Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Forty-third annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1979

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 Forty-third Report  OKAmG&IV  HISTORICAL SOCICTY  Pm^krssf»i  mm  FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT  ISSN-0317-0691  of the  OKAIMAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded Sept. 4,1925  COVER PHOTO  Hugo Redivo - Photographer - Penticton - Since arriving in 1949, to  become an orchardist, he found the camera easier to use than the ladder. Today his work has won him the title, Master of Photographic Art. This year's  cover attests to his skill and sense of history. His work, like the work of all early  photographers in the valley, is now a photographic record of incalculable  value.  The cover scene was a photograph taken by Hugo Redivo from the highway near Summerland, B.C., and reflects the importance of the fruit industry  in the history of the valley.  © 1979  Lithographed in Canada  WAV SIDE     F»F*ESS     LTD. FORTY-THIRD REPORT OF THE  OKAIMAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Victor Wilson  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Beryl Gorman, Vernon  Marie Wastradowski, Kelowna  David MacDonald, Penticton  Dolly Waterman, Oliver-Osoyoos-Oroville  Individuals wishing to subscribe to the Report of the Okanagan Historical Society may have their name added to our mailing list. The Report will be  sent each year and the subscriber invoiced. Back issues of Reports 31, 32, 36,  37, 39, 40, 41, and 42 may be obtained from the Okanagan Historical Society  at $4.00 per copy. Reprints of Reports 1 - 12 are also available. A charge of  $1.00 will be made for postage and handling. Please address correspondence  regarding subscriptions or orders to: Treasurer, Okanagan Historical Society,  Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Jack Armstrong, Enderby  VICE-PRESIDENT  Frank Pells, Kelowna  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  Ron Robey, Vernon  PAST PRESIDENT  Hume Powley, Kelowna  SECRETARY  R. F. Marriage  TREASURER  Lee Christensen  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  DIRECTORS  Armstrong-Enderby: J. A. Gamble, M. McKecknie  Vernon: Lee Christensen, K. Ellison  Kelowna: D. Buckland, D. Hobson  Penticton: M. Orr, A. Waterman  Oliver-Osoyoos: H. Weatherill, D. Corbishley  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  H. Hatfield, G. D. Cameron BRANCH OFFICERS, 1979-80  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: W.J. Whitehead; VICE-PRESIDENT: J. Sutherland; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone, Jessie Ann Gamble, Hazel  Davies, Bob Nitchie; DIRECTORS: Merle Armstrong, Bob Nitchie; DIRECTORS TO THE  PARENT BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Moyreen McKecknie.  VERNON BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Ron Robey; VICE-PRESIDENT: W. T. Cowan; SECRETARY: Mrs. M.  Thorlakson; TREASURER: Jock Henniker; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Gorman, Mrs.  F. Lang, Mrs. A. Cail, Mrs. R. Benner, Mrs. M. Hodgson; DIRECTORS: Dr. H. Campbell-  Brown, G. Melvin, M. Parson, B. Osborn, Edna May Seright, P. Tassie, B. Thorburn, D.  Weatherill, H. Viel; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: L. Christensen, K. Ellison.  KELOWNA BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Dr. W. Anderson; VICE-PRESIDENT: Tilman Nahm; PAST PRESIDENT:  F. Pells; SECRETARY: R. H. Hall, TREASURER: D. Hobson; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE:  M. Wostradowski, Mrs. A. Bach, M. Williams, B. Johnston, D. Fillmore, D. Zoellner; DIRECTORS: Dorothy Zoellner, Marie Wostradowski, M. Williams, Ursula Surtees, J. Schnnick,  J. M. Robinson, H. Powley, L. Piddocke, W. J. MacKenzie, F. Pells, B. W. Johnston, D.  Hobson, R. H. Hall, R. C. Gore, D. C. Fillmore, E. Chapman, W. J. V. Cameron, G. D.  Cameron, D. Buckland, Mrs. A. Bach, Dr. W. Anderson; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT  BODY: D. Buckland, D. Hobson; AUDITOR: D. S. Buckland.  PENTICTON BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Victor Wilson; HONORARY PRESIDENT: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney; SECRETARY: Mrs. Juanita Needham; TREASURER: P. F. P. Bird; DIRECTORS: Alan Bradbeer,  Mollie Broderick, Hugh Cleland, Bob Gibbard, Joe Harris, Mary Orr, Jack Petley, Trevor  Punnett, Angie Waterman, Pete Watson, Pailine Snow, Herb Clark, Grace Whitaker; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Dave MacDonald, Mrs. R. L. Abbey, Mrs. H. Baumbrough, Mrs.  W. R. Dewdney, Ms. Joan Lyon, Mrs. R. Pretty, Miss Helen Reith, Mrs. G. F. R. Whittaker;  DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: Mrs. Mary Orr, Mrs. Angie Waterman.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Carlton MacNaughton; VICE-PRESIDENT: Hank Lewis; SECRETARY:  Dorothy Lewis; TREASURER: Irmie Iceton; HISTORIAN: Dolly Waterman; DIRECTORS:  Bob Iverson, Dorothy Iverson, Aileen Porteous, Stanley Dickson, Emily McLennan, Elsie  Corbishley, Don Corbishley, Kay Willson, Harry Weatherill, Buddy MacNaughton, Harry  Shirling; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: Harry Weatherill, Don Corbishley. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  For the Okanagan Historical Society, printing time has come again. The Forty-third Annual Report has now rolled off the presses, adding another volume to the written history of our  valley. For the neophyte editor, the experience has been one of mingled trepidation and pride.  Fortunately, there have been many very capable people only too happy to aid in the production  of our Society's latest god-child. It is our hope that the Forty-third Report will bring a measure of  both knowledge and pleasure to all of our members and readers alike.  The format of the Forty-third Report has been little changed from the excellent model that  has been developed over the previous years. We have, however, made one addition in the form of  an essay section to accommodate some of the fine essays written by Okanagan students this year.  We hope to continue and improve our essay contest in the years to come, thereby encouraging  our students in the production of many fine pieces of scholarship.  In the task of producing a journal such as this, an editor very quickly incurs great debts of  gratitude to many people. Heading the list is Victor Wilson, our Production Manager, who has  freely exercised his unique gift for "spark-plugging" the entire operation. Ruby Lidstone, Beryl  Gorman, Marie Wastradowski, Ivan Philips, Dave MacDonald and Dolly Waterman, with their  editorial committee members, have been most industrious in gathering articles for publication.  Hume Powley and Jack Armstrong, with their respective executives have given every possible  administrative support. Dorothy Zoellner and Lee Christensen have been wonderfully efficient,  preparing the minutes and membership list for our benefit. And then there are those to whom we  all owe perhaps the greatest debt of all — the men and women who have given of their time and  resources in order that they might research and write about some aspect of Okanagan history. To  all of these, and to many, many more — thank you. Without people like you, there could never  have been even one Annual Report.  The Editor.  Notice to Contributors:  All those writers who may wish to contribute to a future Annual Report should contact one  of the editorial committee chairpersons named on page four of this Report.  The Editor.  AN APOLOGY  The Okanagan Historical Society Report wishes to acknowledge Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney as the  author of the article entitled "Mining Engineer Planned Princeton," appearing in the Twenty-  second Report, 1958, p. 113. A humble apology is long overdue for our inadvertent oversight.  The Editor. Old Aberdeen Packing House - 1914. CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  LUMBY 1893 - FIRST SIGHT IMPRESSION  AND SOME THOUGHTS (T. A. Norris)         1  IRRIGATION AND WATER LEGISLATION  IN THE PIONEER YEARS (Lydia Baumbrough)         5  SELLING AGENTS AND FRUIT & VEGETABLE PACKING  HOUSES IN THE NORTH OKANAGAN - 1890-1978 (Harold Viel)        11  IN THE BEGINNING (F. E. (Ted) Atkinson)          15  MEDALS WON BY THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR  EXHIBITS OF FRUIT, ETC. IN THE DOMINION, GREAT BRITAIN,  AND OTHER COUNTRIES         19  THE MANY TRESTLES OF MYRA CANYON (David Wilkie)       22  THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH IN THE  OKANAGAN VALLEY (W. Whitehead)       26  ESSAYS  ESSAY CONTEST AND GUIDELINES FOR 1980       29  PRIZE WINNER - "A HISTORY OF THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE  IN GRINDROD" (Dolores Weber)       30  LAND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES  IN THE OKANAGAN (1890's) (Carol Scott)         43  SOME INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA  AND THEIR COMMUNICATION (Janette Anderson)         47  MRS. ETHEL DOERFLINGER (Shelley Raboch)       50  BIOGRAPHIES AND REMINISCENCES  PATHS OF THE SIDEHILL GOUGER (H. R. Hatfield)    54  THE HISTORY OF POLICING IN ENDERBY (Barbara Newman)  58  EXPERIENCES WITH WILD LIFE (Miss Helen W. Reith)  60  BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF F. E. (Ted) ATKINSON (Dorothy Whittaker)    63  THE FIRST AEROPLANE TO FLY IN KELOWNA (C. Renfrew)     64  THOMAS ALFRED NORRIS - 1874-1960 (Mrs. Lloyda Wills)  67  JUDGE J. R. BROWN OF FAIRVIEW (Georgia Brown)     69  THE LAST SOLDIER OF THE  30th REGT. B.C. HORSE (#1678 A/Corporal T. E. Jesset)     71  A DAY IN THE LIFE OF AN INSPECTOR NO. 1 - 1959-1969  CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (J. L. Piddocke)    73  A LIVING MIND - A BIOGRAPHY OF MRS. LUCY MACFARLANE  OF OKANAGAN CENTRE, B.C. (Flora L. B. Snowdon)  - 77  MRS. DOROTHEA ALLISON CELEBRATES HER  100th BIRTHDAY (Dorothy Drake)    81  CORA'S MEMOIRS (Cora Rice)    82  GILBERT & SULLIVAN OPERETTAS IN THE OKANAGAN (H. V. Webb)  84  ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH    88  WILLIAM McLEISH (Thomas Walter Cowan)  89  PENTICTON IN THE 1920's (Don Steele)  91  MILLER OF TRINITY VALLEY (Mrs. Jennie Saunders)     94  GUY BAGNALL - CHAPTER MEMBER - A TRIBUTE (Ivan E. Phillips)    97  PEACHLAND SCHOOL REUNION 1908-1978 (Sheila T. Paynter)  99  MR. AND MRS. ALLAN CHARLES POOLE (B. Ferworn and M. Geurard)     102  THE HUTCHISON STORY (Beryl Wamboldt)  103  THE LEBLANC FAMILY (Hector LeBlanc)  105  WATERSIDE (Rachel C. Price)  108  THE CORNERS OF GLENMORE (Catherine Mary (Corner) Levins)  113 GEORGE PARKINSON OFHULLCAR (W.J. Whitehead)     115  DUNSDON REUNION (Mrs. Dorothy Forster and Mrs. Kay (Jack) Dunsdon)  119  JIM DUNSDON (Margaret Ringstad)    120  DR. ARTHUR C. NASH (Antoinette B. Paradis)     121  THE PRINGLES OF HULLCAR     123  MISS MARTHA PEHOTA  123  CRANE FAMILY     125  THE BEDDINGTON FAMILY  127  RUBY MAW (Nee Crawford)  129  FRUITFUL LIFE OF BELOVED PIONEER ENDED  131  MRS. A. L. FORTUNE     133  KENNETH McKAY OF NARAMATA - A Tribute (Jacqueline Clay)     134  HENRY (HARRY) HOPE     135  LEONARD N. LEATHLEY - 1909-1978 (Rosemary King)     137  HERITAGE  142  ALLEN GROVE (Rev. F. C. Howell)     145  PIONEERS (Donna Parr)  146  MR. SPEERS    147  MR. COULTER     148  SPRINGTIME ON THE FARM (Elaine Robertson)    149  ASHTON CREEK  150  ENDERBY SAWMILLS (Brenda Stankoven)  151  EARLY DAYS OF ENDERBY WILDERNESS TO 1914 (Lori Packham)  153  EARLY DAYS AT GRINDROD (Michelle de Dood)  156  GRINDROD SCHOOLS (Leanne MacKay)  159  THE HISTORY OF ENDERBY'S HOSPITALS     161  FORTUNE RED BRICK SCHOOL (Sandra Hovey)    162  BOOK REVIEWS        164  OBITUARIES       167  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1980    177  MINUTES OF THE 54th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1979  178  PRESIDENTS REPORT 1978-79 (Hume Powley)  182  EDITOR'S REPORT 1978-79 (Duane Thomson)  184  SECRETARY'S REPORT 1978-79 ((Mrs. W.J. Zoellner)  184  TREASURER'S REPORT 1978-79 (E. M. Oram)   185  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH (Jack Armstrong)    186  VERNON BRANCH ((Ron Robey)  187  KELOWNA BRANCH (W. F. Anderson)  188  PENTICTON BRANCH (Victor Wilson)  189  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH (F. Carleton MacNaughton)     190  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE (H. R. Hatfield)  191  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE - VERNON BRANCH  (Peter Tassie)   'Ģ  192  REPORT OF THE PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE (G. D. Cameron)  193  PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE O.H.S.  OPERATING STATEMENT - 1978 (K. S. N. Shepherd)  195  MEMBERSHIP LIST     196 HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  Editor's Note:  The following article is an intriguing glimpse of the first  impressions of a school teacher arriving in Lumby in 1893. A biographical sketch of the author can be found in that section of this  report.  LUMBY -1893  FIRST SIGHT IMPRESSION AND SOME THOUGHTS  ByT. A. Norris  As a lad, even in the calf-love days, my reading was mostly yarns of hunting and fishing. Fennimore Cooper's five books, following the life of Natty  Bumop from his youth as "Deerslayer" to his death on the prairies, in the  "Prairie": fighting Famished Wolves and no-less-savage GRIZZLY BEARS;  toasting deer and caribou steaks on a spit before an open fire: ALL were MY  MEAT! How I loved those tales and longed to LIVE them! And THAT DAY  came!  Seven Hundred and thirty-nine moons have waxed and waned since I  first ope'd my eyes in Lumby. It was then but a spot in the midst of a 'forest  primeval,' hewn for a home by the hand of man. It was early morn, the sun  just breaking through the mists over Camel's Hump. I had dressed quietly, so  as not to disturb my sleeping companion, and had stepped out onto the piazza  over the veranda, of the old Ram's Horn, the FIRST hotel.  Mallards, teal and widgeon, flock after flock, were winging up through  the alders that hid the dam and millpond; hieing on their way to the small,  and larger, lakes to south and east and north. The larger lakes you know, and  some of the smaller; but many of the latter have disappeared, lack-a-day!, as  have most of the early settlers: not Ducks or SOULS forgot by we, who knew  them, and remain.  Smoke rising from FOUR chimneys were the only sign of human life. A  coyote was tearing around through the bunchgrass and snowball bushes on  Bessette Hill, yapping-up the blue grouse and, no doubt, occasionally killing  one. I could hear him plainly but could not see him: I later learned his ways.  Up the road, beyond the old sawmill flume - the ditch still shows on the  Shields and Chisholm lots - a lynx went bobbing: head up, tail down; tail up,  head down: you know how long the hind legs are and how short the front.  AND - I had been told - the woods just swarmed with DEER and bear: that  the lakes, rivers and creeks teemed with Trout, and SALMON, in the Fall!  And the Sun in all his rising glory: and the morning air so fresh, so moist and  cool! Oh Boy, what a spot!  Right then on that old Ram's Horn piazza, a gangly, youthful pedagogue  of the far East - from whence came the STAR, and Seers who followed it to  Bethlehem - made a decision: met the Board of School Trustees that Sunday  morning after Church; and the FIRST School, in this District, duly opened,  WITHOUT pomp and ceremony, some four weeks later. (It was White Valley School then: Lumby, several years later, had gained sufficient importance to  have a school of its own.)  Whence came those school children of mine? By horse-and-saddle school-  bus; on Shank's 2-feet mare; from Creighton Valley, Blue Springs and Shus-  wap Falls, in the east; to Jones Flat and Dewar Meadows, in the west; and  from north and south, across the full width of White Valley: came pupils to  the First School. Virile, because of their pioneer parentage; studious, because  of their intense desire to learn; rugged at play, like the hills surrounding; they  were just real Girls and Boys; the BEST KIDS ever! It was a pleasure to teach  them; to mark their acts, and to reflect upon the motives prompting the  same.  But of my five-years' communion with them, I am not now to tell - some  other day, perhaps. Suffice it, here, to say that I have often felt sorry that I  allowed the lure of the far-north goldfields to wean me from that noblest of  all tasks: the making of Good Citizens.  And whence came They, the progenitors of my School Children? From  Eastern Canada by ox-cart and canoe, across the boundless prairies and down  the rushing, rolling river-canyons: from Merrie England, Rugged Wales and  Scotland, from the tempestuous Emerald Isle and gay Old France; they followed Magellan's route, in wind-blown ships, across the wide Atlantic,  through his strait (the graveyard of a thousand wrecks), around Cape Horn,  where three great oceans meet and gnash their teeth against the foam-flecked  cliffs; then up the full length of the stormy, western coasts of South and North  America; to a haven in Puget Sound or Fraser River; thence by stage, pack-  train and river-boat to the Sunny Okanagan; to their eventual homes between  the grassy hills and fir-clad slopes of White Valley.  THEY - and their bachelor friends and neighbors - were a GRAND  PEOPLE. A merging of the mind and diction of Macaulay with the poetic  soul of Tennyson, would be required to paint them as I knew them. What  remains most vividly in mind, was and is, their cheerful, whole-hearted hospitality.  My thoughts have wandered. I offer no apology, if you, also, have  known those Eighteen-ninety-three-ers, you too will frequently recall them, I  am sure, with pleasure and respect. They laid the foundation of our prosperity in Town and District and many of their offspring are helping to erect the  superstructure.  The infant Lumby, of the FOUR smoking chimneys, has grown into a  husky boy. Some of our citizens believe that the time has come when he should  be weaned from the milk of government patronage and be united in wedlock  with Miss. I. N. Corporation. Others are of the opinion that the youth is still a  bit too young to shoulder the responsibilities and expenses that naturally follow such a union. On that matter we reserve judgment until better informed.  Our troubles in 1893 were not so ponderous or so difficult of solution - to provide just swaddling clothes for the Infant: to save his carrots from the devouring deer; and to protect his hog-pen from the ravaging bears.  The piazza of the old Ram's Horn was an open, railled platform supported by the posts of the verandah, which ran along the south side of the  hotel building facing Vernon Street. Its elevation above the narrow roadway  was some twelve feet. From this vantage point, all of Lumby, in its natal  year, was plainly visible; that tiny group of homes amidst miles of surround- ing forest. Tall firs and pines at short distance, walled off from view, the open  beaver-meadows, one day to become our widely-famed mixed-farming lands.  Of the Four Smoking Chimneys that to the west provided warmth and  cheer to the bachelor home of Joseph Nesbitt; the first COMPLETED dwelling. It stood on the present site of Nap's Cafe, on the area now occupied by  the south twelve-feet of the poolroom section. It was a one-story, 12 x 22, two -  roomed building with walls and floor of rough boards, shake roof and stovepipe chimney. The rafters were lined part way to the peak, with boards on  tar-paper and ceiled across similarly. The half-gables were open to the balmy  (and otherwise) breezes and the loft formed a stamping-ground and storage-  place for bushtails (Pack Rats). Many of them there met a gory end - the  Time - Midnight: the ARMOUR - the underwear in which you had hoped to  sleep: the ARMS - a lighted candle and ye trusty, long-handled lance, with  three barbed springs, in a hand long-practiced in the lists of salmon-spearing.  Across Vernon Street, eighty feet south and one hundred feet west of the  hotel, was the home of Cleophas Quesnel, his wife Josephine (nee Christien)  and their little daughter Rose. Armand, whom you all know as one of our  most proficient and successful farmers, had not yet been born. Theirs was a  12 x 28 frame, 1V4 story dwelling, occupied, but not yet quite completed.  Many of you will have known it as a part of the home of Mrs. F. N. Morand,  her son A. R. Murphy, wife and family. It was destroyed by fire in January of  last year (1953); an old landmark gone. Cleophas, too, has passed, but memory holds him clear as he was in the olden days - a sturdy, square-shouldered,  upright man, with a cheery word and a smile for all.  A blacksmith shop and swelling building stood directly south from the  hotel, on the site now occupied by Martin's Meat Market. It is not needed that  I describe this building. True, the swelling part has vanished, but walk down  Shuswap Avenue to the property of Mr. J. W. Christian (Joe) and there it is,  just over the south boundary of the William Shumka property. Somewhat  shaky with age; twisted around to face east instead of north; it still stands with  head held high, proud of the many plowshares it has sharpened and the many  cow-ponies shod, in the days of yesteryear. But HURRY! if you wish to see the  material last of infant Lumby: rumor saith that the Old Shop's days are numbered. (Smithy Sutherland "A mighty man was he," was a Prince Edward  Island covenanter, who went to battle with, not a sword, a ten-pound welding  hammer in one hand and a Bible in the other.)  Space will not permit a lengthy description of the Hotel, which was quite  an imposing structure, in comparison with its three neighboring and humble  domiciles. It was a two-story frame building on concrete foundation and with  brick chimneys. The outside walls were finished in rustic siding, nicely  painted (work was still going on) and the inside walls were plastered. The  dimensions were forty-eight feet facing on Vernon Street and twenty-eight  feet fronting on Shuswap Avenue. Upstairs were halls sillting-room and seven  bedrooms. On the lower floor were parlor, bedroom dining room, kitchen,  entrance-hall, large public room with pool and card tables, a small office  and a bar-room. Out back was a large woodshed with storage space above, a  long open drive-shed and a good stable. The whole made the Ram's Horn a  mighty fine establishment. It was situated on the same old corner; just push  our present splendid 'Lumby Hotel' thirteen feet east onto Shuswap Avenue  and you have its site. Of the owner and proprietor, and his grand wife, I will say just this - they made you feel AT HOME. What stories could be told of the  old bar-room, but in this we must be cautious. Rye, brandy, Irish, Scotch,  gin and the DEMON RUM. Beer then was just a chaser.  I sat down to breakfast that Sunday morning with Mr. and Mrs. Morand  and Fred Watson of Okanagan Mission, my travelling companion. Next table  ahead sat Edgar Kitchen (sometimes known as 'Cranky Ed' and sometimes as  'Mr. Parlor' depending on his humor); John Hamilton 'Gentlemen Jack' a tall,  erect, old Confederate soldier, with long gray-white beard; and last, but by  no means least, that tough old Scottie, Ewen Campbell. This table was having  a debate on the subject of Driving Bulls (oxen) at which job each claimed  mastership. Some of the words used you can read in the Bible but it seemed to  me that they were being uttered with too much emphasis, a member of the  fair sex being present. None of the old-timers appeared to be a bit perturbed  and I soon got back to normal. We all enjoyed our ham and eggs.  Well, breakfast is over and we must off to Church: a mile to walk, you  know, unless Louis gives us a ride behind that roan trotter-horse.  Le maitre d'ecole  1954  Lumby in the early days.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum IRRIGATION AND WATER LEGISLATION  IN THE PIONEER YEARS  By Lydia Baumbrough  The story of irrigation, and the resulting water legislation, played an  important role in the history of the Okanagan Valley. Provincial water legislation was, in fact, influenced by the farmers of the Okanagan who, along  with experts in the irrigation field, helped to shape the laws into a workable  water code. Through persistent lobbying, deputations, petitions and the efforts of such organizations as the Western Canada Irrigation Association the  government was made aware of the water problems that were unfolding during the pioneer years. Progress at times was very slow but through trial and  error and technological advances, problems were solved.  Prior to the influx of gold miners in 1859, English Common Law regarding riparian rights of settlers was followed wherein "those living on the banks  of streams had the right ... to have the waters of streams flowing through or  by their property left undisturbed."1 As the needs of placer mining demanded  that legal provision be made to regulate the removal of water from creeks,  Governor James Douglas introduced the first water legislation in the Gold  Fields Act. Robert Cail points out in his book, Land, Man, and the Law, if  Governor Douglas' detailed instructions for recording water rights had been  followed, fewer problems would have arisen.2 The farmers need for irrigation  water was recognized in the Land Proclamations of 1859 and 1870 and "ditch  privilege" was granted to holders of Crown land, if the owner of the land  through which the ditch was built was compensated.3 By 1871 water rights  had to be secured by a water record, but the land on which it was to be used  was not designated. By this time settlers had moved into the Okanagan Valley  and it became essential for water legislation to include irrigation of dry lands  for raising crops. On September 25, 1871, Chas. A. Vernon received a water  record for 1000 inches of water from Coldstream Creek for irrigation and mill  purposes4 and on April 17, 1874, a water record was granted for irrigation of  the Priests' ranch at Okanagan Mission.5 In the early 1890's, Eli Lequime, a  rancher in the Kelowna area, had an irrigation ditch built from Canyon  Creek to what is now east Kelowna for irrigating hay fields.6  The Water Clauses Consolidation Act of 1897 attempted to bring together all the water clauses in the various Land Acts and was the first Act  dealing entirely with water. For the first time it was necessary to specify the  land on which the water was to be used. All riparian rights were denied, and  every land owner or mine owner could apply for water records. Land offices  granted requests for any quantity of water, whether it was actually needed or  not, with no knowledge of whether the creek actually supplied that amount of  water. Many creeks were over-recorded and as a result, the water records were  highly inaccurate.7  In 1893 Lord Aberdeen subdivided part of the Coldstream Ranch, and  the Okanagan Land and Development Company, anticipating the future expansion, began selling lots.8 In 1899 J. M. Robinson sold land for orchards at  Peachland. Just after the turn of the century a number of land companies  were formed in the Okanagan: 1903, Summerland Development Company;  1904, Kelowna Land and Orchard Company; 1905, South Okanagan Land  Company at Penticton; 1906, Coldstream Estate Co. Ltd., and the Central Okanagan Land Company near Rutland; 1908, South Kelowna Land Company; 1907, the Land and Agricultural Company and the Belgo-Canadian  Land Company in 1909, in Vernon.9 The resulting land boom saw the division of many of the large ranches into smaller orchards requiring irrigation.  With this increase in irrigated lands came many problems and pressure on the  government to change the existing water laws. An organization called the  "Western Canada Irrigation Association" served as a forum to discuss these  problems and make recommendations. The second annual meeting of the  W.C.I.A. was held in Vernon in 1908. Those present included: Mayor  Timmins, of Vernon, Messers. J. S. Dennis and R. B. Bennett of the CPR,  Calgary, A. E. Ashcroft, J. F. Smith, K. McDonald, W. H. Fairfield, Mayor  Bell of Enderby, Charles Wilson KC, H. G. Latimer, Duncan Ross, M.P.,  E. M. Carruthers, J. M. Robinson, J. Strutt, W. T. Shatford, J. Brown, A.  McLellan, R. B. Kerr, D. V. Curry, F. E. R. Woolaston, Price Ellison, Prof.  Louis Carpenter of Colorado, Hon. F. J. Fulton, Chief Commissioner of  Lands and Works. Mr. J. S. Dennis, Irrigation Commissioner for Alberta  who, at the request of the Chief Commissioner of Lands, had helped to draft  new water legislation, gave an address in which he suggested that a Commission be appointed to go through all the water records for a thorough house  cleaning. It was necessary to find the volume of water a stream carried and  how much land would be irrigated to allot water licenses. Anyone not using  the land would have his license taken away. Because of the high cost of building and maintaining irrigation systems, a number of Okanagan farmers,  with Price Ellison as their spokesman, wished to have government ownership  of irrigation rather than private corporations as the private corporations were  only out to make money. This resolution was defeated because there was a  desire not to discourage private enterprise. There was also great interest in  setting up water municipalities to own and operate water supplies for irrigation.10  The Water Act of 1909 implemented many of the recommendations  made at the convention. A Board of Investigation was set up to revise old  water records by searching all records against all streams, creeks, or sources  of supply; to make surveys to determine the flow of water on any particular  stream and estimate what quantity of land could be made irrigable. Notice  was given to all holders of records asking them to file their claims to be heard  and adjudicated by the Board. Oldest records were given priority. The Board  had the power to cut down the amount of water if it was excessive. Old records no longer being used could be cancelled. The Water Act also provided  for a change in the measurement of water from the miner's inch (one-half the  quantity of water passing through an orifice 1 inch wide, 2 inches high, under  a continuous pressure of seven inches) to cubic foot per second. After examination of the land water commissioners would define the area that a unit of  water would irrigate and would decide the proper amount of water to be  used.  As there were approximately 8,000 water records,11 the Board of Investigation could not move quickly enough to satisfy the unhappy farmers. A wild  west atmosphere was present in some areas, in fact a man was shot and killed  in Vernon in 1908 for digging a ditch through a neighbours' property even  though he had government permission for digging the ditch.12 A number of  farmers were extremely angry at having their water stolen and talked of pa- trolling creeks and shooting anyone in the act of stealing water. The situation  was discussed at the W.C.I.A. convention in Kamloops in 1910. The problem  was, as Dr. C. W. Dickson of Kelowna stated: ". . . we have not sufficient  water to irrigate properly all the land that we would like to bring under cultivation."13 At this time there were 100,000 acres in the Okanagan and  Thompson Valleys supplied with irrigation systems already constructed or in  the process of being constructed.14 Dr. Dickson referred to Premier Richard  McBride's address to the convention, where he expressed the government's  interest and sympathy "in anything that might be done to better the conditions of irrigation and irrigation projects in this province," and suggested that  the government get involved in providing proper storage systems.15 Discussion took place as to whether government ownership or government control of  irrigation was needed. Mr. Hawks repeated his resolution to the effect that  the provincial government should in all fairness lend assistance to irrigation  projects in a similar manner and under similar conditions to those under  which financial aid was given to railway projects.16 Although his resolution  was changed, it did indicate the discontent that many farmers felt with regard  to government spending. It was repeatedly stated that although the Water  Act itself was good, it was not being properly administered, as the water commissioners did not have the necessary authority to deal with all cases. Amendments to the Water Act in 1913 would enlarge the powers of the Board of  Investigation so that it could effectively deal with these problems.17 The confusion resulting from the dominion government's jurisdiction of water within  the railway belt contributed to the administrative headache and was not resolved until the Railway Belt Water Act was passed in 1913.  By 1912 the real estate boom had collapsed. Land companies were "left  in severe difficulties, for few of them had sold more than a third of their irrigable lands."18 As they had planned to build and improve their irrigation  works with revenue from the sale of land, the land companies and farmers  were in trouble.  Mr. A. E. Ashcroft, Chief Engineer of the White Valley Irrigation Company, suggested that the "ultimate solution" (for irrigation problems) would  be found in the creation of irrigation districts with public ownership.19 This  idea received a favourable reception with many residents and was discussed at  the W.C.I.A. convention in 1912 held in Kelowna. Mr. Ashcroft said that the  existing companies had an official object which was to "raise the maximum  revenue for the shareholders at the minimum of yearly expense."20 He felt  that irrigation in the dry belt districts was well suited to control by public  corporations. As it was not remunerative for a private company to construct  works for the distribution of irrigation water and only receive revenue on the  sale of that water, he felt a radical change would have to come in the near  future. The highlights of the 1912 convention were the resolutions asking the  government to make provision in the Water Act for cooperative irrigation.  The reasons given for support of public irrigation corporations were that the  water users under private companies "were absolutely dependent on the successful operation of a large system over which they have no control, and that  the companies may go out of existence, or get into difficulties and pass into a  receiver's hands and cease operating."21 The result was inclusion in the Water  Act of 1914 of a provision for setting up public irrigation corporations, water  users communities and mutual water companies. A public irrigation corpora- 8  tion made possible "joint ownership and corporate control of irrigation enterprises by the land owners"22 instead of ownership by private companies. Water users' communities were a "partnership of licensees in the construction,  maintenance or operation of works" that permitted inexpensive but safe organization where settlement was sparse. Owners of land who were water licensees could organize a mutual water company which permitted the construction of joint works for conveying purposes.23  Less than two years later it became apparent that the Water Act of 1914  was deficient in setting out procedures for the purchase of existing irrigation  works. Deputations were sent to Victoria to ask that an expert be sent to  "make independent valuations of private systems so that the orchardists may  form water municipalities."24 Many petitions were sent urging action to protect water users who relied on companies that were financially unable to repair their systems.25 The result of this agitation was the appointment of A. R.  Mackenzie, C. E., to investigate the physical and financial conditions of the  companies in Vernon and Kelowna. Although Mr. Mackenzie did not make  any specific recommendations after his investigation, his report sets out very  clearly that the economically unhealthy conditions of the irrigation developments were not confined to the Okanagan Valley. This condition prevailed in  all western Canada and western United States. He attributed this partly to the  boom in real estate, where over-optimistic promoters had hastily set up irrigated holdings in order to sell land. The more attractive portions of land had  sold, leaving scattered development that could not be economically serviced  by irrigation. The attraction to the investors in irrigation bonds had been the  apparently large profit resulting from the purchase of raw, unproductive land  at prices from $10 to $40 per acre, which, when supplied with irrigation water, sold at rates ranging from $150 to $350 per acre. As the sale of land dropped during the recession prior to World War I, the returns on their investment dropped, discouraging new investment.26  In the Report of the Water Rights Branch of 1916, it was pointed out  that the Board of Investigation had reported on the practicability of forming  public irrigation corporations in 1) Kelowna, including Ellison 2) Peach-  land 3) Naramata 4) Westbank 5) South Vernon. Although the report  was not complete in 1916, it did not appear economically feasible to set up  public corporations unless the water users were prepared to pay excessive  annual water rates to cover the cost of purchase of the existing companies'  works and reconstruction costs. As it was very doubtful whether the water  users could survive under these conditions, the Board did not recommend  setting up public corporations at that time.27  An amendment to the Water Act in 1918 established a Conservation  Fund of $500,000 which the Minister of Lands was authorized to expend in  loaning money to aid districts in construction and repair.28 This enabled the  continuance of water supply to users, but did not make money available for  the purchase of existing works. An additional amendment to the Water Act  in 1920 allowed the borrowing of money from the Conservation Fund to buy  out the works of private companies.  In the pioneer years, the dramatically changing needs of the settlers in  this dry belt area demanded fair and efficient distribution of water. It took  the concentrated effort and initiative of the Okanagan farmers, combined  with the receptivity of the provincial government, to enact legislation that would form the basis for future water regulations.  (submitted by Lydia Baumbrough)  1 Cail, Robert E., Land, Man, and the Law, Vancouver, University of British Columbia  Press, 1974, p. 111.  2 Cail, p. 111.  3 Cail, p. 113.  4 Brian Rude, "History of Vernon Irrigation," The Thirty-Fifth Report of the Okanagan  Historical Society (1971), p. 108.  5 Arthur W. Gray, "The Story of Irrigation - Lifeblood of the Okanagan Valley's Economy," The Thirty-second Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1968), p. 71.  6 Gray, OHSReport, p. 71.  7 Cail, p. 115.  8 David Dendy, "The Development of the Orchard Industry in the Okanagan Valley,"  The Thirty-Eighth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1974), p. 69.  9 Gray, OHSReport, pp. 71 - 74.  10 Report of Proceedings, Second Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation  Association . . . Vernon . . . (Ottawa, 1909).  11 Report of Proceedings, Eighth Annual Convention of the W.C.I. A. . . . Penticton . . .  (Ottawa, 1915) p. 92.  12 Gray, OHS Report, p. 71.  13 Report of Proceedings, Fourth Annual Convention of the W.C.I.A. . . . Kamloops . . .  (Ottawa, 1911) pp. 91-92.  14 Proceedings, W.C.I.A. Kamloops, p. 72.  15 Proceedings, W.C.I.A. Kamloops, p. 90.  16 Proceedings, W.C.I.A. Kamloops, p. 99.  17 Proceedings, W.C.I.A. Penticton, p. 92.  18 Dendy, OHS .Report, p. 72.  19 Proceedings, W.C.I.A. Kamloops, p. 64.  20 Report of Proceedings, Sixth Annual Convention of the W.C.I. A. . . . Kelowna . . .  (Ottawa, 1913), p. 70.  21 William Young, Comptroller, Report of the Water Rights Branch, British Columbia  Department of Lands, 1916, p. M17.  22 H. W. Grunsky, Report on a Public Irrigation Corporation Bill, Department of Lands  - Water Rights Branch, 1914, p. 5.  23 Report of Proceedings,  Ninth Annual Convention of the W.C.I.A.  .  .  . Bassano,  Alta. . . . (Ottawa, 1916), p. 190.  24 "Irrigation Needs of Okanagan - Demands for Government Assistance to Get Water to  Orchards," Vernon News, 16 March 1916.  25 Young, Report of the Water Rights Branch, p. M6.  26 A. R. Mackenzie, Report on the Physical and Financial Conditions of the Irrigation  Projects of the Province, Vol. 1, unpublished, 1916, p. 2.  27 E. Davis, Report of the Water Rights Branch, 1916, pp. M17-M19.  28 British Columbia Statutes, 1918, Chapter 98, Division 5, pp. 392-393. 10  BIBLIOGRAPHY  British Columbia Statutes, 1918, Victoria, King's Printer, Chapter 98, Division 5.  Cail, Robert E., Land, Man and the Law. Vancouver: University of B.C. Press, 1974.  Davis E., Report of the Water Rights Branch, British Columbia Dept. of Lands, December 1916,  King's Printer, 1917, Victoria.  Dendy, David, "The Development of the Orchard Industry in the Okanagan Valley." Thirty-  Eighth Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1974).  Gray, Arthur W., "The Story of Irrigation - Lifeblood of the Okanagan Valley's Economy."  Thirty-Second Report of the Okanagan Historical Society (1968).  Grunsky, H. W., Report on a Public Irrigation Corporation Bill. Department of Lands - Water  Rights Branch, King's Printer, 1914, Victoria.  Mackenzie, A. R., Report on the Physical and Financial Conditions of the Province. Vernon  Irrigation District Office, unpublished. 2 Volumes, 1916.  Report of Proceedings, Second Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association, in 1908 . . . Vernon . . . Ottawa. King's Printer, 1909.  Report of Proceedings, Fourth Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association, in 1910 . . . Kamloops . . . Ottawa. King's Printer, 1911.  Report of Proceedings, Sixth Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association, in 1912 . . . Kelowna . . . Ottawa. King's Printer, 1913.  Report of Proceedings, Eighth Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association, in 1914 . . . Penticton . . . Ottawa. King's Printer, 1915.  Report of Proceedings, Ninth Annual Convention of the Western Canada Irrigation Association, in 1915 . . . Bassano, Alta. . . . Ottawa. King's Printer, 1916.  Rude, Brian, "History of Vernon Irrigation." Thirty-Fifth Report of the Okanagan Historical  Society (1971).  Vernon News, "Irrigation Needs of Okanagan - Demands for Government Assistance to Get  Water to Orchards." 16 March, 1916.  Young, William, Report of the Water Rights Branch, British Columbia Dept. of Lands, 1916,  King's Printer, 1917, Victoria.  Stirling & Pitcairn Packing House - across the tracks in Vernon from the C.P.R. Station House.  Photo credit - Vernon Museum 11  SELLING AGENTS AND FRUIT & VEGETABLE PACKING  HOUSES OF THE NORTH OKANAGAN - 1890 - 1978  Harold Viel, Vernon, B.C.  Although fruit growing on a commercial scale started in the 1890's in the  North Okanagan, it was not until the early 1900's that packing and shipping  houses began to make their appearance. Generally fruit and vegetables grown  here at that time were consumed locally.  It was felt by the B.C.F.G.A. in 1896 that a co-operative form of packing  and shipping should be established. This was done with the Central Fruit Exchange being formed in May. Still many growers continued to sell on their  own so that local markets were glutted and prices generally a failure, although 1902 and 1903 seasons were prosperous.  Apparently this first fruit exchange died out because at a meeting in  Armstrong on April 24, 1907 it was decided by B.C.F.G.A. Members to form  "The Fruit & Produce Exchange of B.C." with headquarters at Revelstoke to  market fruit and thus promote co-operative marketing and central selling. It  also failed, due to petty jealousies and lack of understanding of the benefits of  mutual assistance.  In 1908 the Okanagan Fruit Union was founded to sell growers' produce.  However in 1912 the crop was so large this company could not sell it profitably so that it too failed. Then in 1913 about 1000 growers formed the Okanagan United Growers (O.U.G.). It was more successful with shipping houses  throughout the valley.  This organization carried on until 1922 when conditions were such that  many difficulties arose. Many private organizations were operating throughout the valley and competitive practice and economic conditions were detrimental to returns to the growers. This caused unrest and dissatisfaction so the  growers tried to improve the whole operation in 1923 by replacing the O.U.G.  with the Associated Growers being formed to handle the 100% of the tree  fruit tonnage. The crops at this time were so large that export shipping was  required to get rid of the fruit and maximize the return to the grower. As  usual some growers saw the possibility of greater returns by selling their own  produce in nearer markets. Thus many independents carried on and some  formed "The Sales Service" to sell their fruit. Due to this unorganized selling,  and the depression, by 1930 to 1933 all fruit markets and the growers were in  as serious trouble as they were in 1922.  Growers in the 30's with the slogan, "A cent a pound or on the ground"  then decided to form a central selling authority. By acts of Parliaments the  B.C. Fruit Board was created and the B.C.F.G.A. was able to form B.C. Tree  Fruits Ltd. in 1936 and designate it in 1939, as sole selling agency for fruit  grown in the interior of B.C. This grower owned company is still operating at  this time (1979) but many growers have been allowed to sell their own produce in the nearer markets, and thus undermine confidence in the central  selling endeavour.  When fruit became commercially available in the North Okanagan  about 1894, many growers had their own packing plants. They sold either  through various agencies or on their own. Most notable of these, I think, was  the Coldstream Ranch with its C/R Brand.  In 1891 the Coldstream Ranch started planting out orchard land for its 12  own use and for sale to other people interested in growing fruit. By 1908 the  Ranch had 200 acres of bearing orchard and probably shipped about 600 tons  of fruit. This fruit was sold on the prairies and the coast, as well as in Australia and Great Britain. They had a packing shed and storage above the ponds  early in the century, where fruit was packed by men from box to box.  About this time, to facilitate marketing, the Coldstream Valley Fruit  Packing Co. Ltd. was formed to equip and operate packing houses at various  points in the Coldstream Valley. Soon after this company was formed a new  packing house was built on Long Lake (now Kalamalka) Rd. with more modern equipment. Packing sheds were also built at the Spicer Camp (corner of  Aberdeen and Middleton Rds.) and at Kieffer Camp in the LAVINGTON  AREA, Highway 6 and Murphy Rd. by the Coldstream Ranch. Other growers built packing houses in Lavington and Coldstream at this time. About  1933 the Coldstream Ranch Packing House on Long Lake Rd. was replaced  by a larger, more modern plant with cold storage on the rail line. It closed in  the 1960's and is now used by various small manufacturing firms. Ranch fruit  now goes to B.C. Fruit Shippers in Vernon.  J. B. Kidston and A. T. Howe both had packing plants on Long Lake Rd.  during the period 1920 to 1934 and did their own shipping. However, fire  destroyed these plants in 1934. J. B. Kidston then decided to ship to Browne  Lander Co. in Vernon while A. T. Howe built a new plant closer to the railway. This plant was later taken over by Dolphe Browne Ltd., then sold to  B.C. Hydro and now is owned by Alpine Distributors.  Other grower-packing sheds that come to mind were owned by J. L.  Webster and L. Wisbey in the Coldstream; Dawe Bros, in Lavington and  B.X.; Gordon Robinson in the B.X.; Belgian Orchard Syndicate (corner of  DeDecker and L & A Rds.) B.X.; Vernon Orchards Ltd. Highway 97. This  latter plant had modern grading and cold storage equipment and operated  until the late 1960's when it was sold to small private companies. There were  many other growers who packed their own fruit and delivered their product  to larger packing sheds for shipment.  Independent non-grower packing houses were being opened and operated all over the North Okanagan in the early 1900's to the 1930's. A list of  which follows:  M&M Packers owned by Martyn & McKinnon, lasted 2 or 3 years about  1933 and then folded, then used as Kelly, Douglas warehouse for years and  now a restaurant and Discotheque.  The Stirling-Pitcairn packing house opposite the railway station in the  First World War Period. It was sold to a group of Oyama growers in the early  1920's. It was operated as The Unity Fruit Co. Ltd., owned by Mr. Irvine of  Oyama. They then moved to a new building north of 39th Ave. but closed  sometime in the late 1960's.  Bagnall packing plant operated for 3 or 4 years in the building known as  Bagnall Block on the corner of 30th Ave. and 34th St.  R. H. MacDonald 6k Sons, 30th St. and 37th Ave., grower owned and  operated from 1933 until the 1970's, when it was sold to a group of growers  from Kelowna. It now operates as Allied Growers.  B.C. Fruit Shippers plant, former McNair Building between 24th Ave.  and 25th Ave. was purchased in 1928 from the V.F.U. and operated by Mr.  Joe Montague until his untimely death in 1942. In the late 1940's the directors 13  of B.C. Fruit Shippers purchased the Occidental Building and moved to  where they are now below Highway 6. The McNair Building was used by  Malkins Ltd. for years and now by Kal Tire for storage.  E. C. Skinner Ltd. was in business sometime in the early 1920's but was  taken over by R. B. Staples and A. C. Lander as Lander Co. Ltd. in 1928.  Later changed to Browne Lander and finally to Dolphe Brown Ltd. They also  purchased Armstrong Packers in 1955, but closed up all operations in 1958.  The Vernon House is now Archie Fleming Ltd. Dolphe Brown also had a  packing house in Kamloops and Penticton at one time.  Inland Ice Co. Ltd. was established to make ice for Railway Refrigerator  cars as well as to supply C.P.R. with ice for the passenger cars. A number of  Independent Shippers bought shares to increase the size and operation for the  purpose of cold storing their fruit for later packing and shipping.  The Vernon Fruit Union incorporated in 1913, taking over the assets of  the Okanagan Fruit Co. The first plant was later known as the E. C. Skinner  packing houses on 32nd Ave. They also took over the assets of the Vernon  Fruit Co. with buildings in Vernon and Coldstream at Aberdeen and Long  Lake Rd. They purchased the Coldstream Estate packing house at Long  Lake, as well as the Lavington grower's packing house in Lavington, also a  plant in Peachland. The V.F.U. packed and shipped fruit from a packing  house on Okanagan Landing Rd. for South Vernon growers during this  period.  The Long Lake plant was sold to J. B. Kidston in 1918. The Lavington  and Coldstream plants were sold to growers in both areas for bunk houses for  the girl pickers. The Coldstream plant burned in 1923. In 1913 the V.F.U.  rented the cannery building in Oyama and finally built a packing house there  in 1920.  In 1919 a small packing plant was built in Vernon on the present site by  the Vernon Storage Co. and leased to the V.F.U. who purchased it in 1928.  It has been enlarged ever since. They expanded to Coldstream, Oyama,  Woodsdale and Winfield, so that today they have fruit delivered to one of the  plants from Kamloops-Salmon Arm area south to Rutland. In 1924, the  V.F.U. purchased the Mutual Packing Plant, McNair Plant in Vernon and  the B.C. Growers plant in O.K. Centre. When the railway was built to Kelowna in 1925 new plants were built at Winfield and Woodsdale.  In the 1960's they purchased the B.C. Fruit Shippers houses in Oyama.  Then in the late 1960's when the Winoka Co-operative Packing House at  O.K. Centre went out of business, the growers joined the V.F.U. Part of the  Winoka plant is now used by Allied Growers as a cold storage plant.  At one time fruit was grown at Fintry and packed and shipped from  there under the labels of the V.F.U. This fruit was loaded on barges and  boats for shipment.  Some fruit was also grown and shipped from Ewing's Landing the same  way, notably by Mrs. A. H. Kenyon and Mr. Muirhead.  Some Oyama growers had packing houses in their own orchards before  and during the 1920's and shipped through the V.F.U., Stirling & Pitcairn  and the B.C. Fruit Shippers. Before the completion of the C.N.R. in 1925  this fruit was hauled to Vernon after being loaded on barges and taken up  Long Lake by the Boats "Maude Allan" and "City of Vernon," then unloaded  on wagons, probably south of the Country Club. 14  For a short time fruit and vegetables were grown and shipped from  Enderby by The Enderby Growers Association formed in 1913.  In 1894 F. T. Jackson built a packing house in Armstrong to pack and  ship fruit and vegetables. In 1910 this was sold to W. A. C. Cuthbert of Fairfield Ranch. Run by E. Poole and later by G. W. Dunkley during World War  I, they supplied the Armstrong Evaporator with vegetables for processing as  well as shipping to the fresh market. Both these plants are now part of  Buckerfields. In Mr. Cuthbert's early days in Armstrong he managed the  Mutual Fruit Packers near Smith Sawmills. This company went out of business and was demolished in the late 1920's.  In 1910 a large brick packing house was built and operated by Kaykin  and Jackson. This plant was purchased by E. Poole in 1919. In 1923 Cuthbert  bought out Poole and operated as Armstrong Packers with Associated Growers as selling agents. This plant had a large ice house and a contract to supply C.P.R. dining cars and hotels in the Rockies with fresh vegetables. And  in the 1920's there was a co-operative plant "The Armstrong Growers Exchange Ltd," shipping through the Associated Growers.  A Mr. McDonald also had a vegetable packing house in Armstrong for a  number of years.  In 1955 Dolphe Browne bought Armstrong Packers but he closed it in  1958, and that unfortunately, was the end of the vegetable packing and shipping industry in Armstrong. However, at the present time there are a few  growers who sell their vegetables locally as well as the Seventh Day Adventist  Community at Grandview Flats, who produce and sell specialized crops.  As a sideline to packing houses and to use some of the fruit and vegetables not suitable or required for the fresh market, other places and companies were incorporated. Canneries were built in Oyama, Vernon and Armstrong in the early part of the century. Also, in the World War I years and  1920's a cider factory was operated by W. H. Smith of Vernon where the  NOCA plant is now situated. About this time Mr. Bulman opened his cannery and evaporator on 37th Ave. This burned down in 1928 but was rebuilt  and continued in operation into the 1960's. Latterly, it has been used by several other businesses and is in the process of being sold so that the site can be  used for a senior citizen's home.  In 1940 the Occidental Plant was used by that company to manufacture  Appletine, a coffee substitute. This was not popular, so failed. At this time,  also, Mr. Cliff Fallow, Fieldman of the V.F.U. experimented in the manufacture of Apple Juice and eventually quite a plant was built at Woodsdale.  Later sold to Sun Rype Products Ltd., a company owned by all the growers  of the B.C.F.G.A. This Woodsdale plant burned down in the 1960's and operations were moved to Kelowna.  SOURCES OF INFORMATION  75th Anniversary Edition of B.C.F.G.A. (Country Life)  1908 Coldstream Ranch Sales Brochure  1945 Royal Commission on Co-operatives  Comments and personal experience of Old Timers 15  Editor's Note  Mr. Ted Atkinson has been involved in the processing end of  the fruit industry for many years, and has, in recognition of his  work, received many honors. A brief biographical sketch can be  found  in  the  "Biographies  and  Reminiscences"  section  of this  report.  IN THE BEGINNING  By F. E. (Ted) Atkinson  Head Food Processing Section  1929- 1936  Canada Research Station  Summerland, B.C.  Before I discuss product investigation I would like to describe the Dominion Experimental Station of 1929. Although it was mainly devoted to Horticultural Studies, it still had hogs, poultry, tobacco, and dairy cattle. The  fields were still tilled with horses, and the first truck was yet to be purchased.  An extension for processing had been added to the west side of the Horticultural Building to accommodate a semi-commercial fruit dehydrator and boiler. It was an entirely bare area with no equipment either for making products or analysing fruits and vegetables. An office desk was provided in the  superintendent's office.  To start,  too,  I was assigned a handyman and general helper,  Bill  Pollock (now of Penticton). I am sure a better helper could not have been  found. Bill was very clean, always busy, and always in good spirit.  Dehydration of Fruit  Old Timers will recall that the Dehydration Committee of the Canada  Dept. of Agriculture operated a semi-commercial Dehydration Plant for  fruit on Forbes St., Penticton, in the early Twenties. Mr. C. S. McGillivray,  Chief Canning Inspector was in charge of the work. I think the operation was  continued for about three years. I was known to Mr. W. T. (Bill) Hunter,  Superintendent of the Experimental Farm, as I had worked in the "orchard  gang" at the farm in the Spring of 1925. Consequently, when the Department  wondered what they were going to do with the dehydration plant in Penticton, the thought evolved that this work be taken to Summerland, and that I  be hired to prove the feasibility or otherwise of dehydration of Canadian  fruits. When I arrived at the Station, the main instruction that I received  was that Dehydration was to be the main product investigated. Through 1929  and into the thirties, the annual reports show a considerable amount of work  on quality separation of Italian Prunes for drying, sun-drying of apricots  versus dehydration, and packing and selling the finished products. The net  results of this work was that the cost of fruit was too high compared to other  drying areas in the world, and also the fresh quality of the main varieties  available did not lean towards economic manufacture. For instance, Blenheim, Royal and Tilton apricots are required for dehydration rather than  Wenatchee Moorpark. Also, most prunes that are dried are of the low acid  French Petite type, whereas the crop here is the Italian variety. Under our  growing conditions, the crop may have 70% of the prunes of a quality suit- 16  able for drying and 30% that are culls, or it may have 30% that are suitable  for drying and 70% culls. So that effort eventually went by the board.  Distilling Experiments  In my mind 1929 is notable for a project fathered by the B.C. Fruit  Grower's Association. At the annual convention held in Penticton in January  1929, the Growers voted to support experiments to test the feasibility of making brandy from apples (later liqueurs were added to the project). The  B.C.F.G.A. was prepared to support this project by employing a French Distiller to teach me the art, (the U.S. was still suffering from the Volstead Act)!  The man selected to teach me was Mr. Marcel Saunier from Westbridge in  the Kettle Valley, and the man employed to interpret was Mr. Frank De-  Caqueray. A small book could be written about my experiences with apple  brandy and liqueurs. The first hurdle was that the Internal Revenue Dept.  withheld a distilling permit from the Fall of 1929 to the summer of 1930. The  pulps we had fermented had to be sealed so that they would not spoil until  July of 1930 when we could proceed with the distilling. How could we preserve the mash for this period? Mr. Saunier employed a unique method by  covering the surface of the pulp with a 2" layer of clay from the cliffs below  the Research Station. This clay did the job 100%.  When the project started, Bill Hunter had asked me if I could design a  still to which I replied, "Sure." I suggested I had bought a 20 gallon copper  kettle and outlined to him how I would proceed. He said, "Well, okay, we'll  put the kettle in the back of the Chev, and take it to Leckie's Hardware in  Kelowna and see Mr. Burnett, the tinsmith." This Hardware later was bought  by W. A. C. Bennett. In the end we had a still which had cost $135.00, but  Mr. Hunter had not received permission from Ottawa to buy a still! I paid for  it with money from dehydrated fruit. This later got me into very hot water!  The distilling experiments were carried on sporadically for about 3 years,  but even though the apple brandy (Calvados) was aged in oak, and at the proper temperature, the resulting product was too fiery. Alcohols made from different raw material have different characteristics, and this fiery characteristic  is natural to apple alcohol. The United Distillers in Vancouver were very cooperative, and illustrated to me how they could make alcohol from corn,  rectify it to 95%, and use it immediately in Gin. Corn alcohol was quite neutral, and did not have to be aged. The Revenue Act regarding distilleries, at  least in the 1929-1930 period, required that all other alcohols be aged at least  2 years.  An economic point that must be remembered is that crude sugar could  be landed in Vancouver for about 3 cents a pound. Apple culls of 1929 average near 12% sugar or 240# per ton. This allowed $7.20 per ton for all manufacturing and selling expense. In the distilling project we also rectified some  of the brandy, and obtained alcohol of 95%, and used this in making liqueurs. These included Chartreuse Vert (Green), Chartreuse Jaune (Yellow),  Creme de Menthe, and Cacao. These latter products could have been commercial, but the sale at that time was not very large. I was very pleased to be  able to direct my interest towards the development of a preserved apple juice.  It was completely free of the severe restrictions of the Exise Act! More on this  later.  When I was leaving Oregon State University, Prof. E. H. Wiegand, Head 17  of the Processing Department, and H. C. (Dutch) Diehl, of the U.S.D.A.,  were starting experiments to determine the feasibility of brining Royal Anne  cherries in calcium bisulphite as a source of raw material for glace and Maraschino cherries. Royal Annes were receiving a very low price in the Okanagan,  and I copied the work of these two researchers at the Oregon Experimental  Station. In the fall of 1931, Les Roadhouse, Manager of the Penticton Cooperative Growers brought some visitors to the Processing Laboratory, and I  showed him samples of brined cherries that I had packed. Early March of  1932, he contacted me and said that if I could get an order for brined cherries, that he thought that Mr. Chambers, President and General Manager of  the Associated Growers in Vernon, would finance a trial pack. I obtained an  order for 10 tons from William Robinson Ltd. of Vancouver, and supervised  the packing of this product at the Penticton Co-op Packing House in Penticton during the cherry season of 1932. This was the first project originating in  the lab, that was commercially adapted. This industry for brining cherries,  pitting them, and selling them to candied fruit manufacturers continued in  Penticton, Summerland, and Kelowna until the big freeze of 1949 which  killed most of the Royal Anne trees. It was a worthwhile outlet to the growers, as it brought in more than double the revenue per pound than the growers were receiving when I started the project in 1932.  Apple Juice  Apple juice is the last item I will mention in the activities of the first three  years of the Lab. A little was being made commercially in Vernon. This was  unclarified, packed in glass containers, and pasteurized. It was cloudy, had a  heavy sediment in the bottom of the bottle, and a cooked flavour. In the  1929/32 period, the only definite result that we had was that a high class  German Seitz germ-proofing filter was not satisfactory as a means of sterilizing apple juice. The filter was so fine that it took out most of the flavour.  There was also considerable cost involved in purchasing the germ-proofing  plates. It was not until about 1938 that we had a process that would produce  a clarified flash pasteurized juice of the type we now know as clear apple  juice. In the intervening years, the American Company developed a satisfactory can using cold rolled type L steel plate. Arengo-Jones, in the Ottawa  Laboratory, adapted a method for clarifying wine to apple juice, using Tannin and Gelatin. The Summerland Laboratory contributed the design of a  flash pasteurizer that could be built locally, and handled up to 400 gallons/  hour. (It must be emphasized that during these Depression years there was  not very much capital money available). A filler also had to be designed for  the start of apple juice canning. The cast iron parts of this machine were  made by the Wilkins Machinery Co. in Penticton, and a stainless steel bowl  was made by Ellett, Copper & Brass in Vancouver, John Embree, the able  mechanic at the station, made the other parts. Accordingly, the first filler  used by B.C. Processors, the fore-runner of Sun-Rype, cost $185.00 and was  worn out in the first season!  Also, in these intervening years (1935), Dr. C. C. Strachan received his  Ph.D. from Oregon State University, with his thesis work being done on the  fortification of apple juice with Vitamin C. Putting all these factors together,  the apple juice industry was born and this has been the greatest contribution  of the Laboratory to date. An interesting note that should be included deals  with my first efforts to introduce commercial grocery wholesalers to this pro- duct. I submitted samples to the buyer for one of the largest wholesalers in  Western Canada. He tasted it and said to me, "Ted, it is a good product, but  will not sell!" So you see, if you are going to be developing new products, you  sometimes have an uphill fight!  1929-1932 was the beginning. In 1933 Charlie Strachan joined the staff.  Now the Lab is known world-wide and has given direct assistance in at least  26 foreign countries. The policy of working closely with industry is now called  the "Summerland Formula" and has been adopted by Ottawa for the whole of  Canada. Naturally I am very pleased with all this progress.  June 4th, 1979  Spraying the early way, with wands.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 19  Editor's Note: The  following list of prizes which have been won by  the Province of B.C.  for exhibits of fruits and vegetables in the early  days of the industry  came to us from Mr. John Manning of Summer-  land who had it from his father of the same name (now deceased)  who obtained it originally from the Dept. of Agriculture, Victoria.  It is included here for the interest and research value it may have for  those readers involved in or  familiar with one of the Valley's oldest  and most important  industries.  MEDALS WON BY THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  FOR EXHIBITS OF FRUIT, ETC. IN THE DOMINION,  GREAT BRITAIN  , AND OTHER COUNTRIES  EXHIBITOR  AWARD                                                           WON BY  YEAR 1900  Exposition Universelle  Bronze  B.C. Fruit Growers Assn.  Internationalle, France  YEAR 1903  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Bottled Fruit, Agent General  YEAR 1904  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Winnipeg  Silver  Provincial Exhibit  YEAR 1905  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Goldstream Estate  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  T. W. Stirling, Kelowna  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  J. C. Cartrell, Summerland  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  J. L. Pridham, Kelowna  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  J. R. Brown, Summerland  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Stirling & Pitcairn, Kelowna  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Kootenay Fruit Growers' Union  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  T. C. Earl, Lytton  Royal Horticultural Society  Bronze  J. Ritchie, Summerland  YEAR 1906  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Royal Horticultural Society  Gold  T. G. Earl, Lytton  Scottish Horticultural Society  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Royal Horticultural Society  Silver  Coldstream Ranch 20  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Winnipeg Bronze  J.Johnstone, Nelson  J. R. Brown, Summerland  J. C. Cartrell, Summerland  Kootenay Fruit Growers' Union  Kelowna Farmers' Exchange  Province  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Sheffield Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  National Chrysanthemum Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  Royal Horticultural Society Bronze  YEAR 1907  Province  Province  Province  Oscar Brown & Co., Vernon  J. R. Brown, Summerland  Kaslo Fruit Growers' Ass'n.  Stirling & Pitcairn, Kelowna  A. Unsworth, Chilliwack  Nelson Fruit Growers' Union  Province  J. A. Ritchie, Summerland  Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange  F. R. Cartrell, Summerland  Grand Forks  Province  Royal Horticultural Society  (November 26th)  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  National Chrysanthemum  Bristol  Scottish Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Bath  Birmingham  Harwick  Leeds  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Aberdeen  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Royal Horticultural  Chester  Society  Society  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  Soc  ety  ety  ety  ety  ety  ety  ety  ety  ety  District  Society  YEAR 1908  Gold T. G. Earl, Lytton  Gold Kaslo Fruit Growers' Assn.  Gold Kamloops District  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Gold Province  Silver Summerland District  Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange  Silver Province  Silver Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Silver Province  Bronze Chilliwack  Bronze Salt Spring Island  Bronze Salt Spring Island  Bronze J. Gartrell, Summerland  Bronze J.Johnstone, Nelson  Bronze F. R. Gartrell, Summerland  Bronze Chilliwack District  Bronze Victoria District  Bronze Victoria District  Bronze Provincial Exhibit  Bronze Provincial Exhibit  Bronze Provincial Exhibit 21  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Royal Horticultural Society  Bath Gardners Debating Soc.  National Chrysanthemum Soc.  Harwick Horticultural Soc.  Aberdeen Chrysanthemum  Royal Horticultural Society  Toronto  Bath Chrysanthemum Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Birmingham Chrysanthemum Gold  Sheffield Chrysanthemum Show Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Gold  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Royal Horticultural Society Silver  Chester Paxton Society Gold  YEAR 1909  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Gold  Okanagan Fruit Union  Gold  Stirling & Pitcairn  Gold  Kaslo Fruit Growers' Assn.  Gold  Provincial Exhibit  Silver  Salt Spring Island  Silver  Victoria District  Silver  Salt Spring Island  Silver  C. T. Cooney, Kamloops  Gold  Gold  Gold  Gold  Silver  Gold  YEAR 1910  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Provincial Exhibit  Mrs. J. Smith, Spence's Bridge  Vancouver Island District  Grand Forks District  Salmon Arm District  Kamloops District  West Kootenay District  Keremeos  Okanagan District  G. R. Laws, Enderby  >tsimw>».* "<hnnmnn^9539»nnHni urn"?  Early Summerland.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 22  Editor's Note:  The subject of the future of the Kettle Valley line has been the  subject of some concern to the members of the Okanagan Historical  Society, as can be noted in the minutes of the 1979 Annual General  Meeting. In recent years the trestles have provided the highway to  some fine recreation for many hikers and cross-country skiers. It  does seem a great shame that the destruction of that rail line is now  threatened.  THE MANY TRESTLES OF MYRA CANYON  by David Wilkie  Its true name is Five Finger Canyon but over the years since the coming  of the Kettle Valley Railway, the area has taken on the name of the nearest  station - Myra. Each subdivision along the western section of the Canadian  Pacific Railway has its high point and the section of trackage between mileages 84.0 and 89.5 on the Carmi Subdivision, that tortuous stretch of line  between Midway and Penticton, remains unrivalled for scenic splendor. In  this short distance lie sixteen trestles, two steel bridges, and two tunnels, for a  total aggregate length of over a mile. As the accompanying map shows, the  trackage is laid out in the shape of a rough "W" as it dips into the east and  west forks of Canyon Creek. 23  C.P.R. Bridge 87.40, Carmi Sub. in foreground. Bridge is 35 bents in length (495 feet).  Picture is looking West.  C.P.R. Bridge 86.50 and 86.55 looking Eastward on Carmi Sub. Bridge 86.50 is on 12 degree curve and is 365 ft. long and 158 feet  high. Bridge 86.55 is 240 feet long and 70 feet  high.  C.P.R. Carmi Subdivision Bridges 85.25, 85.30, 85.35, and 85.45 looking toward Kelowna and  Okanagan Lake 3,000 feet below. All photos by David Wilkie. 24  List of Bridges, Tunnels and Trestles: Mile 84 to 89.5  Carmi Subdivision, C.P.R.  Length & Depth Degres of Curvature  Mileage  Bents  in Feet  East to West  84.00  Myra Station  84.20  Penticton Sawmills  Ltd. Spur  85.00  Trestle  13  180x31  Tangent  85.20  Trestle  7  90x26  8 Degrees Left  85.25  Trestle  7  90x39  8 Degrees Left  85.30  Trestle  11  150x40  Tangent  85.35  Trestle  17  240 x 38  12 Degrees Right  85.45  Trestle  20  285 x 48  Tangent  85.60  Trestle  7  90x32  12 Degrees Left  85.65  Tunnel  375 Feet  12 Degrees Left  85.90  Trestle  30 (Elev:  4179.17)  434 x 80  (Summit)  12 Degrees Right  86.35  Tunnel  277.5 Feet  7 Degrees Left  86.40  Trestle  14  193.8x31  10 Degrees Left  86.50  Steel D.P.G.  (Notel)  365x158  12 Degrees Right  86.55  Trestle  17  240 x 70  12 Degrees Right  87.40  Trestle  21  295.7x81 S Curve  12/12 Degrees R. L  87.90  Steel D.P.G.  (Note 2)  721x182  12 Degrees Right  88.00  Trestle  6  75x10  12 Degrees Right  88.20  Trestle  35  495x122  12 Degrees Right  88.40  Trestle  19  270x30  Tangent  (88.60)  Trestle  32 (Note 3)  465 x 86  Tangent  89.40  Trestle  25  360 x 49  Tangent  Note 1.  This is a five span bridge over the East Fork of Canyon Creek. Spans from East to West  are 85 ft., 45 ft., 105 ft., 45 ft., 85 ft.  Note 2.  This is a 12 span bridge over the West Fork of Canyon Creek. Spans are 45 ft., 45 ft., 75  ft., 45 ft., 90 ft., 45 ft., 105 ft., 45 ft., 90 ft., 45 ft., 45 ft., and 45 ft.  Note 3.  This trestle has been bypassed by a line diversion and has had the two top decks removed.  Grade over the entire distance is 0.40 percent ascending from East and West to Mile 85.90.  This past summer, I had the opportunity for a first hand look at these  trestles during a hike from Myra Siding to Mile 88.6 and back. Myra Siding is  reached easily by any but the most low slung car. We used a Volkswagen  Rabbit and had no difficulty coming up the logging road from the Kelowna-  McCulloch secondary road. Although the C.P.R. has abandoned service on  this section of the line, the track is not at all overgrown and ties appear to be  in good shape, supporting 100 lb. rail. The trestles have been renewed with  treated timber in the not-too-distant past. Only one, Bridge 88.4 is of the old,  untreated timber and it has a heavy base of timber cribbing, backfilled with  rock to keep the bents in place.  The C.P.R. has recently been refused permission to abandon the Carmi 25  Subdivision. It appears that several years ago, when the B.C. Government  wanted to activate their Kootenay and Elk Railway, to connect with the Burlington Northern in order to have a low gradient route for coal trains to reach  the Pacific Coast, the C.P.R. was quite vociferous in maintaining that, in the  event of a major stoppage on their main line, they had a perfectly good secondary main line via Grand Forks and Penticton that would handle any amount  of coal tonnage in an emergency period. It seems that the Canadian Transport Commission has remembered that boast, and has now acted to inform  the C.P.R. that the Midway-Penticton section is, by the C.P.R.'s own definition, not a "branch" line under the Branch Lines Abandonment Act.  At some future date, when the trestles are indeed in need of replacement, the C.P.R. will, no doubt, create a justifiable case for abandonment  on economic grounds, and when that time comes, it is to be hoped that the  B.C. Government through its Parks and Recreation Department will request  an outright gift of this short five-mile section of the line to be made into a  linear park in perpetuity. This would be the least the C.P.R. could do for the  citizens of the South Okanagan who have for so many years been denied the  facilities of passenger travel over this line.  Note: Since this article was written, the Canadian Transport Commission in December  1978, granted permission to the C.P.R. to abandon the Kettle Valley line from Penticton to  Midway. Several groups are working hard in an effort to have the Provincial Government take  over this section in order it will be preserved. As of June 1, 1979, no action has been taken by the  government nor has the C.P.R. begun to take up the line. In the meantime, many people are  hiking along the grade and taking pictures in case it is all gone by another summer.  First Train on Kettle Valley Line.  Photo credit — Vernon M 26  THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH  IN THE OKANAGAN VALLEY  W. Whitehead  Throughout the world there are some three million adult members of the  Seventh-day Adventist denomination, with approximately twenty-two hundred living in the Okanagan Valley, in just under twenty churches. As the  name indicates, these people believe that Christ's visible coming to the earth  the second time is imminent. Because they believe in salvation through His  atonement on the cross, they show their love for Him by obedience through  His grace to His commandments, including the fourth which enjoins the observance of the seventh-day Sabbath. They are missionary-minded people,  operating many hospitals, clinics, and schools throughout the world, and are  active in welfare and disaster relief. Their practice of healthful living adds to  their life span, as science has recorded, especially in the matter of diet and  abstinence from the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.  While the first Seventh-day Adventist church in British Columbia was  organized in Victoria in June, 1890, it was not until 1901 that their work was  begun in the Okanagan Valley. At that time a group of members from Montana settled in the Silver Creek area. Among these were two Haines families  and a McLean family, descendants of which are still represented here.  Not long afterward an evangelist, William C. Young, came to Armstrong to hold a series of meetings, resulting in the first organization of Ad-  ventists in the Okanagan. In 1903 a place of workship was erected here with  dedication in 1909.  In 1906 another series of meetings was held by the same evangelist in  Vernon, where there were already a few Adventist believers. The Vernon  church was organized in November of that year, the second in the Okanagan  Valley.  Twenty-nine miles east of Vernon was a small settlement called Reiswig,  where a few German Adventists, mostly Reiswig families, had settled. Here,  in September, 1906, Asa Smith opened the first school operated by Adventists  in the Okanagan.  By 1909 the number of members in the Silver Creek area had increased  sufficiently to merit a formal organization, which was carried out by Pastor  P. P. Adams.  In 1910 a church was organized at Round Lake by J. O. Walker, which  later became the Grandview Flats church. The Reiswig families, formerly  living east of Vernon, moved into the Grandview area in the fall of that year.  The members, including the Stickle and Wm. McLeod families, erected a  place of worship which was dedicated in December, 1911, one week after the  church dedication in Vernon.  With a number of the congregation desiring services in German, two  services were conducted each Saturday at Grandview — German in the morning, and English in the afternoon.  A church school was begun in the fall of 1911, with Lydia Stickle as  teacher. (A letter from Miss Stickle, who became Mrs. Davy and spent some  years as a missionary, was received in the summer of 1979 by friends in Armstrong, in which she recounted with pleasure her days in the Armstrong area.  She mentioned that she is in her 88th year.) 27  The following year CO. Smith became the principal, teaching in English at one end of the room, while his assistant, Henry Berg, taught in German  at the other. At that time there were 16 Reiswigs in Smith's class. At the present a ten-grade school is operated at Grandview.  In 1915, the English-speaking group formed the Lumen Grandview  church, and the same year, a Russian congregation was organized with M.S.  Krietzky as pastor.  Two years later E. R. Potter moved to the Kelowna area and led out in  the church organization in 1919. In the meantime, a family school was  opened in the home of Robert Clayton, which grew through the years to the  full-fledged high school at Rutland called Okanagan Academy.  One of the early Adventists still living in the area is Alex Carswell, residing at 3406 - 26th Street, Vernon, who came to Armstrong in May, 1919. At  that time the Adventists had just sold their first church building and were  holding their meetings in a hall. The pastor, C. Rider, assisted by Robert  Swan, held a series of meetings, at which time the Carswells were baptized.  Mr. Carswell recalls that a new church was then built on the next lot  south of the hospital, with all the members helping in the project. The front  section formed the church sanctuary, with the back part used for the children's divisions. L. D. Sutherland was local elder, Mrs. C. Rider treasurer, and  Alex Carswell deacon.  By 1928 most of the members had moved, necessitating the disbanding  of the church. The main part was sold to the Silver Creek church and the  smaller part to the Grandview group to enlarge their building.  By 1969 the Grandview church had outgrown its small quarters, and it  was voted to build a structure that would accommodate district meetings for  the area. The burning of the old church under fire department supervision  was a sad experience for the older members, but the present structure is a  beautiful edifice in keeping with both simplicity and artistic decor.  On January 6, 1973, after a lapse of forty-five years, services in Armstrong conducted by Seventh-day Adventists were resumed, using rented  quarters, the Community Church on Rosedale and Wright. Although temperatures hovered around the zero (F) mark, thirty adults were in attendance  at the first service. Two retired pastors served the church by alternating weeks  for the worship service: Pastor Ben Kuhn of Silver Creek and Pastor Desmond  Tinkler of the Otter Lake area. Members from Vernon and Grandview filled  church offices until the formal organization in October of the same year, with  24 charter members.  Evangelistic meetings were held shortly after services began in the rented  quarters, conducted by the district pastor at the time, Bob Teta. New members were baptized and others moved in from the coast, so that formal organization of the Armstrong group could take place by October, 1975.  During the months that followed, members began planning for their own  church building on land donated by Mr. and Mrs. Siegfried Heimann in the  southwest part of Armstrong, between the two schools on Pleasant Valley  Road. By October, 1975, even before the sanctuary itself was completed, the  group moved from the Community Church to meet in the foyer of their new  building.  Shortly after the sanctuary was ready for use, Evangelist Ray Halvorson  held a series of meetings in the church, and the baptistry, a special project of 28  A. J. Rogers, was used for the first baptism. Many hours of labour by members and friends have produced a neat, attractive house of worship accommodating the ninety members and more than fifty children in attendance in  1979.  The present pastor, W. E. Bergey, has announced that plans call for the  dedication of the church debt-free in November, 1979, when conference officials will be present to join members and friends in the formal presentation  to God of this sanctuary. If the number of visitors is indicative, this church  lives up to its intention of being the "friendliest church in the Okanagan  Valley."  Okanagan Mills, Armstrong, B.C. Farmers delivering wheat.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 29  ESSAYS  ESSAY CONTEST  The Okanagan Historical Society offers an annual prize of $150.00 for  the best high school or college student essay on some aspect of Okanagan  History. In addition, the Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton (including Summer-  land) and Armstrong-Enderby local branches of the Society offer prizes of  $50.00 for the best student essays from their respective areas.  The following essays are submissions for the 1979 contest, including the  major prize-winner, Dolores Weber, from Enderby, with her work on the  early Ukrainians in Grindrod. Congratulations Dolores! We hope that you will  continue writing for us for many years to come.  Carol Abernathy, Editor.  ESSAY CONTEST - GUIDELINES FOR 1980  - Submissions must be an original work written by a high school or college student.  - Submissions should be typewritten and double-spaced and showing  sources of information in footnotes where appropriate and/or bibliography.  - The subject of a submission should be some aspect of Okanagan History. Judging will be based on quality and accuracy of historical research as  well as writing style.  - Submissions should be within the range of 2000 - 5000 words.  - Submissions can be made to the Editor, or to any of the Editorial Committee Chairpersons of the various branches of the Okanagan Historical  Society. 30  PRIZE WINNER  "A HISTORY OF THE UKRAINIAN PEOPLE IN GRINDROD"  By Dolores Weber, Enderby, B.C.  Special thanks to Mr. Ed Goldstrom and Mrs. Ruby Lidstone  for their guidance and help throughout this essay.  Free land! That was one of the most powerful incentives which drew immigrants from all over Europe to the vast, unknown and largely unsettled  expanse known as Canada. The offers of free land were only part, however,  of the aggressive immigration policy being pursued by Sir Clifford Sifton,  Canada's Minister of the Interior. Advertising took place on an international  scale, exhorting the attractions of this new land. Immigration agents were  provided a bonus for every settler dispatched. Hundreds of prospects were  given free tours through the West and a liberal land policy was established.  Sifton was a shrewd man who wanted a certain type of settler; namely, hardy,  stalwart and agriculturally-oriented people who would turn the "empty" West  into productive farming land.  "I think a stalwart peasant in a sheep-skin coat, born on the  soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for ten generations, with a  stout wife and a half dozen children, is good quality."1  Among several ethnic groups who fitted Clifford Sifton's description were  the Ukrainian people of Eastern Europe. In the late 1800's conditions in their  homeland were becoming increasingly harsh. The Ukraine was divided between two empires, that of Russia and of Austria-Hungary. Under foreign  rule, the people were subject to political, cultural and social oppression and  the majority faced a hard life with meagre return. Added to this was the problem of overpopulation in western Ukraine and the increasing scarcity of land.  By comparison, the Canadian government was offering sixty-four hectares  (158.08 acres) of prairie farm land for only $10.00, while land further west  was going free to anyone who wanted to settle there.  Prior to World War I, and in the post-war years which followed, there  was an influx of Ukrainian immigrants to Canada. These immigrants, mainly  rough farmers who were ever in search of good agricultural land, settled predominantly in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Those who had lived  in the wooded areas of the western Ukraine tended to settle in the north, while  others from the steppes made their homes on the familiar flat land of the  prairies. Because the more fertile lands were, to a large extent, already settled, the newcomers found it difficult to acquire suitable holdings. The prairie climate was also much more harsh than that of their homeland. Like other  pioneer settlers, the Ukrainians suffered through cold winter temperatures  and scorching hot summers. Swarms of mosquitoes and black flies, shortages  of money and supplies, and a lack of medical care fostered further dissatisfaction. As a result, the Ukrainians became easy prey for the glowing promises made by land speculators who were so prevalent during the expansion of  the Canadian West.  In the late 1910's, a group of Ukrainian families in Sarto, Manitoba,  finding the land they were farming and the cold winters unsatisfactory, were  convinced by a company calling itself the Schwab Co. to sell their homesteads  and move to Seymour Arm in British Columbia. Reverend Bazil Chopey, the  first priest of the Ukrainian Greek-Catholic church in Grindrod, wrote: 31  "This first move of the Ukrainian people into the North Okanagan area of British Columbia was organized by a speculative land  company. It bought out the land of these people in Manitoba at  twenty-five dollars an acre and then sold them useless land in the  Seymour Arm area of British Columbia for two hundred dollars an  acre. In this way the company enriched itself by taking advantage  and exploiting our immigrant settlers."2  The first group of settlers arrived in Sicamous in 1919. From there they  were taken by boat to Seymour Arm where they were greeted by sand, hilly  country, and heavy timber. It did not take long to discover that there was no  work and all goods had to be shipped up the lake from Sicamous on barges.  The Ukrainians felt cheated and became disillusioned. British Columbia,  they had been led to believe, was a dream land of year-round sunshine,  bountiful water supplies, and most important of all, rich soil. Their homes in  Manitoba were gone, as was most of their money, so there was no choice but  to spend the winter of 1919-1920 in the abandoned shacks of a previous settlement.  The Ukrainians sent a delegate, Mr. Kost Scherba, back to Sarto to demand that the land company return their property in Manitoba or find an  alternate and more suitable location elsewhere. The company arranged a  transaction with Mr. Carlin, a man who owned most of the Grindrod area at  that time, to have the Ukrainians transferred there. Carlin was given a down-  payment and the families, including those of Jablonski, Elnisky, Bugera,  Savicky, Romaniuk, Harasemchuk, Chabaty, Pidhirney, Smook, Baran,  Bohonous and Scherba moved into Grindrod.  Upon their arrival, these settlers, being agriculturally-oriented people,  cleared the land and built their homes. It was not until several years later  when they were firmly established that Mr. Carlin gathered them together to  announce some unpleasant news. He told them the Schwab Land Company  had not paid him for the land. Apparently, because many of the Ukrainians  could not read or write English, they had accepted the assurances of the company and had not asked for a land title in return for the one they signed over.  The people were given an ultimatum: either pay Mr. Carlin thirty dollars an  acre or move on. Those who had the money paid and received their land  titles, while others, unable to pay, were forced to leave.  As a result of their experience with the Schwab Land Company, their  finances were strained to the limit. They were unable to buy cleared land  and had to settle for bush land, which required a great amount of work to  clear. Throughout the 1920's, a common sight in Grindrod was that of a new  settler blasting stumps to clear their land. Rubber tires would be laid around  the stumps to ensure neighbouring windows were not broken when the stumping powder was ignited. The families also had to make a living, which made it  necessary for the men in the community, and even many of the women and  children, to find jobs. Some men, though inexperienced and unskilled bush-  men, took jobs in the logging areas of Grandview Bench, while others left to  work on the C.P.R. railroad, a major employer during the 1920's. Still other  men took jobs picking apples and berries, working in sawmills or helping  more prosperous farmers who had already established themselves in the area.  If the men worked hard, so did the women. A typical day for many of  them was similar to that of Mrs. Anchikoski. She arose at 4:30 or 5:00 in the 32  morning to spend at least two hours clearing brush before making breakfast  and sending the children off to school. Then it was time to do the chores and  go back to working in the fields. Bedtime was either 9:00 or 10:00 p.m. in  order to start the next day early.  Everything was hand-made or recycled and nothing was wasted. Sheep  wool was cleaned, carded, and spun, so that it could be knitted into clothing  in the evening. White shirts were made from flour sacks. Even the alcohol  was homemade. In some instances, potatoes were peeled and boiled in a pot  with an upside down lid filled with ice. Condensation would form and drop  into a second pot below resulting in a potent beverage which could quench  any man's thirst.  Mrs. Jeanette Elsom recalls the time her parents and their five children  arrived from central Saskatchewan in November, 1922, with only $10.00. For  a while, they lived in a two storey house that belonged to Mr. Scherba; with  four families and fourteen kids, conditions were crowded. Mrs. Elsom's father  attained a job with the C.P.R. the following year. He earned 25 cents per  hour and had to walk from Grindrod to Salmon Arm to work. The family  managed to save a few dollars and bought a piece of property covered in  dense bush. They cleared a spot and built a one-room shack with a dirt floor.  Mrs. Elsom wrote:  "My mother would spend all day grubbing dirt from huge  stumps with axe and grub hoe. When the older boys came from  school they would help mother pry the stumps up with a long pole  and gradually pry them out. As the years went by and payment for  the property was due we discovered most of the payment went for  interest. That fixed us all. Our main food was cottage cheese and  mushrooms in season. Shoes only for school. The oldest boy helped  a farmer milk cows and we had all the skim milk we could use. It  wasn't until several years later that we could buy an old cow for  $10.00; then we had cream and butter as well. Most of the boys  stayed home to help clear land for crops. We could also afford  stumping powder after years of hard work."3  Times were lean and every opportunity was taken to earn an extra dollar.  The women at home were excellent gardeners and it was amazing what crops  of vegetables were raised from their small plots of land. Each pail of water  needed to irrigate their gardens was carried from wells. In addition to gardening, the women and girls sought housekeeping duties. Mrs. John March  (nee Shykora) recalls the times she was paid 75 cents a day for housecleaning.  Two days work meant a week's worth of sugar and rice for her family. Later,  she walked ten miles to Salmon Arm to stay in shacks for a week at a time to  pick berries with other girls. Another woman, Mrs. Mohoruk (nee Jablonsky),  one of the original settlers, tells the story of children working instead of attending school in order to help support the family. Her first job was pulling  stinkweed for $1.00 a day. The day she began work it was so hot she suffered  sunstroke. Later on, at the age of thirteen, she managed to get a job housekeeping in Vernon for a Dr. French. Despite the kindness of the family, who  treated her as one of their own, she can still recall the bouts of homesickness  that overtook her on many nights when she was alone.  Working on jobs away from home, the Ukrainian settlers in Grindrod 33  Early Dwellings  The houses built by the original Ukrainian settlers were simple in design and usually consisted of  only one or two rooms. The above pictures are of John Smaha's early home in Grindrod. The  photo on the left shows the heavy underbrush common in Grindrod during the 1920's while on  the right the neat rows of vegetable garden are evident.  Photo Credit -John Smaha  could only clear their own land and build their homes on the weekends. On  their small acreages, their first buildings were not large - the houses were, in  fact, usually smaller than the barns and outbuildings. Trees were cut down  and shaped into logs. Rafters were made of smaller logs and cedar was split  for shingles to be put on the roof. Stove pipes, carefully plastered with a mixture consisting of clay, and short hay, ran through the roof. The walls were  also thickly coated with a plaster consisting of clay, straw and water, which  could later be whitewashed. As time went by and life became somewhat easier, more substantial buildings were constructed.  The Ukrainian people were not only noted for their hard work and industrious natures, but also for their hospitality and love of get-togethers. Mrs.  Mary Strilchuk (nee Karpowich) arrived in Grindrod with her family in 1923.  They were the only Polish family in the area and thus found themselves associating more and more with the Ukrainians.  "I recall as a youngster the hospitality of these people was remarkable. It was nothing to see a group of young and old folk  gather at a home on a Sunday afternoon and there was always to be  found someone that was musically inclined and an orchestra would  be formed and dancing was enjoyed all afternoon and well into the  night - that was where I got my first lessons in dancing and I still enjoy it very much. Food was readily available; it was not fancy, but no  one went away hungry. Cards were another form of entertainment  and groups of young people would gather at a home, and here once  again music would be enjoyed by cranking up the old gramaphone  - someone always had to stand by to change the records. 34  Weddings were gala affairs, usually three days of celebrations.  There were no catering services in those days, but a group of women  would gather just prior to the wedding and prepare many roasters  of cabbage rolls and other traditional dishes. The baking of the  breads and cabbage rolls would be done in large outdoor clay  dutch-ovens which almost every home found it necessary to have. It  was amazing to see how these ladies would test these large ovens for  the right temperatures before putting in their large loaves of bread  which came out golden brown and so delicious. All during the days  of the wedding celebrations the cooks would be busy preparing and  cooking while others would be setting and resetting the tables for a  constant flow of guests. There was also a number of volunteers for  washing and wiping of dishes. Indoor plumbing and electricity were  unheard of, so buckets of water had to be carried in and heated on  wood stoves. If it was a summer wedding, a wood stove would be set  up outdoors. Refrigeration was also unheard of, but food was kept  cool in root cellars, which were a must in every household. Everyone  shared in the work and the pleasure of visiting, dancing, and just  being together."4  Mr. Tony Anchikoski remembers his childhood as being a "different"  type of life compared to the accepted lifestyle of today. The people tended to  communicate much more through Sunday visiting, parties, and week-long  weddings. Though the kids lacked material means, they had little difficulty  creating their own form of entertainment. A favourite weekly pastime, for  MARY STRILCHUK (nee Karpowich) as a young girl, sits on one of the numerous stumps found  in Grindrod. Behind her, right, is the old Scherba house. It was one of the largest homes in the  area and was two storeys high. When the Scherba family moved away from Grindrod in the mid-  20's, it was carefully disassembled and loaded on a railway flat car for transport to Vernon.  Photo Credit - Mary Strilchuk 35  Mrs. Anchikoski, 87, is the only remaining original Ukrainian settler in Grindrod. She came  directly from Sheho, Saskatchewan in the fall of 1921 together with her husband and four children. For two months the family stayed with neighbours while the house was being built; they  finally moved in during February the following year. Mrs. Anchikoski still resides in the same  house.  The congregation in the early 1920's when the St. Peter's and Paul's Church in Grindrod was  being constructed.  Photo credit — Mrs. V. Mohoruk (Vernon) 36  example, was climbing nearby hills and mountains. It was not unusual to  spend complete days in the woods. In the winters, crude skiis were fashioned  from 1 inch by 4 inches by soaking the wood in hot water and bending it into  the proper shape. During the summer months, swimming, fishing and hiking  were common leisure time activities.  "I don't remember the depresson being that bad. We lacked  clothes, yes, but there was enough food; we had horses, cattle, ducks  and chickens. For Christmas we got new pencils and scribblers, instead of toys, but we were just as happy. There was a lot of fun for  both young and old."5  Another popular event in Grindrod was the 11:00 a.m. passenger train,  which stopped to unload mail during its daily run from Sicamous to Vernon.  It became an excuse for all the young people to congregate and socialize.  Mrs. Kathy Strilchuk and her sister were at Danforth's corner one morning  when they heard the steam whistle: "I still remember her making me run all  the way to Grindrod so we wouldn't miss the train and the get-together. She  was coughing quite badly by the time we reached the train, but it was more  important."6  In 1923, the Ukrainians faced open discrimination over the issue of  schooling for their children. Apparently, the school board was determined  not to allow the immigrants' children to attend the Grindrod school, wanting  the Ukrainian people to build their own school. The board's reluctance can  partially be attributed to the fact that the teachers would be faced with teaching a new language, English, to the children, since the majority spoke only  their parents' native tongue. After two outdoor meetings were held, the issue  remained unresolved. At the third meeting, however, a lady came from Salmon Arm and, according to Nick Lopaschuk, told the board that it didn't  Bishop Butka from Winnipeg dedicated St. Peter's and Paul's Ukrainian Church in the Spring of  1927.  Photo credit — Mrs. V. Mohoruk (Vernon) 37  matter whether the children were Ukrainian, Japanese, or Chinese — they  had a right to a good education. The matter was settled and the next morning  all the Ukrainian children went to school with smiles on their faces.  Despite all the hardships the community had to face and overcome, it  seems to have thrived and by 1923 there was a strong move to construct a  place of worship. Religion constituted a very important part of the Ukrainians' lives and played a central role in their social activities.  The people  St. Peter's and Paul's Church  in Grindrod was built in 1924.  It is the oldest one of its kind  in the province of B.C.  The interior of St. Peter's and Paul's Church in Grindrod after recent restoration (1978-79). At  the end of the aisle is the altar upon which rest the Holy Things. Candles flank the tabernacle  located in the centre of the altar. Part of the inside decor of the Ukrainian ■■Sfe'  Church in Grindrod showing religious *<|L  pictures and crosses. ^  elected a church building committee comprised of Kost Scherba, Gregory  Bohonous and Dymtro Ilnytski. Mr. Carlin had previously sold the Ukrainian  community land for a cemetery for $60.00 and had donated six lots for a  church in 1922. This meant that the construction of the church by volunteer labour and under the leadership of P. T. Buchko could begin immediately in May, 1923. The church building was later completed in 1924 at the  cost of $820.60; this figure included a $300.00 donation from Father Mac-  Kenzie, a priest from Salmon Arm. Some interesting features of the interior  of the church which remain today are the old brass ornaments and crosses  brought over from the Ukraine during the early 1900's.  Services in the church were first conducted by Reverend W. B. Mc-  Kenzie, V. F., of Kelowna, B.C., who founded the parish at Grindrod and  who ministered to the spiritual needs of the Ukrainian people from their arrival until the autumn of 1926. He was followed by Rev. Basil Chopey, Rev.  Lubomyr Sywenky (1950-1951), Rev. Mathew Pawliuk (1951-1952), Rev.  Bohdan M. Hanushevsky (1953-1955), Rev. Basil Woloshyn (1956-1958),  Rev. Michael Stewchuk (1959), Rev. Marko Stek (1959-1964), Rev. Raphael  Boychuk, OSBM, (1965-1966) and Rev. Marko Stek (1967-1971).*  The Ukrainians had many religious customs which they had brought  with them. Mrs. Mary Strilchuk, for example, recalls the "Blessing of the  Water" church parade, which took place during the wintertime, two weeks  after Christmas. In colourful costumes and banners, the people would be led  chanting and singing by the priest. The procession would walk to the river  and cut a cross out of the ice for the priest to bless. Afterwards he would visit  the homes of the congregation members and bless them with water. Some  winters, the river would not be frozen and a tub of water would be brought to  the church. In later years, this became the customary method of "Blessing the 39  Water." Another popular religious observance was Easter.  "Before the Catholic church (in Grindrod) was built, Mass was  said in the Anglican church by the kind permission of Rev. Blay,  who was a minister in Grindrod at that time. For someone who attended church in Grindrod as a young girl, the beautiful Easter sunrise service made a lasting impression.  The congregation would  stand outside the church and as the first glimpse of the rising sun  was seen the bell would ring and the priest would lead the procession  into the church with everyone singing "Christ has risen." Inside the  church it seemed there were a hundred candles lit, signifying enlightenment to mankind and that Christ was God indeed and had  triumphed over death. After the song and Mass, the mothers and  grandmothers would have baskets of decorated Easter eggs which  they handed out to the children, who would receive them with great  delight. It was a happy ending after sitting through a long service."6  Church fund-raising was often woven into an enjoyable social activity.  The young girls, for instance, would prepare fancy lunch boxes filled with a  variety of goodies which would be sold to the highest bidder. The money  raised would go toward church building and maintenance costs. Another  church function, though not a fund-raising activity, was the annual outdoor  service and picnic held on July 12, in honour of St. Peter's and Paul's Day.  People from Kelowna, Kamloops, Stepney and Armstrong usually attended  this popular event.  Mrs. Stefanyk arrived in Grindrod at a time when many of the older settlers had moved to other parts of the country and the church congregation  had been considerably depleted.  "We came to Grindrod in April, 1943. My mother and father  came with us. They could not speak English well, so we all attended  the Ukrainian Catholic church. It still had 2x4's in the inside. Then  Father Shadan came and he helped the congregation to have entertainment on the weekends, box socials or pie sales, and money was  raised to finish the church nicely from the inside. Most of the early  settlers mentioned were not in Grindrod anymore, but a lot of newcomers joined the Church. I was secretary for quite a few years, and  at that time, there was 25 or more church members. A few families  came from Armstrong and Stepney. That was in the '40's and '50's.  Then quite a few old-timers passed away and a few familes moved  away. Our young members married into English-speaking families,  so there were not enough members left to support the priest and  keep up the Church. So the last service we had was on January 4,  * Author's Note: The priests' names and the dates were taken  from a pamphlet entitled "The 25 th Anniversary of the Ukrainian  Catholic Church in Grindrod." From various interviews I gathered  that the names and dates may not be in correct order and some  priests may have been omitted entirely. No other source could be  found, however, and the majority of the interviewees were satisfied  with the given information. 40  1970, with Father Zubeck."7  St. Peter's and Paul's Ukrainian church in Grindrod is the oldest of its  kind according to Tony Anchikoski, son of one of the original settlers. Tony  is a member of the new church committee formed after rumours began to  circulate in the spring of 1977 that the land on which the church now stands  was to be sold and the building torn down. The rumours, later found to be  untrue, nevertheless rekindled community interest and plans were drawn up  to restore the landmark.  In February, 1978, the church committee obtained a grant of $500.00  from the Enderby Historical Society to begin a program of summer work  cleaning up the surrounding grounds and cemetery, as well as painting the  exterior of the church. The interior of the church is still being restored by  volunteers.  Father Sheffield, a Roman Catholic priest in Salmon Arm, wrote to  Bishop Jerome Chimny, head of the Ukrainian church in New Westminster,  asking to hold services four times a years in the Grindrod Ukrainian church.  Permission was granted, and after eight years of being shut down due to a  lack of a congregation, the first service was held in the spring of 1978, with  Reverend John Sheffield officiating. Church services are now held four times  each year.  After the church was completed in 1924, the Ukrainian community continued to grow as more settlers were attracted to Grindrod. During the mid-  30's, the community was at its heighth with a total of 45% of the people living  in the area being of Ukrainian origin. Gradually over the years, however, the  children grew up and intermarried with other ethnic groups. Many moved to  Vernon or other parts of Canada to seek their places in the world in all types  of professions. Many of the older people passed away or moved to larger  centres to retire, further decreasing the Ukrainian population. Today there  are only a few Ukrainian families remaining in Grindrod.  The Ukrainians in Grindrod were part of a larger national scene. Immigrants, whether Ukrainian, Scottish, French or British were utilizing their  skills, knowledge and hard work to till the land, lumber the forests, mine the  rich natural resources, fish the bountiful waters, and create newer and more  diversified industries all across Canada. Canada was no longer merely a huge  expanse of wilderness sparsely populated by natives, but a working, driving  nation intent on bringing itself to the cultural and economic levels of the older and more advanced European nations.  Canada grew through the influx of immigrants and the effect of these  peoples on her economic, social and political life has been tremendous. Today Canada is amongst the leading industrial nations of the world and competes actively in the world market. Her rich soil, especially in the prairie regions, has made her a top food producer. Canada also enjoys a standard of  living which is almost the highest in the world. This great prosperity is, of  course, primarily due to Canada's rich natural resources. Yet, without people willing to devote long hours to develop these resources, this wealth could  never have been realized.  Peopled by a wide range of ethnic groups, Canada's character was not  molded into a definite form, but rather was a medley of many distinct cultures and heritages. Like the Ukrainian people in Grindrod, many of Canada's settlers originally tended to locate in large groups with similar cultural 41  backgrounds. It was not unusual for the older people in these groups to retain their language and never adopt either French or English. They continued to practise their centuries old customs, bake traditional dishes handed  down through generations, and maintain their handicraft skills. Their children and the younger members of the community were, however, exposed to  different ideas and a changing lifestyle which they gradually came to accept.  Eventually they intermarried and drifted away from the original settlement.  This trend occurred in Grindrod and resulted in a substantial decrease in  the Ukrainian population. It must be noted, that Grindrod was a small centre  subsisting predominantly on farming and larger centres like Vernon offered  greater opportunity and a more promising economic future. Those who  stayed, however, became a definite asset to the community of Grindrod as  they continue to follow the creeds of hard work and basic honesty set down by  their ancestors.  The life pioneer Canada offered was often harsh and unyielding, designed to test the mettle, determination and vigor of the new settlers. Those  who survived the onslaughts of weather, the difficulties of learning a new  language, loneliness, racial prejudice and natural disasters reaped the many-  sided benefits of this rich country. Strong memorable characters, direct descendants of a hard life of trials and tribulations, were formed. The people  became proud of their new Canadian identity which they helped to form and  confident that seemingly insurmountable problems could be overcome. As  one Ukrainian settler said, "The Ukrainian settlers in Grindrod suffered  through hardships like everyone else, but there was always singing and laughing. It was not a bad time — we were happy just being together."  FOOTNOTES  1 Gregorovich, Andrew, "The Ukrainians," edited by Norman Sheffe, Many Cultures,  Many Heritages, Canada, McGraw-Hill Ltd., 1975. Page 503.  2 Chopey, Bazil Rev., "The 25th Anniversary of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Grindrod (1924-1949), " Edmonton, Alberta Printing Co., 1978  3 Elsom, Jeanette, May 18, 1979, Enderby, B.C.  4 Strilchuk, Mary, May 21, 1979, Grindrod, B.C.  5 Anchikoski, Tony, May 18, 1979, Grindrod, B.C.  6 Hawrys, Mrs. T., May 24, 1979, Enderby, B.C.  7 Stefanyk, Mrs. J., May 19, 1979, Enderby, B.C. 42  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Original Sources - Interviews concerning "The History of the Ukrainian People in Grindrod." Names are in alphabetical order.  1. Anchikoski, Tony May 18, 1979 Grindrod, B.C.  2. Elsom, Jeanette May 18, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  3. Halksworth, Kathy May 18, 1979 Grindrod, B.C.  4. Handcock, Gerald S. May 18, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  5. Hawrys, Tony May 24, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  6. Lidstone, Ruby May 18, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  7. Lipiski.Joe May 19, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  8. Lopaschuk, Nick March, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  9. March, John March, 1979 Vernon, B.C.  10. Mohoruk, Mrs. V. March, 1979 Vernon, B.C.  11. Smaha,John May 18, 1979 Grindrod, B.C.  12. Smaha, Paul May 24, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  13. Stefanyk, John May 19, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  14. Stickland, Ann May 19, 1979 Enderby, B.C.  15. Strilchuk, Mary May 21, 1979 Grindrod, B.C.  Secondary Sources  1. Chopey, Bazil Rev., "The 25th Anniversary of the Ukrainian Catholic Church in Grindrod  (1924-1949)," Edmonton, Alberta Printing Co., 1978, p. 10-29. Kindly supplied by the  Most Reverend Jerome Chimy O.S.B., D.D., J.CD., of New Westminster, B.C. Translated by Peter Maksylevich of Enderby, B.C.  2. Gregorovich, Andrew, "The Ukrainians," edited by Norman Sheffe, Many Cultures, Many  Heritages, Canada. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 1976. 544 pages, (P. 497-536)  3. Martinello, I.L., "Call Us Canadians," Toronto, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd., 1976. 376  pages, (P. 227-229)  MEADOW LARK     Rev. E. S. Fleming  Herald of the Dawn I salute you  your morning reveille is sweet.  I gladly forsake my pillow  A brand new day to greet.  No lover of trees or of forests  You make your home on the ground.  Some fence-post or roof-top your platform  Whence your song is heard all around.  As harbinger of spring you are welcome  you assure us that winter is past.  As troubador of the summer  Each song is as good as the last.  In autumn you still serenade us  With lyrics both cheerful and strong.  So we thank the good Lord of heaven  For sending this seraph of song.  O Meadow Lark! O Meadow Lark!  Dispenser of good cheer.  Though you fly away to the sunny south,  You will come again next year. 43  LAND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES IN THE OKANAGAN  (1890's)  By Carol Scott  During the 1890's, the Okanagan underwent a great deal of change.  The year 1890 marked the beginning of land development activities in the  Okanagan which included the building of new transportation routes; the subdivision, irrigation, planting, and sale of land; and the planning of new town-  sites. The valley experienced drastic changes in land use and population.  Transportation had the greatest effect on the area. The initial capital  that reached the valley came through financing the railway. The railroad attracted additional men of capital who formed land companies and began  many of the land development activities in the area. The first railway line to  come to the valley was the Shuswap and Okanagan Railway which was completed from Sicamous to Okanagan Landing in 1892. The Vernon News,  started in 1891 by G. G. Mackay, a well known land developer, excitedly reported the progress of the S&O hoping to use the coming railway as promotion for further settlement and development in the area. The Vernon News  stated that the S&O Railway had a two-fold mission:  ". . . to facilitate trade already established, and to create commerce, which, without its aid would be impossible to carry on to advantage."1  The Vernon News supported the idea that the railway facilities would help  turn Vernon into a natural market and supply point as well as aid in developing the valley's resources and give the area easy access to larger markets.  When the S&O was completed in 1892, there was an increase in settlement  and the need arose for expanded passenger and freight service on the lake.  Before 1892, the valley had endured a sufficient yet unreliable steamer service operated by a most interesting character, Captain Thomas D. Shorts.  Captain Shorts ended his business in 1892 and the CPR began a new passenger and freight service in 1893. On May 3, 1893, they launched a 554 ton  sternwheeler, the "Aberdeen"2, which acted as an extension of the S&O line  to the rest of the valley. In 1907 when traffic had considerably increased, the  CPR launched another sternwheeler, the "Okanagan."3  The establishment of reliable transportation was slow in South Central  British Columbia but the first new routes had the effect of opening the Okanagan Valley up to a great influx of settlers. Also attracted to the valley were  a number of financiers who established various land companies in the Okanagan. Most of the land companies were backed by foreign capital but some  were financed by local investments. The land companies played a crucial  role in the land development activities. They were responsible for subdividing  large tracts of land into smaller plots which were suitable for prospective farmers who did not have large amounts of capital. The land companies also began a great deal of the irrigating and planting in the area.  One very prominent local company was the Okanagan Land and Development Company with Mr. G. G. Mackay as president and general manager. Mr. Mackay and his company bought a number of the large ranches in  the Okanagan for subdivision and resale. Included were ranches belonging to  Tom Ellis at Okanagan Mission4, D. Nicholson and A. Lefebre of 800 acres  each5, and John Creighton6. Most of the land bought by the Okanagan Land 44  and Development Company was subdivided and sold in parcels which were  usually 10, 20, 30, 40 or 100 acres in size. The price of the lots varied according to the amount of improvement the land had undergone. For example, in  1891, 2,000 acres of land at Okanagan Mission were advertised in the Vernon  News for $60.00 an acre in parcels from 10 to 40 acres. The land had been  planted and was being sold as fruit farms.7  Many of the land companies cultivated tracts of land to be sold as farm  land. In June, 1891, the Vernon News ran an article, "At Cost of Cultivation, "  which explained a method by which land owners could cultivate their land  and subsequently increase its value. The Vernon News advised owners to divide their acreage into blocks which were to be planted and fenced in. The  property was to be taken care of by the vendor until the orchards commenced  to bear, and then they became the property of the purchaser. This method  was advantageous to the seller as it allowed good profits from the enormous  interest. There were also advantages for the purchaser who was able to make  the payments over a period of time.8  With these small orchards and farms available for settlers, the Okanagan  began a gradual change in agriculture from ranching to intensive farming.  This change demanded an increase in irrigation. The early irrigation methods were not sufficient for the growing fruit industry. As early as 1860, pioneers experimented with a variety of irrigation methods. "The pioneer irrigators in the valley built individual ditches and irrigated the lower lands close to  the streams . . .."9 These systems were sufficient until the farms and orchards  were extended to higher bench lands. In 1892, the need for better irrigation  was expressed in the Vernon News:  "Now that the population of the district is fast increasing and  railroad facilities encourage the raising of crops which until lately  would not have found a market, it would be well to see a little more  enterprise displayed around and to the south of Vernon in way of  rendering land, hitherto useless, valuable by means of irrigation."10  It was around this time that a number of land companies experimented  with irrigation. The first large irrigation system was set up by the Okanagan  Land and Development Company in the Vernon area.  Beginning in 1900, more irrigation systems were set up by other companies. The Belgo Canadian Land Company, backed by a Belgian Syndicate,  began irrigation activities on Mission Creek. They took the water out of the  North Fork of Mission Creek and kept it in a high altitude ditch from where it  was able to irrigate six hundred acres of range land. A storage dam was built  at the head waters of the North Fork.11 The Belgo Canadian Land Company  also built a domestic water system on Eight Mile Creek. "A small dam was  built on this creek where the present road crosses it, and the water was carried by wood stave pipe all the way to the Belgo properties."12  Other irrigation projects were carried out in 1906 by the Central Okanagan Land Company in the Rutland area on Mill Creek. A dam was built  on Mill Creek and the water was diverted through a long main ditch to the  Company's lots.13  Now that the land was subdivided, irrigated and planted, only one other  element was needed to make the scene complete — settlers. Although settlers  had been coming to the valley since before 1890, the land companies needed a  steady stream of settlers in order to realize a profit, so the land companies set 45  out on an advertising campaign to attract settlers from all over the world as  well as the rest of Canada. "The advertisements attracted world-wide interest,  and soon settlers from many nations were heading to the Okanagan."14 The  influx of settlers during the 1890's resulted in the growth of townsites throughout the Okanagan.  Some of the townsites were formed as transportation centres and others  were the product of careful planning. The towns of Peachland, Summerland  and Naramata grew out of one man's interest and vision. J. M. Robinson,  who visited the area from Manitoba, was surprised at the conditions he found,  so decided to stay. He formed the Peachland Townsite Company in 1899.15  One thousand acres of irrigable land was purchased and subdivided. The  land was put up for sale and quickly bought by settlers. "Outgrowth of the  Peachland success, where all available lots were quickly snapped up, resulted  in the establishment of another townsite at Summerland by Robinson."16  The Okanagan Land and Development Company was active in town  planning. They were helpful in planning the Vernon townsite. In 1891, G. G.  Mackay and his vice-president, F. C. Innes, erected two buildings on Barnard  Ave. They subdivided the lots on Barnard Ave. and priced them at $800 for  inside lots and $1000 for corner lots.17 The Company donated a number of  lots to the town for a proposed hospital, church and other improvements.  With their promotion, the town grew quickly. By 1911, the population of  Vernon had increased to 2671 from a mere 802 in 1901.  Vernon, Kelowna, Peachland and Summerland all grew out of land development activities in agriculture. Other towns such as Fairview (now a ghost  town) and Okanagan Falls were less successful. The townsite of Okanagan  Falls was carefully planned by W. J. Snodgrass, who was backed by an American Syndicate, but the town never reached Snodgrass' expectations.  The economic development of the Okanagan Valley was spurred by an  interaction between the various land development activities but it was the  opening of new transportation routes that provided the initial impetus for  growth. The railway attracted men of capital. Some of these men put their  efforts into land companies which played a large role in the development of  the Okanagan. The land companies planted, subdivided, and irrigated range  land and gradually changed the agriculture in the valley to intensive farming.  The valley, advertised by land companies, was attractive to settlers because of  the new transportation routes that gave it easy access.  FOOTNOTES  1 "Shuswap and Okanagan R.R.," Vernon News, p. 1, June 3, 1891, (Commonwealth  Microfilm Library Project).  2 J. A. Kitson, "The Role of Inland Water Transportation in the Economic Development of South Central British Columbia," (Penticton, B.C.) p. 8.  3 A. Downs, Paddlewheels on the Frontier, (Surrey, B.C.: Foremost Publishing Co. Ltd.,  1971), Vol. II, p. 21.  4 "Town & District," Vernon News, June 18, 1891, p. 4.  5 "Just What the District Requires," Vernon News, July 9, 1891, p. 1.  6 Vernon News, September 10, 1891, p. 1.  7 Vernon News, July 9, 1891, p. 1. 46  8 "At Cost of Cultivation," Vernon News, June 18, 1891, p. 1.  9 M. A. Ormsby, A Study of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, (University of  British Columbia: April, 1931), p. 80.  10 "Irrigation," Vernon News, February 25, 1892, p. 1.  11 W. Quigley, "Belgo Canadian Land Company," Okanagan Historical Society Report,  Vol.25, 1961, pp. 140-142.  12 Ibid, pp. 142-143.  13 A. W. Gray, "The Story of Irrigation — Lifeblood of the Okanagan Valley's Economy," Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 19, 1965, p. 92.  14 Downs, p. 78.  15 Ormsby, p. 82.  16 Ibid, p. 83.  "     Vernon News, June 18, 1891, p. 1.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Aikens, K. A., "The Peachland Story," Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 37, 1973, pp.  73-79.  Cochrane, H., "Land & Agriculture Company of Canada," Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 26, 1962, pp. 107-111.  Downs, A., Paddlewheels on the Frontier (Surrey, B.C.: Foremost Publishing Co. Ltd., 1971)  Vol. II, pp. 15-25.  Gray, A., "Central Okanagan Land Company," Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 29,  1965, pp.91-97.  Gray, A. W., "The Story of Irrigation — Lifeblood of the Okanagan Valley's Economy," Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 32, 1968, pp. 69-79.  Kitson, J. A., "The Role of Inland Water Transportation in the Economic Development of South  Central British Columbia" (Penticton, B.C., Okanagan College Library — Vertical File).  McCulloch, A., "The Railway Development in Southern British Columbia," (Penticton, B.C.,  Okanagan College Library — Vertical File, 1938).  Ormsby, M.A., A Study of the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia, (University of British Columbia, April 1931).  Quigley, W., "Belgo Canadian Land Company, Okanagan Historical Society Report, Vol. 25,  1961, pp. 140-144.  Vernon News, Vernon, B.C., May 1891-December 1893, Okanagan College Library, (Commonwealth Microfilm Library, Division of West Canadian Graphic Industries Ltd.). 47  SOME INDIAN TRIBES OF NORTH AMERICA  AND THEIR COMMUNICATION  Byjanette Anderson  Mt. Boucherie Secondary School, Kelowna, B.C.  Editor's Note: When it is taken into consideration that this essay has been written by a Grade 9 student, I really think that it deserves a great deal of praise — Congratulations, Janette.  The Indian population of North America was made up of many different  tribes. Communicaton between them was often difficult if not impossible because they each spoke a different dialect.  When the first white settlers arrived on the continent understanding the  customs and dealing with these various tribes was difficult because of the different dialects. In the Pacific Northwest region from the Rockies to the Pacific stretching from Alaska to Oregon and eventually California, the difficulty  was overcome by the introduction and use of the Chinook "jargon," a form of  communication finally understood and spoken by almost all Indian tribes and  white men alike.  To name some Indian tribes, we find that in Eastern Canada and Northeastern United States were Algonkians, Hurons, Sioux and Iroquois. The  Iroquoians were a proud but fierce and warlike race and were called "The  Six Nations" because they were made up mainly of six other tribes — the  Mohawks, Oneidas, Cayugas, Senecas, Onondagas and Tuscaroras.  The Hurons, a more friendly race with whom the Jesuit Priests worked  through much hardship to teach Christianity, were almost completely wiped  out of existance by the fierce Iroquois in constant massacres until only a few  descendants remain near Quebec.  Tribes on the Central Plains, to mention only a few, were Crees, Ojib-  ways, Pawnees, Cheyenne and Sioux. On the Canadian Prairies the main  tribes were Blackfoot, Sarci, Stoney, Plains-Cree and Plains-Ojibway. These  Plains Indians were noted hunters and the once great herds of Buffalo or  Bison as well as other animals provided most of their food. Hides of animals  were used for making clothes (tanned and made into buckskin) and shelters  (teepees). Other foods used were berries, roots, plants, birds and fish.  In the Pacific Northwest region some of the main tribes were the Haida  of the Queen Charlotte Islands and nearby mainland, the Kwakiutl of northern Vancouver Island and the mainland opposite, the Nootka on the west side  of the Island, the Salish of the Coast and southeastern Interior mainland, and  the Tsinuk (Chinooks) at the mouth of the Columbia River on the northern  tip of what is now Washington State.  Communication  Communication between these tribes of the Pacific Northwest was made  easier by the use of a few common words which closely resembled those of  another tribe. Examples: The word meaning 'no' in the Chinook Indians'  tongue was "Waket"; in Nootkan, 'wik' and 'wake' in the jargon. "Com-  matux" of the Chinooks was 'kummetak' in Nootkan; 'kemitak' in Clayoquot  became 'kumtux' in the 'jargon,' meaning "understand" or to know.  In British Columbia and in the whole Pacific Northwest where there  were some one hundred or more different Indian tribes, a common language  was developed known as the "ChinookJargon." 48  This 'jargon' gradually spread and was used by probably 100,000 people  of Native Indian, Whites and mixed bloods in trading, bartering and in the  homes. My great-grandparents, I am told, spoke the 'jargon' fluently during  their early life in the Nicola and Otter Valleys conversing with the Thompson  and Similkameen Indians and some of this has been taught down through our  family, but skill in its use can only be preserved by practice.  Many people have thought that the Chinook jargon was introduced by  the men of the Hudson's Bay Company. This is not right. No doubt some sort  of trade language was used in the Northwest before the white men arrived.  When John Jewett in his captivity was a slave to Nootkan Chief Maquin-  na, he recorded some eighty words and ten of these are in the vocabulary of  the Chinook 'jargon.' Slowly the 'jargon' spread and a book published in  1909, written by George Shaw, "Chinook Jargon and How to Use It," stated  that 259 words made up the jargon. Of these 18 were Nootkan, 40 English,  34 French and 111 from Tsinuk (Chinook), the language used along both  banks of the Columbia. The jargon is fairly easy to learn because the sentence  structure and words follow a similar pattern to English structure. However,  many Chinook words had many meanings and word coupling results in the  same word used many ways to form sentences which in our English would require great numbers of words.  Mamook in the 'jargon' is a verb — to make, to work, the act of doing  anything, action, labour, etc. Iktas — things, dress, clothes, etc. Kah means  "where?, whence?" Klatawa — go, travel, move away, leave, get out. Mika —  you; yours, Nika — me, mine. Tum-tum — the heart, mind, thought, plan.  Sentences: Mamook tum-tum — to think, to reason. "Kah mika klatawa?" —  where are you going? "Kun-a-mokst" — both, together, with. "Nika klatawa  kun-a-mokst mika tillicum" — I am going with your friend. "Cultas" — bad,  no good, useless, filthy. "Wa-wa" — speech, to talk, anything to do with  speech. Kah mika wa-wa? — what did you say? "Cultus wa-wa" — idle talk,  jabber, saying bad words.  In our own area where the Okanagan Indians are of the Salish tribe, the  Okanagan Indian language makes use of the glottal stop, often to change the  meaning of a word. It is done by stopping the air stream in the throat while  saying the word. In this way the same word will have two meanings. Example:  snamotn meaning "chair" becomes snam?otn (the stop between 'm' and 'o'  changes the word to mean "stool."  Still dealing with communication, we could consider picture-writing,  known to us now as "Pictographs." The Indians had no written language  until the Chinook jargon was developed and several books later written on it.  Indians passed their stories, history and legends from one generation to the  next by telling their stories to their children and friends — "tillicums" in the  jargon.  However, some messages were given by means of picture-writing on rock  faces in many areas. Certain colored clays were used to make paint some of  which are still to be found in the Similkameen and other local areas; one being between Princeton and Tulameen where vermillion (red) clay banks can  be seen along the roadside. Examples of the meanings of some of these pictographs are: Hunger might be shown by a picture of a man with his ribs showing. Sorrow and sadness — an eye with tears falling from it. There are several  places in the Similkameen and Okanagan areas where these pictographs can 49  still be seen today and these valuable reminders of our heritage should be  carefully guarded and preserved.  Communication between people is one of the most important ways of  understanding each other. Language is the expression of thoughts and feelings by means of vocal sounds and if the language used by each and all persons could be understood by all, then communication would be better, people  would better understand each other's way of life and perhaps there might be  fewer problems between groups, races, countries and nations.  The Chinook 'jargon,' a bit of a mixture of languages; some Indian,  some English and French, but mostly based on words from the Chinook tribe  of the Pacific Northwest, solved the problem of understanding communication between whites and Native Indians during the early days of the fur traders, gold seekers, and finally the settlers. Very few are left who speak the 'jargon' well.  Perhaps it would be wise for young people to learn this 'jargon' and help  preserve some of our heritage and increase our understanding.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books of Knowledge, #1, p. 162, #2, pp. 548-549, #20, p. 7364.  Okanagan Historical Annual Report No. 33, p. 145.  Edward Harper Thomas, "Chinook - A History and Dictionary."  Eric D. Sismey, "Klahawya Sikhs," an article in Canada West Magazine.  My Grandmother - Mollie Broderick, Past President, Okanagan Historical Society, Penticton  Branch, who gave up a lot of her time to help me gather all the information which it took  to put this essay together. 50  MRS. ETHEL DOERFLINGER  By Shelley Raboch  A. L. Fortune Secondary School  Enderby, B.C.  Mrs. Ethel Doerflinger of Grindrod is an old-timer from the  pioneer days. The following is a brief account of a few of her recollections as to what the area was like then and the type of lifestyle she  had.  Mrs. Doerflinger's parents were Mr. Thomas Gray and Kathleen Gray.  Her father came from Naburn, York, Yorkshire, England and settled in Mara  in 1888. Her mother came to Canada from Budapest, Hungary in 1894, and  resided in Mara with people she knew who were formerly from Hungary. In  Mara, Mrs. Doerflinger's mother met her father, and they were wed in December of 1894.  Mrs. Doerflinger was born July 28, 1896, in Mara, B.C., and is the eldest  of eleven children. Two brothers and one sister passed away in infancy. To  date there are four sisters and two brothers surviving. There was no bridge  across the Shuswap River, or Spallumcheen River, as it was then called. Because of this, Mrs. Doerflinger's father had to row the boat across the river to  pick up a lady who attended Mrs. Doerflinger's mother when Mrs. Doerflinger came into this world.  In 1897, a bridge was built over the river. Even though Mrs. Doerflinger was then very young, she can remember the bridge being constructed,  for there was a huge pile of timber and boards piled on her father's farm,  which was visible as one approached the bridge. Not only does she remember  the materials which were used to build the bridge, but Mrs. Doerflinger remembers the tent the engineer had, which served as his office. After the  bridge was completed, Mrs. Doerflinger's brother and Mrs. Doerflinger would 51  run to get onto the bridge as soon as they heard the "Red Star" boat blow its  whistle at the bend of the river. The blowing of the whistle was a signal to the  person in charge to open the span to allow the boat to go through.  In order to keep the school in operation the attendance had to be kept  Mrs. Doerflinger at the age of two on "Fred" one of the many family pets. 52  up, so Mrs. Doerflinger started school at the age of five years. The school had  ten pupils. At school, the pupils used slates and slate pencils for their desk  work. Schools did not have the grade system as they do now, but, rather, the  books were first, second, and third primer, and then first, second, third, and  fourth reader. Mrs. Doerflinger reached the fourth reader, which is equivalent to the seventh grade. At this time, Mrs. Doerflinger quit school, not because she wanted to, but because it was necessary. Her mother needed help at  home.  Being the eldest of the family, Mrs. Doerflinger used to help her mother  with the younger children, and, as she grew older, more and more chores  were considered her responsibility. Although there was always a lot of work to  do on the farm, it was for Mrs. Doerflinger indeed an enjoyable type of life.  Milking cows, feeding animals and separating milk were among her daily  tasks.  Although Mrs. Doerflinger's family worked hard, there was always time  made for family enjoyment. Each year when school closed for the summer  holidays, there was a community holiday when everyone joined in sports and  a picnic.  Mrs. Doerflinger remembers so well when, at the age of eight, under her  mother's supervision, she mixed and baked her very first batch of bread. It  turned out very well, and her mother and father were very proud of her. Later  in life, Mrs. Doerflinger married a baker, a Mr. J. Doerflinger who maintained the bakery in Enderby. The bakery's location then was the same as it  is today.  In the early days, Mrs. Doerflinger's family packed water from the river  and depended on coal oil lamps for light, and wood stoves for heat. Her  mother and father later had a water system installed. A gas engine was used  to pump water into a large tank twice a day, which allowed for inside plumbing.  Roads in Mrs. Doerflinger's day were mostly gravel and quite narrow.  One could not see across the valley at Mara. Since then, farmers have cleared  land in order to extend the farm space. Today, one can get a clear view from  the river road in Mara, to the main highway, which is paved.  In the early days it was a common sight in the summer months to see the  Indians going down the river in their canoes, heading for Mara Lake. They  often stopped to camp overnight on Mrs. Doerflinger's father's farm and  usually wanted fresh milk and eggs. Often, when they returned from the lake,  they would have a nice, fresh trout, which they would want to trade for some  home-cured and smoked bacon, which Mrs. Doerflinger's father always had.  Mrs. Doerflinger shall always remember going up the mountain with her  family to pick huckleberries with the Indians — Chief Nicholas, his wife, his  family and part of his band. The Indians showed her family how to make  camp, and make a bed from fir boughs. But what Mrs. Doerflinger found to  be the most impressive of all was an Indian ritual that took place in the early  morning, at sunrise, and again at sunset. The following is Mrs. Doerflinger's  account of this ritual:  In the early morning the Indian women and girls would kneel  facing the rising sun and pray, while the men and boys sat in a reverent position. Exactly the same ritual took place in the evening 53  while the sun was setting. We all joined them, sitting with out heads  bowed. I have never experienced anything more beautiful than being so close to nature.  Mrs. Doerflinger, as an old-timer feels that the Indians were very fine  people.  Today, living alone in her Grindrod home, Mrs. Doerflinger keeps herself fully informed as to what is happening in the world around her. She sometimes feels that life in the Pioneer Days was a better way of life, for people  appreciated each other and their possessions more. Even so, she is not one to  complain.  Mrs. Doerflinger keeps herself busy writing letters, baking, baby-sitting  great grandchildren and visiting her relatives and friends. She is also an active member of the Eastern Star, which takes up some of her time.  Even though Mrs. Doerflinger is older she seems to fit into absolutely any  age group. She especially takes an interest in young people and what they are  doing.  Mrs. Doerflinger is living a happy life and shares her happiness with her  friends, making others around her happy, too.  The "Red Star" on the Shuswap River in Enderby in 1889, plied between Sicamous and Enderby.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 54  BIOGRAPHIES AND  REMINISCENCES  PATHS OF THE SIDEHILL GOUGER  H. R. Hatfield  There is a story about the scientist who ascertained the number of cows  in a field by counting the teats and dividing by four. It is a good example of  that turn of mind which from time to time attempts scientific explanations for  the roughly parallel pathways on many of the Okanagan hillsides. Sometimes  it is the retreating shoreline of ice melt lakes, sometimes the slump pattern of  wet silt. We used to tell newcomers that the paths were the trails of the Side-  hill Gougers provided by nature with two long and two short legs for easier  grazing on the steep slopes.  For those living here for the past sixty and more years the obvious and  common sense explanation for the paths is of course the action of the grazing  animals, some wild, but mostly the thousands of horses and cattle that cropped the bunch grass for many years. Now that free ranging and wild bands of  horses are gone and cattle forced to use the high country rather than the  slopes of the lower valleys the cause of these trails is no longer so plain to see.  In hope that it may save some learned and expensive research and the  obscuring of one of the interesting facets of our history some arguments toward substantiating the simple explanation of the serried pathways are here  presented.  They are always the right distance apart so that an animal can graze the  slope between them. They are definitely more marked on the slopes having  the most grass; usually those facing any way but south. They occur in any type  of soil, even talus, where grass grows. They are seldom exactly level and have  quite steep connecting paths from one to the other. They go up and down  around obstructions as trees or rocks. They are on slopes too steep for an animal to graze while facing up or down and gradually fade as the hillside flattens.  Now that the large bands of horses and great herds of cattle can no longer be seen on the hillsides following the paths eating as they go, cattle for most  of the year, horses for all of it, one can easily understand how these trails seem  a puzzle. Having as a boy coasted across them in the snow while sitting in a  washbasin and being now past my threescore and ten our acquaintance extends back to the days of the open range and the explanation for them is  simple. It would have been a beneficient Providence indeed if they were provided so perfectly to fit the animal's needs by geological or geophysical means  but I believe they were made by the animals themselves to fit their own needs. 55  to  P  1         p  m  w  I   li  imtm  1  Privy Councillor, Officer, the Order of Canada, Doctor of Laws, Doctor of Political Science,  Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.  M. Anita Tozer (nee Bennett)  William Andrew Cecil Bennett was made a Freeman of the City of Kelowna in 1979. The special ceremony was conducted on December 9th when  the City Fathers gathered to honour the first Premier of British Columbia to  come from Kelowna.  When Cecil Bennett first arrived in Kelowna in the summer of 1930 he  thought he had reached the promised land! After a dusty three-day car trip  from Vancouver via the Fraser Canyon highway he was impressed by the blue  skies, sparkling lake and cherry-laden orchards.  Cecil Bennett came to Kelowna in search of a Hardware Store in which  to invest. He had been in the Hardware business in Alberta - in both Clyde  and Westlock but had sold out to his partner and decided to try the greener  fields of British Columbia. He searched throughout the province but decided  when he reached Kelowna he had found the best place. David Leckie, a long  time merchant of Kelowna was hoping to sell his business - one which had  been situated since 1912 in the same place. Cecil Bennett thought this was a 56  good sign and after much dickering they settled on a price and the deal was  made.  May and Cecil Bennett moved to Kelowna with their two children, Anita  and R. J. and Bennett's Hardware opened August 18, 1930. The local people  often mistook young Mr. Bennett for one of his staff - he did not yet have the  "established look" about him. Cecil also found another, unlooked for problem; there were already plenty of Bennetts in the area and their initials added  to the confusions - "A," "C," "W," W.A., W.C., A.C. - they were all there. In  desperation he decided to use all three of his initials - just to make sure he got  his own mail!  Cecil Bennett was an active citizen of Kelowna and the Okanangan Valley from the beginning. He joined the Board of Trade, a fore-runner of the  Chamber of Commerce, and was its President at one time. He joined the Gyro  Club, the Masons, the Kelowna Club. He was active in the United Church. In  later years he was active in the Red Cross, Salvation Army and Community  Chest campaigns.  W. A. C. Bennett took a keen interest in the development of the City and  the valley. He opened stores first in Vernon and Penticton and, later, in  Westbank. His two sons opened the store in Kamloops at a much later date.  The Bennett family prospered and continued to grow, a second son, Bill, was  born and the family moved to larger premises and then, finally, bought the  house at 1979 Ethel Street.  The various enterprises in the Okanagan which interested W. A. C. and  which he helped to prosper were widely divergent. He encouraged the fruit  industry through "Calona" Wines and "B.C. Tree Fruits," he encouraged the  development of the radio station under Jim Brown and he helped the City of  Kelowna to get reduced rates from the West Kootenay Power Company. He  also campaigned for better roads and communication inside the valley and  helped to get the second and third ferries on Okanagan Lake.  The Conservative party and the political scene was another great interest. He joined the party soon after he arrived in Kelowna and took an active  part in all campaigns, federal and provincial, long before he, himself was a  candidate. In 1937 he lost the nomination to T. G. Norris who lost the election to Captain C. R. Bull, a Liberal, but in 1941, when he gained the Conservative nomination, he won the seat and sat as the "Apple Cheeked Schoolboy from the Okanagan."  As a Member of the Legislative Assembly W. A. C. Bennett continued to  take an intense interest in not only his Okanagan Valley but in his whole  province. The Conservatives and the Liberals formed an uneasy Coalition  government to fight the C.C.F. party which was gaining strength and they remained locked together in an uneasy truce until 1952. During this time British Columbia continued to grow but it was a very poor Province with large  areas of empty, undeveloped land. The government set up the "Post-War  Rehabilitation Council" to travel all over the province and study the needs of  the province. W. A. C. Bennett was an active member of this Council and  during this time he gained great knowledge of the whole area. Knowledge  that was to prove very useful later on.  W. A. C. Bennett, although a Conservative by name and tradition, was  interested in representing his area properly. When the Coalition government  began to falter after the war he was one of the first to point out their weak- 57  nesses and suggest reform. He attempted, twice, to become the provincial  Conservative leader but was defeated by the traditionalist Herbert Anscombe.  He attempted to run federally as a Conservative but was defeated by O. L.  Jones, the C.C.F. candidate. When he ran again in the next provincial election and won he knew his place was in provincial politics.  Finding himself unable to reform either the Conservatives or the Coalition from within he decided to leave the party. In 1951, in a bold and dramatic gesture, he "Crossed" the Floor of the House and sat as an independent  Member of the opposition. At the first possible moment he returned to Kelowna and reported on his decision in two exciting meetings — there wasn't  room for all the listeners in one setting!  When he decided to join the Social Credit Party he again reported directly to the Okanangan electorate and when the Provincial Election of 1952  was called his new party ran a candidate in every constituency - for the first  time. They also won the most seats - one more than the C.C.F.! It was a close,  hard-fought battle which raged for weeks as the new system, suggested by W.  A.C. Bennett, of multiple votes took a long time to count! At a meeting of the  elected Social Credit Members W. A. C. Bennett was chosen House Leader  and so, when Lieutenant-Governor Wallace made his decision, he called  upon W. A. C. Bennett to form a Government! He and his new Cabinet  were sworn in in August of 1952.  As Premier W. A. C. Bennett remembered all the problems of the Okanagan and the rest of British Columbia and did his best during the next twenty years to rectify as many as possible. He knew that highways and transportation facilities were essential. As a consequence the roads were built, the railway extended, the ferry fleet established, and bridges were built. He realized  the need for better education opportunities throughout the province so, as a  result, the Vocational Schools and Regional Colleges were established and  Simon Fraser University was built along with B.C.IT. and the University of  Victoria developed from Victoria College.  He was also aware of the need for better medical care throughout the  province so new hospitals and Extended Care units and centres were established all over the province while the Hospital Insurance scheme was improved and the Medical Services plan came into being.  Okanagan Lake Bridge was another project that he insisted be completed, in spite of objections that it would never be used to capacity! The  Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, for so he became when he was made a member of the Queen's Privy Council in Canada, always returned to Kelowna and  the people he loved as often as the pressures of his business allowed him to.  For years his annual Garden Party was a date for all to remember. Thousands  flocked into his gardens, munching sandwiches and enjoying lemonade and  tea and the chance to meet old friends.  William Andrew Cecil Bennett became the longest serving Premier of  the Province of British Columbia long before his government was defeated in  1972. He gave British Columbia twenty years of dynamic leadership and over  thirty years of political involvement before he retired in 1973. He died in  February 1979. 58  THE HISTORY OF POLICING IN ENDERBY  Barbara Newman  Editor's Note:  This article was originally prepared as a speech by a Queen  Candidate in Enderby's annual Pageant.  Have you ever wondered who kept law and order in Enderby in the early  days? Originally, there were two people responsible because the law enforcement was separate from the surrounding area.  The first person to be responsible for policing only the city of Enderby  was Mr. Bob Bailey, an uncle of Mrs. Vic Poison. He had no previous training  but was a kindly, firm gentleman. One of his duties was to ring the curfew  bell which hung in the tower of the present city hall. This bell was rung  promptly at 9 P.M. and woe betide any child who was found on the streets  after that without an adult chaperone. Another duty which he undertook was  always to be the first person to welcome a newcomer to the district. He always  met the morning and evening trains to be sure he wouldn't miss anyone. Mr.  Bailey was also the foreman of the city waterworks so instead of wearing his  uniform on duty he wore coveralls. His policeman's uniform was saved for  special occasions. He mainly looked after the city police work but he also  helped the district constable when the need arose. He held this position from  1905 until the 1930's.  In 1905 when Enderby was incorporated as a city a man named Basil  Gardom owned a farm at Loon Lake more recently named Gardom Lake. His  son Garde Gardom is presently the Attorney General of our province. Basil  Gardom became Enderby's first district constable. He had been trained in  England as a policeman and was not too successful as a farmer. His employment as a provincial policeman was fortunate. His duties were to police the  Indians and keep watch over the countryside. This he did very well until 1910.  He was followed by a Mr. Patten and Mr. Oland but neither held the position  too long. As a point of interest Mr. Oland joined the army in 1914 and was  the first man from this area to be killed in World War I.  Both the city and provincial policeman shared accommodations. The  first police office and city jail was a combined building located on the site of  the present Happy Day Supermarket. A courthouse was built later on the  corner of Granville and George streets and the city policeman lived there in  quarters at the back.  In the 1930's the position of the city constable was abolished and the  Provincial Police took over the responsibility of policing the town. Jerry Smith  and Constable McKinley were some of the early law officers. These men issued marriage and driver's licences from the Courthouse above the hospital  where Clare's Fruit Basket is now located. They ruled in a firm manner and  always went beyond the call of duty to help anyone in distress. They rarely  had any serious or violent crimes to contend with and became friends with all  the citizens.  The British Columbia Provincial Police continued to take care of our  district until August 1950, when they were absorbed by the Royal Canadian 59  Mounted Police. The Enderby detachment of the R.C.M.P. was part of the  Kamloops Sub-division. The first R.C.M.P. constables stationed at Enderby  were the Provincial Police members who were already in Enderby. They were  Drysdale and Teskey. One member was responsible for city policing and the  other for rural policing.  New quarters were taken over from the Provincial Police so the force occupied three rooms in an eight room office building located on Maud Street.  Unfortunately, this building was completely destroyed by fire on November 7,  1954.  Two days after the fire a new building was obtained on George Street.  The force occupied five rooms in this building on the first floor. In October  1962 it was suggested that a new type of three level building be constructed  for the force in Enderby. A site was found about three blocks from the centre  of the city on George Street. Construction started on the site in August of  1963. The force occupied the new nine room building the following December. At this time the force still consisted of a corporal and one constable.  These two men were responsible for all policing in the community.  Since that time things have changed a great deal. In 1971 there was one  corporal and two constables. By 1973 one corporal and four constables; these  increases continued until 1976. By 1977 a sergeant was stationed for the first  time in Enderby with four constables assisting. Not only had there been an  increase in manpower, there had also been an increase in the duties to be  performed. The complexity of the police organization, for example traffic  control, in 1905 was probably a very simple affair. Today, however it takes a  large percentage of the time of the detachment and involves assistance from  special units such as the Highway Patrol, the radar unit and the breathalizer  test mobile. Some duties have remained unchanged of course. For example,  the local police are still responsible for the Government Liquor Act, Stock  Brand Inspection, Migratory Birds Act and Customs and Excise Acts.  Enderby has had a long proud history of law enforcing and policing. I  feel honoured that I have been able to share it with you.  The Old Aberdeen Road Packing House in the Coldstream.  Photo credit - Vernon Museum 60  EXPERIENCES WITH WILD LIFE  by (Miss) Helen W. Reith, May 1978  As a child on the farm near Princeton I was keenly interested in all wild  creatures as were my parents. Reading through Tom Hunter's "Wild Life of  B.C." today brought back many memories. As they come to mind, but not  necessarily in order of importance, I remember the groundhogs sitting up on  the stone piles in the grain fields. Then there was the skunk that tried to make  his home in our underground frost proof rock cellar beside the house. He entered by way of a deep drainage trench at the back of the cellar (dug to carry  away the snow run-off in the spring from the sod and plank roof of the cellar).  Mr. Skunk was most unwelcome. I remember my father trying all sorts of  schemes and baits to coax him out of the cellar peacefully with no odors left.  To shoot him in the cellar would have been disastrous, as it would have made  the cellar unusable for months, if not years. Eventually he was lured out to  the drainage ditch and shot there. Even then there was a bad odor around  the house for some time.  Coyotes were constant pests. Some naturalists think them beneficial  rodent killers. If they had had half of their young chickens (still in coops with  the mother hens in an open yard) killed in one night, and many other nearly  as disastrous raids over a twelve year period, they might not like the coyote so  well. Because of those same coyotes we did not dare to raise sheep, and all  sows with young pigs had to be kept in pens with high, tight log walls. The  Coyote would steal the baby pigs, and loved lambs unless there was a shepherd on guard. We wanted a small flock of sheep in a medium sized pasture  without a shepherd.  Birds of all kinds were constant friends. Meadow larks sang all spring  and early summer. Their nests in clumps of grass were easy to find. I think I  can still whistle an imitation of an average meadow lark song. Barn swallows  (with tawny breasts, irridescent black head, wings, and longish forked tail)  built their mud nests on the log beams in the horse barn. Marvellous nests! —  each ball of mud built on the previous balls to make a perfect mud brick  nest, all mud balls uniform in size. They carried that mud from near the  stock well and water trough a good city block and a half from the barn. When  the young swallows were learning to fly, their first flight was a few feet from  the nest to the wire back of the stalls where he hooked a lantern if needed at  night. Then the youngsters were coaxed by parent swallows to fly to the stable  half-door, and thence to the big outside world. Life in stabling the horses  during this training period was a bit complicated, as swallow parents firmly  believed that their bumbling offspring had first rights — but oh the beauty  and gracefulness of those swallows in flight over the barnyard, catching flies  on the wing for their own dinners and to fill those gaping baby mouths reaching over the edges of the intricately built mud nests.  Magpies! Some naturalists call them shy birds. I disagree. At butchering  time in the late fall they came in flocks to feast on the offal. One would almost  step on them. A flirt of their long tails and a flip of wings and they were in a  tree branch above one's head, chattering harshly because they were interrupted in their feast. One hen of our flock made a nest under the end of a  pile of rails near the granary. A pair of magpies discovered this and regularly  stole the eggs. One could chase them away, but they would be back as soon as 61  you turned around, quietly waiting for the hen to leave the nest with a fresh  egg in it. Shy birds? Oh no! There used to be hundreds of them near the road  to Summerland and Peachland in the 1930's and 40's waiting to make their  dinner from a rabbit or groundhog killed by a passing car — not a bit shy!  Too many cars, modern speeds, and the killing of roadside weeds by chemicals have driven them away. My first item in a bird's egg collection I used to  have was a magpie's egg. My father took me to a thick bushy clump of willows  and showed me their huge nest of sticks with a woven stick canopy built over  it and attached to one side of the nest. He helped me get up to it so that I  could see in and steal a few eggs — fair game after the number of hen's eggs  that same pair of magpies had stolen.  The crows built their untidy stick nests in the tall poplar trees. I managed to climb up to one and steal two eggs for my collection. Strange to say,  the two eggs were not alike, so two female crows xnust have laid in one nest.  One egg was bluish green with brown speckles, while the other was deep yellowish green with brown markings and was slightly longer in shape. Robins  built their mud houses in the eaves of the barns and sheds — not as neat or  beautifully shaped as those of the swallows. Flickers for years had their nest  in a hole in a half dead poplar tree by a path to the stock well. Bluebirds,  ground sparrows, vireos, and warblers sang and nested in the aspen trees by  the house.  The last two or three years we lived on the farm, a pair of barn owls lived  in the barns each winter. I remember my father and I trying to find out how  far a little owl could turn his head. The owl loved to sit on a tall gate post. My  father and I would walk around the gate post to see if the owl's eyes (and  head) followed us all the way around. I think he was too sharp for us and  flicked his head back when we did not realize it in the dim lantern light because his eyes seemed to follow us full circle though his body did not move.  And red squirrels — A family of them lived somewhere in or near the  barns. They used the seven foot high rail fence that ran from barns to well  (dividing the cattle yard from the horse yard) as their highway from barns to  water trough for drinks of water. We all got red squirrel scoldings frequently  every day, but they caused me no end of trouble on one occasion. It was autumn, harvest and threshing time, with many stacks of wheat sheaves in the  stack yard by the barns ready to be threshed the next week. My father wanted  the cows and horses shut in the yard out of the way of moving the threshing  machine to the stacks next morning. We had them in, and my father was  busy closing the gates by the well behind them, and he asked me to run ahead  of them and close the other gate by the roadway to keep them in. I got there  and tried to ram the wooden bolt into its hole to fasten the gate. No go! The  big auger hole in the post was stuffed full and tight with wheat ears. I had to  hold the gate closed with one hand and try to pull the wheat ears out with the  other. They were too tightly packed for me to get them out. By this time my  father had come from closing his gates to see why I couldn't leave my gate  closed. He dug and dug with his jack-knife for some time before he could get  the wheat ears out and bolt the gate. Those wretched squirrels had stuffed all  gate bolt holes with ears of grain we discovered. They must have done it that  day, too, because the same gates had been used the day before. They were  stuffed tight, harder than if tamped in with a hammer.  Then there was my encounter with a wolf. It was late fall after the grain 62  was harvested. The cattle were allowed to pasture in the grain fields on a  second growth in the stubble that often grew with the late fall rains. It was my  job to bring the cows in for milking in the evening, so I walked up to the south  end of the farm (more than half a mile from the house) to bring them home.  Usually our collie dog went with me, but this time he missed my going. When  I found the cows I started to drive them from their nice grass patch between  fields, when from among them trotted a rather queer looking large dog, dark  tawny grey with somewhat unfriendly face. He must have sneaked in while  the cattle were grazing and was disturbed when I began to herd them home.  He trotted towards me to within ten or fifteen feet. Then the cows really noticed him, and chased him bellowing and making quite a fuss. They drove  him back into our timber lot and I had quite a job to get them on their way  home for milking. I wondered why they hated a stray dog so much, although  I was glad they had chased him away. They never bothered about our neighbor's dogs visiting with their owners.  When I got home and told my father about it, he said it was no dog, but  was a wolf, and was very glad the cattle had protected me, although I doubt  if the wolf would have hurt me. He seemed just curious. It was the only wolf  we ever saw on the farm although in winter we sometimes heard them howling  on the other side of Five Mile Creek (Hayes Creek today) miles away. Their  long drawn out mournful howl is altogether different from the short howls,  shrieks and yaps of the coyote.  A real live wild cougar is also one of my memories. The last two years on  the farm we had very dry summers so that our well water supply was not  enough for our growing herd of dairy cattle and other livestock. The result  was that the young cattle were herded down the mountain side to the creek for  water and allowed to feed on the flat of an unclaimed section of land near the  creek. One of my jobs was to hunt them up ever day, check to see that all were  present and drive the milk cows home for the night if they had been sent down  for water too. This sunny Saturday afternoon I had done my herd check and  was riding my pony up the trail towards home along a little grassy flat. The  pony began to act very scared and jumpy. When I looked around to see what  was scaring her, I saw about a hundred and fifty feet from the trail, a full  grown cougar lying (or restfully crouched) on a fallen log in the sun at the  edge of the flat. He just lifted his head and looked at me, but poor Dolly, my  pony, was shivering with fright. However, he stayed put enjoying his sun bath,  and I and my pony wasted no time getting up the trail to home pasture.  Horses seem to be favourite game (?) food for cougars but this specimen  wasn't interested in hunting just then, I am thankful to say.  These are treasured memories of my first hand experiences of B.C. wild  life encountered in my youth. They taught me the beauty, variety and character of life in the wild, and in this way have enriched my own life. 63  BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF F. E. (Ted) ATKINSON  by Dorothy Whittaker  F. E. (Ted) Atkinson has made an outstanding contribution as a food  technologist in the food processing industry. During an interview with Ted  this writer took advantage of the opportunity to ask questions about maraschino cherries, apple juice and dried fruits to name only a few. It was a delight to hear about the experiments and research that had taken place in the  early days at the Research station and Ted's article "In the Beginning" has  captured some of the original attempts to analyze food products. It might  also be of interest to note that the Summerland Research Station Food Processing Section is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary this year.  As a boy, Ted attended school in Penticton and later graduated from  Oregon State University with a B.Sc. in Food Technology. From 1929 to 1965  he worked as a research officer with the Canadian Department of Agriculture  in Summerland. In 1959, Ted Atkinson won a fellowship in the Agricultural  Institute of Canada, justifying national recognition. As an expert in his field,  he was the first Honorary Life Member of the Canadian Institute of Food  Technologists. In 1965, Ted retired after 36 years of dedicated effort only to  become President of Summerland Sweets Ltd. This factory is unique in that  it produces fruit syrups and fruit candy with an exceptionally high percentage  being fruit content.  A modest man, Ted Atkinson did not tell me that at one time he had  served as Mayor of Summerland for 8 years, alderman for 9 years, and in the  interest of the community was president of countless other clubs. Furthermore, in 1956, Ted and his wife Inez, were awarded the "Summerland Good  Citizenship Cup." At the present time Ted Atkinson has a right to be proud of  the progress made by the Summerland Research Station lab; after all he was  the instigator of a food processing technique that is now recognized around  the world.  Early Kelowna.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 64  THE FIRST AEROPLANE TO FLY IN KELOWNA  C. Renfrew  The first aeroplane to fly in Kelowna was a Curtiss Biplane powered by a  Roberts engine, flown at the Kelowna Regatta on August 13, 1914.  The aircraft was shipped in, crated on the "Sicamous" and assembled on  the beach now known as the "Hot Sands." In those days it would be termed a  "Hydroplane" as it was mounted on a single float, on the centre line, with two  wing-tip floats to steady it.  The pilot, Weldon Cooke, sat on the leading edge of the lower wing,  fully exposed, in front of the engine which drove a "pusher" propeller located  aft of the wing. Early photographs show no evidence of safety belts. The aircraft made one flight, and earned its fee, rumoured to be $2,000, but  further attempts were not successful, and the machine was dissembled, re-  crated and shipped away.  While a "First" for Kelowna, Cooke's flight was not the first flight in the  Okanagan Valley. William M. Stark, a Vancouver pilot of considerable experience flew Gus Curtiss' Biplane, powered by a 75 horsepower, eight cylinder "V" type Curtiss engine at Armstrong on the occasion of the Dominion  Day celebration there in 1914.  His machine was crated for shipment, as was Cooke's, for these aircraft  were not capable of cross-country flights. A single flight was made under  gusty conditions.  Also in 1914 Ralph Bulman, George Silke, and Stanley Silke built a biplane glider at the Bulman Ranch at Ellison. This would be known now as a  "Hang Glider." No wheels, the pilot hangs feet down, runs like h--- down a  slope and does the best he can if he gets airborne.  Ralph Bulman unfortunately did get airborne and managed to crash  land, with some personal injuries but without losing his life as might well have  happened.  The glider was later exhibited at the 1914 Kelowna Fall Fair, suspended  on the wall of the Exhibition building, it looked very small, hardly capable of  carrying a man, more like a large kite.  In 1919, also at Regatta time a Curtiss biplane model JN-4, commonly  known as the Jenny, was flown from Vancouver by a Capt. Trimm, who remained in the area for some time, flying passengers off the Polo grounds,  located East of Boyce Park (Gyro Park).  As he was able to carry passengers, and on occasion "looped the loop"  with them, his visit created considerable interest, which the previous flight  had not, and probably repaid the captain very well for his initiative. It was no  small matter to cross the mountains between here and Vancouver in a Jenny,  which though widely used as a trainer in World War I was not noted for its  reliability.  We should not forget Capt. Ernest C. Hoy who flew the pioneer Canadian crossing of the Rockies in a Curtiss JN-4 (Jenny). His route was Chilliwack-Vernon-Cranbrook, Lethbridge and Calgary. Not non-stop, perhaps,  but all on the same day, leaving Chilliwack at 4:13 A.M., August 7, 1919 and  arriving at Calgary in the dusk at 8:55 P.M. He landed there with the assistance of automobile headlights.  His total elapsed time was 16 hours and 42 minutes, and the total flight 65  time was 12 hours and 34 minutes.  He must have been one tough customer, 12 V6 hours flying, 3 refuellings  and four landings in a 17-hour work day. All in an open cockpit aircraft. His  later return flight was not completed as it was terminated by a tree in Golden.  To the best of my knowledge he is still alive, living in California.  In 1927 or '28 Rutland was visited by an Alexander "Eaglerock" piloted  by Clyde Wannon on a barnstorming tour to the Yukon. It must have been a  successful tour as they did a "land office" business, flying from morning to  dark for several days before leaving for the next stop on the way North.  An Eaglerock was an open cockpit biplane, powered by a Wright radial  engine of about 200 hp. The pilot sat in the rear cockpit, and the passengers  in the front, three at a time if they were light. It had a rather spectacular  angle of climb, even for today, but of course was not very fast, about 90 miles  per hour.  In 1928 to 1931 Radium Flying Service, John Blakeley, proprietor, and  Lowell Dunsmore, pilot, operated a D-H Gipsy Moth at Rutland, training  student pilots, but as Rutland was not officially licenced made their base in  Vernon on the field now occupied by the Army. Local students trained were:  Anthony Pooley, Jok Mar of the Golden Pheasant Cafe, once on Bernard Avenue, and C. Renfrew. Vernon students at the time were: Harold Thorlakson,  George Jacques, Eldon Seymour, Jim Duddle and others. Other pilots to fly  into Rutland "Airport" at that period were: Ginger Coote, later to form his  own small airline flying from Vancouver to Zeballos during the gold mining  there.  Eric De Pencier, in a beautiful taper-winged "Travelaire" biplane. Grant  McConachie with his Tri-Motor Ford, who is well known as a past president  of Canadian Pacific Airlines, and in that capacity started their scheduled service into Kelowna.  1930-31 Barney Jones-Evans operated a Gipsy Moth from Boyce Field,  the area surrounded by Cedar Ave., Osprey Ave., and Pandosy Street. Other  aircraft also used that area for a short period, but it was too small for aviation  purposes, and was put to other uses.  It should be pointed out that the late Mr. Axel Eutin, whose orchard was  in the Hollywood area foresaw the need for an airport in Kelowna. He had  visited the Calgary Airport in 1926 (or there about) at the time that Western  Canada Airways was active there and thought that it might, at some time, be  practical to ship fruit by air from the Okanagan. He allowed his property in  Rutland to be used as an airfield in the hope that this may come about. However it was increasingly evident that the available space was not sufficient to  accommodate the aircraft of the future, and the present Ellison site was decided upon.  Shipping fruit by air may now be practical enough, but not many of us  shared Mr. Eutin's vision in 1926.  In 1933, Yukon Southern Airlines made an attempt to establish itself,  using a Waco cabin biplane. They flew from Vancouver to Oliver and Rutland. The Penticton airport had not been constructed at the time. However  the traffic was not sufficient to support a regular service and the run was discontinued. They were more successful at a later date, and with twin engined  aircraft on a run from Vancouver to Prince George, Fort St. John to White-  horse and finally merged with Grant McConachie's United Air Transport. 66  Post World War II  In 1945 or '46 Okanagan Air Service, later Okanagan Helicopters was  formed in Penticton by several partners: Carl Agar, Andy Duncan, Alf  Stringer, Barney Bent and Douglas Dewar.  After operating in Penticton for a period they moved to Rutland until a  decision was made to concentrate on helicopters at which point they sold their  fixed wing equipment to the Aero Club of B.C. and moved to Vancouver. In  1949 the Aero Club of B.C. operated for about a year from the newly opened  Kelowna Airport at Ellison and then moving their equipment to Vancouver.  This move left the Ellison field threatened with closure and unoccupied except for two individuals, Jim Browne and C. Renfrew who continued to fly  from there in the hope that the airport could be kept active until a commercial operator could be found.  In 1948 L & M Air Service of Vernon attempted a Vernon, Kelowna,  Vancouver Schedule, first on floats with a twin engined Beech 18, landing in  Kelowna right at the foot of Bernard Avenue. The float operation was  changed to wheels and to the Kelowna Airport. This was the year of the Fra-  ser Valley floods and the operation might have been successful, but the floods  dried up and eventually so did the enterprise.  Around 1951 Ralph Hermansen's Cariboo Air Charter came to Kelowna  offering air charter, student instruction and similar services until the mid  70's. Many local pilots qualified for their DOT licences under his guidance.  Mr. Hermansen also served as airport manager, and supported Mayor Dick  Parkinson's efforts first to persuade Grant McConachie to establish CP Air's  Scheduled Service to Kelowna, then to persuade the Federal Government to  lengthen and pave the runway. Without both of these developments the airport could, not for long, have survived the pressures of real estate subdivision,  and Kelowna would have lost its place in the picture of air transportation.  Grant McConachie's enterprise in committing his company to serve the  Okanagan should well be remembered. We did not have much to offer at the  time, a short turf runway, in an area where others had tried and failed. No  radio navigation aids other than those at Penticton. No runway lighting.  Only a short "haul" which is usually uneconomical. However the persuasion  of Mayor Parkinson, the airport manager and the enthusiastic backing of  the airport committee of the time, but against the advice of his traffic manager, Grant made his decision on the spot. "Yes, we will do it!" He did, first  using Douglas DC-3 aircraft, then the pressurized Convairs and finally as  traffic increased with Douglas DC 6's.  A change in Government policy resulted in CP Air relinquishing the  Okanagan run and Pacific Western Airlines stepping into their place as regional carriers, operating at present with Boeing 737 Jet aircraft on frequent  schedules.  We have come a long way from the time when the railway terminated at  Okanagan Landing and one spent half a day, very pleasantly, on the CPR  Sternwheeler travelling between there and Kelowna. 67  THOMAS ALFRED NORRIS — 1874-1960  Lumby's First School Teacher  by (Mrs.) Lloyda Wills  My dad, Mr. T. A. Norris, was born of English parents on May 22nd,  1874 in Bolton, Ontario, the second youngest of nine children. Not being a  person to talk much about himself, I do not know what his pre-school years  were like, but do know that he attended schools in Bolton, Gait and the University of Toronto where he obtained his Teacher's Certificate. While at  school, he played soccer, rugby, football and lacrosse.  At the age of nineteen this tall, slim, handsome young man left his home  in the East and travelled westward, ending his journey in the tiny settlement  of White Valley, later known as Lumby. Here, at the Ram's Horn Hotel after  church, he met,the Board of School Trustees and became the first teacher at  White Valley School, situated just west of the first Catholic Church, built in  1892, where the cemetery is today.  After five years' communion with his twenty-four pupils, he said, "I have  often felt sorry that I allowed the lure of the far north goldfields to wean me  from that noblest of all tasks: the making of Good Citizens," and left for the  Klondike.  Upon his return to Lumby, he married, on February 28th, 1900 Edna  Mary Christien, daughter of Louis and Celina Christien, who had been a  pupil of his for a short time. This happy union brought five children: Louis  the eldest, who passed away February 8th, 1977; Earl, who, at the tender age  of six and one-half years, drowned in Jones Creek; Lloyda, Mrs. Cecil Wills  of Lumby; Charlie of Revelstoke, and Ruth, Mrs. Ernie Pierce, of Lillooet.  To support his growing family, Dad bought the Ram's Horn Hotel from  Mr. Louis Morand, selling seven months later to his father-in-law. He then  purchased several acres of land at Mabel Lake, where the new park is now,  and built a log house for his family. Here he engaged in logging, sending the  logs down a wooden chute from "Camp Four" into the Lake to be hauled in  booms up the Lake, down the Shuswap River to Enderby mills. As his children became of school age, he had to abandon this venture, moving back to  Lumby to live on Mr. Catt's ranch for a few years.  Dad and Mr. Bardolph were partners in Lumby's first Real Estate and  Insurance business and were the first owners of cars in Lumby: no paved  roads in those days. Then it became Norris and Catt, finally just Mr. Norris  as sole owner. Dad was also the first Justice of the Peace in Lumby.  In 1915 or 16 the Norris family moved to Vernon, living on the old Price  Ellison property where Capitol Motors, Tasti-Freeze etc. are today. While in  Vernon, Dad was a partner of Mr. Arthur Cochrane in Real Estate and Insurance for about seven years, the children completing their high school education. Sometime in 1923 the family moved back to Lumby, Dad carrying  on with Real Estate and Insurance. After the death of Mother in 1936, Dad  sold the Real Estate part of his business but continued with Insurance for several years in a small building with office space and living quarters on the  Gooding property, across from Nap's Cafe, now the Laundromat. After a  broken hip and failing health Dad retired, selling to Mr. Pat Duke.  Dad spent his few retired years in the homes of his two daughters. It was  from my home he was taken, seriously ill, to Vernon Jubilee Hospital where 68  he passed away March 22nd, 1960, just two months before his eighty-seventh  birthday, burial being in the family plot in Lumby cemetery alongside his  wife, Edna and young son Earl.  My Father was a person of kindness and generosity, helping many  throughout his lifetime in the Lumby District. I, for one, will always be grateful for his encouraging advice and help.  Golden Gate Hotel in Fairview.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 69  JUDGE J. R. BROWN OF FAIRVIEW  by Georgia Brown  The pages of British Columbia history are scattered with as many and as  different characters as pebbles in a creek. Whatever their dispositions, their  aims and accomplishments, each has carved an important and individual role  that is essential to the total picture of British Columbia history. For various  reasons some of these men have had the tales of their lives elaborately told, retold and told again. On the other hand some have taken the tales of their  quiet but colourfully unique lives with them. One such man is my greatgrandfather, J. R. Brown who became one of the Government Agents of the  old mining town of Fairview.  James Robert Brown was born on September 27, 1854 in Musselburgh,  Scotland. He was the eldest son of John George Brown and Rebecca Mon-  teith, a family of Scottish upper-class traditions and lineage. Because information about his childhood and life in Scotland is unavailable, the years before he came to British Columbia are very sketchy. Like the men of his class  and time, after a high school education, he attended the University of Edinburgh. He enjoyed riding and was known as a "gentleman jockey," one who  rode in horse races but received no remuneration. He first married a young  Scottish woman who died in childbirth and left him with a little daughter,  Monte, who was raised by J. R. Brown's sister, Sarah.  After about twenty-two years in Scotland, J. R. Brown began to seek his  fortune abroad. He moved first to New Zealand where he became involved in  sheep farming, then to the Canadian Prairies where he was involved in the  co-ownership and management of a ranch, then to Vernon, British Columbia. There he met and married Martha Elizabeth Sadler on April 5, 1893, at  the age of thirty-nine. Miss Sadler was born in Stow-on-the-Wold, England,  and at the time of the marriage was twenty-nine years old. The newlyweds  settled in Penticton where J. R. became the part owner and manager of a  livery stable. Here he also became a constable, with the B.C. Police.  At this time Penticton was merely a travellers' stop and consisted of little  more than a livery stable, a grocery store and a hotel. It could not boast of  such luxuries as a doctor, so Martha Brown had to travel to Long Lake (now  known as Kalamalka Lake) to give birth to her first son, Ian Richard Brown  on November 13, 1894. Eighteen months later the wheels of civilization had  progressed to Kelowna so that for her second childbirth Mrs. Brown had only  to travel to Kelowna where on July 8, 1896 she gave birth to another son,  Alister Charles Brown.  The family then moved to Midway where J. R. Brown was the constable,  and then to Osoyoos where he became appointed on July 21, 1897 as a:  "Mining Recorder for the Osoyoos Mining Division of the Yale  Electoral District at a salary of $75.00 per month."  To J. R. Brown the years which he spent at Fairview probably proved to  be the most satisfying and memorable. In 1897 the family moved to the  "booming mining town"2 where J. R. Brown was appointed to be the tax assessor and collector of the Yale Electoral District under the direction of the  Government Agent, C. A. R. Lambley. Fairview was at its heyday which possibly paralleled the personal and business activity of Mr. Brown. In 1897 Mr.  Brown had the family house built. It is still standing on its original site in 70  Fairview. He allowed enough room for one of his favourite pastimes, vegetable gardening, and could usually be seen in the early summer hours tending  to his various vegetable crops. A letter to his wife, dated August 20, 1897  suggests the pace of his life:  "I really have not time as Deus is away too, looking after this  big "sticking up" Case (over $10,000) near McKinney, 3 bricks of  gold, 636 ozs., a good haul for somebody. I hope to be up end of  next week, but don't look out for me, I may be longer. If everyone is  busy I can't get away.  Your very much bustled husband."3  The years at Fairview were also reminiscent of growing family life. On  December 25, 1898 Mrs. Brown gave birth to her third child, a daughter,  later named Constance Sarah Brown.  When the Government Agent C. A. R. Lambley died, J. R. Brown became the Government Agent of the Yale Electoral District. Then he and his  family moved from their little house on the hill to the larger government  house on the flats. It was built by the Lambleys, English-style, with large  rooms and high ceilings, with Government offices built on to one side. The  modern house boasted of the only tennis courts in the area and because of  this, became the centre of numerous "Fairview functions."  On August 23, 1895, while still in Penticton, J. R. Brown was appointed  by the Lieutenant-Governor, Edgar Dewdney, to be a Public Notary in the  Yale Electoral District. Twelve years later, on June 3, 1907, Mr. Brown was  appointed a Stipendiary Magistrate for the County of Yale. This appointment made him known to many as "Judge Brown." He was also appointed to  be the Assistant Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Similkameen Division of the Yale District, and a Collector of Revenue Tax.  "All the offices mentioned in the former and present communications will date from the first of February, 1907, at a salary of  $110.00 per month, payable to the 30th of June, 1907, and after  that date such sum as is voted in the estimates."4  In 1921 the Government Agent office was moved to Penticton and the  old gentleman was superannuated. The family then moved back to their little house on the hill where Mr. Brown operated a part time Post Office for  the local residents of Fairview. He continued as a deputy mining recorder -  "which post he held up to the time of his death."5 At seventy-four years of age,  Mr. J. R. Brown died quietly at his home on Christmas night, 1928.  J. R. Brown played a constructive and important role in the development and maintenance of law and order in the Okanagan Valley. He was a  provincial government employee for over thirty years, a well respected man  who was admired both by the local Indians, who after he became Judge called  him "Judge Brown," as well as the early mining folk and settlers.  "A man of kindly and generous spirit, he was liked by all who  knew him and, as one who played his part in the "Making of the  West" in this Valley, was held in high esteem." 71  THE LAST SOLDIER OF THE 30th REGT. B.C. HORSE  #1678 A/Corporal T. E. Jessett  The 30th Regiment British Columbia Horse had its headquarters at the  Armoury in Vernon. It consisted of 510 officers and men divided into four  squadrons plus a band and headquarters staff. At least two squadrons, if not  three, came from other communities in the Okanagan valley.  Shortly after war broke out in August 1914, the regiment was called into  active service. After training in Vernon the bulk of the regiment were transferred to the coast and combined with a similar unit to form the 2nd Battalion, Canadian Mounted Rifles. This unit served in France as part of the Canadian Mounted Rifle Brigade.  Left behind in Vernon was a headquarters recruiting group. When an  internment Camp for enemy aliens was established on Mara Avenue, the  regiment was re-established with four skeleton squadrons. "A" Squadron  composed a small mounted unit for a time, the other three squadrons proved  the guards for the internment camp.  Every day the guard marched along Mara Avenue, past our house, led by  B.C. Horse on Goose Lake Range.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum  the small regimental band. A guard consisted of an officer, a trumpeter, a  sergeant, three corporals and thirty troops. Owing to the annual training of  troops for overseas at Vernon, all the eligible young men in the town were  soon enlisted. The 30th B.C. Horse had difficulty maintaining the necessary  strength. Many older men enlisted because of the hard times, and young boys  joined the band.  Because I could type and take a little shorthand, I was accepted as a  trooper on December 5, 1916, while only fourteen years of age. A month later  I was in the Orderly Room at the internment camp under Captain Carl  Grossman, the adjutant. 72  After conscription became law, all of us in the B.C. Horse were given  physician examinations in May 1917. As I was only fifteen the doctor marked  my paper "for immediate discharge." Nothing happened, and two months  later I was given the two stripes of a corporal. This created a small problem at  home as my father was a trooper in the regiment, but fortunately, stationed  at headquarters.  Early in 1918 the regiment began to receive young conscripts ineligible  for overseas duty. In August the 30th B.C. Horse was disbanded and its members transferred to the 11th Battalion, Canadian Garrison Regiment, or discharged. The headquarters of the 11th C.G.R. was in Vancouver, so the  B.C. Horse headquarters in Vernon was closed and the soldiers moved to new  quarters on the grounds of the internment camp, and placed under the command of Major E. A. Nash, the commandant of the Vernon Internment  Camp.  At the time of this change there were twenty-seven soldiers who, because  of age - over and under - or physical condition, were not accepted by the 11th  C.G.R. They were considered essential to the operation of the camp and were  attached to the 11th C.G.R. for pay and allowances. I was one of the twenty-  seven.  Early in December 1918, the armistice having been signed, I applied for  discharge and was sent down to the headquarters of the 11th C.G.R. in Vancouver. Weeks passed, and I was placed on duty over my protests. What did  not occur to me was the problem facing the officers of the 11th C.G.R. How  do you discharge a soldier from a regiment that no longer exists?  Fortunately, Major LeDuc, last Commanding Officer of the 30th B.C.  Horse, was on the staff of the 11th C.G.R. He was prevailed upon to sign a  discharge for me. It was dated January 18, 1919, my seventeenth birthday.  That summer I visited the internment camp again and was informed that to  avoid further problems, the 11th C.G.R. was ordered to accept the other  twenty-six attachees.  I served for two years and forty-four days in a mounted infantry regiment  without either mounting a horse or firing a rifle. I was probably the last  militiaman on active duty in Canada during World War I to receive his discharge. Certainly, I was the last soldier of the 30th Regiment British Columbia Horse. 73  A DAY IN THE LIFE OF AN  INSPECTOR NO. 1  1959 - 1969  CANADA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE  By J. L. Piddocke  We have read about Father Pandosy, that kindly gentleman who introduced the Apple tree to the Okanagan, and how the area became famous as  an Apple growing centre.  Now let us see what happens to the Apple just before it leaves the Valley  on its way to the consumer and we'll take a look into "One day in the life of a  Fruit Inspector No. 1," 1959 - 1969 under the Fruit, Vegetables and Honey  Act, Canada Dept. of Agriculture.  Arrive for work sharp at 8 am, five minutes or so earlier is good business.  You ask why? Well, you never know from day to day what lies before you and  you must be prepared for any eventuality. For example, you had orders for  two trucks hanging on the peg in your office for the next day when you left  that evening.  On your arrival at the office in the morning you find three more trucks  have to be loaded that day.  All hell cuts loose — first you must find out which truck is to be loaded  and which door it is being loaded at. Having found out this much, you go to  your office and find the order covering this particular load and perpare your  detail sheets MF192, blue ships MF37 and write the order in your Note Book,  being very careful that the correct Certificate number and BCTF order number - consignee's name and address, name of trucking firm - truck number -  when this is completed record the number and kind of packages, variety,  grade and sizes, which are packed into the various packages.  Before we go any further I would like to impress upon you the importance of your Note Book. Carry it with you at all times in a safe pocket, write  your name and address on the outer cover so that it can be returned to you if  lost.  It contains information that is vital to you and your department (i.e.)  Certificate numbers which must follow in sequence, a record of railway car  numbers, truck licences, temperatures, notes on conditions of cars, trucks,  etc., were the vents open or shut, how much ice in the bunkers, was the heater cold or hot. You may have assisted a fellow Inspector in his work and you  will have to record his certificate number, and in no other better place than in  your Note Book.  Every week you will need it to look back over the certificates, re-ships,  assists, detentions, releases, A reports, so that your weekly report MF-10 can  be completed properly.  You will complete a fee statement MF-4, here I refer you to F.V.&H.  Act, and you record the fee for each certificate.  Now, go back two weeks in your note book and there you will have all the  information you require to complete the MF-4.  Another way that your note book can help you is this — while you are  inspecting a load of fruit, you may not be conscious of it at the time, but your  mind is constantly memorizing the condition of the produce, and when a  consignee makes a complaint against a recent shipment and it was yours, look 74  it up in your Note Book and read the order.  The picture of that load comes back to you, perhaps some other association such as someone hurting himself or the fellows in the basement sent up  the wrong grade and it had to go back down, and again your details will tell  the complete story.  So much for your Note Book, guard it with your life for you'll never remember everything that's in it.  Let's go back to where I started to tell you about the Note Book. You  have all information on the quantity etc. of fruit that is going into this truck,  and you find that some of the fruit comes under "quality control." This service is rendered to B.C.T.F. by our Department whereby you will, after cutting and pressure testing, certify this fruit as being A or B category, the tools  necessary for this job, a knife and pressure gun.  As you look over the packages, you notice that some are telescopic and  others are not, the latter require you to have a hammer and a box stitcher so  that you can open and close these packages.  I would like to remind you that our job is to assist in the movement of  produce by seeing that it meets the requirements of C.A.P.S. Act. You will  do this quietly and efficiently, inspecting as many grower numbers as you can  or until you are satisfied the lot meets grade.  Factors that make for good inspection include: good lighting, knowledge  and recognition of sundry orchard pests and diseases, being able to tell the  good quality fruit from the poor, if in doubt bite into it, there's no better  way.  On off-shore shipments, Plant Protection Branch, has on various occasions requested our Department to make an inspection for "San Jose Scale."  This increases our work and is very time consuming because each apple must  be inspected very thoroughly, at times requiring a magnifying glass to determine what you see.  Now you proceed to open boxes which weigh approximately fifty pounds  and examine each apple in the tier before you. It is a good idea to open a box  from the bottom and take a look to see that all is well down under.  Well, you've looked at thirty or forty apples and have found some defects. Score these on your detail sheet and at the end of the job tally up all the  defects and you will know if the lot meets grade.  Should you find that a certain K number is scoring too many defects,  contact your shipper and inform him that this number must not be shipped,  request a count and place under detention.  When the Storage Houses are filled to capacity, it becomes difficult, if  not impossible, to make an inspection before loading and under these conditions you have no alternative but to do the inspection on the platform outside. Most Packing Houses are cooperative and would give you time to do your  job. Should you run into any difficulty along these lines you can refuse to issue the M.F. 37 and that generally smooths things out.  I have mentioned that you should look at all the K numbers you can, because some Packing Houses have as many as two hundred growers shipping  fruit to them and many growers have a small tonnage, thereby making fewer  packed boxes in various grades and more K numbers to inspect.  It is almost impossible to catch all these numbers, so in your future inspections, you look for anything new and concentrate on them so that you do 75  have a good idea of what is going on the market.  In all Houses we were made welcome in the grader room, there to look at  the fruit in the bins, and make any corrections necessary. Do this as often as  you can. I can't go on without telling you how important it is that you remember that you are a Civil Servant and public relations are most important in  this work. You are a diplomat and you must be diplomatic in all your dealings, but do not allow diplomacy to replace efficiency.  You will also be called upon to inspect vegetables. To mention a few —  onions, potatoes, carrots, rutabagas, tomatoes, peppers of all kinds, hubbard  squash and a few more.  For those vegetables that are not covered under C.A.P.S. Act, the I.V.  M.A. (Interior Vegetable Marketing Act) has asked our Department to see  that their regulations are enforced, thereby rendering another service to the  industry.  Onions are field graded by the growers and it is our job to see that the  onions meet requirements of the act.  You proceed very much in the same way as you would for apples. Your  order calls for X numbers of sacks to go to John Doe, in Swift Current, Saskatchewan. Once again you contact the Shipper and ask which grower lots he  intends to use. From here you are on your own.  You do not need to load yourself down with equipment, as with apples  all you need is a knife, thermometer, M.F. 192, a small box for culls, a strong  back and arms and good stomach muscles, because you will be handling sacks  that weigh fifty-two pounds.  You may say that all onions look alike. This is not so, as you will find out.  Each variety has its own characteristics, and from experience you will be able  to tell them apart.  This situation is becoming more difficult each year, as new varieties are  coming on the market, and growers are constantly looking for disease resistant stock.  You should examine up to five sacks per hundred, depending on the lot,  you may find that three sacks are sufficient. On the other hand you may find  that you have to look at more.  Carry the sack to the sorting table, and empty the onions, or whatever,  onto the surface and examine each piece carefully, paying special attention  to the neck and root.  Neck rot and smut go to work in the neck end of the bulk and if not vis-  able from the outside, cut the neck open so that you can see inside. The root  end should be examined for insect damage and decay which will be found in  two more readily recognized forms, (1) soft and watery with a repulsive smell.  This is the work of the onion maggot. (2) Dry Rot, has no smell, is dry and  cork like and is progressive. Place all defects in the cardboard box at the end  of each lot inspection, weigh the onions and score the findings on M.F. 192 -  details. All other graded products require the same careful examination before certification.  Hazards of Inspection  Railway Car inspection calls for great care on your part, and the way  you reach the ground from the platform, either by jumping or climbing down  a ladder, should be done in a way that will not cause a twisted ankle or  cricked back. You'll need both later on to boost apple boxes and sacks 76  around. You got down safely and you are going to check the ice in the bunkers, climb to the top of the car, open the hatches to make sure all is well, at  the same time watching your step, as sometimes there are small pieces of ice  on the roof of the car and one piece of ice could cause a swift trip to the  ground.  It has been mentioned by our Supervisors that the view from the top of a  box car is something to behold — I wonder how they know?  Well you made it up and down, now check the heater. Don't burn your  hand. These things get hot. Climb back onto the platform, enter the car,  making sure the gang plank is properly in place and it has no ice on it, and it  will carry your weight. The car must be clean, smell clean and temperature  right.  In season, look out for snow slides off the roof of the packing house. Be  on the lookout for employees who are moving fruit with hand trucks, they are  on the move and you could end up with a broken ankle. Lift trucks are a new  hazard and need special attention. Please be careful how you take that top  box off the stack, and also when you put it back. They weigh fifty pounds.  If you are working in storage, dress for it even if the outside temperature  is 98 degrees F. You are called upon to do all this in all kinds of weather, be it  -20 degrees F or 100 degrees F. You left a warm office feeling just fine and by  the time you get back you're chilled through, hands stiff with cold, writing to  be done. Do it or face the wrath of the Supervisor.  If you are working with a fellow inspector, be careful how you remove the  staples in the packages you open. Should one hit him in the eye, the results  could be serious.  Now you have finished the inspection and you can give the shipper the  M.F. 37, and if there is more work for you to do, repeat the whole thing over.  Sometime you will get time to write up Certificates, depending on the orders.  A full half day could easily be spent writing.  Good night Herb, see you in the morning.  I would like to take this opportunity to thank all the members of the Department of Agriculture and the Managers of the Packing Houses, the Car  Loaders and Office Staff.  You all made my job easier by your cooperation and tolerance. 77  A LIVING MIND - A BIOGRAPHY OF  MRS. LUCY MACFARLANE  OF OKANAGAN CENTRE, B.C.  by Flora L. B. Snowdon  For many years, I have been the friend of a lady much older than I. As I  enter her back door from my early morning walk, conversation could begin  before I had sat down.  "Aren't riddles fascinating? Did I ever tell you the one about the Israelites? Do you know what they lived on in the desert?"  Even if you remembered the old chestnut about "the SAND-WHICH-IS  there," you were not home-free. "Yes," said Lucy, "but what were the sandwiches made of?" My blank look would make her laugh merrily. "Well, you  see, Shem brought Ham, and the people bred and mustered!"  Then she would serve me a breakfast of strong tea and toast spread with  Marmite. All her meals were as simple: a casserole dinner at noon, and a  supper of cheese sandwich with a glass of red wine.  One day my husband, who goes morning and night to change her talking  tapes, now that she cannot see to read print, came home highly delighted.  'I told her you'd mentioned that today was her friend 'Marjorie's birthday, January Thirteth, and she said, 'Oh yes, I must phone her: it's so interesting - she was born on the anniversary of the date they beheaded Charles the  first!"  This is the mind of a woman of ninety-nine. She knows every political  foible and flaw of Ottawa and of Victoria, and wonders often what the world 78  is coming to, "but I'd like to stay around to find out how it all turns out."  The New Democratic Party two years ago gave her a plaque which graces  her dining room wall, in which they "wish to accord special recognition to  Lucy Macfarlane for devoted and special service to the Party and Movement."  Dave Barrett's name heads the three signatures.  Mrs. Macfarlane was a farm child in Kent. She is not a Kentish Maid,  but a Maid of Kent, by virtue of having been born on the east side of Medway  stream. She says she remembers the farm as having been made up of animals  and happiness. There was a fireplace in the kitchen, and a bigger one ten feet  long in the outdoor kitchen. You could stand up inside it and look up at the  blue of the sky. On rainy days the soot fell down. A copper for boiling the  clothes was built right into its wall, and the fire made under it. Today's  clothes would never take the punishment, says the lady. Her mother baked  ten or twelve loaves of bread at once in the outdoor oven. Lucy and her four  sisters and three brothers slept on feather beds: she does not remember mattresses. Home was always full of extra relatives who could not afford to live at  boarding houses. Her grandmother and several aunts came to finish their  days in her home. Her father's first farm was "The Warren," near Penshurst;  the second, "Hog's Hatch" (which her mother quickly changed to Halbor-  ough); and the third was "Charcott."  Her father grew hops and cured them over fires made of homemade  charcoal, brimstone and hard welsh coal. "The charcoal man was so black  from his work, we thought him half a demon," she remembers. The beehive-  shaped oasthouses had a big fire down on the floor, and away above on a circular stretched-canvas platform lay the hops, emptied out of the twenty-bushel "Pokes" into which they had been picked, and spread to dry. Later they  would be repacked into hundred-and-ten-pound "Pockets."  "Who-who" (her baby sister's name for Lucy) said they had so many  cousins in neighboring towns and villages that it was always easy to get up a  cricket match without going outside the family. But the real unifying factor  was the farm itself: everyone worked; the boys milked cows every morning, the  girls had both indoor and outdoor tasks. "But," says Lucy, "Father sent us  girls off to school fairly early - to keep us out of trouble!"  School was fourteen miles by train from home, so they only got back for  holidays. All five sisters were eventually in the one school at once, but by then  Lucy was teaching there. She had a good school friend to whose place she  could go on weekends, but not on the weekends when the friend's father was  drunk, which sometimes happened.  The education was good, and the sports numerous. Lucy engaged in  tennis, cricket and hockey, and in skating on the pond with her schoolmates  of Heathleigh, and with the boys of the parallel boy's school, Heath House,  run by the brother of the ladies who ran her school. These were Miss Lizzie  ("the boss"); Miss May (French Mistress) and Miss Janie (English and ordinary things,") says Lucy. The girls made their own beds, but there were three  servants to keep everything in order. One of these, Betsy, made all the bread  necessary for the thirty girls. Through the years there were various dancing  mistresses who visited the school, and a music Mistress who lived in. There  was also a singing master crazy about the Messiah, "who so drummed it into  me, it's a wonder I still like it." Another oratorio the girls performed was  Judas Maccabeus. Then there were plays and concerts at both schools, and a 79  weekly walk, three miles to church and three miles back every Sunday. Miss  Lizzie's mother lived at the school, and had her own Pony-chaise for church.  A possible treat when you were very, very tired on the walk was to be picked  up in Mrs. Tabor's pony-chaise. They also on occasion travelled in a Brake to  neighboring towns to see a football game. The writer had to ask what a brake  was. Mrs. Macfarlane said it was a four-wheeled barouche with lots of room  in it.  Miss Lizzie was keen on early morning walks, before breakfast to give the  girls an appetite. They did not have to walk in a crocodile but wandered as  they liked, but always with a mistress in charge.  Lucy had to go to the boy's school for her final year of Mathematics as  "I had gone beyond the Mistresses." Here the master offered to arrange a  screen around the one girl in an all-boy class. "But," says Lucy, "I scorned  that."  Finally she had to go to London for her Matriculation. She had for this  period a coach, Charles Masterman, very interested in work in London's  poorer east end. They became lifelong friends. She passed the earlier Preceptor's Tests with first class standing, which gave her the right to teach, and  then passed the University Entrance exams. Then she went back to teach at  Heathleigh. Miss Lizzie's subsequent letter of reference describes her performance: "She is a lady of high character, amiable disposition, at all times sensible, reliable and pleasant. Miss Faircloth is particularly clear and able in  Science and Mathematics, but sound and thorough in all. She is a very suc-  essful teacher and an excellent disciplinarian."  Lucy was engaged during her teaching years to a tall, very handsome  young farmer one year her senior. He soon set off to Canada to seek his fortune and she followed him a year later, taking several teaching and housekeeping jobs to occupy the time. She recalls her trip across the Atlantic:  "There were three women; Miss Armstrong, Dorcas Denton (both friends)  and myself, so the captain would not sail until he had hired a stewardess. We  four were the only women on board. It was a cargo vessel, you see. It took us  two full weeks to sail from Hull to New York and Boston."  In the years that followed, her fiance Lynn wrote less and less frequently  from the west coast, and finally came word he had married another girl.  With that she returned to England, but "couldn't settle" and came again  to Canada. She had to re-qualify as a teacher, and eventually found herself on  Cortes Island and later at Alert Bay on Vancouver Island, where there were  four Indian schools and a small one for the few English children. She has  also taught at Yale, at Windell in the Kootenays and lastly at Okanagan  Centre, her home for over half a century. She was, says a citizen of that Village, a wonderful teacher.  She married Mac Macfarlane and they spent many years together in  mutual independence of spirit. When he died, she travelled to Ireland to  visit his relatives. "It was a green and lovely land," she recalls, "but you soon  learned that an Irish mile was a mile, and a bit, and the bit was longer than  the mile."  At ninety-two she took a jet plane over Greenland to England, saw the  midnight sun, and ascertained that her old school-buildings were still standing in their little village of Horsmonden. She stopped at her brother's daughter's home, and was at that time, interviewed by the British Press, to whom 80  she recalled that the first election in Okanagan Centre called out exactly  fifty-two voters.  Until her eyes grew too dim, she used to make all her own bread, varying  the ingredients each week: whole wheat, rye, cornmeal, sesame seed, oatmeal  and surprisingly one week, carob powder, which gave a "very interesting"  cocoa bread. She spent time in her vegetable garden uphill of her house, and  carried the produce back to the hosue in her "trug": a flattish basket of rivet-  ted wooden slats, which she bought in England.  She played tennis on the old Okanagan Centre courts until she was seventy-three, when she broke her ankle on her own back step. ("It wasn't the dog's  fault: I was careless!") However she was back on two good legs in record time,  though she felt "as awkward as a cow with a musket" until her leg healed. She  has never again thought it worthwhile to break any bones, and as for cuts,  scrapes and bruises, she simply applies unpasteurized honey and is well in a  remarkably short time. Wine, honey and oil, she recalls, were the ancient  Biblical remedies for everything.  She was one of the first election scrutineers, and the first and almost the  last secretary of the local chapter of the Women's Institute, and of a lively discussion group known as the Citizen's Forum. And it was only the other day, on  a visit of mine to shape up this essay, that she told me she was studying the  phases of the moon. "I just want to get them straight, but I don't think even  the moon herself knows what she is about."  She is an inveterate lover of auto-rides, a going concern at ninety-nine,  whose most characteristic reply to an invitation for a drive is, "I'm ready:  here's my purse and my gloves. I do so like gloves - it's so nice to pull them  off!" And with a motion as light as a leaf in a slight breeze she is away to the  car, and in it, what is more, while the driver is still making polite noises about  opening the door and helping her in.  I had to tell her recently of the death of a mutual acquaintance. Her  reply?  "People keep dying. I wonder why they persist in doing it. I'm sure I  don't know what is going to carry me off: I don't feel at all like dying. And  then with her whole face a-twinkle, comes the final word: "I don't think I'll  bother." 81  MRS. DOROTHEA ALLISON  CELEBRATES HER 100th BIRTHDAY  by Dorothy Drake  The 100th birthday of a very exceptional Okanagan Valley resident was  celebrated August 14th, 1978, at the Rainbow Ranch, Okanagan Centre, the  home of Nancy and Peter McDonnell, when more than 200 guests assembled  to honour Peter McDonnell's Aunt, Dorothea Allison.  Mrs. Allison was born in Lancashire, England August 14th, 1878. She  graduated as a teacher from Bedford College, London with Cambridge University Teaching Diploma. In 1908 she travelled to Burma to spend some time  with her eldest sister, whose husband was practicing law in Rangoon. Later  she visited another sister in India, whose husband was a judge in Madras. In  1912 Dorothea Scott Coward came to Canada to visit a cousin, John Stokes,  an orchardist in Oyama. There she met Robert Allison who owned the adjoining orchard, and they were married in 1913.  Before her marriage she taught for a few months at Okanagan Centre  School. Later she served for several years as trustee on the Oyama School  Board, as well as being active in many other affairs of the community. To  those who are fortunate enough to know this tiny and remarkable lady the  thought is always that she is "100 years young." Dorothea Allison is an inspiration to all on how to live, no matter whether enjoying the comforts of life in  her early years, or in the busy life of an orchardist's wife, she took such a keen  interest in every phase of life, so that now in looking back over the years her  memories are rich in the real worth of life.  Always interested in art, music, literature, and world affairs, she has also  taken a very sincere interest in the early culture of the Indian tribes in the  valley, and given help and encouragement in reviving old crafts. Among her  many friends there are many young people still at school or college, who enjoy her keen mind and sincere interest in today's world, and who make a point  of visiting her whenever they are back in Kelowna.  The high regard in which Dorothea Allison is held was shown when  friends and relatives came from all around the community, from other parts  of Canada, and from England, to celebrate her 100th birthday. A nephew,  Richard Strange from England introduced F. G. (Chick) Barlee, who proposed the birthday toast, and also spoke of the late Robert Allison, and the  very interesting life he had led, and of the part he had taken in the great gold  rush days in Dawson City, before becoming an orchardist in Oyama.  Dorothea Allison had stipulated that she wished no gifts, but instead  she presented all those under twenty-one years of age with gift wrapped 1978  silver dollars to commemorate the occasion. But as one of them said, "how  could we ever forget someone special like Mrs. Allison."  Two days later, August 16th, her church paid tribute to her, when a  special Pontifical High Mass was said by Bishop Doyle at the Church of the  Immaculate Conception in Kelowna. Mrs. Allison's cousin Adrian Stokes  from England and nephew Christopher Pearce from Vancouver Island, read  the lessons and the Catholic Women's League served tea in the Church Hall  afterwards. 82  CORA'S MEMOIRS  By Cora Rice  Cora Margaret, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. George W. Roberts, was born  in a little log house near Enderby on March 17th, 1887. They later moved to  Armstrong where Cora entered her first grade at school. In 1907 she married  Bill Brett, a widower with seven children. Mr. and Mrs. Brett had nine children at the time of his death in 1950. She married Romey Rice in 1951. Mr.  Rice passed away at the age of eighty-five in 1965. Mrs. Rice lived in Winfield with her daughter, Ethel Remsberry, who urged her mother to write her  memoirs in 1965 and again in 1967. The following are a combination of both  writings, unfortunately never completed.  I will write this on as far back as I can remember. I was born on the 17th  March 1887. I am now 80 so I will have quite a long ways to remember everything that happened in those days.  My Father and Mother were living in a big log house on a place they  made into a nice home. My brother Harry was two years older than me. My  sister Laura was two years younger than me. Another brother was born two  years later. I remember my Father had to hitch up a team of horses to go and  get a woman to be with mother when he was born. Her name was Mrs. Caroline Bacon. Well, when she got off the democrat, we looked and wondered  when he was going to take the Bacon into the house. Anyway, we were all put  to bed upstairs as usual. My Mother's sister and my counsin Willie Wilson  came that night and they slept downstairs. In the morning I heard this  brother cry. We were told not to come down, that Aunt Annie would come up  and get us. She did and told us we had another Baby Brother and we were to  keep very quiet. As youngsters would think and wonder why, but we didn't  ask why, but wondered if we were going to have Bacon for breakfast. Yes, but  it was Caroline. We knew her well and she often babysat for us. She was very  kind to us and we had to kind of mind her. We had no trouble doing that.  The baby brother was just two years younger than Laura. His name was  Milo. Two years later a brother Dick came along. Then two years later a sister Alma came along. Two years later brother Jeffie. He was the seventh and  all two years apart. He was the last of the Roberts family.  My Father was fifty-six and was troubled with heart for a few years. He  was a shoemaker by trade at the time he was married. He bought a nice one-  hundred and sixty acre farm four miles from Enderby.  I remember when I was three years old, I got three spankings for being  too noisy with the baby. I loved to sing; so when I had to rock the baby in an  old-fashioned cradle, I hung spoons on the head and foot and they rattled.  Mother said, "Take the spoons off," so I just took off one string of spoons. I  got spanked for that, so I just wasn't entertaining enough. I tried to take the  baby up. That didn't work either, so mother said I could go to bed. I did,  with a spank. I sure deserved a lot.  Then when I was five, my Aunt Annie gave me a little birthday party.  Her son Willie was five the day after my birthday. My aunt told us of St. Patrick and his life and how he got his name. I remember just after that, we were  all at the barn as papa just got home from town. He hurried us away, so we  went to the house, but we were anxious to know why he told us to keep quiet, 83  so we did. When he came in, he told us our mare, Nellie, had twin colts, really nice ones. But we couldn't see them until tomorrow. My cow Dolly had  twin calves the same day. So we had lots to talk about that night. When papa  went out to the corral that night to milk, we would take our cups to get milk  with lots of foam on. We can't do that nowadays.  We were a fat bunch of children. When I was six, papa sold our nice  ranch at what is called Grindrod and moved to Armstrong where my brother  Harry and I started school. He was eight.  We lived there a year, then moved to a place in what was called White  Valley. We didn't go to school for three years. We moved from there to a  ranch at the foot of Bluenose Mountain, called Rickeren Ranch. Then we  started school again and had to walk or ride horseback three miles there and  three miles home. There was Harry and me, Laura, Milo and Dick. We had  fun running down hill going and up hill off and on going home. Sometimes in  the winter, we had to break our road through four feet of snow and we  changed our clothes at school and dried out the wet ones; then change again  when we got home. We had a poor teacher. There were about ten children  most of the time for school. One teacher Mr. Silverwrite, would let the children run to look out of the window when someone was going by. Well, we  learned to read, write and spell.  I never left my desk or looked around and always got a roll of honor for  Deportment at the end of school. Two of them burned when our house  burned down and I still have two. I guess it was because I was the oldest pupil  at that school. I was thirteen when I left school and in Grade five for four  years, as there was no higher grades, but I get along okay.  Yeoman of the Guard - Vernon Scout Hall, 1950's.  Photo credit       Kermode Studio 84  GILBERT & SULLIVAN OPERETTAS IN THE OKANAGAN  byH. V.Webb  The comic operas of Gilbert & Sillivan have brought pleasure to millions  of people in many lands and it is ironic that the very talents which brought  them fame should have caused their separation - for it is said that each was so  jealous of the abilities of the other that their partnership was brought to an  end.  Mr. W. S. Gilbert was born in London in 1836 and had written a play  and the Bab Ballads before meeting Arthur Sillivan in 1870. The latter was  also born in London, but six years later, and after winning the Mendelssohn  Scholarship at The Royal Academy of Music in 1856, was widely acclaimed as  a composer before his meeting with Gilbert.  Their first collaboration was the opera "Thespis" in 1871, followed by  "Trial by Jury" in 1875. From then on, with their feet securely on the ladder  of success, their productions became more elaborate, and in 1877 "The Sorcerer" was produced under the direction of D'Oyly Carte. During the next  twelve years nine more operas made their appearance. In 1889, a breach occurred between the two men which lasted for four years, but they got together  again in 1893 to produce "Utopia Limited" and later "The Grand Duke," but  neither had the sparkle of earlier productions.  The first recorded production of a Gilbert & Sullivan opera in the Okanagan was in Kelowna in April, 1908 when "H. M.S. Pinafore" was put on.  The show as also taken to Vernon and to Penticton which in itself was a real  undertaking for those days. After an enthusiastic reception both at home and  elsewhere, the Kelowna Musical and Dramatic Society as they were known,  put on in the next three years, "The Pirates of Penzance," "The Mikado,"  and "Iolanthe." These were also taken to Vernon and Penticton and were  received with equal acclaim. It is notable though, that a highlight of "The  Mikado" appears to have been the designing and painting of the scenery. This  was done by Edgar McKie in his spare time while quietly growing fruit in East  Kelowna, unmindful (at least at that time) of the general opinion that he  could have named his own price in New York as a scenic artist.  It is unfortunate that no record is available of the names of those who  played the principal parts, or of those responsible for all these productions although we do have a partial list of the players in "Iolanthe." Pinky Ford  played the part of Strephon; Mrs. Jim Harvey was Phyllis; Mrs. Len Hayman  played Iolanthe; George McKenzie was Private Willis and Bobby Reed took  the part of the Lord Chancellor. These names may perhaps stir a memory  here and there. From here the scene changes and we move to Summerland  where in 1913 "The Mikado" was performed by a local group under the direction of Mr. Stanley who hailed from Ottawa, and Mr. Dan Williams was the  conductor. Miss Barthea Mason was the pianist and Grace Whitaker, who was  then Grace Logie, was a member of the chorus.  Here the War intervened but these popular operas came to the surface  again in 1919 - once more in Kelowna, and there is record of the following  performances:  1919 Patience  1920 The Mikado  1921 The Yeomen of the Guard 85  1922 The Gondoliers  1923 The Pirates of Penzance.  There is no record of the principal players in "Patience," but Elaine  Cameron took the part of Yum-Yum in The Mikado. She was also the pianist  in 1921 for The Yeomen of the Guard, having replaced Alison Foot who at  that time was preoccupied with a production of her own in the form of her  son Ted. The following year, Mrs. Cameron conducted The Gondoliers.  Others playing principal parts in The Mikado were George C. Benmore as  Pooh Bah (for whom the part was designed), Pete Atkinson as Pish Tush,  Albert Shaw as Ko-Ko, Dorothy Leckie as Pitti Sing and W. H. Mantle as  The Mikado of Japan.  Most of us have heard of Bernie Braden, but it is refreshing to know that  his Mother was known not just as the wife of the United Church Minister in  Kelowna, nor as 'Bernie Braden's Mother,' but as a singer and actress who was  quite well able to stand on her own two feet beyond the reflected glory of her  illustrious son. She took the parts of the Duchess of Plaza-Toro in The Gondoliers, Katisha in The Mikado and of Dame Carruthers in The Yeomen of  the Guard.  In 1923 The Pirates of Penzance was produced by Mr. Soames and his  wife was Ruth the Pirate Maid. Pete Atkinson took the part of the Pirate  King, Leopold Hayes was the Sergeant of Police and George Benmore played  Major General Stanley.  That year marked the departure of George Benmore from Kelowna and  his appointment as Manager of the Occidental Fruit Company Limited in  Summerland. Possibly this may not have been a move of national importance,  but it is significant that Gilbert & Sullivan operas (with the exception of occasional school productions), came to a close in Kelowna and caught fire once  again in Summerland - a case of Kelowna's loss and Summerland's gain.  Summerland by this time was ripe for Gilbert & Sullivan and Mr. Benmore lost no time in joining forces with other enthusiasts including W. V. B.  Webb who became business manager and later stage manager of the newly  formed Summerland Operatic Society, and afterwards the player of several  principal parts. Starting in 1924 the following operas were produced:  1924 H. M. S. Pinafore  1925 The Mikado  1926 The Yeomen of the Guard  1927 The Gondoliers  1928 H. M. S. Pinafore, and later in the year  Trial by Jury  1929 Iolanthe.  George Benmore of course took his usual parts up to and including 1928  after which he returned to Kelowna, much to the sorrow of the Summerland  group. The tenor parts were taken by Ben Newton, the unassuming possessor  of the most glorious golden voice one could ever hope to hear. Other principal  men included Jack Clement and Frank Mossop while Carol Graham and  Lillian Craig were outstanding among the ladies. Harry Howis as Private  Willis, Marjorie King as the Fairy Queen, Jo Paradis as Iolanthe, Vere Webb  as the Lord Chancellor and Howard Daniel as Jack Point and Strephon all  added to the polish of the performances. 86  To go back for a moment, special mention must be made of the portrayal of the Lord High Executioner by Mr. C. B. Winter in 1925. His acting was  flawless and his humour top class, particularly during his song "On a tree by a  river . . .," when his antics left him so breathless that he could do no more  than sit on the apron of the stage and go through the motions of singing - with  no sound whatever. His singing of additional verses to "I've got a little list  . . .," written by Mr. Vere Webb and poking fun at local personalities, also  proved a hit.  The productions of 1924 and 1925 were both taken to Kelowna and put  on in the old Empress Theatre. The dressing rooms below the stage were  quite inadequate for a company of 45 or 50, and arrangements were made to  use the back portion of Chapin's Cafe next door. It was necessary too, to arrange for a special ferry so as to get everyone home again the same night -  scenery and all. After that Kelowna was dropped from the itinerary owing to  transportation costs, but the Company continued to play in Penticton and  was always assured of a good reception.  Performances in Summerland were put on first in the old Empire Hall  but this building suffered the same fiery fate as the other main buildings in  the lower town, and later productions were staged in the Ellison Hall at the  foot of the Peach Orchard hill. This building served the community well for  stage shows, exhibitions, badminton and dances.  In 1930, The Pirates of Penzance was put on, but here the depression  and later the Second War cut short all further thought of comic operas and it  was not until 1948 that they were again revived - and again in Summerland.  Here again there are gaps in the information available, but productions were  regular, as one can see:  1948  H. M. S. Pinafore  1955  Ruddigore  1949  The Pirates of Penzance  1956  The Gondoliers  1950  Iolanthe  1957  Trial by Jury, plus  Down In the Valley  1951  Patience  1958  The Pirates of Penzance  1952  The Mikado  1959  The Sorcerer  1953  Princess Ida  1960  Iolanthe  1954  The Yeomen of the Guard  Without in anyway belittling the other members of the various casts,  without whom the shows simply could not have been put on, it seems that  this was the era of A. K. Macleod and Stan Gladwell - the one as a performer  par excellence and the other as the power and inspiration behind the scenes.  To A. K. Macleod, Gilbert & Sullivan was meat and drink, and after a  year or two his entry on stage was all that was required to draw applause.  The audiences knew - and nor were they ever disappointed - that this man  gave in full measure of all the pleasure to be drawn from the parts which he  played so well.  Stan Gladwell on the other hand, was not a performer in Summerland  though he had played in Gilbert & Sullivan in earlier years elsewhere. He was  thoroughly steeped in his subject, and his contribution to the success of the  productions can be assessed by reference to the programmes where his name  appears as Producer, Director, Stage Manager, Set Designer, etc. etc. Such  notices on a succession of programmes must mean that Stan Gladwell was as 87  nearly indispensable as a person can be, and the Summerland Singers & Players Club, as the Company was then known, was the richer for his presence.  Ever since 1924 the Summerland Players have drawn upon Penticton to  augment their orchestra and as the years went by, Penticton musicians gradually outnumbered those from Summerland. Notable exceptions however,  were Miss Ruth Dale and Mrs. Isabel Dunham as pianists, John Betuzzi on  either trumpet or drums and Mrs. Evelyn Hookham who played the 'cello' for  every performance from 1924 to 1960 with the exception of 1929, when her  place was taken by Mr. B. C. Bracewell of Penticton.  Summerland readers (if such there be), will recall with a smile the enthusiasm of Mr. S. B. Snider as he worked over his double bass, the pure notes  which emerged from the flute of Mr. A. Hargreaves despite his somewhat  ample moustache and the sometimes unpredictable sounds from Tom  Charity's coronet.  The good people of Penticton also began to provide more of the principal players and among the singers were Jack Stocks, Jack Rorke, David  Stocks and others. On the other hand, the names of Laura Boothe, Ethel  McNeill, Alma Fudge, Ken Boothe and Flora Bergstrome remind us that  Summerland is by no means out of talent. Here we must recall that Delmer  Dunham was indeed one of the faithful, for his name appears on almost every  programme over the 36 years - first as a member of the chorus and latterly as  a principal player.  Despite the popularity of Broadway musicals and rock groups, it is refreshing to know that the Summerland Singers & Players Club, with welcome  assistance from Penticton both with voices and orchestra, is well and flourishing, and that Gilbert & Sullivan operas continue to be performed regularly.  May they long continue.  "^^Sk «      "^^s.  Early Penticton, Pre! 914.  Photo credit - Vernon Museum 88  ST. NICHOLAS CHURCH  The accompanying photos are of the first Greek Catholic Church to be  built in the Vernon area in 1937. This church was for the most part, hand-  built by volunteer labour supplied by a small group of Ukrainian settlers,  including the Scherba and Shamanski families, some members of whom still  live in the region. The land for its construction was donated by Mr. Scherba  (now deceased) and the large cross in the churchyard, traditional in Greek  Catholic cemeteries, was hand-hewn by a Mr. Chobatar.  St. Nicholas is still in use for occasional services and for weddings. For  passers-by, this church provides an exotic reminder of Vernon's Ethnic history; for those who linger, a quiet restfulness that is very rare in 1979. 89  WILLIAM McLEISH  by Thomas Walter Cowan  Bill McLeish was born on November 13th, 1884, in the town of Oban in  the county of Argyll, Scotland.  He was the only boy in a family of four youngsters and spent the greater  part of his teenage years working in the same trade as his father, who was a  professional gardener.  Having left school at an early age, he sought work in England as a gardener and worked on many of the estates of some of the more prominent families at that time, including the Baron Rothschild of European banking  fame, and the countess of Lauredale.  His specialty was in the care and operation of greenhouses.  One of his acquaintances in England was a fellow by the name of Jim  Lister who had a brother Jack in Vernon, British Columbia. Jack, a carpenter  by trade gave a glowing account of the Okanagan in his periodic letters and  eventually in 1911, Bill and Jim left for Canada. The trip to St. John, New  Brunswick took seven days and another seven days were spent on the C.P.R.  train across Canada, arriving finally in Sicamous where they transferred to  the branch line into Vernon.  After arriving in Vernon, Bill worked in the orchards and gardens of  many of the well-known residents, including J. Kidston. Another of his employers was the firm of Paton and Findlay, who later sold their holdings to  A. T. Howe.  Mr. McLeish was later hired by an American (name unknown), to plant  fruit trees in the Glenmore area in Kelowna. The Glenmore area, according  to Bill, was owned and operated by Dr. W. H. Gaddes, who became one of  the most prominent real estate agents in the Okanagan. Bill recalled quite  vividly, the great activity around their tent town in Glenmore. Over 30 men  and 12 teams of horses were put to use to plant the Glenmore area and he  chuckled at the thought of the thousands of trees they planted.  With the Glenmore job closed for the winter months of 1912-13, Bill  went to work in a logging camp up on the mountain East of Winfield. It was  the usual practice to walk to Vernon for the weekend, and walking across the  frozen surface of Wood and Kalamalka Lakes was the fastest and smoothest  way. It was on one of these trips that he fell through the ice on Kalamalka  Lake about opposite the point later developed as an alfalfa field by Jack  Bailey. The two partners with Bill at the time were lucky enough to escape a  dunking, but Bill went through, and only his outstretched arms saved him  from going completly under. He finally managed to pull himself out and  completed the remaining 8 mile walk to Vernon. His Vernon quarters at that  time was the Jubilee Hotel, later known as the Vernon Hotel on the spot now  occupied by the Safeway Stores Ltd.  In 1914 Bill married Jane Gordon Heriot, a young lady from Perth,  Scotland. She was a laundry maid and dressmaker by trade and employed by  W. C. Pound, the taxidermist, who for many years operated a shop on Bernard Avenue near the Imperial Bank of Montreal building.  In 1935, the McLeishes purchased the home and orchard of Colonel  Bott in the East B.X. District, just below the Grey Canal. Fire destroyed their  home in 1938 and the present house was built on the same site. For many 90  years the McLeishes attended to their gardens and orchard and were ardent  gardeners, enjoying the beautiful location they had chosen.  Mrs. McLeish died in January 1971, and Jean, whose husband Werner  Boch-Philips had died in 1961, took on the care of the household. Now at 93  years of age, Bill is still able to recount very clearly, many outstanding events  that took place in the Okanagan Valley over the past 67 years he has lived  here.  Early orchard in Vernon area.  Photo credit — Vernon Archives 91  PENTICTON IN THE 1920s  by Don Steele  On a summer day in 1922, if you were sitting on the step in front of the  small corner office of Freddie Bassett's livery barn - just about where Gue-  rard's Furniture Store is now located, at the corner of Nanaimo Avenue and  Robinson Street in Penticton, looking south, instead of seeing a parking lot  and buildings - the Royal Bank, the Greyhouse Bus Depot and the Elks Hall  and all adjoining buildings in that block, you would only see cottonwood  trees, a pine or two and brush. Among them, Bassett had the local Indians  pile their wood - which he purchased, in neat measured cord stacks. Most  Indians would drive their teams down Main Street at a slow walk, usually with  a lanky long-haired dog slinking along under the wagon, keeping pace with  the team. Among the favourites from the Reserve, was Billy Kruger, who  would let one of his boys drive the team and he would be riding one of his race  horses. He would kick the horse in the ribs occasionally to make it prance and  when one of his many admirers would yell to tell him how they admired his  horse, in a pleasant higher-pitched voice, Billy would smile and only say  "yaah,yaah."  From Bassett's office west to the lane, instead of the present Clarke's  Building Supplies Store, it was a corral for horses. At the rear of the livery  barn on the corner, Freddie had several open coal sheds so that his one Maxwell truck and several horse-drawn wagons could drive close along side of the  open sheds to load the various types of coal by hand shovel to fill orders. You  would never hear of a theft of wood - left in the open lot, or coal from these  wide open sheds. The one truck was driven by Freddie's brother "Top." The  teams were driven by Jock Burgess and an old fellow named Louie.  At the age of 12, due to my fondness for horses, I would either hang  around the barn to help feed the horses grain, toss hay down from the mow  above or clean out the stalls. When there was nothing to do, often Freddie  would tell me to put the bridle on one of the saddle horses and take them for  a little exercise. This was heaven - or at least happiness.  It was always customary for the teamsters when returning from a delivery, to stop their team and wagon on the weigh scales out on the street allowance in front of the barn, drop the reins and enter the small office to receive  the next orders. As usual, after receiving the next order, Louis had a habit of  just picking up the reins, stepping into the wagon and just whistle to his team,  who would automatically walk off the scale, around the corner on Robinson  Street and pull up along side of the coal sheds to load. He would return to the  weigh scale to determine the amount of coal on the wagon - Freddie would  emerge from the office to read the scale and mark the weight down on the  counter slip.  One quiet sunny day, while several of us were sitting in front of the office, Louis yelled "whoa" to his team on the scale, walked into the office but  while he was getting instructions, a small boy walked by on the sidewalk and  let out a whistle. The team immediately started off at a walk with the lines  trailing, carried on around the corner to stop along side of the coal sheds at  the rear of the barn. Everyone watched Louis's face when he emerged from  the office to find his team gone - the joke was on him.  In the early twenties, if you faced south on Main Street, standing on the 92  wood plank sidewalk - which was about two feet above the ground, south from  Nanaimo Avenue in the 300 block, you would be looking at trees and scrub  brush on the east side, with the exception of Sam Clarke's small shoe repair  shop - which was set back about 20 feet from Main Street with access to it also  by a high wood sidewalk. Opposite on the west side of the street, a two-storey  building occupied by Tily's insurance office on the main floor and I believe,  Mr. Colquhoun's law office on the second floor. That building still stands  next to the corner brick building. The remainder of the area on the west side  of Main Street was brush and trees with a seepage of water running under  Main Street forming wet ground in low spots around the three corners at  Nanaimo and Martin Street. This seeping water made it necessary to put the  sidewalks up off the ground. But things have changed.  At that southwest corner on Martin Street which is the present Penticton  Inn, was the Municipal Office - a one-storey building with wood siding. It  housed the small staff, a Council Chambers, police station and small court  room at the back. At the rear of the Municipal Office was a high plank corral  fence which was the town Pound. Horses and cows were often found wandering the streets, to be picked up by the policeman on duty. Laying against this  corral fence for several years, was a 8 inch by 8 inch wood post about 6 or 7  feet long - an old sign with a glob of concrete stuck to the bottom end. This  sign had been removed from the centre of the intersection on Main Street in  front of the Bank of Montreal and it read "Keep to the Left." But things have  changed. I believe it was in 1920, a new post had been placed in the same spot  at the Main Street intersection and each vehicle - buggy, wagon or car, had to  go around it. You couldn't cut the corner. This new post was painted white  too and from the top down it read "Keep to the Right."  In those days, the Post Office occupied small quarters in an old wood  building about the middle of the east side of the 200 block on Main Street.  Because Penticton Creek often flooded a portion of the lower part of town,  one would have to step up 7 or 8 inches to the floor and all town residents  called to the Post Office to ask for mail - there were a few rented boxes. I  spent much time around there because the weekly Penticton Herald was  printed on Thursday and several boys would "gamble" by buying just so many  papers at 3 cents each and stand around down town until probably 7 p.m. to  sell them for 5 cents. Those were the days. We might miss our supper but we  would probably make 50 cents profit. And don't forget that sum would buy us  two chocolate bars, a large bag of popcorn, take us to the Saturday afternoon  matinee - probably a silent Tom Mix "shoot out" at the old Empress Theatre  on Front Street, and enough left to pay for one-quarter of an apple pie and a  cup of chocolate after the show.  It was normal procedure in those days for the Liberals, when elected, to  form the Provincial Government at Victoria, to make their own appointments  - even to magistrates. When the Conservatives were elected, they would fire  the Liberal followers and appoint their own people. So, at times, that nice old  fellow George Guernsey - a Conservative, was appointed Magistrate in Penticton. One summer day there were five young boys standing before the Magistrate - one of them his own son "Buck" and I was another, all charged with  gaffing Kokanee fish in Penticton Creek. These fish would swim up the creek,  spawn and die. The Charge of Gaffing was read by a stern, militarist and disliked character known as Chief Doidge. He and one other formed the Town 93  police force. All of the boys admitted gaffing the fish so the Magistrate fined  them fifty cents each and my father asked permission to pay the fine for all.  Magistrate Guernsey just smiled and agreed. After this incident, each time  my father and I were walking to or from home on the sidewalk, if Chief  Doidge was passing, he would be strutting down the centre of the road and as  he passed near, my father would always stop and in a loud voice say, "Do you  smell skunk? I do." Finally, the Town fired Doidge.  Referring to horses and cows, in the 1920's many residents had both,  and chickens too, usually kept in a small building at the rear of their house  lot or across the alley on another garden or vacant lot. These small outbuildings were usually comprised of a barn for one or two animals, a combined  wood and coal shed, a place for tools and an outside privy. But things have  changed.  With reference to the old Municipal Office, I recall that in later years  the City of Penticton charged every employee a $5.00 Poll Tax and they compelled each employer to collect this Tax from every employee who was not on  the City Rolls as a land tax payer. One of my friends - let's call him "Clem," a  young fellow who was firing steam locomotives for the K.V.R., told the story  of how he had recently purchased some real estate in town. When the K.V.R.  office deducted the $5.00 Poll Tax, my friend Clem said that with fire in his  eye, he stamped in the Municipal Office to demand a refund of the $5.00.  The Town Clerk replied that Clem had only purchased the property six  months ago and he thought the tax was still payable. Clem said "I pounded  the table and stated 'my lawyer said No'." The Town Clerk backed up and  immediately turned to the girl clerk and said "allright, allright, refund the  $5.00 to him." Later with a grin on his face, Clem admitted he had never seen  a lawyer.  During these years in the Twenties, the C.P.R. operated the Sicamous on  Okanagan Lake - leaving Penticton early each morning six days a week, returning each evening. As kids, we would hark to the deep-throated steam  whistle from her coal-burning boilers, when she was about half way between  Trout Creek Point and the wharf at the foot of Martin Street. This warning  gave us time to run down to the wharf to see the people walk off the boat and  see the express and freight being handled.  At this same wharf, the Kettle Valley Railway two-storey building next  to the rail, housed the baggage, express room, railway agent - Mr. Kirk-  patrick and the telegraph office - where all commercial telegrams were sent  by the operator, John Hope. On the second floor, there was a staff to handle  the railway accounting and managerial departments. Whether the Sicamous  was arriving or one of the two daily passenger trains, the commotion was  about the same. People going in all directions. There was always a man standing by a two-wheeled baggage cart yelling "Incola Hotel" - in a dignified  voice, and Dave Riordan standing near his old McLaughlin-Buick touring  car, also yelling "B.C. Hotel, free bus." He owned the hotel (now the Valley  Hotel) on Front Street. But things have changed. The Sicamous is beached,  the passenger trains have stopped, the wharf and the station building have  been demolished. But I can still hear the yelling above the noise of the crowd,  "B.C. Hotel, free bus." 94  MILLER OF TRINITY VALLEY  By Mrs. Jennie Saunders  V. L. E. Miller came to Trinity Valley in the 1890's. He was the first settler, as that honour presumably, went to James Holbold Christie, who was a  prospector, early explorer in the Pacific Northwest, former Northwest  Mounted Policeman, miner and listed as a farmer at Mabel Lake in 1894.  Two holes in the "Peaks" are known as Christie's caves, where he mined a little. Christie used to come and visit Miller at odd times.  In 1892 thirteen pioneers came into the Valley. Of these, the first to stay  was V. L. E. Miller. He took up the S.E. Quarter of Section 9, Township 43  (Holland Bros.) on June 17, 1892. He lived in the Valley but did not pre-empt  land that he "proved up" until December 8, 1896, when he claimed the S.E.  Quarter of Section 7 and the S.W. Quarter, Section 8, Township 43. *(From:  "Beyond Shuswap Falls," compiled and written by Rosemary Dueling, 1973.)  He was a neighbour to Harry and Grace Worth for over 30 years. They  arrived in 1901. His ambition was to obtain 10,000 acres of land in B.C. He  would buy cheaply, sell for $100.00 an acre and thereby become a millionaire. Many men did this and by 1913, when he made his last pre-emption he  owned 12,000 acres in the Lumby area, but it is doubtful that he attained his  financial objective. *See Okanagan Historical Society Report 23 - "Highlights  of a Honeymoon," Grace Worth.  Miller was known as "V.L.E." which initials stand for Vernon Leslie  Eden. Few of his friends realized or knew what his given name was. Even as  Magistrate of Lumby, he was known as "V.L.E." He was the son of a wealthy  coalmine owner and his British financial interests were in the Durham Coal  Mines, amounting at times to $100.00 per day and at others as low as $35.00  per day. He went to school in London and told us that he had his own key to  his rooms at 8 years of age. He attended Oxford and later graduated as a barrister, practicing in England, but not in Canada.  At first he lived in a little cabin at Shuswap Falls, where the river was  crossed by cable and boat. In 1892 the first bridge was built over the Falls.  This proved a great convenience to settlers coming in at this time, but was a  cause for complaint by V. L. E. who grumbled about "over-crowding." Consequently, he crossed the river, climbed the mountains and pre-empted land  in Trinity Valley, where he was to live for the balance of his life as a bachelor  with a Chinese cook to care for him. His homestead in Trinity Valley consisted of 1,000 acres. Here he constructed a large house and other buildings,  so many in fact, that it was nicknamed "Millertown." These frame buildings  were covered with metal and are still in use today. He had a beautiful library,  lined with all his law books and beautifully bound sets of Balzac and Conan  Doyle. He was a tremendous reader. He used to get the London Times, Argosy, Atlantic Monthly, Observer and others. We used to get these passed on  to us and they gave great enjoyment. Farm income was very small in those  days and most people could only afford the weekly Vernon News and the  Family Herald. He had a large kitchen and a Chinese cook called "Sam."  There was a dining room with a long table covered with "damask" oilcloth,  very new in those days. His large attic was known as the harness room and  there he had all kinds of saddles and harness parts, which he never used. A  special sort of staircase led up to the attic. This could be raised to the ceiling 95  when not needed.  The farm had no animals except his two fat horses, who lived the life of  pampered pets and finally outlived him. Men were hired to harvest the hay  for them each year.  Mr. Conn, the old Trinity Valley Postmaster and stage driver, would go  in by one end of the Miller drive and pick up Miller's mail and grocery order,  etc. once a week, and go out the south entrance on the way home with the  groceries and other orders. He used to get New Zealand butter by the 50 lb.  box and would not have any other kind. Also tea in big lead-lined tea chests.  He would mail an order to Vernon for these and other things and Neil and  Cryderman would deliver them by horse and wagon.  Around 1918 or 1919, Miller decided he would buy a car, but found it  difficult to learn to drive. He got a chauffeur called "Dutchie" who boarded  in Lumby. The car was a McLaughlin and a special garage was built for it on  Miller's lot in Lumby, where the Feed Store now stands on Shuswap Avenue.  Mr. Miller had no phone and had to tell his chauffeur (by the mail stage man)  to come up for him and take him to Vernon. He would spend a few days at  the Kalamalka Hotel and do business and visit friends. Dutchie would call for  him on a set day and take him home to Trinity Valley and return to Lumby  with the car. As far as we can tell, there was only one other car in Lumby at  that time, that of Postmaster Quesnel. Dutchie had a grand time taking the  Lumby girls for rides with much blowing of horn, as it was all a novelty.  Miller found out and sacked Dutchie, then tried to drive the car home to  Trinity Valley. The car landed in the ditch, halfway home. There it stayed  until Miller sold it to Mr. Gooding of Lumby, who had it for years.  A windmill supplied the house water from a good stream near by. Sam,  the Chinaman, stayed for years. One day, he got itchy feet and a fat wallet  and said he was going home to China for a visit. The visit proved very lengthy  and V. L. E. got worried. He got after Consuls and other officials to find out  what had happened. Sam never came back; it is thought he must have been  killed and robbed for his money, for he intended to come back. Miller had a  big photo of Sam and it is said that he was heard to talk to it.  He owned large tracts of land at Mabel Lake as well as his farm. As he  got older and was not feeling well, he got a young chap, George Bailey, to  stay with him. He got quite fond of George and talked him into buying a piece  of his land for $1,000.00, which was quite a bargain. He also gave him a lot  of material to build a house on this property and a reasonable time to pay for  the property. Not long after this, V. L. E. Miller died. He had no relations  except a nephew in Australia, who evidently inherited the money of the  estate. George was surprised to find that he had inherited the Miller house  and farm, but had to go on paying for his own house and 80 acres.  The property has been bought and sold many times since then. One  owner, an American named Ganneau, drove a covered-wagon-sort of sleigh  to take children to school at Trinity Valley. This only lasted a year. One year,  Mr. Ganneau and Harry Worth snow-plowed the road with six horses. Horses  and men stayed at the Saunders' place overnight. Don Saunders had the first  car in Trinity Valley to stay there and be driven around from there.  V. L. E. Miller was an eccentric. He was land-hungry and desired, more  than anything, to acquire more land than his brother in New Zealand. He  joined the British forces in the Boer War and much of the land acquired after 96  1900 was gained through the South African War Veterans' Land Grant Act.  More was gained through having friends pre-empt in their names, while he in  fact paid for it. He would sell nothing and valued his peace and quiet almost  as much as his land. He bought land from N. P. Nelson and the Cartwrights.  Nels Peter Nelson pre-empted Section 7, Township 43 on November 2, 1892  and part of Section 8 at the same time. In 1896, he applied for two preemptions, one on Section 28 and one on Section 33 adjoining Millers', which  was eventually taken over by Miller. In February, 1906 he took up the west  half of the N.W. Quarter of Section 6 for Miller.  In 1903 Miller was part owner with J. Highman and G. Muller of two  mines, 5*4 miles S.W. of Vernon, the Royal Standard and the British Empire  Claim. Here there were nine veins of Quartz carrying free-milling gold, running from 10 inches to 2 feet wide and giving values of from $8.00 to $48.00  per ton in free gold. The shaft on the British Empire was down 68 feet at the  bottom, and the ore gave assays of $16.00 in free gold. These claims were  situated on a range of hills that jut out strongly into Okanagan Lake, splitting  the north end into two arms.  Mr. Miller died on April 15, 1932 and is buried in the Pleasant Valley  Cemetery in Vernon.  ^ :,♦  ■'■ :■' ... . :  Vernon Contingent, Strathcona Horse - South African War.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 97  GUY BAGNALL - CHARTER MEMBER  A TRIBUTE  By Ivan E. Phillips  1904  1966  Guy Bagnall, soldier, pioneer, historian and author, was born on October 8th, 1882, in Dublin, Ireland. He is truly a remarkable man! Although  he was denied, at the age of seventeen years, from volunteering for active  service in the South African War of 1899-1902, he was not dismayed, for he  immediately underwent training in the Militia, at the Royal Military Infirmary. Phoenix Park, Dublin. At the end of twelve months, his wish to serve  overseas was gratified. As a stretcher bearer with the R.A.M.C. he saw much  service during those eventful years. Guy's training and skill in the care of the  wounded and of the diseased, was to stand him in good stead also in Zululand  and in World War I. He was painted a graphic word picture of those wars in  which he served. Guy was awarded the following decorations in this order:  Queen's South Africa Medal and four Bars 1899-1902, The Natal Native  Rebellion of 1906, The Meritorious Service Medal 1906, The British Great  War Medal 1914-1918, The Allied Victory Medal 1918 and The British Overseas Long Service Medal - Auxiliary Forces. It is of interest to reflect that the  Meritorious Service Medal of 1906 was presented to Guy at Vernon, British  Columbia, at a parade of the British Columbia Horse, by Col. Cyril Bott,  also a veteran of the South African War. This was in 1906, the actual year of  Guy's arrival in Canada, and his settlement in Vernon. All of these medals  are now in the National Museum, Ottawa.  After his service in Natal, Guy felt the need of a respite. So it was that he  travelled to the United Kingdom and Ireland, and thence to the United States  of America, and eventually to Winnipeg in Canada. He did not realize it at  that time, but this was to be journey's end. After working on a farm until the  winter, he was able to secure a position with the Hudson's Bay Company.  Later, he was sent to Vernon in British Columbia. He has said that from the 98  first day of his arrival in the City of Vernon, he was made to feel welcome by  all with whom he came into contact. In return, he has made Vernon his home  and has served it throughout the years, and even into old age. As for the City,  there is hardly an organization, public or private, that has not felt the impact  of this dedicated and dynamic figure in their midst. Neither must one forget  the help and inspiration afforded by his late wife Luta in all of his endeavours. It was a grievous loss to Guy when his wife passed on in 1977.  These are but a few of the numerous and eventful occasions and projects  of Guy, in a long and busy life. No attempt has been made to chronicle his  war experiences in detail. These are recorded in his book of some years ago.*  1. Formation of the South African War Veterans Association, 1959.  2. Guy lays the wreath on South African War Memorial, Ottawa, 1962.  3. Present at the dedication of Vernon Restholm, 1964.  4. Confirment of Freedom of City of Vernon, British Columbia. 1971.  5. Named Good Citizen of the Year, 1967.  6. Guy and Mrs. Bagnall with Rev. Allan C. Pound, were the founders  of the City of Vernon Museum and Archives, 1949.  7. Scoutmaster, Boy Scouts, 1913-1914.  Guy has always been a deeply religious man, and is closely associated  with the United Church of Canada in Vernon.  Anent the Okanagan Historical Society, Guy is an authority on its history, and particularly that of Vernon. He and Horace Galbraith of Vernon  are the only surviving founders of the Society. And they actually attended its  inaugural meeting fifty-four years ago. Over the years, he has helped actively  in the building of its structure as we know it today.  May he long continue to head the list of our "Life Members" for many  years to come.  *See Okanagan Historical Report No. 37, page 175.  B.C. Horse Camp - 1909.  Photo credit       Vernon Museum 99  PEACHLAND SCHOOL REUNION  1908 - 1978  by Sheila T. Paynter  Don Wilson, committee chairman summed up the reunion when he said,  "It must have been a success, I haven't heard any complaints and we're all  exhausted."  He was referring to his committee of twelve local women: Ivy Law (Mrs.  Edgar Bradbury), Patricia Clements, Joan Fulks (Mrs. Verne Cousins),  Vahdah Stump (Mrs. W. de Plonty), Myrtle Keating (Mrs. Arnold Ferguson),  Beth Topham (Mrs. Geoff Garlinge), Mrs. Lillian (P. C.) Gerrie, Dolores  Mash (Mrs. D. Houghtaling), Margaret Domi (Mrs. C. Kerr), Betty Buchanan (Mrs. George Long), Sheila MacKay (Mrs. Henry Paynter) and Sadie  Todd. Don could also have been thinking of the two hundred and fifty former  students of Peachland school who, with husbands and wives, attended the  two-days festivities on July 15th and 16th, 1978 in the Peachland Community  Hall. Six months of preparation were required to make this a smooth-running  event. A thirty foot cloth banner hanging over the old school steps symbolized  what was happening. "Welcome Back," "It's good to see you again."  Peachland School on Beach Avenue is one of the oldest schools in continuous use in School District 23. It was opened on September 8th, 1908 with  forty-two students enrolled. Three of the first teachers were Mr. C. Elliott,  Miss Milne and Mr. Paul Murray. The first trustees were Mr. M. Morrison,  CLASS OF 1908  Front row, left to right: K. Hardy, M. White, B. Town, J. Dryden, E. Winger, three Henry  sisters, I. Murdin, E. Law, A. Clements, F. Clements, (?), M. Keating, C. Morrison, A. Ferguson, B. Keating, (?), A. Town, Shaw, W. Keating, (?), V. Winger, (?), G. Whyte, Mary White,  R. Elliott, A. Seaton, W. Buchanan, L. Seaton, (?), E. White.  Back row, left to right: B. Dryden, H. Morrison, V. Hicks, (?), O. Needham, E. House, Miss  Milne and Mr. Murray (teachers). 100  DIVISION 1936  Front row, left to right: Jack Gaynor, Bernard Clark, Ron Ffollett, Peter Macintosh, Raymond  Wilson, Peter Veregin. Second Row, left to right: Jim Evans, Don Miller, John Gummow,  Gordon Sanderson, Joe Khalembach, Frank Chilton. Third Row, left to right: Dorothy Miller,  Rosemary Wilson, Edna Cousins, Dorothy Gaynor, Mona Roberts. Fourth Row, left to right:  Cleo Baptist, Vivian Vincent, Annie Topham, Madeleine Ekins.  Mr. S. J. Callender and Mr. John Vicary. The first school inspector was Mr.  J. S. Gordon. Before 1908, school was held in the building which later became  St. Margaret's Anglican Church. Several former teachers were able to attend,  helping to add to the reminiscent atmosphere. They were Dorothy Clements  (Mrs. Easton), Miss Brown (Mrs. Mahood), Mr. Mel Barwick and Mrs. Laura  (Roach) Lucier who is still teaching in the same building after thirty-two  years. A new elementary school has been built on the former Lambly Ranch  property, while Kindergarten and Grades One and Two remain in the old  building. In 1949 Grades Seven to Twelve were transferred to George Pringle  Sr. Secondary School in Westbank, so it was decided to use the previous year  as the cut-off date for invitations. Funds from the last Student Council graduating class from Peachland had been saved and were donated to this reunion. Under the direction of Dolores Houghtaling a fine souvenir program was  published and presented to all who attended.  From nine in the morning until two in the afternoon on Saturday, July  15th, there was registration and the beginning of reunion and fellowship.  "You're looking great." "I'd have known you anywhere," and handshakes and 101  emotional hugs and kisses were the order of the day. From 10 a.m. until 4  p.m., students paid a nostalgic visit to the school and enjoyed the many  photographs and memorabilia.  One of the highlights of the weekend was the collection of photographs  of early school classes and events. Congratulations and thanks to Harry St.  Claire of Peachland for this successful exhibit.  On Saturday evening, a more formal event took place. A banquet supper  was served, catered by Nora Crookes (Mrs. Art Kopp) and the Peachland  Auxiliary to the Kelowna Hospital. Gordon Sanderson, as Master of Ceremonies, took care of introductions and announcements and Gary Topham  read a well documented message from Olive Gummow (Mrs. C. Clarke) who  was unable to attend. Dancing followed, with music supplied by the Orchestra of Neil and Harold Witt. Both brothers were present, joined by Hilda  Hunt (Mrs. Ted Clements) at the piano and another old-time member, Syd  Smalls with his ukelele. Two newcomers who helped out were Tom Itani and  Al Ehlers. At Intermission, Mr. and Mrs. Harold Domi gave a display of  round dancing and made a presentation to Margaret Kerr in appreciation of  her work as secretary on the reunion committee.  On Sunday morning, July 16th, there was a chance to meet your friends  again in the line-up for a Pancake Breakfast. The Senior Citizens in their  new complex on Beach Avenue rallied around the hot plates and coffee urns  to get everyone off to a good start on this closing day.  An Interdenominational Church Service followed. It was conducted in  the Community Hall by the Rev. C. A. Warren (Retired) with Mrs. Betty  Long's piano accompaniment.  Mr. Warren spoke of the theme of community service. He advised us to  work at making and keeping Peachland the sort of place people want to come  back to. Two solos by Betty Manring (Mrs. Alex Sim), accompanied by Mrs.  Jean Todd were enjoyed by the large gathering of Peachland residents and  visitors.  A buffet lunch, group picture taking and the serving of a large decorated  cake rounded off the entertainment. This weekend will long be remembered  and, as Cora Evans said in one of the many letters of appreciation received,  "I knew it would be good but it surpassed anything I'd hoped for."  A unique group of five sisters attended. They were: the former Misses  Winger-Amey (Mrs. G. Tubbs), Dorris (Mrs. G. Ross), ..Esther (Mrs. E.  Carter), Hilda (Mrs. W. Hatch), and Katie (Mrs. G. Hilts). Many other early  settlers were represented at this gathering, among them McCall, Seaton,  Miller, Wilson, Coldham, Keyes, Buchanan, McLaughlin, Keating, Ferguson  and Topham. Another unusual family group was made up of three generations of Peachland School students: Joan (Fulks) and Verne Cousins, their  son Don and his daughter Sheryel.  Friendships were renewed that will give pleasure for years to come. Conversations about "What are you doing now?" and "Do you remember when"  were heard on all sides.  As she was leaving, Peggy Heigway (Mrs. Chuck Whinton) saw a tired-  looking elderly lady sitting on the porch steps. "Resting your feet?" she asked  sympathetically.   Promptly  came   the   answer   "No.   resting  my  tongue."  That was the Peachland Reunion, Summer of 1978. 102  MR. AND MRS.  ALLAN CHARLES POOLE  by B. Ferworn and M. Geurard  Our dad was born in Coventry in 1878. At the age of sixteen he Apprenticed in Wales, in the art of Confectioner and Baker. He came to Canada with  the Barr Colonists in 1903, with the intention of taking up a homestead and  farm but, instead became a baker, grocer, sign painter and window dresser,  in Cairne's store in Saskatoon. There he met our mother, Isabel Mcdonald,  who was visiting from Toronto. She was born in Tobermory, Ontario in 1880.  They were married in 1907 and came to Kelowna two years later. They lived  in a small house on Richter Street, north of Bernard Avenue for four years,  until the house they had built for them on Ethel Street, north of the bridge,  over Mill Creek was completed. Here they lived the rest of their lives. Dad  had come to Kelowna to be a partner in a grocery store that became known as  'Biggin and Poole.' Soon an oven and bakery was added to the premises and  there Dad began making the bread and confections for which he became  famous in the town and district. Later, this business became 'Chapin's Confectionery and Tea Room.' Dad then moved to his own newly constructed  'Bakery and Green Lantern Tearoom.' This tearoom, could on occasion be  turned into a banquet hall and on Saturday evenings, a small dance band  played, so clientel might dance between their ice cream sundaes and banana  splits.  During the Depression Dad Poole, (as he became called later by his  twenty-three grandchildren), had a bake shop built behind the home on Ethel  Street. In those hard times, very many transients found their way there, and  were never turned away empty-handed. He worked the long hours of a baker,  until a few years before his death. Much of those last years were spent growing  a fine vegetable garden and lovely flowers.  Mother was noted for her beautiful sewing and tailoring. She was the  first president of the Women's Guild of St. Michael and All Angels Anglican  Church and was a member the rest of her life.  They raised a family of six, four of whom still live in the district: Ada  Gillespie, Madeline Guerard, Donald and Betty Ferworn. Allan Jr. resides in  Vancouver, and Mary Lane in Parksville.  Dad with his fine bass voice, took part in all the Gilbert and Sullivan  presentations, which took place over the years, from 1909 until 1928, the  last one being 'Les Cloches du Cornville.' He was a member of St. Michael's  Church choir for forty-five years. He died in 1954. Our mother died in 1960. 103  THE HUTCHISON STORY  by Beryl Wamboldt  Russell and Hazel Hutchison celebrated their Golden Wedding  Anniversary.  The first Hutchison to come to the Enderby area was Matt Hutchison,  who came from his home in Ontario and managed the eighteen hundred acre  farm that was owned at that time by Moses Lumby and a Mr. Bennett. Later  this ranch was sold to Sir Arthur Stepney and became known as the Stepney  Ranch.  In 1893 Matt Hutchison decided to turn the management of the Ranch  over to his brother George, who had come from near Owen Sound, Ontario,  in 1886 to work with Matt.  George Hutchison was born on April 12th, 1863 and was then 29 years of  age. He had married Elizabeth Mumford, a school teacher from Owen  Sound, in the old Presbyterian Church in Enderby, where the foundry is today. He continued to manage the ranch for ten years, subsequently working it  for himself, paying $3,250 cash rental and in addition $800 worth of oats, hay  and straw. Besides grain, he raised cattle and sheep. A son, Lome, and a  daughter were born while they lived on the Stepney Ranch.  After Sir Arthur Stepney bought the ranch, George Hutchison remained  as foreman for three years. He then joined his brother Matt and brother-in-  law Mr. Mumford, operating a produce store in Armstrong, B.C.  Mr. and Mrs. George Hutchison decided, in 1900, to go back to Ontario  to live but after six years they found the West was in their blood so they moved  to Carstairs, Alberta, in 1906 and bought 2V& sections and lived there, raising  cattle and horses. Three daughters and three sons were born in Carstairs.  In 1922 they retired and moved to Calgary. 104  In 1931 the "Calgary Herald" featured George Hutchison in a 'Pioneer  Column.' He was then 68 years old and had just returned from a three month  bus trip through the southern states, Pacific Coast and the Okanagan Valley  to visit relatives and to see once more the Stepney Ranch he had pioneered in  1886. He found this area now broken into many farms and known as "The  Stepney." Mrs. Hutchison died January 20th, 1942 and George Hutchison  died on August 12th, 1950, at the Gleichon Nursing Home, Calgary, Alberta,  following being struck down by a vehicle eighteen months earlier. He was  then 87 years of age.  A third Hutchison brother, William, came to Enderby in 1895 with his  bride, the former Margaret Mumford, a sister to George Hutchison's wife.  William Hutchison was born in Chatham, Ontario and his wife in Owen  Sound. They spent the rest of their life in Enderby. Bill Hutchison, as he was  known there, operated a blacksmith and Hardware shop across from where  Lundman's Hardware store is today, and at that time their home was on the  property Lundman's Hardware is today.  There they raised a family of seven, four sons and three daughters: the  late Roy Hutchison, Port Angeles, Washington, Mildred Kurtz, Oswego,  Oregon, Ruth Marion Case, Goldendale, California, Grace Beatrice Freado,  Spokane, Washington, William Russel Hutchison, Enderby, B.C., Harold  Hutchison, Port Angeles, Washington and Frank Hutchison, Port Angeles,  Washington.  William Hutchison died in 1932 and Mrs. Hutchison died in 1948.  Only Russel remained in Enderby; he had learned the blacksmith trade  working with his father and took over the shop when his father died.  On April 23rd, 1929 Russel Hutchison married Hazel Dale in St.  James Anglican Church, Armstrong, B.C. and they moved into the house on  Hubert Street, Enderby that they still live in today.  Hazel Dale was born in North Enderby and went to school there and in  Mara where her family moved to later.  The Hutchisons have two children; a son, Alvin Russel, who lives in  Montrose; he is married and has three sons, Murray, Kelly and Blaine. He  works for the Department of Highways; a daughter, Muriel McQuillan of  Enderby, who has a son, Patrick and a daughter, Jean.  In 1948 the Samol family came to Enderby wanting to build a theatre on  Cliff Street. They bought the Hutchison property behind and built the  theatre which has since become a bowling alley.  After selling the blacksmith shop, Russel went to work with the Department of Highways in Enderby and worked with them for nearly 20 years, retiring in 1967.  The Hutchisons are active in the Old Age Pensioners, the Drop-In  Centre; Sr. Citizen's Complex Society; Royal Canadian Legion activities;  Vernon Senior Citizen's Society; St. Ann's Women's Auxiliary and the Armstrong-Enderby Oldtime Dance Club.  The Russel Hutchisons celebrated their Golden Wedding Anniversary on  April 23rd, 1979. At a reception the Saturday before, both old and new  friends attended to wish them many more years of happiness together.  As a friend and as a lover of pioneer history of our area, it gives me pleasure to write the story of the Hutchison family which goes back 94 years at  least in the Enderby area. 105  THE LEBLANC FAMILY  by Hector LeBlanc  Joseph LeBlanc Sr. was born in St. Anicet, Quebec in 1854 and married  Elmire Quesnel, also a native of St. Anicet, born in 1856. They decided to  come to Lumby because they had been told of the nice cattle country, gold  mining in Cherry Creek and the plentiful timber and wildlife that abounded  in this area. Louis Christien, a brother-in-law of Elmire, was one of the people who encouraged them to come. Eventually, Elmire had four sisters and  three brothers, all of whom came from Quebec in response to the glowing reports their sister sent home. They were Celina (Mrs. Louis Christien), Josephine (Mrs. Candide Quesnel), Selima (Mrs. Louis Morand), Zulima (Mrs.  Jean Deschamps), Alphonse, Cleophas and Osias Quesnel. There was one  brother, Antoine, left in Quebec.  Joseph Sr. and Elmire had four children in 1889 when they left St. Anicet  and travelled by train to Sicamous and then by democrat to Vernon. Their  eldest child was Joseph Jr., born in 1882. He was followed by Josephine, born  in 1884; Cleophas, born in 1886 and Alphonse, born in 1889. The family  stayed in Vernon for about four months while Mr. LeBlanc looked for a  homestead in the Lumby area. They moved out to Lavington and stayed  there for several months. It was there their fifth child was born. This was  Anicet, the first white child to be born in Lavington, and the first child to be  baptized in the new Catholic Church in Lumby, by a priest who came once a  month from Kamloops.  They located their homestead at the bottom of Blue Springs hill by the  Rollings Lake turn-off. The property is a large dairy farm today. The maple  trees still growing there were planted by Elmire from seed she brought with  her from her home in St. Anicet.  Joseph Sr. cleared his land with a single-bitted axe and a cross-cut saw.  He was said to be one of the best axe-men in the valley, along with his sons  Joseph Jr., Cleophas, Alphonse and Anicet. The tradition still stands today  with his great-grandson, Wayne LeBlanc who competes in world competitions in axe, cross-cut and powersaw. His great-grandfather would not use a  double bitted axe and neither will Wayne.  In 1893, Bertha, their second daughter was born and two years later,  Elda arrived to complete the family. Tragedy struck when in 1908, Alphonse  became ill. Dr. Morris was called out from Vernon but to no avail. The family  still has a newspaper clipping from the Vernon News that was saved by his  mother.  Joseph and Elmire, along with all the pioneers, lived a hard life and a  busy one. When he died in 1938, at the age of eighty four, he was sadly missed  by his family and friends and is still remembered as a cheerful man who loved  to sing and tap dance. Elmire lived to be ninety-five and died in December of  1951. At the time she died, she left five children, twenty-two grandchildren  and forty-seven great grandchildren, thirteen great-great grandchildren.  The eldest son, Joseph Jr. drove what they called the school bus from  Blue Springs to the school which was located where the cemetery is today.  The "school bus" was a grey coloured horse and democrat in summer and a  cutter or sleigh in winter. He attended this school until he completed the curriculum in 1897. One of his teachers was Tom Norris. He married Marie  Anne Gallon in 1917 on November tenth. They were married by Father 106  Bessette. Marie Anne's family came from France in 1907 and after a short  stay in Revelstoke, they moved to Lumby the following year.  They lived on their farm at the north end of Lumby that he had rented  from Price Ellison in 1915 and purchased in 1917. Part of this property included the site of the Elementary School of today. He also owned land in Bear  Valley which he had homesteaded and he retained ownership of this land until 1931.  Joseph Jr. and Marie Anne raised a family of four children: Evelyn,  Margaret, Hector and Lorraine. Joseph Jr. was a lover of horses and had  many prizes to his credit at the Fall Fairs in Lumby and Armstrong. He went  into partnership with his cousin Armand Quesnel and his brother-in-law,  Pete Catt, to buy a Percheron stallion in Alberta in 1928 for $10,000. They  raised many fine horses from this stallion. He also went into the sawmill business with his brother-in-law, Napoleon Bessette. The sawmill was set up on  the Mabel Lake Road just south of the original farm house, which still stands  today. The lumber to build that house was cut in this mill, as well as many  timbers for the Canadian Government who bought them for bridge timbers  and shipped them overseas during and after the First World War. He sold his  share to Mr. Bessette in 1924. Mr. Bessette and his sons went on with it until  it became a large sawmill known as Interior Sawmills, located in Kamloops.  Joseph Jr. died in 1956 after an accident on his farm. His wife, Marie  Anne, still lives in Lumby at Saddle Mountain Place.  The eldest child born to Joseph Jr. and Marie Anne, Evelyn, attended  school in Lumby and married William Adams who had come to Canada from  Wales. They are life-long residents of the village and raised a family of three  daughters: Margaret, Ann and Patricia, and one son, William Jr. Mr. Adams  worked for Bell Pole Co. until his retirement. They have recently sold their  home. This lovely piece of property will soon become a new subdivision. Their  daughters are all married and they are the proud grandparents of nine grandchildren.  The second child, a daughter named Margaret, married Henry Schneider of Vernon. They owned a farm on Mabel Lake Road, north of Lumby.  They raised two daughters, Marlene and Sherrie. They sold their farm several  years ago and moved into Vernon where Henry is a real estate salesman. They  are the proud grand-parents of four grand-children.  Hector Joseph LeBlanc was the third child and only son. He, like his  sisters, received all his education in Lumby and married Adeline Werner,  whose family had homesteaded in Cherryville. He was a trucker and logger  and spent his working life in this area. He was the trucker who hauled the one  hundred and seven foot flag pole that was set up in the Community Park in  1956. He retired from trucking a few years ago, but felt that life had become  a little dull, so started a new career as a salesman. Hector and Adeline have a  family of four children: Wayne, Darlene, Richard and James. At the present  time they have four grand-children.  The last child to be born in this family was Lorraine. She received her  education in Lumby and then moved to Vancouver where she became a hairdresser. She moved back to Lumby and married William Stewart, who had  moved here from Alberta. They raised a family of three: Gregory, Lynn and  Brenda Lee. Lorraine lives in her home which was part of the original farm,  and has been the faithful mail lady for Mabel Lake Road for many years. 107  Josephine LeBlanc was the eldest daughter of Joseph Sr. and Elmire Le  Blanc. She married Napoleon Bessette on January 2, 1900. They had ten  children: Leah, May, Rose, Cleophas, Arthur, Hilda, Gladys, Dorothy, Betty  and Norman. They spent their lives in Lumby and their daughter Gladys is  married to N. R. (Pat) Duke, the Mayor of Lumby. Josephine died in March  1963 at the age of seventy-nine.  Cleophas LeBlanc was the second-born son. He married Rita Marie  Brandle in 1920. They raised five children: Peter, Charles, Theresa, Isobel  and Denise. Cleophas homesteaded at the top of Blue Springs which is the  Bob Edwards place today. He spent his life logging and trucking as well as  farming his homestead. He passed away in 1949.  The fourth child, Alphonse, was only eighteen years old when he died in  February of 1908 of spinal meningitis.  Anicet was the fifth child born in this growing family. He was born in  Lavington in a house owned by J. P. Gillespie. It was located across the road  from where Henri's Store is today. Anicet farmed his father's homestead at  Blue Springs as well as doing a great deal of horse logging. He married Ruth  Mills and moved into Lumby where they resided for several years before retiring to Vernon. Anicet died on June 14, 1978 in his eighty-seventh year.  Bertha LeBlanc was the sixth child and the first to be born on the homestead in Blue Springs, in 1892. She married Donald Essary and moved to  Leduc, Alberta. They raised two children. She is the only surviving member  of the family and lives with her son, Donald, in Toronto, Ontario.  The youngest child, Elda LeBlanc, was born in 1894 on the homestead.  She married Hugh (Pete) Catt who had been her teacher at school. They  raised a family of five children: Ena, Henry, Joy, Niki and Ronny. They lived  on their ranch, much of which is part of the town of Lumby today. The Catt  family is well known and respected in Lumby. Pete Catt was magistrate for  many years and the ranch is still being run by Henry and Ronny. Elda spent  her life in Lumby and died on November 30, 1975, at the age of eighty-one.  :HIE;LDS- -&  Shields & Company store, Lumby, B.C.  K—m  mm.i^mm  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 108  WATERSIDE  by Rachel C. Price  Our home at Waterside, 1938.  When a very young man, my father, John McKay left his birthplace in  Ballymena, County Antrim, Ireland, to go to Glasgow, Scotland. There he  worked at a large dyeworks in Shettlestone, a suburb of Glasgow.  While working there he met my mother, Mary Campbell, whose father  owned and operated the business. After their marriage they moved to Clydebank where Dad worked in a steel mill. Later they moved to Mary Hill,  another suburb of Glasgow. Here he became a salesman for the Singer Sewing  Machine Company. By this time three sons had arrived, Tom, John and  Robert. At eleven months, Robert passed away from pneumonia. While  here, Dad's doctor advised him to move to a drier climate, either Australia  or Canada, since he was threatened with consumption. He chose Canada.  Leaving his wife and two small sons behind, he arrived in Canada in the  early spring of 1904. Starting in the East he hired out as a labourer on farms  all across Canada. Most farmers were very helpful and kind while a few were  Very high water in 1928. Had our boat tied to fence, just a few yards from front of house. 109  Members of the crew who worked with Mr. McKay on the Salmon Arm Hill road in 1913.  tantamount to being slave drivers. A few even refused to pay the wages agreed  upon. In the early fall he arrived in Enderby. He felt this was the spot for him,  here his health improved and he lived to be nearly seventy-six.  He worked at times for L. A. Fortune, also for a time at the big lumber  mill which was in operation then. In preparation for his family's arrival, he  rented a house on Cliff Street, just above the Motor Inn. Due to the serious illness of their eldest son Tom, my mother had to cancel her sailing to Canada.  She didn't arrive until July 1, 1905 with her two sons and a baby girl Ella, who  was born in December, 1904 while Dad was in Canada. Seven more children  were born in Enderby.  By 1909 Dad was able to purchase from Charlie Strickland, forty acres of  bushland on the Shuswap River about two miles north of Enderby. This he  named Waterside. This achievement brought great pleasure to him. This  seemed a big farm in comparison to the small holdings he had been used to  Mother (in dark dress) and Dad (wearing cap) with two Old Country friends. 110  in Ireland, so much so that he sold fifteen acres to Sam Roberts. Sam's son  Alex still lives there.  Dad soon cleared a spot on the riverbank. With the assistance of Harry  Preston, he built a large two-storey house with four bedrooms upstairs. Here  he gained the experience in carpentry that enabled him to later build all the  other farm buildings. In 1936 he had Ewart Price of Hullcar add on the present kitchen and bathroom. This was when rural electrification became available. He had a well drilled near the house but the water proved unsuitable. It  was a dirty, rusty colour. He then had an electric pump installed on the river  bank which drew the water from the deep side of the river. The end of the intake pipe had to be protected with a fine screen. Prior to the advent of electricity we had to carry all our water from the river. Later we used a large  barrel on a horse drawn stone boat. So, electrical power eliminated this onerous task.  Most years at spring run-off the river overflowed its banks, filling the  lowland between the river and the front of the house. To reach the river for  clean water we had a series of heavy planks, laid on supports, over the flood  water. We children enjoyed this, but it was a source of worry for mother.  When the river overflow dried back it left many pools of water in low spots  which provided ideal breeding places for mosquitoes. Some years the mosquitoes were terrible. Heavy smoke smudges had to be kept by the door to try  to keep them out of the house.  In later years when I was teaching at Solsqua where mosquitoes were  prolific, I discovered an incense-like product called 'Katol' (made in Japan),  which caused mosquitoes to disappear like magic from a room even with the  windows open when one stick about the size of a 'Pick-up Stick' was lit and  allowed to smolder. What a boon these proved. No more chasing mosquitoes  at night. After World War II these sticks disappeared from the market.  The river also provided much pleasure for us children, swimming and  boating in the summer and skating in the winter. Now-a-days the river is  much shallower and doesn't seem to freeze over as in times past, possibly due  Dad and his registered cow. Ill  to pollution in the water. After the river froze to a depth of twelve to sixteen  inches Dad and neighbours cut blocks of ice and stored them in sawdust in a  well built ice-house. This was a boon in summer as it kept butter and milk in  good condition during the hot weather. The children loved the cold, sweet  milk, and how good those occasional feeds of home made ice cream tasted.  We took turns turning the handle of the freezer, also at licking the freezer  paddle. Ice cream was such a treat those days, much different from now.  I recall Indians camping on the farm while they cleared the land. They  cut cords and cords of firewood and burned huge piles of brush. As the land  became ready, Alfalfa and wheat were planted. There were always three  crops of hay put up in the loft of the barn and in stacks outside. A fourth crop  was fed green. In the late 1930's Dad built a large hay barn onto the big barn  which meant all hay could be stored under cover. At first only enough wheat  was grown to feed the poultry. This small field of grain yielded heavy crops.  Tom French cut it with a cradle sythe. When the children were big enough  they took over the binding of this grain. They made bands from the straw and  fastened it into sheaves. The hens did the threshing.  Later, large amounts of grain were grown and a binder cut it. The  sheaves were stacked to await the arrival of the threshing machine operated  by Billy and Andy Glen. This meant extra work for the women as a fairly  large crew of men had to be fed. The huge stacks of straw provided bedding  for the animals and poultry, also mattresses for our beds. Mother made large  cases from flour sacks and we filled these with fresh straw as required.  We kept four or five dairy cows, usually Jerseys, which provided much  good food for us and milk and butter for sale. Butter averaged 40 cents a  pound and milk 10 cents a quart. Mother Usually made twenty to thirty  pounds of butter per week. The children helped by turning the big barrel  churn and by operating the wooden handle that squeezed out the moisture  after the butter was thoroughly washed. Mother was a good butter maker and 112  so her butter was in great demand. We delivered milk, butter and eggs to  individual homes in Enderby. Here the ice was useful as mother packed the  butter in ice when ready for delivery. Any surplus butter and eggs were exchanged at the stores for staples that couldn't be produced on the farm. As  Dad's job was only part time, mother put aside a certain percentage of his  wages to lay in a winter's supply of such staples as flour, sugar, rice, macaroni, rolled oats, and a twenty pound pail of lard. As she could make a considerable saving on these, she sent her order to Kirkhams in Vancouver. Our  winter supply of eggs was assured by the preservation of them in water-glass  during the spring and summer, when eggs were plentiful. To add to our food  supply, we raised two pigs which were butchered in the fall. The pork was  made into bacon, ham, headcheese and blood sausage. Everything but the  squeal was used.  About 1912 Dad became road foreman for the Enderby district, building such roads as parts of the Canyon area and also the old Salmon Arm Hill  road in 1913. I recall his telling of great trouble with the Salmon Arm road  because of quick sand. In one area near the top of the hill, they had to make  quite a jog in the road in order to bypass this spot. Everything thrown in  quickly disappeared. In those days all work was done with horses, scoop shovels, hand shovels and wagons. The men made camps and slept in tents. They  also had a cook when the distance was too great to return home each night.  This position was part time. All work closed down in the fall and re-opened in  the spring. My father continued in this position until about 1925.  Prior to 1920, Dad had a homestead on the Glen Mary near Loon Lake.  During the summer he had a group of Japanese cutting cord wood and cedar  poles. In the winter months he hauled these to Enderby where there was ready  sale. He gave up this homestead when it became compulsory to live part of the  year on it. This proved impossible especially because there was no school for  the children. So all in all, he was able to make a decent living. The farm provided much of our food, such as small fruits, vegetables, potatoes, eggs and  dairy products. Mother added to the income by taking in washing, which was  done by hand on the old fashioned washboard.  About 1925 Dad purchased a building on the main street in Enderby  where he operated a general store, mostly groceries, for some time. At this  time he bought his first car. A period of indifferent health made it necessary  to give up indoor work. His youngest son Jim and his daughter Jeannie carried on with the store until they both enlisted in World War II. The store was  closed out and the property sold. Dad continued to run the farm in a small  way. After his death in 1949, at the age of seventy-five years, Waterside was  sold to Pat Farmer of Enderby.  My mother was greatly missed when she passed away in 1938. Her early  passing and the death of his youngest son overseas were not easy on Dad.  Our parents were insistent on seeing that we received a good education.  They felt that they could provide this. Our mother always told us we could  carry this around with us even if we never used it. Only three members of our  family didn't graduate from High School. One of my memories of school was  the splendid leadership we all had under Miss Beattie. Four of us became  teachers. Of our large family, only four of us survive. These are Rachel (Ella)  and Martha of White Rock, Roberta of New Westminster and Jeannie of  Lumby. 113  THE CORNERS OF GLENMORE  by Catherine Mary (Corner) Levins  Raymond Westley Corner.  Edna C. A. Corner.  My father, Raymond Westley Corner, was born on February 23rd, 1894  in St. Lambert, Quebec. His schooling was at Westmount Academy in Montreal and he moved to Vancouver, B.C. in 1912.  His first visit to Kelowna, was in 1913 by the Kettle Valley Railway and  the SS Okanagan.  1916 was the year my father went overseas, first in the Canadian Army  Medical Corps; then into the Royal Flying Corps, transferring to the Royal  Air Force April, 1918.  In 1919, after Dad's return to Vancouver, he came back to Kelowna and  picked apples in an orchard in North Glenmore with George A. Barrat, (his  brother-in-law) under the guiding hand of Douglad MacFarlane and Harold  Somerford when it came time to learn pruning of the apple trees. He married  my mother, Edna Bateman, May 1st, 1920, in Vancouver, returning with her  to Kelowna where they built and moved into their home in Glenmore, now  owned by Mr. Collinson. The home was built by contractors Arthur Baldock  and Alex Bennett. My parents lived in this home until they moved to 1650  Bernard Avenue in 1961. The family home was on Valley Drive.  My mother, Edna Caroline Annie Bateman was born in Hartney, Manitoba and very soon moved to Portage La Prairie, Manitoba. She attended  Public school and Collegiate there until the family moved to Winnipeg, where  she took a business course. In 1910, she went with her family to Vancouver  and took a position as secretary to the bank manager of one of the first  branches of the Bank of Nova Scotia. She worked in this capacity until her  marriage to my father, May 1st, 1920. A note of interest: Heritage Village in  Burnaby, B.C. was built and was lived in by my grandfather, E. W.  Bateman. 114  My father and mother had many varied interests. Dad had his orchard  and also raised chickens and eggs for the retail trade in Kelowna. Dad served  on many boards, B.C. Fruit Shippers, Glenmore Irrigation District, and for a  time, a police constable for Glenmore. In 1925, he was appointed Clerk of the  District of Glenmore, a position he held until 1955. He also drove the school  bus for 19 years, taking students into Kelowna to school. He sang in the  United Church choir and was very active in the Kelowna Rotary Club. In this,  he spent many happy years and travelled almost world wide attending Rotary  Conventions. He was President of the Kelowna club 1943-44 and Governor in  1959-60.  My mother was a very active church worker and was also in the United  Church choir. She promoted a combining of the Ladies Aid and the Women's  Missionary Society into the Womens Federation and was their first President.  During World War II she had the ladies of the Glenmore Community to her  home in Glenmore to sew quilts for the Red Cross. My mother will always be  remembered for her cheery ways and happy smile and she was never too busy  to help wherever she was needed. She enjoyed travelling with my father on his  Rotary pursuits and they made many friends wherever they went. Everyone  was welcome in their home. My mother passed away in Kelowna, September  24th, 1969.  In 1970, my father married a longtime family friend, Ethel Short. But  everyone knows her as Taff. She and Bill Short are well known names in Glenmore and Kelowna. Taff met me when I was 8 months old and she and Bill  and my folks were close friends for many years. Taff was a wonderful wife and  took wonderful care of my father, especially in his last years of failing health.  She is living in the home at 1650 Bernard Avenue, Kelowna. My Dad passed  away November 20th, 1978 at the age of 84.  I was born in Glenmore, with Dr. W. J. Knox attending at the family  home, in April, 1927. I will always have many wonderful loving memories of  Raymond and Edna Corner as will their four grandchildren, Stephen, Dan  and Bill Blackwood and Susan Blackwood Williams.  Srtfl£*>§?K  -   ■    ratfir  ,-A, «t; ■ ■* ■ «,-  fyvit farm.  The Family Home, Glenmore, B.C. 115  GEORGE PARKINSON OF HULLCAR  by W.J. Whitehead  For one hundred years, the name Parkinson has been synonymous with  the development and progress of the Hullcar district of the North Okanagan.  George Parkinson was born of English parents at Rawden, Province of  Quebec, in the year 1855. In his early youth, he responded to that well known  phrase, "Go West Young Man, Go West," and travelling across the United  States to the West Coast port of San Francisco, and then north, presumably  by boat, to the little hamlet of Hastings Mill on Burrard Inlet in British Columbia. He would have been no more than twenty years of age, very young to  be seeking his fortune, and a long way from home.  At this point in time, he might have had his choice of land for a homestead, on what is today the site of the City of Vancouver. However, the work  and expense of clearing the heavy forest of that area, caused him to decide  against settling there and he began to look farther afield.  It was at this time the reports of the placer mining on Cherry Creek in  the Okanagan Valley, were creating a lot of interest.  Parkinson, in company with Henry Swanson and two other men, decided  to try his luck. Travelling by way of the Dewdney Trail, over the Hope-  Princeton mountains, they made their way into the North Okanagan where  both he and Swanson were to spend the rest of their lives.  There is no record of having pursued the mining which first drew their  attention, but he told in later years of how they were so taken with this beautiful valley, they made their decision to stay.  Parkinson first homesteaded on land near Otter Lake. Soon after he sold  this property to a Mr. Horsley for one thousand dollars ($1,000), a fair 116  amount of money in those days.  His next venture was a partnership with Henry Swanson, with whom he  had come to the valley. It involved a large piece of property in the Round  Prairie district, a mile or two northwest of the present City of Armstrong.  It was soon discovered their individual natures were not conducive to an  amiable partnership, so they agreed to disagree. It was decided to toss a coin,  the winner to purchase the interests of his partner. Swanson won the toss and  Parkinson moved north to the Hullcar district. He purchased a large block of  land, covered for the most part with virgin forest. His property lines extended  from the mouth of Deep Creek valley in the north to the top of Knob Hill in  the south, and west to what is now known as Parkinson Road. No more than  twenty-three years of age, he was now settled on land that was to be his home  for the rest of his days.  The development of forest land for farming purposes is very demanding,  with much hard labour even at the best of times. Such was the task this pioneer had undertaken. Lacking the equipment and machine power that was to  come into use in later years, he had to rely on his saw and axe for felling the  trees, and his horses for the extra power.  There were very few settlers who had sufficient means to supply their  financial needs of those days without working away from home. Parkinson  was no exception, for a time he drove the stage between Kamloops and  Lambly's Landing (Enderby), with intermediate stops at Lansdowne and  Grand Prairie. On another occasion his name is found listed in the provincial  accounts of 1881-1882, as having received the sum of $6.00 as a special constable in a posse that had been formed to pursue one Coyote Louis, an Indian  from the Head of the Lake, who was not taking too kindly to domination by  the white man. (Re Okanagan Historical Society No. 6 - Early Days at  Enderby - Robert Lambly.)  Parkinson's neighbours of these early years were the Steele brothers,  John, James and William. They lived on property adjoining him on the east  and were noted for having brought the first purebred Durham cattle to the  valley. This ranch was later sold to become the Platten and the Skelton farms.  Fruit ranching had suddenly become the vogue and it was the intention to develop this area for orchards, but the lack of a regular supply of moisture,  combined with severe winters put an end to this ambitious project. George  Nelson bordered him on the west, soon purchased by Mr. Lynn. The Lambly  brothers also owned property near by. D. Crane bought this and is remembered for opening the first post office in 1894. It continued until 1913, when  at that time the rural delivery routes took over, running from Armstrong to  Hullcar and then continuing on to Falkland. The first courier was a Mr.  Perrault, followed by Mr. Harding, a Mr. Pement and lastly Sam Swift. The  Falkland portion was then discontinued and the route only went as far as the  Woolen ranch, but delivery was every day instead of the previous twice a  week. Mr. Donald Matheson was also a neighbour, well known and respected  in the community. He later became the first president of the Interior Provincial Exhibition.  Parkinson spent the first eight years clearing land, developing his herds  of horses and cattle and beginning the building of the farm home. Lumber  for this house was hauled from the little sawmill the Postill brothers from  Duck Lake had erected on Deep Creek. They engaged W. Patten, from 117  Ontario, to operate the mill and he later took over the ownership as well. He  installed a grist mill and operated the sawmill in the daytime and gristmill at  night, thus taking advantage of the limited power available. The house  Parkinson built with the lumber hauled from this mill is one of the few built  in those early days that has been in continuous use since it was erected.  He was now ready to enter into another partnership, but one quite  different from the last. In 1886 he returned to his birthplace to-claim the girl  he had left behind. On November 11th he was united in marriage with Jane  Ann Copping and the following year they returned to the farm at Hullcar.  There were still many years of hard work, punctuated with a fair share of  disappointments and achievements. With money still very often in short supply, he often had to rely on his own ingenuity and barter to provide the needed implements with which to work. On one occasion he built his own sleigh  and then hauled it to Vernon, where he had Price Ellison put iron shoes on  the runners. In exchange for this service, he broke horses for Ellison for three  weeks.  There were six children born into the family; Charles, Sidney, Walter,  Stanley, Annie and Ethel. As the family grew, extra rooms were added to the  house, the boys were soon big enough to help with the work and often it was  necessary to interrupt their schooling when help was needed at home.  The first school in the district was started about 1892. It was a makeshift, set in the old Tom James house on Parkinson property. Sources do not  indicate if it was Tom James or the house that was old, perhaps it was both.  The first teacher was a Miss Schweinger. She boarded with the Crane family  and later married a man named Gardom from Enderby, who was the village  policeman. They later settled in the Fraser Valley where he became a prominent dairyman. About 1893, the first proper school was built, again on  Parkinson property and situated about a quarter mile west of the present  Hullcar and Knob Hill crossroads. Mr. Atcheson was the teacher, followed by  Mr. File and then several succeeding teachers. This school continued in use  up until 1920 when the country and town schools came under consolidation,  after which the children were brought to Armstrong by bus.  In 1904, Mrs. Parkinson died suddenly and was buried in Hullcar Cemetery. Mr. Parkinson was left with a young family to care for as well as the  responsibilities of operating a large farm. A very heavy load indeed, but his  usual determination and perseverance proved sufficient for the task.  When it came to community involvement, he was there ready with his  share. The district decided they needed a hall, Parkinson donated the logs;  his neighbour, Tom Sharpe, milled them into lumber; Mr. Platten donated  the necessary land, and with labour, materials and other furnishings provided  by like-minded people, the hall was soon a reality. A true example of cooperative effort for a community need!  Notwithstanding his many responsibilities, Parkinson did not confine all  his interests to the farm. In keeping with the enterprising spirit of early pioneers, he gave financial support to more than one commercial venture. Some  turned out well, others provided more experience than financial gain.  He was one of the directors of the first flour mill built in Armstrong. The  mill did very well for several years, then poor economic conditions and a lack  of strong management forced closure of operations. The courts ruled that the  directors alone, and not the shareholders, were responsible for the financial 118  indebtedness. Parkinson honoured his share of the obligation along with the  other directors, but it created a period of "belt tightening" back at the farm.  When the first creamery for the area was built on the creek east of Armstrong, Parkinson was the president and Mr. Henry Hawkins, the secretary.  The original share certificates purchased by Mr. Parkinson are valued treasures of the family. This industry did well for many years; at first under the  hand of the directors, later under lease to private operators. In 1925, after a  very long and warm meeting, (it was a hot day in June), the plant and business was sold to Pat Burns & Co. In 1927 the plant burned and was rebuilt in  Vernon. Another loss to the rival in the south.  Meanwhile, the family holdings had continued to grow, while some of  the original acres had been subdivided and sold to incoming settlers, the main  portion of the farm had been retained and added to them were other holdings  at Ashton Creek east of Enderby, and at Francoi Lake in northern B.C.  Charlie, the elder son, established his branch of the family at Ashton Creek,  while Stanley moved to the property at Francoi Lake. Walter continued at the  home farm, taking over from his father. After a few years, Stanley returned  to Hullcar and he and Walter divided the farm, Stanley settling on the west  with the original buildings and Walter erecting his buildings one half mile  west of Hullcar hall on the road of the same name.  George Parkinson died in 1927 and was buried in the family plot in Hull-  car cemetery. He lies in company with many of his friends and neighbours.  Many still remember him for his upright physique and his strong moral character.  He, with other pioneers of his time, faced many hardships, but they were  a sturdy lot. They left succeeding generations a wonderful heritage and an  example to which all may strive.  Mutual Fruit Co. Ltd. in Vernon, B.C.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 119  DUNSDON REUNION  by Mrs. Dorothy Forster and Mrs. Kay (Jack) Dunsdon  A family reunion of two of Summerland's oldest pioneer families, the  Dunsdons, was held July 29, 30 and 31st, 1978. A total of 108 adults and  children came together, from across Canada, and as far east as Ontario. Fifteen were unable to come.  The Dunsdon brothers came to settle in Summerland (known as Trout  Creek then) from Harrow, England, Harry arriving in 1891, joined by his  younger brother Jim, in 1896. Both settled side by side in Garnett Valley,  ranching and later planting orchards.  Friday evening the festivities began with relatives arriving in campers,  motor homes, trailers, etc., to form a huge circle in the meadow of George  and Mary Dunsdon, on the original Harrowdene Ranch. The scene, lit by  lanters, was reminiscent of earlier covered wagon days. During the evening,  a sing-song was arranged, and led by Steve Dunsdon on his guitar, ably assisted by Tim Esson on accordian and his son Tom on guitar.  Saturday, a picnic lunch was held at Powell Beach, with sports and races  for the children, while adults played a hilarious game of softball - cheered on  by older members - ending in a tie.  That evening, a dance for young and old, was held in Odd Fellows Hall.  Sunday morning, all gathered at the Research Station for a family picture,  and to enjoy a picnic lunch; afterwards farewells were made, all agreeing it  had been a wonderful way to renew family friendships.  The idea and planning of this happy event, was carried out by younger  members of the two families, convened by Marcia and Ron Dunsdon, and  Gloria and Doug Dunsdon.  In accompanying picture, the family of Harry Dunsdon in foreground -  left to right: Philip, George, Jack, Fred, Arthur, Ted, Dorothy; and family of  Jim Dunsdon, standing, left to right: Stephen, Margaret, Harry (Doc) and  James.  A remarkable part of this story is that all members of the above family  are all living in Summerland. 120  JIM DUNSDON  By Margaret Ringstad  Born July 13, 1877 at Harrow, England. Arrived at what was known as  Trout Creek (this was not yet known as Summerland) in September 1895 at  age 18 years. He died on November 15, 1955. On December 5, 1906 in brother Harry's home, he married Hannah Osborne Harvey.  Miss Harvey was born September 16, 1885 in Leigh-on-Sea, Essex, England. She came to Canada in 1902, lived for about eleven months in Red  Deer, Alberta, with her sister, before moving to Vancouver. She then took a  position as children's nanny with Mrs. George Barclay at their Ashcroft  Ranch. (The Barclays had earlier ranched in the Summerland area.) Upon  Mrs. Barclay's sudden death from rattlesnake bite, Miss Harvey returned to  Vancouver. When she became ill with pleurisy, her doctors ordered her to the  Okanagan, where she met and married Jim Dunsdon.  They took up residence in their new house on property adjoining brother  Harry's, in Garnett Valley, where they lived till Jim's death in 1955. Mrs.  Dunsdon passed away on June 8, 1979. They had three sons and one daughter, who as of March, 1979 were all still living in Summerland.  When Jim Dunsdon arrived, (four years after his brother Harry) coming  from Vernon by boat, there was no one to meet him. He had sent his brother  Harry a telegram from Montreal, but it was not received until ten days after  his arrival. The boat crew told Jim to follow the path up the cliff and keep going across the flat, etc. It was getting on toward evening and no doubt pretty  scary for an eighteen-year-old lad just out from Harrow. But Harry had heard  the boat whistle. He knew no one was leaving — so they must have let someone off — could it be Jim? Harry saddled up and rode down the trail, and  Jim was never more happy than when he recognized his brother coming to  meet him.  -  Early Kaleden, Pre-1914.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 121  DR. ARTHUR C. NASH  by Antoinette B. Paradis  Dr. Arthur C. Nash emigrated from England in 1908, and after a few  months spent in Victoria obtaining his practising certificate for British Columbia, he settled in Peachland. A year or so later his fiancee, Margaret  Farrell, an Irish girl from Galway, also came from England to Kelowna,  where they were married by the late Father Verbeke at the Mission. In Peachland, son Francis was born. After another year or two Dr. Nash established  his practice in Lumby, where he stayed another few years. In Lumby sons  Bernard and Kenneth were born. A few years ago I met the late John Hoas,  who was a lumberman in Lumby, and he well remembered Dr. Nash and his  concern for the community.  After a brief stay in Massett, Q.C.I., Dr. Nash and his family moved to  Sandon, where Gertrude was born. Four years later the family moved to  Lillooet, where they stayed until 1926. Eventually, the school requirements of  his growing family forced Dr. Nash to leave Lillooet and move to the Coast.  He set up his practice in West Vancouver, where he stayed the remainder of  his life. His wife Margaret predeceased him in 1959, and he later remarried.  He passed away in April, 1965, in his 80's.  Dr. Nash was always very much concerned about the health of the Native  Indians, and did a great deal of work among them in his various interior practices, and particularly in Lillooet and the Queen Charlottes.  One of a family of professional men, Dr. Nash was a graduate of the  prestigious Guy's Hospital medical school in London. He had an excellent  classical education - he was a pianist of no mean ability, and in his later years  he exercised his talent for painting, for which he had lacked the time during  his early years in practice. He was also a prolific poet, and had some six or  seven books of poems published, mostly of short poems. Exceptions to this  were The Drama of Dunkerque,' and 'The Sojourner,' a series of connected  thoughts about life, written in the most beautiful poetic prose. He and Mrs.  Nash enjoyed discussing poetry, and in particular the English poets, and one  recollection they had of their early days in Lillooet was when their small  daughter, Gertrude, then only four or five, would toddle over to the bank at  closing time to take the bank manager, Mr. A. B. Greig, by the hand and  lead him home for tea with Dr. and Mrs. Nash, where the conversation invariably turned to a discussion of poetry. Mr. Greig later became bank manager  in Enderby, my old home town, where he remained for many years.  Dr. Nash was a year-round swimmer, and his idea of a holiday was to  spend two or three weeks at such places as Salt Spring Island or the Sechelt  Peninsula, but in 1939 he and Mrs. Nash left by passenger-freighter for England, Ireland, and a brief visit to Rome. In early September, when they were  about ready to leave for Canada, the war broke out, and after a difficult,  nerve-wracking few days, during which they just missed the ill-fated Athenia,  they left Southampton and came home, zigzagging across the Atlantic to New  York, on a much camouflaged Mauretania.  The eldest son, Francis, was ordained a priest in 1936, and officiated at  his father's funeral in 1965. He is still active in the lower mainland. Bernard  is a lawyer, and returned to legal work after a stint in the Navy during the  war as a lieutenant. He is now Coroner for the North Shore. Kenneth served 122  in the Air Force, and later became a teacher. He passed away a year ago.  Gertrude is married, with a grownup family, and lives in West Vancouver.  In Memoriam to 'The Sojourner'  We gathered round the bier and thought sad thoughts,  and sorrowed for ourselves that we had lost  a father and a friend;  We grieved that Death had stilled his noble heart,  heard requiems and eulogies, and saw  the first dust falling from his priest-son's hands  upon his grave - then turned away -  We talked of bygone days - how, with his Irish bride  he braved the wilderness, of how  the kind physician's hands had healed the sick,  and made sweet music by the evening fire;  We talked of happier times -  of swimming in the early morn by Salt Spring's shore  and Sechelt's silver sand -  Of how his door was open wide, and how, on winter nights,  with fragrant pipe and slippered feet he sat  beside the fire, and with his sons,  held lofty discourse;  We spoke about the poet, and then -  remembered - how he spoke  of mysteries ere the dawn of Man, of how  he knew himself a sojourner upon the earth  for but a moment - a brief span of time;  And then we knew that his far-seeing eyes  had pierced the shadowy curtain of the Infinite,  and that his spirit even now had sped  upon its last long flight towards Eternity.  April 9, 1965 123  THE PRINGLES OF HULLCAR  Elizabeth Prudence Pringle was born at Lansdowne, in the municipality  of Spallumcheen on March 16, 1889. Her parents were John and Caroline  Pringle, originally from Ontario. Ralph John Pringle was born on January  2nd, 1892 at Lansdowne.  About 1894 the family moved to their new homestead near Hullcar.  They moved their house John had built to its new location. On the adjoining  homestead their uncle Will Pringle settled.  Their younger sister Myrtle Caroline died in 1915 at seventeen years of  age. They all attended school at Hullcar and Lizzie completed High School  at Armstrong, living with her aunt Mrs. Gray while doing so. Being ill for  awhile, she did not continue her schooling further but lived at home helping  her parents and brother on the farm.  By 1922 they were alone on the farm. Later Lizzie took a course in water  color painting and did some nice work. She excelled in writing interesting  letters to her friends. She wrote reports for the newspaper, chiefly of the Hull-  car Literary Society, of which she was a secretary for several years.  They were all actively involved in the Presbyterian Church, the services  being held in the Hullcar Hall.  Prior to her last illness she was preparing material to write a history of  Lansdowne but she died of cancer at age fifty-five.  Four years after her death, Ralph sold the farm and moved to a small  place at Enderby where he grew berries and vegetables. Later he sold that and  moved into a small apartment. He last lived at Parkview Place in Enderby,  where he died at eighty-six in April, 1978.  MISS MARTHA PEHOTA  In 1904 Lawrence Pehota, born in Prussia 1864 and his wife Johanna  born in Itzehoe, Germany 1867, left their home in Lagendorf, Germany to  start a new life in Canada. They had four children, Annie born 1889, Emma  born 1896, Freida born 1887 and Charlie born in 1898.  They settled in Bankhead, Alberta where on June 3rd, 1908 twin daughters Martha and Ella were born.  In 1909 in search of work and better living the Pehota family came to  B.C. and settled in the Knob Hill area. Their first home was a house built by  Mr. Pehota's brother Louie. Here Lawrence and Johanna Pehota settled  down to a busy life of farming and raising their family.  In 1911 a son Harry was adopted into their family.  Martha and Ella started school at Knob Hill in 1915 when they were 7  years old. To help their teacher distinguish the twin girls, Mrs. Pehota put a  blue ribbon in Emma's hair and a red ribbon in Martha's.  It was a mile and a half walk to school for the girls but often they would  take a short cut through the bush.  One of the teachers at this time was a Mr. Coates who would ride his  horse to school each day.  The children took their lunch to school and would leave it outside on the  porch till lunch time. One day Martha came out to find a dog had had a delicious meal of chicken sandwiches and chocolate cake. After that she was sure 124  to put her lunch in a safer place.  The children of the school would take it in turn to carry water for drinking purposes from the Brydon farm.  In 1918 Martha was presented with a certificate for punctuality and regularity from her teacher, Dorcas Brash, and again in 1919 she received a certificate from her teacher Laura Inglis for deportment. Martha proudly displays these certificates in her home today.  In 1921 the Knob Hill school closed and the children of the area were  bussed to the new consolidated school in Armstrong. Ed Harding drove the  first school bus from Knob Hill. Martha's teachers at the brick school were  Miss Wilson, Miss McTavish and Mr. Garner.  In the wintertime when the children arrived at school cold from their  ride in the draughty school bus, Miss McTavish would rub their hands with  snow in an attempt to warm them up.  With great anticipation the Pehota family would look forward to the Annual June 3rd Picnics held at the Matheson farm. This day not only commemorated the King's birthday, but it was also Martha and Ella's birthday.  There would be lots to eat and games to play. One particular event that  all the children enjoyed was when one of the adults tossed handfulls of nickels  into the air, and the children would scramble to retrieve them. The Pehota  children were expected to help around the farm. On days when their father  went into town and they were left behind to weed the vegetable garden, there  would always be a reward in the way of a small treat for a job well done.  In the wintertime Johanna Pehota spent many happy hours taking her  children on sleigh rides on a sleigh built by one of their neighbors, Mr. Crawford.  It was a sad time when Johanna became ill with Tuberculosis and Dr.  VanKleek advised her to leave her home for fear of spreading the contagious  disease to her family. It was to the Hullcar area she moved, but never recovered from the illness. On July 28, 1916 at the age of 48 years she passed away  leaving a great gap in the Pehota family.  Emma took over as mother to the three younger children, teaching the  girls the things their mother would have taught them. Martha remembers  baking her first cake when she was nine years old and everybody agreeing that  it was delicious.  Lawrence was a good father to his children. On his trips into town he  would not only pick up all the regular required household needs, but would  also choose fabric and patterns for the girls' dresses from Colman's Store.  Mrs. Colman would then sew the dresses. Martha can not recall ever  being disappointed with his choice.  In 1921 Lawrence Pehota moved a short distance away with his family  to a new log home where he was to live until his death on September 18th,  1944. After their father's death Charlie, Martha's elder brother, with lots of  help from Martha, continued to run the farm.  Martha and Charlie Pehota lived on this farm till October 18th, 1969  when they moved to town to a house on the corner of Schubert Road and  Wood Avenue. Charlie Pehota died suddenly ten days after he left the farm,  and was greatly missed by Martha. Martha then moved to her present home  on Becker Street and there she lives in contentement with her memories of  the past. 125  CRANE FAMILY  Dave Crane came to Hullcar in 1893, a year after the railway spur came  down the Valley. His father and mother, Mr. and Mrs. Crane and brother  Jack arrived in 1894. They bought acreage from the Lambly Brothers. Their  home was on the hillside and they farmed their crops and had their cattle  buildings across the road.  Alice Ashton who was to become Dave Crane's bride, came to work for  the Crane family in 1908. They were married in 1909 at Vernon and settled  at Hullcar. She was born on the McNair farm in 1886 and lived and went to  school at Lansdowne. Her family went up the Shuswap River and homesteaded the Ashton area.  Dave and Alice Crane had 3 sons, one dying as a child, Wally at Okanagan Landing and Percy in Vernon, and 3 daughters, Verain, Victoria, and  Frances in Vernon and Freda in Vancouver.  The Crane farm was the home of the only Hullcar Post Office. It opened  in 1894 and was in operation until 1913. It was situated in a log cabin near  their home. Percy and Wally recall the pigeon holes in the wall and old  stamps and pads although the post office had been close for a while. It is interesting to note there are only 2 known stamped envelopes with postage and  they are very valuable today, both are in Vernon. The mail came from Enderby and was sorted by Cranes.  Wally attended Hullcar school for one year at age 5 years and Percy was  there for 2 years as he didn't start school until he was 7. Their teachers at  Hullcar included Miss Taylor and Miss Abbott. Some of their classmates included Jack and Isabel Worthington, Andrew and Dorothy Mitchell, the  Martin brothers, Lloyd George Christie, Leslie Pringle, and Triss Price.  In 1921 the Hullcar School was closed and the children were bussed to  the Armstrong Consolidated School. George Game was the Hullcar bus driver and he drove his Model-T capacity about 20 plus. The route began at  Lynn's down to Hullcar Hall, turned south and onto Schubert Road, down  "Poverty Hill" and left again onto Highland Park Road, past eh cemetery  and down the switchback to town. Often times coming home the children disembarked at the bottom, ran up the steps on the hillside and waited for the  bus to arrive at the top, climbed aboard and went home.  During heavy snowfall, Jim McCahon drive the children to school in a 2  horse sleigh as the new modern bus couldn't manage the white stuff.  Percy and Wally recall 2 principals from their days at the Brick School -  Tom Aldworth and later Fred Garner, stern disciplinarians who demanded  law and order. Also Miss Elsie, Miss Wilson and Miss Calbick were early  teachers who came to Armstrong for experience at the "Big School." They insisted on good grammar and mistakes in daily spelling often earned the leather strap on the hand for each error. Percy is proud of his good spelling today. The last day of school, Sports Day, in June 1921 the Hullcar children  were riding to school in a wagon - benches on both sides, type of wagon. It was  coming down Poverty Hill (Schubert Road from McKechnies to Hitts) and it  tipped on its side, all the children fell off in the mud and had to walk to Armstrong, 3 miles and await another ride home.  Dave Crane was a good farmer helping the new neighbours; the Price  family when they arrived. They raised cattle and sold them to Vancouver, 126  shipped them by rail. Mr. Crane also sold grain and in the fall he hauled  apples from his orchard to the McDonald Packing House in Armstrong. The  orchard was begun in but the cold winters were unkind to fruit trees and  now only the Maw Orchards have survived. The C.P.R. bought his buttermilk as he housed about 40 cows in a large barn as well as grainery, chicken  house, implement shed. Percy remembers following his father in the furrows  as they plowed, moved or when they ran the binder.  In winter Dave Crane hauled logs to Armstrong Sawmill and the Roger  Lumber Company in Enderby. The extra income was always appreciated.  The Hullcar Hall is fondly remembered for many social events throughout  the year. The Annual "Christmas Tree" was popular; it was the concert and  sing songs put on by the children from school. They worked hard preparing  this evening of entertainment. There were church suppers and picnics for all  the neighbours.  Mrs. Crane and her children joined the Hullcar ladies in their "At  Homes" usually held monthly or more often is possible. This involved driving  or walking to their neighbours for afternoon tea and exchanging ideas on  everything from recipes to child raising and coping with their day-to-day  joys and hardships. She also drove to town - Armstrong or Enderby - with the  horse and buggy taking the children for their weekly treat. She did her shopping and visiting. On the way home they usually stopped at Floyd Hunter's  farm (Svenson) as it was the halfway stop off to home.  There was also sleigh riding, skating on Crane's Pond and even a shed to  change in and hot chocolate followed the evening's fun.  Indian People "Blind Pierre" walked from the reserve (past Matheson's)  to Enderby carrying a huge tall stick and hitting the ground as he walked —  the children were afraid of him and they often went a couple of extra miles  around about in order to avoid him.  Jim Christian farmed above Matheson's; he picked fruit, even though he  was a white man he had a squaw wife and always lived amongst the Indians.  The Crane family left Hullcar in 1922 along with the Tilton family of  Knob Hill. Both families went to Likely and Quesnel and worked the mills  and mine there. In 1925 they went to Ashton Creek, after 7 years there they  came to Enderby and the girls finished high school. Percy had previously  come back to Armstrong and attended high school. Dave and Alice Crane  are buried at Enderby and the Crane grandparents are laid to rest at Hullcar.  Another link with our past has gone and we are to be grateful for their participation in the development to this "Garden of Eden." 127  THE BEDDINGTON FAMILY  Mr. and Mrs. William Beddington arrived at Hullcar in October 1920.  After World War I Mr. Beddington took a 3 month course in Animal Husbandry and he and his family arrived from Edmonton to Enderby on the  train. They originated from Cumberland, England. Anna Bell Beddington  was born July 24, 1893 and William Beddington was born in 1886. They  homesteaded on Pyott Road northeast of Hullcar Hall following a soldier's  settlement agreement as William had been a World War I veteran and had  sustained head injuries. Part of the War settlement included with the land  were horse and wagon, harnesses and implements plus Mr. Beddington  agreed to farm the acreage for several years. They built a one room log house  and various outbuildings. The Beddingtons were blessed with three children:  Lawrence, Audrey and Marion. They went to Hillcrest School north of Hull-  car Hall with the Kenneys, Lindseys, Hills, walking 3V6 miles. Lawrence had  all his Grade schooling at Hillcrest and the girls finished their schooling at  the Brick School.  Farming was not easy for these early farmers; the virgin land needed to  be cleared, stumps to be burned and then planted into crops. One spring  when Mr. Beddington was having post war treatments in Shaungessey, Anna  ran the 12 inch plow behind a horse team. Audrey helped her mother while  Marion took care of the domestic tasks indoors. Lawrence was attending High  School in Armstrong and was boarding at W. A. Hunter's on Pleasant Valley  Road and later at Aaron Ford's on Knob Hill Road so he was unable to assist  with the chores during the week days. Mrs. Beddington also milked cows, and  later they had goats as well, the goodness of goat's milk was a great boast to  Marion's health. From the cow's milk, they made butter and sold it as well as  the cream. Once a month Anna drove the horse and rig to town for her shopping supplies, bought groceries, maybe did some visiting and headed home,  nearly taking a whole day. The catalogue was the fashion staple for the year  from which every homemaker chose her needs from harnesses and*farm supplies to yardage and other items. Its pages were softened and useful for "out  back" in the wee house, long after the fashions had come and gone.  Some of their neighbours included Pyotts, John Scotts, Wolfgangs,  Kenneys, and there were various social events to encourage get-togethers. The  Hullcar Literary Society was the focal point for everyone. Mrs. Beddington  recalls participating in a play including George Lynn, Lottie Kenney, Verna  Skelton (Ford), Dorothy Ford, Holley Skelton and others. They would practice at the Kenney and the George Game home.  Anna would put on her husband's dungarees and heavy boots, climb on  her horse and speed away to Game's home several miles eastward just to practice for this play in winter weather not caring about temperaturesl They performed their 2 hour play for the Hullcar Literary Society and later took it to  Salmon Valley, Enderby and Armstrong. Maybe the seeds were sown then for  the future drama and theatre groups we have today! Mrs. Kenney was often  called upon to accompany musicians as she played the piano. Many eloquent  speakers were heard by the audiences who attended evenings at the hall.  Church services were also held on Saunday afternoon. Mr. Beddington liked  to organize games and sports activities for the children in the area, including  broomball and soccer. The Christmas Tree at the Hall was a memorable 128  event. Stan Parkinson was the Santa Claus and some "goodies" were given to  each child. The candies had been bought in town and were distributed with  fruit and nuts into individual bags. The children from Hillcrest always put on  a good program, obviously under the direction of many dedicated teachers.  The women especially enjoyed these outings at the Hall as it was their chance  to chat - they talked and caught up on all the latest news while making coffee  and lunch in the kitchen because it was a real family gathering and a night  out.  Mrs. Beddington vividly recalled the great forest fire of July 1929. It  seems to have begun near the Kenney farm, moved up the hill and down the  other side to Pyotts and Beddingtons. The Beddingtons were returning from a  jaunt away from the farm when they saw the flames roaring down the mountainside. Mr. Beddington stopped at the Pyott's to assist them as the fire was  moving quickly. Mrs. Beddington and Lawrence hurried on home, the girls  were visiting other neighbours at the time, to find the flames near their farm.  Anna and her son vainly tried to push their quarter ton truck to safety only to  discover later that the breaks had been on. They lost their barn full of hay  and other outbuildings, but managed to salvage their home by covering the  roof with blankets and pouring water over them as it had wood shingles. Bob  Coldicott arrived on horseback to assist them and they were able to save items  from their shed as well as the horse and rig by taking everything into the open  meadow. Through the quick thinking of Mrs. Beddington, they were lucky to  save these belongings as the fire continued to burn away crops and finally  burned itself out down the way.  The Armstrong Fair was a much anticipated event. Mr. Beddington entered his reed work as he had become an accomplished basket weaver making  everything from tea trays to tea wagons. The whole family went to town for  the entire day with picnic lunch and hoped to see and visit with as many people as possible. It was the annual event for all to gather and see the prize cattle, fruit and vegetable displays and cooking expertise as well as the newest  line of farm implements.  Mr. and Mrs. Beddington left Hullcar district and moved to Victoria in  1933. William died in January 1967 and Anna still resides in the home they  bought in 1936. She proudly displays pictures of 7 grandchildren and 12  great grandchildren and keeps active with letters and phone calls to old and  dear friends from Armstrong and area. Her son Lawerence does her weekly  shopping and comes to play cribbage with her every Tuesday evening.  Mrs. Beddington has a true pioneer spirit having lived through many  hardships and now enjoys retirement in Victoria. She retains a happy and  jovial attitude about life. May she continue to enjoy it for many years to come! 129  RUBY MAW (Nee Crawford)  In 1883 Alexander Crawford, born in Ontario, and Elizabeth Crawford  nee Rollinson, born in U.S.A., and their two children John Henry (Jack),  born in 1878, and Susan Augusta, born in 1882, came west. First to Victoria  where they stayed only a short while, then on to the Okanagan Valley where  they homesteaded at Knob Hill.  Three more children were born to them at Knob Hill, another son Alexander in 1892 and two more daughters Ruby 1894 and Myrtle 1899. As the  nearest doctor lived in Kamloops neighbours came in and helped as Mid-  wives, one in particular was a Mrs. Levings who was well known for smoking a  clay pipe, which in those days for a woman was quite out of the ordinary.  The Bowells, Burnetts, Rushes, Mr. Rush (childhood friend of Alex  Crawford), the McNairs, Fords and Hallams were a few of their neighbours  at Knob Hill. In the years to come Mrs. Crawford and Mrs. Bowell were to become close friends.  Alexander Crawford was a carpenter by trade and often worked away  from home helping to build different homes in the area. The Hotel in Armstrong was one of the buildings he helped construct. Mr. Keys, the owner of  the hotel, was a friend of Alex Crawford from back east.  John Henry and Susan Augusta attended the Round Prairie School,  which was the first school in the Municipality. It must have been quite a trek  each day for them both. When the time came for Alex, Ruby and Myrtle to  attend school they went to the Knob Hill School which was built on the Bow-  ell's property in 1893. Ruby started school when she was six years old but remembers being sent for a day when she was five years to enable her to be vaccinated by the Medical Inspector, who travelled from school to school to vaccinate the children. The names of the children that attended the Knob Hill  School prior to and during the time the Crawford family went to school were  Bowells, McNairs, Hallams, Docksteaders, Hunters, Reids, Rushs, McKays,  Curtis, Burnetts, Brydons, Fords, Sharps, Petars and Petrie.  The Curtis boy who lived further away at the Woollen Ranch and rode to  school on horseback would often let young Ruby Crawford ride home on his  horse while he walked along with his friends.  Miss Sylvester was Ruby's first teacher; others that taught at the school  from the time it started till it closed in 1921 when the Consolidated School  opened in Armstrong, were Harry Frazier, Arthur File, Fred Tupper, Miss  Robertson, Miss Bowell, Miss Crankshaw, Miss Grant, Miss Bell, Miss Elliott,  Annie Hunter, Harold Murray, Miss Brash and Myra Brydon.  School went from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and the children would take along a  packed lunch as most of them lived too far away to go home for their mid day  meal. Fred Tupper was described as a stern Disciplinarian who used the strap  frequently on the boys when they misbehaved. Ruby Crawford remembers her  brother Alex often hiding the strap in the loft of the school but it would just  be replaced by another piece of Threshing Machine strap. The girls were kept  behind after school as their form of punishment.  When Christmas time came round, a Christmas tree was held in the  School, and all the children participated in some way or another for the benefit of their parents and families. The Knob Hill School is used regularly today  for card parties and the annual Knob Hill Tea. 130  The Knob Hill Church was built in 1901 by community effort on an acre  of land donated by Mr. and Mrs. Aaran Ford. The corner Stone made from  White Lime Rock was from the farm of Mr. and Mrs. Bowell and carved by  Mr. A. Fear. The Church is no longer standing but a Mr. Levings of Kamloops, a grandson of Mr. Fear has the Corner Stone in his possession. The  Church was plastered by Mr. Andy Baird using the product of the Lime Kiln  from the Bowell Farm. The Pulpit was bought and donated by Mr. Rush and  Mr. Alex Crawford Sr. Mr. Fred Tupper, one of the School Teachers, donated the Organ. Rev. Powell was the first Minister at the Knob Hill Church.  Before the church was built, church service was held Sunday afternoon in the  school with the minister coming from Enderby.  When Alex Crawford Jr. finished school he ran the farm while his father  worked away. Part of the farm he rented out to their neighbours, the McNairs, who used it to grow potatoes.  Once a week Mrs. Crawford would take the horse and buggy or sleigh if  it was wintertime and shop at Lansdowne, later on in Armstrong. If she was  unable to find what she needed in town she would shop by catalogue.  The Crawford girls were taught to sew by their mother. Ruby enjoyed  making her own clothes on their Singer sewing machine at an early age.  Mr. Crawford was a proud member of the Armstrong Band. Ruby remembers her father looking very smart in his uniform. When the Band travelled to different town celebrations, the whole Crawford family went along  for the enjoyment.  Practice sessions often took place at the Crawford home. When it was  required of the Band to play at night or in poor light, a lighted wick was  attached to their caps to make it possible for them to read their music sheets.  Jack, the eldest of the Crawford children, like his father, enjoyed playing  musical instruments. Often, at house parties, he would be called on to play  the violin and guitar.  As the Crawford children grew older, they enjoyed going to dances at  Larkin and Armstrong. On one occasion two sleighs full of young folk went as  far as Grand Prairie to a dance.  Many a winter's evening was spent skating on the Lake at Hallam's Farm  and Crane's pond at Hullcar.  Arthur Maw and Ruby Crawford were married fifty-three years ago, and  set up home on the same farm that they are living on today. They have raised  four children; Glen, Myrtle, Art and Margaret. Art Jr. now runs their busy  farm.  Over fifty years ago the women of Knob Hill formed The Knob Hill  Ladies Aid. Once a month they meet in various members' homes, with each  member contributing to the refreshments. Aprons and pillow cases are just a  few of the beautiful handicrafts that the ladies make to sell at their annual  Knob Hill Tea. During Warld War II as part of their war effort they turned  their talents to making socks and blankets for the Red Cross.  It is interesting to note that the Crawford - Maw oldtimer families are  still contributing to the community life at Knob Hill as well as to the whole  Armstrong-Spallumcheen area. 131  FRUITFUL LIFE OF BELOVED PIONEER ENDED  Died at his home near Enderby on Monday morning at 8:30, July 5th,  1915, Mr. A. L. Fortune, aged 85 years.  Forty-nine years ago on the 15th of June, Mr. A. L. Fortune, and a partner from the Cariboo gold fields rowed up the Spallumcheen river and landed  on the river bank just west of the present site of the commodious pioneer  home, overlooking what has since been known as the Fortune Meadow, a fine  stretch of fertile land. At that time no white man had been seen in this end of  the Valley, and the roving Indian bands made life somewhat uncertain.  There was something in the atmosphere of the Spallumcheen that was attractive to the then young man. He decided that he would not look any further. With a party of venturesome spirits he had come from Fort Garry (now  Winnipeg) to the Cariboo. Not finding what they were looking for in the  Cariboo, the party broke up, some going here and some there. Mr. Fortune  found in the Fortune Meadow the exact spot his heart longed for. Despite all  persuasion on the part of his partner, he located on this choice section. The  early years of his life here were more or less eventful, with the Indians then of  a less civilized type, and with tribal troubles frequent and fatal to the troublemakers.  Some six years later he returned East and brought Mrs. Fortune out with  him. There on the banks of the Spallumcheen they have since made their  home. They had no children to bless their union, and, perhaps because of  this, they loved and were loved by the children of others with whom they came  in contact. Long before there was a white child in the district, Mr. Fortune  was conducting, in conjunction with the Catholic Priest, a Sunday School on  the Indian reserve, adjoining the Fortune Meadows. Mr. Fortune's work in  this connection was a great help to the Indians, and to this day his memory is  revered by the Indian men, women and children.  Later when the white people began to locate in this district Mr. Fbrtune  held a prominent place in the hearts of all. He was ever on hand to lend his  aid to any helpful movement. He was the only magistrate in the district for  many years. To him, as such, many a weary wanderer in life's byways owes a  debt of gratitude for being helped upon the pathway to better things by Mr.  Fortune.  As the Christian Churches were established in Enderby, Mr. Fortune  took up the work in the larger field. Here he served more particularly in connection with the Presbyterian Church, for many years, giving up the work  only when his feebleness made it impossible for him to attend regularly.  On June 15th, 1911, a banquet was given for Mr. and Mrs. Fortune by  the citizens of Enderby and district in recognition of the great service they had  rendered as the pioneer settlers of the Northern Okanagan. At this banquet  there were present pioneers from many parts of the Interior. On this occasion  a costly gift of silverware was presented to the aged couple. On this occasion,  too, the banquet hall resounded with praise from men of the old school and  men of the new, in honour of the guests of the evening, for their steadfastness  in principle coupled with their unselfishness and broad hospitality.  That was four years ago. Even on that occasion, Mr. Fortune was able to,  but feebly respond to all the good things said of him and his good wife. Mr.  Fortune's words at that time mirrored more closely than anything that we  might say of the magnamimity of that man. "I am at a loss to express to you 132  my feelings tonight," said he. "I can only say, thank you, thank you, thank  you, friends, for all the esteem you have shown unto us. There are many pioneers in this section who are making their mark, yet they are not banquetted  like this. Were I a genius who had given the world some great and good work,  or had invented some great machine destined to be of some untold benefit to  mankind, then such an honour as this could be understood. But, instead of  any of these, here am I, a simple plain clodhopper. Just because I have held to  the work and love of Jesus - just my duty - You have shown me this honour."  This banquet was given to celebrate the 45th anniversary of the landing  of Mr. Fortune on the banks of the Spallumcheen at Fortune Meadows. It was  seen then four years ago, that Mr. Fortune's days with us were numbered. The  Rev. Duncan Campbell conceived the idea that it would be the proper thing  to fittingly honour the aged couple while they were still in health and service.  It was a magnificent affair, and the citizens of the district have felt better for  its having been given. Mr. Fortune's decline since then has been slow, but ever  perceptible. Each winter has found him less able to withstand the rigorous  climate changes from summer sunshine to winter's snows. Owing to the unusual mildness of the past winter, he came into spring exceptionally well and  looked forward to another summer in the home he loved so well. But this was  not to be. For several weeks his condition has gradually become worse - he  had no recuperative power. Kind friends were present to administer to his  every need. Sunday evening last he insisted that his clothes be placed at his  bedside, he intended to dress himself and get about the next morning. When  Monday's morning sun shone on the green fields of Fortune Meadows the eyes  of the beloved pioneer were looking out upon other shores, not of the Spallumcheen.  Mr. Frank Hassard and Mr. George Heggie, close friends of the deceased from pioneer days, took charge of the funeral arrangements, while  Mrs. Jaquette, Mrs. Greenhow, Miss Race and other close friends comforted  Mrs. Fortune in her great sorrow.  The funeral services were held in the Presbyterian Church, on Wednesday afternoon, July seventh, Rev. Mr. Dow and Rev. Mr. Henderson of Armstrong officiating. A great number of pioneer friends of the deceased were  scattered in the congregation, several auto loads coming from Vernon alone.  Every part of the Okanagan district was represented. The Pallbearers were  all old-time friends: Messrs. Gus Schubert, Frank Hassard, George Bell,  J. M. Wright, Donald Graham and B. F. Young.  Beautiful floral pieces were piled high in every available place upon and  around the casket and the pew occupied by the deceased when in health was  draped with a tiny spray of white sweet peas pinned at the headrest to denote  purity in the life that had been spent. In his remarks on the life of Mr. Fortune, Mr. Dow spoke of the great worth he had been to the community, but  spoke as one in the dark. This is not strange. Indeed, it is more to the honour  of the speaker and the departed, for as Mr. Dow explained before proceeding  that he knew the departed but a short time and could not speak of him as the  pioneer. In this connection it should be said that the eloquence of a Demosthenes would fall flat in attempting an oration on the life of a man of the  type of the departed pioneer. It was Mr. Fortune's simple heart-to-heart  touch that made him such a power for good. There was not an ounce of eloquence in him unless it was the eloquence of his simplicity and this one might 133  grasp by personal touch with the man but not by speech. Mr. Fortune's life in  this community became a part of it; it was not the man. He stood for a principle of service, and, as the Rev. Mr. Dow put it, it was his fidelity, his gentle  courtesy, his thoughtfulness of others that made his simple life loom so large.  Interment took place at the Lansdowne Cemetery, where so many of the  pioneers rest beneath the grassy slopes of the hill, which long years ago was  the playground of the children of the first settlers.  Amongst the old-time friends of the deceased in attendance at the funeral from Valley towns the following were noted: Vernon - Messrs. L. Norris,  Hon. Price Ellison, F. B. Jacques, Thomas Crowell, J. Campbell, S. McDonald, A. O. Cochrane, J. A. MacKelvie, S. Smith, S. McCally, George and  Hugh Heggie, S. Muir, W. R. Megaw, and wife, C. O'Keefe and wife. Armstrong - Mayor Wright, Messrs. Donald Graham, Frank Young, Gus  Schubert, Aaron Ford, Sam Reid, George Murray, H. Swanson, T. R.  Skelton, W. H. Keary, L. W. Patten, George Parkinson, J. F. Pringle, Alex  Crawford, W. T. Marshall and wife, J. Fraser and wife, William Hay hurst.  Kelowna - Mayor Jones and party.  From The Enderby Commoner  July, 1915  MRS. A. L. FORTUNE  In the death of Mrs. A. L. Fortune, which occurred on November 13,  1930, the Okanagan Valley lost one of its most widely known and highly respected pioneer women.  Mrs. Fortune was a remarkable woman. A splendid type of the womanhood of Eastern Canada of the past generation. Her whole life was devoted to  her home and her friends, pioneers and native peoples alike. She was endowed with a graciousness and tact which made her an ideal hostess. The  hospitality of her home was proverbial.  She and the late Mrs. B. F. Young, who died on the third of December,  1930, had much in common. They, for a number of years were the only white  women in the Spallumcheen. Being the type of women they were, their influence for good was marked. Their presence, especially within the circle of  their friends and acquaintances, tended to soften the rather crude life which  prevailed in the valley during the early days.  They each lived on the same place, after coming into the valley, until  their death. It is rather remarkable that these two women, the first white  women in Spallumcheen, should have died within twenty days of each other.  As if to further mark the parallel on the day of each one's funeral it was a mild  early-winter afternoon. A mantle of newly fallen show covered the fields and  still clung to the nearby forest trees. A group of pretty much the same friends  and neighbours gathered around the open grave to pay the last sad tribute to  her whose long life was so full of changes and vicissitudes, so beset by privations and hardships bravely faced, and so replete with duties faithfully performed. 134  KENNETH McKAY OF NARAMATA  A Tribute  By Jacqueline Clay  After an extremely varied career, Kenneth McKay passed away last  November, 1978. He had been in poor health for a number of years, but had  never failed to attend a Rotary meeting except when ill. Thus, at his death,  he had an unbeaten record of attendance dating back to his joining the club  in 1933 under the presidency of his good friend, Dr. H. McGregor. He, himself, was president in 1938-39 but his term was abruptly broken when he was  called up by the Royal Navy for special war service.  Born in Liverpool in 1894 of a Scottish-American family connected with  the Cunard line, he went to Wisbourne Grammar School and then joined the  Merchant Marine at the age of 14 years where he trained on the H. M. S.  Conway.  This was the end of the era of square-rigged ships and Mr. McKay once  served from 1910 - 1913 on one long voyage. In 1914, he joined the Royal  Navy and saw active service until the end of that war. During this period he  married his beloved wife, Joyce, herself the daughter of a sea captain. She  entered Guy's Hospital in London to train and nurse as a VAD until their only  child was born. His father did not see him until Ian was three years old. Kenneth's own father was a Commodore of a Cunard liner, where, as Kenneth  once expressed it, "he lived like a king on board in peacetime, but in wartime  never left the bridge."  The McKays came to Naramata in 1923 and bought the last orchard and  house on the upper road leading to Chute Lake. There they enlarged the  home, built several outbuildings and together created a magnificent garden.  They won many prizes for their flowers and arrangements in the Penticton  Garden Club until they no longer entered competition except in a special  class by themselves. They were interested in a varied number of fields and en- 135  joyed a busy social life as well as being instrumental in founding Naramata's  traditional May Day, the Cricket Club, the Community Hall and the Scottish  Club of nearby Penticton. Later they were asked to join the Summerland  Horticultural Society in which they were given honorary memberships and a  permanent cup for their roses. Their many enthusiasms brought in friends  into these societies.  Kenneth McKay was truly a unique and highly individualistic man. Eccentric, argumentative, a lover of fine music and reading, an original host,  Kenneth's home was always distinctive with its Oriental and antique furnishings, their magnificent China collections around in its open hospitality. Their  Christmas dinners were unique each year with unusual floral centerpieces,  the distinctive food and the thoughtful gifts for each guest on the traditional  tree, creating a memorable evening for their many friends.  During World War II Kenneth's duties consisted in plotting the routes of  the convoys from Charleston, N.C., New Orleans and eventually, New York  harbours to the U.K. Joyce joined him after closing their home for six years  as Ian had joined the R.C.A.F.  His later years were naturally spent more quietly, although he clung to  his beloved car, the old 1954 model, which is pictured here, until his health  prevented him driving. He leaves his son, Ian, a customs official at Osoyoos,  as well as his daughter-in-law, Blanche (nee MacKinnon), his granddaughter,  Marion at Rossland and his grandson, Rory from Kelowna, as well as his sister in New York and two brothers.  Dr. Harold McLarty, the present Historian of the Rotary Club, summed  up his career well, when he said that, "Kenneth McKay served his community  of Naramata and his Commonwealth well, for nearly fifty years."  HENRY (Harry) HOPE  One of Armstrong's most highly respected senior citizens, Henry (Harry)  Hope, died in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen Hospital on July 23, 1978. The  genial nonegenarian was in his 95th year. Although in declining health for  the past few years, he was a familiar figure in Armstrong until just prior to his  death.  Mr. Hope was one, if not the last, of a disappearing breed, the village  smithy. He was generally recognized as the dean of blacksmiths in British  Columbia when he officially retired in 1971.  He first came to Armstrong in 1907, settling there permanently in 1910.  Born November 8th, 1883 at Bothel in the north of England, near Carlisle in the county of Cumberland, he took up the occupation of blacksmithing  at the early age of twelve, following in the footsteps of his father. He had had  ambitions to be a lawyer, but, as a result of measles and scarlet fever suffered  the loss of his hearing at that age. Thus he elected to pursue the family tradition.  Glowing accounts of the new country across the Atlantic, from an older  brother John, who had emigrated to Penticton in the southern Okanagan 136  sprurred his desire to follow his kinsman.  Henry Hope arrived in Canada in June 1906. He was 22 years of age.  The ambitious young Englishman went directly to Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan  where he worked in a blacksmith shop, shoeing horses. In October of that  year he left the prairies, securing a blacksmith's job at a logging camp in Ath-  elmer, some ninety miles south of Golden. Four and a half months later he  arrived in Vernon (April 1907), again gaining employment as a blacksmith.  He first went to Armstrong in the fall of 1907. Mr. Hope bought the  blacksmithing business in November 1910. Until it's demolition several years  ago Hope's blacksmith shop was a landmark. In the 1920's he and his brother  William operated the shop and were area agents for Massey-Harris farm machinery. They introduced many of the mechanized farm machines and implements throughout this productive agricultural community. Harry Hope, as he  was familiarly called, assumed sole ownership of the business in the 30's when  his brother left for the coast.  Despite almost total deafness throughout his life, Harry Hope was always  active and aware of current events, at international, national and local  'grass roots' level. Curtailed in participating in civic boards due to his hearing  affliction, he nevertheless served several terms in the late 20's and early 30's as  police commissioner for the City of Armstrong. He was a member of the  Royal Canadian Legion. Mr. Hope met his handicap with bubbling good  humor. To those who were closely associated with him, he was a unique and  beloved individual.  He married his first wife Emily in Armstrong in March 1914. He had  known her in England. She died in 1952. They had one son Cyril, who presently makes his home at Princeton in the Similkameen.  In 1955 he married his present wife Mary Jane, whom he had met fifty  years previously at Moose Jaw. Coincidentally, this lady had been born and  raised only twelve miles from his home town in Cumberland. She survives  him as does one brother in England. 137  LEONARD N. LEATHLEY  1909 - 1978  By Rosemary King  Kelowna lost one of her most community-minded native sons when Leonard Noel "Len" Leathley passed away suddenly on March 31, 1978. He was  born in Kelowna December 24, 1909 to John and Clara Leathley who had  emigrated to Kelowna in 1908 from their home in Otley (near Leeds) in Yorkshire.  John Leathley established the Orchard City Record newspaper which he  published from 1908 - 1920. In 1920 the Kelowna Printing Co. was established which was a job printing shop. As soon as he finished school around  1925, Len went into the business with his father and in 1942, after his father's  death, Len took over the business. He was joined by his sister Doris when they  opened the stationery store in connection with the printing business. He enlisted in the R.C. A.F. and served for the duration of the war. On his return in  1946 he married Christina Burt. They have two children, John and Mary.  He retired from business in 1970 when the printing company was sold.  Len was a great raconteur and delighted in an evening with "old timers"  recalling events and people. His children could always get him started by  their requests of "Tell us about the 'olden times,' Dad." Out of these sessions  came story after story of the old days of Kelowna. His earliest recollections  stem back to the home on Glenn Ave. At the back was the barn which housed  the wagon and the sleigh and their two horses Jennie and Nellie, who were  their trusted means of transportation on trips and outings to the surrounding  areas. Their neighbours were the Meikles, Loanes, Trenchs, Fumertons,  Knowles and Renwicks — names whose businesses could be found along Bernard Ave. He attended school at Central Elementary and at the High School  on the corner of Richter St. and Glenn Ave. which is now part of the Kelowna  Elementary School. He recalled proudly that the manual training class under  the instruction of Mr. Carter, had built the Womens' Institute Hall on Glenn  Ave. and it was always a source of pride to him and classmates for years. They  could even point to their initials carved in the rafters.  Young people in those days found their recreation in sports. Len took  part in track and field, swimming and basketball and was a member of the  Provincial Championship team of 1929-30. Other members of this team were  Ken Griffiths, Cedric Boyer, Don Poole, Bill Ghater, Charles Pettman, Fred  Taggart and coach Gordon Meikle. Those were the days too when odd jobs  were hard to find and to earn pocket money he recalled the times they worked  far into the night loading the Pentowna with fruit destined for Penticton and  thence by rail to points east and west.  Life in Kelowna in those early days makes interesting reading but to hear  about it from a first-rate story teller was fascination indeed. His father had  befriended an old prospector Harry Mills, who was pretty much a recluse.  When business papers had to be signed, it meant that Len and his Dad had to  hitch up the wagon and set off for Gallagher's Canyon to find him. Another  prospector of that area was Dan Gallagher, after whom the canyon was  named. These two men were bitter enemies — quarreling no doubt over some  disputed claim. However on one memorable occasion when the Leathleys had  to make a "mercy trip" in the dead of winter to bring Harry to the hospital for  the last time, it was Dan Gallagher who followed them in and stayed by his old 138  "Friend" until he died.  At one time the family took out a pre-emption at Three Forks in the Joe  Rich area. A log cabin with a sod roof was built near the creek. At least twice  a year the trip had to be made by horse and buggy, to do a certain amount of  work on the property. It was a two-day trip up to it with a "camp out" at 8-  mile creek on the way.  The Sunday outings brought forth interesting stories by the dozen. An all  day picnic would take them out to Cedar Creek. It took 3 hours to get there by  horse and buggy and even involved a portage across Mission Creek on Lake-  shore Rd., near the present CKOV transmitter. After a picnic and an afternoon of swimming and games, another three hour trip home was undertaken.  Later on people began having summer camps across the lake at Bear  Creek and Wilson's Landing. Again this would involve a long trip, first by  ferry across the lake and then up the west shore to the destination. However,  one family vacated their camp due to the rattlesnake population. The Mc-  Ewens floated their cottage by barge across to Manhattan Beach where it  stands today next to "Lone Pine" where Doris Leathley lives.  The two lake steamers in those days were the S.S. Sicamous and the S.S.  Okanagan and an exciting time was an all day trip either up or down the lake.  Those very fortunate ones were sometimes taken on the evening trip which  meant sleeping in a cabin overnight!  Len was a "natural" for an Historical Society member as he had quantities of memorabilia carefully filed away. Probably the most valuable are the  files of the Orchard City Record and later the Kelowna Orchard City Record  which have been kept from 1909 to 1920. While some are beginning to disintegrate others can be read with great enjoyment, quiet chuckles and outright  laughter. Herewith are a few vignettes!  April 22, 1909 — Mr. Dallen has decided to run a weekly Tally-Ho to Okanagan Mission. The rig holds 14 persons and starts from Willits corner at 2:30  p.m. every Thursday. Fare $1.00  April 29, 1909 — Mr. Dallen has met with a serious accident having broken  his leg while jumping off his rig. (Ed. note: No more Tally-Ho rides?).  May 6, 1909 — The Aquatic Association has been incorporated. This has  been a bad week for runaway horses, three having bolted on Bernard Avenue  lately.  December 9, 1909 — "Wild Goose Bill" of Westbank was admitted to the  hospital suffering from poison ivy.  December 23, 1909 — During the week a new floor has been placed in the bar  of the Lakeview Hotel. The bar being closed for a few days during the operation, a temporary stand was erected near the entrance.  May 26, 1910 — City Council News - A price of $75 was quoted for the audit  of the City books. It was pointed out by one Alderman that the City had only  been in the habit of spending $50 for the past three years. - The School Budget for 1910 was $7,744. - To Let: A 3-roomed cottage to let with cellerage  and stable at back. Situated on Pendozi St. $10 a month. Apply Box J, Record office.  January 2, 1913 — Skating parties have been fashionable this week, the ice on  the lake having been in fine shape. The young people are waiting for the ap- 139 140  pearance of the new moon to provide illumination for evening parties!  January 16, 1913 — A referendum was held recently. The question was "Are  you in favour of the City selling part of the City Park for hotel purposes?" The  result: Yea 46, No 129. No spoiled ballots.  January 30, 1913 — On Friday a party of Rutlanders set off to Ellison to enjoy  hearing the Literary Society debate, but to our surprise we found a dance in  progress. Of course, being addicted to tripping the light fantastic too, we paid  our dollar and stayed to enjoy the fun. - For Sale - Okanagan Mission Lake-  shore lots - V-j acre each - 2 miles from the City — $325.  February 13, 1913 — Another splendid feature picture entitled "Foe to Richelieu" will be shown at the Opera House on Saturday. This is a powerful historical drama by the famous Pathe Co. and the two reels in this presentation  are beautifully hand coloured.  August 28, 1913 — The public is invited to the harvesting of the tobacco crop  by the British American Tobacco Co. In order for the public to see something  of the process, the Company is arranging for the 30-acre tobacco field at  Benvoulin, where the crop up till now has been covered with cheesecloth, to  be thrown open for inspection. - Mr. F. R. E. DeHart entertained a party of  friends at his Manhattan Beach cottage with an old fashioned corn roast. -  Mr. F. M. Buckland moved into his new house on Pendozi St. this week. His  old house on Water St. has been rented by the City for police offices and the  jail.  October 9, 1913 — A big shipment of 16 carloads of Okanagan apples left  Vancouver by the S.S. Marama for Australia. Also 300 tons of potatoes and a  large quantity of onions were aboard destined for Suva in the Fiji Islands.  Some of the advertisements of the day made us all wish we could drop  back in time and pick up a few bargains! Here are a few:  Solid oak buffet with a 36" beveled plate mirror $25.00  Axminster rug 9' x 11' 25.20  97 piece dinner service - English - semi porcelain 12.00  Extension tables - oak - 42" top 8.50  Coffee or tea - 3 lbs. 1.00  2 cans Pork & Beans - 16 oz. size 1.00  2 cans Salmon - 16 oz. size 1.00  Cow Brand Baking Soda .10  8 pkgs. Corn Flakes 1.00  Xmas Dinner at the Palace Hotel - tickets $1.00 - children 50 cents.  As a young man, Len was into many community activities and this continued all his life He contributed greatly to all the organizations to which he  belonged. He was for many years a member of the Fire Brigade. Those were  the days when it was a volunteer brigade and a common sight when the hooter  sounded was to see the grocery man, the meat man, the printer undoing  aprons as they raced down the street to catch up with the fire truck as it was  leaving the Hall! Len often recounted his first fire (the night he joined actually) when, called out in the middle of the night, he wore one brown shoe and  one white one which were both ruined. In those days there was no recompense 141  for damaged clothing so he was short two pairs of shoes!  While a member of the Board of Trade, he and other members worked  their half-day and weekends at "road building." This was at the time Kelowna  was trying to push the road through from the end of Lakeshore Road to  Naramata. The project was later abandoned due to the very rocky terrain. He  was a member of the Board of Trade and later of the Chamber of Commerce  and was president in 1960.  The Aquatic Club was the activity centre in summer and after entering  many Regattas in his younger days, Len "graduated" to a member of the Association. Later he was a Director and was President of the Regatta in the  years 1961, 1962 and 1963. As a member of the Gyro Club and its President  in 1949, he was an organizer and active worker on their many projects. These  included among many others, the establishment and maintenance of Gyro  Park, the Children's Pet Parade on the May 24th holidays, and the now famous Gyro Auction which was a forerunner for present day money making  schemes. He was a valued member of the Masonic Lodge and took his turn  in heading up the Community Chest at its inception, this later became the  United Appeal. He was Director of the Kelowna Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society to which he contributed a lot of historical input.  He gave of his time and talents to the Kelowna General Hospital. For 6  years he was a Director on the Board and was Chairman at the time of his  death. A real outdoor man at heart, he would take off in his Scout to explore  all the back roads in the North and South Okanagan. When their children  were young, camping trips to various parts of B.C. were always part of summer activities. He was an ardent environmentalist and all his life was very  careful not to disturb the natural order of things in the woods. Young children loved to go on a hike with him and would later remark, "We learned so  much about Nature."  After retirement while still active in community affairs, he had time for  travel, golfing and fishing. His life spanned an era from a horse and buggy in  one's own barn to private car and jet travel overseas. As someone was heard to  remark at his funeral, "He was a man we really couldn't spare." He will be  missed in Kelowna but will long be remembered by his many contributions to  the City.  Early Naramata.  Photo credit — Vernon Museum 142  HERITAGE  As this Report goes to press we learn that plans are afoot to grant a timber harvesting license for the logging of the watershed of Snass Creek. So?  One might ask what is special about the Watershed of the Snass?  If one has no interest in our past there is perhaps not much really very  special about it. It is the home of a varied wildlife, is picturesque, clean and  unpolluted but there are doubtless similar areas in these respects. For those  who are interested and who believe that an awareness of our history has much  to do with the quality of our present and future, it is a very special area.  Through here up the Snass and the canyon of its west fork was built in  1860 the Hope to Similkameen Mule Road, located by the Royal Engineers  and built under contract for the Colony of British Columbia. This was certainly one of the first public works contracts made in behalf of the Government. The price was seventy-six pounds sterling per mile to be paid partly in  cash and partly in British Columbia bonds bearing interest at six per cent.  The Mule Road was to commence at a point on the Hudson's Bay Company's  Brigade Trail about four miles from Hope and terminate at a point on the  Similkameen River. (One would think this a rather vague condition from a  bidder's viewpoint but our geography was very vague and our pioneers venturesome.) The road was to be not less than four feet wide with the centre  foot and a half to be smooth and hard.  The contract was let to Edgar Dewdney and the trail along with the extension built by him from Princeton to Wildhorse (Fort Steele) in 1865 became known as the Dewdney Trail. Associated with Dewdney on the work was  Walter Moberly. Both men were to earn by this and further notable work  places in the history of British Columbia and indeed of Canada. The section  from Rhododendron Flat, where the sign is now by Highway 3, to Paradise  Valley was known to old timers as the Canyon Trail.  In 1858 Capt. De Lacy of the U.S. had located the Whatcom Trail using  the route by the east fork and Punch Bowl Lake, the discovery of A. C.  Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1846. Clearing for this was paid  for by the merchants of Whatcom (now Bellingham) in hopes of diverting the  trade of the goldfields to their stores.  From Hope for some twenty-five miles to the Snass the Dewdney Trail  was very shortly made into a wagon road, small pieces of which can still be  seen. Only the section up Snass Creek and a piece in Paradise Valley can be  seen and walked or ridden on pretty much as the crew of Dewdney and  Moberly left it. To be sure rocks have come down and bush grown up in  places but much of the rock work is intact, the route could not change appreciably and the whole atmosphere of the Mule Road and its rugged wilderness setting remains. Once out of the canyon and Paradise Valley and over the  second divide into the watersheds of Granite Creek and Whipsaw Creek the  Trail is only a line on some old maps, the physical presence wiped out by logging roads and clearcut.  Of the Whatcom Trail in the Snass basin a fair portion has been swept by  snowslides. However one might search far and wide to find better or comparable original sections than are still left between Punch Bowl Pass and the  junction with the Dewdney.  Not only would logging in the basin spoil if not obliterate these trails, 143  ancient in terms of our history, but it would be a breakthrough into the Cascade Wilderness Area with its network of historic trails; which the historical  and outdoor groups of B.C. have been trying to have set aside just as it is. Several years ago a road up the canyon was proposed with a riding resort in Paradise Valley. Only the Parks Branch refusal to allow construction through the  strip of Manning Park by the Highway prevented it. But for the Snass to be  logged, by methods now common, a road would have to be built across the  Park strip. It is difficult to see how road access could then be denied for anyone to Paradise Valley and the whole proposed Cascade Wilderness. The  Dewdney, Whatcom, the older H.B.C. Brigade Trail, the very much older  Blackeye Indian Trail and the probably somewhat newer Ghost Pass, Vuich,  Rice and other old trails are all inter-connected in the wilderness area. To cut  off any large piece such as the Snass watershed would be to diminish the whole  by far more than the proportion of the area taken just as to cut off a man's  head may not reduce much the total weight of his body but certainly spoils the  overall effect.  We rightly go to great trouble and expense to save spots of our historic  heritage so that this and future generations can look at them and try to appreciate what the day to day life of our forebearers was like. We can only try  because it would not be practical for each of us to live in say the Brothers'  cabin at the Okanagan Mission for a week or month or to eliminate the people and buildings for miles around in order to get the genuine atmosphere of  the old days. Only on the trail in the wilderness, afoot or horseback, can we  actually relive a part of our history. Here is the same physical stress, the same  sweep of lonely country, the same dependence on ourselves and the same  thrilling beauty of land and sky as met the pioneers as they trudged and rode  ahead of us. The trails filled the place occupied in our lives by highway, railways, airports all combined. They were a very large part of the life of Indian,  fur trader, miner and early settler and for so long as we keep them we can relive that part and, with the aid of bits of other heritage protected, better  understand the rest.  It is amazing that our Government with wisdom will buy back and restore at considerable expense worthy bits of our heritage and yet is seemingly  reluctant to keep as it is a network of historic trails already the property of the  people. It can hardly be due to poverty in the treasury when healthy surpluses  continue and the B.C. Resources Corporation is looking for investment opportunities. As for places to employ people the vast majority of the public  land is already committed to timber harvesting. A program of reforestation  and improved silvaculture would surely in the long run yield more profit for  the Government and the industry than would seeking out and exploiting the  last pockets of natural forest in this heritage rich wilderness.  If you really believe that the proposed Cascade Wilderness adjoining  Manning Park to the northwest should be kept as it is, let the Premier, relevant Ministers of the Crown and other Members of the Legislature know,  without delay. 144  DEWDNEY TRAIL   o o 0 o o  WHATCOM TRAIL   i  O   /O  0 y      o  o /  o / Q  .«/'  0  O 145  ALLEN GROVE  By Rev. F. C. Howell  If you look on a map of B.C. you will notice Allen Grove. It is eleven  miles from Penticton on the Green Mountain Road to Keremeos and the  Apex Ski Resort. You will have to look to find it.  In the early years of 1900 it was a lively community. Two horse Stage  lines, the W. E. Welby out of Penticton and the H. Tweddle out of Keremeos  Centre, gave passenger and mail service. There was a Post Office and R. L.  Allen was the Post Master. The Tweddle Stage made it the stopping place,  the Welby Stage made the stop and change of horses at the Leonard Clarke  Ranch three miles farther on.  At first the Welby Stage carried the mail; later on the Tweddle Stage  took it over.  Allen Grove had a School House; the first teacher was Miss Irene Mc-  Kenzie and she used to go from school each day grey-haired. Not because the  children were unruly, but she being tall, and wearing her hair piled high on  her head, the school house, a log building with a low roof and white-washed  inside, the teacher would take some with her on her hair.  In 1913 a new School House was built by Walter Detjen and it then became the Community Centre where everything was held. School Trustee,  Political, and Stockmen meetings and Christmas Programs both by the school  and the adults. These were social events that could draw seventy-five and up  in no time flat. It was sure missed when School consolidation took over.  Allen Grove was not a wide spot on the road for the road passed right  through everything and many times a day there would be a scattering of  children and ducks and sometimes little pigs, for the houses were on one side  and the barns on the other.  If you watch as you go through you will see a few of the landmarks that  are left. First the barn of the Old Gerald Clarke Ranch almost hidden in the  trees, then you will see the old log barn with a broken back, a log milk house,  the garage close to the road that held the Model T Ford of the Fred Howell  and Sons, Fredrick Cecil and Edward Percy of the Circle H Ranch, a little  way ahead what is left of the chicken house and root cellar of the R. L. Allen  Ranch. The School house, along with every house, has been destroyed by fire  including the teacherage and the Ditch Riders house of the Kaleden Irrigation system.  The surrounding ranchers who made the community and who got their  mail there were Leonard Clarke, Louie Goodchap, where the Apex Chalet  is now, Angus Smith and his nephew Johnny Thompson, G. Clark, William  Foster, William Hedges, Ferdinano Brent, the teacher, and a couple of  brothers, Tom and Pere Barrett, who worked on the road, which has since  become a paved highway. Of all the names mentioned, I am the only one left  from Allen Grove that was, and is no more. 146  PIONEERS  By Donna Parr  What is a pioneer? The dictionary tells us that a pioneer is an early settler in a territory. Mr. George Rands was an early settler of Enderby. He came  from Medina, New York in 1913 with his wife Christina, whom he met in  Niagara Falls and married in 1908, and their small daughter Gertrude. They  first lived in a small log cabin across Ashton Creek from his father until 1914.  Then they moved to Los Angeles where Mr. Rands took a course in Auto  Engineering. They returned to Enderby in 1916.  George Rands got a job in Armstrong working for twenty-five cents an  hour. Later he worked in Vernon. In July 1916 he bought a half interest in a  garage on the corner of Russel Street and Highway 97. Much later he bought  the other half interest. This garage burned to the ground in 1928, so Mr.  Rands moved from their log cabin to their new home in town.  Mr. Rands' son George Junior was born in 1920, so later on they worked  together. Mr. Rands also went into Electric wiring while his son became a  teacher. George Sr. was seventy years old at this time.  In his later life he spent some time at Parkview Place. While staying  there he had a heart attack and was in the hospital for a month. George  Rands was a member of the Retail Merchants for sixty years but held no position on the executive. He said he had worked hard all his life and never quit  until he was made to. His worst job of all was retirement.  Mr. Rands lost his driver's licence when he was eighty-nine. He is now  ninety-three years old and makes his home with his daughter Gertrude Peel at  Ashton Creek and with his son George. He spends two weeks at a time with  each one.  In talking with Mr. Rands, I was most impressed at his marvellous memory and his ability to converse. A wonderful person for his age.  Another Pioneer, David Jones came to North Enderby with his family in  1904. He attended North Enderby School until 1910. He worked on his  father's farm until 1915 when his father gave him half the farm. In 1915 he  was secretary of the North Enderby School Board. Mr. Jones enlisted in the  Fort Gary Horse and served in France and Belgium. He married in 1919 and  built a house on his farm at North Enderby.  He recalls that Enderby was very small. There were no electric lights,  so lamps were used. There were no water works so they had to use wells from  the river. There was a community well on Knight Street from which the citizens carried their water.  There were cows running all around town. Horses were used to deliver  groceries until the 1940's. Horses and buggies were used instead of cars. Almost every home in town had a small barn where now they have a garage. The  local doctor travelled all over the community with a horse and buggy in the  summer and a horse and cutter in the winter.  There was a sawmill, a flourmill and a brickyard in Enderby in the early  days. There were a lot of Chinese who worked in the mills and on the farms.  Some had market gardens on their own and sold produce in town.  There were only one or two cars in the early days. The school had only  two rooms and there were sixty students to a room. In 1913, the brick school  was built. 147  Dave Jones had no children but was married for fifty-five years. He had  one brother and three sisters. He is the last survivor of the family.  Another pioneer with a keen memory and a real zest for living.  I have enjoyed my research with these two pioneers and I feel we are  very fortunate to have had them with us for so many years. I hope they will  enjoy many more years in our little city.  MR. SPEERS  Tonight I would like to tell you the stories of two of Enderby's most respected citizens, true pioneers in every respect. Mr. Speers and Mr. Coulter.  The first pioneer, Mr. Speers, was born in the year 1886 in Barrie, Ontario. He left his home at the age of 15 and worked on the Great Lake boats.  Several years later he started working his way westward. He arrived in Vernon  in 1905. Not long after his arrival he married Olive Poison on Christmas Day  in 1908. The marriage took place at Armstrong but the marriage licence had  been forgotten. They had to drive back to Vernon, by horse and buggy, then  return to Armstrong to the waiting minister.  They moved to Enderby about 1909 where Mr. Speers managed Poison  Mercantile for his father-in-law, Samuel Poison. He managed this store a  short period before deciding to go into business for himself. This produced  Speers Department Store which was located on Main Street directly at the end  of the Old Vernon Road.  Mr. Speers had a reputation for his impeccable attire but also one for  being very late for work. One cold winter night he and three other men were  returning home from a hockey game in Vernon. Visibility was almost impossible as the windshield was frozen over. They missed the turn in the road and  wound up in Mr. Speers' store. He was said to have at last arrived to work in  good time. Several years later he moved to the present drug store building  where he carried on his business until June, 1975, when he retired.  Mr. Speers was an avid golfer and curler. For many years he took an active part in sports, particularly hockey. He was a member of the Enderby  Masons in 1910. He also managed a local hockey team in 1923 when Enderby  won the B.C. Intermediate Championship and received the Coy Cup.  Mr. and Mrs. Speers had two sons, Howard and Barrie - both now married. Mrs. Speers died a number of years ago.  Now, 93 years of age he intends to live in Enderby for the rest of his life.  He lives with his son and daughter-in-law on Belvedere Street.  (Since the autumn of 1978, Mr. Speers has been in a nursing home at  Oliver.) 148  MR. COULTER  Mr. Coulter, our second pioneer is our next personality. He was born at  Westbrook, Ontario in 1896. After leaving Ontario, Mr. Coulter has since  lived in the Kootenays, Prince Rupert and Fernie.  In Fernie he married his wife, Bess who was a former school teacher.  While living there Mr. Coulter worked in the mines. He had also travelled  across the prairies several times before he and his wife settled in Enderby in  1933.  Of a shy and retiring manner, Mr. Coulter was very reluctant to give any  information about himself, but he did give me this information about his  business.  Mr. Coulter's business, which dates back many years, was situated on the  bank of the Shuswap River beside the bridge. The building was owned as far  back as the 1890's by Harvey Dobson. It was known as the Mercantile Shop  and handled all kinds of merchandise. The second floor served as Lodge  Rooms until the present Fraternal Hall was erected.  In 1910 the building was purchased by Samuel Poison and was known as  Poison Mercantile.  In 1917 it became known as the Enderby Growers Association and was  managed by Mr. Chris Reeves. At this time it was used for a fruit packing  house for the numerous orchards in the district.  Mr. Coulter bought the building in 1936 and operated it successfully for  thirty years. Here, Mr. Coulter handled all types of flour, feed, fertilizers  and seed. In later years he handled building materials and paint.  The building was sold in April, 1966 to Mr. Jim Boots. That same year a  disastrous fire burned it to the ground. For many years the lot remained vacant. A year ago, Mr. Dack built his recreation centre on the same site.  The site, itself, has a very historical background for it was here that the  paddlewheeler steamer docked at Lambley's Landing as Enderby was first  named. This boat came from Kamloops to Enderby and would carry back a  load of flour from the Enderby Flour Mill. In 1885, the C.P.R. mainline was  constructed and in 1891 a branch line was built from Sicamous to Okanagan  Landing. Situated as it was beside the C.P.R. station, the building was easily  accessible for loading and unloading the freight which was part of the business.  Mr. and Mrs. Coulter have enjoyed their retirement in their home on  Belvedere Street where Mr. Coulter takes great pride in his beautiful rose  garden. Mr. Coulter has always been interested in athletics and is still an  ardent curler. It was he who organized Enderby's Board of Trade in the  1940's. He was the president for many years. He was also an active member of  the local School Board, president of the Curling Club and a member of the  Rehabilitation Committee to help war veterans get jobs. It was he who kept  the skating rink from fading out.  A great humanitarian, he has been involved with many activities which  have greatly helped out city.  We are very fortunate to have two successful pioneer businessmen still  living with us.  Shannon Petersen 149  SPRINGTIME ON THE FARM  By Elaine Robertson  The coming of spring means many things to many people.  To me, it means a time when winter feeding comes to an end, a time  when nature renews itself. As a person who lives on a farm, I have a chance to  see many of these changes from winter to spring. Possibly the most exciting  feeling of all is to help new lives into the world. From this you get a special  feeling knowing that you have helped to save a life.  As spring continues I enjoy watching the growth of all young animals,  especially the calves. The struggling effort they make to get those wobbly legs  to hold just long enough to stand up, and those brave and cautious first few  steps are a joy to watch. Then as they get older and stronger, they become  playful, chasing each other around in circles. They take a few unnecessary  chances but are never far from mama.  However, farm animals are not the only ones who bring a joy to spring.  Sometimes you may see a baby fawn down by the creek. For the first time  walking with slow, careful steps and a timid manner or you see a mother cat  parading her kittens across the green lawn — those soft, lovely little balls of  fur. Do they ever like to play with wool.  Of course young puppies are different. They just love to chew on slippers  or anything else they can sink their teeth into. That may be cute to start with  but after a while it becomes a bad habit.  Besides the arrival of animal life, there is the new arrival of plant and  bird life. The longer and warmer days of spring tell us of the flowers and  green grass that will fill the air with the eternal promise that the cycle of plant  life continues. When we see all these beautiful things of nature we often think  of that lovely verse that says, 'A host of golden daffodils  Beside the lake, between the trees  Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.'  The return of birds from their winter in the south is another promise of  spring. Nests will soon be started and we see the bright colours of the birds  darting through the branches and the leaves of the trees.  Along with the coming of spring we must remember the value of water.  It comes with a rush as the snow melts and the rivers grow. Although it may  cause some damage to eroded banks and wet roads, it also gives the necessary food to all animals and plants.  Besides the beauty we see in the growth and development we see in all  young animal and plant life, there is another value to be noticed. We are all  part of this process. It is our role to protect wild life as much as possible.  We learn to work. It takes work to plough, to stack hay, and to grow  farm vegetables. We learn all this and much more when we watch the coming  of spring on the farm.  Living as I do on a farm, in the shadow of the Cliff, the landmark of our  valley, I am particularly fortunate to be a part of all the changing seasons.  All the seasons have their own beauties and perculiarities, but the season  that I enjoy the most is spring.  From the first balmy breezes to the bloom of the flowers with their delicate perfumes, I experience a feeling of renewal with nature and the promise  that 'God's in his heaven and all's right with the world.'  I hope spring means as much to everyone as it does to me. 150  ASHTON CREEK  The community spirit at Riverside all began many years ago when a man  named Charles Ashton came over from England to the West Coast. He became* tired of salt pork and weavily biscuits which they fed to the sailors so he  jumped ship and decided to become a farmer.  By the time he discovered Ashton Creek, later named for him, he was  married and had four children. He filed on the first homestead in this area.  One of his sons John Ashton stayed in this community and farmed also. Mr.  Ashton built himself a log cabin and cultivated the land to meet the requirements of the homestead law.  In 1915, John Ashton enlisted with the Rocky Mountain Rangers Training Unit at Vernon. This company left for overseas on September 27th, 1916.  Two years later, John was severely wounded. Moving from one hospital to  another, he finally made it back to Canada on a hospital ship, in time for  Christmas with his family.  While John was away the Ashton Creek community was growing. The  children getting older, needed proper schooling, so the whole community  banded together and built a school house. John Ashton was a school trustee  for many years. The school was used for social activities, a library and for  Sunday Services. A community hall was built. Always being a leader, John  served on the hall committee for many years.  After he returned home, John set to work on road maintenance with his  team of horses. He lived by himself for many years. When his father died  John's mother and the rest of the family lived with him.  John Ashton served in the Second World War with the Pacific Coast  Military. With his old wartime injuries, he was forced to sell his farm. He  moved to the coast where he found the climate was too moist for him, so he  moved back to the Okanogan.  In 1952 John married a Kelowna girl, named Nancy Glover. They moved  from one place to another, then finally settled in Penticton, living in a trim  little cottage on Tennis Street. To keep himself busy, John tended his well  trimmed garden.  While visiting Enderby last year with his wife, Mr. Ashton was stricken  with a heart attack. He was rushed to the hospital where he passed away the  next day, thus ending the life of one of the district's respected pioneers. His  wife lives on in their home in Penticton.  Many other families settled on the Mable Lake Road area and their descendants are still living there, including our own M.L.A. Mr. Len Bawtree  and his family. 151  ENDERBY SAWMILLS  By Brenda Stankoven  The following is the text of a speech given at the Canadian Legion Hall, on Saturday evening, March 12, 1977 on the occasion of  the "queen contestants" Public Speaking Contest.  "Good evening Ladies and Gentlemen. I'm Brenda Stankoven and I've  lived here for seven and a half years, where I have been a student at the local  schools. I am presently attending Okanagan College, where I am taking a  teaching program. Did you know, that at one time there were many oriental  workers at the sawmill here? Japanese, Chinese and East Indians. I wonder  how many of you gathered here tonight remember or know anything about  Enderby's first sawmill. Hopefully, what I speak on will be of some interest,  and bring back memories to some of you.  It was in 1894, when S. C. Smith of Vernon, decided to move the sawmill  he was operating at Okanagan Landing to Enderby. In 1900, the mill burned  down, and was rebuilt on a larger scale. On March 1st, 1905, Enderby first  became incorporated as a city. At that time, Enderby started to boom, with  1000 men working in the mill and camps up at Mabel Lake. Just imagine,  that was almost our total populaton of Enderby today — which is 1410  people.  The loggers worked under such contractors as Mr. Albert Johnson and  Mr. Andy Faulkner. They worked for $1.00 a day and board, and in spring  whooped it up at Webb Wright's hotel. That is where the forestry building is  today. The manager of the mill built the big white house on Sicamous Street,  where Mr. George Salt now lives, while the bookkeeper and second manager  lived where Mr. Jim Watt and Kineshenkos live today.  Enderby had a large population of Chinamen, who also worked in the  mill. They wore pigtails and lived in stores and houses along Old Vernon  Road. In the attic of one of the stores, there stood a ten foot Budha, whom  the Chinese worshipped. There was also a colony of East Indians, who lived in  shacks along the railway tracks, south of the mill. They wore their colored  turbans, and would not eat butter with salt in it.  The orientals worked from 7 a.m. to 6 p.m., and earned $1.00 a day.  The white men earned 22 cents an hour, and after threatening to go on strike,  their wages were raised to 25 cents an hour, a grand total of $2.50 a day. The  native Indians still lived on the reserve, and some of them worked on the log  drive. At one time, there were two banks in Enderby, along with just as many  stores then as there are now.  The year 1905 saw the greatest change. The sawmill was sold out to the  A. R. Rogers Company of Minneapolis, for the sum of $350,000. In 1912,  the sawmill changed its name to Okanagan Sawmills. The Japanese took over  the piling of lumber in the yards, which extended from Barnes Playground to  the Indian reserve, and from the mill north to Cliff Street. They lived in a  large boarding house which was later converted into the present Lundman  Apartments.  In 1921, owing to a slump in markets and labour troubles, the mill  closed down. The mill supplied the town with electricity, and when it closed,  Enderby had to get its own power plant. In the early twenties, a local company was formed with Mr. Percy Farmer as president, to try and keep a mill 152  in Enderby. They were supplied with logs by Clarke and Lantz, who took over  the mill and ran it until it was sold to Mr. Jack Smith of Armstrong.  While in operation, the mill built many houses in the area. Particularly,  still to be noticed today are the four "mill" houses on the north side of Hubert  Street, formerly owned by Daems, Rands, Hutchinsons and Farmers. The  mill cut white pine which was made into matches by the Eddy Match Company.  All the logging and mill work was done by horses, which made a good  market for the hay farmers. In town, the company had a mill barn, which  was on the corner of King Street and Old Vernon Road, and it held about  sixty work horses. There was a large drying shed east of Vernon Road. The  sawdust and edgings were burned in a pile close to the mill, until a large  burner was built on a small island in the river. The mill operated steadily,  running days and nights, for twelve months in the year. In addition to manufacturing lumber, the mill also shipped thousands of poles to the United  States market.  I must make particular mention of the mill whistle, which from its infancy was of particular importance to the whole community. Running two  shifts, the whistle called the men to work and dismissed them at the end of  their duties. It was very loud and clear, and could be heard distinctly as far  away as Grandview Bench. When there was a fire in the town or area, the  whistle signified a call for help. On November 11th, 1918, it blew loud and  clear for several hours, heralding the armistice of World War I, so that the  people far and near knew of this important event. The mill whistle took the  place then, of present day radios and TVs.  Most of the logs came down the river in the log drive, when the water was  high in the spring, and would lie in the booms for over a mile from the mill.  When the logs came down in spring, both young and old gathered on the  bridge to watch this drive. Of particular interest were the men on the booms,  with their long pike-poles, who jumped about so nimbly trying to dislodge the  logjams. The annual drive was an event eagerly looked forward to by the citizens of Enderby.  Farmers from North Enderby and Hullcar districts hauled the logs to the  mills in the winter. Did you know, that at one time, this sawmill cut more logs  than any other mill in British Columbia? Later, a pulp mill went up to Powell River and it then cut more lumber than the Enderby mill.  In 1942, the A. R. Rogers's Company sold the mill to Mr. Jack Smith of  Armstrong, who ran the mill successfully for twenty-five years. It gave steady  employment to many men, and provided a regular source of income to the  town and district. In August of 1970, Mr. Smith sold the mill to Crown  Zellerbach, who after one year, moved the operation to Larkin, where many  local men are still employed.  I hope, Ladies and Gentlemen, that this little journey into the past has  revived a few memories for some of you, and provided new knowledge for  others. I know I have enjoyed learning about the early days in Enderby. In  closing, I wish to extend good wishes to all the candidates with whom I have  been working. Thank You." 153  EARLY DAYS OF ENDERBY  WILDERNESS TO 1914  By Lori Packham  It is difficult for youths our age to recognize the importance of learning  something historical. After all, we are only kids and to most of us we have  many more interesting things with which to occupy our time. As one gets  older it seems one really does get interested about who one is, one's family  tree, also places and dates of historical interest. I personally feel that if you  learn something historical when you are younger, you will have information  that you can take with you through life and eventually pass on to your own  family.  For a topic, what could be a more favourable subject than our town of  Enderby? Instead of just going back twenty or thirty years ago, I am going to  speak about the important years for our little town from the wilderness to the  year 1914.  Do any of you have any idea what Enderby was like long ago? Can you  imagine dense forests with occasional lakes and plateaus? If you said 'yes,' you  are correct. Along with these we find our first settlers, who were our native  Indians. It is not known how long the Indians had lived in our area, but when  the first white settlers who were Alexander Leslie Fortune, John Malcolm and  John Thomas paddled down the Spallumcheen River on June 14, 1866 and  camped on the river bank, they were visited by the Indians.  Mr. Fortune took land and homesteaded in the open country, south of  town, known as the Spallumcheen District. He was the first to clear the land  and plough it for the spring planting.  Mr. Fortune homesteaded on this land because it was an open area,  which did not require much clearing. It was also along the river, which was  his main means of travelling. His original house, with a few changes still  stands on the river bank and is the present home of Mr. and Mrs. Heal.  In 1876, Robert Lambly walked through the valley into what is today  Enderby. He came by way of the Dewdney Trail. A year later his brother  Thomas sold his store in New Westminster and joined him. After the Lamblys  had settled here, one of the first things they did was to build a freight shed on  the river bank. This is where Dack's Recreation Centre now stands. The first  house in Enderby was built for Thomas Lambly by his brother Robert and  William Postill.  People were beginning to take a liking for the area and were beginning to  settle so that land began to be subdivided and lots were offered for sale. Roads  were becoming important at this time as the only other means of transportation was by the river. After the C.P.R. was completed in 1885 a wagon road  was built along the east side of Mara Lake, connecting Sicamous to Enderby.  In the earlier years river travel was by canoe, boat or steamboat.  The first name given to our town was Steamboat Landing, so named by  the Indians. In later years it was changed to Lamby's Landing. How many of  you know how our settlement acquired the name of Enderby? It's interesting  to note that a group of ladies involved with the Literary Society would read  poems and essays at their meetings. One afternoon these ladies met at the  home of Mrs. Lawes, where the present Francis property is today. One of the  ladies read a poem called 'High Tide on the Coast of Lincholnshire.' The 154  poem was about the brides of a little town called Enderby. Mrs. Lawes suggested calling our town Enderby. On November 1, 1887 the Enderby Post  Office became official with Oliver Harvey the first postmaster.  After the turn of the century Enderby slowly began to develop. People  moved in so that businesses such as Pork Packing, Real Estate, a Trading  Company, Hotel, Columbia Flour Mill and F. B. Jacques, Jewellers, were  built and established. The freight shed, built earlier by the Lamblys was now  necessary. Flour from the Columbia Flour Mill was now being shipped out.  This mill gained distinction for shipping the first Canadian flour to the  Orient.  Methods of travelling were still being considered. A company known as  Patterson and Larkin began the construction of a 280 foot bridge, across the  river where the present bridge is today. On May 23rd, 1891, the town became  very excited when the first train on the new valley line from Sicamous arrived  in Enderby. Several ladies from Sicamous ventured the trip, a really daring  feat.  Before 1895, the town had no logging, but in this year Smith and Mc-  Leod opened a sawmill. This opened up things and paved the way for more  people to settle in the area, so that at the turn of the century Enderby was expanding and developing in every way. Land was now selling at $3 to $10 for  an undeveloped acre and $4 to $100 for an improved acre. Enderby's first  newspaper, which was called the Edenograph, was published in 1904 by  H. M. Walker. It became the Commoner, which we still have today.  Industry was booming, orchards were planted and a packing house was  located where the Motor Inn is today. The town had its lumber company and  a coal mine was in operation. The outlying farms were doing well. It is interesting to note that wheat sold for 60 cents a bushel. Potatoes were $10 a ton  and apples were $1 a box. Wages were $30 a month. Because crops were doing so well, Enderby's branch of the Farmer's Exchange was organized.  Two good wagon roads now led both north and south from Enderby.  The one led to Vernon and the other led to Salmon Arm and the CP. railway line.  During the spring and summer of 1904 Enderby's population was 500.  Owing to the increase twenty-five new houses were built. New businesses such  as a Furniture Store, Hardware Store, Brick Company and a Pharmacy were  just a few to be added to the business centre.  An important day came for Enderby when on March 1, 1905, the town  was finally incorporated as a 'City,' with George Bell as the first mayor.  Graham Rosoman was appointed city clerk.  The first Bank of Montreal was also opened that year with A. E. Taylor  as the first manager. This bank is still with us and is the only one here, though  for several years the city boasted two banks.  Enderby was booming now. There was discussion about water for the  city. In January, 1907 the water from Brash Creek was turned into Enderby  mains, at a cost of approximately $20,000. Today- Brash Creek is still Enderby's main water source.  Several new churches were completed and dedicated, including the  Presbyterian, Baptist and Methodist buildings.  Do you know that Enderby's first policeman was Basil Gardom, related  to our present Garde Gardom in the Provincial Legislature. He received the 155  sum of $15 a month. Compared with today's wages that doesn't seem like  much. In 1907 Robert Bailey was appointed city foreman, later becoming  city policeman and water works custodian.  While the city was making a decision on whether or not to build a hospital, other relaxing and entertaining things were happending. These included  listening to the town band which played at all events. It also played for the  townsfolk on nice summer evenings. Mr. Charlie Dugdale's father was one of  the original conductors. Some of the instruments used then have been placed  in the local museum.  In 1912 Smith and McLeod Sawmill was purchased by Rodgers Sawmill  Company. Now many more opportunities became a reality for employment.  This resulted in a rapid growth for the town.  An important yet sad year for Enderby was 1914. This was the year that  England became engaged in the first World War and the men of Enderby  were called to duty. The men fought and as usual some were lucky and returned to their home while others died for their country. The Cenotaph in the  city park is a memorial for those who gave their lives at this time, also for  those who fell in World War II. After 1914 Enderby continued to grow and to  develop until we know it as it is today, a sprawling little city still growing with  a present population of 1482.  I find it interesting to compare the earlier descriptions with those we see  as we daily walk our streets and gaze about at the familiar stores and people.  I hope you have learned something that may be of value in years to come as  Enderby continues to grow and to expand. Just remember, in about fifteen  years time, most of you, still living here, may have children or grandchildren  who might ask, "Where did Enderby come from, and what was it like long  ago?" Then you can smile and say, 'Well — it all started when — ?' 156  EARLY DAYS AT GRINDROD  By Michelle de Dood  Have you ever wondered what it was like to live many years ago in the  town or city you live in right now? Do you ever hear your parents saying how  easy we have it today and how hard they had it yesterday? Do they ever say  that we always have time for fun but they always had to find time because  they were so busy? We never really listen to stories about what it used to be  like but because you are all sitting here now, I know you have to listen to my  story. It is the story of Grindrod.  First I would like to tell you a little about one of the early settlers of the  area which I am representing, 'Springbend!' This settlers' name was Edgar  Emeny. He was born in Milton, Ontario on March 23, 1884 and he arrived in  B.C. in August 1888. From that time on he spent his entire life on his homestead at Springbend, until his death on October 25, 1965. He was eighty years  of age. Mr. Emeny was a quiet, home-loving man. One pleasure he enjoyed  was the act of taxidermy and in it he excelled. He did this for his own pleasure  and later for others upon request. Edgar Emeny was a great man and well  respected by all who knew him.  The history of Grindrod began many years ago, before the turn of the  century, when the first settlers arrived. They were Mr. George Weir, Mr.  Alex Bisland and Mr. John Lambert.  Mr. Lambert and a friend were later settlers to Grindrod. They came as  far as Golden by train. They then walked until they found a dugout which  took them down the hazardous Eagle River. On their way down the river, the  rapids dumped the boat over and they fell into the water.  All that they managed to save were the clothes they were wearing and a  rifle. For two days they were without food and so they were very hungry. They  managed to shoot a grouse, which they cooked wrapped in clay, and they ate  it without salt. To them nothing tasted quite so palatable as that grouse without salt, in spite of their hunger.  Arriving at Grindrod the two men took up homesteads. They had many  hardships and were deprived of many things we have today. Mr. Lambert  built the home in which the Don Wells family live today. He made all the  shingles and timbers for the interior of the building by hand. For the roof he  split all the timbers, of which there was an abundance, and he made the cedar shingles by hand. It took him two years to build the house because at the  time he was clearning his land by hand. Later on he invested in a horse-drawn  hay-baler. On this the horse would go round and around on a sweep, to bale  the hay. It was of course necessary to change the horses when they became  tired. With his baler, Mr. Lambert would go around the neighbourhood  baling his neighbour's hay.  Not owning any other machinery or horses of his own he didn't clear  much land on his own place. However, Mr. Lambert had enough cleared  land for his house, his barn and yard, and he had a lovely garden.  Much of the surroundings were covered with swamps and bog, so Mr.  Lambert dug a drainage ditch, one spade deep and one spade wide, which  developed into a rushing creek, now known as Lambert Creek. This kindly  gentleman will always be remembered for his cordial manner and lovely  voice. Although he was a confirmed bachelor, he married at 72 and became a 157  husband, father and grandfather, all in one day. This he said, was quite a  job.  The only means of transportation before the advent of the railroad was  by the Red Star, a river steamer used to transport flour from Enderby to  Kamloops. It was 1896 when the Red Star made its last run. The branch line  of the C.P.R. from Sicamous to the Okanogan Landing had finally been completed. The train now became the major form of transportation so Grindrod  grew from then on as it was on the right of way. The little two room C.P.R.  Station was located where Sure Crop Feeds are today. It contained the first  telephone in Grindrod. This telephone was a crank and holler type which  anyone could use to get in touch with the exchange in Enderby. It was not  until 1923 that a line was finally put in to service the residents in their homes.  On May 6, 1908, a disaster struck Grindrod. The largest fire ever swept  through the town. It started at the North Enderby school, crossed the river  going down both sides, all the way to Mara. Many of the men had been clearing bush to make farm land and had been burning the brush when a fierce  wind, blowing at tremendous speed swept all the fires together and they  gained momentum. Residents' homes and barns were burned. People even  had to hide in wells to escape the fire.  Mr. Wedell, one of the wealthy land owners at that time, had just built  a big brooder house in the middle of his large clearing. The children were  taken there while their parents fought the fire. During the night homes were  alight many times, but the fires were quickly put out by the men and women  of the community.  The next day, dawn revealed the whole countryside seared and blackened. Mr. McEwen, Mr. John Monk and Mr. William Monk were temporarily blinded from the smoke. Before the children were taken home from the  brooder house they were taken to breakfast. This proved to be an interesting  experience. It was the first time they had been served porridge by a Chima-  man cook.  Bridges were taken out, fences were burned away and cattle had strayed  to safety. No one knew where to find their cows. It was a terrible sight. The  bridges were out for a long time and people had to detour where they could in  order to get groceries. Everything was a blackened mess for months to come  and the peat fires were not extinguished until fall arrived.  It was 1910 before Grindrod received its name. It was so named after a  telegraph linesman who operated the local telegraph and train station. Prior  to that it was called North Enderby.  In 1910 Mr. Fred Barnes constructed a bridge and people were finally  able to cross the river without the use of a boat. Mr. John Monk moved his  family from the east to the west side of the river and soon after they opened a  post office which was located in part of their house. This was the first post  office closer than Enderby.  In 1915 the first store, garage and repair shop were opened by Mr. Harry  and Mr. Arthur Tomkinson. This was quite a convenience to the residents as  they didn't have to make the seven mile trip to Enderby, often made on foot.  In 1952 fire destroyed this store. Mr. Arthur Tomkinson owned the first radio  in Grindrod. Many times his little house would be crowded with people who  were eager to listen to their favourite programs on the new invention.  In 1919 the shareholders built the Farmer's Hall. They worked hard to 158  have it ready for the entertainment which was to be put on for the soldiers  returning from the First World War. Thus, the opening of the hall became a  double celebration.  In 1922 Mr. Monk and his son John, opened a store under the name  'Monk and Son.' This was located where the Packham family live today. The  post office was moved into the same building in the same year. For fifty-seven  years the post office and store remained in the Monk family.  In 1920 a large number of Ukrainians arrived in Grindrod under the impression they were in Carlin Orchards where there were supposed to be lots for  them to purchase. There wasn't any land cleared for them and they ended up  living in tents and shacks. One of the things the Ukrainians faced was racial  discrimination, especially the school children. This, plus hard times encouraged many families to move away. The ones who did stay became very  good citizens, interested in the community. They built a large church and  several stores.  Hearing the date, June 3rd today, it probably doesn't mean a thing to us.  For many old timers it was the day for celebration. A day that meant horse-  racing, baseball games and sports of all kinds for men, women and children.  All year people saved for this outing. Twenty-five cents was a large sum for  children for the day. They could have a great time with that much money  and thrifty ones often took a few cents home. The proceeds of the day went to  needy families and to people abroad. This June third sports day was celebrated until 1939 when the male population went off to war and all that was  left were young boys, old men and women who looked after the farms.  How would you like to carry a lamp around with you to every room in the  house, in order to have light? This was what it was like before electricity came  to Grindrod. When it came it was such a delight to everyone. At first each  house had only one light, but that one light was the most wonderful thing  that had ever happened. Electricity was just like Heaven. Everything seemed  to flourish because at last so much more could be accomplished.  People long ago had to do a lot of work. Not only the older ones but the  younger ones also. One of the jobs for the women and girls was to make the  butter which would be sold in Enderby each Saturday. There were no creameries then. One Saturday two little girls were helping their mother with the  churning. What a job it was. The girls became so tired. They put the lid on  the churn but they didn't put it on right. Of course when the girls started  churning, down came all the cream, over the milkhouse floor. The little girls  ran for their lives afraid that they would surely be scalped. These two little  girls were Mrs. Helen Drake and Mrs. Blanche Finlayson. Have you ever felt  as they did, after an accident?  The horse and cart were a great invention — so much better than walking. More things could be carried. Butter and cauliflowers were just a few of  the things taken to town. Depending on the horse it usually took one hour to  get to Enderby and return home. One good thing you didn't have to carry a  spare tire.  Children loved to go to town though they didn't like getting cold feet.  When their toes became cold they had to get out of the cart and run behind  while their father whipped up the horses. They had to run until their feet  warmed up, what a way to do it. Another way was to wrap hot bricks in sacks  and place them on the floor of the sleigh. Better than today's heater, I don't 159  think so. Isn't it amazing how all our fun is organized today? We do little for  ourselves. People long ago had to make their own fun. They put on concerts,  had dances at every opportunity, went skating and played hockey on the frozen lakes and outdoor rinks.  One thing people looked forward to was the yearly travelling show, the  Chautauga which featured magicians, music and plays. People saved all year  for this entertainment.  In early Grindrod days, a Mr. Weir liked pigs so much that he went into  the hog business. He had so many pigs but, with insufficient feed for them.  One day while he was away he engaged someone to look after his animals.  The pigs were so hungry they nearly ate the caretaker. One thing for sure, he  never offered to help Mr. Weir again. It was an interesting experience for Mr.  Weir, but he went into the business too deeply and had to give it up.  Grindrod has experienced many things through the years. It even had a  gold mine located above the falls. There wasn't much gold found but there  was sufficient to keep people interested. There was also a coal mine. What  has happened to it? No one knows. Maybe another one will be discovered in  the future.  Grindrod has changed a lot through the years and much has been  gained.  I hope my speech has revived memories for many of the older people  and brought an insight into earlier times for the younger people.  GRINDROD SCHOOLS  By Leanne MacKay  In the first few years that I am going to look back on, Grindrod was not  called Grindrod. It was included in the large North Enderby District. The  location of the present day school has not always been situated there. It was  one mile south of the present day Grindrod bridge on land owned by the  Elliots which is now the Glenn Stickland farm. The school building was very,  very small, with tiny little windows. Some students had to travel long distances to attend school. Some walked, some rode horseback, and others had  to cross the river by boat.  In 1910 farmers built a bridge across the Spallumcheen River and a  townsite was formed. The area was then called Grindrod, after the C.P.R.  telegraph agent from Kamloops. For local accommodation, volunteers set out  to build a little log school house. This one roomed school house was also used  for a social centre.  From England came the first teacher, Joe Grey. The second teacher was  Nellie Crandlemire from New Brunswick. Some of the early students were  families of the Monks, Folkards, McManus, Stroulgers, Logans, Peacocks,  Hornells, Weirs, Handcocks, Bairds, Neves, Kiltys, and Sparrows.  With the growth of population in 1914 the log school was overcrowded 160  and the need arose for a larger building. A large new school was built. It had  a two storey frame with a large classroom on the upper floor, and a furnace  and storage area occupying the ground level floor. The little log school house  was now used for meetings and sometimes for a teacherage. By the early years  of 1920 two more classrooms were needed; these were added to the south side  of the building. Twenty-two years later, in 1942 this building was destroyed  by fire.  The little log school house came to the rescue. It served the purpose while  the third school was being built similar to the second school. The third school  was a two storey frame building. The depression years had decreased the  school population so only two classrooms were on the upper floor. A furnace  and storage space was on the ground floor. At last this building had running  water and indoor washrooms.  This school was sufficient through the 1940's and 1950's. In the 1960's  there was overcrowding due to the increase in population and the changing of  school district boundaries. In 1968 primary classes were moved to a portable  classroom. Michelle, Elaine, Lorie and I attended this portable.  In 1969 the portable classroom was removed and replaced with a beautiful modern style school. This school was one of the first of its kind in British  Columbia. It is a quonset hut style building with classrooms, offices, library  and a large activity room used by the community for many and varied activities.  In 1976 overcrowding was again a problem so portables were added in  September 1976. Today there are 135 students attending Grindrod school. It  has the grades of one through to seven with a kindergarten in Mara. The  principal is Mr. Peebles and there are six other regular teachers and two  teacher aids with a music teacher coming in twice a week.  Grindrod school is the only school in the Shuswap district in which each  child receives gymnastics every day, as a keep-fit activity. Plus, each child receives regular physical education classes.  This is very unique and proves to be very beneficial to each and every  child. With the kind co-operation of the principal, Mr. Peebles, and the  Shuswap School District, there are evening gymnastic classes for the people  of the community.  I feel that I have been very fortunate to have attended Grindrod School.  I hope you have enjoyed hearing the school's early background and the up to  date information because I have enjoyed doing it for you. 161  THE HISTORY OF ENDERBY'S HOSPITALS  Who cared for the sick and injured in the early days? At first they were  cared for in the homes and the most severe cases were transferred to the  Vernon Hospital. One doctor and one nurse served Enderby for many years,  while the town continued to grow. A flour mill and several sawmills made  Enderby boom. So, a cottage hospital was started. It was located in the large  house, adjoining Mary Wood Manor. The land for this was donated by Mr.  Sam Poison.  The hospital best remembered was first the Worthington residence and  today is the Enderby Rooming Lodge. It is located on Highway 97 and  Stanley Street. Once a nine bed hospital that was started in 1917 today is  proving to be ideal accommodation for pensioners. It has several housekeeping units and a small suite. Though there has been some changes the resemblance to the original building can still be seen.  The first matron of the Enderby Hospital was Miss M. Bowes, a kindly  person. The first nurses were Mrs. Webb Wright and Mrs. Campbell. Their  work began long before there was a hospital here. The first hospital Auxiliary's president was Mrs. A. Reeves assisted by Mrs. H. Wclker. In the beginning, only men ran the hospital. Due to the laundry and mending a ladies  auxiliary was formed. At first the ladies did all the mending and laundering.  Enderby's first doctor was Dr. Bentley who came here in 1903. But, Dr.  Harry Keith will always be remembered as the 'Old Doc' A kind, unselfish  man whose skill and wisdom will long be remembered. He was here from 1903  to 1933. His first transportation was horse and buggy or horseback. He would  travel many miles in all types of weather to care for the sick and injured.  Following Dr. Keith were Docturs Munroe, Helem, Haugen and Coltart.  They practised for approximately two years each. Dr. Haugen continued to  show an interest in Enderby and acted as an assistant to Dr. Kope after he  arrived here in 1941.  It was in the year 1947 that Dr. Kope met with two members of the hospital board and a group of concerned citizens. The meeting was to look over the  hospital with thoughts of modernizing it. The conclusion was reached that  only