lots of lard.  Before the market there was a little barbershop there — 25 cents a  haircut, neckshave 15 cents, bath 50 cents. "I often wondered where he got  his water, and if it was a tin bath."  "Mrs. Gaube had a store on Front Street — groceries and ice-cream  and a parrot 50 years old. All the boys on the boat used to go there. If anyone  died she used to give the family about seven dollars worth of groceries to  help them out."  Everyone co-operated in an emergency. "I remember that this man  came and Dr. White Sr. and my brother-in-law went with him on a railroad  speeder to this place past Faulder. My brother-in-law had to hold the lamp  while the baby was born because the man — the father — was too scared."  "Old Dr. White's house used to stand on Ellis, where the R. B. White  Clinic is now. They used to have a lovely lawn and a lovely green-gage plum  tree. People passing by used to sneak the green-gages. One day there was a  sign out on the trellis fence, 'Please leave some for the owners.'  This and that. That and this. We have covered a lot of it. And the  streets are growing narrower now — the memories growing dimmer —  except, remember, that one grand and petty affair.  It was October of 1919, and the Prince of Wales was strolling along  Main Street . . .  "He had a lot of men with him. Later, at the ball given by the Great  War Veterans he danced with a good-looking clerk who worked in King's  Store in the 100 Block on Main Street. There was quite a bit of talk. A lot of  others thought he should have danced with them.  "About a week later when the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire came,  they dined with some people at the Incola Hotel. It was said those who  danced with the prince did not dine with the duke."  As so many things that happen within a town must happen along a 66 STREETSFULOF MEMORIES  street — so it was that Fred Bradburn should die on — and our story should  end on — the street that the Bradburns lived on for most of their lives, the  one that Fred trod or rode along to work for so many days of so many years.  He had helped raise his five children, all born within the town, along  that street — Burns Street — his daughter Linola Buris, who was married  now, then William, Fred, Robert and George Ralph.  Fred was only 58 that day in May of 1946 when his heart gave way.  After breakfast that morning he got on his bike, pedalled just past the front  of his daughter's home, which was next door. There he dropped, against the  fence, against the cool, green grass, the warmth of the earth.  "Granddad has stopped to take a rest in the grass," observed his four-  year-old granddaughter Maureen Alexander, and continued to play, more  quietly perhaps, with her twin sister, Maxine.  ADVERTISING IN  1905  The Kelowna Clarion's issue of October 12, 1905, offers the following  interesting items in its advertising columns:  The Okanagan Fruit and Land Company featured lots for sale within  the city limits at $25 per acre.—Lequime Bros., "the Big Store" proclaimed  that "our prices for men's suits range from $8.50 to $16.50. You may buy  cheaper goods elsewhere but our experience has taught us that we cannot  sell you a suit and guarantee it for less than $8.50. We can buy suits to sell at  $4.50 to $5.00 but our aim is to give our customers the best value for their  money."—"Prince Otto", billed as Otis Skinner's great play, indeed "a  sumptuous production of the most fascinating romantic play of the last  decade", was coming for one night only to Raymer's Hall, with seats for sale  at Willits Drug Store.—"Lost-On S.S. Aberdeen a telescope valise containing  suit of clothes, fur cap, and a few African war medals. Any information  regarding this lost grip will be thankfully received by H. Knowles, Penticton."—Miss A. M. Reekie, teacher of piano, announced opening of fall  term classes, "for terms apply at residence two doors south of Lawson's  Store.—Notice: Persons found shooting on Fir Ranch will be prosecuted.  Signed J. G. Woolen, O.K. Mission Road.—Kelowna Market listed apples at  V/2 cts. per lb.; butter at 35 cents per lb.; eggs at 35 cents per dozen; potatoes  at $14 per ton. HISTORICCHURCH MARKER UNVEILED  67  HISTORIC CHURCH MARKER  UNVEILED  KATHLEEN S. DEWDNEY  More than 100 people braved the snow and cold on December 6, 1969 to  attend the dedication ceremony of a marker at the original site of St.  Saviour's Anglican Church in Penticton, the first Protestant Church in the-  Southern Okanagan.  It was built in 1892 as a symbol of thanks by the area's first white  settler, Thomas Ellis, following a near-fatal accident involving his family  when their team of horses bolted as they were driving to Kamloops. The  name "St. Saviour's" was aptly chosen.  The outdoor service at the marker in the cemetery of Fairview Road  was opened by the president of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, who greeted all present and introduced the principal speakers: Mayor F. D. Stuart, Rev. Douglas  Hodgkinson, Rev. W. S. Beames, Frank Lefroy and Norman Audley.  Mayor Stuart said it was difficult to realize that the area of the  Fairview Road cemetery was once remote from the centre of the community. He congratulated the members of the Historical Society and St.  The original St. Saviour's Church at Penticton. Built in 1892 by Thomas Ellis,  the first white settler in Penticton. First Protestant Church in the  Southern Okanagan. 68  HISTORIC CHURCH MARKER UNVEILED  Photo—Ed. Aldredge  Mr.   Frank   Lefroy,   youngest   grandson   of   Tom   Ellis,   standing   beside  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, President of the Okanagan  Historical Society and  also the Penticton Branch. The monument and plaque were unveiled in the  Anglican cemetery on December 6, 1969. HISTORICCHURCHMARKER UNVEILED 69  Saviour's Anglican Church "for preserving some of the heritage of the  community on this auspicious day."  The stone cairn bearing a bronze plaque was designed and erected by  City Parks Superintendent, Norman Audley. He explained that the stone  which has attractive colors was selected from a site on the Naramata Road.  "It is a particular type of stone originally crushed by ice and is referred to as  Icelandic stone. Its strata and marks are caused by the glaciers."  The plaque, mounted on the sloping top of the marker, reads:  "Site of First Protestant Church  (St. Saviour's Anglican)  in Southern Okanagan  Built by Tom Ellis in 1892."  Frank Lefroy, youngest grandson of Thomas Ellis, in performing the  unveiling said, "It is a great pleasure and honour for me to be here to participate in this ceremony." He conveyed the respects of other members of  the Ellis family who were unable to attend the dedication. "They are most  appreciative of what is being done," he said, "in maintaining some of the  history and mementos of the valley in which we live."  Following the unveiling by Mr. Lefroy, St. Saviour's Rector, the Rev.  Mr. Hodgkinson dedicated the plaque.  He complimented the people of the community who had worked to  establish Penticton and gave thanks "to those who have challenged their  elders and have pioneered — because the day of pioneering is not over."  Following the giving of the blessing by the Rev. Mr. Beames, an invitation was extended for everyone to attend an indoor ceremony in the new  St. Saviour's church hall on Orchard Avenue. About 150 people assembled in  the hall to continue the dedication ceremonies. The programme included an  address entitled, "The History of St. Saviour's Church" given by Hugh  Cleland, the son of one of the church's first Rectors, the Rev. John Cleland.  The Rev. Mr. Cleland was in charge of St. Saviour's parish from 1907 until  1921 and was responsible for much of the early growth of the congregation  and the expansion of the original structure.  The Rev. Mr. Beames, rector of St. Saviour's new church for 18 years,  told of his association with the church and of how much the pioneers had  accomplished despite the hardships they faced.  A tribute to the pioneers was given by Victor Wilson who said, "There  were many devoted people who worked within the walls of the little old  church and it is they whom we honour at this service. There were so many of  them it is impossible to name them all." But he did single out three senior  church wardens for presentation to the assembly — Hugh Leir, Hugh  Cleland and Claude Holden.  He also paid tribute to nine life members of the Women's Auxiliary of  the church. They were: Miss Gladys Eyre, Mrs. W. S. Beames, Mrs. Harry  Cossentine, Mrs. G. M. Evans, Mrs. Louise Campling, Mrs. M. W. Forster,  Mrs. Dorothy Smythe, Mrs. Richard Knight and Miss Elizabeth Reid.  Recognizing the efforts of the people who had played a part in planning  and obtaining the church marker and its bronze plaque, Mr. Wilson singled  out for special attention: H. W. Corbett, now deceased; the Rev. Alvin  Miller, now living in Winnipeg; and Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, chairman of the  dedication ceremonies.  Two members of St. Saviour's choir, Mrs. J. A. Merrix and Mrs.  Louise Cornett entertained with a duet, "Brahm's Lullaby," and solos: "A 70 HISTORICCHURCHMARKER UNVEILED  Little Prayer for Me" by Mrs. Merrix and "One Little Candle" by Mrs.  Cornett. The accompanist for the singers was Rod Butler, oganist and senior  choir-master of St. Saviour's.  Among those present was A. H. (Gint) Cawston who was presented to  the assembly. He was the first baby to be christened in the little church  (1893). The Rev. Thomas Greene deter Archdeacon) conducted the service  and presented a Bible as a memento of the occasion. Mr. Ellis gave a bonus  of fifty dollars. Mr. Cawston was married in the same church on July 10,  1919.  An invitation was extended to all those present to visit the Ellis  Memorial Chapel adjoining the church and hall.  Refreshments were served by the Anglican Church Women of St.  Saviour's and by members of the Historical Society.  NOTE: The original lot on which the cemetery alone remains was  deeded to the City of Penticton on December 10, 1964 by the Synod of the  Diocese of Kootenay. This property will now receive perpetual care.  For those readers who do not know the story of St. Saviour's Church a  brief history follows:  When the original St. Saviour's Church was built almost all the land  now known as Penticton was a large cattle ranch owned by Thomas Ellis  who establihsed a homestead there in 1866. He built the little church on his  property opposite his home on Fairview Road where Windsor Avenue is now.  The first service in the church was held on April 26, 1892, that being Mr. El is'  birthday.  Before the church was built religious services were held in his home  every Sunday for the benefit of the family and any ranch hands who wished  to attend. Services were taken by Mr. Ellis except when a clergyman happened to be passing through the valley.  On November 6, 1892, Bishop Sillitoe arrived by horseback from New  Westminster. He conducted services in the chapel and consecrated the  sanctuary.  The Bishop was surprised to find such a beautiful building completely  furnished with altar, prayer desk, reading desk, lectern, organ, carpet in the  chancel, and seating for 50.  The first regular incumbent of the Penticton parish was the Rev.  Thomas Greene who came on May 14, 1893 and held services in Penticton,  Trout Creek, Fairview, Okanagan Falls, Keremeos and Osoyoos. He served  as tutor for the Ellis children. Later he went to Kelowna where he became  Archdeacon of the Kootenay Diocese.  The first organist in the church was Miss Eileen Ellis, the eldest  daughter, who later became Mrs. Patrick Burns of Calgary.  The first wedding was that of Miss Lily Allison and Geoge Norman.  Mr. Ellis gave fifty dollars to the bride.  The first baby christened in the church, Alfred (Gint) Cawston, also  received fifty dollars from Mr. Ellis.  The first burial in the enclosed area surrounding the church was  Thomas Arthur Ellis, second son of Mr. and Mrs. Tom Ellis, who was killed  in a horseback riding accident on February 9,1900, at the early age of 23.  Between 1897 and 1907 church services were taken by various  clergymen for short periods. These were: Rev. Henry Irwin (the well-known  Father Pat), Rev. Charles Easton, Rev. G. W. Borlase, Rev. James Hill and  Rev. A. N. St. John Mildmay. HISTORICCHURCHMARKER UNVEILED  71  Other clergymen of St. Saviour's were:  Rev. John A. Cleland (1907-21),  Canon George Thompson (1921-28),  Rev. T. E. Rowe (1928-29),  Canon Harry Barrett (1929-33),  Rev. W. S. Beames (1933-51),  Rev. R. Lancaster (1951),  Canon A. R. Eagles (1951-64),  Rev. Ray Turner (1964-65),  Rev. John Moorehouse (1965-69),  Rev. Douglas Hodgkinson (1969- -) and  Rev. Thomas Wilding (1970- -).  Mr. Ellis deeded the church and furnishings to the Synod in 1904.  In 1905 the Southern Okanagan Land company bought the Ellis Ranch  property, laid out the townsite of Penticton and started planting orchards.  Then many settlers started to arrive and the parish grew so fast that the  I  1               ■           4"  ^^  ^f_fl______l"*"-:"**  ,:'   ■-'  '/   ^   -J  r          "\_b^ :. ■  h  '\^^Bm  ■f8f"v \jj  ^BBt"                   -"^rw'nw^g^B^B  i* MftrS  "-=#-                  l,,i"  "' *    -^^^^fl  •  "i *< "      •«-  -  # '  R; -  *                             _M  jiiiifc  Eric Sismey Photo  The Ellis Memorial Chapel as it stands today beside St. Saviour's Church  on Winnipeg Street, Penticton. 72 HISTORICCHURCHMARKER UNVEILED  little church was too small to accommodate the congregation.  In 1912 the Rev. Mr. Cleland arranged for the church to be enlarged by  cutting the building in two at the middle and inserting a transept which  doubled the seating capacity. Before long, even with this addition, the  church was too small. So, during the summer, benches were placed outside  where people could sit and follow the service through open windows and  doors. In winter the service was held in the church in the morning, and in the  new large parish hall on Ellis Street in the evening for those unable to attend  the morning service for lack of room.  As St. Saviour's congregation continued to increase a new church,  from plans drawn by Mr. Cleland, was built on Winnipeg Street by Etter and  Pearson. The church was dedicated by the Venerable Archdeacon Thomas  Greene, St. Saviour's first Rector, on September 21,1930.  Shortly after the completion of the new St. Saviour's the Ellis family  granted permission to move the original church and join it to the main one.  This necessitated dismantling the transept which had been inserted in 1912,  and re-uniting the original sections of the church. This was done. It was  moved and sheathed with a local stone to match the new structure.  This beautiful little sanctuary was consecrated September 23, 1934, as  the Ellis Memorial Chapel in memory of Thomas Ellis, his wife Wilhelmina  and her brother, Alfred Wade, the first reeve of the municipality of Penticton.  The original interior finish has been retained. The walls of pine "V"  joint; and pews, chancel and rails of Douglas fir have darkened and  mellowed with age. The windows, all of stained glass, are memorials.  For 77 years this little sanctuary has been open for worship to  everyone. Many of Penticton's old-timers were baptized, confirmed and  married in it. Some who reached the end of the trail have been buried in its.  cemetery.  This writer has happy memories of this little church which she and her  family attended. Her husband, Walter Dewdney, was one of the organists.  Her children attended Sunday School and Church, and two of them sang in  the choir. Later, her daughter was married in the Ellis Memorial Chapel.  Throughout the years our family participated in various activities in  both the old church and the new one. We found comfort, inspiration and  lasting friendships within their walls. May our grandchildren follow in our  footsteps.  St. Saviour's Church with its dedicated Rectors and devoted members  has spread its holy influence over many lives.  Reference: St. Saviour's Parish, Penticton, B.C. - 28th Report, O.H.S. FESTIVAL OF REMEMBRANCE 73  FESTIVAL OF REMEMBRANCE  By IVAN E. PHILLIPS  It is of interest to reflect on the "English" church of centuries ago. For  it was invariably built on land that commanded an unobscured view of the  village and its inhabitants and was the hub around which the life of the  village revolved. Indeed, it served not only as the religious centre of the  village, but itwas also deeply involved in the cultural, social and educational  activities of the people.  Thus, it was appropriate that during the week of April 20-27, 1969, Saint  Stephen's Anglican Church of Summerland followed closely the mother  church in its observance and practice. The occasion was, the historic and  unique one that marked an important anniversary in the annals of our  church. Although described and spoken of as the Diamond Jubilee of the  Summerland church, the events that have taken place over the week could  well have also been portrayed as a "Festival of Remembrance". For indeed,  it was an eventful and joyous commemoration.  It was a happy and inspiring augury for the days that were to follow,  as the choir, the Bishop of Kootenay, the Right Reverend Scott, DD., and the  incumbent, the Rev. N. E. Tanner, B.A., Bth. followed in procession down  the aisle of the church, singing the "Jubilate". During the singing, it was  noticeable that many visitors and former members of Saint Stephen's and  now living outside of the community were present.  Taking as his theme "The Church and its People", Bishop Scott  stressed the important part which the church must play in the constantly  changing values of the world as it is today. "By the church I mean," he said,  "not a building of wood or of stone, but rather, the people themselves." It  was example rather than by precept, or to put it into other words, the application of our faith in the business of every day to day living, that was  needed.  The Anniversary Prayer for the Service was as follows:  "Almighty God, our Heavenly Father, who of Thy divine providence  hast established this Thy Church in this Diocese, help us with thankfulness  and praise to give all glory to Thee for so precious an inheritance.  "We remember before Thee the wisdom and courage of our leaders,  the witness and work of devoted people, and the prayers and generosity of all  those who established Thy w^ork in this community.  "Kindle in our hearts a like devotion and make us so mindful of our  stewardship that, empowered by Thy Spirit and enriched by Thy Grace, we  may use this heritage for the welfare of Thy people and the glory of Thy  Name, through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen."  After the conclusion of the service a reception was held in the Parish  Hall.  An interesting and informative feature was Mrs. Hector Whitaker's  excellent and valuable collection of photographs. These were on display in  the church for the whole of the week, under the auspices of the "Summerland  Museum and Arts Society".  The collection forms an almost complete and vivid history of the  scenes, the events and te personalities, of well over half of a century ago.  The pioneer luncheon which was staged on Tuesday in honour of those  early settlers in Summerland proved to be an outstanding success. The hall  was tastefully decorated for the occasion, and approximately 95 persons had 74  FESTIVALOF REMEMBRANCE  Photo by Mary Gartrell Orr  Canon Thomas Harris (left), member of a pioneer Summerland family, and  the Rev. Norman Tannar, of St. Stephen's Anglican Church, Summerland.  gathered to hear Canon Tom Harris, who himself was a pioneer. Ranging far  and wide over the Summerland as he knew and loved it, many years ago, he  delighted his listeners with his reminiscences. Occasionally, lapsing into  jocular vein, his talk was, although informal, of absorbing interest.  The Rev. Norman Tannar, in his address, said that there have beeni  many changes over the years now long since past. This opportunity had  presented itself to enable us to pay a tribute to those who had contributed so  much to the town's growth. He added that in the beginning the people always  wanted to make the town as a place to be worthy of its name. Indeed, these  same people could look back and remember them, as the "Golen Years".  The Melodiers, under the direction of Mrs. L. Fudge, entertained with  a varied selection of songs and opened their repertoire with the hymn entitled "Summerland".  In the evening, the "Summerland Museum and Arts Society" hosted  the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society. Introducing the  guest speaker, Mr. N. L. Barlee, Ivan E. Phillips extended on behalf of the  president, executive and the members, greetings to the visitors and the  residents. He paid a tribute to the dedicated and devoted work that had been  performed throughout many years, by all those comprising the branches  and the present body. They had given spontaneously, and without reserve of  their leisure hours to the task of recording, tabulating and the preserving of  Okanagan history. Mr. Barlee accompanied his presentation of a delightful  collection of coloured slides of the Okanagan with a most informative and  interesting commentary. Many of his pictures were of very special interest,  since these had been taken far off from the beaten track.  The ministry and the laity were well represented at the church an- FESTIVALOF REMEMBRANCE 75  niversary dinner which was held on the Wednesday evening. Mr. V. Charles,  a guest for the evening, on behalf of the Summerland United Church conveyed to the assembly and the parishioners of Saint Stephen's, on such a  memorable occasion, congratulations and best wishes for the future.  A pleasing and a novel approach was adopted to focus attention to the  important and significant dates in Saint Stephen's history. Songs of the  period, associated and coinciding, with these notable milestones in the  calendar of the church, over many years, were sung by the whole of the  gathering. The songs and the appropriate dates were interspersed with a  commentary on that particular period by the Rev. Mr. Tanner, the incumbent. For example, to mark the period as it related to the pioneer days,  the songs were "Put on your old grey bonnet" and "The old grey mare". For  the first World War, "Tipperary" and "I want a girl, just like the girl that  married dear old dad". At the piano was Mr. A. Hunt.  In a brief but interesting speech, Mr. A. A. Milledge reminded his  listeners that this particular day was a fitting and timely one For we were  not only celebrating our church's Diamond Jubilee, but also Saint George's  Not only was the Cross of Saint George symbolic of England, but also Saint  George was the patron saint of the Anglican church. "Let us not forget also  that he was a martyr to the cause of Christianity."  During the evening a song and an anthem was rendered by the Saint  Stephen's Junior and Senior choir respectively.  A veritable hotchpotch of reminiscences, both grave and gay, were  related by Canon T. E. Harris. Running like a thread throughout the whole of  his interesting and absorbing speech, one was able to detect the main theme  of it all, his love for the Okanagan and of Summerland in particular. "What a  delight it is," he confessed, "to return to Summerland once again and to the  thrill of meeting so many of my old friends. I believe I can rightly claim to be  a genuine Summerlander, for I was but two years old, when I was brought  here in 1910." He made reference to the fact that in spite of, and perhaps  because of, the old and oftimes early demanding days, there existed a real  love of the church in the family. "Things are easier and the standard of  living is higher, but I believe there is a real hunger, spiritually, and even  literally, amongst many people of today." A pleasant climax to the evening  was the presentation of a framed picture of Saint Stephen's church. This was  made on behalf of Saint Stephen's by Mr. Maurice F. Welsh as one who  remembered the Canon very well from bygone days.  On the Thursday evening, the popularity of Mr. N. E. Barlee as a  commentator and as an authority on the varied aspects of Okanagan history  was once again demonstrated. His talk was entitled "The History of the  Okanagan - Similkameen". As on the previous Tuesday, his commentary  was accompanied by an excellent assortment of slides. That his programme  was much enjoyed was evident by the sustained burst of applause on the  conclusion of Mr. Barlee's commentary.  On the Friday was staged quite an unusual function. This took the  form of a bridge luncheon. Thus, it presented yet another opportunity of  meeting the many friends interested in this particular branch of indoor  recreation.  In the evening, the now popular history of Summerland as recorded on  slides, with the commentary given by Allan J. McKenzie, attracted a large  gathering. Produced by the "Summerland Camera Club" it has been enthusiastically acclaimed when and wherever it has been shown. The film, 76  FESTIVALOF REMEMBRANCE  St. Stephen's Church, Summerland.  Photo by Eric D. Sismey  which incidentally was projected a number of times during "Centennial  Year" not only in Summerland but, also, in adjacent districts, is almost  professional in make-up and presentation. Indeed, one might well describe it  as a documentary of the fruit industry, as it existed, and as it still exists, in  the Summerland area. Not only does it portray beautifully and effectively,  the staple industry, but also the flora, that may be seen in and around the  natural setting of mountains, lakes and valley. The film is photography at its  best.  Hence it wa, that one the Sunday 27th April there was written the last  chapter, in the eventful and historic week of the Saint Stephen's Diamond  Jubilee. For the 11 a.m. morning service it was the Rector's, the Wardens'  and the congregation's privilege to welcome to the church the Independent  Order of Oddfellows. Also present, were the ladies of the Rebekah's Lodge. It  so happened, that they as a body were also commemorating an anniversary.  Only in their particular case, their span of years was exactly double to ours.  Namely 150 years, a proud record of service.  The lessons were read by Oddfellows and the sermon also was  preached by a member of the fellowship.  Finally, the Sunday School had their own special Jubilee with the  Superintendent and the teachers arranging and co-operating closely in the  presentation of lessons suitable and so necessary on such a rare and eventful  occasion. Truly a fitting end not only to a memorable week but also marking  the end of an era in Saint Stephen's Church history. AN HONORED DOCTOR  Dr. W. H. B. Munn  Photo by Killkk Photography  AN HONORED DOCTOR  By MARY GARTRELL ORR  A highly-esteemed retired Summerland doctor, Dr. W. H. B. Munn,  was the recipient in 1969 of two awards. They were the Summerland  Chamber of Commerce Good Citizen Award presented at their annual  banquet on February 6, in the Rosedale Room of the Legion Hall, and the  Eagles' Lodge Home Town Builder Award presented at their annual district  convention held in Penticton on April 12.  Son of the pioneer family of Mr. and Mrs. A. Graham Munn, who came  from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland, in 1910, to make their home in Summerland, Blanchard (W. H. B.) Munn followed them in January, 1912, and  attended the local schools, finishing high school. Then after two years at  U.B.C. he went on to graduate in 1927 from McGill University with a doctorate in medicine.  For 15 years he had a very interesting career in rugged northern  Ontario where transportation was often by dog sled or snowmobile. There he  met his charming wife, Helen Cameron, a native of Cochrane, and graduate 78 AN HONORED DOCTOR  of Havergal College, Toronto. Always a devoted helpmate and an inspiration, she and Blanchard moved west in 1943 to Penticton and when Dr.  F. W. Andrew retired in Summerland in 1944, Dr. Munn was called to take  his place and served as a faithful doctor and physician for 21 years. After his  retirement in 1965 he still maintained an interest in the hospital, the staff and  patients. Among those who missed him most were many older people who  had depended on him; and now some of the babies he brought into the world  are having babies of their own. For several years he held the position of  coroner.  At the time of his becoming the Good Citizen he had been honorary  president of the Summerland Legion Branch 22 for seven years, a position he  still holds. He has been heartily endorsed and honored for the help he has  been in obtaining pensions through the Department of Veterans' Affairs,  with his time and effort so freely given. He was highly acclaimed also for his  participation in the area of civil defense, which involved organization of  personnel and preparation for a possible emergency evacuation from the  coast to this area, and he also conducted studies in other valley centres of  how to handle various kinds of disasters.  A charter (1945) member of the Summerland Rotary Club, he was  especially active for the last ten years on the swimming and beach committee, being chairman of the Rotary Red Cross swimming and water safety  program for much of that time.  Dr. Munn is a member of the Masonic Lodge.  He takes a very keen interest in local and valley history being for the  last several years a director of the Okanagan Historical Society, parent  body, a director of the Penticton Historical Society and is vice-president of  the newly-formed Summerland Museum and Arts Society.  St. John Ambulance First Aid courses had the benefit of his knowledge  in the capacity of instructor and examiner from 1945-1950 when he was  presented with a certificate and publicly thanked for his efforts by Mrs. J. O.  Mahoney on behalf of the main branch. This interest in St. John's Ambulance stemmed from as far back as his days in Smooth Rock, Ontario.  Dr. Munn is an ardent reader, a sportsman in the line of curling and  fishing, keeps in touch with the rest of his family, and enjoys their son and  daughter and seven grandchildren.  The announcement of his award and presentation of the Reid Johnston  Cup was made by an old friend, Mr. Jack Towgood, who said "If our community is a pleasant and satisfying place in which to live it is so because it is  blessed by the presence of people who practice the rule of good citizenship."  The Fraternal Order of Eagles must have felt the same about Dr.  Munn, because on April 12, 1969, he was singled out to be the recipient of a  special award when the Penticton-Summerland branch of the Fraternal  Order of Eagles, to which Dr. Munn does not even belong, honored him by  presenting him with an illuminated scroll "The Grand Aerie's Home Builder  Award." The gala occasion was held when the Eagles' Aerie and Auxiliary  celebrated its 18th Anniversary in the Penticton Peach Bowl. Following the  banquet which was attended by more than 200 psople the presentations took  place, an address was heard, followed by a concert and dancing. Attending  the celebration were representatives from Chelan, Yakima, Malott,  Tonasket and Omak in Washington State and from Haney, Kelowna, Summerland, and Penticton in this province. The citation to Dr. Munn was read  by International Eagle representative, Carl Thacker of Spokane. This was  the first time such an honor had come to the Okanagan Valley. JAMES GAWNE  79  JAMES GAWNE  KATHLEEN S. DEWDNEY  The Isle of Man which sits squarely in the middle of the Irish Sea  flanked by England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales, is many miles from the  sunny Okanagan but several native-born Manx have made their homes in  Penticton and the surrounding area.  One of these was the late James  Gawne of Naramata who was born  at Port Soderick on November 23,  1886, and passed away in Penticton  .hospital on October 6, 1969.  At the age of 19 while on a visit  to his brother in Montreal he worked  for year at the Angus Shops of the  Canadian Pacific Ralway. Hearing  about the influx of settlers to the  vast, uncultivated prairie region of  Western Canada, and desiring a  homestead of his own, Mr. Gawne  made his way westward and applied  for a homestead of 160 acres in  Saskatchewan at a place now known  as Eston. Later he secured another  160 acres — making 320 acres in all.  The nearest town was Swift Current,  120 miles away and transportation  was by oxen.  Many hardships and harrowing experiences befell the pioneers on the  prairie, including Mr. Gawne. Where no trees grew sod huts were built until  lumber became available. Where no rivers or streams flowed wells were  dug, sometimes to a great depth. Later when digging wells to get water, oil  was discovered at Brock, near Eston.  A near-fatal accident occurred when his team of oxen broke through  the ice on the South Saskatchewan River. The oxen and sleigh were lost but  Mr. Gawne managed to grasp some ice, pull himself up, and crawl on the ice  to the safety of the bank.  In 1912 he married Edith Littlejohn whose family had come from  Glasgow, Scotland and settled in the district. He first met Edith when he  rescued her and her sister from a raging blizzard in 10-below zero weather.  Through bad times and good times they shared the joys and sorrows of a  happy wedded life for 57 years.  Encouraged by the prospect of a branch railway line to be built, Mr.  and Mrs. Gawne moved to the nearby townsite of Madison in 1913 where they  operated a general store and post office. The mail came once a week from  Kindersley. They remained in Madison until 1921 when they moved to  Naramata (about nine miles north of Penticton) where Mrs. Gawne's  parents, Mr. and Mrs. Littlejohn lived.  Mr. Littlejohn had heard glowing accounts of the Okanagan from Mr.  J. M. Robinson, "The Father of Peachland, Summerland and Naramata"  while on one of his visits to Winnipeg to get settlers for the Valley.  Mr. Littlejohn made a trip of inspection to Naramata. Liking what he  Photo by Penticton Herald  James Gawne  March 27, 1969 80 JAMES GAWNE  saw he brought his family to the valley in 1918 where the climate was mild,  where the sun shone most of the time and where trees bore luscious fruit.  When Mrs. Gawne visited her parents in Naramata she, too, liked  what she saw so Naramata gained another family. The journey with four  children in a Ford car took five days. Mr. Gawne never regretted his move to  the Okanagan. The peaceful environment, the picturesque scenery, and the  healthful occupation of agriculture reminded him of his former home on the  Isle of Man.  In Naramata Mr. Gawne built a home which he named Mona's Isle.  Mementos from his old home on the Island include a Bible dated MDCC-  CLXVIII which records births in the Gawne family. There is also a paper  knife displaying the Isle of Man emblem and the Manx cat.  Mr. Gawne planted an orchard, mostly cherries, apricots and pears  which he packed and shipped to a prairie market. When the United Fruit  Growers' Association was organized in Penticton in 1940 he was elected  President which office he held until 1958.  Mr. Gawne took part in various community activities. The Manitou  Park at Naramata, officially opened on May Day, 1935, was obtained from  the government by the Board of Trade while he was President.  Working with the Rev. R. A. McLaren he was one of the group who  founded the Christian Leadership Training School of the United Church in  Naramata.  He was President of the Naramata Local of the B.CF.G.A. for several  years.  He was active in the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical  Society, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and Old Age Pensioners' Association, and the Session of the Naramata United Church.  The Gawne home and garden ere visited by many organizations such  as: The Institute for the Blind, The Senior Citizens' Group from Scenic View  Lodge, The Old Age Pensioners' Association, The Women's Institute, The  United Church groups and others.  Mr. Gawne's flowers were his pride and joy. He loved them all,  especially roses. For forty years he visited the Penticton hospital with  flowers to cheer the sick and lonely.  The best family relations existed between Mr. Gawne and his sons,  daughters-in-law and grandchildren. He loved them all and they loved him.  They fondly remember the candy he made for them and the folk songs of  Elian Vannin he sang for them.  At the annual meeting of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society held on March 27, 1969, Mr. Gawne was one of thirteen  pioneers honoured for making worthy contributions to the history of our  Valley.  Mr. Gawne is survived by his wife, Edith; four sons: James Albert,  John Edward, Thomas William and Douglas Haig; 14 grandchildren; and 16  great-grandchildren. He was predeceased by one son, Clifford.  Mr. Gawne with his genial and unassuming manner was well-liked  throughout the community and district. This was shown by the many  relatives and friends who attended his funeral service, by the large number  of cards and letters of sympathy received by his family and by the voluntary  memorial donations to the Cancer Society and the Institute for the Blind.  His life was well spent, and his kind deeds will always be remembered  with gratitude. MY OWN STORY  81  MY OWN STORY  By ERIC D. SISMEY  Editor's Note — Indefatigable and knowledgeable, Mr. Eric D. Sismey in his  retirement in Penticton has continued his avid interest in every aspect of the  Okanogan's history. A list of his contributions to the various reports of the  Okanagan Historical Society testifies to this, but he has also been the stimulus  prompting others to produce valuable articles, and he is currently the judge of  the essay competition. It follows that a good many are interested in Mr. Sismey  himself. The following article, is his own story, is his comment on an interesting  life, modestly skirting past many an undisclosed accomplishment. It would take  many an article in many of the reports to sum up his life to date, and his many  friends wish him long continuance in his lively interest.  I was a 'stop-over' baby. My parents, on the last leg of a year long  round-the-world honeymoon, rushed from the United States to Canada so  that their firstborn would arrive under the Union Jack.  A few days after my birth on  August 21, 1892, I was christened in  All Saints Cathedral, Halifax, Nova  Scotia. About six weeks later I was  taken across the Atlantic to  England.  My English father was a  barrister, though he never practiced. He inherited enough to satisfy  his wanderlust which never left him  until the British pound was devalued  and travel costs spiralled to dizzy  heights.  My mother was an American,  a daughter of the first physician in  Riverside, California, one of the first  settlers in that British community  and among the first orange growers.  My brother, Charles, eighteen  months   my   junior,   was   born   in Erlc Sismey  Weymouth in the south of England. We lost our mother during early  childhood after which father continued his peregrinations while his two boys  attended kindergarten boarding schools. The only mark of this period I  remember was the Royal Cowes Regatta at which my brother and I, dressed  in authentic British navy uniforms, were presented to King Edward VII  aboard the royal yacht, Victoria and Albert, and later the same day to  Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany on his yachtthe Hohenzollern.  Soon after the turn of the century, around 1903, our father decided it  was time his boys saw a bit of the world too. One day we sailed from London  for Tasmania on the maiden voyage of S. S. Turakina, a New Zealand  Shipping Company steamer. Calls were made at Teneriffe and Cape Town  before beginning the 6000 mile reach through the Roaring Forties to Hobart  Town, Tasmania.  After a few days in Hobart we went up the river Derwent to New  Norfolk where our father leased quite a large place for a year while he  played at growing apples. After that my brother and I lived with father's  friends on a large mixed farm at Plenty while he rambled around such 82 MY OWN STORY  places as Borneo. Another year was spent at Swansea on the east coast of  Tasmania before returning to England after an extended stay in New  Zealand.  All too soon it was time to go back. Leaving Wellington, New Zealand  on the steamer S. S. Suffolk calls were made at Sydney and Freemantle,  Australia, at Durban, South Africa and up the English Channel to London.  During our stay in the Antipodes formal education was somewhat  sketchy. It was more important, to my father's way of thinking, to learn  horsemanship thoroughly, to handle firearms properly, shoot straight and  cast a fly delicately than to master the conjugation ot Latin verbs.  In England it was conventional school again. First Victoria College in  St. Heliers, Jersey and then King William's College in Castletown, Isle of  Man. Itwas here we finished school in the fa 11 of 1910.  Unconventional, as usual, and never having been in British Columbia  which was booming at the time, father looked around until he found a ship  sailing to the Pacific by way of Magellan Strait. In order to join the ship it  was necessary for us - we had a Tasmanian step-mother then - to sign ship's  articles as members of her crew. The limejuice, tramp steamer S.S.Skipton  Castle sailed from Hull, England in mid-December stopping at Las Palmas  in the Canary Islands where bunkers were filled and enough coal piled in the  well-decks for the 16,000 mile passage to Vancouver. Lengthy stops were  made at San Pedro, Oakland and San Francisco. Vancouver was reached in  mid-April.  At Nelson, B.C. we lived on a leased orchard for a year and where our  father, by arrangement with British sportsman's magazine 'Field' told the  truth about sidehill rock piles being sold to unsuspecting Britishers as orchard land. Naturally he was not popular with the real estate brotherhood.  In March 1912, I sat in Victoria for the competitive examinations  hoping to become articled to a British Columbia land surveyor and while I  scored high grades I did not find a slot since I did not know any member of  the tightly closed association. After hearing about a survey party being  assembled for work in Strathcona Park I applied, was hired and was there  from April ito November.  Strathcona Park, originally conceived by the McBride government  and laid out by Seattle engineer R. H. Thompson, had all the potential of  Yosemitein California. The season I was there was one of the most delightful  in all my working life, the pristine forest, seemingly endless; snow crowned  rugged peaks; the Campbell and Buttle Lakes; congenial associates and the  special assignments that seemed to come my way. I guided Mrs. Henshaw  the well known botanist, back-packed for the Alpine Club for the first ascent  of the Elkhorn. I enjoyed fishing in the streams, and lakes and in August I  fished for Chinook salmon at Campbell River long before the Tyee Club of  Briish Columbia was organized.  Leaving Campbell River and the park in the fall it was more than 30  years before I was there again to see the destruction made in the name of  'progress'. The forest was gone, the land fire ravished, the lakes dammed  and the beauty of the river gorge, its long pools and riffles drowned.  In January 1913 I joined the Water Rights Branch of the B.C. Government as F. W. Knewstubb's assistant to report on water power sites in the  southern half of Vancouver Island. Later I reported to O. F. D. Norrington in  the Okanagan where a study of existing irrigation systems and water rights  was begun. In the fall a district Water Rights office was opened in Penticton. MY OWN STORY 83  In November 1915 I married Jessie Shannon of New Denver before  enlisting in the army. I did not last long. A bout of pneumonia resulted in a  medical discharge and before I was ready to try again a serious accident  stopped me.  After the first war I found an outlet for my British electrical training.  At Oliver I worked on the West Kootenay substation, on irrigation pumping  installations, the village water works and around town. Work in those days  was always patchy, usually with winter idleness. And after waiting  somewhat impatiently for replies to applications made to the Consolidated  at Trail, West Kootenay at Bonnington Falls and the copper mines in Chile f  left for California in March 1923.  Wanting to feel the surge of the sea again I sailed from Seattle for San  Pedro on the S.S.Admiral Dewey and after a call at San Francisco presented  myself to the Southern California Edison Company at Third and Broadway,  Los Angeles, looking for a job in the hydro plants.  The late Don D. Morgan, superintendent of Hydro, examined my  credentials. Had I come to California to live among orange groves? No! I  replied I came to find a steady job. All right, Morgan remarked. Go to our  medical department and if that is OK I'll give you transportation to Big  Creek where there is just as much snow as in Canada. Headquarters camp,  Cascada, was a mile high in the air, some camps were two thousand feet  higher, others two thousand feet lower. In all the many camps housed 2,000  men. Powerhouses, dams and tunnels were being built. The project was  completely self contained; stores, hospitals, machine shops, and dwellings.  It was supplied by a company railroad which climbed about 5,000 feet in less  than fifty miles. Grades as steep as six per cent were climbed by Shay and  Climax locomotives and my first impressions of work continuing round the  clock for seven days a week, cookhouses where 200 men sat down to a meal  and which served six meals a day to cover the three shifts was bewildering.  Before long Jessie joined me at Powerhouse No. 2. In 1929 our son  Charles was born in Fresno while our home was thirty miles up in the hills.  We lived on the Big Creek project for twenty years before being called to the  main Los Angeles office. At the time I was pensioned in 1957 I had been with  the Southern California Edison Company just five months short of 35 years.  Since this is somewhat of an autobiography a few remarks about my  career will not be out of place. I went to Big Creek as the Division electrician  but after a few months I was Operating Shift Foreman at Big Creek  Powerhouse No. 2. On January 1, 1924 a serious operating mistake at Big  Creek No. 8 resulted in loss of life and great damage. I was sent there to  replace the Assistant Chief, to help put the plant back in shape and to restore  confidence among the operators. From there I was transferred as Assistant  Chief to the new powerhouse No. 3, which at the time had three 35,000 horsepower machines and was the largest hydro plant west of the Mississippi  river. Machines of that size, giants then, are tiny by present day standards  but it must be borne in mind that experience with these large high head,  machines led the way for larger machines to follow. In September 1926 I was  appointed Chief at Big creek No. 1, a plant with four units operating under a  1900 foot head. In 1928 I was back again at Big Creek No. 3, this time as Chief  where I remained until 1934 when I was appointed Assistant Superintendent  of the Northern Hydro Division. This covered eight powerhouses, 23  machines, 200 men, 40 families and everything to operate in a widely spread  project. 84 MY OWN STORY  Soon after Pearl Harbor I was called to the main Los Angeles office  Engineering Department where I was project engineer of a new Big Creek  powerhouse and where later organized a special division with the responsibility for writing all electrical specifications.  While living in California and in order to conform to company policy  we became American citizens. Except for the war years we kept in close  touch with relatives and friends in British Columbia. Holidays were spent  visiting around, seeing the country as far as Alaska and the Yukon. Salmon  fishing at Campbell River, Port Alberni, Comox, Sayward and Cowichan  Bay was always a great attraction. I have been fortunate in taking three  Chinook salmon of more than fifty pounds each on extra light tackle and I  have the gold club buttons to prove it.  On September 1, 1957 I was superannuated and finding Los Angeles  area too crowded and too smoggy we sold our Pasadena home in 1958 and  returned to Penticton.  Now this is a good place to stop. It is not the place to tell of tropic skies  and Cape Horn gales, nor of fire, flood and earthquake. It should not be  necessary to write more about myself except that I have found the products  of my cameras and typewriter interesting and rewarding. Periodicals,  newspapers and magazines across Canada and abroad have used my  material. All British Columbia outdoor magazines have given me space.  This includes Beautiful Briish Columbia magazine and B.C. Motorist.  Beaver, published by the Hudson's Bay Company and entirely devoted to  Canadian history, used two pictorial articles.  In Penticton I have turned with great interest to local history and if  you want to know more about that, turn to the index of recent Okanagan  Historical Society annual reports for there you will find my name. THE GELLATLY PIONEERS 85  THE GELLATLY PIONEERS  By DOROTHY HEWLETT GELLATLY  I have long been asked to tell something of the story of the late D. E.  Gellatly's part in the agricultural development of the Okanagan, and can  find no better opening than the paragraph appearing in the sixth Report of  the Okanagan Historical Society concerning 'Gellatly' post-office, which  reads:  "GELLATLY": This place was named after D. E. Gellatly, who did  more to encourage and foster the industry of growing vegetables for shipment elsewhere, than any other man who ever lived in the valley. He was the  first to ship vegetables into the mines of Kootenay, and was known as "The  Tomato King of the Okanagan."  These words are well deserved, for it was as early as 1897 that Mr.  Gellatly grew and shipped the first carload of potatoes ever to leave the  Okanagan. Bound for the mining towns of Kootenay, the car was loaded and  ready to go when the CPR made the embarrassing discovery that no freight  rates covering car-load shipments out of the Valley existed!  A frantically-hurried exchange of telegrams between the local agent  and CPR headquarters eventually resulted in the settlement of a rate not  particularly satisfactory to the shipper; but, after all, was it not ever thus?  That rate was based on the difference between the price of potatoes per ton  in the Okanagan, and the price per ton at the car's destination—Nelson.  It was in 1883 that David Erskine Gellatly, born at Montrose with his  wife, the former Eliza Ure, of Kippen, emigrated from Dundee with their  infant son, David, to settle in northern Ontario for ten years. Living conditions in that bush country were extremely primitive at first, and Mrs.  Gellatly has told of the crude log cabin, only partially roofed, and with a dirt  floor, where her second son, John Ure, was born December 23, 1883. Conditions improved with time; but by 1893 the family felt the call of the west  and came to Vernon, where Mr. Gellatly carpentered. Then, in 1895 he leased  the land at Shorts' Point (now Fintry), where the family farmed for five  years, and where that first car-load of potatoes was grown. Unable to buy the  land at Shorts' Point, Mr. Gellatly looked for land elsewhere, and in 1900 they  trekked down the old Fur Brigade Trail on the west side of Okanagan Lake,  to what was then known as Powers' Flat, and later became 'Gellatly'.  Powers' Flat had been pre-empted by Billy Powers (for whom Powers  Creek is named) in 1889, and here he and C D. Simms who, that same year,  pre-empted the land now consistuting Westbank, built their cabins. Their  residence did not last long, however, as, harassed by Indians who claimed  the flat their property, the two men soon abandoned both pre-emptions —  Mr. Powers in 1890. G. H. Rashdale next pre-empted the flat, but soon  mortgaged it to the Rt. Rev. George Hills, Lord Bishop of British Columbia,  to whom it was later assigned. Records read that on June 1st., 1900 — conveyance in fee: the Anglican Synod of British Columbia, to David Erskine  Gellatly. This land, when first surveyed, was known as Lot 15, Kamloops  District, and later as Lot 487, Osoyoos Land District.  First the land must be cleared of its heavy timber, and in this the  Gellatly family helped — without benefit of modern machinery that would  have made such light work of it — and soon a portion was ready to bring into  production, the first apple trees being planted in 1903, while small fruits and 86  THE GELLATLY PIONEERS  David Erskine Gellatly.  Gellatly house built in 1908. THE GELLATLY PIONEERS  87  vegetables were grown as soon as land was prepared. Irrigation was needed,  of course, and though Mr. Gellatly had first rights on water from Powers  Creek, problems arose here as elsewhere where water was a vital issue . . .  problems which frequently erupted into almost armed conflict among first  settlers in the water-hungry Okanagan!  In the fall of 1904 a greenhouse for starting tomato plants, measuring  20 by 40 feet, replaced a smaller one built earlier, and from this time on the  Gellatlys began shipping vegetables in mixed car-lots, which soon included  fruit. The following year, 1905, saw the erection of what was at that time the  largest greenhouse in the interior, measuring 55 by 250 feet, glass having  been shipped via the Horn from England. By April of 1906 all was ready to  start seeding; but early one morning a gale arose, and just before the men  arrived on the scene for work, the whole structure collapsed with a terrific  crash.  New glass was ordered, and by the spring of 1907, the house, more  strongly braced than the first one, was once again ready for the starting of  the thousands of tomato and other plants required for the season, and it  wasn't long before Mr. Gellatly gained the well - merited title of, "Tomato  King of the Okanagan".  Onion - growing was another crop largely grown, many tons being  shipped each season. Boucherie Flat had by this time become a part of the  Gellatly holdings, and the Gellatly venture, with its own box-factory and  packing-house, was a large one  indeed, for those days, and naturally  the seasonal payroll became larger  and larger. In 1915 a wholesale  distributing house was opened in  Calgary, which, however, closed in  1920. It was in that year that a  disastrous fire destroyed the  Gellatly wharf, packinghouse, box-  factory, extensive stables and all  equipment. This heralded the  beginning of the end, as, broken in  health, Mr. Gellatly was unable to  re-coup his losses. In 1922 he entered  Vernon General Hospital for surgery  from which he did not recover, dying  on March 9th, at age 65. Mrs.  Gellatly lived to the ripe old age of  86.  It goes without saying that the  entire family had much to do with  the flourishing years of the Gellatly  'empire', and Mrs. Gellatly was her  husband's very real helpmate. As the wife of her eldest son, David, my  memories of her are of one of the finest women I've been privileged to know.  Born in Stirlinshire, of Covenanter stock, Mrs. Gellatly possessed the  traditional Scottish regard for higher education. Regard doomed to disappointment for her sons, who, growing up where education facilities were  practically non-existent, and being needed to clear and farm land from an  early age, they could not get what their mother so desired for them. Their  Eliza Ure Gellatly. 88 THE GELLATLY PIONEERS  natural ability, however, allowed them to make their mark in their chosen  fields, and as early as 1902 David started his own nursery business. And it  was he who soon showed a bent for a new line — that of nut-growing, planting  the first nuts for seedling trees in 1905.  His brother Jack, on returning from the States where he spent some  years, also became interested in nut-growing, and from the early 1920's,  until his death in 1969, he was increasingly interested in developing varieties  for even the colder parts of the Dominion, and the States, too. He served as a  director of the Northern Nut Growers' Association, and became widely-  known in nut-growing circles in both countries. His wife, an Australian girl  whom he married in the States, and his only son, Allan, predeceased him. A  brother, Bill, inherited Jack's land and business, and is the only member of  the Gellatly family now living on the old property. Of the five Gellatly sons  and five daughters, Bill, Arthur and the youngest daughter, Mrs. Rae Walde,  are the only ones now living.  David's old home has become Scottish Cove resort, where many tourists  enjoy the ideal spot each season. LOGGING AT WESTBANK 89  LOGGING AT WESTBANK  By W. S. BOUVETTE  My father W. F. Bouvette, took a contract to supply logs for the  Kelowna Sawmill Company of Kelowna in 1906.  The winter turned out to be a cold one but this provided my father with  proper conditions for good logging. He hauled logs with sleighs for forty days  under perfect snow conditions with three teams of his own and one hired  team. The early fall was spent falling and skidding logs to skidways all over  the McDougall ranches within five miles of the Westbank ferry wharf. The  perfect snow conditions and cold weather weren't all good for him because it  froze Okanagan Lake from end to end and cut him off from his supply centre  at Kelowna.  The CPR steamers Aberdeen and York had a hard time keeping a  channel open for the run from Okanagan Landing to Penticton. There was no  ferry service from Kelowna to the Westbank ferry wharf, therefore supplies  had to be got over by row boat, that is, across the channel for steamboats.  Hay and oats for the horses were transferred across the channel with great  difficulty but certainly paid off as Dad considered he had struck a contract  that was something like a gold mine, clearing something like eight thousand  dollars on the operation.  His headquarters was located at Edward McDougall's place about two  miles from the ferry wharf. It was quite an exciting place on Saturday nights  especially when it happened to be pay day.  The following winter, 1907-08, he established his headquarters at his  own camp at the ferry wharf and there went in for logging on a bit larger  scale.  He was lucky, as snow condition was good again but this time the lake  did not freeze up. He hauled all the logs off the Indian Reserve between the  Bay and Siwash Point. Logs were piled up on the beach, indeed on all open  beaches within the area, as well as three "rollways" from the top of the high  bank. Logs averaged from eighteen inches to three feet in diameter. This  operation proved to be financially successful too.  The following year he purchased the north-east half of the Edward  McDougall place so the family would be nearer to the school which was then  located near the Keefe place on W. L. Daeth's property. I believe it was later  known as the Mount Boucherie school, but when I attended this school we  called it the "Westbank" school. From his new location he logged off all the  ground between his new place and Mount Boucherie.  In all these logging operations he never had a serious accident, but he  did have a mishap once when he had a large boom all ready to be taken away  by the sawmill company's towboat. One of Okanagan Lake's famous southwest winds started up, that day, with extra fury. It tossed the boom about  until it broke one of the boom chains releasing the logs which were scattered  along the shore for a mile. Part of the boom was saved by a strenuous hour's  work with a row boat by Alfred and Frank Bouvette, two eldest sons of my  father's family. Another brother, Robert, made a quick trip on horseback to  the Westbank store where a phone call got help from the sawmill office who  immediately dispatched the tow boat "Kelowna" to help close the boom.  This was in 1909 and was one of the last booms of logs made up by my  father's logging outfit.  His teams went to work on the Bear Creek road during most of the fall 90 LOGGING AT WESTBANK  of that year. The following spring on Good Friday my mother died at our  Westbank place and she was buried at the Catholic Cemetery near the  Casorso Ranch at Okanagan Mission. The family were then moved to  Kelowna where a new house was purchased near Cadder Avenue on Pandosy  Street. Father started a draying business and later operated a livery stable,  but always looked back on his logging operations at Westbank as his most  successful business operation.  AUTHOR'S NOTE  The author of the above sketch, W. S. Bouvette, is a third generation  British Columbian. Of himself he writes: "My grandfather, W.J. Smithson,  came here from England with the gold rush in 1863. He was employed as teacher  at the Richfield School for a time, then went down to Yale where he lived until  early 1870. My mother, Rose Evelyn Smithson, was born at Fort Yale in 1868.  The family moved from Fort Yale in the early 1870's to Okanagan Mission,  where my grandfather, W.J. Smithson, took up land that now forms part of  Kelowna's main business district. My father and mother met there in 1885 and  were married the following year.  "I was born at the Rainbow Ranch five miles below Okanagan Landing on  Okanayan Lake in 1897, enlisted in the Canadian Army and served three years  and was seriously wounded at Vimy Ridge, was employed by the Canadian  government in the telephone and telegraph service for over 37 years in the  Okanagan, Kamloops and Lillooet areas, the last 27 years at Lillooet. Three  brothers and many nephews also served in the Canadian Forces during World  Wars I and II.  "My father, William Frank Bouvette, was born at Fort Pembina, N.D. At  an early age he helped to defeat the Fenians who had invaded Canada and had  occupied Emerson and were holding prisoner people from the Fort, including his  mother. He was put out the coal chute and carried a message to the Fort for help.  The Fenians went out the back door when a squadron of American calvary  arrived with two brass cannons.  "Father worked on the first street railway in Winnipeg, then drove freight  wagon for the C.P.R. contractors until they completed the railway at  Craigellachie. He was present at the driving of the last spike. He then went to  Okanagan Mission where he was employed as mail contractor and operated a  stage to Vernon. He later went in for farming and logging, also operated a livery  stable in Kelowna. He died there at the age of 89. My mother and father always  referred to the road from Yale to Clinton as the Yale Cariboo Road.  —W.S.B. FATHER PANDOSY TREK 91  FATHER  PANDOSY TREK  June 28,1970  By PRIMROSE UPTON  On Sunday, June 28, over two hundred people watched the re-  enactment of the arrival of the Oblate priests in 1859 to the Okanagan, where  they founded a Mission.  The Okanagan Mission founding and growth are extremely important  milestones in British Columbia history. Here was the first church, school  and practice of land husbandry in the whole of the hinterland of the province.  The fur trading companies did not encourage settlement — but here at  Okanagan Mission crops were grown, cattle raised and settlement encouraged.  The six Venturers of the Ninth Penticton troop, under the leadership of  J. V. H. Wilson of Naramata, have been camping out, blazing trail, and  enjoying the country without too many of the "benefits" of modern  civilization — before the country becomes ruined by those so-called benefits.  On June 27 they walked up the trail from Penticton, camped out at  Gemmill Lake for the night, and on the following day walked down the trail  to Okanagan Mission. Near the south end of the Swamp Road they were met  by G. D. Paddy Cameron with two pack horses. Packing was expertly done  by Mr. Cameron, Nancy and Alfie Johns; while Victor Wilson equally  skillfully applied makeup and beards to the youthful faces. Correctness of  detail had been carefully researched even to the wide leather Jesuit belt  worn by Father Pandosy. He apparently always preferred this to the Oblate  cincture. The trek set off down the road stopping a number of times to be  photographed. They arrived tired and dusty at 2:30 at the Mission site, and  were welcomed by the crowd.  Taking part were Steve Cummings as Father Pandosy; Derek Lindsay as Father Richard; Christopher Start as Brother Surel; Brian Penny as  Laurence; Arnd Hohmann as William Pion; Rick Twiss and Gerd Hohmann  as two packers. After circling the enclosure twice, the two priests and the lay  brother knelt for a brief prayer.  Mr. Wilson, who had brought up his mobile P.A. system, acted as  master of ceremonies. He welcomed all those present, and called on a  number of people to say a few words. Mr. Wilson praised the work and  foresight of H. C S. Collett who had been the instigator of the original  restoration in 1958. Mr. Collett spoke briefly, as did Jack Bedford who had  worked hard with the Knights of Columbus on the 1958 project. Also speaking  briefly and praising the work were W. C Bennett, Chairman of the Regional  District; Len Piddocke, President, Kelowna Branch, OHS; William Knutson, President of the Chamber of Commerce. Paddy Cameron told of future  plans, including the possibility of moving the Joseph Christien house from  the Kelowna Airport property. This two-storey log building, in excellent  condition, would probably be the home for the caretaker. Mr. Marty thanked  Mr. and Mrs. Bennett Greening for the donation of the old barn which was on  the original Mission property.  Visitors enjoyed seeing the three oiginal buildings, the McDougall log  house, and the larger log building. The original buildings have been cleaned,  restored and rechinked by Joe Marty, and the chapel has a figure of Father  Pandosy (the head made by Mildred Wardlaw), and some rough furniture. 92  FATHER PANDOSYTREK  Steve    Cummings   (left)   as  Father    Pandosy,  Father Richard.  and    Derek    Lindsay    as  The McDougall house has been restored with loving care — stove, bed,  pioneer furniture and two realistic figures made by Joe Marty, — John  McDougall mending a piece of harness, and Mrs. McDougall stirring some  food on the stove.  One visitor remarked "The only fault I can find is that the wood is  piled too neatly near the stove." Visitors were also high in their praise of Joe  Marty's implement sheds housing farm machinery and early vehicles.  Members of the CWL had tea, coffee and light refreshments for sale.  The new brochure just printed by the Father Pandosy Restoration  Committee sold well. This attractive folding pamphlet which can be mailed,  has been produced to sell at a number of outlets, with proceeds going to the  Restoration. Paintings are by Swen Lamont, verses by Mrs. John Surtees,  History of the Okanagan by Primrose Upton, and map showing trails by  Fred Waterman. Orders were also taken for black and white photographs  taken by Kent Stevenson.  And so once more, the history of the Okanagan is being brought alive.  So much of our short history has already been destroyed. A restoration of  this magnitude deserves the support of all. The very active and enthusiastic  Father Pandosy Restoration Committee is to be congratulated. STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY 93  THE STORY OF THE WMS AUXILIARY  THE KELOWNA HOSPITAL  By MISS NANCY GALE  Among the well-known ways of surviving to a ripe old age no mention  has ever been made of "sewing, and sewing, and sewing"; but in the persons  of Mrs. P. B. Willits and Mrs. George Rowcliffe we have in Kelowna two  people who proudly remember their efforts of long ago, when the then  "Kelowna Hospital Ladies' Aid" began its long job of sewing for the hospital.  April 2nd, 1908, saw the Kelowna Hospital open its doors for the first  time — an event prepared for in the previous year, first by the organization  of the Kelowna Hospital Society, and later (October, 1907) of the Ladies Aid.  The ladies were headed by Mrs. F. A. (Maud) Taylor as President, and a few  years later by Mrs. M. E. Cameron, who gave the society outstanding  leadership for a long time.  In those days Kelowna, like the hospital, was much smaller than now.  On Bernard Avenue there were stores and a wooden sidewalk on the south  side, and nothing on the north. East of what is now Gordon's Super-Valu  there were only fields and scattered buildings. The traffic was horse-drawn.  Those were indeed the early days. But leadership was as fine then as now,  and these few members of the Ladies Aid, together with their male counterparts in the Hospital Society, were determined to supply the needs of the  hospital somehow. From then right on into the "forties" any newcomer to  Kelowna was soon made aware that the hospital needed his support —  especially the Ladies Aid, endeavouring all year long to make money for  their particular responsibility: the linen.  "The Linen" involved two tasks: to make and mend for the hospital,  and to raise the money to do this. A study of the minute books with their  faded pages and enormously varying handwriting, and their formal  phraseology, reveals a gallant story. What scheme wouldn't they try to raise  some more dollars! And, incidentally, what excellent support they received  from the community, always including the "Courier"! Their first few efforts  have an Edwardian air: a Promenade Concert; making the costumes for  "H.M.S. Pinafore"; an Entertainment; a Strawberry and Ice Cream Social  in the park (from which, by the way, they made $113); a baseball game  between the Professional and Commercial men. By 1919 they were staging  an annual Valentine Dance, the most important social function of the year.  Once, when they were offered the chance to serve refreshments on the May  24th Athletic Club's Day, they at first refused, then changed their minds —  and from ice cream, soft drinks and lunches made a profit of $322, "which  was considered very good".  In the meantime the group had organized house to house canvasses to  collect dollar-a-year memberships, had urged the outlying districts to form  Note: The Women's Auxiliary to the Kelowna General Hospital have worked long and  hard for the Hospital. This is their story from 1907 to 1968. In April 1970 they gave their  last donation, $8,000 to the Kelowna and District Hospital Society, and disbanded the  Auxiliary. The Kelowna Hospital Auxiliary assisted by the Rutland and Winfield  Auxiliaries to the Hospital are now shouldering the job of fund-raising. Some members of the Women's Auxiliary assist them on a volunteer basis.  Mrs. P. B. Willits, one of the early members, died on March 1,1969.  The Intensive care building was opened on Feb. 28,1970, and work is continuing on the  extended care building of the Kelowna General Hospital.  Mrs. T. B. Upton. 94  STORYOF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY  The opening of the Kelowna General Hospital in 1908  societies   and   raise   funds;   and   had   accepted   donations   from   other  organizations such as the Red Cross ($194).  Continually, however, money-raising schemes were tried: the ever-  popular Home Cooking sales; and in 1920 an Ice Carnival on Bankhead Pond,  for which the firemen kindly prepared the ice. The next year the ladies  dropped the plan of selling tickets for a one-night show at the Empress, but  instead held a Calico Ball, dealing out fines for those in formal dress. 1922  brought in the Vernon Players with "Saving Grace" and, surprisingly, a  donation from the Sweet Pea Association.  It is interesting to notice now and again in the minutes the echo of  economic depression: "hard times" made it difficult to collect money; the  group did not pay their annual dues of five dollars to the B.C. Hospital  Association. There was prolonged discussion over giving twelve dollars  monthly towards the salary of the housekeeper at the Nurses' Home. Luckily  the February Ball netted $270, and it was in that year that Tag Days were  started — a direct appeal to the man on the street, that never failed. The  prize for the winning tag seller was a pair of silk stockings. The first winner  was Mrs. A. H. DeMara. The following year saw the Tag Day moved to the  second day of Regatta (which then ran for only two days). In the same year  the ladies made $175 by serving lunch to the Irrigation Convention. Of  course, all that they made they faithfully spent on the linen, so that by the-  next June only six dollars were left in the funds! However Tag Day in August  brought them a cheering $351 on which to start again.  By 1927 the Hospital was getting to be not only "big business", but also  "everybody's business". As the society pointed out, of 666 patients, only 302  were actually Kelownians; and out of 700 women in the city, only twenty  were members of the Ladies Aid. With another appeal to the outlying  districts, the ladies went ahead raising money, trying anything, from a  Novelty Ball to a Nickel-a-Month fund. This year the Tag Day receipts were STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY 95  down — bad weather and no band were the reasons given. And in this year  (1927) also came a cessation of meetings owing to the polio epidemic.  The next two years brought the adoption of two steady money-raising  ideas: the Hospital Bridge nights, and selling tickets for a show ("Wild  Geese") with Mr. Maddin, the theatre manager, co-operating handsomely.  Then they tried an opera, known bilingually as either "Les Cloches de  Corneille" or "The Chimes of Normandy". Financially it was not a success,  but the group's total for the year was $2,196. By 1930, when the society  changed its name to "The Kelowna Hospital Woman's Auxiliary", the annual dance had been moved to April, and Blossom Drives had been instituted. But really, no opportunity was missed. At the IOOF dance the ladies  received ten cents for checking wraps; and were paid twenty cents per head  by Mr. Jermyn Hunt for attending a demonstration of Wabasso cotton linens.  And this year at Regatta the ladies received $200 as their share of the midway take.  1931, however, sounds like a depression year — no membership drive,  no dance because of "hard times," and only $30 profit from the Midway! At  the same time the General Hospital Board appealed to them desperately for  funds, butthe ladies had to say no — their undertaking as a club was simply  to supply linen for the hospital, and all their money must go to that. By 1934  the worst was over. Increased provincial grants had eased the Board's  problem; the hospitalization scheme helped to pay the local merchants; and  the closing of the Nurses' Training School meant less responsibility for  furnishing the Nurs.es' Home. And so the ladies were left with the task they  originally had: of supplying the hospital with linen, furniture and equipment— but chiefly linen!  From the very start the Ladies Aid attended to the business of supplying the hospital "wants" (as the minutes call them). At the first meeting  in Raymer's Hall, October 19th, 1907, a Buying Committee was chosen. In  addition to supplying the linen, the group did the mending. But "linen" was a  most elastic word. Blankets were asked for, and bedspreads. There was a  "bee" to cut blankets. Two ladies were to visit the hospital monthly, to  report on needs. In those early days outside support was eagerly forthcoming: every month recorded donations of linen or funds. Any appeal for  fruit, vegetables, dairy produce was at once answered. In 1911 the ladies  paid half the hospital debt of $1,000. There was always an amazing variety of  "wants": covers for hot water bottles, traycloths, face towels, tails on the  men's nightshirts, and a private clothesline for the nurses. By 1919 the big  project had become the furnishing of the new Nurses' Home. $500 was  allocated to this. Other ordinary "wants" were: blankets and binders for the  maternity ward, table napkins, dresser covers, sheets, pads and wraps.  In 1921 so much linen was required that there was no money for all the  china asked for. But the group supplied curtains, dressing gowns, babies'  nightgowns, operating gowns and stockings, and pneumonia jackets.  Branching out, they paid a Chinese man to run the hospital laundry, and  wisely decided to pay one-third of the salary of the housekeeper at the  Nurses' Home on condition that she mended the linen there. This payment  was always a grave responsibility, as it amounted to twelve dollars per  month. In March, $925, the payment was overdue and a card party was held  to raise funds. In 1930 the contribution was increased, as the housekeeper did  the mending so well!  In the meantime the Ladies Aid supplied coats for the orderlies, and 96 STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY  paid for repairs to blinds. With the mention of knitted blankets, secial honour  goes to Mrs. J. Burne who, besides being an indefatigable knitter, used to put  a twenty dollar credit at Lawson's (now Meikle's) every year so that wool  could be at once available. Private words needed supplies: cutlery and toilet  sets.  In 1927 there was a cry for six canvas bags to break ice in. At this time,  too, with the new maternity wing being planned, the group decided to spend  $204 on furnishing one of the wards. But the "wants" list went on as usual:  silence cloths, blue curtains, and coloured dusters for the hospital dining  room. Then there was the matter of planning refreshments for tea at the  opening of the new wing. In the midst of all this, money was suddenly needed  when it was realised that the laundry was defective and was ruining all the  linen. The ladies' share of the cost of repairs was to be $300. When the  General Board asked for this amount in 1930 it was forthcoming, along with  glass dresser tops, bed slippers, ice bags, rubber pillow cases, and aprons.  Nevertheless, 1930 brought some retrenchment in spending: no more insurance on the furniture of the Nurses Home, and no hard pressing for funds  as the linen supplies were well up. It was the next year that the Matron told  them that oneoperation alone might use seventy-six pieces of linen.  Always linen-conscious, the group found that bed-springs and the old-  fashioned laundry extractor were tearing the sheets in a disastrous way.  Then (1932) itwas the dryer that left the towels in poor condition; and so the  group went into the matter of the cost of new shelves for the Linen Room.  About this time, when the depression of the "thirties" was at its worst, the  Ladies Aid was under strong pressure to hand over all money to the General  Board, as the latter was $6,000 in debt. The ladies, while insisting that they  were not entitled to use their funds for anything but linen and the  housekeeper's salary, said they would give what help they could, and at their  Annual General Meeting donated $100 to the main fund.  An indication of the onward advance of time is the mention, for the  first time, of CKOV, as well as the "Courier", as having to be paid for advertising. About this time, too, the Hospitalization Scheme was set up, and  made it harder for the ladies to collect money, since people thought that by  paying a dollar per month, they were paying for everything the hospital  needed. Talk of a new hospital arose in 1939; the cost of furnishing a ward  would be $288. The new wing was "nearly ready" in 1940, but did not actually  open until 1941, "with twenty-seven beds and eight cots". With the furnishing  of a ward and helping to repair the old Maternity Wing, the Women's  Auxiliary (as it was now called) seemed to enter a new phase, and began to  give large items of equipment to the hospital. Between the years 1949 and  1962, equipment to the value of $12,812 (plus one-third from the Provincial  Government) was given to the hospital by the valiant society that fifty years  before had sometimes made ends meet with a fund of a nickel-a-month.  As to individuals who pioneered the Ladies Aid, now the W.A., one  would have to write a long list of names well known in Kelowna's early  years, and even then some would be perhaps missing from the records.  These are the names that recur in the minutes: the first president, Mrs. F. A.  (Maud) Taylor; Mrs. W. H. Gaddes, vice-president; Mrs. C. C Josselyn,  secretary-treasurer; and Mrs. W. D. Crowley, corresponding secretary.  These formed the first executive. Acknowledged by all to be the leading  spirit was Mrs. M. E. Cameron, who became president in 1910, honorary  president in 1929, and was an ardent member until her death in 1941. Other STORY OFWOMEN'SAUXILIARY 97  early presidents were Mrs. P. B. Willits (long an interested member), Mrs.  A. C Knowles, Mrs. J. McKenzie, Mrs. W. Gaddes, Mrs. Grote Stirling (who  died in 1934), Mrs. W. Everard, Mrs. B. Hoy, Mrs. H. C S. Collett, Mrs. Geo  Rowcliffe and Mrs. E. M. Carruthers.  As early as 1928 Mrs. H. Arbuckle gave fine leadership to the group,  but the one to replace Mrs. Cameron was Mrs. W. J. MacDowall, who  represented the W. A. on the Hospital Board from 1932 to 1945. The demand  for representation came soon after the society was organized, and at that  time Mrs. M. E. Cameron and Mrs. Calder were chosen to attend. In 1927 the  Hospital Board refused to have the ladies at their meetings unless they were  elected Board Members. A few years later, however, in 1932 when, owing to  the withdrawal of the government grant, the hospital was in grave financial  difficulties, the ladies responded to the Board's appeal for money, but  renewed their demand for representation at the Board meetings. They  presented a resolution to this effect, and many of them paid their $2 membership fee in order to be at the voting and see that the resolution passed. It  did, and Mrs. MacDowall became the women's representative. The valuable  service she did for both organizations was publicly acknowledged by the  Kelowna Hospital Board in 1945 with a life membership and a silver salver.  To return to the month by month work of the Women's Auxiliary, from  the earliest days there were "bees" — sewing bees. Sometimes a "bee"  went on for three nights in succession. Always, too, the ladies were appealing for members, and many a house-to-house canvass took place.  Present at these bees, and knocking at doors were no doubt Mrs. D. F. Kerr,  Mrs. M. Sutherland, Mrs. J. Peabody, Mrs. M. G. Dillon, Mrs. M. A. Harvey,  Mrs. J. D. Knox, Mrs. V. G. McKay, Mrs. K. Weddell, Mrs. A. C Knowles,  Mrs. W. Lloyd-Jones, and Mrs. George Rowcliffe. In 1920 "it was decided to  canvass the town for potatoes, beans, pickles, pies, etc., each member  taking a certain portion of the town." This food was to help cater for an  Aquatic Dance.  Highlights of the group's activities over the years were the opening of  the first hospital (later the Annex), then the building and furnishing of the  Nurses' Home, and then the present hospital, to which a new wing was added  in 1958. At meetings there was many a lively discussion as to how refreshments were to be served at the Official Opening, or at such events as the  Nurses' Graduation. Always through the years the ladies' money-raising  efforts got hearty support from both the Hospital Board and the public.  Things were kept at a dignified level, too. Patrons of the Valentine's Dance  in 1928 were Mayor Sutherland; Mr. Trench (Board of Trade); Grote  Stirling, M.P.; J. W. Jones, M.L.A.; and Dr. Boyce. And in 1930 the Royal  Anne Hotel was asked not to rent rooms to guests attending the hospital  dance. The reason? "To lessen the tendency to excessive drinking." It was in  this year that the group changed its name to "Kelowna Hospital Women's  Auxiliary". Members at this time were: Miss Essie Taylor, Miss Jeanetta  Reekie, Mrs. Royle, Mrs. Willis, Mrs. Maddin, Mrs. Todd, Mrs. Fisher, Mrs.  Hunt, Mrs. Campbell, Mrs. DeMara, Mrs. DeHart, Mrs. Haug, Mrs.  Shepherd, Mrs. Bailey, Mrs. Meikle, Mrs. Hughes, Mrs. Binger, Mrs. A.  Cameron. As has been already stated, Mrs. W. J. MacDowall represented  the W.A. on the Hospital Board and from time to time would report that the  hospital debt was down, that the hospital was being run economically, but  that it could still get no grant from the provincial Minister of Finance. Two  years later things were in better shape, and the grant was received. 98 STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY  By this time (1934) some of the members had been working for the  hospital since 1907, and were feeling a certain lag in their energies. They  therefore suggested to the Junior Auxiliary that the married girls join the  Senior Auxiliary; the answer, for the time being, was no. But there were  indeed gaps to be filled. Some old and faithful members had died: Mrs.  Grote Stirling, Mrs. Neish, Mrs. Foster, Mrs. Haverfield, and it was not  many years before the minutes recorded with regret the death of the early  leader, Mrs. M. E. Cameron.  It is not the purpose of this report to carry the story of the W.A. beyond  the first thirty years or so, when the important word was "linen". Of recent  years, since 1948, under the leadership of Mrs. D. M. Black, Mrs. Ron  Fraser, Mrs. M. Cummings, Mrs. J. C Taylor, Mrs. D. Currell, Mrs. C Day,  and Mrs. M. Fortin, some very valuable equipment has been given to the  hospital. A 1948 venture that turned out very successfully was a small shop  opened at the hospital by the Auxiliary. At first this was a "case" in the main  entrance and was opened twice a week. It was stocked mainly by donations  and by funds raised by the committee, to buy cigarettes and candies. At the  end of the first year of operation it was able to donate $50 to the Auxiliary.  Since then it has become self-supporting and is now a mobile shop, visiting  the patients twice a week and giving $400 to $500 a year to the Auxiliary  towards the general funds.  This was one way of making money which did not occur to the Ladies  Aid of 1907; but there is no doubt that its success would fill them with admiration and delight!  1908 saw the opening of Kelowna's first hospital; in 1968 came the new,  up-to-date building well on its way to completion. But the sixtieth anniversary reveals no great change in the Kelowna Women's Hospital  Auxiliary. It still consists of a relatively small group of ladies meeting once a  month for discussion of business and for tea. All is carried on with traditional  dignity and unfailing attention to the main purpose — making money for the  hospital. Granted, the members are now "seniors" seeing that two greatly  honoured associates, Mrs. E. Carrie Willits and Mrs. M. Rowcliffe, joined  the group about 1907! Another difference lies in the type of achievement. The  original task, supplying linen, gowns, bandages and even groceries for the  whole hospital, is a thing of the past. It was no longer an essential after the  Provincial Government took over. But in the past four years the K.W.H.A.  has supplied an impressive amount of equipment: 6 easy chairs, 6 overbed  tables, 7 oxygen moisturizers with oxygen gauges, 5 foment machines, 1  portable suction pump, 2 intravenous stands, 1 stainless steel cart, 1 84-cup  coffee urn, 1 medicine fridge, 1 chrome crib. Add to these a total of $4,500 in  bonds for future use, a "shop" and a library that visit the wards twice (now  three times) a week, and you have a very worthwhile result from the earnest  monthly discussions on how to make money. Bit by bit the money is collected  and the public pried loose from its small change in half a dozen ways.  In November and December tickets are sold on the Christmas hamper, and the winner is drawn at the thrilling finale at the Safeway store. In  the spring the great event is the Hospital Fair (now a joint effort with the  excellent Junior Auxiliary) at which willing visitors pay for tea and raffle  tickets, home cooking and so forth. The disappearance of the lovely hospital  lawn under new construction has made this fair more of a problem; one  better left to the Junior Auxiliary altogether, except for raffles. Later on in  the summer thetireless search for money continues on the delightful lawn of STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY  99  kind friends such as Lt.-Col. J. D. Gemmill and Mrs. Gemmill, in the form of  a coffee party. There are also fashion shows, annual dues, talent or bridge  donations, and the steady profit from the Shop, to complete the annual  campaign for funds.  The Executive have to be like store managers, planning for summer in  January, and for Christmas in August. Many faithful workers have taken on  this responsibility, or shared in it. Presidents, past presidents and vice-  presidents since 1963 have been Mrs. D. C Unwin-Simson, Mrs. J. Cameron  Day, Mrs. J. C Taylor, Mrs. T. P. Hulme, Mrs. A. Mepham, Mrs. J. T.  Waddell and Mrs. A. R. Fortin. The office of treasurer has been held by Mrs.  A. B. Clark, Mrs. A. Mepham and Mrs. E. Worman. For eight years the  secretary was Mrs. A. C McFetridge; now it is Miss N. Gale. Shouldering  responsibility for the Shop were Mrs. D. Currell and Mrs. E. Worman; and of  the library, Mrs. D. C Unwin-Simson, Mrs. R. S. Sweet and Mrs. M.  Ffoulkes. Publicity was handled by Mrs. L. Brazziel, Mrs. M. Ffoulkes and  Mrs. H. R. Chapin. The buying committee was headed by Mrs. J. C Taylor.  Enjoying the June, 1967, Garden Party, held in the garden of Mrs. E.  A. Williamson's home, are two charter and life members of the Women's  Hospital Auxiliary, Mrs. George Rowcliffe (left) and Mrs. P. B. Willits.  Standing behind their chairs are  Mrs. T. P. Hulme, president of the  Women's Auxiliary to the Hospital  (left); Mrs. L. N. Leathley, convener of the garden party hosted by  the Junior Hospital Auxiliary; and  Mrs. Edward Lawrence (right),  president of the Junior Hospital  Auxiliary.  When the Auxiliary ceased to  use the Annex to the Health Unit for  meetings, the members gathered at  various homes in turn. Hostesses for  the past few years have been  Mesdames Taylor, Hulme, Unwin-  Simson, Cram, Chapin, Brazziel,  Day, Fortin, Sweet, Lupton, Maude-  Roxby, Gemmill, Crosby; and for  the Annual General Meeting, Miss  Sinclair, Director of Nurses, Kelowna General Hospital. Other members  who have not yet been mentioned, but how have always supported the efforts  from 1963-64 are: Mrs. Howard Brown, Mrs. D. J. Burnstill, Mrs. G. R.  Clarke, Mrs. A. Cormack, Mrs. T. G. Crosby, Mrs. C A. Cram, Mrs. Ada C  Cross, Mrs. C M. Dunn (assoc), Mrs. Clif C Dequemin, Mrs. E. D. Froome,  Mrs. J. A. Henderson, Mrs. M. Hutton, Mrs. Lucy Jennens, Mrs. O. V.  Maude-Roxby, Mrs. V. Milner-Jones, Mrs. N. McLaughlin, Mrs. J. P. Moore,  Mrs. D. C MacRae, Mrs. W. L. Nesbitt, Mrs. A. B. Newton, Mrs. G. T.  Pennington, Mrs. A. J. Pike, Mrs. S. V. (Olga) Radin, Mrs. A. E. Ruffle,  Mrs. Wm. Spear, Mrs. M. A. Van't Hoff, Mrs. M. J. Walker, Mrs. J. A.  Wright. Life Members are Mrs. A. C Hoskins and Mrs. F. Oslund.  To conclude, it is manifestly clear that the high standards set by the  Ladies Aid of 1907 have been faithfully maintained throughout these sixty  years. The Hospital Dance, which they so hopefully inaugurated, and the 100 STORY OF WOMEN'S AUXILIARY  Hospital Fair are still important events in the Kelowna year. And the  example of service to the community set by those of bygone years shines  brightly wherever hospital auxiliaries are at work.  A DISTINGUISHED DIPLOMAT  The Times of London has paid tribute to a distinguished Canadian  diplomat who had close ties with Kelowna, Campbell Moodie, who died June  13, 1970, in London.  His father, Col. Walter Moodie, DSO, lived in Kelowna until his death  in 1955. A sister, Mrs. R. T. Graham, still lives in Kelowna and another  sister, Mrs. F. C Bell, in West Vancouver.  Mrs. Graham said her brother paid frequent visits to Kelowna over the  years, the last time two years ago. An old school friend, former mayor Dick  Parkinson, kept Mr. Moodie informed of events in Kelowna by regular  correspondence.  Mr. Moodie arranged the visit here of Princess Margaret to officially  open the Okanagan Lake Bridge and Mrs. Graham said the princess' only  complaint was that she didn't have enough time to spend in Kelowna.  The Times commented on Mr. Moodie's death in its issue of June 15.  Here is what it said:  "Mr. Campbell Moodie, who died suddenly on Saturday while about to  leave Heathrow for the United States after a holiday in London, was for  many years a strong and pervasive force in Canadian diplomacy. He had an  influence far greater than his actual posts would suggest.  For nearly 18 years he was at the High Commission in London, part of  the period as Counsellor; he was very much the right hand man of successive High Commissioners who asked, in turn that he should remain in  London far longer than is usual. He was the close personal friend of British  cabinet ministers, political leaders of all parties, journalists and industrialists; no man's advice was more widely sought, not only on Canadian  or Commonwealth affairs, but very often on matters of British concern; and  frequently on purely personal problems, for his understanding was boundless.  "In the years after the war when Canada was the leading middle  power in the world, Campbell Moodie's careful and thorough explanations of  the Canadian view of east-west relations and of the changing Commonwealth  helped greatly to shape minds in London. Thanks to his tact and flair, many  awkward corners were turned; many timely visits arranged between Ottawa and London and Washington; many passages in important draft  speeches were rephrased to make them better directed. Buckingham Palace  and Whitehall alike sought his advice on occasion.  "After his years in London he was Counsellor at the Canadian  delegation at the United Nations in New York until 1964, and then was sent to  develop American-Canadian trade and cultural relations as Consul-General  in Seattle and a post which he left only a few months ago.  "He was born in 1906, and after being at McGill and New York  universities entered the Bank of Montreal in New York. After service with  the Canadian Army in the war he joined the High Commission in London. His  first wife, by whom he had a son, died; and he leaves a widow of his second  marriage."—Capital News LAWN BOWLING IN KELOWNA 101  LAWN  BOWLING IN KELOWNA  By R. WHILLIS  Before proceeding with the history of lawn bowling in Kelowna a few  highlights relative to the antiquity of the game will possibly be of interest to  many members of our Club.  From what records I have been able to obtain lawn bowling was  evidently an established game in England in the 13th Century. This can be  proved by pictorial records in the Royal Library in Windsor, England. We  find in 1541 an Act of Parliament was enacted to prohibit "inferior persons  from playing bowls as it interfered with their work", stiff penalties being  provided for any infractions.  Then we come to July, 1588, and the famous story and picture of Sir  Francis Drake finishing a game of bowls prior to sailing to defeat the  Spanish Armada. In 1670 the game was evidently flourishing and highly  regarded as we learn that King Charles and the Dukes of York and  Buckingham compiled the first rules of lawn bowling and it is surprising  what few alternations have been made to this date.  Our club at the present time is associated with the Interior Lawn  Bowling Association, the B.C. Lawn Bowling Association and, through that  body, with the Canadian Lawn Bowling Association and finally with the  International Lawn Bowling Board, known as the I.L.B.B. which board is  responsible for the rules and conduct of the game and authorizes all international games and visiting between sixteen member countries.  A recent survey has shown that the game is increasing by leaps and  bounds and that there are approximately two million actual player-  participants.  Now to the history of lawn bowling in Kelowna. The game was first  played on the lawn of the Kelowna Club, a men's club that had its building on  the north-east corner of Pandosy and Leon Avenue. The building faced  Pandosy, and the grounds extended to Ellis Street including what is now  McGavin's Bakery. From the back of the building to Ellis Street was lawn  providing a bowling green and two tennis courts.  One finds the first mention of lawn bowling in 1909 when the club  decided to buy bowls and made a charge of 15 cents for two players and 25  cents for four players per game.  Among the the first partcipants were E. R. Bailey, the postmaster,  and P. B. Willits, the druggist. Little bowling was done prior to and during  the First World War but in 1920 it became a very popular pastime at the club.  That year we had our first visit of a Vancouver bowling team, the forerunner  of many visits during the ensuing years. Club competitions were held and a  league formed. I can remember skipping a team of J. N. Hunt, D. H. Rattenbury, and J. Tilley. The team from the Mission, Wadsworth, H.C.S.  Collett, J. H. Thompson with St. George Baldwin (skip) invariably topped  the league.  It is amusing to relate the end of bowling by the club members. The  custom was to take a drink out to the green and place it on the fence  surrounding the property. However, a change in government liquor  regulations prohibited liquor being consumed other than in the club building.  This necessitated the members adjourning to the club house and it soon  became a nuisance having to go to the bar to get the next player.  In 1921 the club permitted non-club members to play bowls, restricting 102  LAWN BOWLING IN KELOWNA  them to the grounds, and in 1926 a further consideration was granted that  ladies could also play. The fee at that time was $3.00 per annum.  When the majority of the club members ceased to play, the faithful  few carried on and it was about 1927 that we started the Sunday morning  men's games and during the week the "umbrella" games which have continued ever since.  That year J. W. Jones, M.L.A., suggested to me that he would like to  donate a cup to promote friendly games between Summerland and Kelowna,  both towns being in his riding. It was agreed between the two clubs that three  rinks from each club would play annually a home and home series, the club  scoring the most points to be the winner of the Jones Cup. As the ladies also  wished to take part Dr. Wright donated a cup for competition on the same  basis. After the first year Summerland asked if Penticton could also join in  the series. We agreed, so for several years games were played each year at  the towns until Summerland ceased to have a bowling club. Penticton and  Kelowna are still carrying on this friendly competition.  In May 1931 we joined the B.C. Lawn Bowling Association and the  Interior Lawn Bowling Association. In 1936 the Kelowna Club objected to the  cost to them of keeping the green in shape so the bowlers decided to form the  Kelowna Lawn Bowling Club and J. D. Whitham and R. Whillis were appointed a committee to interview the Kelowna Club executive and to make a  satisfactory arrangement as to renting the green.  About that time we persuaded J. H. "Harry" Blackeborough (City  Engineer) to join the club and he was a great asset. He obtained a quantity of  old electric wire and under his instructions we installed our first lighting  system.  It was about this time we joined the North Okanagan Association and  the first outside cups that ever came to Kelowna were won at Salmon Arm by  Kelowna Bowling Club LAWN BOWL I NG IN KE LOWN A 103  Freeman,   Sutton,   Bowser  and   Whitham   (skip)   and  Miss   Haug,   Mrs.  Truswell, Mrs. Hoy and Mrs. Whitham (skip).  The bowling green by this time was not in very good shape mainly  because of the roots of fast growing maple trees bordering the green. We  therefore approached the Kelowna Club for permission to cut down the trees  but this request was refused. As the number of bowlers had now increased  and all were very keen on the game, Mr. Blakeborough, the city engineer  and myself, (I was then on the city council) thought it would be an asset to  the city to have a green in the city park and suggested this to the lawn  bowlers who were enthusiastic with the idea.  In August 1936 a committee of H. G. Bowser and F. Sutton interviewed  the city council and the council agreed to construct a green provided non-  members and visitors were permitted to play on payment of a fee of 25 cents  per game, our club to provide bowls. These and several other conditions  were agreed to and lease was signed which has continued with few  alterations to the present time.  In 1938 city estimates provision was made for commencement of the  work which continued during 1939. That year the city moved the old  provincial building then situated on Bernard Avenue, and adjacent to the  Casorso block, to the green for use as a club house.  The edition of the Kelowna Courier of May 30, 1940, reported the official opening of the green, Mayor G. A. McKay bowling the first bowl and  declaring the green open. We had at that time about forty lady and men  mem bers. It is interesting to note that the executives were then President, J.  D. Whitham; committee: T. Griffiths, S. M. Gore, T. Treadgold, F. Joudry,  R. Whillis and J. Forest, secretary. Ladies committee: Mrs. R. Whillis  president, with a committee Mrs. S. G. McClelland, Mrs. A. Gibb, Mrs. W.  Lloyd-Jones and Mrs. S. M. Gore.  Unfortunately one cannot find any minues of the club from 1936 to 1947  so I must rely on memory for the highlights of that period.  On moving to our new green it was realized that we must increase our  membership and it was suggested that we form a league to be made up of  teams composed of an experienced lawn bowler and the other players to be  men who preferably had never played bowls. We thought the best field for  securing these players would be from the various organizations in town so  several of our members offered to approach the organization to which they  belonged. The result was gratifying and soon the "Commercial League",  now known as the "Men's League" was formed and comprised the following  teams:  T. Griffiths, "Rotary"; H. A. Blakeborough, "Rotary"; G. A. McKay,  "Rotary"; J. D. Whitham, "Kelowna Club"; F. Sutton, "Canadian Legion";  A. Gibb, "Sons of England"; J. C Taylor, "K.L.B.C"; and R. Whillis,  "Gyro".  The league gave a good boost to our membership as many of the  beginners became very keen on the game and soon joined as fully paid  members.  In 1950 it was decided to improve our club house, the original court  house for Kelowna, as at that time it was one single room with screened  verandahs to the north and east and no toilets. R. Whillis together with A. E.  Bostock and H. A. Blakeborough were appointed a committee to arrange  financing and to carry out the alterations which had been suggested. The  verandahs were incorporated into the main building, washrooms installed  and your present club house is the result of the volunteer labour of all the 104  LAWN BOWLING IN KELOWNA  male members over a period of several months. It was surprising to find how  many expert and amateur carpenters, decorators, electricians and plumbers we found among the club members. The money borrowed for the  purchase of materials was paid off over a period of three years.  Since the major alterations were completed, new lockers and kitchen  fixtures have been installed and new equipment purchased, so that now we  have a club house of which we can be justly proud.  It is impossible to give a complete list of the members over the years  but several names should be mentioned for their contributions to the well-  being of the Club. George Robertson, now an honorary member, for his work  on the green for many years; R. J. Buchanan for his work building new  lockers, putting down new flooring and doing much of the necessary repair  work; A. E. Bostock for redecorating and acting as green keeper; H. A.  Blakeborough who, throughout his years of active club membership was a  tower of strength; G. A. "Alex" McKay, an original member, a social asset  and a real club favourite.  It would be cumbersome to detail in this story the times we have  played host or competed in the Interior, Okanagan and North Okanagan  tournaments or to detail each year winners of our own cups and the Kelowna  winners of Provincial, Interior and Valley Competitions. It was in 1940 we  won our only provincial competition when a rink composed of J. D. Whitham  (skip), R. Whillis, A. Labron (S.A.) and T. Martin (Vernon) won the  Jenkinson Cup at Vancouver.  The club has steadily increased in membership each year, now it has  reached 111 - ladies and men - our source of new members being mainly  newcomers to our city, curlers in their home town who wished to participate  in some active summer sport.  One cannot complete a history without mentioning our lady members  who, throughout all the years, have been a wonderful asset to our club. With  the money they raised on "Umbrella Nights" and by digging down into their  own pockets, or their husband's pockets, they provided themselves with  funds to fully furnish the club house and to equip the kitchen which is now a  joy to behold. More than that during all the years the club has been in  existence they have catered splendidly to all visiting bowlers and to our own  members, we say, "Many Thanks, Ladies".  Our thanks must be given to the various city councils and park boards  and our own volunteer members who, over the years have created an attractive asset in the City Park. Not only attractive but useful in that it  provides recreation for many citizens and has been the means of entertaining a very large number of visiting bowlers besides providing enjoyment to many visitors to our city who, wandering in the park, have stayed  to be interested spectators.  Personally may I thank the City of Kelowna, the Kelowna Courier and  the Kelowna Club for allowing me to delve into their minutes and records to  obtain much of the information contained in this report. AGRIZZLY ENCOUNTER 105  A GRIZZLY ENCOUNTER  By FRANK DRINKWATER  Frank Drinkwater was born in Gloucester, England, on Sept. 15, 1878, and died at Dellview Hospital  Vernon, in 1966. He came to the Okanagan in 1899, and worked for a number of people including Capt. C.  R. Bull about 1919. He also worked for E. M. Carruthers on the Belgo property and for Gen. Harman at  Ellison. His daughter, Miss June Drinkwater, lives in Penticton.  Robert N. McKee of Okanagan Mission has edited the story and these are his notes: "This true story  by an old time prospector in the Okanagan, Frank Drinkwater, has been submitted by Captain C. R. Bull of  Okanagan Mission. The story is humorous, but the facts could have been tragic. However Sandy Drinkwater,  as he was commonly known, was of the nature that saw humour in all circumstances, dire or otherwise. The  story, is told in the words of the author, and has only been edited where colloquialisms known alone to the  author might confuse the reader. The events described took place around 1912, but were written at a later  date."  It was a steep climb but of course prospectors are used to climbing and  besides, high spots usually have their reward. This particular high spot was  no exception because looking out over the country my eyes came to rest on  one of the grandest sights in all the world — the 75-mile-long lake and the  beautiful broad fertile valley of the Okanagan.  Somehow I could never climb this hill and head farther into the  mountains without first looking out over this glorious panorama of scenery  for which the Okanagan is well famed. From my vantage point, I could get  an excellent view, and the glory of it! No wonder it is called — "The Garden  of Eden", of British Columbia. One can see miles and miles of orchards  where very many varieties of fruits and berries are grown. It is a land of  sunshine, of gorgeous sunsets and of tanned faces and bodies. The delightful  picnic places, the sweet scented perfume of apple-blossom in springtime,  the park-like hills rising gently and majestically to the higher mountains  beyond, the lovely homes dotted around the clear blue lake and snuggled  among the fruit trees in the orchards everywhere, all combine to make of the  Okanagan — one of the most glorious places in all the world in which to live,  or spend a vacation.  As I gazed out over this exquisite panorama I could see in the far  distance away out on the lake, just a little white spot. It was the steamboat  "Sicamous" one of the Canadian Pacific passenger and pleasure boats  coming up the lake. I pictured it loaded with holiday-seekers all out for a  happy time on the beaches in the warm sunshine, at the Aquatic or in the  park. All excited and out for their day of pleasure. I mused thus while sitting  quietly on a rock high up in the mountains. Little did I know that, I too, was  due for excitement — but of a vastly different kind as you shall see. I arose at  last and climbed still farther into the mountains in my search for minerals.  Eventually I came to a place where wild raspberries were plentiful.  Thinks I, "This is a good place for bear" and, as I thought, so it appeared —  and happened.  There was just enough breeze to rustle the leaves and prevent me from  hearing those noises which tell me that a bear of bears are near and I got the  scent just a little too late. I had been prospecting the rock-bluffs while  musing on the vicissitudes of life when I was suddenly electrified by the  snarling and growling of a huge grizzly bear right close to me — and me  unarmed. Up on his hind legs he went and he immediately registered one of  the most manacing and defiant looks it has ever been my experience to  witness. I translated that look to mean a challenge and a deadly warning.  More than that. It seemed to say "I got you now". I felt too flabbergasted to  make any move. 106 AGRIZZLY ENCOUNTER  The enormous size of the grizzly made me believe that he must have  just recently bit the top off Black Mountain. He was very close and I was  (sorry now that I had not brought along my rifle. However, at such close  range I would not have stood a chance but it might have given me some  measure of confidence.  I had always believed that — all the bears knew me and would think,  "Oh it's only that prospector, he won't bother us". But this fellow had ideas  of his own and did he look ferocious? I felt about as safe as an elephant  hanging over a precipice with his tail tied to a daisy.  Somehow I couldn't figure out why he didn't immediately attack me.  Maybe he was too full. Judging from the enormous size of his tummy I came  to the conclusion that he had only just finished eating a big meal. His tummy  really looked as if he needed one of those abominable corsets. (Or is it  "abdominal"?) Anyway, it seemed phenomenal to me. Strange that bear did  not recognize me. I looked him straight in the eye. He snarled. No, he did not  recognize me. Why not? Hadn't I been in those woods often? Wasn't I a part  of them just as much as that old bear? Shucks, I began to get sore about it. I  figured I had as much right in this neck of the woods as he did. I moved  slightly and he immediately advanced one step and snarled and then stopped  and looked a bit goofy. What the heck I thought, and then somehow I got the  impression that he wanted to convey something to me, some information  perhaps. I received the impression that he wanted to whisper something in  my ear. (And bite my head off same time, no thanks.)  Now (ahem,) being rather bashful I was quite taken aback. It was all  so unexpected and so extremely exciting. I was fully aware that something  terrible might happen at any moment and very quickly. In fact it was all  happening very quickly indeed.  Every few seconds he snarled and looked at me as if he wondered if I  was too tough for dessert. He was licking his chops now and his cunning eyes  were glowering at me when I suddenly remembered something. I had heard  it said that if you look hard enough, and long enough, at an animal you sort of  hypnotise it. Somehow I wasn't anxious to try. (The old brute was already  trying that stunt on me.) I knew quite well that a grizzly can run like blazes  in spite of his size. I had also heard it said that an excellent way to tackle a  bear is to wait till he stands on his hind legs and then walk up to him and  tickle him under the chin till he opens his mouth to laugh, then stick your  rifle down his throat, lift him up and throw him over your shoulder and walk  home with him. A dandy stunt—if you can do it, but I had no rifle. Neither  did I have that much ambition.  But now the grizzly looked as if he had quite decided that I would make  first class dessert. I had my own ideas about that. He was smacking his  chops now and he evidently thought I'd make a dainty morsel. Suffering  cats, can you imagine an old prospector being a 'dainty morsel'. Ye gods  he'd have the nightmare and the tummy ache for life if he swallowed me. I  ventured to move just a little. Instantly he moved a little too. Yes, towards  me. The impudent beast! Actually trying to force his presence upon me.  Such rudeness!  I was suddenly imbued with an overwhelming desire to impart to this  bear the fact — that I was of a retiring disposition, and, to this end, I was  about to throw my little prospecting pick into his face and retire as speedily  as I could under the circumstances, when methought I heard a noise behind  me. EUREKA!!! ANOTHER GRIZZLY BEAR!!! AGRIZZLY ENCOUNTER 107  Shades of Ogopogo polliwogs and little fishes, was I awake or was I?  The wild snarling growls of this other great towering monster of fury made  me long for the peaceful retreat of my little old log cabin or at least  something to defend myself with. I had nothing.  These things were all happening with great speed but my brain was  operating at greater speed still.  Thoughts and ideas flashed through my head like lightning. As a peace  offering I believe I offered this bear number two in sequence my little  prospecting pick. Or was I feebly trying to defend myself with it? Anyway,  with a lightning swift movement he immediately shot out his paw and sent  my pick skyrocketing upwards to the far off distant planets. I'll bet the man  in the moon got a crack on the dome that time because I never saw my pick  again.  I was so thrilled with the expert and nifty speed with which "Number  Two" Bear sent my pick skyward that I suddenly discovered I was doing a  violent and totally involuntary step-dance. My knees were knocking together  and kettle-drumming the 'Carioca' so loud and furiously that I could actually  picture myself on the 'Major Bowes Amateur Hour' with the votes coming in  by the iliousands. If anyone could have seen me, they would have noted that I  was all ready to "take off" at any moment. I was all "tuned up" and  throbbing with energy.  Just why those bears failed to recognize me I still don't know. What I  do know is that this "Bear Number Two" immediately started towards me  for a loving(?) embrace. He gave one terrific snarl and opened his mouth so  wide that I could almost see the raspberries he had swallowed before  spotting me. With a deadly gleam in his eye he came straight for me — and  at the same time, "Bear Number One" also approached for the kill. It was  right then that I suddenly remembered I had an exceedingly important  appointment with Santa Claus at the North Pole.  My first jump was twenty feet. Did I measure It? Not on your life! But  I everlastingly guarantee it. In all my life I never felt so suddenly energetic  or ambitious as I did right then. That first jump was the start of a race that  for speed and excitement was unparalleled in all history. With two giant  grizzly bears at my heels I had all the inspiration for speed that anyone could  possibly wish for. They took after me with snarls and growls truly terrifying.  The excitement was intense. The situation — tragic. It called for speed,  speed, more speed, and it was up to me to bust all records. My pole-vaulting  days were not in vain for I jumped clean over bushes, windfalls and every  obstacle with a speed that must have made those bears think I was either a  comet or a kangaroo that had been fed on Mexican jumping beans. Just the  same, every once in awhile I could feel their hot breath on the back of my  neck, but that was to me, only so much more gasoline on the fire for I shot  ahead every time. Birds, deer, rabbits, all scattered and made for cover as  they heard the crashing and smashing of the oncoming cavalcade. In short,  'The Runaway Train' was on its way with the throttle wide open and a full  head of steam. I crossed Mission Creek in one jump heading straight for the  Arctic Circle. But they were right behind me. One bear caught up with me  and nearly got me as I was taking off my coat for greater speed. Never  stopping for a moment I just had a glimpse of him as he tore my coat to  shreds and kept on coming after me with the other bear just behind him.  Presently one bear made a short cut and seemed to be heading me off but I  think I jumped over him just before I jumped over Black Mountain and 108 AGRIZZLY ENCOUNTER  looped the loop down th other side.  But talk about clinging ivy. For the life of me I couldn't seem to get  away from those bears. All the time I was getting more and more impressed  with the thought of what they might do to me if they ever got me in their  clutches. Such thoughts put more kick into my legs and was the cause of  creasing my speed tremendously. I was now flying over the ground at a pace  undreamed of by any other race enthusiast in spite of numerous obstacles.  The landscape was whizzing past me so fast that it looked like the shaky  jittery old-fashioned movies of long ago.  Tarzan of the Apes flitted through my mind and seeing a limb of a tree  sticking out ahead and up high, I made a flying leap for it. I missed - fell -  rolled over - got up and jumped - dodged - skeedadled - skidoodled -  vamoosed - skooted - skidded - sprang - bumped - bounced - hopped - slipped -  zoomed - soared - volplaned - shot up - shot down - leveled off - nose-dived -  looped the loop again - went into a tail-spin and finally - cracked up at the foot  of a rockslide.  Did I win the race? You bet I did! Why those bears were actually  blown back by the terrific back-draught of wind which I created as I sped  madly over mountains and across valleys in my noble quest for - "freedom  and democracy". And if I hadn't "cracked up" when I did it would have  taken me at least three days to slow down to normal speed.  The meeting of those two bears was a real "meeting". It was 'called to  order' in a hurry. Bear number one "moved, bear number two "seconded".  But I am the boy that "tooted the flute", and called the tune. AGOLDENWEDDING  109  Photo—Kelowna Daily Courier  Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Tutt, on the occasion of their  Golden Wedding Anniversary.  A GOLDEN WEDDING  By PRIMROSE UPTON  Congratulations on the occasion of the Golden Wedding Anniversary of  pioneer residents, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Tutt, were received from many  friends and relations, as well as messages from Governor-General Roland  Michener; Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau; Bruce Howard, M.P.; Lieut-  Gov. John Nicholson; Premier W. A. C Bennett, and a scroll from Pope Paul  VI, granting his apostolic blessing.  The couple were married on April 19, 1920, at the Immaculate Conception Church in Kelowna by Rev. Francis Verbeke. A mass of  thanksgiving and renewal of wedding vows took place this year at St. Pius  Church with the Rev. Charles Mulvihill the celebrant. Present for this were  Mrs. Fraser Black (nee Brunette) and William Hereron, bridesmaid and  best man at the wedding ceremony in 1920. Several other people who had  been present at this ceremony were also in attendance.  On April 19 many relatives and friends gathered at the couple's home  in Glenmore where open house was held. A beautifully engraved tray was no  AGOLDENWEDDING  presented. The tray was inscribed with names of all the family and dates of  the wedding and anniversary.  Mrs. Tutt, the elder daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Michael Hereron, was  born in what is now the Ellison district. Duncan Tutt was born in England,  coming with his parents to Kelowna in 1910.  Following the wedding of Mr. and Mrs. Tutt in 1920, they operated  Tutt's Dairy on South Pandosy St., selling it to Lakeview Dairy in 1945. In  1946 they moved to their present location in North Glenmore.  Mrs. Tutt is a charter member and past president of the Immaculate  Conception CWL, vice president of the Okanagan Historical Society and a  director of the Kelowna Branch of the OHS. For a number of years she was  the very cheerful and efficient secretary of the Kelowna Branch OHS, and is  keenly interested in the work of the Society.  Charles  Mair,   with   his   family,   about   1921,   at   the   Crichton   home   in  Benvoulin.   From   left,   Bert   Crichton,   his   son-in-law;  Mrs.   Crichton,   his  daughter; Mr. Mair,- and Mrs. E. J. Cann, another daughter. CHASMAIR, POET AND PIONEER 111  CHAS. MAIR,  POET AND PIONEER  By ART GRAY  A little less than eighty years ago, when Kelowna was just beginning,  (a small townsite laid out by Bernard Lequime on the lakeshore, in the  vicinity of his sawmill,) a newcomer by the name of Charles Mair opened a  general store on Bernard Avenue, about half way up the first block.  Like the other few buildings in the "business section" there were  about five of them — they were on the south side of the street. The site was  later on occupied by Poole's Bakery, and still later by Chapin's Cafe, and a  cafe still occupies the site.  The arrival of the Mair family was quite an acquisition to the social  life of the community. Charles Mair was born in the village of Lanark, Ontario, Sept. 21, 1838, so that when he arrived in Kelowna he was a man about  54 years of age. Mair's ancestors had come from the Scottish Lowlands,  though his mother, born in Scotland, was of Northumberland descent.  Charles Mair received a good education, which included attendance at  Queen's University, as a medical student. As a student at Queen's he made  his first venture into authorship when he wrote his first book, a selection of  verses entitled "Dreamland and Other Poems." While in Ottawa making  arrangements for the publishing of the book he met the Hon. William McDougall, minister of public works in the federal government, who discovered  that this young man had an unusual acquaintance with western Canada,  gained by reading, and by talking to old traders from the west. The minister  had him appointed paymaster and historian for a party to be sent out to the  Red River to construct roads for immigrants, from the Lake of the Woods to  the Red River Colony. That was the beginning of a long association with the  Canadian west. Romance and adventure awaited him there.  While in Winnipeg Mair met a young lady named Elizabeth  Mackenney. They were married on September 8, 1869. Very soon afterwards  the first Riel Rebellion broke out. For some time young Mair had been  writing articles for eastern Canadian newspapers about conditions in the  west. His accounts had been mainly critical of the Metis, and favoring the  setting up of Manitoba as a province along with those of the east. He aroused  the hostility of the Metis, and shortly after the rebellion broke out he was  arrested and threatened with execution. Another prisoner, by the name of  Scott, was executed by the rebels, and his death was justification for the  later execution of Riel himself. To avoid a possible similar fate, Charles  Mair escaped from prison and made a 600 mile trek over the frozen plains to  St. Paul, Minnesota, and thence by train to Upper Canada, or the province of  "Ontario" as it had been renamed. Here he joined his voice and writings  with the new organization called the "Canada First" party, which aroused  the people of Ontario to anger over the actions of the Metis, resulting in the  government of the day being forced to take action. Soon a military expedition was sent to Manitoba to restore order. Riel fled to the U.S. He did  not stay there, but returned to fight another day, but his second venture  proved fatal, for he was tried, condemned, and hanged.  Times have changed. In the 19th century a Canadian government  hanged Louis Riel as a rebel. Today, in the 20th century, a Canadian  government issues a postage stamp in his honor. 112  CHAS MAIR, POET AND PIONEER CHASMAIR, POET AND PIONEER  113  This was Mair's Benvoulin store. The picture was taken some years  later  when the building was in use as the Rutland Methodist Church.  Charles Mair returned to the west and located at Portage La Prairie,  where he set up in business as a general merchant, as his father and his  grandfather had been before him in Lanark and in Perth, Ontario.  After a number of years he moved with his family to Prince Albert,  then a tiny settlement. He prospered there until Metis discontent and a shortsighted federal policy precipitated the second Riel Rebellion, or North West  Rebellion, as it is sometimes called, in 1884. Mair moved his family back  east to Windsor, Ontario, and then returned west to serve as an officer in the  campaign. With the defeat of the rebels, Mair brought his family back to the  west. In 1886 he wrote and published what is probably his best known work, a  fine dramatic poem entitled "Tecumseh." This secured him immediate  recognition as being in the first rank of Canadian writers. "The Last Bison"  followed in 1888. A report states "His literary work was marked with a  felicity of phrase and expression." He was often referred to by commentators as "Our Warrior Bard."  Seeking a more equable climate than that of the windswept prairies,  as many another prairie resident has done since, he moved to the coastal  province of British Columbia, in 1891. Soon after establishing himself in  business in Kelowna he began to take an active part in community affairs.  He became a school trustee in 1892 in company with Harry Raymer, later to  be Kelowna's first mayor, and Thomas Spence, the first postmaster.  There are many references to the arrival and the activities of Charles  Mair in the early issues of the Vernon News, which carried a weekly column  of "Okanagan Mission Notes." The issue of Sept. 1, 1892 states that "Charles  Mair arrived at Kelowna last week and is making ready to take up residence  here. He has a very good business location and Mr. Cann has been looking  after the erection of the new store on it."  Mair also took an interest in sports in the community, becoming vice-  president of the cricket club. Surprisingly, the president of the cricket club  was Bernard Lequime.  At that same period the new little town of Kelowna had a rival. Inland 114  CHASMAIR, POET AND PIONEER  Charles Mair, abed in a private nursing home in  Victoria, was  honored  by the visit of another literary figure, Charles G. D. Roberts.  a few miles the enterprising George Grant Mackay, who had interested Lord  and Lady Aberdeen in buying land in the Okanagan Mission valley, had laid  out a townsite called Benvoulin. A hotel was built, a blacksmith shop opened,  a Presbyterian church in due course was constructed, with the aid of Lady  Aberdeen. Preliminary surveys for extension of the Sicamous & Okanagan  Railway line from Vernon southward were made.  Whether he was induced by Mackay to make the venture, or whether  he sought to have a foot in both camps it is hard to say, but Mair decided to  open a second store, in the new Benvoulin townsite. It is not clear whether  the Mr. Cann, previously referred to, was in charge of the new store, or  Mair's own son took over the operation but the earliest example of the  modern chain store was in operation in the Central Okanagan.  During this period the Mairs and their family of one son and three  daughters were active in the social life of the community. Financially,  however, things did not go well. George Grant Mackay died, and the railroad  to Benvoulin did not come until several decades later. A recession set in and  Mair was forced to make an assignment in favor of his creditors; investments in Saskatchewan had also become a burden, and he moved, with  most of his family to the East where he had received an appointment to the  Dominion Immigration Service. Not all of his family moved from the  Okanagan, however for a daughter had married Bert Crichton, and  decendants of Charles Mair still reside in the Kelowna district, including  Mrs. Austen Willett of Okanagan Mission who has been a source of information in regard to Charles Mair, and his family.  The Benvoulin store was purchased by the Methodists of the rural  area, and was hauled to a site on John Dilworth's ranch by Mill Creek (now  Mountain Shadows golf course) and was in use for many years. It was moved  later to McCurdy Road, Rutland, where the present United Church stands,  but was destroyed by fire in October 1925.  Charles Mair published no more poems in later life, but wrote one  more book, entitled "Through the MacKenzie Basin." In the 1920's he en- CHASMAIR, POET AND PIONEER 115  joyed a revival of interest in his works. Enthusiastic literary critics of that  era returned his name to national prominence. He was widely acclaimed as  a western pioneer and Dean of Canadian Letters. His old Alma Mater  bestowed upon him an honorary doctorate, and he was made an emeritus  fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. In later years was a resident of Victoria B.C.  He passed away there on July 7 1927, and the Kelowna Courier of July  14 that year carried a full column obituary. He had been predeceased some  years before by his wife and one daughter, but three daughters and a son  survived at that time. They were Mrs. E. J. Cann of Calgary, Mrs. B. E.  Crichton of Okanagan Mission, Mrs. A. Lucas, New Zealand, and his son  Charles Cecil G. Mair, Windsor, Ontario. The funeral services were held at  Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria.  With his passing a link with the early days of the Okanagan and the  stirring times of two western rebellions, was broken. 116 OKANAGAN LANDING SCHOOL DAYS  OKANAGAN  LANDING  SCHOOL DAYS  MARGUERITE HODGSON  It was in the year 1918 that the Landing School first came into my  youthful life. Newly built, and painted white with green trim, it stood on a  little knoll just beside and above the Presbyterian Church.  At that time the two old long-type, one-storey school buildings were  huddled, decrepit and empty at the foot of the hill — a sharp contrast to the  sparkling new one-roomed house of learning just above them.  My formal education began in this cheery little school under the  teeching of a Miss. Olga L. Bossi. Needless to say, a teacher with a name like  that had to resort to many disciplinary measures. I can still see "Miss Bossi  Cow" scribbled on the blackboard by my close friend and classmate Ida  Fuhr, now Mrs. Ida Palmer.  Miss Bossi had about forty pupils ranging from six to fifteen years.  They were in various groups of two, three, and on up to maybe five and six,  and graded from First, Second and Third Primer and on up to First, Second,  Third and Fourth Reader.  Life was very hectic for the lone teacher instructing these assorted  grades. But with the backing of a hidden razor strap in her desk drawer, she  managed to cope with all the phases of our education. Some of the more  advanced senior students were utilized in instruct the younger ones. As in  those days the three "R's" were stressed, so there were not too many subjects to tax our youthful brains.  There were many chores for teacher and pupils alike. The older boys  had duties such as the stoking of the furnace in the basement — indeed, we  had a furnace in this new school — a modern monster of metal, that, in the  winter months consumed an endless amount of wood and coal.  The registers were strategically placed in the floor around the room,  but if you were really cold from sitting in the wrong end of the room from  these, you were allowed (that is, if the teacher was in a good mood) to stand  over these wonderful heating spots for a few minutes. We girls would giggle  as our long skirts billowed out from the heat waves from the register.  Another duty for the older boys, such as Charlie Gray, Frank and  Ludlow Weeks, Frank Loyd, the Swift and Fuhr boys, was to keep the water  pail filled with fresh water from the hand pump located at the base of the hill  below the school. This water pail, with its germ-laden metal cups stood on a  bench in the hall where we hung our hats and coats.  In matching colors and comfortably placed on appropriate separate  hills behind the school were the boys' and girls' lavatories.  The older girls' duties entailed caring for the younger ones, such as,  in the winter dressing them in their warm outdoor clothes for recess and  going home. Also they contributed little personal comforts that the busy  teacher was unable to find time to perform. I have many fond memories of  some of these older girls, among whom were Millie and Rita Cluness,  Margaret Verey, Norma Barrington and Connie Welch. Rita was the beauty  of the school. She later trained as a nurse at the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. Her  sister Millie and Margaret Verey also became nurses. Constance Welch was  a well known teacher in the Vernon school and later became Mrs. Howard OKANAGAN LANDING SCHOOL DAYS  117  Thornton. Her father, Philip Welch, was a member of the Okanogan Landing  school board for many years.  Many of the Landing school children's fathers worked in the C.P.R.  shipyard as it was a thriving railroad and boat landing center in those days.  Some of the children attending the school came from the immigrant families  where the men worked on the railroad tracks or in the ice houses. They lived  in household equipped box-cars on side-tracks in the railway yards.  Not all the early school days were spent in learning the three "R's."  There were the good times — the fun times that close environment gave us.  We used to skip across the tracks in the late spring and warm summer  days in September for a quick dip in Okanagan Lake—against school rules,  of course. There was the thrill of counting ties and making wishes as we  walked along the forbidden railroad tracks. In the winter months we brought  our sleighs to school and slid down with or without them on the little hill in  front of the school. Seeing this was all confined with barbwire, many a cut  face or lip was caused by a fast ride and failure to stop in time. Many a fond  parent pondered over the cold their child developed from sitting the rest of  the day in school with wet clothes as a result of the snow. Of course, long  drawers on both the boys and girls didn't help the cause.  Many nostalgic memories must exist in the minds of former Okanagan  Landing school pupils as well as the community. The annual Christmas  concert was one of these fond memories. Everyone in the school participated  and started practicing about a month before the event, which was held in the  church. Every pupil had a recitation or was in a play and also sang with the  Christmas Carol group. Lacking a musical instrument in the school we  would all flock down to the church to practise singing with the organ. Rita  Cluness played the accompaniment for us. Many a time we rushed ahead of  the teacher so we could sing the unsacrilegious song "I love coffee, I love  tea, I love the boys and the boys love me" to Rita's playing of the church  organ.  When the big nightarrived, everyone in the community came — doting  parents with babes in arms, little brothers and sisters, relatives and friends,  r*—■"'-»_.f;  n  i r  At the Landing, in the older and busy days at the CPR depot. 118 OKANAGAN LANDING SCHOOL DAYS  transient shipyard and railroad workers. The little church was decorated  and a huge Christmas tree stood in one corner, glittering with decorations  and underneath it were heaped gifts for Santa Claustogiveoutto every child  in the community. I can still remember the magic of Christmas — the piney  smell of the tree intermingled with Japanese oranges and candy—that  oldtime Christmasy scent. Everyone returned home with an added warmth  from the togetherness and the true Christmas spirit.  Another outstanding event that took place every spring and fall was  the visit of the school doctor from Vernon. To our youthful minds this was a  horrible and dire occasion. Dr. Williams was the doctor and he was famous  for his unsympathetic and gruff medical manner. Although he was a very  competent doctor, he did not believe in pampering squirming, sniffling  children who hated to have a wooden stick shoved down their throats in order  to have their tonsils viewed. Following Dr. Williams we had Dr. Morris and  then Dr. Harvey, who all, bless their souls, did their level best to keep the  Landing school children in good physical fitness.  Other visitors to the school and who also were looked upon with fear  and dread by both teacher and pupils alike, were the school inspectors. The  teacher never knew when they were to arrive or when their criticism was to  fall upon her. We, the pupils, were fearful of their unknown questions pertaining to our lessons. Usually we were so scared and shy we were unable to  give a correct or sensible reply.  A beloved personage who used to visit the school was the late Rev. Mr.  Campbell-Brown — a former missionary in China. This remarkable elderly  man, either walked or rode horseback from the Amory Ranch by Kalamalka  Lake and over the Commonage to conduct services in the Presbyterian  Church. He would arrive Saturday evening or Sunday morning. On Sunday  night he would sleep and eat in the church vestry or stay with one of his  parishioners. Then, Monday morning he would call at the school and much to  our delight he would tell us the most interesting stories of China —  illustrating them with Chinese symbols which he printed on the blackboard.  I am sure memories will remain forever of this dear, kind man who brought  us pleasure and instilled in our minds some pearls of wisdom from his vast  experience.  Springtime at Okanagan Landing was always a green, bird-singing,  wild-flower growing season. Intermingled in the freshness of it were the  muddy roads and usual outbreak of mumps, measles and chicken-pox  among the young people. I guess you would say "spring fever" set in.  Skipping, marbles, ball and hopscotch invaded the school. The girls vied  with one another in the gathering of May flowers, wild violets and yellow  bells — especially from the out-of-bounds fields beyond the school fence.  These sweet-smelling blooms were naturally presented to the current  teacher.  Many a lunch, contained in a Swift's lard pail, held a small jar of  rhubarb sauce — a sure herald of spring and its offerings.  During the era of the Landing school days, the Prince of Wales, now  the Duke of Windsor, passed through the community. We practised for days  on how to correctly and patriotically wave small British flags. Then the big  day arrived when we all marched down to the Landing wharf to welcome  him as he stepped off the then, new steamer "Sicamous." How handsome  was this Prince Charming and how thrilled we were to see him. I am sure all  the older girls fell in love with horn. OKANAGNAN LANDING SCHOOL DAYS 119  Eventually the one-roomed school became too crowded. To help ease  the problem the older pupils attended school in the lower half of an old store  that stood next to Finlayson's store. Mrs. Linsey was the first teacher there.  With such close proximity to the store and one cent candy — many a parent  was harassed for five cents spending money. How far a nickle stretched  towards a large bag of candy in those days!  There were many teachers who passed through the Okanagan Landing  school. They usually boarded in the home of one of the members of the school  board. Some of the other teachers besides Miss Bossi were Miss Manning,  Miss Campbell, Mrs. Kearnes (who used to drive over with horse and buggy  from south Vernon). Also a Mr. McLean, whom we all dreaded but turned  out to be the most lenient teacher we ever had. Life was not easy for them  and the salary was not high. The school board set high standards and great  tribute should be paid to these pioneer teachers who first started our untrained minds along the paths of learning.  There is only one of these pioneer teachers that I have kept track of  and that is Miss Olga Bossi. She has never married and taught school in  Victoria, B.C. until her retirement a number of years ago. She now lives  quietly in the family home there.  Of the little old school, there isn't much to say now. After school was  discontinued in the building it was made into a residence until it burned  down some years ago. But the little Presbyterian church still stands there.  Memories are dear of these Landing school days. I think we all felt a  little sad when the school was finally closed forever and we were picked up  by Mr. Ed. Fooke's school bus and transported to the modern town school in  Vernon. So began a new phase in the lives of the Okanagan Landing school  children. 120  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (SINCE  1910)  GRACE WORTH  Editor's Note — Mr. and Mrs. Harry Worth in the late spring of 1901  left Devonshire as newlyweds, and shortly after arriving in Vernon took over  a pre-emption in Trinity Valley. Last year's, the thirty-third report of the  Okanagan Historical Society, carried the first part of Mrs. Worth's autobiography  —an account of horses dying after fighting through the deep snows of winter,  of the hazards of wilderness fires in the summer, of diphtheria and of near-fatal  accidents with doctors tar off and a hospital even farther, of friendly Indians,  unfriendly wolves, and 50-below-zero air-conditioning in a Lumby shack. Through  it all, through the grinding hardship of creating a new property, Grace Worth's  recollections are as much of the laughter and good-heartedness of pioneers, as of  the anxieties and indeed the anguish of many of those bygone days. Her  autobiography, abridged, is here concluded.  In September 1910 there was a circus in Vernon. The previous week it  was advertised in the Vernon News. My boys had never seen a circus, and  when they knew there would be elephants and wild animals, they begged us  to take them.  We started out from Trinity  Valley the day before circus day,  and when we got to Lumby I picked  up the mail. There was a letter from  my brother Henry. I had not seen  him since I left England. It was  written from Vancouver and he said  he would be staying near Kamloops  with Senator Bostock, who would  drive him to Vernon in his car. The  day he expected to be in Vernon was  circus day. Had there been no circus  he would have arrived in Trinity  Valley before his letter. It was  wonderful news for me, but  nevertheless a worrying "kettle of  fish." I was figuring where I should  put him to sleep, and what I should  feed him, and what kind of a mess  Harry would have made in the house  at home. But all I could do was pack  up my troubles and smile. One thing  that comforted me was that I could save money on the circus by letting  Uncle Henry pay.  We got into Vernon the afternoon before circus day, and I had to find a  bed for that night. Every hotel was full. I met Mrs. Wilson who had lived in  Lumby, but had recently moved to Vernon. She asked me if I had found  lodging for the night. I told her I was looking for one and she said "Our house  is crammed with visitors, but if you don't find a place come to us, and we'll  manage to hang you on a clothes-peg."  Those were the days when friends were friends, and when down on my  luck their cheer gave me pluck. However we went back to the Vernon Hotel,  Harry and Grace Worth, age 80 years,  at home in Vernon. AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 121  and met a man who had taken up land in Trinity Valley. When he heard of  our plight he asked Mr. Cox the proprietor to give us his room, and make up  a cot for him in the corridor.  The next morning we inquired at the Kalamalka and the other hotels  and searched Bernard Avenue, but no uncle. It would be a long time before  the train came in, and the boys kept agitating for the circus, which was out at  the race course. There was a charabanc running out there, but that meant  money so we walked.  It was a wonderful circus. We were late getting in to the big tent, so we  had to sit down in front almost on the ground. When the elephants walked  around we thought they would tread on us and the boys were frightened. But  on the whole they enjoyed all they saw.  We left rather early for we had to walk back down town and look for  Uncle Henry. While walking down Seventh street, we met a friend who asked  the boys if they had seen the monkeys, we had overlooked the monkeys, so  there was an immediate demand that I turn back and go and see the  monkeys. This was out of the question as it meant paying again, so I continued downtown with many protests. When we got to Barnard Avenue we  met Mr. V. L. E. Miller, our neighbour. He asked the boys about the circus,  and they complained to him about the monkeys and their mother's obstinacy. He straightaway gave Harvey a five dollar bill, and told him to  make his mother go back and see the monkeys.  However we continued to the Kalamalka Hotel, and there finally met  Uncle Henry on the steps. Mr. Price Ellison was there also, and he looked  with surprise when he saw me embracing a strange man.  There was of course an immediate demand for the monkeys. Although  he said he didn't come to Canada to waste precious time looking at monkeys,  he was compelled to go. This time we rode in the charabanc, and it didn't  take long. Then we had to hurry to get home that evening.  Henry inquired as to our mode of travel, and I told him it was a shabby  cart of which I was ashamed. He said "Aren't there any new ones here?"  And I said "I saw one in the carriage shop this morning." So he said "Let's  us go and buy it." Which he did.  Henry could stay with us only one night. And so the next day accompanied by my little boys, I drove him to Lumby in our new cart.  Through Earl Grey, my brother had an introduction to Mr. Ricardo,  manager of the Coldstream Ranch, and Mr. Husband who was at that time  Mayor of Vernon. Mr. Ricardo was away, but the Vernon Council sent a  jitney, operated by Mr. Poison, son of the Mr. Poison who donated the Poison  Park to Vernon. His was the first motor conveyance for hire, operated in the  North Okanagan and called a jitney. This car came to Lumby to meet us, and  all stared at us. We were taken to Mayor Husband's house in the Coldstream  district. There we had tea.  From Husband's place we were driven into Vernon, and Henry went to  Mr. Pound's and bought some furs which he sent to his wife in England.  While we were in Mr. Pound's store, Dr. K. C MacDonald came in, and as  they were both good Liberals I introduced them. They enjoyed their talk, and  Dr. MacDonald saw Henry off on the train, which met the boat at Okanagan  Landing, as he was due to lecture in Kelowna. He wanted to take us to  Kelowna with him, and we longed to go. But as my husband, Harry, was  away from home working on the road, it was my duty to care for the cows,  pigs, and chickens. Cecil Saunders had kindly cared for them for two days. 122 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  but I had not made arrangements for longer. So with many regrets we  returned in the jitney to Lumby, and drove home from Lumby in the cart, - a  sad little family. During the drive home Harvey said "Mamma, you told us  what a good man Uncle Henry was, but he smoked a cigar and said damn it."  And I was thankful that Harvey was asleep when the whiskey had been  produced.  Our valley in those days was a maze without a plan. Because of the  haphazard way of carrying on, both humans and animals underwent unnecessary suffering. There were many failures which ordinary common  sense could have foreseen and avoided.  One example will suffice. Mr. Shipman was from London, England,  where he had been in the publishing business. He had a wife and daughter  who were somewhere in Eastern Canada. The wife being a professional  nurse had a position there.  He pre-empted land near the old trail which led to Mabel Lake. He was  not young and absolutely useless as a working man. In the spring of 1911 he  decided to make a living raising pigs. He bought a dozen or more weanling  pigs. There was water on his place but no cultivation whatever. His idea was  that the young pigs would gather sustenance from the wild growth on the  place. This he helped out by feeding them a small allowance of grain. He  paid the stage-driver, Mr. Conn, to haul this up from Lumby. He dared not  leave the place for any length of time in case wild animals should steal the  pigs. The poor stunted creatures evolved into wiry little wild things, and in  the fall they were little heavier than in the spring but tougher. He probably  sold them for less than he paid, while the grain and hauling would augment  the loss.  That spring the men of the valley were nearly all working on the extension of the main road towards the north. One day Mr. Conn had gone to  Lumby to fetch goods for the road camp, so Mrs. Conn came to visit me. I  decided to walk back with her - six miles - have supper at her place and walk  home again. We left our place after lunch and when we got half-way we met  Mr. Shipmen.  He told us he was going to walk to the road camp, many miles away, to  get Mr. Saunders, his neighbour, to connect his stove with the stove pipe. He  said "Ernest went to camp yesterday and left this for me to do, and I find it  impossible, for the pipe doesn't reach the stove by six inches." "Don't you  have another length of pipe Mr. Shipman, that you could cut?" "Oh yes, but  it is too long and I have noting to cut it with." Mrs. Conn said, "Andy has  something you would cut it with, it won't be necessary to take Ernest away  from his job." I suggested that he put six inch blocks of wood under the stove  to lift it up. He thanked us for the information and feeling comforted,  returned with us to Mrs. Conn's. He had to wait there anyway for mail and  meat which Mr. Conn was to bring him from Lumby.  But Mr. Shipmen's troubles were not over, for Mr. Conn didn't bring  his meat, and he said he couldn't live without it. Mr. Conn said "I must have  left it back at the corner with the camp supplies, I'll drive back and get it."  But after having driven Jerry and Tom another six miles he returned  without it. In accusing the camp people for having taken it he used rather  strong language. Mr. Shipman said "My dear Andy expletives and  vituperation are entirely useless." (The camp cook told me later that they  didn't get the meat.) But this time Mr. Conn's imagination was really expensive, for when he returned the second time without the meat, Mr. Ship- AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 123  men's dread of starvation,andthe all around concern, compelled Mr. Conn to  take a gun and shoot a chicken in the yard. And Mr. Shipman's further  worries as to how he could possibly pluck and prepare a chicken, flew like an  arrow to Mrs. Conn's soft heart, and she did this for him. However after we  had all enjoyed a delicious supper, Mr. Shipmen recovered sufficiently to  carry home a dressed chicken and a pair of shears to cut his stove pipe. God  bless the pioneers.  On July 1st. that year, (1911) the valley having attracted so many  settlers, it was decided to gather at Christie lake - we called it Conn's lake  because the Conns lived there - have a huge picnic and make it a day of  rejoicing. But it ended by the valley being wrapt in grief. We lost one of our  finest and most lovable young men, who had every quality that makes a man  humane. He was respected by every soul in the valley and the little children  ran to welcome him. In fact it was his love for the little ones that helped to  cause his death.  Ernest was the first of the Saunders' family to come to the valley, to  seek settlements for parents, brothers, and sisters. Their pre-emptions were  mostly contiguous.  Mr. Conn had projected a small pier out into the lake and had a row-  boat there. Ernest was proficient in everything connected with the water. He  was delighted to give all who enjoyed it a ride in the boat. I stood near the  landing place, in charge of my own boys and the Dodds' children, and they  were begging permission to go out in the boat. I had been afraid of the water  ever since being frightened as a small child. My answer was "no!" My  excuse was the Dodds' children could not go without their mother's permission. Ernest's mother was there and said "Don't be afraid, Mrs. Worth, if  the boat did upset Ernest is a wonderful swimmer." Soon, Mrs. Dodds appeared and was pleased to allow them to go. I stood, watched and worried  until they returned.  After the children had had their ride, Ernest, his brother Cecil and Mr.  Plum, decided to row out to the center of the lake and have a swim. Ernest  dived in first and did not come up again very soon. When he did he waved his  hands. He was such a wonderful swimmer that he often performed antics  while in the water, and that is what they thought he was doing. That was the  last time he was seen alive. When Cecil became alarmed he dived for him  but it was too late. Itwas a hot day, his heart had been taxed by a long period  of strenuous exercise.  The water at the center of the lake was very cold, and we all presumed  it was more than his heart could stand. His mother was overwhelmed and  every heart sorrowed.  The lake had a muddy bottom, and it was sometime before they could  find the body. The service was held at th little Presbyterian Church in  Lumby. I played the organ. I had lived long enough to see them come and go,  but that was the death that cut the deepest.  With dampened spirits we returned to our common tasks. The road  work was our main standby. The boys—Harvey 8 and Kenneth 5—and I were  alone on the place most of the time. We had cows, chickens and a litter of  young Berkshire pigs to feed for market that fall. They had ideal conditions  in a field of clover, and we fed them milk and grain. I was very proud of them  and boasted of my ability as a swine-herd. But pride goeth before a fall. We  had recently butchered a calf, and in my eagerness for economy I decided to  boil the feet to a jelly and feed the results to the pigs. I did not cook it suf- 124  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  ficiently and there were lumps of gristle in it. Several of the pigs started to  choke on it, and all except one managed to move it along. I saw that he would  die a painful death unless I could relieve him. To no avail I tried molasses  and whites of eggs.  Forcing open the mouth of a pig is a job for an expert, and I soon  realized that I would have to kill the pig to save it, and do it quickly. I rushed  to the house, sharpened the butcher knife, and took the gun off the wall,  telling Harvey to light the fire and put the wash boiler on with water for  scalding. My next action was the only one in my whole life I considered  brave. Itwas momentous and horrfying decision for I deliberately killed. It  was the only way to stop the suffering. Yet at the same time common sese  from the economic point of view persuaded me to do it in the correct way. I  knew that bleeding was necessary, and that was the most repulsive part of  the job. Between us we managed to get the pig on the wheelbarrow and wheel  it to a low pile of lumber near the back door. When the water came to  scalding point, I scalded it bit by bit using a big kettle and a pig-scraper. We  could not find a rope, so we used the driving lines.  Then we wheeled it to an old root house which had a low beam, adjusted a spreader between the hind legs and pulled up the pig for the next  phase of action. This was the easiest part of all, I had seen it done so many  times from childhood on, that I was almost a professional.  The next morning Harry had occasion to come home. Ernest Andrews  the London bank assistant came with him, and stood in admiration when he  saw my handiwork. He said "Mrs. Worth I couldn't have done it." His praise  pleased my pride, and I decided right then woman was not made from man.  The pig weighed 125 pounds. The next day I made a brine, cut up the carcass  and put the meat to pickle. When itwas ready I smoked it under a barrel and  we had delicious bacon for the winter.  It was September 1912 that my brother Henry visited us in Trinity  Valley. Harry was working on the road which would open up our valley to the  town of Enderby. He came home on week-ends only. Mrs. Quesnel invited  Harvey to stay for awhile in Lumby and attend school there. Kenneth was  Getting ice from Choretee Lake in  1939. Harry  Worth,  Sr.,  on  the  left,  Claude Ricketts on sleigh. AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 125  seven and stayed on the farm to keep me company.  One Sunday evening Reg Saunders was driving his team and wagon to  the road camp. He called at our place to see if there was anything for the  camp. I asked him to have supper. He said "No thank you, I have a man with  me who seems a queer fellow. He is going to camp to look for work." After  they had gone, Kenneth who had been busy in the yard came in and said  "That was a bad man, he said beastly things to me." I decided the man was  drunk and was glad he had gone on.  The next evening, this man returned from the camp, and called to ask  if I could give him supper and a bed for the night. Not knowing I was the road  foreman's wife, he said "That bloody road foreman wouldn't give me a job."  I gave him his supper and told him it was impossible to give him a bed. But I  told him that John Dodds lived in a shack about a quarter of a mile further  on, just off the main road, and that he could get a bed there. He said "What  do I do if he isn't there?" I told him the door was never locked and that John  wouldn't mind if he slept there. He then asked me to walk up the road with  him to put him on the trail that led to the shack. So Kenneth and I and the dog  did this.  I got no sleep that night as I was afraid that if John Dodds was not at  home, the man might return to our place. So I took Kenneth and the big collie  dog into my bedroom and bolted all the doors. I also loaded the revolver and  put in under my pillow. Then I dared not sleep, in case I should dream and  shoot someone in my sleep. (Perhaps I should explain here that twice, as a  small girl in Devon I had been caught walking in my sleep. Once I had unbolted the door and reached the outer courtyard of the farm.)  Hence my fear, but what a night! I thought morning would never  come. We learned later that this man was known as the "Camp Inspector".  He lived by imposing himself on the different camps all over the country. In  those days Canadian hospitality was a wonderful encouragement to shirkers  learning geography at first hand.  As we expected our third baby in March, it was decided that as soon as  the road work closed down in the valley, that the boys and I should stay in  Vernon with Mr. and Mrs. Dodds, and the boys could go to school. The road  camp did not close until December, and as Kenneth had not previously attended school, it was necessary for me to leave him in Vernon early in the  term or he would be rejected. So I left him with Mrs. Dodds and I returned  home, where I stayed alonefor six weeks. My only companion was the collie,  with my nearest neighbour four miles away. My duties were to milk the cow,  and care for the chickens and pigs. The other cattle were free to graze where  they wandered. Harry came home Saturday evenings and left Sunday afternoons. The nights got longer and colder, and one incident I clearly recall.  The shades of the eve were falling when I went to the barn to milk the  cow, and I thought I had better light the coal-oil lamp for convenience when I  returned. On arriving at the back door with my pail of milk I heard voices,  and decided the loneliness was affecting my brain. But then came knocking  at the front door and my heart went down in my boots. Nevertheless I opened  the door and greeted the strangers with a smile, realizing that diplomacy  was essential. They were two immigrants from Sweden, and only one of  them could speak a little English. They had walked from Enderby -18 miles -  and were going to Lumby, - another 15 miles. When darkness came on they  thought they would walk until they found a light. If I had not lit the lamp  when I did, they would have had to walk another 12 miles to see a light. They 126 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  had not had supper, and as luck would have it, I had stuffed and boiled an old  hen that day. It was my fresh meat supply for the week. With some  vegetables they enjoyed the chicken, plus some home-made bread, butter,  and canned or bottled raspberries for dessert. Intuition told me they were  decent men, so I turned out the old davenport, and invited them to stay the  night. There was plenty of bacon and eggs for breakfast in the morning, then  they started off for Lumby. I have never heard of them since and have  forgotten their names.  After the Trinity Valley road was opened in to Enderby in December  1912, the boys and I moved to Vernon and lived in a shack behind the Dodds'  house on 8th Street. Mr. Quesnel drove us from Lumby in his new Cadillac  with an open top. We were well wrapped up and supplied with footwarmers  and a buffalo robe. This was one of the first cars in the Lumby district.  On the morning of March 20, 1913 Mr. Dodds borrowed George Calder's  horse and buggy and drove me up to the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. There had  been a hard frost that night and the frozen ruts of mud along Seventh Street  caused much jolting. The birth to me of my third child was disappointing,  and I said to Dr. Morris, "After waiting more than seven years another  boy!" Being fond of children and having none he said "Some people have  waited longer than seven years, Mrs. Worth, and haven't even got a boy. If  you don't want him I'll take him." Naturally the offer was rejected.  We lived in our shack in Vernon until summer holidays came. Then we  rode in Johnnie Genier's newly acquired motor stage to Lumby. Harry was  running a road camp at the bottom of Derby Hill about three miles from  Lumby. The government was putting a new road there to reduce the grade of  the hill. We stayed in a tent, which would hve been pleasant had it not been  for swarms of mosquitoes. We had to sleep under a net. The baby slept in his  carriage which had been covered completely with netting. This meant much  distubrance of my sleep at night. But the two boys slept soundly under their  nets and had delightful days, bathing and fishing in the creek which ran  beside us.  My memories of that summer are too numerous to mention here, but  there is one incident which is worthy of recall.  Walter Remsberry, our neighbour, was a very obliging man, by  profession a gardener,but willing to try his hand at anything. Mrs. Finzel,  who had been a good cook, had left the camp and taken her recipes of which  she was very jealous. So Mr. Remsberry took on the job with trepidation. But  he was a good family man and understood babies. I welcomed almost any  work in exchange of baby care. Consequently there was much reciprocation  between us.  He kept the meat in the big crock in the creek. One hot afternoon that  summer he came to me in great distress. The only meat he had was a leg of  pork in the crock. It smelt so badly that he was afraid to cook it, and yet it  was impossible to get more from Lumby. So I said "you take over the baby  and I'll see what I can do." I cut the pork up in fair sized chunks and washed  it well in the creek. Then I parboiled it in slightly salted water with some  baking soda and a little vinegar added and threw away the liquer. After  cutting it again in small pieces I dressed it with plenty of bread-crumbs,  sage onions, pepper and salt moistened with milk. This was baked well in a  dripping pan until a golden brown. Then Mr. Remsberry took over and  served supper. They "licked the platter clean" and after the meal Bill  Marshall, who loved to find fault, said "Hi, Walter, that was sure a good AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 127  supper we had tonight, but what was it? Was it chicken?"  In the late fall of 1913 we gathered our flocks, from the range and our  few milk cows which had been in the charge of Mr. Quesnel in Lumby, and  returned to our home in Tinity Valley, prepared for the common round. With  so much snow our winter roads were still our greatest obstacle to progress,  but they were better than in the first few years in the century when our only  neighbour was Mr. V. L. E. Miller. He gave me many books and the latest  English and American magazines, including the London Times. In the  English literature of that year there was much evidence of dissension between the British and German Empires, and the minds of the people were  being prepared for the coming slaughter. During the spring and summer of  1914 dozens of men called at our house for a meal and sometimes a bed. They  were wandering the country looking for work.  The first baby ever born in upper Trinity Valley was born on August 3,  1914. I was sleeping soundly when Mr. Getty awakened us to ask me to go to  the Alger's house, a mile distant, to help Mrs. Conn the midwife. He was on  his road to get Dr. Nash of Lumby, who also kept a drug store at this time. I  carried our big galvanized wash tub with me in case it was needed for a hot-  sitz-bath, and trudged along in the moonlight. Everything went well and  Miss Mabel Alger was born long before the doctor arrived, and I was able to  get back in time to have breakfast with my family.  In the summer of 1915 Harry bought two little Berkshire pigs from Tow  Ward at Lavington. On the homeward trip he rested and fed his team at  Howard Derby's place three miles north of Lumby. The pigs were in a  slatted box in the back of the democrat. The horses were allowed to take the  hill quite slowly, while Harry read the Vernon News, - our link with the  outside world.  When he arrived at the top of the hill he missed the grunts of the pigs.  On investigation, the slats had become loose and there were no little pigs to  be seen anywhere. He left the box at the side of the road and scattered oats  within and around to entice them to the spot. The next morning Harry and  Harvey left before daylight to find the pigs, and succeeded in capturing them  with some milk in a pail. Such is the tale I have been telling friends for over  fifty years, but when repeating it to Mrs. Derby she said, "He didn't tell you  what he told us, -that I had given him too much of my dandelion wine which  caused him to fall asleep going up the hill!" History even at first hand is not  always reliable!  In September, 1915 James Grant married Beatrix Saunders, who had  previously come from London, England, to join the family. The male  members of the Saunders family had pre-empted land near the Bobbie  Burns Mountain on the east side of Trinity Valley. Much of the history of the  Saunders family is intermingled with the history of Trinity Valley.  The first world war broke up this family, both directly and indirectly.  Cecil Saunders, the eldest son at that time, was killed in action in France, he  health of Donald the youngest was shattered while overseas. Reginald, who  remained on the farm in Canada, died later from typhoid while working in  Saskatchewan. And meanwhile both father and mother passed away long  before they should have done. This is a typical story of hundreds of Canadian  families during world war one.  I attended "Jim" Grant's funeral. He was eighty-eight and one of a  very few left to remember our Valley in its early days.  For those who remain of the Worth family Jim' Grant's wedding 128  AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  brings back pungent memories, -memories of a dog.  The dog was young but fully grown. On the evening of the wedding  after we got home he wandered into our yard with a thin and hungry look. He  was part hound, it was hunting season, and he was lost. I fed him and next  day Harry took him to Lumby, hoping he would sense his whereabouts and  find his home. But he would not leave the waggon. We tried in every way to  find his owner. But we didn't advertise for that cost money which was  scarce. So the dog stayed and became one of the family.  We called him Jack. He was the pal of Harry junior, and pulled him  around on wheels and on his little sled.  Almostexactly a year after he came, Joe Nicholas an Indian from the  Enderby reservation came with his family to pick huckleberries on Mabel  Lake mountain. He called at our house to get some butter, and of course the  dogs rushed out to bark at him. He immediately said "You got my dog and I  want my dog." Here was a pretty kettle of fish. My husband was not there,  but the boys and I received a shock, while the "baby" burst into tears. Mrs.  Nicholas said "Aw, big baby cry about um dog." I realized I must play for  time, so I said "Come here Jack" and shut the dog in the front room saying,  "How do I know he is your dog?" He said "Jack, that's what we call him, and  do you think I tell um lies. I pay five dollars to Simard for that pup to hunt  deer and I lost him last September at the south end of Mabel Lake."  The dog must have come in through the gap by Bobbie Burns'  Mountain. It was a striking co-incidence that we bth called the dog Jack, yet  I realized that much of what he said was the truth. But I had no more intention of giving him the dog than I had of giving him the baby. So I said he  would ha veto bring me proof that the dog was his.  He was very annoyed with me, and in a few days he returned with the  Indian policeman and a note from Mr. Simard saying he had sold the pup to  Jim Nicholas for five dollars eighteen months previously. Probably the  policeman had told him he was in a precarious position for he said, "You  give um me five dollars and keep um dog." Taking a chance and hoping to  save the five dollars I said "You give um me ten dollars for the dog's keep  Mother and three sons, Harvey, Harry and Kenneth, in 1933. AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 129  and take up dog." He said "Aw, it don't cost nothing to feed um dog." Had I  gone to law I think I should have won, for he didn't advertise the dog, and by  his own admission he was illegally hunting deer with him. But for five  dollars it was not worth the trouble. So I wrote out a recept on the transaction, to which Jim Nicholas put his X. After the bargain was closed he  said "I would rather have um dog."  The dog lived for sixteen years. He was then feeble and prtially blind,  so I allowed him to sleep in the house and fed him outside in the evening. He  would take some exercise and bark to be admitted when he returned. One  night I waited until 12 p.m. but he never returned, and although I hunted  around the next day I never saw him again. I think that is how a dog prefers  to die if the choice is left to him. He lives in memory only, but we loved him.  It was in December of 1918. There was to be a chicken show at Armstrong, and I was preparing to leave the following morning. Billy Clarke of  Clarke and Elliot, lumber contractors, was on his way home to Enderby. He  called at our place for supper and to rest his horse. I gave him supper in the  front room, as my birds were getting their beauty parlor treatment in the  kitchen. It was about 20 degrees below zero.  He said "My God, women, are you so crazy as to go to a chicken show  in this weather?" Of course Harry agreed with him and prophesied death  from exposure.  There was good sleighing from home as far as Enderby, but after that  wheels were required. So the next morning Harvey and I set out in the  democrat, with the birds crated in the back. These included a pen of ten hens  and a cockerel for Mr. Pritchard at Knob Hill not far from Armstrong. It was  an unlucky trip in some ways. When we were going down the hill by the big  bridge which crosses the Shuswap River near Ashton Creek, a wheel of the  democrat came off and trundled down the hill. We borrowed sleighs from  Mr. Boyd who lived there, and continued to Enderby. Then we borrowed Mr.  Poison's democrat.  We had never been to Knob Hill before and had to inquire at houses on  the way. We called atthe Worthington place. Both Mr. and Mrs. Worthington  came to the door, and Mrs. Worthington said "My heavens, are you going to  Pritchard's tonight? Do you know it is thirty below zero?"  However we eventually reached the Pritchard place in safety, but we  had been so anxious to keep the birds warm, that one of Mr. Pritchard's  birds was smothered to death. We enjoyed supper and stayed the night. That  twenty-four mile trip was a hard day's work and tough for all the animals  concerned. We arrived at the show early the next day and won the ribbons.  The prizes in themselves were small, but the honor and glory lasts as long as  memory lasts.  I had heard that similar help in regard to improving the cattle industry could be obtained from the Dominion Government, but it was with  great difficulty that the boys and I persuaded Harry to make enquiries.  Many of the settlers owned a few cows, and found it very inconvenient  to plod so many miles to Lumby for breeding purposes. Eventually, the  neighbors near and far attended a meeting at our place, and a club was  formed as per directions from the Government. Officers were elected and  Grace Worth was the secretary. The caretaker of the bull had of necessity to  be Harry Worth, as no other settler had sufficient fodder to maintain the  animal over winter. Because they produced the greatest quantity of milk, 130 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  and raising pigs was considered as a side line, the Holstein breed was  decided on.  Mr. Pat Owens of Salmon Arm had at that time a famous herd of  Holsteins, and the Dominion Government bought our first bull - Black Jack  Hengerveld - from Mr. Owens. By this time the Worths were doing most of  their business with Enderby merchants, but our mailing address was  Lumby. When the bull was ready, Mr. Owens sent a wire to our Lumby  address saying the bull would be delivered at Mr. Sparrow's livery stable at  Enderby on a certain date. There was no phone in our Valley and telegrams  were not delivered, so we did not know it had been sent until Harry went to  Enderby on business. Consequently our club started out with a livery stable  bill for care of animal in Sparrow's livery stable where he was an unwelcome guest. But compared to some of our bulls he was quite docile.  I remember itwas a cold winter with much snow when Mr. Saunders  senior died. On the day of the funeral which was in Lumby it was 30 below in  the Valley. Harry and the two boys went to the funeral and I was left at home  with the baby. Proper accommodation for the bull had not been completed,  and during the deep snow he was allowed to run in the yard with the cows.  My duty that day was to go out to the barn before dark, throw out sufficient  hay from the loft, and spread it in heaps around the yard. I was very much  afraid of the bull, so struggled through the waist-deep snow behind the  fences to reach the barn. I threw out plenty of hay, but it was not scattered as  it should have been, as I kept as close to the barn as possible with one eye on  Black Jack in case retreat was necessary. Then I returned to the house in a  round-about-way, thinkful that the task was ended.  For many years after our return to the Valley, missionaries of various  sects visited there, endeavouring to plant their beliefs in the minds of the  settlers, whose minds had already been tuned to various "keys". Often on a  Sunday afternoon they gathered at our house to hear the preacher.  Mr. Saunders senior had become appointed as a lay preacher for the  Anglican Church. One summer Archdeacon Beer of the Kootenay Diocese  honoured the Valley with a visit. He came on Saturday and stayed overnight,  to hold service at the road camp on Sunday afternoon. It was arranged that  he should go to Mrs. Conn's for lunch on the Saturday and sleep at her house  as she was the only one with a spare bedroom.  And he was to have lunch at the Worths on Sunday. On Saturday  morning Mr. Saunders came to our place and borrowed the cart to fetch the  Archdeacon from Lumby. Mr. Saunders was very deaf and got slightly  mixed up.  After lunch time on Saturday I had all the front room chairs placed on  the table, and the floor swept ready to be scrubbed. But as Harry had just  killed two young cockerels for me, I decided to pluck them while warm.  Clothed in sack-cloth—without ashes—and decorated with feathers, I was  sitting in the back shed performing the job, when a smiling Mr. Saunders  arrived with the Archdeacon for lunch. Crushed beneath the weight of unfortunate circumstances, I cursed within me, but arose with a smiling  countenance to welcome the Archdeacon to Trinity Valley. Of course Mrs.  Conn was waiting five miles away with everything ready and in apple-pie  order. It was late, they were hungry, and the horse needed a rest. Fortunately there was plenty of bacon and eggs, bottled fruit, etc. When I  apologized for the substitute lunch, the Archdeacon said "No don't you  worry about that, wherever I go I get chicken dinner and the Church's One AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 131  Foundation, this is a delightful change." This compliment was compensation and of course I had an easier day on Sunday.  A noteworthy preacher was Samuel Poison from Enderby who came  quite often on Saturday to supper and stayed over Sunday. Mr. Poison had  been prepared for the Presbyterian ministry, but because of his refusal to  accept the belief that in case of death an unbaptised baby would not be accepted in Heaven, he was rejected by that church.  Mr. Poison did not come under the auspices of any organization, but I  have since concluded that he preached Christian Socialism. At that time Mr.  Poison, who had acquired a lot of real estate in the North Okanagan, was  getting rid of it. He told me personally that no man should be allowed to  control as much land as he had acquired and that the land was for the use of  all people. Beautiful Poison Park in Vernon was given to the city by Samuel  Poison. Also Riverside Park in Enderby, and valuable lots in that city.  Mr. Saunders called Mr. Poison the "Old Windbag". And Mr. Poison  said Mr. Saunders belonged to the church that did those things they ought not  to do and left undone those things they ought to do. They loved one another  like "good citizens" often do love one another. Mr. Saunders preached what  was then called Anglo-Isaelism.  The acquisition of a pure-bred Holstein bull for our community encouraged the Worth family to branch out into the breeding of pure-breds. So  we wrote to Mr. Owens of Salmon Arm to ask if he could supply us with a  young femele, unrelated to Black Jack. The consequence was that Harry and  I and the "baby" who was then four years old, journeyed to Salmon Arm in  March 1917 to inspect Mr. Owens' herd. As the roads were made quite difficult by the deep snow, we decided to leave the team to rest at the livery  stable in Enderby, and go by train to Salmon Arm via Sicamous. That was an  unwise decision at that time of the year. We knew a lot about snow on the  roads, but little about snow on the railway. Although it was a momentous and  difficult trip both going and returning.  When we arrived at Sicamous we were informed that the train going  west would not arrive until the following morning, because of snow-slides in  the mountains, and that we had better make arrangements to sleep the night  in Sicamous. There was no room at the C.P.R. hotel, so we got a room at the  other hotel a short way down the Okanagan railway track. The authorities at  the station said that if the train arrived in the night, they would phone the  watchmen at our hotel to wake us. As we were very tired we slept well  through the night, and woke in the morning to find that we had been  forgotten.  Our train had gone through, and it would be necessary to stay there  until the next train from the east which might arrive arrive some time that  evening. We were disgusted, especially with ourselves for not staying at  Enderby the night and take the team to Salmon Arm, which would have been  both cheaper and more comfortable, and I fretted and fumed around like a  broody hen that had lost her nest.  We went to the refreshment room to get breakfast. A "lady" from  London, England, was behind the counter. She was very upset and gave us  the news. There had been a terrible battle overseas, in which the enemy had  triumphed. She said "Our boys have just been slaughtered by those bloody  Germans."  While I was talking to her a freight train came in going west. She said  to me "There is your chance, dearie, get them to give you a ride on that 132 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  freight." So I went to the booking office and asked. But the man, who answered me with a strong Scotch accent told me it was impossible as the  freight did not stop at Salmon Arm. So I said "It is entirely the fault of you  people here, so all I can do now is try to entice the engineer, and I started for  the platform. He called me back saying "Wait a minute." Then he phoned to  someone and said "It's all right you can go." I wore a lovely purple velvet  dress - a hand-me-down - and I can only think that he summed me up as an  undesirable character, and decided that if I stayed in Sicamous I should be a  nuisance to him. Or because of my daring approach he might have thought I  was a V.I.P. in touch with his superiors.  We rode in the caboose, and the two men in charge there snubbed us  with disdain, but they were very pleasant to the "baby". After all we had  paid, our fare and the C.P.R. servants were responsible for our plight, and  this incivility squashed the pleasure we had anticipated. From the Salmon  Arm station we had to walk about a mile through deep wet mud and ruts to  the Owens' farm. Harry carried our four-year-old, - a heavy burden - and I  lagged behind, constantly having to retrieve my rubbers from the mud.  We bought a yearling heifer for a hundred and fifty dollars. Mr. Owens  registered her as Trinity Valley Maud, and although we bought more pure-  breds later, Maud, because of her model form, was the foundation of our  show-ring herd. We spent the night at Owens' farm, and went back to Enderby next day by C.P.R. Here we had to collect feed and groceries, and as  the roads were so bad it was necessary to stay another night in the hotel  there. The out-going trip had been tough and discouraging, but the  homeward journey between Enderby and our farm was killing.  I was not feeling well when we left Enderby. But managed fairly until  we reached the Doubek place. From there to our place it was seven miles  uphill all the way to our home, with one neighbour in between three miles  from Doubek's. These seven miles were entirely blocked with snow. So we  unharnessed the ponies and left our sleighs and groceries by the roadside  near the Doubek place. Joe Doubek brought us out hot coffee before we left  and Harry decided that the baby could ride the smaller pony, I could ride the  other, and he could walk. Riding a pony on a good road would have been  difficult in my condition, but when the pony lost his footing and stumbled  every few steps causing me to fall over his head, it was impossible. In this  way we struggled along for about two miles. Then I lay down in the snow and  begged Harry to leave me there, and go to Mr. Wickstorm's a mile further on  and ask them to fetch me. "In sickness and in health till death do us part." In  health he wasn't too bad, but when I was sick he loved to dominate. He said  "If I leave you lying in the snow you'll freeze to death, you let me drag you."  And for the next mile itwas mostly dragging.  At that time Mrs. and Mr. Oleen were staying with Mr. Wickstrom, and  they were wonderful neighbours to me in adversity. Mr. Oleen shared Mr.  Wickstrom's bed that night, and I slept with Mrs. Oleen. They gave us  refreshments and put me to bed where I slept until late the next morning, but  Harry and the boy finished their journey. The next morning they came with  a fresh team and sleighs, and took me home. Harvey was fourteen and an  excellent helper in the house, and Kenneth was able to help Harry with the  animals. So while I recuperated we managed without having to seek help  from our distant neighbors.  There was no Women's Institute branch in Lumby in 1917 but that  winter Harry and I attended a Farmer's Institute there. It was the day for AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 133  election of officers, and to the surprise of the meeting Mr. "Pete" Catt  nominated Grace Worth as a director. I accepted and was elected. Those  were the days when the very idea of a woman in publ ic office was scorned by  the majority. It was worse than a commoner infusing new blood into a royal  family. The president and secretary were far from enthusiastic about the  matter, and apparently did what they could to discourage me. Our mail was  delivered in the valley once a week, and notices of the meetings would be  posted just a day too late for our stage, so that I could not receive them until  the following week, when the meeting would be over. However through the  help of friends picking up my mail in Lumby, I did to a great extent overcome this obstacle, and attended many of the meetings, although the roads  were generally difficult.  One trip to carry out this duty stands out very clearly. As the "baby"  was useless at home I had to take him with me. It was in April and the roads  were breaking up. Prince was needed at home so I had to take Dick in the  cutter. The cutter was a red box with a spring seat on runners, and young  Harry was good company on a long journey, and a help in many ways. When  we reached the top of Derby Hill the snow had gone. So we left the cutter at  the side of the road and walked two miles with Dick in his harness to Howard  Derby's place. Then we hitched the horse to Mr. Derby's buggy and  proceeded to Lumby. I attended the meeting in Lumby, and we spent the  night at Quesnel Ranch. The next morning we got back to Mrs. Derby's  where we - including Dick - had lunch. Those were the days when we really  visited, and lived a lovely life for every moment, with no fear of death on the  road.  In 1918 we bought three more registered Holstein cows from a man  who had been running a dairy in Keremeos, and was selling out. To do this  we had to borrow some money from the B.C. Government, and it was harder  to pay it back than to borrow it. It wasn't a case of no down payment in those  days. They apparently took a down payment before they gave you the  money.  The cows were Betty KeKol, Larrie Hengerveld, and Segis MacKinley,  and the poor animals certainly hd a trying time during their journey from  Keremoes to Trinity Valley. Harry and Harvey went to fetch them. They  took two days to make it from Keremeos to Penticton, staying one night at  Mr. LeFevre's farm on the way to Penticton. From there they travelled by  C.P.R. boat to Okanagan Landing, and from there by train to Enderby.  Harry was tired out when he got home and angry because he couldn't get a  comfortable seat while travelling. The C.P.R. authorities would not allow  them near the ordinary passengers, as they carried a cow effluvia. But I  think the animals with the four legs suffered most, for their feet were in a  sorry state when they finally made home, with not even a chanceto grumble.  Some people thought that such isolation of a dairy herd would be bad  for marketing. In selling the day-to-day produce that was true. But for  selling pure bred stock from the herd, isolation was our salvation. The herd  was tested frequently, both for R.O.P. and disease. And in all the years we  never had a reactor. There was no question of impurity, and all stock sold for  breeding purposes brought good prices.  Unlike many families during the depression, our family had plenty to  eat. Our meat supply was plentiful and we grew a big garden. Although  much farm produce was needed to exchange for other necessities at the  stores, by dint of hard work we kept things going. We were fortunate too that 134 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  we were warmly clad in winter, much of our clothes being charity from  England. And I always looked on myself as "Second Hand Rose."  The extension of the herd mde more work for me. I made the butter in  a barrel churn and worked it on a V-shaped contrivance with a kind of roller,  weighed the pounds and shaped them. Harvey was a wonderful helper both  inside the house and out. He made some wooden boxes which each held 24  pounds of butter, these were easy to pack and carry.  In the fall we killed the young pigs, cut them up and pickled the joints  in barrels. When ready we dried and smoked them and sold them as hams  and bacon. The road to Enderby was open and it was a good market for us.  But as we were unable to undertake raising much grain we had to buy a lot  for the animals, and Harry would return home with a far heavier load then  he took out. As for financial accumulation I always thought we resembled  "Napoleon" the Negro's grand action pony, that picked his feet up high and  put them down again in about the same place. "Gid ap Napoleon you am  holdin yo own." For a few years I raised turkeys, but that is another story.  Harry was very proud of his herd and loved to show them off. One year  a few days before Armstrong Exhibition, Harold Steves, President of the  Holstein Association, accompanied by an official of the B.C. Agricultural  Department, visited us, and inspected the herd. A few days later at the  opening of the Exhibition, Mr. Steves in a public speech said "Last week we  had the pleasure of inspecting one of the finest herds in British Columbia."  Of course man-like all the credit was given to Harry Worth, and Harry  beamed with self-satisfaction.  The following spring Laurie Hengerveld injured one of her hind legs  and was too lame to range with with the herd. So Harry tethered her inside  the garden fence where there was ample feed. When she had cropped all  around her, I undertook to re-tether her. In my ignorance I tied her to the  fence rail, where she got entangled, and fell, breaking her hip-bone.  Of course we should have sent for a veterinary but could not afford  him. At a dollar a mile it would mean $32.00 and probably several trips would  be necessary. On English farms there was a veterinary near, so Harry knew  nothing about broken bones. But Harvey and I decided to try and mend  Laurie's leg. - poor Laurie!  At first we swung her off her legs in the stable, but she soon developed  sores and we had to let her down. I sent for elastic bandages from the drug  store at Enderby, but they were too expensive. So I tore up old flannelette  sheets. These had to be soaked, washed and boiled, dried and rolled  everyday, and most of my time was taken up. Later, Harvey made a kind of  corset by stitching splints in canvas, which we laced up. We bathed and  dressed it everyday. It was a very unpleasant job. After many months it  healed, but she was always lame and not able to take her chance with the  herd. Cows are most unkind to their sick sisters. After she had borne and  raised her calf, she was fed up and slaughtered, but my heart is still sore in  that I blame myself for her suffering. Her calf was a beauty, and through her  decendants Laurie's world is without end.  That same year early one morning in September, Harry Sr. was  mounting Brownie, oneof the ponies, when he reared and threw him off.  In falling his leg was broken below the knee. Only little Harry and I  were there, with no way of getting the neighbours except on Brownie, and I  was afraid to allow the boy to ride him. But by co-incidence Mr. Grant was  passing just after it happened. He helped to get Harry to bed. Then while I AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910) 135  attended to the leg, Mr. Grant walked the four miles to his place, and got his  team and democrat.  Having had much recent experience with the cow's leg, and having  attended St. John's Ambulance classes in England, it was not too difficult to  fix Harry's leg. There were splints of all sizes in stock which Harvey had  made, and I still had the elastic bandage which cost fifty cents in Enderby.  By the time Mr. Grant returned with his democrat, the leg was bandaged,  Harry was bathed, and his clothes changed, ready for the eighteen mile trip  to Enderby. That evening when the work was done, I was so tired I just rolled  into bed and left the dishes until morning.  Harry remained in the hospital about a week and after he came home  he told me that when the doctor removed the bandage to examine his leg, the  doctor said "Do you have a nurse in Trinity Valley? This looks like a  professional job!" There's nothing worse than a woman scorned, but a  women praised will forget even slavery.  Although the doctor ordered Harry to rest, the turnips had to be pulled,  so the next day he took a stool and a knife to the turnip field, and pulled, and  prepared turnips for winter storage.  When Mr. Kane, our first teacher left, he was replaced by Howard  Daniels from the New Westminster district, where I believe his father was a  Baptist Minister. He was very young, very jolly, and a good singer. He was  known as Howie. When visiting the people of the Valley, he rode a bicycle  and carried his ukulele in his hand. His comic songs were enjoyed by all, and  he was a willing entertainer. I do not know the class of his certificate, or  whether he strictly adhered to the school curriculum, but his genial personality gave him a welcome everywhere.  Our next teacher was Rita Insley from Vernon who boarded with the  Grants, quite near the school. But many of her weekends were spent at the  Worth Farm. It was the only place where there were young people her own  age, and as we shopped in Enderby on weekends she often went with us. Thus  we were able to give our teacher a little pleasure in her spare time.  The Worth meadow in Trinity Valley 136 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  A tew hundred yards from our house in Trinity Valley, Lossie Creek  ran under a bridge to join the main creek a little lower down.  One morning in May when the snow in the mountains was melting fast,  and Lossie Creek was swollen over its banks, the children on their way to  school noticed the creek near the bridge had washed our a part of its bank  and was filling a old channel which ran close to the house, The reason for this  divergence was that a cattle fence across the creek a little lower down, had  gathered logs and debris which prevented the free flow of water. Harry  junior who was about thirteen, saw the the situation was serious, and that  unless this stoppage was cleared right away, the house would be undermined, and probably washed away. His Dad and big brothers were all out  of the valley. So he told Amy Pritchard to ride to school and explain his  absence to the teacher, Then he returned to tell me of the danger.  We harnessed Buttons, took chains and long ropes and hurried back to  the point of destruction. We could neigher of us swim, and right then my hair  started to turn gray, and I felt I would rather save my boy than save the  house, for the water was very deep and strong. I wanted to tie one of the long  ropes around his waist, to make sure of him, but he pooh-poohed the idea,  and commanded me to obey. I was to drive Buttons and remove the logs to a  safe distance, when he attached the chain to the log. This I did and we were  there for many hours, which seemed an eternity to me. He was wet through  and through, and I foresaw pneumonia and every ill. But of course constant  action kept him warm. We were not only clearing the spring's accumulation,  but the accumulation of every year since my husband erected the fence. And  my husband was reminded of his neglect most strongly when he returned  home. And nagging just puts more flies in the ointment. Yet if it was possible  my baby boy went up a notch in my estimation.  While speaking of Lossie Creek, here is a little bit of North Okanagan  history. I had heard different versions of the names of the physical features  of our Valley, but most people agreed that the names had been given by Jim  Christie who discovered the Valley. Different people had given me different  explanations. One was that the water of Lossie Creek went underground for  much of the way in summer. It was lost and therefore named Lossie.  Another that it was called after Christie's dog Lassie.  But fortunately later in life I became aquainted with Jim Christie and  he gave me the true story. I quote: "I called it after the River Lossie in  Scotland. We lived on one side of the mouth of the Lossie, and Ramsay  McDonald lived on the other side, in one of our cottages. His family was of  the Christie biscuit firm, and Ramsay MacDonald became (Socialist)  Prime Minister of Britain."  When we first went to Trinity Valley I was interested in finding out the  source of its name. At that time Mrs. Deschaump of Lumby told me hat when  the road was first put in, several French Canadian men from Lumby worked  on it, and it seemed to take such a long time to reach the end of the surveyor's layout, they named it Eternity Valley. But many years later when I  became aquainted with Jim Christie he gave me reasons for some of the  place names.  He entered the Valley from Mabel Lake by following up a creek. He  stood on a high mound of land somewhere near the place which afterwards  became the home of the Saunders family. From there he could see three  mountain ranges, and as the discoverers were a man, his dog and his pony,  he decided to name it Trinity Valley. Being the son of an English Church Autobiography (Since 1910) 137  clergyman, he apparently, knew something about Hell, from the creek that  ran into Mabel Lake he called the Styx, as he had had "A hell of a time  making his way up." Being a true Scot, the mountain on his left he called  Bobbie Burns' Mountain. Further west he found several lakes which were  called Christie Lakes.  In the spring of 1932 the Valley was feeling the great depression. Some  of the school children were having bread and lard in the place of the usual  sandwich for lunch. Our family was lucky as we produced our own meat and  butter, and I decided it would be false economy to sell these products for next  to nothing and deny the family healthy foods.  But we had to sell some dairy products to buy flour and other  necessary products which we couldn't produce. Harry was an excellent  gardener, and we had vegetables in plenty, from asparagus in early spring  to juicy swede turnips in the late fall, and a supply of root vegetables in the  root-house for winter. We had an abundance of rhubarb, with currants,  strawberries, raspberries and crabapples in due season.  A visit to Vancouver in 1933, because of my health and necessary  treatment, was my first out of the Okanagan since coming to Canada in 1901.  My son Harvey drove me in his car.  About 1930 my beloved brother Henry had died in England. And at the  end of 1933 brother Fred died at Alameda, California. My brother Henry's  widow in London worried about my health, and sent me a cheque for  Christmas, hoping it would help me go to California and visit my sister Alice.  She thought the change of air would do me good. I left Vernon on January  17th, 1934, and travelled by Greyhound on the trip.  In October 1941 we had a Provincial Election in British Columbia. At  that time I was secretary of the Lumby C.C.F. club which was the only active club in the North Okanagan Riding. A few years previous to 1941 there  had been active clubs at Vernon, Armstrong and Grindrod, and although  Grindrod still existed as a club it was sluggish.  Gordon Herbert was the C.C.F. Candidate, as it turned out, and I acted  as his campaign manager.  I was not fitted as a campaign manager, for at that time I knew  nothing of the tricks of politicians. In talking to Mr. Wood after the  nomination meeting I mentioned Gorden Herbert as my "boss." Mr. Wood  said, "For goodness sake, Mrs. Worth, see that he does what you tell him,  you are the boss." This was not easy. Anyway, we lost.  In November of 1947 my niece Mary Bright who had visited us in 1935  with her mother and two little boys, emigrated from England with her  husband and the two boys, who were in their teens, and came to reside in  Trinity Valley. They bought my son's place where there was a very good log  house, and they also bought an adjoining place of 320 acres.  In May 1948 there was a Federal by-election in Yale Constituency  which embraced the main towns of the Okanagan. The C.C.F. candidate was  Mr. O. L. Jones of Kelowna. As I was an active member of that party, I was  asked to conduct our committee rooms in Vernon. I had had a slight pain in  my left breast for sometime, and thought I would take advantage of being in  Vernon to call the doctor's attention to it.  Mr. Coldwell who was to speak for the C.C.F. on the 28th of May was a  Devonshire man and I wanted very much to meet him. So I put off my visit to 138 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  the doctor until the 27th of May, thinking that by this postponement I should  not be ordered to the hospital until after the 28th.  In this I was disappointed for the doctor said "cancer" and would not  wait one day. I was rushed to the hospital and operated on for cancer of the  breast the next morning. My doctor, Hugh Campbell-Brown, was the  chairman for the big meeting, and although M. J. Coldwell expressed a wish  to see me he was not allowed to do so. This dampened my spirits, and I did  not get another chance to see him for about ten years. Our candidate was  successful and one of my Liberal friends in Lumby said "Poor old lady, now  Jones has got in, she will die happy anyway." I didn't die.  When I left the hospital I was supposed to go right away to Vancouver  for X-ray treatment, but the Fraser River flooded so badly that spring it was  impossible to get there. While waiting for the floods to subside, I had to go to  the clinic every other day to get my would dressed. My own doctor having  left the city for awhile, I was attended to by a young red-headed doctor called  Finlayson. I asked the nurse who was assisting him if she was studying to be  a doctor. The doctor answered me saying "Of course not, women are no good  for doctors." I said "That's what you think, but your man-world has never  given them a chance, in many ways they may prove superior." The last  dressing I had before leaving from Vancouver was done by Dr. Campbell  Brown, and Dr. Finlayson was in the room. Dr. Brown said "I am sending  you to Dr. Ethlyn Trapp, she has one of the best medical brains in Canada."  Of course I had to say "There you are Dr. Finlayson, digest that."  I am sorry to say that not long after that, Dr. Finlayson who was a  wonderful surgeon was killed in an accident while driving from Vernon to  Oyama. His car went over a guard rail and fell into the abyss below.  I went to Vancouver and took X-ray treatment under the supervision  of Dr. Ethlyn Trapp in the Medical Dental Building. After my discharge  there I went to stay with my son and his family at Nanoose Bay.  While I was trying to recuperate on Vancouver Island, Harry stayed at  home and managed the farm. He got a great surprise when a man came  along one day and asked if he would sell the farm. He knew that I would not  be able to work on thefarm again, so he sold it, cattle and all, and for far less  than he should have. The following year the price of cattle went up, and he  could have got more for the cattle alone, than he got for the farm and the  cattle. But Harry was like a ship without a rudder. Through his knowledge of  people he had known in the past, who had died after the operation for cancer,  he did not expect me to live long. So after he had arranged his business  matters he journeyed to Nanoose Bay, Vancouver Island, where we spent  the winter with our youngest son and his family. And that was the first time  Harry had left the Okanagan in fifty years. The sea air stimulated my appetite and I enjoyed the fresh oysters Harry gathered from the rocks. But the  after effects of the operation and the X-ray treatment, gave me on the whole  a miserable winter.  When spring came we decided to buy a home. Altough the Island was  attractive in many ways, we naturally decided to go back to the Okanagan  which was equally attractive and where we had lived for so long. After all  the human element is the strongest magnet, and home is where the heart is.  We went to a real estate agent in Vernon. We saw several houses which  were for sale at inflated prices, but they didn't please me. Then the agent  who was an Englishmen said "There is a nice property at the north end Mrs.  Worth, but vou wouldn't want to live there, for the neighbours are all Ger- AUTOBIOGRAPHY  (Since 1910) 139  mans and Ukrainians." I assured him that if the house was suitable that was  just where I wanted to go. It was suitable, so we bought it and moved in on  May 9th, 1949. The neighbours are neighbourly so here I have remained.  There is a big garden, the soil is rich, and as soon as we learned about the  dangers of insecticides, we grew our garden in the organic way. That I  believe is oneof the chief reasons I am hereto write this when so many of my  past friends have departed.  During our Provincial Election of September 1960, I was in charge of  the committee rooms for our party and Mary, my niece, came over from  Nelson to give me a hand. In the mornings she kept house for me and came to  the office in the afternoons. We walked two miles home every evening and  delivered literature to the houses on our way, each taking one side of the  street. On the first of September she left for Nelson in order to help with the  party there. We said good-bye on the bus in Vernon and that was the last time  I saw Mary. She wrote me a long letter in October saying she was not feeling  well. She died on December 24th of a tumor on the brain, which the specialist  in Vancouver said was too deep-seated for an operation.  Since coming to Canada in 1947 Mary had been as a daughter to me,  and her death was a great shock to all the family.  About a month after she died Harry and I journeyed to Nelson intending to spend the winter with Charles, her husband, and keep him company.  Just before leaving our home at the end of January, Harry danced a  jig in the kitchen. When I suggested that he had gone off his head, he said  "You know we've been married all these years, and this is the first time we  have been able to go away goether for a holiday, and I am just overjoyed."  He enjoyed every mile of his bus journey and every moment of his stay  in Nelson. But alas, he died suddenly on February 24th. Had he lived another  month we would have been married sixty years, with a previous three year  engagement and a wobbly courtship from school days "when we were a  couple of kids." But when it is too late we say " If we had done this, or if we  had known that." Yet both of us were glad and proud that we were able to jog  along together through the fair and cloudy "weather" which evolved while  we struggled to carve a home from the evergreen hinterland of British  Columbia.  So after I had carried out all the duties demanded of me in connection  with Harry's death, - the burial expenses were far more than Harry and I  had anticipated - I decided that this story would keep me too busy for  loneliness and self pity. And now after five years alone I am nearing the end  of thethings I remember which are worthy of mention.  Mrs. Pritchard who was my friend for nearly sixty years, was very  good in coming often to stay with me for awhile after Harry died, and helped  to make me feel less lonely.  In October 1961 Mrs. Pritchard and I went to Vancouver to attend the  last convention in British Columbia held in the auspices of the C.C.F. We  rode down to the coast with Jim Foord who also attended the convention. We  enjoyed our re-union with old friends.  Just a year after that in October 1962, we again attended a convention  in New Westminster. This time, my son and his wife took us in their car, and  Mr. Foord went with us as a delegate.  Between the two conventions the C.C.F. had got "married" to a new 140 AUTOBIOGRAPHY (Since 1910)  partner and naturally took on a new name — The New Democratic Party.  Whether it was for better or for worse remains to be seen, they are too newly  married to tell. Marriage vows are not respected as they were when I was  young, and although marriages seem heavenly at first, they often lead to a  hell-of-a-time.  The thoughts of this meeting sadly remind me of so many old friends  who have passed away. Angus Maclnnis who was crippled with rheumatism,  reproved me because I had walked up the stairs to get the view from the top  of a tower, instead of taking the elevator. It took me four minutes to walk up,  but only one minute to come down. I wish I had the chance to do it everyday,  it is wonderful exercise.  I often wonder if this return trip from this honeymoon convention was  ominous, as we seemed to have bad luck all the way. A few miles east of  Chilliwack we had a flat, and we soon discovered the spare tire was no good  either. We spent a long time at Hope trying to get a second-hand tire, but in  the end we had to buy buy a new one. After leaving Hope the driver heard a  noise in the works which worried him. We called at a garage at Spence's  Bridge for a diagnosis, but they could find nothing wrong. We went into a  room there to get refreshment and Mr. Foord got the shoulder of his best suit  hooked up in a card of fish hooks. We spent a long time trying to remove  them without success. I tried without avail to get Mr. Foord to buy them and  leave them where they were until he wanted to go fishing. In the end a lady  lent us a darning needle, and with great care and patience we were able to  extract them with little damage and a few damns.  When we left Spence's Bridge the fog was so thick that we could but  crawl along, and it was morning when we got home. We seem to have been  crawling ever since. But it's always darkest before dawn, and a dawn with a  rosy morning is on the horizon.  Before closing I leave with you my song of praise for British Columbia.  THE LAND I LOVE  I love a land that reaches up to heaven and sweetly sleeps  beside the silvery sea,  Where clouds blow-round to show their rosy linings and everything that breathes is fair and free;  British Columbia, fairest of daughters, there's mystical music  in thy rippling waters.  Your face reflects the light of smiling sunshine,  Your form is ever constant, ever true.  Your limpid lakes are emerald eyes that welcome,  Your evergreens, they whisper, "I love you."  British Columbia, God's golden west,  Land of my heart, I love thee best.  When woefully I wander from your borders,  In dreams I hear your voice sent to recall,  In majesty your mountains beckon homewards,  And I yearn for you, the dearest land of all.  British Columbia, let me abide with thee forever,  Neath thy mountains' side. HISTORY OF DEEPCREEK 141  HISTORY OF  DEEP CREEK  By MRS. T. A. SHARPE  In 1901 I came to Deep Creek as a bride of eighteen years to a little  three room house built by my husband with the help of neighbors. The house  was made of logs, hewn inside and out, plastered between each one and then  lined with beaverboard, a material that doesn't seem to be used now.  Much as I loved my husband, it was a rather foolish thing for a girl so  young to do. I had never seen the place but I knew it was in the woods and  that I would have only bachelors for neighbors. I did not realize at the time  how much I would miss girl friends. Our only means of travel at that time  was horse and buggy in the summer and cutter in the winter.  There was no school, no church, no place of amusement at all nearer  than the little school house at Hullcar so itwas weeks and sometimes months  before seeing anyone but men.  In the early days I think the bachelors did have a little amusement  among themselves. My husband told me about them having boxing gloves  and meeting Saturday nights at one of the homes to practice boxing. I heard  some of them got rather good at it.  At that time there was one hotel in Enderby, owned by Webb Wright  and as that was the only stopping place, many a night was spent there by  quite a few bachelors. I still remember some of the tales I heard. Mr. and  Mrs. Wright were very kind to the men. Every Christmas they gave a free  dinner to all the single men but, I think as it was in the days of the open bar,  by the end of the evening they had more than paid for their dinner.  One night one of the men, having had one too many, was crawling  around the floor on his hands and knees with a table on his back and yelling  to the "men" to get off his back. Another time a man was standing quietly by  the bar, saying absolutely nothing. One of the other men walked up to him  and repeatedly told him to shut up. By the time they got them separated it  had ended in a free-for-all.  I remember a stone lying in front of the hotel that was the cause of  some amusement. One day a man came out and threw his hat over the stone,  stepped aside and waited. In a few minutes several men appeared. One  spotted the hat, and like a small boy walked over and gave the hat a kick. I  didn't hear the laughter or language, but I did hear he walked with a limp for  some time. Apart from this form of entertainment and an occasional game  of cards, the only other amusement was dancing. My husband had a violin  and played dance music very well so he was always in demand when dance  music was needed. It made no difference what time of year, how far, or what  kind of transportation, he liked music and dancing and spent many a happy  evening that way.  I remember leaving Hullcar, driving ten miles (by horse and cutter)  arriving in time for supper, playing all night until five in the morning,  having breakfast and driving home again. On another occasion, he drove to  Mara by horse and cart to play for a dance, when the mud was so bad in spots  it was almost over the hubs of the wheels. When work was scarce the violin  was the only way of making an extra dollar. Before we were married, my  husband and a friend Ernest Oliver, spent the winter together on his  homestead. Ernest Oliver supplied the transportation, a horse and cutter,  my husband supplied the violin. As there was no other work to be had, 142 HISTORY OF DEEPCREEK  playing for dances was a pleasant way of keeping the wolf from the door.  Deep Creek at the time I arrived, consisted of the Gardom family, who  lived for a very short time on the property that later became the Jamieson  farm; Harry Naylor and his father who both had farms adjoining ours;  Robert Davison, who settled across the meadow where his son Bob now  lives; Arthur Hayhurst, who homesteaded the property now owned by Henry  Davison. I think they were all bachelors as far down as Henry Hill's who  married with a family of five, three girls and two boys.  Our first winter in Deep Creek my husband cut logs and our neighbor  Mr. Naylor hauled them five miles to the river bank. In the spring the man  that bought the logs left the country and never paid for the logs so my  husband lost his timber, a winter's work, and the price of hauling them. At  that time it was almost impossible to get anything to do to make money.  Many of the settlers worked in the logging camps in the winter and spent the  summers clearing their own land. I remember Mr. Naylor telling me he  carried his blankets for miles on his back trying to find work. In those days,  one had to be prepared to make his bed anywhere he could, usually in hay  barns. As there was no work to be had anywhere he returned to eke out a  living on his own land as best he could. Later he owned one of the best farms  in Deep Creek.  In 1902 my son Albert was born, the first child born in Deep Creek.  Now more than ever we needed money so my husband invested in a  threshing machine. That meant more loneliness for me as he had to be away  in the fall. Later on, he bought a small saw-mill which he operated on the  homestead for a short time, then sold it and bought a larger one. Having  bought ten acres of land from his uncle George Parkinson at Hullcar he  eventually moved the mill there. My husband remained in the saw-mill  business for several years but at the end of that time there was no sale for  lumber so we moved back to Deep Creek to stay and put what money we had  into clearing land.  I think one reason some of the settlers came to Deep Creek was  because of the meadow land but it couldn't be cultivated until it was ditched  and drained. It was some time before anything could be grown on it. As the  rest of the land was very heavily timbered it cost a great deal to clear it. I  can still remember the first stump puller. It was a long pole drawn by two  horses. They went round and round the stump and as the chain tightened the  stump gave way. It was a very terrifying thing to watch, for if the chain or  pole broke it meant death or broken legs for the driver. I don't think it was  much of a success as my husband didn't use it long. Most of the clearing done  at that time was done by powder, pick and shovel.  Fires were another terrifying thing. They were necessary and made  the clearing of land a little easier but we often wondered as we watched the  wind carrying live chunks of bark over the house at night, whether we would  have a house in the morning.  During our absence the Jamieson family had arrived in Deep Creek  from Scotland and bought the Gardom place. The family consisted of Jim  who had come to Canada sometime earlier; John, his wife and two  daughters, Liza, who later became Mrs. Naylor, and Nora. The Jamiesons  opened their home on Sunday afternoon for church services, the first to be  held in the district. These services were conducted by the Presbyterian  minister, Mr. Campbell of Enderby, and continued to be held there for some  time. HISTORY OF DEEPCREEK 143  People were beginning to move into the district. Mr. and Mrs. Waby  arrived in Deep Creek before we returned in 1912. In 1911 the Watkins family  came with five children, Abbie, Clifford, Albert, Wesley and Leonard. They  lived in an old log house built by Arthur Tompkinson on the property where  the school sits today. Then in the following year, 1912, the Johnson family  arrived with four children, Wilfred, Andy, George, and a girl Barbara, now  Mrs. Fisher of Shuswap Falls. With more children in the district a school  became a necessity.  About 1911 our first school was opened in a very small building on Mr.  Davison's. After a short time it was moved to another small building on the  property now owned by Mr. Ginn. Miss Greenwood of Salmon Arm taught  the first term with less than ten children attending.  The farm on which Pete Adams now lives was owned by Mr. Jim  Smiley whose family was still living in Armstrong, because of the school  situation. After the opening of Deep Creek school Mrs. Smiley and two boys,  Leonard and Geoffrey, joined Mr. Smiley, leaving Gwendolyn and Dorothy  to continue their education in Armstrong. They both became teachers so we  saw very little of them in Deep Creek.  Our second teacher, an English girl, boarded with us the few months  she was in Deep Creek.  She found life in Canada and especially Canadian children just too  much to cope with. As she walked through the woods to school, the children  used to hear her muttering to herself, "Imagine a nice girl like me having to  walk through woods!" When I told her she must be stricter with the children  she decided to take a firm stand. She hid behind the door and as one of the  older boys walked through unexpectedly she reached out and slapped his  face! One of the boys used to bring his two dogs to school, of which she was  terrified and their sport was to chase her home with these dogs. She solved  this problem by seeing that the children were all hard at work just before  closing time and then sneaked out of the school and home without dismissing  the class. Needless to say she resigned in six months and we were looking for  another teacher.  It was about this time that it was decided we needed a larger school so  the Watkins property was bought and the house converted to a school. Mrs.  Naylor had the first Christmas party for the children of the district just  previous to this but from then on this building served as school, church and  community hall for a good many years. Even after the present school was  built in 1925 it continued to be the centre of social life of the district.  What road work was done in the early days was done, I think, by the  settlers. It wasn't until 1911 that a road was finally continued past our place,  across the meadow to connect with Hullcar road. It was a great help as it  meant the children didn't have far to go to school.  Fifty years ago there was no such thing as mail delivery in Deep  Creek. You called for your mail whenever you were in Enderby, which  usually was about once a week. For a short time Mr. Davison operated a post  office at his home then they started a mail route from Enderby. Mrs. Mac-  Pherson (one of the most wonderful women I have ever met) drove a team of  horses and democrat over these 22 miles, three times a week in all kinds of  weather. I don't remember her missing a trip in summer or winter. If she  made a mistake and put your mail in someone else's box back she went with  it. No matter what obstruction she met along her route you would hear her  call "make way for His Majesty's mail" and the mail went through. 144 HISTORYOF DEEPCREEK  As more land became cleared and it was possible to produce food for  stock, dairying became the main industry. About the beginning of the first  World War a creamery was started in Salmon Arm and the farmers took  turns hauling the cream to town. As the creamery was enlarged, a regular  delivery service between the creamery and the farms was established.  It was a hard but an interesting life and when my husband and I left  the farm to retire in 1951 we could see that our fifty years of pioneering  hadn't been in vain. It rests with the next generation to finish what we  started and make it the beautiful farm I know it can be. REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE 145  REMINISCENCES OF MABEL LAKE  1907-1967  By ISOBEL SIMARD  Gone is the cable bucket which lifted water from the river in front of  Mr. Louis Bussere's home at the top of Kingfisher Hill. Gone are the coal-oil  lamps and lanterns, the wash boards and the tin tubs, the corduroy roads  with their horse-drawn wagons, sleighs and cutters, all are gone from the  Hupel-Mabel Lake community which lies in the beautiful valley of the  Shuswap River, extending from the lake to the "summit" — a point midway  between Enderby and Mabel Lake. Many are the changes which have taken  place during the past century.  As in most other communities of B.C., the first white people to visit  this area were prospectors in search of gold, trappers for furs, followed by  loggers who, around the turn of the century, began the industry that has  remained most important and productive to the community. Surveyors had  arrived also by this time to survey the countryside. It was an engineer of the  first survey party who gave his wife's name, Mabel, to the lake, and not until  a year or so ago did Mabel visit the lake that had been named after her —  seventy years later.  The fish and beautiful countryside are still here to lure tourists from  many parts of the world, and it was in 1908 that my father, J. F. Moore, who  lived in the Armstrong district, became one of the first tourists to camp and  fish in this area. I was just a baby — the first white baby to visit Mabel Lake,  according to Bob McDonald, who at that time, was living at the river mouth  — when father and mother packed the open prairie grain wagon with food,  clothes, tents, fishing tackle and hay to commence the long journey to Mabel  Lake. Travelling thirty miles behind a slow team of horses, it took two whole  days to reach Kingfisher Creek — a journey that can be made in less than an  hour today. As there was no bridge over Kingfisher Creek, camp was made  beside the Shuswap River at a point known as the "chucks" where a long  high rock juts into the rapids making a perfect place to cast one's line to lure  the beautiful ranibow trout which were very plentiful in those days. This  camping spot became "Heaven on Earth" to my parents, Winnie Robinson,  and the four of us children, and it has remained so to this day. Each summer  we returned, camping in tents, sleeping in bracken and cedar boughs,  eating out of doors, fishing and bathing in the lake, which, for a long time, we  had all to ourselves. Eventually father was lucky enough to purchase the  property along the river on which we built a cozy log cabin. This "camp" is  now used each summer by members of the family, their children, and  grandchildren.  Before 1908 there were few settlers as yet in the valley. Mr. Mike  Hupel was the first homesteader, clearing a spot by the river where now is  located the Hupel Service Station and Hupel Store. He had the first mail  contract in the valley and operated the first stage service.  A story remembered about Mike Hupel has to do with a man who lived  in a small cabin by the river at the foot of the Martin Robert Hill, or "sand  hill" as we used to call it. Upon arriving one day to visit this trapper, Mr.  Hupel found him lying dead upon the floor. Not knowing what else to do with  the corpse he buried it in a shallow grave near the cabin, reporting the death 146  REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE  .    -'.■■.  Wmgi  "*:   .Vafci x-    -5;'"-r  On the Mabe/ La/ce road, near the /a/ce, in 7908. REMINISCENCESOF MABELLAKE 147  when next he canoed to Enderby. When a rumor started that he might have  murdered the man, Mike was ordered by the police to remove the body from  the grave and take it by canoe to Enderby. However, nothing could be found  to prove him guilty of the crime and he was freed of all blame in the case.  The road that followed along the flat between the two hills became known as  "Deadman's Flat," and, as a child, I can recall a squeamish feeling  whenever we travelled in the wagon along this part of the road, thinking that  the body was still there.  Other pioneers arrived in the valley. In 1905 Mr. and Mrs. Alexander  Dale moved from Enderby with their family, Douglas, John, George,  William, Walter, Bella, Agnes and Mary. They brought with them their blue  ox which served them faithfully for many years, in their land clearing,  logging operations and wood hauling. One day when turned out to pasture it  disappeared and was never seen again.  Many are the interesting tales of life in the early days and about  trapping on the mountains around Mabel Lake that are told by John,  recently moved to Enderby, and Douglas, living on the original homestead  with his nephew, Robert and family. John tells of trapping on Park and  Mabel Mountains where he and his brothers, Douglas, George and Bill, had  to climb four miles to altitudes of 7,250 feet before starting on the forty mile  trap lines which sometimes took two to three weeks to cover. Breaking trail  through driving snow all day and into the night made the simple fare of  beans, salt pork, and venison a hearty meal when they reached the next  cabin on the line. Snow, sometimes falling to a depth of forty to fifty feet, was  recorded in John's diary which he always carried on these trips to mark  what food was left in each cabin on his way out.  Twoards the lake from the Hupel place lived Mr. Albert Price, his  wife, the first woman settler in our valley, and two children, Pansy and  Robert, who squatted on the land later taken over by the Simard family.  When Mr. Price left the valley in 1906 he went to Enderby and joined the  Mounted Police Force, later transferring to Regina. In 1917 he retired from  the force and returned to Mabel Lake, homesteaded, and built a house in  which the Barrett family now lives. Here he remained for the rest of his life  caring for his prize goats and white rabbits and growing the finest  strawberries and garden produce in the valley. We shall always remember  him as a kind and generous neighbor. After Mr. Price's death Mr. and Mrs.  Helps bought his place and carried on with the gardening which he had  started. Mrs. Price and her daughter reside, at the present time, in North  Vancouver.  Other pioneers at this time were Mr. Bulgium living across from the  Dales on the Walter Dale place where the Malcom Dale family now lives,  Billy Radeau on the farm now owned by the Prevost family, Ben Cameron  and Mr. Bass at Falls Creek, John Nordleau, where the Sam Bartons lived  for many years and which property is now owned by Mr. Steele, and Charlie  Walleen at the Tom Dale farm. Towards the lake on the McLaughlin place,  formerly owned by Mr. and Mrs. Floyd Bramble and family, lived Jack  Roarke, and at the lake was Bob McDonald employed by the A. R. Rogers  Company as caretaker of the log warehouse and other buildings at the river  mouth. Bob McDonald, a huge man, weighing over two hundred pounds, was  an expert with the broad-axe and hewed perfect fitting logs for building  cabins. He built a log cabin on a mining claim across the river from the  Henry Simard residence but never lived in it. One day a bear pushed its way 148 REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE  through the door and, becoming a prisoner inside, the poor creature died  finally of starvation. Later Mr. Pitton moved the building to his place, now  owned by Wilfred Simard, where it has been used as a barn since.  By this time Leighton's log house at Dolly Varden Beach, for many  years the summer home of Mr. H. M. Walker of Enderby, had been built by  Bill Kavanaugh. After completing it Mr. Kavanaugh sold it to Mr. Leighton  for the sum of fifty dollars, and moved to the north end of Mabel Lake where  he lived as a hermit in a camp vacated by Albert Johnson, a sub-contractor  for the A. R. Rogers and Company. He lived there for almost twenty years,  going out once a year to the south end of the lake for a few groceries. In a  home made boat fashioned from a cedar tree, with rude sail attached, he  sailed the length of the lake, a distance of twenty-eight miles to visit Proctor's Store. He lived mainly off the land, always had a good garden and even  grew his own tobacco. Trapping was his main occupation. Finally he left the  north end and went to live with his old friend, George Cargill near Lusk  Lake.  Living across the lake at this time was a very young couple from  Armstrong. They were Mr. and Mrs. Fred Abbot who built their cabin in the  bay bearing their name and where Mrs. Alice Large now has her summer  home. Later they moved with their family to the river mouth in order that  their children might attend school. Fred Abbot was the first to own a motor  boat at Mabel Lake.  In 1909 the two Simard families moved into the valley, Napoleon,  father of Henry, Wilfred, Adelard, Joe, Louis, Rosario, Edward, Mina and  Virginia, followed two months later by his brother Joseph, father of  Napoleon, Rudolph, Edmond, Laura and Blanche. A friend of Napoleon  Simard, namely Mr. Martin Roberts, came and homesteaded the property  now owned by Mr. Campagnolia, and formerly owned by our son David and  his family.  Mr. Roberts planted the first orchard in the valley and some of the  original trees are still bearing apples despite the damage that bears have  done to the trees over the years. Another pioneer who took up a homestead  on the property now owned by Wilfred Simard, was Louis Bussere who came  at the same time as Joseph Simard. They both came from Grand Forks,  Louis settling at the top of the hi 11 and Joseph at the bottom on the flat east of  Kingfisher Creek. Henry Torrent, logging at that time in the district,  married Laura Simard and, with their daughter Yvonne, lived on the  Kingston place for many years. Mr. Torrent, a lumberjack, arrived in the  district in 1904 to work for Mike Hupel at digging ditches. He left to work at  Lumby returning some years later to remain with us for several years. He  was one of the four trustees of Kingfisher School when it was first built, the  others being Alec Kemp, Charles Hadley and Joe Kass.  The first road to Mabel Lake was merely a logging trail, impassable at  certain times of the year and always very rough. How the wagon rumbled  and jerked as it passed over the corduroy which bridged the creeks and  swamps! I remember too, how nervous we were travelling around the "rock-  cut." The ledge seemed barely wide enough for the wagon to travel over  safely and the horses shied at their shadows on the bare rocks. While the  road was under construction an incident occurred concerning Mr. Bulgium.  When road engineers came with a court order to cancel his homestead grant  for refusal to allow the road to go through his property, he left the valley in a  huff, never to return. The road, which Mr. John Dale helped to build, was REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE 149  finally completed to the lake in 1909, but the corduroy bridges continued to be  used for many years thereafter.  In 1916 automobiles were beginning to replace wagons and buggies.  The roads were being widened and bridges made stronger but many  "danger" points still stand out in mind on that long trip to camp, now taking  about three or four hours. The narrow bridge at Cook's Creek, Dale's long  narrow hill, where two cars could not pass, the big rock in the middle of the  road at the summit and last but not least the "sand hill" where the car,  always loaded to the hilt, had to have an extra push to get it to the top, were a  few of the danger spots. Henry and Wilfred Simard, owning the first car in  the valley, knew what it was to take their Overland over these roads, and  John Dale, who drove the stage for many years can relate many adventures  he experienced while freighting goods to the lake.  Prior to the First World War a number of Englishmen and Scotsmen  immigrated to this district, pre-empting land along the lakeshore of Mabel  Lake and in the valley. These were Mr. Jones, Mr. Isherwood, Mr. Stanley  Wilkenson, Mr. Walter Johnson, Mr. Morton and daughter and Mr. Newman.  Up on the hill west of Kingfisher Creek where the clearings and tumble-down  log houses still remain lived Mr. and Mrs. Peeters and son Joe, Mr. Bill  Glaves and his friend Mr. Mike Roahn, and farther up the creek, Mr. Bill  Burroughs. A homestead on the hill east of the creek was owned by Mr. Fred  Kemp. When war broke out many of these men left to join up and never  returned. Mrs. Peeters lost her husband in the war and later married Mr.  George Pitton. They moved from the homestead on the hill to the Louis  Bussere place where they built a large log house and raised their family of  five, Joe, Marion, Albert, Alma and Gladys. I shall always remember the  enjoyable times we had at their Saturday night dances which they held each  year during the summer months. Fred Kemp was another who was killed in  the war. His brother, Alec, took over the property up the hill, living there for  many years with his wife, Maggie, and children, Fred, Pearl, Jim, Dennis  and Dorothy. A brother of Mrs. Kemp's, Jack Beattie, came out from  Scotland, settled on the adjoining land, later marrying Edna and raising a  What the well-dressed traveller wore to camp in 1910. 150  REMINISCENCES OF MABEL LAKE  Hupel or The Frog R«nch  #**  llustrations by Margaret Hunter REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE 151  family of five — Frank, Ralph, Evelyn, Grace and Margaret. Mr. and Mrs.  Beattie still remain with us as next door neighbors. Mr. Mike Roahn eventually moved to Falls Creek taking over the Joe St. George place. Oldtimers  remember Mike as being a most realistic Santa Claus who, year after year,  acted the part perfectly for our Christmas concerts.  In 1913 Sir James Baird bought the Hupel place and named it "Frog  Ranch." He took over the post office and stage service and opened the first  store in the valley which proved a great asset in those early days. My father  always stopped there to replenish our empty food box on the trip home. When  war broke out Sir James Baird returned to Scotland leaving John Dale and  his wife, Ann, to carry on the business. When he returned he brought back  with him a wife, an opera singer, whom he had married during the war. They  stayed for two years after which they sold the place to Mr. Petch and Mr.  Todd. They in turn sold to Major Taylor and Captain Simons. Mr. Dick  Blackburn, was the next owner, followed by Mr. Adams, Mr. Fred Chantler,  and now Mr. Crossley. Fred's father, Ernie Chantler, was the man who built  the modern dwelling, which now replaces the original log structure, with  coffee shop and store combined, and who lived there with his wife, Martha  and family — Carl, Fred, James, Margol, Dorothy and Gwen.  Another well known pioneer of the district was Mr. Rene Potrie, who,  before the war, claimed the land known as the Knight place, now owned by  Mr. Fred Chantler. The government reclaimed his land when he moved  away from the valley, but upon returning later, Mr. Potrie homesteaded the  property adjoining the Frog Ranch where his son, Emil, lives today. Two  other sons, Ernest and George and daughter, Mary-Jane, live with their  families nearby. It was Mr. Potrie who, with the help of Louis Simard, built  Hupel School in 1922 and was the efficient School Board chairman for most of  the years the school wes in session. At one time when I was teaching at this  little log school house seven of the eight pupils attending were Mr. Potrie's  children, namely, Emil, Gec:*ge, Ernie, Elizabeth, Madeline, Angelina and  Mary-Jane.  Mr. John Wickenberg took over the place that later belonged to Mr.  and Mrs. Sid Knight. He cleared the land and built the house in which the  Fred Chantlers live today. In order to clear the place he needed dynamite so  one day he walked all the way from Enderby with a fifty pound box of  stumping powder on his back.  Mr. Axel Nordleau who was the first settler on the Jim Boot farm lived  there for years before selling to Mr. and Mrs. Nechvatal. He is remembered  as being a very clean, tidy bachelor and a peace-loving man.  Little log schoolhouses sprang up along the roadside to educate the  children of the community wherever the population was the densest. The  first to be built, in 1916, about a mile from the lake, had Mr. Ferguson as its  first teacher and later Miss Adams, sister to Mosie Adams. Hupel School  was built next, in 1922, and Kingfisher School in 1927. These schools were not  only places of learning but served as community centres where dances,  concerts, wedding receptions, meetings, church services, political rallies,  and card parties were enjoyed. In 1960 the little old schoolhouse at  Kingfisher where I began my teaching career and where I taught for so  many years was set afire having been replaced by a beautiful modern  building complete with running water, electric lights, oil heating, telephone,  and a community hall nearby. Oldtimers still participate in concerts,  bazaars,   dances,   political   meetings,   movies   and   other   modern   en- 152 REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE  tertainment, mixing with the newcomers and the younger generation of the  valley.  Many were the hardships experienced in those early days but children  must have their education. Often during May and June pupils and teacher  waded knee deep in floodwater to attend their classes, or had to cross upon  windfalls to by-pass the flooded areas. The Dale children, Tom, Agnes, Don,  Norman and Betty were taken to school by their faithful horse, Shorty, a  distance of seven miles, winter and summer, rain, snow, or shine, never  missing a day. When Shorty was wanted for hauling wood he reared up in  protest — he was too well educated for such trivial jobs!  In 1919 Mr. and Mrs. Large and family of four sons, Milton, Lloyd,  Russell, Harry and daughters, Eva, Laura, Alice and Winnifred arrived in  the valley, first to rent the Martin Robert place and later to purchase the  Roarke property. Their daughter, Elsye, came later with her husband,  Charles Hadley, who, with their children, Gene and Stuart, homesteaded the  piece of land across the river from the Roberts farm. Here they built an  attractive log home, surrounding it with beautiful vines and flowers which  still bravely bloom after all the years the place has been vacant. Alice Large  married Mr. Joe Kass, who at that time was foreman of a large logging  camp up the Kingfisher. It was Mr. Kass who built the home now owned by  Henry and Martha Simard. He was the first resort owner at Mabel Lake and  was the first to build boats and rent them to tourists. Mr. Kass also ran the  stage service for many years, making a trip to Enderby every Friday and  returning the next day with mail, freight and passengers. In the winter the  trip was made with team and sleigh and one New Year's Day it was thirty  degrees below zero when we left the Enderby Hotel to make the trip to the  lake. With hot bricks at our feet, and plenty of warm rugs around our legs we  did not feel the cold. Joe Kass finally sold his business to his brother-in-law,  Mr. Russell Large who, with his wife, Alice, and Ralph and Renie Stevenson  as partners, continued to build boats and to enlarge the resort with attractive cabins and store. Even an airstrip was made for tourists who might  come to Mabel Lake by private plane, roads were improved, and a camping  area set up. The Larges finally sold their business and moved with their  family, Helen, Hugh, and Marjorie to Vernon.  Another wonderful neighbor who came to the valley in 1920 with her  husband, Bert, and son, Ray, was Mrs. Hall. For several years they lived at  Abbot's Bay where Mr. Hall trapped for a living. Later, Mrs. Hall became  post-mistress of the Hupel Post Office which moved from the Hupel Ranch to  the property now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Gardner. She started a small store  in conjunction with the post office, selling home-made bread, pies, cakes and  cookies. How we relished her tasty syrup cookies and her freshly baked  bread while we were at camp! Later she moved her store to Dolly Varden  Beach into a log structure that Louis Beckman, living at Lusk Lake, had  made for his boat, below the present store owned by Mr. and Mrs. Fast. It  was finally taken over by Mr. Large when he bought the resort from Mr.  Kass, and Mrs. Hall went into retirement taking a well deserved rest after  many pioneering years.  A few people who braved the dangers of crossing the river bo boat  attached to a cable (and sometimes without) settled on the opposite shore.  The first were Mr. and Mrs. Adelard Delorme who with their family of six  came from Lumby in 1912 to homestead a tract of land opposite the present  Trenholm farm. Here they lived for about ten years beside the creek that REMINISCENCESOF MABEL LAKE  153  Launching a canoe at McDonald's warehouse.  now bears their name, before moving to Vernon. Some years later a son, Al,  returned with his wife, Betty, and his father to settle on the adjoining land  opposite the Hupel Ranch. They cleared a large acreage and planted it in  hay for the beef cattle they were raising. The Delorme children, Denis and  Dawn, at one time attended Hupel School.  Mr. Louis Simard had a place opposite the McLaughlin farm, and  lived in a log house now owned by Mr. McKee. He finally drowned while  crossing the river during high water. Next to the Al Delorme farm, Mr.  Rudolph Simard, upon his discharge from the army after the First World  War, acquired a homestead through the soldier's grant. These two  properties are at present owned by Mr. Fitzgerald, but are vacant. A bridge,  petitioned for over and over again, never got beyond surveying stage and  people eventually moved away due to the difficulties of crossing the river,  especially during high-water in May and June.  The Simard brothers, Henry and Wilfred, remaining in the valley to  run the farm began beef raising in a big way and then the raising of sheep.  Pasturing was a problem and until they had cleared their land to plant hay it  was difficult to find enough fodder for the wintering of their cattle. They had  to travel long distances to find meadows of wild grass which they could cut  and haul to the farm. This meant building roads to the meadows, one of  which, known as Simard Road, still winds through the woods to Leighton's  house up past Lusk Lake to Kemp's meadow. In the fall when it came time to  take the beef to market the Simards invented a unique way to transport the  animals there. Can one picture twenty to thirty fat steers moving down the  road peacefully and quietly in their own home corral? This actually happened and it took two days to reach Enderby. The front of the transportable  corral rested on a heavy wagon, the rear on two wheels, the whole being  drawn by a four-horse team. People along the way came rushing from their  homes to stare curiously and to take pictures of this strange "object" as the  cattle moved to market. Some years they went all the way to Armstrong  where Fred Murray's slaughterhouse was located. Upon arrival the cattle 154  REMINISCENCES OF MABEL LAKE  were none the worse for their leisurely "walk" to market! Henry Simard  married Martha Antilla of Enderby and through thick and thin, good years  and poor years, they raised their family of six, Maurice, Lawrence, Yvonne,  Jack, Tom and Peter.  Logging has been the chief industry in the valley over the years. It still  is in full swing though timber is now more scarce and contractors must go  farther afield in search of limits. Present day methods are a far cry from  those of early days when hauling and skidding were done by horses and  cutting was all done by hand. When the Roger's Company manager, Mr.  Stevens, decided that a quicker and better method was necessary for moving  the booms of logs down the lake he went to Vancouver and purchased a large  steam tug-boat which was freighted to Enderby by train and from there to  the lake on a set of sleighs pulled by a six-horse team. Many difficulties were  experienced during this last lap of its journey, as the roads were narrow and  steep in places. For many years one could see the marks on trees where  cables had been anchored in order to winch the boat along. This tugboat was  a vast improvement for towing the log booms. It replaced the old horse-cap  method where a horse, going round and round on a large raft, wound on to a  winch a long cable that had been fastened to a tree on shore or anchor  dropped into the lake ahead of the raft. Towed in this manner from tree to  tree, or anchor hold to anchor hold, the boom of logs eventually reached the  river mouth, taking weeks and weeks to reach its destination. The new  tugboat could now do the job in less than half the time. It was often brought  down the river to a bay opposite the present Kingfisher Hall and one time in  turning around, it lost its propeller, drifted downstream, and lodged against  the rock in front of our camping spot. The men managed, with difficulty, to  get it back to the lake but it was not until forty years later that Wilfred  Simard picked up the propeller from the bottom of the river, still in well-  preserved condition, and gave it to a Vernon museum. Logging in those early  days was a wintertime occupation and it is said about the men employed by  Rest period for man and beast. REMINISCENCESOF MABELLAKE 155  the A. R. Rogers Company, "There was one crew on the road, one at the bar,  and one in the woods," which involved altogether nearly a thousand men.  Until very recently the only boat known to have navigated the whole  length of the rapids known as the "Skookym Chuck," a distance of about two  miles of the Shuswap River, formerly named Spallumcheen River, was a  Wanigan — a 30 foot by 10 foot scow covered with canvas and used as a  cookhouse by the river drivers. The men who piloted it through the  "Chucks" were Angus Woods and Sam Derry of Lumby while taking a log  drive to Enderby for the A. R. Rogers Company in 1910.  Modern methods of logging and lumbering gradually came to the  valley. Harod Acutt (who married Noreen, sister to Marjorie and Joyce  Kass) and his partner Ed Tipton built a fine mill at Kingfisher, later owned  and managed by Al and Connie Noble, at that time owner of the Mabel Lake  Resort, and our son, David. Since then lumber and shingle mills have come  and gone, bringing with them and taking away the employees and their  families who have helped to build the community. Names of those people  who have come and gone include the Tobers, the Phillips, the Leon Hills,  Mrs. Hoffman, Vi McNight, News, Phelps, Everett Browns, LePages,  Stewarts, Eva and Adelard Simard, Skovs, Fred Petries, Ron Shulties,  Baumles, Hobbs, Howards, Millers, Olsens, Monkhouses, Mr. Main, Fit-  zgeralds, Turners, Abbeys, Edwards, Watts, Crouches, Wilfred Russells,  Bells, the Wittals, and Rings. More recent community builders have been  the David Reals, the William Bigney family, Grahams, Woods, Mrs. Frank-  forth, the Norman Dales, the Dacks, the Barretts, Hays, Kingstons, Zilstras,  Burns, Cadwells, Fleurys, Ernie Chantler, the Clark brothers, Bob Stuart,  and Bill, and their families, Ellen Fitzgerald, Olds, and others whose names  have been mentioned, most of whom still live in the valley today.  How different Mabel Lake is today from those first summers we spent  camping by the river. Motor boats buzz around the lake coming to anchor at  cabins located all along the shores. People are everywhere, laughing,  shouting, working, or simply relaxing on the beaches where once no-one  could be seen for miles.  Pleasure boats came slowly to Mabel Lake beginning with the two  canoes owned by Mr. Rogers. The first motor boat was owned by Mr. Abbot  and when the Simard brothers, Henry and Wilfred, each purchased a  beautiful launch manufactured at Brockville, Ontario, they were the envy of  everyone. Today boats come by the hundreds on top of beautiful cars or  pulled by trailers, and even houseboats cruise up and down the length of the  lake anchoring in some protected spot for the night.  Yes, time has chnaged our Mabel Lake valley and its people. Modern  water facilities, electric lights and power, paved roads for modern travelling  equipment and logging trucks, telephones, radios, and TV in nearly every  home and cabin, modern school, community hall, and resort have made a  completely new picture. But despite the changes that have taken place, the  lake itself, the river, the Indian paintings, the surrounding hills and  mountains are still there to make the valley a most wonderful spot in which  to camp and to live. 156 ON SILVER STAR  ON SILVER STAR— 1914  By j. v. McAllister  About the middle of April, 1914, I met M. V. Allen on Barnard Ave., in  Vernon. He was a Ranger in the Vernon District of the Forestry Service. I  asked him if he had a position paying a large salary and a chance for advancement. He said "No, but I do know of a job with plenty of opportunity to  get to the top if you can use climbing irons!" I said that I could and asked  him what the job was. He said "I want you to go out with Hugh Thompson  and repair the Silver Star phone line and extend it to the top of the mountain." Hughie was an old friend of mine so I said "O. K."  A few days later we were installed at the end of the road near the old  Stroud place, nine miles out of Vernon and said to be half way to the top of  the Silver Star. The line had been strung on trees along the creek and nearly  every insulator had been shot off so we had plenty of climbing to do. Major  M. V. (or Mickey as he was known) McGuire worked with us for a time and  then moved to the camp at the top to work with Bill Chesterfield building the  look-out.  One night when we arrived back at our tent, we noticed lumber piled  on one side. I wondered what it was for. Just a hint that if you chaps don't get  a move on we will have a permanent camp here! We figured give us another  week and you can phone your girl right from here! From here on up we had  several poles to set which slowed us up somewhat.  One day while busy digging holes, Hughie said "Here comes the  brass," and I saw two men riding up the trail. I soon saw it was L. R. Andrews the District Forester and M. V. Allen the Ranger.  Mr. Andrews was a good office man but had very little field experience. I heard him tell Hughie that he was wasting a lot of energy in  straightening his back with each shovel full. Hughie said that he was always  anxious to learn and asked Andrews to demonstrate the proper way to dig a  hole and showed him a stake marking a place where another hole was  needed. We watched Andrews digging away until the hole was dug and when  he tried to straighten up he found he couldn't. Hughie asked him if he would  help us dig the rest of the holes but he said that he wasn't built for that kind of  work.  M. V. Allen told me the lumber was for a look-out station to be built on  the top of the Star and asked if I would contract to move it up. I had done  packing before but never lumber but I did know it would be a tough job. He  said they had horses and pack equipment. I told him I wouldn't contract the  job but if he would get me a good helper I would try it. He said that I could  hire my own help. The other boys on the job didn't want any part of it so on  my next trip to Vernon I looked up an old friend who I thought would be a  good man — Jack Thomas. Jack was a meat cutter by trade but had packed  for hunting parties and was good with horses. I was lucky as Jack was  unemployed and though he agreed it would be a tough job, he thought we  could do it.  As soon as the line was finished and hooked up to the phone at the top,  we reported five fires on that afternoon. In talking to the office, I was told to  get the lumber up as soon as possible as they wanted a look-out man up there  on the first of July.  I at once went to Lavington to pick up the pack horses which were  being fed at the Bob Gillespie place. I found them a fair looking bunch of ON SILVER STAR 157  pack ponies, badly scarred up from old pack saddle sores. The next day,  Jack and I spent in checking over and repairing equipment and making  heavy pads to prevent the lumber from chafing the horses' sides. There were  seven horses and as we needed eight, Jack rented one from a girl friend. We  had our own saddle horses. Our first trip up required only two horses as it  was mostly camp equipment — tents, bedding, tools and provisions. We each  carried a sharp axe and a shovel with which we worked in the trail, fixing  mud holes and cutting trees which were close enough to the trail to interfere  with the long lumber. The snow on the trail was fairly well packed in the  small ravines crossing the trail but we knew that as the weather warmed the  snow would soften and cause trouble.  The next day we started in on the lumber. We made two piles for each  two horses. We found that the lead horses wanted to go too fast while those in  the rear set their feet and held back. This was corrected by tying their halter  ropes together. We were pleased with the days work. But in a few days after  warm rains had softened the packed snow, the horses started to sink  through, and on a couple of occasions both horses with the lumber rolled over  down the hill. That meant packing the loads out to a level place and  reloading it. Luckily, the horses were not injured.  Andrews and Allen came up often. They didn't voice any complaints  but Andrews would wait until he was back at the office and then tell us on the  phone! His first kick was that we were buying the most expensive cuts of  meat. I felt that very much as I did the buying. So next morning I packed up  a rifle as Jack and I were going out for the horses. I was asked if I was going  after the grizzly that had been seen. I said "No, I'm going to get some cheap  meat." I got a nice fat two point buck! This we packed in and lowered down  the old mine shaft which was our fridge. I was tempted to ask Andrews on his  next trip up, how he liked our meat as he ate with us.  We finished the job by the end of June. A few days earlier, Andrews  had been up and on the phone that night, gave orders that the packers were  to pack their saddle horses. That caused some blue language, but he paid for  that. The lumber was all up and only some small articles left. That morning  the horse Jack had hired was missing. I suggested that he keep looking for it  and I would take one horse down. At the bottom I had packed the one horse  when I noticed there was a sack of oats left. Not wanting to leave it there, I  put it on my saddle and was just starting up the trail when I heard a holler.  On looking back I saw the brass coming up the trail. I waited until they came  up and then I started again. After going a little way, Andrews called me and  said we would change off on his horse. I mounted but forgot to stop until we  were at the top! Jack got a real kick out of that and I think Allen did too. I  brought the pack horses out a few days later and we were proud of the fact  that there were no cuts or lost hair on them.  Jack found his horse so everybody was happy. I went to Lumby for the  first of July but went back into the service as a patrolman for the rest of the  season. The service was badly depleted through enlistment but I had been  turned down at that time.  Hundreds of deer roamed the hillsides while we worked on the line.  The fawns were unafraid and some actually came close enough to sniff our  outstretched hands. They were lovely in their spotted coats. Whisky Jacks,  or Camp Robbers as they are sometimes called, were plentiful around camp,  waiting for a handout or a chance to steal some food. And several times we  saw signs of a large grizzly bear. We were afraid it would scatter the horses 158  ON SILVER STAR  but they probably were used to bear smell. We were careful to put horse bells  on three of them every night to make it easier to find them. When we finished  the job there was still plenty of snow on top and on the last Sunday in June it  snowed so heavily that the pole on the tent gave way letting it down on  Mickey who was having his afternoon nap!  H61 -   U.,U>>tf   •e-jL.cW.L  foJ\U   £•<*><- \\  ustration by Margaret Hunter MY LIFE IN ENDERBY 159  MY  LIFE IN THE  ENDERBY AREA  By JOE KASS  I was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, on December 31, 1881. Then my  parents bought 80 acres of bushland in Marathon County, about six miles  from Marathon City. Why itwas called a city I do not know as there was only  one store, a blacksmith shop, a church and a few houses.  My parents built a log house in the woods and cleared enough land for  a garden between stumps. The first year we had a bumper crop but the  following winter money was scarce. My father took a job that winter in a  camp, ten miles from home by footpath. The average salary in those days  was $13 a month. My father lived in the camp, where 16 men slept under one  blanket, for four to five months. The money he earned that winter was all we  had to live on for a year and I had two older brothers and two sisters.  The nearest school to our home was almost three miles away.  Wisconsin is a very cold area and as I did not have many clothes I could not  go to school when very young. I remember going to that school for a year and  then a new school was built a mile closer to our home. I had to walk through  the woods alone most of the way as we did not have any near neighbors and  there was not a road. My education, therefore, was very limited. Such was  my early background.  After a number of different jobs I got the brilliant idea I was going to  make a farm for myself, just like my parents had. I bought 120 acres of good  bushland three miles from Spirit Falls. My place had fairly good roads. The  best timber was already taken off so I hired three men and logged off the  balanceand cut cord wood until spring. Then I was alone for the first time in  my life. I cleared about twenty acres, seeded it with oats and grass seed and  put up a good fence. Then I told my neighbor he could have the crop for  looking after the place. I knew by this time that I could never stay on the  farm alone.  Then I went farther north and worked for the Mellon Lumber Company. The next year I was given the position of foreman. I had two men who  worked for me who always talked about Moose Jaw and Fort George (Prince  George).  So it was that in April, 1910, I got ready for my big adventure. I said  goodbye to everyone and everything I had in this world. The day I came -  through Moose Jaw I could see threshing machines everywhere. They had a  bumper crop and winter came early, therfore they could not finish the  threshing in the fall. As I came through the beautiful Rockies during the day,  it was a sight I shall never forget. I thought of my friend Jim Allen who was  at Enderby at this time and I decided I would stop in to see him before  continuing on to Fort George.  I arrived at Enderby at 11:30a.m. on April 10. When I got off the train I  thought there was some sort of celebration going on. The platform and  streets were crowded, but I came to understand that Enderby was booming.  They had a big sawmill that had a two-way bandsaw which cut 100,000  feet of lumber in a double shift. There was a shingle mill and a lathe mill,  both incorporated into one big mill, running double shifts. They also had a  big planing mill. The company had lumber yards in different towns across  the prairies. Most of their dry lumber was shipped out on double shifts.  From daylight to dark the green lumber was piled in the Enderby 160 MY LIFE IN ENDERBY  yards. Enderby also had a flour mill and brick yard, both running double  shifts. They shipped out a lot of ties and fence posts. There were big road  crews as all roads were made by hand. Farmers were getting a big price for  hay and grain. South of the mill on the river bank there was a Hindu  shacktown, a large Chinese community and also a big Japanese district.  These people worked mostly in the mills. The Chinese ran a restaurant,  where meals were served until midnight, and did all the local laundry.  Enderby had a nice bandstand near the C.P.R. Station where the band  played a lot in the evening. There were two hotels, and both had liquor and  beer licenses. There was an old house filled with roomers where the Legion  is today. Sam Shay had a big boarding house and many private homes took  in boarders too. The stores never had it so good as at this time.  With all the men around the police never made an arrest. In fact,  Enderby did not have a jail.  After meeting my friend Jim Allen, he convinced me that Enderby  was the place to stay. That same day he took me to the Rogers Lumber  Company office to meet Mr. Stevens, the manager. I was hired to be camp  foreman that fall. My camp was to be near Mabel Lake, Camp 3, opposite  Kingfisher Creek. Jim Allen was to open his camp the next day between  Lumby and Mabel Lake.  That same day we went to Vernon and arrived at Lumby at about nine  that night. Lumby was like Enderby. The hotels were crowded and men slept  in woodsheds. About 11 o'clock that night Mylo Roberts, a half breed, shot  the bank manager. The bank manager was a single man who slept in a back  room of the bank. About 11 o'clock Mylo Roberts gave-a sharp rap on the  door. Because it was very dark when the bank manager answered the door,  he thought he saw a gun in Mylo's hand. He slammed the door shut and at the  same time Mylo shot through the thick part of the door and through the  manager's hand. As I was the only stranger in town, I was immediately  arrested. But by two in the morning they had the guilty man and I was  released.  The next day we went to Jim Allen's camp. Up to this time the company got very cheap logs from farmers and contractors along the river, up to  and around Sugar Lake, on Mabel Lake and up the Wapp River. They never  had to go away from flat land to get their logs. After working for about two  months the company decided to close the camp for the summer. Jim and I  went to Seymour Arm (north of Sicamous) to clear land. After two days of  work a fire broke out on Grizzly Hill. We were drafted to fight the fire. After  the fire, we went back to Seymour Arm to work in a logging camp run by  John B. Weast. That was my first experience logging by steam.  That spring I went on a log drive which started at Sugar Lake. Angus  Woods was the foreman. When the drive was half way, I was called back by  Mr. Stevens, to be foreman on the lake until Angus brought up the rear of the  drive. At this time we brought the logs across the lake by a horse capstan.  This was made of timber about 40 feet square, well bolted together with a  horse's stall on one corner, and a drum shaped like a spool, bolted down in  the middle, with an arm bolted to the drum. When a horse hitched to the arm  would go around and around the horse capstan would be fastened on the  boom. We had an inch and a half rope about a mile long with a big anchor on  the end which we would drop from a boat. We had the rope wound around a  spool two or three times and then the horse would go around and around. One  man would hold the rope tight so it would not slip off the drum and another MY LIFE IN ENDERBY 161  man would coil the rope on the float. We worked day and night. Two horses  were used — one would work while the other slept. The spare crew stayed at  Johnson's Bay. At times when we had a bad electric storm the horses would  give us a bad time (they wanted to jump off they were so scared). Although  Mabel Lake is very deep there is a strong current in high water.  The next winter I went to Chase to work for Clark and Lantz across  Adams Lake. In the spring I went back to Mabel Lake. I do not remember  exactly, but I think it was that spring the company bought a big boat driven  by steam. They called it "The Rover." It came all the way from Seattle.  Because it did not have any power it was a complete failure. That winter I  went to Barriere, 40 miles north of Kamloops, where I worked for the Smith  Brothers.  I believe itwas before spring in 1913 that I went to Vancouver for the  first time. After about a month I went to work on Gambier Island for Mr.  Hagan — the first time I worked on salt water. After a few months he went  broke, so I went back to Vancouver. From there I went 200 miles north to  work for Matt Story at Nodalis Channel. After about two months he also went  broke so I came back to Vancouver again.  The times began to look bad on the coast, so I went back to Enderby  and worked for Dan McLeod and later for Bill Clark and Camp 5. In the  spring of 1914 times began to look even worse. I built a shack on my  homestead so I had a place to stay. In August, when the war broke out, a fire  started at Hidden Lake which took quite a while to extinguish. After that one  could not buy a job, so I went back to Wisconsin.  I went to see L. M. Reed, my former neighbor, and got some more  money. He did not tell me that he had sold the farm to a lady for a high price  on agreement of sale, for Reed himself had no deed. The lady had built a  house and barn without my knowledge. Times were hard in the States too, so  I decided to come back to Canada.  Back in Enderby I took a preemption on the east side of Mabel Lake. I  built a log cabin and my first flat bottom boat. Times were very hard for a  few years, then the companies started buying logs from farmers and contractors on a very small scale. I was hired to bring logs across Mabel Lake  by horse capstan.  In 1917 we were working at Johnson's Bay when Ed Mack brought the  telegram that said my mother was dying. I put Jack Bates in my place and  left. When I got home, Mother was dead. On my way back, I went north to see  L. L. M. Reed again and got more money, but he still did not tell me he had  sold the land.  The next spring I was lake foreman again when the company decided  to convert the old Rover from steam to a two-cycle gas engine. Jack Duggal  was the engineer.  That fall I again went back to Wisconsin to see L. M. Reed. After  coming back from there I worked for Albert Johnson across the lake. About  midwinter Les Johnson, foreman of the camp, quit so I took the job until  spring. In 1918, Mr. Stevens, the manager for many years, quit his job and  went into partnership with Andy Faulkner. First Mr. Lewis and then Mr.  Marbly were the managers. Stevens and Faulkner took the contract for the  log drive. That was the winter they built the dam up Kingfisher Creek. It was  a failure so they dissolved the partnership and Mr. Stevens went back to the  States.  On May 21, 1919, Alice Large and I were married. We celebrated our 162 MY LIFE IN ENDERBY  honeymoon at our pre-emption which has since been called Honeymoon Bay.  We stayed there all summer. Mr. and Mrs. Large gave us a boat which we  called "The Blue Bird." I installed a small marine engine. That fall we went  to live in a small house on the Martin Robert homestead. The Large family  lived in the log house.  That fall and winter I built a boat we called the M.A.K. in the Jack  Rorik house and in the spring I installed the gas motor from the Rover,  which I got from the company. At this tme I was hired for the lake job. The  manager was Mr. Marly. I also had an offer from the government to be fire  warden. Like a fool I took the government job.  Thatfall I logged on a very small scale at Lusk Lake, and we stayed in  the Louis Beckman house (above Norman Dale's).  On April 30, 1920, Marjorie was born in the Enderby Hospital. Mrs.  McPherson was matron, cook and janitor, all for $65 a month. There were  days, sometimes even weeks, that she did not have a patient. Dr. Keith  delivered the baby. That summer I worked on the lake and in early fall I  bought an old hull from Albert Johnson and installed a ford engine. It was  very successful.  That summer Rolph Bruhn logged at Noisy Creek and  I towed his  boom with my boat. Times were not too good so we moved to our homestead.  On March 17, 1922, Noreen was born at the homestead. I believe it was  that spring that I helped build the Locke Lantz barn and in the winter built  my first good row boat in that barn.  The Rogers Lumber Company had gone broke. About this time they  formed a new company called the Okanagan Sawmill with Mr. Shoe as  manager. He converted the sawmill from double band to rotary. This was a  considerably smaller mill. Mr. Shoe hired Mr. Large to build a big barge for  a sternwheeler driven by steam, to tow log booms on Mabel Lake. It was  used only one year and then left to rot on the beach.  I bought the Mabel Lake Stage Coach and Mail contract from Henry  Torrent. Using an old Ford truck for the mail and stage run. In winter the  mail was carried by horses — a two day trip as they did not plough roads in  those days. The government paid eight dollars for a round trip. However I  carried freight and some passengers.  The next year I traded the old truck in for a new one-ton Ford. In the  fall, I believe it was 1922, we moved into the warehouse and bought from the  government the timber off the Walter Johnson pre-emption, and sold the  poles to Clark and Elliott.  On May 17, 1923, Joyce was born in the warehouse. That spring I  bought our first car — a second hand Model A Ford from George Rands.  About that time L. M. Reed had died and the lady who bought my farm had  either died or left the place and the land was up for tax sale. I did not want  the place so my brothers Mike and John went to see about it and got what  money I had invested.  At this time we bought the Locke Lantz place for $3,500. Late in the  summer I got a letter from my brother Mike saying Father had fallen and  broken his back. I went home to see Dad, my last trip to Wisconsin. Dad died  three months later.  During late fall I bought the pole timber from the Tom Mant place and  sold the poles to Clark and Elliott. In early spring, 1924, I built a house on the  Locke Lantz land. That summer I bought the big scow from the company and  used it for a cookhouse and transfer for horses or supplies for all contractors. MY LIFE IN ENDERBY 163  There were also two Japanese contractors on Mabel Lake at that time. All  work was done for Clark and Elliott.  About 1924 Harry Danforth bought poles for Hitchner and Hitchner.  Harry started logging at Cottonwood Creek. It was so cold there was three  feet of ice on the Lake. Harry freighted across the lake all winter with four  horse teams.  Next summer I was very busy with my boats and scow on the lake.  About 1927 our house burned down and we moved into the warehouse  again. I bought the Henry Torrent homestead and also half an acre from the  government near the outlet of Mabel Lake. (On the shore of the Shuswap  River.) I sold the Lantz place to the Large brothers (Milton, Harry and  Lloyd), and built a house on the half acre. I sold my homestead (near J.  Beattie's) in exchange for help in building the house. I bought a gas tank and  pump from the B.A. Oil Company and built a workshop to build boats during  the winter in my spare time with the aid of Mr. Large. About this time the  Okanagan Sawmills went broke so Mr. Shoe and the rest of the company  went back to the States. Enderby did not have a sawmill and as a result was  almost a ghost town.  About this time we bought our first lot at Mabel Lake and built a cabin  on it (Cabin 2) next to Duncan's. Mr. Large built some more good boats for  me and I started a tourist business, in a very small way.  With Sam Barton for a partner, we applied and got the timber limit  four miles north of Mabel Lake. Harry Danforth was to buy our poles. We  hired George Welsh for our powder man then worked all summer and got the  road half a mile past Alec Kemp's. When the real depression came, Hitchner  and Hitchner went broke. After several years we lost the timber limit — we  let it go back to the government.  Percy Farmer bought the Enderby Sawmill site and formed a small  company to operate the mill. Unfortunately this was a failure. Later Clark  and Elliott tried, but failed also. About this time I sold a strip of land south of  the Mabel Lake Road, from the Henry Torrent place, to J. F. Moore and he  built a cabin at the head of the Chucks, later to belong to Isobel Simard.  About 1928, times were hard, but I bought three acres from Harry  Walker and built two cabins and a small camp kitchen. Helen Glenn, the  teacher who stayed with us, printed the sign "Camp Kitchen." We called it  the Mabel Lake Tourist Camp, the beginning of a very popular resort.  Although we had very poor roads, people came from far and near. Mr. Large  built some more boats and we bought some outboard motors, both old and  new. We bought the store from Mrs. Hall and a lot, where I built Cabin 5, next  to the store. I bought another lot and built a nice cabin which I later sold to  Nels Griffin. I also built a big cabin above Cabin 2 which I later sold to the  tall dentist from Armstrong, Dr. Calvert.  I do not remember the year, but when Harry Danforth decided he  wanted a boat of his own, he bought an old hull at Mara Lake and hired me to  take the boat to Mabel Lake and repair it. We had the boat on truck and  trailer but the government had never ploughed the road past Ashton Creek.  However, Frank Treat, the road foreman, ploughed the road for the first  time. It took two days and two nights. On the way home, by Potrie's place,  Frank got his foot caught in the tracks somehow, and it was cut off.  We hired Mr. Large, O. Moore, Charlie Peterson, Silent Tom, and  Norman Grant to repair the boat and I was to install a marine engine. Harry  was very proud of his boat, which he called "Normo." After his two sons 164 MYLIFE IN ENDERBY  Norman and Monroe. After some years he sold the boat to Henry Sigalet of  Lumby.  In 1933, Mr. Large died.  By 1933 we had six cabins and a nice lot of boats and some engines. We  sold our boat M.A. K. to Rolph Bruhn. Sam Barton left the district for awhile,  and i got Locke Lantz for a partner. We applied and got the timber limit that  Kass & Barton had previously lost. We built a four mile road by hand with  the help of horses. We also built a camp in a very short time and for several  years we took a lot of telephone poles and white pine logs off. We bought a  small sawmill from Bill Faulkner and operated it successfully on my old  homestead.  Large Bros, decided to give up the Lantz place on Mabel Lake. They  lost $800 on the deal. However, they had the good of the place for many years  and I gave Milton the half-ton pickup I had bought from Mike Rhoan.  Itwas also around this time that we bought the old brick house behind  Dill's Store from the city and rented it to Mr. and Mrs. John Warden and we  also bought the Paradise house and rented it to Warren McAusland. Russell  Large and I bought the Martin Robert's homestead on the Mabel Lake Road.  We also owned the Bill Burris homestead which he bought from T. Adams.  By now we realized thatwe had too many "irons in the fire."  Marjorie was sick a lot and Alice was in the store most of the day:  although Noreen and Joyce were young, they were very helpful. We decided  to sell our nice lot and cabin to Nels Griffin of Armstrong. Then we sold a big  cabin to Dr. Calvert also of Armstrong. Finally in 1937 we sold the tourist  business with the mail and stage contract to Alice and Russell Large. We  also sold the Paradis house to Mrs. Dill.  Then we moved to our little farm (Torrent homestead). That fall I got  rheumatism very bad and early next spring I went to Halcyon Hot Springs on  the Arrow Lakes. That helped considerably. All that summer we were at our  logging camp.  In the late fall of 1938, the family moved to Vancouver, so that we could  be near our Marjorie, who was very sick. In Vancouver that spring she died  and was buried in the Forest Lawn Cemetery.  We returned to the Okanagan and I bought a truck and trailer to haul  logs and telephone poles from our camp. This operation turned out as a  failure as a new truck could not take the bad roads. I sold the truck and  trailer to Art Holden, of Vernon, and bought five acres and a house from Mr.  and Mrs. Chadwick, two miles north of Enderby. We lived there several  years and I believe it was during this time we bought the Art Boyd  homestead in Trinity Valley. We sold the Chadwick home and bought the  bank house.  On August 15,1944, Noreen and Harold were married at the house.  Later we built an addition on the house and made it into an apartment,  which we called the Cliff View Apartments.  After that time Lantz and Kass got a good timber limit on the  Kingfisher Creek. Shortly after, Mr. Lantz got very sick, and we sold the  limit to Harry Danforth. When Mr. Lantz died I bought Mrs. Lantz' half  share and for several years we operated, on a small scale, on our timber  limits and bought logs from farmers to operate our mill. Pete Campbell was  my head man. We also took out some fir telephone poles off the Art Boyd  homestead and timber limit.  Then in the fall of 1945 I took a heart attack. I was in bed nearly six MYLIFE IN ENDERBY 165  months and I was told by my doctor that I could never work again and he  advised me to sell some of our real estate. While I was in bed we sold the Art  Boyd homestead (Trinity Valley) to Mr. and Mrs. Nagley. Then we sold the  Henry Torrent place to Norman Ford. I believe it was about this time that we  sold the Lantz place on Mabel Lake to Russell and Alice Large. In the spring  of 1947 we sold our mill and timber limits to Acuttand Tipton, who took over  all the operations.  On September 21, 1947, Joyce and Buss were married in Kelowna at  the Willow Inn.  By now my health had improved and we bought the one acre joining  our home, from Mrs. Bigg. We bought two acres west from the city joining  our home and sold the three acres to Victor Samol.  For many years I knew of a good timber limit east, near Hidden Lake.  I made a deal with Carney Pole Company, for them to apply for the limit,  from the government, and for Baird Brothers to put in a road and log the pole  timber. I was paid stumpage. That was the first time in my life when I  received money for nothing.  About this time we sold the Martin Roberts place to Mr. Skove. My  health being farily good I went to Vernon and bought a small sawmill. I set  the mill up in Trinity Valley on Harry Danforth's timber limit. It was a  failure. The next spring I moved the mill to Albert Price's and bought logs  from farmers. Later I moved the mill to our place (Bill Burris'  homestead). When the cut was finished I sold the mill to Harry Danforth,  and the homestead to Mr. McFarland. That was the end of my logging days.  In my life time I logged with oxen, horses, steam, gas, and diesel.  Today they operate with balloons.  When operating our apartment became too much we sold it to Mrs.  Johnson and took her house opposite La Forge's as part payment. We  repaired the brick house we had behind Dill's store and sold it to Harold  Schulte.  The next spring, April 20, 1954, Alice died and is buried in the Enderby  Cemetery.  I sold our house to Mr. and Mrs. Hill and bought the Henry Earfil  house opposite R. Blackburn. I repaired the house and sold it to L.  McAusland. I went to live with Noreen and Harold at Mabel Lake. Later I  bought a house from Mrs. Dill and made it into a duplex. I got a Home Owner  Permit, and the the help of Tom Skyrme I put in the plumbing and gas. I laid  almost all the floor coverings a lone. At this time I was 81.  After the family had all left the Okanagan I sold the house to Mrs. O.  Johnson and moved to the coast. Leaving Enderby was a hard decision to  make. I lived with our girls awhile and then went to Penticton, to live in a  Senior Citizen Home. From there I moved back to the coast and stayed with  Noreen and Harold. My next move was to the Fairhaven Senior Citizens  Home, Vancouver. After about a year I went back to Noreen and Harold's  and a year later decided to move back to Fairhaven.  When I think of my boyhood days, there was nothing but hardship and  poverty. Yet I never once heard my mother or father complain. As we did  not have any near neighors or road, I never had a playmate except my sister  and she had to work most of the time. I will never forget how I used to roam  through the woods with my faithful dog, with all the wild flowers and birds  singing. That was paradise to me and when I think of the hungry thirties, 166 ALFRED WADE STARTED IT  when most people we see on government welfare, I also think of the good  days and times I had.  When I remember the close of our tourist camp, each year in August,  at full moon, we gave a small regatta. We gave a prize for the largest fish  caught and gave free hot dogs and coffee to all who came. The coffee was  made in four gallon cans on an open fire. We had a big bonfire and when the  big Harvest moon came in sight, everybody would sing "When the Moon  Comes Over the Mountain." For hours while the mothers and children would  sing, around the bonfire, the big silvery moon would smile down on them.  People came from Enderby, Armstrong, Kamloops, Kelowna, Vernon, and  other places over rough roads. People did not come to see the prize of the big  fish; they did not come to get free hot dogs and coffee, but they came for  good fellowship at the close of another wonderful season. All would join  hands around the bonfire and sing "Good Night Neighbours." I believe that  was my greatest achievement.  Should I have a chance to live my life over again I would like it exactly  the way it was. I had good parents, a good wife, two lovely daughters, two  good sons-in-law, and to me the best grandchildren in all the world.  Financially I have enough to live on and too much to die.  ALFRED WADE STARTED IT  By REG. N.ATKINSON  To the late Alfred Wade falls the honor of being the man who introduced pigeons to Penticton. They were a mixed lot of many-colors such as  you might see today billing and cooing on the wide steps of St. Paul's, London, or around Victory Square in Vancouver, and a thousand other places in  the world, as they make their daily round in search of food.  The first stock was liberated from a cote at his brother-in-law's  homestead. Before long the flock had increased so much that they had  become a nuisance around the barnyard, and even though the Ellis children,  who had become attached to them, made strong demands to have them  spared, they eventually had to be destroyed.  When Mr. Wade moved to his new home on Ellis St. just after the S.S.  "Aberdeen" commenced to run, making a tri-weekly trip to Penticton, in  1892 he rented a showroom in the recently built Penticton Hotel from which  to conduct his small store and Post Office. There was a barn near his home  big enough to take care of a pair of horses and shelter for a buggy. Overhead  was provision for a hay-mow but ample space also for pigeons, which soon  made their appearance. They too were a motley lot and became a familiar  sight around the small business section of town until Mr. Wade died.  After we settled on the Bench in the spring of 1907 our Uncle Bob,  mother's twin brother, built a three-stall barn at the back of our lot facing  Middle Bench Rd., and one end of the loft was reserved to accommodate  pigeons. A friend of father's, another mail clerk named Jack Casselman,  raised Racing Homers and he had gained quite a reputation flying birds  from various points along the C.P.R. Mainline and in Washington State  where it was a very popular sport at that time. He had promised to send a  pair of birds when we had a place ready for them.  They were my first stock. I was warned that under no circumstances ALFRED WADE STARTED IT 167  was I to open the holes on the landing boards in the gable-end of the barn  until they had raised a family. I waited and waited, and nothing happened  and slowly it dawned on me that these birds were both males, and one much  older than the other. Both birds had bands on their legs so they could be  identified. They waged constant war with one another which discouraged me  so much I became determined to try something new.  One nice clear day I opened the gable holes and soon both birds were  perched on the ridge pole of the barn. Before long both birds took to the air,  circling and circling, each time the radius got greater. Suddenly the older  cock struck straight away towards the west and rapidly disappeared from  sight. The other returned to the loft. A few days later a letter arrived from  Vancouver reporting the safe arrival of my Homer at the Casselman loft.  At this time I was corresponding with a Vernon boy, Harold Doherty,  who later became a resident of Penticton and Trout Creek, and obtained a  young pair of Homers from which I raised several pairs. Some of them I  raced short distances but with very little success so I decided to try to raise  heavier birds. I sent to the Plymouth Rock Squab Co. in Boston, and bought  six pairs of birds which were bred up from Homers and a French breed  known as Garneau. We soon had more pigeons than we knew what to do with.  Few people would buy squabs and they too became a nuisance. The First  World War came and I went away in the Army. When I came back there  were no pigeons! They had all been killed by horned owls I was told. Who  knows!  A man named Mullen, who lived on Norton St. was an early fancier  and Malcolm Campbell kept quite a flock on Argyle St. in the early days. 168 NORTH OKANAGAN OBITUARIES  NORTH OKANAGAN OBITUARIES  By HAROLD COCHRANE  Col. Frank Barber  Col. Barber, MC, DCM, ED, of Coldstream, who came to Canada from England in 1910,  died in Vernon on August 16,1970, after a lifetime of service devoted to the army, and to  governmentand community projects. He was born in London and in his 81st year at the  time of his death. At the age of 18 he enlisted in the Royal Field Artillery, coming to  Canada three years later. When the First World War broke out he mobilized with the  Vernon squadron of the 30th British Columbia Horse, having joined the unit on his first  arrival in the Okanagan. He was awarded his commission in the field overseas, the  DCM, the Military Cross, and a bar to the Military Cross. When he returned to Canada it  was with the rank of colonel. For thirty years thereafter he held a staff position with the  Soldiers Settlement Board. Col. Barber continued his military identification with the  militia, returned to duty with the Rocky Mountain Rangers at the outbreak of the  Second World War, and was appointed commandant of the Canadian Training School  Overseas. When he was discharged in Vancouver it was after 38 years of close  association with the military. Since 1949 he had lived in retirement at his Kalamalka  lakeshore home.  Frank Albert Clayton  Mr. Clayton, a resident of the Armstrong district for 67 years died at the age of 92 on  April 12, 1970. Born in Wisconsin, he came to Canada in his early twenties, and lived in  Calgary for two years before moving to theOkanagan. He married Maude Ethel Billson  in 1908 in Armstrong; she predeceased him in 1962. He was the proprietor of the Armstrong Machine Shop.  Gomer Davies  Mr. Davies, 84, died on May 20, 1970, in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. He was born in  Wales in 1886, but since 1906 had lived in Canada, and for 38 years in Vernon. Although  in poor health since service in First World War, he showed great interest in many  community affairs, and was particularly noted for his hobbies such as woodworking  and photography. His wife, Annie, whom he married in 1917, survives him.  Joseph Dean  Laid to rest on November 27, 1969, was Joseph Dean, 86, who had been a prominent  Vernon resident for 55 years. He took part in almost every sport Vernon had to offer,  was a prize-winning gardener, a devoted worker in the Elks, of which he was a past  Exalted Ruler. He was a native of Manchester.  Laurent G. Gagne  When he passed away on January 11,1970, Mr. Gagne had been a Vernon resident for 57  years. A CPR sectionman, after his retirement in 1948 he was noted for his fishing and  hunting. He was born in Quebec in 1883, was atfirst a carpenter in the Vernon area, and  served in the First World War.  Robert Leslie Garbutt  "Les" Garbutt's death was recorded in The Vernon News  issue of April 9,  1970,  following sudden illness. Born in Saskatchewan, he was 82, had lived in Vernon since  1910. He was a plumber and pipefitter by occupation, and installed the metal roofing on  the old postoffice tower when itwas built in 1911.  Hildegarde Grace Campbell Giles  A daughter of two of the original pioneers of the Coldstream, Mr. and Mrs. A. Waring  Giles, Miss "Hilda" Giles (as she was always known) died in Vernon on August 17, 1970.  She was born in Barrie, Ont., on Christmas Day, 1896, and came from Toronto to Vernon  with her family in 1906. Her mother passed away in 1928 and her father in 1935.Miss  Giles was deeply interested in community affairs; was associated with the Vernon  Preparatory School in the 1930's; and was head of the Coldstream Sunday School for 22  years, where she continued to teach until her last illness. A music lover, she had been a  director of the Community Concerts Association. She was an active participant in  Conservative party affairs, and in a host of other activities. She is survived by her  sister, Mrs. Barbara Clarke, with whom in recent years she made her home on Coldstream Creek Road.  Ethel Emma Greeno  Mrs. Greeno had made her home in Vernon since 1920, and is perhaps best remembered  as the pianist who, with her husband Owen, sons and friends, played in an old-time,  orchestra in all the major halls, and in most of the Vernon Days celebrations. She died  on May 9,1970, in her 82nd year. Born in Wisconsin, and married in 1905, she first came  to the Canadian prairies in a covered wagon. Her husband operated a sharpening shop  in Vernon until 1948.  John Milton Haner  A man who conducted the first survey of the Big Bend Trail died in Vernon on May 19,  1970, aged 82. Mr. Haner was born in Ontario, started work as a sawyer in a Trout Lake NORTH OKANAGAN OBITUARIES 169  sawmill, was a road foreman in Mt. Revelstoke National Park, and acted as a big game  guide in that area from 1919 until 1935 when he moved to Vernon to work as a carpenter.  In 1929 he married Katherine Bell at Falkland, who survives him, as well as a son and  daughter.  Augustus Schubert LeDuc  If anyone was truly of pioneering stock it was "Gus" LeDuc, for his mother, (born Rose  Schubert) was herself the first child born to white parents in the B.C. Interior, in 1862.  Gus was born in Armstrong in 1888, and his father, Thomas James LeDuc, was oneof  the Okanagan's first teachers. Gus married Myrtle Crawford of Armstrong in 1920, was  a farmer and at times a grader operator for the provincial government. Schubert  street, in Vernon, was named after his uncle. He died on December 6, 1969, survived by  his wife, two sons, and four daughters.  Sarah Elizah Little  Mrs. Little was a Vernon resident for 65 years. Aged 89, after only a short illness, she  died there on January 26, 1970. Born in England, she emigrated to Chicago where she  married Charles William Little in 1907. She came to Okanagan Landing when Mr. Little  was employed there by the CPR, and also lived for a brief time in Nakusp and Chicago  in the intervening years. Mr. Little died in 1960 and his widow continue