Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Thirty-sixth annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society Nov 1, 1972

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Array Thirty-sixth Report  November /, 1972 L—_ THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT  of fhe  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  Founded Sept. 4, 1925  Cover picture:  JOSEPH  CHRISTIEN  HOUSE  AT PANDOSY MISSION  Ed Aldredge  November  1,  1972 NOTICE  of Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan  Historical Society  1973  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  SUNDAY, MAY 6, 1973  at 2:00 p.m.  PENTICTON, B.C.  Afternoon Meeting and Dinner Meeting  at 6:30 p.m.  Business  Presentation of Reports  Election of Officers ORDER FORM  The Society has in stock two reprints of older Reports and  certain  back  Reports as indicated below. Please send orders to:—  MR. JOHN  L. SHEPHARD, Treasurer  Okanagan Historical Society,  P.O. Box 313,  Vernon, B.C.  Membership for 1972-73, including  Report No. 36 $3.50    Reprint of No. 6, including many  articles from Nos. 1-5. $3.00   |   !    Reprint of Nos. 7-10, under one  cover. $3.50    □ Nos. 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28 and 29.  Circle the ones you want.  Each at $2.50    □ Nos. 31 and 32. Each at      $3.00   □ No. 35 $3.50    Total Payment    Money order or cheque enclosed.  Invoice me.  Put my name on  mailing  list. The current  report will  be  sent each  year automatically, and you will be invoiced.  Your Address:  Name   Address.  Any back issues you  no  longer need?  Please send them  to  the   above  address. We can use them. Thank you.  Name BOOKS FOR SALE by  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY MEMBERS  The History of Armstrong $3.00  Plus 15 cents Tax  Johnny Serra, P.O. Box 272, Armstrong, B.C.  Illustrated History of Vernon $2.50  Plus 20 cents postage  Vernon Museum Board, P.O. Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  Ogopogo's Vigil    $4.00  Plus 20 cents tax  Okanagan Packers Union, 1344 Paul St., Kelowna, B.C.  History of St. Andrew's Church, Okanagan Mission, B.C. $1.25  Plus 15 cents postage  Mrs. Primrose Upton, Box 1, Okanagan Mission, B.C.  Penticton Pioneers — in Story and Pictures    $3.60  Penticton Stationery Ltd., 250 Main St., Penticton, B.C.  Boundary Historical Society — Society Report No. 6  . . . $2.50  Plus 20 cents postage  Father Pat — Hero of the Far West $2.50  BY JEROME MERGER  Peter Bird, Kaleden, B.C. OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  HONORARY PATRONS  Colonel the Honourable John R. Nicholson, P.C, O.B.E., Q.C, LI. D.  Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia  The Honourable W. A. C Bennett, P.C, LL.D., D.Pol. Sc,  Premier of British Columbia  The Honourable Frank X. Richter  Minister of Mines and Petroleum Resources and  Minister of Comercial Transport  PATRON  Mrs. Charles Patten  HONORARY PRESIDENTS  Dr. Margaret Ormsby, Mr. H.C.S. Collett,  Mr. G. P. Bagnall, Mr. G. D. Cameron  Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mr. Harold Cochrane  PRESIDENT  J. V. H. (Victor) Wilson, Naramata, B.C.  VICE-PRESIDENTS  Mrs. G. P. Broderick, Mr. J. E. Jamieson, Mrs. D. Tutt  SECRETARY  Mr. F. P. Bird, Pineview Drive, Kaleden, B.C.  TREASURER  Mr. John Shephard, Box 313, Vernon, B.C.  EDITOR  Mr. Eric D. Sismey, RRl, Naramata, B.C.  AUDITOR  Mr. T. R. Jenner, 3105 - 29th Ave., Vernon, B.C.  ESSAY CHAIRMAN  Mrs. George Lundy, Okanagan Falls, B.C  CO-CHAIRMAN  Mrs. G. P. Broderick, 1825 Fairford Dr., Penticton, B.C.  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Penticton: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney; Vernon: Harold Cochrane  Kelowna: Mrs. T. B. Upton; Oliver-Osoyoos: Mr. C McNaughton  Similkameen: Mrs. Ray Walters; Armstrong: Mr. J. Serra  BRANCH OFFICERS OF  EXECUTIVE COUNCIL  Vernon: Mrs. Hilda Cochrane, Mrs. H. Gorman, E. B. Hunter  Kelowna: G. D. Cameron, D. Buckland, Mrs. T. B. Upton  Penticton: R. F. Gale, Mrs. W. R. Dewdney, Mrs. G. P Broderick  Oliver-Osoyoos: R. Iverson  Similkameen: Mrs. A. Advocaat; Armstrong: D. Landon 1972-73 BRANCH OFFICERS  SIMILKAMEEN BRANCH  President:  Mrs.  Ray Walters;  Vice-President:  Mrs. A. Advocaat  Secretary: Mrs. Margaret Innis; Treasurer: Mrs. Alberta Parsons; Editor  Mrs. Ray Walters; Auditor: Mrs. Dorothy Barnes; Editorial Committee  Mrs. Alberta Parsons; Director at Large: Mrs. Ray Walters.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH  President: R. M. Iverson; Secretary: Mrs. Dorothea Lewis; Vice-  President: Mrs. Carleton MacNaughton; Treasurer: Mrs. Margaret Driver;  Historian: Miss Dolly Waterman.  Directors: T. H. Lewis, Mrs. Retta Long, Mrs. E_ MacLennan, Mrs. H.  Porteous, Mr. Don Corbishley, Mrs. J. A. Field.  PENTICTON BRANCH  President: E. Hugh Cleland, Box 154, Penticton; Vice-President: John  J. Gibson, MD, 112 Eckhardt Ave. W., Penticton; Secretary: Mrs. George P.  Broderick, 1825 Fairford Drive, Penticton; Treasurer: D. H. Gawne, 91  Newton Drive, Box 66 West Bench.  Editor: Eric D. Sismey, RRl, Naramata; Editorial Committee: Mrs.  W. R. Dewdney, E. D. Sismey.  Branch Directors: W. H. White, Immediate Past-President; R. N.  Atkinson, R. S. Manuel, H. O. Rorke, J. V. H. Wilson, F. P. Bird, Mrs.  MacKinnon, Mrs. Faye Scott, R. F. Gale, J. W. McConnachie, E. D. Sismey,  Mrs. H. C Whitaker, Mrs. Louise Gabriel, Mrs. Donald Orr, L. Smuin, I. E.  Phillips, C W. Holden, R. J. Phinney, F. D. Stuart, Mrs. E. D. Sismey.  Director at Large: Mrs. H. C Whitaker.  KELOWNA BRANCH  President: J. L. Piddocke; Vice-President: Mrs. T. B. Upton;  Secretary: R. C Gore; Editor: Mrs. T. B. Upton; Treasurer: Mrs. Ursula  Surtees.  Branch Directors: Allan Lansdowne, F. F. Black, Mrs. Duncan Tutt,  G. D. Cameron, E. T. Sherlock, J. J. Conroy, F. G. DeHart, W. J. V.  Cameron, H. K. Keating, Wm. Spear, D. S. Buckland, H. M. Powley, J. E.  Marty, Frank Pell, J. L. Neave, L. N. Leathley.  Director at Large:  Rev. E. Fleming.  VERNON BRANCH  President: Harold Cochrane, 2006 28th Crescent; Past President: Ken  Ellison, Oyama; Vice-President: Ken Ellison, Oyama; Secretary: Mrs. H.  Gorman, 3503 Barnard Ave.; Treasurer:  Harold Cochrane;  Directors: Mr. E. B. Hunter, Mr. and Mrs. G. P. Bagnall, Mrs. K.  Kinnard, Mrs. Ian Garven, Mrs. Ivan Crozier, Mrs. D. Greig, Mrs. A. E.  Berry, Mrs. DeBeck, Mrs. H. Cochrane.  Director at Large: Mrs. A. E. Berry.  Editorial Committee: Harold Cochrane, Mrs. I. Crozier, Mrs. Bagnall.  Directors for the Parent Body: Mrs. H. Cochrane, Mrs. Harry Gorman, Mrs. E. B. Hunter. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  Before introducing the 36th Report of the Okanagan Historical Society  your editor wishes to call attention to Report numbers 7, 8, 9 and 10, now  reprinted under one cover, sponsored by the parent body of the society at  Vernon. Between the 315 pages of the reprint no better reading can be found  and this for a very modest sum. Let me urge every reader of this current  report to buy one. Between the covers will be found the story of the first gold  discovery in British Columbia dating back to 1823. Girlhood Days in the  Okanagan, 8th report, written by a part Indian girl is a delightand in the 10th  report we become horrified at the stupidity of our politicians who bargained  San Juan Island away.  Mention in the foreward of the 35th report was the promise of more  detail on the "Ride of the Century" from Osoyoos to Kamloops over the old  Hudson's Bay Fur Brigade Trail. And also details of the 8-day, 80 mile hike  over the old HBC trail between Hope and Tulameen. Both took place in the  71 Centennial Year. Both signalled an important page in our Provincial  history. Of added interest are day to day journals of one of the leaders of the  1971 hike and of two others who accompanied a pack train more than a  century ago and who left a record of their journey.  Your editor considers himself fortunate to have been able to select  three essays written by teenaged scholars and included in this report.  Their craftsmanship reflects to the credit of the teachers and to the  scholarship and interest of the authors. These three young writers covered  facets of local historyyet untouched in previous reports. It is our hope that  the work of young writers will continue and will expand. Young blood is  something badly need in our society.  Work on the Pandosy Mission continues. This year work began to  refinish and refurnish the Joe Christien house. And call it another first when  a school bell, a former teacher and several former pupils assembled once  more in an old classroom.  Scattered through the pages of this report will be found gleanings from  the copious writings of our young Indian people. Much of it, bordering on  genius, reflects their frustration, their hopelessness. A sad commentary on  our culture which allows this talent to escape with little notice.  New to our report is something about the Bridesville country and an  article about settlement on Westside (Okanagan Lake), focuses attention to  a part of our lakeshore which now after more than 50 years is receiving  notice.  Your editor wants to call attention to the article "The Okanagan Indian" by Dr. H. Campbell-Brown. Here is a lifetime assessment of our native  people. One that reveals their many qualities which many either miss or do  not take the trouble to understand. This article demands repeated reading.  ERIC D. SISMEY CONTENTS  A REPORT (Eric D. Sismey)  10  FATHER  PANDOSY MISSION  (Primrose Upton)  11  HOPE-TULAMEEN  BRIGADE TRAIL (An Introduction by H. R. Hatfield)  14  REPORT OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN  FORT HOPE  AND THE SIMILKAMEEN  (Lieut. H. Spencer Palmer)  16  FROM THE JOURNAL OF ARTHUR THOMAS BUSHBY  26  H.B.C. TREK (Victor Wilson's Journal)  29  BRIGADE TRAIL FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES  FEMMES (Harley R. Hatfield)   .   . 37  NOOTKA SHELL MONEY (Eric D. Sismey)       49  KEREMEOS, A  HISTORY (Albert Parsons and Barbara Lawrence)  50  LITTLE  BOB — A CAYUSE (R. N. Atkinson)  58  THE VERNON COMMONAGE SCHOOL (Heather O'Brien)  61  JOHN CRAIG (Eric D. Sismey)  65  THE  SHUTTLEWORTHS  OF OKANAGAN  FALLS •   .   .   %  68  THE  LONG ARM OF COINCIDENCE (Ivan E. Phillips)  .'  69  A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF  PAUL DUMONT (Sister Barbara Dumont)  72  A REPORT ON TWO OF THE  EARLY FLOUR MILLS  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA (Charles Howell)  75  JAMES  DONALD WHITHAM  (Dorothy J. Zoellner)  84  THE  BIG  HOUSE  (Myra DeBeck)       87  THE OKANAGAN  INDIANS (H. Campbell-Brown, M.D.)  93  BRENT'S  FLOUR MILL (Everett S. Fleming)  97  CABINET MARKS MILESTONE  (Ed. W. Aldredge)  103  MR.  PENTICTON MUSEUM (Eric D. Sismey)       105  THE  FIRST TROOPS TO  LEAVE  THE  OKANAGAN  (G.D.Cameron)       108  A  REPORT (Eric D. Sismey)  109  AFTER MORE THAN  A CENTURY  HORSES TROD  THE  BRIGADE TRAIL AGAIN  (Frank C. Christian)  Ill  ANNUAL  FIELD  DAY AT SUMMERLAND  (Ivan E. Phillips)  116  PRESENTATION  OF CENTENNIAL MEDALS       121  PIONEER MEDALLIONS  122  PIONEER  RUTLAND  RESIDENTS  123  WILLIAM McNAIR  (James Bell)  124  SHANGHAI ALLEY (Daniel W. Thorpe)  125  FIRE  FIGHTING  IN  KELOWNA (Primrose Upton)  127  OSOYOOS MAN  REMEMBERS EARLY DAYS OF FLYING (Hugh Porteous)       129  GRANITE  CITY (Barry Phipps)  131  THE  STICK  GAME  (Sen-Pak-Cheen)  134  MY OWN STORY (Primrose Upton)  135  OKANAGAN'S FIRST AMPUTATION (James E. Jamieson)       139  PRESENTATION OF AWARDS (Guy P. Bagnall)  141  JOHN MOORE  ROBINSON  (Ivan E. Phillips)  143  VALENTINE  DYNES (Stella E. Welch)  147  KNOB  HILL SCHOOL (James Bell)  149  HUGO  DUMONT— 1889-1971   (Sister Lucy Dumont)       151  MUIRALLAN  ESTATES (Janet K. Wolsey)  154  THE  E. R.  BAILEY FAMILY (Reba Schoenfeld)  159  EARLY DAYS' SCHOOLS (James E. Jamieson)  161  MY FIRST LOOK AT POLLUTION  (R.N.Atkinson)  163  M.V. OKANAGAN — LAST OF AN ERA (Eric D. Sismey)  165  FROM A  BANQUET IN  LONDON  (Eric D. Sismey)  170  GEORGE LEZARD 65th ANNIVERSARY       173  MAKING A  LIFE WORTHWHILE  (Reviewed by Eric D. Sismey)  175  FORMER ARMY OFFICER DIES  177  OBITUARIES  178  FROM THE MINUTES  185  MEMBERSHIP LIST  198 ILLUSTRATIONS  Donald V. Fisher  10  Living Room in Restored Christien House  11  Ex-Pupils of Old Ellison School  12  Victor Wilson and Harley Hatfield  15  Pathfinder Eric Jacobson       30  Original Blaze of the Hope-Tulameen Trail  32  The Trail Parts  35  Across the Sowaqua Valley  38  Mount Outram  40  Necklace of Dentalium Shells  49  Palace Feed and Livery Stable, Upper Keremeos  51  Barcello Hotel, Upper Keremeos  55  Horse Heaven, Marron Valley  59  The Commonage School  62  John Craig       65  The Cairn at Site of Brent Grist Mill  78  James Donald Whitham  84  Present Church on Incameep Indian Reserve  86  Century Old Brent's Grist Mill  100  Mrs. Kathy Mather  103  Reg. Atkinson  106  Strathconas —Missines Ridge, 1915  108  7,550 ft. Mount McKinney  110  The Cavalcade Near Monte Lake  112  Cavalcade on West Side of Okanagan Lake  113  Maubais Rocher  114  Dr. Don V. Fisher  117  Plaque at Foot of Okanagan Mission Apple Tree  119  Mrs. Pat Jordan  121  Mrs. Gertrude Brunt       123  William McNair  124  The Broderick  128  Granite Creek in Late 1880s  132  F. P. Cook Store at Granite Creek       133  Primrose Upton at the Organ  136  B. Franklin Young Jr., Holding Famous Meat Saw  139  Guy Bagnall Presents O.H.S. Trophy       142  J. M. Robinson Plaque  145  Dedication of J. M. Robinson Plaque       146  Knob Hill School Class 1894 or 1895  150  Hugo and Rose Dumont's Home       153  Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Bailey  159  Round Prairie Log School  162  M.V. Okanagan, Kelowna, May 23, 1972  166  Captain Sam Podmoroff  168  M.V. Okanagan at Kelowna Bridge  169  First Apple Tree in Pacific Northwest  171  This Apple Tree (Winesap) Still Bears Fruit  172  George and Louisa Lezard  174  Bee-hive Shaped Ovens in Hills Above Naramata  176  Col. Frank Barber  177 10  A    REPORT  Donald V. Fisher, Director of the Summerland Research Station examining  an ancient apple tree on the Stelkia property at Incameep.  Eric Sismey photo  A REPORT  On April 21, 1972 Mr. Donald V. Fisher, Director of the Summerland  Research Station invited your editor to accompany him to Incameep to  examine what may well be the oldest living, original fruit trees in the  Okanagan.  Accompanying us were Wally Smith and John Price of Oliver and  Stirling Hauser of Okanagan Falls.  Several old trees on the Stelkia property were examined, apple and  one pear. Margaret Stelkia was unable to tell when the trees were planted  but she suggested that Jess Patton on Okanagan Falls may have planted  them around 1905 from stock purchased from the Layritz Nurseries. It is also  quite possible that they were planted in the 1880s since fruit trees were being  planted in the Similkameen by F. X. Richter. Mrs. Stelkia did say that the  fruit at one time was being sold at Oroville, Fairview and Penticton.  These trees will be kept under observation and later inspections will  be made to determine the variety. At that time the White Winter Pearmain,  the Blue Pearmain and Winter Banana were popular.  —Eric D. Sismey FATHER    PANDOSY   MISSION  11  FATHER PANDOSY MISSION  A REPORT by PRIMROSE UPTON  A number of very interested people from Vernon to Osoyoos gathered  at 4:30 on Saturday, July 15, 1972 at the Father Pandosy Mission Restoration  to view the tremendous amount of work done on this historic site — the first  area in the interior of the province where settlers were encouraged to take  up land. Deputy Premier L. J. Wallace brought greetings from Premier W.  A. C. Bennett, and stated that since he had viewed the site a year ago he  realized what a great deal of work had been done to bring the restoration to  what it is now. The Provincial Government has given grants, and he was  pleased to see that the money had been put to such good use.  President of the Okanagan Historical Society, J. V. H. Wilson, thanked  Joe Marty for all his dedicated work, Jack Bedford for the work of the  Knights of Columbus for the 1958 restoration. He presented an illuminated  scroll to H. C S. Collett for his efforts in the early restoration. The scroll,  signed by all present, had been executed by Randy Manuel of Penticton.  Mrs. W. D. Walker, who as Dorothea Thomson had started to teach  school in September 1894, in a little upstairs room of the Joseph Christien  house, rang the school bell to assemble her pupils. Two of the original pupils  were present — Mrs. A. Cross and Mrs. Gus McDonnell. Other ex-pupils of  the old Ellison School present were Miss Frances Hereron, Mrs. E. Moss,  Mrs. Duncan Tutt, Mrs. C Neave, Percy Geen, J. J. Conroy, Miss May  Conroy and Sister A. Conroy. Others unable to be present were William  Hereron, Miss Greta Bower, Arthur Teather, Tom Carney, Arthur Geen,  Winnifred Lang, Miss Zella Monford, E. Monford.  The Christien house has desks in the old schoolroom, and one of the  upstairs bedrooms has been furnished. Downstairs, the kitchen has a  number of interesting articles including a large old wood burning stove. The  L. to R. Sister Anne, Mrs. Wm. Spear, Mrs. Mary C. Neave, Mrs. Duncan  Tutt, Mrs. Moss, Mrs. T. B. Upton, Mrs. W. D. Walker, Miss May Conroy,  Joe Marty, Mrs. A. Cross, Mrs. Gus McDonnel, J. V. H. Wilson. 12  FATHER    PANDOSY   MISS  ION  photo by G. D. Cameron  teresting old p.ctures halg "n The WaM  " °ma,e V'Ct°rian era d°th' "-  *"^Z^^Jte^**~ Pa"^ M'ssion -Cd.  Alderman Syd Hodge and Mayor _!_'_,      u^" MLA' and her "Sband,  of transportation such as rZ democrat 1-7'3S _*" aS anCient means  were able to see the chape w thTa.her _    J9    ' a"d an ice wa9°n- T"oy  Dougall house with the r__ « £__,_ u       ???SV S',tln9 at a ,able-the Mc  some daily chores, thenew y  etWshed lo^?h^w ^ ^ McD°U9a" °°inS  caretaker who moved in on July f       9 9' "* hoUSln9 a resident  Dis,ricT,h«,0e00artle tCh0eTroW"eciarG_eCeiVed $3'°°° fTOn  "»  «'*TM>  Branch OHS. and ,2007rom the^ KelnaTra^h Th'°0 '^ " Pen,ic,°"  with the theme ot ^ZSSSZ^VSSS ^ 5 FATHER    PANDOSY   MISSION 13  pioneer living. Every effort is being made to keep things as accurate as  possible — the lace curtains, the wallpaper, the old furniture. Several things  are needed — a Union Jack, pictures of Queen Victoria and King Edward  VI I, as well as kitchen utensils such as iron pots. A Welsh type dresser in the  kitchen was made by Alec Berard for my father, W. D. Walker, in 1904. Dad  asked him to make a dresser with shelves for tins on top, and cupboards  below. Alec said "By golly, I make you the best dresser ever." — and always  after that this piece of kitchen furniture was known as the "By golly." A  number of the older houses in the area have recently been pulled down, and  from them we have received some interesting old articles actually used in  the early days — all adding to the authentic pattern we are maintaining.  Following the presentations, members and friends travelled to the  home of Mrs. T. B. Upton, Okanagan Mission, where some fifty people enjoyed renewing acquaintances, and then partaking of a delicious buffet  supper on the lawn. This had been organized and prepared by the Kelowna  Branch of the Okanagan Historial Society. Everybody agreed that the whole  affair had been most successful, and a fitting tribute to the work done on this  important restoration.  FAITH AND THE SPIDER  By Christine Sismey  A spider spins a silver gauze  Among delphiniums fair;  A man comes by, the web's no more—  It's built anew with care.  Then rain comes splashing thru' the trees,  The lacy screen is gone,  But still the spider won't give up—  A new one's there anon.  Time and again a work of art  Has vanished in the breeze,  And yet Sir Spider spins again,  A connoisseur to please.  So men might learn a lesson well  A master-mind has sown,  And build on failures, stalwart walls  With love and faith ingrown. 14 HOPE-TULAMEEN    BRIGADE   TRAIL  HOPE-TULAMEEN BRIGADE TRAIL  An Introduction by H. R. Hatfield  Editor's Note—Introductory remarks by H. R. Hatfield on the occasion ot the  colour slide lecture by V. H. Wilson covering the exploration of the Hudson's  Bay Brigade Trail (also O.H.S. 35th Report, pp. 146-148) between Hope and  Tulameen and presented to the meeting of the Penticton branch of the  Okanagan Historical Society, February 4, 1972.  A little bit about the Fort Hope to Campement des Femmes (Hope to  Tulameen) section of the Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail which went from Fort  Hope to Thompson's River. This is a very difficult audience to speak to as  some of you will know more about the subject than I do and some in the  natural course of events will know little about it.  First, some of the things it is not.  It is not part of or related to the Dewdney Trail, the Hope Trail, or the  Allison Trail none of which touched any part of the Brigade Trail, except that  they all started at Hope and all of which were later than the Brigade Trail.  It is not a slightly revised version of Anderson's Track of 1846 and  between Hope and Tulameen touches it at one point only, where they cross at  the Horseguards. Anderson's 1846 trip from Hope to Tulameen was the first  crossing of the mountains and was the inspiration for the locating of the  Brigade Trail in 1848 but for some reason, which I have not yet been able to  find, Henry Peers found or was shown a more direct but probably more  difficult route and placed the Brigade Trail on it.  It is not something of no importance in the history of British Columbia.  Excepting the ill-starred route by the Coldwater and Anderson Rivers,  Spuzzum and Yale which lasted for one and a half years only, it was the first  highway of commerce between the Interior and the Coast in British  territory. From 1849 to 1860 or perhaps '61 over it went all the goods for and  came out all the furs from the vast area between Babine Lake, Stuart Lake  and McLeod Lake in the north to Lakes Kootenay, Pend d'Oreille and Chelan  in the south. The goods were just as important to the few whites and many  Indians in this far flung land as the goods which now go in by rail, truck and  air, are to us.  Tools of iron, steel traps, woollen blankets and coats, coloured beads  and bright kerchiefs and vermillion for adornment and above all muskets  with powder and ball had become part of the way of life and great would  have been the hardship if the Brigades had failed to get in. And as now the  raw products from the Interior sustained the more opulent settlements of the  Coast, at that time Forts Langley and Victoria.  In the first years the combined Brigades from New Caledonia,  Thompson's River and Fort Colvile travelled together meeting and  dispersing at Kamloops. This meant a string of perhaps as many as 400  horses and in many places and for some miles over Manson Ridge and up the  Sowaqua valley the path they made is still plainly visible.  Starting in 1967 a small group of us have been exploring the Trail and  putting some marks and some metal plaques donated by the O.H.S. where  we feel sure of the exact location. Members of the group, most of whom  have been out on the Trail during three or four of the five years, are Eric  Jacobson of Princeton, Jack and Paul Scrivener of Victoria, Harvie Walker  of Vancouver, Jack Stocks, Dr. Hugh Barr and myself of Penticton. This last  year we had guests and nine men and 20 Venturer Scouts made up the out- HOPE-TULAMEEN    BRIGADE   TRAIL  15  Victor Wilson (left) and Harley Hatfield (right) pose beside another blaze.  Victor Wilson color photo  ward Brigade Campement des Femmes to Fort Hope. Fortunately as you  will see Victor Wilson was among those with us.  We would ask your support for the B.C. Department of Recreation and  Conservation and the B.C. Department of Lands, Forests and Water  Resources in their efforts to preserve this remaining, though steadily  diminishing, section of an historic road and for your support of the Boy Scout  movement which helps so much to mold youth into men worthy of travel in  the footsteps of those who made and used the Trail.  We have had wonderful cooperation from the Okanagan Historical  Society, the B.C. Historical Society, the Federation of B.C. Naturalists, the  people of that treasure house the B.C. Archives and from the Surveys and  Mapping Branch and from the Parks Branch.  In September of 1859 an unusual group travelled the Trail; a Hudson's  Bay pack train taking supplies from Fort Hope to Fort Colvile, Lieut. H. S.  Palmer, R. E. on a reconnaissance ofthe Trail and country and Judge  Begbie with his staff of O'Reilly and Bushby on the Judge's first trip to  Kamloops. Begbie and company were travelling on foot. New maps of the  area will group their three names on the three creeks which come down to  the Sowaqua between Mt. Outram and McLeod Peak, Matthew, O'Reilly and  Bushby Creeks. Lieut. Palmer's report and maps are more help than  anything else in relocating the Trail.  Before Victor Wilson shows us the Trail and country as it is now I  would like you to look at it for a few minutes through the eyes of two young  Englishmen as they saw it 112 years ago. 16 COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN  REPORT OF THE COUNTRY BETWEEN  FORT HOPE AND THE SIMILKAMEEN  By LIEUTENANT H.  SPENCER  PALMER, Royal Engineers  September 17.—On the 17th of September 1859 I left Fort Hope, in  company with Mr. Angus M'Donald, of the Hudson's Bay Company, and  commenced my journey up the Coquahalla Valley.  Mr. Begbie, Chief Justice of British Columbia, Mr. Bushby, Registrar  and Mr. O'Reilly, J.P., who were travelling to Fort Kamloops on judicial  business, accompanied our party on foot.  Taking a general easterly direction our route up the valley for the first  three miles passed through a country level and lightly timbered, and  covered in places with an abundance of brush and young trees.  The soil appeared somewhat sandy and light, but good for farming,  and this portion of the valley is as well irrigated as any land (that is capable  of cultivation) I have met with in British Columbia.  Three miles east of Fort Hope, two conical hills, from 600 to 800 feet  high, obstruct the otherwise generally straight course of the river, and have  forced it to find a passage between them and the mountain mass skirting the  southern limits of the valley. To avoid this unnecessary circuit, the trail  crosses the Coquahalla TVs miles from Hope, and, leaving it to the right,  follows the level country to the base of the first hill. Near this spot lies a  pretty little lake, to which I could see no outlet or inlet, and which was apparently fed by springs and the drainage from the mountains. Towering  above its opposite shores were the steep rocky cliffs of "Ogilvie's" and  adjacent peaks so close as to be clearly reflected in the dark still water of the  lake, and a tiny cascade stealing down the crooked crannies of the mountain  with a scarcely perceptible motion added to the picturesque beauty of the  spot.  Leaving the lake, we crossed the two conical hills before us, and  rejoined the Coquahalla three miles further on. While traversing the  southern slope of the second of these two hills Mr. M'Donald drew my attention to what was apparently a large defile in the mountain range, bearing  S.E. about 20 miles, and leading, as far as I could judge at that distance,  through the main Cascade Range eastward.  That part of the country having never been explored, this opinion is  simply a matter of conjecture. Much yet remains to be done in order to  discover some more feasible pass to our possessions east of the Cascades  than that afforded by Manson Mountain, and it is the opinion of many old  residents in the country that passes do exist, which have yet to be explored,  south of the present one, but, at the same time, north of the boundary of  British North America.  After rejoining the Coquahalla we travelled along its right bank for  about one mile, and then, leaving the Boston Bar trail trending north, up the  valley of the River, we crossed to its left bank a mile west of the foot ofthe  most prominent spur from the Manson Ridge. On arrival at the foot of this  spur, we commenced the ascent on the southern slope in a direction parallel,  or nearly so to its crest, leaving the mass of the mountain intervening between us and the Coquahalla. Here the road, which thus far had been  tolerably good, deteriorated to an extent anything but pleasant, a rude,  rocky track wound its way along the steep sides of the mountain over hun- COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN 17  dreds of fallen logs and amongst masses of fragmentary rock that have from  time to time been detached from the precipices above, and, on attaining a  higher elevation, mud, one of the few disagreeables of a mountain journey in  the Cascades, and deep enough to debar any but Indian horses from forcing  their way through it, rendered travelling a matter of considerable difficulty,  and added a scarcely agreeable feature to a landscape already somewhat  limited.  Six miles of this travelling brought us to the first camping place,  where a slight opening in the woods enabled me to discover the features of  the country through which the latter part of our route had lain.  We appeared to have been travelling up a mountain pass walled in by  two slightly converging spurs from the Manson Range, whose slopes,  although separated at the opening of the pass by a considerable space, here  meet and form a rocky defile, down the bed of which a swift brook forces its  way, and, fed on its passage by numerous small streams and waterfalls,  swells to the magnitude of a mountain torrent, and rushes into the  Coquahalla a short distance below the point where we last crossed.  To the east I saw towering above us the steep portion of the main  Manson Range, over which lay our tomorrow's journey, its crest running  nearly North and South and connecting the two spurs above mentioned.  This evening, the weather being beautifully clear, I was enabled to  take stellar observations for latitude and departure, a piece of good fortune I  had not anticipated, as the latter part of our route had been too densely  wooded to admit of observing anywhere but in the slightly open place  selected for our camping ground.  Wood and water were of course abundant, but the horses had to be fed  on barley brought for the purpose, there being no grass in the neighbourhood  or indeed anywhere on the mountain slopes.  September 18.—We rose at dawn, and soon commenced the laborious  ascent of the mountain by a zig-zag trail, very steep and rocky, but, fortunately for ourselves and the horses, free from mud.  After struggling up this difficult mountain path for an hour and a half  we reached the summit of the pass, the magnificent view from which fully  compensates the traveller for the labour of the ascent.  Looking north, south, and east, the view embraced mountain scenery  of a description scarcely to be surpassed.  As far as the eye could reach, an endless sea of mountains rolled away  into blue distance, their sides clothed almost to the summits with an impenetrable forest of every species of pine, and their peaks and recesses lit up  by the rays of the early sun, too early yet to lighten the gloomy valley below  us.  Here and there a rugged naked peak towered up in bold relief some  1,000 feet or more above the summits of the adjacent ranges, spotted with  occasional patches of snow in crevices never perhaps penetrated by the  sunlight, and so complete was the network of mountains in which we were  enveloped, that the question of "How we were ever to get out of them,"  which naturally occurred, appeared to me somewhat difficult of solution.  Looking west, the view of the Fraser valley was obstructed by the  spurs between which we had travelled yesterday afternoon, and the only  signs of its whereabouts were developed by a break in the otherwise interminable mountain mass.  I endeavoured while on the summit to form as good an idea of the 18 COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN  topography of the region as the time I spent there would admit of.  East of where I stood, and about five miles distant in an air line runs a  mountain mass, bearing more resemblance to a range than the rest, whose  summits are somewhat higher than those of the surrounding ridges, and the  general direction of its crest about N.N.E.  From the fact of its being the dividing ridge between the tributaries of  the lower Fraser and those of the Columbia I entertain no doubt that this is  the backbone of the Cascade Range, but so undefined are its general  features, and so remarkable is the absence of any prominent and  distinguishing snow capped peaks, such as are visible from the "Dalles,"  and by which one may determine the general bearing of a range, that it is a  matter of extreme difficulty to follow its direction with the eye for more than  a few miles.  Apparently it forked with the Manson Range about 10 miles south of  where I stood, but beyond that all traces of its direction were lost.  I was not able to see Mount Baker, but from general appearances and  its known position I am of opinion that the network of mountains constituting  the dividing range maintains a general south-south-westerly direction till it  unites with that peak.  Between me and the main ridge was a deep glen or forest bottom, not  free from mountains, it is true, but nevertheless a valley, down which pours  in a considerable stream one of the head tributaries of the Coquahalla,  uniting with it in about 49¬∞ 35' north latitude, near northern extremity of the  Manson Range.  Before closing my description of this mountain I may mention that the  snow which in winter falls to a depth of from 25 to 30 feet on its summit,  renders the route impracticable for at least seven months in the year, and  dangerous before the 1st of June or after the 1st of October.  Mr. McLean of the Hudson Bay Company, who crossed in 1857 or 1858,  on the 16th of October had a very disastrous trip, and lost 60 or 70 horses in  the snow.  Traces of their deaths are still visible, and in riding over the mountain,  and more particularly on its eastern slope, my horse frequentfy shied at the  whitened bones of some of the poor animals, who had broken down in the  sharp struggle with fatigue and hunger, and been left to perish where he lay.  After riding along the summit in a southerty direction for a couple of  hundred yards, we commenced the descent of the eastern slope, an undertaking which was accomplished with considerable difficulty, owing to the  rocky and dangerous nature of the trail, and its extreme steepness in places,  and I was not sorry to reach a tolerable level forest bottom 1,100 feet below  the summit, filled though it was with an impassable mud of black decomposed vegetable matter, and a network of thick-growing and obstructive  timber.  The trail follows this bottom for about five miles in a general south-  south-easterly direction, a distance it took us 3V2 hours to travel, and then  plunging into a deep glen crosses the previously mentioned tributary of the  Coquahalla.  The western slope of the dividing ridge falls almost perpendicularly  into this stream, and though less muddy than those of Manson Mountain, and  tolerably free from rock, except in places where huge masses of debris  detached from the summit have found a lodgment on the side of the hill, it is  if anything steeper than the latter, though not so trying to animals. COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN 19  The mountain sides are plentifully clothed with a forest of spruce fir  trees of inconsiderable dimensions, and brush appears scarcer than  heretofore.  The trail winds up the face of a huge spur from the mountain mass,  jutting out in a south-westerly direction, and, steep though it was, our horses  appeared to ascend with much greater ease than they did on the rocky  muddy slopes of Manson's Mountain.  In two hours a considerable decrease in the density of the forest, and  the appearance of short grass and mountain heather told me we were  nearing the summit; the timber shortly almost entirely disappeared, and as  both men and horses were by this time tired, we camped towards evening in  a pretty sheltered spot 600 feet below the summit known as the "Campment  du Chevreiul."  At this camp No. 2 (19 miles by trail from No. 1), water and firewood  are abundant, and grass, though by no means plentiful, grows on the neighbouring slopes in quantities sufficient to afford subsistence for horses.  Its name is likely to disappoint the expectations of the hungry  traveller, as deer are very scarce, but white ptarmigan abound, and some of  these birds which were shot by our Indians and broiled over the camp fire,  made an excellent supper after our weary day's march.  It is here that Mr. Fraser met his death by a tree falling on him when  asleep, and within a few yards of the spot where we had pitched our tent; a  neat pile of rough hewn logs mark his lonely grave.  September 19th.—The day broke misty and cold, and afforded no great  promise of an extensive view from the summit. I started early that I might  have as much time there as possible, and reached the highest practicable  point about half an hour after leaving camp.  The appearance of the mountain scenery at this hour was most  singular.  The thick morning mist, rolling swiftly along in light, fleecy, but  opaque masses, entirely obscured the valley below us, and revealing only a  few lofty peaks of the adjacent ranges appeared to isolate us from the rest of  the world.  Yielding to the rising sun, it ere long began gradually to lift; the peaks  in turn became one by one concealed, and before I left the spot the whole had  clear away, revealing to the north, south, and west, the same lofty crests and  ridges, and the same interminable sea of mountains that I had admired  yesterday morning from the western summit.  To the east, however, the scene was different. True, the country was  pretty closely packed with mountains, but unlike the bold and rugged  outlines of the Cascade range, their slopes and summits were more soft and  rounded in appearance; indications were to be seen of extensive and  probably fertile valleys, and tapering away in the far distance, the mountains seemed gradually to diminish their proportions, and to subside into  rolling hills with grassy and scantily timbered slopes.  I was again disappointed in not seeing Mount Baker, as I had hoped the  superior elevation of this range would have afforded me a much more extensive view to the southward.  I obtained, however, a bearing of S. 64° E. to a remarkable conical  peak, which cannot fail to be recognized, and which affords an excellent  land-mark to any one desirous of forming a general idea of the topography  and limits of this portion of British Columbia. 20 COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN  In a region like this the grand porportions of the mountains are  calculated to deceive the eye very much with respect to distance, and the  transparency of the atmosphere materially assists the delusion when an  object is viewed from the summit of a range. From its bearing, however, and  probable distance, I conjecture it would be very close to the 49th parallel. I  afterwards found that it is situated on borders of the southern portion of the  Similkameen valley, near the junction of that river and the Okanagan, and  as it transpired that the parallel cuts its northern slope, I named it "Mount  Forty-nine."  At Mr. M'Donald's suggestion I gave the mountain we stood on the  Gaelic name "Stuchd-a choire," from a beautiful "choire" or recess situated  about halfway down its eastern slope.  On the summit, and invisible except from the rocks immediately  surrounding it, lies a pretty sequestered little lake, guarded by one solitary  stunted oak, and lower down on the eastern slope is a larger one, on whose  banks, there being plenty of firewood, travellers from the eastward  frequently camp.  The "Campment du Chevreuil" is, however, the usual camping place  going westward. About 10 a.m., the horses having arrived, we commenced  our journey down the eastern slope of "Stuchd-a choire", a matter easily  accomplished owing to the gradual nature of the descent.  Singularly enough this ridge, while separating the waters of the  Fraser tributaries from those of the Columbia, seems also to draw a dividing  line between the characteristic features of the country.  In the tract upon which we are now entering grass seemed more  beautiful than heretofore, the forest less dense, and the trees of diminished  proportions; in lieu of soft vegetable mould a firm soil of sand and clay  rendered travelling far easier and more pleasant; and brush which during  the last two days' journey had been so dense as almost to preclude the  possibility of avoiding occasional obstructions on the trail, now so nearly  disappeared as to admit of deviation at will.  After descending some 800 feet from the summit, we struck a small  stream fed by still smaller forks branching off into ravines and clefts in the  hills. These are the head waters of the "Tulameen," the main tributary of  the Similkameen River.  A low range of hills varying from 500 to 1,000 feet in height skirt the  valley or rather the glen of this mountain torrent, which for the first 10 miles  has a general direction of E. by N., and the trail runs on its left bank, at an  undulating level over the low spurs from the range.  For the first seven or eight miles the road, though excellent for travel,  passed through a forest of small burnt timber, and the scarred and  blackened trunks, devoid of foliage, presented a dreary and monotonous  landscape.  I passed on my journey through several similar tracts of greater or  less extent, but I think the mountain spurs and rocks and the bends of the  rivers form, as a general rule, impediments to the spread of the fires, which  confine them within reasonable limits, and prevent their effects from being  so devastating as one might imagine.  About 12 miles by trail from the point where we first struck it, the  Tulameen takes a long sweep to the northward, and crossina it here at a ford  where it was about 15 yards broad and 18 inches deep, we camped on the  opposite bank. This camp, designated No. 3, is about 15 miles by the trail COUNTRY BETWEEN   HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN 21  from the "Campmentdu Chevreuil," and contains an abundance of firewood  and water. The horses were driven across the river again to feed, but as  grass was very scarce they had to pick what they could from the wild vetches and other plants, on which Indian animals alone can subsist.  September 20th.—Commenced cloudy and cold with light rain.  From the point where we were camped the Tulameen takes a large  horse-shoe bend to the northward, resuming its easterly course about 10  miles from us in a straight line near the completion of the shoe. The bend is  filled up by an elevated plateau 1,000 feet high, whence numberless low,  sharp, broken spurs jut out in every direction towards the stream.  Over this plateau lay our today's journey, the trail taking this route to  avoid the long detour made by the Tulameen.  Four miles travel in a north-easterly direction up a steep defile,  between two of the spurs, brought us to the summit, and we emerged on a  large open undulating down, where the timber nearly disappeared, and was  replaced by quantities of yellow furze and mountain heath.  On a clear day the view from this plain must be very extensive. Now,  however, the atmosphere in the west was too thick and cloudy to afford us a  glimpse of "Stuchd-a choire," through the snowy Cascade Peaks to the  south, and "Mount Forty-nine" in the south-eastern horizon were just visible  at times.  Preserving a general north-easterly direction we continued our  journey across the plateau. The soil became very peaty and the trail rocky in  some places, though generally good for travel. Ponds and marshes  frequently occurred, grass in the latter growing to a considerable height,  though on the drier portions of the plain it was scarcely long enough for a  horse to nibble at, and five miles from the commencement of the plateau  timber (fir) again became plentiful. A short way further on a trail from  "Whatcom," cut last year by miners anxious to reach "Thompson River,"  forks with that on which we were now travelling.  On the exact route it takes, or the extent to which it is practicable for  travel, I could collect no reliable information; but I believe it crosses the  cascades in the vicinity of the parallel, and is generally a better trail than  that over Manson Mountain. At 2 p.m., after a short day's journey, we  camped near the eastern extremity of the plateau, on the borders of a small,  nearly circular, lake, half a mile in diameter, where wood was plentiful, and  grass just sufficient for the horses to subsist on. In the evening a storm of  snow and sleet gave us reason to congratulate ourselves on having snug tents  tents and good camp fires; but as the sky remained overcast during the  whole of our stay here, I was unfortunately prevented from taking any  astronomical observations.  September 21.—The morning broke, cold, raw and muggy; and the  snow, which was some four or five inches deep, and still continuing to fall,  scarcely contributed to the general comfort of either ourselves or our  animals.  We decided not to move till the storm was over, which the Indians told  us would be about noon, and their prediction proved correct; as shortly after  that hour the snow ceased, the sky brightened, and we started as quickly as  possible, anxious to reach the "Campment des Femmes" before nightfall.  We travelled this afternoon in a general north-easterly direction over  •FOOTNOTE:—Possibly it passes through the defile observed from the conical  hill   in   the  "Coquahalla" valley. Its direction would suggest that idea. 22 COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN  a tract of country, lightly timbered and grassy on the uplands, but heavily  timbered in the valleys.  The trail alternately rose and fell over a succession of low and rather  precipitous ranges of hills, amongst the recesses of which the noisy waters of  numerous small rivulets wind their tortuous paths, and uniting here and  there in considerable streams force their way to various points on the  Tulameen.  At 4:30 we reached the summit of the final steep descent of 600 feet to  the river.  Immediately below us the "Tulameen," now swelled to the proportions of a river, whose course from the westward could be distinctly traced,  takes a long stretch to the south-eastward. While running north opposite the  spot where we stood extends a broad thickly timbered valley leading to the  Nicholas Lake, and thence to Fort Kamloops.  Descending the hill we shortly reached the river, and leaving the  Kamloops trail to our left traversed the right bank for a few hundred yards.  Then, crossing at a ford, readily distinguishable, we pitched our tents at the  "Campment des Femmes," so named from a custom prevalent among  Indians en route for Fort Hope of leaving their women and children here  while they perform the journey across the mountains.  The fine evening, and its position in a mild and pleasant valley, made  camp5 contrast agreeably with our last night's quarters, and some tolerable  bunch grass afforded the horses a better meal than they had had since  leaving Fort Hope. The stars, too, soon shone out, and with their assistance I  was enabled to fix a point of considerable importance in connection with the  objects of my journey.  September 22.—A fine clear morning. At this camp we bade good-bye  to Mr. Begbie and party, who took the northern trail to Kamloops.  We followed the valley of the "Tulameen" in a general south-easterly  direction along a level grassy river bottom rather scantily timbered and  devoid of brush.  These bottoms vary in width from one-eighth to half of a mile, and the  meanderings of the river cause them to alternate pretty regularly from side  to side. The trail is generally good, but projecting rocky points and occasional slides from the mountains on our left now and then rendered  travelling unpleasant. In one or two places the mountain spurs jutted  precipitously into the river, and a rude rocky trail across the first practicable ledge would form the only means of access from bottom to bottom.  At mid-day we reached a point where the river takes a considerable  bend to the south south-eastward, and to avoid the detour the trail passes to  the eastward over a portion of the mountain range some 1,000 feet above the  valley.  From the summit of this hill the country assumes a perfectly different  character.  Bunch grass of excellent quality, probably the best known grazing  food for cattle and horses, occurs everywhere in great quantities, forest land  disappears from the slopes and gives way to a park-like country prettily  ornamented with trees of somewhat inferior growth; the river instead of  roaring through caverns and mountain bluffs is now bordered by low and  easily accessible banks, and the eye of the travellers so long accustomed to  the dull monotony of the forest dwells with pleasure on considerable tracts of  prairie land in the valleys before him. COUNTRY BETWEEN   HOPE  AND SIMILKAMEEN 23  The everlasting mountains, it is true, do not disappear, but their  rounded grassy slopes contrast favourably with the thick forest growth or  bleak desolation of the western ranges, and though their summits tower up  to considerable heights, the gradual nature of the slopes eliminates the  rugged, unprepossessing, and inaccessible appearance so peculiar to the  cascade region.  Immediately below us lay a large scantily timbered plain formed by  the confluence of four considerable valleys. From the south a long tortuous  line of willow and other trees marked the course of the "Similkameen",  which rises in the mountains near the 49th parallel, and forks with the  "Tulameen" in this plain.  The latter river enters from the N.W. and the two when united take an  easterly course towards a third valley, the narrow entrance to which was  plainly visible from our position, while running north a fourth, two miles  wide, extends far away in the direction of Fort Kamloops. Up this latter  valley runs one of the two main routes leading from Washington Territory to  Fort Kamloops and the Upper Fraser, the other and shortest route past the  Great Okanagan Lake lying altogether east of the Similkameen.  Descending the hill to the plain we crossed it in an easterly direction,  and struck the Similkameen a mile below the Forks, and within a few hundred yards of the point where the Kamloops trail unites with that on which  we were now travelling.  The junction of the two rivers is named the "Vermillion Forks," from  the existence in its neighbourhood of a red clay or ochre, from which the  Indians manufacture the vermillion face paint; but though I endeavoured to  find its whereabouts, being anxious to procure a specimen, my search was  unsuccessful.  We camped this evening on the left bank of the Similkameen one mile  below the forks, and shortly after our arrival were visited by some of the  natives of the district.  These were the first mounted Indians I had met with, and I was particularly struck with their vast superiority in point of intelligence and energy  to the Fish Indians on the Fraser River and in its neighbourhood.  Agriculture, however, is but little known amongst them, and a few  potato patches form the extent of their progress in this direction. They appear to live chiefly on fish, vis., trout and salmon, on game such as wild fowl,  prairie chicken, and mountain sheep, and on wild berries, several kinds of  which, including black and red cherries, abound in the neighbouring valleys.  The greater portion of the tribe were absent when we passed, but those  who visited the camp were fine men, and superb riders, and, though poorly  clad, evinced a neatness, and an effort to improve their personal appearance, which contrasts favourably with the dirty, slovenly habits of the  Fraser Indians.  The Romish religion is universal amongst them, propagated, I  imagine, by the members of the Jesuit missions on the borders of  Washington territory, and I was not a little surprised to see that on entering  camp, they invariably crossed themselves before making the sign of respect  or salutation. Unlike the gaudy but picturesque native burial grounds which  dot the banks of the rivers in the interior of British Columbia, the graves of  these Indians are scattered about singly over the country, their wandering  habits assigning no fixed place of abode, and a small earthen mound or pile of  stones, surmounted by a wooden cross, were the only objects that marked 24 COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN  the few solitary graves I happened to come across on the trip. I should  mention that the "Similkameen" Indians are a portion of the Okanagan  tribe, and speak the same language—one so gutteral and unpronounceable  as to render it almost hopeless for any white man to attempt to acquire a  proficiency in it.  As our horses wanted a day's rest after their weary mountain journey,  I decided to remain two nights at Camp 6, and the weather being fine and  clear, I was again enabled to take astronomical observations. From these I  obtained a mean latitude of 49° 27'42" N., showing a considerable error in all  existing maps; but I feel confident of the accuracy of the observations, and  that any future survey will verify the result obtained.  September 24 and 25.—The weather continued fine and clear, and we  resumed our journey at an early hour. Passing over one of the mountain  spurs, 300 feet high, at the narrow entrance to the valley, the trail descends  into a fine prairie, scantily timbered, and containing excellent bunch grass.  As the valley for the first 37 miles (comprising two days' travel)  exhibits the same general features, one description will suffice to afford the  necessary information.  Like most of the mountain streams, the Similkameen is extremely  tortuous, and the prairies, which alternate pretty regularly from side to side,  vary in width from one-eighth to three-fourths of a mile, gradually increasing till towards Camp 8 they attain a breadth in places of a mile.  The grass is generally of good quality, the prickly pear or ground  cactus, the sore enemy to the moccassined traveller, being the surest indication of approach to an inferior description.  Timber, is for the most part scarce on the prairies, but coppices appear  at the sharp bends of the river tolerably well wooded, and abounding in an  underbrush of willow and wild cherry, while near the base of the mountains  it exists in quantities easily procurable, and more than sufficient for the  requirements* of any settlers who might at some future time populate the  district.  The soil is somewhat sandy and light, but free from stones, and  generally pronounced excellent for grazing and farming; and though the  drought in summer is great, and irrigation necessary, many large portions  are already well watered by streams from the mountains, whose fall is so  rapid as greatly to facilitate such further irrigation as might be required. In  corroboration of my expressed opinion relative to the yielding properties of  the soil, I may mention that in spots, through which, perchance, some small  rivulet or spring wound its way to the river, wild vegetation was most  luxuriant, and grass, some blades of which I measured out of curiosity, as  much as nine feet high, well rounded and firm, and a quarter of an inch in  diameter at its lower end.  The river throughout its entire course is confined to a natural bed, the  banks being steep enough to prevent inundation during the freshets (a  favourable omen for agriculture) and its margin is generally fringed with a  considerable growth of wood of different kinds.  The mountains skirting either side of the valley are steep and  frequently rocky, increasing in altitude towards Camp 8, where they attain a  height of at least 2,000 feet, and their slopes are plentifully clothed with a  forest of various descriptions of timber. The trail throughout is generally  good, the mountain spurs at the bends and gorges of the valley, and down  which slides frequently occur, being the only portions bad for travel, and ,  COUNTRY BETWEEN  HOPE AND SIMILKAMEEN 25  many of these are avoided by fords, practicable at all seasons of the year.  Two considerable streams fork with the Similkameen from the south  sout-west, both of which rise in the cascades, or rather in the mountainous  region east of the main range and near the 49th parallel.  The first, named "Zloochman," unites with it about nine miles below  "Vermillion," and an old "Carral," near the mouth, admits of its position  being easily recognized. A trail follows the river for some distance into the  mountains, leading to no particular place, and Indian hunters, the original  makers, are probably the only people who frequent it.  The second, or "Na-is-new-low," river forks about 17 miles further  down. Up its valley runs a tolerably good trail leading to the mountains near  the parallel, and, as this route is both more practicable and shorter than that  in the "Zloochman" valley, it has been used this autumn by the United States  Boundary Commission for transporting eastward the whole of their stores,  instruments, etc.  Several other mountain streams, some of them of considerable size,  fork with the "Similkameen" from the northward and eastwards, but their  directions and the positions of their sources are possessed of little interest.  September 26.—A fine, mild morning. Travelling along from Camp 8,  towards the Keereemaous bend of the "Similkameen," the valley gradually  widens to upwards of a mile; the prairies become more extensive, and the  soil richer; timber is chiefly confined to the uplands and the banks of the  river, and the mountains, though undiminished in height, are covered with  grass, and assume a pretty park-like appearance.  We soon reached the bend, distant four miles from Camp 8, where the  river changes its direction from east to south. Looking southward from the  head of the bend is seen a fine open valley 12 miles long, varying from IV2 to 2  miles in width at its upper and middle points, and tapering to a narrow gorge  at its lower extremity.  The river, after taking a bold sweep, runs along near the foot of a  mountain range skirting the western edge of the valley, amongst the  southernmost of which "Mount Forty-nine" again comes in view, and the  trail follows a terrace or bench on the eastern side of the valley some  distance from the river bank.  Rich, well irrigated soil, long grass, and luxuriant wild vegetation are  the characteristic features of this beautiful district, which appears admirably adapted for cultivation, and may in fact be named "the Valley of the  Similkameen."  ♦FOOTNOTE:—For building, fuel, etc. 26 FROM THE JOURNAL OF ARTHUR THOMAS BUSHBY  FROM THE JOURNAL OF  ARTHUR THOMAS BUSHBY  Saturday 17 Sept. 1859 —  At 10 o'clock we started for Camloops. We joined the celebrated Angus  McDonald & our whole party consisted of Begbie, O'Reilly, Palmer McDonald and the McDonald (sic) some dozen indians & mules. We got to the  foot of Manson mountain & camped — 14 miles road horrid frightful — I  cooked the dinner & if it had not been for the horses wch almost knocked our  tent down we shd have been all right —  Sunday 18 Sept. 59  Up at 5 o'clock. Breakfasted onions Bacon & flour & started at 7  o'clock after a fair spring bath — we had to mount the steep part of Manson's  mountain & hard work it was then coming down was still worse, the most  frightful road. We crossed the Quoquialla again forded it or crossed it on a  pack mules back & then commenced the ascent of a frightful mountain I am  not a very likely subject to give in but half way I was fairly stopped for want  of something to eat breakfasted at 6 o'clock it was not 1 o'clock & we had had  a frightful days work thanks to a cup of brandy some flour cake & some raw  salmon an Indian gave us we made a good meal & jogged on to the top where  we had a splendid camp, the tents opposite sides of a log fire 10 feet in length.  We all had a fine cold spring bath, then such a dinner) Some Indian had  killed some 8 or 10 birds so we had a hyyou dinner such a meal — & what with  a nip — some hot grog & a pipe we turned in pretty comfortable — oh  Monday 19 Sept 1859  7 o'clock, camp at the top of mountain — up at six — had a fine bath  and am now writing my journal waiting for breakfast — bacon onions & flour  cakes — It was a most beautiful sight the camp last night wild & picturesque  in the extreme there was the great log fire blazing away a group of Indians  round about it — the opposite tent just glancing in the fire's flame & some  dozen tall cedar trees brought out in bold relief from the fire & utter &  mysterious darkness behind oh it was a grand sight— I dreamed a good deal  last night— I thought I was married to Agnes  —& she kissed me at the altar  — & somebody was coming into church & she saw & welcomed them — it was  a strange turn out. I also dreamed of Miss Pemberton & Mother We are off  soon so up up — started at Vi past 8 o'clock passed some lovely spots little  lakes on the crests of mountains with splendid grass all round — beautiful  spots Then we got in a tremendous valley some 10 miles long — all the trees  had been burnt to a white cinder by some immense fire — wch gave the place  a most dreary appearance — full of squirrells (?) after descending very  rapidly we came to the river & crossing it over a tree (risky work) camped  on the other side — I have just had a fine bath in the gold (sic) stream I  remember Agnes saying she wd make her husband bathe every day I do not  think she would find fault with me on that score, how cold & delicious the  water was — I am not quite ready for dinner we got two birds from an Indian  — hurra — Begbie & O'Reilly are bathing I wish they wd come. I am sitting  on a log writing my journal in my shirt trousers & moccasins. Glorious life —  what a fine view we had from the top of the mountains —  I have been thinking a great deal on my road — of home my people —  old days & associations my prospects here & last tho' not least of Agnes*- oh  I do not know what to do — when I give myself up to thought I get quite FROM THE JOURNAL OF ARTHUR THOMAS BUSHBY 27  unhappy so many conflicting ideas and wishes — it makes me savage & I  wish I had never come into the world — at other times I almost decide upon  throwing overboard everybody & everything and of rushing head long into  the musical profession — gotoS. Francisco — & have a try — music after all  is the only thing I am fit for. I am not fit for business at home nor the  registrar office here & what the deuce am I fit for? nothing —  Tuesday 20 Sept 1859  Camp 13 miles this side of River Tuolomine — 4 o'clock — We have had  a very easy march of it — and I am now writing in our tent — Begbie is off  shooting. An Indian had just brought us in a marmot wch we are to have  tomorrow for breakfast — the others are all away except O'Reilly who is  reading his bible — we have dined off our bacon & flour.  Our march today tho' short was very pretty we are now camped close  by a little lake some 2 miles long — one of our mules got into a swam (sic)  and was almost suffocated  I have been marching ahead of the whole party the whole day & gave  myself quite up to thought; the more I think over things the more disheartened I get — oh! I wish — I wish a thousand things but quoi bon to wish? I  daresay Agnes has only one thought abt my return what will she say if she  reads my journal — I have just read her last note to me for the hundredth  time — "dearest dearest boy" — oh Agnes if you only could see into the heart  of the being you name so affectionately — how you would retract those words  Wednesday 21 Sept 1859  It rained frightfully last night & this morng there was a regular snow,  it is needless to describe how uncomfortable a tent is under these curcums &  cold as it was — we however got a good fire under weight & had a rubber.  Begbie Palmer O'Reilly & I —  It cleared up a little & we started at 10 (?) o'clock passed some  beautiful country — O'Reilly shot a grouse wch we devoured for dinner —  Camped at 5 o'clock on the side of the Tuolomine River had a good bathe  dined & turned in — Sand is the worst stuff to make a bed on.  Thursday 22nd Sept 59 —  Last night we were awoke by a tremendous shower. Made all snug &  turned in again.  Parted with McDonald & his party they going to Colville while we  turned off to Cam loops.  In our train we have an Indian called Skalscah or Tenass Mann who  was tried for murdering a white man before Begbie a few months ago but  acquitted and McDonald has an Indian who's Father a chief was killed by  some Americans last year a party of 180 of them, he followed them & openly  avows that he shot two of them for the death of his Father — his father had  been shot in the mouth by a pistol — & he left them the same with their  mouths extended by a piece of stick symbolical of the death of his father —  We passed along some fine country today valleys & flats & passed  some 4 or 5 lakes — O'Reilly shot a duck & I stripped & swam after it  bringing it in my teeth he also shot a grouse & Begbie two squirrels & Indian  caught a plate of trout so what with the grouse fish & squirrels we had a  hyyou dinner —  We camped on a fine flat it is very cold  Friday 23 Sept 1859 — Camp des point —  It was dreadfully cold last night duck for breakfast then off— 28 FROM THE JOURNAL OF ARTHUR THOMAS BUSHBY  We had had a delightful walk today abt 20 miles & are now camped in  the middle of a sort of plain with pretty hills all round, the nature of the  scenery has quite changed & is much prettier O'Reilly killed a couple of  birds wch are cooking for our dinner. I have just had a bathe in the stream &  after I have mended by shirt & trowsers hope dinner may be ready  I have had a 5 hours solitary walk and I could not note down the  number of thoughts & ideas & chateaux en Espagne wch have entered my  head Agnes & this affair entre nous deux has occupied her full share of my  thoughts & then I think home came in for its full share and I am almost  ashamed to say (but why) was the most pleasing topic —  But what is the good of dwelling upon these random thoughts they only  serve to make one low spirited and disheartened  Agnes Agnes if you only knew how unhappy you — poor girl — have  made me — my conscience is not good but what have I done— it will not tell  me — There is one thing certain and sure until I receive my letters from  home there must be no more "spooning" as they call it  Saturday 24 Sept 1859 (Frizer)  started at Vz past 8 o'clock — through a beautiful country several lakes-  •—fine loam — beautiful sloping hills covered with bunch grass in fact at one  particular lake — named — "Lac deux marges blanc" I think it was the  prettiest spot I have yet seen in B.C. — a charming "winding" lake with  pretty hills all round sloping down into the water — & backed by some  beautiful little forests this is the spot I have chosen but it would never suit —  it is too far away —  Begbie & O'Reilly had some capital sport & we have bagged 10 grouse  and a duck — not so bad this will last us a couple of days — good mucka muck  — Begbie & O'Reilly in following the grouse lost the trail & did not reach  camp until late— I was getting nervous abt them —  Sunday 25 Sept 59  Camp a la riviere Frisere — Lovely spot in a little hollow & a fine  bathing spot close by we plunged in morng — evng — last night we drank to  sweethearts & wives & I need not note that Agnes was on my lips at the time  — we were quite jolly last night altho' we had the hardest days work yet. I  was tramping from V. past 8 o'clock till V2 past 5 o'clock & slept well in  consequence — we are off in a moment What a diner we had last night a  grouse apiece en avant — Sunday. I read part of the morng prayers. I wish I  were a true Christian —  Sunday 25 Sept 1859  Started from camp de Frisere at V_ past 8 o'clock Marched on till we  came to a spring abt 12 o'clock had piece of bread & some gine — the others  left B & I followed lost our way most completely — made up our minds to  pass the night on the hills — a regular lesson in tracking — at last espied an  Indian on horseback told us we were en route to Camloops, soon after came  up to O'Reilly who was in a funk abt us —all right —shot two ducks marched  on to present campment — close to La riviere de la prairie —  Monday 26 Sept 1859  Bathed last night & dined off two grouse got to camp at V2 past 5  o'clock — not a bad tramp — turned in & slept well — up at V2 past 5 — bathed  & breakfasted off 2 grouse we march to Camloops today abt 28 miles —  Temass Mann has just come to ask for some rouge to deck himself out with,  savage like —  We started at 8 o'clock — H.B.C    TREK 29  Tuesday 27 Sept59 Company's Fort Kamloops  We arrived here at dark abt Vi past 6 o'clock & had to leave the mules  the other side of the Thompson We had at least 30 mile walk & passed some  exquisite country some of the prettiest spots going — a chain of lakes & fine  prairie land Mr Manson who has charge of the fort here is very kind — we  had a glorious supper off potatoes salmon bread & cheese & butter — turned  in on our blankets This is a wild spot  We bathed in the Thompson & in fact have only just come back cold  work JDut very refreshing — ready for breakfast. I wonder how A. would like  to live here —  5 o'clock — after breakfast of wch we made a good hand — we took a  canoe and paid a visit to the greatest chief in this part of the country — St  Paul — by name — he is a very respectable old man speaks a little french  Canadian & is very much civilised — he has a farm & a number of horses &  beasts, his house is quite a wonder.  * Agnes was a daughter of Governor Douglas. They were married in Christchurch Cathedral,  Victoria, May 18, 1862.  H.B.C. TREK —  JULY 31  TO AUGUST 8, 1971  VICTOR WILSON'S JOURNAL  Editor's Note—More than a century has elapsed since regular pack trains  of the Hudson's Bay Company used this trail; frightening and dangerous in  spots. Victor Wilson's journal describes the day by day adventure of a  expedition which not only rediscovered the old pathway, found many of the  the old blazes and deeply worn footways, but provided new trail markers  along the way. Truly an epoch in provincial history.  9:30 a.m. Sat. July 31 departed Penticton.  11 a.m. Arrived at Eric Jacobson's to meet up with members of Interior Brigade Randy Manuel leading company of Penticton, S'land and  Kamloops boys.  12 noon. Harley Hatfield suggested those assembled move into  Lodestone Lake Area via Coalmont and Blankeburn. Extremely hot —  Princeton 100.  Harley and I waited to guide in the Victoria company — which arrived  somewhat late due to intense weekend traffic on Hope-Princeton.  But "Land Rover" carrying packs was delayed 3 hours due to water  pump trouble. So we off-loaded his machine and allowed driver to limp back  — we arrived last in Camp at 4:30.  Lodestone Lake — alt. over 6000 — a small gem approx. 400 yds. long  in cattle grazing area filled with immense mosquitoes. But everyone enjoyed  an invigorating and cooling swim. From 5 to 6:30 a local thunderstorm  rolling back and forth over our heads. Perhaps 16 drops huge and ominous  fell but no serious rain. After we had lit our small cooking fires a Forestry  spotter plane searched the area covered by the storm. We felt naked beneath  his professional gaze and immediately checked our fires in case water 30  H.B.C    TREK  Pathfinder Eric Jacobson of Princeton.  Jack Scrivner photo  bombers should be called in. Sure enough 30 minutes later over they came  and you should have seen the rush to extinguish the tiniest flame. But his  bomb run was directed somewhat to our south and quiet soon reigned in our  nervous camp.  Harley and leaders addressed the boys and emphasized Control and  Safety — and when beds were made the gang quietly turned in but by 10:30  further action — this time 2 trucks and the Forestry Suppression crew joined  the general area — then sleep and mosquitoes.  Sunday 1 Aug. 5 a.m. Up and ready. Looks like the beginning of a hot  day. We left the vehicles at the western high reaches of Lodestone (one boy  had to be returned due to illness) and began the first full pack hike across  easy open timbered country leading westward and downward into the  Tulameen river basin. Much of the trail was along a steep slope across heavy  brush country and over soggy moss-covered streams — slipping and sliding  the journey had to beheld up often to allow the slow to catch up.  Harley Hatfield and Harvey Walker took the ailing boy back to the  Forestry suppression crew who kindly said they would call parents and take  the lad in to Princeton. These veterans then had a time loss of IV2 hours to  make up during the day. Eric Jacobson acting as our guide led us skillfully to  end up on shores of the Tulameen for lunch at 12 noon. The river crossing  was something else — some lads had had no sleep and were getting just a  little ragged and merely walked fully clothed across the crystal clear  stream. Most of us removed shoes, sox and trousers to slip and slide  barefooted across the refreshing river to collapse on the north shore and  enjoy a large assortment of food and mostly tea.  After a break of IV2 hrs. we walked upstream to the confluence of  Tulameen and Podunk.  Another stream crossing put us into camp at about 3:15 p.m. Hor-  seguards.  Boys were exhausted due mainly to lack of sleep (heat and H.B.C.    TREK 31  mosquitoes). Must admit my bones felt about 100 years old. Camps were  quickly assembled — tea was served in a constant flow and spirits soon rose  — fires were allowed just along shores of river for safety. Many boys swam,  fished and explored. At 5 p.m. Harvey Walker and Harley caught up having  examined some new trail ideas with not too much success. This camp is  Super. No mosquitoes and much cooler — all will sleep well and many went  to bed early — me for one.  Mon. Aug. 2. Clear and cool — some low fog is drifting down the  Tulameen we are glad of extra sweaters and a large hot breakfast.  Brigades were called to begin the day's journey at 7:15. The very  heavy dew had all undergrowth soaking, so in no time all trouser and boots  were drenched — the cold brisk air had silenced all insects and the sun-  streaked mountains beckoned us on at a good pace — the old trail on the  north side of the Podunk was hard to follow but at about 9:15 we studied a  very old dry spar marked very deeply along before the fire that had  devastated the region. We examined it and took many pictures almost  positive that it was one of the rare original blazes cut by the HBC Brigade.  We placed a metal HBC marker on it. Lunch was enjoyed on the edge of the  Podunk under a blazing sun — with only the frequent roar of jet aircraft to  break the quiet magic of this historic journey. We must be immediately  beneath the radio beacon that directs all aircraft in and out of Vancouver —  several planes per hour would be the norm. In some places the trail is well  worn and easy to follow but when the land opens out the horses must have  spread out and grazed leaving no singularly deep worn trail. We followed  the Podunk to one of its many sources, a small summit lake on the east basin  of our first main Cascade Range.  In the distance to our south we see the towering peak of Mt. Dewdney.  In this remote and isolated area our camp was reached and set up at 4:15.  Sky clear — some mosquitoes again but the cold night should slow them  down. All boys are managing well and remain cheerful, some of us oldsters  are very glad to just manage one more day.  Tues. 3 Aug. Reveille 5 a.m.  Dew but not as heavy as at the Horseguards Camp. Some members  including myself have suffered from some intestinal distress but with no sick  parade or opting out — we got on with breakfast and departure at 7:15. Eric  led the ascent. Choire 6500 ft. This was taken in easy stages. As the view  became more and more commanding our rest periods tended to lengthen.  The best day yet for camera work.  Broken cloud — very little smoke and brilliant peaks of mts. Dewdney,  Tulameen and Outram and in the far north west the snowy peaks of the Coast  Range. We stopped for lunch on the dividing point of the climb — water  flowed south east into the Columbia system and north west into the Fraser.  Here with crystal clear melted snow water at our feet and the little gem of  Palmer's Pond just below we enjoyed swimming — tea — soup — and snow  sliding.  We placed an HBC OHS marker on the authentically blazed tree and a  further circular disc on the tree above Palmer's Pond.  A very short leisurely trek took us over the summit and down the  western slope into a large sheltered alpine meadow complete with snow,  water, flowers, and a small falls beneath which several enjoyed a very cold  shower. Since clouds are beginning to indicate a rain front all members  hastened to set up suitable shelters. The afternoon was restful — easy — a 32  H.B.C.    TREK  An original blaze of the Hope-Tulameen trail is remarked.  Color photo by Victor Wilson  chance to relax and catch up on equipment. Shaved - washed.  I joined a small group of keen "Ridge Hoppers" whose legs are made  of spring steel - led by Philip Whitfield we reached the near summit of the  ridge over which we passed - this permitted a series of slides on the  panorama principle. Hope they turn out.  Very few animals — some deer visible in the distance — no squirrels  or chipmunks—very few birds—masses of flowers and always the roar of  all types of aircraft just overhead. Eric and his sone keep meticulously  clean. Bud deWolf has a.battery-operated razor — Harley enjoys carrying a  wash basin which I must say is a joy to use when washing and shaving.  Harvey Walker's trousers torn and patched yesterday are truly a disaster  today. Eric has trouble arousing his son Ricky.  By 6:30 clouds are all around us. We expect wet.  Wed. 4 Aug. During night fierce rolling fog and cloud but we are still  lucky no rain. This has been our best camp so far — large rolling areas —  covered in low shrubs and grasses — an absolutely super beautiful snowfed  stream winds thru the area beside each camping unit. Ample wood and  scenery to gladden the heart of any wilderness lover, complete with a jun-  co's nest woven into the kinnikinic at the base of the smallest fir tree. How it  has remained undamaged in the midst of a camp of 29 men is a miracle. The  little bird seemed startled but soon accepted us and settled in with her  chores along with the rest of us.  Skies did not clear till about 10 a.m. then it became really warm. Our  journey took us down some 3000 feet in a long tortuous zigzag trail that ended  up on the floor of the Sowaqua valley. Many strange new discoveries for me  mainly the deceptive appearance of the terrain. It is in fact vastly more  rugged than appears at first and secondly the ground cover is so intense in  the bottom land as to be super jungle-like in density. Axes must be in action H.B.C.    TREK 33  to make an opening to penetrate.  Bracken - alder, willow, fir, hemlock,  cottonwood.  A new type of bird for me, black swift. An odd bat-like flapping of  wings and swept back style of flying.  Lunch was an intimate affair on a far too small sandbar on the  Sowaqua, each man overflowing into the sacred territory of the other.  Stream-crossing becomes a demonstration of the outdoor philosophy  of each individual. I refuse to get wet and certainly never my feet as this  would result in disaster for me at least. So I strip trousers, boots and sox and  wade across — such a method could cause delay but in survival I deem it  necessary — others made it with only boots and sox off — still others strip  not a particle. After lunch we journeyed only a few miles down the valley  along the western slopes of the river. By 3 p.m. we began to set up camp in a  very rocky uneven area 50 ft. above a stream.  Shane Yaretz (Kamloops), Ricky Jacobson and Gordon McKay asked  if they could go fishing. Asked where they replied "oh, over there". This  casual designation sent them flying on their way. At about 5 p.m. Eric and  Len (fathers of 2 latter mentioned) became a little anxious. Supper was just  about ready so considerable argument ensued re the action to be taken. Just  as irritation and frustration became intense — Shane rushed breathless and  pop-eyed into Camp, with that one dreaded cry "Forest Fire". Action  stations — all containers — shovels axes and men were galvanized into the  fastest run so far back down our trail to the area of the first rest stop after  our lunch break. The fire had got a fairly good hold so it took 2 hours of  bucket brigade and careful direction to stabilize the potentially dangerous  situation.  Obviously it had been started by a cigarette — so we must intensify  our precuations. But for the boys this must have been the best possible  lesson. And all smokers are now suspect. We must double our concern for all  fires, etc.  We have a generation gap. The 40's and older and the 18-25's — the  latter are champing at the bit and find our ways slow and perhaps from their  view "over-cautious". But we are seriusly isolated and in very heavy  country an accident could present some difficulties — also we are taking our  time as we comtemplate the historic significance of the rugged trek whereas  the young with bodies and muscles made of spring-steel want action and the  jet-aged approach to travel.  So what's new?  5 Aug. Thurs.  A more routine day, moving down the Sowaqua valley — struggling  with the hideous alder bottoms — dense intense growth always bent over  (apparently by winter snows). Slow monotonous cutting our way thru. By  mid-morning we entered the shadowed forests of giant cedars - bracken -  devils club, deep moss and rotting logs of long-dead kings of these western  forests.  From time to time we reached some points on higher slopes which  gave us the opportunity to see the view to the East up the steep slopes down  which we had struggled the day before.  Lunch we enjoyed on the edge of a small moss-guarded stream.  Some boys seem a little impatient but then perhaps they are not too  concerned with the historic significance of this journey. We were not concerned about mileage covered but rather the constant search for indications 34 H.B.C.    TREK  of the ancient trail. None found.  Eric working with Harley — using maps and compass and altimeter,  kept us amazingly well on course.  For me the intense undergrowth is almost unbelievable — very few  animals — a red squirrel wakened us. We disturbed a hawk who swore at us  for at least 20 minutes.  Morale is high — got some good pictures of shadows and giant cedars  — blisters are being repaired with strips of adhesive plaster. Rations are  working out well.  Camp was reached by 3:30 in the heaviest of giant cedars — so that the  evening shadows gave us the Emily Carr painting. Mosquitoes not quite so  devastating but none the less my netting is a godsend.  6 Aug. — Friday  Up at regular time 6 a.m. breakfast beneath a heavy cloud layer that  kept the forest deep in quiet gloom.  Underway by 8 a.m. on the generally northwesterly direction, after an  hour we intercepted the end of the established and well-marked HBC trail.  The ancient blazes were very distinctive even though more than 120 years  growth had done its best to obscure the. The recent blazes done by Harley  and Co. over the past 3 years filled in the gaps so we felt we were on  something like a highway. At strategic points we attached the metal "HBC  Trail" discs.  Harley, Eric and Harvey along with Randy, myself and 3 other lads  spent about 2 hours searching for blazes that would establish the trail to the  eastward. Not a trace to be found so it is the opinion of Harley and Co. that  the trail was burned out years ago when a giant forest fire ravaged the  Sowaqua.  While we were searching for blazes Philip Whitfield and his crew  plotted and checked our exact position on the maps. During this 2 hr. period  a third crew under Len McKay and Jack Scrivener worked on clearing the  now marked and authentic trail towards Fool's Pass and the West. This sort  of work was just what the boys enjoyed. They used axes and energy with  telling effect and so far no injuries.  These activities took us to noon at which time we reached a small  stream at the foot of the ascent that leads us to Fool's Pass and the west.  This climb was steep but over a well-marked trail so by 3 p.m. we had  reached the area chosen for this evening's camp. Philip, interested in caves  set up his camp inside and under the "Saskwatch Cave." Our camp was on a  somewhat higher and drier ground — others settled in their chosen areas.  The evening meal was a levelling-off session for now we can plan the exact  menu to see all packs empty by noon on Sunday.  Several boys are keeping logs of the trip and of course there are other  cameras.  I checked out my film supply and nearly fainted. I'd used almost all  my 5 rolls. Fortunately Bud De Wolfe had a spare roll of 20 so I'll just barely  have enough.  The weather has been super — clear for the most part and dry. We  surely are very lucky.  Coming up this last part of the trail we saw the survey line of B.C.  Hydro which had been projected to go thru this area on its way to pick up  Mica Creek power for the Coast Grid. But Harley tells us this route proved H.B.C.   TREK  35  The Trail parts, leaders and Venturer Scouts at Stuchd-a-choire, elevation  5,000 feet olus. Vic,or Wilson Color Pho,°  far too rugged so it has been abandoned; thus the trail in this part has been  spared.  7 Aug. — Sunday  Clear and warm, another excellent day. Up at 5. Off on the trail by  8:10. It is clearly marked with first the original HBC blazes, grey and deep  inset in the core wood with the bark doing its best to grow over the damaged  tissues. Next Harley and Co. used yellow plastic strips with HBC Trail  rubber stamped on each, hung from branches to mark areas where one  might go astray; lastly the Pathfinders had used their own blazes to make  sure all doubtful spaces were finally closed.  The trail climbed about 1000 feet from Fool's Pass to the divide at the  lowest point on the Manson Ridge. It was not a long journey but it was over  the most rugged terrain we've traversed so far. No wonder so many horses  perished on this particular part for an unsure footing, a slip or a slide would  send you skidding down the steep rocky slope. The trail is clearly marked  and deeply worn. So we placed several more metal HBC Trail metal  markers.  We reached the summit in time for lunch on a green alpine meadow  with the high snow-streaked slopes of Manson's Mt. as a backdrop.  The afternoon was a relaxed adventure time. Philip and John the  mountaineers raced up to the top of Manson's Mt. where they swam and took  pictures.  Many of us went to the top of the rise just back of our camp where we  commanded a view of Hope to the west. Chevreil to the East and snow  covered peaks encircling us on all sides. So the journey draws to a close as  we see our destination Hope in the hazy distance.  Our trail now descends Manson's Ridge to be obliterated in the  wasteland left by the usual logging operation. There we will pick up a  logging road and journey down Peers Creek to the Coquihalla and thence to 36 H.B.C.    TREK  Hope. The trek has been rugged but well planned. The daily walks have been  well within the capacity of the various age groups.  In the evening the final Campfire made up of songs and stories ended  up with each person giving his appraisal of the journey. In their self-  conscious and halting manner of speaking each lad brought out salient points  — food - stories - blisters, jokes and songs. Mostly the food. Since we've had  no rain, the trip has had no serious discomforts.  8 Aug. Sunday  A vast restlessness struck the camp at about 5 a.m. One call and even  the laziest was stirring vigorously. From the view-points last night we could  see the lights of Hope. During the night the roar of Trans-Canada Highway 3  was audible. So, breakfast from the tailings of food from all packs was a  rapid and joyous affair.  Cleaning up camp with a will packs were out soon after 7 a.m. and so  our journey begins its final countdown.  I have 16 frames left in my camera and in no time they will be used up.  My food now consists of some chocolate, ryecrisp and raisins.  Several pairs of trousers tattered by the brush have been modified into  shorts.  Some men have shaved and really the gang is very reasonably turned  out.  The trail down the western slopes of Manson's Ridge was undoubtedly  the most rugged of the entire journey. In a relatively short distance we had  to lose 2000 ft. So the trail wound its way by swtichbacks back and forth in the  search for footings that could afford a way for the HBC horses. I marvel that  any could survive as we staggered along narrow rocky ledges then crossed  rock-strewn creek beds and skidded down gravel slopes that taxed the  agility of the best of us.  This part of the journey was well-marked. The deep old nearly-grown-  over HBC blazes had been more clearly noted by Harley using yellow plastic  tape with HBC Brigade Trail stamped on each. We paused frequently to nail  our OHS metal markers on may more selected trees. In this way we hope to  preserve the trail and have it so named that future generations will have no  difficulty picking out this dangerous historic mountain pathway.  In many places the ground was worn down by the pounding of countless horses hooves and the trench-like depression was in marked contrast to  the usual terrain; then to our utter amazement the blazes would thin out and  the deep trail seemed to disappear. So it would go, alternatively a well-  marked and deep worn path and a wandering sparsely designated open  mountain-side. But our Brigade of 29 men helped to leave something of a  trampled trail but more particularly we clearly blazed the trees and placed  the metal trail markers.  At 11 o'clock we emerged from the wild beauty of the untouched forest  into the stark wasteland of the logging operation. Here we paused to make a  comparison of the effect of man upon his environment. From the undisturbed glory of trees, shrubs, grasses and flowers we stepped into the  devastation left by this casual way of harvesting the vital natural resource.  Using huge cables the felled trees are dragged across the rugged face of the  land crushing and destroying all living things. Many of the felled trees found  to be less than perfect are simply left there to rot. The effect is of total  destruction — waste: and the origin of the current phrase "Rip-Off".  The realization that a similar fate awaits the timber stretches thru FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 37  which the Brigade Trail passes, strengthened our resolve to campaign ever  more vigorously for the gazetting of the trail.  For surely if one manages to persuade the authorities that this communication link did play an important role in the early growth of the  province, portions of it and its surrounding timber could be saved. So our  journey ended abruptly with this shattering contrast of the historic naturally  balanced wilderness and the modern economic disregard for our heritage.  We have much work to do.  Started and inspired by Harley Hatfield, the Historic Trails of B.C.  should now receive the attention they deserve.  BRIGADE TRAIL FORT HOPE TO  CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  By HARLEY R.  HATFIELD  Comments on Journals of Palmer and Bushby and Notes on the Same Trail 110 Years Later.  In the years around 1859 and the early '60s a number of young men  from Britain, to use an old fur trade expression, cast up, in what is now  British Columbia. Their diaries and journals, official and private, are intensely interesting and wonderful source material for study of our history.  Most of these young fellows were inclined at first to feel a bit superior, to  look down somewhat on the rude colonials and natives. Nearly all however  soon entered fully into the pioneer life and many contributed in large  measure to the development of the country and of those whose duties did not  call them away again many were among our early leading citizens. Reading  the diaries it is in fact astonishing how quickly they, from being slightly  supercilious observers, changed to hardy pioneers travelling the mountains,  sleeping on the ground, eating marmot and raw salmon and dancing and  smoking the pipe of peace with the Indians.  It is likely that Pepy's diary is famous as much because he wrote  about the familiar as for any other reason. This is something seldom done  and hence from the fur traders we do not often get a good description of the  trails they used although new exploration is sometimes fairly well covered.  The Brigade Trail from Hope to Kamloops, and which was the road of  commerce for the whole of the Interior country from 1849 to 1860, does not  seem to have been described by Peers who had charge of locating it or by  any of the people who customarily used it, except in the most general terms.  In trying to trace it in detail some 110 years later, as a party of us are  doing, the official report made in 1859 by Lieut. H. Spencer Palmer, R.E. is  by far the best source material. Palmer gives directions, distances,  bearings, and comparative elevations and also made a map. In September of  1859 he travelled with Angus Macdonald's Fort Colvile Brigade eastward  from Fort Hope. Arthur Thomas Bushby in Judge Begbie's party, which also  accompanied the Brigade, kept a diary too. More colourful and personal  than Palmer's official report it adds a bit to our knowledge of the route and  much to our enjoyment of it.  The two journals are reproduced in this Report and herewith some  comments on them and notes on how we have found things along the Trail 38  FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  Across the Sowaqua Valley from below Campment du Chevruil.  Jack Scrivner photo  during some 8 days or more around and on it in each of the years from 1967 to  1971. In the latter year, being now quite confident of the route, we made up  an outward Brigade of 9 men and 20 Venturer Scouts. For the first four years  there were usually four of us and those taking part for one or more years  were: Eric Jacobson of Princeton, Jack Scrivener and Paul Scrivener of  Victoria, Harvie Walker of Vancouver, Dr. Hugh Barr, Jack Stocks and  myself of Penticton. Our leader and mainstay in the field has been Eric.  That friendly treasure house known as the Provincial Archives has been an  essential and a constant help.  Palmer under date of 17th September 1859 mentions Judge Begbie and  party. Three adjacent creeks tributary to the Sowaqua are being named  Matthew, O'Reilly and Busby Creeks after the three foot sloggers. Palmer  mentions the lake now called Kakawa and then the large defile bearing S.E.  His remarks here seem most extraordinary as the defile, pointed out by  Macdonald, must have been the valley up Nicolum Creek up which the highway now runs and which had been explored by A. C Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1846 and described in his report of that year. The  Engineers were locating the Dewdney Trail up it the very next year and  doubtless by then were familiar with Anderson's report. But Angus must  indeed have been rusticating in Colvile not to know of Anderson's trip and  the route he took.  Their camp that night was Manson Camp on Peers Creek. Most of the  Trail to this point is now obliterated by roads or by logging. In the summer of  1969 we slept at Manson Camp but alas the site is now logged and can  probably never be found again.  About the first of June, 1969, Eric Jacobson and I made a recon-  naisance up Peers Creek. We had Palmer's journal with us and Eric pointed  out the area where he felt anyone with horses could climb the mountain by  "a zig-zag trail." So we went there and lo there it was; in places just as it FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 39  was 110 years before after Peer's men had cleared and hoed it out and  something like a total of five or six thousand or more horses had passed over  it in a space of ten or twelve years. However towards the top we lost it in the  snow and when we came back in August with Hugh Barr and Jack Scrivener  we again lost it and took all day to climb up to the "magnificent view."  Finally in 1970 we found the key and followed all the way over Manson Ridge  in the footsteps of Palmer, Begbie, Bushby and O'Reilly and in those of  Angus Macdonald, Henry Peers, Donald Manson, Paul Fraser, Edouard  Montigny and all the host of those who braved the mountains with the all  important Brigades.  From the top of Manson Ridge, Palmer was looking N.E. down into the  valley of the Sowaqua which started out of sight in the far distance to his  right and joined the Coquihalla behind the end of the Ridge to his left. Confirming his remarks about the snow, Eric and his son Ricand I slept on top of  six or eight feet of snow on the west side of the Ridge on the 5th of June, 1971  and in the morning found, so nearly as we could tell, fifteen feet on the  summit.  In walking over the Trail now one wonders how brigades of several  hundred loaded horses were ever brought across it. And can easily agree  both with Palmer that it was "rocky and dangerous" and with Chief Trader  Paul Fraser of Kamloops in a letter to James Douglas regarding a possible  new route where he says, "It cannot be worse than Manson's Mountain."  Fraser was later killed on the Trail but not on Manson Ridge.  Palmer describes how they travelled up the Sowaqua valley in the  "forest bottom" and having crossed the stream climbed the western slope of  the Cascade Range to camp some 600 feet only below the summit. The  summit where the Trail crosses is 6,000 feet in elevation and the peak of  Tulameen Mountain, across a branch of the Sowaqua is 7,499 feet. We have  covered the distance downhill from Campement du Chevreuil to the Creek in  half a day but have found the climb from the crossing up to be a good day's  work with packs. In fact Manson Camp to Campement du Chevreuil, which  the Brigades covered in a day takes us four days. Even allowing for the fact  that we carry our own packs and over much of the way have to find our own  trail as we have come to respect their powers of travel. This was their  longest day's travel as it was necessary to reach a camp where there was  grass for the horses.  Since Palmer's day at least one fire has covered most of the Sowaqua  Valley. In his article on Podunk Davis in the 14th Okanagan Historical  Report, Rev. J. C. Goodfellow mentions a "forest fire raging to the west."  This was in 1938 and the fire would be in the Sowaqua. Going east from Peers  Creek the Trail, once free of the logging area, and now somewhat cleared  and re-marked is plain to where it leaves the primeaval forest at the edge of  the burn a couple of miles S. E. of Fools Pass. In this part of the burn it may  never be exactly relocated. The downfall and thick second growth and brush  making, as we found to our sorrow in 1969, travel extremely difficult to put it  mildly. Further upstream and on the easterly side of the valley where  Palmer notes the trees as being smaller the fire made a clean sweep. Here  the walking is good and the view unobstructed and I think we have located  the route of the Trail in large part but the blazed trees being gone and the  ground laid bare to erosion actual proof is hard to come by.  In 1969 the fog and rain descended on us before we got to Campement  db Chevreuil and we arrived very tired, cold and wet. I sympathize with 40  FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  Mount Outram from Campment du Chevruil  Jack Scrivner photo  Bushby where he was "fairly stopped" part way up the big hill and at one  stage would gladly have shared his bite of raw salmon and more particularly  the cup of brandy. Incidentally, Agnes of whom he dreamt that night, was a  daughter of Governor Douglas and on the 18th of May, 1862 they were  married in Christ Church Cathedral, Victoria.  Everyone seems to like Campement du Chevreuil both in the days of  1859 and now. It is a truly beautiful campsite, a dimple in the vast sweep of  the mountainside. A small ice cold stream comes out of the talus slope at the  back and runs through the camp in a half circle and just below is a waterfall  and the pool where Bushby in his time and we in ours enjoyed a bath, in our  case at least a very quick one. At the back on the eastward side the final  ridge of the Cascades with its scattered alpine trees curve around like a  protecting hand. Across the great valley of the Sowaqua to the west the three  creeks, Matthew, O'Reilly and Bushby drop in silver threads from the  eternal snows of Outram and McLeod Peak.  Our first visit was when we dropped down from the Cascade summit in  1968. We were just settled when someone said, "Here's visitors," and there  was mama bear and two children come to pay their respects, possibly under  the mistaken notion that ours was a Cub camp. Unfortunately that was the  year when we had the horses with us and we had to shoo mama and the kids  away in spite of the indignant looks she gave us over her shoulder. Going and  coming we spent three nights at this camp that year. One afternoon someone  spotted a big buck looking down on us and the camp from a wooded ridge. He  stood in an opening in the trees, his horns silhouetted against the sky, a truly  magnificent picture and mostfitting for Campement due Chevreuil, Camp of  the Deer. Perhaps it was the genius loci, the Spirit of the place, keeping an  eye on the camp and Paul Fraser's grave.  There is no sign of Paul's grave, now the timbers having been burned  and rotted away, perhaps just as well. His ghost has never objected to our FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 41  presence. As he was once described as "a gentleman of a gay and lively  disposition," no doubt a little diversion is welcome. Father A. G. Morice  gives a rather different view of his character stating that Paul beat an  employee at Kamloops so badly that he died. However Morice at the same  time says that Paul was a son of Simon Fraser, that he joined the Hudson's  Bay Company in 1828 and that he was killed in 1852, all of which statements  are wrong. Paul Fraser was not and could not have been a son of Simon, he  was with the North West Company and remained with the new Hudson's Bay  Company on the joining of the companies in 1821, he was killed at Campement du Chevreuil in 1855. So perhaps he also did not beat Fallardeau to  death in Kamloops.  We witnessed the same "most singular" appearance of the morning  mists as Palmer describes on the 19th of September, 1859. Our description of  21 August, 1969 is as follows, "In the morning the fog had moved and across  the way were the familiar snow patched peaks from Outram on the left to  McLeod on the right with the white threads of water dropping to the valley.  We dried things somewhat, put a plaque supplied by the Okanagan  Historical Society, 'Hudson's Bay Company Trail 1849-1860, Campement du  Chevreuil,' on a tree and headed out across the open hills for the top of the  divide. A stop for a last look across the void to Manson Ridge and Fools Pass  and the jungle south of the Pass we were glad to be out of and the old familiar  open ridge of 1968 and the towering, now cloud wreathed, peaks of Outram  and McLeod and we turned our backs on the Sowaqua for another year. As  we did so the grey fog rolled in and pursued us to the summit. On the Interior  side we stopped again to admire Palmer's 'pretty sequestered little lake,'  the tentacles of the fog still reaching for us. It was pleasant to again follow  the Trail down the long green valley, along the ridge with the old blaze and  the ancient trees and at the bottom to lunch in the Interior sunshine by a  flowered meadow with its tiny rill, one of the many sources of Podunk  Creek."  Before leaving entirely the west side of the Cascades it might be well  to note, in case anyone should be interested enough to consult the map, that  Fools Pass is marked in entirely the wrong place on the Chilliwack Lake  Sheet 92 H S.W., Second Status Edition. It is shown correctly on the old 4Q  Hope-Princeton Sheet and will again be so shown on revised maps. And this  might be a good place to thankfully acknowledge the help and co-operation  we have had from the Surveys and Mapping Branch in Victoria.  Palmer afterwards came to the conclusion that the peak he saw from  the summit bearing 64 degrees E. of S. was what we call Mt. Chopaka but  with the advantage of modern maps it appears more likely that it was  Lakeview Mt. in the Cathedrals, which is on the bearing he gives, is near the  49th parallel and at 8,600 feet in elevation would be visible over the intervening mountains. The "pretty sequestered little lake" is now named  Palmer's Pond. Here in 1971 some of our Venturers were boot and bottom  skiing on an adjacent snow field while others were swimming in the Pond.  The lake lower down on the eastern side is named Jacobson Lake for Eric's  father.  The Lieut, speaks of striking the headwaters of the Tulameen 800 feet  below the summit. Following our modern nomenclature it is the headwaters  of Podunk Creek, and Podunk joins the Tulameen a short distance upstream  from the next camping place, the Horseguards. It is remarkable that neither  does  Palmer's  map show the branch now named as part of the main 42 FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  Tulameen River nor does his journal mention it. Angus Macdonald, a  veteran of the Trail must have known it was there and should have known  that A. C Anderson had come down it after crossing the divide by Snass  Creek and the Punch Bowl in 1846. Canny Angus maybe was no for giving  these newcomers too much information, all for free ye ken?  Some accounts give the Brigade Trail as a revision of Anderson's  track of 1846. While Anderson's trip was undoubtedly the basis for the further exploration which led to the location of the Trail, actually his route and  the Trail touch only once between Hope and Tulameen, where they cross at  the Horseguards. Anderson, first white man over the mountains between the  Fraser and the 49th parallel (perhaps between the Fraser and the Columbia), travelling in the snow in June could not be aware of the ancient Indian  hunting road, Blackeye's Trail, across the plateau in the bend of the  Tulameen and he and his party slogged along by the canyon of the river.  Very weary and without food, near present Tulameen, they met Blackeye  who took them to his lodge on Otter Lake and gave them a welcome meal of  "fresh carp." He told them about the cutoff over the plateau and later  showed the way to Kamloops.  The skeletons of fire-killed trees still stand in parts of the Podunk  valley. They are now white with age but some at least may be "the fire  blackened trunks" that Palmer saw. A brother officer of his, Lieut. Charles  Wilson R.E., Secretary to the British Boundary Commission and then at  headquarters near Chilliwack made this entry in his diary on the 30th of July  1859, "One of Roche's men came in from the Skagit Valley beyond the  Cascades and told us that a fearful fire was raging there. He had great  difficulty in passing it. This also originated from an American camp fire,  which they had been too lazy to put out properly; I am rejoiced to think that  nothing of this sort has occurred amongst our men." A bit later Wilson's own  camp fire almost got away from him but one wonders if this fire which  started with the American Boundary Commission got as far north as the  Podunk? A hundred years is a long time for a dead tree to stand even at the  higher elevations and it may well be that one or more fires have swept  through portions of the Podunk since 1859.  The Horseguards remained fairly well-known to Indians, cattlemen,  woodsmen of the Similkameen-Tulameen country. The reader is again  referred to Mr. Goodfellow's article in the 14th Okanagan Historical Report.  Originally we gathered that the "Guards" was at the junction of the Podunk  and the Tulameen but following Palmer, Bushby and Goodfellow, now  realize that it is a short piece downstream. In 1967 Jack Scrivener, Hugh  Barr, Jack Stocks and I were at the junction. In 1969 Eric, Hugh, Jack  Scrivener and I camped thereon our last night of our first through-trip and  in 1971 the twenty-nine of us in the outward brigade of that year found room  and to spare on our first night out from Lodestone. We now feel that we know  the ford and and the meadow across to which the horses were driven to feed.  Remains to find out which of the several defiles the Trail went up to reach  the plateau to the east, fire and time having removed much or most of the  evidence.  On the 20th of September, 1859 the Colvile Brigade and its accompanying officials travelled from the Horseguards to Lodestone Lake. A  jeep road now parallels and, sadly, in many places obliterates Blackeye's  Trail on the plateau and the cattle range there. It is interesting to note that  Bushby makes Lodestone Lake some two miles long whereas Palmer says it FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 43  is half-a-mile in diameter. The Engineer Officer is understandably much  more correct in his description. Last year (1971), we made our first camp by  the Lake and some of our Venturers added to my grey hairs by swimming  about in the middle of it.  We hope some day to try to trace at least parts of the Trail from  Lodestone down Jackson Mountain to Campement des Femmes  (Tulameen). May it be that roads and logging have not swallowed it all. And  yet again see Mr. Goodfellow's article in the 14th Report. Thanks be that  Podunk found someone, or was found by someone, able and willing to put his  knowledge on paper.  Going back to Bushby's diary for the 20th and the bogging down of the  mule. In 1968 Eric brought three horses to carry our outfit, a great easing  ofour backs and a great addition of comforts in camp but a limiting factor to  travel on the coast end where feed wasn't and jungle was. In crossing  Matthew Creek above a beaver dam, one of them fell through the dead sticks  and bits of grass covering the muck. A packed horse with four legs out of  sight and belly resting on the mud is a most distressing sight and we had  none of Angus Macdonald's Indians with us to get him out. As I remember  we brought all three back so that Eric with Harvie's help must have got him  out somehow. Hugh and I, the other members of the 1968 party, though  willing were not particularly useful on such occasions except perhaps as  hitching posts for whichever animals were not in trouble.  In 1967 with more or less modern maps only and with advice from  Manny Squakin of Hedley, Forest Ranger Baker of Princeton and Eric  Jacobson we probed the area of the Trail near Jacobson Lake, going in via  Vuich Creek from the Tulameen River road. And we went in to the  Horseguards area from Wells Lake on the Whipsaw to Coalmont jeep track.  In 1968 we again went by Vuich Creek and got over the Cascade  summit, across the Sowaqua and part way down that valley towards Fools  Pass. By now we were getting older maps and old letters and journals from  the Provincial Archives.  In 1969 we started from the logging road up Peers Creek, went over  Manson Ridge, up the Sowaqua valley to the corssing, over the Cascade  summit, down the Podunk to the Horseguards area and up to Blackeye's  Trail on the Tulameen plateau from where we jeeped home via Lodestone.  Cheam Contracting, logging up Peers Creek, were most co-operative in  giving us a key to their gate.  In 1970 we went up the Sowaqua Creek logging road, mostly on foot as  the road was out of commission, and from it hiked into Fools Pass. Using the  Pass as a base camp we filled in all the blanks where we had missed the  Trail over Manson Ridge and up the Sowaqua to where there Trail enters the  burn.  As previously mentioned the 1971 Brigade numbered twenty-nine and  went from Lodestone to Othello near Hope, and a lively and enjoyable trip it  was. We carried a light shovel or two and anyone following would see no  signs except our tracks and the ashes of our camp fires. We try to keep the  Trail as we found it free of human debris. There were originally thirty in the  party but the morning we left Lodestone one of the Penticton boys was ill.  Some Forest Service men passing in their truck very kindly took him back to  Coalmont where his dad picked him up. In five years exploration between  Blackeye's Trail and Peers Creek we have never seen a human being, aside  from ourselves who sometimes hardly looked the part, so that it would be a 44 FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  poor place to be if incapacitated. We used the four wheel drives to transport  packs the first few miles out from Lodestone and left the two of them out on  the range. Courtesy of the Allisons, who run cattle there, they were back in  Princeton ready for us when we returned from Hope by highway.  Over the years, in addition to the plaque at Campement du Chevreuil,  we have placed others, also supplied by the Okanagan Historical Society, on  and near Manson Ridge including the summit of it and in the Cascade  summit area. Some new blazing has been done and a bit of clearing and  some flagging tape and small metal markers placed; all this only where we  felt assured of the exact location of the Trail. By the time this is in print our  group and the Boy Scouts will have made further assaults on the Trail in 1972  which we hope will result in more pieces of it being pinned down.  From 1969 on, we have been begging the Provincial Departments of  Recreation and Conservation, and Lands, Forests and Water Resources to  protect and preserve this important bit of our history and a strip of the land,  varied and most beautiful, along it. Still in the wild, it can be saved, if the  will to do so is there. Only comparatively short sections of the later Dewdney  Trail are left. The Engineer's roads up the Nicolum and Fraser are chopped  to bits. Of the earlier Okanagan Brigade Trail only fragments are left. Only  on this one can we walk for days in the footsteps of history, breathe the air  and drink the waters of the wilderness.  From 1811 to and including 1847 the traffic of the Interior to the coast  went by the Okanagan Brigade Trail and the Columbia River. In 1846 the  settlement of the Oregon Boundary gave everything south of the 49th  parallel to the United States. Wars with the Indians soon broke out in their  territory and though the treaty had guaranteed free navigation on the  Columbia to the Hudson's Bay Company it became obvious that the  American officials had no intention of honouring it. A way to the coast in  British territory had to be found. The very first way explored was Anderson's route out by Lillooet and the Harrison in 1846 and then his return  route by Hope-Nicolum-Sumallo-Skagit-Snass-Tulameen. This latter one  with the incorporation of Blackeye's Trail would probably have been the  Company's best choice but the deep snow he found on the summit in June  bothered the officials. They probably did not then realize how quickly it  could go at these elevations. Also the fur traders were ever loath to leave the  water and itwas thought from head of navigation on the Fraser there must  be some reasonable way to make a trail inland. So in 1847, when it was  evident that the Columbia route could not be used again, Fort Yale was built  and a trail called the Douglas Portage hacked out to Spuzzum. Anderson  traced a way from the Interior by the Coldwater-Spius Creek-Uztlius Creek-  Anderson River-Kequeloose route to Spuzzum.  The outward Brigades of 1848 from New Caledonia (Ft. St. James  region) and from Fort Colvile joined that of Thompson's at Kamloops and  the combined Brigades of some 400 horses and 50 men set out for Yale. It was  a terrible trip, particularly on their return when many horses and twenty-  five or more pieces of goods were lost. It convinced the Company officials  that this route would not do. Here is Henry Peers' description of what happened before they even got away from the Fraser, starting after they  reached Yale by water from Fort Langley on the 24th of July 1848. "We  remained here until the 2nd of August during which time half the goods were  being carried over the river portage by eighty Indians in three or four trips  and the remainder sent across Douglas' portage in four trips of some thirty-  five horses." FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 45  And after they all arrived at Spuzzum Creek his account goes on,  "Remained at this encampment three days crossing baggage and horses  etc. Found all the goods correct (Peers evidently was in charge of the goods)  and started on the 6th at 3 p.m. with some 500 and upwards pieces of goods in  fifteen brigades each having eighteen and some a greater number of horses  to two men. We encamped at the foot of the big hill where the road leaves  Fraser River, many of the brigades only arriving when pitch dark and  consequently great confusion from horses straying with their loads and so  forth; several fell down a steep hill on nearing the encampment from  weakness, threw their loads and a bale was swept off in the river before it  could be seized and one animal killed. Deynette slept here to take care of the  aforesaid pieces. 7 Aug. - Rainy weather. This morning Jacob Ballenden was  found dead near the encampment with his gun discharged, shot thru the  heart; it is supposed he committed suicide; the day was spent in collecting  strayed horses with their loads and all found but six pieces and another horse  killed. A war party of the Chute Indians against those of Anderson's River  passed the camp and created some little alarm. Weather cold and showery,  interred the deceased, Pere Nobili saying the funeral service. Nothing I may  say for the horses to feed on." And this was only the beginning.  Peers must have started on the location of a new trail right after he  arrived at Kamloops with the Brigade, probably on the instructions of Chief  Trader Donald Manson the officer in charge of New Caledonia and the senior  officer of the combined Brigade. In any case he soon received confirming  orders from Douglas to recheck Anderson's track of 1846 and to build a depot  at Hope; these instructions probably came through J. M. Yale the officer in  charge at Fort Langley.  Following are two letters from Chief Factor James Douglas written in  October 1848 to John Tod in charge at Kamloops and to J. M. Yale in charge  at Langley and one from Douglas in 1850 to A. C Anderson in charge at  Colvile, as copied in Howay's "The Raison D'Etre of Forts Yale and Hope."  They tell a lot about the start of our Brigade Trail.  Fort Langley, 30th October, 1848  James AA. Yale, Esq.  Dear Sir:—  Having conferred with you very fully on the plans contemplated for the coming  year, both as respects the general arrangements of the business and the special  arrangements connected with the communication to the Interior, I will in this note  merely give a general summary of these, as a memorandum for mutual reference.  Mr. Peers having been detached by Mr. Manson from the establishment under  his command to survey and open a new route for the brigade to Thompson's River, in  consequence of the road by Kequeloose being considered in many respects inconvenient  and dangerous, we have determined on carrying Mr. Manson's views as soon as  possible into effect by employing Mr. Peers during the approaching winter and spring  in opening the road he lately explored, which appears by his chart to pass successively  through the valleys of the Quequealla, Peers, and the So-au-qua Rivers, from the latter  stream into the valley of the Shemilkomeen and from thence through the Plain country  to Thompson's River. For the execution of that important service you will have Mr.  Peers and ten men, who are to be despatched as soon as the necessary arrangements  can be made, to select a convenient spot near the mouth of the Quequealla for a small  establishment surrounded with stockades to consist of a dwelling house and two stores,  which will be requisite for the accommodation of the Brigades passing and repassing to  the Interior. It is not expected that the establishment will be completed during the  present winter, as the labour of opening the road and levelling it with the spade will be  severe and occupy much time. I would therefore recommend that our own men, and as  many Indians as can be induced to assist, should be employed upon the road, whenever  the services of the former can be spared from the duties of the establishment; and the  latter may be engaged to commence operations as soon as Mr. Peers reaches the 46 FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  Quequealla. The road is after all the main object and we trust it will be completely  opened by the time the snow is sufficiently melted next summer to permit the passage  of the Brigade, which will probably occur about the beginning of the month of July.  Mr. Peers will endeavour to communicate during the winter or spring with the  officer in charge of Fort Kamloops—in order that he may be made acquainted with our  plans—the progress made in opening the road, and have an opportunity of co-operating  from the other side of the range of mountains and of furnishing every assistance in his  power to advance that important object. I have now written Mr. Tod to send an Indian  guide to meet Mr. Peers on the So-au-qua, and to conduct him from thence by the best  route into the Shimilkameen Valley, a part of the road which is better known to the  Shooshwaps, than to the Indians of Fraser's River. As soon as the road is finished Mr.  Peers will proceed with two or three men to meet the Brigade in order to conduct it to  the Banks of the Fraser's River. The Interior Outfits will be sent from Fort Victoria in  the spring and may be forwarded in whole or in part to the establishment at the  Quequealla, provided the Indians in that neighbourhood evince no unfriendliness of  disposition, and you think the goods may be left there without any risk, on the contrary  let every thing remain in store here until the arrival of the Brigade. Were it in our  power to forward the entire outfit to the establishment above, it would be a great saving  of time to the Interior Brigade, but while duly estimating the importance of the object,  we must not overlook the more important consideration of preventing difficulties with  the Indians—which more than any other cause are likely to proceed from a rash confidence in their honesty and forbearance. I therefore advise you to be very cautious and  not to excite their cupidity by leaving too much in their power.  With respect to the general business of the Post I've nothing to suggest or  recommend, by way of amelioration on the system which is now in successful  operation.  From the present state of the foreign market and the quantity of salt fish on hand,  I do not think that we will be able to export with advantage more than 1,000 barrels of  salmon next year, and you will shape your arrangements accordingly.  With best wishes,  Yours truly,  James Douglas.  Fort Langley, 30th Oct., 1848.  John Tod, Esq.  Dear Sir: —  Having met Mr. Peers on the Cowlitz Portage, I receive your letter of the 25th  Aug., which will meet with due attention hereafter, on my return to Fort Vancouver,  and your various demands for assistance be complied with as far as our means permit.  My object in addressing you from this place chiefly is to put you in possession of our  views and the plan we have in contemplation with respect to the communication with  the Interior. In consequence of the very unfavourable report we have received from  Messrs. Manson and Anderson of their last summer's route we have come to the  determination of opening a new road recommended by Mr. Peers after a very careful  survey. Leaving Fraser's River it follows successively the valleys of the Quequealla,  Peers, and the Soaqua Rivers, from thence the crossing of the dividing ridge into the  Similkameen Valley, where it falls upon Mr. Anderson's track of 1846 and follows it to  Thompson's River. Mr. Peers will be despatched with ten men in a few days hence to  commence operations at the mouth of the Quequealla, where we intend to establish a  small Post for the convenience of parties passing to and from Thompson's River and at  the same time he will proceed in opening the road with the assistance of all the Indians  that can be mustered, and we hope to have it made as far as the snowy region before the  winter sets in. The more elevated parts must be left until the disappearance of the snow  in the spring and the first weeks of summer when I trust this important undertaking will  be completed. This road will not be accessible for horses before the beginning of July  and can only be considered in the light of a temporary expedient for the transport of the  Interior Outfits until our posts are withdrawn from the Columbia, and were it not for the  extreme reluctance of Mr. Manson to continue the route of last summer we would not  have gone to the expense of opening a new Road which in many respects will be found  exceedingly inconvenient. We have directed Mr. Peers to use every exertion to communicate with you, either my means of Indians or otherwise, in order that you may cooperate in the important service on which he is now employed and give him every  assistance in your power. He has instructions to apply to you for guides and such other FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES 47  aids as he may stand in need of and I have most earnestly to request a compliance with  his demands.  He is particularly desirous that Blackeye's son, the I ndian who accompanied him  a part of the way on his late journey to this place and left him at the head of the Soaqua,  should be sent to meet him at that point, as without such assistance he will not be able to  find his way into the Similkameen Valley, by the proper route, with that Indian you will  please despatch Montigny and as many whites and Indians as you can muster to open  the road from the plains of the Similkameen to the Soaqua Valley following the line of  road Mr. Peers pointed out to Montigny as being the best adapted for horse-transport,  as early in spring as the snow will admit; an arrangement which will greatly expedite  the work and enable us to complete it in time for the brigade of 1849. Leaving all these  matters in your hands and trusting that you will suggest the ways and means of  carrying them most rapidly into effect  I remain,  Yours truly,  James Douglas.  Private. Fort Victoria  18th March, 1850  Ans. 30th April.  A. C. Anderson, Esqre.  My dear Sir: —  I give this a chance, by a conveyance, intended to test the Fort Hope road, at this  season, with the view of making use of it hereafter for the Express; there being so many  hinderances by the Columbia, that it is highly desirable to have another string to our  bow, to use as occasion may require. Our present intention is to despatch a packet from  this place, on or before the 19th Proximo which Yale will forward as soon as possible  after it reaches Fort Langley, and should it arrive at Colvile in time to catch the Express from Vancouver, we may consider the question settled to our entire satisfaction,  as the next attempt will probably succeed better than the present. The greatest difficulty will be the transport of the Paper Trunk, with passengers, baggage and the  provisions required for the large parties which sometimes go out in Spring; but after a  few journeys to and fro, even that difficulty will cease to be regarded with dismay.  The brigades are to meet at Thompson's River this Spring about the usual date,  and if you are not there with the Colvile people in time Manson is at liberty to go on to  Langley without you. He was altogether too late last year for the business of New  Caledonia. We have taken measures to prevent the like occurrences this season by  authorizing him to proceed from Thompson's River with or without the Colvile people. I  should infinitely prefer your travelling in Company, but if that cannot be accomplished  without inconvenience, why there is nothing in the character of the road or state of the  Indians to hinder the march of the Interior Brigades to the Depot in separate divisions.  There is a strong impression on my mind, that the mountains between the Horseguard  and Fort Hope, will be found impassable for horses, until the snow is nearly all gone,  though many experienced persons are of a different opinion and suppose the snow will  be compact enough to support loaded horses. If not we shall be in a manner forced to  resort to the Kequeloose road, for the outcoming Brigade; as the final alternative to  establish a Depot for the interior at Fort Hope, which the Brigades may always manage  to reach by the 10th and leave by the 25th of July, a season sufficiently early for their  return in good time. The reasons for and against these plans will occur to your own  mind, except perhaps the present scarcity of men and difficulty of procuring recruits,  to perform the transport from Langley—and other indispensable Depot work which is  now done by the Interior men. I think that difficulty will prove fatal to any attempt to  relieve the interior of any part of the transport work, without taking into consideration  the heavy expense it will bring upon the trade, in maintaining an extra number of men  to attend to it.  Enough on that subject for the present, let us turn to something else. The winter  has been rather more severe than usual in this quarter; but we are now making rapid  strides towards a more genial season. The California excitement continues as strong as  ever, in this quarter, to the great injury of the country. The benefit derived from the  gold discovery is confined to the few, the detriment to the million. A great part of the  city of San Francisco was lately destroyed by fire and the city of Sacramento was laid  waste by water, the site being below the high water level of the River. A scarcity was  apprehended in that country but provisions are now abundant and cheap. 48 FORT HOPE TO CAMPEMENT DES FEMMES  Her Majesty's Sloop "Driver" arrived here on the 11th inst. with His Excellency  Richard Blanshard, Esqre., Governor of Vancouver Island, on board. N\r. Blanshard  has neither Secretary nor Troops, being accompanied by a single body servant. I have  not had time to become much acquainted, but I may say that his quiet gentlemanly  manner is prepossessing.  He has not yet entered upon his Executive duties, further than reading his  Commission to the assembled states of the Colony. Capt. Grant is still the only colonist  upon the Island. Dodd, Sangster, and other parties in the Company's service, wish to  become settlers; but are scared at the high priced charged for land say one pound  Sterling per acre.  James Douglas.  Contrary to Douglas' hopes the new Trail was not ready for the outward Brigades of 1849 but when it came time for them to return to the Interior they cut their way through by it ready or not. And tough as Manson  Ridge was the Brigade Trail over it was used until the gold rush brought the  burst of newer routes built by the government and paid for out of gold rather  than furs. It seems that the Trail, and particularly parts of it, saw some use  by prospectors, trappers, hunters, timber cruisers and so on, well into this  century.  We have not yet discovered why and how Peers located the Trail by  Manson Ridge and the Sowaqua and Podunk Creeks rather than by Anderson's track along the Nicolum and so on. Nor have we found out whether  or not they succeeded in crossing horses on the snow in March; a rather wild  trip if possible at all I would think.  It is interesting to note that for the first few years the Okanagan Trail  as far as Kamloops was still in use. The furs from Colvile went north and the  goods south. As the new Brigade Trail to Hope became more familiar the  Colvile Brigades went up and down the Similkameen to join it at Tulameen.  A large storehouse or cache was apparently built at Tulameen (Campement  des Femmes) for the transfer of goods between Brigades. See B.C.  Historical Quarterly, Vol. 2, 1938, Mr. Holmes.  Several years ago I asked the Surveys and Mapping Branch why they  did not publish more maps like the old 4Q Hope-Princeton Sheet with the old  trails shown. They said no more like that ever, because people think that  there is a well-beaton path and go out and get lost and then blame us. So  perhaps a word of WARN I NG is in place here. The Brigade Trail as of now is  not marked, except in places. It has taken us five years of study and exploration to become confident that we can follow it safely. The Sowaqua  valley is a long way from help of any kind; approach with CAUTION.  If you believe this Trail is worth saving please let your MLA know and  also the Honourable Ministers of Recreation and Conservation and of Lands,  Forests and Water Resources. NOOTKA   SHELL   MONEY 49  NOOTKA SHELL MONEY  By ERIC  D. SISMEY  In prehistory a string of money shells, a fathom long, about forty  shells, was often exchanged for a slave.  Dentalium is the scientific name for these small white shells which the  Nootka Indians called "Shell Money." They look like tiny white tusks, an  inch or two long. They are attached to underwater rocks in certain places on  the west coast of Vancouver Island.  Money beads were hard to get and were always scarce. The shells  were gathered at low tide, only when the sea was calm, with the aid of an  ingenious tool that resembled a broom with about a score of sharp wooden  slats at the end of a slim pole, ten or more feet long. The slats were held close  together by a sliding cedar bark ring. Nootka fishermen paddled slowly over  a known shell-bed where the broom-like device was let down. As it was  lowered water pressure forced the ring away allowing the slats to spread.  Then the tool was carefully pushed down to where it impaled any shells  within reach, pulling them loose. When the device was raised water forced  the ring back in place bringing the slats together and securing the catch.  Shell Money fishing was a slow and tedious job. Fishermen could not  see whether there were shells or if the rock was clean. Sometimes they  fished all day taking only two or three but on a lucky day the take would  sometimes be large enough to begin lucrative trade with east coast island or  mainland Indians.  Almost without exception shell money beads, spaced between large  glass beads, were strung into necklaces. And since nobody fishes for Den-  talim now, shell money necklaces are eagerly sought by collectors. Strings  formerly owned by Southern Okanagan Indians are now in private hands. I  know where most of them are, I have photographed several. But that is all  th^t I can do since, try as I will, I cannot find one for myself.  Necklace of dentalium shells. Strung in pairs between large transparent  deep blue Hudson's Bay Company trade beads. These "Shell Money" beads  are about one inch and a auarter long. The beads are not quite half an  inch. Collected on the Penticton Indian reserve on Okanagan Lake, B.C.  Eric Sismey photo 50 KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY  KEREMEOS, A HISTORY  By ALBERTA PARSONS and  BARBARA  LAWRENCE  The earliest journey by white men in Similkameen recorded was made  by Alexander Ross in 1813. Ross was a clerk in the employ of John Jacob  Astor's Pacific Fur Company. He had set out on December 20th, 1812 to visit  in Kamloops, arriving there on the last day of the year 1813. In his narrative  he told of hardships and of one day descending into a valley where he found  an encampment of Indians from whom he procured food for himself and  horses, then went on to say he followed the Sa-milk-a-meigh river on to  Ikinackena at the forks, reaching home on the 24th of January. Another  journey recorded in 1826 by Archibald MacDonald where he took a more  westerly course after leaving Nicola Lake and came to Schimilicameach  near the present town of Princeton, and then followed this river eastward.  After the agreement on the boundary line (between U.S.A. and  Canada) in 1846 it was decided to move the Hudson's Bay Company trade  goods from Fort Okanogan on the Columbia. Two trading posts were  established, one at Keremeos on property later occupied by Frank Richter.  Both posts were situated on the Hope-Kootenay (known as the Dewdney  Trail) which was the route used for driving cattle by many settlers in this  country after they became established in the cattle industry.  The Dewdney Trail was made on Canadian territory to avoid continued trouble with the Indians and outlaws south of the border who waylaid,  and often murdered, miners travelling through the country. In their ambitious dreams, men of the day saw the trail from Hope to the Kootenays as  crossing the Rockies and meeting at Edmonton, a similar road which was  built westward across the Canadian Provinces.  The advent of the Hudson's Bay Company to the Similkameen country  dates from 1860, prior to that time the area had been served from Fort  Okanogan in the American territory. When Robert (Bobby) Stevenson  visited Fort Okanogan on June 17th, 1860, he found a great number of Indians  at the fort who were assisting the factor, Francois Deschiquette, to pack up  goods in preparation to moving to the post at Cawston where earlier in the  year it had been decided to establish a farm and trading center. The factor in  charge of this new post was instructed to build a log hut or two, cultivate a  few acres of land to plant oats, potatoes and vegetables. The establishment  was located on the bank of Brown Creek where the Cawston store stands  today. Deschiquette was ill when he arrived at the company's station on the  Similkameen and therefore was unable to help choose the site for the trading  post. The days of the company in this location was short lived as the Indians,  who were the customers, objected and it consequently was moved to the  Keremeos site.  Keremeos: an Indian name has many erroneous translations. The  Indians say it means "water or stream running through an open flat." In the  year book of B.C. 1897, R. E. Gosnell says of Keremeos Indians, "an Indian  tribe of the Southern Interior, the only Indian who who sounds the letter 'R.'  Keremeos means literally 'cut in two by a stream of water'." Keremeos has  its own unique natural landmark which is very famous. On the imposing  rocky mountain to the south of the valley are three long shale slides which  form a distinct "K."  The site of the Hudson's Bay post was then on the Upper Bench on  what was to become the property of W. H. Armstrong. It is, however, more KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY  51  Palace Feed and Livery Stable, Upper Keremeos. Photo before about 1906.  Photo copy by E. D. Sismey  difficult to pin-point the move from the Cawston site to the Keremeos site.  John Carmichael Haynes, in a letter dated October 19, 1861, refers to enclosed samples of wheat and oats grown at Keremeos by Mr. Francois  Deschiquette, the officer in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company station. In  a later letter, dated October 17, 1863, he deals with an assault by Indians  upon Roderick McLean of the Hudson's Bay Company station at Keremeos.  Deschiquette was shot to death in a quarrel with Frank Pato in September,  1862. His grave is on the north side of Blind Creek where the Similkameen-  Fairview road winds up the hill. The generally accepted date for the transfer  is 1864. The venture was never too successful and in 1872 was abandoned.  John Tait, who was then in charge, was transferred to Kamloops along with  the stock and goods. The property sold to Messrs. Barrington-Price and  Nicholson in 1885 who eventually sold it to John H. Coulthard of Victoria.  With the advent of the Hudson's Bay Company Station into the  Similkameen, settlers and homesteaders followed. Among the names of  these early pioneers were men who would become leaders in the valley and  owners of large cattle and fruit ranches: Francis Xavier Richter, Manuel  Barcelo, Barrington-Price, Francis Suprenant (Surprise), Henry Nicholson,  R. L. Cawston, W. Lowe, Thomas Daly, to name a few. Francis Xavier  Richter was first to file a claim on a pre-emption of 320 acres adjoining the  post and was put in charge of the stock for the Hudson's Bay Company post.  He continued to help at the post as long as it was in operation as well as  working on his own ranch. During the winter, part of his work at the post  included trading with, and collecting furs from, the Indians. The butter  made on his ranch was the first produced in the area. He made the tubs for  the butter of cottonwood, bound with willow hoops. Each tub large enough to  hold 50 pounds of butter which he sold to the Company for one dollar a pound.  One story handed down in the Richter family is that there was a severe earth  tremor that split open the ground on this farm from which Mr. Richter had to  rescue his small pigs.  Francis Suprenant did extensive farming on the bench land above the 52 KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY  town of Keremeos where he raised fine horses, grain and many hogs. He too  owned land close to the Hudson's Bay Company post but later moved to this  bench land where he did a greater variety of farming, including raising  wheat and oats. The wheat was threshed by using horses which would walk  around and around in a depression in the ground. The grain would be thrown  into the air and the wind would carry the chaff and small bits of straw away.  They also smoked and salted their pork which sold for 25 cents a pound.  Manuel Barcelo, a dapper figure on horseback, farmed when he first  came to the valley then later started a grist mill. After selling this he had a  stopping house in Upper Keremeos and a ranch close to what was to be  Olalla.  Manuel Barcelo was responsible for the first grist mill which was  similar to a very large coffee mill. Barrington-Price and Henry Nicholson,  who had come into the valley in 1872, leased the old Hudson's Bay property  as a stock ranch in 1873, bought the mill property and had grist mill stones  brought in from Oregon. The mill transferred with the property when it was  sold in 1885 to J. H. Coulthard and remained in active use until 1896.  In 1886 the Federal government set aside parcels of land as reserves to  be used by the Indians in this area. Barrington-Price turned over a portion of  his land at Blind Creek to be used for the same purpose. These reserves are  still owned and farmed by the children and grandchildren of the families  which were here when the whitemen arrived.  In a country where a horse was as indispensable to a man as his legs,  horse racing was a natural occurrence. Racing between the natives' and  settlers' horses was always an excuse for a celebration. What a picturesque  appearance the crowd of Indians made in their many coloured blankets,  bedecked trappings and ornamental head gear as they thoroughly enjoyed  the sport. They were keen judges of horseflesh, as the whiteman often found  when they matched some "Groppie or Calico" cayuse against some rancher's horse.  Among these picturesque Indians are names such as Qualtier,  Ashnola, Clokin, Alex, Terbasket, Cease, Edwards, Snehumption who are  some of the ancestors of today's native people.  This Similkameen valley is steeped in Indian lore, numbers of rock  paintings, artifacts, Indian legends which testify to the natural artistic  ability of this Interior Salish tribe.  The last Potlatch held in this valley was in 1894 on the Alex Cease  property, 4 miles west of the present town of Keremeos. The celebration was  to honour and renovate the grave of Old Alex Cease. Indians from miles  around came to the potlatch. The local Indians were the hosts and provided  the food; beef and deer were butchered; the liquid refreshments came from  Fairview in casks. This party lasted for days and when it was time to leave  the hosts presented the visitors with their blankets, horse equipment,  beadwork and other gifts. In turn the visitors presented the hosts with their  blankets, horse equipment, beadwork, etc.  Mrs. Matilda Robinson, daughter of John Ashnola, tells of the old days  when the settlers first came to the valley, and how the whitemen taught the  Indians how to farm and use farm equipment. In her own words, quote:  "Everyone in this valley of Similkameen learned about this from the  whitemen and were all well off, were never in need and all were content with  the whiteman. They were happy to learn to live the way they were taught by  the whiteman," unquote. KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY 53  The pack train was an art in the vital lifeline of transportation of these  early days. The endurance of the well trained pack animals and the sure  knowledge of the packer in the proper padding and balance of the pack were  a must if the load was to reach its destination in good condition. The pack  train usually consisted of 12 to 18 horses. There were no pack saddles, just a  rawhide sack filled with bunch grass, deer hair or straw, this was called an  aparajoe. Atop this the freight covered with canvas and lashed on with the  diamond hitch. These packs could consist of stoves for the home; machinery  which would be taken apart and assembled at its destination; and even  wagons. The packs had to be removed every night on the long journey from  Hope. Usually five or six men would accompany these pack trains.  In the early days the use of oxen was not uncommon and one may still  find discarded oxen yokes. These animals were used for farm work and  would pull wagons with solid wooden wheels which had been sawn from pine  trees.  Good farming conditions prevailed throughout the valley and as the  word soon spread an influx of newcomers arrived from all parts of the world.  The first building in the townsite of what was to be known as Upper  Keremeos was a stopping house which served as a hub for travellers going  North, East, South and West, operated by Manuel Barcelo. The community  grew from this nucleus to a thriving little village of two Stopping Houses run  by Messrs. Barcelo and G. Kirby, Kirby's Store, McCurdy's Butcher Shop, a  school, a post office and three houses. This was Upper Keremeos in 1899 to  1905. In 1904 the Kirby store burned and families started moving to various  other parts of the valley. A cement foundation and a lone apricot tree,  planted in 1901 on a dry slope, are mute evidence of this once historical little  village. As this community faded into history, Keremeos Centre, located  about one-half mile below Upper Keremeos, slowly emerged.  This new little community was soon very busy erecting buildings to  carry on its business which was so vital to its livelihood. Among the new  buildings were two Chinese laundries owned and operated by Jin Kee and  Woo Lung. The former also operated a store in conjunction with his laundry.  The very well constructed jail which presently serves as the Municipal  Office was moved from this new community. Also built was Bromley's  Blacksmith Shop, community hall, two hotels, Coleman's Drug Store, F. X.  Richter company store, two warehouses, a livery barn which served the  immediate community and the outlying districts, three cottages, and last  but not least a house of ill-repute. On the end of the bench where this town  stood were eight or ten Indian graves, the only marker remaining is on the  grave of Johnny Chuchuaskin, Indian Chief. In a 1909 issue of the Keremeos  Chronicle an ad. reads as follows: "When in Keremeos stop at the Central  Hotel. Special attention to commercial men, tourists and land seekers.  Headquarters for all Stage Routes, Livery Stable in connection. Good table.  Large, airy and comfortable rooms. Free bus to and from all trains. Office of  the B.C. Fruit Land Company. Proprietors Tweddle and Elmhirst."  In the year 1897 a home was constructed on the property of F. X.  Richter, below the Keremeos Centre townsite. This was considered at that  time to be one of the valley's most outstanding residences. This home consisted of three storeys, a tower, and three fireplaces, the tile for these came  from around Cape Horn. The grounds were beautifully landscaped, some of  the trees are still standing. Many a weary traveller enjoyed the pleasant  atmosphere and kind hospitality prevalent in this home. 54 KEREMEOS,   A    HISTORY  The development of the Village of Keremeos coincided with the activities of the B.C. Land Company and the Great Northern Railway. J. J.  Armstrong, manager of the Keremeos Land Company and in charge of the  office, had a full page ad. in a 1908 issue of the Keremeos Trumpet which  read: "Shut in by the mountains and only to be reached by stage, the valley  was not known. Now the Railway is completed to Keremeos and they are  busy grading on to the coast. When completed this will place the valley  within 185 miles of Vancouver. We laid out a townsite of Keremeos and  surrounding land in three, five and ten acre lots. A complete system of  irrigation is under construction and is expected to be completed this fall.  Now is the time to come and get a piece of this property, while it is going at  the present price, for when the water is running on the ground it will double  in value. Home seekers or excursionists from the East have a choice of  routes to Keremeos. The Great Northern Railway which taps the Prairie  Provinces at numerous points, furnish a quick, comfortable, convenient  means of reaching the Similkameen at rates the same as to corresponding  points on the C.P.R. Our excursionists may come as far as Midway over the  Crows Nest Branch of the C.P.R. and the remaining ninety miles over the  Great Northern. Three acre lots ready for planting $300. per acre. 8 and 10  acre lots $200. per acre, one-third cash, balance in 3 payments at 7 per cent.  Prices of Town Lots $250. each. Further out $200. and $100. Half cash.  Balance in one year at 7 per cent." The irrigation ditch that this land company speaks of was started in 1905 and brought water to the valley from the  Ashnola Creek. Among the people taking up this new venture, fruit growing,  were Messrs. Ditmars, Morrison, Armstrong and Richter, to name a very  few. To cover this part of the history of the Similkameen would be a book  unto itself.  After it became known that a branch of the Great Northern was  destined to come into the valley, and coupled with the fact that the water  supply was not too secure, the residents of Keremeos Centre decided to go to  the railway. The late W. H. Armstrong, of the firm of Armstrong, Morrison  and Company, had purchased the large holding of J. L. Coulthard in 1906.  The Keremeos Land Company was formed and the present town site surveyed on what was then known as Coulthard's Meadow. In the same year  George Kirby moved his hotel from Upper Keremeos to the site where it now  stands. D. J. Innis also moved his livery barn to the new site and in later  years operated the Shell Service Station at the same location. He built his  home next to the livery barn to which he brought his bride in 1906. The maple  tree still stands which afforded shade for the new home many years ago.  Sam McCurdy also moved his butcher business from Upper Town to a new  building on Main Street.  The long-awaited arrival of the Great Northern train took place in 1907  amidst great celebration.  The first bank in Keremeos was one of a few branches of the Eastern  Townships Band which conducted business for a short while in the province.  It later moved to an office belonging to the Keremeos Land Company and  was eventually absorbed by the Canadian Bank of Commerce which was  located at its present site. The late R. H. Carmichael was the manager of the  bank at the time of amalgamation and for some time after. The Bank of  Montreal also operated for a short time in the early twenties.  The mail was picked up at the wharf in Penticton by Joe Marcel and  brought via Horn Lake to Keremeos by horse and buggy. The official can- KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY  55  cellation stamp of the Keremeos Post Office has the unique distinction of  having been used in three separate towns within four miles of the present  townsite. Mr. Kirby was the first Postmaster in the new town, previously he  had been Postmaster in Upper Keremeos.  The first public school in this new town of Keremeos was constructed  on the hill above the town in 1908 when two main classrooms were built. One  of these would have been sufficient for the requirements at the time but  foresight wisely provided for the requirements of the not too distant future.  The archives record that the earliest school in this valley was built at  Similkameen in July 1891, at a cost of $900. Mr. Thomas Daly was the first  secretary. Mr. Donald McGillverrey was engaged as teacher at a salary of  $60 per month and in 1892 and 1893 the pupil enrollment was 21 boys and 7  girls.  Many are the stories of the beloved Father Pat, an Anglican priest,  who, though he lived in Rossland, ministered to the entire border country.  Beloved by all, he is remembered in these parts reading while riding his  white pony as he jogged along from place to place. Mention must also be  made of Father Pandosy of Kelowna who ministered to the needs of the  Roman Catholic population. In 1920 St. John the Divine Anglican Church was  dedicated by Rev. Cleland. Rev. Leonard Morrant was the resident vicar. In  1906 the first resident clergyman, Rev. A. H. Cameron, a Presbyterian  Minister, came to Keremeos. The church on the hill was dedicated in 1908.  Rev. Hibbertof of the Methodist Church was here for a short time and also  held services in this church.  The first telephone office was run in conjunction with the post office.  In 1920 the B.C. Telephone Co. purchased the business from the B.C.  Government. The personal services rendered which were much appreciated  by the subscriber are now but a memory owing to the event of automation.  The first store in this area was owned by J. R. Shaw. One general store  was owned by Mr. T. W. Coleman and later operated by his son, L. S.  Coleman. Another well-known general merchant of this era was G. G. Kelar  Barcello Hotel — Upper Keremeos. Photo taken before 1906.  Photo copy by E. D. Sismey 56 KEREMEOS,   A    HISTORY  who came from High River, Alberta in 1908. Ezra Mills, who came to the  valley in 1906, owned a store at the foot of Town Hill. Atrial was held in this  building in 1919 after the Jenson Brothers and two Indians were caught in the  act of stealing cattle from a rancher's corral. They were tied to a hitching  post until the police were notified. Two lawyers came from the coast for  defence. The brothers were given two years, and the Indians sentenced tc  five years. One died in jail. Present local residents attended this trial. In 1919  the B.C. Growers used the Mills building as a packing and warehouse for  fruit and tomatoes. It was later moved to Main Street and operated by its  owner as a general store. The Town Hall occupied the upper floor of the  Armstrong business premises, known as the "Big Store." The Town Hall had  the distinction of being the setting for a performance by the Indian poetess,  Pauline Johnson.  Transportation of yesteryear encompasses many interesting feats.  Hazardous conditions prevailed to deter the traveller. Transportation was  slow and tedious and between stopping places many hours were spent on the  road. Mr. D. Gillespie of the Flier Stage in 1909 gives the schedule as follows:  "Leaves Keremeos Daily, except Sunday, at noon, arrives at Hedley at 3  p.m. Leaves Hedley daily, except Sunday, at 8 a.m., arrives at Keremeos at  11 a.m. Only through connecting stage between Penticton, Keremeos,  Hedley and Princeton." Keremeos Hedley Mail Stage, Proprietor D. J.  Innis, "Leaves Keremeos daily, except Sunday, at 1 p.m.; connecting with  all stages East and West, arrives in Hedley at 5 p.m. Leaves Hedley daily,  except Sunday, at 8 a.m., arrives in Keremeos at 11 a.m." S. L. Smith was a  driver on this stage. The third stage operated by W. E. Welby between  Keremeos and Penticton "Leaves Keremeos for Penticton on Mondays,  Wednesdays and Fridays at noon. Leaves Penticton on Tuesdays, Thursdays  and Saturdays at6 a.m., arriving in Keremeos at noon."  Another step in opening up more land in this area was the building of  the first bridge across the Similkameen River in 1908, by the Keremeos Land  Company, to accommodate the settlers on the south side of the river who  previously used a cable conveyance or forded the river on horseback.  In 1908 an interesting event took place when Earl Gray, Governor  General of Canada and his party, while on a tour via the Great Northern  Railway, stopped in Keremeos. This event caused great excitement in the  small community and to the delight of the children he visited the school and  proclaimed a holiday for the students. The following day Earl Gray and his  party, equipped with saddle horses and a guide, rode over the Green  Mountain Trail to Penticton.  As transportation became regular more and more families arrived,  settled and hopefully planted vast acres to fruit. The lush growth of wild hay  encouraged many settlers to take advantage of this natural resource by  raising beef cattle. Some of these cattle were driven from the United States  through the customs at Osoyoos. Many exciting stores could be told of these  cattle drives. Cattle were also purchased from ranchers already established  in the area.  Mr. F. X. Richter, in 1880, planted on his pre-emption the first fruit  trees in the valley. Oneof these trees is still producing fruit. In 1896 a 35-acre  orchard was planted with fruit trees purchased from Layritz Nursery in  Victoria and freighted over the Hope Princeton Trail by pack horse. In  transit the horses nibbled the tops and leaves from some of the trees. This,  along with the fact that skeptics advised that fruit trees would not grow in KEREMEOS,   A   HISTORY 57  this arid valley, did not deter Mr. Richter. Perhaps this pruning was needed  to make them flourish as they did eventually as the fruit produced was acclaimed the finest at the Provincial Exhibition held at New Westminster in  1906 when Mr. Richter won 23 prizes. In 1910 he received a bronze medal for a  new apple he propagated and named Richter's Banana apple.  When war broke out in 1914things cameto a standstill and progress for  the duration was curtailed. In 1918 settlers again took thereins in their hands  and proceeded from where they had left off. A cenotaph stands in Memorial  Park to honour those who lost their lives. Victory Hall was built in 1919  through the diligent efforts of the local people who spent many hours of hard  work to create a recreational centre for the entire valley. At war's end this  farming community gradually returned to normal, and activity in all phases  of agriculture resumed its former pace.  In 1926 the first Delco plant was installed by Len Marsden and to the  delight of the townspeople the village area had electricity. This was a big  step forward. In 1938 the West Kootenay acquired this franchise and extended power to most of the valley. This company continues to extend its  lines so that all in the rural area will have power.  From its infancy to its present day status Keremeos has arrived.  Incorporation marks fifty years of history. The implementing of incorporation, by accident rather than design, coincides with the 50th anniversary of the founding of Keremeos on its present site. This was the  theme of the Victoria Day celebration in May of 1956. Much credit should go  to the first Village Commissioners for their diligence, the late Fred Kick-  bush, Chairman, who operated a box factory; Commissioners Donald C  Fry, West Kootenay employee; Gordon R. Thompson, hardware merchant;  J. S. Sykes, secretary-treasurer, School District No. 16; and H. H. Hill who  deserves the major credit for the early consummation of plans for incorporation. Incorporation has brought about many changes in the community by adding new services and improving others that were in existence.  The community enjoys a library, health centre, fire protection, domestic  water and many other benefits for the well-being of its people.  Keremeos is a town of many clubs and organizations: Board of Trade,  Elks, Historical Society, Canadian Legion, 4-H Club, P.T.A., Masonic Lodge  and many church groups.  The natural terrain of this valley affords many scenic areas to be  enjoyed. The Basaltic Columns, located north-east of Keremeos, form a  break along the mountainside for about 300 feet and are approximately 100  feet high, and while they are upright in the centre they tend to slope slighly  inward at the two ends. They have been likened to the Giant Causeway in  Northern Ireland which would be pygmies compared to the local formations.  A trip well worthwhile is to the Cathedral Lakes where beauty  prevails. The six accessible lakes with unspoiled natural grandeur is a  photographer's paradise. Alpine flowers flourish throughout.  It would be amiss not to mention the now famous May celebration  which owes its instigation to a handful of fun loving hombres who jokingly  suggested a cowboy get-together. The events were a suicide race, greased  pig, scramble, women's pony race (now unheard of), buckin' broncs and  wild cow milking contests. A few of the original instigators were the late Cliff  Overton, Bob Parsons, Carney Willis, Ralph Overton (clown) and Herb  Clark. This was a local effort and money was not of the utmost importance.  The present day celebration developed from this small beginning and is 58 LITTLE BOB — A CAYUSE  sponsored by the Elks Lodge.  Keremeos rightfully claims to be the oldest town in the Similkameen  Valley, a Hudson's Bay trading station over a century ago.  Keremeos has never had any major catastrophy nor has it had any  major industry to buoy its economic status. It does maintain its dignity and  pride. It has never ceased to be a trading centre: the heritage of our  forefathers.  LITTLE BOB —A CAYUSE  By R.  N.  ATKINSON  Bob, the pony we rode to school, was just a dark bay cayuse. He was  four years old when we got him. In our eyes he was very special and we soon  found out he had a wonderful disposition. He thrived on attention but no  matter what or how mufch we fed him he always looked hungry and lean.  Bob's weight, bone dry or soaking wet, never exceeded 600 pounds and  the whole bag of tricks cost my dad the fabulous sum of $10.00 and that  without pedigree papers.  It was generally conceded that he was a second generation cayuse  whose mother had been cut out and trapped from one of the large wild horse  bands that ranged over the foothills surrounding Marron Lake; Marron by  the way is French-Canadian for wild horse.  This bunch grass range extended northward, crossed Shingle Creek,  extended to Trout Creek, including its feeder streams. To the south-west it  covered upper Marron Valley, the fertile most slopes above Yellow Lake and  branching to the left the wild horse bands could spend a few weeks around  Nipit Lakes, known as Twin Lakes now, plucking tasty, succulent legumes  and the tender shoots that popped up around the shady borders of the aspen  thickets that twisted and turned following the uncertain course of Park Rill.  There were watering holes and salt licks more than enough for the large  marron bands that roamed the country.  Years later, the Horse Heaven, as I choose to call it, of rich grass lands  became the homesites of men who wanted the best. South, the greatest  spread of all was headed by that indomitable little "iron man" Val Haynes.  His dogies ranged from White Lake flats to the International border. The  Gilbert Taylor ranch at Twin Lakes was credited with raising the heaviest  steers bred in the southern Okanagan.  The arrival of foundation stock on the Interior plateau has been obscured by time but its origin has been established beyond doubt. These wild  horse bands were a small part of natural expansion from the animals that  strayed from the Spanish settlements in California and elsewhere.  After the Fur Brigades in the early 1800s began their annual journey  from Fort Okanogan at the forks of the Columbia River into New Caledonia  with the large pack trains it seems likely that they were plagued with a  variety of casualties among the carriers. Each outfit had a farrier who acted  as a veterinarian but his remedies would have been limited. And since the  load was worth many times the value of the pack horse rather than delay  progress some animals were left along the way to fend for themselves. In  many cases it was this abandoned stock or escapees which were responsible LITTLE BOB — A CAYUSE  59  Horse Heaven, Marron Valley looking northerly from Highway 3A.  Eric Sismey photo  for an improved progeny in one or two generations.  Above Marron Valley where Highway No. 3a now threads its way  towards winding Roadhouse Hill and looking north and west across the gap  to the sagebrush benches the vibrant life that covered the hillsides in yesteryears has gone and a stillness hovers behind each thin shadow.  Here was found one of the last bands of genuine wild horses in British  Columbia just prior to World War I. Little bunches of dynamite, tough and  untamed, they ranged the hills from Marron Lake past Eneas Lake on both  sides of the valley. They knew every break in the sun-baked hills, the ravines  and the badger holes. The bands were led by majestic stallions who won and  kept their harems under control by virtue of strength and cunning. And who  frequently posted sentinels on view points to signal alarm by whistle-like  snorts.  Before the first war it was fair game for anyone to chase and attempt  to capture these unbranded mavericks. To catch one required a combination  of determination, knowledge of the terrain, a tough, fast saddle horse and a  lot of luck. Many fruitless days were spent in their pursuit on the southern  slope of the mountain.  Well back in the sage from the valley floor there was evidence, at one  time, of a major attempt to capture the band. A large corral built from good-  sized logs and long wings chiefly constructed of untrimmed smaller trees  extended in both directions to form a "V", each wing being about 200 yards  long. These trees must have been hauled a long way from much higher on the  mountain.  At the time I first saw it there had been decay and in many places sage  brush had grown between the fallen, rotted logs. But there was ample  evidence to show that it once had been a lively spot, the scene of exciting  moments. The butt ends of some logs bore initials, brand marks and dates 60 LITTLE BOB — A CAYUSE  reaching back to the 1880s.  Mystery surrounds this early enterprise. The names of the riders have  been lost in the giant shuffle but to many of the unknown cow pokes a wild  horse chase was a lot of fun as well as a source of income for these wild  cayuses could be sold from ten to fifteen dollars. These little cayuses served  a need in supplying transport for survey parties, material for irrigation  dams in the hills, to early mining camps and prospects.  Spring, just after the snow had melted and seeped into the dry,  withered slopes and the bench lands, was the accepted time for wild horse  round-ups before the tough little cayuses had regained the strength lost  while pawing through frozen drifts for scant fodder. This was the time when  well-fed, glossy-coated cow ponies and their fearless riders took this, the  best opportunity, to stage a successful chase.  Between 1880 and the turn of the century white settlers invaded Horse  Heaven. Nearly every bit of worthwhile land bordering the western boundary of the Penticton Indian Reserve had been posted by pre-emptors.  Among them Billy Crook, J. Smythe-Parker, Leonard Hoxier; Billy Foster  who boasted that he was a deserter from the Royal Navy. Another  character, Bill Hedges picked up the finest piece of land in the valley and did  not believe in work. He chose to live in a small hut with dirt floor.  With the arrival of settlers the heart of Horse Heaven was gone and  with it the bands of untamed mavericks and their beautiful leaders who  provided thrills and excitement for many young staunch-hearted riders,  both Indian and white.  In the Horse Heaven that was Marron Valley spring still returns every  year with a fresh carpet of flowers to clothe the hillsides and meadows to set  them blazing with brilliance. They appear in procession beginning with the  low stubby winter aconite or buttercup often breaking through the still half  frozen ground to welcome spring. Others follow Fringe Cup, Shooting Stars;  Mission Bells and finally the blaze of Balsamroot (Sunflowers) to paint  whole hillsides orange.  This was the land where our pony's, Bob's, grandparents lived but  which he had never seen. Bob was saddle broken when we got him to take my  brother and me to school. Down Vancouver Avenue, past the site of the old  Penticton Hotel where early risers watched us ride kunamokst (Chinook,  one behind the other) and along Ellis Street to where the library-museum  complex now stands. Arriving at school Bob was picketed to a nearby tree  where he stayed until it was time to go home.  One day, our teacher, Miss Yuill, asked us if she could take a short ride  on Bob. We agreed: we offered careful advice as to the proper way to mount  a horse. Finally the great moment arrived, foot up, she swung into the  saddle. We gave her the reins. Someone said "Get-Up, Bob!" But Bob had  other ideas and that is another story.  Our little cayuse Bob loved children. He accepted our parents but held  other adults in haughty disdain. As a member of our family he served us  faithfully for many years, taking part in our outdoor activities. He enjoyed  swimming, I mean swimming, in Okanagan Lake as much as the family did.  Eventually he was pensioned out to pasture and when his time came I  hope the horse heaven he went to was as beautiful as the hills around Marron  Lake and the meadows down Wild Horse Valley. THE   VERNON   COMMONAGE   SCHOOL 61  THE VERNON COMMONAGE SCHOOL  By HEATHER O'BRIEN  Editor's Note—The second prize of the Okanagan Historical Society's 1972  essay contest was won by Heather O'Brien, a Grade 11 student at the Vernon  Senior Secondary School with her story of the Commonage School. Her  valuable contribution was gathered after interviews with former Commonage  teachers and pupils. Her search took her to Oyama, Kelowna and Armstrong.  Information was also obtained from the Provincial Archives.  The Commonage School was very much a part of the community in  which it developed. Not only was it in use as an educational facility, it functioned as a meeting hall and at times even a church. Being an integral part of  the community, this one-room building shared the same fate as the Commonage settlement.  In the late eighteen hundreds the Government of British Columbia was  anxious to open new land in the interior. One such parcel of land was the  Commonage, so named because both whites and Indians had equal grazing  rights to it. This area was put up for pre-emption, which was an attractive  plan for prospective settlers. One dollar an acre with a twenty-five cent  charge for surveying was the standing price. If the settlers stayed for a  minimum of three years and in the process developed their acreage, it was  theirs. The Commonage received an influx of settlers, eager to provide a  future for themselves.  The first farmers realized the necessity of a school for their children.  In the spring of 1898 a building was erected, at no expense to the Government  on one of the settler's land. The school itself was crude, its estimated value  being under twenty dollars. The trees of the area supplied all building  materials. The desks for both teacher and pupils were handmade, walls and  floors consisted of roughly hewn logs, and the roof was of wooden shingles.  Attached to the main room was a small porch used to hang up heavy outer  clothing. Whether this was of any use can be questioned, as any extra  clothing was usually welcomed inside during the freezing winter months. A  long flat-topped heater kept red hot was inadequate to keep the interior  warm. Perhaps the four large windows could be blamed for the cold, but  without this means of lighting the classroom would be unable to function.  Only the barest implements were provided for pupils or instruction, the  teacher using a blackboard on the front wall and the students providing their  own slates.  When the school was built the Government supplied a teacher, but only  if there was an adequate number of children. Eight pupils were required and  in a small and sparsely settled community such as the Commonage these  eight were difficult to find. To make the school possible children from a  distance would be boarded nearby and even children under six would begin  their formal education. To the farmers it seems to have been very important  that their youngsters receive schooling. Everything was done to keep their  school open.  A Miss Birnie was the first teacher sent to the Commonage district,  most likely to experience the classroom for the first time. Town positions  were well out of reach of beginners, as these were filled by experienced  teachers. Itwas a rough life in the country, certainly without the pleasures  of the towns where the majority of the teachers had been brought up. It  might mean a long ride or walk from house to school and a freezing shack in 62  THE   VERNON   COMMONAGE   SCHOOL  which to form a class. In the country one was completely alone in his  profession. But life was not lonely, as Miss P. Murry, a former teacher at the  Commonage commented. A teacher was a well-respected person in the  community and was certain to be invited to every social activity from a tea  party to a picnic.  Upon arrival at the Commonage a new instructor was brought to  where she would be boarded. The McQuarrie's place was most often the  destination. Itwas a pleasant family and the teacher could consider herself  lucky. Even the walk to the school was just a half mile.  Teaching was not easy with eight or more students all in different  grades. Separate lessons had to be prepared for each pupil. The Government  only paid fifty dollars a month, barely enough to live on. Discouragement  was common and few teachers stayed over a year. In fact it seems to have  been permissible to leave after half a year and many took the opportunity.  The educational set-up was no worse than any other country school but the  change in life style and other personal reasons took their toll of teachers.  The pupils of the Commonage School seem to have suffered in many  respects as a result of the continual shifting of teachers. The inspector's  reports, taken from the Public School's Report, show a very uneven  progress. The comments range from "In good order, work not far advanced  but has made considerable progress" in 1901 to "No redeeming feature could  be found in this school" in 1903. The educational level was certainly not very  high, meant only for basic training. The Government itself did not seem  particularly concerned with this school. It was inspected and reports were  submitted during the first six years of operation and then for no apparent  reason they stopped. The children graduating from fourth reader and  looking toward further education in Vernon found themselves at a disadvantage. The curriculum they had been following omitted both History and  The Commonage School, Vernon, B.C. THE   VERNON   COMMONAGE    SCHOOL 63  Geography! The entrance exams held in the Vernon Y.M.C.A. were beyond  their capabilities. Up to two years had to be repeated to make up for the gap  in learning. What a blow for any teenager; enough to send him back to the  farm and discourage any thought of further education.  In the midst of all these problems the children went to school not very  differently than we do today. School work and chores, a part of every  elementary school classroom, had their place in the Commonage School.  Where children today depend on janitors, water fountains and fuel-fed  furnaces, the pupils at the turn of the century had nothing to turn to. Floors  and windows had to be scrubbed by the youngsters, water had to be fetched  by pail from a well one quarter of a mile away and one boy was in charge of  collecting wood and stoking the stove early each morning.  All was not work! Every schoolday had its fun. To pass the time at  recess and noon hour the students used their imaginations and simple  materials to create games. Sleighs were for winter while in spring and fall  boards turned into teeter-totters and baseball bats. A favorite sport was  "duck on the rock." A player's stone was placed on a large rock and turns  were taken in attempts to knock it off. If a person succeeded and completed a  "base" run before the owner of the first rock could replace his stone, the  winner's stone became the "duck on the rock." Drawing and singing  relieved the classroom routine and the endless weeks of school were broken  up by special activities. There was a big Christmas celebration in the school,  complete with a candle lit fir tree. Even more exciting was the huge May  Day picnic. The whole community got involved in games, races and eating.  Following shortly was the last day of school. A group of happy kids would  leave the classroom for the summer only to be back "raring to go" again in  September.  In 1911 the school house did not open in the fall as usual. The Commonage had not been kind to the settlers largely because of an inadequate  annual rainfall. Existence, even on a subsistence level, required boundless  energy. Greener grass could be seen on the other side of the mountains so  many homesteaders moved on to new pre-emptions. Vernon, now a growing  town offered the prospect of less demanding jobs for higher wages. The once  prospering community of the Commonage gradually dwindled. One of the  first effects felt was the loss of the school. With the families moving on, the  difficulty in finding eight school-age children became an impossibility.  Without education available more people were forced to leave, until only a  few households remained.  The Commonage School still stands and has become one of a number  of old buildings reminding us of an age gone by. No longer is it surrounded  with schoolroom noises; instead the lowing of cows or the bleating of sheep is  what can be heard. Desks no longer fill its interior; it has become a  storeroom for hay, in other words a functioning part of a new era. A little  one-room school house has lost its identity in the flow of time.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Provincial  Archives,   PUBLIC   SCHOOL'S   REPORT   —   COMMONAGE   SCHOOL,   Victoria,  British Columbia, March 15, 1971.  PERSONAL INTERVIEWS:  MRS. BAILEE—Teacher at Sunnywold School  Date of interview — March 1971, in Vernon.  MISS P. MURRY—former teacher at the Commonage School  Date of interview — April 10, 1971, in Armstrong. 64 THE   VERNON   COMMONAGE   SCHOOL  MR. BEN THORLAKSON—former student at the Commonage School  Date of interivew—April 3, 1971, in Kelowna.  MR. SOLVIE THORLAKSON—former student at the Commonage School  Date of interview—August 5, 1971 in Oyama.  COMMONAGE SCHOOL  Commonage School was opened in the spring of 1898 and was in session for 57  days in the school year 1897-98. The first teacher, Miss I. E. Birnie, was engaged in  April, 1898 at a salary of $50.00 a month. The first trustees were John Howard (sec),  Geo. W. Parker, and Jas. McQuarrie (B.C. PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1897-98, part 2,  pp. iv, xlii) The 1898-99 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT carried the following report:  "Commonage — Inspected August 16th, 1898, and April 28th,  1899; 9 pupils  present. Good work shown by both the teachers in this school, (p.251)  The use of the term "both teachers" refers to the fact that Miss M. J. Murray  replaced Miss Birnie in April, 1899 (IBID., part 2, p.xlv) During the school year 1898-99,  the total number of pupils attending the school was twenty (this included two children  under six as well as eighteen aged between six and sixteen). The average daily attendance  was 8.28 (IBID., part 2, p.iv)  The PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT for 1900-01 carried the following report:  "Commonage—Inspected 13th November,   1900; present,  13 pupils.   In   good  order, work not far advanced, but has made considerable progress; school-room  particularly clean and neat, reflecting great credit on all  connected  with   its  conduct and management, (p.267)  The  teacher  that  year  was  Miss  A.   Trembath,   the  trustees,   J.   H.   Dayton,   Alan   Mills,  and Thomas Cooper (part 2, p.xlii).  There seems to have been a decline in the quality of the school in the next two  years. The PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1901-02 reported on the Commonage School:  Inspected March 20th, 1902; present, 7 pupils.  The children in this school are  very backward in all the subject. (p.A46)  The report for 1902-03 stated:  Inspected November 14th,  1902, and March   19th,  1903; average attendance,  16.5. No redeeming feature could be found in this school; all work badly done;  no real teaching or study. (P.C51)  According to the 1901-02 REPORT (p.Alxx), the school building was provided by  residents and the estimated value of school property was $20.00.  The 1903-04 REPORT showed an improvement in the school:  Inspected November 30th, 1903, and April 22nd, 1904; average attendance, 17.  By careful, conscientious, intelligent endeavour throughout the year, good results  were obtained. (p.A50)  It might be noted that during the school year 1902 to 1903 the school had had  three teachers, while it had only one, Miss L. M. McD. Muir, 1903-04.  The school is last listed in the PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT for 1910-11. In that year  the average daily attendance was 10.70. JOHN   CRAIG  65  JOHN CRAIG  From   Walhachin  to  Arctic  Russia  By ERIC  D. SISMEY  The full story of Walhachin may never be told. Motorists travelling  Trans-Canada No. 1 between Cache Creek and Savona may not even notice  weathered snags among the sage brush that once were apple trees, or the  rotting piles of timber, the remains  of flumes which carried water from  Deadman Creek to what could well  have been an orchard  community  rivalling,    perhaps   excelling,    the  Okanagan. One man, the late Jack  Craig, of Osoyoos was there in its  heyday.  He was there when it fell  apart.  John Campbell Craig was  born in Arnprior in the Ottawa  Valley on January 24, 1888. His  father owned and operated a flour  mill, large for its day. The grain and  feed part of the business is still in  family hands.  After conventional schooling  to collegiate level Jack turned his  eyes westward and with brother  George and two boyhood friends a  car load of effects, machinery, four  horses were shipped to Saskatchewan in 1904. The four young men  each homesteaded adjacent quarter  sections about 100 miles southwest of  Saskatoon. They were the first in a  district still criss-crossed by buffalo  trails.  Homestead requirements, beside the cultivation or a certain amount  of land, included the erection of a dwelling and living on the land for a certain time. The four homesteaders met this requirement rather ingeniously  by building the house in such a way that the common corner was in the  center of the large kitchen and each man's room was on his own land.  Jack recalled that it was a hard, lonely life. Visitors were rare. The  nearest store was at Zealandia, 30 miles away. There was neither wood nor  water on their land, both had to be hauled. A round trip for water was about  12 miles and by the time the six barrels reached the ranch a lot of the water  had slopped over and the four horses and four oxen drank most of the rest.  After proving their land brothers Jack and George decided that  prairie farming was not for them. Their father, swayed by glowing reports  from Okanagan, bought, sight unseen, twenty acres of planted orchard land  in Prairie Valley, Summerland and another ten acres in Peach Valley. For  the next few years, while waiting for trees to grow Jack worked wherever  John Campbell (Jack) Craig  Eric Sismey photo 1968 66 JOHN    CRAIG  work could be found until in 1913 when he accepted a straw boss job at  Walhachin.  Walhachin, said to be derived from an Indian word meaning "bountiful land" was the brainchild of C. E. Barnes, an enterprising American.  Land on the north side of the Thomson River, about 3,000 acres, was bought  for a dollar an acre. Later a company known as British Columbia Horticultural Estates, was organized and an additional 1,500 acres on the south  bank was developed. A storage dam was built at Deadman Lake and  irrigation water brought from Deadman Creek twenty miles to the project in  a six foot ditch.  Plans for settlement were initiated by the company and inducements  compared with present prices were fantastic. Planted orchards were offered  from $350.00 an acre; unplanted land for $300.00.  The Marquis of Anglesea became interested and .is said to have spent  over a million. A fine hotel was built; a golf course, tennis courts, football  field and a skating rink were among the improvements. Walhachin became  not only flourishing but famous. By 1913 the former sage brush covered land  had been transformed into a garden of growing orchards and of comfortable  homes surrounded by trees and lawns and flowers. Such was the project to  which Jack Craig was engaged to help supervise in its development.  In August 1914, when the drums of war began a tattoo Walhachin set a  record unmatched by any community under the Union Jack. From a male  population of 107, ninety-seven volunteered.  Casualties in the early days of the war among the type of men at  Walhachin, many of whom had had officers military training, were  devastating and few survived the first few weeks in France. And when a  cloudburst washed miles of ditch and flumes away it marked the beginning  of the end. The Marquis had reached his financial limit and a request to the  Provincial Government to share in the cost of repair was ignored.  Often tales are told that disparage the early settlers. The name  "remittance man" has been used unkindly. Certainly there was frivolity  sandwiched between hard work: there was polo, coyote hunting by red-  coated riders, but Walhachin was flourishing. While it is true that many of  the newcomers were "green" no one can say they were "yellow."  As the men hurried to England, many leaving everything behind, Jack  Craig left too, but first he returned to Summerland. In nearby Penticton he  enlisted in the 30th Battalion at Victoria where after short training at  Willows Camp the battalion followed the First Contingent overseas. The  convoy consisted of about 15 ships, troop-ships and escorts sailed from  Halifax and nearing St. George's Channel and after being warned of enemy  submarines the convoy took shelter in Queenstown, Ireland, until it was safe  to proceed to Liverpool.  In England the 30th encamped at Shorncliffe until the battalion was  ordered to France. Soon after landing the battalion was disbanded to furnish  replacements for older units and Jack Craig, perhaps because of his Scottish  name, was mustered into the 48th Highlanders from Toronto.  Jack saw action early enough to be at Ypres at the time of the first  gas attack by the Germans, April 22-23, 1915. Later he was wounded at  Festubert and hospitalized at Southend-on-Sea. By Christmas 1915, Sergeant  Craig was back in the line where he took part in action at Messines Ridge  and again at Ypres. On the Somme in 1916 he suffered a severe concussion.  He was returned to England, hospitalized, then placed in Reserve where he JOHN    CRAIG 67  served as an Instruction Sergeant in gas warfare.  After Russia was out of the war and the country in the throes of  revolution, Great Britain dispatched a small expeditionary force to Arctic  Russia.  At Folkstone in 1917 volunteers for service at Murmansk were called  for. It was pointed out, emphatically, that the mission was dangerous and  safe return problematical. Six men stepped from the ranks. One of the six  was Sergeant Jack Craig.  The ship, a nameless old tub, sailed from Leith, the port of Edinburgh  for Murmansk by a round-about course made necessary because German U-  boats were on the prowl. Jack remembered sighting Iceland and Greenland  while the ship slowly but at full speed, steamed through Denmark Strait  before turning eastward to North Cape and Murmansk.  Although high above the circle Murmansk is warmed by the Gulf  Stream; its harbor ice free the year round. The town, as Jack remembered  was the most miserable place he had ever seen. There was nothing but  shacks, lined up on filthy streets, crowded with refugees trying to escape  from the blood-bath of the Bolshevik revolution. From Murmansk Sergeant  Craig was moved to Kola and from there to Kandalaksha where he was  assigned to a reindeer train loading supplies of all kinds for the White  Russian army in Leningrad. The train consisted of 80 large sleds, each with  its Lapland driver and about 250 reindeer to do the work.  In answer to my queries, Jack replied, that in spite of the cold to 45  below zero he was comfortable in garments that had met the needs of the  Shackleton Antarctic expedition. Reindeer, he added, fed on the moss they  uncovered by pawing through the snow. The mission failed; the train  completed only half of the 600 mile journey before the warm winds of spring  melted the snow away.  At Murmansk five trawlers arrived to take the Britishers home. On  Jack's ship some 30 English soldiers were under his command. Soon after  sailing engine trouble developed which forced a call at Aleksandrovak,  where Sergeant Craig recalled a strange incident. "I had gone ashore, he  said, to stretch my legs when a woman ran up to me somewhat  breathlessly. She was English. She handed me a letter to be posted in London. Just then the ship's whistle blew to summon me back to the ship. I never  did learn why this English woman was living, seemingly stranded, almost in  the shadow of the north pole."  After rounding North Cape Jack enjoyed the voyage along the coast of  Norway to Bergen. He was impressed by the beauty of the fjords, the offshore islands, the tidy villages and the clean well-dressed, smiling people.  From Bergen the five trawlers crossed to Lerwick, in the Shetlands and by  this time they were short, very short, of food. At Lerwick Sergeant Craig  presented a list of needed food to the supply officer who looked at it and  growled.  "Don't you know we have not yet recovered from the war?"  "Perhaps I know better than you, Sergeant Craig replied. I have been  in it since 1914."  Leaving the Shetlands, still a bit short of grub, the ships coasted along  Scotland and England to Portsmouth where the men entrained for London.  On reaching London, Sergeant Craig, after mailing the mysterious letter,  tried for passage to Canada. This was not easy since his service in Arctic  Russia seemed to have separated him from everything Canadian and for 68 SHUTTLEWORTH'S   OF   OKANAGAN    FALLS  some time he was shunted from camp to camp, Ripon, Shorncliffe and  Whitney.  In time passage to Canada was secured and Sergeant Craig sailed  from Liverpool. He received his discharge at St. Johns, N.B. and from there  journeyed to his parents home in Arnprior in May 1919. During the year at  home his father tried to persuade him to join the family business but the west  beckoned and in 1920 he returned to Summerland.  In Summerland Jack Craig managed first the local Co-operative fruit  packing house and later a packing house owned by Mat Wilson. In 1924 he  married Ruth Waterman, daughter of the lady who rode the Dewdney from  Hope to Princeton in 1901 with a baby on her lap and two nanny goats to  furnish milk (OHS 29th report pp 112-118). From 1929 and for the next 35  years the Craigs made their home in Oyama and through the years Jack  Craig managed the local packing house.  Retiring in 1964 the Craigs moved to Osoyoos. Their house at the foot of  Kruger Mountain is not far from the crossroads of Provincial history. The  Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail (B.C. No. 97) and the Dewdney Trail (Trans-  provincial No. 3) cross nearby. From their living room they enjoyed a  magnificent view over their own colourful garden, the orchards, Osoyoos  Lake and to Highway B.C. No. 3 as it winds up Anarchist Mountain.  SHUTTLEWORTHS OF OKANAGAN  FALLS  Okanagan Historical Society — 35th Report (1971) ppl36-139  Information furnished by Mrs. Mary Bait, Curator, Kamloops  Museum fills gaps in the family history.  George Shuttleworth, she writes, while remaining a shadowy figure, is  listed in the B.C. Directory 1882 - 1885 - 1887 as a labourer at Hope. And  further, her letter states: "He (Henry Digby) was in the country at least by  1854." In the Sentinel (Kamloops) Feb. 12, 1905, old-timer Donald Walker  related his adventures 1849 onwards.  He served with H.B.C, mostly in New Caledonia for a few years but  decided to leave the service and return to Great Britain. He left Kamloops  August 20,1854 for Boat Encampment where he was due to meet the brigade  from Colvile. When the canoe arrived "I saw, he stated, Angus McDonald  and Henry Shuttleworth, the rest of the crew were Canadian Indians."  In the B.C. Directory 1882, Henry Shuttleworth is listed as mail carrier  at Hope and in 1885 and 1887 editions as "packer to the Similkameen."  —Editor LONG   ARM   OF    COINCIDENCE 69  THE LONG ARM OF COINCIDENCE  By  IVAN  E.  PHILLIPS  Browsing through the display of books in the library recently, my eye  was momentarily arrested by the name of an author, whose story has for  many years been of the greatest interest to me. Indeed, there must be many  others, also a goodly number of whom are still living in the Okanagan, and  particularly in Penticton and District, who knew H. J. Parham intimately.  The author's book "A Nature Lover in British Columbia" most certainly has been read by thousands of people all over the North American  continent. Perhaps also it is natural that the volume should be of special  significance to the citizens of the Peach City. This is not only by reason of its  local associations, butalsoby the bequest that he made to the City.  As I turned the pages of the book once again, I could not help but  remember the first few lines of Edna Jaques' lovely poem, "To - An  Unknown Author."  I never met him, yet I know his heart,  For I have walked with him down scented lanes.  We've listened to a skylark in a field,  Savoured the wind across the western plains,  Walked in the twilight where the meadow lark  Calls to its mate across the scented dark.  It is a far cry from the peaceful charm and the serenity of an old world  English village, to the rugged, majestic grandeur of the mountains, the  scintillating lakes and the fertile orchards of the Okanagan Valley. Yet it  was in such a setting that I first made the acquaintance (within the pages of  H. J. Parham's book) of the lovely and enchanting valley where now I live.  Fate plays strange and puzzling tricks with all of us, and I have often  thoughtsince that the name and the book were but the prelude to that which  was to follow after.  However, here is the story, which I feel is worth relating.  During the holocaust of the first world war, a young man by the name  of Parham served in the British Army as an Artillery Officer, on the Doiran  sector of the Macedonian Front. After hostilities had ceased, and the Armistice had been signed, he decided that he would continue to soldier on, and  make the Army his career. After serving in India and many other parts of  the world, he, like so many others, once again found himself caught up in the  maelstrom of the second world war. He served with distinction in North  Africa and other theatres of war, being awarded decorations for gallantry in  the field.  Returning to civil life on the completion of his service, during which  time he attained the rank of a Major General, he eventually retired to a  small and pleasant village in the heart of the English countryside. About this  time, itso happened that my wife and myself with our younger daughter and  husband were awaiting confirmation of our passage to Canada. At that time  itwas not an easy thing to secure accommodation by ship. Indeed, there was  much todo before itwas possible to leave the United Kingdom. For instance,  the sale of our house and the shipping of furniture, the transfer of a limited  amount of Sterling, and the hundred and one things that need attention at  such  a  time.   Perhaps   I  should   mention   that  my  elder  daughter   had 70 LONG   ARM   OF    COINCIDENCE  previously married during the war and was already domiciled in Summerland. Hence our eventual destination.  Shortly after his arrival and settlement in the village the General  invited us to visit at his home and there to meet his wife. Over tea the talk  inevitably changed to the subject of our respective families. I was most  interested to hear that a son of the General was already following closely in  his father's footsteps. He mentioned that he was at that particular time  serving at the Staff College.  After a while the General turned to me and enquired, "What about  your own family, have you any?"  "Yes, of course we have, two daughters," I replied. "One of whom is  now settled in Canada."  "In Canada," he said interestedly, "and in which part of the country is  she?"  "In the province of British Columbia," I answered.  "Yes, but whereabouts in British Columbia? It's a pretty big province,  you know."  "Oh, in a very small place, and one that you have probably never  heard of; it is called Summerland," I hastened to add.  Smilingly, the General replied, "Do you really think so?" and  deliberately walked over to the bookcase. Withdrawing a book from the case  and turning around to face me, he said: "The world is a small place, so  perhaps you may be interested in this book. Take it home with you and read  it. I am quite sure you will find it fascinating reading. It was written by my  uncle, H. J. Parham. Incidentally, as you will note, the initials are also my  own and inside the cover of the book is attached my uncle's last letter to me.  Unfortunately, he died about two years or so ago. He went out to British  Columbia shortly after the end of the South African War."  The sequel to the story is the fact that I have frequently had the  pleasure of meeting a number of those who knew the author very well, and of  course I still hear from Major General H. J. Parham of England from time  to time.  And yet another strange coincidence was the occurrence concerning  the late Rev. John Goodfellow.  It was at our Annual Dinner of Canadian veterans which was always  held in Vancouver, with members gathering from all parts of our Province  and Alberta. There itwas that I met him again. Although I knew him not.  This may appear contradictory. Yet it wasn't really. For indeed fifty years  is a long time in the life of any individual. Seated side by side at the table, for  both of us were on the "Toast List" that evening, we exchanged and enjoyed  reminiscences of the years long since past.  Of course I had met Dr. John Goodfellow before, and knew of him by  repute, and had written to him from time to time. Then apart from this he  was a renowned and well-loved figure throughout British Columbia and  much further afield. Historian, Writer, an Honorary Doctorate of Divinity,  Council Member of British Columbia Historical Association, a life member  of the Okanagan Historical Society and one time Editor of the Annual  publication, a charter member of the Princeton Branch of the Royal  Canadian Legion, and chosen "Good Citizen of the Year" in 1954 by his  community of Princeton, he was a tireless worker and active in all phases of  church and community life.  "Did you know H. J. Parham? He was an old timer and wrote the book LONG   ARM   OF    COINCIDENCE 71  'A Nature Lover in British Columbia.' And I know that he was a contributor  to 'Blackwoods Magazine'," I said.  "Yes, yes of course I knew him," he replied.  And there and then I related to him the Uncle and Nephew story  concerning him.  After the speeches were over, and with all of us now beginning to once  again mingle, we came together again. It was then that he made a reference  to military hospitals and Canadian General Hospitals.  "Do you remember the 5th Canadian?" I enquired.  "Yes, I was in this at one time," he said.  "Do you remember a Medical Officer of the name of Major Clarke?" I  said.  He looked up at me almost startled. And I said, "He was very good to  me. Asa matter of fact I was a patient of his in the 5th Canadian. At that time  the hospital was located at Kalamaria. I recall that it was after the first  battle of Doiran and casualties had been heavy. And as you will probably  remember, although there were also English hospitals, most of us thought  ourselves lucky to be sent to a Canadian hospital. Actually, I used to hear  from him frequently when I rejoined my Company and also when he  returned to Canada. Strangely enough, he lived in Vancouver and it was  some time after this that I heard of his demise."  "Do you recall after all these years the Ward that you were in?" said  John.  "Yes, it was E Ward," I said.  "Well," he said, "it so happens that I served in the medical corps and  field ambulance and was an orderly at the time. So you see we must have  known each other even then."  Thus itwas that as the years passed, we continued to meet and talk  together at our yearly gatherings. And of course in the interim we maintained a continuous chain of correspondence.  I recall in particular our last meeting and talk in the "Blackstone  Hotel" in Vancouver. I remember that it lasted late into the evening, for he  was an easy man to talk to, if one may use such an expression. That evening  we conversed at length on his thesis which he had written and called "The  Reality of a Personal God." I still have the copy which he gave me and it  remains one of my most cherished momentoes. Although John was deeply  religious he was never a bigot for he always retained a zest for life almost to  the end. As I accompanied him to the door leading on to the street and said  good-night, I little thought that this was to be our last goodbye. Perhaps one  should explain that John had some time perviously been appointed to the  chaplaincy for this last and momentous gathering on the Horse Guards  Parade in Whitehall, London, England. This was in itself not only in  recognition of his distinguished career and also intended as a compliment to  him but also to the then Prime Minister of Canada, the Rt. Hon. Lester B.  Pearson who was also a member of our Association. I knew that Dr. John  had much looked forward to this final gathering on October 6th, 1968, and the  opportunity that it afforded him to address those 1,200 companions of former  years. Many of these had travelled from all parts of Britain and overseas for  the purpose of attending and to say "Hail and Farewell." However, it was  not to be.  For John after arriving in England in July went on a continental tour  during which he had a severe heart attack and was flown from Moscow to the 72 A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF PAUL DUMONT  University College Hospital in London, England, where he was critically ill.  However, thanks to the skill of doctors and nurses he made a miraculous  recovery, convalesced with his sisters in Scotland and was able to fly back to  Canada a few days before he was due to address his former companions.  Incidentally, his son and family were spectators at the ceremony in London.  Alas, he died on October 24th not long after he had arrived home in Canada.  Although the writer did not have the opportunity and the privilege of  renewing and sharing in Dr. John's friendship until the later years of his life  one feels that one may still say:  Life, we've been long together,  Through pleasant and through cloudy weather,  'Tis hard to part when friends are dear.  A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF  PAUL DUMONT  By SISTER BARBARA Do MONT, I.H.M.  Editor's foreword:—The following short biography of Paul Dumont  came by invitation. The Reverend Father Mark Dumont O.M.I, of Westminster Abbey, Mission City having read "My Own Story" O.H.S. 34th Report  pp 81-84 and learning of my 35 year service with the Southern California  Edison Company wrote to me of his association with Mr. Harry Bauer who  became president of the company. The attached biography opens interesting  avenues which I shall follow later into early school days and other facets  in the Rock Creek - Bridesville country.  To take eighty full years of an active life and compress them into a  thousand words seems as difficult to me as pouring a gallon into a pint  container. There will be so much left over and unsaid. Everything that my  father has done is important to me and it is my great desire that all could  have known him as I have known him. A kinder, more charitable and sincere  man I have yet to meet, and his simple but deep faith has literally "moved  mountains" in his own life and in the lives of those around him.  Pierre Marie Paul DuMont (known to all as Paul) was the fifth son and  the tenth child born to Marc and Rosalia DuMont in Antwerp, Belgium on  October 28, 1891. Early in his childhood, his mother was stricken with arthritis and confined to a wheelchair and it was here that he learned real life  lessons of compassion, sympathy and concern. His older sister, Lucie, took a  great share of the responsibility of caring for the younger children and it was  she who started them with their individual stamp albums, a hobby that  really interested Paul throughout his life. In fact, his interest in stamps and  his collection have gained momentum through the years.  Paul attended the Jesuit schools in Antwerp, but after his older  brothers left for Canada, wanderlust and curiosity of the foreign lands began,  to plague his thoughts. When his brother Mark returned home for a visit in  1909, Paul, now 17, went back to Canada with him. His first job in the new  world was picking strawberries at Lord Grey's Ranch at Boswell on  Kootenay Lake and it was here he learned to milk a cow—the Swiss method.  From there he went to Arrowhead and flunkied in the kitchen at the mill for  three months, after which he went to Winlaw and spent a year in the sawmill. A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF PAUL DUMONT 73  The next three years he spent in the sawmill at Golden, where he lived with  his brother Joe and his wife, Juliette.  In 1918 Paul was conscripted into the Canadian Army. He was  assigned as batman to Reverend Philip Casgrain, the brother of the  Secretary of State at Ottawa. It was through Father Casgrain that he  received a very special pass to visit his sisters, Tilla, Isabelle and Mieke in  July 1919. They were the only ones of the immediate family in Europe, as his  mother had died in 1912 and his father had to leave Belgium with two of the  girls during the war. They had joined the brothers in British Columbia.  After the war, Paul returned to Bridesville to work in the sawmill of  his brother Mike. It was here he took his soldier settlement land grant. In the  fall of 1919 he met Mildred Trimborn and on December 27 of that same year  they were married in Spokane, Washington. They returned to the homestead  in Bridesville where they spent their honeymoon putting siding on the log  cabin and getting acquainted with farm life. Neither one of them knew how  to raise a chicken or butcher a pig, but entered into the new endeavor with an  eagerness to learn. The neighbors were a great help, although very dubious  about the "city bride" and gave her about six months on the farm. Grandfather DuMont lived with them for the first five years and then returned to  Europe where he died three years later.  Paul and Mildred were blessed with seven children (each of which has  carried through life a baptismal name and the "family nickname").  Clement (Tom), the oldest, a physician and surgeon in St. Joseph, Missouri,  is married and has two grown daughters. Two years later Barbara was born  but a severe circulatory condition only gave her four days of life. John (Jim)  a civil engineer by profession, is now living with his wife and four children in  Oliver, and is co-partner in the DuMont Triangle Service in Osoyoos. Barbara (Bo) is now Sister M. Barbara of the Sister Servants of the Immaculate  Heart of Mary, Scranton, Pa., is now teaching in Altoona, Pa. Matthew  (Bill), never married and has remained home through the years, is now  taking care of his parents. Philip (Jack) is another John Deere man at the  Triangle Service and lives in Osoyoos with his wife and five children.  Frederick (Mackey), the youngest was born during a whooping cough  epidemic and died of respiratory complications three weeks after his birth.  Paul and Mildred lived with their family in Bridesville for 24 years,  farmed the old "Swears place" which was better known as "map on the  wall" because of the steep contour of the land. Itwas during these years that  the three brothers Paul, Hugo and Joe with other neighbors built the little  Sacred Heart Church up on Rock Mountain. Relatives from near and far  contributed and it was indeed a monument of their great faith and true piety.  The children received their first education at Rock Mountain school,  but after eighth grade, great sacrifices had to be made to further their  education. Leaving home at such tender ages was a hard ordeal for both  parents and children but created a closer bond that is found in many  families.  The years of depression found Paul taking his farm produce in the old  Model A Ford down the Anarchist Mountain road (?) and up the valley to  Penticton, or else over the narrow Richter's Pass trail to Keremeos. One of  the homey and heart-warming stops on each trip was the Triangle Service at  Osoyoos, where the Athertons had a hot cup of tea in the winter or a cold  melon in the summer. It was truly a coincidence that the Athertons wanted 74 A SHORT BIOGRAPHY OF PAUL DUMONT  to sell the triangle at the same time Paul's mother-in-law, who loved the  valley and saw great promise there, wanted him to make an investment in  some land. So the contract was signed in 1943 and the Paul DuMonts were in  Osoyoos.  The many events of these twenty-eight years in the "Valley of  Josaphat" as Paul refers to it so many times, are too many to numerate here  but the highlights include such things as three sons getting married, a  daughter leaving for the convent, building a new home, leasing the grocery  store and gas station and going into the John Deere Triangle Service with  Jack, eleven grandchildren added to the clan, a golden wedding anniversary  in 1969, and later retiring from the John Deere and turning the now-  established company over to Jim and Jack.  In 1952, Paul and his brothers and sisters reunited for a family reunion  in Keremeos. It was the first time in fifty years that the ten children had  been together as a group. It was also the last. In 1960 death began to snatch  them one by one and now Paul and Mark are the only brothers left and in  Europe, the oldest sister Tilla lives with her daughter and the youngest  sister, Sister Rosalia, is stationed in Antwerp. Paul went to Europe in 1968 to  celebrate Aunt Tilla's ninetieth birthday and in 1970 Sister Rosalia spent the  summer in British Columbia with the family.  Paul is in his eightieth year but has never lost his love for life and  activity. He is an active member of the Knights of Columbus, the Canadian  Legion, a couple of stamp clubs and has just finished five years on the parish  council at St. Ann's. He drives himself to Mass each morning. He reads  extensively and is always sorry he doesn't have more time to spend on his  stamps. He has never lost his deep and fervent faith in his God and in his  fellow-man. He and Mildred have had fifty-two years of sharing their joys  and sorrows of a large family but to quote a letter written us recently by  Paul, "We are getting on in age but I hope the good Lord gives us a few more  years together."  HANDSHAKE  I take off my gloves  In giving you my hand.  I deliver over  My right hand and my land.  I think of all the promises  You have made . . .  As long as the sun rises  And the water flows . . .  But now the treaties  Have been broken  Garbage ridden rivers continue to flow  Smogs breeze in the wind  Side by side  With nothing being done  We will go together.  Benjamin Able  Westbank Reserve A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS 75  A REPORT ON TWO OF THE EARLY  FLOUR MILLS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  By CHARLES HOWELL  of The Sleepy Hollow Restorations, Tarrytown, New York, U.S.A.  EDITOR'S NOTE: In answer to my query about his association with grist and  other mills, Charles Howell of North Tarrytown, New York, answered as  follows:  ". . . Regarding my background in the grain milling industry, my family  had for generations operated water and wind driven grain and flour mills in  the British Isles. Apart from the actual working of mills, many of my forebears  were millwrights as well. My father was well-known as a millstone-dresser and  millwright in the Midland counties of England, two of my brothers are still in  business as millers and corn merchants and run two mills that are partly  powered by water, both these mills which incidentally, are only a mile apart,  .are situated in western Staffordshire, England. I was born at Brook End Mill,  Longdon, near Rugeley, Staffordshire, the miller's house at Brook End is  directly attached to the mill, so that I was almost "born" into the grain  milling business.  At the end of 1939, just before my 14th birthday, I left school. For  nearly 30 years I spent most of my time assisting my father and brothers  in business as millers and corn merchants. Also, at times, I went out to  other mills to dress millstones and carry out repairs to machinery in water  driven mills. Largely because of difficult economic conditions prevailing in  Britain during these years, we had many ups and downs in business, successes  and failures. Two experiments with a socialist government proved disastrous  to many small business people in Britain, it was because of the unstable  political situation that caused me to look into possibilities in other countries . . ."  Mr. Howell is a member of the Newcomen Society and the Society for the  Protection of Old Buildings (Wind and Water Mill Section) both of Great  Britain.  On June 9th, 1971, I had the pleasure of inspecting the Barrington  Price-Henry Nicholson grist mill at Keremeos which began milling flour in  1877. The mill building, which is still in good condition, is of hewn, squared  logs and was the first grist mill in the Southern Interior of British Columbia.  It was built by Barrington Price, an Englishman, who came with his partner  Henry Nicholson, to the Similkameen Valley in 1872. They leased the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Keremeos as a cattle ranch just after it had been  abandoned by the Company.  The Victoria Colonist, August 21st, 1877, reported:— "Barrington  Price will start his flour mill on the Similkameen River in two or three  weeks." Until the mill began operations, the flour used in the Similkameen  and Osoyoos was brought from Colville in the United States.  The mill changed hands about 1885 when John H. Coulthard bought it.  The late Mrs. Haliburton Tweddle related that she used the flour from  the mill after she came to Keremeos as a bride in 1895. From somewhat  sketchy records, the mill ceased operation shortly after 1896.  At the time of my visit the upper floor of the mill was being used as a studio  by Mr. Weldon Munden, an artist, who lives nearby. The lower floor was a  jumble of many odd pieces of machinery, to sort all these "milling artifacts"  out, would probably take a day or two. However, in the limited time  available, I was able to make the following observations regarding the  possible layout of the mill machinery.  The position of the water wheel was at the end of the building farthest 76 A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS  from the road, this is the opposite end to which the stream now runs. This  position of the wheel is evidenced by the round hole in the wall of the mill  building, through which the water wheel shaft passed, and also by the  shingles fastened to the wall to prevent the splashing water from seeping  through the wall when the wheel was at work. Lying near to the former  position of the water wheel is part of the wheel's wooden shaft, this is still  complete with the outside gudgeon. The gudgeon is the iron insert fitted in  the ends of wooden shafts to run on the bearings. The water wheel was said to  have been in position as recently as eleven or twelve years ago, and to have  been overshot. It was of wooden construction, probably about ten to twelve  feet in diameter and about five feet wide. The water to power the wheel  would have come from a diversion higher up the Keremeos Creek and would  probably flow along a head-race on an embankment. From the head-race the  water would be conveyed on to the top of the wheel by a wooden trough or  flume. The power from the water wheel was transmitted into the mill  building by the wooden shaft of the wheel. Probably on this shaft inside the  building, was a wooden spur gear wheel which engaged into a pinion on a  counter shaft, the speed of which would have been increased according to the  ratio of the gear wheels. On the counter shaft would be a pulley, or pulleys,  so that the power would be transmitted by flat leather belts to a further line  shaft and possibly direct to some of the machinery.  On the lower floor is a complete vertical type "Eureka" grain  cleaning, scouring and smut machine. This was manufactured by Howes,  Babcock and Company, Silver Creek, Chautauqua County, New York State.  The function of this machine was to thoroughly clean and aspirate the grain  prior to grinding. Messrs. Howes, Babcock and Company, which is now the  S. Howes Company, still manufacture machinery for the grain milling industry in these modern times. In an advertisement in a milling trade journal  published in 1876, the company claimed that the "Eureka" Smut and  Separating Machine was:— "Still Triumphant," "9,000 machines sold in  eleven years, and at the present time more Eurekas sold than all other Smut  and Separating Machines combined. This fact alone establishes its  superiority over all others. The sale of the Eureka extends to every State in  the Union, Canada, and every country in Europe, South America, and in fact  to every country on the globe where there is wheat to be ground."  Looking upstream, to the left of the Eureka grain cleaner is an in  complete machine fitted with stone rollers which have horizontal lines cut  intothem. These rollers rotated against concave-shaped stone sections, so as  to give a grinding action. This stone roller-concave type of grain grinding  mill was manufactured by Jones, Ballard and Ball, of Louisville, Kentucky  and termed "The James Jones New Process Mill," it was patented May 6th,  1879.  Amongst the jumble of odd pieces of machinery lying around the lower  floor, is the wooden screw or "worm" type conveyor which had been fitted in  the hopper-shaped base of a cylindrical or hexagonal flour dressing reel.  Part of, or possibly the whole of the main wooden shaft for the reel is on the  upper floor of the mill. This shaft is still complete with the section fitted with  the paddles which formed a short screw conveyor, this fed the wheat-meal  into the head of the reel. Flour dressing reels were up to 20 feet long and  about 30 inches in diameter, they were constructed with short spokes, or  arms, which radiated from the central shaft. On the outer edge of the spokes  were wood slats laid  lengthwise.  These slats were rounded and closer A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS 77  together in the case of a cylindrical reel and there were six lengthwise slats  for an hexagonal reel. This light wooden framework was covered with silken  cloths of three different degrees of fineness. The finest was at the head end of  the reel and the coarsest at the foot or tail end. The reel was tilted slightly; at  the head end it was higher than the foot. When the reel was slowly revolving,  the wheat meal was fed in at the head end. The finest particles went through  the fine meshed cloth at the head section. Through the center section of the  reel, which was covered with a coarser cloth, went some of the material left  over from the first section of the reel and some larger particles making up  the middlings. The product going through the coarsest cloth nearest the foot  was called shorts or sharps. The remaining coarse particles or bran passed  out of the reel at its lower end.  Hexagonal reels gave a more positive sifting process because of the  tumbling action created by the revolving six flat sides. The reel at Keremeos  would probably have been enclosed in a chest.  There were, of course, many variations in the size and design of  dressing reels. Some made only one separation, the cloth being of uniform  mesh. The flour which passed through the cloth was delivered by the screw  conveyor to a spout at the tail end of the reel. Everything which did not pass  through the cloth was passed out of the lower end of the reel, this unsorted  coarse byproduct was sometimes known as overtails or straight-run mill  offals.  On the upper floor of Keremeos Mill is a steel fluted conical type grain  grinding machine, almost like a large coffee mill, this was manufactured by  Barford and Perkins, of Grantham, England.  There is evidence of several sets of bucket type elevators having been  fitted in the mill, some of the buckets are lying around the lower floor.  Bucket elevators of the type used at Keremeos, consisted of an endless  leather belt revolving over a top pulley and under a bottom pulley at a speed  of about 25 revolutions per minute. Sheet iron buckets about one foot apart  were fastened at intervals to the belt. The belt and buckets were confined in  vertical, closed, wooden spouts each of which had one or more glass windows  or doors in them, for inspection and repair purposes. These spouts were  usually called "elevator legs" and were just large enough to permit the  buckets to operate freely in them. The buckets filled themselves as they  passed under the lower pulley and emptied as they went over the upper  pulley. These buckets held about a quart or less of grain or meal and would  elevate about 300 bushels of these materials per hour. In this manner the  grain or meal could be moved vertically in the mill as required.  Although possibly some of the conventional type of millstones may  have been used at Keremeos, there is no definite evidence of this. Certainly  flour could have been produced with the existing type of machinery when  this was in a complete condition.  The working "flow" of the mill could have been as follows. The wheat  would be received in sacks through the entrance door on the upper floor.  After weighing, the wheat would be tipped into a bin to feed the Eureka grain  cleaning machine on the floor below. As the cleaned grain emerged from the  cleaner, it would feed into bucket elevators which would deliver the grain  into a bin above the steel-fluted mill on the upper floor. The wheat would then  pass through the steel mill, the resulting wheat meal would be of rather a  coarse sample and would go via a spout through the floor into the James  Jones New Process Mill for further grinding. After the grinding treatment 78  A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS  The Cairn  at the site   of  the   Brent  Grist  Mill  erected  by  the   Rutland  Centennial Committee on August 10, 1958.  Eric Sismey photo  between the sets of lined stone rollers and concaves, the wheat meal would  be quite fine and would then be delivered by a further set of bucket elevators,  to a bin or hopper above the head end of the flour dressing reel. The products  from the various separations would fall between the divides into the hopper-  shaped base of the reel's chest. The wooden screw conveyor in this base  would deliver the flour and ground materials to the spouts placed under the  divides for the different separations.  The finished flour, middlings and shorts would fall into sacks fastened  under the appropriate spouts. The bran passing out of the reel would also  collect into a spout for sacking purposes. The byproducts from the flour  manufacture, namely; the middlings, shorts and bran would be used for  animal feeding. A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS 79  THE    BRENT   MILL,   KELOWNA  On Thursday June 10th, 1971, the day following the enjoyable visit to  Keremeos, my companions and I visited the Brent Mill which is situated at  The Old Mill Ranch, R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C. The Rev. Everett S. Fleming, the  present owner of Brent's Mill, met us there and told us quite a lot about the  mill as he remembered it in the early years of this century.  The early history of the mill was described in the following article  written by Joseph Brent, the son of the mill's founder. This article was  published by The Okanagan Historical Society, in its Sixth Report, page 27,  in 1935.  The first grist mill, equipped with a stone for grinding, was owned by  my father, the late Frederick Brent, of Okanagan Mission. Previous to the  introduction of this mill, my father had a small steel mill which he packed  over the trail from Hope.  The stone grist mill was bought in San Francisco and came by water to  Fort Yale (Fraser River), thence by team to Savona's Ferry and by water to  Fortune's Landing (now Enderby). This was about the year 1871.  I was with my father when he went to bring the stone in. We had a  team and home-made wagon, the wheels of which were hewn from a solid  block. We brought the mill in the wagon from Fortune's Landing to  Okanagan Landing. There was no wagon road then to Okanagan Mission, sc  it was brought down the lake in a rowboat, by an Indian named Nitasket. The  wagon and rowboat were both owned by the late Luc Girouard.  The mill was erected on my father's pre-emption claim and was  driven by water from Mill Creek. Three grades of flour were produced, one-  third of the grist being the toll usually taken by my father for grinding the  grain. Most of the wheat was brought to the mill on pack horses by Indians,  who usually paid in horses, buckskin and other things, for the grinding of  their wheat.  Wheat was brought to the mill from as far as Keremeos and Osoyoos,  and as far north as Okanagan Landing at the head of the lake. When there  was a sufficient supply of grain, the mill would run from the time the ice  went out of Mill Creek in the Spring until it formed again in November,  grinding about a ton of wheat in a run of 24 hours.  Once a year the mill picks for dressing the stones, for sharpening and  tempering were sent to San Francisco. This continued to be done until about  the year 1885, when a blacksmith's shop was built in Vernon.  The article by Joseph Brent was supplied to the writer by Mr. Eric D.  Sismey, of 1348 Government Street, Penticton, the Vice President of The  Okanagan Historical Society. Mr. Sismey added these comments with  regards to the visits to the mill by the Indians: —  "Indians made a great holiday of the visits to the grist mill. Those  coming from afar, Osoyoos for example 75-80 miles, came with families and  horses. The families visited, raced their horses, gambled at their game —  the stick game — (c-chil-ell-kum). A hunt the button sort of a game. Many  lost their shirts. The game is lots of fun. I have played it in the old days with  Indians."  A more recent history of the mill was given in an open letter written by  the Rev. Everett S. Fleming shortly after repairs had been carried out to the  building in 1967, this reads: — 80 A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS  To: Neighbours, Friends and Well-wishers of the Old Brent Mill.  Greeting:  Now that the new roof of hand-split cedar shakes has proved its ability  to protect and prolong the life of this ancient landmark in the Okanagan, I  am writing to say a word of thanks to each and all who assisted in this  project.  I wish that words could be found to express my personal appreciation  and satisfaction in the completion of this venture originated by Mr. Tom  Varney. But to say "Thanks a Million" is too trite, but none the less true. The  hundreds of visitors who have called to see this original mill building — the  first industrial plant in the Okanagan, erected in 1871, and the house of the  same age — are amazed at the ingenuity and foresight and the ability of the  builders of one hundred years ago.  Thanks to your practical interest and concern the mill building, which  is some forty by thirty-two feet, will long stand as a symbol of the resourceful skill of our earliest pioneers. Remember this ranch was established  fifteen years prior to the incorporation of the City of Vancouver in 1886, and  more than twenty years before the incorporation of Kelowna. There were  other buildings in the valley at an earlier date, but none others remain which  have served continuously over the past hundred years.  The many visitors we have had all attest to the lasting interest in these  historic buildings erected in 1871 by Frederick Brent and his men, sold to Mr.  J. Davis about 1893. Mr. John Dilworth bought the ranch of more than 2,000  acres in 1900. In 1908 the northern portion of 87 acres, including the ranch  buildings, was purchased by my father, Wm. H. Fleming. He, in turn, sold it  in 1926 to Mr. John Gervers, who occupied the home for thirty-four years. In  I960 I had the opportunity to purchase the last 7% acres and to re-enter the  old home after an absence of over forty years.  Again my sincere thanks and an invitation to come and see us  sometime.  (Rev.)  Everett S. Fleming,  The Old Mill Ranch,  R.R. 2, Kelowna, B.C.  To the left of the mill building as approached from the road, is the  Cairn erected by Rutland Centennial Committee, August 10th, 1958. The  plaque on the Cairn gives a brief history of the mill.  However, none of the notes regarding the history of the mill, give any  indication as to the layout of the machinery. During the short time I was at  Brent's Mill I was able to make the following observations.  The frame mill building is clad with vertical boards and is in good  condition. All the machinery and milling equipment has gone. The water  wheel, which was sited on the right-hand end of the mill as approached from  the road, was according to the Rev. Fleming, overshot. If this was so, the  wheel must have been quite small. The diameter of overshot water wheels is  always determined by the "working-fall" available, which at Brent's Mill  does not appear to have been any more than around eight feet, probably less.  In which case the wheel could have only been five or six feet in diameter and  perhaps about the same in width. If time could be taken to ascertain the level  of the head-race as opposed to the tail-race, a more accurate estimation of  the water wheel's size could be given. The course of the head-race can be  traced alongside the fence which runs from the water wheel end of the mill A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS 81  towards upstream of the Mill Creek. It is most likely that higher up the  stream a sluice gate or weir diverted the flow of water into the head-race  which then fed into a wooden trough or flume. The flume would direct the  water on to the top of the water wheel, a gate or "shut" at the wheel end of  the flume would be fitted so as to start or stop the water wheel and also to  regulate the amount of flow. As the water discharged from the wheel it  would then flow down the tail-race into the lower part of the Mill Creek.  There is very little left to give any clues as to the layout of the milling  machinery. The water wheel shaft would pass through the wall of the  building, on the inside part of the shaft there was probably either a bevel or a  spur gear wheel fitted. This gear wheel would engage into a pinion fitted on a  line shaft, the speed of which would be increased in relation to the slow speed  of the water wheel shaft according to the ratio of the gear wheel to the pinion.  On the line shaft would be pulleys so as to drive the various machines by flat  leather belts. Alternatively, the power transmission from the water wheel  could have been entirely by flat leather belts. On the water wheel shaft inside the building there may have been a large pulley from which a leather  belt would drive onto a small pulley connected to a line shaft. The speed of  this line shaft would be increased from the slow rotation of the water wheel  shaft according to the variation in the size of the pulleys used.  The Rev. Fleming said that the millstones were positioned in the  basement of the lean-to section of the building. These millstones are now on  display at the Kelowna Museum and I had the opportunity to inspect these  stones on the evening prior to my visit to Brent's Mill. Just as Mr. Joseph  Brent described them, these millstones are in fact a complete Stone Mill.  This type of stone mill was portable and could easily be set up at a mill or  farm in a remote country district. They could be driven by a flat belt  utilizing any type of power unit, for example; water, wind, animal "jenny-  ring" or a steam engine. The stones in this portable mill are known as  French Burr, this stone is a freshwater quartz and was quarried in the  Marne Valley in Northern France, near the town of Chalons. The stone from  these quarries became world-famous for manufacturing millstones that  were noted for producing a good wheat flour and blocks of this French stone  were exported to many countries. Usually, French millstones are built up in  sections and are bound with iron bands to prevent bursting when in  operation, the top of upper stones and the bottom of lower stones are usually  smoothed over with Plaster of Paris.  The working arrangement of the millstones in Brent's Stone Mill, was  that the lower stone revolved and the upper stone was in a stationary, fixed  position, this type of mill is known as an under-runner mill. The revolving  lower stone is keyed onto a vertical shaft, which is usually called the spindle.  Between the stone and the footstep bearing of the spindle is fitted the belt  pulley to receive the drive. The footstep bearing is adjustable vertically so  as to raise or lower the spindle, this in turn, adjusts the clearance between  the grinding faces of the stones so that the meal can be made finer or coarser  as required. There is a small hand wheel on the Brent Mill for this purpose,  this hand wheel is threaded and lifts or lowers an iron stem which is connected by a small iron lever to the base of the footstep bearing. The  millstones are quite small having a working face of only about fifteen inches  diameter, the best operational speed for these small stones would be around  500 revolutions per minute and the power required would be about four horse  power. The grain was fed into the millstones through the central hole, or eye, 82 A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS  in the upper stone. The feed mechanism is not complete, but probably this  was vibratory. As the lower stone revolved it also turned a "damsel," this is  a small square shaft or a round shaft with ribs attached. In this case the  damsel would be about 15 inches long and would protrude upwards through  the eye of the upper stone into a bearing on the hopper frame. The hopper,  supported by its frame, which is sometimes called the "horse," would  receive the grain via a spout from a bin positioned above. At the base of the  hopper would bean adjustable slide that controlled the amount of grain to be  fed into the "shoe," a slightly inclined tapering trough which would hang  loosely from the hopper frame. As the damsel revolved, the corners or ribs  would tap against the shoe so as to cause the grain to trickle down the incline  into the eye of the stones. The grain would pass between the stones, be  ground into meal and pass out at the edge of the revolving lower stone which  was probably fitted with a tag known as a sweeper. The sweeper would force  the meal round to the spout hole where it would discharge. The damsel was  so named because it made more noise than any other equipment in the mill,  and by contrast, the feed arrangements for the Brent Mill could have also  been what is known as a silent feed. This was simply a metal funnel or tube,  which was attached to the base of the hopper or a spout and fed the grain  direct into the eye of the stones. The tube had a slide or valve fitted into it so  that the amount of feed could be regulated. (See note regarding millstones)  In one of the window sills is part of a Howes "Eureka" or similar type  of grain cleaner, so that it is most likely a grain cleaner of this type was  used.  The Rev. Fleming said that he remembered the dressing reel being in  position on the upper floor. This was probably very similar to the one used at  Keremeos, and would be clothed with silks of varying meshes to produce the  three grades of flour as mentioned by Joseph Brent.  There is scant evidence of bucket elevators and there was probably a  sack hoist driven by water power.  It seems that the working "flow" of Brent's Mill could have been as  follows. The wheat was hoisted in sacks to the upper floor, from the sacks the  wheat would be tipped into a bin above the grain cleaner. After passing  through the cleaner the wheat would feed into bucket elevators which would  deliver the grain into a bin above the millstones. The wheat meal produced  by the stones would discharge into a further set of elevators and be delivered  to a bin above the head end of the dressing reel. The finished flour and wheat  offals would then fall into the sacks below the reel.  On one of the walls inside the building is an impression made by one of  the stencils for marking the flour sacks or barrels. This was no doubt  brushed on the wall at the time the mill was in operation. The impression  reads in a circular form:— "BRENT MILLS FAMILY FLOUR" with the  brand quality stated in the center of the circle.  From a general viewpoint, it seems that both mills were somewhat of  a temporary nature. Both were built by early settlers to supply their immediate needs, as the country became more populated and systems of  transport were improved, the need for small local mills declined. However,  both mills certainly played a great part in establishing the way of life for the  European settlers in this area of British Columbia.  It seems most desirable that both mills should at least be preserved in  their present form, and if at all possible, restored to operating condition.  Future generations would then be able to view the methods used to produce A REPORT ON TWO EARLY FLOUR MILLS 83  flour by the hardy pioneers who settled in what was then a rough and rugged  country.  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I was first informed of the existence of the Keremeos Mill by Mrs. Carolyn  Smyly, of the Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C. On my behalf, Mrs. Smyly contacted  Mr. T. R. Broadland, of the Historic Parks and Sites Division, The Department of  Recreation and Conservation of The Government of the Province of British Columbia.  Mr. Broadland was most co-operative and spent two days of his valuable time in driving  me over to these somewhat remote areas where the mills are situated. For historical  and general information I am indebted to Mr. Eric D. Sismey, 1348 Government Street,  Penticton, B.C. Mr. Sismey wrote letters telling me all that was generally known about  the mills and supplied me with some excellent photographs. I wish to express my  thanks to these people for all their help which made this interesting trip to Keremeos  and Kelowna possible.  Charles Howell,  381 Bellwood Avenue,  North Tarrytown,  New York, 10591.  March 1972.  NOTE  The more usual arrangement for millstones built into the floors of mill buildings,  is for the upper stone (the runner) to revolve, and the lower stone (the bedstone), to be  fixed in a stationary position. The most popular size for this arrangement of millstones  is around four feet diameter.  My name is Quilchinhin Sewhilkan  I am 85 years old.  I tel I the story of my people. Time began.  Seven gifts—life sustaining—given to us.  Deer—All that walk on four feet These were given to us.  Fish—all that swim  These were given to us.  Fowl—all that fly  These were given to us.  Roots—all that grow under the soil  These were given to us.  Berries—all that grow above the soil  These were given to us.  From the waters flowing,  Through her wondrous cycles,  The sustinance of each.  Over all; The Celestial Being,  The Sun and the Moon,  Radiate life and light,  And all flourish.  I stood on the axis of the earth.  The golden sunshine earth.  The land in my outstretched palms.  His to rule at his discretion.  I to protect—to utilize.  Now we stand silent  As our ageless gift  Is wrenched from our hands.  Translation from the original Okanagan language of George Lezard's  speech to Queen Elizabeth 11 at the Peach Bowl, Penticton, May 5,1971. 84  JAMES    DONALD   WHITHAM  JAMES DONALD WHITHAM  1899- 1972  By DOROTHY J.  ZOELLNER  James Donald Whitham, son of the late Charles Alfred and Janet  Catherine Agnes Whitham, was born on July 26, 1899 at Westmount, Quebec.  In April, 1912, the family moved to the Glenmore area of Kelowna, where  they built a home on a newly planted  twenty acre orchard, adjacent to the  present Kelowna Golf Course.  Donald received his early  education at Westmount Academy  and Roslyn Avenue School. He  graduated from Kelowna High  School and, in November 1916, apprenticed to the firm of Trench and  Currie. In 1921, he graduated from  the B.C School of Pharmacy and  Science as Pharmacist and Chemist.  Following his graduation from  the B.C. School of Pharmacy, he  worked for J. M. White in Vancouver. However, because of his  father's illness, he returned to duties  on the orchard, doing relief work in  Armstrong and Vernon in the offseason.  On March 23, 1924, Charles  Whitham passed away. In 1927,  Donald was employed by the old  firm of P. B. Willits and Company  with P. B. Willits and Alex McKay, partners. He continued to work for this  firm until 1935, when in partnership with G. A. Elliott, he bought out the firm  of W. R. Trench, Limited. In August, 1964, Donald Whitham sold his interest  in the business to Mr. Elliott.  However, he remained active in pharmacy, doing relief work in Grand  Forks, Revelstoke, Vernon, Lumby and Nakusp as well as at Kelowna  General Hospital and for Kelowna pharmacists Doug Taylor, L. A. Snook, A.  Gatzke and B. A. Gant until ill-health forced him to relinquish this work.  Indeed, he was active in his chosen field of pharmacy for fifty years and held  active membership in the B.C. Pharmaceutical Association and the  Canadian Pharmaceutical Association, Incorporated.  On March 1, 1967, in recognition of his service, he was made an  Honorary Member of the Pharmaceutical Association of British Columbia.  The following year, 1968, he received the A. H. Robins Bowl of Hygeia  Award, for "outstanding service to his profession and community over the  years." In connection with this award, in October of 1968, he represented his  fellow pharmacists of B.C. at Richmond, Virginia.  Besides his professional interests, he enjoyed sports. In his younger  years, he played hockey, baseball and tennis. Later, he was an enthusiastic  curler, a director of the Kelowna Curling Club. He was also President of the  James Donald Whitham JAMES   DONALD   WHITHAM 85  Kelowna Lawn Bowling Club. He participated in Lawn Bowling in B.C. in  Vancouver, and, in 1940, skipped his rink to win the Jenkinson Trophy. In  1955, Donald Whitham was Honorary President of the B.C. Lawn Bowling  Association, and on his retirement was made an Honorary Life Member of  fhe Kelowna Lawn Bowling Club.  He was always keenly interested in service to his community, and  endeavoured to do his share in this regard. To this end, he was a member of  the Junior Board of Trade and the Board of Trade, of which he was President  in 1945. He was Chairman of the Kelowna Retail Merchants, a Director of the  Kelowna Creamery, a Director of the Okanagan Mission Fire Auxiliary, a  member of the Kelowna Club and President in 1942.  The Kelowna Gyro Club was formed in 1924, and Donald was a Charter  Member, becoming President in 1941. The Gyro Club presented him with an  Honorary Life Membership in 1966.  For many years, he was also a member and then Chairman of the local  Sea Cadet Corps Grenville. He was on the executive of the B.C. Mainline  Division of the Navy League of Canada, and while Vice-Chairman,  represented the B.C. Division at Toronto in 1950.  His two main hobbies were photography and the study of the history of  the Okanagan. Numbers of his photographs found their way to many homes  and were used by the news media. Indeed, he was never happier than when  he was working in his dark room.  In his other hobby, history, Donald was a keen member of the  Okanagan Historical Society and President from 1955 to 1958 inclusive as  well as being on the executive of the Kelowna Branch. In 1967 he was made  an Honorary Life Member of the O.H.S. He was also interested in the  museum and was an executive member of that organization. In 1951, he  attended the organizational meeting of the Cariboo Historical Society in  Quesnel, and became a charter member of the C.H.S. In addition, he was a  member of the Boundary Historical Society, interested in the intertwining of  the histories of the Okanagan and the Boundary country. Much of his  historical research was done on the history of the Okanagan Lake boats.  On June 18, 1928, Donald Whitham married Florence Bartlett  Clements, daughter of J. H. Clements of Peachland. They had two children,  a son James Gordon of Calgary and a daughter, Dorothy Jean (Mrs. W. J.  Zoellner) of Nelson, B.C.  James Donald Whitham passed away on April 3, 1972. Besides his  loving wife, son and daughter, he is survived by four grandchildren,  Deborah and Paul Whitham of Calgary and Garnet and Reay Zoellner of  Nelson.  Services were held from St. Michael and All Angels' Church, Kelowna  on ApriI 6 with Archbishop Godfrey Gower officiating, interment following in  the Kelowna Cemetery. Honorary pallbearers were Dr. A. S. Underhill, John  Galbraith, Robert Whillis, N. E. DeHart, H. K. Keating and G. D. Cameron.  Active pallbearers were David Chapman, R. G. Whillis, Richard Sharp, Ben  Gant and his two grandsons, Garnet and Reay Zoellner.  Although I have listed all his more tangible achievements I think I  remember my Dad best in his association with others. He enjoyed people,  and in his dealings with people, nothing was ever too much trouble for him.  Well I remember him going down to the store in all weather and at all hours,  Sundays or holidays, putting up a prescription for a sick baby, an old friend  or someone he didn't even know, and then delivering the medicine per- JAMES   DONALD   WHITHAM  86  °      , reoiacement to enable the entertainment to continue.  !o me Dad ts best described in the sentiment of the lines:  He does not pass this way in vain,  if by his actions, he has helped his fellow man.  —Dorothy J. Zoellner  ■H-"^"^*^TM^- Eric Sismey photo  The present church on the Incameep Indian Reserve was built f^lf°  replace an older log structure, sod roofed and windowless. £•*»»*.  new church, donated by Mrs. John Carmichael Haynes around 1880 was  moved from the old to the new structure. See:-OHS 25th Report pp 76-77;  OHS 28th Report pp94-95.  ^ITOR'S NOTE—Incameep can also be written >N-kan-eep' and translated thus 'N equals on  or atVkan meaning head' a'nd the last syllable >eeP meanding end'. W-head-end . THE    BIG   HOUSE 87  THE BIG HOUSE  By MYRA  DeBECK  In the 12th report of the Okanagan Historical Society there is an article "Price  Ellison, A Memorial" by his daughter Myra K. DeBeck. Price Ellison, a Minister in the  McBride government, is a name in provincial history that will ever be remembered and  loved by those who knew him.  In this, the 36th report, his daughter, Myra, has written the story of his house; one  of the last baronial mansions.  I knew Price Ellison. He was the type of man one instinctively calls Sir. He listened  to me, a teen-aged English boy. He gave me my first job in a survey party to Strathcona  Park. Price Ellison, a forward thinking man, appreciated the beauties of Buttle and Campbell  Lakes, the river between, music of running water, the hush of deep forest and the snow  crowned encircling mountains. He realized long before others the importance of keeping,  unsullied, this beauty spot for the people to enjoy.  Alas his dream was shattered by succeeding politicians who thought, and still think,  only in terms of newsprint and kilowatts.  Strathcona Park, which could well have rivalled Yosemite was destroyed, its lakes  dammed, its timber ravished and the beauties of the river, its pools and riffles drowned.  There are few left who can realize what Strathcona Park could and should have been.  His daughter, Myra, is one; she was there in 1910, a creek is named for her. And I  can remember too.—E.D.S.  On an unremembered date in 1892, The Vernon News carried a local  item "Judge Spinks is building a fine new home on Pleasant Valley Road."  Fifteen years later the Judge retired, and though we had intended to build on  a site at Kalamalka Lake, Father bought the house in 1907.  The house is set on roughly five acres and is some distance from the  street with a front and back drive. There is also a stable drive, though the  stable has since burned down. It contained a carriage house, eight stalls for  horses, a harness room, granary and hay loft. There was also, behind the  house, a chicken house, ice house and huge vegetable and fruit garden.  Several areas were left as pastures or alfalfa fields for the horses and cow.  An apple orchard was to the north, and cherry trees in the south pasture. It  was a fairly self-sustaining small farm, with produce just for home consumption.  Before we moved in, in 1908, my mother had various alterations made  to adapt it to the needs of her family with their cousins, their school and  col lege friends and the more formal entertaining father wanted to do.  The house had been designed by a good English architect, and no  changes have been made to the layout of the principal rooms. They are  charming and spacious with high ceilings and many windows.  The most impressive room is the hall. Climbing the porch steps and  entering the front door, one passes through a vestibule leading to this large  and handsome room where a gently rising staircase curves gracefully upward. After the main ascent, a landing circles the lower hall until further  steps continue and lead to a large upper hall. The stairwell is a perfect place  for the Christmas tree which is usually at least sixteen feet high and easily  decorated from various spots on the landing and stairs. As the tall tree can  also be enjoyed from the upstairs hall, we always feel especially lucky.  Below and above the landing, the windows are very attractive with their  leaded panes and faintly tinted glass. Above the landing, they extend almost  to the ceiling and take up most of the east wall. In the lower hall they are  circled by window seats. The fireplace is large with a handsome tiered 88 THE    BIG    HOUSE  mantle which matches the stairs and panelling.  The drawing room is a sunny western room with a low window and  window seats. Its door leads to the same verandah which therefore has both  south and west exposures, a lovely place for afternoon tea or evening  relaxation. The fireplace in the drawing room is of bird's eye maple with an  elaborate over-mantle which holds some choice pieces of china and  cloisonne. Shortly after we came, a Baldwin piano was acquired to match  the mantle and to replace mother's previous one, a French one of walnut  with candle brackets which had come around Cape Horn sealed in a lead  case. We had all had lessons from mother on the old one, but it was wearing  out.  The drawing room was the setting for many musical evenings over the  years, sometimes, long ago, gay parties of young people singing the  operettas of the season such as "The Merry Widow," "The Chocolate  Soldier," or "The Arcadians." Sometimes there were more formal parties  with vocalists, string groups or a piano soloist.  These two rooms and also the dining room and den have never been  altered.  The whole house was a delight to live in; brightand airy, the bedrooms  spacious and the exposure good. The kitchen on the east is pleasant for  morning work and the drawing room on the west was pleasant for afternoon  tea. Adjoining the den on the south-east corner is a sun room.  Of our six.fireplaces, four have beautiful and interesting tiles. One  visitor expressed special interest in them because, he said, in 1892 they could  not have been made in Canada and would probably have come from  Belgium.  Some extensive changes were made in 1913 when two bathrooms were  added and the old kitchen was extended to almost double its size and became  the breakfast room. It had a service hatch through which Kee, our Chinese  cook, could pass in food. There was a new kitchen, a room for the gardeners  to eat, a cool room for the ice boxes and chilling of milk, a pantry and a  scullery.  In 1932 we had a disastrous fire and the whole top of the house burned.  It had contained several bedrooms, storerooms and an open area where  sewing was done and we had a mangle for ironing.  We will always regret many losses in the fire, especially a trunk my  mother brought from Illinois in 1884 containing, among other things, her  wedding costume, a two-piece garnet velvet. Several trunks of hats were  also lost. There was a store room which was a treasure trove of antiques,  among them a very old grandfather clock which father had brought from  England. It had special chimes like a pipe organ but was in the attic until  someone could be found to put it together. One bedroom was completely  destroyed with its furniture and clothing. Other furniture, though damaged  to different degrees, was sufficiently restored to be useable. As the family no  longer needed the extra bedrooms, the upper storey was not replaced and we  no longer have our third floor, just a large open attic. Some of the back part  of the house was remodelled and again, the kitchen. The house has been  heated by wood, coal, sawdust and now gas. My brother remembers the  furnace coming from the National Hotel.  Children have always been fascinated by the house, and especially the  various stairs. Since there is also a back stair, they soon learn they can-run  up one and down the other. They also love the attic stairs which pull down THE    BIG   HOUSE 89  while the trap door goes up. Finally, there is a trap door to the cellar which  seems mysterious with earthen floors, rough stone walls and a tunnel or two.  On family occasions they sometimes sit on the landing or upper hall and  dangle their legs through the bannisters.  When we bought the house, we also bought some of the Judge's furniture and more was acquired in Victoria. For many years, an occasional  attractive piece or pieces would become available from some young  Englishman or English family, sometimes because they didn't have a house  to put them in or because they were returning to England.  Both my parents had remarkably good taste. Father was especially  fond of Sheffield plate, and both loved copper and brass. They would occasionally see a picture or a bit of bric-a-brac which they liked or an oriental  rug which they felt was just what they wanted. I think they were governed  more by beauty or desirability than the value of a piece as an antique.  In 1909 or 1910, father and mother made a trip to England. After his  official business in London as the representative of the B.C. government,  they went down to Shropshire where Father had been asked to do some  electioneering and mother found some charming Sheraton furniture which  they brought home.  After I became a widow in 1929, I brought some of my things here, and  after the fire I found that more of them could find a home. The furniture in  our B.X. home was largely bought from the Belgiums, and there were some  fine and valuable pieces. One of these is a carved oak cellarette which shows  the Spanish influence, so is very old.  Judge Spinks laid out lawns and gardens and his selection of trees,  shrubs and perennials was very desirable. On the front drive were American  oak, black walnut and cork elms, and nearer the house, acacias and honey  locusts. There was a delightful shrubbery with a path through from the front  lawn to the drive. An interesting feature was a Japanese barberry hedge  running up the stable drive which was given to the Judge by Sir Henri de  Lotbinie, then Lieut.-Governor of B.C. This was the first barberry in the  area, and seedlings have been passed around freely from it.  Mother was an ardent gardener and all the gardens and lawns to the  east, behind the house, and north along both sides of the back drive were  planted by her. There are shrubs all along the fence line and we have seven  varieties of lilac. Later plantings have been lime trees, ash, mountain ash,  larch, juniper, Norway maples and sugar maples. We had a great variety of  fruit trees, butter nuts and all small fruits. We love our native trees and  shrubs and have fir, spruce, cedar and silver birch. Oregon grape and  syringa are in abundance.  The Judge had the first parrot tulips, and some of them still survive.  He also had some fine peonies from Kelway's in England, and we have added  others since. For years mother had a notable bed of Japanese iris, but as  these require an abundance of water, and also have to be lifted each year, we  finally lost them. She had other iris and a variety of dahlias. Sweet peas had  special attention with a trench dug, well manured at the bottom. Just before  we moved to this house, an old-timer visited us. He was Mr. Lyons, an Irish  gentleman, who had a place in the Swan Lake area. On his return to Ireland,  he sent mother 100 rose bushes and they received a new and special bed in  front of the sweet peas. We had many other perennials and biennials, and of  course, all the popular annuals.  A special treasure in our garden is English honeysuckle. The original 90 THE    BIG    HOUSE  vines were brought from England to Lansdown by C F. Costerton and his  brother, but ours were given to mother by Dr. Offerhouse, also of Lansdown.  It layers readily, and mother shared it freely. Judge Spinks was one of the  recipients, so it was already in our new home. Mother rejoiced in sharing  things from her garden. A special friend, Mrs. J. L. Jack, of the B.X. district  called her "The Godmother of my garden." Mother loved bulbs, and for  some years sent to Hoi land for large orders. This was before the industry got  a start in B.C. Our spring garden, under the oaks and walnut on our front  drive was noted for the great variety and beauty of its bulbs.  The lawns surrounding the house are spacious. Steps lead from the  porch outside the drawing room door to a grassy terrace flanked by acacia  trees. A stone wall supports this and steps lead down to a lawn tennis court  which the Judge laid out. The tennis court is surrounded by a spirea hedge  with an occasional red hawthorne growing out of it. As the deep pink and  white blossoms flower simultaneously, it is a beautiful sight in the spring.  For some years, the tennis court has been just a lawn, but was often the  favorite meeting place of young people for romps on summer evenings. The  air rang with merriment as they played "kick the can" and other games. At  onetime, itwas also used for sports by the girls of St. Michael's school which  was then in the Lefroy house across the road from us on 37th Avenue, or  Hillhead as we then called it.  At the top of the stone steps there was, for many years, a brass can.  non, the delight of every small boy who saw it. It was surplus from earlier  fortifications in Esquimalt, and we used to keep our tennis balls in the  barrel, out of the rain. We could remove the plug and tip them out. During  the Second World War it was stolen, probably for scrap.  The house has seen many weddings. Most of these have been church  weddings followed by a reception here. The first of these would have been  Maisie Spinks, niece of the Judge, to Mr. G. Alers Hankey. The biggest must  have been my sister Ellen's to Rev. A. H. Sovereign of St. Mark's Church,  Vancouver. A large marquee covered the tennis court, and close to 250  people sat down to a fine luncheon ending with toasts and champagne. As the  spirea was in full bloom, and the acacias newly out, the setting was  beautiful. The hall staircase also makes a lovely setting for the bride to  descend, or throw her bouquet, and I can recall six other weddings here.  Many family christenings have been followed by tea parties here.  Several times there were two cousins of the same age, and the service at the  church was always taken by my brother-in-law, Bishop Sovereign.  During the Second World War, Lady Eden, sister-in-law of Sir Anthony, came here from England with her school and was using the vacant  premises of the former St. Michael's School. We invited her and her sister-in-  law to bring the whole school for a Christmas party. Remembering that they  had been on short rations in England, especially for sweet foods, I did my  best to give them a bountiful tea. And how they enjoyed it! One child was  especially delighted by a grizzly skin, head and all which lay on the landing.  Her father had been a big game hunter.  Another children's party was in 1932. My daughter had just joined the  Brownies and I invited the pack for an after-school party. They ran wild with  excitement around the house and up the stable drive. I fed them plenty of  cookies and ginger beer I had made myself, and we had a peanut hunt which  they loved I.  The old home lends itself with special grace to Christmas festivities. A THE    BIG   HOUSE 91  carefully selected fir tree fills the stairwell, and the hall mantle is unforgettable with arrangements of barberry and evergreens in a copper  kettle on the top shelf, and in two brass cannon shells on a lower shelf. These  and other arrangements about the house are all in water so they keep their  freshness and beauty until Twelfth Night. If there are children in the house,  their stockings are hung on the hall mantle. Adults' presents are arranged on  the window seat behind the tree. The family parties which now gather at  Christmas usually require both the dining and breakfast rooms with fully  extended tables. Though the hall is the centre of the Christmas season, there  will be a couple of evenings with carols in the drawing room.  During both wars, we were very diligent in entertaining soldiers. To  one group of French Canadian officers were served muffins and our own  maple syrup. They pronounced the latter excellent but were vastly amused  at our equipment, all contrived by my brother. Later, one of them sent us  proper spouts from Montreal.  Very soon after the First World War broke out, our hall was the scene  of a most unusual affair. Twenty-three young children of assorted ages sat  on the floor learning to knit with five or six adults to help them. They were all  being started on scarves for servicemen, under the direction of Mrs. J. Geale  Downs, an ardent supporter of the Red Cross and local president for most of  the war.  The house and gardens, over the years, have been a real community  asset. There have been receptions, garden parties, meetings and church  affairs; sometimes to raise money and sometimes purely social. One  evening I recall was a farewell party honoring the Rev. and Mrs. Seager of  All Saints Church, later to become Bishop Seager.  A party to raise money was put on by the Vimy Ridge chapter of the  I.O.D.E. It was an evening garden affair, and we had flood lights on the  tennis court where Vera Bailey, later to become the wife of Dr. Sydney  Baldwin, has trained folk dancers. The terrace and north lawn were lighted  by Japanese lanterns, and there was a Jacob's well with a five gallon crock  of lemonade.  The Primrose Club used the house for a series of mixed bridge parties  and the Girl Guide Association has used it for many years. I particularly  recall the Guiders' Own Sunday service held in the drawing room when an  annual provincial meeting was held in Vernon for the first time. There were  55 Guiders in the room. The Women's Canadian Club held annual garden  parties here for several years running.  Over the years we have done an amazing amount of billeting. These  guests were people connected with the church, music, sports, etc.  In B.C. Centennial year, the house was used several times. At two of  these functions, I displayed clothes of my mother's over many years, going  back to a dress of her mothers' of the 1866 era.  Lieut.-Governor Patterson and his wife once came to stay with us, and  though Lord and Lady Aberdeen were never here while he was Gov.-  General, my parents had many contacts with them. When they returned to  Canada much later for a farewell visit, they had tea with us.  Twice after concerts given by the Hart House String Quartet, I was the  hostess for the reception following. They also came to tea informally, and  once remarked what a lovely place the hall landing would be to play.  Clergy played an important part among our guests, and they proved a  very mixed bag! Dean Doull of the Cathedral in Victoria was among them. 92 THE    BIG    HOUSE  As this was my father's church in Victoria, they became friends, so it was  natural that my father should suggest that he stay with us while looking over  the situation and finding a home for his family. He was with us for more than  a week. After careful consideration, he chose the Hankey house next to us. It  was available for a year, but the lease was much extended because Mrs.  Hankey and the children were detained in England. So a close friendship  developed between our families.  Commissioner and Mrs. Snowden of the Salvation Army stayed with  us when the local officer asked us, as he did for several years, if we would  entertain their visiting commissioner.  Father once attended a dry farming congress in Southern Alberta, and  among the delegates were three Mormons from Salt Lake City. They had  never seen the Okanagan and father felt it a pity that they should miss the  opportunity, so he invited them to visit us on the way home. They were  descendants of the founding leaders who had endured the difficult and  dangerous trek across the continent.  In a very different category was the Rev. A. H. Sovereign of St. Mark's  Anglican Church, Kitsilano. My sister Ellen, and I, had met him at the  Alpine Club of Canada in 1912. He also had never seen the Okanagan and  welcomed the idea of a visit in the fall. At that time I had returned to McGill  for post-graduate studies, but I was not missed, and sometime later letters  from home informed me that he and Ellen were engaged. For many years,  Mrs. Sovereign and their children spent their summers with us as her  husband was at St. Mark's Camp up Howe Sound. So began a tradition which  was almost unbroken and Dr. Arthur Sovereign chose Vernon as his home  when he finished his medical training.  Through the Sovereign's friendship with the Rev. C C Owen, he  became our guest and spent several weeks with us. He was Dean of Christ  Church in Vancouver and later Chaplain at Shaughnessy Hospital.  I well remember the lonely horseback rides mother and I had with him  on sparkling fall mornings.  The old home has been a lively and happy place for many years, and is  still a mecca to family members who are scattered. The garden, though not  what it used to be, still has beauty, and the house the same old charm. Its  way of life is peaceful and its roofs hospitable, so there will be many people  who remember it.  *  Seeing the tree beneath  Its baptism of snow, the twigs  Seem dark, and the bark feels  Cold to your hands. You may call  Her barren, but inside she  Pulses with the urgency of green.  Donna Lezard  Granddaughter of  Quilchinhin Sewhilkin  Penticton Indian Reserve THE   OKANAGAN    INDIANS 93  THE OKANAGAN INDIANS  By H. CAMPBELL BROWN, M.D.  My first contact with Okanagan Indians was an emotional one. As the  train drew into the Vernon station one April day in 1914, I was eagerly  looking for 'cowboys,' 'Indians,' and 'trappers,' with all the sentimental  preconceptions of a boy thoroughly soaked in the adventure literature of  colonial Britain. Sure enough there were five men riding down Railway  Avenue abreast, taking up nearly the whole street wearing real cowboy hats,  orange, white or black angora goat hair chaps, and with ropes coiled on the  bulge of their western saddles. I eagerly drank in the atmosphere of the high  heeled boots and western spurs and the unaccustomed straight legged riding  position. And then with a shock I realized that these were neither western  cowboys nor Indians since I knew that Indians have high beaked noses and  wear feathers instead of hats. And so I early came to realize that in British  Columbia Indians were different.  My next contact was in the Fall of that same year when two very  dignified and aristocratic Indian ladies came to our farm on Kalamalka  Lake and explained that they were just going down to the lakeshore to fish.  As descendents of Chief Kalamalka they had the hereditary right to the  Kickaninny fishing at that particular part of the lake. When they found that  they were welcome and invited in for a meal they became very friendly, but  never spoke to us much about themselves.  In later life I have heard people say that Kalamalka is not an Indian  name. That the lake was named after a Kanaka sailor who lived at the north  end of the lake. Alternatively I have heard it said that the name was a word  of no meaning. However Levina Selina Wilson, wife of George Wilson, one of  my more reliable Indian informants also claimed to be descended from  Chief Kalamalka. She had been taught what she called "the true history of  my people" and also the "fairy story history of my people." From the former she reported that chief Kalamalka was "the last of the great chiefs  before the coming of the white man." "The big famine was in his day, when  nine out of ten of our people died and Chief Kalamalka said that we must  maintain a herd of a thousand horses on the range between the arms of the  lake. This way we would have something to eat if there were another  famine."  I asked her how they were to feed a large herd of horses if the snow got  deep and she recited, "You would have laughed to see the whole tribe out  digging a path up the steep hill with their snow shoes, men, women and  children." I asked her what she meant but she did not know, that was the  answer that she had been taught. It was years later that I got the explanation. On repeating the story to Mr. Russ Postill, Sr., he roared with  laughter and said "Yes that is a trick we learned from them. You can get  horses through a spell of heavy snow by digging a path up a real steep bunch  grass hill side. They get down to the grass at the path and then can paw their  way across a quarter mile of hillside each way from there. It was an interesting example of how knowledge can be transmitted in non-literate  society through children who do not understand what they are memorizing  until they need the knowledge.  Tradition says that the Kalamalka Hotel was built on the area where  the seven wives of Chief Kalamalka had their winter kikwillies. 94 THE   OKANAGAN    INDIANS  The great famine mentioned by Mrs. Wilson is also mentioned by  James Teit who did the first and only ethnographic study of the Okanagan  people. He does not mention Kalamalka in his chief list, but this is not surprising when one realizes that he got his information from the small group of  Okanagans inhabiting the Douglas Lake settlement, and from those in the  Keremeos area. He interviewed no one from the area of Okanagan Reserve  No. 1.  Anyone interested in the history of the Okanagan People can expect a  great deal of frustration. The great ethnographers of the nineteenth century  who studied almost all the aboriginal peoples of the world were fascinated by  the rich art and material culture of the North West Coast. In the interior the  largest population of Indians was along the salmon rivers where it was easy  to make a living. These appeared to the scientists to be poor country  relations of the much more civilized coast Indians. Groups like the  Okanagans were small scattered populations and nothing spectacular to  draw attention were largely ignored. James Teit, who married a Thompson  Indian did a very outstanding ethnology of the Thompson Indians about 1900.  Later he did one for the Shushwap, Okanagan and Flat Head Indians. Most of  our factual information of the Okanagans comes from him. Verne Wray did  a cultural study of upper Columbia and Okanagan Indians in about 1930, but  he only visited the Canadian Okanagans very briefly.  In the journal of Alexander Henry who travelled to the falls of the  Kettle River about 1809-10 there are interesting references to "the Indians to  the north and west." His comments are that they are "proud and haughty,  but well disposed." Of the Sanpoils, the southern branch of the Okanagan  People, he says "On expeditions to hunt buffalo if attacked by Peigans they  fight desperately. They never attempt war themselves, and have the  character of a brave and virtuous people, not in the least addicted to those  vices so common among savages who have had long intercourse with  Europeans. Chastity is particularly esteemed, and no woman will barter her  favors, even with the whites upon any mercenary consideration. She may  easily be prevailed upon to reside with a white man as his wife, according to  the custom of the country, but prostitution is out of the question, she will  listen to no proposals of that nature."  My personal impression after a lifetime of knowing Okanagan Indians  as personal friends, professionally as patients, and scholastically by reading  as many authorities as I have been able to find, is that they were indeed an  unusual group among the Salishan Peoples of whom they were a part. North,  South, East and West of them their neighbors and relatives lived on fish,  dependent on the salmon which came to them up the rivers every year. The  Okanagans considered themselves a hunting people. Traditionally they were  first sheep hunters, as sheep became scarce they lived by hunting elk, and  just before the white man came elk diminished and mule deer multiplied so  they became deer hunters. They used fish as little as possible. Indeed they  tended to despise fish eaters. My friend Mrs. Wilson, in explaining what a  poor bunch a group of Indians squatters were said, "they don't know who  their father was and they eat fish."  Among families of any consequence marriage was only by the consent  of the tribal council (Mrs. Wilson always used the expression "Justice  Union" instead of tribal council). Simpler forms of marriage were  recognized also, and were equally binding. The taking of a second or  multiple wives by an important person must be agreed to by the council. THE   OKANAGAN    INDIANS 95  Early white men who married Okanagan wives esteemed them very  highly, Alexander Ross, fur trader, was one who has left his opinions in  writing. I have not been able to get his books, but he is reported as praising  Okanagan women very highly indeed, and commenting that Okanagan men  were good employees being strong and exceptionally reliable. Vernon,  Lumby, Brewer, and others are reported to have been aristocratic  Europeans who married Okanagan wives and thought very highly of them,  sending their children down East, or to Europe to be educated. This may  have been unfortunate for the children since they seem to have been  discriminated against as soon as their fathers died.  Teit, recording the religion of the Okanagans, records their concept of  deity as a clear cut concept of God as Creator, and available to his human  creation on a personal basis. The Coyote folklore and other stories and  superstitions they, shared with the neighboring Indian tribes, but the  Okanagan, Coyote was God's messenger. They had a dance of supplication  and thanksgiving to God before starting the berry harvest in which a tray of  the first ripe berries was symbolically offered to "The Great Chief above  everywhere." Recorded by Teit, and confirmed by several individuals, is the  statement that an Okanagan hunter, on making a kill, first thanked God, and  next thanked the spirit of the animal for allowing itself to be killed. He also  usually spoke to it as he dressed the carcass explaining that it was killed  because of need, and that it would be properly used. By personal communication I knew that every morning a good Okanagan went to water at  sunrise (dust would do if water was not available), the sun was greeted, and  water was splashed or blown to East, West, North, South, up and down. I  asked Mrs. Wilson what this meant to her, was she worshipping the sun? She  explained that she was greeting the sun, but in her heart she was also  greeting the entire universe, and she was saying to "The Great Power", I  am part of all this that you have made. She went on to explain that as she  acknowledged being part of all created things she had the right to expect  that the Creator would send her messages as she needed them. Therefore  she always had to be alert to detect messages from The Great Power which  might come to her through many forms.  Teit records that their neighbors, the Thompson and Shuswap Indians  considered the Okanagans "rich and superior people, and very well  dressed." The latter probably referred to the ground length white elk  tailored robes that their important men wore on ceremonial occasions.  The total picture suggests a very interesting culture, and one might  wonder how a small population in a semi-desert area could develop such a  culture. I think that Teit gives us the clue when he tells us that they made  their living as traders, trading down the Columbia river, across the  mountains to the great plains, West into the Thompson valley, and North into  the Shuswap area. Traders undertaking such long journeys naturally  became philosophical. They need peace for their trading. They recognize the  folly of one group killing another. They broaden their minds by learning the  wisdom of many groups, and a trader away from home, being vulnerable,  has to develop diplomacy to a fine art. Besides being middle men in trade  they also had their own products.  Okanagan tanned white elk skins were much in demand. "Indian  Hemp" cord was needed everywhere either for fish nets, deer nets, or for  string bags and other uses and the Okanagans had a plentiful supply from  the large size   Dog   Bane which grows here.  Again we are indebted to 96 THE   OKANAGAN    INDIANS  Alexander Henry for the information that Indians of the area west of the  Kettle river made very superior bows shooting a three foot arrow farther  than any native bow he had seen in his travels. A Peigan or Blackfoot would  pay a horse or a gun for such a bow (Alexander Henry Journal, Page 713.)  It would be nice to be able to record that early Missionaries appreciated finding a people with such a high concept of deity, but sad to say  the opposite is true. Indians were told that they were ignorant savages and  that the multiple wives of their leading men proved it. For years the early  missionaries persecuted the best of the Okanagan men because of having  more than one wife. As good Europeans they could think of only one reason  for having more than one wife. It did not cross their mind that an important  man who must entertain all guests or travellers had to have many women to  collect food in this semi-desert climate. Besides this if a trader were  traveling among other tribes carrying a considerable amount of his family's  wealth he had to have a wife from the local area. Only a local woman could  find food since a woman's knowledge of food plants was very local. Besides  this, only one who spoke the language as a native could be expected to pick  up the warning signs when trouble was brewing so that he could get out of the  the country before being robbed. A wife from the local tribe gave him  relations in that tribe.  The situation was probably similar to that in parts of Africa in this  century where wives have petitioned missionaries to stop persecuting  polygamy since "the work has to be done and we would rather do it as wives  than as slaves." The new relationship was a sad change from the first  contact of Okanagans with white men. "Apparently one of the leading men of  the Okanagans was on a trading expedition on the Plains when he met two  young white traders who expressed a wish to see the country on the other  side of the mountains. He immediately adopted them, called them his white  children, and let it be known that they must be so treated. He fed them and  showed them the ways of the country, and brought them as far as Kettle  Falls where they wished to stay. When leaving he told the local Indians that  they were to be treated as his children and he would hold them to account."  (Teit.)  *  The sun is beginning to rise  You can feel life awaken  Gentle warmth seems to enfold you  And take you to a world of happiness.  You feel as tho' you can live forever  In that world of freedom and happiness  You feel the wild in you come alive  And you know that's where you belong.  If you get no feeling at all  Then you're no wild person  You don't belong with us  You come from Dullsville.  Sheri Stelkia  Inkameep Indian Reserve BRENT'S    FLOUR   MILL 97  BRENT'S FLOUR MILL  By EVERETT S.  FLEMING  (Some sidelights and cogitations on events on one hundred years ago)  Although several attempts have been made to tell the story of this, the  oldest full-scale ranch in the valley, I feel that another attempt may be in  order.  My personal justification for attempting this is that I am now living in  the original century-old home built by Frederick Brent and his helpers one  hundred and one years ago. My wife, Florence and I have been dwelling here  now for the past nine years, but more significantly, I grew up here.  In 1908 my father, the late Wm. H. Fleming came here with his family  of ten from Saskatchewan and purchased the most northerly, and stoney, 87  acres of the original Brent property from the late John Dilworth including  the log house (then sided over, as the custom was) the Mill building, a black  smith shop, log stable and so forth. The Dilworths had come here from  Manitoba in 1899 or 1900. John Dilworth had bought the property from a Mr.  J. Davis (whose name is perpetuated in the Brent-Davis irrigation system  now nearing its demise!) Although there is no definite record of when Mr.  Davis took over the property from Mr. Brent there is evidence, etched on the  door jam of theol log barn, to the effect that Ferederick Brent sold all cattle  in 1893, presumably at the time he removed to the Shingle Creek area near  Penticton.  Having arrived here in 1908 I lived here until the fall of 1919. I and my  sisters Joy (Mrs. W. D. Quigley) and Amy (Mrs. H. W. Timmins of Toronto),  and brother Elwood attended the oldest public school in the area, namely  Benvoulin one-roomed school opened in 1875. This was successor to Father  Pandosy class held at the mission. A few months later we switched to  Rutland one-roomed school, Anne's Dress Shop, where one little lady endeavoured to keep some semblance of control and teach a little to about  forty-five pupils in all grades. In 1912 I went on to high school in Kelowna  where there were two high school teachers for all grades. They were the only  high school teachers in this part of the valley at that time, meeting in what is  now the armories on Richter Street. Principal Leslie V. Rogers and Miss  Elizabeth McNaughton were the efficient teachers of those days.  To return now to the Brents and their tremendous undertaking here.  We must remember that a century ago the valley was totally different  from the present day. There were no highways, actually no proper roads or  bridges. Dense woods, especially black poplar and cottonwoods occupied  much of the better land close to the creeks, now named Mission Creek on the  Southern side and Mill Creek draining the opposite side of the valley.  Presumably named for the Flour Mill which Mr. Brent built here, and which  stands firmly at this date of 1972. Pack horses and crude sledges or stone  boats must have been the major means of transportation.  Let us try to visualize the situation. The Father Pandosy Mission had  been set up a dozen years previously where some attempt was made at  farming and fruit growing, besides a small school room for the teaching of  native children. There must have been a few miners still delving away on the  Okanagan River, now called Mission Creek and presumably a few small  attempts at ranching.  Frederick Brent, having been released from his activities perhaps as 98 BRENT'S    FLOUR    MILL  a scout with the American Army during the civil war, moved northward  across the line in 1865, married a native Indian girl and settled near what is  now the Kelowna Airport. For some reason that is not now clear, in 1871 he  moved southward to establish a 2,000 acre spread at this point. It is said he  was able to buy up this area including what is now called Dilworth Mountain  and the entire flat from-the present Drive-in Theatre on the north to include  Mountain Shadows Golf Course and a section of land along Highway 33  toward what is now Rutland. The purchase price is said to have been one  dollar per acre. This is an arresting figure when we consider that some of the  same acres have changed hands recently at ten or twelve thousand times  that amount!  But in moving to this location, logs, Ponderosa pine logs had to be  found, cut, hauled and hewed by broad axe to the desired size, a true six  inches in thickness and from twelve to fourteen inches in width. The amount  of work in preparing each thirty-foot log can only be imagined. The house  was built entirely of these hand-hewn timbers laid one upon the other. The  rafters were made of smaller poles in the round. These are still open to view  above the verandah. As there was no cement or concrete in the valley 100  years ago, field stones served for a foundation. These were spaced that  perfect ventilation under the floor has preserved the timber in good condition to this day.  The amazing thing about the entire structure is the accuracy of  measurement and trueness of lines throughout. Even now every corner is  true; every wall firm and plumb. The floors are so well aligned that there is  no squeaking nor creaking anywhere. In some way, probably from a water-  powered sawing machine, lumber was obtained for the floors and sheeting of  the roof. The four bedroom doors and the very large front door are all made  from hand-trimmed lumber.  Having erected a domicile a well was dug a few yards from the back  door. Lacking other lasting material, the well was curbed with field stones  which are there as firmly as when placed there a century ago. The well itself  is no longer in use as it was only twelve feet deep and some years ago when  the water table fell lower there was no way in which to lower the well so a  new one had to be dug nearby. At the moment it has such an inflow that two  pumps, the house pump and an irrigation pump with an inch and a half outlet  is running continuously and cannot pump it dry. Originally, of course there  was no pump on the well, but the water had to be baled, or drawn by hand.  At or about the same time Mr. Brent set about building a much-needed  factory. He built a grist, or flour mill. But at what labour and ingenuity.  First, since there was no shopping area more convenient than San Fransisco, there being no Kelowna of course, no Vancouver, nor Seattle. There  was a Barkerville which was too remote and inaccessible, therefore Mr.  Brent sent to San Fransisco for the mill stones, which are presently in the  Kelowna Museum, and other essential pieces of machinery. These had to be  brought, either by sailing ship, or steamer up the coast to Victoria, transshipped to a river steamer, to be brought up the Fraser and later the  Thomson River and Shuswap Lake and river to Fortune's Landing in the  vicinity of Enderby. In some manner, presumably by "moccasin  telegraph," Mr. Brent got news of their arrival and went with his son, to  claim them. As there was only a pack trail to Vernon (Priest's Valley) he  could not possibly transport the machinery directly, so he borrowed a unique  vehicle. A wagon with blocks of wood for wheels and with this transported BRENT'S   FLOUR   MILL 99  his precious load to the head of Okanagan Lake, presumably O'Keefe's  Landing, which had been established three or four years earlier. The  machinery then was loaded into a sturdy row boat which a man, reportedly  an Indian, rowed all the way down the lake. In the meantime, Mr. Brent and  his son rode home, took a stone boat over the uncertain trail to some landing,  probably near the Pandosy Mission, and so by dint of much ingenuity and  hard labour brought the machinery for the flour mill safely home.  The Mill building had been prepared in the meantime. It was framed  with hand-hewn timbers, made from pine logs. It is a two storey structure,  about thirty feet by twenty-eight feet broad, with a one-storey lean-to on the  eastern side.  The grinding machinery was set up in this lean to and the ground meai  was taken by conveyor belt to the bolting bin on the upper floor of the main  building.  But a word about the building itself. The frame work, or skeleton as I  have said, was built of hand hewn timbers, hewn to about ten inches square.  The several uprights, which must stand on stone foundations under the floor,  run up to the top plate of the upper floor; the connecting timbers are fitted by  mortise and tenon into the uprights and held in place by wooden pegs. These  heavy timbers support the heavy joists which support the double flooring, all  of sawn lumber. The perimeter or circumference of the upper storey is made  of four timbers only, hewn, as were the others, the tenon of the uprights  fitting neatly into a mortise on the under side of these 10 x 10 timbers.  The corners are braced with four by four sawn timbers which are  incised and fitted neatly into the uprights on the one end and the topmost  plates on the obter. No scabbing there! The frame is built to last not only  these hundred years past, but for another century or two. Five years ago, the  original cedar shakes on the roof which had been there for 94 years, had to be  replaced. Thanks to the foresight and initiative of Mr. Tom Carney and  others new cedar shakes were obtained from Enderby area so that the  building is now in a position and condition to stand for many more years.  Unfortunately it is now only a building. The machinery was removed  about sixty years aog, before it was treasured as an antique. When we were  farming here at that time we needed more stable room, and as the mill was  no longer needed or serving any useful purpose, we tore out the machinery  and made it over into a barn. The water wheel, an overshot, home made  water wheel, stood at the northwest corner of the building. Itwas powered by  a stream of water that came through an elevated flume three-feet wide to the  top of the wheel and the weight and force of the water forced the wheel to  turn. A belt, about eight or ten inches wide ran from the hub, or mandrel, of  this wheel to other pulleys and shafts which operated the various parts of the  machinery in the mill.  The remarkable feature about the entire structure was that so much of  it had to be made by hand. Hand made iron spikes served for nails; hand  made blocks and even some of the pulleys were expertly made by hand.  Bolts had to be hand forged, and threaded in the blacksmith shop and nuts  made for them by dies that were still in the blacksmith shop when we arrived  nearly forty years after the erection of the mill.  The reason for the rise and fall of this industry was due to the conditions of the times. With no steamers on the lake, no roads, no railways of  course, flour and other commodities must have been extremely scarce and  hard to come by. It is said that early settlers from as far away as Osoyoos on 100  BRENT'S    FLOUR   MILL  Century Old Brent's Grist Mill  the south end and Vernon and beyond on the north packed their wheat here to  be ground, and then to receive two thirds of the flour for their efforts in  growing and transporting the grain. There being little cash available the  miller received the other third of the fine wheat flour, as well as the bran and  middlings for his custom work.  The stable a hundred yards further down the creek from the mill was  built of untreated logs, merely notched to fit on the corners. The main section was used for a horse barn, the lean-to on the east for the milk cows.  The water for the mill was brought from a big ditch, beginning near  the northern limit of the property a stone dam or weir was built in the creek  and a large ditch was dug, doubtless by* pick and shovel and great expenditure of labour to supply water to run the mill and provide irrigation.  The Mill stream forked off the main ditch about one hundred yards east of  the house and a short distance to the west of the house it entered the flume  made of wide boards to be carried to the top of the water wheel, which was  still in place, though not operable, when we arrived in 1908. The other branch  of the ditch went on southward to irrigate the onion ground and the large  meadow, now Mountain Shadows golf course. The water right was  registered in 1885.  The full details of the milling operation, of the settlers who brought  their grist to the mill by pack horse and waited and camped here while their  grain was ground; how they must have amused themselves by improvising  primitive rodeos in the field east of the house and shared Mrs. Brent's  wholesome meals during their stay; all of that can only be imagined.  One practical feature stands out: Mr. Brent was an extremely  practical and resourceful man. He not only built a flour mill but he knew how  to advertise as well. In all probability the earliest bit of advertising still  extant is the stencil which he used on his flour bags, arranged in a neat  circle or stamp it reads, "Brent Mills Family Flour XXX F.B. O.K." This  stencil is imprinted in two places inside the mill and a fine replica of it,  carved by Mr. John Wilson of Rutland in 1958, is imbedded in bas-relief on BRENT'S   FLOUR   MILL 101  the two sides of the Memorial Cairn bear by.  This cairn, set up by the Rutiand Centennial Committee in 1958 stands  as a permanent memorial to the initiative and energy of one old-time  pioneer.  About mid-way between the mill building and the log barn an old-time  bridge spans the Mill Creek. As there was no town whatever on the present  site of Kelowna there would be no occasion to bridge the creek at what is  called the "Five Bridges." But Mr. Brent needed a bridge to cross his  mountain (Dilworth) property, so this must have been thef irst bridge across  the creek. It still stands on heavy timbers, though now in a poor state of  repair. But in early times, when some form of transportation had come to  the lake and a small village was growing up on the lakeshore, ranchers from  the valley would come, two wagons at a time, cross the bridge, double-team  their loads up the first moderate grade to the crotch between Dilworth  Mountain on the left, or western side and what I call our, or Fleming Hill on  the eastern or right side of the distinct valley between the two. Each man  would then haul his own load over the fairly even and flat floor of the little  valley to pass around the "High Hill" into Dry Valley (Glenmore), then  southward and westward on dry, hard ground to the lake. This long route  may have been the only practical route since the Barlee stretch of what is  Highway 97 was rather an impassable quagmire. Even as late as 1915 this  stretch of roadway could be almost impassable until it was macadamized by  dumping thousands of tons of field stones into it for a base.  A few years after becoming established here, Mr. Brent raised a lot of  stock, horses, cattle, poultry of all kinds and pigs. In an area with a very  small population there was little market, locally for some of his products.  But he found a way through. He walked his stock to market! Even his pigs!  Mines had opened up at Greenwood and incredible as it may sound, I am told  that Mr. Brent and his men actually walked his pigs to market as far as  Greenwood. Pigs are notoriously hard to drive, but once away from their  home surroundings, it seems that they can be led or driven quite well along a  trail. Horses and cattle, of course would be handled more readily.  Another landmark and feature of early days on his ranch was the lockup, or gaol whichstooda few hundred yards east of the house, about half-way  between Highway 97 and the house. Mr. Brent had been appointed J.P. and  as there was an hotel, later, a mile or so to the north, on the present Marshall  property, it seemed necessary to have a lock-up near by. This building was  constructed of laminated 2x6 inch lumber and escape proof. This structure  was later moved to Kelowna for a police office of some sort. This was done  early in this century during Mr. Dilworth's residence here. Personally I  remember seeing the cavities in the field left when the large foundation  stones were removed. This little white building stood for several years on the  south side of Bernard Avenue in Kelowna.  Another prominent and important feature of the early days here was  the orchard that Brents planted immediately south of the house. One part of  it apples and pears, the sweetest any prairie boy ever tasted, was very old. I  personally remember Leslie, the son of John Dilworth telling us in 1908 that  he calculated the orchard was about forty years old at that time. These trees  were very tall, ungainly timbers, quite unlike the sophisticated and pruned  trees of today. But some of them in particular bore delicious fruit. A newer  section, about one acre, planted and pruned in proper fashion stood immediately south of the original plot which may have been planted by earlier 102 BRENT'S    FLOUR    MILL  homesteaders near the time that Father Pandosy set up his mission and  orchard a few miles to the south in the Benvoulin area. The last of these trees  died and blew down the year I returned to his home in 1963.  Speaking of orchards. Mr. Brent's grandson, the late Ferdy (Ferdinand) Brent of Peachland told me that the senior Brent had planted a large  prune orchard. That being so, it must have been the extensive prune orchard  which stood on a piece of the property, owned sixty years ago by the late  Frank Mawhinney, on the east side of Highway 97, about where Sid's  Grocery now stands. That was the only extensive prune orchard in this  vicinity and the trees were very mature 64 years ago.  Mr. and Mrs. Brent raised a family of several sons and daughters and  their descendents have now scattered to many parts of the country. One  grandson, and namesake of the original Frederick Brent paid a visit to "The  Old Mill Ranch" recently and carried off a replica, in concrete, of the  original stamp mentioned earlier, as well as a section of log taken from the  wall of the house during renovations, and had it branded with the original  "B" for Brent cattle brand which I retrieved from San Fransisco a few years  ago! When made into a "settle" this should make a pricelss heirloom for the  family.  Little is known of Mr. J. Davis who took over the whole ranch from Mr.  Brent about 1893. By 1900 Mr. John Dilworth and family took over and  remained her.e until 1908 when my father bought the original buildings and  the most northerly 87 acres of the property. Leslie Dilworth, as soon, took  over the management of the remainder of the large estate; built what has  been known as "The Dilworth House" which still stands on Dilworth  Crescent, on Mountain Shadows golf course, and lived there for many years  prior to moving to Vancouver. He gave his name to the unnamed range of  hills or mountains on the property and it is said, his ashes remain there to  this day.  So far as this home base is concerned my father had to sell out, since  the family had all married or moved away, so he sold out to Mr. John Gervers, of Bird-Gerver fame, in 1926. Mr. Gervers did not enjoy the best of  health so piece by piece he subdivided and sold off all but the last seven and  three-quarter acres surrounding the old home. On hearing that he wished to  retire, I was fortunate enough to purchase the old homestead in 1960 and  upon retirement from the active work of the ministry in the United Church of  Canada, my wife and I moved here in 1963.  Now the question is how long this historic bit of park-like country can  be kept from the grip of industry whose encroachments have reached to  within one hundred feet of our frontdoor. The ancient Douglas fire tree in the  front yard which now measures eleven feet in circumference and 100 feet in  height was a mere seven feet tall when we arrived here in 1908. A fine cedar  tree beside it is about the same vintage, while the gigantic Manitoba maple  which grew from a seed that my mother brought from Saskatchewan fifty-  eight years ago and which I planted is now some fifteen feet in girth; also the  horsechestnut tree in front of the house was planted by my mother from a  chestnut that she found somewhere about 55 years ago. These immense trees  provide such an abundance of shade that even on the hottest July days the  house remains as cool as though air-conditioned. The solid log walls of  course aid in keeping this century-old home one of the most attractive and  liveable spots in the country. CABINET   MARKS   MILESTONE  103  CABINET MARKS MILESTONE  By ED. W.  ALDREDGE  Many items of memorabilia are lurking around Okanagan attics,  basements and even old barns. Some of these deserve a better fate, for they  often mark stages in the progress of the valley, or connote historic days and  dates.  One such was recently restored to its rightful place and dedicated at  the same time as the "new" Penticton General Hospital.  The hospital expansion represents an outlay of six million dollars. The  cabinet probably cost twice six dollars when it was purchased, but without  the one, it is doubtful if the other, the larger one would have been required.  The cabinet and its queer looking contents was dedicated by Dr. John  Mrs. Kathy Mather, Asst. Director of Nursing examining the cabinet of old  time surgical instruments and presented by Dr. John Gibson on behalf of  the Penticton branch of the Okanagan Historical Society on the occasion of  the official opening April 22, 7 972.  Miller Knutson photo, Penticton Herald 104 CABINET   MARKS   MILESTONE  Gibson, Vice-president of the Penticton branch of the,Okanagan Historical  Society, and who on its behalf, was instrumental in having it installed, and  the plaques that accompany it engraved.  Simple, and full of shining things some dating back to Camp McKinney  and Fairview, was a subject of awe and perhaps fearful speculation when  the present writer, first as a small boy, looked at it.  Yet this small oak veneered case, with its glass doors and sides was a  channel of healing, for it was the instrument cabinet that stood for many  years in Dr. R. B. White's Main Street surgery.  Actually, while the cabinet and most of the instruments were once the  property of Dr. White, senior, the cabinet and plaques honor the memory of  the two Penticton pioneer doctors: Dr. R. B. White and Dr. Herbert  McGregor. And it is fitting that it should be so.  Completely different in temperament these two men helped in an  immeasurable way to make the southern Okanagan and Penticton what it is  today. Hour after weary hour in the saddle in snow and pouring rain, or  later, driving unreliable cars over even more unreliable roads, these two  men, nevertheless, found time to take a part in community affairs.  Sometimes their medical service meant operating under extreme  difficulty or succoring the sick under conditions we'd consider impossible  today, or at least intolerable — such as the 1918 'flu epidemic. And in spite of  these conditions they never seemed to lose their calm approach to life,  although neither had any patience with malingerers nor the pseudo-sick.  This is but a glimpse of what these two men were and what they accomplished and these are the bare words on the plaques.  Reginald Brant White, Born in Pembroke, Ont. in 1874, died in 1950.  Graduated from McGill in 1896. Came to the Okanagan (to Fairview and  Camp McKinney) in 1897. Married Hester Emily Haynes Lambly.  Herbert McGregor, Born in Manitoba 1880, died in 1943. Graduated  from the University of Manitoba in 1907, came to Penticton to begin practice  of medicine in that same year.  A word about the cabinet itself. Some of us—this writer among them,  have occasion to remember the litter ether cone used to put them to sleep.  And for my part one of those shiny forceps used to extract a nagging tooth.  These instruments, housed safely in the oak cabinet, are crude when  compared with those in use today. Yet remember those instruments, even  the cabinet that contains them, marks not only a medical, but a spiritual and  cultural milestone in the progress of this beautiful valley. Just as the men it  honors had worked that you and I might live.  So if you see me tip my hat as I pass that old-fashioned cabinet do not  smile at my strange behaviour think not of the cabinet but rather what it  continues to mean to us of an older school. MR.    PENTICTON   MUSEUM 105  MR. PENTICTON MUSEUM  By ERIC D.  SISMEY  Any man who turns a boyhood hobby into a vocation is fortunate.  Perhaps it would be better to write "wiser than most" and that is exactly  what Reg. Atkinson of Penticton has managed to do. It is true he may have  been prompted by nine uncles scattered around the world who sent him  stamps and mail-size curios which excited his young mind.  Reg. Atkinson was born in Vancouver on December 20, 1897, near  enough to Christmas to acquire the name Noel. His father, E. O. Atkinson  came to Canada from Leeds, Yorkshire. In Vancouver he built the first  house on Alberni Street. After taking the necessary civil service  examinations he joined the railway mail service until 1895 when he became  associated with the dispatching staff of the Vancouver post office from  which he retired in 1907 as assistant postmaster.  After retirement Mr. Atkinson moved to Penticton where he planted  an orchard on the Middle Bench Road. While the trees were growing he was  the postmaster of the Penticton office, which, at the time, was in the  Schubert general store on the corner of Ellis Street and Vancouver Avenue.  Reg. passed entrance in 1912. He attended high school in 1913, the third  year of high school in Penticton. Soon after outbreak of the First World War,  Reg. enlisted on October 10, 1914, in H. Company of the 102nd Rocky  Mountain Rangers and after training in Penticton and Kamloops was sent  overseas in 1916. Sent to France among replacements in the ranks of the 54th  Battalion he soon met Okanagan friends, some of them school chums.  In November 1917, Reg. was seriously wounded at Passchendaele and  after being in British hospitals for six months was assigned to the 3rd C.C.D.  at Seaford until discharged in August 1919.  Reg. tells that during his tour of duty overseas the collecting urge  never left him, and by the time he was in Okanagan again he had collected  many military insignia.  Returning to Penticton in November 1919, Reg. bought 20 acres of land  to begin mixed farming. This land, now cottage covered, lay on the south  side of the present Okanagan Avenue, West and was, at the time, traversed  by a small creek, known as Troy Creek.  At the time of purchase Reg. did not realize that a number of small  Indian camps were formerly scattered along this creek and it was not until  he began to prepare the land for agriculture that he uncovered numerous  Indian artifacts.  These together with his collection of military insjgnia, Indian baskets  obtained in trade, butterflies, moths and birds eggs which he had collected  formed the nucleus of a private museum, one that this writer visited, in the  basement of his home.  Slowly over the years Reg. added to his treasures and to help pay out  of pocket expenses he invited a small admission charge. It was years,  however, before civil interest and recognition was gained.  In 1951, two years after the City of Penticton purchased the retired  sternwheel steamer S. S. Sicamous and had beached her as a tourist attraction, and only after it became apparent that something must be done to  make the old ship attractive, the R. N. Atkinson collection was moved to the  cargo deck of the old ship and Mr. Atkinson retained to arrange, care for and  supervise the collection. MR.    PENTICTON   MUSEUM  Reg. Atkinson  Photo by Eric D. Sismey, RRl, Naramata, B.C.  Later, when the large C deB. Green collection of birds, nests and eggs  was acquired a fillip was added to the display, one that needed expert attention and which made the presence of a full-time knowledgeable curator  imperative. Almost immediately when it was realized that collections would  be in capable hands contributions of historic value poured in, even though  there was hesitation on the part of some because the superstructure of the  old sternwheeler was tinder dry and in case of a fire would burn in a flash.  In 1965, with the completion of the Community Arts Centre adequate  space was provided in the museum portion of the building for the proper  display of historic material. In addition a combination workshop and  storeroom where repairs, restoration and space for archives, papers and  photographs was available. The storage space made possible rotation of  interesting material. And since the new building was fireproof valuable and  personally cherished items began to pour in.  There is little doubt but that the Penticton Museum rates high,  perhaps number one of small city museums. In particular the collection of  military insignia, shoulder patches, tunic buttons, medals and badges of  Commonwealth and Canadian forces through both world wars may well be  unmatched in all Canada. It is splendidly displayed, catalogued and identified.  The C deB. Green egg collection and other natural history specimens  pleases the youngsters, Okanagan Indian handicraft, and artifacts are  worthy  of close examination and the collection  of old  bottles,   mineral MR.    PENTICTON   MUSEUM 107  specimens and polished rocks excite collectors who enjoy these newer  outdoor activities. There are treasures of another age, things that decorated  a kitchen many years ago and the collection of commemorative china is  quite outstanding. It would be quite hopeless to list all the material so well  displayed. But perhaps of more importance is the presence of Mr. Penticton  Museum who is ready at all times to assist anyone seeking information.  Far too often the museum, cultural center and library, are overlooked  by persons taking their holiday in Penticton. But this fault has been  corrected and the museum better publicized. It is perhaps the most interesting and informative attraction in the city and is becoming increasingly  recognized by the people of Southern Okanagan. Seldom a week goes by  without a valuable contribution being made.  The Penticton museum as it stands today is a tribute to the work of one  man reaching back Over more than half a century. One cannot help but  wonder that had it not been for R. N. Atkinson, there might be no Penticton  museum at all.  The museum is just one of Penticton's public endeavors in which Mr.  Atkinson has always offered a guiding and a helping hand. Soon after his  return from the first war he was a leader in organizing the Penticton branch  of the Canadian Legion. He served two years as its president, sixteen on the  executive, resigning to serve five years as rehabilitation officer.  During the Second World War as commanding officer, 71st Company,  Pacific Coast Militia Rangers, he trained riflemen on a range over Gillespie  Flats, Kaleden, where he had supervised construction.  Mr. Atkinson, a life member of the Okanagan Historical Society, has  served many years on the executive of the Penticton branch. He is also  widely known by his writings. He was given the task by the City to write:  "Historical Souvenir of Penticton, B.C." on the occasion of the City's Golden  Jubilee, 1908-1958:  This 165-page, illustrated history was rewritten to coincide with the  Centenary of Canada, 1867-1967. Itwas titled: "Penticton Pioneers in Story  and Pictures" and published by the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society with the co-operation of the City of Penticton, owners of  the original copyright.  In 1968 it was reprinted, this time in a hard cover, on the occasion of  the Canadian Legion convention at Penticton in May of that year. Upwards  of 2,000 copies were presented as a souvenir of the occasion.  Reg. (Mr. Penticton Museum), can look backwards, modestly, with a  great deal of satisfaction since it is given to few men to turn a boyhood hobby  intoa full time occupation and see his collection grow. 108 THE FIRST TROOPS TO LEAVE THE OKANAGAN  THE FIRST TROOPS TO LEAVE  THE OKANAGAN  By G.  D. CAMERON  D Squadron of the 30th B.C. Horse were mobilized on August 9th, 1914  in Kelowna, then on August 19th were moved to Vernon where the rest of the  regiment were.  D Squadron were billeted in a skating rink, I think it was near where  the race track is now. Major Clarke, the CPR station agent at Kelowna, was  O.C D Squadron.  After we had been in Vernon for a short time we were told the  squadron was over-strength, and the Major said that all the other ranks had  to take a riding test and those that did not pass would be let out. This annoyed  the troops as the Major was not much of a horseman himself.  As there was a recruiting office in Vernon for men wishing to sign up Jo  go to Valcartier, a number of men from D Squadron signed up to go.  The following names were taken from the Kelowna Courier: C K. L.  Pyman, C F. Oland, N. W. Wicknan, F. J. Thorne, J. E. Lloyd, G. W. Strang,  K. McKenzie, G. Stirling, P. P. Simpson, Garnett, G. K. Salvage, J. R. M.  Ellis, J. H. Wilson, H. M. Goode, H. Bagnall, G. D. Cameron, and were with  this group, there were 25 or 30 in all. This did not go over very well with the  Major and when some of us had a chance of a ride to Kelowna, he refused to  give us leave, and told the quartermaster we would have to turn in all army  issue clothing if we left camp.  As the only thing that we had that was our own property was our  blankets, we said, OK, we'll go to Kelowna in blankets. When he heard this  he quickly changed his orders. I expect'he did not like the publicity this  would bring.  Strathconas — Missines Ridge, 1915 A   REPORT 109  We left Vernon on August 26th in a tourist car for Sicamous were we  were to be attached to a troop train taking the 31st B.C. Horse from  Kamloops to Valcartier. However, when we got to Sicamous there had been  a mistake and the 31st were not to leave Kamloops until the next day so we  were attached to the regular passenger train. When we arrived in Valcartier, which was just a tent town, where the first Canadian contingent were  being mobilized, we were in tents, I believe itwas in the Fifth Battalion lines.  At this time Lieut. Pyman who had been in charge of us from Vernon,  was trying to get us into a battalion as a complete platoon so that we could  stay together, but found this was not possible so told us we had better individually go and join up where we could. I do not know where most went but  I went to the Strathcona Horse and joined them. Lieut. Gooday, whom I had  known in the Vernon camp in 1913, was the officer who signed me on. Then G.  Stirling, G. W. Strang and K. McKenzie also joined the Straths and a number  from the B.C. Horse.  Strang and McKenzie had joined a Highland regiment but decided  they would be better in the cavalry, so they were wearing the kilt when they  took their riding tests. I went overseas on the S.S. Monmouth which was the  horse boat for the regiment, it had 500 horses on board and was the slowest  boat in the convoy.  We spent the balance of 1914 in tents on Salisbury Plains at Pond  Farm, going into billets at Pewsy just after the New Year. On May 4th, 1915,  the Strathcona Horse with the rest of the Canadian Cavalry went to France  as infantry, leaving the horses in England.  A REPORT  On Sunday, June 18,1972, several OHS members from Osoyoos, Oliver  and Penticton attended the field day of the Okanogan County (U.S.A.)  Historical Society at Molson where their museum is unique since the farm  machinery and tools are out of doors and the valuable collection of antiques  is housed in unlocked original buildings.  Molson, 15 miles east of Oroville, Wash., high in the rolling hills,  similar to our Bridesville country, was laid out in 1910 by the Molson Company, Canadian brewers of Montreal, in anticipation of its becoming a focus  of mining activities in the surrounding hills. The mines, like those of Fair  view, B.C., did not live up to their promise. Only scattered rich pockets of ore  were worked and placer claims along Mary Ann Creek, a tributary of the  Kettle River, were not bonanzas.  Ghost town, Molson, is only a mile south of the International Border  and until a few years ago Great Northern Railroad trains dodged into  Canada at several points. From 1906 until well into the 1920s one could travel  from Molson, Washington, to Keremeos and Princeton by way of Oroville,  Wash, or to Spokane via B.C. towns: Bridesville and Myncaster, then back  into the United States before reaching Grand Forks, B.C. thence to Spokane.  The Okanogan County (U.S.A.) Historial Society under the chairmanship of Harry Sherling, who lived at Molson at the early age of four, has  done a remarkable job in saving original buildings, including the one where  he lived, establishing the streets as well as collecting, assembling and no  A   REPORT  7550 ft. Mt. McKinney in the distance.  Eric Sismey photo  identifying treasures of another age.  The Molson State Bank building which later became a post-office until  1967, demands special attention. The ornate metal grill and mahogany  partitions which once separated the old time teller.dressed in his morning  coat and flowered vest, from his pistol belted customers is a fascinating relic  of the old west.  After a pot-luck lunch — better described as a banquet— in the Molson  Grange building OHS President Victor Wilson was invited to address the  gathering and other Canadians were recognized.  We drove home over the wide gravel road around Sidley Lake which  uses parts of the old railroad grade. From a viewpoint, where a large sign  tells part of the Sidley storey, we gazed at an inspiring view extending from  our own Mount McKinney to the mountains of our Similkameen and the  snowy crests of Chopaka. Nearer, less than a mile away, we could see traffic  on the Canadian side rolling along Trans Provincial No. 3. Leaving the  marker we followed the road around hairpin curves, that once was the  railway, as it dropped 2,500 feet to the tidy town of Oroville on the Okanogan  River.  E.D.S. AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY 111  AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY  HORSES TROD THE  BRIGADE TRAIL  AGAIN  By  FRANK C.  CHRISTIAN  The year 1971, British Columbia's Centennial, was one of province-  wide celebration. Especially so for members of an enthusiastic cavalcade  from the Okanagan who shared a ten day ride from Osoyoos to Kamloops  along the path blazed by David Stuart in 1811 which became the trail to New  Caledonia, the path of the Hudson's Bay Fur Brigades from 1821 to 1847.  The ride was enjoyed by 88 persons ranging in age from 71-year-old  George Bennett of Oliver to 12-year-old Johnny Fraser of Okanagan Falls.  Not everybody rode the entire distance estimated to be about 230 miles. The  twisty trail added some 50 miles to the highway distance.  The eleven who rode all the way were: Frank Christian and Janet  Ferguson of Penticton; Ida Robins and grandson Grant Breadner of  Keremeos; Brian Schneider from Oliver; Dora Moilliet of Summerland;  John Fraser from Okanagan Falls; George Bennett and daughter Beryl  Potter and grandchildren Shirlene and Brock Potter from Oliver and  Summerland.  The ride which began on July 4 at Canadian Customs at Osoyoos and  ended at Kamloops on July 13, was far different from the last brigade to take  the trail in 1847. Ours was a small group while the Brigade may well have  included 200 loaded horses together with Indian and Metis packers, their  wives, children and dogs. The beaver-hatted chief trader, followed by his  kilted piper would have headed the string and a white bell-mare would have  led the long column of horses.  The route where the Brigade Trail began through the sage-brushy  land, now orchard covered, was generally northerly along the west side of  Osoyoos Lake to the site of old Fairview, west of Oliver. Here the dry hills  had little changed from Brigade Trail days as was the track up Pare Rill and  through Meyer's Flat. Except for the dish-shaped antennas, the maze of  wires and forest of poles at the Astro-Physical laboratory the White Lake  basin would still have been recognized by old time travellers. Near Twin  Lakes the trail took to the highway (B.C 3a) until it turned into Marron  Valley and Beaver Creek valley, both little changed since trail days. After  passing through Summerland and Garnet Valley the trail turned sharply  down along an eight-mile path swamped out by Tom Manning of Peachland  to lakeshore and to follow the highway, there was nowhere else to go, and  past the Westbank trail monument to Westside on the shore opposite  Kelowna. Westside was a regular stop, a camp, on the brigade route. There  was pasture, water and a sandy beach. Here too, a trading point with local  Indians. From Westside the trail skirted the west shore of Okanagan Lake,  the approximate route of a secondary road, to Mauvais Rocher, near the  present Nahun. Mauvais Rocher, still rather frightening as our photograph  shows, was the most dangerous and difficult short stretch of the trail between Osoyoos and Kamloops. Most riders in our cavalcade, exercising  caution rather than bravado, led their mounts past the dangerous defile.  Safely past Mauvais Rocher we crossed Short's Creek and from there  to Lake Head. 112  AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY  Ride of the Century — The Cavalcade near Monte Lake.  Photo copy by Eric Sismey  Leaving the North Okanagan Indian reserve on our way to Falkland  we were accompanied by a dozen Indian riders, correctly attired for the  range land our pathway followed, and who, not satisfied with our usual  leisurely pace invited us to follow at a gallop. To several this was a "Wild  Ride" but to all a spirited adventure.  We were met at Falkland by a troop of local cavaliers. We were  paraded through the friendly town to the rodeo grounds carrying the flags of  Canada, British Columbia, Centennial '71 and the "H.B." banner of the  three-hundred-year-old company and from there to Monte Creek and the  south entrance of Kamloops.  Our arrival at Kamloops was rather a gala event. We were guided  from Ranch 19, into the city by Becky Cordonier, a former Kamloops rodeo  queen. Near the city we were met by an RCMP escort which conducted our  forty horses and riders into town. Our chief trader, Brian Schneider of Oliver  and the manager of the "Bay" store, trader Childs, were appropriately  dressed but they may well have thought back more than a century when the  beaver-hatted trader, his kilted piper and the brigade would have been  welcomed with shouts and gun fire and moments later with feasting, copious  drafts of 90 proof rum and genuine merriment.  On this occasion Frank Christian of Penticton presented Mr. Childs  with a scroll worded as follows:  "This scroll carried by riders from Osoyoos Customs House to Hudson's Bay store at Kamloops, July4 to 13, 1971. The trail travelled in 1971  followed very closely the historic Fur Brigade Trail that was used con- AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY  113  tinuously from 1811 to 1847 by the great Fur Brigades travelling from the  Interior to the coast."  signed: Frank Christian and Roy A. Bertram.  Along the way our riders were feted to an outdoor feast by the Centennial Committee and the Council of Summerland. Later the Council of the  City of Kamloops and the Centennial Committee of that city treated and  entertained us royally at a banquet at which His Worship Mayor Wing and a  number of local dignitaries were present. We also participated in the "Kami  Overlanders" parade, our riders carrying our national flags, the Centennial  flag and the HBC banner. We were awarded a trophy by the parade committee for the most original entry.  While we accepted these honors and took part in the festivities at  Kamloops we kept reminding ourselves that our real purpose was to rewrite  a page in provincial history. The page that led to the development not only of  our northland, then known as New Caledonia, but to the comforts and conveniences we enjoy today. We recalled, too, that even after the Fur Brigades  passed into history in 1847 the trail was revived, was used again by gold  hungry miners bound for the Cariboo and cattle drives to those northern  camps.  To this end we travelled as Brigades might have travelled. Horses our  first consideration. Rolling from our sleeping bags between five and six,  when even in July the mornings were often chilly, our horses were fed and  watered before we took care of ourselves. Breakfast finished we made ready  for the day-long ride after tidying our camp and helping load our gear into  the Dodge truck belonging to Tex Armstrong, something lacking in brigade  days. During the day we rode steadily except for occasional brief stops to  rest both horses and ourselves and to allow our mounts to crop mouthfuls of  tasty herbage. Morning, noon and night we followed the same pattern, our  horses first, then ourselves.  Cavalcade on west side road, Okanagan Lake.  Photo copy by E. D. Sismey from color by Beryl Potter, Su 114  AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY  Maubais Rocher (by present Nahun on the westside road).  Mauvais Rocher (Bad   rocks)   was  the   most   dangerous   section   on   the   Old   Brigade   Trail  between Fort Okanogan, Washington and Kamloops.  My photograph shows trail finder H. R. Hatfield at Mauvais Rocher.  Most riders on the Centennial Trail Ride '71 bypassed this rocky section. Photo by Eric Sismey  Throughout the ride we were most fortunate to have Allan "Tex"  Armstrong, a true off-spring of B.C. pioneer days. He was our wrangler, our  general duty man always in the right place at the right time. He followed  horses and riders in his Dodge truck carrying emergency supplies, food,  dunnage and forage for our mounts. In camp, around evening fires our  young people, particularly, enjoyed his stores of other days, many of his own  experiences, others hearsay from pioneer old timers.  One youngster, mentioned already, 12-year-old Johnny Fraser rode AFTER MORE THAN A CENTURY 115  without faltering the entire distance. Two others Lyle Werner, 8 and sister  Wanda 13, rode 60 miles from Cherryville to meet our cavalcade on the North  Okanagan Indian Reserve where we camped.  Reviewing the days of our historic ride the best description would be  "friendly hospitality," without it our ride would have been quite difficult.  Even when our night time camps were remote from habitation there was  always somebody, native or white, to see to our comfort and welfare.  Mention has been made already to the official welcome and banquet at  Summerland and Kamloops and the "spur of the moment" welcome at  Falkland and to the generous attention of Mr. and Mrs. Joe Armitage of the  Armitage Ranch, 20 miles from Kamloops, which was extended to ourselves  and our mounts. Also never to be forgotten was the courtesy and help of our  native people. I like to think that they recalled and tried to relive the days  when their ancestors welcomed Fur Brigades. At the forks of Shingle Creek,  west of Penticton, we swooped down, without warning, on Charlie Armstrong's place, where, after explanations a campsite and pasture was  cheerfully offered. At Westside and at Lake Head our cavalcade was  welcomed. Our stock, as in days of old, was entrusted to the chief. At  Westside a pasture was set aside for us and water trucked to quench our  thirst and of our mounts. At Lake Head not only was the school house turned  over to us but a feast, let's use the Okanagan word 'she'ak', extended by  Cheif Murray Alexis and his people in our honor. And as already mentioned,  a number of riders escorted us part way next day.  Mention, too must be made of part-way rider, Victor Casorso of  Kelowna, scion of the Casorso family of Kelowna. He told of Indians helping  his grandfather soon after he settled in Kelowna when things were tough,  when crops had failed, brought meat and other foods. Grandfather never  forgot their kindness. He tried to repay and urged both sons and grandsons  never to forget.  The "Ride of the Century" was spark-plugged by Mr. H. R. Hatfield, a  member of the Penticton Centennial Committee, whose help I gratefully  acknowledge. Mr. Hatfield has made lengthy studies and many field excursions to develop and pinpoint the history and exact location of the trail.  In closing, I, as leader of the cavalcade, wish to extend special thanks  to the Centennial Committees of Penticton, Summerland and Kamloops, to  the many Indians and whites, who helped us along the way and to the group  of grand riders, companions, with whom I had the pleasure of associating.  Even a brief shower, wetting though it was, never dampened their humor.  There is far more to our trail ride than can ever be covered by a short  article. Journals of several riders and a series of excellent color photographs  taken by Mrs. Beryl Potter will, after assembly, be made a part of our  permanent archives.  For me, and I am sure, that riders, all, will have happy and long  lasting memories of the scenes along the trail, of their companions, the  delightful pow-wows around our evening fires and the reception and excitement of our stay in Kamloops.  FOOTNOTE:—The 33rd report of the Okanagan Historical Society carries an article "When  Commerce went Ahorseback" by H. R. Hatfield. Mr. Hatfield's research has pinpointed  the route followed by the riders in Frank Christian's story.  Your editor withes to offer the thanks of the Okanagan Historical Society for the  organization, attention to detail and the many hours spent by Mr. Christian in bringing  this historic ride to a successful conclusion. Without his dedication its success, its place  in our provincial history could not have been achieved. 116 ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT SUMMERLAND  ANNUAL FIELD  DAY AT SUMMERLAND  UA Feast of History and Oratory"  By  IVAN   E.  PHILLIPS  It was generally agreed that the Annual Field Day of the Okanagan  and Boundary Societies held this year in conjunction with the Summerland  Museum and Arts Society, was one of the best.  The site chosen was an ideal one, namely, on the grounds of the  Summerland Research Station by permission of Dr. D. V. Fisher, Director of  the Station. Pleasantly cool, but not too cool, after the torrential rains of the  previous day, the gathering was fully representative of the three Societies,  with a sprinkling of friends and guests. Mayors of two of the communities  interested and concerned in the celebrations were present, these in the  persons of His Worship The Mayor of Summerland H. J. Barkwill, Esq. and  His Worship The Mayor of Peachland Harold Thwaite, Esq. with Mr. J. V. H.  Victor Wilson representing Naramata. It was a happy occasion, as always,  and will long be remembered by those who were present. Held in one of the  most beautiful parts of the Station, with the background of trees, flowers and  verdant lawns, it was indeed an ideal setting.  Perhaps one should mention that at the outset, there was on unexpected, unwelcome and uninvited guest. Although he was unannounced, this  interloper very soon made his presence evident. "Gracious me," exclaimed  almost everyone in unison, "Skunk!" However, the visitor was unperturbed.  Curled up in an almost empty garbage bin he was probably catching up on  his arrears of sleep after night operations. Needless to mention, he was duly  removed from the scene with reverence and caution.  Introduced by the ever genial and inimitable President of the  Okanagan Historical Society, Victor Wilson, Dr. Fisher extended a warm  welcome to the members and guests. He spoke of his pleasure at seeing a  number of the younger people present, for it reflected an interest in the early  history of the province.  Mr. E. A. Harrison, a founder member of the Boundary Historical  Society, conveyed on behalf of the members of his Society, greetings and  best wishes to all the members of the two Societies present. Giving a brief  resume of the history of the Boundary Society, he said that it was founded in  1951, and he added, since then it had gone from strength to strength. It was a  matter of real regret to him and the members of his Society, that due to  matters beyond their control, it was impossible to host the Okanagan  Historical Society this year. However, it was with much pleasure that he  extended an invitation to the members to visit at Cascade next year.  The M.C in a few well chosen remarks, then introduced Dr. H. R.  McLarty, a former head of Plant Pathology at the Station. Dr. McLarty in an  entertaining and racy speech, confessed that with the passage of years, his  legs had begun to give out on him. However, one felt bound to observe, that  this was not true of his memory, for he regaled us all, with his reminiscences  of his early days at the Station and his laboratory in particular. Coming to  Summerland in 1921, he made mention of the many problems that had to be  solved by research, such as Fire Blight, Canker and the like. Between ripples of laughter from his listeners, he related a number of delightful and  amusing stories.  He spoke of holes in the ground three feet deep, adding as an af- ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT SUMMERLAND  117  Dr. Don V. Fisher, Director of the Summerland Research Station at the  microphone with President Victor Wilson of the Okanagan Historical Society  June  11,  1972. Erie Sismey photo  terthought, how suspect a man was in those days who happened to wear a  collar and tie. "For after all," he exclaimed, "how on earth could such an  individual possibly be expected to know anything at all of such things as the  growing, the culture and the diseases of fruit?" Concluding, he told of his  early adventures in the driving of a car after an half hour of instruction, of  his marriage, of the people whom he had known throughout the years, of the  progress and the change and a number of most interesting experiences  encountered in research. He said, that "if I were to be asked to give advice to  youth, it would be, get close to nature." One could not help but feel, that here  was a man who had lived close to the soil and loved life, and living things,  and had in the process, learnt of the value and the tonic of laughter.  Mr. H. Cleland, President of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society thanked Dr. McLarty on behalf of all those present for a  delightful and exhilerating speech. He said, that the growers of fruit not only  in this area, but also of Canada and in other parts of the world, owed much to  Dr. McLarty. For it was through his research and sustained efforts, that  Boron was discovered as an aid in the culture of fruit. And he would add,  with a resultant saving of millions of dollars to the growers of fruit  throughout the world.  In response to Mr. Victor Wilson's introduction, Mr. F. E. Atkinson, a  former Head of the Fruit Processing Laboratory, at the Research Station at  Summerland, remarked that he could only touch but lightly on his work and  research at the Station. However, he would in the short time available to him  do his best to convey in words, a picture of the Station scene as he knew it  during his long years of service and research. Interspersing his talk from 118 ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT SUMMERLAND  time to time with the most amusing anecdotes, he kept his listeners not only  entertained but also informed.  Ted, as he has always been known to his friends and acquaintances,  recalled vividly to mind those early years at the Farm as the Station was  once known before it was given its present title. He traced its history from  the time of its first Director, Mr. Helmer of Australian birth, right up to the  time of his own retirement in 1965. He recalled the difficulties, the equipment, the buildings and the personnel of the Station and those of his own  laboratory, who helped him to build up Fruit Processing to the important  and vital department which it is today. He mentioned the fact that it was R.  C Palmer, or Dick as most persons called him, who was responsible for the  Van Cherry and the Spartan Apple.  Throughout the whole of his talk, Ted held the attention and the interest of us all. In a style all his own, his potpourri of memories concerning  people whom he had met, known and worked with, often for lengthy'periods,  were not only humourous but downright hilarious. However, one hastens to  add, that like Dr. McLarty's stories, they were never spiteful or mean. The  writer particularly enjoyed the tale of the person who had felt the urge to get  married. It was unfortunate, in that the person concerned had no money and  no car, so he decided that he would consult a confidant of his, which he did.  "Well, it's simple really," said his sympathizer, "why don't you borrow two  hundred dollars to see you through?" "By golly, that's a good idea," the  lovesick swain replied. Jubilant, he met his friend a few days after. "Well,  how did you make out?" his confidant said. "Oh, I got the money alright, but  I have just realized that I have no car. And how on earth can I take my bride  on a honeymoon without a car?" "Well, so and so is away and is not likely to  be back for a time," said his friend. "I notice that the car that he uses around  here is still parked outside in the usual place, and it still has the keys in the  ignition, why not borrow it?" "You will be back before him, and in any event  he will never know anything about it." In the end the eager and prospective  bridegroom decided to do just that. Judge of his embarrassment, when  taking his bride to a restaurant for dinner, the first person he saw was the  owner of the car. There appears to be no record of the conversation which  took place after the meeting.  Continuing, Ted said, that he could still recall the first piece of  equipment that he used in those early days of fruit processing. It was a  copper kettle, and was in use by him for some time. It enabled him to carry  out experimentation which proved to be of much value later on, when the full  importance of this method received recognition.  Ted remarked Dr. McLarty had emphasized how important the  research into Boron had proved to be. To Boron, he would add that of Zinc  and the other trace elements in use today, which were not only important but  vital to the fruit industry. Indeed, it could well have been, were it not for the  research into such projects as these, the fruit industry as we now know it  could have disappeared.  In closing, Ted made mention of other experiments and research and  said how happy he was at the success of the Radiation Codling Moth Control  programme. For indeed, it was a wonderful and lasting demonstration  between the Station and the grower.  Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney, a past President of the Okanagan Historical  Society expressed thanks and appreciation for Mr. Atkinson's informative  and interesting discourse on the historical highlights of the Summerland ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT SUMMERLAND  119  -'■ "■■        T^SP?^' 4__H__L   ,*-_»*____.  , 15 511  -TED    JUL'V   2 0    .6)6 6.   BY  O? THs. I AT!::  :;}";.::!4iirs,  .     5©   YEARS   OF   POMOLOGY   AT    I  .LAND  RESEARCH STATION.  IT IS A SCION*  •JAL APPLE TREES, N*"  LOWNA BY FATI  . ATE  MISSION.  IQOE .ERECTED   BY   COURTESY  B.C.   FHUfX    GROWERS   ASSOC11  * *S JL*  Plaque at the foot of the Okanagan Mission Apple tree.  Eric Sismey photo  Research Station. Mr. Ted Atkinson can rightly be described as an Old  Timer of the Okanagan, for as a lusty infant of eighteen months he arrived  here on board the S.S. Aberdeen. Actually he was wheeled by his brother  Reg. in a baby buggy to the nearby hotel.  As a member of the staff of the Station for 36 years, he has always been  an asset not only here at this widely known centre of the Canada Department  of Agriculture but also to his community. And perhaps one should add, far  beyond the boundary of his native heath. The two brothers Atkinsons, Ted  of Summerland and Reg. of Penticton, had, each in their respective  spheres, played a prominent part in the furtherance of progress and well  being of both towns. Once again, on behalf of the Okanagan and Boundary  Historical Societies and the Summerland Museum and Arts Society, our  thanks.  Victor Wilson, in his introductory remarks, confessed that he had  always had a weakness and liking for the story of Father Pandosy and the  Okanagan Mission Apple Tree. Dr. D. V. Fisher was not only a man who  knew the story well, but also who through his interest and influence had done  much towards the perpetuation of it, as you will hear for yourselves. Ladies  and Gentlemen, it is with much pleasure that I now introduce to you,  although many of you already know him well, Dr. D. V. Fisher, the Director  of the Summerland Research Station of the Canada Department of  Agriculture.  Responding, Dr. Fisher remarked that the Okanagan Mission Apple 120 ANNUAL FIELD DAY AT SUMMERLAND  Tree story was an interesting and an intriguing one. He traced the history of  the original trees planted at Okanagan Mission, which incidentally was  founded by the pioneers in 1858 over a century ago.'It was interesting to  reflect, that through the science of pomology it had been possible to  propagate a scion of one of the original trees now dead. Describing the fruit  produced as of a green colour, he said these apples were quite good really, of  a nice size and good keepers, with some from the original trees being three  inches across.  In the year 1966, over a hundred years later, a graft was taken from  one of the remaining trees, with the result that we now have a healthy and  vigorous tree right here in the grounds of the Station. And most important of  all, is the fact that this tree will serve as an appropriate and constant  reminder of Father Pandosy a man whose mission has been completed.  Dr. Fisher then invited all those interested to view the tree and the  plaque which reads as follows, "Okanagan Mission Apple. This tree was  planted July 20th, 1966, by Mrs. R. C. Palmer, wife of the late Dr. Palmer,  former superintendent, at the celebration marking 50 years of pomology at  the Summerland Research Station. It is a scion of one of the original apple  trees now dead, planted in 1862 in Kelowna by Father Pandosy, of the Oblate  Mission. This plaque erected by courtesy of the B.C. Fruit Growers'  Association."  Mr. Peter Bird, a Director of the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan  Historical Society, responding said that he was fascinated and intrigued by  the story of the Okanagan Mission Tree. He would like to express thanks and  appreciation on behalf of the three societies and all friends and guests whom  he felt certain had enjoyed the talk and the reminiscences of Dr. Fisher.  Mr. Kenneth Ellison referred to the Annual Field Day of the Penticton  Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society at the Pandosy Mission,  Kelowna, last year. He recalled that it rained almost continuously. However,  this did not dampen the ardour of the members and guests. Although  literally, there must have been few indeed who were not very, very damp  after the ceremony. Today, so far, we have confounded the weather  prophets.  He felt that he would be interpreting the wishes of all the members of  the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society, the Summerland  Museum and Arts Society and the Boundary Historical Society, when he  expressed warmest thanks and appreciation also to the hard working  executive of the three groups who by their devoted work behind the scenes  had ensured the success of this delightful gathering. He would also like to  couple this expression of thanks to Dr. D. V. Fisher for his generous  hospitality in allowing us the privilege of using the beautiful grounds of the  Summerland Research Station. Indeed it has been a memorable  programme. PRESENTATION   OF    CENTENNIAL   MEDALS 121  PRESENTATION  OF CENTENNIAL MEDALS  Okanagan Mission and Kelowna, 1971  The Okanagan Mission Community Hall, although not yet a building of  antiquity, was the setting for the presentation of Medallions to pioneers of  the area. The occasion was the off ical opening of the newly renovated hall by  Mrs. Pat Jordan, MLA, who spoke briefly of the importance of improving  facilities for use of a community. She cut the ribbon on this occasion with the  golden scissors used by H.R.H. Princess Margaret at the opening of the  Okanagan Lake Bridge in 1958.  The hall, built in 1938, has served the community well, but it was  considered that kitchen, bar, washroom and serving areas needed to be  improved. This was done as the Okanagan Mission Centennial project, and  the rest of the hall was renovated. The celebration started out with a pancake breakfast on the 20th, followed by Open House in the afternoon, and a  dance in the evening, all well attended.  On the Sunday, the 21st, the hall was filled to capacity for the Centennial program, and the wine and cheese party following. The first part of  the programme was put on by the pupils of the Primary School and the  Dorothea Walker School. These groups rendered some action songs and  square dancing, along with several individual songs and dances.  Master of ceremonies for the presentation of the medals was Leslie G.  Wilson,  who gave a  brief  talk  on  some of  the  medal   recipients.   Un-  Mrs.  Pat Jordan, M.L.A.,  returns  the  golden  scissors  to  Osborne   Scott,  Chairman of the Community Hall,  after cutting  the  ribbon  marking  the  official opening of the hall at Okanagan Mission. courier photo 122 PIONEER    MEDALLIONS  fortunately, Mr. and Mrs. L. B. Rands were unable to be present, but Mr.  and Mrs. W. H. (Harry) Raikes were presented with their medallions—Mrs.  Raikes having the distinction also, of having been born in British Columbia.  Receiving the medals for Mrs. H. C. Mallam and Mrs. W. D. Walker were  Mrs. W. D. Hay and Mrs. T. B. Upton, daughters of Mrs. Mallam and Mrs.  Walker. A cheque was presented from the Federal Government to Centennial Committee Chairman John C. Surtees, as final payment for improvements and additions to the hall.  On July 10th, 1971, Premier and Mrs. W. A. C. Bennett were hosts at a Garden  Party at their home in Kelowna. Pioneer medallions were presented to E. W. Aubrey,  L. G. Alton, C. J. Anderson, Mrs. Lily Arnold, Mr. and Mrs. E. T. Abbott, Vandacy  Acheson, W. E. Adams, Mrs. P. G. Aitkens, Mr. and Mrs. H. A. Ansell, Mrs. G. A.  Arkell, W. J. Angell, M. M. Blais, Mrs. E. M. Batie, R. J. Buchanan, Adelia V. Bexfield,  Mrs. M. A. Biglow, Dr. D. M. Black, Mrs. E. M. Bourque, R. W. Brown, H. F. Bridges,  F. G. Burge, H. A. Burgess, G. E. Burtch, Mrs. Louise Butler, G. D. Cameron, W. H.  Cowie, Mrs. A. C. Cross, Mrs. E. A. Crewe, Mrs. N. F. Cross, R. W. Corner, N. P.  Casorso, Mrs. H. M. Cruickshank, A. J. W. Curts, Annie M. Craig, Miss H. A. Dewar ,  Stephen Ehmann, Mr. and Mrs. W. Falk, Mrs. M. M. Fenton, C. E, Fuller, J. H. Fry,  Mrs. Mabel Gill, H. G. Greenwood, Mrs. Agnes Girard, John Goodbrand, Mrs. L. M.  Gordon, Mr. and Mrs. E. H. Hampton, Mrs. Ellen Harden, Mrs. Beatrice Hardie, H. H.  Hamblin, Mrs. G. E. Herbert, Mr. and Mrs. D. D. Hamilton, J. A. Hinks, Mr. and Mrs.  A. Hinks, Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Huffman, Mrs. M. A. Hudson, Mrs. F. E. Ingram, C. E.  Jolliffee, Mrs. F. M. Jones, I. A. James, W. Jackson, Mrs. Mabel Jones, Mrs. Ivy L.  Kirk, Mrs. Stella Kennedy, W. H. Last, Robert Leitch, Mrs. A. Lemky, J. C. Leveille, H.  E. LeVasseuk, Samuel Langley, Mrs. Ida Link, Mrs. Ruth Lewis, Mrs. V. G. McKay,  Arnold McKeever, M. N. MacLeod,  J. A. MacPhail, E. J. McPhee, T. H. MacQueen, Mrs. M. B. Martin. D. A.  Mathers, L. E. Marshall, Mr. and Mrs. S. T. Miller, Mr. and Mrs. W. G. Maxwell, F. M.  Richards, Mrs. Edith Newton, James Newton, T. H. Noad, H. H. Oliver, R. M. Oliver,  Mrs. Florence Persinger, W. S. Pierce, H. A. Peters, Mrs. J. A. Perron, Mrs. Florence  Perry, Heinrich Peters, P.J. Robichaud, Mr. and Mrs. RaeG. R itchie, Or in Rosengren,  Mrs. Ellen Sargent, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Smith, Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Stacey, Leon  Simonin, J. B. Smith, L. B. Stephens, Mr. and Mrs. W. Spear, John C. Stinson, Mr. and  Mrs. W. J. Thompson, Miss Ethel Thomson, John S. Thomson, H. A. Truswell, Mr. and  Mrs. E. W. Van Blaricom, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Joseph Willis, Mrs. C. R. Wood, Mrs.  K. D. Wall, Adolph Weppler, E. E.Wolfe, Ernesto. Wood, Otto A. Woolsey, Mrs. Lizella  Zelbel.  PIONEER MEDALLIONS  Rutland-Belgo-EHison Centennial Committee  Golden Age Home, 265 Gray Road, Rutland: Mrs. Frances Mary Maud Brownlee,  Mrs. Gertrude Brunt, Mrs. Esther Maud Casey, Mrs. Alice Amey Clement, Mrs. Mary  Levina Dunnett, Mrs. Sebenia English, Mrs. Marie Odella Marty, Mrs. Margaret Jane  O'Neill, Mrs. Sarah Amelia Parks, Mrs. Mary Eliza Stephens.  Grand View Rest Home, R.R. 5, Kelowna: Mrs. Grace Clark, Joesph Emery  L'Heureux, Miss Amanda May Mooney, Mrs. Vernia Grace Smith, Jacob Wesley  Searle.  Mountview Rest Home, 965 Highway 33, West Rutland: Mrs. Elizabeth Flintoft.  Valley View Lodge, 195 Valley View Crescent, Rutland: Mrs. Rachel Lucente,  Leonard C. Newsom, John Nichols, Dan Tomar.  Whispering Pines Lodge, Walburn Road, R.R. 5, Kelowna: Mrs. Alexina Dupuis,  Mrs. Susanna Lindsay.  Home address: John James Adams, 2459 Highway 97N, Kelowna; Louis Paul  Bauer, 175 Bryden Rd., Rutland; Percy Charles Chamberlin, and Mrs. Eva Maude  Chamberlin, 315 Dougall Rd., S., Rutland; Mrs. Dogni Ennis, R.R.2, Kelowna; Joseph  Edmond Fahlman and Mrs. Elizabeth Fahlman, 175 Ponto Rd., Rutiand; Rev. Samuei  James Everett Fleming, The Old Mill Ranch, R.R. 2, Kelowna; Arthur Wilfrid Gray,  R.R. 2, Black Rd., Kelowna; Francis Joseph Hefferan, R.R. 2, Finns Rd.,  Kelowna; Samuel Hunter, 900 Rutland Rd., Rutland. PIONEER    RUTLAND    RESIDENTS 123  Mrs. Lydia Ann Jacob, 300 Dougall Rd. N., Rutland; Mrs. Sarah E. Lehner, 145  Asher Rd., Kelowna; Mrs. Mary Lawrence Monford, 490 Donhauser Rd., Rutland; Miss  Zella Jane Irene Monford, 490 Donhauser Rd., Rutland; Mrs. Minnie May Macdonnell,  R.R. 2, Kelowna; Mrs. Elsie Christina Nelson, 485 Froelich Rd., 32W., Rutland; Mrs.  Mary Catherine Neave, Box 224, R.R. 2, Kelowna; William Daniel Quigley, 715 Quigley  Rd., R.R.5, Kelowna; Edwin Carey Scott, and Mrs. Esther Ann Scott, R.R.5, Joe Riche  Rd., Kelowna; Edward William Lionel Veale, 295 Froehlich Rd., Rutland; Harman  Leroy Willits, R.R. 5, Kelowna.  Mrs. Sarah Margaret Woodland, O.K. Mobile Villa, R.R. 2, Box 17, Kelowna.  Centenarian Award: Mrs. Gertrude Brunt, born April 14,1871.  PIONEER RUTLAND RESIDENTS  RECEIVE CENTENNIAL MEDALLIONS  A merry afternoon was held in the Centennial Hall on Sunday June 6,  1971, when 43 pioneers received their Centennial medallions. A dogwood pin  was given to each recipient by Miss Rutland (Ingrid Huber).  The highlight of the gathering was the presentation of the Centennial  Award to Mrs. Gertrude Brunt by Jon MacKinnon, Recreation Consultant.  Mrs. Brunt was born in 1871 in Yorkshire, England, and celebrates her own  centennial the same year as Canada does. She came to Saskatchewan in  1896, and to Kelowna district in 1945. She resides now in the Golden Age  Home, Rutland. She is still active and retains all her faculties. She is a life  member of the Rebekahs. The "Mad Hatters" band entertained the  gathering with songs, and led in the singing of the province's official Centennial song, "Go British Columbia", in which everyone joined. The  gathering concluded with the serving of enjoyable refreshments. Four other  pioneers who did not attend were presented with their medallions at their  homes later.  Mrs. Gertrude Brunt 124  WILLIAM   McNAIR  WILLIAM McNAIR—1849-1929  By JAMES  BELL  William McNair  William McNair was born in Restigouche County, New Brunswick,  from ancestors that emigrated from Campbellton, Scotland about 1825.  In 1873, he marriedJaneArchibald, 1859-1928, of Archibald Settlement,  New Brunswick. This couple were  the parents of Catherine, 1875-1963  (Mrs. George Davidson); Martha  May, 1876 (Mrs. P. J. Smith); Albert  James, 1879; Melvin, 1881-1970;  Isabella Jane, 1883-1907; Robert  Nathanial, 1886; Terrance Wilfred,  1887; and David, 1892.  Until 1886 Mr. McNair was  engaged as a lumber man and on  that date entered into partnership  with three of his brothers when they  established a sawmill and general  store at Eel River, New Brunswick.  This operation continued until 1889  when it was destroyed by fire  resulting in a total loss.  The family, except David,  moved to Vancouver, B.C. in 1891.  Here they became close friends with  the family of John Docksteader and in July, 1893 both families moved to  Armstrong, B.C., where they homesteaded about a mile apart on the Hallam  Road in the Knob Hill area. Soon after this, Mr. McNair rented the Shields'  farm, another 160 acres, which was nearby, where, with his sons, he successfully raised grain, stock and potatoes. In 1904 they purchased the Cargill  farm of some 300 acres where they raised hay, grain, vegetables, cattle and  hogs.  Due to lack of marketing and shipping facilities in the area, in 1907 Mr.  McNair entered into the fruit, vegetable, hay and grain shipping business,  assisted by his sons, Albert and David. In due course branches were  established at Ashcroft, Kamloops, Vernon and Penticton.  In 1923 this business was sold to the Associated Growers of B.C Ltd.,  with Albert becoming manager of their Kamloops branch, where he  remained until 1934, when he bought the Eldorado Ranch at Kelowna. In  1943, he sold this ranch and retired. This writer spent several hours with  Albert in Vancouver in July, 1972 and while he is in his 94tti year, he is  completely alert in every way, very healthy and real agile, also extremely  pleasant to talk with and listen to.  Son David was engaged by the Associated Growers in 1923 and in 1924  was promoted to Sales Manager, where he continued until 1938. In 1939 he  was selected as Sales Manager for B.C. Tree Fruits Limited, at Kelowna,  where he remained in this capacity until his voluntary resignation in 1949.  Due to David's tireless efforts and talents, the market for Okanagan apples  was expanded and became known throughout many parts of the world, plus  the  fact  that the  Okanagan   Valley  in  particular  and   B.C.   in   general SHANGHAI    ALLEY 125  benefitted economically. In 1949 David moved to Vancouver where he has  since been in the import-export business in various forms.  In 1904 son Melvin bought the original homestead and in 1908,  associated with his brother Terrance Wilfred, leased the Cargill Ranch  which they later sold. Melvin then bought another farm on the Pleasant  Valley Road, about a mile south of Armstrong where he continuted till his  death in 1970. He married an Armstrong girl, Esther Warner (1900) in 1919,  and she still lives on this same farm.  After leaving the Cargill Ranch, son Terrance Wilfred moved to  Vernon where he resided for several years and more recently moved to New  Westminster where he presently lives.  Son Robert acquired a farm near Armstrong city limits and enlisted in  1914 during World War I where he served until 1918. After returning from  overseas, he moved to Wenatchee, Washington, later moving to Walla Walla  where he still resides.  These McNairs, headed by William, played an important and  respected role in the affairs and life of the entire Okanagan Valley. All of  them conducted their lives and business on the basis that a verbal promise  and a handshake were as binding as a legal contract. All of them toiled arduously for everything they gained. None of them expected charity, other  than fellowship, and yet each of them in their own way have been and are  charitable, as behooves this race of people.  SHANGHAI ALLEY  By  DANIEL W.  THORPE  Editor's Note—While this essay by Daniel W. Thorpe, Division 2, Grade 10  of the McNicoll Park School at Penticton was not awarded a prize. It was of  unusual interest and covers a subject of Penticton history not yet recorded  Daniel was fortunate in being able to interview old timers who still remembered the early days.  Few people knew of iteven while itexisted, and now that it is gone, one  has to search before he finds someone to whom Shanghai Alley is more than  just a name. Yet during the sixty odd years of its existence Robinson's  Street, or Shanghai Alley was Penticton's Chinatown, a bustling little  community rarely numbering more than sixty souls. This Chinese colony  consisted of three town houses crammed together on a twenty yard lane  behind 200 Block, Main Street. The Chinese Masonic was located elsewhere.  The lots themselves were on Robinson Street but in typical Chinese fashion  the vegetable gardens were put in front with the houses at the back facing  what was to be known as Shanghai Alley.  All of the buildings which formed the little community were built of  scanty construction, being uninsulated. (The Chinese relied on roaring wood  fires to keep them warm, not always with as much success as we would have  desired.) The first of the houses was the Sam Kee Laundry, an unpainted,  rather rickety two storey structure. The front room was used for delivering  and picking up the laundry with the room in behind serving for casual meals  and the gambling games the Chinese would not be happy without. Upstairs  there was a kind of, "Rabbit-warren sleeping quarters," said Mr. E.  Aidreage, while in behind there was a maze of wires on which the laundry 126 SHANGHAI    ALLEY  was dried. All of the buildings had vegetable gardens in behind and the Sam  Kee building also had some one-storey structures, probably used for storage,  scattered about.  The southernmost building was the Hop Yick Laundry which while of  the same basic type construction had a nicer interior than the Sam Kee one,  probably due to its being painted. Being a bit newer itwas also better built. A  while later a third building was erected between the previous two. This  structure was built as a rooming house and thus did not have the provision  for cleaning clothes, a large vegetable garden taking its place. This third  building had a rather checkered career; eventually being vacated and  employed as a warehouse. When the warehouse was moved Red Bowering  set up a sign painting business there with a photographic studio upstairs.  Finally in 1950 Ted Collier used it to base a plumbing business, though the  building burned down soon afterwards.  There was a continual ebb and flow of people about the Alley. The  Chinese were always very helpful to down-and-outers, more so on many  occasions than one's fellow white men, and there were many down-and-  outers to receive their sympathy particularly in the "Dirty Thirties." Quite  nearby there was a Chinese restaurant that served food at ridiculously low  prices to people who had no jobs, and Sam Kee provided a home for people  with no work, and a mailing address for those that did. The third building  being a rooming house was often full of people, and along with the many old  people who lived in retirement with their fellow countrymen the Alley was  usually full of people.  The Chinese who did work about town (many were employed  elsewhere by the CPR) either sold vegetables or worked in the laundries.  The vegetables, produce from the large gardens were usually sold in the  streets from barrows, often in all sorts of weather. It was a feature of the  laundries that when a shirtwas washed itwas washed spotless, and Sam Kee  in particular never charged extra for such services as starching and mending. The Chinese were to be noted for their conscientious work, no matter  what the job.  During their many years here they always proved kindly, courteous  and scrupulously clean despite their not always perfect living conditions. In  contrast to their solemn faces the Chinese are an extremely fun-lcving race;  though the humor at the expense of the white man they would not let us hear  for the world. Thus they usually enjoyed the pranks of the schoolboys who  had ventured to the Alley for the purpose of procuring firecrackers, but the  Chinese were never teased and fortunately Penticton was for the most part  free of the racism that afflicts other parts of the country.  Life was sometimes hard in Shanghai Alley, particularly in winter  when it was too cold to go out and sell vegetables. Over the winter the  Chinese would eke out an existence on stored vegetables, bits of fish, and of  course, rice. The fish, either Kokanee or sucker, was bought from a group of  boys who caught it in Okanagan Lake. They had ways of fixing the muddy  taste of the suckers. The Kokanee usually being mixed in with the rice which  was eaten with their strange dried vegetables. The smell wasn't always as  appetizing as we could prefer, but the Chinese enjoyed it. Many communal  meals of this sort were eaten in the back room of Sam Kee's laundry.  It is not generally known that at one time there was an effort, led by  the late Hugh Leir to evict the Chinese. The attempt was probably not  sparked by racism; Mr. Leir and his minions seemed to think the Chinese FIRE    FIGHTING    IN    KELOWNA 127  were going to cut wages or something, it was never really made clear. At  any rate anything to liven the rather dull days of 1914 was welcome.  However not everyone agreed with the raiding and though the facts are  vague and obscured by time it seems the raiders got raided in the process of  their own raid! Whatever happened, the attempt was unsuccessful and  shortly afterwards the good Mr. Leir was to be engulfed in the much larger  conflict which had brewed up in Europe.  Around 1960 Sam Kee was seen to be nearly in tears as he watched his  old laundry for the last time. Laudromats had forced the Chinese laundry out  of business and all the old buildings were bought and burned. Perhaps it is  fitting that their destruction gave way to that great monument to our  modern city — the parking lot.  The Chinese were always a credit to the community, clean, good  tempered and hard working, and now a parking lot exists in place of their  little Chinatown. With the destruction of Sganghai Alley a unique part of  Penticton has disappeared which can only be regretted and mourned.  FIRE FIGHTING IN KELOWNA  By PRIMROSE  UPTON  EDITOR'S NOTE: The Fulton Iron Works of San Francisco was an early  builder of machinery. Their marine engines powered many coastal steamers  and sternwheelers plying the Sacramento river. U.S. Senator David C Broderick  was challenged to a duel by Chief Justice David S. Terry The duel was fought  on the San Francisco sand dunes in September 1859. Broderick was killed.  From the files at the Fire Hall, I have gleaned interesting little bits of  information about the good old bucket brigades to the day when the  Broderick was triumphantly rolled up Bernard Ave., to the rebuilt Cadillac  in 1914.  Broderick No. 1 was in the Kelowna City Park for many years, and  was returned to San Francisco on March 20, 1947. It had been built there in  the early 1850's, and served that city until the 70's. From there it went to  Yale, British Columbia in April 1882, to Vernon in August 1894, to Kelowna in  August of 1904. In San Francisco it is one of the cherished possessions of the  Fire Department. It was designed by William E. Worth and built by the  Fulton Iron Works. Apparently it was the first fire engine to be built in  California. "It was designed and constructed not to lead parades, but to put  out fires." In San Francisco it had plenty of practice — as the brochure  states "in the fabulous fifties fires were one of San Francisco's chief outputs  — fires and gold." The engine gained the nickname of "Old Fire-eater."  Originally the name of the Volunteer Fire Company operating the  engine was Empire No. 1. Among its members was a young David A.  Broderick who, before coming to the California coast with other gold  seekers, had lived in New York and been a member of that city's Volunteer  Fire Brigade. This experience, plus natural qualities of leadership soon  made him foreman of Empire No. 1 Fire Company, which, like all the others,  was active in political affairs. David Broderick had a special flair for  politics. Before long he became a leader which culminated in his being  elected United States Senator from California. In 1866 San Francisco had a 128  FIRE    FIGHTING    IN    KELOWNA  The Broderick, Kelowna City Park  regular paid Fire Department, and as the years went by, Broderick, like  other hand operated engines, found itself used less and less, until it was  finally superannuated and put in storage. British Columbia now comes into  the picture with Yale purchasing it in 1882, then to Vernon, and eventually to  Kelowna in 1904.  Let's take a closer look at some of the fires in Kelowna since it had  been laid out as a townsite in August 1892. Lequime Bros, had moved their  sawmill from the old site at the Mission to a new location on the waterfront,  several hundred feet north of what was later to become Bernard Ave. There  was a smaller building with planing machinery and a dry kiln. In April 1892  the dry kiln caught fire for the third time and was totally destroyed. That  same autumn fire destroyed the sawmill along with about 500,000 feet of  lumber. Probably bucket brigades were formed to try to save nearby  buildings. Once again fire was to strike this sawmill — this time in the  summer of 1899 when it was owned by Lequime and Lloyd-Jones. Here, men  with bucket brigades from the lake, saved a good deal of the lumber. Nothing  daunted, the owners started construction of a new sawmill on the old site  within a few days. Machinery was installed and operating in a couple of  months. Early in 1902 David Lloyd-Jones bought out Bernard Lequime's  partnership in the sawmill, but again that summer, fire was to strike  another blow. After midnight of August 15, the sawmill whistle screamed  and the Anglican Church bell rang loudly — well it might ring loudly too — it  was situated just west of where the Kelowna Centennial Museum stands on  Queensway. Again bucket brigades formed from the Lake, and due to the  fact that there was no wind, most of the lumber was saved, but the mill was a  total loss. On March 30th the following year the Raymer building at the  corner of Bernard and Water went up in flames. Barrels of water were  hauled from the lake and a hand pump from the sawmill used to try to save OSOYOOS   MAN    REMEMBERS 129  nearby buildings — some were saved, others were not. Again, fire broke out  early in August in the C.P.R. warehouse at the foot of Bernard Avenue, and  again bucket brigades, after strenuous work, extinguished the fire.  Now the Broderick comes on the scene. Apparently shallow wells were  dug at several points in the business section to supply water, and a Fire  Brigade was formed. The Kelowna Clarion has this to say about the engine —  "It is a hand engine requiring twenty men for its operation, and is said,to be  in good condition. It throws a powerful stream and will be a great improvement on the present volunteer bucket brigade. It will doubtless serve a  good purpose until such time as a system of waterworks can be established  here." The Broderick was most useful on many occasions, but on others  absolutely refused to work, and good old muscles behind a bucket brigade  had to be relied on.  In October 1905 a plan of Kelowna's business area was drawn up, for  insurance underwriting purposes. It stated that the population was 500, and  the fire equipment consisted of a Hand Engine arid'500 feet of hose. Gasoline  engines were noted, as were some wells. Building materials were recorded,  with very few buildings being constructed of brick, stone or cement, so the  fire hazard must have been tremendous. The Kelowna Sawmill on the north  side of Bernard had a steam force-pump and 200 feet of hose.  In May of 1914 the City of Kelowna purchased an auto fire truck for the  Fire Brigade. This was a Cadillac formerly owned by lawyer J. F. Burne;  and was rebuilt by the Kelowna Garage and Machine Shop. It had hard  rubber tires and right hand drive — the pride and joy of the Fire Brigade.  And so the Broderick was set up in Kelowna City Park, where it stood until it  was returned to San Francisco to become a treasured relic of a past era.  OSOYOOS MAN REMEMBERS  EARLY DAYS OF FLYING  .;...,- By HUGH  PORTEOUS     '  EDITOR'S NOTE: Liberal candidate  for Southern  Okanagan, Ruth Schiller, is  Hans Castillon's daughter.  OSOYOOS — As Hans Castillon sits on his patio overlooking Osoyoos  Lake and hears the roar of a jet as it streaks across the sky leaving ribbons  of vapor streaming behind, he might well look back through the years to a  day in 1910 when he and other enthusiasts of the infant sport of flying were  gathered together at the Berlin-Johanisthal Flugeplatz, participants in the  first international air show.  It was only shortly before that the Wright brothers had got their craft  off the ground at Kitty Hawk and Bleriot had flown the English Channel.  He might well marvel at the progress of aviation through those 50 or  more years and perhaps proudly recalls the part that he himself played in  this development; from the bamboo stayed, linen covered wings of that time  to that roaring jet just now streaking over his Osoyoos home.  It was a sport of the rich then and although miles and years have intervened he remembers well the people he played and worked with. I sat  with him in his workshop one morning last week when he told me his story. 130 OSOYOOS   MAN    REMEMBERS  He said he got his pilot's licence in 1913 but it seemed that it was on the  ground, in the machine shop and at the draughting table that his contribution  was made.  As a young lad he had his early education in Holland where his father  was associated with a ship building firm in Amsterdam. There he learned to  speak Dutch which later proved to be the entree into a colorful partnership  with a man who gave his name to a fighter plane feared and respected by  allied fighters of the First World War.  It was in 1912 or 1913, he said, that into an air museum and beergarden  in Johanisthal came a stranger. The place was a sort of a club frequented by  this first generation of airmen. This stranger could speak no German but  young Castillon recognized him as Dutch and in his own tongue bade him  welcome.  The stranger's name was Fokker whose planes were to make Luftwaffe history in the war that was soon to come. I can still see them in dog  fights with the Allied fighters in the skies over the Somme.  Fokker was impressed with the young man's enthusiasm and offered  him a job with his German organization. Castillon had his pilot's licence by  this time and wanted to fly, but Fokker said, "No. You're more use on the  ground." He stayed with Fokker for a couple of years and met many of the  men who were making flying history.  FATE    INTERVENES  The war came and went and we find Castillon with the vast Daimler  organization. Fate was to intervene again. Fokker, his interests now back in  Holland, happened one day to be a visitor at one of the Daimler plants.  Recognition was mutual and joyous.  "Come with me to Amsterdam, I need you," and away he went, once  more with his old employer.  This time he went to Russia as Fokker's representative and inspector  of planes shipped to the Bolsheviks. He did business with the Soviet  hierarchy, Trotsky, Rosenberg, Vorishilov. He told of flying with Foreign  Minister Vishinsky and of being arrested by the GPU suspected of spying  because he was buying his Russian workmen drinks.  Back to Germany and the readying for another war, like most of us,  serving his country according to his ability. This time with the German Air  Ministry. "But no party man," he stressed.  Then, to him in the ashes of his ruined Berlin, came the call of his  daughter in Canada; and to Osoyoos came Hans Castillon and his wife; to the  peace of an Okanagan orchard and the music of their grandchildren's  voices. GRANITE    CITY 131  GRANITE CITY  By  BARRY  PHIPPS  Editor's Note—An interesting look at a part of the Similkameen, now  obliterated by time, won for Barry Phipps, of Penticton, a Grade 9 student,  the first prize of the Okanagan Historical Society's 1972 essay competition.  Barry gives credit to many of the standard works of B.C. history. He has  visited the site with his parents on two occasions.  Deep in the mountainous country of British Columbia's Western  Similkameen lie the remains of a once-bustling gold town called Granite  City. This town burst upon the scene in the middle of the famous Gold Rush  era (latter half of the nineteenth century), when a wandering cowboy, John  Chance, discovered gold in Granite Creek, an off-shoot of the Tulameen  River. For a little while, the city ranked as third largest in the province, but  itdropped out of sight almost as quickly as it came to life. However, this not  too widely-known centre provides a rather interesting story.  Itwas John Chance, a tall, sturdy, determined cowboy, who touched  off the whole rush to Granite Creek. Sometime in June, 1885, during the  feverish Tulameen Rush, he and two companions, W. Jenkins and T. Currie,  left Washington State with a herd of animals, aiming to rustle up a little  extra cash. (There seems to be some disagreement as to whether the herd  consisted of horses or cattle). The group followed the well-worn Dewdney  Trail towards their destination of New Westminster until they reached  Princeton, where they turned off the normal route. Because of the extremely  adverse travelling conditions on the Hope-Princeton section of the Trail,  Chance and company decided to take an old Indian path called Coquihalla  Trail on through to Tulameen.  After having covered about two-thirds of the way to Tulameen, Chance  stopped for a breather by Granite Creek and accidently uncovered a nugget  of that magic yellow metal that studded the visions of so many hopeful  miners. The date was July 5, 1885.  To a man who occasionally prospected, this was a dream come true.  Realizing that there was much more money and excitement in his discovery  than in the herd, he drove the animals the rest of the way to New Westminster, where he exchanged them for money. Using the money, he bought  the necessary supplies to continue mining, and, with as little commotion as  possible, he hurried back to Granite Creek, where he staked a claim.  But, of course, the inevitable happened. Miners from all over the  province and surrounding areas invaded the gold creek. Tents and camps  sprung up, completely covering the banks for one-fifth of its twenty-five mile  length from its junction with the Tulameen River. Humans of both sexes  swarmed all over the banks and creekbed striving to extract every particle  of the precious metal. They devoted all their time to prospecting, resorting  to the rough ground when sleep became necessary. Those were the warm  months, and that was the accepted way of life for these hardened pioneers.  However, as the cold months rolled around, sturdier, warmer living  quarters had to be erected. Log cabins began to replace tents as shelters and  soon the creek banks had developed into another of the hectic gold towns  coming into being all over the province. Along the three main streets rose  twenty-four hour saloons, boarding houses, stores of different types, livery  stables, and homes for the city's populace. The two busiest thoroughfares,  Granite and Government, were reportedly residence for about two hundred 132 GRANITE    CITY  .  Granite Creek in the late 1880s pho,¬∞copy E D Sismey  structures, but this is thought by most authorities to be exaggerated. The  well-known Cariboo House and a unique bar-less jail with one-foot square  windows were among the buildings constructed in the town. Just below the  townsite, or two farms were started.  Granite City, also known as Granite or Granite Creek, was off to a fast  start. During the first three or four months of its life, somewhere around  $90,000 worth of gold and platinum was recovered, although the miners  discarded the platinum as junk metal. Profitable prospecting continued for  slightly more than three years, during which more than $500,000 was  recovered from the sixty-two claims along the Creek.  The city was at its peak in 1886. This was the year of top production,  gold-wise. The saloons and shops did a roaring business and the population  soared upwards of two thousand, of whom thirty percent were Chinese. In  1886 itgrew to such proportions as to make it the third largest centre in the  province, being topped by only New Westminster and Victoria. Granite was  able to boast many different kinds of businesses including jewellers,  blacksmiths, bakers, a shoemaker, chemist, attorney, doctor and butcher.  For a town of its size and reputation Granite held a surprisingly good  record in terms of keeping the law. When an occasional miner made trouble  or got overly excited, he was thrown into the clink to cool off, which  generally did the job.  But, despite its relative longetivity as a placer creek, Granite was  eventually exhausted. After those first few productive years, the yield began  a sharp decline. A handful of hopeful miners stayed around after the  majority left for better prospects, but they too began to fade away as the  town's fate became apparent. The final blow came on April 4, 1907, when a  large part of the city was levelled by fire, thus making another addition to  British Columbia's growing collection of ghost towns.  During its brief history Granite entertained several important guests,  including Pauline Johnson. The originator of freight and stage coach  systems in B.C., William Garrison, did some prospecting here. F. P. Cook, GRANITE    CITY  123  All that is left of the F. P. Cook store at Granite Creek  Eric Sismey photo 1970  who introduced the chain store business to the province, built one of his  stores in the city, where remains still stand today.  Granite even has its own treasure legend, known as "The Lost  Platinum Cache." Platinum, a metal much like gold except for its greyish-  silver hue, is found in only two regions of the world. One of these areas is the  Amur River in Russia. The other is B.C.'s Tulameen River and its  tributaries, particularly Granite Creek. Because of its weight and annoying  tendency to plug the sluices, the miners considered the metal a great  nuisance and were quick to get rid of it, being ignorant of its value (platinum  is worth more per unit of weight than gold). However, one prospector,  named Johanssen, a Scandinavian, began to save the strange metal in an old  bucket whenever he came across it in his workings. When he left the Creek  after two years of working, he was said to have accumulated about three  hundred ounces of it, which would amount to around $50,000 today.  Just before leaving, Johanssen is said to have buried his bucket of  platinum to the south of his cabin. Unfortunately, his cabin fell victim to the  fire of 1907, before miners learned the true value of the metal. Although a  number have tried to locate it, all attempts up to now have been unsuccessful.  The townsite of Granite City still holds many interests. Its beautiful  setting, nestled among the mountains on a bench overlooking the rushing  waters of Granite Creek, appeals to anyone who appreciates the outdoors. A  few old, weather-beaten buildings have survived the ravages of man and  nature, and numerous intriguing objects can be found with a little looking  around. Off to the side opposite the Creek is the Granite City-Coalmont  Cemetery, with graves dating back to 1886. The body of F. P. Cook rests in  this graveyard beneath an imposing marble headstone. The prospect of the  platinum treasure brings optimists to the area, despite the number of flaws  in the legend.  Thus completes the story of Granite City. It still attracts the curious, 134 THE    STICK    GAME  but unfortunately many of these have little regard for its historical value.  Unless an effort is soon made, "progress will again have its way, and  another important link with the past will be severed.  FOOTNOTE:—While  about   half   a   million   in   gold   is   said   to   have   been   declared   it   is  commonly assumed that about double that amount was  recovered.  Chinese especially were  tight lipped. In October 1885, a Chinaman found  an $85.00 nugget and in  1887 another  worth $900.00 was found and displayed at the Wells-Fargo Bank in Victoria.  See also O.H.S. 33rd report pp 172.177.  THE STICK GAME  By SEN-PAK-CHEEN  EDITOR'S NOTE: From a tape recorded by R. Boucherd in 1968.  My whiteman name is Martin Louie, I live at Vernon. Well I am going  to explain a little game the Indians had from long time ago. It is called the  Stick Game. From other places white people knows it as "Bone Game" and  in Okanagan language it is "Sh-chill-ell-kum." And on the west coast they  call it "La'hahl."  This game is known all over United States and Canada. It is a great  game for the Indians and so I am going to sing you a little stick game song,  my own special song.  I play Stick Game myself, all over United States and played some in  Canada; Sheridan, Wyoming. I have played in Pendleton, Oregon; Yakima,  all over: Nespelem; Omak. I am well known for Stick Game. And recently,  not long ago, about one month ago (1968) I played three games; three  straight wins, in Penticton, B.C. Indian Reserve.  The game is played, we have two sets of bones, and we have ten sticks  and one in the middle what they call the "Kick Stick." Five sticks on each  side and the one in the middle is the "Kick Stick" and that makes it all a total  of eleven sticks. Of the bones we have four bones, two sets, one with a black  stripe in the middle, the other a plain white bone.  And the one you guess for is the white bone. And if you guess wrong, if  you guess the one with a stripe you lose a stick. And if you guess the white  bone you get the bones back on your side and it is the other side's turn to  make their guess. And if they miss they lose a stick and if they miss all the  way through you win the game after you get all the eleven sticks all told  together.  Martin Louie's song, his special song, a weird chant with a drummed  background, is sung in an attempt to confuse and distract while his team  shuffles the two sticks — the white and the black striped one — from hand to  hand under a blanket or behind their backs before showing their clenched  fists.  The game may be compared with our "Button-button hunt the button"  and it is not impossible that our children's game was borrowed from the  Indian game, Sh-chill-ell-kum.  When Martin ends his song he says:— "When they hear this song, my  own song, they say "Sen-pak-cheen" is playing tonight.  "Pu-tel-em" (That isall about this) ~  MY   OWN   STORY 135  MY OWN STORY  By PRIMROSE  UPTON  EDITOR'S NOTE:—It was with reluctance that Mrs. T. B. Upton, Honorary  Life Member of the Okanagan Historical Society agreed to write a brief  personal history. And while her story is exciting and fascinating, one cannot  help feeling deprived of details left unwritten.  Primrose, to her many friends, can well be named a corner stone of the  Okanagan Historical Society, a tireless worker for the Kelowna branch she  has occupied its offices including that of president. A survey of recent  reports will uncover her contributions.  She mentions her childhood on part of the Mission Ranche lands purchased  by her father from Father Eumelin, O.M.I, in 1901. But she forgets to tell  that this land was part of the original Pandosy Mission which was crown  granted to Father Herbomez, O.M.I, in 1884. With such a background it  should be no surprise that Primrose Upton has been associated with the  Pandosy Mission restoration since the day of its inception.  Her History of Okanagan Mission is included as part of the 30th O.H.S.  Report and I suggest you review her coverage of recent restoration work in  the 35th Report. Thanks for your work with the Pandosy Restoration Committee  will come from afar, Primrose. And while we know you can look back with  satisfaction to what has been accomplished so far, we know that you look  forward eagerly to your participation in what remains to   be   done.   E.D.S.  I was born in the Kelowna General Hospital with Dr. W. J. Knox officiating, on a hot June 22nd, 1915. My brother, William John Dalziel, born in  1905, remembers rowing with Dad to what is now Strathcona Beach from our  home at Okanagan Mission, and right up to the Hospital in the high water of  June. I was handed a lot of the family names, Dorothea, Primrose, Anne,  Helen Borthwick to be exact. My parents were William Dalziel Walker and  Dorothea Mary Maria Walker (nee Thomson).  At schools in Okanagan Mission and Kelowna I was on the track team,  in sprint and hurdle events. I took part in Kelowna Regattas for years, in  swimming, and diving. I was on the school tennis, grass hockey and Softball  teams. Following graduation I worked in the packing house for four seasons,  saving enough money to take a business course in Kelowna, and to get a  ticket to England. I sailed on the President Harding from New York early in  1937 and was fortunate enough to get a seat in Parliament Square in London  for the Coronation of King George and Queen Elizabeth — a thrilling experience. I stayed with various friends and relatives, and soon realized my  slim savings were running out. I had gone over as a fully qualified  stenographer — only to find that the lowly stenographer over there was  earning about a pound a week — so I looked after kids, cooked, did  housework instead to earn enough for the next excursion, Scotland, Austria.  Scotland I loved, but didn